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Sample records for active type ii

  1. Altered Erythrocyte Glycolytic Enzyme Activities in Type-II Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mali, Aniket V; Bhise, Sunita S; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V; Katyare, Surendra S

    2016-07-01

    The activity of enzymes of glycolysis has been studied in erythrocytes from type-II diabetic patients in comparison with control. RBC lysate was the source of enzymes. In the diabetics the hexokinase (HK) activity increased 50 % while activities of phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and aldolase (ALD) decreased by 37, 75 and 64 % respectively but were still several folds higher than that of HK. Hence, it is possible that in the diabetic erythrocytes the process of glycolysis could proceed in an unimpaired or in fact may be augmented due to increased levels of G6P. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was comparatively high in both the groups; the diabetic group showed 85 % increase. In control group the HK, PFK and ALD activities showed strong positive correlation with blood sugar level while PGI activity did not show any correlation. In the diabetic group only PFK activity showed positive correlation. The LDH activity only in the control group showed positive correlation with marginal increase with increasing concentrations of glucose. PMID:27382204

  2. Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Hardik; Patel, Sejal; Patel, Ghanshyam; Paranjape, Archana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Glucova Active Tablet is a proprietary Ayurvedic formulation with ingredients reported for anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic activity and antioxidant properties. Objective: Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental Type I diabetes was induced in 24 albino rats with intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Type II diabetes was induced in 18 albino rats by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg) along with high fat diet. The rats were divided in 5 groups for Type I model and 4 groups for Type II model. Normal control group was kept common for both experimental models. Glucova Active Tablet (108 mg/kg) treatment was provided for 28 days twice daily orally. Fasting blood glucose level, serum lipid profile and liver anti-oxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione was carried out in both experimental models. Pancreas histopathology was also done. Statistical analysis were done by ‘analysis of variance’ test followed by post hoc Tukey's test, with significant level of P < 0.05. Results and Discussion: Glucova Active Tablet showed significant effect on fasting blood glucose level. It also showed significant alteration in lipid profile and antioxidant parameters. Histopathology study revealed restoration of beta cells in pancreas in Glucova Active Tablet treated group. Conclusion: Finding of this study concludes that Glucova Active Tablet has shown promising anti-diabetic activity in Type I and Type II diabetic rats. It was also found showing good anti-hyperlipidemic activity and anti-oxidant property. PMID:24948860

  3. 77 FR 60124 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II API DMFs Under GDUFA.'' Under the Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012 (GDUFA), holders of certain drug master files, namely, Type II active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) drug master files (DMFs) that are referenced......

  4. THE PREVALENCE OF NARROW OPTICAL Fe II EMISSION LINES IN TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Xiaobo; Wang Jianguo; Wang Tinggui; Wang Huiyuan; Zhou Hongyan; Ho, Luis C.; Fan Xiaohui

    2010-10-01

    From detailed spectral analysis of a large sample of low-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we demonstrate-statistically for the first time-that narrow optical Fe II emission lines, both permitted and forbidden, are prevalent in type 1 AGNs. Remarkably, these optical lines are completely absent in type 2 AGNs, across a wide luminosity range, from Seyfert 2 galaxies to type 2 quasars. We suggest that the narrow Fe II-emitting gas is confined to a disk-like geometry in the innermost regions of the narrow-line region on physical scales smaller than the obscuring torus.

  5. Sequence specific inhibition of human type II phospholipase A2 enzyme activity by phosphorothioate oligonucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, C F; Chiang, M Y; Wilson-Lingardo, L; Wyatt, J R

    1994-01-01

    Phosphorothioate oligonucleotides were identified which directly inhibited human type II phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme activity in a sequence specific manner. The minimum pharmacophore common to all oligonucleotides which inhibited PLA2 enzyme activity consisted of two sets of three or more consecutive guanosine residues in a row. These oligonucleotides appear to form G quartets resulting in the formation of oligonucleotide aggregates. Additionally, a phosphorothioate backbone was required to be effective inhibitors of type II PLA2. The activity of one oligodeoxynucleotide, IP 3196 (5'-GGGTGGGTATAGAAGGGCTCC-3') has been characterized in more detail. IP 3196 inhibited PLA2 enzyme activity when the substrate was presented in the form of a phospholipid bilayer but not when presented in the form of a mixed micelle with anionic detergents. Human type II PLA2 was 50-fold more sensitive to inhibition by IP 3196 than venom and pancreatic type I enzymes. These data demonstrate that phosphorothioate oligonucleotides can specifically inhibit human type II PLA2 enzyme activity in a sequence specific manner. PMID:8065936

  6. Type II p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are regulated by an autoinhibitory pseudosubstrate.

    PubMed

    Ha, Byung Hak; Davis, Matthew J; Chen, Catherine; Lou, Hua Jane; Gao, Jia; Zhang, Rong; Krauthammer, Michael; Halaban, Ruth; Schlessinger, Joseph; Turk, Benjamin E; Boggon, Titus J

    2012-10-01

    The type II p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are key effectors of RHO-family GTPases involved in cell motility, survival, and proliferation. Using a structure-guided approach, we discovered that type II PAKs are regulated by an N-terminal autoinhibitory pseudosubstrate motif centered on a critical proline residue, and that this regulation occurs independently of activation loop phosphorylation. We determined six X-ray crystal structures of either full-length PAK4 or its catalytic domain, that demonstrate the molecular basis for pseudosubstrate binding to the active state with phosphorylated activation loop. We show that full-length PAK4 is constitutively autoinhibited, but mutation of the pseudosubstrate releases this inhibition and causes increased phosphorylation of the apoptotic regulation protein Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L) antagonist causing cell death and cellular morphological changes. We also find that PAK6 is regulated by the pseudosubstrate region, indicating a common type II PAK autoregulatory mechanism. Finally, we find Src SH3, but not β-PIX SH3, can activate PAK4. We provide a unique understanding for type II PAK regulation. PMID:22988085

  7. Ulysses observations of wave activity at interplanetary shocks and implications for type II radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Lengyel-Frey, D. |; Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R.J.; Stone, R.G.; Phillips, J.L. |

    1997-02-01

    We present the first quantitative investigation of interplanetary type II radio emission in which in situ waves measured at interplanetary shocks are used to compute radio wave intensities for comparison with type II observations. This study is based on in situ measurements of 42 in-ecliptic forward shocks as well as 10 intervals of type II emission observed by the Ulysses spacecraft between 1 AU and 5 AU. The analysis involves comparisons of statistical properties of type II bursts and in situ waves. Most of the 42 shocks are associated with the occurrence of electrostatic waves near the time of shock passage at Ulysses. These waves, which are identified as electron plasma waves and ion acoustic-like waves, are typically most intense several minutes before shock passage. This suggests that wave-wave interactions might be of importance in electromagnetic wave generation and that type II source regions are located immediately upstream of the shocks. We use the in situ wave measurements to compute type II brightness temperatures, assuming that emission at the fundamental of the electron plasma frequency is generated by the merging of electron plasma waves and ion acoustic waves or the decay of electron plasma waves into ion acoustic and transverse waves. Second harmonic emission is assumed to be produced by the merging of electron plasma waves. The latter mechanism requires that a portion of the electron plasma wave distribution is backscattered, presumably by density inhomogeneities in regions of observed ion acoustic wave activity. The computed type II brightness temperatures are found to be consistent with observed values for both fundamental and second harmonic emission, assuming that strong ({approx_equal}10{sup {minus}4}V/m) electron plasma waves and ion acoustic waves are coincident and that the electron plasma waves have phase velocities less than about 10 times the electron thermal velocity. (Abstract Truncated)

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of Pantothenol against Staphylococci Possessing a Prokaryotic Type II Pantothenate Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Chohnan, Shigeru; Murase, Misa; Kurikawa, Kota; Higashi, Kodai; Ogata, Yuta

    2014-01-01

    Pantothenol is a provitamin of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) that is widely used in healthcare and cosmetic products. This analog of pantothenate has been shown to markedly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of the prokaryotic type II pantothenate kinase of Staphylococcus aureus, which catalyzes the first step of the coenzyme A biosynthetic pathway. Since type II enzymes are found exclusively in staphylococci, pantothenol suppresses the growth of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. saprophyticus, which inhabit the skin of humans. Therefore, the addition of this provitamin to ointment and skincare products may be highly effective in preventing infections by opportunistic pathogens. PMID:24759689

  9. Antimicrobial activity of pantothenol against staphylococci possessing a prokaryotic type II pantothenate kinase.

    PubMed

    Chohnan, Shigeru; Murase, Misa; Kurikawa, Kota; Higashi, Kodai; Ogata, Yuta

    2014-01-01

    Pantothenol is a provitamin of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) that is widely used in healthcare and cosmetic products. This analog of pantothenate has been shown to markedly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of the prokaryotic type II pantothenate kinase of Staphylococcus aureus, which catalyzes the first step of the coenzyme A biosynthetic pathway. Since type II enzymes are found exclusively in staphylococci, pantothenol suppresses the growth of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. saprophyticus, which inhabit the skin of humans. Therefore, the addition of this provitamin to ointment and skincare products may be highly effective in preventing infections by opportunistic pathogens. PMID:24759689

  10. Substrate and Inhibitor Specificity of the Type II p21-Activated Kinase, PAK6

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jia; Ha, Byung Hak; Lou, Hua Jane; Morse, Elizabeth M.; Zhang, Rong; Calderwood, David A.; Turk, Benjamin E.; Boggon, Titus J.

    2013-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are important effectors of Rho-family small GTPases. The PAK family consists of two groups, type I and type II, which have different modes of regulation and signaling. PAK6, a type II PAK, influences behavior and locomotor function in mice and has an ascribed role in androgen receptor signaling. Here we show that PAK6 has a peptide substrate specificity very similar to the other type II PAKs, PAK4 and PAK5 (PAK7). We find that PAK6 catalytic activity is inhibited by a peptide corresponding to its N-terminal pseudosubstrate. Introduction of a melanoma-associated mutation, P52L, into this peptide reduces pseudosubstrate autoinhibition of PAK6, and increases phosphorylation of its substrate PACSIN1 (Syndapin I) in cells. Finally we determine two co-crystal structures of PAK6 catalytic domain in complex with ATP-competitive inhibitors. We determined the 1.4 Å co-crystal structure of PAK6 with the type II PAK inhibitor PF-3758309, and the 1.95 Å co-crystal structure of PAK6 with sunitinib. These findings provide new insights into the structure-function relationships of PAK6 and may facilitate development of PAK6 targeted therapies. PMID:24204982

  11. NO EVIDENCE FOR A SYSTEMATIC Fe II EMISSION LINE REDSHIFT IN TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Sulentic, Jack W.; Marziani, Paola; Zamfir, Sebastian; Meadows, Zachary A. E-mail: paola.marziani@oapd.inaf.it E-mail: Zachary.A.Meadows@uwsp.edu

    2012-06-10

    We test the recent claim by Hu et al. that Fe II emission in type 1 active galactic nuclei shows a systematic redshift relative to the local source rest frame and broad-line H{beta}. We compile high signal-to-noise median composites using Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra from both the Hu et al. sample and our own sample of the 469 brightest DR5 spectra. Our composites are generated in bins of FWHM H{beta} and Fe II strength as defined in our 4D Eigenvector 1 formalism. We find no evidence for a systematic Fe II redshift and consistency with previous assumptions that Fe II shift and width (FWHM) follow H{beta} shift and FWHM in virtually all sources. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that Fe II emission (quasi-ubiquitous in type 1 sources) arises from a broad-line region with geometry and kinematics the same as that producing the Balmer lines.

  12. Type II universal spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.

  13. [Impact of the activation of intention to perform physical activity in type II diabetics: a randomized clinical trial].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marco Antonio Vieira; Gouvêa, Giovana Renata; Claro, Anielle Fabiane Buoso; Agondi, Rúbia de Freitas; Cortellazzi, Karine Laura; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Mialhe, Fábio Luiz

    2015-03-01

    Type II diabetes mellitus is a highly prevalent disease among the adult Brazilian population, and one that can be controlled by interventions such as physical activity, among others. The aim of this randomized controlled study was to evaluate the impact of a traditional motivational strategy, associated with the activation of intention theory, on adherence to physical activity in patients with type II, diabetes mellitus who are part of the Unified Health System (SUS). Participants were divided into a control group (CG) and an intervention group (IG). In both groups, the traditional motivational strategy was applied, but the activation of intention strategy was only applied to the IG Group. After a two-month follow-up, statistically significant differences were verified between the groups, related to the practice of walking (p = 0.0050), number of days per week (p = 0.0076), minutes per day (p = 0.0050) and minutes walking per week (p = 0.0015). At the end of the intervention, statistically significant differences in abdominal circumference (p = 0.0048) between the groups were observed. The conclusion drawn is that the activation of intention strategy had greater impact on adherence to physical activity and reduction in abdominal circumference in type II diabetics, than traditional motivational strategy. PMID:25760127

  14. Solar Type II Radio Bursts and IP Type II Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Erickson, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined radio data from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft in conjunction with ground-based data in order to investigate the relationship between the shocks responsible for metric type II radio bursts and the shocks in front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The bow shocks of fast, large CMEs are strong interplanetary (IP) shocks, and the associated radio emissions often consist of single broad bands starting below approx. 4 MHz; such emissions were previously called IP type II events. In contrast, metric type II bursts are usually narrowbanded and display two harmonically related bands. In addition to displaying complete dynamic spectra for a number of events, we also analyze the 135 WAVES 1 - 14 MHz slow-drift time periods in 2001-2003. We find that most of the periods contain multiple phenomena, which we divide into three groups: metric type II extensions, IP type II events, and blobs and bands. About half of the WAVES listings include probable extensions of metric type II radio bursts, but in more than half of these events, there were also other slow-drift features. In the 3 yr study period, there were 31 IP type II events; these were associated with the very fastest CMEs. The most common form of activity in the WAVES events, blobs and bands in the frequency range between 1 and 8 MHz, fall below an envelope consistent with the early signatures of an IP type II event. However, most of this activity lasts only a few tens of minutes, whereas IP type II events last for many hours. In this study we find many examples in the radio data of two shock-like phenomena with different characteristics that occur simultaneously in the metric and decametric/hectometric bands, and no clear example of a metric type II burst that extends continuously down in frequency to become an IP type II event. The simplest interpretation is that metric type II bursts, unlike IP type II events, are not caused by shocks driven in front of CMEs.

  15. Oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and hydrogen peroxide reductase activities of methanobactin from types I and II methanotrophs.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong W; Semrau, Jeremy D; Antholine, William E; Hartsel, Scott C; Anderson, Ryan C; Carey, Jeffrey N; Dreis, Ashley M; Kenseth, Erik M; Renstrom, Joel M; Scardino, Lori L; Van Gorden, Garrett S; Volkert, Anna A; Wingad, Aaron D; Yanzer, Paul J; McEllistrem, Marcus T; de la Mora, Arlene M; DiSpirito, Alan A

    2008-08-01

    Methanobactin (mb) is a copper-binding chromopeptide that appears to be involved in oxidation of methane by the membrane-associated or particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO). To examine this potential physiological role, the redox and catalytic properties of mb from three different methanotrophs were examined in the absence and presence of O(2). Metal free mb from the type II methanotroph Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, but not from the type I methanotrophs Methylococcus capsulatus Bath or Methylomicrobium album BG8, were reduced by a variety of reductants, including NADH and duroquinol, and catalyzed the reduction of O(2) to O(2)(-). Copper-containing mb (Cu-mb) from all three methanotrophs showed several interesting properties, including reductase dependent oxidase activity, dismutation of O(2)(-) to H(2)O(2), and the reductant dependent reduction of H(2)O(2) to H(2)O. The superoxide dismutase-like and hydrogen peroxide reductase activities of Cu-mb were 4 and 1 order(s) of magnitude higher, respectively, than the observed oxidase activity. The results demonstrate that Cu-mb from all three methanotrophs are redox-active molecules and oxygen radical scavengers, with the capacity to detoxify both superoxide and hydrogen peroxide without the formation of the hydroxyl radicals associated with Fenton reactions. As previously observed with Cu-mb from Ms. trichosporium OB3b, Cu-mb from both type I methanotrophs stimulated pMMO activity. However, in contrast to previous studies using mb from Ms. trichosporium OB3b, pMMO activity was not inhibited by mb from the two type I methanotrophs at low copper to mb ratios. PMID:18372044

  16. Inhibitory Activities of Gatifloxacin (AM-1155), a Newly Developed Fluoroquinolone, against Bacterial and Mammalian Type II Topoisomerases

    PubMed Central

    Takei, Masaya; Fukuda, Hideyuki; Yasue, Tokutaro; Hosaka, Masaki; Oomori, Yasuo

    1998-01-01

    We determined the inhibitory activities of gatifloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus topoisomerase IV, Escherichia coli DNA gyrase, and HeLa cell topoisomerase II and compared them with those of several quinolones. The inhibitory activities of quinolones against these type II topoisomerases significantly correlated with their antibacterial activities or cytotoxicities (correlation coefficient [r] = 0.926 for S. aureus, r = 0.972 for E. coli, and r = 0.648 for HeLa cells). Gatifloxacin possessed potent inhibitory activities against bacterial type II topoisomerases (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 13.8 μg/ml for S. aureus topoisomerase IV; IC50 = 0.109 μg/ml for E. coli DNA gyrase) but the lowest activity against HeLa cell topoisomerase II (IC50 = 265 μg/ml) among the quinolones tested. There was also a significant correlation between the inhibitory activities of quinolones against S. aureus topoisomerase IV and those against E. coli DNA gyrase (r = 0.969). However, the inhibitory activity against HeLa cell topoisomerase II did not correlate with that against either bacterial enzyme. The IC50 of gatifloxacin for HeLa cell topoisomerase II was 19 and was more than 2,400 times higher than that for S. aureus topoisomerase IV and that for E. coli DNA gyrase. These ratios were higher than those for other quinolones, indicating that gatifloxacin possesses a higher selectivity for bacterial type II topoisomerases. PMID:9756776

  17. Clumpy tori around type II active galactic nuclei as revealed by X-ray fluorescent lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiren; Liu, Yuan; Li, Xiaobo; Xu, Weiwei; Gou, Lijun; Cheng, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    The reflection spectrum of a torus around an active galactic nucleus (AGN) is characterized by X-ray fluorescent lines, which are most prominent for type II AGNs. A clumpy torus allows photons reflected from the back-side of the torus to leak through the front regions that are free of obscuration. The observed X-ray fluorescent lines are therefore sensitive to the clumpiness of the torus. We analysed a sample of type II AGNs observed with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS), and measured the fluxes for the Si Kα and Fe Kα lines. The measured Fe Kα/Si Kα ratios, spanning a range between 5 and 60, are far smaller than the ratios predicted from simulations of smooth tori, indicating that the tori of the studied sources have clumpy distributions rather than smooth ones. We compared the measured Fe Kα/Si Kα ratios with simulation results of clumpy tori. The Circinus galaxy has a Fe Kα/Si Kα ratio of ˜60, which is close to the simulation results for N = 5, where N is the average number of clumps along the line of sight. The Fe Kα/Si Kα ratios of the other sources are all below the simulation results for N = 2. Overall, this shows that the non-Fe fluorescent lines in the soft X-ray band are a potentially powerful probe of the clumpiness of tori around AGNs.

  18. Selenium levels and Glutathione peroxidase activity in the plasma of patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    González de Vega, Raquel; Fernández-Sánchez, María Luisa; Fernández, Juan Carlos; Álvarez Menéndez, Francisco Vicente; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2016-09-01

    Selenium, an essential trace element, is involved in the complex system of defense against oxidative stress through selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases (GPx) and other selenoproteins. Because of its antioxidant properties, selenium or its selenospecies at appropriate levels could hinder oxidative stress and so development of diabetes. In this vein, quantitative speciation of selenium in human plasma samples from healthy and diabetic patients (controlled and non-controlled) was carried out by affinity chromatography (AF) coupled on-line to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and isotope dilution analysis (IDA). Similarly, it is well known that patients with diabetes who exhibit poor control of blood glucose show a decreased total antioxidant activity. Thus, we evaluated the enzymatic activity of GPx in diabetic and healthy individuals, using the Paglia and Valentine enzymatic method, observing a significant difference (p<0.05) between the three groups of assayed patients (healthy (n=24): 0.61±0.11U/ml, controlled diabetic (n=38): 0.40±0.12U/ml and non-controlled diabetic patients (n=40): 0.32±0.09U/ml). Our results show that hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress in diabetic patients compared with healthy controls. What is more, glycation of GPx experiments demonstrated that it is the degree of glycation of the selenoenzyme (another species of the Se protein) what actually modulates its eventual activity against ROS in type II diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:27473831

  19. Cooperative activation of the T-type CaV3.2 channel: interaction between Domains II and III.

    PubMed

    Demers-Giroux, Pierre-Olivier; Bourdin, Benoîte; Sauvé, Rémy; Parent, Lucie

    2013-10-11

    T-type CaV3 channels are important mediators of Ca(2+) entry near the resting membrane potential. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms responsible for channel activation. Homology models based upon the high-resolution structure of bacterial NaV channels predict interaction between the S4-S5 helix of Domain II (IIS4-S5) and the distal S6 pore region of Domain II (IIS6) and Domain III (IIIS6). Functional intra- and inter-domain interactions were investigated with a double mutant cycle analysis. Activation gating and channel kinetics were measured for 47 single mutants and 20 pairs of mutants. Significant coupling energies (ΔΔG(interact) ≥ 1.5 kcal mol(-1)) were measured for 4 specific pairs of mutants introduced between IIS4-S5 and IIS6 and between IIS4-S5 and IIIS6. In agreement with the computer based models, Thr-911 in IIS4-S5 was functionally coupled with Ile-1013 in IIS6 during channel activation. The interaction energy was, however, found to be stronger between Val-907 in IIS4-S5 and Ile-1013 in IIS6. In addition Val-907 was significantly coupled with Asn-1548 in IIIS6 but not with Asn-1853 in IVS6. Altogether, our results demonstrate that the S4-S5 and S6 helices from adjacent domains are energetically coupled during the activation of a low voltage-gated T-type CaV3 channel. PMID:23970551

  20. The conformation and activity relationship of benzofuran type of angiotensin II receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Yoo, S E; Kim, S K; Lee, S H; Kim, N J; Lee, D W

    2000-09-01

    As a continuing effort to establish the structure and activity relationship in a benzofuran type of angiotensin II antagonist, we synthesized various regioisomers and performed a series of QSAR analyses. The conformational analyses of target isomers were carried out using molecular mechanics and fine-tuned using the information from the NMR NOE experiment. The conformations of compounds with a good binding activity are quite similar to that of DuP753, a prototype of AII antagonist, suggesting that these compounds also bind to the same site of AII receptor. We then studied the compounds with a varied length of the hydroxyl group bearing side chain to find out the optimum distance between the hydroxyl group and the imidazole ring. The CoMFA with these compounds gave acceptable statistical measures (cross-validated r2 and conventional r2 to be 0.881 and 0.974, respectively) and the map was well consistent with the previously proposed pharmacophore. PMID:11026543

  1. Starspot activity on the RS CVn-type binary II Pegasi during 1999-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, S.-H.; Tan, H.-S.; Wang, X.-B.; Shan, H.-G.

    2003-07-01

    By means of Doppler imaging, new high-resolution spectroscopic observations of II Peg, carried out in three observing seasons from 1999 to 2001, were analyzed. The lines FeI6430.844 Å and CaI6439.075 Å were chosen as map lines, and three surface maps of II Peg were obtained. The results demonstrate that the main features of these surface maps are high-latitude active regions around 60° and no polar cap is seen in the maps. The surface patterns of II Peg show large changes, the largest scale active regions appear in July-Aug. 1999 and then they become small and separated in Feb. 2000. The active longitude switches to another hemisphere in Nov.-Dec. 2001 from the one in Feb. 2000. Such spot evolution is not consistent with the activity cycle derived previously.

  2. Activation of Type II Cells into Regenerative Stem Cell Antigen-1+ Cells during Alveolar Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Varsha Suresh; Zhang, Wei; Rehman, Jalees; Malik, Asrar B.

    2015-01-01

    The alveolar epithelium is composed of two cell types: type I cells comprise 95% of the gas exchange surface area, whereas type II cells secrete surfactant, while retaining the ability to convert into type I cells to induce alveolar repair. Using lineage-tracing analyses in the mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced lung injury, we identified a population of stem cell antigen (Sca)-1–expressing type II cells with progenitor cell properties that mediate alveolar repair. These cells were shown to be distinct from previously reported Sca-1–expressing bronchioalveolar stem cells. Microarray and Wnt reporter studies showed that surfactant protein (Sp)-C+Sca-1+ cells expressed Wnt signaling pathway genes, and inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling prevented the regenerative function of Sp-C+Sca-1+ cells in vitro. Thus, P. aeruginosa–mediated lung injury induces the generation of a Sca-1+ subset of type II cells. The progenitor phenotype of the Sp-C+Sca-1+ cells that mediates alveolar epithelial repair might involve Wnt signaling. PMID:25474582

  3. Type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase directly inhibits HER2 activation of gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Miaolin; Yao, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Min; Qian, Hai; Wu, Yan; Chen, Yongchang

    2016-02-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that type II cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG II) inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced phosphorylation/activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Since human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has a similar molecular structure to EGFR, the present study was designed to investigate whether PKG II also inhibits HER2 activation. The human gastric cancer cell line HGC‑27 was infected with an adenoviral construct encoding cDNA of PKG II (Ad‑PKG II) to increase the expression of PKG II and treated with 8‑(4‑chlorophenylthio)guanosine‑3',5'‑cyclic monophosphate (8‑pCPT‑cGMP) to activate the kinase. Western blotting was performed to detect the tyrosine and serine/threonine phosphorylation of HER2. Co‑immunoprecipitation was performed in order to determine the binding between PKG II and HER2. In addition, a QuikChange Lightning Site‑Directed Mutagenesis kit was used to mutate threonine 686 of HER2 to glutamic acid or alanine. The results demonstrated that EGF treatment increased the tyrosine phosphorylation (activation) of HER2. Increasing the PKG II activity of HGC‑27 cells through infection with Ad‑PKG II and stimulation with 8‑pCPT‑cGMP inhibited the EGF‑induced tyrosine phosphorylation/activation of HER2. PKG II bound directly with HER2 and caused phosphorylation of threonine 686. When threonine 686 of HER2 was mutated to alanine, which could not be phosphorylated by PKG II, the inhibitory effect of PKG II on the activation of HER2 was eradicated. When threonine 686 of HER2 was mutated to glutamic acid, which mimicked the phosphorylation of this site, treatment with EGF had no stimulating effect on tyrosine phosphorylation/activation of the mutant HER2. The results suggested that PKG II inhibits EGF‑induced activation of HER2 through binding with and causing threonine 686 phosphorylation of this oncogenic protein. PMID:26676300

  4. Structure-Function Basis of Attenuated Inverse Agonism of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers for Active-State Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor.

    PubMed

    Takezako, Takanobu; Unal, Hamiyet; Karnik, Sadashiva S; Node, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    Ligand-independent signaling by the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) can be activated in clinical settings by mechanical stretch and autoantibodies as well as receptor mutations. Transition of the AT1R to the activated state is known to lower inverse agonistic efficacy of clinically used AT1R blockers (ARBs). The structure-function basis for reduced efficacy of inverse agonists is a fundamental aspect that has been understudied not only in relation to the AT1R but also regarding other homologous receptors. Here, we demonstrate that the active-state transition in the AT1R indeed attenuates an inverse agonistic effect of four biphenyl-tetrazole ARBs through changes in specific ligand-receptor interactions. In the ground state, tight interactions of four ARBs with a set of residues (Ser109(TM3), Phe182(ECL2), Gln257(TM6), Tyr292(TM7), and Asn295(TM7)) results in potent inverse agonism. In the activated state, the ARB-AT1R interactions shift to a different set of residues (Val108(TM3), Ser109(TM3), Ala163(TM4), Phe182(ECL2), Lys199(TM5), Tyr292(TM7), and Asn295(TM7)), resulting in attenuated inverse agonism. Interestingly, V108I, A163T, N295A, and F182A mutations in the activated state of the AT1R shift the functional response to the ARB binding toward agonism, but in the ground state the same mutations cause inverse agonism. Our data show that the second extracellular loop is an important regulator of the functional states of the AT1R. Our findings suggest that the quest for discovering novel ARBs, and improving current ARBs, fundamentally depends on the knowledge of the unique sets of residues that mediate inverse agonistic potency in the two states of the AT1R. PMID:26121982

  5. [Neonatal mucolipidosis type II].

    PubMed

    Hmami, F; Oulmaati, A; Bouharrou, A

    2016-01-01

    Mucolipidosis type II (ML II, OMIM 252,500) is an autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by facial dysmorphia similar to Hurler syndrome and pronounced gingival hypertrophy. The disorder is caused by a defect in targeting acid hydrolases on the surface of lysosomes, which impede their entry and lead to accumulation of undigested substrates in lysosomes. The onset of the symptoms is usually in infancy, beginning in the 6th month of life. Early onset, at birth or even in utero, is a sign of severity and involves the specific dysmorphia as well as skeletal dysplasia related to hyperparathyroidism. We report on a severe neonatal form of this disorder revealed by respiratory distress with severe chest deformity. The dysmorphic syndrome, combining coarse features, pronounced gingival hypertrophy, with diffuse bone demineralization and secondary hyperparathyroidism associating significant elevation of parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase with normal levels of vitamin D and calcium were characteristics of mucolipidosis type II. Recognizing this specific association of anomalies helps eliminate the differential diagnosis and establish appropriate diagnosis and care. PMID:26552632

  6. Copper(II) Ions Increase Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 Dynamics in Key Structural Regions That Govern Stability.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Joel C; Trelle, Morten Beck; McClintock, Carlee S; Qureshi, Tihami; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Peterson, Cynthia B

    2016-08-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) regulates the fibrinolysis pathway by inhibiting the protease activity of plasminogen activators. PAI-1 works in concert with vitronectin (VN), an extracellular protein that aids in localization of active PAI-1 to tissues. The Peterson laboratory demonstrated that Cu(II) and other transition metals modulate the stability of PAI-1, exhibiting effects that are dependent on the presence or absence of the somatomedin B (SMB) domain of VN. The study presented here dissects the changes in molecular dynamics underlying the destabilizing effects of Cu(II) on PAI-1. We utilize backbone amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry to assess PAI-1 dynamics in the presence and absence of Cu(II) ions with and without the SMB domain of VN. We show that Cu(II) produces an increase in dynamics in regions important for the function and overall stability of PAI-1, while the SMB domain elicits virtually the opposite effect. A mutant form of PAI-1 lacking two N-terminal histidine residues at positions 2 and 3 exhibits similar increases in dynamics upon Cu(II) binding compared to that of active wild-type PAI-1, indicating that the observed structural effects are not a result of coordination of Cu(II) to these histidine residues. Finally, addition of Cu(II) results in an acceleration of the local unfolding kinetics of PAI-1 presumed to be on pathway to the latency conversion. The effect of ligands on the dynamics of PAI-1 adds another intriguing dimension to the mechanisms for regulation of PAI-1 stability and function. PMID:27416303

  7. Exposure of cardiomyocytes to angiotensin II induces over-activation of monoamine oxidase type A: implications in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Manni, Maria Elena; Zazzeri, Marina; Musilli, Claudia; Bigagli, Elisabetta; Lodovici, Maura; Raimondi, Laura

    2013-10-15

    Several evidences indicate that increased cardiac mitochondrial monoamine oxidase type A (MAO-A) activity associates with a failing phenotype. Till now, the mechanism underlying such relation is largely unknown. We explored the hypothesis that exposure of cardiomyocytes to AT-II caused activation of MAO-A and also of catalase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities, enzymes involved in degrading MAO's end products. Left ventricular cardiomyocytes were isolated from normoglycemic (N) and streptozotocin-injected (50 mg/kg) rats (D) treated or not treated with losartan (20 mg/kg/day in drinking water; DLos and NLos, respectively), a type 1 receptor (AT1) antagonist, for 3 weeks. In each group of cells, MAO, catalase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities were measured radiochemically and spectrophotometrically. The same enzymes were also measured in HL-1 immortalized cardiomyocytes not exposed and exposed to AT-II (100 nM for 18 h) in the absence and in the presence of irbesartan (1 μM), an AT1 antagonist. MAO-A catalase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities were found significantly higher in D, than in N cells. MAO-A positively correlated with catalase activity in D cells. MAO-A and aldehyde dehydrogenase but not catalase over-activation, were prevented in DLos cells. Similarly, MAO-A activity, but not catalase and aldehyde dehydrogenase increased significantly in HL-1 cells acutely exposed to AT-II and this increase was prevented when irbesartan, an AT1 antagonist was present. Over-activation of cardiomyocyte MAO-A activity is among acute (18 h) and short-term (2-weeks of diabetes) cardiac effects of AT-II and a novel target of AT1 antagonists, first line treatments of diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24012905

  8. Occurrence and activity of a type II CRISPR-Cas system in Lactobacillus gasseri.

    PubMed

    Sanozky-Dawes, Rosemary; Selle, Kurt; O'Flaherty, Sarah; Klaenhammer, Todd; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2015-09-01

    Bacteria encode clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated genes (cas), which collectively form an RNA-guided adaptive immune system against invasive genetic elements. In silico surveys have revealed that lactic acid bacteria harbour a prolific and diverse set of CRISPR-Cas systems. Thus, the natural evolutionary role of CRISPR-Cas systems may be investigated in these ecologically, industrially, scientifically and medically important microbes. In this study, 17 Lactobacillus gasseri strains were investigated and 6 harboured a type II-A CRISPR-Cas system, with considerable diversity in array size and spacer content. Several of the spacers showed similarity to phage and plasmid sequences, which are typical targets of CRISPR-Cas immune systems. Aligning the protospacers facilitated inference of the protospacer adjacent motif sequence, determined to be 5'-NTAA-3' flanking the 3' end of the protospacer. The system in L. gasseri JV-V03 and NCK 1342 interfered with transforming plasmids containing sequences matching the most recently acquired CRISPR spacers in each strain. We report the distribution and function of a native type II-A CRISPR-Cas system in the commensal species L. gasseri. Collectively, these results open avenues for applications for bacteriophage protection and genome modification in L. gasseri, and contribute to the fundamental understanding of CRISPR-Cas systems in bacteria. PMID:26297561

  9. Optimization of physicochemical properties and safety profile of novel bacterial topoisomerase type II inhibitors (NBTIs) with activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Reck, Folkert; Ehmann, David E; Dougherty, Thomas J; Newman, Joseph V; Hopkins, Sussie; Stone, Gregory; Agrawal, Nikunj; Ciaccio, Paul; McNulty, John; Barthlow, Herbert; O'Donnell, Jennifer; Goteti, Kosalaram; Breen, John; Comita-Prevoir, Janelle; Cornebise, Mark; Cronin, Mark; Eyermann, Charles J; Geng, Bolin; Carr, Greg R; Pandarinathan, Lakshmipathi; Tang, Xuejun; Cottone, Andrew; Zhao, Liang; Bezdenejnih-Snyder, Natascha

    2014-10-01

    Type II bacterial topoisomerases are well validated targets for antimicrobial chemotherapy. Novel bacterial type II topoisomerase inhibitors (NBTIs) of these targets are of interest for the development of new antibacterial agents that are not impacted by target-mediated cross-resistance with fluoroquinolones. We now disclose the optimization of a class of NBTIs towards Gram-negative pathogens, especially against drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Physicochemical properties (pKa and logD) were optimized for activity against P. aeruginosa and for reduced inhibition of the hERG channel. The optimized analogs 9g and 9i displayed potent antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa, and a significantly improved hERG profile over previously reported analogs. Compound 9g showed an improved QT profile in in vivo models and lower clearance in rat over earlier compounds. The compounds show promise for the development of new antimicrobial agents against drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:25155913

  10. Proximal tubule NHE3 activity is inhibited by beta-arrestin-biased angiotensin II type 1 receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Carneiro de Morais, Carla P; Polidoro, Juliano Z; Ralph, Donna L; Pessoa, Thaissa D; Oliveira-Souza, Maria; Barauna, Valério G; Rebouças, Nancy A; Malnic, Gerhard; McDonough, Alicia A; Girardi, Adriana C C

    2015-10-15

    Physiological concentrations of angiotensin II (ANG II) upregulate the activity of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) in the renal proximal tubule through activation of the ANG II type I (AT1) receptor/G protein-coupled signaling. This effect is key for maintenance of extracellular fluid volume homeostasis and blood pressure. Recent findings have shown that selective activation of the beta-arrestin-biased AT1 receptor signaling pathway induces diuresis and natriuresis independent of G protein-mediated signaling. This study tested the hypothesis that activation of this AT1 receptor/beta-arrestin signaling inhibits NHE3 activity in proximal tubule. To this end, we determined the effects of the compound TRV120023, which binds to the AT1R, blocks G-protein coupling, and stimulates beta-arrestin signaling on NHE3 function in vivo and in vitro. NHE3 activity was measured in both native proximal tubules, by stationary microperfusion, and in opossum proximal tubule (OKP) cells, by Na(+)-dependent intracellular pH recovery. We found that 10(-7) M TRV120023 remarkably inhibited proximal tubule NHE3 activity both in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, stimulation of NHE3 by ANG II was completely suppressed by TRV120023 both in vivo as well as in vitro. Inhibition of NHE3 activity by TRV120023 was associated with a decrease in NHE3 surface expression in OKP cells and with a redistribution from the body to the base of the microvilli in the rat proximal tubule. These findings indicate that biased signaling of the beta-arrestin pathway through the AT1 receptor inhibits NHE3 activity in the proximal tubule at least in part due to changes in NHE3 subcellular localization. PMID:26246427

  11. Signalling pathway involved in nitric oxide synthase type II activation in chondrocytes: synergistic effect of leptin with interleukin-1

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Miguel; Lago, Rocío; Lago, Francisca; Reino, Juan Jesús Gomez; Gualillo, Oreste

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of leptin, alone or in combination with IL-1, on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) type II activity in vitro in human primary chondrocytes, in the mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cell line, and in mature and hypertrophic ATDC5 differentiated chondrocytes. For completeness, we also investigated the signalling pathway of the putative synergism between leptin and IL-1. For this purpose, nitric oxide production was evaluated using the Griess colorimetric reaction in culture medium of cells stimulated over 48 hours with leptin (800 nmol/l) and IL-1 (0.025 ng/ml), alone or combined. Specific pharmacological inhibitors of NOS type II (aminoguanidine [1 mmol/l]), janus kinase (JAK)2 (tyrphostin AG490 and Tkip), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K; wortmannin [1, 2.5, 5 and 10 μmol/l] and LY294002 [1, 2.5, 5 and 10 μmol/l]), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)1 (PD098059 [1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 μmol/l]) and p38 kinase (SB203580 [1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 μmol/l]) were added 1 hour before stimulation. Nitric oxide synthase type II mRNA expression in ATDC5 chondrocytes was investigated by real-time PCR and NOS II protein expression was analyzed by western blot. Our results indicate that stimulation of chondrocytes with IL-1 results in dose-dependent nitric oxide production. In contrast, leptin alone was unable to induce nitric oxide production or expression of NOS type II mRNA or its protein. However, co-stimulation with leptin and IL-1 resulted in a net increase in nitric oxide concentration over IL-1 challenge that was eliminated by pretreatment with the NOS II specific inhibitor aminoguanidine. Pretreatment with tyrphostin AG490 and Tkip (a SOCS-1 mimetic peptide that inhibits JAK2) blocked nitric oxide production induced by leptin/IL-1. Finally, wortmannin, LY294002, PD098059 and SB203580 significantly decreased nitric oxide production. These findings were confirmed in mature and hypertrophic ATDC5 chondrocytes, and

  12. Potent and specific inhibition of the biological activity of the type-II transmembrane serine protease matriptase by the cyclic microprotein MCoTI-II.

    PubMed

    Gray, K; Elghadban, S; Thongyoo, P; Owen, K A; Szabo, R; Bugge, T H; Tate, E W; Leatherbarrow, R J; Ellis, V

    2014-08-01

    Matriptase is a type-II transmembrane serine protease involved in epithelial homeostasis in both health and disease, and is implicated in the development and progression of a variety of cancers. Matriptase mediates its biological effects both via as yet undefined substrates and pathways, and also by proteolytic cleavage of a variety of well-defined protein substrates, several of which it shares with the closely-related protease hepsin. Development of targeted therapeutic strategies will require discrimination between these proteases. Here we have investigated cyclic microproteins of the squash Momordica cochinchinensis trypsin-inhibitor family (generated by total chemical synthesis) and found MCoTI-II to be a high-affinity (Ki 9 nM) and highly selective (> 1,000-fold) inhibitor of matriptase. MCoTI-II efficiently inhibited the proteolytic activation of pro-hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) by matriptase but not by hepsin, in both purified and cell-based systems, and inhibited HGF-dependent cell scattering. MCoTI-II also selectively inhibited the invasion of matriptase-expressing prostate cancer cells. Using a model of epithelial cell tight junction assembly, we also found that MCoTI-II could effectively inhibit the re-establishment of tight junctions and epithelial barrier function in MDCK-I cells after disruption, consistent with the role of matriptase in regulating epithelial integrity. Surprisingly, MCoTI-II was unable to inhibit matriptase-dependent proteolytic activation of prostasin, a GPI-anchored serine protease also implicated in epithelial homeostasis. These observations suggest that the unusually high selectivity afforded by MCoTI-II and its biological effectiveness might represent a useful starting point for the development of therapeutic inhibitors, and further highlight the role of matriptase in epithelial maintenance. PMID:24696092

  13. Discovery and structure-activity relationships of a novel isothiazolone class of bacterial type II topoisomerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ian R; McCarroll, Andrew J; McGarry, David; Kirkham, James; Pichowicz, Mark; Walker, Rolf; Warrilow, Catherine; Salisbury, Anne-Marie; Savage, Victoria J; Moyo, Emmanuel; Forward, Henry; Cheung, Jonathan; Metzger, Richard; Gault, Zoe; Nelson, Gary; Hughes, Diarmaid; Cao, Sha; Maclean, John; Charrier, Cédric; Craighead, Mark; Best, Stuart; Stokes, Neil R; Ratcliffe, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    There is an urgent and unmet medical need for new antibacterial drugs that tackle infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. During the course of our wider efforts to discover and exploit novel mechanism of action antibacterials, we have identified a novel series of isothiazolone based inhibitors of bacterial type II topoisomerase. Compounds from the class displayed excellent activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with encouraging activity against a panel of MDR clinical Escherichia coli isolates when compared to ciprofloxacin. Representative compounds also displayed a promising in vitro safety profile. PMID:27499455

  14. An albumin-associated PLA2-like activity inactivates surfactant phosphatidylcholine secreted from fetal type II pneumocytes.

    PubMed

    Damas, Jolanta E; Cake, Max H

    2011-12-01

    Type II pneumocytes are responsible for the synthesis and secretion of pulmonary surfactant, which reduces surface tension in lung alveoli, thus decreasing their tendency to collapse during expiration. For this effect to be sustained, the integrity of the surface-active components of surfactant must be maintained. This study has shown that, when cultured type II pneumocytes are exposed to lipoprotein-free serum (LFS), the level of lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC) in the secreted surfactant phospholipids is markedly elevated with a concomitant decline in the level of phosphatidylcholine (PC). This effect is the result of hydrolysis of surfactant PC by a phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2))-like activity present within serum. Anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and preparative electrophoresis of human LFS have shown that this PLA(2)-like activity coelutes with albumin and is biochemically distinct from the secretory form of PLA(2). Furthermore, specific inhibitors of PLA(2) such as p-bromophenacyl bromide, aristolochic acid, and palmitoyl trifluoromethyl ketone do not inhibit this activity of serum. Commercially purified human serum albumin fraction V and recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) are almost as effective as LFS in enhancing the level of lyso-PC in the media. The latter finding implies that rHSA directly generates lyso-PC from secreted PC and suggests that this PLA(2)-like activity may be an intrinsic attribute of albumin. PMID:21908590

  15. Thin active region, type II superlattice photodiode arrays: Single-pixel and focal plane array characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, J. W.; Svensson, S. P.; Beck, W. A.; Goldberg, A. C.; Kennerly, S. W.; Hongsmatip, T.; Winn, M.; Uppal, P.

    2007-02-01

    We have measured the radiometric properties of two midwave infrared photodiode arrays (320×256pixel2 format) fabricated from the same wafer comprising a thin (0.24μm), not intentionally doped InAs /GaSb superlattice between a p-doped GaSb layer and a n-doped InAs layer. One of the arrays was indium bump bonded to a silicon fanout chip to allow for the measurement of properties of individual pixels, and one was bonded to a readout integrated circuit to enable array-scale measurements and infrared imaging. The superlattice layer is thin enough that it is fully depleted at zero bias, and the collection efficiency of photogenerated carriers in the intrinsic region is close to unity. This simplifies the interpretation of photocurrent data as compared with previous measurements made on thick superlattices with complex doping profiles. Superlattice absorption coefficient curves, obtained from measurements of the external quantum efficiency using two different assumptions for optical coupling into the chip, bracket values calculated using an eight-band k •p model. Measurements of the quantum efficiency map of the focal plane array were in good agreement with the single-pixel measurements. Imagery obtained with this focal plane array demonstrates the high uniformity and crystal quality of the type II superlattice material.

  16. Oral hypoglycaemic activity of Ipomoea aquatica in streptozotocin-induced, diabetic wistar rats and Type II diabetics.

    PubMed

    Malalavidhane, T S; Wickramasinghe, S M D N; Perera, M S A; Jansz, E R

    2003-11-01

    Ipomoea aquatica Forsk is a common green leafy vegetable consumed in many parts of the world. The present study was designed to investigate the oral hypoglycaemic activity of Ipomea aquatica in streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats, and Type II diabetic patients. Experimental diabetes was induced with streptozotocin in Wistar rats. The rats were then divided into test and control groups. In addition to the standard feed given to both groups the test was fed with the shredded leaves of Ipomoea aquatica (3.4 g/kg) for one week. Type II diabetic patients were subjected to a glucose challenge before and after a single dose of blended I. aquatica. Patients acted as their own controls. The results revealed that consumption of the shredded, fresh, edible portion of I. aquatica for one week, effectively reduced the fasting blood sugar level of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (p = 0.01). When subjected to a glucose challenge, the Type II diabetic subjects showed a significant reduction (p = 0.001) in the serum glucose concentration 2 h after the glucose load. However, it was not significantly reduced at 1 h (p < 0.09) post glucose load. There was a 29.4% decrease in the serum glucose concentration of the diabetic patients when treated with the plant extract. PMID:14595595

  17. MODELING THE NUCLEAR INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF TYPE II ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Lira, Paulina; Videla, Liza; Wu, Yanling; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Alexander, David M.; Ward, Martin

    2013-02-20

    We present results from model fitting to the spectral energy distribution (SED) of a homogeneous sample of Seyfert II galaxies drawn from the 12 {mu}m Galaxy Sample. Imaging and nuclear flux measurements are presented in an accompanying paper. Here we add Spitzer/IRS observations to further constrain the SEDs after careful subtraction of a starburst component. We use the library of CLUMPY torus models from Nenkova et al. and also test the two-phase models recently produced by Stalevski et al. We find that photometric and spectroscopic observations in the mid-IR ({lambda} {approx}> 5 {mu}m) are crucial to properly constrain the best-fit torus models. About half of our sources show clear near-IR excess of their SEDs above the best-fit models. This problem can be less severe when using the Stalevski et al. models. The nature of this emission is not clear since best-fitted blackbody temperatures are very high ({approx}1700-2500 K) and the Type II classification of our sources would correspond to a small probability to peer directly into the hottest regions of the torus. Crucially, the derived torus parameters are quite robust when using CLUMPY models, independently of whether or not the sources require an additional blackbody component. Our findings suggest that tori are characterized by N{sub 0}{approx}>5, {sigma} {approx}> 40, {tau} {approx}< 25, Angle i {approx}> 40 Degree-Sign , Y {approx}< 50, and A {sup los} {sub v} {approx} 100-300, where N{sub 0} is the number of clouds in the equatorial plane of the torus, {sigma} is the characteristic opening angle of the cloud distribution, {tau} is the opacity of a single cloud, Angle i is the line-of-sight orientation of the torus, Y is the ratio of the inner to the outer radii, and A {sup los} {sub v} is the total opacity along the line of sight. From these, we can determine typical torus sizes and masses of 0.1-5.0 pc and 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} M {sub Sun }, respectively. We find tentative evidence that those nuclei with

  18. Typing of HLA class II and class I antigens using PHA-activated, IL-2-propagated T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Leshem, B; Cohen, I; Sherman, L; Brautbar, C; Kedar, E

    1988-06-28

    We describe here a simple procedure, by which HLA class II antigens can be accurately and reliably identified in those patients where there is minimal or absent expression of HLA-DR,DQw antigens on B cells, or when the total number of leukocytes recovered from the patients do not permit reliable typing. Ficoll-Hypaque-separated peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes, fresh or cryopreserved, were activated by PHA and then propagated in IL-2-containing medium until enough cells for typing were obtained (usually 7-14 days). At this stage, the cultured cells were shown to be primarily T cells (greater than 90% CD3+). Since the activated T cells propagate in the presence of IL-2, even a small number (10(4] of fresh or cryopreserved patients' cells suffice for this protocol. To date we have been able to successfully HLA-DR,DQw type 34/34 bone marrow transplantation candidates and 12/12 long-term dialysis patients, who were untypable using fresh cells. HLA-DR,DQw antigens on activated T cells from normal individuals were identical to those found on their uncultured B cells. In addition, class I antigens that were undetectable on the uncultured cells of one patient could be identified on activated T cells. The HLA antigens identified on the patients' activated T cells were confirmed by phenotypic analysis of cells from family members. PMID:3260612

  19. Efficacy of inverse agonists in cells overexpressing a constitutively active β2-adrenoceptor and type II adenylyl cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Patricia A; Milligan, Graeme

    1998-01-01

    Maximal stimulant output from the adenylyl cyclase cascade in neuroblastoma × glioma hybrid, NG108-15, cells is limited by the levels of expression of isoforms of adenylyl cyclase. Stable expression in these cells of a constitutively active mutant (CAM) version of the human β2-adrenoceptor resulted in higher basal adenylyl cyclase activity than following expression of the human wild type β2-adrenoceptor. Isoprenaline acted as a full agonist in membranes from both wild type and CAM β2-adrenoceptor expressing clones.Expression of type II adenylyl cyclase resulted in a substantially elevated capacity of isoprenaline to stimulate [3H]-forskolin binding, whereas in CAM β2-adrenoceptor expressing cells the basal high affinity [3H]-forskolin binding represented a markedly greater % of the maximal effect which could be produced by addition of isoprenaline, and the EC50 for isoprenaline was some 10 fold lower than in cells expressing the wild type β2-adrenoceptor.Further transfection of the CAM β2-adrenoceptor expressing cells with type II adenylyl cyclase greatly increased both absolute basal and agonist-stimulated levels of adenylyl cyclase activity.Betaxolol, ICI 118,551, sotalol and timolol acted as inverse agonists with varying degrees of efficacy, whereas propranolol functioned as a neutral antagonist and alprenolol as a partial agonist.Pretreatment of the CAM β2-adrenoceptor and type II adenylyl cyclase expressing clones with the irreversible alkylating agent BAAM (1 μM) did not reduce the efficacy of isoprenaline but eliminated efficacy from all the inverse agonist ligands. This effect was dependent upon the concentration of BAAM employed, with half-maximal effects being produced between 10 nM and 100 nM of the alkylating agent, which is similar to the concentrations required to prevent subsequent ligand access to some 50% of the CAM β2-adrenoceptor population.These data demonstrate that inverse agonist efficacy can be modulated by receptor

  20. Preparation and Biological Activity of the Monoclonal Antibody against the Second Extracellular Loop of the Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Mingming; Zhao, Chengrui; Zhang, Suli; Wang, Li; Liu, Huirong; Ma, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    The current study was to prepare a mouse-derived antibody against the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-mAb) based on monoclonal antibody technology, to provide a foundation for research on AT1-AA-positive diseases. Balb/C mice were actively immunized with the second extracellular loop of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R-ECII). Then, mouse spleen lymphocytes were fused with myeloma cells and monoclonal hybridomas that secreted AT1-mAb were generated and cultured, after which those in logarithmic-phase were injected into the abdominal cavity of mice to retrieve the ascites. Highly purified AT1-mAb was isolated from mouse ascites after injection with 1 × 107 hybridomas. A greater amount of AT1-mAb was purified from mouse ascites compared to the cell supernatant of hybridomas. AT1-mAb purified from mouse ascites constricted the thoracic aorta of mice and increased the beat frequency of neonatal rat myocardial cells via the AT1R, identical to the effects of AT1-AA extracted from patients' sera. Murine blood pressure increased after intravenous injection of AT1-mAb via the tail vein. High purity and good biological activity of AT1-mAb can be obtained from mouse ascites after intraperitoneal injection of monoclonal hybridomas that secrete AT1-mAb. These data provide a simple tool for studying AT1-AA-positive diseases. PMID:27057554

  1. Case 22:Type II diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. It is composed of two types depending on the pathogenesis. Type I diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency and usually has its onset during childhood or teenage years. This is also called ketosis-prone diabetes. Type II diab...

  2. The condensing activities of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis type II fatty acid synthase are differentially regulated by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Molle, Virginie; Brown, Alistair K; Besra, Gurdyal S; Cozzone, Alain J; Kremer, Laurent

    2006-10-01

    Phosphorylation of proteins by Ser/Thr protein kinases (STPKs) has recently become of major physiological importance because of its possible involvement in virulence of bacterial pathogens. Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis has eleven STPKs, the nature and function of the substrates of these enzymes remain largely unknown. In this work, we have identified for the first time STPK substrates in M. tuberculosis forming part of the type II fatty acid synthase (FAS-II) system involved in mycolic acid biosynthesis: the malonyl-CoA::AcpM transacylase mtFabD, and the beta-ketoacyl AcpM synthases KasA and KasB. All three enzymes were phosphorylated in vitro by different kinases, suggesting a complex network of interactions between STPKs and these substrates. In addition, both KasA and KasB were efficiently phosphorylated in M. bovis BCG each at different sites and could be dephosphorylated by the M. tuberculosis Ser/Thr phosphatase PstP. Enzymatic studies revealed that, whereas phosphorylation decreases the activity of KasA in the elongation process of long chain fatty acids synthesis, this modification enhances that of KasB. Such a differential effect of phosphorylation may represent an unusual mechanism of FAS-II system regulation, allowing pathogenic mycobacteria to produce full-length mycolates, which are required for adaptation and intracellular survival in macrophages. PMID:16873379

  3. Chromospheres of late-type active and quiescent dwarfs. III - Variability of CA II H emission profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Lopez, R. J.; Crivellari, L.; Beckman, J. E.; Rebolo, R.

    1992-08-01

    We have used high-resolution spectra of the Ca II H resonance line in late-type dwarfs, obtained with high S:N ratios, over a period of four years to widen our understanding of the dynamical behavior of the Ca II emission cores. All of the stars dealt with in this article, which are chromospherically active, show variability both in core emission flux and line width. They also show significant wavelength shifts with time of order hundreds of meters per second in the mean core wavelength, and with lower amplitude in the H3 self-absorption, compared to the photospheric rest wavelength of Ca II H. Comparing the emission core shifts with those observed in the H3 features, we find, for the first time, direct prima facie evidence for vertical chromospheric velocity fields, which show stability in sense over periods of years in a given star, with notable modulation in gradient, and which differ in gradient from star to star. We present evidence to show that the observed effects are almost certainly not due to projected rotational modulation, and offer new prospects, given spectral measurements closely sampled in time, for investigating the vertical velocity structures of chromospheres.

  4. Effect of glucocorticoids on the activity, expression and proximal promoter of type II deiodinase in rat brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Martinez-deMena, Raquel; Calvo, Rosa-Maria; Garcia, Laura; Obregon, Maria Jesus

    2016-06-15

    Triiodothyronine (T3) is important for thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Type II deiodinase (DIO2) produces T3 required for intracellular needs in BAT. Brown adipocytes in culture require T3 for the adrenergic stimulation of DIO2. Glucocorticoids induce adipocyte differentiation (lipogenesis). We investigated the regulation of DIO2 activity, Dio2 mRNA and Dio2 promoter activity by glucocorticoids in primary cultures of rat brown adipocytes using dexamethasone (DEX) and hydrocortisone (HC). DEX and HC regulated the adrenergic stimulation of DIO2 activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, inhibiting DIO2 activity at short treatment times and large doses (1-10 μM) and stimulating DIO2 at low HC doses (1-100 nM) and longer times (DEX). Insulin depletion reduced DIO2 activity but the response to glucocorticoids remained unchanged. DEX and HC inhibited basal DIO2 activity. DEX had no effect on DIO2 half-life, whereas HC stabilized DIO2 activity. DEX and HC inhibited the adrenergic stimulation of Dio2 mRNA expression (100-10000 nM, 14-96 h), but stabilized Dio2 mRNA, particularly DEX. DEX increased basal Dio2 mRNA levels, possibly through stabilization of Dio2 mRNA. An 807 bp construct of the murine Dio2 proximal promoter showed maximal reporter activity, with the cAMP response element (CRE) essential for transcriptional activity. DEX caused inhibition in most constructs containing the CRE element whereas HC stimulated reporter activity in the 807 bp construct. Glucocorticoids inhibited the adrenergic stimulation of Dio2 at the transcriptional level in brown adipocytes, although DIO2 activity increased with HC, possibly due to stabilization of Dio2 activity and mRNA. The CRE and cEBP elements of the Dio2 promoter seem involved in the regulation by glucocorticoids. PMID:26994513

  5. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of 4-Chloro-3-Nitrophenylthiourea Derivatives Targeting Bacterial Type II Topoisomerases.

    PubMed

    Bielenica, Anna; Stępień, Karolina; Napiórkowska, Agnieszka; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Krukowski, Sylwester; Włodarczyk, Marta; Struga, Marta

    2016-06-01

    A series of novel 4-chloro-3-nitrophenylthiourea derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antimicrobial, antibiofilm and tuberculostatic activities. Most of compounds exhibited high antibacterial activity against both standard and hospital strains (MIC values 0.5-2 μg/mL), as compared to Ciprofloxacin. Derivatives with 3,4-dichlorophenyl (11) and 3-chloro-4-methylphenyl (13) substituents were the most promising towards Gram-positive pathogens. Both of them exhibited antibiofilm potency and effectively inhibited the formation of biofilms of methicillin-resistant and standard strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Two N-alkylthioureas (20, 21) showed twofold to fourfold increase in in vitro potency against isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as compared to Isoniazid. An action of 7, 10, 11, 13, 20 and 21 against activity of topoisomerases isolated from Staphylococcus aureus was studied. Synthesized compounds were found as non-genotoxic. PMID:26804238

  6. Type-II Weyl semimetals.

    PubMed

    Soluyanov, Alexey A; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, QuanSheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, B Andrei

    2015-11-26

    Fermions--elementary particles such as electrons--are classified as Dirac, Majorana or Weyl. Majorana and Weyl fermions had not been observed experimentally until the recent discovery of condensed matter systems such as topological superconductors and semimetals, in which they arise as low-energy excitations. Here we propose the existence of a previously overlooked type of Weyl fermion that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets in a new phase of matter. This particle was missed by Weyl because it breaks the stringent Lorentz symmetry in high-energy physics. Lorentz invariance, however, is not present in condensed matter physics, and by generalizing the Dirac equation, we find the new type of Weyl fermion. In particular, whereas Weyl semimetals--materials hosting Weyl fermions--were previously thought to have standard Weyl points with a point-like Fermi surface (which we refer to as type-I), we discover a type-II Weyl point, which is still a protected crossing, but appears at the contact of electron and hole pockets in type-II Weyl semimetals. We predict that WTe2 is an example of a topological semimetal hosting the new particle as a low-energy excitation around such a type-II Weyl point. The existence of type-II Weyl points in WTe2 means that many of its physical properties are very different to those of standard Weyl semimetals with point-like Fermi surfaces. PMID:26607545

  7. Type-II Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soluyanov, Alexey A.; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, Quansheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2015-11-01

    Fermions—elementary particles such as electrons—are classified as Dirac, Majorana or Weyl. Majorana and Weyl fermions had not been observed experimentally until the recent discovery of condensed matter systems such as topological superconductors and semimetals, in which they arise as low-energy excitations. Here we propose the existence of a previously overlooked type of Weyl fermion that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets in a new phase of matter. This particle was missed by Weyl because it breaks the stringent Lorentz symmetry in high-energy physics. Lorentz invariance, however, is not present in condensed matter physics, and by generalizing the Dirac equation, we find the new type of Weyl fermion. In particular, whereas Weyl semimetals—materials hosting Weyl fermions—were previously thought to have standard Weyl points with a point-like Fermi surface (which we refer to as type-I), we discover a type-II Weyl point, which is still a protected crossing, but appears at the contact of electron and hole pockets in type-II Weyl semimetals. We predict that WTe2 is an example of a topological semimetal hosting the new particle as a low-energy excitation around such a type-II Weyl point. The existence of type-II Weyl points in WTe2 means that many of its physical properties are very different to those of standard Weyl semimetals with point-like Fermi surfaces.

  8. Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) Complexes of Salan-Type Ligand Containing Ester Groups: Synthesis, Characterization, Electrochemical Properties, and In Vitro Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Jeslin Kanaga Inba, P.; Annaraj, B.; Thalamuthu, S.; Neelakantan, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    A salen ligand on reduction and N-alkylation affords a novel [N2O2] chelating ligand containing ester groups [L = diethyl-2,2′-(propane-1,3-diylbis((2-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzyl)azanediyl))diacetate]. The purity of the ligand was confirmed by NMR and HPLC chromatograms. Its Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) complexes were synthesized and characterized by a combination of elemental analysis, IR, NMR, UV-Vis, and mass spectral data, and thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTA). The magnetic moments, UV-Vis, and EPR spectral studies support square planar geometry around the Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions. A tetrahedral geometry is observed in four-coordinate zinc with bulky N-alkylated salan ligand. The redox properties of the copper complex were examined in DMSO by cyclic voltammetry. The voltammograms show quasireversible process. The interaction of metal complexes with CT DNA was investigated by UV-Vis absorption titration, ethidium bromide displacement assay, cyclic voltammetry methods, and agarose gel electrophoresis. The apparent binding constant values suggest moderate intercalative binding modes between the complexes and DNA. The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of the synthesized compounds were also determined. PMID:23983672

  9. Contractile properties and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium content in type I and type II skeletal muscle fibres in active aged humans

    PubMed Central

    Lamboley, C R; Wyckelsma, V L; Dutka, T L; McKenna, M J; Murphy, R M; Lamb, G D

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the contractile properties and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content in mechanically skinned vastus lateralis muscle fibres of Old (70 ± 4 years) and Young (22 ± 3 years) humans to investigate whether changes in muscle fibre properties contribute to muscle weakness in old age. In type II fibres of Old subjects, specific force was reduced by ∼17% and Ca2+ sensitivity was also reduced (pCa50 decreased ∼0.05 pCa units) relative to that in Young. S-Glutathionylation of fast troponin I (TnIf) markedly increased Ca2+ sensitivity in type II fibres, but the increase was significantly smaller in Old versus Young (+0.136 and +0.164 pCa unit increases, respectively). Endogenous and maximal SR Ca2+ content were significantly smaller in both type I and type II fibres in Old subjects. In fibres of Young, the SR could be nearly fully depleted of Ca2+ by a combined caffeine and low Mg2+ stimulus, whereas in fibres of Old the amount of non-releasable Ca2+ was significantly increased (by > 12% of endogenous Ca2+ content). Western blotting showed an increased proportion of type I fibres in Old subjects, and increased amounts of calsequestrin-2 and calsequestrin-like protein. The findings suggest that muscle weakness in old age is probably attributable in part to (i) an increased proportion of type I fibres, (ii) a reduction in both maximum specific force and Ca2+ sensitivity in type II fibres, and also a decreased ability of S-glutathionylation of TnIf to counter the fatiguing effects of metabolites on Ca2+ sensitivity, and (iii) a reduction in the amount of releasable SR Ca2+ in both fibre types. Key points Muscle weakness in old age is due in large part to an overall loss of skeletal muscle tissue, but it remains uncertain how much also stems from alterations in the properties of the individual muscle fibres. This study examined the contractile properties and amount of stored intracellular calcium in single muscle fibres of Old (70

  10. High-salt intake induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in rats in response to local angiotensin II type 1 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Isis A; Pereira, Rafael C; Dopona, Ellen P B; Shimizu, Maria H M; Furukawa, Luzia N S; Oliveira, Ivone B; Heimann, Joel C

    2014-10-01

    Many studies have shown that risk factors that are independent of blood pressure (BP) can contribute to the development of cardiac hypertrophy (CH). Among these factors, high-salt (HS) intake was prominent. Although some studies have attempted to elucidate the role of salt in the development of this disease, the mechanisms by which salt acts are not yet fully understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to better understand the mechanisms of CH and interstitial fibrosis (IF) caused by HS intake. Male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups according to diet [normal salt (NS; 1.27% NaCl) or HS (8% NaCl)] and treatment [losartan (LOS) (HS+LOS group), hydralazine (HZ) (HS+HZ group), or N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (HS+NAC group)], which was given in the drinking water. Tail-cuff BP, transverse diameter of the cardiomyocyte, IF, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) gene and protein expression, serum aldosterone, cardiac angiotensin II, cardiac thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and binding of conformation-specific anti-AT1 and anti-angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2) antibodies in the 2 ventricles were measured. Based on the left ventricle transverse diameter data, the primary finding was the occurrence of significant BP-independent CH in the HS+HZ group (96% of the HS group) and a partial or total prevention of such hypertrophy via treatment with NAC or LOS (81% and 67% of the HS group, respectively). The significant total or partial prevention of IF using all 3 treatments (HS+HZ, 27%; HS+LOS, 27%; and HS+NAC, 58% of the HS group, respectively), and an increase in the AT1 gene and protein expression and activity in groups that developed CH, confirmed that CH occurred via the AT1 in this experimental model. Thus, this study unveiled some relevant previously unknown mechanisms of CH induced by chronic HS intake in Wistar rats. The link of oxidative stress with CH in our experimental model is very interesting and stimulates further evaluation for its full comprehension

  11. Achondrogenesis type II with polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Rittler, M; Orioli, I M

    1995-11-01

    We report on a newborn male infant who presented the typical findings of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino), and who also showed postaxial polydactyly on both feet and bilateral microtia. Polydactyly is frequently part of the short-rib syndromes, but has not been reported in achondrogenesis. The hypothesis of polydactyly as part of a contiguous gene syndrome is discussed. PMID:8588578

  12. Sirtuin 1 Activator SRT1720 Protects Against Lung Injury via Reduction of Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells Apoptosis in Emphysema.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chao; Li, Yaqing; Xu, Wu-Lin; Yan, Jian-Ping; Xia, Ying-jie; Ma, Ying-Yu; Chen, Chun; Wang, Hui-Ju; Tao, Hou-quan

    2015-08-01

    In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), two major pathological changes that occur are the loss of alveolar structure and airspace enlargement. Type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECII) play a vital role in maintaining alveolar homeostasis and lung tissue repair. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, regulates many pathophysiological processes including inflammation, apoptosis, cellular senescence and stress resistance. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether SRT1720, a pharmacological SIRT1 activator, could protect against AECII apoptosis in rats with emphysema caused by cigarette smoke exposure and intratracheal lipopolysaccharide instillation in vivo. During the induction of emphysema in rats, administration of SRT1720 improved lung function including airway resistance and pulmonary dynamic compliance. SRT1720 treatment up-regulated the levels of surfactant protein (SP)A, SPC, SIRT1 and forkhead box O 3, increased SIRT1 activity, down-regulated the level of p53 and inhibited AECII apoptosis. Lung injury caused by emphysema was alleviated after SRT1720 treatment. SRT1720 could protect against AECII apoptosis in rats with emphysema and thus could be used in COPD treatment. PMID:25415045

  13. Triiodothyronine causes rapid reversal of alpha 1/cyclic adenosine monophosphate synergism on brown adipocyte respiration and type II deiodinase activity.

    PubMed

    Noronha, M; Raasmaja, A; Moolten, N; Larsen, P R

    1991-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that thyroid status affects the response of brown adipose tissue (BAT) to the sympathetic nervous system. For example, hypothyroidism is associated with the development of a marked synergism between alpha 1- and beta-adrenergic pathways to stimulate type II iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase activity. Hypothyroidism also attenuates the respiratory response (thermogenesis) of isolated brown adipocytes to norepinephrine. To explore the interactions of the sympathetic nervous system and thyroid status in these cells, we compared the thermogenic and 5'-deiodinase responses to adrenergic agonists in isolated brown adipocytes from hypothyroid rats during treatment with 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3). The fivefold synergism of alpha 1- and beta-adrenergic catecholamines to increase the deiodinase activity was progressively reduced, reaching a control euthyroid value of unity after 5 days of T3 treatment. Hypothyroidism reduced both the O2max (twofold to threefold) and increased the concentration of agonist required for 50% stimulation (10-fold) for both norepinephrine and forskolin. In hypothyroid cells, there was a twofold synergism between the alpha 1-agonist cirazoline and forskolin to increase respiration, which was blocked by prazosin and reproduced by the calcium ionophore, A23187. This synergistic effect of the alpha 1-agonist was lost within 2 days of T3 administration. These studies identify a second Ca(2+)-dependent intra-adrenergic synergism, which functions to ameliorate the reduced cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responsiveness of the hypothyroid brown adipocyte. PMID:1683679

  14. Development and application of a new Silent reporter system to quantitate the activity of enhancer elements in the type II Collagen Gene.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kazuo; Shinomura, Tamayuki

    2016-07-01

    Type II collagen is a major component of cartilage, which provide structural stiffness to the tissue. As a sufficient amount of type II collagen is critical for maintaining the biomechanical properties of cartilage, its expression is tightly regulated in chondrocytes. Therefore, it is essential to elucidate in detail the transcriptional mechanism that controls expression of type II collagen, in particular by two enhancer elements we recently discovered. To systematically analyze and compare enhancer activities, we developed a novel reporter assay system that exploits site-specific integration of promoter and enhancer elements to activate a transcriptionally silent reporter gene. Using this system, we found that the enhancer elements have distinct characteristics, with one exhibiting additive effects and the other exhibiting synergistic effects when repeated in tandem. PMID:26992640

  15. Hexamers of the Type II Secretion ATPase GspE from Vibrio cholerae with Increased ATPase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Connie; Turley, Stewart; Marionni, Samuel T.; Park, Young-Jun; Lee, Kelly K.; Patrick, Marcella; Shah, Ripal; Sandkvist, Maria; Bush, Matthew F.; Hol, Wim G. J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The Type II Secretion System (T2SS), a multi-protein machinery spanning two membranes in Gram-negative bacteria, is responsible for the secretion of folded proteins from the periplasm across the outer membrane. The critical multi-domain T2SS assembly ATPase GspEEpsE had so far not been structurally characterized as a hexamer. Here, four hexamers of Vibrio cholerae GspEEpsE are obtained when fused to Hcp1 as an assistant hexamer, as shown by native mass spectrometry. The enzymatic activity of the GspEEpsE-Hcp1 fusions is ~20 times higher than that of a GspEEpsE monomer indicating that increasing the local concentration of GspEEpsE by the fusion strategy was successful. Crystal structures of GspEEpsE-Hcp1 fusions with different linker lengths reveal regular and elongated hexamers of GspEEpsE with major differences in domain orientation within subunits, and in subunit assembly. SAXS studies on GspEEpsE-Hcp1 fusions suggest that even further variability in GspEEpsE hexamer architecture is likely. PMID:23954505

  16. Light echoes - Type II supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1987-01-01

    Type II supernovae (SNs) light curves show a remarkable range of shapes. Data have been collected for the 12 Type II SNs that have light curve information for more than four months past maximum. Contrary to previous reports, it is found that (1) the decay rate after 100 days past maximum varies by almost an order of magnitude and (2) the light curve shapes are not bimodally distributed, but actually form a continuum. In addition, it is found that the extinctions to the SNs are related to the light curve shapes. This implies that the absorbing dust is local to the SNs. The dust is likely to be part of a circumstellar shell emitted by the SN progenitor that Dwek (1983) has used to explain infrared echoes. The optical depth of the shell can get quite large. In such cases, it is found that the photons scattered and delayed by reflection off dust grains will dominate the light curve several months after peak brightness. This 'light echo' offers a straightforward explanation of the diversity of Type II SN light curves.

  17. Exogenous acetate ion reaches the type II copper centre in CueO through the water-excretion channel and potentially affects the enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Komori, Hirofumi; Kataoka, Kunishige; Tanaka, Sakiko; Matsuda, Nana; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    The acetate-bound form of the type II copper was found in the X-ray structure of the multicopper oxidase CueO crystallized in acetate buffer in addition to the conventional OH(-)-bound form as the major resting form. The acetate ion was retained bound to the type II copper even after prolonged exposure of a CueO crystal to X-ray radiation, which led to the stepwise reduction of the Cu centres. However, in this study, when CueO was crystallized in citrate buffer the OH(-)-bound form was present exclusively. This fact shows that an exogenous acetate ion reaches the type II Cu centre through the water channel constructed between domains 1 and 3 in the CueO molecule. It was also found that the enzymatic activity of CueO is enhanced in the presence of acetate ions in the solvent water. PMID:27380373

  18. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, Hunter's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tylki-Szymańska, Anna

    2014-09-01

    Hunter syndrome is caused by deficiency of the lysososmal enzyme iduronate-2-sulphatase that cleaves O-linked sulphate moieties from dermatan sulphate and heparan sulphate and leads to accumulation of GAGs. The disease is a X-linked condition affecting males and rarely females, clinically divided into severe (2/3) and attenuated types. Children with severe form, diagnosed at 12-36 months, have coarse facial feature, short stature, joint stiffness, short neck, broad chest, large head circumference, watery diarrhea, skeletal changes, progressive and profound mental retardation, retinal degeneration' hearing loss, cardiomyopathy, valvular involvement, with progressive thickening and stiffening of the valve leaflets leading to mitral and aortic regurgitation and stenosis . Recurrent and prolonged rhinitis with persistent nasal discharge are the first symptoms of airway disease that manifests itself as noisy breathing and later sleep apnea. Some patients develop ivory-colored skin lesions on the upper back and sides of the upper arms, pathogenomic of Hunter syndrome. The scalp hair becomes coarse, straight and bristly. Inguinal and umbilical hernias occur caused by the disturbed structure of connective tissue and increased liver and spleen volume. Patients with attenuated form have normal intelligence and a milder phenotype. Physical features diagnosed later are similar but less pronounced but progress to severe disease. Sceening is by quantitative assessment of urinary GAGs excretion. Qualitative assessment of GAG by electrophoresis can distinguish the type of mucopolysaccharidosis. Definitive diagnosis is based on enzyme activity assay in leukocytes, fibroblasts or plasma. Molecular testing is recommended mainly for genetic counseling and carrier detection. Limited experience of Haematopoietic stem cell therapy in MPS II showed progressive neurodegeneration. Recombinant 125 Idursulfase, is indicated for long-term treatment. The response appears to depend on the

  19. Altered activities of kininase II, an angiotensin converting enzyme, prekallikrein, and nitric oxide in Kuwaiti patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, J N; Al-Shoumer, Kas; Matar, K M; Madathil, N V; Al-Moalem, Amk

    2015-06-01

    The current investigation was conducted to examine kininase II or angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), plasma prekallikrein (PK), and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in healthy Kuwaiti subjects and newly diagnosed Kuwaiti type 2 diabetic patients before and after treatment for 6 weeks with metformin hydrochloride 500 mg twice daily after meal. With the consent of volunteers, blood and urine samples were collected after an overnight fasting. Samples were collected from the diabetic patients before and after treatment for 6 weeks. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out on the aliquoted samples to measure the concentration of kininase II. NO was detected via colorimetry. Plasma Kininase II or ACE levels were significantly (P <0.01) increased by 18% in untreated diabetics when compared with healthy volunteers. However, after treatment there was a significant decrease of 20% in their ACE levels. Plasma prekallikrein levels were raised significantly (P <0.01) by 28% in diabetic patients in contrast with the control subjects and the levels were significantly reduced (P <0.0001) by 44% after treatment with metformin hydrochloride. NO levels were found to be significantly decreased in plasma by 56% and in urine by 62% in untreated diabetic patients as compared with the healthy subjects. However, when the treated diabetic patients were compared with untreated diabetics, there was an increase of 50% in plasma and 37% in urine samples. The high levels of kininase II, prekallikrein, and reduced NO may be partly responsible for the induction of renal, cardiac, and hypertensive complications associated with type 2 diabetes. Reduced NO level is an indication of endothelial dysfunction resulting in increased blood pressure. Oral anti-diabetic treatment is associated with protective effects through the reduction of kininase II (ACE), prekallikrein, and elevation of NO levels. PMID:25964383

  20. Sulfoxide stimulation of chondrogenesis in limb mesenchyme is accompanied by an increase in type II collagen enhancer activity

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, W.E. Jr.; Higginbotham, J.D. )

    1991-05-01

    We have utilized a modification of the limb bud mesenchyme micromass culture system to screen compounds that might stimulate chondrogenesis. Two compounds in the sulfoxide family (methylphenylsulfoxide and p-chlorophenyl methyl sulfoxide) were stimulatory at 10(-2) M and 10(-3) M, respectively; whereas other sulfoxides and organic solvents were not active at these concentrations. In addition, specific growth factors (basic FGF, IGF-I, IGF-II) were not chondroinductive at concentrations that are active in other cell systems. Both sulfoxide compounds stimulated cartilage nodule formation, ({sup 35}S)sulfate incorporation, and activity of the regulatory sequences of the collagen II gene. In contrast, transforming growth factor beta-1 (10 ng/ml) stimulated sulfate incorporation but produced only a diffuse deposition of cartilage matrix and reduced the ability of the cells to utilize the regulatory sequences of the collagen II gene. The sulfoxides appear to promote the differentiation of limb bud cells to chondrocytes and thus exhibit chondroinductive activity.

  1. Human T lymphotropic virus type-1 p30II alters cellular gene expression to selectively enhance signaling pathways that activate T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Bindhu; Nair, Amrithraj M; Hiraragi, Hajime; Shen, Lei; Feuer, Gerold; Boris-Lawrie, Kathleen; Lairmore, Michael D

    2004-01-01

    Background Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a deltaretrovirus that causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and is implicated in a variety of lymphocyte-mediated disorders. HTLV-1 contains both regulatory and accessory genes in four pX open reading frames. pX ORF-II encodes two proteins, p13II and p30II, which are incompletely defined in the virus life cycle or HTLV-1 pathogenesis. Proviral clones of the virus with pX ORF-II mutations diminish the ability of the virus to maintain viral loads in vivo. Exogenous expression of p30II differentially modulates CREB and Tax-responsive element-mediated transcription through its interaction with CREB-binding protein/p300 and represses tax/rex RNA nuclear export. Results Herein, we further characterized the role of p30II in regulation of cellular gene expression, using stable p30II expression system employing lentiviral vectors to test cellular gene expression with Affymetrix U133A arrays, representing ~33,000 human genes. Reporter assays in Jurkat T cells and RT-PCR in Jurkat and primary CD4+ T-lymphocytes were used to confirm selected gene expression patterns. Our data reveals alterations of interrelated pathways of cell proliferation, T-cell signaling, apoptosis and cell cycle in p30II expressing Jurkat T cells. In all categories, p30II appeared to be an overall repressor of cellular gene expression, while selectively increasing the expression of certain key regulatory genes. Conclusions We are the first to demonstrate that p30II, while repressing the expression of many genes, selectively activates key gene pathways involved in T-cell signaling/activation. Collectively, our data suggests that this complex retrovirus, associated with lymphoproliferative diseases, relies upon accessory gene products to modify cellular environment to promote clonal expansion of the virus genome and thus maintain proviral loads in vivo. PMID:15560845

  2. Hyperoxia-mediated LC3B activation contributes to the impaired transdifferentiation of type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECIIs) to type I cells (AECIs).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Shuang; Yuan, Lijie; Wu, Hongmin; Jiang, Hong; Luo, Gang

    2016-09-01

    Life-saving mechanical ventilation can also cause lung injury through the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)-like symptoms in preterm infants. It is reported that the autophagic protein microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain (LC)-3B can confer protection against hyperoxia-induced DNA damage in lung alveolar epithelium. However, its role in the transdifferentiation of type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECIIs) to type I cells (AECIs) is unclear and requires further investigation. In this study, newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 90% oxygen for up to 14 days to mimic BPD in human infants, with neonatal pups exposed to room air (21% oxygen) as controls. Primary rat AECIIs were cultured under hyperoxic conditions for up to 24 hours to further investigate the underlying mechanisms. This study found that hyperoxia promoted a significant and time-dependent increase of AECII marker surfactant protein (SP)-C in the lung. The increase of AECI marker T1α was repressed by hyperoxia during lung development. These results indicated an impaired AECII transdifferentiation. Pulmonary ROS concentration and expression of autophagic protein LC-3B were increased gradually in response to hyperoxia exposure. Furthermore, AECIIs produced more ROS when cultured under hyperoxic conditions in vitro. Both the LC3B expression and the conversion from LC3BI to LC3BII were enhanced in hyperoxic AECs. Interestingly, inhibition of LC3B either by ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or adenovirus-mediated LC3B shRNA could partly restore AECII transdifferentiation under hyperoxia condition. In summary, the current study reveals a novel role of activated LC3B induced by hyperoxia in AECII transdifferentiation. PMID:27187184

  3. An unexpected Schiff base-type Ni(II) complex: Synthesis, crystal structures, fluorescence, electrochemical property and SOD-like activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Lan-Qin; Zhang, Hong-Song; Huang, Jiao-Jiao; Zhang, Yu-Li

    2015-02-01

    An unexpected Schiff base-type Ni(II) complex, [Ni(L2)2]ṡCH3OH (HL2 = 1-(2-{[(E)-3, 5-dibromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene]amino}phenyl)ethanone oxime), has been synthesized via complexation of Ni(II) acetate tetrahydrate with HL1 (2-(3,5-dibromo-2-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methyl-1,2-dihydroquinazoline 3-oxide) originally. HL1 and its corresponding Ni(II) complex were characterized by IR, 1H NMR spectra, as well as by elemental analysis, UV-Vis and emission spectroscopy, respectively. Crystal structures of the ligand and complex have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Each complex links two other molecules into an infinite 1-D chain via intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. Moreover, the electrochemical property of the nickle complex was studied by cyclic voltammetry. In addition, SOD-like activities of HL1 and Ni(II) complex were also investigated.

  4. Activation of Sterol-response Element-binding Proteins (SREBP) in Alveolar Type II Cells Enhances Lipogenesis Causing Pulmonary Lipotoxicity*

    PubMed Central

    Plantier, Laurent; Besnard, Valérie; Xu, Yan; Ikegami, Machiko; Wert, Susan E.; Hunt, Alan N.; Postle, Anthony D.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary inflammation is associated with altered lipid synthesis and clearance related to diabetes, obesity, and various inherited metabolic disorders. In many tissues, lipogenesis is regulated at the transcriptional level by the activity of sterol-response element-binding proteins (SREBP). The role of SREBP activation in the regulation of lipid metabolism in the lung was assessed in mice in which both Insig1 and Insig2 genes, encoding proteins that bind and inhibit SREBPs in the endoplasmic reticulum, were deleted in alveolar type 2 cells. Although deletion of either Insig1 or Insig2 did not alter SREBP activity or lipid homeostasis, deletion of both genes (Insig1/2Δ/Δ mice) activated SREBP1, causing marked accumulation of lipids that consisted primarily of cholesterol esters and triglycerides in type 2 epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. Neutral lipids accumulated in type 2 cells in association with the increase in mRNAs regulating fatty acid, cholesterol synthesis, and inflammation. Although bronchoalveolar lavage fluid phosphatidylcholine was modestly decreased, lung phospholipid content and lung function were maintained. Insig1/2Δ/Δ mice developed lung inflammation and airspace abnormalities associated with the accumulation of lipids in alveolar type 2 cells, alveolar macrophages, and within alveolar spaces. Deletion of Insig1/2 activated SREBP-enhancing lipogenesis in respiratory epithelial cells resulting in lipotoxicity-related lung inflammation and tissue remodeling. PMID:22267724

  5. Use of serum C-reactive protein as an early marker of inflammatory activity in canine type II immune-mediated polyarthritis: case report

    PubMed Central

    Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Jensen, Asger Lundorff; Houser, Geoffrey A; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem; Kristensen, Annemarie T

    2006-01-01

    Background Monitoring systemic inflammatory activity during steroid therapy of canine immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA) is difficult and mainly relies on clinical signs. Case presentation Canine serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured serially and blinded during a 27-week follow-up period of a case of Anaplasma phagocytophilia induced type II immune-mediated polyarthritis. Conclusion WBC was, as expected, observed not to reflect the inflammatory activity during steroid treatment in a clinical useful manner, whereas, CRP is suggested a valuable unbiased marker of inflammatory activity during steroid treatment in this case. PMID:16987405

  6. Moderately luminous Type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Pastorello, A.; Turatto, M.; Pumo, M. L.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Botticella, M. T.; Bufano, F.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Harutyunyan, A.; Taubenberger, S.; Valenti, S.; Zampieri, L.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Core-collapse Supernovae (CC-SNe) descend from progenitors more massive than about 8 M⊙. Because of the young age of the progenitors, the ejecta may eventually interact with the circumstellar medium (CSM) via highly energetic processes detectable in the radio, X-ray, ultraviolet (UV) and, sometimes, in the optical domains. Aims: In this paper we present ultraviolet, optical and near infrared observations of five Type II SNe, namely SNe 2009dd, 2007pk, 2010aj, 1995ad, and 1996W. Together with few other SNe they form a group of moderately luminous Type II events. We investigate the photometric similarities and differences among these bright objects. We also attempt to characterise them by analysing the spectral evolutions, in order to find some traces of CSM-ejecta interaction. Methods: We collected photometry and spectroscopy with several telescopes in order to construct well-sampled light curves and spectral evolutions from the photospheric to the nebular phases. Both photometry and spectroscopy indicate a degree of heterogeneity in this sample. Modelling the data of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad allows us to constrain the explosion parameters and the properties of the progenitor stars. Results: The light curves have luminous peak magnitudes (-16.95 < MB < -18.70). The ejected masses of 56Ni for three SNe span a wide range of values (2.8 × 10-2 M⊙ < M(56Ni)< 1.4 × 10-1 M⊙), while for a fourth (SN 2010aj) we could determine a stringent upper limit (7 × 10-3 M⊙). Clues of interaction, such as the presence of high velocity (HV) features of the Balmer lines, are visible in the photospheric spectra of SNe 2009dd and 1996W. For SN 2007pk we observe a spectral transition from a Type IIn to a standard Type II SN. Modelling the observations of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad with radiation hydrodynamics codes, we infer kinetic plus thermal energies of about 0.2-0.5 foe, initial radii of 2-5 × 1013 cm and ejected masses of ~5.0-9.5 M⊙. Conclusions: These

  7. Immunosuppressive activity of deer antler extracts of Cervus korean TEMMINCK var. mantchuricus Swinhoe, on type II collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sung-Koo; Kim, Kap-Sung; Kim, Sung-Il; Chung, Kang-Hyun; Lee, In-Seon; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2006-01-01

    Unossified horn or pilose antler cut from deer, which belong to the Cervidae generally is termed Nokyong. Nokyong is one of the most famous Korean traditional medicines and has been considered to possess sexual-reinforcing and antiaging actions. In this study, water extract of deer antler extract (DAA) prepared from the growing antler of Cervus korean TEMMINCK var. mantchuricus Swinhoe was used to investigate the efficacy of the DAA on the development of type II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. Male rats were immunized with an emulsion of 200 microg of CII and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The rats then were administered by injection a suspension of DAA or phosphate-buffered saline. The effect of DAA on cellular responses to CII was examined. The injection of DAA suppressed the CII-specific secretion of interferon (IFN)-gamma from splenocytes ex vivo. The influence of DAA also was evaluated on the incidence and development of arthritis in rat CIA. Rats were immunized twice at a 3-wk interval with bovine CII, with DAA being given by injection once a d for 14 d with four different regimens. A 14-d course of DAA treatment at a daily dose of 100 microg/kg, which began on the d of the first CII immunization, suppressed the development of arthritis, as well as antibody formation and delayed-type hypersensitivity to CII. Treatment with DAA resulted in inhibition of development of arthritis and immune responses to CII. PMID:16759146

  8. Type II Diabetes Disparities in Diverse Women: The Potential Roles of Body Composition, Diet, and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Margaret A.; Mendoza-Vasconez, Andrea S.; Larsen, Britta A.

    2016-01-01

    The rates of diabetes in the U.S. are rapidly increasing, and vary widely across different racial/ethnic groups. This paper explores the potential contribution of body composition, diet, and physical activity in explaining diabetes disparities across women of different racial and ethnic backgrounds. For body composition, racial/ethnic groups differ widely by BMI, distribution of body mass, and quantity and type of adipose tissue. Dietary patterns that vary across race/ethnicity include consumption of meat, added sugars, high-glycemic carbohydrates, and fast food. Additionally, physical activity patterns of interest include aerobic vs. muscle-strengthening exercises, and the purpose of physical activity (leisure, occupation, or transportation). Overall, these variables provide a partial picture of the source of these widening disparities, and could help guide future research in addressing and reducing diabetes disparities. PMID:26648099

  9. Type II diabetes disparities in diverse women: the potential roles of body composition, diet and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Margaret A; Mendoza-Vasconez, Andrea S; Larsen, Britta A

    2015-11-01

    The rates of diabetes in the USA are rapidly increasing, and vary widely across different racial/ethnic groups. This paper explores the potential contribution of body composition, diet and physical activity in explaining diabetes disparities across women of different racial and ethnic backgrounds. For body composition, racial/ethnic groups differ widely by BMI, distribution of body mass and quantity and type of adipose tissue. Dietary patterns that vary across race/ethnicity include consumption of meat, added sugars, high-glycemic carbohydrates and fast food. Additionally, physical activity patterns of interest include aerobic versus muscle-strengthening exercises, and the purpose of physical activity (leisure, occupation, or transportation). Overall, these variables provide a partial picture of the source of these widening disparities, and could help guide future research in addressing and reducing diabetes disparities. PMID:26648099

  10. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) receptor type II expression and AMH activity in bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Poole, Daniel H; Ocón-Grove, Olga M; Johnson, Alan L

    2016-09-15

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) produced by granulosa cells has previously been proposed to play a role in regulating granulosa cell differentiation and follicle selection. Although AMH receptor type II (AMHR2) dimerizes with a type I receptor to initiate AMH signaling, little is known about the regulation of AMHR2 expression in bovine granulosa cells and the role of AMH in follicle development. The primary objectives of this study were to: (1) characterize AMHR2 expression in granulosa cells during follicle development; (2) identify factors that regulate AMHR2 mRNA expression in granulosa cells; and (3) examine the role of AMH signaling in granulosa cell differentiation and proliferation. Bovine granulosa cells were isolated from 5- to 8-mm follicles before selection and deviation, as well as from 9- to 12-mm and 13- to 24-mm follicles after selection. Analyses revealed that expression of AMHR2 was greater in 5- to 8-mm follicles compared with 13- to 24-mm follicles (P < 0.05). Granulosa cells treated with bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) or BMP15, but not BMP2, significantly increased AMHR2 expression when compared with control cultured cells (P < 0.05). In addition, expression of AMH was greater in granulosa cells cultured with BMP2, BMP6, or BMP15 when compared with controls (P < 0.05). Finally, treatment with recombinant human AMH, in vitro, inhibited CYP19A1 expression in a dose-related (10-100 ng/mL) fashion, and reduced granulosa cell proliferation at 48 and 72 hours (P < 0.05). Results from these studies indicate that AMH signaling plays a role in both regulating granulosa cell proliferation and preventing granulosa cells from 5- to 8-mm follicles from undergoing premature differentiation before follicle selection. PMID:27268296

  11. Unmyelinated type II afferent neurons report cochlear damage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Glowatzki, Elisabeth; Fuchs, Paul Albert

    2015-01-01

    In the mammalian cochlea, acoustic information is carried to the brain by the predominant (95%) large-diameter, myelinated type I afferents, each of which is postsynaptic to a single inner hair cell. The remaining thin, unmyelinated type II afferents extend hundreds of microns along the cochlear duct to contact many outer hair cells. Despite this extensive arbor, type II afferents are weakly activated by outer hair cell transmitter release and are insensitive to sound. Intriguingly, type II afferents remain intact in damaged regions of the cochlea. Here, we show that type II afferents are activated when outer hair cells are damaged. This response depends on both ionotropic (P2X) and metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors, binding ATP released from nearby supporting cells in response to hair cell damage. Selective activation of P2Y receptors increased type II afferent excitability by the closure of KCNQ-type potassium channels, a potential mechanism for the painful hypersensitivity (that we term “noxacusis” to distinguish from hyperacusis without pain) that can accompany hearing loss. Exposure to the KCNQ channel activator retigabine suppressed the type II fiber’s response to hair cell damage. Type II afferents may be the cochlea’s nociceptors, prompting avoidance of further damage to the irreparable inner ear. PMID:26553995

  12. Completeness assessment of type II active pharmaceutical ingredient drug master files under generic drug user fee amendment: review metrics and common incomplete items.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huyi; Li, Haitao; Song, Wei; Shen, Diandian; Skanchy, David; Shen, Kun; Lionberger, Robert A; Rosencrance, Susan M; Yu, Lawrence X

    2014-09-01

    Under the Generic Drug User Fee Amendments (GDUFA) of 2012, Type II active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) drug master files (DMFs) must pay a user fee and pass a Completeness Assessment (CA) before they can be referenced in an Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA), ANDA amendment, or ANDA prior approval supplement (PAS). During the first year of GDUFA implementation, from October 1, 2012 to September 30, 2013, approximately 1,500 Type II API DMFs received at least one cycle of CA review and more than 1,100 Type II DMFs were deemed complete and published on FDA's "Available for Reference List". The data from CA reviews were analyzed for factors that influenced the CA review process and metrics, as well as the areas of DMF submissions which most frequently led to an incomplete CA status. The metrics analysis revealed that electronic DMFs appear to improve the completeness of submission and shorten both the review and response times. Utilizing the CA checklist to compile and proactively update the DMFs improves the chance for the DMFs to pass the CA in the first cycle. However, given that the majority of DMFs require at least two cycles of CA before being deemed complete, it is recommended that DMF fees are paid 6 months in advance of the ANDA submissions in order to avoid negatively impacting the filling status of the ANDAs. PMID:25034968

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SAMPLE OF INTERMEDIATE-TYPE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. HOST BULGE PROPERTIES AND BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, Erika; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene; Martinez, Benoni; Jimenez-Bailon, Elena; Mendez-Abreu, Jairo; Lopez-Martin, Luis; Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura; Chavushyan, Vahram; Leon-Tavares, Jonathan

    2013-02-15

    We present a study of the host bulge properties and their relations with the black hole mass for a sample of 10 intermediate-type active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our sample consists mainly of early-type spirals, four of them hosting a bar. For 70{sup +10} {sub -17}% of the galaxies, we have been able to determine the type of the bulge, and find that these objects probably harbor a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge, suggesting that pseudobulges might be frequent in intermediate-type AGNs. In our sample, 50% {+-} 14% of the objects show double-peaked emission lines. Therefore, narrow double-peaked emission lines seem to be frequent in galaxies harboring a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge. Depending on the bulge type, we estimated the black hole mass using the corresponding M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation and found them within a range of 5.69 {+-} 0.21 < log M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} < 8.09 {+-} 0.24. Comparing these M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} values with masses derived from the FWHM of H{beta} and the continuum luminosity at 5100 A from their SDSS-DR7 spectra (M {sub BH}), we find that 8 out of 10 (80{sup +7} {sub -17}%) galaxies have black hole masses that are compatible within a factor of 3. This result would support that M {sub BH} and M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} are the same for intermediate-type AGNs, as has been found for type 1 AGNs. However, when the type of the bulge is taken into account, only three out of the seven (43{sup +18} {sub -15}%) objects of the sample have their M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} and M {sub BH} compatible within 3{sigma} errors. We also find that estimations based on the M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation for pseudobulges are not compatible in 50% {+-} 20% of the objects.

  14. Preferential hydrolysis of aberrant intermediates by the type II thioesterase in Escherichia coli nonribosomal enterobactin synthesis: substrate specificities and mutagenic studies on the active-site residues.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zu-Feng; Sun, Yueru; Zheng, Suilan; Guo, Zhihong

    2009-03-01

    The type II thioesterase EntH is a hotdog fold protein required for optimal nonribosomal biosynthesis of enterobactin in Escherichia coli. Its proposed proofreading activity in the biosynthesis is confirmed by its efficient restoration of enterobactin synthesis blocked in vitro by analogs of the cognate precursor 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate. Steady-state kinetic studies show that EntH recognizes the phosphopantetheine group and the pattern of hydroxylation in the aryl moiety of its thioester substrates. Remarkably, it is able to distinguish aberrant intermediates from the normal one in the enterobactin assembly line by demonstrating at least 10-fold higher catalytic efficiency toward thioesters derived from aberrant aryl precursors without a para-hydroxyl group, such as salicylate. By structural comparison and site-directed mutagenesis, the thioesterase is found to possess an active site closely resembling that of the 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA thioesterase from Arthrobacter sp. strain SU and to involve an acidic residue (glutamate-63) as the catalytic base or nucleophile like all other hotdog thioesterases. In addition, the EntH specificities toward the substrate hydroxylation pattern are found to depend on the active-site histidine-54, threonine-64, serine-67, and methionine-68 with the selectivity significantly reduced or even reversed when they are individually replaced by alanine. These residues are likely responsible for differential interaction of the enzyme with the substrates which leads to distinction between the normal and aberrant precursors in the enterobactin assembly line. These results show that the type II thioesterase evolves its distinctive ability to recognize the aberrant intermediates from the versatile catalytic platform of hotdog proteins and suggests an active search mechanism for type II thioesterases in nonribosomal peptide synthesis. PMID:19193103

  15. The type II and X cellulose-binding domains of Pseudomonas xylanase A potentiate catalytic activity against complex substrates by a common mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Gill, J; Rixon, J E; Bolam, D N; McQueen-Mason, S; Simpson, P J; Williamson, M P; Hazlewood, G P; Gilbert, H J

    1999-01-01

    Xylanase A (Pf Xyn10A), in common with several other Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa polysaccharidases, consists of a Type II cellulose-binding domain (CBD), a catalytic domain (Pf Xyn10A(CD)) and an internal domain that exhibits homology to Type X CBDs. The Type X CBD of Pf Xyn10A, expressed as a discrete entity (CBD(X)) or fused to the catalytic domain (Pf Xyn10A'), bound to amorphous and bacterial microcrystalline cellulose with a K(a) of 2.5 x 10(5) M(-1). CBD(X) exhibited no affinity for soluble forms of cellulose or cello-oligosaccharides, suggesting that the domain interacts with multiple cellulose chains in the insoluble forms of the polysaccharide. Pf Xyn10A' was 2-3 times more active against cellulose-hemicellulose complexes than Pf Xyn10A(CD); however, Pf Xyn10A' and Pf Xyn10A(CD) exhibited the same activity against soluble substrates. CBD(X) did not disrupt the structure of plant-cell-wall material or bacterial microcrystalline cellulose, and did not potentiate Pf Xyn10A(CD) when not covalently linked to the enzyme. There was no substantial difference in the affinity of full-length Pf Xyn10A and the enzyme's Type II CBD for cellulose. The activity of Pf Xyn10A against cellulose-hemicellulose complexes was similar to that of Pf Xyn10A', and a derivative of Pf Xyn10A in which the Type II CBD is linked to the Pf Xyn10A(CD) via a serine-rich linker sequence [Bolam, Cireula, McQueen-Mason, Simpson, Williamson, Rixon, Boraston, Hazlewood and Gilbert (1998) Biochem J. 331, 775-781]. These data indicate that CBD(X) is functional in Pf Xyn10A and that no synergy, either in ligand binding or in the potentiation of catalysis, is evident between the Type II and X CBDs of the xylanase. PMID:10455036

  16. Hearing Restoration in Neurofibromatosis Type II Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeon Mi; Chang, Jin Woo; Choi, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis type II will eventually succumb to bilateral deafness. For patients with hearing loss, modern medical science technology can provide efficient hearing restoration through a number of various methods. In this article, several hearing restoration methods for patients with neurofibromatosis type II are introduced. PMID:27189272

  17. Hearing Restoration in Neurofibromatosis Type II Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeon Mi; Chang, Jin Woo; Choi, Jae Young; Chang, Won Seok; Moon, In Seok

    2016-07-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis type II will eventually succumb to bilateral deafness. For patients with hearing loss, modern medical science technology can provide efficient hearing restoration through a number of various methods. In this article, several hearing restoration methods for patients with neurofibromatosis type II are introduced. PMID:27189272

  18. Visual Fixation in Chiari Type II Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Michael S.; Sharpe, James A.; Lillakas, Linda; Dennis, Maureen; Steinbach, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Chiari type II malformation is a congenital deformity of the hindbrain. Square wave jerks are horizontal involuntary saccades that interrupt fixation. Cerebellar disorders may be associated with frequent square wave jerks or saccadic oscillations such as ocular flutter. The effects of Chiari type II malformation on visual fixation are unknown. We recorded eye movements using an eye tracker in 21 participants with Chiari type II malformation, aged 8 to 19 years while they fixated a target for 1 minute. Thirty-eight age-matched healthy participants served as controls. Square wave jerks’ parameters were similar in the 2 groups. Saccadic oscillations were not seen. Chiari type II malformation is not associated with pathological square wave jerks or abnormal saccadic oscillations. The congenital nature of this deformity may permit compensation that preserves stable visual fixation. Alternatively, the deformity of Chiari type II malformation may spare parts of the cerebellum that usually cause fixation instability when damaged. PMID:19182152

  19. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) activates the angiotensin II type 1 receptor by binding to the lectin-like oxLDL receptor.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Koichi; Kakino, Akemi; Takeshita, Hikari; Hayashi, Norihiro; Li, Lei; Nakano, Atsushi; Hanasaki-Yamamoto, Hiroko; Fujita, Yoshiko; Imaizumi, Yuki; Toyama-Yokoyama, Serina; Nakama, Chikako; Kawai, Tatsuo; Takeda, Masao; Hongyo, Kazuhiro; Oguro, Ryosuke; Maekawa, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Norihisa; Takami, Yoichi; Onishi, Miyuki; Takeya, Yasushi; Sugimoto, Ken; Kamide, Kei; Nakagami, Hironori; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Kurtz, Theodore W; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2015-08-01

    The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) is a 7-transmembrane domain GPCR that when activated by its ligand angiotensin II, generates signaling events promoting vascular dysfunction and the development of cardiovascular disease. Here, we show that the single-transmembrane oxidized LDL (oxLDL) receptor (LOX-1) resides in proximity to AT1 on cell-surface membranes and that binding of oxLDL to LOX-1 can allosterically activate AT1-dependent signaling events. oxLDL-induced signaling events in human vascular endothelial cells were abolished by knockdown of AT1 and inhibited by AT1 blockade (ARB). oxLDL increased cytosolic G protein by 350% in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with genetically induced expression of AT1 and LOX-1, whereas little increase was observed in CHO cells expressing only LOX-1. Immunoprecipitation and in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) assays in CHO cells revealed the presence of cell-surface complexes involving LOX-1 and AT1. Chimeric analysis showed that oxLDL-induced AT1 signaling events are mediated via interactions between the intracellular domain of LOX-1 and AT1 that activate AT1. oxLDL-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation of vascular ring from mouse thoracic aorta was abolished by ARB or genetic deletion of AT1. These findings reveal a novel pathway for AT1 activation and suggest a new mechanism whereby oxLDL may be promoting risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:25877213

  20. Antihyperglycemic activity of Albizzia lebbeck bark extract in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type II diabetes mellitus rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Priyank A.; Parikh, Mihir P.; Johari, Sarika; Gandhi, Tejal R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family - Leguminosae) extract is a proven mast cell stabilizing agent. Mast cells are involved in the inflammatory processes leading to the diabetes mellitus. Aim: To evaluate the effect of A. lebbeck against experimentally induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Materials and Method: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to six groups (n = 6). Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) given after 15 min of nicotinamide administration (110 mg/kg). Treatment with methanolic extract of A. lebbeck bark (MEAL) and metformin drug as standard was given for 21 days. Serum glucose (GLU) levels were measured on the 0 day and on 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day after diabetes induction. After completion of study period, various biochemical parameters in serum such as - GLU, lipid profile, urea and creatinine were estimated. One-way analysis of variance followed with post-hoc Dunnett's test was used to analyse the data. Statistical significance for the values was set at P< 0.05. Results: MEAL significantly decreased the level of serum GLU, creatinine, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein levels. Conclusion: A. lebbeck bark extract showed antihyperglycaemic activity along with antihyperlipidemic effect. PMID:27313423

  1. Potassium currents in rat type II alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    DeCoursey, T E; Jacobs, E R; Silver, M R

    1988-01-01

    1. Type II alveolar epithelial cells isolated from adult rats and grown in primary culture were studied using the whole-cell configuration of the gigohm-seal voltage clamp technique. 2. The average specific capacitance of type II cells was 2.5 microF/cm2, suggesting that type II cell membranes in vitro are irregular, with an actual area more than twice the apparent area. 3. Most type II cells have time- and voltage-dependent outward currents carried by potassium ions. Potassium currents activate with a sigmoid time course upon membrane depolarization, and inactivate during maintained depolarization. The average maximum whole-cell K+ conductance was 1.6 nS. 4. Two distinct types of K+-selective channels underlie outward currents in type II cells. Most cells have currents resembling delayed rectifier K+ currents in skeletal muscle, nerve and immune cells. A few cells had a different type of K+ conductance which is more sensitive to block by tetraethylammonium ions, has faster 'tail currents', and activates at more positive potentials. 5. In some experiments, individual type II cells were identified by staining with phosphine, a fluorescent dye which is concentrated in lamellar bodies. Both types of K+ channels were seen in type II cells identified with this dye. 6. Phosphine added to the bathing solution reversibly reduced K+ currents and shifted K+ channel activation to more positive potentials. Excitation of phosphine to fluoresce reduced irreversibly K+ currents in type II cells. The usefulness of phosphine as a means of identifying cells for study is discussed. PMID:2457683

  2. Achondrogenesis type II, abnormalities of extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Horton, W A; Machado, M A; Chou, J W; Campbell, D

    1987-09-01

    Immune and lectin histochemical and microchemical methods were employed to study growth cartilage from seven cases of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino). The normal architecture of the epiphyseal and growth plate cartilage was replaced by a morphologically heterogeneous tissue. Some areas were comprised of vascular canals surrounded by extensive fibrous tissue and enlarged cells that had the appearance and histochemical characteristics of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Other areas contained a mixture of cells ranging from small to the enlarged chondrocytes. The extracellular matrix in the latter areas was more abundant and had characteristics of both precartilage mesenchymal matrix and typical cartilage matrix; it contained types I and II collagen, cartilage proteoglycan, fibronectin, and peanut agglutinin binding glycoconjugate(s). Peptide mapping of cyanogen bromide cartilage collagen peptides revealed the presence of types I and II collagen. These observations could be explained by a defect in the biosynthesis of type II collagen or in chondrocyte differentiation. PMID:3309860

  3. Resistance domain in type II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, A.V.; Mints, R.G.

    1980-01-05

    We show that traveling domains with a finite resistance can exist in type II superconductors in the presence of a transport current. An experiment in which this effect generates an alternating electric field and current is proposed.

  4. Antenatal diagnosis of achondrogenesis type II.

    PubMed

    Kodandapani, S; Ramkumar, V

    2009-01-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal congenital chondrodystrophy characterized by extreme micromelia, small thorax and polyhydramnios. We describe a case of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis). Prenatal ultrasonography at 22-weeks gestation revealed a fetus with large head, short neck and chest, prominent abdomen and short limbs. Pregnancy was terminated. Radiologic examination of neonate revealed features of achondrogenesis type II. Routine ultrasound screening made early detection and timely management possible. PMID:20387359

  5. Leptin promotes fetal lung maturity and upregulates SP-A expression in pulmonary alveoli type-II epithelial cells involving TTF-1 activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Huang, Hui; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Cheng, Rui; Cai, Wei-Bin

    2013-01-01

    The placental hormone leptin has important functions in fetal and neonatal growth, and prevents depressed respiration in leptin-deficient mice. The effect of leptin on respiratory distress suffered by low birth weight and premature infants has been studied. However, it is unclear how leptin enhances lung maturity in the fetus and ameliorates neonatal respiratory distress. In the present study, we found that antenatal treatment with leptin for 2 d significantly enhanced the relative alveolus area and improved the maturity of fetal lungs in a rat model of fetal growth restriction (FGR). Mean birth weight and lung wet weight were higher in the leptin-treated group than in the PBS-treated group, indicating promotion of fetal growth. Leptin upregulated the intracellular expression and extracellular secretion of surfactant protein (SP) A in type-II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) in vivo and in vitro. Dual positive effects of leptin were found on protein expression and transcriptional activity of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), a nuclear transcription essential for branching morphogenesis of the lung and expression of SP-A in type-II AECs. Knockdown of TTF-1 by RNA interference indicated that TTF-1 may play a vital role in leptin-induced SP-A expression. These results suggest that leptin may have great therapeutic potential for the treatment of FGR, and leptin-mediated SP-A induction and lung maturity of the fetus are TTF-1 dependent. PMID:23894445

  6. Type-II Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soluyanov, Alexey; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, Quansheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, Andrei

    The Dirac equation of quantum field theory gives rise to massless Weyl fermions that respect Lorentz invariance. In condensed matter these fermions are realized as low energy excitations in Weyl semimetals. In these materials a topologically protected linear crossing of two bands, called a Weyl point, occurs at the Fermi level resulting in a point-like Fermi surface. Lorentz invariance, however, can be violated in condensed matter, and here we generalize the Dirac equation accordingly to obtain a fundamentally new kind of Weyl fermions. In particular, we report on a novel type of Weyl semimetal, with a new type of Weyl point that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets. This node, although still a protected crossing, has an open, not point-like, Fermi surface, resulting in physical properties very different from that of standard Weyl points. We show that an established material, WTe2, is an example of this novel type of topological semimetals.

  7. Type II Secretion-Dependent Degradative and Cytotoxic Activities Mediated by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Serine Proteases StmPr1 and StmPr2

    PubMed Central

    DuMont, Ashley L.; Karaba, Sara M.

    2015-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging opportunistic pathogen that primarily causes pneumonia and bacteremia in immunocompromised individuals. We recently reported that S. maltophilia strain K279a encodes the Xps type II secretion system and that Xps promotes rounding, actin rearrangement, detachment, and death in the human lung epithelial cell line A549. Here, we show that Xps-dependent cell rounding and detachment occur with multiple human and murine cell lines and that serine protease inhibitors block Xps-mediated rounding and detachment of A549 cells. Using genetic analysis, we determined that the serine proteases StmPr1 and StmPr2, which were confirmed to be Xps substrates, are predominantly responsible for secreted proteolytic activities exhibited by strain K279a, as well as the morphological and cytotoxic effects on A549 cells. Supernatants from strain K279a also promoted the degradation of type I collagen, fibrinogen, and fibronectin in a predominantly Xps- and protease-dependent manner, although some Xps-independent degradation of fibrinogen was observed. Finally, Xps, and predominantly StmPr1, degraded interleukin 8 (IL-8) secreted by A549 cells during coculture with strain K279a. Our findings indicate that while StmPr1 and StmPr2 are predominantly responsible for A549 cell rounding, extracellular matrix protein degradation, and IL-8 degradation, additional Xps substrates also contribute to these activities. Altogether, our data provide new insight into the virulence potential of the S. maltophilia Xps type II secretion system and its StmPr1 and StmPr2 substrates. PMID:26169274

  8. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists inhibit basal as well as low-density lipoprotein and platelet-activating factor-stimulated human monocyte chemoattractant protein-1.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Julie M; Croft, Kevin D; Puddey, Ian B; Beilin, Lawrence J

    2003-06-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a potent chemotactic agent for monocytes and other cells and is thought to be involved in atherosclerosis, recruiting monocytes to the subendothelial space or to the site of inflammation. Angiotensin II has been demonstrated, at least in animal models, to stimulate MCP-1 expression. We investigated the effect of the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonists irbesartan and losartan on MCP-1 production by freshly isolated human monocytes. Irbesartan and losartan inhibited basal MCP-1 production in a dose-dependent manner. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) stimulated MCP-1 in a concentration-dependent manner, with 200 microg/ml LDL protein giving a 2-fold increase in MCP-1. Irbesartan and losartan dose dependently blocked LDL-stimulated MCP-1. An angiotensin II type 2 receptor antagonist, S-(+)-1-([4-(dimethylamino)-3-methylphenyl]methyl)-5-(diphenylacetyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo(4,5-c)pyridine-6-carboxylic acid (PD123319), had no significant effect on basal MCP-1 levels or LDL-stimulated MCP-1. After noting homology between the AT1 receptor and the platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor, we showed that irbesartan inhibited both [3H]PAF binding to human monocytes and carbamyl-PAF stimulation of MCP-1. However, irbesartan affinity for the PAF receptor was 700 times less than PAF, suggesting that there may be another mechanism for irbesartan inhibition of PAF-stimulated MCP-1. This is the first report showing that AT1 receptor antagonists inhibit basal as well as LDL- and PAF-stimulated MCP-1 production in freshly isolated human monocytes. PMID:12626661

  9. Type III Transforming Growth Factor-β Receptor Drives Cardiac Hypertrophy Through β-Arrestin2-Dependent Activation of Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jie; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Song, Shu-Ying; Li, Yan-Chao; Sun, Fei; Ding, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Chang-Jiang; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Mei-Tong; Dong, Chang-Jiang; Ji, Yong; Li, Hongliang; Chu, Wenfeng; Zhang, Zhi-Ren

    2016-09-01

    The role of type III transforming growth factor-β receptor (TβRIII) in the pathogenesis of heart diseases remains largely unclear. Here, we investigated the functional role and molecular mechanisms of TβRIII in the development of myocardial hypertrophy. Western blot and quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that the expression of TβRIII was significantly elevated in human cardiac hypertrophic samples. Consistently, TβRIII expression was substantially increased in transverse aortic constriction (TAC)- and isoproterenol-induced mouse cardiac hypertrophy in vivo and in isoproterenol-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. Overexpression of TβRIII resulted in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, whereas isoproterenol-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was greatly attenuated by knockdown of TβRIII in vitro. Cardiac-specific transgenic expression of TβRIII independently led to cardiac hypertrophy in mice, which was further aggravated by isoproterenol and TAC treatment. Cardiac contractile function of the mice was not altered in TβRIII transgenic mice; however, TAC led to significantly decreased cardiac contractile function in TβRIII transgenic mice compared with control mice. Conversely, isoproterenol- and TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy and TAC-induced cardiac contractile function impairment were partially reversed by suppression of TβRIII in vivo. Our data suggest that TβRIII mediates stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy through activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, which requires a physical interaction of β-arrestin2 with both TβRIII and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Our findings indicate that stress-induced increase in TβRIII expression results in cardiac hypertrophy through β-arrestin2-dependent activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and that transforming growth factor-β and β-adrenergic receptor signaling are not involved in spontaneous cardiac hypertrophy in cardiac

  10. Prediction of Type II Burst Radiation for Large CME Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Schmidt, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Type IIs are associated with shocks in the corona and solar wind, either driven by CMEs or else blast waves. Recent quantitative theories for type II radiation show that the amount of radiation depends on the speed and spatial extent of the 3D shock, as well as on the background plasma, magnetic field configuration, and the number of superthermal electrons available for acceleration by the shock. In principle, then, Type II bursts may provide 1-3 day warnings of large and fast CMEs that might produce space weather at Earth. In this paper we couple the advanced 3D MHD BATS-R-US code of Toth, Gombosi, and colleagues with our new ``bolt-on'' theory for type II emission. The modeling includes initialization with coronal and active region magnetic fields reconstructed from solar magnetograms, coronal densities determined by 1 AU data, and CMEs modelled using STEREO coronagraph data. Two events with type IIs and strong CMEs are analyzed: 15 February 2011 and 7 March 2012. We demonstrate impressive accuracy in time, frequency, and intensity for both type II bursts. This strongly supports the type II theory, implies real understanding of the physics involved, and supports the near-term development of a capability to predict and track these events for space weather prediction.

  11. Coronal type II bursts and interplanetary type II bursts: Distinct shock drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanarayana, G. S.

    2012-02-01

    We study solar radio type II bursts combining with Wind/WAVES type II bursts and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The aim of the present work is to investigate the effectiveness of shocks to cause type II bursts in the solar corona and the interplanetary space. We consider the following findings. The distribution of the cessation heights of type II emission is confined to a rather narrow range of height than the distribution of the heights of start frequencies. This is suggestive of the presence of a gradient for the Alfvén speed from the heliocentric height of ˜1.4 solar radii. The range of the kinetic energy of CMEs associated with coronal type II emission taken together with the suggested computation method and the Alfvén speed gradient, indicates the limit to the height up to which type II emission could be expected. This height is ˜2 solar radii from the center of the Sun. Further, the large time gap between the cessation time and heights of coronal type II emission and the commencement time and heights of most of the IP type II bursts do not account for the difference between the two heights and the average shock speed. Also, there is clear difference in the magnitude of the kinetic energies and the distinct characteristics of the CMEs associated with coronal and IP type II bursts. Hence, we suggest that in most instances the coronal type II bursts and IP type II bursts occur due to distinct shocks. We also address the question of the origin of type II bursts and discuss the possible explanation of observed results.

  12. Annotated compound data for modulators of detergent-solubilised or lipid-reconstituted respiratory type II NADH dehydrogenase activity obtained by compound library screening

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Elyse A.; Cook, Gregory M.; Heikal, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The energy-generating membrane protein NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2), a proposed antibacterial drug target (see “Inhibitors of type II NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase represent a class of antitubercular drugs” Weinstein et al. 2005 [1]), was screened for modulators of activity in either detergent-solublised or lipid reconstituted (proteolipsome) form. Here we present an annotated list of compounds identified in a small-scale screen against NDH-2. The dataset contains information regarding the libraries screened, the identities of hit compounds and the physicochemical properties governing solubility and permeability. The implications of these data for future antibiotic discovery are discussed in our associated report, “Comparison of lipid and detergent enzyme environments for identifying inhibitors of membrane-bound energy-transducing proteins” [2]. PMID:26862571

  13. Gliomatosis cerebri type II: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    D’Urso, Pietro Ivo; Marsigliante, Santo; Storelli, Carlo; Distante, Alessandro; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Cimmino, Antonia; Luzi, Giuseppe; Gianfreda, Cosimo Damiano; Montinaro, Antonio; Ciappetta, Pasqualino

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Two types of gliomatosis cerebri exist: Type I and Type II. We report the results of a histological and genetic study of two cases of gliomatosis cerebri Type II, correlating these results with therapy and prognosis. Case presentation Two patients, a 52-year-old man (Patient 1) and a 76-year-old man (Patient 2) with gliomatosis cerebri II were admitted to our institution; they underwent surgical treatment and received radiotherapy and chemotherapy. At the 24-month follow-up, Patient 1 was still alive, while Patient 2 had died. The poor prognosis of Patient 2 was underlined by molecular analysis which showed that the angiogenesis related genes VCAM1 and VEGF were overexpressed, reflecting the high degree of neovascularization. Conclusion Genes involved in drug resistance and metallothioneins were highly expressed in Patient 2 and this, associated with unmethylated O6-methylguanine methyltransferase, can explain the lack of response to chemotherapy. PMID:19830138

  14. Genetics Home Reference: distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hereditary motor neuropathy, type II distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Open All Close All Description Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II is a progressive disorder that affects ...

  15. Angiotensin II Type-2 Receptors Modulate Inflammation Through Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription Proteins 3 Phosphorylation and TNFα Production

    PubMed Central

    Abadir, Peter M.; Walston, Jeremy D.; Carey, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Angiotensin subtype-1 receptor (AT1R) influences inflammatory processes through enhancing signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins 3 (STAT3) signal transduction, resulting in increased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production. Although angiotensin subtype-2 receptor (AT2R), in general, antagonizes AT1R-stimulated activity, it is not known if AT2R has any anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that AT2R activation plays an anti-inflammatory role by reducing STAT3 phosphorylation and TNF-α production. Changes in AT2R expression, TNF-α production, and STAT3 phosphorylation were quantified by Western blotting, Bio-Plex cytokine, and phosphoprotein cellular signaling assays in PC12W cells that express AT2R but not AT1R, in response to the AT2R agonist, CGP-42112 (CGP, 100 nm), or AT2R antagonist PD-123319 (PD, 1 μm). A 100% increase in AT2R expression in response to stimulation with its agonist CGP was observed. Further, AT2R activation reduced TNF-α production by 39% and STAT3 phosphorylation by 83%. In contrast, PD decreased AT2R expression by 76%, increased TNF-α production by 84%, and increased STAT3 phosphorylation by 67%. These findings suggest that increased AT2R expression may play a role in the observed decrease in inflammatory pathway activation through decreased TNF-α production and STAT3 signaling. Restoration of AT2R expression and/or its activation constitute a potentially novel therapeutic target for the management of inflammatory processes. PMID:21288138

  16. Type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis: identification of abnormal type II collagen.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, M; Hollister, D W

    1988-12-01

    We have extended the study of a mild case of type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis to include biochemical analyses of cartilage, bone, and the collagens produced by dermal fibroblasts. Type I collagen extracted from bone and types I and III collagen produced by dermal fibroblasts were normal, as was the hexosamine ratio of cartilage proteoglycans. Hyaline cartilage, however, contained approximately equal amounts of types I and II collagen and decreased amounts of type XI collagen. Unlike the normal SDS-PAGE mobility. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE revealed extensive overmodification of all type II cyanogen bromide peptides in a pattern consistent with heterozygosity for an abnormal pro alpha 1(II) chain which impaired the assembly and/or folding of type II collagen. This interpretation implies that dominant mutations of the COL2A1 gene may cause type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis. More generally, emerging data implicating defects of type II collagen in the type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis-spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita spectrum and in the Kniest-Stickler syndrome spectrum suggest that diverse mutations of this gene may be associated with widely differing phenotypic outcome. PMID:3195588

  17. Biology of alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Mason, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight the many metabolic properties of alveolar type II cells, their production of surfactant, their role in innate immunity, and their importance in the repair process after lung injury. The review is based on the medical literature and results from our laboratory. Type II cells produce and secrete pulmonary surfactant and for that purpose they need to synthesize the lipids of surfactant. One of the regulators of lipogenesis is the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). This is a key transcription factor regulating fatty acid synthesis. Type II cells also proliferate to restore the epithelium after lung injury, clear alveolar fluid by transporting sodium from the apical to the basolateral surface, and participate in the innate immune response to inhaled materials and organisms. The type II cell is, in many ways, the defender of the alveolus. However, the type II cells work in concert with the other cells in the gas exchange regions of the lung to keep the alveoli open and reduce inflammation due to irritants in the air we breathe. PMID:16423262

  18. DO GIANT PLANETS SURVIVE TYPE II MIGRATION?

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Ida, Shigeru E-mail: ida@geo.titech.ac.jp

    2013-09-10

    Planetary migration is one of the most serious problems to systematically understand the observations of exoplanets. We clarify that the theoretically predicted type II, migration (like type I migration) is too fast, by developing detailed analytical arguments in which the timescale of type II migration is compared with the disk lifetime. In the disk-dominated regime, the type II migration timescale is characterized by a local viscous diffusion timescale, while the disk lifetime is characterized by a global diffusion timescale that is much longer than the local one. Even in the planet-dominated regime where the inertia of the planet mass reduces the migration speed, the timescale is still shorter than the disk lifetime except in the final disk evolution stage where the total disk mass decays below the planet mass. This suggests that most giant planets plunge into the central stars within the disk lifetime, and it contradicts the exoplanet observations that gas giants are piled up at r {approx}> 1 AU. We examine additional processes that may arise in protoplanetary disks: dead zones, photoevaporation of gas, and gas flow across a gap formed by a type II migrator. Although they make the type II migration timescale closer to the disk lifetime, we show that none of them can act as an effective barrier for rapid type II migration with the current knowledge of these processes. We point out that gas flow across a gap and the fraction of the flow accreted onto the planets are uncertain and they may have the potential to solve the problem. Much more detailed investigation for each process may be needed to explain the observed distribution of gas giants in extrasolar planetary systems.

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of lycopene isolated from Chlorella marina on type II collagen induced arthritis in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Renju, G L; Muraleedhara Kurup, G; Saritha Kumari, C H

    2013-04-01

    The role of commercially available lycopene (all-trans) from tomato in controlling arthritis has been reported. Even though many reports are available that the cis form of lycopene is more biologically active, no report seems to be available on lycopene (cis and trans) isolated from an easily available and culturable sources. In the present study, the anti-arthritic effect of lycopene (cis and trans) from the algae Chlorella marina (AL) has been compared with lycopene (all-trans) from tomato (TL) and indomethacin (Indo). Arthritis (CIA) was developed in male Sprague dawley rats by collagen and the following parameters were studied. The activities of inflammatory marker enzymes like cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were found to be decreased on treatment with AL when compared to TL and Indo. Changes in Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cells (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb), C-reactive protein (CRP), rheumatoid factor (RF), and ceruloplasmin levels observed in the blood of arthritic animals were brought back to normal by AL when compared to TL and Indo. Histopathology of paw and joint tissues showed marked reduction in edema on supplementation of AL. Thus these results indicate the potential beneficiary effect of algal lycopene on collagen induced arthritis in rats when compared to TL and even to the commonly used anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin. Therefore lycopene from C. marina would be recommended as a better natural source with increased activity and without side effects in the treatment of anti-inflammatory diseases. PMID:23237458

  20. Type II endoleaks: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew; Saggu, Greta K; Bown, Matthew J; Sayers, Robert D; Sidloff, David A

    2016-01-01

    Type II endoleaks are the most common endovascular complications of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR); however, there has been a divided opinion regarding their significance in EVAR. Some advocate a conservative approach unless there is clear evidence of sac expansion, while others maintain early intervention is best to prevent adverse late outcomes such as rupture. There is a lack of level-one evidence in this challenging group of patients, and due to a low event rate of complications, large numbers of patients would be required in well-designed trials to fully understand the natural history of type II endoleak. This review will discuss the imaging, management, and outcome of patients with isolated type II endoleaks following infra-renal EVAR. PMID:27042087

  1. Type II seesaw dominance in SO(10)

    SciTech Connect

    Melfo, Alejandra; Ramirez, Alba; Senjanovic, Goran

    2010-10-01

    Grand unified theories where the neutrino mass is given by type II seesaw have the potential to provide interesting connections between the neutrino and charged fermion sectors. We explore the possibility of having a dominant type II seesaw contribution in supersymmetric SO(10). We show that this can be achieved in the model where symmetry breaking is triggered by 54 and 45 dimensional representations, without the need for additional fields other than those already required to have a realistic charged fermion mass spectrum. Physical consequences, such as the implementation of the Bajc, Senjanovic, and Vissani mechanism, the possibility of the fields responsible for type II seesaw dominance being messengers of supersymmetry breaking, and the realization of baryo and leptogenesis in these theories, are discussed.

  2. The use of divalent metal ions by type II topoisomerases.

    PubMed

    Deweese, Joseph E; Osheroff, Neil

    2010-07-01

    Type II topoisomerases are essential enzymes that regulate DNA under- and overwinding and remove knots and tangles from the genetic material. In order to carry out their critical physiological functions, these enzymes utilize a double-stranded DNA passage mechanism that requires them to generate a transient double-stranded break. Consequently, while necessary for cell survival, type II topoisomerases also have the capacity to fragment the genome. This feature of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes, respectively, is exploited to treat a variety of bacterial infections and cancers in humans. All type II topoisomerases require divalent metal ions for catalytic function. These metal ions function in two separate active sites and are necessary for the ATPase and DNA cleavage/ligation activities of the enzymes. ATPase activity is required for the strand passage process and utilizes the metal-dependent binding and hydrolysis of ATP to drive structural rearrangements in the protein. Both the DNA cleavage and ligation activities of type II topoisomerases require divalent metal ions and appear to utilize a novel variant of the canonical two-metal-ion phosphotransferase/hydrolase mechanism to facilitate these reactions. This article will focus primarily on eukaryotic type II topoisomerases and the roles of metal ions in the catalytic functions of these enzymes. PMID:20703329

  3. The Use of Divalent Metal Ions by Type II Topoisomerases

    PubMed Central

    Deweese, Joseph E.; Osheroff, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Type II topoisomerases are essential enzymes that regulate DNA under- and overwinding and remove knots and tangles from the genetic material. In order to carry out their critical physiological functions, these enzymes utilize a double-stranded DNA passage mechanism that requires them to generate a transient double-stranded break. Consequently, while necessary for cell survival, type II topoisomerases also have the capacity to fragment the genome. This feature of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes, respectively, is exploited to treat a variety of bacterial infections and cancers in humans. All type II topoisomerases require divalent metal ions for catalytic function. These metal ions function in two separate active sites and are necessary for the ATPase and DNA cleavage/ligation activities of the enzymes. ATPase activity is required for the strand passage process and utilizes the metal-dependent binding and hydrolysis of ATP to drive structural rearrangements in the protein. Both the DNA cleavage and ligation activities of type II topoisomerases require divalent metal ions and appear to utilize a novel variant of the canonical two-metal-ion phosphotransferase/hydrolase mechanism to facilitate these reactions. This article will focus primarily on eukaryotic type II topoisomerases and the roles of metal ions in the catalytic functions of these enzymes. PMID:20703329

  4. Program ACTIVE II: Design and Methods for a Multi-Center Community-Based Depression Treatment for Rural and Urban Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Mary; Shubrook, Jay; Schwartz, Frank; Hornsby, W. Guyton; Pillay, Yegan; Saha, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Depression affects one in four adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and is associated with worsened diabetes complications, increased health care costs and early mortality. Rural and low-income urban areas, including the Appalachian region, represent an epicenter of the T2DM epidemic. Program ACTIVE II is a comparative effectiveness treatment trial designed to test whether a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and community-based exercise (EXER) will offer greater improvements in diabetes and depression outcomes compared to individual treatment approaches and usual care (UC). The secondary aims are to assess changes in cardiovascular risk factors across groups and to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of predicted incidence of cardiovascular complications across groups. Methods The study is a 2-by-2 factorial randomized controlled trial consisting of 4 treatment groups: CBT alone, EXER alone, combination of CBT and EXER, and UC. Adults with T2DM for > 1 year and who meet DSM-IVTR criteria for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) are eligible to participate at two rural Appalachian sites (southeastern Ohio and West Virginia) and one urban site (Indianapolis). This type II behavioral translation study uses a community-engaged research (CEnR) approach by incorporating community fitness centers and mental health practices as interventionists. Conclusions This is the first study to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of combined CBT and exercise in the treatment of depression using community-based intervention delivery. This approach may serve as a national model for expanding depression treatment for patients with T2DM.

  5. Angiotensin II receptor type 2 activation is required for cutaneous sensory hyperinnervation and hypersensitivity in a rat hind paw model of inflammatory pain

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarty, Anuradha; Liao, Zhaohui; Smith, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Many pain syndromes are associated with abnormal proliferation of peripheral sensory fibers. We showed previously that angiotensin II, acting through its type 2 receptor (AT2), stimulates axon outgrowth by cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons. In this study, we assessed whether AT2 mediates nociceptor hyperinnervation in the rodent hind paw model of inflammatory pain. Plantar injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA), but not saline, produced marked thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity through 7 days. This was accompanied by proliferation of dermal and epidermal PGP9.5- and calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive (CGRP-ir) axons, and dermal axons immunoreactive for GFRα2 but not tyrosine hydroxylase or neurofilament H. Continuous infusion of the AT2 antagonist PD123319 beginning with CFA injection completely prevented hyperinnervation as well as hypersensitivity over a 7 day period. A single PD123319 injection 7 days after CFA also reversed thermal hypersensitivity and partially reversed mechanical hypersensitivity 3 hours later, without affecting cutaneous innervation. Angiotensin II synthesizing proteins renin and angiotensinogen were largely absent after saline but abundant in T-cells and macrophages in CFA-injected paws with or without PD123319. Thus, emigrant cells at the site of inflammation apparently establish a renin-angiotensin system, and AT2 activation elicits nociceptor sprouting and heightened thermal and mechanical sensitivity. Perspective Short-term AT2 activation is a potent contributor to thermal hypersensitivity, while long-term effects (such as hyperinnervation) also contribute to mechanical hypersensitivity. Pharmacological blockade of AT2 signaling represents a potential therapeutic strategy aimed at biological mechanisms underlying chronic inflammatory pain. PMID:23726047

  6. Covalent linkage of the type-2 and type-3 structural mimics to model the active site structure of multicopper oxidases: synthesis and magneto- structural properties of two angular trinuclear copper(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Arindam; Rudra, Indranil; Naik, Sunil G; Ramasesha, Suryanarayanasastry; Nethaji, Munirathinam; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2003-09-01

    Two new angular trinuclear copper(II) complexes of formulation [Cu(3)(HL)LL'](ClO(4)), where L' is imidazole (Him, 1) or 1-methylimidazole (1-MeIm, 2) and H(3)L is a Schiff base obtained from the condensation of salicylaldehyde and 1,3-diaminopropan-2-ol (2:1 mole ratio), are prepared from a reaction of [Cu(2)L(mu-Br)] and [Cu(HL)] in the presence of L' and isolated as perchlorate salts. The crystal structures of 1 and 2 consist of a trinuclear copper(II) unit formed by the covalent linkage of monomeric type-2 mimic and dimeric type-3 mimic precursor complexes to give an angular arrangement of the metal atoms in the core which is a model for the active site structure of blue multicopper oxidases. In 1 and 2, the coordination geometry of two terminal copper atoms is distorted square-planar. The central copper has a distorted square-pyramidal (4 + 1) geometry. The mean Cu...Cu distance is approximately 3.3 A. The complex has a diphenoxo-bridged dicopper(II) unit with the phenoxo oxygen atoms showing a planar geometry. In addition, the complex has an endogenous alkoxo-bridged dicopper(II) unit showing a pyramidal geometry for the oxygen atom. The 1:1 electrolytic complexes show a d-d band at 607 nm. Cyclic voltammetry of the complexes in MeCN containing 0.1 M TBAP using a glassy carbon working electrode displays a Cu(3)(II)/Cu(2)(II)Cu(I) couple near -1.0 V (vs SCE). The variable temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements in the range 300-18 K show antiferromagnetic coupling in the complexes giving magnetic moments of approximately 3.0 mu(B) at 300 K and approximately 2.1 mu(B) at 18 K for the tricopper(II) unit. The experimental susceptibility data are theoretically fitted using a model with Heisenberg spin-(1)/(2) Hamiltonian for a trimer of spin-(1)/(2) copper(II) ions having two exchange parameters involving the alkoxo-bridged dicopper(II) (J1) and the diphenoxo-bridged dicopper(II) (J2) units, giving J1 and J2 values of -82.7, -73 cm(-1) for 1 and -98

  7. Isolation and Culture of Human Alveolar Type II Pneumocytes.

    PubMed

    Witherden, I R; Tetley, T D

    2001-01-01

    Alveolar type II pneumocytes (alveolar type II cells; TII cells) play an important role in the homeostasis of the alveolar unit. They are the progenitor cells to the type I pneumocyte and are therefore responsible for regeneration of alveolar epithelium following alveolar epithelial cell damage. The type I cell covers over 90% of the alveolar surface, reflecting its capacity to stretch into a flattened cell with very little depth (approx. 0.1 µm), but with a large surface area, to facilitate gas exchange. Nevertheless, the type II cell outnumbers type I cells, estimated to be by 2:1 in rodents. Most of the type II cell lies buried in the interstitium of the alveolus, with only the apical tip of the cell reaching into the airspace, through which another crucial function, provision of alveolar surfactant, occurs. Surfactant synthesis and secretion is a unique feature of type II cells; surfactant consists of a high proportion of phospholipids (approx. 90%) and a small proportion of protein (approx. 10%), which contains surfactant apoprotein (SP), of which four have so far been described, SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D (1,2). Surfactant is highly surface active and is essential to prevent alveolar collapse. In addition, surfactant has many other roles, including pulmonary host defense. Compromised surfactant synthesis and function are believed to be a feature of numerous disease states (1,2), including infant respiratory distress syndrome, adult respiratory distress syndrome, alveolar proteinosis, and microbial infection. PMID:21336897

  8. Novel N-linked aminopiperidine inhibitors of bacterial topoisomerase type II: broad-spectrum antibacterial agents with reduced hERG activity.

    PubMed

    Reck, Folkert; Alm, Richard; Brassil, Patrick; Newman, Joseph; Dejonge, Boudewijn; Eyermann, Charles J; Breault, Gloria; Breen, John; Comita-Prevoir, Janelle; Cronin, Mark; Davis, Hajnalka; Ehmann, David; Galullo, Vincent; Geng, Bolin; Grebe, Tyler; Morningstar, Marshall; Walker, Phil; Hayter, Barry; Fisher, Stewart

    2011-11-24

    Novel non-fluoroquinolone inhibitors of bacterial type II topoisomerases (DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV) are of interest for the development of new antibacterial agents that are not impacted by target-mediated cross-resistance with fluoroquinolones. Aminopiperidines that have a bicyclic aromatic moiety linked through a carbon to an ethyl bridge, such as 1, generally show potent broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, including quinolone-resistant isolates, but suffer from potent hERG inhibition (IC(50)= 3 μM for 1). We now disclose the finding that new analogues of 1 with an N-linked cyclic amide moiety attached to the ethyl bridge, such as 24m, retain the broad-spectrum antibacterial activity of 1 but show significantly less hERG inhibition (IC(50)= 31 μM for 24m) and higher free fraction than 1. One optimized analogue, compound 24l, showed moderate clearance in the dog and promising efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus in a mouse thigh infection model. PMID:21999508

  9. [A case of type II achondrogenesis].

    PubMed

    Micheli, E; Perrone, C; Quarta Colosso, L; Vetrugno, M; Zecca, G; Indirli, G C; Greco, F; Elia, G; Ciancio, S

    1996-01-01

    We describe a rare case of type II achondrogenesis (gestational age = thirty-two weeks) dead forty-five minutes after birth. This congenital skeletal dysplasia is classified among the lethal osteochondrodysplasias. Clinical features were enough for diagnosis and autopsy added nothing to our clinical knowledges. PMID:8685014

  10. Biceps Tenodesis for Type II SLAP Tears.

    PubMed

    Tayrose, Gregory A; Karas, Spero G; Bosco, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    Tears of the superior glenoid labrum are a common cause of shoulder pain and disability, especially in overhead athletes such as pitchers, swimmers, and volleyball players. Type II SLAP lesions have been the most clinically important superior labral pathology, and the management of this lesion has been a very controversial topic. Currently, there are no high level studies in the literature to guide treatment. While the few level 3 and level 4 evidence studies that are available following arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP lesions all report reasonable overall patient satisfaction, persistent postoperative pain is common and associated with a low return to pre-injury level of sports participation. There has been a recent school of thought that biceps tenodesis, which maintains the length-tension relationship of the long head of biceps, should be the procedure of choice for patients with isolated type II SLAP lesions. The current paper reviews the role biceps tenodesis plays in the management of type II SLAP tears. PMID:26517164

  11. A state of reversible compensated ventricular dysfunction precedes pathological remodelling in response to cardiomyocyte-specific activity of angiotensin II type-1 receptor in mice

    PubMed Central

    Frentzou, Georgia A.; Drinkhill, Mark J.; Turner, Neil A.; Ball, Stephen G.; Ainscough, Justin F. X.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cardiac dysfunction is commonly associated with high-blood-pressure-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, in response to aberrant renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity. Ensuing pathological remodelling promotes cardiomyocyte death and cardiac fibroblast activation, leading to cardiac fibrosis. The initiating cellular mechanisms that underlie this progressive disease are poorly understood. We previously reported a conditional mouse model in which a human angiotensin II type-I receptor transgene (HART) was expressed in differentiated cardiomyocytes after they had fully matured, but not during development. Twelve-month-old HART mice exhibited ventricular dysfunction and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy with interstitial fibrosis following full receptor stimulation, without affecting blood pressure. Here, we show that chronic HART activity in young adult mice causes ventricular dysfunction without hypertrophy, fibrosis or cardiomyocyte death. Dysfunction correlated with reduced expression of pro-hypertrophy markers and increased expression of pro-angiogenic markers in the cardiomyocytes experiencing increased receptor load. This stimulates responsive changes in closely associated non-myocyte cells, including the downregulation of pro-angiogenic genes, a dampened inflammatory response and upregulation of Tgfβ. Importantly, this state of compensated dysfunction was reversible. Furthermore, increased stimulation of the receptors on the cardiomyocytes caused a switch in the secondary response from the non-myocyte cells. Progressive cardiac remodelling was stimulated through hypertrophy and death of individual cardiomyocytes, with infiltration, proliferation and activation of fibroblast and inflammatory cells, leading to increased angiogenic and inflammatory signalling. Together, these data demonstrate that a state of pre-hypertrophic compensated dysfunction can exist in affected individuals before common markers of heart disease are detectable. The data also suggest that

  12. Cartilage collagen type II seromarker patterns in axial spondyloarthritis and psoriatic arthritis: associations with disease activity, smoking and HLA-B27.

    PubMed

    Munk, Heidi Lausten; Gudmann, Natasja Staehr; Christensen, Anne Friesgaard; Ejstrup, Leif; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Loft, Anne Gitte; Bay-Jensen, Anne C; Siebuhr, Anne Sofie; Junker, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the possible association between type II collagen turnover seromarkers and disease profile in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Outpatients with axial SpA (n = 110) or PsA (n = 101) underwent clinical examination including disease activity measures and HLA-B27 typing. The procollagen IIA N-terminal peptide (PIIANP) and a matrix metalloproteinase-generated type II collagen fragment (C2M) were quantified in serum by ELISA. C2M was higher in SpA than in controls, 0.41 versus 0.36 ng/ml (p = 0.004), while PIIANP did not differ between patients and healthy subjects, 2252 versus 2142 ng/ml (p = 0.13). However, DMARD-naïve SpA patients had higher PIIANP, 2461 ng/ml (p = 0.01) and C2M, 0.44 ng/ml (p = 0.0007) levels than controls, and PIIANP correlated with CRP (ρ = 0.34). C2M was lower in SpA smokers, 0.36 ng/ml versus non-smokers, 0.43 ng/ml (p = 0.02), while PIIANP was higher in HLA-B27 positive, 2312 ng/ml versus negative patients, 2021 ng/ml (p = 0.03). In PsA, PIIANP and C2M did not differ between patients and controls, but PIIANP was elevated in patients not receiving DMARDs, 2726 ng/ml. In PsA, PIIANP and C2M did not differ according to smoking and HLA-B27. Cartilage degradation assessed by C2M is increased in SpA irrespective of treatment but not in PsA. Cartilage synthesis reflected by PIIANP is increased in untreated SpA and PsA. PIIANP correlates with CRP in SpA while not in PsA. In DMARD-naïve SpA but not in PsA, HLA-B27 positivity and smoking are associated with a chondro-proliferative metabolic pattern. PMID:26620690

  13. Type I and II Interferons Activate the Innate Immune System to Promote Early Protection of Swine Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have demonstrated that the synergistic action of type I and II interferons (IFN) can rapidly protect swine against challenge with a low dose of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Protection correlated with an upregulation of some IFN stimulated genes (ISGs), including IP-10, INDO, and OAS in PB...

  14. The Proteolytic Activation of (H3N2) Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin Is Facilitated by Different Type II Transmembrane Serine Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, Nora; Bergmann, Silke; Kösterke, Nadine; Lambertz, Ruth L. O.; Keppner, Anna; van den Brand, Judith M. A.; Weiß, Siegfried; Hummler, Edith; Hatesuer, Bastian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cleavage of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) by host cell proteases is necessary for viral activation and infectivity. In humans and mice, members of the type II transmembrane protease family (TTSP), e.g., TMPRSS2, TMPRSS4, and TMPRSS11d (HAT), have been shown to cleave influenza virus HA for viral activation and infectivity in vitro. Recently, we reported that inactivation of a single HA-activating protease gene, Tmprss2, in knockout mice inhibits the spread of H1N1 influenza viruses. However, after infection of Tmprss2 knockout mice with an H3N2 influenza virus, only a slight increase in survival was observed, and mice still lost body weight. In this study, we investigated an additional trypsin-like protease, TMPRSS4. Both TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 are expressed in the same cell types of the mouse lung. Deletion of Tmprss4 alone in knockout mice does not protect them from body weight loss and death upon infection with H3N2 influenza virus. In contrast, Tmprss2−/− Tmprss4−/− double-knockout mice showed a remarkably reduced virus spread and lung pathology, in addition to reduced body weight loss and mortality. Thus, our results identified TMPRSS4 as a second host cell protease that, in addition to TMPRSS2, is able to activate the HA of H3N2 influenza virus in vivo. IMPORTANCE Influenza epidemics and recurring pandemics are responsible for significant global morbidity and mortality. Due to high variability of the virus genome, resistance to available antiviral drugs is frequently observed, and new targets for treatment of influenza are needed. Host cell factors essential for processing of the virus hemagglutinin represent very suitable drug targets because the virus is dependent on these host factors for replication. We reported previously that Tmprss2-deficient mice are protected against H1N1 virus infections, but only marginal protection against H3N2 virus infections was observed. Here we show that deletion of two host protease genes, Tmprss2 and

  15. Discovery of a Series of Imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines with Dual Activity at Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-[gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Casimiro-Garcia, Agustin; Filzen, Gary F.; Flynn, Declan; Bigge, Christopher F.; Chen, Jing; Davis, Jo Ann; Dudley, Danette A.; Edmunds, Jeremy J.; Esmaeil, Nadia; Geyer, Andrew; Heemstra, Ronald J.; Jalaie, Mehran; Ohren, Jeffrey F.; Ostroski, Robert; Ellis, Teresa; Schaum, Robert P.; Stoner, Chad

    2013-03-07

    Mining of an in-house collection of angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists to identify compounds with activity at the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) revealed a new series of imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines 2 possessing activity at these two receptors. Early availability of the crystal structure of the lead compound 2a bound to the ligand binding domain of human PPAR{gamma} confirmed the mode of interaction of this scaffold to the nuclear receptor and assisted in the optimization of PPAR{gamma} activity. Among the new compounds, (S)-3-(5-(2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-yl)-2-ethyl-5-isobutyl-7-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (2l) was identified as a potent angiotensin II type I receptor blocker (IC{sub 50} = 1.6 nM) with partial PPAR{gamma} agonism (EC{sub 50} = 212 nM, 31% max) and oral bioavailability in rat. The dual pharmacology of 2l was demonstrated in animal models of hypertension (SHR) and insulin resistance (ZDF rat). In the SHR, 2l was highly efficacious in lowering blood pressure, while robust lowering of glucose and triglycerides was observed in the male ZDF rat.

  16. Discovery of a series of imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines with dual activity at angiotensin II type 1 receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ.

    PubMed

    Casimiro-Garcia, Agustin; Filzen, Gary F; Flynn, Declan; Bigge, Christopher F; Chen, Jing; Davis, Jo Ann; Dudley, Danette A; Edmunds, Jeremy J; Esmaeil, Nadia; Geyer, Andrew; Heemstra, Ronald J; Jalaie, Mehran; Ohren, Jeffrey F; Ostroski, Robert; Ellis, Teresa; Schaum, Robert P; Stoner, Chad

    2011-06-23

    Mining of an in-house collection of angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists to identify compounds with activity at the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) revealed a new series of imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines 2 possessing activity at these two receptors. Early availability of the crystal structure of the lead compound 2a bound to the ligand binding domain of human PPARγ confirmed the mode of interaction of this scaffold to the nuclear receptor and assisted in the optimization of PPARγ activity. Among the new compounds, (S)-3-(5-(2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-yl)-2-ethyl-5-isobutyl-7-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (2l) was identified as a potent angiotensin II type I receptor blocker (IC(50) = 1.6 nM) with partial PPARγ agonism (EC(50) = 212 nM, 31% max) and oral bioavailability in rat. The dual pharmacology of 2l was demonstrated in animal models of hypertension (SHR) and insulin resistance (ZDF rat). In the SHR, 2l was highly efficacious in lowering blood pressure, while robust lowering of glucose and triglycerides was observed in the male ZDF rat. PMID:21557540

  17. Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase expression: transcriptional regulation of the type I and type II genes.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, A; Gu, J J; Spychala, J; Mitchell, B S

    1996-01-01

    Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is an essential rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo guanine nucleotide synthetic pathway that catalyzes the conversion of IMP to XMP. Enzyme activity is accounted for by the expression of two distinct but closely related genes termed IMPDH I and II. Increased IMPDH activity has been linked to both cellular proliferation and neoplastic transformation and generally ascribed to an increase in the expression of the type II gene. We have characterized the type I and type II genes and identified elements important in the transcriptional regulation of both genes. The type II IMPDH gene contains a 466 bp 5' flanking region spanning the translation start site that contains several transcription factor binding sites and mediates increased transcription of a CAT reporter gene in peripheral blood T lymphocytes when these cells are induced to proliferate. The single functional IMPDH type I gene contains exon-intron boundaries and exon structures that are nearly identical to those in the type II gene. In contrast to the type II gene, however, it contains two putative promoter sites, each with the potential for transcriptional regulation. We conclude that these two genes most probably arose from an early gene duplication event and that their highly conserved structures and differential regulation at the transcriptional level argue strongly for a significant role for each gene in cellular metabolism, growth, and differentiation. PMID:8869741

  18. Biceps instability and Slap type II tear in overhead athletes.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Soldati, Francesco; Cheli, Andrea; Pari, Carlotta; Massari, Leo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-10-01

    Type II lesions are common lesions encountered in overhead athletes with controversies arising in term of timing for treatment, surgical approach, rehabilitation and functional results. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes, focusing on the time elapsed from diagnosis and treatment, time needed to return to sport, rate of return to sport and to previous level of performance, providing an overview concerning evidence for the effectiveness of different surgical approaches to type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes. A internet search on peer reviewed Journal from 1990, first descriprion of this pathology, to 2012, have been conducted evaluating the outcomes for both isolated Slap II tear overhead athletes and those who presented associated lesions treated. The results have been analyzed according to the scale reported focusing on return to sport and level of activity. Apart from a single study, non prospective level I and II studies were detected. Return to play at the same level ranged form 22% to 94% with different range of technique utilized with the majority of the authors recommending the fixation of these lesions but biceps tenodesis can lead to higher satisfaction racte when directly compated to the anchor fixation. Associated pathologies such as partial or full tickness rotator cuff tear did not clearly affect the outcomes and complications rate. There is no consensus regarding timing and treatment for type II SLAP, especially in overhead athletes who need to regain a high level of performance. PMID:23738307

  19. Knowledge Is Power: Teaching Children about Type II Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feild-Berner, Natalie; Balgopal, Meena

    2011-01-01

    World Diabetes Day (November 14) offers a wonderful opportunity to educate elementary children about the power they have to control their health. First lady Michelle Obama has urged Americans to educate themselves about childhood obesity, which is often associated with the onset of type II diabetes (Rabin 2010). The authors developed activities to…

  20. DMSO Enhances TGF-β Activity by Recruiting the Type II TGF-β Receptor From Intracellular Vesicles to the Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuan Shian; Chen, Chun-Lin; Huang, Franklin W; Hou, Wei-Hsien; Huang, Jung San

    2016-07-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is used to treat many diseases/symptoms. The molecular basis of the pharmacological actions of DMSO has been unclear. We hypothesized that DMSO exerts some of these actions by enhancing TGF-β activity. Here we show that DMSO enhances TGF-β activity by ∼3-4-fold in Mv1Lu and NMuMG cells expressing Smad-dependent luciferase reporters. In Mv1Lu cells, DMSO enhances TGF-β-stimulated expression of P-Smad2 and PAI-1. It increases cell-surface expression of TGF-β receptors (TβR-I and/or TβR-II) by ∼3-4-fold without altering their cellular levels as determined by (125) I-labeled TGF-β-cross-linking/Western blot analysis, suggesting the presence of large intracellular pools in these cells. Sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation/Western blot analysis reveals that DMSO induces recruitment of TβR-II (but not TβR-I) from its intracellular pool to plasma-membrane microdomains. It induces more recruitment of TβR-II to non-lipid raft microdomains than to lipid rafts/caveolae. Mv1Lu cells transiently transfected with TβR-II-HA plasmid were treated with DMSO and analyzed by indirect immunofluoresence staining using anti-HA antibody. In these cells, TβR-II-HA is present as a vesicle-like network in the cytoplasm as well as in the plasma membrane. DMSO causes depletion of TβR-II-HA-containing vesicles from the cytoplasm and co-localization of TβR-II-HA and cveolin-1 at the plasma membrane. These results suggest that DMSO, a fusogenic substance, enhances TGF-β activity presumably by inducing fusion of cytoplasmic vesicles (containing TβR-II) and the plasma membrane, resulting in increased localization of TβR-II to non-lipid raft microdomains where canonical signaling occurs. Fusogenic activity of DMSO may play a pivotal role in its pharmacological actions involving membrane proteins with large cytoplasmic pools. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1568-1579, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26587792

  1. Magnetization of anisotropic Type II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, R.G.

    1989-04-10

    Peculiarities of magnetization of anisotropic type II superconductors are of considerable interest in view of the discovery of high-T/sub c/ superconductors characterized by strongly asymmetric layered structure. Specifics of the penetration of magnetic flux into an anisotropic type II superconductor were discussed in the literature. This analysis gave the distribution of induction in an isolated vortex, its energy, and critical magnetic field H/sub c1/. However, the magnetization curve of anisotropic superconductors was not considered. This paper deals with the magnetic moment of uniaxial London superconductor in the interval H/sub c1/ /le/ H/sub 0/ << H/sub c2/, where H/sub 0/ is the external magnetic field strength.

  2. Therapeutic failure in familial type II hyperlipoproteinemia.

    PubMed

    Witters, L A; Herbert, P N; Shulman, R S; Krauss, R M; Levy, R I

    1976-09-01

    The extended use of diet and cholestyramine therapy in familial type II hyperlipoproteinemia was examined in patients who previously participated in a short-term, double-blind trial. A striking secondary failure in therapeutic response during 4 yr of use of this therapy was noted with plasma cholesterol rising an average of 15%. A 3 mo, out-patient, follow-up study designed to reinforce patient motivation and dietary and drug adherence resulted in a prompt but partial reversal of this therapeutic deterioration in 16 patients. Additional inpatient studies confirmed that patient noncompliance with the dietary regimen was the major factor responsible for the secondary failure. Cholestyramine together with a low cholesterol diet can be an effective agent in familial type II hyperlipoproteinemia, given a comprehensive program of out-patient follow-up with continued emphasis on dietary principles and drug adherence. PMID:183084

  3. Diabetic mastopathy in type II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tsung, Jeffrey S H; Wang, Teh Y; Lin, Christopher K Z

    2005-01-01

    Diabetic mastopathy can mimic cancer. We report 2 cases of diabetic mastopathy in patients with long-standing type II diabetes. One was insulin-dependent, and the other had never been treated with insulin. These 2 patients had classical acoustical shadow on ultrasonograms. Breast core biopsies showed constellations of morphological features resembling diabetic mastopathy, including sclerotic changes of the fibrous stroma with keloid-like collagen fibers, few epithelioid fibroblasts, perivascular and interlobular mononuclear cell infiltrates, and focal atrophic changes of the ductal-lobular units. Both patients were free of malignancy at 3 and 4 years of follow-up, respectively. There are limited data on diabetic mastopathy in insulin-naive type II diabetes mellitus patients. Better awareness of this entity and its sonographic features may allow more patients to be spared from excisional biopsy. PMID:15660177

  4. IMMUNOCHEMISTRY OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES II, V, AND VI. II.

    PubMed Central

    Rebers, Paul A.; Hurwitz, Esther; Heidelberger, Michael

    1961-01-01

    Rebers, Paul A. (Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N. J.), Esther Hurwitz, and Michael Heidelberger. Immunochemistry of pneumococcal types II, V, and VI. II. Inhibition tests in the type VI precipitating system. J. Bacteriol. 82:920–926. 1961.—As in other immune systems involving polysaccharides, rabbit antibodies but not those engendered in the horse were found sensitive to degradation of type VI pneumococcal (Pn) polysaccharide (SVI), and were readily inhibited by fragments of SVI. Large amounts, 30 to 111 μmoles, of most sugars gave up to 15% inhibition, while sugar and polyol phosphates inhibited as much as 25%, with little relation to their presence or absence in SVI. The phosphate-free repeating unit of SVI was a good inhibitor, its phosphate monoester was better, and the “trimer” still better. The “trimer” precipitated most of the antibodies from horse anti-Pn VI. Although inhibition of precipitation of SVI anti-Pn horse sera could not be demonstrated with fragments of SVI, cross-reactions of antibodies in the horse sera could be inhibited. Precipitation of SII was inhibited by low concentrations of l-rhamnose, while even high concentrations of the other sugar components of SII and SVI were ineffective. Precipitation by guar gum was inhibited by galactose and α- and β-methyl-galactopyranosides, also by rhamnose, although guar gum does not contain this sugar, while SVI, the antigenic determinant, does. PMID:14490831

  5. Glutathione synthesis and homeostasis in isolated type II alveolar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, K.; Warshaw, J.B.; Prough, R.A.

    1986-03-05

    After isolation of Type II cells from neonatal rat lung, the glutathione (GSH) levels in these cells were greatly depressed. The total glutathione content could be increased 5-fold within 12-24 h by incubating the cells in media containing sulfur amino acids. Similarly, the activity of ..gamma..-glutamyltranspeptidase was low immediately after isolation, but was increased 2-fold during the first 24 h culture. Addition of either GSH or GSSG to the culture media increased the GSH content of Type II cells 2-2.5-fold. Buthionine sulfoximine and NaF prevented this replenishment of GSH during 24 h culture. When the rates of de novo synthesis of GSH and GSSG from /sup 35/S-cysteine were measured, the amounts of newly formed GSH decreased to 80% in the presence of GSH or GSSG. This suggests that exogenous GSH/GSSG can be taken up by the Type II cells to replenish the intracellular pool of GSH. Methionine was not as effective as cysteine in the synthesis of GSH. These results suggest that GSH levels in the isolated Type II cell can be maintained by de novo synthesis or uptake of exogenous GSH. Most of the GSH synthesized from cysteine, however, was excreted into the media of the cultured cells indicative of a potential role for the type II cell in export of the non-protein thiol.

  6. Type-II Superlattice Avalanche Photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun

    Type-II superlattice avalanche photodiodes have shown advantages compared to conventional mercury cadmium telluride photodiodes for infrared wavelength detection. However, surface or interface leakage current has been a major issue for superlattice avalanche photodiodes, especially in infrared wavelength region. First, passivation of the superlattice device with ammonium sulfide and thioacetamide was carried out, and its surface quality was studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The study showed that both ammonium sulfide and thiacetamide passivation can actively remove the native oxide at the surface. Thiacetamide passivation combine more sulfur bonds with III-V elements than that of ammonium sulfide. Another X-ray photoelectron spectra of thiacetamide-treated atomic layer deposited zinc sulfide capped InAs/GaSb superlattice was performed to investigate the interface sulfur bond conditions. Sb--S and As--S bonds disappear while In-S bond gets enhanced, indicating that Indium Sulfide should be the major components at the interface after ZnS deposition. Second, the simulation of electrical characteristics for zinc sulfide, silicon nitride and silicon dioxide passivated superlattice devices was performed by SILVACO software to fit the experimental results and to discover the surface current mechanism. Different surface current mechanism strengths were found. Third, several novel dual-carrier avalanche photodiode structures were designed and simulated. The structures had alternate carrier multiplication regions, placed next to a wider electron multiplication region, creating dual-carrier multiplication feedback systems. Gain and excess noise factor of these structures were simulated and compared based on the dead space multiplication theory under uniform electric field. From the simulation, the applied bias can be greatly lowered or the thickness can be shrunk to achieve the same gain from the conventional device. The width of the thin region was the most

  7. Testing promoter activity in the trypanosome genome: isolation of a metacyclic-type VSG promoter, and unexpected insights into RNA polymerase II transcription.

    PubMed

    McAndrew, M; Graham, S; Hartmann, C; Clayton, C

    1998-09-01

    In trypanosomes, most genes are arranged in polycistronic transcription units. Individual mRNAs are generated by 5'-trans splicing and 3' polyadenylation. Remarkably, no regulation of RNA polymerase II transcription has been detected although many RNAs are differentially expressed during kinetoplastid life cycles. Demonstration of specific class II promoters is complicated by the difficulty in distinguishing between genuine promoter activity and stimulation of trans splicing. Using vectors that were designed to allow the detection of low promoter activities in a transcriptionally silent chromosomal context, we isolated a novel trypanosome RNA polymerase I promoter. We were however unable to detect class II promoter activity in any tested DNA fragment. We also integrated genes which were preceded by a T3 promoter into the genome of cells expressing bacteriophage T3 polymerase: surprisingly, transcription was alpha-amanitin sensitive. One possible interpretation of these results is that in trypanosomes, RNA polymerase II initiation is favored by genomic accessibility and double-strand melting. PMID:9709032

  8. Ubiquitous Torsional Motions in Type II Spicules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pontieu, B.; Carlsson, M.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Rutten, R. J.; Hansteen, V. H.; Watanabe, H.

    2012-06-01

    Spicules are long, thin, highly dynamic features that jut out ubiquitously from the solar limb. They dominate the interface between the chromosphere and corona and may provide significant mass and energy to the corona. We use high-quality observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to establish that so-called type II spicules are characterized by the simultaneous action of three different types of motion: (1) field-aligned flows of order 50-100 km s-1, (2) swaying motions of order 15-20 km s-1, and (3) torsional motions of order 25-30 km s-1. The first two modes have been studied in detail before, but not the torsional motions. Our analysis of many near-limb and off-limb spectra and narrowband images using multiple spectral lines yields strong evidence that most, if not all, type II spicules undergo large torsional modulation and that these motions, like spicule swaying, represent Alfvénic waves propagating outward at several hundred km s-1. The combined action of the different motions explains the similar morphology of spicule bushes in the outer red and blue wings of chromospheric lines, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting Doppler motions to derive estimates for field-aligned flows in spicules and determining the Alfvénic wave energy in the solar atmosphere. Our results also suggest that large torsional motion is an ingredient in the production of type II spicules and that spicules play an important role in the transport of helicity through the solar atmosphere.

  9. UBIQUITOUS TORSIONAL MOTIONS IN TYPE II SPICULES

    SciTech Connect

    De Pontieu, B.; Hansteen, V. H.; Carlsson, M.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Rutten, R. J.; Watanabe, H.

    2012-06-10

    Spicules are long, thin, highly dynamic features that jut out ubiquitously from the solar limb. They dominate the interface between the chromosphere and corona and may provide significant mass and energy to the corona. We use high-quality observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to establish that so-called type II spicules are characterized by the simultaneous action of three different types of motion: (1) field-aligned flows of order 50-100 km s{sup -1}, (2) swaying motions of order 15-20 km s{sup -1}, and (3) torsional motions of order 25-30 km s{sup -1}. The first two modes have been studied in detail before, but not the torsional motions. Our analysis of many near-limb and off-limb spectra and narrowband images using multiple spectral lines yields strong evidence that most, if not all, type II spicules undergo large torsional modulation and that these motions, like spicule swaying, represent Alfvenic waves propagating outward at several hundred km s{sup -1}. The combined action of the different motions explains the similar morphology of spicule bushes in the outer red and blue wings of chromospheric lines, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting Doppler motions to derive estimates for field-aligned flows in spicules and determining the Alfvenic wave energy in the solar atmosphere. Our results also suggest that large torsional motion is an ingredient in the production of type II spicules and that spicules play an important role in the transport of helicity through the solar atmosphere.

  10. High Cell Surface Death Receptor Expression Determines Type I Versus Type II Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xue Wei; Peterson, Kevin L.; Dai, Haiming; Schneider, Paula; Lee, Sun-Hee; Zhang, Jin-San; Koenig, Alexander; Bronk, Steve; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Gores, Gregory J.; Kaufmann, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that there are two signaling pathways leading from ligation of the Fas receptor to induction of apoptosis. Type I signaling involves Fas ligand-induced recruitment of large amounts of FADD (FAS-associated death domain protein) and procaspase 8, leading to direct activation of caspase 3, whereas type II signaling involves Bid-mediated mitochondrial perturbation to amplify a more modest death receptor-initiated signal. The biochemical basis for this dichotomy has previously been unclear. Here we show that type I cells have a longer half-life for Fas message and express higher amounts of cell surface Fas, explaining the increased recruitment of FADD and subsequent signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate that cells with type II Fas signaling (Jurkat or HCT-15) can signal through a type I pathway upon forced receptor overexpression and that shRNA-mediated Fas down-regulation converts cells with type I signaling (A498) to type II signaling. Importantly, the same cells can exhibit type I signaling for Fas and type II signaling for TRAIL (TNF-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), indicating that the choice of signaling pathway is related to the specific receptor, not some other cellular feature. Additional experiments revealed that up-regulation of cell surface death receptor 5 levels by treatment with 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin converted TRAIL signaling in HCT116 cells from type II to type I. Collectively, these results suggest that the type I/type II dichotomy reflects differences in cell surface death receptor expression. PMID:21865165

  11. Pulmonary Alveolar Type II Cells Isolated from Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dobbs, Leland G.; Mason, Robert J.

    1979-01-01

    It is unclear what factors control the secretion of pulmonary surface active material from alveolar type II cells in vivo. Other workers have suggested that cholinergic stimuli, adrenergic stimuli, and prostaglandins may all stimulate secretion. We isolated type II cells from the lungs of rats by treatment with elastase, discontinuous density centrifugation, and adherence in primary culture. β-Adrenergic agonists, but not cholinergic agonists, caused an increase in the release of [14C]disaturated phosphatidylcholine, the major component of surface-active material, from type II cells in culture. The β-adrenergic effect was stereo-selective, (−)-isoproterenol being 50 times more potent than (+)-isoproterenol. Terbutaline, 10 μM, a noncatecholamine β-2 adrenergic agonist, caused a release of 2.0±0.5 (mean±SD) times the basal release of [14C]disaturated phosphatidylcholine in 3 h; the concentration of terbutaline causing half maximal stimulation was 800 nM. The terbutaline effect was blocked by propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist (calculated Kd = 6 nM), but not by phentolamine, an α-adrenergic antagonist. Isobutylmethylxanthine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and 8-Br cyclic AMP, but not 8-Br cyclic guanosine monophosphate, also stimulated release. We conclude that type II cells secrete disaturated phosphatidylcholine in response to treatment with adrenergic stimulation. PMID:34631

  12. A Type II Radio Burst without a Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, W.; Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Chen, P. F.; Sun, J. Q.

    2015-05-01

    Type II radio bursts are thought to be a signature of coronal shocks. In this paper, we analyze a short-lived type II burst that started at 07:40 UT on 2011 February 28. By carefully checking white-light images, we find that the type II radio burst is not accompanied by a coronal mass ejection, only by a C2.4 class flare and narrow jet. However, in the EUV images provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we find a wave-like structure that propagated at a speed of ∼600 km s‑1 during the burst. The relationship between the type II radio burst and the wave-like structure is, in particular, explored. For this purpose, we first derive the density distribution under the wave by the differential emission measure method, which is used to restrict the empirical density model. We then use the restricted density model to invert the speed of the shock that produces the observed frequency drift rate in the dynamic spectrum. The inverted shock speed is similar to the speed of the wave-like structure. This implies that the wave-like structure is most likely a coronal shock that produces the type II radio burst. We also examine the evolution of the magnetic field in the flare-associated active region and find continuous flux emergence and cancellation taking place near the flare site. Based on these facts, we propose a new mechanism for the formation of the type II radio burst, i.e., the expansion of the strongly inclined magnetic loops after reconnecting with a nearby emerging flux acts as a piston to generate the shock wave.

  13. INTERPLANETARY SHOCKS LACKING TYPE II RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M. L.; Xie, H.; Maekelae, P.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Howard, R. A.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    2010-02-20

    We report on the radio-emission characteristics of 222 interplanetary (IP) shocks detected by spacecraft at Sun-Earth L1 during solar cycle 23 (1996 to 2006, inclusive). A surprisingly large fraction of the IP shocks ({approx}34%) was radio quiet (RQ; i.e., the shocks lacked type II radio bursts). We examined the properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and soft X-ray flares associated with such RQ shocks and compared them with those of the radio-loud (RL) shocks. The CMEs associated with the RQ shocks were generally slow (average speed {approx}535 km s{sup -1}) and only {approx}40% of the CMEs were halos. The corresponding numbers for CMEs associated with RL shocks were 1237 km s{sup -1} and 72%, respectively. Thus, the CME kinetic energy seems to be the deciding factor in the radio-emission properties of shocks. The lower kinetic energy of CMEs associated with RQ shocks is also suggested by the lower peak soft X-ray flux of the associated flares (C3.4 versus M4.7 for RL shocks). CMEs associated with RQ CMEs were generally accelerating within the coronagraph field of view (average acceleration {approx}+6.8 m s{sup -2}), while those associated with RL shocks were decelerating (average acceleration {approx}-3.5 m s{sup -2}). This suggests that many of the RQ shocks formed at large distances from the Sun, typically beyond 10 Rs, consistent with the absence of metric and decameter-hectometric (DH) type II radio bursts. A small fraction of RL shocks had type II radio emission solely in the kilometric (km) wavelength domain. Interestingly, the kinematics of the CMEs associated with the km type II bursts is similar to those of RQ shocks, except that the former are slightly more energetic. Comparison of the shock Mach numbers at 1 AU shows that the RQ shocks are mostly subcritical, suggesting that they were not efficient in accelerating electrons. The Mach number values also indicate that most of these are quasi-perpendicular shocks. The radio-quietness is predominant

  14. A novel mutation in type II methemoglobinemia.

    PubMed

    Hudspeth, Michelle P; Joseph, Sumy; Holden, Kenton R

    2010-01-01

    Type II methemoglobinemia is a somatic deficiency of cytochrome b5 reductase with severe global neurologic impairment. We report a novel mutation in exon 3 of the CYB5R3 gene on chromosome 22 consisting of homozygous 1-base pair (bp) deletion noted as c.215delG; p.Gly72AlafsX100. The patient had improvement of gross motor skills, chewing, and swallowing that may be due to the initiation of daily ascorbic acid therapy. We hypothesize that a possible response to ascorbic acid may be related to the effect of making additional ferrous iron available for its role as a cofactor in carnitine synthesis. PMID:19471045

  15. Genetics Home Reference: microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions MOPDII microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Open All Close All Description Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II ( MOPDII ) is a condition characterized by ...

  16. Type-II superlattices: the Fraunhofer perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, Robert; Walther, Martin; Schmitz, Johannes; Rutz, Frank; Wörl, Andreas; Scheibner, Ralf; Ziegler, Johann

    2010-04-01

    In the past years, the development of the type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice technology at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF) has been focused on achieving series-production readiness for third generation dualcolor superlattice detector arrays for the mid-wavelength infrared spectral range. The technology is ideally suited for airborne missile threat warning systems, due to its ability of low false alarm remote imaging of hot carbon dioxide signatures on a millisecond time scale. In a multi-wafer molecular beam epitaxy based process eleven 288×384 dualcolor detector arrays are fabricated on 3" GaSb substrates. Very homogeneous detector arrays with an excellent noise equivalent temperature difference have been realized. The current article presents the type-II superlattice dual-color technology developed at IAF and delivers insights into a range of test methodologies employed at various stages during the fabrication process, which ensure that the basic requirements for achieving high detector performance are met.

  17. Systematic identification of type I and type II interferon-induced antiviral factors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su-Yang; Sanchez, David Jesse; Aliyari, Roghiyh; Lu, Sun; Cheng, Genhong

    2012-03-13

    Type I and type II interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that establish the cellular antiviral state through the induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). We sought to understand the basis of the antiviral activity induced by type I and II IFNs in relation to the functions of their ISGs. Based on gene expression studies, we systematically identified antiviral ISGs by performing blinded, functional screens on 288 type I and type II ISGs. We assessed and validated the antiviral activity of these ISGs against an RNA virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and a DNA virus, murine gammaherpes virus (MHV-68). Overall, we identified 34 ISGs that elicited an antiviral effect on the replication of either one or both viruses. Fourteen ISGs have uncharacterized antiviral functions. We further defined ISGs that affect critical life-cycle processes in expression of VSV protein and MHV-68 immediate-early genes. Two previously undescribed antiviral ISGs, TAP1 and BMP2, were further validated. TAP1-deficient fibroblasts were more susceptible to VSV infection but less so to MHV-68 infection. On the other hand, exogenous BMP2 inhibits MHV-68 lytic growth but did not affect VSV growth. These results delineate common and distinct sets of type I and type II IFN-induced genes as well as identify unique ISGs that have either broad or specific antiviral effects on these viruses. PMID:22371602

  18. SPECTRA OF TYPE II CEPHEID CANDIDATES AND RELATED STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, E. G.; Rogalla, Danielle; Thacker-Lynn, Lauren E-mail: drogall1@bigred.unl.edu

    2011-02-15

    We present low-resolution spectra for variable stars in the Cepheid period range from the ROTSE-I Demonstration Project and the All Sky Automated Survey, some of which were previously identified as type II Cepheid candidates. We have derived effective temperatures, gravities, and metallicities from the spectra. Based on this, three types of variables were identified: Cepheid strip stars, cool stars that lie along the red subgiant and giant branch, and cool main-sequence stars. Many fewer type II Cepheids were found than expected and most have amplitudes less than 0.4 mag. The cool variables include many likely binaries as well as intrinsic variables. Variation among the main-sequence stars is likely to be mostly due to binarity or stellar activity.

  19. Perturbative type II amplitudes for BPS interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anirban

    2016-02-01

    We consider the perturbative contributions to the {{ R }}4, {D}4{{ R }}4 and {D}6{{ R }}4 interactions in toroidally compactified type II string theory. These BPS interactions do not receive perturbative contributions beyond genus three. We derive Poisson equations satisfied by these moduli dependent string amplitudes. These T-duality invariant equations have eigenvalues that are completely determined by the structure of the integrands of the multi-loop amplitudes. The source terms are given by boundary terms of the moduli space of Riemann surfaces corresponding to both separating and non-separating nodes. These are determined directly from the string amplitudes, as well as from U-duality constraints and logarithmic divergences of maximal supergravity. We explicitly solve these Poisson equations in nine and eight-dimensions.

  20. Type II supernovae as distance indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamuy, Mario Andres

    I report photometry and spectroscopy for 16 Type II supernovae (SNe) observed during the Calan/Tololo, SOIRS, and CTIO SN programs, a valuable resource for astrophysical studies. I perform a detailed assessment of the performance of the "expanding photosphere method" (EPM) in the determination of extragalactic distances. EPM proves very sensitive to the many steps involved in the analysis which can make it an art instead of an objective measurement tool. To minimize biases I implement objective procedures to compute synthetic magnitudes, measure true photospheric velocities, interpolate velocities, estimate dust extinction and realistic errors. While EPM performs well during the initial phases of SN evolution, I find distance residuals as large as 50% as the photosphere approaches the H recombination temperature. Despite the effort to lend credence to EPM, it proves necessary to exercise great care to avoid biasing the results. The main sources of uncertainties are observational errors (8%), dilution factors (11%), velocity interpolations (12%), and dust extinction (14%). The EPM Hubble diagram suggests the true error in an individual EPM distance is 20%. I find values of 63 +/- 8 and 67 +/- 7 km s-1 Mpc-1 for the Hubble constant, depending on the redshift sample chosen for the analysis. This result is independent of the extragalactic distance scale which yields 65 +/- 5 from Cepheid/SNe la distances. From four objects the comparison of EPM and Tully-Fisher yields D(EPM)/D(TF) = 0.82 +/- 0.12. I derive bolometric corrections for plateau SNe (SNe II-P) that permit me to obtain reliable bolometric luminosities from BVI photometry. Despite the great diversity displayed by SNe II-P, the duration of the plateau is approximately the same and the luminosities and expansion velocities measured in the middle of the plateau prove highly correlated. From the luminosity of the exponential tail I obtain 56Co masses ranging between 0.02 and 0.28 M⊙ , and some evidence that SNe

  1. Impact of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ on angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated insulin sensitivity, vascular inflammation and atherogenesis in hypercholesterolemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Becher, Ulrich M.; Camara, Bakary; Yildirimtürk, Cihan; Aksoy, Adem; Kebschull, Moritz; Werner, Nikos; Nickenig, Georg; Müller, Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. A number of studies have reported that AT1R inhibition or genetic AT1R disruption and PPARγ activation inhibit vascular inflammation and improve glucose and lipid metabolism, underscoring a molecular interaction of AT1R and PPARγ. We here analyzed the hypothesis that vasculoprotective anti-inflammatory and metabolic effects of AT1R inhibition are mediated by PPARγ. Material and methods Female ApoE–/–/AT1R–/– mice were fedwith a high-fat and cholesterol-rich diet and received continuous treatment with the selective PPARγ antagonist GW9662 or vehicle at a rate of 700 ng/kg/min for 4 weeks using subcutaneously implanted osmotic mini-pumps. Additionally, one group of female ApoE–/– mice served as a control group. After treatment for 4 weeks mice were sacrificed and read-outs (plaque development, vascular inflammation and insulinsensitivity) were performed. Results Using AT1R deficient ApoE–/– mice (ApoE–/–/AT1R–/– mice) we found decreased cholesterol-induced endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis compared to ApoE–/– mice. Inhibition of PPARγ by application of the specific PPARγ antagonist GW9662 significantly abolished the anti-atherogenic effects of AT1R deficiency in ApoE–/–/AT1R–/– mice (plaque area as % of control: ApoE–/–: 39 ±5%; ApoE–/–/AT1R–/–: 17 ±7%, p = 0.044 vs. ApoE–/–; ApoE–/–/AT1R–/– + GW9662: 31 ±8%, p = 0.047 vs. ApoE–/–/AT1R–/–). Focusing on IL6 as a pro-inflammatory humoral marker we detected significantly increased IL-6 levels in GW9662-treated animals (IL-6 in pg/ml: ApoE–/–: 230 ±16; ApoE–/–/AT1R–/–: 117 ±20, p = 0.01 vs. ApoE–/–; ApoE–/–/AT1R–/– + GW9662: 199 ±20, p = 0.01 vs. ApoE–/–/AT1R–/–), while the anti-inflammatory marker IL-10 was significantly

  2. Restricted growth of U-type infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout cells may be linked to casein kinase II activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, J.-W.; Moon, C.H.; Harmache, A.; Wargo, A.R.; Purcell, M.K.; Bremont, M.; Kurath, G.

    2011-01-01

    casein kinase II (CKII) inhibitor, 5,6-dichloro-1-β-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB), reduced the titre of the U type 8.3-fold at 24 h post-infection. In contrast, 100 μm of the CKII inhibitor reduced the titre of the M type only 1.3-fold at 48 h post-infection. Our data suggest that the different growth of U- and M-type IHNV in RTG-2 cells may be linked to a differential requirement for cellular protein kinases such as CKII for their growth.

  3. Activation of enhancer sequences in type II human T-cell leukemia virus and bovine leukemia virus long terminal repeats by virus-associated trans-acting regulatory factors.

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, C A; Sodroski, J G; Kettman, R; Haseltine, W A

    1986-01-01

    The ability of the sequences present in the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of human T-cell leukemia viruses type I and II (HTLV-I and HTLV-II) and of bovine leukemia virus to function as enhancer elements was investigated. Recombinant plasmids that contained the HTLV-I, HTLV-II, and bovine leukemia virus LTRs at a distance from a simian virus 40 promoter element located 5' to the bacterial gene encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.28) were constructed. We report that all three LTR sequences contain enhancer elements capable of increasing the level of gene expression directed from a distal heterologous promoter. The enhancer present in the HTLV-I LTR was active in uninfected cells of lymphoid and nonlymphoid origin. In contrast, the enhancer activity of the HTLV-II and bovine leukemia virus LTR sequences was evident only in virus-infected cells. This activity is likely due to virus-associated trans-acting transcriptional factors previously shown to be present in HTLV- and bovine leukemia virus-infected cells. The implication of these observations for virus replication and transforming activity are discussed. Images PMID:3005624

  4. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-one derivatives with dual activity at angiotensin II type 1 receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ.

    PubMed

    Casimiro-Garcia, Agustin; Heemstra, Ronald J; Bigge, Christopher F; Chen, Jing; Ciske, Fred A; Davis, Jo Ann; Ellis, Teresa; Esmaeil, Nadia; Flynn, Declan; Han, Seungil; Jalaie, Mehran; Ohren, Jeffrey F; Powell, Noel A

    2013-02-01

    Identification of a series of imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-one derivatives that act as dual angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonists and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) partial agonists is described. Starting from a known AT1 antagonist template, conformational restriction was introduced by incorporation of an indane ring that when combined with appropriate substitution at the imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-one provided novel series 5 possessing the desired dual activity. The mode of interaction of this series with PPARγ was corroborated through the X-ray crystal structure of 12b bound to the human PPARγ ligand binding domain. Modulation of activity at both receptors through substitution at the pyridone nitrogen led to the identification of potent dual AT1 antagonists/PPARγ partial agonists. Among them, 21b was identified possessing potent dual pharmacology (AT1 IC(50) = 7 nM; PPARγ EC(50) = 295 nM, 27% max) and good ADME properties. PMID:23265881

  5. The transforming growth factor beta type II receptor can replace the activin type II receptor in inducing mesoderm.

    PubMed Central

    Bhushan, A; Lin, H Y; Lodish, H F; Kintner, C R

    1994-01-01

    The type II receptors for the polypeptide growth factors transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and activin belong to a new family of predicted serine/threonine protein kinases. In Xenopus embryos, the biological effects of activin and TGF-beta 1 are strikingly different; activin induces a full range of mesodermal cell types in the animal cap assay, while TGF-beta 1 has no effects, presumably because of the lack of functional TGF-beta receptors. In order to assess the biological activities of exogenously added TGF-beta 1, RNA encoding the TGF-beta type II receptor was introduced into Xenopus embryos. In animal caps from these embryos, TGF-beta 1 and activin show similar potencies for induction of mesoderm-specific mRNAs, and both elicit the same types of mesodermal tissues. In addition, the response of animal caps to TGF-beta 1, as well as to activin, is blocked by a dominant inhibitory ras mutant, p21(Asn-17)Ha-ras. These results indicate that the activin and TGF-beta type II receptors can couple to similar signalling pathways and that the biological specificities of these growth factors lie in their different ligand-binding domains and in different competences of the responding cells. Images PMID:8196664

  6. The ketogenic diet for type II bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Phelps, James R; Siemers, Susan V; El-Mallakh, Rif S

    2013-01-01

    Successful mood stabilizing treatments reduce intracellular sodium in an activity-dependent manner. This can also be achieved with acidification of the blood, as is the case with the ketogenic diet. Two women with type II bipolar disorder were able to maintain ketosis for prolonged periods of time (2 and 3 years, respectively). Both experienced mood stabilization that exceeded that achieved with medication; experienced a significant subjective improvement that was distinctly related to ketosis; and tolerated the diet well. There were no significant adverse effects in either case. These cases demonstrate that the ketogenic diet is a potentially sustainable option for mood stabilization in type II bipolar illness. They also support the hypothesis that acidic plasma may stabilize mood, perhaps by reducing intracellular sodium and calcium. PMID:23030231

  7. Demonstration of efficient full aperture Type I/Type II third harmonic conversion on Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Wegner, P.J.; Henesian, M.A.; Marchi, F.T.; Speck, D.R.

    1987-11-19

    Type I/Type II third harmonic conversion has been implemented at the 74 cm aperture of the Nova laser system. We discuss the performance capabilities and alignment issues of this scheme for Nova relative to conventional Type II/Type II conversion. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Anaphase chromatid motion: involvement of type II DNA topoisomerases.

    PubMed Central

    Duplantier, B; Jannink, G; Sikorav, J L

    1995-01-01

    Sister chromatids are topologically intertwined at the onset of anaphase: their segregation during anaphase is known to require strand-passing activity by type II DNA topoisomerase. We propose that the removal of the intertwinings involves at the same time the traction of the mitotic spindle and the activity of topoisomerases. This implies that the velocity of the chromatids is compatible with the kinetic constraints imposed by the enzymatic reaction. We show that the greatest observed velocities (about 0.1 microns s-1) are close to the theoretical upper bound compatible with both the diffusion rate (calculated here within a probabilistic model) and the measured reaction rate of the enzyme. PMID:8534830

  9. Recent concepts of ovarian carcinogenesis: type I and type II.

    PubMed

    Koshiyama, Masafumi; Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo

    2014-01-01

    Type I ovarian tumors, where precursor lesions in the ovary have clearly been described, include endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous, low grade serous, and transitional cell carcinomas, while type II tumors, where such lesions have not been described clearly and tumors may develop de novo from the tubal and/or ovarian surface epithelium, comprise high grade serous carcinomas, undifferentiated carcinomas, and carcinosarcomas. The carcinogenesis of endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma (CCC) arising from endometriotic cysts is significantly influenced by the free iron concentration, which is associated with cancer development through the induction of persistent oxidative stress. A subset of mucinous carcinomas develop in association with ovarian teratomas; however, the majority of these tumors do not harbor any teratomatous component. Other theories of their origin include mucinous metaplasia of surface epithelial inclusions, endometriosis, and Brenner tumors. Low grade serous carcinomas are thought to evolve in a stepwise fashion from benign serous cystadenoma to a serous borderline tumor (SBT). With regard to high grade serous carcinoma, the serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs) of the junction of the fallopian tube epithelium with the mesothelium of the tubal serosa, termed the "tubal peritoneal junction" (TPJ), undergo malignant transformation due to their location, and metastasize to the nearby ovary and surrounding pelvic peritoneum. Other theories of their origin include the ovarian hilum cells. PMID:24868556

  10. Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honnappa, Vijayakumar; Raveesha, K. H.; Subramanian, K. R.

    Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts Vijayakumar H Doddamani1*, Raveesha K H2 and Subramanian3 1Bangalore University, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 2CMR Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 3 Retd, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India Abstract Magnetic fields play an important role in the astrophysical processes occurring in solar corona. In the solar atmosphere, magnetic field interacts with the plasma, producing abundant eruptive activities. They are considered to be the main factors for coronal heating, particle acceleration and the formation of structures like prominences, flares and Coronal Mass Ejections. The magnetic field in solar atmosphere in the range of 1.1-3 Rsun is especially important as an interface between the photospheric magnetic field and the solar wind. Its structure and time dependent change affects space weather by modifying solar wind conditions, Cho (2000). Type II doublet bursts can be used for the estimation of the strength of the magnetic field at two different heights. Two type II bursts occur sometimes in sequence. By relating the speed of the type II radio burst to Alfven Mach Number, the Alfven speed of the shock wave generating type II radio burst can be calculated. Using the relation between the Alfven speed and the mean frequency of emission, the magnetic field strength can be determined at a particular height. We have used the relative bandwidth and drift rate properties of multiple type II radio bursts to derive magnetic field strengths at two different heights and also the gradient of the magnetic field in the outer corona. The magnetic field strength has been derived for different density factors. It varied from 1.2 to 2.5 gauss at a solar height of 1.4 Rsun. The empirical relation of the variation of the magnetic field with height is found to be of the form B(R) = In the present case the power law index ‘γ’ varied from -3 to -2 for variation of

  11. Learning Objects, Type II Applications, and Embedded Pedagogical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadanidis, George; Schindler, Karen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider the extent to which learning objects that focus on higher level thinking might be seen as Type II applications, as defined by Maddux, Johnson, and Willis (2001). We conclude that learning objects are at best hybrid applications, with some Type I and some Type II characteristics. We also consider whether the educational…

  12. Type II Migration and Giant Planet Survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Type II migration, in which a newly formed large planet opens a gap in its precursor circumstellar nebula and subsequently evolves with it, has been implicated as a delivery mechanism responsible for close stellar companions. Large scale migration is possible in a viscously spreading disk of surface density sigma (r,t) when most of it is sacrificed to the primary in order to promote a small portion of the disk to much higher angular momentum orbits. Embedded planets generally follow its evolution unless their own angular momentum is comparable to that of the disk. The fraction of the starting disk mass, M (sub d) = 2pi integral rsigma(r,0)dr, that is consumed by the star depends on the distance at which material escapes the disk's outer boundary. If the disk is allowed to expand indefinitely, virtually all of the disk will fall into the primary in order to send a vanishingly small portion to infinity. For such a case, it is difficult to explain the survival of any giant planets, including Jupiter and Saturn. Realistically, however, there are processes that could truncate a disk at a finite distance, r(sub d). Recent numerical modeling has illustrated that planets can survive in this case. We show here that much of these results can be understood by simple conservation arguments.

  13. Multispectral imaging with type II superlattice detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyawansa, Gamini; Duran, Joshua M.; Grupen, Matt; Scheihing, John E.; Nelson, Thomas R.; Eismann, Michael T.

    2012-06-01

    Infrared (IR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) with multispectral detector elements promise significant advantages for airborne threat warning, surveillance, and targeting applications. At present, the use of type II superlattice (T2SL) structures based on the 6.1Å-family materials (InAs, GaSb, and AlSb) has become an area of interest for developing IR detectors and their FPAs. The ability to vary the bandgap in the IR range, suppression of Auger processes, prospective reduction of Shockley-Read-Hall centers by improved material growth capabilities, and the material stability are a few reasons for the predicted dominance of the T2SL technology over presently leading HgCdTe and quantum well technologies. The focus of the work reported here is on the development of T2SL based dual-band IR detectors and their applicability for multispectral imaging. A new NpBPN detector designed for the detection of IR in the 3-5 and 8-12 μm atmospheric windows is presented; comparing its advantages over other T2SL based approaches. One of the key challenges of the T2SL dual-band detectors is the spectral crosstalk associated with the LWIR band. The properties of the state-of-the-art T2SLs (i.e., absorption coefficient, minority carrier lifetime and mobility, etc.) and the present growth limitations that impact spectral crosstalk are discussed.

  14. Subcellular dynamics of type II PKA in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Haining; Sia, Gek-Ming; Sato, Takashi R.; Gray, Noah W.; Mao, Tianyi; Khuchua, Zaza; Huganir, Richard L.; Svoboda, Karel

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Protein kinase A (PKA) plays multiple roles in neurons. The localization and specificity of PKA are largely controlled by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). However, the dynamics of PKA in neurons, and the roles of specific AKAPs, are poorly understood. We imaged the distribution of type II PKA in hippocampal and cortical layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in vitro and in vivo. PKA was concentrated in dendritic shafts compared to the soma, axons and dendritic spines. This spatial distribution was imposed by the microtubule-binding protein MAP2, indicating that MAP2 is the dominant AKAP in neurons. Following cAMP elevation, catalytic subunits dissociated from the MAP2-tethered regulatory subunits and rapidly moved to become enriched in nearby spines. The spatial gradient of type II PKA between dendritic shafts and spines was critical for the regulation of synaptic strength and long-term potentiation. The localization and activity-dependent translocation of type II PKA are therefore important determinants of PKA function. PMID:19447092

  15. Insulin-induced activation of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase by a chiro-inositol-containing insulin mediator is defective in adipocytes of insulin-resistant, type II diabetic, Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    PubMed Central

    Farese, R V; Standaert, M L; Yamada, K; Huang, L C; Zhang, C; Cooper, D R; Wang, Z; Yang, Y; Suzuki, S; Toyota, T

    1994-01-01

    Type II diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were insulin-resistant in euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. We therefore examined insulin signaling systems in control Wistar and diabetic GK rats. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (G3PAT), which is activated by headgroup mediators released from glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI), was activated by insulin in intact and cell-free adipocyte preparations of control, but not diabetic, rats. A specific chiro-inositol-containing inositol phosphoglycan (IPG) mediator, prepared from beef liver, bypassed this defect and comparably activated G3PAT in cell-free adipocyte preparations of both diabetic GK and control rats. A myo-inositol-containing IPG mediator did not activate G3PAT. Relative to control adipocytes, labeling of GPI by [3H]glucosamine was diminished by 50% and insulin failed to stimulate GPI hydrolysis in GK adipocytes. In contrast to GPI-dependent G3PAT activation, insulin-stimulated hexose transport was intact in adipocytes and soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of the GK rat, as was insulin-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase C. We conclude that (i) chiro-inositol-containing IPG mediator activates G3PAT during insulin action, (ii) diabetic GK rats have a defect in synthesizing or releasing functional chiro-inositol-containing IPG, and (iii) defective IPG-regulated intracellular glucose metabolism contributes importantly to insulin resistance in diabetic GK rats. PMID:7972005

  16. Comparing the Host Galaxies of Type Ia, Type II, and Type Ibc Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, X.; Liang, Y. C.; Dennefeld, M.; Chen, X. Y.; Zhong, G. H.; Hammer, F.; Deng, L. C.; Flores, H.; Zhang, B.; Shi, W. B.; Zhou, L.

    2014-08-01

    We compare the host galaxies of 902 supernovae (SNe), including SNe Ia, SNe II, and SNe Ibc, which are selected by cross-matching the Asiago Supernova Catalog with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. We selected an additional 213 galaxies by requiring the light fraction of spectral observations to be >15%, which could represent well the global properties of the galaxies. Among these 213 galaxies, 135 appear on the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram, which allows us to compare the hosts in terms of whether they are star-forming (SF) galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs; including composites, LINERs, and Seyfert 2s) or absorption-line galaxies (Absorps; i.e., their related emission lines are weak or non-existent). The diagrams related to the parameters D n (4000), Hδ A , stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and specific SFRs for the SNe hosts show that almost all SNe II and most of the SNe Ibc occur in SF galaxies, which have a wide range of stellar masses and low D n (4000). The SNe Ia hosts as SF galaxies following similar trends. A significant fraction of SNe Ia occurs in AGNs and absorption-line galaxies, which are massive and have high D n (4000). The stellar population analysis from spectral synthesis fitting shows that the hosts of SNe II have a younger stellar population than hosts of SNe Ia. These results are compared with those of the 689 comparison galaxies where the SDSS fiber captures less than 15% of the total light. These comparison galaxies appear biased toward higher 12+log(O/H) (~0.1 dex) at a given stellar mass. Therefore, we believe the aperture effect should be kept in mind when the properties of the hosts for different types of SNe are discussed.

  17. Comparing the host galaxies of type Ia, type II, and type Ibc supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, X.; Liang, Y. C.; Chen, X. Y.; Zhong, G. H.; Deng, L. C.; Zhang, B.; Shi, W. B.; Zhou, L.; Dennefeld, M.; Hammer, F.; Flores, H. E-mail: ycliang@bao.ac.cn

    2014-08-10

    We compare the host galaxies of 902 supernovae (SNe), including SNe Ia, SNe II, and SNe Ibc, which are selected by cross-matching the Asiago Supernova Catalog with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. We selected an additional 213 galaxies by requiring the light fraction of spectral observations to be >15%, which could represent well the global properties of the galaxies. Among these 213 galaxies, 135 appear on the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram, which allows us to compare the hosts in terms of whether they are star-forming (SF) galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs; including composites, LINERs, and Seyfert 2s) or absorption-line galaxies (Absorps; i.e., their related emission lines are weak or non-existent). The diagrams related to the parameters D{sub n}(4000), Hδ{sub A}, stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and specific SFRs for the SNe hosts show that almost all SNe II and most of the SNe Ibc occur in SF galaxies, which have a wide range of stellar masses and low D{sub n}(4000). The SNe Ia hosts as SF galaxies following similar trends. A significant fraction of SNe Ia occurs in AGNs and absorption-line galaxies, which are massive and have high D{sub n}(4000). The stellar population analysis from spectral synthesis fitting shows that the hosts of SNe II have a younger stellar population than hosts of SNe Ia. These results are compared with those of the 689 comparison galaxies where the SDSS fiber captures less than 15% of the total light. These comparison galaxies appear biased toward higher 12+log(O/H) (∼0.1 dex) at a given stellar mass. Therefore, we believe the aperture effect should be kept in mind when the properties of the hosts for different types of SNe are discussed.

  18. Nitric oxide alters metabolism in isolated alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Miles, P R; Bowman, L; Huffman, L

    1996-07-01

    Alveolar type II cells may be exposed to nitric oxide (.NO) from external sources, and these cells can also generate .NO. Therefore we studied the effects of altering .NO levels on various type II cell metabolic processes. Incubation of cells with the .NO generator, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP; 1 mM), leads to reductions of 60-70% in the synthesis of disaturated phosphatidylcholines (DSPC) and cell ATP levels. Cellular oxygen consumption, an indirect measure of cell ATP synthesis, is also reduced by SNAP. There is no direct effect of SNAP on lung mitochondrial ATP synthesis, suggesting that .NO does not directly inhibit this process. On the other hand, incubation of cells with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the enzyme responsible for .NO synthesis, results in increases in DSPC synthesis, cell ATP content, and cellular oxygen consumption. The L-NAME effects are reversed by addition of L-arginine, the substrate for NOS. Production of .NO by type II cells is inhibited by L-NAME, a better inhibitor of constitutive NOS (cNOS) than inducible NOS (iNOS), and is reduced in the absence of external calcium. Aminoguanidine, a specific inhibitor of iNOS, has no effect on cell ATP content or on .NO production. These results indicate that alveolar type II cell lipid and energy metabolism can be affected by .NO and suggest that there may be cNOS activity in these cells. PMID:8760128

  19. [Achondrogenesis type I and II and hypochondrogenesis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bueno, M; Toledo, F; Toledo, J; Villegas, T; López, S; Remírez, J; García-Julián, G

    1980-10-01

    A study is made of achondrogenesis in relation to four observations of early fatal development. One case corresponds to type I (Parenti-Fraccaro); another to type II (Langer-Saldino); the final two, brothers, seem to come under the variation of hypochondrogenesis. In this study, authors stress the heterogenous nature of lethal, neonatal (short-limb) nanisms of which currently include: Type I and II achondrogenesis, hypochondrogenesis, homozygote achondroplasia, classical Torrance-type and San Diego-type thanatophoric dysplasia. PMID:7469190

  20. Noble metal (Ru{sup III}, Pd{sup II}, Pt{sup II}) substituted {open_quotes}sandwich{close_quotes} type polyoxometalates: Preparation, characterization, and catalytic activity in oxidations of alkanes and alkenes by peroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, R.; Khenkin, A.M.

    1995-11-08

    The polyoxometalates substituted with noble metals, Pd(II), Pt(II) and Ru(III), K{sub 12}([WZnPd{sup II}{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}](ZnW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}){center_dot}38H{sub 2}O, K{sub 12}[WZnPt{sup II}{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][(ZnW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}]{center_dot}36H{sub 2}O, and Na{sub 11}[WZnRu{sup III}{sub 2}(OH)(H{sub 2}O)][(ZnW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}]{center_dot}42H{sub 2}O, were prepared by exchange of labile zinc atoms with noble metal atoms from the isostructural starting material, N{sub 12}-[WZn{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][(ZnW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}]{center_dot}46H{sub 2}O. Magnetic susceptibility studies as a function of temperature provide convincing evidence of two ruthenium (III) centers with no magnetic interaction between them. The catalytic activity of these compounds was tested for the oxidation of alkenes and alkanes using aqueous 30% hydrogen peroxide and 70% tert-butyl hydroperoxide as oxidants. The alkene oxidation proceeded in high reactivity and moderate selectivity to the epoxide product using 30% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Kinetic profiles as well as UV-vis and IR spectra before, during and after the reaction indicate that the catalysts are stable throughout the reaction. Formation of epoxides rather than ketonization in the reaction of terminal alkenes as well as low reactivity with iodosobenzene indicates that the reaction is tungsten centered and not noble metal centered. Oxidation of alkenes with tert-butyl hydroperoxide gave mostly allylic oxidation and/or addition of tert-butyl alcohol to the double bond. Oxidation of cyclic alkanes such as cyclohexane and adamantane was successful with tert-butyl hydroperoxide with catalytic activity 10 times higher than previously found for transition metal substituted Keggin compounds. Ratios of hydroxylation of adamantane at tertiary vs secondary positions indicates different active species in the palladium-, platinum-, and ruthenium substituted-polyoxometalates.

  1. Photovoltaic detector based on type II heterostructure with deep AlSb/InAsSb/AlSb quantum well in the active region for the midinfrared spectral range

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailova, M. P. Andreev, I. A.; Moiseev, K. D.; Ivanov, E. V.; Konovalov, G. G.; Mikhailov, M. Yu.; Yakovlev, Yu. P.

    2011-02-15

    Photodetectors for the spectral range 2-4 {mu}m, based on an asymmetric type-II heterostructure p-InAs/AlSb/InAsSb/AlSb/(p, n)GaSb with a single deep quantum well (QW) or three deep QWs at the heterointerface, have been grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and analyzed. The transport, luminescent, photoelectric, current-voltage, and capacitance-voltage characteristics of these structures have been examined. A high-intensity positive and negative luminescence was observed in the spectral range 3-4 {mu}m at high temperatures (300-400 K). The photosensitivity spectra were in the range 1.2-3.6 {mu}m (T = 77 K). Large values of the quantum yield ({eta} = 0.6-0.7), responsivity (S{sub {lambda}} = 0.9-1.4 A W{sup -1}), and detectivity (D*{sub {lambda}} = 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 10} cm Hz{sup 1/2} W{sup -1}) were obtained at T = 77-200 K. The small capacitance of the structures (C = 7.5 pF at V = -1 V and T = 300 K) enabled an estimate of the response time of the photodetector at {tau} = 75 ps, which corresponds to a bandwidth of about 6 GHz. Photodetectors of this kind are promising for heterodyne detection of the emission of quantum-cascade lasers and IR spectroscopy.

  2. Type II superlattice technology for LWIR detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipstein, P. C.; Avnon, E.; Azulai, D.; Benny, Y.; Fraenkel, R.; Glozman, A.; Hojman, E.; Klin, O.; Krasovitsky, L.; Langof, L.; Lukomsky, I.; Nitzani, M.; Shtrichman, I.; Rappaport, N.; Snapi, N.; Weiss, E.; Tuito, A.

    2016-05-01

    SCD has developed a range of advanced infrared detectors based on III-V semiconductor heterostructures grown on GaSb. The XBn/XBp family of barrier detectors enables diffusion limited dark currents, comparable with MCT Rule-07, and high quantum efficiencies. This work describes some of the technical challenges that were overcome, and the ultimate performance that was finally achieved, for SCD's new 15 μm pitch "Pelican-D LW" type II superlattice (T2SL) XBp array detector. This detector is the first of SCD's line of high performance two dimensional arrays working in the LWIR spectral range, and was designed with a ~9.3 micron cut-off wavelength and a format of 640 x 512 pixels. It contains InAs/GaSb and InAs/AlSb T2SLs, engineered using k • p modeling of the energy bands and photo-response. The wafers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and are fabricated into Focal Plane Array (FPA) detectors using standard FPA processes, including wet and dry etching, indium bump hybridization, under-fill, and back-side polishing. The FPA has a quantum efficiency of nearly 50%, and operates at 77 K and F/2.7 with background limited performance. The pixel operability of the FPA is above 99% and it exhibits a stable residual non uniformity (RNU) of better than 0.04% of the dynamic range. The FPA uses a new digital read-out integrated circuit (ROIC), and the complete detector closely follows the interfaces of SCD's MWIR Pelican-D detector. The Pelican- D LW detector is now in the final stages of qualification and transfer to production, with first prototypes already integrated into new electro-optical systems.

  3. Characterization of cloned cells from an immortalized fetal pulmonary type II cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    A cultured cell line that maintained expression of pulmonary type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous to generate a large number of homogenous cells in which to study the biochemical functions of type II cells. Type II epithelial cells are the source of pulmonary surfactant and a cell of origin for pulmonary adenomas. Last year our laboratory reported the induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and surfactant lipid synthesis) in cultured fetal rat lung epithelial (FRLE) cells, a spontaneously immortalized cell line of fetal rat lung type II cell origin. Subsequently, the induction of the ability to synthesize surfactant lipid became difficult to repeat. We hypothesized that the cell line was heterogenuous and some cells were more like type II cells than others. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis and to obtain a cultured cell line with type II cell phenotypic markers by cloning several FRLE cells and characterizing them for phenotypic markers of type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and presence of surfactant lipids). Thirty cloned cell lines were analyzed for induced alkaline phosphatase activity (on x-axis) and for percent of phospholipids that were disaturated (i.e., surfactant).

  4. Activation of canonical wnt pathway promotes differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs into type II alveolar epithelial cells, confers resistance to oxidative stress, and promotes their migration to injured lung tissue in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ai-Ran; Liu, Le; Chen, Song; Yang, Yi; Zhao, Hong-Jie; Liu, Ling; Guo, Feng-Mei; Lu, Xiao-Min; Qiu, Hai-Bo

    2013-06-01

    The differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into type II alveolar epithelial (AT II) cells in vivo and in vitro, is critical for reepithelization and recovery in acute lung injury (ALI), but the mechanisms responsible for differentiation are unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of the canonical wnt pathway in the differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs (mMSCs) into AT II cells. Using a modified co-culture system with murine lung epithelial-12 (MLE-12) cells and small airway growth media (SAGM) to efficiently drive mMSCs differentiation, we found that GSK 3β and β-catenin in the canonical wnt pathway were up-regulated during differentiation. The levels of surfactant protein (SP) C, SPB, and SPD, the specific markers of AT II cells, correspondingly increased in mMSCs when Wnt3a or LiCl was added to the co-culture system to activate wnt/β-catenin signaling. The expression of these factors was depressed to some extent by inhibiting the pathway with the addition of DKK 1. The differentiation rate of mMSCs also depends on their abilities to accumulate and survive in inflammatory tissue. Our results suggested that the activation of wnt/β-catenin signaling promoted mMSCs migration towards ALI mouse-derived lung tissue in a Transwell assay, and ameliorated the cell death and the reduction of Bcl-2/Bax induced by H(2) O(2), which simultaneously caused reduced GSK 3β and β-catenin in mMSCs. These data supports a potential mechanism for the differentiation of mMSCs into AT II cells involving canonical wnt pathway activation, which may be significant to their application in ALI. PMID:23154940

  5. [Osteochondrodysplasia determined genetically by a collagen type II gene mutation].

    PubMed

    Czarny-Ratajczak, M; Rogala, P; Wolnik-Brzozowska, D; Latos-Bieleńska, A

    2001-01-01

    Chondrodysplasias are a heterogenous group of skeletal dysplasias, affecting the growing cartilage. The main part of chondrodysplasias is caused by mutations in various types of collagen genes. The current classification within this group of disorder relies on clinical, histological and radiographic features. Type II collagenopathies comprise part of chondrodysplasias, consisting of hereditary disorders caused by defects in the type II collagen. Collagen type II is coded by a large gene--COL2A1. The chromosomal location for the human COL2A1 gene is 12q13.11-q13.12. Defects in collagen type II are caused by point mutations in the COL2A1 gene. Type II collagenopathies form a wide spectrum of clinical severity ranging from lethal achondrogenesis type II, hypochondrogenesis, through severe forms like spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita, spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia congenita, Marshall syndrome, to the mild forms--Stickler syndrome and early osteoarthritis. The pathological changes in the patients are observed in the growth plate, nucleus pulposus and vitreous body, where the abnormal collagen type II is distributed. This article presents the genetic background of collagenopathies type II and the results of current molecular studies of the patients. Both the molecular and the clinical studies may promise a better understanding of the relationship between the genotype and the phenotype. We present the patients, who were diagnosed at the Department of Medical Genetics and in the Orthopaedic Department in Poznań. PMID:11481990

  6. Fermentation with Aquilariae Lignum Enhances the Anti-Diabetic Activity of Green Tea in Type II Diabetic db/db Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Su Jin; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Eun Kyung; Jung, Dae Hwa; Song, Chang Hyun; Park, Soo Jin; Choi, Seong Hun; Han, Chang Hyun; Ku, Sae Kwang; Lee, Young Joon

    2014-01-01

    The major components of tea may be significantly influenced according to the type of fermentation, and consequently the effects of different teas will differ. We examined whether green tea fermented with Aquilariae Lignum (fGT) shows a stronger anti-diabetic effect than unfermented green tea (GT) on mice with type 2 diabetes. To evaluate the anti-obesity effect of fGT, we assessed body weight, fecal excretion, serum leptin levels, exocrine pancreatic zymogen granule contents, and periovarian fat weight and adiponectin contents. Blood glucose levels, pancreatic weight, and numbers of pancreatic islet insulin- and glucagon-producing cells were determined to evaluate anti-hypoglycemic effects, while total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low- and high-density lipoprotein levels were determined to evaluate anti-hyperlipidemic effects. The antioxidant effect of fGT was detected by measuring malondialdehyde and glutathione contents and the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. fGT showed anti-obesity, anti-hypoglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemia, and antioxidant effects. Additionally, fGT exerted stronger anti-diabetic effects compared with GT. Collectively, these results suggested that fGT fermented with the appropriate amounts of Aquilariae Lignum (49:1) has a stronger effect compared with GT. Thus, fGT is a promising and potent new therapeutic agent for type 2 diabetes. PMID:25207824

  7. Symmetry conditions for type II multiferroicity in commensurate magnetic structures.

    PubMed

    Perez-Mato, J M; Gallego, S V; Elcoro, L; Tasci, E; Aroyo, M I

    2016-07-20

    Type II multiferroics are magnetically ordered phases that exhibit ferroelectricity as a magnetic induced effect. We show that in single-k magnetic phases the presence in the paramagnetic phase of non-symmorphic symmetry combined with some specific type of magnetic propagation vector can be sufficient for the occurrence of this type of multiferroic behaviour. Other symmetry scenarios especially favourable for spin driven multiferroicity are also presented. We review and classify known type II multiferroics under this viewpoint. In addition, some other magnetic phases which due to their symmetry properties can exhibit type II multiferroicity are pointed out. PMID:27218611

  8. Symmetry conditions for type II multiferroicity in commensurate magnetic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Mato, J. M.; Gallego, S. V.; Elcoro, L.; Tasci, E.; Aroyo, M. I.

    2016-07-01

    Type II multiferroics are magnetically ordered phases that exhibit ferroelectricity as a magnetic induced effect. We show that in single-k magnetic phases the presence in the paramagnetic phase of non-symmorphic symmetry combined with some specific type of magnetic propagation vector can be sufficient for the occurrence of this type of multiferroic behaviour. Other symmetry scenarios especially favourable for spin driven multiferroicity are also presented. We review and classify known type II multiferroics under this viewpoint. In addition, some other magnetic phases which due to their symmetry properties can exhibit type II multiferroicity are pointed out.

  9. Biomarkers of Type II Synthetic Pyrethroid Pesticides in Freshwater Fish

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Type II synthetic pyrethroids contain an alpha-cyano group which renders them more neurotoxic than their noncyano type I counterparts. A wide array of biomarkers have been employed to delineate the toxic responses of freshwater fish to various type II synthetic pyrethroids. These include hematological, enzymatic, cytological, genetic, omic and other types of biomarkers. This review puts together the applications of different biomarkers in freshwater fish species in response to the toxicity of the major type II pyrethroid pesticides and assesses their present status, while speculating on the possible future directions. PMID:24868555

  10. The type II collagenopathies: a spectrum of chondrodysplasias.

    PubMed

    Spranger, J; Winterpacht, A; Zabel, B

    1994-02-01

    With the application of molecular techniques the aetiopathogenesis of skeletal dysplasias is gradually elucidated. Recent advances show that some bone dysplasias result from defects in the biosynthesis of type II (cartilage) collagen. Clinical entities caused by mutations in the COL2A1 gene coding for type II collagen comprise achondrogenesis II, hypochondrogenesis, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita, Kniest dysplasia, Stickler arthroophthalmopathy and mild dominant spondyloarthropathy. The mutations are expressed in the heterozygous state, and inheritance of type II collagenopathies is autosomal dominant. The wide range of clinical manifestations is not well understood but characterization of the basic defect may provide clues to establish specific genotype-phenotype correlations. PMID:8157027

  11. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... accumulation of GAGs within cells, specifically inside the lysosomes. Lysosomes are compartments in the cell that digest and ... that cause molecules to build up inside the lysosomes, including MPS II, are called lysosomal storage disorders. ...

  12. Diosgenin from Dioscorea bulbifera: Novel Hit for Treatment of Type II Diabetes Mellitus with Inhibitory Activity against α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sougata; More, Piyush; Derle, Abhishek; Patil, Ajay B.; Markad, Pramod; Asok, Adersh; Kumbhar, Navanath; Shaikh, Mahemud L.; Ramanamurthy, Boppana; Shinde, Vaishali S.; Dhavale, Dilip D.; Chopade, Balu A.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial metabolic disease characterized by post-prandial hyperglycemia (PPHG). α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors aim to explore novel therapeutic agents. Herein we report the promises of Dioscorea bulbifera and its bioactive principle, diosgenin as novel α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitor. Among petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and 70% ethanol (v/v) extracts of bulbs of D. bulbifera, ethyl acetate extract showed highest inhibition upto 72.06 ± 0.51% and 82.64 ± 2.32% against α-amylase and α-glucosidase respectively. GC-TOF-MS analysis of ethyl acetate extract indicated presence of high diosgenin content. Diosgenin was isolated and identified by FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR and confirmed by HPLC which showed an α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition upto 70.94 ± 1.24% and 81.71 ± 3.39%, respectively. Kinetic studies confirmed the uncompetitive mode of binding of diosgenin to α-amylase indicated by lowering of both Km and Vm. Interaction studies revealed the quenching of intrinsic fluorescence of α-amylase in presence of diosgenin. Similarly, circular dichroism spectrometry showed diminished negative humped peaks at 208 nm and 222 nm. Molecular docking indicated hydrogen bonding between carboxyl group of Asp300, while hydrophobic interactions between Tyr62, Trp58, Trp59, Val163, His305 and Gln63 residues of α-amylase. Diosgenin interacted with two catalytic residues (Asp352 and Glu411) from α-glucosidase. This is the first report of its kind that provides an intense scientific rationale for use of diosgenin as novel drug candidate for type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:25216353

  13. Type II lepra reaction--an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Ray, Avas Chandra; Sen, Sumit; Banerjee, Sabyasachi; Mukhopadhyay, Jotideb

    2012-06-01

    Type II lepra reaction usually present with skin lesions. We report a 23 years old male patient presented with fever for two weeks with no visible skin lesion suggestive of leprosy and with no history of either completion or concurrent anti leprosy drug treatment was eventually turned out to be a case of Hansen's presenting with type II lepra reaction. PMID:23409423

  14. [Oxidative stress, the functional activity of beta-cells, and the content of tumor necrosis factor alpha in patients with type II diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Klebanova, E M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of dietotherapy on oxidative stress (OS) condition, the fl-cell functional activity (BCFA), insulin resistance index (IRI), and the serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (alpha-TNF) level in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM 2). The subjects, 30 patients with DM 2 (9 men, 21 women), aged 42 to 70 (mean age 58.77 +/- 8.86 years), were examined. The duration of DM 2 in the subjects was from 1 month to 5 years. OS parameters, IRI and BCFA, as well as serum alpha-TNF were measured before the study and after 3 months of observation. The tests performed after the end of the study showed that hydrocarbonate exchange remained compensated, and IRI and BCFA were moderately lowered in DM 2 patients on dietotherapy. There was an insignificant elevation of serum alpha-TNF, while the condition of hydrocarbonate exchange had bettered. Changes in OS parameters in patients on dietotherapy evidence that the reserve activity of anti-oxidative system enzymes decreases. Thus, the compensation of hydrocarbonate exchange in DM 2 patients on dietotherapy retains, which is accompanied by a decrease in IRI and BCFA, while serum alpha-TNFincreases insignificantly, and reserved anti-oxidative system enzyme activity decreases moderately. PMID:17087190

  15. Vortex Dynamics Studies in Type II Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhigang

    1993-03-01

    Vibrating reed, ac susceptibility and resistance measurements have been used to study the dynamics of vortices in type II superconductors. In Nb measurements, in spite of the low T _{c}'s and long coherence lengths compared to the high T_{c} superconductors, we find an extended region of temperature and field over which reversible flux line motion occurs when the Nb reed is oriented with its long dimension perpendicular to the applied field. We observe a strong, frequency-independent depression of the "irreversibility temperature" T _{Q}(H) below the resistively determined critical temperature T_{R}. The results of the ac susceptibility measurements also support these results. We concluded that observation of an extended region of magnetic reversibility is not restricted to high T_{c} or extremely anisotropic materials, and depends upon the geometry of samples with respect to the applied field direction. In NbSe_2 measurements, vibrating reed measurements were performed with the hexagonal c-axis approximately parallel or perpendicular to an applied magnetic field. Field-cooling data revealed an unusual peak in the frequency shift of the reed, accompanied by two peaks in reed dissipation. The upper peak occurs near the temperature where R~ 0, and the lower peak is very sample and amplitude dependent and hysteretic. The ac susceptibility results also show that corresponding features. The interplay of superconductivity and density waves were investigated by comparing data for NbSe _2 with the results for NbS_2 , which has a comparable superconducting T _{c } and crystal structure. In NbS_2 measurements, we did not see such a peak in the frequency shift nor the double peak feature in the dissipation in either vibrating reed measurements or ac susceptibility measurements. We have also studied the (Ba,K)BiO_3 system. It is cubic at its superconducting composition, but exhibits a moderately high T_{c }=30 K that is intermediate between conventional and high T_{rm c

  16. Second- and higher-order structural changes of DNA induced by antitumor-active tetrazolato-bridged dinuclear platinum(II) complexes with different types of 5-substituent.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Masako; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Sato, Takaji; Mino, Yoshiki; Chikuma, Masahiko; Komeda, Seiji

    2013-10-01

    Here, we used circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence microscopy (FM) to examine the interactions of a series of antitumor-active tetrazolato-bridged dinuclear platinum(II) complexes, [{cis-Pt(NH3)2}2(μ-OH)(μ-5-R-tetrazolato-N2,N3)](n+) (R=CH3 (1), C6H5 (2), CH2COOCH2CH3 (3), CH2COO(-) (4), n=2 (1-3) or 1 (4)), which are derivatives of [{cis-Pt(NH3)2}2(μ-OH)(μ-tetrazolato-N2,N3)](2+) (5-H-Y), with DNA to elucidate the influence of these interactions on the secondary or higher-order structure of DNA and reveal the mechanism of action. The CD study showed that three derivatives, 1-3, with a double-positive charge altered the secondary structures of calf thymus DNA but that 4, the only complex with a single positive charge, induced almost no change, implying that the B- to C-form conformational change is influenced by ionic attraction. Unexpectedly, single-molecule observations with FM revealed that 4 changed the higher-order structure of T4 DNA into the compact-globule state most efficiently, at the lowest concentration, which was nearly equal to that of 5-H-Y. These contradictory results suggest that secondary structural changes are not necessarily linked to higher-order ones, and that the non-coordinative interaction could be divided into two distinct interactions: (1) ionic attraction and (2) hydrogen bonding and/or van der Waals contact. The relationship between diffusion-controlled non-coordinative DNA interactions and cytotoxicities is also discussed. PMID:23725767

  17. Activity of magnocellular neuroendocrine cells in the hypothalamus of unanaesthetized monkeys. II. Osmosensitivity of functional cell types in the supraoptic nucleus and the internuclear zone.

    PubMed

    Hayward, J N; Jennings, D P

    1973-08-01

    1. We studied magnocellular neuroendocrine cells and non-neuroendocrine cells in the supraoptic nucleus (n.s.o.) and internuclear zone (i.n.z.) in the hypothalamus of unanaesthetized, chronically prepared monkeys. After antidromic identification, functional cell typing and sensory testing we injected solutions of varying tonicity into an implanted carotid cannula to determine osmosensitivity.2. On the basis of the anatomical location of the cells, the pattern of discharge in response to osmotic stimuli, the effect of posterior pituitary gland stimulation and the response to non-noxious arousing sensory stimuli, we divided the 101 osmosensitive cells studied into two major groups: eighty-nine (88%) ;specific' biphasic osmosensitive magnocellular neuroendocrine cells and twelve (12%) ;non-specific' monophasic osmosensitive non-neuroendocrine cells.3. ;Non-specific' non-neuroendocrine osmosensitive cells included nine (9%) cells lying in the internuclear zone (i.n.z.) and showing monophasic exictatory or inhibitory responses to both osmotic and to mildly arousing sensory stimuli. Three (3%) ;high-frequency burster' (h.f.b.) osmosensitive cells were located in the n.s.o.-t.o. (supraoptic nucleus-optic tract) junction, showed accelerated discharge to auditory, but not to light or touch stimuli, and were monophasically inhibited by osmotic stimuli.4. Thirty-three (33%) antidromically ;identified' magnocellular neuroendocrine cells in the n.s.o. and i.n.z. we classify as ;specific' biphasic osmosensitive cells on the basis of the excitatory-inhibitory response to intracarotid hypertonic sodium chloride and the lack of response to non-noxious arousing sensory stimuli. Fifty-six (55%) of the ;non-identified' magnocellular neuroendocrine cells in the n.s.o. and i.n.z. we also found to be ;specific' biphasic osmosensitive cells.5. Magnocellular neuroendocrine cells in n.s.o. and i.n.z. exhibited three functional types, ;silent' (s.), ;continuously active' (c.a.), and ;low

  18. A human primary T-lymphocyte-derived human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat-associated kinase phosphorylates the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II and induces CAK activity.

    PubMed

    Nekhai, S; Shukla, R R; Kumar, A

    1997-10-01

    Tat protein mediates transactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), which results in more-efficient transcript elongation. Since phosphorylation of C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II correlates with its enhanced processivity, we studied the properties of a Tat-associated CTD kinase derived from mitogenically stimulated human primary T lymphocytes (TTK). TTK binds to full-length Tat and specifically phosphorylates CTD and CDK2. This dual kinase activity is characteristic of CDK-activating kinase (CAK). The CTD kinase activity is induced upon mitogenic stimulation of primary T lymphocytes. Fractionation of T-cell lysate demonstrates that Tat-associated CTD kinase activity elutes in two peaks. About 60% of Tat-associated CTD kinase copurifies with CDK2 kinase activity and contains the CAK components CDK7 and cyclin H. The rest of Tat-associated kinase is free of CDK2 kinase activity and the CAK components and thus may represent a novel CTD kinase. The kinase activities of TTK are blocked by the adenosine analog 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole (DRB) as well as by the kinase inhibitor H8 at concentrations known to block transcript elongation. Importantly, the Tat-associated kinase markedly induced CAK. We suggest that the mechanism of Tat-mediated processive transcription of the HIV-1 promoter includes a Tat-associated CAK activator. PMID:9311822

  19. Type II collagen screening in the human chondrodysplasias.

    PubMed

    Horton, W A; Campbell, D; Machado, M A; Chou, J

    1989-12-01

    Abnormalities of type II collagen have been considered strong candidates for causing human condrodysplasias. We have employed peptide mapping to screen for several types of type II colagen abnormalities in cartilage samples from 66 patients with 20 separate disorders. Except for achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino) and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) congenita in which abnormalities have been described and diastrophic dysplasia in which the changes were probably secondary, no abnormalities were detected. Within the limitations of the screening technique, the results combined with other data from the literature suggest that abnormalities of this molecule are not common causes of chondrodysplasias outside of the achondrogenesis type II-SED congenita family of disorders. PMID:2624272

  20. Herringbone bursts associated with type II solar radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Robinson, R. D.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed observations of the herringbone (HB) fine structure on type II solar radio bursts are presented. Data from the Culgoora radiospectrograph, radiometer and radioheliograph are analyzed. The characteristic spectral profiles, frequency drift rates and exciter velocities, fluxes, source sizes, brightness temperatures, and polarizations of individual HB bursts are determined. Correlations between individual bursts within the characteristic groups of bursts and the properties of the associated type II bursts are examined. These data are compatible with HB bursts being radiation at multiples of the plasma frequency generated by electron streams accelerated by the type II shock. HB bursts are physically distinct phenomena from type II and type III bursts, differing significantly in emission processes and/or source conditions; this conclusion indicates that many of the presently available theoretical ideas for HB bursts are incorrect.

  1. SN 2014G is a Type II-L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eenmae, Tonis; Martin, John C.; Grammer, Skyler; Humphreys, Roberta

    2014-02-01

    We report a revised spectroscopic classification of Type II-L for SN 2014G. The initial classification of SN 2014G was Type IIn (CBET 3787). That early spectrum showed a blue continuum with no clear absorption and several very narrow emission lines, which in retrospect may be from an H II region near the SN. More recent spectra taken several weeks after peak brightness with the Tartu Observatory 1.5 m Telescope and with the ASP-32 spectrograph on 18 Feb 2014 UT and the Multiple Mirror Telescope Hectospec MOS on 25 Feb 2014 UT reveal a spectrum of a regular Type II supernova.

  2. Type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis: morphologic and immunohistopathologic studies.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, M; Keene, D R; Blank, E; Hori, H; Sakai, L Y; Sherwin, L A; Hollister, D W

    1988-12-01

    A 32-wk-gestation female with type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis has been studied. The clinical features were typical, and radiographs revealed short ribs, hypoplastic ilia, absence of ossification of sacrum, pubis, ischia, tali, calcanei, and many vertebral bodies; the long bones were short with mild metaphyseal flaring. The femoral cylinder index was 6.3. Comparison with previous cases placed the patient toward the mild end of the achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis spectrum (Whitley-Gorlin prototype IV). Light microscopy revealed hypercellular cartilage with decreased matrix traversed by numerous fibrous vascular canals. The growth plate was markedly abnormal. Ultrastructural studies revealed prominently dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum containing a fine granular material with occasional fibrils in all chondrocytes. Immunohistologic studies indicated irregular large areas of cartilage matrix staining with monoclonal antibody to human type III collagen. The relative intensity of matrix staining for type II collagen appeared diminished. More striking, however, were intense focal accumulations of type II collagen within small rounded perinuclear structures of most chondrocytes but not other cell types. These results strongly suggest intracellular retention of type II collagen within vacuolar structures, probably within the dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum observed in all chondrocytes by electron microscopy (EM), and imply the presence of an abnormal, poorly secreted type II collagen molecule. Biochemical studies (see companion paper) suggest that this patient had a new dominant lethal disorder caused by a structural abnormality of type II collagen. PMID:3057886

  3. Type-II Fuzzy Decision Support System for Fertilizer

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Ather; Sarwar, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    Type-II fuzzy sets are used to convey the uncertainties in the membership function of type-I fuzzy sets. Linguistic information in expert rules does not give any information about the geometry of the membership functions. These membership functions are mostly constructed through numerical data or range of classes. But there exists an uncertainty about the shape of the membership, that is, whether to go for a triangle membership function or a trapezoidal membership function. In this paper we use a type-II fuzzy set to overcome this uncertainty, and develop a fuzzy decision support system of fertilizers based on a type-II fuzzy set. This type-II fuzzy system takes cropping time and soil nutrients in the form of spatial surfaces as input, fuzzifies it using a type-II fuzzy membership function, and implies fuzzy rules on it in the fuzzy inference engine. The output of the fuzzy inference engine, which is in the form of interval value type-II fuzzy sets, reduced to an interval type-I fuzzy set, defuzzifies it to a crisp value and generates a spatial surface of fertilizers. This spatial surface shows the spatial trend of the required amount of fertilizer needed to cultivate a specific crop. The complexity of our algorithm is O(mnr), where m is the height of the raster, n is the width of the raster, and r is the number of expert rules. PMID:24892071

  4. Prenylation of Rab8 GTPase by type I and type II geranylgeranyl transferases.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A L; Erdman, R A; Castellano, F; Maltese, W A

    1998-08-01

    Rab GTPases are post-translationally modified by addition of geranylgeranyl moieties to carboxyl-terminal cysteine residues. For Rab proteins ending with xxCC xCxC and CCxx motifs this modification is catalysed by geranylgeranyltransferase type II (GGTaseII), and is entirely dependent on the Rab substrate being bound to Rab escort protein (REP). Several Rab proteins contain carboxyl-terminal CaaL prenylation motifs typical of members of the Rho family, which are modified in a REP-independent manner by geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTaseI). The present studies show that one such Rab protein (Rab8), which ends with a CVLL motif, is uniquely able to serve as a substrate for either REP/GGTaseII or GGTaseI in cell-free assays. The modification of Rab8 by GGTaseI did not require REP, indicating that a REP-induced conformational change is not essential for exposure of the Rab carboxyl-terminal cysteine prenylation site. To determine whether one enzyme plays a predominant role in Rab8 prenylation in vivo, the incorporation of [3H]mevalonate into Rab8 was measured in human embryonal kidney 293 cells under conditions where the activity of GGTaseI, but not GGTaseII, was blocked by the peptidomimetic inhibitor GGTI-298. The GGTaseI inhibitor did not prevent prenylation of either overexpressed Myc-tagged Rab8 or endogenous Rab8, whereas prenylation of a known GGTaseI substrate with the same carboxyl-terminal motif, Cdc42Hs, was completely blocked. To rule out the possibility that the apparent prenylation of Rab8 by GGTaseII occurs only when GGTaseI activity is eliminated, metabolic labelling studies were carried out in the absence of the GGTaseI inhibitor, using a REP-binding-deficient Rab8 construct (Y78D) that cannot serve as a substrate for GGTaseII, but is indistinguishable from wild-type Rab8 as a substrate for GGTaseI. Prenylation of the Y78D mutant was reduced by 60-70% in intact cells, consistent with the conclusion that the majority of Rab8 is prenylated by the

  5. Prenylation of Rab8 GTPase by type I and type II geranylgeranyl transferases.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, A L; Erdman, R A; Castellano, F; Maltese, W A

    1998-01-01

    Rab GTPases are post-translationally modified by addition of geranylgeranyl moieties to carboxyl-terminal cysteine residues. For Rab proteins ending with xxCC xCxC and CCxx motifs this modification is catalysed by geranylgeranyltransferase type II (GGTaseII), and is entirely dependent on the Rab substrate being bound to Rab escort protein (REP). Several Rab proteins contain carboxyl-terminal CaaL prenylation motifs typical of members of the Rho family, which are modified in a REP-independent manner by geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTaseI). The present studies show that one such Rab protein (Rab8), which ends with a CVLL motif, is uniquely able to serve as a substrate for either REP/GGTaseII or GGTaseI in cell-free assays. The modification of Rab8 by GGTaseI did not require REP, indicating that a REP-induced conformational change is not essential for exposure of the Rab carboxyl-terminal cysteine prenylation site. To determine whether one enzyme plays a predominant role in Rab8 prenylation in vivo, the incorporation of [3H]mevalonate into Rab8 was measured in human embryonal kidney 293 cells under conditions where the activity of GGTaseI, but not GGTaseII, was blocked by the peptidomimetic inhibitor GGTI-298. The GGTaseI inhibitor did not prevent prenylation of either overexpressed Myc-tagged Rab8 or endogenous Rab8, whereas prenylation of a known GGTaseI substrate with the same carboxyl-terminal motif, Cdc42Hs, was completely blocked. To rule out the possibility that the apparent prenylation of Rab8 by GGTaseII occurs only when GGTaseI activity is eliminated, metabolic labelling studies were carried out in the absence of the GGTaseI inhibitor, using a REP-binding-deficient Rab8 construct (Y78D) that cannot serve as a substrate for GGTaseII, but is indistinguishable from wild-type Rab8 as a substrate for GGTaseI. Prenylation of the Y78D mutant was reduced by 60-70% in intact cells, consistent with the conclusion that the majority of Rab8 is prenylated by the

  6. A COL2A1 mutation in achondrogenesis type II results in the replacement of type II collagen by type I and III collagens in cartilage.

    PubMed

    Chan, D; Cole, W G; Chow, C W; Mundlos, S; Bateman, J F

    1995-01-27

    An autosomal dominant mutation in the COL2A1 gene was identified in a fetus with achondrogenesis type II. A transition of G2853 to A in exon 41 produced a substitution of Gly769 by Ser within the triple helical domain of the alpha 1(II) chain of type II collagen, interrupting the mandatory Gly-X-Y triplet sequence required for the normal formation of stable triple helical type II collagen molecules, resulting in the complete absence of type II collagen in the cartilage, which had a gelatinous composition. Type I and III collagens were the major species found in cartilage tissue and synthesized by cultured chondrocytes along with cartilage type XI collagen. However, cultured chondrocytes produced a trace amount of type II collagen, which was retained within the cells and not secreted. In situ hybridization of cartilage sections showed that the chondrocytes produced both type II and type I collagen mRNA. As a result, it is likely that the chondrocytes produced type II collagen molecules, which were then degraded. The close proximity of the Gly769 substitution by Ser to the mammalian collagenase cleavage site at Gly775-Leu776 may have produced an unstable domain that was highly susceptible to proteolysis. The type I and III collagens that replaced type II collagen were unable to maintain the normal structure of the hyaline cartilage but did support chondrocyte maturation, evidenced by the expression of type X collagen in the hypertrophic zone of the growth plate cartilage. PMID:7829510

  7. Serum markers for type II diabetes mellitus

    DOEpatents

    Metz, Thomas O; Qian, Wei-Jun; Jacobs, Jon M; Polpitiya, Ashoka D; Camp, II, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2014-03-18

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus utilizing selected biomarkers described hereafter either alone or in combination. The present invention allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases and provides other advantages, including the formulation of effective strategies for characterizing, archiving, and contrasting data from multiple sample types under varying conditions.

  8. Notch maintains Drosophila type II neuroblasts by suppressing expression of the Fez transcription factor Earmuff.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaosu; Xie, Yonggang; Zhu, Sijun

    2016-07-15

    Notch signaling is crucial for maintaining neural stem cell (NSC) self-renewal and heterogeneity; however, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In Drosophila, loss of Notch prematurely terminates the self-renewal of larval type II neuroblasts (NBs, the Drosophila NSCs) and transforms type II NBs into type I NBs. Here, we demonstrate that Notch maintains type II NBs by suppressing the activation of earmuff (erm) by Pointed P1 (PntP1). We show that loss of Notch or components of its canonical pathway leads to PntP1-dependent ectopic Erm expression in type II NBs. Knockdown of Erm significantly rescues the loss-of-Notch phenotypes, and misexpression of Erm phenocopies the loss of Notch. Ectopically expressed Erm promotes the transformation of type II NBs into type I NBs by inhibiting PntP1 function and expression in type II NBs. Our work not only elucidates a key mechanism of Notch-mediated maintenance of type II NB self-renewal and identity, but also reveals a novel function of Erm. PMID:27151950

  9. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  10. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  11. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  12. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  13. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  14. Achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino)--a case report.

    PubMed

    Swar, M O; Srikrishna, B V

    1995-09-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal form of congenital chondrodystophy characterised by extreme micromelia. Definitive clinical and radiographic criteria have been established to differentiate Type II Achondrogenesis (Langer-Saldino) from type I Achondrogenesis (Parenti-Fraccaro). The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive for both types. We are presenting a case of Type II Achondrogenesis, a still born male to consanguinous parents. The clinical features included an enlarged head, protuberant abdomen and short stubby limbs. The mother had earlier delivered two still born males presumably with similar features. Radiographic characteristics of absence of rib fractures and well ossified iliac bones with concave medial margins and absent or deficient ossification of the sacrum, ischiae, and pubic bones differentiated Type II Achondrogenesis from Type I Achondrogenesis. PMID:8798967

  15. PKMiner: a database for exploring type II polyketide synthases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial aromatic polyketides are a pharmacologically important group of natural products synthesized by type II polyketide synthases (type II PKSs) in actinobacteria. Isolation of novel aromatic polyketides from microbial sources is currently impeded because of the lack of knowledge about prolific taxa for polyketide synthesis and the difficulties in finding and optimizing target microorganisms. Comprehensive analysis of type II PKSs and the prediction of possible polyketide chemotypes in various actinobacterial genomes will thus enable the discovery or synthesis of novel polyketides in the most plausible microorganisms. Description We performed a comprehensive computational analysis of type II PKSs and their gene clusters in actinobacterial genomes. By identifying type II PKS subclasses from the sequence analysis of 280 known type II PKSs, we developed highly accurate domain classifiers for these subclasses and derived prediction rules for aromatic polyketide chemotypes generated by different combinations of type II PKS domains. Using 319 available actinobacterial genomes, we predicted 231 type II PKSs from 40 PKS gene clusters in 25 actinobacterial genomes, and polyketide chemotypes corresponding to 22 novel PKS gene clusters in 16 genomes. These results showed that the microorganisms capable of producing aromatic polyketides are specifically distributed within a certain suborder of Actinomycetales such as Catenulisporineae, Frankineae, Micrococcineae, Micromonosporineae, Pseudonocardineae, Streptomycineae, and Streptosporangineae. Conclusions We could identify the novel candidates of type II PKS gene clusters and their polyketide chemotypes in actinobacterial genomes by comprehensive analysis of type II PKSs and prediction of aromatic polyketides. The genome analysis results indicated that the specific suborders in actinomycetes could be used as prolific taxa for polyketide synthesis. The chemotype-prediction rules with the suggested type II PKS

  16. Achondrogenesis type II with normally developed extremities: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kocakoc, Ercan; Kiris, Adem

    2002-07-01

    We present a case of achondrogenesis type II with normally developed extremities that was confirmed with postmortem ultrasonographic and radiographic examination. The length of the long bones may vary and the diagnosis of achondrogenesis should not be ruled out with normally developed extremities. Intrauterine sonographic examination of the vertebrae is very important and the absence of vertebral body ossification may be the unique finding of achondrogenesis type II. Axial ultrasonographic images and postmortem plain radiographs are useful to clarify the pathology. PMID:12124695

  17. Histological types of polypoid cutaneous melanoma II.

    PubMed

    Knezević, Fabijan; Duancić, Vjekoslav; Sitić, Sanda; Horvat-Knezević, Anica; Benković, Vesna; Ramić, Snjezana; Kostović, Kresimir; Ramljak, Vesna; Vrdoljak, Danko Velemir; Stanec, Mladen; Bozović, Angelina

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain which histological types of melanoma can clinically and morphologically appear as polypoid melanomas. In 645 cases of primary cutaneous melanoma we have analyzed criteria for diagnosis of polypoid cutaneous melanoma and afterwards we have analyzed growth phase in each polypoid melanoma, histological type of atypical melanocytes, the number of epidermal ridges which are occupied by atypical melanocytes, and distribution according to age, sex and location, as well as the disease free survival. According to the criteria for polypoid melanomas we have found 147 (22.8%) polypoid cutaneous melanomas. Analyzing the growth phases, histological types of atypical melanocytes and the number of affected epidermal ridges in the group of polypoid melanomas we have ascertained 2 (1.4%) ALMs, 4 (2.8%) LMMs, 42 (28.6%) SSMs and 99 (67.2%) NMs. Our conclusion is that polypoid cutaneous melanomas are morphological forms of various histological melanoma types (ALM, LMM, SSM and NM) and they can all display polypoid morphological form. Polypoid cutaneous melanomas are most often of nodular histological type. PMID:18217457

  18. Period-Luminosity Relation for Type II Cepheids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Feast, Michael W.; Menzies, John W.

    2009-09-01

    We have estimated JHKs magnitudes corrected to mean intensity for LMC type II Cepheids found in the OGLE-III survey. Period-luminosity relations (PLRs) are derived in JHKs as well as in a reddening-free VI parameter. The BL Her stars (P<4 d) and the W Vir stars (P = 4 to 20 d) are co-linear in these PLRs. The slopes of the infrared relations agree with those found previously for type II Cepheids in globular clusters within the uncertainties. Using the pulsation parallaxes of V553 Cen and SW Tau, the data lead to an LMC modulus of 18.46+/-0.10 mag, uncorrected for any metallicity effects. We have now established the PLR of type II Cepheids as a distance indicator by confirming that (almost) the same PLR satisfies the distributions in the PL diagram of type II Cepheids in (at least) two different systems, i.e. the LMC and Galactic globular clusters, and by calibrating the zero point of the PLR. RV Tau stars in the LMC, as a group, are not co-linear with the shorter-period type II Cepheids in the infrared PLRs in marked contrast to such stars in globular clusters. We note differences in period distribution and infrared colors for RV Tau stars in the LMC, globular clusters and Galactic field. We also compare the PLR of type II Cepheids with that of classical Cepheids.

  19. Health Activities Project (HAP), Trial Edition II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) trial edition (set II) are a teacher information folio and numerous student activity folios which center around the idea that students in grades 5-8 can control their own health and safety. Each student folio is organized into a Synopsis, Health Background, Materials, Setting Up, and Activities…

  20. Uterine type II estrogen-binding sites are not of eosinophil origin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-05

    A recent report suggested that nuclear type II sites in the rat uterus are of eosinophil origin and may represent (/sup 3/H)estradiol binding to eosinophil peroxidase. To further evaluate this hypothesis the authors examined the response of nuclear type II sites to estrogen under conditions where eosinophils are not present. Results of the experiments show that physiological levels of estradiol-17..beta.. (10 nM for 72 h) will stimulate nuclear type II sites in highly purified cultures of rat uterine stromal and myometrial cells. The magnitude of the response of type II sites to estradiol in these stromal (4-fold) and myometrial (80-fold) cell cultures was essentially identical to that observed in the uterine cell types following in vivo estrogen treatment. Since these highly purified cultures of uterine cells were prepared from the uterus of a 21-day ovariectomized rat which is devoid of eosinophils, it was concluded that estradiol stimulation of nuclear type II sites is a direct intracellular response to estrogen which occurs independent of eosinophil accumulation. Furthermore, it was found that type II sites in the rat uterus are not peroxidase. Stimulation of cytosol and nuclear type II sites by estrogen in the rat uterus is a direct intracellular response to the hormone unrelated to eosinophil accumulation and/or peroxidase activity.

  1. Mg II 2800 A emission in late type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    The largest body of data on ultraviolet spectra of late-type stars now available is the series of scans made with the long wavelength spectrometer onboard OAO-2. Some features of selected scans from this series and estimates of Mg II emission fluxes were reported earlier. Since that time, the effects of sky background, scattered light and variable instrumental sensitivity have become better understood. Additional stars are used to define more clearly the transition from Mg II 2800 A absorption to emission with advancing spectral type, and additional scans of alpha Sco provide a better estimate of Mg II emission strength for this supergiant in OAO observations.

  2. CHZ868, a Type II JAK2 Inhibitor, Reverses Type I JAK Inhibitor Persistence and Demonstrates Efficacy in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Sara C.; Keller, Matthew D.; Chiu, Sophia; Koppikar, Priya; Guryanova, Olga A.; Rapaport, Franck; Xu, Ke; Manova, Katia; Pankov, Dmitry; O’Reilly, Richard J.; Kleppe, Maria; McKenney, Anna Sophia; Shih, Alan H.; Shank, Kaitlyn; Ahn, Jihae; Papalexi, Eftymia; Spitzer, Barbara; Socci, Nick; Viale, Agnes; Mandon, Emeline; Ebel, Nicolas; Andraos, Rita; Rubert, Joëlle; Dammassa, Ernesta; Romanet, Vincent; Dölemeyer, Arno; Zender, Michael; Heinlein, Melanie; Rampal, Rajit; Weinberg, Rona Singer; Hoffman, Ron; Sellers, William R.; Hofmann, Francesco; Murakami, Masato; Baffert, Fabienne; Gaul, Christoph; Radimerski, Thomas; Levine, Ross L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Although clinically tested JAK inhibitors reduce splenomegaly and systemic symptoms, molecular responses are not observed in most myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) patients. We previously demonstrated that MPN cells become persistent to type I JAK inhibitors that bind the active conformation of JAK2. We investigated if CHZ868, a type II JAK inhibitor, would demonstrate activity in JAK inhibitor persistent cells, murine MPN models, and MPN patient samples. JAK2- and MPL-mutant cell lines were sensitive to CHZ868, including type I JAK inhibitor persistent cells. CHZ868 showed significant activity in murine MPN models and induced reductions in mutant allele burden not observed with type I JAK inhibitors. These data demonstrate that type II JAK inhibition is a viable therapeutic approach for MPN patients. PMID:26175413

  3. AB124. Mucolipidosis type II: clinical features and laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Can, Ngoc Thi Bich; Vu, Dung Chi; Bui, Thao Phuong; Nguyen, Khanh Ngoc; Hwu, Wuh-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background I-cell disease (Mucolipidosis II) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of N-acetylglucosamine-l-phosphotransferase, an enzyme that transfers phosphate groups onto oligosaccharide units of lysosomal enzyme precursors. Due to the absence of transferase activity, the common phosphomannose recognition marker of acid hydrolases is not generated, and the enzymes are not targeted to the lysosomes I. As a consequence the enzymes are secreted into the extracellular space, and high activities can be found in the serum, cerebrospinal fluid and urine of the patients, whereas inside the cells (fibroblasts) the enzyme levels are considerably reduced. Mucolipidosis is also known as I-cell disease because of the coarse granular cytoplasmic inclusions seen in cultured skin fibroblasts which are large lysosomes containing heterogeneous material. Objective To describe clinical features and enzyme activity of patients with mucolipidosis type II. Methods Clinical features, laboratory and plasma lysosom enzyme activity by four MU-Fluorometric assay was study. Results and conclusions Sixteen cases (seven girls and nine boys) onset at 5.93±4.28 years of age the onset age of 2.3±3.1 years (median 1.25) with the feature of joint stiffness and bone deformation. 100% cases admitted with the feature of joint stiffness, chest deformation and kyphoscoliosis, 93.3% coarse facial features. No patients had hepatosplenomegaly on ultrasound, 5/15 patients had heart valves disease. Enzyme assay showed α-Hexosaminidase of 1,885.98±338.7 nmoL/mg plasma/17 h, α-Iduronate sulfatase of 4,534.78±1,062.97 nmoL/mg plasma/4 h. Mucolipidosis has seriously affected the life of the patients.

  4. Quantum cascade light emitting diodes based on type-II quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.H.; Yang, R.Q.; Zhang, D.; Murry, S.J.; Pei, S.S.; Allerman, A.A.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1997-01-21

    The authors have demonstrated room-temperature CW operation of type-II quantum cascade (QC) light emitting diodes at 4.2 {micro}m using InAs/InGaSb/InAlSb type-II quantum wells. The type-II QC configuration utilizes sequential multiple photon emissions in a staircase of coupled type-II quantum wells. The device was grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a p-type GaSb substrate and was compared of 20 periods of active regions separated by digitally graded quantum well injection regions. The maximum average output power is about 250 {micro}W at 80 K, and 140 {micro}W at 300 K at a repetition rate of 1 kHz with a duty cycle of 50%.

  5. Propionibacterium acnes Types I and II Represent Phylogenetically Distinct Groups

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Andrew; Valanne, Susanna; Ramage, Gordon; Tunney, Michael M.; Glenn, Josephine V.; McLorinan, Gregory C.; Bhatia, Ajay; Maisonneuve, Jean-Francois; Lodes, Michael; Persing, David H.; Patrick, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Although two phenotypes of the opportunistic pathogen Propionibacterium acnes (types I and II) have been described, epidemiological investigations of their roles in different infections have not been widely reported. Using immunofluorescence microscopy with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) QUBPa1 and QUBPa2, specific for types I and II, respectively, we investigated the prevalences of the two types among 132 P. acnes isolates. Analysis of isolates from failed prosthetic hip implants (n = 40) revealed approximately equal numbers of type I and II organisms. Isolates from failed prosthetic hip-associated bone (n = 6) and tissue (n = 38) samples, as well as isolates from acne (n = 22), dental infections (n = 8), and skin removed during surgical incision (n = 18) were predominately of type I. A total of 11 (8%) isolates showed atypical MAb labeling and could not be conclusively identified. Phylogenetic analysis of P. acnes by nucleotide sequencing revealed the 16S rRNA gene to be highly conserved between types I and II. In contrast, sequence analysis of recA and a putative hemolysin gene (tly) revealed significantly greater type-specific polymorphisms that corresponded to phylogenetically distinct cluster groups. All 11 isolates with atypical MAb labeling were identified as type I by sequencing. Within the recA and tly phylogenetic trees, nine of these isolates formed a cluster distinct from other type I organisms, suggesting a further phylogenetic subdivision within type I. Our study therefore demonstrates that the phenotypic differences between P. acnes types I and II reflect deeper differences in their phylogeny. Furthermore, nucleotide sequencing provides an accurate method for identifying the type status of P. acnes isolates. PMID:15634990

  6. In vivo pharmacological evaluation of two novel type II (inducible) nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tracey, W R; Nakane, M; Basha, F; Carter, G

    1995-05-01

    Selective type II (inducible) nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors have several potential therapeutic applications, including treatment of sepsis, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. The ability of two novel, selective inhibitors of type II NOS, S-ethylisothiourea (EIT) and 2-amino-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-1,3-thiazine (AMT), to inhibit type II NOS function in vivo was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated rats. Type II NOS activity was assessed by measuring changes in plasma nitrite and nitrate concentrations ([NOx]). Both EIT and AMT elicited a dose-dependent and > 95% inhibition of the LPS-induced increase in plasma [NOx]. The ED50 values for EIT and AMT were 0.4 and 0.2 mg/kg, respectively. In addition, the administration of LPS and either NOS inhibitor resulted in a dose-dependent increase in animal mortality; neither compound was lethal when administered alone. Pretreatment with L-arginine (but not D-arginine) prevented the mortality, while not affecting the type II NOS-dependent NO production, suggesting the toxicity may be due to inhibition of one of the other NOS isoforms (endothelial or neuronal). Thus, although EIT and AMT are potent inhibitors of type II NOS function in vivo, type II NOS inhibitors of even greater selectivity may need to be developed for therapeutic applications. PMID:7585335

  7. Angiotensin II and angiotensin II receptor blocker modulate the arrhythmogenic activity of pulmonary veins

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Jen; Chen, Yao-Chang; Tai, Ching-Tai; Yeh, Hung-I; Lin, Cheng-I; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2005-01-01

    Angiotensin II receptor blockers (AIIRBs) have been shown to prevent atrial fibrillation. The pulmonary veins (PVs) are the most important focus for the generation of atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether angiotensin II or AIIRB may change the arrhythmogenic activity of the PVs. Conventional microelectrodes and whole-cell patch clamps were used to investigate the action potentials (APs) and ionic currents in isolated rabbit PV tissue and single cardiomyocytes before and after administering angiotensin II or losartan (AIIRB). In the tissue preparations, angiotensin II induced delayed after-depolarizations (1, 10, and 100 nM) and accelerated the automatic rhythm (10 and 100 nM). Angiotensin II (100 nM) prolonged the AP duration and increased the contractile force (10 and 100 nM). Losartan (1 and 10 μM) inhibited the automatic rhythm. Losartan (10 μM) prolonged the AP duration and reduced the contractile force (1 and 10 μM). Angiotensin II reduced the transient outward potassium current (Ito) but increased the L-type calcium, delayed rectifier potassium (IK), transient inward (Iti), pacemaker, and Na+–Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) currents in the PV cardiomyocytes. Losartan decreased the Ito, IK, Iti, and NCX currents. In conclusion, angiotensin II and AIIRB modulate the PV electrical activity, which may play a role in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation. PMID:16273119

  8. Plasticity of Hopx+ Type I alveolar cells to regenerate Type II cells in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rajan; Barkauskas, Christina E.; Takeda, Norifumi; Bowie, Emily J.; Aghajanian, Haig; Wang, Qiaohong; Padmanabhan, Arun; Manderfield, Lauren J.; Gupta, Mudit; Li, Deqiang; Li, Li; Trivedi, Chinmay M.; Hogan, Brigid L. M.; Epstein, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    The plasticity of differentiated cells in adult tissues undergoing repair is an area of intense research. Pulmonary alveolar Type II cells produce surfactant and function as progenitors in the adult, demonstrating both self-renewal and differentiation into gas exchanging Type I cells. In vivo, Type I cells are thought to be terminally differentiated and their ability to give rise to alternate lineages has not been reported. Here, we show that Hopx becomes restricted to Type I cells during development. However, unexpectedly, lineage-labeled Hopx+ cells both proliferate and generate Type II cells during adult alveolar regrowth following partial pneumonectomy. In clonal 3D culture, single Hopx+ Type I cells generate organoids composed of Type I and Type II cells, a process modulated by TGFβ signaling. These findings demonstrate unanticipated plasticity of Type I cells and a bi-directional lineage relationship between distinct differentiated alveolar epithelial cell types in vivo and in single cell culture. PMID:25865356

  9. Plasticity of Hopx(+) type I alveolar cells to regenerate type II cells in the lung.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rajan; Barkauskas, Christina E; Takeda, Norifumi; Bowie, Emily J; Aghajanian, Haig; Wang, Qiaohong; Padmanabhan, Arun; Manderfield, Lauren J; Gupta, Mudit; Li, Deqiang; Li, Li; Trivedi, Chinmay M; Hogan, Brigid L M; Epstein, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    The plasticity of differentiated cells in adult tissues undergoing repair is an area of intense research. Pulmonary alveolar type II cells produce surfactant and function as progenitors in the adult, demonstrating both self-renewal and differentiation into gas exchanging type I cells. In vivo, type I cells are thought to be terminally differentiated and their ability to give rise to alternate lineages has not been reported. Here we show that Hopx becomes restricted to type I cells during development. However, unexpectedly, lineage-labelled Hopx(+) cells both proliferate and generate type II cells during adult alveolar regrowth following partial pneumonectomy. In clonal 3D culture, single Hopx(+) type I cells generate organoids composed of type I and type II cells, a process modulated by TGFβ signalling. These findings demonstrate unanticipated plasticity of type I cells and a bidirectional lineage relationship between distinct differentiated alveolar epithelial cell types in vivo and in single-cell culture. PMID:25865356

  10. A sample of Type II-L supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faran, T.; Poznanski, D.; Filippenko, A. V.; Chornock, R.; Foley, R. J.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Leonard, D. C.; Li, W.; Modjaz, M.; Serduke, F. J. D.; Silverman, J. M.

    2014-11-01

    What are Type II-Linear supernovae (SNe II-L)? This class, which has been ill defined for decades, now receives significant attention - both theoretically, in order to understand what happens to stars in the ˜15-25 M⊙ range, and observationally, with two independent studies suggesting that they cannot be cleanly separated photometrically from the regular hydrogen-rich SNe II-P characterized by a marked plateau in their light curve. Here, we analyse the multiband light curves and extensive spectroscopic coverage of a sample of 35 SNe II and find that 11 of them could be SNe II-L. The spectra of these SNe are hydrogen deficient, typically have shallow Hα absorption, may show indirect signs of helium via strong O I λ7774 absorption, and have faster line velocities consistent with a thin hydrogen shell. The light curves can be mostly differentiated from those of the regular, hydrogen-rich SNe II-P by their steeper decline rates and higher luminosity, and we propose to define them based on their decline in the V band: SNe II-L decline by more than 0.5 mag from peak brightness by day 50 after explosion. Using our sample we provide template light curves for SNe II-L and II-P in four photometric bands.

  11. Multiplicity among F-type Stars. II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, K.; Chini, R.

    2015-08-01

    In continuation of our previous study we present an updated census of new companions and model atmosphere analyses for some 50 southern dwarfs, mostly in the mass range 0.90≤slant M≤slant 1.10 {M}⊙ . For the common-proper-motion companions μ Vir B, HR 2225 B, HD 67199 B, and HD 114853 B, we confirm their physical association from their radial velocities. We report the discovery of the F-type visual binary α For as a field blue straggler and confirm (ζ Ret, HR 5864) or identify (HD 67199, HR 4013, HR 8843) another five mass transfer systems or candidates. For the F stars {τ }1 Eri and 111 Tau, we present 10σ and 7σ cases for astrometric binaries by virtue of the very accurate van Leeuwen Hipparcos parallaxes. Following the work of Shaya & Olling, we suggest the F-type star ι Vir to be a wide (0.37 pc) hierarchical quadruple system. We confirm the visual binary NLTT 23781/2 as a common-proper-motion object to the very wide (0.54 pc) F star 40 Leo, but discard the G star HD 128987 as an ultra-wide (1.01 pc) physical companion to the α Lib quadruple system on account of a diverse metallicity. The improved statistics of our sample establishes the previously discovered positive correlation of stellar multiplicities with primary mass. For the F star multiplicity census in the mass range 1.10≤slant M≤slant 1.70 {M}⊙ , we find that at least a quarter consists of triple or higher level systems and at least two out of three F stars are non-single.

  12. Angiotensin II activates different calcium signaling pathways in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Dolgacheva, Lyudmila P; Turovskaya, Maria V; Dynnik, Vladimir V; Zinchenko, Valery P; Goncharov, Nikolay V; Davletov, Bazbek; Turovsky, Egor A

    2016-03-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is an important mammalian neurohormone involved in reninangiotensin system. Ang II is produced both constitutively and locally by RAS systems, including white fat adipocytes. The influence of Ang II on adipocytes is complex, affecting different systems of signal transduction from early Са(2+) responses to cell proliferation and differentiation, triglyceride accumulation, expression of adipokine-encoding genes and adipokine secretion. It is known that white fat adipocytes express all RAS components and Ang II receptors (АТ1 and АТ2). The current work was carried out with the primary white adipocytes culture, and Са(2+) signaling pathways activated by Ang II were investigated using fluorescent microscopy. Са(2+)-oscillations and transient responses of differentiated adipocytes to Ang II were registered in cells with both small and multiple lipid inclusions. Using inhibitory analysis and selective antagonists, we now show that Ang II initiates periodic Са(2+)-oscillations and transient responses by activating АТ1 and АТ2 receptors and involving branched signaling cascades: 1) Ang II → Gq → PLC → IP3 → IP3Rs → Ca(2+) 2) Gβγ → PI3Kγ → PKB 3) PKB → eNOS → NO → PKG 4) CD38 → cADPR → RyRs → Ca(2+) In these cascades, AT1 receptors play the leading role. The results of the present work open a perspective of using Ang II for correction of signal resistance of adipocytes often observed during obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26850364

  13. Transient neonatal hyperparathyroidism: a presenting feature of mucolipidosis type II.

    PubMed

    Sathasivam, Anpalakan; Garibaldi, Luigi; Murphy, Robyn; Ibrahim, Jennifer

    2006-06-01

    The phenotype of mucolipidosis type II (ML II), a disorder of lysosomal enzyme transport, includes mucopolysaccharidosis type I (Hurler syndrome)-like features and dysostosis multiplex, usually apparent after 6 months of age. We describe here the natural history of neonatal hyperparathyroidism, a recently described presentation of ML II. A female neonate presented with multiple fractures and radiological features of osteopenia and 'rickets-like' changes. Longitudinal evaluation, while the patient was treated with vitamin D 800-3,000 IU/day orally, indicated secondary hyperparathyroidism which resolved, biochemically and radiologically, by age 4 months. Neonatal hyperparathyroidism in ML II is severe, transient, and probably secondary to impaired placental calcium transport, simulating a condition observed in the offspring of chronically hypocalcemic mothers. PMID:16886594

  14. Lysosomes from rabbit type II cells catabolize surfactant lipids.

    PubMed

    Rider, E D; Ikegami, M; Pinkerton, K E; Peake, J L; Jobe, A H

    2000-01-01

    The role of a lysosome fraction from rabbit type II cells in surfactant dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) catabolism was investigated in vivo using radiolabeled DPPC and dihexadecylphosphatidylcholine (1, 2-dihexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; DEPC), a phospholipase A(1)- and A(2)-resistant analog of DPPC. Freshly isolated type II cells were gently disrupted by shearing, and lysosomes were isolated with Percoll density gradients (density range 1.0591-1.1457 g/ml). The lysosome fractions were relatively free of contaminating organelles as determined by electron microscopy and organelle marker enzymes. After intratracheal injection of rabbits with [(3)H]DPPC and [(14)C]DEPC associated with a trace amount of natural rabbit surfactant, the degradation-resistant DEPC accumulated 16-fold compared with DPPC in lysosome fractions at 15 h. Lysosomes can be isolated from freshly isolated type II cells, and lysosomes from type II cells are the primary catabolic organelle for alveolar surfactant DPPC following reuptake by type II cells in vivo. PMID:10645892

  15. Balneotherapy and platelet glutathione metabolism in type II diabetic patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuka, Yoshinori; Yabunaka, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Ichiro; Noro, Hiroshi; Agishi, Yuko

    1996-09-01

    Effects of balneotherapy on platelet glutathione metabolism were investigated in 12 type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Levels of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) on admission were well correlated with those of fasting plasma glucose (FPG; r=0.692, P<0.02). After 4 weeks of balneotherapy, the mean level of GSH showed no changes; however, in well-controlled patients (FPG <150 mg/dl), the level increased ( P<0.01) and in poorly controlled patients (FPG >150 mg/dl), the value decreased ( P<0.05). There was a negative correlation between glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities and the levels of FPG ( r=-0.430, P<0.05). After balneotherapy, the activity increased in 5 patients, decreased in 3 patients and showed no changes (alteration within ±3%) in all the other patients. From these findings in diabetic patients we concluded: (1) platelet GSH synthesis appeared to be induced in response to oxidative stress; (2) lowered GPX activities indicated that the antioxidative defense system was impaired; and (3) platelet glutathione metabolism was partially improved by 4 weeks balneotherapy, an effect thought to be dependent on the control status of plasma glucose levels. It is suggested that balneotherapy is beneficial for patients whose platelet antioxidative defense system is damaged, such as those with diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease.

  16. Enhanced proliferation of primary rat type II pneumocytes by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus envelope protein

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Chassidy; Jahid, Sohail; Voelker, Dennis R.; Fan Hung

    2011-04-10

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the causative agent of a contagious lung cancer in sheep. The envelope protein (Env) is the oncogene, as it can transform cell lines in culture and induce tumors in animals, although the mechanisms for transformation are not yet clear because a system to perform transformation assays in differentiated type II pneumocytes does not exist. In this study we report culture of primary rat type II pneumocytes in conditions that favor prolonged expression of markers for type II pneumocytes. Env-expressing cultures formed more colonies that were larger in size and were viable for longer periods of time compared to vector control samples. The cells that remained in culture longer were confirmed to be derived from type II pneumocytes because they expressed surfactant protein C, cytokeratin, displayed alkaline phosphatase activity and were positive for Nile red. This system will be useful to study JSRV Env in the targets of transformation.

  17. Identification of type II and type III pyoverdine receptors from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    de Chial, Magaly; Ghysels, Bart; Beatson, Scott A; Geoffroy, Valérie; Meyer, Jean Marie; Pattery, Theresa; Baysse, Christine; Chablain, Patrice; Parsons, Yasmin N; Winstanley, Craig; Cordwell, Stuart J; Cornelis, Pierre

    2003-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces, under conditions of iron limitation, a high-affinity siderophore, pyoverdine (PVD), which is recognized at the level of the outer membrane by a specific TonB-dependent receptor, FpvA. So far, for P. aeruginosa, three different PVDs, differing in their peptide chain, have been described (types I-III), but only the FpvA receptor for type I is known. Two PVD-producing P. aeruginosa strains, one type II and one type III, were mutagenized by a mini-TnphoA3 transposon. In each case, one mutant unable to grow in the presence of the strong iron chelator ethylenediaminedihydroxyphenylacetic acid (EDDHA) and the cognate PVD was selected. The first mutant, which had an insertion in the pvdE gene, upstream of fpvA, was unable to take up type II PVD and showed resistance to pyocin S3, which is known to use type II FpvA as receptor. The second mutant was unable to take up type III PVD and had the transposon insertion in fpvA. Cosmid libraries of the respective type II and type III PVD wild-type strains were constructed and screened for clones restoring the capacity to grow in the presence of PVD. From the respective complementing genomic fragments, type II and type III fpvA sequences were determined. When in trans, type II and type III fpvA restored PVD production, uptake, growth in the presence of EDDHA and, in the case of type II fpvA, pyocin S3 sensitivity. Complementation of fpvA mutants obtained by allelic exchange was achieved by the presence of cognate fpvA in trans. All three receptors posses an N-terminal extension of about 70 amino acids, similar to FecA of Escherichia coli, but only FpvAI has a TAT export sequence at its N-terminal end. PMID:12686625

  18. Nephrocalcinosis as adult presentation of Bartter syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Luiken, G P M; van Riemsdijk, I C; Petrij, F; Zandbergen, A A M; Dees, A

    2014-02-01

    Bartter syndrome consists a group of rare autosomal-recessive renal tubulopathies characterised by renal salt wasting, hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis, hypercalciuria and hyperreninaemic hyperaldosteronism. It is classified into five types. Mutations in the KCNJ1 gene (classified as type II) usually cause the neonatal form of Bartter syndrome. We describe an adult patient with a homozygous KCNJ1 mutation resulting in a remarkably mild phenotype of neonatal type Bartter syndrome. PMID:24659592

  19. The Connections Between the UV and Optical Fe ii Emission Lines in Type 1 AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovačević-Dojčinović, Jelena; Popović, Luka Č.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the spectral properties of the UV (λλ2650-3050 Å) and optical (λλ4000-5500 Å) Fe ii emission features in a sample of 293 Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database. We explore different correlations between their emission line properties, as well as the correlations with other emission lines from the spectral range. We find several interesting correlations and outline the most interesting results as follows. (i) There is a kinematical connection between the UV and optical Fe ii lines, indicating that the UV and optical Fe ii lines originate from the outer part of the broad line region, the so-called intermediate line region. (ii) The unexplained anticorrelations of the optical Fe ii equivalent width (EW Fe iiopt) versus EW [O iii] 5007 Å and EW Fe iiopt versus FWHM Hβ have not been detected for the UV Fe ii lines. (iii) The significant averaged redshift in the UV Fe ii lines, which is not present in optical Fe ii, indicates an inflow in the UV Fe ii emitting clouds, and probably their asymmetric distribution. (iv) Also, we confirm the anticorrelation between the intensity ratio of the optical and UV Fe ii lines and the FWHM of Hβ, and we find the anticorrelations of this ratio with the widths of Mg ii 2800 Å, optical Fe ii, and UV Fe ii. This indicates a very important role for the column density and microturbulence in the emitting gas. We discuss the starburst activity in high-density regions of young AGNs as a possible explanation of the detected optical Fe ii correlations and intensity line ratios of the UV and optical Fe ii lines.

  20. Division II: Commission 10: Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Scrijver, Karel J.; Klimchuk, James A.; Charbonneau, Paul; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Hasan, S. Sirajul; Hudson, Hugh S.; Kusano, Kanya; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Peter, Hardi; Vršnak, Bojan; Yan, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    The Business Meeting of Commission 10 was held as part of the Business Meeting of Division II (Sun and Heliosphere), chaired by Valentin Martínez-Pillet, the President of the Division. The President of Commission 10 (C10; Solar activity), Lidia van Driel-Gesztelyi, took the chair for the business meeting of C10. She summarised the activities of C10 over the triennium and the election of the incoming OC.

  1. Type II supernovae as probes of environment metallicity: observations of host H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. P.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Dessart, L.; Hamuy, M.; Galbany, L.; Morrell, N. I.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Phillips, M. M.; Folatelli, G.; Boffin, H. M. J.; de Jaeger, T.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Prieto, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Spectral modelling of type II supernova atmospheres indicates a clear dependence of metal line strengths on progenitor metallicity. This dependence motivates further work to evaluate the accuracy with which these supernovae can be used as environment metallicity indicators. Aims: To assess this accuracy we present a sample of type II supernova host H ii-region spectroscopy, from which environment oxygen abundances have been derived. These environment abundances are compared to the observed strength of metal lines in supernova spectra. Methods: Combining our sample with measurements from the literature, we present oxygen abundances of 119 host H ii regions by extracting emission line fluxes and using abundance diagnostics. These abundances are then compared to equivalent widths of Fe ii 5018 Å at various time and colour epochs. Results: Our distribution of inferred type II supernova host H ii-region abundances has a range of ~0.6 dex. We confirm the dearth of type II supernovae exploding at metallicities lower than those found (on average) in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The equivalent width of Fe ii 5018 Å at 50 days post-explosion shows a statistically significant correlation with host H ii-region oxygen abundance. The strength of this correlation increases if one excludes abundance measurements derived far from supernova explosion sites. The correlation significance also increases if we only analyse a "gold" IIP sample, and if a colour epoch is used in place of time. In addition, no evidence is found of a correlation between progenitor metallicity and supernova light-curve or spectral properties - except for that stated above with respect to Fe ii 5018 Å equivalent widths - suggesting progenitor metallicity is not a driving factor in producing the diversity that is observed in our sample. Conclusions: This study provides observational evidence of the usefulness of type II supernovae as metallicity indicators. We finish with a discussion of the

  2. AdipoR-increased intracellular ROS promotes cPLA2 and COX-2 expressions via activation of PKC and p300 in adiponectin-stimulated human alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao-Mei; Yang, Chuen-Mao; Chang, Jia-Feng; Wu, Chi-Sheng; Sia, Kee-Chin; Lin, Wei-Ning

    2016-08-01

    Adiponectin, an adipokine, accumulated in lung system via T-cadherin after allergens/ozone challenge. However, the roles of adiponectin on lung pathologies were controversial. Here we reported that adiponectin stimulated expression of inflammatory proteins, cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human alveolar type II A549 cells. AdipoR1/2 involved in adiponectin-activated NADPH oxidase and mitochondria, which further promoted intracellular ROS accumulation. Protein kinase C (PKC) may involve an adiponectin-activated NADPH oxidase. Similarly, p300 phosphorylation and histone H4 acetylation occurred in adiponectin-challenged A549 cells. Moreover, adiponectin-upregulated cPLA2 and COX-2 expression was significantly abrogated by ROS scavenger (N-acetylcysteine) or the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase (apocynin), mitochondrial complex I (rotenone), PKC (Ro31-8220, Gö-6976, and rottlerin), and p300 (garcinol). Briefly, we reported that adiponectin stimulated cPLA2 and COX-2 expression via AdipoR1/2-dependent activation of PKC/NADPH oxidase/mitochondria resulting in ROS accumulation, p300 phosphorylation, and histone H4 acetylation. These results suggested that adiponectin promoted lung inflammation, resulting in exacerbation of pulmonary diseases via upregulating cPLA2 and COX-2 expression together with intracellular ROS production. Understanding the adiponectin signaling pathways on regulating cPLA2 and COX-2 may help develop therapeutic strategies on pulmonary diseases. PMID:27288489

  3. Participation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase in the synthesis of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine in rat alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Arduini, A; Zibellini, G; Ferrari, L; Magnanimi, L; Dottori, S; Lohninger, A; Carminati, P

    2001-02-01

    We have investigated the role of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.21) in pulmonar type II pneumocyte, a lung cell responsible for the synthesis of surface active lipids. Adult type II pneumocytes were isolated from rat lung and purified by differential adherence. When these lung cells were incubated with radioactive palmitate, the percentage of radioactivity recovered into dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), a major surface active lipid, was almost 60% with respect to total phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecular species. Cellular lysates from type II pneumocytes contained detectable amount of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activity (1 nmol/min/mg). Most of the CPT activity found in these cells could be inhibited by incubating them for 60 min with 5 microM tetradecylglycidic acid (TDGA), a specific and irreversible CPT inhibitor of the malonyl-CoA sensitive CPT isoform (CPT I). TDGA treatment of adult type II pneumocytes caused a significant reduction in the incorporation of radioactive palmitate into PC, though this effect did not seem to be specific for DPPC. TDGA affected the incorporation of radioactive palmitate at the sn2 rather than the sn1 position of the glycerol backbone of PC. The incorporation of radioactive palmitate into DPPC was also observed when these lung cells were incubated with palmitate-labeled palmitoyl-L-carnitine. Our data suggest that type II pneumocyte CPT may play an important role in remodelling PC fatty acid composition and hence DPPC synthesis. PMID:11330841

  4. Predicted Unusual Magnetoresponse in Type-II Weyl Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhi-Ming; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Shengyuan A.

    2016-08-01

    We show several distinct signatures in the magnetoresponse of type-II Weyl semimetals. The energy tilt tends to squeeze the Landau levels (LLs), and, for a type-II Weyl node, there always exists a critical angle between the B field and the tilt, at which the LL spectrum collapses, regardless of the field strength. Before the collapse, signatures also appear in the magneto-optical spectrum, including the invariable presence of intraband peaks, the absence of absorption tails, and the special anisotropic field dependence.

  5. Predicted Unusual Magnetoresponse in Type-II Weyl Semimetals.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi-Ming; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Shengyuan A

    2016-08-12

    We show several distinct signatures in the magnetoresponse of type-II Weyl semimetals. The energy tilt tends to squeeze the Landau levels (LLs), and, for a type-II Weyl node, there always exists a critical angle between the B field and the tilt, at which the LL spectrum collapses, regardless of the field strength. Before the collapse, signatures also appear in the magneto-optical spectrum, including the invariable presence of intraband peaks, the absence of absorption tails, and the special anisotropic field dependence. PMID:27563994

  6. Stability conditions for the Bianchi type II anisotropically inflating universes

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, W.F.; Lin, Ing-Chen E-mail: g9522528@oz.nthu.edu.tw

    2009-01-15

    Stability conditions for a class of anisotropically inflating solutions in the Bianchi type II background space are shown explicitly in this paper. These inflating solutions were known to break the cosmic no-hair theorem such that they do not approach the de Sitter universe at large times. It can be shown that unstable modes of the anisotropic perturbations always exist for this class of expanding solutions. As a result, we show that these set of anisotropically expanding solutions are unstable against anisotropic perturbations in the Bianchi type II space.

  7. Achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis): a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, H S; Doh, J W; Kim, C J; Chi, J G

    2000-10-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal form of congenital chondrodystrophy characterized by extreme micromelia. We describe a case of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis) detected by prenatal ultrasonography at 20-week gestation. A dwarfed fetus with large head, short neck and chest, prominent abdomen and short limbs was terminated transvaginally. Radiologic and histopathologic examination revealed features of mild form of achondrogenesis type II. Although the case had no known risk factor and the phenotypic abnormality was mild, modern development in prenatal screening made the early detection possible. PMID:11069003

  8. Kinetic Simulations of Solar Type II Radio Burst Emission Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ganse, Urs; Burkart, Thomas; Spanier, Felix; Vainio, Rami

    2010-03-25

    Using our kinetic Particle-in-Cell simulation code, we have examined the behavior of different plasma modes in the environment close to a CME shock front, with special focus on the modes that may contribute to the formation of type II radio bursts. Apart from electron velocity spectra, numerical dispersion plots obtained from simulation data allow for analysis of wave modes in the simulated plasma, especially showing growth and damping of these modes over time. These plots reveal features at 2omega{sub p} which are not predicted by linear wave theory, that may be results of nonlinear three wave interaction processes as theoretically predicted for type II emission processes.

  9. Fundus changes in mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis type II: vitreous fluorophotometry.

    PubMed Central

    Raines, M F; Duvall-Young, J; Short, C D

    1989-01-01

    We have described a complex abnormality of retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch's membrane, and choriocapillaris in mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (MCGN) type II. Patients with MCGN type II were examined by vitreous fluorophotometry which reveals that there is a breakdown of the blood retinal barrier (BRB) in those patients with the typical fundus lesions. The function of this barrier was calculated as a penetration ratio and was statistically greater in these patients when compared with a group of (a) normal persons, (b) patients with drusen, and (c) patients with other forms of glomerulonephritis. Images PMID:2605145

  10. Ricci inheritance collineations in Bianchi type II spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Tahir; Akhtar, Sumaira Saleem; Bokhari, Ashfaque H.; Khan, Suhail

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present a complete classification of Bianchi type II spacetime according to Ricci inheritance collineations (RICs). The RICs are classified considering cases when the Ricci tensor is both degenerate as well as non-degenerate. In case of non-degenerate Ricci tensor, it is found that Bianchi type II spacetime admits 4-, 5-, 6- or 7-dimensional Lie algebra of RICs. In the case when the Ricci tensor is degenerate, majority cases give rise to infinitely many RICs, while remaining cases admit finite RICs given by 4, 5 or 6.

  11. Effects of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate on type II pulmonary epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tátrai, E; Kováciková, Z; Karácsony, G; Hudák, A; Adamis, Z; Ungváry, G

    2001-02-01

    Dithiocarbamates (DDTC) are chemicals widely used in the form of pesticides, therapeutic and chelating agents, and scavengers. Since DDTC interfere with SH, Cu, and Zn enzymes due to chelating properties, it was of interest to clarify, in primary culture of type II alveolar pneumocytes, the effect of this compound upon enzymes of glutathione cycle, Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase, and the membrane structure of cells. DDTC significantly inhibited the activity of superoxide dismutase and the activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, glutathione reductase, and alkaline phosphatase, whereas an increase in the activity of glutathione peroxidase was found. The membranes of pneumocytes type II were injured. Data show that DDTC adversely affected type II pneumocyte function and structure. PMID:11212946

  12. Pharmacophore modeling studies of type I and type II kinase inhibitors of Tie2.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qing-Qing; Xie, Huan-Zhang; Ren, Ji-Xia; Li, Lin-Li; Yang, Sheng-Yong

    2009-02-01

    In this study, chemical feature based pharmacophore models of type I and type II kinase inhibitors of Tie2 have been developed with the aid of HipHop and HypoRefine modules within Catalyst program package. The best HipHop pharmacophore model Hypo1_I for type I kinase inhibitors contains one hydrogen-bond acceptor, one hydrogen-bond donor, one general hydrophobic, one hydrophobic aromatic, and one ring aromatic feature. And the best HypoRefine model Hypo1_II for type II kinase inhibitors, which was characterized by the best correlation coefficient (0.976032) and the lowest RMSD (0.74204), consists of two hydrogen-bond donors, one hydrophobic aromatic, and two general hydrophobic features, as well as two excluded volumes. These pharmacophore models have been validated by using either or both test set and cross validation methods, which shows that both the Hypo1_I and Hypo1_II have a good predictive ability. The space arrangements of the pharmacophore features in Hypo1_II are consistent with the locations of the three portions making up a typical type II kinase inhibitor, namely, the portion occupying the ATP binding region (ATP-binding-region portion, AP), that occupying the hydrophobic region (hydrophobic-region portion, HP), and that linking AP and HP (bridge portion, BP). Our study also reveals that the ATP-binding-region portion of the type II kinase inhibitors plays an important role to the bioactivity of the type II kinase inhibitors. Structural modifications on this portion should be helpful to further improve the inhibitory potency of type II kinase inhibitors. PMID:19138543

  13. Towards a Cosmological Hubble Diagram for Type II-PSupernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, Peter; Sullivan, Mark; Ellis, Richard; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Leonard, Douglas C.; Howell, D. Andrew; Astier, Pierre; Carlberg, RaymondG.; Conley, Alex; Fabbro, Sebastien; Fouchez, Dominique; Neill, James D.; Pain, Reynald; Perrett, Kathy; Pritchet, Chris J; Regnault, Nicolas

    2006-03-20

    We present the first high-redshift Hubble diagram for Type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P) based upon five events at redshift upto z {approx}0.3. This diagram was constructed using photometry from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey and absorption line spectroscopy from the Keck observatory. The method used to measure distances to these supernovae is based on recent work by Hamuy&Pinto (2002) and exploits a correlation between the absolute brightness of SNeII-P and the expansion velocities derived from the minimum of the Fe II 516.9 nm P-Cygni feature observed during the plateau phases. We present three refinements to this method which significantly improve the practicality of measuring the distances of SNe II-P at cosmologically interesting redshifts. These are an extinction correction measurement based on the V-I colors at day 50, across-correlation measurement for the expansion velocity and the ability to extrapolate such velocities accurately over almost the entire plateau phase. We apply this revised method to our dataset of high-redshift SNe II-P and find that the resulting Hubble diagram has a scatter of only 0.26 magnitudes, thus demonstrating the feasibility of measuring the expansion history, with present facilities, using a method independent of that based upon supernovae of Type Ia.

  14. Structure–activity correlations of variant forms of the B pentamer of Escherichia coli type II heat-labile enterotoxin LT-IIb with Toll-like receptor 2 binding

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, Vivian; Pace, Jim; Nawar, Hesham F.; King-Lyons, Natalie; Liang, Shuang; Connell, Terry D.; Hajishengallis, George

    2012-12-01

    Structural data for the S74D variant of the pentameric B subunit of type II heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli reveal a smaller pore opening that may explain its reduced Toll-like receptor binding affinity compared to that of the wild type enterotoxin. The explanation for the enhanced Toll-like receptor binding affinity of the S74A variant is more complex than simply being attributed to the pore opening. The pentameric B subunit of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LT-IIb-B{sub 5}) is a potent signaling molecule capable of modulating innate immune responses. It has previously been shown that LT-IIb-B{sub 5}, but not the LT-IIb-B{sub 5} Ser74Asp variant [LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74D)], activates Toll-like receptor (TLR2) signaling in macrophages. Consistent with this, the LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74D) variant failed to bind TLR2, in contrast to LT-IIb-B{sub 5} and the LT-IIb-B{sub 5} Thr13Ile [LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(T13I)] and LT-IIb-B{sub 5} Ser74Ala [LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74A)] variants, which displayed the highest binding activity to TLR2. Crystal structures of the Ser74Asp, Ser74Ala and Thr13Ile variants of LT-IIb-B{sub 5} have been determined to 1.90, 1.40 and 1.90 Å resolution, respectively. The structural data for the Ser74Asp variant reveal that the carboxylate side chain points into the pore, thereby reducing the pore size compared with that of the wild-type or the Ser74Ala variant B pentamer. On the basis of these crystallographic data, the reduced TLR2-binding affinity of the LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74D) variant may be the result of the pore of the pentamer being closed. On the other hand, the explanation for the enhanced TLR2-binding activity of the LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(S74A) variant is more complex as its activity is greater than that of the wild-type B pentamer, which also has an open pore as the Ser74 side chain points away from the pore opening. Data for the LT-IIb-B{sub 5}(T13I) variant show that four of the five variant side chains point to the outside

  15. Selective expression of latency-associated peptide (LAP) and IL-1 receptor type I/II (CD121a/CD121b) on activated human FOXP3+ regulatory T cells allows for their purification from expansion cultures

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, John; Hardwick, Donna; Bebris, Lolita; Illei, Gabor G.

    2009-01-01

    Although adoptive transfer of regulatory T cells (Foxp3+ Tregs) has proven to be efficacious in the prevention and treatment of autoimmune diseases and graft-versus-host disease in rodents, a major obstacle for the use of Treg immunotherapy in humans is the difficulty of obtaining a highly purified preparation after ex vivo expansion. We have identified latency-associated peptide (LAP) and IL-1 receptor type I and II (CD121a/CD121b) as unique cell-surface markers that distinguish activated Tregs from activated FOXP3− and FOXP3+ non-Tregs. We show that it is feasible to sort expanded FOXP3+ Tregs from non-Tregs with the use of techniques for magnetic bead cell separation based on expression of these 3 markers. After separation, the final product contains greater than 90% fully functional FOXP3+ Tregs. This novel protocol should facilitate the purification of Tregs for both cell-based therapies as well as detailed studies of human Treg function in health and disease. PMID:19299332

  16. Glycogen storage disease types I and II: treatment updates.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, D D; Kishnani, P S; Chen, Y T

    2007-04-01

    Prior to 2006 therapy for glycogen storage diseases consisted primarily of dietary interventions, which in the case of glycogen storage disease (GSD) type II (GSD II; Pompe disease) remained essentially palliative. Despite improved survival and growth, long-term complications of GSD type I (GSD I) have not responded to dietary therapy with uncooked cornstarch or continuous gastric feeding. The recognized significant risk of renal disease and liver malignancy in GSD I has prompted efforts towards curative therapy, including organ transplantation, in those deemed at risk. Results of clinical trials in infantile Pompe disease with alglucosidase alfa (Myozyme) showed prolonged survival reversal of cardiomyopathy, and motor gains. This resulted in broad label approval of Myozyme for Pompe disease in 2006. Furthermore, the development of experimental therapies, such as adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy, holds promise for the availability of curative therapy in GSD I and GSD II/Pompe disease in the future. PMID:17308886

  17. Glycogen storage disease types I and II: Treatment updates

    PubMed Central

    Kishnani, P. S.; Chen, Y. T.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Prior to 2006 therapy for glycogen storage diseases consisted primarily of dietary interventions, which in the case of glycogen storage disease (GSD) type II (GSD II; Pompe disease) remained essentially palliative. Despite improved survival and growth, long-term complications of GSD type I (GSD I) have not responded to dietary therapy with uncooked cornstarch or continuous gastric feeding. The recognized significant risk of renal disease and liver malignancy in GSD I has prompted efforts towards curative therapy, including organ transplantation, in those deemed at risk. Results of clinical trials in infantile Pompe disease with alglucosidase alfa (Myozyme) showed prolonged survival reversal of cardiomyopathy, and motor gains. This resulted in broad label approval of Myozyme for Pompe disease in 2006. Furthermore, the development of experimental therapies, such as adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy, holds promise for the availability of curative therapy in GSD I and GSD II/Pompe disease in the future. PMID:17308886

  18. Normal protein content but abnormally inhibited enzyme activity in muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Diana; Zierz, Stephan

    2014-04-15

    The biochemical consequences of the disease causing mutations of muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency are still enigmatic. Therefore, CPT II was characterized in muscle biopsies of nine patients with genetically proven muscle CPT II deficiency. Total CPT activity (CPT I+CPT II) of patients was not significantly different from that of controls. Remaining activities upon inhibition by malonyl-CoA and Triton X-100 were significantly reduced in patients. Immunohistochemically CPT II protein was predominantly expressed in type-I-fibers with the same intensity in patients as in controls. Western blot showed the same CPT II staining intensity ratio in patients and controls. CPT I and CPT II protein concentrations estimated by ELISA were not significantly different in patients and in controls. Citrate synthase activity in patients was significantly increased. Total CPT activity significantly correlated with both CPT I and CPT II protein concentrations in patients and controls. This implies (i) that normal total CPT activity in patients with muscle CPT II deficiency is not due to compensatory increase of CPT I activity and that (ii) the mutant CPT II is enzymatically active. The data further support the notion that in muscle CPT II deficiency enzyme activity and protein content are not reduced, but rather abnormally inhibited when fatty acid metabolism is stressed. PMID:24602495

  19. Auroral kilometric radiation triggered by type II solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1985-01-01

    The previously-reported triggering of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) during type III solar radio bursts was attributed to the incoming radio waves rather than other aspects of the burst's causative solar flare. This conclusion has now been confirmed by ISEE-1 and ISEE-3 observations showing AKR which seems to have been triggered also by a subsequent type II solar radio burst, up to eleven hours after the flare.

  20. Soft vortex matter in a type-I/type-II superconducting bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komendová, L.; Milošević, M. V.; Peeters, F. M.

    2013-09-01

    Magnetic flux patterns are known to strongly differ in the intermediate state of type-I and type-II superconductors. Using a type-I/type-II bilayer we demonstrate hybridization of these flux phases into a plethora of unique new ones. Owing to a complicated multibody interaction between individual fluxoids, many different intriguing patterns are possible under applied magnetic field, such as few-vortex clusters, vortex chains, mazes, or labyrinthal structures resembling the phenomena readily encountered in soft-matter physics. However, in our system the patterns are tunable by sample parameters, magnetic field, current, and temperature, which reveals transitions from short-range clustering to long-range ordered phases such as parallel chains, gels, glasses, and crystalline vortex lattices, or phases where lamellar type-I flux domains in one layer serve as a bedding potential for type-II vortices in the other, configurations clearly beyond the soft-matter analogy.

  1. Free flap transfer for complex regional pain syndrome type II

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Ken; Kikuchi, Mamoru; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Hosokawa, Ko; Shibata, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A patient with complex regional pain syndrome type II was successfully treated using free anterolateral thigh flap transfer with digital nerve coaptation to the cutaneous nerve of the flap. Release of the scarred tissue and soft tissue coverage with targeted sensory nerve coaptation were useful in relieving severe pain.

  2. Acceleration of Type II Spicules in the Solar Chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Michael L.

    2012-10-01

    A 2.5D, time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic model is used to test the proposition that observed type II spicule velocities can be generated by a Lorentz force under chromospheric conditions. It is found that current densities localized on observed space and time scales of type II spicules and that generate maximum magnetic field strengths <=50 G can generate a Lorentz force that accelerates plasma to terminal velocities similar to those of type II spicules. Maximum vertical flow speeds are ~150-460 km s-1, horizontally localized within ~2.5-10 km from the vertical axis of the spicule, and comparable to slow solar wind speeds, suggesting that significant solar wind acceleration occurs in type II spicules. Horizontal speeds are ~20 times smaller than vertical speeds. Terminal velocity is reached ~100 s after acceleration begins. The increase in the mechanical and thermal energy of the plasma during acceleration is (2-3) × 1022 ergs. The radial component of the Lorentz force compresses the plasma during the acceleration process by factors as large as ~100. The Joule heating flux generated during this process is essentially due to proton Pedersen current dissipation and can be ~0.1-3.7 times the heating flux of ~106 ergs cm-2 s-1 associated with middle-upper chromospheric emission. About 84%-94% of the magnetic energy that accelerates and heats the spicules is converted into bulk flow kinetic energy.

  3. Angiotensin II centrally induces frequent detrusor contractility of the bladder by acting on brain angiotensin II type 1 receptors in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Bunya; Shimizu, Shogo; Shimizu, Takahiro; Higashi, Youichirou; Honda, Masashi; Sejima, Takehiro; Saito, Motoaki; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) II plays an important role in the brain as a neurotransmitter and is involved in psychological stress reactions, for example through activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary system. We investigated the effects of centrally administered Ang II on the micturition reflex, which is potentially affected by the sympatho-adrenomedullary system, and brain Ang II receptors in urethane-anesthetized (1.0 g/kg, intraperitoneally) male rats. Central administration of Ang II (0.01, 0.02, and 0.07 nmol per rat, intracerebroventricularly, icv) but not vehicle rapidly and dose-dependently decreased the urinary bladder intercontraction interval, without altering the bladder detrusor pressure. Central administration of antagonists of Ang II type 1 but not type 2 receptors inhibited the Ang II-induced shortening of intercontraction intervals. Administration of the highest dose of Ang II (0.07 nmol per rat, icv) but not lower doses (0.01 and 0.02 nmol per rat, icv) elevated the plasma concentration of adrenaline. Bilateral adrenalectomy reduced Ang II-induced elevation in adrenaline, but had no effect on the Ang II-induced shortening of the intercontraction interval. These data suggest that central administration of Ang II increases urinary frequency by acting on brain Ang II type 1 receptors, independent of activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary system. PMID:26908391

  4. INSERTION DEVICE ACTIVITIES FOR NSLS-II.

    SciTech Connect

    TANABE,T.; HARDER, D.A.; HULBERT, S.; RAKOWSKI, G.; SKARITKA, J.

    2007-06-25

    National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II) will be a medium energy storage ring of 3GeV electron beam energy with sub-nm.rad horizontal emittance and top-off capability at 500mA. Damping wigglers will be used not only to reduce the beam emittance but also used as broadband sources for users. Cryo-Permanent Magnet Undulators (CPMUs) are considered for hard X-ray linear device, and permanent magnet based elliptically polarized undulators (EPUs) for variable polarization devices for soft X-ray. 6T superconducting wiggler with minimal fan angle will be installed in the second phase as well as quasi-periodic EPU for VUV and possibly high-temperature superconducting undulator. R&D plans have been established to pursue the performance enhancement of the baseline devices and to design new types of insertion devices. A new insertion device development laboratory will also be established.

  5. The Luminosities of Type II Cepheids and RR Lyrae Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feast, Michael W.

    2010-02-01

    Recent work on the luminosities of type II Cepheids (CephIIs) and RR Lyrae variables is reviewed. In the near infrared (JHK_{s}) the CephIIs in globular clusters show a narrow, linear, period-luminosity relation over their whole period range (˜ 1 to 100 days). The CephIIs in the general field of the LMC follow this relation for periods shorter than ˜ 20 days. At longer period (the region of the RV Tau stars), the LMC field stars have a significant scatter and in the mean are more luminous than the PL relation. The OGLEIII optical data for the LMC field variables show similar trends. Infrared colours of stars in the RV Tau period range show marked mean differences between three groupings; the Galactic field, the LMC field, and globular clusters. In the case of the Galactic field, at least, this may be strongly influenced by selection effects. In the period range ˜ 4 to 20 days (the W Vir range) there are stars lying above the PL relation which may be recognized by their light curves and are all likely to be binaries. The bright Galactic variable, κ Pav probably belongs to this group. There is evidence that CephIIs in the general field (LMC and Galaxy) have a wider range of masses than those in globular clusters. At present the CephII PL zero-point depends on the pulsation parallaxes of two stars. Zero-points of RR Lyrae M_{V}-[Fe/H] and K_{s}-log P relations can be obtained from trigonometrical, statistical and pulsation parallaxes. These zero-points are compared with those for CephIIs and with the classical Cepheid scale using variables of these three types in the LMC. Within the uncertainties (˜ 0.1m) the various scales are in agreement.

  6. Human alveolar epithelial type II cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Mao, Pu; Wu, Songling; Li, Jianchun; Fu, Wei; He, Weiqun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Slutsky, Arthur S; Zhang, Haibo; Li, Yimin

    2015-02-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) cells are a key structure and defender in the lung but also are the targets in many lung diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, ventilator-induced lung injury, and pulmonary fibrosis. We sought to establish an optimized method for high yielding and long maintenance of characteristics of primary human AEII cells to facilitate the investigation of the mechanisms of lung diseases at the cellular and molecular levels. Adult human peripheral normal lung tissues of oncologic patients undergoing lung resection were collected. The AEII cells were isolated and identified by the expression of pro-surfactant protein (SP)C, epithelial sodium channel (αENaC) and cytokeratin (CK)-8, the lamellar bodies specific for AEII cells, and confirmed by the histology using electron microscopy. The phenotype of AEII cells was characterized by the expression of surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D), CK-8, KL-6, αENaC, and aquaporin (AQP)-3, which was maintained over 20 days. The biological activity of the primary human AEII cells producing SP-C, cytokines, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was vigorous in response to stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-α. We have modified previous methods and optimized a method for isolation of high purity and long maintenance of the human AEII cell phenotype in primary culture. This method provides an important tool for studies aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of lung diseases exclusively in AEII cells. PMID:25677546

  7. Simvastatin enhances bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Hong; Sung, Arthur; Zhao, Guohua; Shi, Lingfang; Qiu Daoming; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Kao, Peter N. . E-mail: peterkao@stanford.edu

    2006-01-06

    Statins confer therapeutic benefits in systemic and pulmonary vascular diseases. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors serve essential signaling functions in cardiovascular development and skeletal morphogenesis. Mutations in BMP receptor type II (BMPR2) are associated with human familial and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and pathologic neointimal proliferation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells within small pulmonary arteries. In severe experimental pulmonary hypertension, simvastatin reversed disease and conferred a 100% survival advantage. Here, modulation of BMPR2 gene expression by simvastatin is characterized in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T, pulmonary artery smooth muscle, and lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). A 1.4 kb BMPR2 promoter containing Egr-1 binding sites confers reporter gene activation in 293T cells which is partially inhibited by simvastatin. Simvastatin enhances steady-state BMPR2 mRNA and protein expression in HLMVEC, through posttranscriptional mRNA stabilization. Simvastatin induction of BMPR2 expression may improve BMP-BMPR2 signaling thereby enhancing endothelial differentiation and function.

  8. Human alveolar epithelial type II cells in primary culture

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Pu; Wu, Songling; Li, Jianchun; Fu, Wei; He, Weiqun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Slutsky, Arthur S; Zhang, Haibo; Li, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) cells are a key structure and defender in the lung but also are the targets in many lung diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, ventilator-induced lung injury, and pulmonary fibrosis. We sought to establish an optimized method for high yielding and long maintenance of characteristics of primary human AEII cells to facilitate the investigation of the mechanisms of lung diseases at the cellular and molecular levels. Adult human peripheral normal lung tissues of oncologic patients undergoing lung resection were collected. The AEII cells were isolated and identified by the expression of pro-surfactant protein (SP)C, epithelial sodium channel (αENaC) and cytokeratin (CK)-8, the lamellar bodies specific for AEII cells, and confirmed by the histology using electron microscopy. The phenotype of AEII cells was characterized by the expression of surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D), CK-8, KL-6, αENaC, and aquaporin (AQP)-3, which was maintained over 20 days. The biological activity of the primary human AEII cells producing SP-C, cytokines, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was vigorous in response to stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-α. We have modified previous methods and optimized a method for isolation of high purity and long maintenance of the human AEII cell phenotype in primary culture. This method provides an important tool for studies aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of lung diseases exclusively in AEII cells. PMID:25677546

  9. p53 suppresses type II endometrial carcinomas in mice and governs endometrial tumour aggressiveness in humans

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Peter J; Ikenberg, Kristian; Fuchs, Thomas J; Rechsteiner, Markus; Georgiev, Strahil; Fankhauser, Niklaus; Noske, Aurelia; Roessle, Matthias; Caduff, Rosmarie; Dellas, Athanassios; Fink, Daniel; Moch, Holger; Krek, Wilhelm; Frew, Ian J

    2012-01-01

    Type II endometrial carcinomas are a highly aggressive group of tumour subtypes that are frequently associated with inactivation of the TP53 tumour suppressor gene. We show that mice with endometrium-specific deletion of Trp53 initially exhibited histological changes that are identical to known precursor lesions of type II endometrial carcinomas in humans and later developed carcinomas representing all type II subtypes. The mTORC1 signalling pathway was frequently activated in these precursor lesions and tumours, suggesting a genetic cooperation between this pathway and Trp53 deficiency in tumour initiation. Consistent with this idea, analyses of 521 human endometrial carcinomas identified frequent mTORC1 pathway activation in type I as well as type II endometrial carcinoma subtypes. mTORC1 pathway activation and p53 expression or mutation status each independently predicted poor patient survival. We suggest that molecular alterations in p53 and the mTORC1 pathway play different roles in the initiation of the different endometrial cancer subtypes, but that combined p53 inactivation and mTORC1 pathway activation are unifying pathogenic features among histologically diverse subtypes of late stage aggressive endometrial tumours. PMID:22678923

  10. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and biological activities of N4O2 Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Resayes, Saud I.; Shakir, Mohammad; Abbasi, Ambreen; Amin, Kr. Mohammad Yusuf; Lateef, Abdul

    The Schiff base ligand, bis(indoline-2-one)triethylenetetramine (L) obtained from condensation of triethylenetetramine and isatin was used to synthesize the complexes of type, [ML]Cl2 [M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)]. L was characterized on the basis of the results of elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR, mass spectroscopic studies. The stoichiometry, bonding and stereochemistries of complexes were ascertained on the basis of results of elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility values, molar conductance and various spectroscopic studies. EPR, UV-vis and magnetic moments revealed an octahedral geometry for complexes. L and its Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes were screened for their antibacterial activity. Analgesic activity of Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes was also tested in rats by tail flick method. Both complexes were found to possess good antibacterial and moderate analgesic activity.

  11. Synthesis of C1 inhibitor in fibroblasts from patients with type I and type II hereditary angioneurotic edema.

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, J; Katz, Y; Rosen, F S; Davis, A E; Strunk, R C

    1991-01-01

    Patients with hereditary angioneurotic edema (HANE) have serum levels of functionally active inhibitor of the first component of complement (C1 INH) between 5 and 30% of normal, instead of the 50% expected from the single normal allele. Increases in rates of catabolism have been documented in patients with HANE and certainly account for some of decrease in C1 INH level. A possible role for a decrease in synthesis of C1 INH in producing serum levels of C1 INH below the expected 50% of normal has not been well studied. We studied the synthesis of C1 INH in skin fibroblast lines, which produce easily detectable amounts of C1 INH. In type I HANE cells, C1 INH synthesis was 19.6 +/- 4.0% (mean +/- SD) of normal, much less than the 50% predicted. In type II HANE cells, the total amount of C1 INH synthesis (functional and dysfunctional) was 98.9 +/- 17% of normal; the functional protein comprised 43% of the total. Thus, type II HANE cells synthesized functional C1 INH at a much greater rate than for the type I cells. In both type I and II HANE cells, amounts of steady-state C1 INH mRNA levels paralleled rates of C1 INH synthesis, indicating that control of C1 INH synthesis occurred at pretranslational levels. Both type I and type II fibroblasts synthesized normal amounts of C1r and C1s. These data suggest that the lower than expected amounts of functionally active C1 INH in type I HANE may be due, in part, to a decrease in rate of synthesis of the protein, and that the expressions of the normal C1 INH allele in HANE is influenced by the type of abnormal allele present. Images PMID:1902490

  12. Selective type II fibre muscular atrophy in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip.

    PubMed

    Sĭrca, A; Susec-Michieli, M

    1980-01-01

    The size and the distribution of type I and tye II fibres was determined in the gluteus maximus (21 cases), gluteus medius (56 cases) and tensor faciae latae (27 cases) muscles of patients with osteoarthritis of the hip. The patients were of both sexes, aged between 37 and 64 years (younger group) and between 65 and 78 years (older group). Autopsy material of the two comparable age groups and of a group of "normal" adults (aged 22-44 years) served as controls. It was shown statistically that the diameter of both types of fibres and the relative number of type II fibres diminished with progressing age. In patients with osteoarthritis the degree of the selective atrophy of type II fibres was significantly higher than in the control groups. The atrophy is interpreted as a consequence of diminished muscular activity. No neurogenic lesions were detected either in the muscles of the patients or in those of the control groups. PMID:6444440

  13. Myosin II Activity Softens Cells in Suspension

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chii J.; Ekpenyong, Andrew E.; Golfier, Stefan; Li, Wenhong; Chalut, Kevin J.; Otto, Oliver; Elgeti, Jens; Guck, Jochen; Lautenschläger, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    The cellular cytoskeleton is crucial for many cellular functions such as cell motility and wound healing, as well as other processes that require shape change or force generation. Actin is one cytoskeleton component that regulates cell mechanics. Important properties driving this regulation include the amount of actin, its level of cross-linking, and its coordination with the activity of specific molecular motors like myosin. While studies investigating the contribution of myosin activity to cell mechanics have been performed on cells attached to a substrate, we investigated mechanical properties of cells in suspension. To do this, we used multiple probes for cell mechanics including a microfluidic optical stretcher, a microfluidic microcirculation mimetic, and real-time deformability cytometry. We found that nonadherent blood cells, cells arrested in mitosis, and naturally adherent cells brought into suspension, stiffen and become more solidlike upon myosin inhibition across multiple timescales (milliseconds to minutes). Our results hold across several pharmacological and genetic perturbations targeting myosin. Our findings suggest that myosin II activity contributes to increased whole-cell compliance and fluidity. This finding is contrary to what has been reported for cells attached to a substrate, which stiffen via active myosin driven prestress. Our results establish the importance of myosin II as an active component in modulating suspended cell mechanics, with a functional role distinctly different from that for substrate-adhered cells. PMID:25902426

  14. Myosin II Activity Softens Cells in Suspension.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chii J; Ekpenyong, Andrew E; Golfier, Stefan; Li, Wenhong; Chalut, Kevin J; Otto, Oliver; Elgeti, Jens; Guck, Jochen; Lautenschläger, Franziska

    2015-04-21

    The cellular cytoskeleton is crucial for many cellular functions such as cell motility and wound healing, as well as other processes that require shape change or force generation. Actin is one cytoskeleton component that regulates cell mechanics. Important properties driving this regulation include the amount of actin, its level of cross-linking, and its coordination with the activity of specific molecular motors like myosin. While studies investigating the contribution of myosin activity to cell mechanics have been performed on cells attached to a substrate, we investigated mechanical properties of cells in suspension. To do this, we used multiple probes for cell mechanics including a microfluidic optical stretcher, a microfluidic microcirculation mimetic, and real-time deformability cytometry. We found that nonadherent blood cells, cells arrested in mitosis, and naturally adherent cells brought into suspension, stiffen and become more solidlike upon myosin inhibition across multiple timescales (milliseconds to minutes). Our results hold across several pharmacological and genetic perturbations targeting myosin. Our findings suggest that myosin II activity contributes to increased whole-cell compliance and fluidity. This finding is contrary to what has been reported for cells attached to a substrate, which stiffen via active myosin driven prestress. Our results establish the importance of myosin II as an active component in modulating suspended cell mechanics, with a functional role distinctly different from that for substrate-adhered cells. PMID:25902426

  15. Cognitive, Medical, and Neuroimaging Characteristics of Attenuated Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II

    PubMed Central

    Yund, Brianna; Rudser, Kyle; Ahmed, Alia; Kovac, Victor; Nestrasil, Igor; Raiman, Julian; Mamak, Eva; Harmatz, Paul; Steiner, Robert; Lau, Heather; Vekaria, Pooja; Wozniak, Jeffrey R.; Lim, Kelvin O.; Delaney, Kathleen; Whitley, Chester; Shapiro, Elsa G.

    2014-01-01

    The phenotype of attenuated mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), also called Hunter syndrome, has not been previously studied in systematic manner. In contrast to the “severe” phenotype, the “attenuated” phenotype does not present with behavioral or cognitive impairment; however the presence of mild behavior and cognitive impairment that might impact long term functional outcomes is unknown. Previously, significant MRI abnormalities have been found in MPS II. Recent evidence suggests white matter abnormalities in many MPS disorders. Methods As the initial cross-sectional analysis of a longitudinal study, we studied the association of brain volumes and somatic disease burden with neuropsychological outcomes, including measures of intelligence, memory and attention in 20 patients with attenuated MPS II with a mean age of 15.8. MRI volumes were compared to 55 normal controls. Results While IQ and memory were average, measures of attention were one standard deviation below the average range. Corpus callosum volumes were significantly different from age-matched controls, differing by 22%. Normal age-related volume increases in white matter were not seen in MPS II patients as they were in controls. Somatic disease burden and white matter and corpus callosum volumes were significantly associated with attention deficits. Neither age at evaluation nor age at starting treatment predicted attention outcomes. Conclusions Despite average intelligence, attention is compromised in attenuated MPS II. Results confirm an important role of corpus callosum and cortical white matter abnormality in MPS II as well as the somatic disease burden in contributing to attention difficulties. Awareness by the patient and caregivers with appropriate management and symptomatic support will benefit the attenuated MPS II patient. PMID:25541100

  16. Type II ligands as chemical auxiliaries to favor enzymatic transformations by P450 2E1.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Amélie; Fabra, Camilo; Huang, Yue; Auclair, Karine

    2012-11-26

    The remarkable ability of P450 enzymes to oxidize inactivated C-H bonds and the high substrate promiscuity of many P450 isoforms have inspired us and others to investigate their use as biocatalysts. Our lab has pioneered a chemical-auxiliary approach to control the promiscuity of P450 3A4 and provide product predictability. The recent realization that type II ligands are sometimes also P450 substrates has prompted the design of a new generation of chemical auxiliaries with type II binding properties. This approach takes advantage of the high affinity of type II ligands for the active site of these enzymes. Although type II ligands typically block P450 activity, we report here that type II ligation can be harnessed to achieve just the opposite, that is, to favor biocatalysis and afford predictable oxidation of small hydrocarbon substrates with P450 2E1. Moreover, the observed predictability was rationalized by molecular docking. We hope that this approach might find future use with other P450 isoforms and yield complimentary products. PMID:23129539

  17. Isolation and Culture of Alveolar Epithelial Type I and Type II Cells from Rat Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Robert F.; Dobbs, Leland G.

    2014-01-01

    The pulmonary alveolar epithelium, comprised of alveolar Type I (TI) and Type II (TII) cells, covers more than 99% of the internal surface area of the lungs. The study of isolated and cultured alveolar epithelial TI and TII cells has provided a large amount of information about the functions of both cell types. This chapter provides information about methods for isolating and culturing both of these cell types from rat lungs. PMID:23097106

  18. New quantitative total protein S-assay system for diagnosing protein S type II deficiency: clinical application of the screening system for protein S type II deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Tomohide; Jin, Xiuri; Tsuda, Hiroko; Ieko, Masahiro; Morishita, Eriko; Adachi, Tomoko; Hamasaki, Naotaka

    2012-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) incidence is rising rapidly in Japan with lifestyle westernization and aging. Deficiency of protein S, an important blood coagulation regulator, is a risk factor for VTE. Protein S deficiency prevalence in Asians is approximately 10 times that in Caucasians and that of protein S type II deficiency, associated with the protein S Tokushima mutation (K155E), is quite high in Japan. However, currently available methods for measuring protein S are not precise enough for detection of this deficiency. We developed a novel assay system for precise simultaneous determinations of total protein S activity and total protein S antigen level, using a general-purpose automated analyzer, allowing protein S-specific activity (ratio of total protein S activity to total protein S antigen level) to be calculated. Mean specific activity was 0.99 for samples from healthy individuals but 0.69 or less (mean-3SD) in protein S type II-deficient and warfarin-treated samples, but was 1.0 in an estrogen-treated sample with significantly decreased protein S antigen. Protein S gene analyses in healthy individuals with specific activity 0.69 or less revealed the K155E mutation in all three. These results show our new assay system to be an effective screening tool for protein S type II deficiency. This system can also be used in an automated analyzer, facilitating numerous sample measurements, and is, thus, applicable to regular medical checkups and diagnosing VTE. Such applications would potentially contribute to early detection of protein S type II deficiency, and, thereby, to thrombosis prevention. PMID:22157257

  19. Differential properties of type I and type II benzodiazepine receptors in mammalian CNS neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Yakushiji, T.; Shirasaki, T.; Munakata, M.; Hirata, A.; Akaike, N.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) partial agonists, Y-23684 and CL218,872, were compared with its full agonist, diazepam, on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced Cl- current (ICl) in acutely dissociated rat cerebral cortex (CTX), cerebellar Purkinje (CPJ) and spinal ventral horn (SVH) neurones, by the whole-cell mode patch-clamp technique. 2. The GABA-induced responses were essentially the same in both SVH and CPJ neurones, but the KD value of the GABA response in CTX neurone was lower than those in the other two brain regions. 3. Enhancement of the GABA response by the two partial agonists was about one-third of that by diazepam in the SVH neurones (where type II subtype of BZR, BZ2, is predominant), whereas these partial agonists potentiated the GABA response as much as diazepam in CPJ neurones (where the type I subtype of BZR, BZ1, is predominant). In CTX neurones where both type I and II variants are expressed, the augmentation ratio of the GABA response by diazepam was between the values in CPJ and SVH neurones. 4. In concentration-response relationships of BZR partial agonists, the threshold concentrations, KD values and maximal augmentation ratio of the GABA response were similar in all CTX, CPJ and SVH neurones. Also, in all preparations, the threshold concentration and KD values of diazepam action were 10 fold less than those induced by partial agonists. 5. All BZR agonists shifted the concentration-response relationship for GABA to the left without changing the maximum current amplitude, indicating that activation of both BZ1 and BZ2 increase the affinity of the GABAA receptor for GABA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8395299

  20. Phosphorylation-independent stimulation of DNA topoisomerase II alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Kimura, K; Saijo, M; Tanaka, M; Enomoto, T

    1996-05-01

    It has been suggested that casein kinase II phosphorylates DNA topoisomerase II alpha (topo II alpha) in mouse FM3A cells, by comparison of phosphopeptide maps of topo II alpha labeled in intact cells and of topo II alpha phosphorylated by various kinases in vitro. The phosphorylation of purified topo II alpha by casein kinase II, which attached a maximum of two phosphate groups per topo II alpha molecule, had no effect on the activity of topo II alpha. Dephosphorylation of purified topo II alpha by potato acid phosphatase, which almost completely dephosphorylated the topo II alpha, did not reduce the activity of topo II alpha. The incubation itself, regardless of phosphorylation or dephosphorylation status, stimulated the enzyme activity in both reactions. Topo II alpha activity was stimulated by incubation in a medium containing low concentrations of glycerol but not in that containing high concentrations of glycerol, such as the 50% in which purified topo II alpha is stored. The stimulation of topo II alpha activity by incubation was dependent on the concentration of topo II alpha, requiring a relatively high concentration of topo II alpha. PMID:8631919

  1. Type II and Type III Radio Bursts and their Correlation with Solar Energetic Proton Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, L. M.; Ledbetter, K.

    2015-08-01

    Using the Wind/WAVES radio observations from 2010 to 2013, we present an analysis of the 123 decametric–hectometric (DH) type II solar radio bursts during this period, the associated type III burst properties, and their correlation with solar energetic proton (SEP) properties determined from analysis of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) observations. We present a useful catalog of the type II burst, type III burst, Langmuir wave, and proton flux properties for these 123 events, which we employ to develop a statistical relationship between the radio properties and peak proton flux that can be used to forecast SEP events. We find that all SEP events with a peak \\gt 10 MeV flux above 15 protons cm‑2 s‑1 sr‑1 are associated with a type II burst and virtually all SEP events, 92%, are also associated with a type III radio burst. Based on a principal component analysis, the radio burst properties that are most highly correlated with the occurrence of gradual SEP events and account for the most variance in the radio properties are the type III burst intensity and duration. Further, a logistic regression analysis with the radio-derived principal component (dominated by the type III and type II radio burst intensity and type III duration) obtains SEP predictions approaching the human forecaster rates, with a false alarm rate of 22%, a probability of detection of 62%, and with 85% of the classifications correct. Therefore, type III radio bursts that occur along with a DH type II burst are shown to be an important diagnostic that can be used to forecast SEP events.

  2. Repression of host RNA polymerase II transcription by herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, C A; Dahmus, M E; Rice, S A

    1997-01-01

    Lytic infection of mammalian cells with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) results in rapid repression of host gene expression and selective activation of the viral genome. This transformation in gene expression is thought to involve repression of host transcription and diversion of the host RNA polymerase (RNAP II) transcription machinery to the viral genome. However, the extent of virus-induced host transcription repression and the mechanisms responsible for these major shifts in transcription specificities have not been examined. To determine how HSV-1 accomplishes repression of host RNAP II transcription, we assayed transcription patterns on several cellular genes in cells infected with mutant and wild-type HSV-1. Our results suggest that HSV-1 represses RNAP II transcription on most cellular genes. However, each cellular gene we examined responds differently to the transcription repressive effects of virus infection, both quantitatively and with respect to the involvement of viral gene products. Virus-induced shutoff of host RNAP II transcription requires expression of multiple immediate-early genes. In contrast, expression of delayed-early and late genes and viral DNA replication appear to contribute little to repression of host cell RNAP II transcription. Modification of RNAP II to the intermediately phosphorylated (II(I)) form appears unlinked to virus-induced repression of host cell transcription. However, full repression of host transcription is correlated with depletion of the hyperphosphorylated (IIO) form of RNAP II. PMID:9032335

  3. Rules for distinguishing toxicants that cause type I and type II narcosis syndromes.

    PubMed

    Veith, G D; Broderius, S J

    1990-07-01

    Narcosis is a nonspecific reversible state of arrested activity of protoplasmic structures caused by a wide variety of organic chemicals. The vast majority of industrial organic chemicals can be characterized by a baseline structure-toxicity relationship as developed for diverse aquatic organisms, using only the n-octanol/water partition coefficient as a descriptor. There are, however, many apparent narcotic chemicals that are more toxic than baseline narcosis predicts. Some of these chemicals have been distinguished as polar narcotics. Joint toxic theory and isobole diagrams were used to show that chemicals strictly additive with phenol were generally more toxic than predicted by narcosis I models and characterized by a different mode of action called narcosis II syndrome. This type of toxicity is exemplified by certain amides, amines, phenols, and nitrogen heterocycles. Evidence is provided that suggests that narcosis II syndrome may result from the presence of a strong hydrogen bonding group on the molecule, and narcosis I syndrome results from hydrophobic bonding of the chemical to enzymes and/or membranes. This shift in toxic action is apparently indistinguishable for narcotic chemicals with log P greater than about 2.7. General rules for selecting the appropriate models are proposed. PMID:2269227

  4. Rules for distinguishing toxicants that cause type I and type II narcosis syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, G.D.; Broderius, S.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Narcosis is a nonspecific reversible state of arrested activity of protoplasmic structures caused by a wide variety of organic chemicals. The vast majority of industrial organic chemicals can be characterized by a baseline structure-toxicity relationship as developed for diverse aquatic organisms, using only the n-octanol/water partition coefficient as a descriptor. There are, however, many apparent narcotic chemicals that are more toxic than baseline narcosis predicts. Some of these chemicals have been distinguished as polar narcotics. Joint toxic theory and isobole diagrams were used to show that chemicals strictly additive with phenol were generally more toxic than predicted by narcosis I models and characterized by a different mode of action called narcosis II syndrome. This type of toxicity is exemplified by certain amides, amines, phenols, and nitrogen heterocycles. Evidence is provided that suggests that narcosis II syndrome may result from the presence of a strong hydrogen bonding group on the molecule, and narcosis I syndrome results from hydrophobic bonding of the chemical to enzymes and/or membranes. This shift in toxic action is apparently indistinguishable for narcotic chemicals with log P greater than about 2.7. General rules for selecting the appropriate models are proposed.

  5. The Three-Dimensional Structural Basis of Type II Hyperprolinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Dhiraj; Singh, Ranjan K.; Moxley, Michael A.; Henzl, Michael T.; Becker, Donald F.; Tanner, John J.

    2012-08-31

    Type II hyperprolinemia is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in {Delta}{sup 1}-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH; also known as ALDH4A1), the aldehyde dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of glutamate semialdehyde to glutamate. Here, we report the first structure of human P5CDH (HsP5CDH) and investigate the impact of the hyperprolinemia-associated mutation of Ser352 to Leu on the structure and catalytic properties of the enzyme. The 2. 5-{angstrom}-resolution crystal structure of HsP5CDH was determined using experimental phasing. Structures of the mutant enzymes S352A (2.4 {angstrom}) and S352L (2.85 {angstrom}) were determined to elucidate the structural consequences of altering Ser352. Structures of the 93% identical mouse P5CDH complexed with sulfate ion (1.3 {angstrom} resolution), glutamate (1.5 {angstrom}), and NAD{sup +} (1.5 {angstrom}) were determined to obtain high-resolution views of the active site. Together, the structures show that Ser352 occupies a hydrophilic pocket and is connected via water-mediated hydrogen bonds to catalytic Cys348. Mutation of Ser352 to Leu is shown to abolish catalytic activity and eliminate NAD{sup +} binding. Analysis of the S352A mutant shows that these functional defects are caused by the introduction of the nonpolar Leu352 side chain rather than the removal of the Ser352 hydroxyl. The S352L structure shows that the mutation induces a dramatic 8-{angstrom} rearrangement of the catalytic loop. Because of this conformational change, Ser349 is not positioned to interact with the aldehyde substrate, conserved Glu447 is no longer poised to bind NAD{sup +}, and Cys348 faces the wrong direction for nucleophilic attack. These structural alterations render the enzyme inactive.

  6. Microanalysis of quantum dots with type II band alignments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarney, Wendy; Little, John; Svensson, Stefan

    2006-03-01

    We will discuss the structural characterization of a system consisting of undoped self-assembled InSb quantum dots having a type II band alignment with the surrounding In0.53Ga0.47As matrix. This differs from systems using conventional type-I quantum dots that must be doped and that rely on intersubband transitions for infrared photoresponse. Type II dots grown in a superlattice structure combine the advantages of quantum dots (3-dimensional confinement) with the tunability and photovoltaic operation of the type II superlattice. We grew a high surface density of InSb quantum dots with a narrow distribution of sizes and shapes and free of dislocations within the body of the dots. The dots are relaxed due to an array of misfit dislocations confined at the basal dot/matrix interface. This makes burying the dots with InGaAs not feasible without generating dislocations due to the large dot/matrix lattice mismatch. We are experimenting with strain-compensating or graded strain overlayers to lower the lattice mismatch.

  7. Type II restriction endonucleases—a historical perspective and more

    PubMed Central

    Pingoud, Alfred; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Wende, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    This article continues the series of Surveys and Summaries on restriction endonucleases (REases) begun this year in Nucleic Acids Research. Here we discuss ‘Type II’ REases, the kind used for DNA analysis and cloning. We focus on their biochemistry: what they are, what they do, and how they do it. Type II REases are produced by prokaryotes to combat bacteriophages. With extreme accuracy, each recognizes a particular sequence in double-stranded DNA and cleaves at a fixed position within or nearby. The discoveries of these enzymes in the 1970s, and of the uses to which they could be put, have since impacted every corner of the life sciences. They became the enabling tools of molecular biology, genetics and biotechnology, and made analysis at the most fundamental levels routine. Hundreds of different REases have been discovered and are available commercially. Their genes have been cloned, sequenced and overexpressed. Most have been characterized to some extent, but few have been studied in depth. Here, we describe the original discoveries in this field, and the properties of the first Type II REases investigated. We discuss the mechanisms of sequence recognition and catalysis, and the varied oligomeric modes in which Type II REases act. We describe the surprising heterogeneity revealed by comparisons of their sequences and structures. PMID:24878924

  8. On the nature of rapidly fading Type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Pruzhinskaya, Maria V.; Ergon, Mattias; Blinnikov, Sergei I.

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that Type II supernovae with rapidly fading light curves (a.k.a. Type IIL supernovae) are explosions of progenitors with low-mass hydrogen-rich envelopes which are of the order of 1 M⊙. We investigate light-curve properties of supernovae from such progenitors. We confirm that such progenitors lead to rapidly fading Type II supernovae. We find that the luminosity of supernovae from such progenitors with the canonical explosion energy of 1051 erg and 56Ni mass of 0.05 M⊙ can increase temporarily shortly before all the hydrogen in the envelope recombines. As a result, a bump appears in their light curves. The bump appears because the heating from the nuclear decay of 56Ni can keep the bottom of hydrogen-rich layers in the ejecta ionized, and thus the photosphere can stay there for a while. We find that the light-curve bump becomes less significant when we make explosion energy larger (≳2 × 1051 erg), 56Ni mass smaller (≲0.01 M⊙), 56Ni mixed in the ejecta, or the progenitor radius larger. Helium mixing in hydrogen-rich layers makes the light-curve decline rates large but does not help reducing the light-curve bump. Because the light-curve bump we found in our light-curve models has not been observed in rapidly fading Type II supernovae, they may be characterized by not only low-mass hydrogen-rich envelopes but also higher explosion energy, larger degrees of 56Ni mixing, and/or larger progenitor radii than slowly fading Type II supernovae, so that the light-curve bump does not become significant.

  9. Active heterodimers are formed from human DNA topoisomerase II alpha and II beta isoforms.

    PubMed Central

    Biersack, H; Jensen, S; Gromova, I; Nielsen, I S; Westergaard, O; Andersen, A H

    1996-01-01

    DNA topoisomerase II is a nuclear enzyme essential for chromosome dynamics and DNA metabolism. In mammalian cells, two genetically and biochemically distinct topoisomerase II forms exist, which are designated topoisomerase II alpha and topoisomerase II beta. In our studies of human topoisomerase II, we have found that a substantial fraction of the enzyme exists as alpha/beta heterodimers in HeLa cells. The ability to form heterodimers was verified when human topoisomerases II alpha and II beta were coexpressed in yeast and investigated in a dimerization assay. Analysis of purified heterodimers shows that these enzymes maintain topoisomerase II specific catalytic activities. The natural existence of an active heterodimeric subclass of topoisomerase II merits attention whenever topoisomerases II alpha and II beta function, localization, and cell cycle regulation are investigated. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8710863

  10. Monooxygenase activity of type 3 copper proteins.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Shinobu; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2007-07-01

    The molecular mechanism of the monooxygenase (phenolase) activity of type 3 copper proteins has been examined in detail both in the model systems and in the enzymatic systems. The reaction of a side-on peroxo dicopper(II) model compound ( A) and neutral phenols proceeds via a proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) mechanism to generate phenoxyl radical species, which collapse each other to give the corresponding C-C coupling dimer products. In this reaction, a bis(mu-oxo)dicopper(III) complex ( B) generated by O-O bond homolysis of A is suggested to be a real active species. On the other hand, the reaction of lithium phenolates (deprotonated form of phenols) with the same side-on peroxo dicopper(II) complex proceeds via an electrophilic aromatic substitution mechanism to give the oxygenated products (catechols). The mechanistic difference between these two systems has been discussed on the basis of the Marcus theory of electron transfer and Hammett analysis. Mechanistic details of the monooxygenase activity of tyrosinase have also been examined using a simplified enzymatic reaction system to demonstrate that the enzymatic reaction mechanism is virtually the same as that of the model reaction, that is, an electrophilic aromatic substitution mechanism. In addition, the monooxygenase activity of the oxygen carrier protein hemocyanin has been explored for the first time by employing urea as an additive in the reaction system. In this case as well, the ortho-hydroxylation of phenols to catechols has been demonstrated to involve the same ionic mechanism. PMID:17461541

  11. Prediction of Type II Radio Bursts Associated with Large CME Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, Iver; Schmidt, Joachim

    Type II radio bursts are associated with shocks in the corona and solar wind, either driven by CMEs or else by blast waves. Recently we coupled the advanced 3D MHD BATS-R-US code of Toth, Gombosi, and colleagues with our kinetic ``bolt-on'' theory for type II emission. Initialising the simulation code with event specific coronal and CME data, the combined code can be used to predict the dynamic spectrum of type II emission for a specific radio event. We demonstrate very good agreement with Wind spacecraft observations for three type II bursts, one on 15 February 2011 and two on 7 March 2012 (associated with successive CMEs from different sides of the same active region). The intensities, frequencies, and times of fundamental and harmonic type II emission are predicted very well from the high corona to 1 AU (frequencies ~ 20 MHz - 30 kHz). The islands of increased emission correspond to different regions of the shock interacting with coronal structures, with streamers typically corresponding to reduced emission. The results provide strong evidence that both the type II theory and the BATS-R-US (driven with event-specific data) are accurate. They also provide strong evidence that the observation and detailed theoretical modelling of type II bursts can in principle provide warnings with lead-times of over a day for large and fast CMEs that might produce space weather at Earth. The MHD code can also predict whether the CME will hit Earth's magnetopause and the magnetic field direction at the magnetopause as the shock, sheath, and CME, vital quantities for predicting space weather at Earth.

  12. K3-fibrations and heterotic-type II string duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemm, A.; Lerche, W.; Mayr, P.

    1995-02-01

    We analyze the map between heterotic and type II N = 2 supersymmetric string theories for certain two and three moduli examples found by Kachru and Vafa. The appearance of elliptic j-functions can be traced back to specializations of the Picard-Fuchs equations to systems for K3 surfaces. For the three-moduli example we write the mirror maps and Yukawa couplings in the weak coupling limit in terms of j-functions; the expressions agree with those obtained in perturbative calculations in the heterotic string in an impressive way. We also discuss symmetries of the world-sheet instanton numbers in the type II theory, and interpret them in terms of S-duality of the non-perturbative heterotic string.

  13. Unification of type-II strings and T duality.

    PubMed

    Hohm, Olaf; Kwak, Seung Ki; Zwiebach, Barton

    2011-10-21

    We present a unified description of the low-energy limits of type-II string theories. This is achieved by a formulation that doubles the space-time coordinates in order to realize the T-duality group O(10,10) geometrically. The Ramond-Ramond fields are described by a spinor of O(10,10), which couples to the gravitational fields via the Spin(10,10) representative of the so-called generalized metric. This theory, which is supplemented by a T-duality covariant self-duality constraint, unifies the type-II theories in that each of them is obtained for a particular subspace of the doubled space. PMID:22107505

  14. Progression of Jackhammer Esophagus to Type II Achalasia.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Jason; Fass, Ronnie

    2016-01-31

    It has been suggested that patients with certain motility disorders may progress overtime to develop achalasia. We describe a 66 year-old woman who presented with dysphagia for solids and liquids for a period of 18 months. Her initial workup showed normal endoscopy and non-specific esophageal motility disorder on conventional manometry. Six months later, due to persistence of symptoms, the patient underwent a high resolution esophageal manometry (HREM) demonstrating jackhammer esophagus. The patient was treated with a high dose proton pump inhibitor but without resolution of her symptoms. During the last year, the patient reported repeated episodes of food regurgitation and a significant weight loss. A repeat HREM revealed type II achalasia. Multiple case reports, and only a few prospective studies have demonstrated progression from certain esophageal motility disorders to achalasia. However, this report is the first to describe a case of jackhammer esophagus progressing to type II achalasia. PMID:26717932

  15. Progression of Jackhammer Esophagus to Type II Achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Jason; Fass, Ronnie

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that patients with certain motility disorders may progress overtime to develop achalasia. We describe a 66 year-old woman who presented with dysphagia for solids and liquids for a period of 18 months. Her initial workup showed normal endoscopy and non-specific esophageal motility disorder on conventional manometry. Six months later, due to persistence of symptoms, the patient underwent a high resolution esophageal manometry (HREM) demonstrating jackhammer esophagus. The patient was treated with a high dose proton pump inhibitor but without resolution of her symptoms. During the last year, the patient reported repeated episodes of food regurgitation and a significant weight loss. A repeat HREM revealed type II achalasia. Multiple case reports, and only a few prospective studies have demonstrated progression from certain esophageal motility disorders to achalasia. However, this report is the first to describe a case of jackhammer esophagus progressing to type II achalasia. PMID:26717932

  16. THE CONNECTION OF TYPE II SPICULES TO THE CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Judge, Philip G.; McIntosh, Scott W.; De Pontieu, Bart; Olluri, Kosovare

    2012-02-20

    We examine the hypothesis that plasma associated with 'Type II' spicules is heated to coronal temperatures, and that the upward moving hot plasma constitutes a significant mass supply to the solar corona. One-dimensional hydrodynamical models including time-dependent ionization are brought to bear on the problem. These calculations indicate that heating of field-aligned spicule flows should produce significant differential Doppler shifts between emission lines formed in the chromosphere, transition region, and corona. At present, observational evidence for the computed 60-90 km s{sup -1} differential shifts is weak, but the data are limited by difficulties in comparing the proper motion of Type II spicules with spectral and kinematic properties of an associated transition region and coronal emission lines. Future observations with the upcoming infrared interferometer spectrometer instrument should clarify if Doppler shifts are consistent with the dynamics modeled here.

  17. Subclinical Onychomycosis in Patients With Type II Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    El Tawdy, Amira; Zaki, Naglaa; Alfishawy, Mostafa; Rateb, Amr

    2015-01-01

    Fungal organisms could be present in the nail without any clinical manifestations. As onychomycosis in diabetics has more serious complications, early detection of such infection could be helpful to prevent them. We aim in this study to assess the possibility of detecting subclinical onychomycosis in type II diabetic patients and addressing possible associated neuropathy. A cross sectional, observational study included patients with type II diabetes with normal big toe nail. All were subjected to nail clipping of the big toe nail, followed by staining with Hematoxylin and Eosin and Periodic-Acid-Schiff (PAS) stains and examined microscopically. A total of 106 patients were included, fungal infection was identified in eight specimens, all were uncontrolled diabetes, and six had neuropathy. Using the nail clipping and microscopic examination with PAS stain to detect such subclinical infection could be an applicable screening test for diabetic patients, for early detection and management of onychomycosis. PMID:26734120

  18. Central nervous system disorders and possible brain type carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Y; Tomoda, A; Miike, T; Matsukura, M; Miyatake, M; Narazaki, O

    1994-01-01

    We describe two male infants with central nervous system disorders, i.e. infantile spasms in one and athetotic quadriplegia in the other, and with recurrent attacks of high plasma creatine kinase levels induced by viral infections. Although carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) activity in biopsied muscle was normal in both cases, that of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) was decreased to 37% and 25% of the control value, respectively. Meanwhile, to determine whether or not and how CPT exists in the central nervous system (CNS), we studied animal brain tissues. CPT activity was demonstrated in almost all regions, especially in the brainstem, cerebellum and spinal cord. Although CPT deficiency can be classified into hepatic (CPT I) and muscular (CPT II) presentations, these data suggest that another symptomatology of CPT II deficiency with CNS involvement (brain type?) might exist. PMID:8048703

  19. Active site specificity of plasmepsin II.

    PubMed Central

    Westling, J.; Cipullo, P.; Hung, S. H.; Saft, H.; Dame, J. B.; Dunn, B. M.

    1999-01-01

    Members of the aspartic proteinase family of enzymes have very similar three-dimensional structures and catalytic mechanisms. Each, however, has unique substrate specificity. These distinctions arise from variations in amino acid residues that line the active site subsites and interact with the side chains of the amino acids of the peptides that bind to the active site. To understand the unique binding preferences of plasmepsin II, an enzyme of the aspartic proteinase class from the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, chromogenic octapeptides having systematic substitutions at various positions in the sequence were analyzed. This enabled the design of new, improved substrates for this enzyme (Lys-Pro-Ile-Leu-Phe*Nph-Ala/Glu-Leu-Lys, where * indicates the cleavage point). Additionally, the crystal structure of plasmepsin II was analyzed to explain the binding characteristics. Specific amino acids (Met13, Ser77, and Ile287) that were suspected of contributing to active site binding and specificity were chosen for site-directed mutagenesis experiments. The Met13Glu and Ile287Glu single mutants and the Met13Glu/Ile287Glu double mutant gain the ability to cleave substrates containing Lys residues. PMID:10548045

  20. ACCELERATION OF TYPE II SPICULES IN THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Michael L.

    2012-10-01

    A 2.5D, time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic model is used to test the proposition that observed type II spicule velocities can be generated by a Lorentz force under chromospheric conditions. It is found that current densities localized on observed space and time scales of type II spicules and that generate maximum magnetic field strengths {<=}50 G can generate a Lorentz force that accelerates plasma to terminal velocities similar to those of type II spicules. Maximum vertical flow speeds are {approx}150-460 km s{sup -1}, horizontally localized within {approx}2.5-10 km from the vertical axis of the spicule, and comparable to slow solar wind speeds, suggesting that significant solar wind acceleration occurs in type II spicules. Horizontal speeds are {approx}20 times smaller than vertical speeds. Terminal velocity is reached {approx}100 s after acceleration begins. The increase in the mechanical and thermal energy of the plasma during acceleration is (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} ergs. The radial component of the Lorentz force compresses the plasma during the acceleration process by factors as large as {approx}100. The Joule heating flux generated during this process is essentially due to proton Pedersen current dissipation and can be {approx}0.1-3.7 times the heating flux of {approx}10{sup 6} ergs cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} associated with middle-upper chromospheric emission. About 84%-94% of the magnetic energy that accelerates and heats the spicules is converted into bulk flow kinetic energy.

  1. Gaia16alo is a Type II SN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, M.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Mattila, S.; Harrison, D.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Blagorodnova, N.

    2016-05-01

    Gaia16alo (aka PS16cct) was observed using the robotic Liverpool Telescope + SPRAT (R~350; 400-800 nm) on the night of 2016 May 6. The spectrum was compared to a set of templates using SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), and we find a best match to a range of Type II SNe at z=0.03.

  2. Acceleration of Type II Spicules in the Solar Chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    A 2.5 D, time dependent magnetohydrodynamic model is used to test the proposition that observed type II spicule velocities can be generated by a Lorentz force under chromospheric conditions, and that maximum vertical flow speeds can be comparable to slow solar wind speeds ˜ 200-400 km/sec. It is found that current densities localized on observed space and time scales of type II spicules, and that generate maximum magnetic field strengths ≤ 50 G can generate a Lorentz force that accelerates plasma to terminal velocities similar to those of type II spicules. The maximum vertical flow speeds are ˜ 150-460 km-sec-1, and horizontally localized within ˜ 2.5-10 km from the vertical axis of the spicule, suggesting that significant solar wind acceleration occurs in type II spicules on sub-resolution, horizontal spatial scales. Vertical flow speeds with Mach numbers > ˜ 5 extend over horizontal regions with diameters ˜ 25-50 km. Horizontal speeds are ˜ 20 times smaller than maximum vertical speeds. The increase in the mechanical and thermal energy of the plasma during the acceleration process is 2-3 × 1022 ergs, which is ˜ 5 times smaller than nanoflare energies. The radial component of the Lorentz force compresses the plasma during the acceleration process by factors as large as ˜ 100. The Joule heating flux generated during this process is essentially due to proton Pedersen current dissipation, and can be ˜ 0.1 - 3.7 times the heating flux of ˜ 106 ergs-cm-2-s-1 associated with middle-upper chromospheric emission. The maximum heating rate and vertical flow speed are respectively reached ˜ 23 s and 100 s after acceleration begins, indicating that most heating occurs well before terminal velocity is reached. About 84-94% of the magnetic energy that accelerates and heats the spicules is converted into bulk flow kinetic energy.

  3. Shock waves and nucleosynthesis in type II supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aufderheide, M. B.; Baron, E.; Thielemann, F.-K.

    1991-01-01

    In the study of nucleosynthesis in type II SN, shock waves are initiated artificially, since collapse calculations do not, as yet, give self-consistent shock waves strong enough to produce the SN explosion. The two initiation methods currently used by light-curve modelers are studied, with a focus on the peak temperatures and the nucleosynthetic yields in each method. The various parameters involved in artificially initiating a shock wave and the effects of varying these parameters are discussed.

  4. Oxygen-evolving photosystem II preparation from wild type and photosystem II mutants of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    SciTech Connect

    Kirilovsky, D.L.; Boussac, A.G.P.; van Mieghem, F.J.E.; Ducruet, J.M.R.C.; Setif, P.R.; Rutherford, A.W. ); Jiujiang Yu; Vermaas, W.F.J. )

    1992-02-25

    The authors present here a simple and rapid method which allows relatively large quantities of oxygen-evolving photosystem II- (PS-II-) enriched particles to be obtained from wild-type and mutants of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803. This method is based on that of Burnap et al. but is modified so that the whole preparation, from cells to PS-II particles, is achieved in 10 h and involves only one purification step. The purified preparation exhibits a 5-6-fold increase of O{sub 2}-evolution activity on a chlorophyll basis over the thylakoids. The ratio of PS-I to PS-II is about 0.14:1 in the preparation. The secondary quinone electron acceptor, Q{sub B}, is present in this preparation as demonstrated by thermoluminescence studies. These PS-II particles are well-suited to spectroscopic studies as demonstrated by the range of EPR signals arising from components of PS-II that are easily detectable. Among the EPR signals presented are those from a formal S{sub 3}-state, attributed to an oxidized amino acid interacting magnetically with the Mn complex in Ca{sup 2+}-deficient PS-II particles, and from S{sub 2} modified by the replacement of Ca{sup 2+} by Sr{sup 2+}. Neither of these signals has been previously reported in cyanobacteria. Their detection under these conditions indicates a similar lesion caused by Ca{sup 2+} depletion in both plants and cyanobacteria. The protocol has been applied to mutants which have site-specific changes in PS-II. Data are presented on mutants have changes on the electron donor (Y160F) and electron acceptor (G215W) side of the D{sub 2} polypeptide.

  5. Coronas Mass Ejections, Shocks, and Type II Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2010-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most energetic phenomena in the interplanetary medium. Type II radio bursts are the earliest indicators of particle acceleration by CME-driven shocks. There is one-to-one correspondence between large solar energetic particle (SEP) events and long wavelength type II bursts because the same CME-driven shock is supposed to accelerate electrons and ions. However, there are some significant deviations: some CMEs lacking type II bursts (radio-quiet or RQ CMEs) are associated with small SEP events while some radioloud (RL) CMEs are not associated with SEP events, suggesting subtle differences in the acceleration of electrons and protons. Not all CME-driven shocks are radio loud: more than one third of the interplanetary shocks during solar cycle 23 were radio quiet. Some RQ shocks were associated with energetic storm particle (ESP) events, which are detected when the shocks arrive at the observing spacecraft. This paper attempts to explain these contradictory results in terms of the properties of CMEs, shocks, and the ambient medium.

  6. Type-II superlattice infrared detector technology at Fraunhofer IAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, Robert; Daumer, Volker; Hugger, Tsvetelina; Kohn, Norbert; Luppold, Wolfgang; Müller, Raphael; Niemasz, Jasmin; Schmidt, Johannes; Rutz, Frank; Stadelmann, Tim; Wauro, Matthias; Wörl, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    For more than two decades, Antimony-based type-II superlattice photodetectors for the infrared spectral range between 3-15 μm are under development at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF). Today, Fraunhofer IAF is Germany's only national foundry for InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice detectors and we cover a wide range of aspects from basic materials research to small series production in this field. We develop single-element photodetectors for sensing systems as well as two-dimensional detector arrays for high-performance imaging and threat warning systems in the mid-wavelength and long-wavelength region of the thermal infrared. We continuously enhance our production capabilities by extending our in-line process control facilities. As a recent example, we present a semiautomatic wafer probe station that has developed into an important tool for electrooptical characterization. A large amount of the basic materials research focuses on the reduction of the dark current by the development of bandgap engineered device designs on the basis of heterojunction concepts. Recently, we have successfully demonstrated Europe's first LWIR InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice imager with 640x512 pixels with 15 μm pitch. The demonstrator camera already delivers a good image quality and achieves a thermal resolution better than 30 mK.

  7. Defects and noise in Type-II superlattice infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Martin; Wörl, Andreas; Daumer, Volker; Rehm, Robert; Kirste, Lutz; Rutz, Frank; Schmitz, Johannes

    2013-06-01

    To examine defects in InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices we investigated GaSb substrates and epitaxial InAs/GaSb layers by synchrotron white beam X-ray topography to characterize the distribution of threading dislocations. Those measurements are compared with wet chemical etch pit density measurements on GaSb substrates and InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices epitaxial layer structures. The technique uses a wet chemical etch process to decorate threading dislocations and an automated optical analyzing system for mapping the defect distribution. Dark current and noise measurements on processed InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice single element photo diodes reveal a generation-recombination limited dark current behavior without contributions by surface leakage currents for midwavelength infrared detectors. In the white noise part of the noise spectrum, the extracted diode noise closely matches the theoretically expected shot noise behavior. For diodes with an increased dark current in comparison to the dark current of generation-recombination limited material, the standard shot-noise model fails to describe the noise experimentally observed in the white part of the spectrum. Instead, we find that McIntyre's noise model for avalanche multiplication processes fits the data quite well. We suggest that within high electric field domains localized around crystallographic defects, electrons initiate avalanche multiplication processes leading to increased dark current and excess noise.

  8. Perinatal lethal type II osteogenesis imperfecta: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ayadi, Imene Dahmane; Hamida, Emira Ben; Rebeh, Rania Ben; Chaouachi, Sihem; Marrakchi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    We report a new case of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type II which is a perinatal lethal form. First trimester ultrasound didn't identified abnormalities. Second trimester ultrasound showed incurved limbs, narrow chest, with hypomineralization and multiple fractures of ribs and long bones. Parents refused pregnancy termination; they felt that the diagnosis was late. At birth, the newborn presented immediate respiratory distress. Postnatal examination and bone radiography confirmed the diagnosis of OI type IIA. Death occurred on day 25 of life related to respiratory failure. PMID:26401205

  9. Excitation of type II anterior caudate neurons by stimulation of dopamine D3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Piercey, M F; Hyslop, D K; Hoffmann, W E

    1997-07-11

    Previous studies have demonstrated that both direct- and indirect-acting dopamine (DA) receptor agonists excite type II neurons in the anterior caudate (CN) by stimulation of DA receptors belonging to the D2 receptor subfamily (D2, D3, D4 receptor subtypes). In the present study, pramipexole, a D3-preferring DA agonist effective in treating Parkinson's disease, excited type II anterior CN neurons. As with other direct-acting agonists, excitation of the CN neurons occurred only at doses above those that silenced DA neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNPC). Although more potent than pramipexole in inhibiting SNPC cells, PNU-91356A, a D2-preferring agonist, did not excite type II CN cells. The D3-preferring antagonist (+)-AJ76 was weaker than haloperidol, a D2-preferring antagonist, in reversing the effects of amphetamine on firing rates in dopaminergic neurons in both the SNPC and the CN. However, in relationship to its potency in the SNPC, (+)-AJ76 was more potent than haloperidol in the CN. PNU-101387, a selective D4 antagonist, did not alter amphetamine-induced stimulation of type II CN neurons. We conclude that DA agonists may excite type II anterior CN neurons via D3 receptor activation. The stimulation of these neurons may contribute to the anti-parkinsonian effects of pramipexole. PMID:9262154

  10. Transforming growth factor receptor type II (ec-TβR II) behaves as a halophile.

    PubMed

    Saini, Komal; Khan, M Ashhar I; Chakrapani, Sumit; Deep, Shashank

    2015-01-01

    The members of transforming growth factor β family (TGF-β) are multifunctional proteins but their main role is to control cell proliferation and differentiation. Polypeptides of TGF-β family function by binding to two related, functionally distinct transmembrane receptor kinases, first to the type II (TβR II) followed by type I receptor (TβR I). The paper describes, in details, the stability of wt-ec-TβR II under different conditions. The stability of wt-ec-TβR II was observed at different pH and salt concentration using fluorescence spectroscopy. Stability of ec-TβR II decreases with decrease in pH. Interestingly, the addition of salt increases the stability of the TβRII at pH 5.0 as observed for halophiles. Computational analysis using DELPHI suggests that this is probably due to the decrease in repulsion between negatively charged residues at surface on the addition of salt. This is further confirmed by the change in the stability of receptor on mutation of some of the residues (D32A) at surface. PMID:25316422

  11. A study of low-energy type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisakov, Sergey M.; Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Waldman, Roni; Livne, Eli

    2015-08-01

    All stars with an initial mass greater than 8Msun, but not massive enough to encounter the pair-production instability, eventually form a degenerate core and collapse to form a compact object, either a neutron star or a black hole.At the lower mass end, these massive stars die as red-supergiant stars and give rise to Type II supernovae (SNe). The diversity of observed properties of SNe II suggests a range of progenitor mass, radii, but also explosion energy.We have performed a large grid simulations designed to cover this range of progenitor and explosion properties. Using MESA STAR, we compute a set of massive star models (12-30Msun) from the main sequence until core collapse. We then generate explosions with V1D to produce ejecta with a range of explosion energies and yields. Finally, all ejecta are evolved with CMFGEN to generate multi-band light curves and spectra.In this poster, we focus our attention on the properties of low-energy explosions that give rise to low-luminosity Type II Plateau (II-P) SNe. In particular, we present a detailed study of SN 2008bk, but also include other notorious low-energy SNe II-P like 2005cs, emphasising their non-standard properties by comparing to models that match well events like SN 1999em. Such low-energy explosions, characterised by low ejecta expansion rates, are more suitable for reliable spectral line identifications.Based on our models, we discuss the distinct signatures of low-energy explosions in lower and higher mass models. One important goal is to identify whether there is a progenitor-mass bias leading to such events.

  12. Quantitative spectroscopy of photospheric-phase type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, L.; Hillier, D. J.

    2005-07-01

    We present first results on the quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the photospheric-phase of type II supernovae (SN). The analyses are based on the model atmosphere code, CMFGEN, of Hillier & Miller (1998) which solves the radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations in expanding outflows under the constraint of radiative equilibrium. A key asset of CMFGEN is its thorough treatment of line-blanketing due to metal species. From its applicability to hot star environments, the main modifications to the source code were to allow a linear velocity law, a power-law density distribution, an adaptive grid to handle the steep H recombination/ionization front occurring in some SN models, and a routine to compute the gray temperature structure in the presence of large velocities. In this first paper we demonstrate the ability of CMFGEN to reproduce, with a high level of accuracy, the UV and optical observations of a sample of well observed type II SN, i.e. SN1987A and SN1999em, at representative stages of their photospheric evolution. Two principal stages of SN are modeled that where hydrogen is fully ionized, and that in which H is only partially ionized. For models with an effective temperature below ~8000 K, hydrogen recombines and gives rise to a steep ionization front. The effect of varying the location of the outer grid radius on the spectral energy distribution (SED) is investigated. We find that going to 5-6 times the optically-thick base radius is optimal, since above that, the model becomes prohibitively large, while below this, significant differences appear because of the reduced line-blanketing (which persists even far above the photosphere) and the truncation of line-formation regions. To constrain the metallicity and the reddening of SN, the UV spectral region of early-time spectra is essential. We find that the density of the photosphere and effect of line blanketing decline as the spatial scale of the SN increases. The density distribution is

  13. Non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Rodger, W

    1991-01-01

    Non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes mellitus is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia with resistance to ketosis. The onset is usually after age 40 years. Patients are variably symptomatic and frequently obese, hyperlipidemic and hypertensive. Clinical, pathological and biochemical evidence suggests that the disease is caused by a combined defect of insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Goals in the treatment of hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension should be appropriate to the patient's age, the status of diabetic complications and the safety of the regimen. Nonpharmacologic management includes meal planning to achieve a suitable weight, such that carbohydrates supply 50% to 60% of the daily energy intake, with limitation of saturated fats, cholesterol and salt when indicated, and physical activity appropriate to the patient's age and cardiovascular status. Follow-up should include regular visits with the physician, access to diabetes education, self-monitoring of the blood or urine glucose level and laboratory-based measurement of the plasma levels of glucose and glycated hemoglobin. If unacceptably high plasma glucose levels (e.g., 8 mmol/L or more before meals) persist the use of orally given hypoglycemic agents (a sulfonylurea agent or metformin or both) is indicated. Temporary insulin therapy may be needed during intercurrent illness, surgery or pregnancy. Long-term insulin therapy is recommended in patients with continuing symptoms or hyperglycemia despite treatment with diet modification and orally given hypoglycemic agents. The risk of pancreatitis may be reduced by treating severe hypertriglyceridemia (fasting serum level greater than 10 mmol/L) and atherosclerotic disease through dietary and, if necessary, pharmacologic management of dyslipidemia. Antihypertensive agents are available that have fewer adverse metabolic effects than thiazides and beta-adrenergic receptor blockers. New drugs are being developed that

  14. Increased incidence of neonatal respiratory distress in infants with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II, Hunter syndrome).

    PubMed

    Dodsworth, Charlotte; Burton, Barbara K

    2014-02-01

    Records were reviewed on all patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome) seen at a single institution from 1999 to 2013 to identify those with a history of neonatal intensive care. Eleven of 34 patients were in a neonatal intensive care unit and all had respiratory distress with 8 diagnoses of respiratory distress syndrome and 3 of transient tachypnea of the newborn. None of the infants were premature; four were delivered by cesarean section. These findings suggest that respiratory distress is more commonly observed in neonates with MPS II than in the general population. This may reflect airway disease already present in this disorder at the time of birth. PMID:24238892

  15. Cooperative excited-state behavior in plantinum(II) magnus-type double-salt materials. Active and inactive photosensitizers for H/sub 2/ production in aqueous suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Houlding, V.H.; Frank, A.J.

    1985-10-23

    Diffuse-reflectance and emission behavior are used to characterize the lowest excited state of the following (Pt/sup II//sup 2 +/(Pt/sup II/)/sup 2 +/ double salts and in some cases their hydrates: (Pt(NH/sub 34/)(PtCl/sub 4/) (MGS), (Pt(bpy)/sub 2/)(PtCl/sub 4/) (PB(Cl); bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), (Pt-(bpy)(MHB))(PtCl/sub 4/) (PHB(Cl); MHB = 4-methyl-4'-heptyl-2,2'-bipyridine), )Pt(bpy)/sub 2/)(Pt(CN)/sub 4/) (PBC), and (Pt(bpy)-(MHB))(Pt(CN)/sub 4/)(PHBC). All of the salts containing the PtCl/sub 4//sup 2 -/ anion have lowest excited states of the ligand field type. In green MGS, where metal-metal interaction is significant, no emission occurs, but in yellow PB(Cl)x2.5H/sub 2/O and PHBC x 2.5 H/sub 2/O where interaction is weak, emission characteristic of PtCl/sub 2//sup 2 -/ is observed. In orange PBCx2H/sub 2/O and PHB(Cl), and their red anhydrates, the lowest excited state is assigned as a delocalized /sup 3/Pt(5d/sub z/sup 2//-6p/sub z/) state. Both salts exhibit strong emission (in PBC powder at room temperature, the emission quantum yield is 0.002 +/- 0.001 and the lifetime is 16.8 +/- 2.5 ns), which overlaps well with an intense visible absorption band. PBC and PHBC powders are active as photosensitizers for the reduction of water in EDTA solutions. In the presence of Pt(0) catalyst, H/sub 2/ production is sustained at a constant rate to >1 turnover with respect to photosensitizer, with no evidence for photosensitizer degradation. In the absence of Pt(0), PBC produces H/sub 2/ at a constant rate that is less than 1% of the rate of the presence of Pt(0), but again, without degradation. MGS, PB(Cl), and PHB(Cl) are photoinert and completely inactive as photosensitzers in this reaction. 31 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  16. Type I Interferon Suppresses Type II Interferon–Triggered Human Anti-Mycobacterial Responses

    PubMed Central

    Teles, Rosane M. B.; Graeber, Thomas G.; Krutzik, Stephan R.; Montoya, Dennis; Schenk, Mirjam; Lee, Delphine J.; Komisopoulou, Evangelia; Kelly-Scumpia, Kindra; Chun, Rene; Iyer, Shankar S.; Sarno, Euzenir N.; Rea, Thomas H.; Hewison, Martin; Adams, John S.; Popper, Stephen J.; Relman, David A.; Stenger, Steffen; Bloom, Barry R.; Cheng, Genhong; Modlin, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFN-α and IFN-β) are important for protection against many viral infections, whereas type II interferon (IFN-γ) is essential for host defense against some bacterial and parasitic pathogens. Study of IFN responses in human leprosy revealed an inverse correlation between IFN-β and IFN-γ gene expression programs. IFN-γ and its downstream vitamin D–dependent antimicrobial genes were preferentially expressed in self-healing tuberculoid lesions and mediated antimicrobial activity against the pathogen Mycobacterium leprae in vitro. In contrast, IFN-β and its downstream genes, including interleukin-10 (IL-10), were induced in monocytes by M. leprae in vitro and preferentially expressed in disseminated and progressive lepromatous lesions. The IFN-γ–induced macrophage vitamin D–dependent antimicrobial peptide response was inhibited by IFN-β and by IL-10, suggesting that the differential production of IFNs contributes to protection versus pathogenesis in some human bacterial infections. PMID:23449998

  17. Intersection of RNA Processing and the Type II Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway in Yeast Mitochondria▿

    PubMed Central

    Schonauer, Melissa S.; Kastaniotis, Alexander J.; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Dieckmann, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Distinct metabolic pathways can intersect in ways that allow hierarchical or reciprocal regulation. In a screen of respiration-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene deletion strains for defects in mitochondrial RNA processing, we found that lack of any enzyme in the mitochondrial fatty acid type II biosynthetic pathway (FAS II) led to inefficient 5′ processing of mitochondrial precursor tRNAs by RNase P. In particular, the precursor containing both RNase P RNA (RPM1) and tRNAPro accumulated dramatically. Subsequent Pet127-driven 5′ processing of RPM1 was blocked. The FAS II pathway defects resulted in the loss of lipoic acid attachment to subunits of three key mitochondrial enzymes, which suggests that the octanoic acid produced by the pathway is the sole precursor for lipoic acid synthesis and attachment. The protein component of yeast mitochondrial RNase P, Rpm2, is not modified by lipoic acid in the wild-type strain, and it is imported in FAS II mutant strains. Thus, a product of the FAS II pathway is required for RNase P RNA maturation, which positively affects RNase P activity. In addition, a product is required for lipoic acid production, which is needed for the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase, which feeds acetyl-coenzyme A into the FAS II pathway. These two positive feedback cycles may provide switch-like control of mitochondrial gene expression in response to the metabolic state of the cell. PMID:18779316

  18. Angiotensin II-induced angiotensin II type I receptor lysosomal degradation studied by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hewang; Yu, Peiying; Felder, Robin A.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Jose, Pedro A.

    2009-02-01

    Upon activation, the angiotensin (Ang) II type 1 receptor (AT1Rs) rapidly undergoes endocytosis. After a series of intracellular processes, the internalized AT1Rs recycle back to the plasma membrane or are trafficked to proteasomes or lysosomes for degradation. We recently reported that AT1Rs degrades in proteasomes upon stimulation of the D5 dopamine receptor (D5R) in human renal proximal tubule and HEK-293 cells. This is in contrast to the degradation of AT1R in lysosomes upon binding Ang II. However, the dynamic regulation of the AT1Rs in lysosomes is not well understood. Here we investigated the AT1Rs lysosomal degradation using FRET-FLIM in HEK 293 cells heterologously expressing the human AT1R tagged with EGFP as the donor fluorophore. Compared to its basal state, the lifetime of AT1Rs decreased after a 5-minute treatment with Ang II treatment and colocalized with Rab5 but not Rab7 and LAMP1. With longer Ang II treatment (30 min), the AT1Rs lifetime decreased and co-localized with Rab5, as well as Rab7 and LAMP1. The FLIM data are corroborated with morphological and biochemical co-immunoprecipitation studies. These data demonstrate that Ang II induces the internalization of AT1Rs into early sorting endosomes prior to trafficking to late endosomes and subsequent degradation in lysosomes.

  19. Observations of On-Disk Type I and II Spicules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Na; Denker, C.; Verma, M.; Shimizu, T.; Liu, C.; Wang, H.

    2011-05-01

    A coordinated observing campaign was carried out during 2010 November 16-30 using German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) and Hinode to investigate properties of small-scale spicules on the solar disk. The high-spectral resolution Echelle spectrograph at the VTT on Tenerife acquired spectra of the chromospheric halpha (656.28 nm) and photospheric Fe I (656.92 nm) lines in a region centered on a small pore. Hinode mission provides high-cadence vector magnetograms, G-band and Ca II H images, EIS and XRT observations of the same region. We present statistical properties of spicules (type I and II), such as spectral characteristics, velocities, spatial distribution and temporal evolution, paying particular attention to type II spicules or chromospheric jets. We investigate the photospheric magnetic structure, flow field and their evolution attempting to find the origin of chromospheric jets. The vertical extent of identified chromospheric jets in the transition region and corona will be studied using EIS and XRT observations in conjunction with SDO observations.

  20. Vacuum stability and naturalness in type-II seesaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Okada, Nobuchika; Yamaguchi, Yuya

    2016-06-01

    We study the vacuum stability and perturbativity conditions in the minimal type-II seesaw model. These conditions give characteristic constraints to the model parameters. In the model, there is a SU(2)_L triplet scalar field, which could cause a large Higgs mass correction. From the naturalness point of view, heavy Higgs masses should be lower than 350 GeV, which may be testable by the LHC Run-II results. Due to the effects of the triplet scalar field, the branching ratios of the Higgs decay (h→ γ γ , Zγ ) deviate from the standard model, and a large parameter region is excluded by the recent ATLAS and CMS combined analysis of h→ γ γ . Our result of the signal strength for h→ γ γ is R_{γ γ } lesssim 1.1, but its deviation is too small to observe at the LHC experiment.

  1. Distinct type I and type II toxin-antitoxin modules control Salmonella lifestyle inside eukaryotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Lobato-Márquez, Damián; Moreno-Córdoba, Inmaculada; Figueroa, Virginia; Díaz-Orejas, Ramón; García-del Portillo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules contribute to the generation of non-growing cells in response to stress. These modules abound in bacterial pathogens although the bases for this profusion remain largely unknown. Using the intracellular bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as a model, here we show that a selected group of TA modules impact bacterial fitness inside eukaryotic cells. We characterized in this pathogen twenty-seven TA modules, including type I and type II TA modules encoding antisense RNA and proteinaceous antitoxins, respectively. Proteomic and gene expression analyses revealed that the pathogen produces numerous toxins of TA modules inside eukaryotic cells. Among these, the toxins HokST, LdrAST, and TisBST, encoded by type I TA modules and T4ST and VapC2ST, encoded by type II TA modules, promote bacterial survival inside fibroblasts. In contrast, only VapC2ST shows that positive effect in bacterial fitness when the pathogen infects epithelial cells. These results illustrate how S. Typhimurium uses distinct type I and type II TA modules to regulate its intracellular lifestyle in varied host cell types. This function specialization might explain why the number of TA modules increased in intracellular bacterial pathogens. PMID:25792384

  2. Psycho-neuro-endocrine-immune mechanisms of action of yoga in type II diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vijay Pratap; Khandelwal, Bidita; Sherpa, Namgyal T.

    2015-01-01

    Yoga has been found to benefit all the components of health viz. physical, mental, social and spiritual well being by incorporating a wide variety of practices. Pathophysiology of Type II DM and co-morbidities in Type II DM has been correlated with stress mechanisms. Stress suppresses body's immune system and neuro-humoral actions thereby aff ecting normal psychological state. It would not be wrong to state that correlation of diabetes with stress, anxiety and other psychological factors are bidirectional and lead to difficulty in understanding the interrelated mechanisms. Type II DM cannot be understood in isolation with psychological factors such as stress, anxiety and depression, neuro-endocrine and immunological factors. There is no review which tries to understand these mechanisms exclusively. The present literature review aims to understand interrelated Psycho-Neuro-Endocrine and Immunological mechanisms of action of Yoga in Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Published literature concerning mechanisms of action of Yoga in Type II DM emphasizing psycho-neuro-endocrine or immunological relations was retrieved from Pubmed using key words yoga, Type II diabetes mellitus, psychological, neural, endocrine, immune and mechanism of action. Those studies which explained the psycho-neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms of action of yoga were included and rest were excluded. Although primary aim of this study is to explain these mechanisms in Type II DM, some studies in non-diabetic population which had a similar pathway of stress mechanism was included because many insightful studies were available in that area. Search was conducted using terms yoga OR yogic AND diabetes OR diabetic IN title OR abstract for English articles. Of the 89 articles, we excluded non-English articles (22), editorials (20) and letters to editor (10). 37 studies were considered for this review. The postulated mechanism of action of yoga is through parasympathetic activation and the associated anti

  3. Psycho-neuro-endocrine-immune mechanisms of action of yoga in type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay Pratap; Khandelwal, Bidita; Sherpa, Namgyal T

    2015-01-01

    Yoga has been found to benefit all the components of health viz. physical, mental, social and spiritual well being by incorporating a wide variety of practices. Pathophysiology of Type II DM and co-morbidities in Type II DM has been correlated with stress mechanisms. Stress suppresses body's immune system and neuro-humoral actions thereby aff ecting normal psychological state. It would not be wrong to state that correlation of diabetes with stress, anxiety and other psychological factors are bidirectional and lead to difficulty in understanding the interrelated mechanisms. Type II DM cannot be understood in isolation with psychological factors such as stress, anxiety and depression, neuro-endocrine and immunological factors. There is no review which tries to understand these mechanisms exclusively. The present literature review aims to understand interrelated Psycho-Neuro-Endocrine and Immunological mechanisms of action of Yoga in Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Published literature concerning mechanisms of action of Yoga in Type II DM emphasizing psycho-neuro-endocrine or immunological relations was retrieved from Pubmed using key words yoga, Type II diabetes mellitus, psychological, neural, endocrine, immune and mechanism of action. Those studies which explained the psycho-neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms of action of yoga were included and rest were excluded. Although primary aim of this study is to explain these mechanisms in Type II DM, some studies in non-diabetic population which had a similar pathway of stress mechanism was included because many insightful studies were available in that area. Search was conducted using terms yoga OR yogic AND diabetes OR diabetic IN title OR abstract for English articles. Of the 89 articles, we excluded non-English articles (22), editorials (20) and letters to editor (10). 37 studies were considered for this review. The postulated mechanism of action of yoga is through parasympathetic activation and the associated anti

  4. Geochemistry of the alginite and amorphous organic matter from type II-S kerogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stankiewicz, B.A.; Kruge, M.A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Salmon, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Maceral fractions of the Type II-S kerogens from the Monterey Formation (Miocene. California. U.S.A.) and Duwi Formation (Campanian/Maastrichtian, Egypt) were separated by density gradient centrifugation. The Monterey Fm. kerogen sample was comprised chiefly of light red-fluorescing amorphous organic matter (AOM), the flash pyrolyzate of which was characterized by a predominance of alkylbenzenes, alkylthiophenes and alkylpyrroles. In contrast, the pyrolyzates of its alginite concentrate showed a highly aliphatic character, typical of this maceral, with the series of n-alkenes and n-alkanes (C6- C26) predominating. The pyrolyzate of the dominant light brown-fluorescing AOM of the Duwi Fm. kerogen had a relatively high concentration of alkylbenzenes and alkylthiophenes, while its elginite concentrate showed a more aliphatic character upon pyrolysis. There was a marked enrichment of thiophenic sulfur in the light-colored AOM of both samples (and also pyrrolic nitrogen in the case of the Monterey) relative to the alginite. The results support a bacterially-mediated, degradative origin for Type II-S amorphous organic matter, with algal remains as the primary source of the kerogen.

  5. A search for the primary abnormality in adult-onset type II citrullinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Keiko; Shaheen, Nazma; Saheki, Takeyori ); Kumashiro, Ryukichi; Tanikawa, Kyuichi ); O'Brien, W.E.; Beaudet, A.L. )

    1993-11-01

    Deficiency of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) causes citrullinemia in human beings. Type II citrullinemia is found in most patients with adult-onset citrullinemia in Japan, and ASS deficiency is found specifically in the liver. Previous studies have shown that the decrease of hepatic ASS activity is caused by a decrease in enzyme protein with normal kinetic properties and that there were no apparent abnormalities in the amount, translational activity, and gross structure of hepatic ASS mRNA. In the present work, the authors show by sequencing analysis that there was no mutation in the ASS mRNA from two patients with type II citrullinemia. The authors also report RFLP analysis of a consanguineous family with type II citrullinemia, by using three DNA polymorphisms located within the ASS gene locus. In spite of having consanguineous parents, the patient was not a homozygous haplotype for the ASS gene. The RFLP analysis of 16 affected patients from consanguineous parents showed that 5 of 16 patients had the heterozygous pattern for one of the three DNA probes and that the frequency of the heterozygous haplotype was not different from the control frequency. These results suggest that the primary defect of type II citrullinemia is not within the ASS gene locus. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. A search for the primary abnormality in adult-onset type II citrullinemia.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Shaheen, N; Kumashiro, R; Tanikawa, K; O'Brien, W E; Beaudet, A L; Saheki, T

    1993-11-01

    Deficiency of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) causes citrullinemia in human beings. Type II citrullinemia is found in most patients with adult-onset citrullinemia in Japan, and ASS deficiency is found specifically in the liver. Previous studies have shown that the decrease of hepatic ASS activity is caused by a decrease in enzyme protein with normal kinetic properties and that there were no apparent abnormalities in the amount, translational activity, and gross structure of hepatic ASS mRNA. In the present work, we show by sequencing analysis that there was no mutation in the ASS mRNA from two patients with type II citrullinemia. We also report RFLP analysis of a consanguineous family with type II citrullinemia, by using three DNA polymorphisms located within the ASS gene locus. In spite of having consanguineous parents, the patient was not a homozygous haplotype for the ASS gene. The RFLP analysis of 16 affected patients from consanguineous parents showed that 5 of 16 patients had the heterozygous pattern for one of the three DNA probes and that the frequency of the heterozygous haplotype was not different from the control frequency. These results suggest that the primary defect of type II citrullinemia is not within the ASS gene locus. PMID:8105687

  7. Oral magnesium supplementation in type II diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Solati, Mehrdad; Ouspid, Elham; Hosseini, Saeedeh; Soltani, Nepton; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Dehghani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation. It plays an important role in insulin homeostasis and glucose metabolism through multiple enzymatic reactions. With increasing data on magnesium deficiency in diabetic patients and epidemiological studies demonstrating magnesium deficiency as a risk factor for diabetes, it is logical to search for its possible beneficial effects on diabetes control and prevention. We aimed to determine whether oral magnesium supplementation improves metabolic control, lipid profile and blood pressure in patients with type II diabetes. Methods: Fifty four patients with type II diabetes were included in a randomized double blind placebocontrolled clinical trial.Patients received either placebo or 300 mg elemental magnesium (as magnesium sulfate -MgSo4-) daily, for 3 months. Metabolic control, lipid profile, blood pressure, magnesium status, hepatic enzymes, hemoglobin concentration, and anthropometric indices were determined in the beginning and at the end of the study. Results: Daily administration of 300 mg elemental magnesium for 3 months, significantly improved fasting blood glucose (183.9±15.43 to 125.8±6.52 vs. 196.5±28.12 to 136.5±7.94, p< 0.0001), 2-hour post prandial glucose (239.1±74.75 to 189.1±60mg/dl vs. 246.4±97.37 to 247.8±86.74mg/dl, p< 0.01), lipid profile, blood pressure and hepatic enzymes. Conclusion: Oral magnesium supplementation with proper dosage has beneficial effects on blood glucose, lipid profile, and blood pressure in patients with type II diabetes. PMID:25405132

  8. Cognitive Dysfunction Is Worse among Pediatric Patients with Bipolar Disorder Type I than Type II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenkel, Lindsay S.; West, Amy E.; Jacobs, Rachel; Sweeney, John A.; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Impaired profiles of neurocognitive function have been consistently demonstrated among pediatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and may aid in the identification of endophenotypes across subtypes of the disorder. This study aims to determine phenotypic cognitive profiles of patients with BD Type I and II. Methods: Subjects (N =…

  9. Effect of hole transport on performance of infrared type-II superlattice light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Youxi; Suchalkin, Sergey; Kipshidze, Gela; Hosoda, Takashi; Westerfeld, David; Shterengas, Leon; Belenky, Gregory; Laikhtman, Boris

    2015-04-28

    The effect of hole transport on the performance of infrared light emitting diodes (LED) was investigated. The active area of the LEDs comprised two type-II superlattices with different periods and widths connected in series. Electroluminescence spectra of the devices with different positions of long wave and mid wave superlattice sections were mostly contributed by the superlattice closest to the p-contact. The experimental results indicate that due to suppressed vertical hole transport, the recombination of electrically injected electrons and holes in a type II superlattice LED active region takes place within a few superlattice periods near p-barrier. Possible reason for the effect is reduction of hole diffusion coefficient in an active area of a superlattice LED under bias.

  10. Type II reaction without erythema nodosum leprosum masquerading as lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Rahul; Dogra, Sunil; Kaur, Inderjeet; Yadav, Savita; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Budania, Anil

    2012-12-01

    Lepromatous leprosy is a multisystem disease that can involve many organ systems, with lymph nodes a common extra-cutaneous site to be affected. Rarely, multibacillary leprosy can be confused with other diseases like lymphomas and connective tissue diseases. Herein we report a patient of lepromatous leprosy with Type II lepra reaction involving lymph nodes who presented with generalised lymphadenopathy, acquired ichthyosis and constitutional symptoms but no cutaneous lesions to suggest erythema nodosum leprosum, and who was initially misdiagnosed as a case of Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:23614256

  11. Paradoxical hypertension and salt wasting in Type II Bartter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chan, Winnie Kwai-Yu; To, Ka Fai; Tong, Joanna H M; Law, Chi Wai

    2012-06-01

    Ante/neonatal Bartter syndrome (BS) is a rare hereditary disorder. It is characterized by renal salt wasting, hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis, high renin and aldosterone but normal blood pressure. We report a low birth weight newborn baby who presented with repeated apnoea shortly after birth as well as hyponatraemia, hypochloraemia, hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis. Her biochemical features mimicked pseudohypoaldosteronism but with initial hypertension, which had not been described in BS. Her subsequent genetic study confirmed two novel heterozygous mutations in the Exon 5 of KCNJ1 compatible with Type II BS. PMID:26069767

  12. Predictive data modeling of human type II diabetes related statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenisch, Kristina L.; Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.; Albritton, Nathaniel G.

    2009-04-01

    During the course of routine Type II treatment of one of the authors, it was decided to derive predictive analytical Data Models of the daily sampled vital statistics: namely weight, blood pressure, and blood sugar, to determine if the covariance among the observed variables could yield a descriptive equation based model, or better still, a predictive analytical model that could forecast the expected future trend of the variables and possibly eliminate the number of finger stickings required to montior blood sugar levels. The personal history and analysis with resulting models are presented.

  13. Interaction of ultrasound with vortices in type-II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Sonin, E.B.

    1996-04-01

    The theory of ultrasound in the mixed state of type-II superconductors is suggested which takes into account the Magnus force on vortices, the anti-Magnus force on ions, and diamagnetism of the mixed state. The acoustic Faraday effect (rotation of polarization of the transverse ultrasonic wave propagating along vortices) is linear in the Magnus force in any regime of the flux flow for wavelengths now used in the ultrasound experiments. Therefore, in contrast to previous predictions, the Faraday effect should be looked for only in clean superconductors with a strong Magnus force. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  14. Type II superstring field theory: geometric approach and operadic description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurčo, Branislav; Münster, Korbinian

    2013-04-01

    We outline the construction of type II superstring field theory leading to a geometric and algebraic BV master equation, analogous to Zwiebach's construction for the bosonic string. The construction uses the small Hilbert space. Elementary vertices of the non-polynomial action are described with the help of a properly formulated minimal area problem. They give rise to an infinite tower of superstring field products defining a {N} = 1 generalization of a loop homotopy Lie algebra, the genus zero part generalizing a homotopy Lie algebra. Finally, we give an operadic interpretation of the construction.

  15. d-Brane Instantons in Type II Orientifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Cvetič, Mirjam; Kachru, Shamit; Weigand, Timo

    2009-11-01

    We review recent progress in determining the effects of d-brane instantons in [Formula: see text] supersymmetric compactifications of Type II string theory to four dimensions. We describe the abstract d-brane instanton calculus for holomorphic couplings such as the superpotential, the gauge kinetic function, and higher fermionic F-terms, and we briefly discuss the implications of background fluxes for the instanton sector. We then summarize the concrete consequences of stringy d-brane instantons for the construction of semirealistic models of particle physics or supersymmetry breaking in compact and noncompact geometries.

  16. Levitation of a magnet over a flat type II superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Hellman, F.; Gyorgy, E.M.; Johnson D.W. Jr.; O'Bryan, H.M.; Sherwood, R.C.

    1988-01-15

    Levitation of a magnet over a type II superconductor where the field at the superconductor exceeds H/sub c//sub 1/ is described and shown. The penetration and pinning of the flux lines in the superconductor cause the position of the magnet to be stable over a flat disk; a complete Meissner effect would make this position unstable. Furthermore, the observed dependence of the height of levitation on such variables as the thickness of the superconducting disk and the size of the magnet are consistent with a model described in this paper based on the energy cost of flux penetration through vortices and inconsistent with a Meissner effect model.

  17. Progress in MBE grown type-II superlattice photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Cory J.; Li, Jian V.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the status of GaSb/InAs type-II superlattice diodes grown and fabricated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory designed for infrared absorption in the 8-12(mu)m range. Recent devices have produced detectivities as high as 8x10 to the tenth power Jones with a differential resistance-area product greater than 6 Ohmcm(sup 2) at 80K with a long wavelength cutoff of approximately 12(mu)m. The measured quantum efficiency of these front-side illuminated devices is close to 30% in the 10-11(mu)m range without antireflection coatings.

  18. Proinflammatory response of alveolar type II pneumocytes to in vitro hypoxia and reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Farivar, Alexander S; Woolley, Steven M; Fraga, Charles H; Byrne, Karen; Mulligan, Michael S

    2004-03-01

    Type II pneumocytes (T2P) are integral in preserving the integrity of the alveolar space by modulating the fluid composition surrounding the alveolar epithelium. There is also mounting evidence supporting their contribution to the development of acute inflammatory lung injury subsequent to oxidative stress. This study characterized the response of T2P to in vitro hypoxia and reoxygenation (H&R). Rat T2P from a cultured cell line (RLE-6TN) were rendered hypoxic for 2 h, and reoxygenated for up to 6 h. Activation of signaling kinases, the nuclear translocation of proinflammatory transcription factors, and quantification of secreted cytokine and chemokine protein content were assessed. Type II pneumocytes expressed activated extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 maximally at 15 min of reoxygenation. C-jun n-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 activation was minimal at all time points studied. The nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) and activator protein (AP)-1 were dramatic after 15 min of reoxygenation. There was a significant increase in the protein secretion of CINC (p = 0.03), IL-1beta (p = 0.02), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (p < 0.001) at 6 h of reoxygenation. Type II pneumocytes respond directly to H&R. ERK 1/2 activity peaks at 15 min of reoxygenation, and correlates temporally with the nuclear translocation of NFkappaB and AP-1. These signaling cascades likely promote the elaboration of proinflammatory mediators. PMID:14961986

  19. Human type II receptor for bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs): extension of the two-kinase receptor model to the BMPs.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, F; Ventura, F; Doody, J; Massagué, J

    1995-01-01

    Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) are universal regulators of animal development. We report the identification and cloning of the BMP type II receptor (BMPR-II), a missing component of this receptor system in vertebrates. BMPR-II is a transmembrane serine/threonine kinase that binds BMP-2 and BMP-7 in association with multiple type I receptors, including BMPR-IA/Brk1, BMPR-IB, and ActR-I, which is also an activin type I receptor. Cloning of BMPR-II resulted from a strong interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with diverse transforming growth factor beta family type I receptor cytoplasmic domains in a yeast two-hybrid system. In mammalian cells, however, the interaction of BMPR-II is restricted to BMP type I receptors and is ligand dependent. BMPR-II binds BMP-2 and -7 on its own, but binding is enhanced by coexpression of type I BMP receptors. BMP-2 and BMP-7 can induce a transcriptional response when added to cells coexpressing ActR-I and BMPR-II but not to cells expressing either receptor alone. The kinase activity of both receptors is essential for signaling. Thus, despite their ability to bind to type I and II receptors receptors separately, BMPs appear to require the cooperation of these two receptors for optimal binding and for signal transduction. The combinatorial nature of these receptors and their capacity to crosstalk with the activin receptor system may underlie the multifunctional nature of their ligands. PMID:7791754

  20. [Achondrogenesis type II-hypochondrogenesis: radiological features.Case report].

    PubMed

    Delgado Carrasco, J; Casanova Morcillo, A; Zabalza Alvillos, M; Ayala Garcés, A

    2001-12-01

    We present a case of lethal dysplasia in the neonatal period. The abnormality was suspected after ultrasonography of a pregnant woman presenting weak fetal movements revealed shortening of the extremities, voluminous cranium and polyhydramnios. Clinical and radiological findings showed platyspondylic dwarfism with short extremities, narrow thorax and hydropic appearance. The infant died on the third day of life from progressive respiratory distress. In the absence of histological, chondro-osseus and molecular studies, detailed clinical and radiological studies, as well as the lethal evolution during the neonatal period, guided the diagnosis of hypochondrogenesis. This entity, together with achondrogenesis II (and other dysplasias), forms part of the same spectrum of collagen type II abnormalities produced by a defect in the gene (COL2A1) that codifies collagen II, located in chromosome 12 I(12q13.1-13.2). When a heterozygote is produced, transmission is dominant autosomal. The phenotype shows wide variation and severity depends on the mechanism and location of the mutation. The definitive diagnosis is given by cytomolecular studies, while individualization of the different entities is based on histological data from the cartilage; clinical findings and skeletal radiology serve as a guide. PMID:11730591

  1. The Afterglows of Swift-era Gamma-Ray Bursts. II. Type I GRB versus Type II GRB Optical Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kann, D. A.; Klose, S.; Zhang, B.; Covino, S.; Butler, N. R.; Malesani, D.; Nakar, E.; Wilson, A. C.; Antonelli, L. A.; Chincarini, G.; Cobb, B. E.; D'Avanzo, P.; D'Elia, V.; Della Valle, M.; Ferrero, P.; Fugazza, D.; Gorosabel, J.; Israel, G. L.; Mannucci, F.; Piranomonte, S.; Schulze, S.; Stella, L.; Tagliaferri, G.; Wiersema, K.

    2011-06-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been separated into two classes, originally along the lines of duration and spectral properties, called "short/hard" and "long/soft." The latter have been conclusively linked to the explosive deaths of massive stars, while the former are thought to result from the merger or collapse of compact objects. In recent years, indications have been accumulating that the short/hard versus long/soft division does not map directly onto what would be expected from the two classes of progenitors, leading to a new classification scheme called Type I and Type II which is based on multiple observational criteria. We use a large sample of GRB afterglow and prompt-emission data (adding further GRB afterglow observations in this work) to compare the optical afterglows (or the lack thereof) of Type I GRBs with those of Type II GRBs. In comparison to the afterglows of Type II GRBs, we find that those of Type I GRBs have a lower average luminosity and show an intrinsic spread of luminosities at least as wide. From late and deep upper limits on the optical transients, we establish limits on the maximum optical luminosity of any associated supernova (SN), confirming older works and adding new results. We use deep upper limits on Type I GRB optical afterglows to constrain the parameter space of possible mini-SN emission associated with a compact-object merger. Using the prompt-emission data, we search for correlations between the parameters of the prompt emission and the late optical afterglow luminosities. We find tentative correlations between the bolometric isotropic energy release and the optical afterglow luminosity at a fixed time after the trigger (positive), and between the host offset and the luminosity (negative), but no significant correlation between the isotropic energy release and the duration of the GRBs. We also discuss three anomalous GRBs, GRB 060505, GRB 060614, and GRB 060121, in light of their optical afterglow luminosities. Based in part

  2. Type II Hermite-Pade approximation to the exponential function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijlaars, A. B. J.; Stahl, H.; van Assche, W.; Wielonsky, F.

    2007-10-01

    We obtain strong and uniform asymptotics in every domain of the complex plane for the scaled polynomials a(3nz), b(3nz), and c(3nz) where a, b, and c are the type II Hermite-Pade approximants to the exponential function of respective degrees 2n+2, 2n and 2n, defined by and as z-->0. Our analysis relies on a characterization of these polynomials in terms of a 3x3 matrix Riemann-Hilbert problem which, as a consequence of the famous Mahler relations, corresponds by a simple transformation to a similar Riemann-Hilbert problem for type I Hermite-Pade approximants. Due to this relation, the study that was performed in previous work, based on the Deift-Zhou steepest descent method for Riemann-Hilbert problems, can be reused to establish our present results.

  3. All AdS7 solutions of type II supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apruzzi, Fabio; Fazzi, Marco; Rosa, Dario; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2014-04-01

    In M-theory, the only AdS7 supersymmetric solutions are AdS7 × S 4 and its orbifolds. In this paper, we find and classify new supersymmetric solutions of the type AdS7 × M 3 in type II supergravity. While in IIB none exist, in IIA with Romans mass (which does not lift to M-theory) there are many new ones. We use a pure spinor approach reminiscent of generalized complex geometry. Without the need for any Ansatz, the system determines uniquely the form of the metric and fluxes, up to solving a system of ODEs. Namely, the metric on M 3 is that of an S 2 fibered over an interval; this is consistent with the Sp(1) R-symmetry of the holographically dual (1,0) theory. By including D8 brane sources, one can numerically obtain regular solutions, where topologically M 3 ≅ S 3.

  4. Imaging of the symptomatic type II accessory navicular bone.

    PubMed

    Mosel, Leigh D; Kat, Evelyn; Voyvodic, Frank

    2004-06-01

    Accessory ossicles of the foot are commonly mistaken for fractures. The accessory navicular is one of the most common accessory ossicles of the foot. There is a higher incidence in women and the finding might be bilateral in 50-90%. This entity is usually asymptomatic, although populations with medial foot pain have a higher prevalence. Three types of accessory navicular bone have been described. The type II accessory navicular is the most commonly symptomatic variant with localized chronic or acute on chronic medial foot pain and tenderness with associated inflammation of overlying soft tissues. Plain radiographic identification of the accessory navicular is insufficient to attribute symptomatology. Ultrasound allows for comparison with the asymptomatic side and localization of pain. Bone scintigraphy has a high sensitivity but positive findings lack specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging is of high diagnostic value for demonstrating both bone marrow and soft tissue oedema. PMID:15230772

  5. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker candesartan suppresses proliferation and fibrosis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Mitsuyoshi; Fushida, Sachio; Harada, Shinichi; Tsukada, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Jun; Oyama, Katsunobu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Ninomiya, Itasu; Fujimura, Takashi; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2014-12-01

    Gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination has poor clinical prognosis because of the presence of rich stromal fibrosis and acquired drug resistance. Recently, Angiotensin II type I receptor blockers such as candesartan have attracted attention for their potential anti-fibrotic activity. We examined whether candesartan could attenuate tumor proliferation and fibrosis through the interaction between gastric cancer cell line (MKN45) cells and human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Candesartan significantly reduced TGF-β1 expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-like change, while tumor proliferation and stromal fibrosis were impaired. Targeting the Angiotensin II signaling pathway may therefore be an efficient strategy for treatment of tumor proliferation and fibrosis. PMID:25224569

  6. 12-Lipoxygenase Inhibition on Microalbuminuria in Type-1 and Type-2 Diabetes Is Associated with Changes of Glomerular Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Related to Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong-Zhao; Cheng, Yan-Li; Wang, Wan-Ning; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Zang, Chong-Sen; Xu, Zhong-Gao

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO) is involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). In the present study, we investigated whether 12-LO inhibition may ameliorate type-2 DN (T2DN) by interfering with insulin resistance (IR); (2) Methods: Rat glomerular mesangial cells, glomeruli and skeletal muscles were isolated and used in this study. Kidney histological changes were confirmed by periodic-acid Schiff staining; mRNA expression was detected by competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; and the protein level was determined by Western blot and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively; (3) Results: The inhibition of 12-LO attenuated microalbuminuria (MAU) increases in type-2 diabetic rats, but not in type-1 diabetic rats. Infusion of 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12(S)-HETE) significantly increased the expression of angiotensin II (Ang II) and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R), but decreased the expression of AT1R-associated protein (ATRAP) in rat glomeruli, compared to the control. An in vitro study revealed that both 12(S)-HETE and insulin upregulated AT1R expression in rat mesangial cells. In the presence of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, SB202190, the 12(S)-HETE-induced ATRAP reduction was significantly abolished. Interestingly, 12-LO inhibition did not influence AT1R expression in type-1 diabetic rats, but significantly abolished the increased AT1R and Ang II expression in glomeruli of type-2 diabetic rats. Furthermore, the inhibition of 12-LO significantly corrected impaired insulin sensitivity and fast serum insulin level, as well as the p-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) reduction in skeletal muscle of type-2 diabetic rats; (4) Conclusion: The inhibition of 12-LO potentially ameliorated MAU by preventing IR through the downregulation of glomerular AT1R expression in T2DN. PMID:27164093

  7. Origin of the autoreactive anti-type II collagen response. II. Specificities, antibody isotypes and usage of V gene families of anti-type II collagen B cells.

    PubMed

    Holmdahl, R; Bailey, C; Enander, I; Mayer, R; Klareskog, L; Moran, T; Bona, C

    1989-03-15

    Autoantibodies play an important role in the pathogenesis of type II collagen-induced arthritis in mice. We have earlier reported a high frequency of cells producing anti-CII autoantibodies and a low frequency of cells producing multispecific antibodies, in regional lymph nodes 9 to 11 days after primary immunization with CII. It is shown here that anti-CII antibodies produced during primary immune response are IgG-antibodies mainly of IgG2a, IgG1 and IgG2b subclasses while IgM antibodies dominate primary responses elicited by OVA and denatured CII as analyzed with a large panel of hybridomas. Anti-CII antibodies generated during the primary response recognize at least five different epitopes on the CII molecule. The specificities of these antibodies for various epitopes result from combinational association of products encoded by genes derived from various VH and VK families and/or by the occurrence of somatic mutations. It is suggested that the primary anti-CII autoantibody response involves activation of memory B cells and is in this aspect different from the origin of "natural" autoantibodies. PMID:2493500

  8. Feeding problems and malnutrition in spinal muscular atrophy type II.

    PubMed

    Messina, Sonia; Pane, Marika; De Rose, Paola; Vasta, Isabella; Sorleti, Domenica; Aloysius, Annie; Sciarra, Federico; Mangiola, Fortunato; Kinali, Maria; Bertini, Enrico; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a survey using a dedicated questionnaire to assess feeding difficulties and weight gain in a population of 122 Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) type II patients, aged between 1 and 47 years. All the answers were entered in a database and were analysed subdividing the cohort into age groups (1-5, 6-10, 11-14, 15-19, 20-29, and 30-50 years). Six out of our 122 patients (5%), all younger than 11 years, had weights more than 2SD above the median for age matched controls, whilst 45 (37%) had weights less than 2SD below the median. Chewing difficulties were reported in 34 of the 122 patients (28%) and limitation in the ability to open the mouth in 36 (30%) and both were increasingly more frequent with age. Swallowing difficulties were reported in 30 patients (25%). The results of our survey suggest that a number of patients with SMA type II have limited jaw opening, and chewing and swallowing difficulties. Our findings raise a few issues concerning standards of care that should be implemented in the monitoring and management of feeding difficulties and weight gain. PMID:18420410

  9. Zeta functional equation on Jordan algebras of type II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayoya, J. B.

    2005-02-01

    Using the Jordan algebras methods, specially the properties of Peirce decomposition and the Frobenius transformation, we compute the coefficients of the zeta functional equation, in the case of Jordan algebras of type II. As particular cases of our result, we can cite the case of studied by Gelbart [Mem. Amer. Math. Soc. 108 (1971)] and Godement and Jacquet [Zeta functions of simple algebras, Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 260, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972], and the case of studied by Muro [Adv. Stud. Pure Math. 15 (1989) 429]. Let us also mention, that recently, Bopp and Rubenthaler have obtained a more general result on the zeta functional equation by using methods based on the algebraic properties of regular graded algebras which are in one-to-one correspondence with simple Jordan algebras [Local Zeta Functions Attached to the Minimal Spherical Series for a Class of Symmetric Spaces, IRMA, Strasbourg, 2003]. The method used in this paper is a direct application of specific properties of Jordan algebras of type II.

  10. Progress with type-II superlattice IR detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhiger, David R.; Kvaas, Robert E.; Harris, Sean F.; Bornfreund, Richard E.; Thai, Yen N.; Hill, Cory J.; Li, Jian V.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Mumolo, Jason M.

    2007-04-01

    We report progress in the development of long wavelength infrared (LWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) built on type-II strained layer InAs/GaSb superlattice materials. Work at Raytheon Vision Systems and Jet Propulsion Laboratory has led to successful devices with cutoff wavelengths in the 10 to 12 μm range. Pixels have been formed by wet etching and surface passivation by plasma-deposited silicon dioxide. We present test results on arrays hybridized with indium bump bonding to silicon readout integrated circuits, as well as analyses of current-voltage characteristics of individual diodes. In particular, we find that, at temperatures below about 70 K the leakage current is dominated by generation-recombination effects near zero bias and by trap-assisted tunneling in reverse bias. Although other authors have demonstrated imaging for SWIR and MWIR type-II superlattice devices, to our knowledge no one has done so prior to 2006 in the LWIR range. We have obtained both still and video imaging with 256×256 arrays with 30-μm pixels operating at 78 K, having high operability and a cutoff wavelength of 10.5 μm.

  11. Vitamin D - Dependent Rickets, Type II Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Berisha, Majlinda; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Kolgeci, Selim; Hoxha, Rina; Grajçevci-Uka, Violeta; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this work the report of one case with vitamin D-dependent rickets, type II. Methods: Diagnosis has been established based on anamnesis, physical examination, laboratory findings and radiological examination. Results: A female child (age 25 months) has been hospitalized due to bone deformity, bone pain, alopecia and walking difficulties. The laboratory findings have revealed that the calcium values was low (1.20 mmol/L), phosphates in the reference value (1.30 mmol/L) the alkaline phosphatase value was quite high (852 IU/L), high value of parathyroid hormone (9.21 pmol/L), normal value of 25- hydroxyvitamin D, whereas the values of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was high (185 μmol/L). Radiographic changes were evident and typical in the distal metaphysis of radius and ulna as well as in the bones of lower limbs (distal metaphysis of femur and proximal metaphysis of tibia and fibula). After treatment with calcium and calcitriol, the above mentioned clinical manifestations, laboratory test values and the radiographic changes in bones withdrew. Conclusions: Vitamin D-dependent rickets, type II is a rare genetic recessive disease, and its treatment includes a constant use of calcium and calcitriol. PMID:24757409

  12. Relationships between type I and type II chondrules: Implications on chondrule formation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeneuve, Johan; Libourel, Guy; Soulié, Camille

    2015-07-01

    In unequilibrated chondrites, the ferromagnesian silicates in chondrules exhibit wide ranges of mg# = Mg/(Mg + Fe), allowing to sub-divide porphyritic chondrules into either type I (mg# > 0.9) or type II (mg# < 0.9). Although both chondrule types formed under oxidizing conditions relative to the canonical solar nebula, it is generally inferred that type II chondrules formed in more oxidizing conditions than type I. In order to check whether this redox difference was established during chondrule formation, or reflects differences in their precursors, we have undertaken a set of experiments aimed at heating type I olivine-rich (A) chondrule proxy, i.e. forsterite + Fe metal + Ca-Mg-Si-Al glass mixtures, under oxidizing conditions. We show that high temperature (isothermal) oxidation of type IA-like assemblages is a very efficient and rapid process (e.g. few tens of minutes) to form textures similar to type IIA chondrules. Due to the rapid dissolution of Fe metal blebs, a FeO increase in the melt and in combination with the dissolution of magnesian olivine allows the melt to reach ferroan olivine saturation. Crystallization of ferroan olivine occurs either as new crystal in the mesostasis or as overgrowths on the remaining unresorbed forsterite grains (relicts). Interruption of this process at any time before its completion by rapid cooling allows to reproduce the whole range of textures and chemical diversity observed in type A chondrules, i.e. from type I to type II. Several implications on chondrule formation processes can be inferred from the presented experiments. Type I chondrules or fragments of type I chondrules are very likely the main precursor material involved in the formation of most type II chondrules. Formation of porphyritic olivine type II chondrules is very likely the result of processes generating crystal growth by chemical disequilibrium at high temperature rather than processes generating crystallization only by cooling rates. This questions the

  13. Neutrinos from type II supernovae - The first 100 milliseconds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myra, Eric S.; Burrows, Adam

    1990-01-01

    The collapse of a 1.17 solar mass iron core is numerically followed through infall to 100 ms past core bounce, and the emergent neutrino spectra during each phase are highlighted. It is found that, even with fairly optimistic conditions for producing a strong, sustained core-bounce shock wave, the prompt shock stalls within 9 ms of core bounce at a radius of less than 250 km. It appears that a radical change in the character of the progenitor core or in our understanding of the relevant physics of stellar collapse is needed before the direct mechanism for type II supernovae can become viable. Expanding the number of neutrino types from one to six magnifies the debilitating effect of neutrino loss on shock propagation. At shock breakout, prompt bursts of all neutrino types are observed. The luminosities of the nonelectron types show a sudden turn-on in luminosity while that of the electron neutrinos steadily increases throughout infall as a result of accelerating electron capture.

  14. An unobscured type II quasar candidate: SDSS J012032.19-005501.9

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Yuan, W.; Komossa, S.; Zhou, H. Y.; Liu, W. J.; Ai, Y. L.; Boisvert, J. H.

    2015-02-01

    We report the finding of an unobscured type II active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidate, SDSS J012032.19-005501.9, at a relatively high redshift of 0.601, which shows a number of unusual properties. It varies significantly on timescales of years, typical of type I AGNs, and marginally on timescales of weeks. The color–magnitude relation and the structure function are also consistent with that of type I AGNs, which implies that its variability likely originates from the black hole accretion system. However, no broad emission line (BEL) is detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum, and the upper limit of the equivalent width of the Hβ BEL is much less than that of type I AGNs. These properties suggest that SDSS J012032.19-005501.9 may be an unobscured quasar without intrinsically broad emission lines, namely, an unobscured type II AGN or “true” type II AGN. Furthermore, its continuum luminosity is at least one order of magnitude fainter than the average value over the past century from the [O iii] emission line. This indicates that SDSS J012032.19-005501.9 may be switching off. Additional possible scenarios to explain this intriguing source are also discussed. Future deep observations at multiwavelengths are needed to reveal the nature of this peculiar and intriguing AGN.

  15. Metallicity from Type II supernovae from the (i)PTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddia, F.; Moquist, P.; Sollerman, J.; Rubin, A.; Leloudas, G.; Gal-Yam, A.; Arcavi, I.; Cao, Y.; Filippenko, A. V.; Graham, M. L.; Mazzali, P. A.; Nugent, P. E.; Pan, Y.-C.; Silverman, J. M.; Xu, D.; Yaron, O.

    2016-03-01

    Type IIP supernovae (SNe IIP) have recently been proposed as metallicity (Z) probes. The spectral models of Dessart et al. (2014, MNRAS, 440, 1856) showed that the pseudo-equivalent width of Fe ii λ5018 (pEW5018) during the plateau phase depends on the primordial Z, but there was a paucity of SNe IIP exhibiting pEW5018 that were compatible with Z < 0.4 Z⊙. This lack might be due to some physical property of the SN II population or to the fact that those SNe have been discovered in luminous, metal-rich targeted galaxies. Here we use SN II observations from the untargeted (intermediate) Palomar Transient Factory [(i)PTF] survey, aiming to investigate the pEW5018 distribution of this SN population and, in particular, to look for the presence of SNe II at lower Z. We perform pEW5018 measurements on the spectra of a sample of 39 (i)PTF SNe II, selected to have well-constrained explosion epochs and light-curve properties. Based on the comparison with the pEW5018 spectral models, we subgrouped our SNe into four Z bins from Z ≈ 0.1 Z⊙ up to Z ≈ 2 Z⊙. We also independently investigated the Z of the hosts by using their absolute magnitudes and colors and, in a few cases, using strong-line diagnostics from spectra. We searched for possible correlations between SN observables, such as their peak magnitudes and the Z inferred from pEW5018. We found 11 events with pEW5018 that were small enough to indicate Z ≈ 0.1 Z⊙. The trend of pEW5018 with Z matches the Z estimates obtained from the host-galaxy photometry, although the significance of the correlation is weak. We also found that SNe with brighter peak magnitudes have smaller pEW5018 and occur at lower Z. The data are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/L7

  16. [WPW syndrome combined with AV block 2 in an adult with glycogenosis (Type II)].

    PubMed

    Francesconi, M; Auff, E; Ursin, C; Sluga, E

    1982-08-01

    A 31 year-old female with a five year history of muscle weakness, cardiac palpitations and elevation of activity of some serum enzymes of muscular origin, showed signs of the WPW syndrome on ECG, often in combination with grade 2 A-V block. Type II glycogenosis (Pompe's disease) was diagnosed on the basis of the results of physical examination, laboratory findings--especially subtotal deficiency of acid maltase (a-1,4 glucosidase) activity-and morphological aspects of light and electron microscopy of a quadriceps muscle biopsy specimen. To our knowledge the coincidence of such a rarely encountered arrhythmia with glycogenosis type II in an adult has never been reported so far. PMID:6959422

  17. Magnetoexcitons in type-II semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuster, Gonzalo; Barticevic, Zdenka; Pacheco, Monica; Oliveira, Luiz E.

    2004-03-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of excitons in type-II semiconductor quantum dots (QD). In these systems the confinement of electrons inside the QD and the hole outside the QD produces a ring-like structure [1-2]. Recently, Ribeiro et al [3], in a magnetophotoluminescence study of type-II InP/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots, observed Aharonov-Bohm-type oscillations characteristic of the ring topology for neutral excitons. Using a simple model they have derived the groundstate hole energy as a function of the magnetic field, and obtained values for the ring parameters which are in good agreement with the measured values. However, some of the features observed experimentally, in the photoluminescence intensity, can not be well explained under that approach. In this work we present a more realistic model which considers the finite width of the ring and the electron-hole interaction included via a perturbative approach. The calculations are performed within the oneparticle formalism using the effective mass approximation. The confinement potential for electrons is modelled as the superposition of a quantum well potential along the axial direction, and a parabolic lateral confinement potential. The energies for the hole in the ring plane are calculated using the method of reference [4]. Theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results of reference [3] provided that excitonic effects are properly taken into account. References 1. A.O. Govorov et al., Physica E 13 , 297 (2002). 2. K. L. Janssens et al. Phys. Rev B64, 155324 (2001), and Phys. Rev. B66, 075314 (2002). 3. E. Ribeiro, G. Medeiros-Ribeiro, and W.Carvalho Jr., and A.O. Govorov, condmat/0304092 (2003). 4. Z. Barticevic, G. Fuster, and M. Pacheco,Phys. Rev. B 65, 193307 (2002).

  18. Discovery and Observations of the Unusually Luminous Type-Defying II-P/II-L Supernova ASASSN-13co

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holoien, T. W.-S.; Prieto, J. L.; Pejcha, O.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B. J.; Grupe, D.; Morrell, N.; Thorstensen, J. R.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Bersier, D.; Brimacombe, J.; Davis, A. B.; Pojmański, G.; Skowron, D. M.

    2016-06-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of ASASSN-13co, an unusually luminous Type II supernova and the first core-collapse supernova discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN). First detection of the supernova was on UT 2013 August 29 and the data presented span roughly 3.5 months after discovery. We use the recently developed model by Pejcha and Prieto to model the multi-band light curves of ASASSN-13co and derive the bolometric luminosity curve. We compare ASASSN-13co to other Type II supernovae to show that it was unusually luminous for a Type II supernova and that it exhibited an atypical light curve shape that does not cleanly match that of either a standard Type II-L or Type II-P supernova.

  19. Inhibition Kinetics And Emodin Cocrystal Structure of a Type II Polyketide Ketoreductase

    SciTech Connect

    Korman, T.P.; Tan, Y.-H.; Wong, J.; Luo, R.; Tsai, S.-C.

    2009-05-20

    Type II polyketides are a class of natural products that include pharmaceutically important aromatic compounds such as the antibiotic tetracycline and antitumor compound doxorubicin. The type II polyketide synthase (PKS) is a complex consisting of 5-10 standalone domains homologous to fatty acid synthase (FAS). Polyketide ketoreductase (KR) provides regio- and stereochemical diversity during the reduction. How the type II polyketide KR specifically reduces only the C9 carbonyl group is not well understood. The cocrystal structures of actinorhodin polyketide ketoreductase (actKR) bound with NADPH or NADP{sup +} and the inhibitor emodin were solved with the wild type and P94L mutant of actKR, revealing the first observation of a bent p-quinone in an enzyme active site. Molecular dynamics simulation help explain the origin of the bent geometry. Extensive screening for in vitro substrates shows that unlike FAS KR, the actKR prefers bicyclic substrates. Inhibition kinetics indicate that actKR follows an ordered Bi Bi mechanism. Together with docking simulations that identified a potential phosphopantetheine binding groove, the structural and functional studies reveal that the C9 specificity is a result of active site geometry and substrate ring constraints. The results lay the foundation for the design of novel aromatic polyketide natural products with different reduction patterns.

  20. Niacin supplementation induces type II to type I muscle fiber transition in skeletal muscle of sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It was recently shown that niacin supplementation counteracts the obesity-induced muscle fiber transition from oxidative type I to glycolytic type II and increases the number of type I fibers in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats. These effects were likely mediated by the induction of key regulators of fiber transition, PPARδ (encoded by PPARD), PGC-1α (encoded by PPARGC1A) and PGC-1β (encoded by PPARGC1B), leading to type II to type I fiber transition and upregulation of genes involved in oxidative metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether niacin administration also influences fiber distribution and the metabolic phenotype of different muscles [M. longissimus dorsi (LD), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. semitendinosus (ST)] in sheep as a model for ruminants. For this purpose, 16 male, 11 wk old Rhoen sheep were randomly allocated to two groups of 8 sheep each administered either no (control group) or 1 g niacin per day (niacin group) for 4 wk. Results After 4 wk, the percentage number of type I fibers in LD, SM and ST muscles was greater in the niacin group, whereas the percentage number of type II fibers was less in niacin group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of PPARGC1A, PPARGC1B, and PPARD and the relative mRNA levels of genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid uptake (CPT1B, SLC25A20), tricarboxylic acid cycle (SDHA), mitochondrial respiratory chain (COX5A, COX6A1), and angiogenesis (VEGFA) in LD, SM and ST muscles were greater (P < 0.05) or tended to be greater (P < 0.15) in the niacin group than in the control group. Conclusions The study shows that niacin supplementation induces muscle fiber transition from type II to type I, and thereby an oxidative metabolic phenotype of skeletal muscle in sheep as a model for ruminants. The enhanced capacity of skeletal muscle to utilize fatty acids in ruminants might be particularly useful during metabolic states in which fatty acids are

  1. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Therapy Corrects Neuropathic Phenotype in Murine Model of Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Taichi; Shimada, Yohta; Akiyama, Kazumasa; Higuchi, Takashi; Fukuda, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Eto, Yoshikatsu; Ida, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Toya

    2015-06-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is a neuropathic lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS), which leads to the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). We demonstrated that biochemical alterations in the brains of MPS II mice are not corrected by bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or enzyme replacement therapy, although BMT has been shown to be effective for other neurodegenerative MPSs, such as Hurler syndrome. In this study, we demonstrated that lentiviral isogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy corrected neuronal manifestations by ameliorating lysosomal storage and autophagic dysfunction in the brains of MPS II mice. IDS-transduced HSCs increased enzyme activity both in various visceral organs and the CNS. Decreased levels of GAGs were observed in many organs, including cerebra, after transplantation of IDS-transduced HSCs. In addition, lentiviral HSC gene therapy normalized the secondary accumulation of autophagic substrates, such as p62 and ubiquitin-protein conjugates, in cerebra. Furthermore, in contrast to naive MPS II mice, there was no deterioration of neuronal function observed in transplant recipients. These results indicated that lentiviral HSC gene therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of CNS lesions in MPS II. PMID:25761450

  2. Type II solar radio bursts predicted by 3-D MHD CME and kinetic radio emission simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. M.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2014-01-01

    Impending space weather events at Earth are often signaled by type II solar radio bursts. These bursts are generated upstream of shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that move away from the Sun. We combine elaborate three-dimensional (3-D) magnetohydrodynamic predictions of realistic CMEs near the Sun with a recent analytic kinetic radiation theory in order to simulate two type II bursts. Magnetograms of the Sun are used to reconstruct initial solar magnetic and active region fields for the modeling. STEREO spacecraft data are used to dimension the flux rope of the initial CME, launched into an empirical data-driven corona and solar wind. We demonstrate impressive accuracy in time, frequency, and intensity for the two type II bursts observed by the Wind spacecraft on 15 February 2011 and 7 March 2012. Propagation of the simulated CME-driven shocks through coronal plasmas containing preexisting density and magnetic field structures that stem from the coronal setup and CME initiation closely reproduce the isolated islands of type II emission observed. These islands form because of a competition between the growth of the radio source due to spherical expansion and a fragmentation of the radio source due to increasingly radial fields in the nose region of the shock and interactions with streamers in the flank regions of the shock. Our study provides strong support for this theory for type II bursts and implies that the physical processes involved are understood. It also supports a near-term capability to predict and track these events for space weather predictions.

  3. Analysis of type II diabetes mellitus adipose-derived stem cells for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle Marie; Young, Matthew T; Lin, Yen-Chih; Over, Patrick J; Rubin, J Peter; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2015-01-01

    To address the functionality of diabetic adipose-derived stem cells in tissue engineering applications, adipose-derived stem cells isolated from patients with and without type II diabetes mellitus were cultured in bioreactor culture systems. The adipose-derived stem cells were differentiated into adipocytes and maintained as functional adipocytes. The bioreactor system utilizes a hollow fiber-based technology for three-dimensional perfusion of tissues in vitro, creating a model in which long-term culture of adipocytes is feasible, and providing a potential tool useful for drug discovery. Daily metabolic activity of the adipose-derived stem cells was analyzed within the medium recirculating throughout the bioreactor system. At experiment termination, tissues were extracted from bioreactors for immunohistological analyses in addition to gene and protein expression. Type II diabetic adipose-derived stem cells did not exhibit significantly different glucose consumption compared to adipose-derived stem cells from patients without type II diabetes (p > 0.05, N = 3). Expression of mature adipocyte genes was not significantly different between diabetic/non-diabetic groups (p > 0.05, N = 3). Protein expression of adipose tissue grown within all bioreactors was verified by Western blotting.The results from this small-scale study reveal adipose-derived stem cells from patients with type II diabetes when removed from diabetic environments behave metabolically similar to the same cells of non-diabetic patients when cultured in a three-dimensional perfusion bioreactor, suggesting that glucose transport across the adipocyte cell membrane, the hindrance of which being characteristic of type II diabetes, is dependent on environment. The presented observation describes a tissue-engineered tool for long-term cell culture and, following future adjustments to the culture environment and increased sample sizes, potentially for anti-diabetic drug testing. PMID:26090087

  4. Evolution of chemical diversity by coordinated gene swaps in type II polyketide gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    Hillenmeyer, Maureen E.; Vandova, Gergana A.; Berlew, Erin E.; Charkoudian, Louise K.

    2015-01-01

    Natural product biosynthetic pathways generate molecules of enormous structural complexity and exquisitely tuned biological activities. Studies of natural products have led to the discovery of many pharmaceutical agents, particularly antibiotics. Attempts to harness the catalytic prowess of biosynthetic enzyme systems, for both compound discovery and engineering, have been limited by a poor understanding of the evolution of the underlying gene clusters. We developed an approach to study the evolution of biosynthetic genes on a cluster-wide scale, integrating pairwise gene coevolution information with large-scale phylogenetic analysis. We used this method to infer the evolution of type II polyketide gene clusters, tracing the path of evolution from the single ancestor to those gene clusters surviving today. We identified 10 key gene types in these clusters, most of which were swapped in from existing cellular processes and subsequently specialized. The ancestral type II polyketide gene cluster likely comprised a core set of five genes, a roster that expanded and contracted throughout evolution. A key C24 ancestor diversified into major classes of longer and shorter chain length systems, from which a C20 ancestor gave rise to the majority of characterized type II polyketide antibiotics. Our findings reveal that (i) type II polyketide structure is predictable from its gene roster, (ii) only certain gene combinations are compatible, and (iii) gene swaps were likely a key to evolution of chemical diversity. The lessons learned about how natural selection drives polyketide chemical innovation can be applied to the rational design and guided discovery of chemicals with desired structures and properties. PMID:26499248

  5. Regulation of surfactant secretion in alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, Alexandra V; Kutuzov, Mikhail A; Voyno-Yasenetskaya, Tatyana A

    2007-08-01

    Molecular mechanisms of surfactant delivery to the air/liquid interface in the lung, which is crucial to lower the surface tension, have been studied for more than two decades. Lung surfactant is synthesized in the alveolar type II cells. Its delivery to the cell surface is preceded by surfactant component synthesis, packaging into specialized organelles termed lamellar bodies, delivery to the apical plasma membrane and fusion. Secreted surfactant undergoes reuptake, intracellular processing, and finally resecretion of recycled material. This review focuses on the mechanisms of delivery of surfactant components to and their secretion from lamellar bodies. Lamellar bodies-independent secretion is also considered. Signal transduction pathways involved in regulation of these processes are discussed as well as disorders associated with their malfunction. PMID:17496061

  6. D-brane Instantons in Type II String Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Cvetic, Mirjam; Kachru, Shamit; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC

    2009-06-19

    We review recent progress in determining the effects of D-brane instantons in N=1 supersymmetric compactifications of Type II string theory to four dimensions. We describe the abstract D-brane instanton calculus for holomorphic couplings such as the superpotential, the gauge kinetic function and higher fermionic F-terms. This includes a discussion of multi-instanton effects and the implications of background fluxes for the instanton sector. Our presentation also highlights, but is not restricted to the computation of D-brane instanton effects in quiver gauge theories on D-branes at singularities. We then summarize the concrete consequences of stringy D-brane instantons for the construction of semi-realistic models of particle physics or SUSY-breaking in compact and non-compact geometries.

  7. Electrodynamics of type-II superconductor with periodic pinning array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, R. F.; Berco, D.; Shapiro, I. Ya.; Shapiro, B.; Rosenstein, B.

    2011-01-01

    Static and dynamic distribution of the superconducting condensate order parameters and current density is studied by numerical simulation of the 2D time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations. The vortex flux lattice in layered type-II superconductors under magnetic field above the lower critical field is described by the order parameters. Moreover, the pinning effect has been considered in this work. The Abrikosov lattice which is hexagonal in the static case is deformed due to the size of pinning centers. The dynamical order parameters distribution shows that the vortex transport (flux flow) is conducted via diffusive motion of the so-called interstitial vortices. The trajectories for interstitial vortices with different sizes of pinning centers are shown.

  8. Sweet taste and diet in type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tepper, B J; Hartfiel, L M; Schneider, S H

    1996-07-01

    The relationship between sweet taste function and dietary intake was studied in 21 patients with type II diabetes mellitus and 16 age-, weight-, and sex-matched controls. Subjects rated the sweetness intensity and pleasantness of a series of beverage samples sweetened with sucrose: 1.5-24%, fructose: 1-18%, or aspartame: 0.25-4%. They also kept 7-day food records. No group differences were found in sweet taste perception, pleasantness ratings, daily energy intakes, or macronutrient composition of the diets. However, subjects with diabetes consumed less sucrose but 3.5 times more alternative sweeteners than did controls. Peak pleasantness ratings for the beverage samples were positively correlated with dietary sweetness content in the subjects with diabetes but not the controls. These findings suggest that in diabetes, hedonic ratings for a sweetened beverage were related to dietary sweetness intake rather than changes in sweet taste perception. PMID:8804636

  9. Quantum spin Hall effect in inverted type-II semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaoxing; Hughes, Taylor L; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Kang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2008-06-13

    The quantum spin Hall (QSH) state is a topologically nontrivial state of quantum matter which preserves time-reversal symmetry; it has an energy gap in the bulk, but topologically robust gapless states at the edge. Recently, this novel effect has been predicted and observed in HgTe quantum wells and in this Letter we predict a similar effect arising in Type-II semiconductor quantum wells made from InAs/GaSb/AlSb. The quantum well exhibits an "inverted" phase similar to HgTe/CdTe quantum wells, which is a QSH state when the Fermi level lies inside the gap. Due to the asymmetric structure of this quantum well, the effects of inversion symmetry breaking are essential. Remarkably, the topological quantum phase transition between the conventional insulating state and the quantum spin Hall state can be continuously tuned by the gate voltage, enabling quantitative investigation of this novel phase transition. PMID:18643529

  10. Type II congenital pulmonary airway malformation in an esophageal lung

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Martínez, Blanca Estela; Furuya, María Elena Yuriko; Martínez-Muñiz, Irma; Vargas, Mario H; Flores-Salgado, Rosalinda

    2013-01-01

    A seven-month-old girl, born prematurely (birth weight 1000 g) from a twin pregnancy, was admitted to hospital due to recurrent pneumonia and atelectasis. She experienced cough and respiratory distress during feeding. The right hemithorax was smaller than the left, with diminished breath sounds and dullness. Chest x-rays revealed decreased lung volume and multiple radiolucent images in the right lung, as well as overdistention of the left lung. An esophagogram revealed three bronchial branches arising from the lower one-third of the esophagus, corresponding to the right lung and ending in a cul-de-sac. A diagnosis of esophageal lung was established. On bronchography, the right lung was absent and the trachea only continued into the left main bronchus. Echocardiography and angiotomography revealed agenesis of the pulmonary artery right branch. The surgical finding was an esophageal right lung, which was removed; the histopathological diagnosis was type II congenital pulmonary airway malformation in an esophageal lung. PMID:23762890

  11. Synthesis, Characterization, Spectral Studies and Antifungal Activity of Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) Complexes with 2-(4- Sulphophenylazo)-1,8-Dihydroxy-3,6-Napthalene Disulphonic Acid Trisodium Salt

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Gajanan; Narang, K. K.

    2005-01-01

    Complexes of the type Na6[M(HL)2(H2O)2], where M= Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) and Na3H2L= 2-(4-sulphophenylazo)-1,8-dihydroxy 3,6 naphthalene disulphonic acid trisodium salt, have been synthesized and characterized by physico-chemical (elemental analyses, solubility, electrolytic conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurement) and spectral (UV-Visible, IR, ESR, powder x-ray diffraction) techniques for their structure and studied for their antifungal activity against ten fungi. The anionic 1:2 metal:ligand complexes show octahedral geometry around M(II), a significant antifungal activity against Curvularia lunata and Alternaria triticina and a moderate activity against Alternaria brassicicola, Alternaria brassicae, Alternaria solanae, Curvularia species, Helminthosporium oryzae, Collectotrichum capsici, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium udum. PMID:18365101

  12. Magnetic-Field-Induced Relativistic Properties in Type-I and Type-II Weyl Semimetals.

    PubMed

    Tchoumakov, Serguei; Civelli, Marcello; Goerbig, Mark O

    2016-08-19

    We investigate Weyl semimetals with tilted conical bands in a magnetic field. Even when the cones are overtilted (type-II Weyl semimetal), Landau-level quantization can be possible as long as the magnetic field is oriented close to the tilt direction. Most saliently, the tilt can be described within the relativistic framework of Lorentz transformations that give rise to a rich spectrum, displaying new transitions beyond the usual dipolar ones in the optical conductivity. We identify particular features in the latter that allow one to distinguish between semimetals of different types. PMID:27588870

  13. Preserving the longevity of long-lived type II collagen and its implication for cartilage therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tiku, Moti L; Madhan, Balaraman

    2016-07-01

    Human life expectancy has been steadily increasing at a rapid rate, but this increasing life span also brings about increases in diseases, dementia, and disability. A global burden of disease 2010 study revealed that hip and knee osteoarthritis ranked the 11th highest in terms of years lived with disability. Wear and tear can greatly influence the quality of life during ageing. In particular, wear and tear of the articular cartilage have adverse effects on joints and result in osteoarthritis. The articular cartilage uses longevity of type II collagen as the foundation around which turnover of proteoglycans and the homeostatic activity of chondrocytes play central roles thereby maintaining the function of articular cartilage in the ageing. The longevity of type II collagen involves a complex interaction of the scaffolding needs of the cartilage and its biochemical, structural and mechanical characteristics. The covalent cross-linking of heterotypic polymers of collagens type II, type IX and type XI hold together cartilage, allowing it to withstand ageing stresses. Discerning the biological clues in the armamentarium for preserving cartilage appears to be collagen cross-linking. Therapeutic methods to crosslink in in-vivo are non-existent. However intra-articular injections of polyphenols in vivo stabilize the cartilage and make it resistant to degradation, opening a new therapeutic possibility for prevention and intervention of cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis of aging. PMID:27133944

  14. Bilateral internal auditory canal gangliogliomas mimicking neurofibromatosis Type II

    PubMed Central

    Hooten, Kristopher G.; Oliveria, Seth F.; Sadrameli, Saeed S.; Gandhi, Shashank; Yachnis, Anthony T.; Lewis, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gangliogliomas are rare low grade, typically well-differentiated, tumors that are composed of mature ganglion cells and neoplastic glial cells. These tumors can appear at virtually any location along the neuroaxis but classically occur in the temporal lobe of young patients. In a small number of cases, gangliogliomas have presented as masses in the brainstem or involving cranial nerves. With the exception of vestibular schwannomas, bilateral tumors in the region of the internal auditory canal (IAC) or cerebellopontine angle (CPA) are exceedingly rare. Case Description: We report a case of a 58-year-old male who presented with hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Initial magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral nonenhancing IAC/CPA tumors. Based on this finding, a presumptive diagnosis of neurofibromatosis Type II was made, which was initially managed conservatively with close observation. He returned for follow-up with worsening vertigo and tinnitus, thus prompting the decision to proceed with surgical resection of the symptomatic mass. Intriguingly, pathological study demonstrated a WHO Grade I ganglioglioma. Description: We report a case of a 58-year-old male who presented with hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Initial magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral nonenhancing IAC/CPA tumors. Based on this finding, a presumptive diagnosis of neurofibromatosis Type II was made, which was initially managed conservatively with close observation. He returned for follow-up with worsening vertigo and tinnitus, thus prompting the decision to proceed with surgical resection of the symptomatic mass. Intriguingly, pathological study demonstrated a WHO Grade I ganglioglioma. Conclusion: This is the first reported case of bilateral IAC/CPA gangliogliomas. When evaluating bilateral IAC/CPA lesions with unusual imaging characteristics, ganglioglioma should be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:27127704

  15. Type II dehydroquinase: molecular replacement with many copies

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Kirsty Anne; Robinson, David Alexander; Lapthorn, Adrian Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The type II dehydroquinase enzyme is a symmetrical dodecameric protein which crystallizes in either high-symmetry cubic space groups or low-symmetry crystal systems with multiple copies in the asymmetric unit. Both systems have provided challenging examples for molecular replacement; for example, a triclinic crystal form has 16 dodecamers (192 monomers) in the unit cell. Three difficult examples are discussed and two are used as test cases to compare the performance of four commonly used molecular-replacement packages. Type II dehydroquinase is a small (150-amino-acid) protein which in solution packs together to form a dodecamer with 23 cubic symmetry. In crystals of this protein the symmetry of the biological unit can be coincident with the crystallographic symmetry, giving rise to cubic crystal forms with a single monomer in the asymmetric unit. In crystals where this is not the case, multiple copies of the monomer are present, giving rise to significant and often confusing noncrystallographic symmetry in low-symmetry crystal systems. These different crystal forms pose a variety of challenges for solution by molecular replacement. Three examples of structure solutions, including a highly unusual triclinic crystal form with 16 dodecamers (192 monomers) in the unit cell, are described. Four commonly used molecular-replacement packages are assessed against two of these examples, one of high symmetry and the other of low symmetry; this study highlights how program performance can vary significantly depending on the given problem. In addition, the final refined structure of the 16-dodecamer triclinic crystal form is analysed and shown not to be a superlattice structure, but rather an F-centred cubic crystal with frustrated crystallographic symmetry.

  16. Synthesis, antimicrobial activity, structural and spectral characterization and DFT calculations of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) complexes of 4-amino-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Tarek A; Shaaban, Ibrahim A; Farag, Rabei S; Zoghaib, Wajdi M; Afifi, Mahmoud S

    2015-01-25

    Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) complexes of 4-amino-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile (APC) have been synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, mass spectrometry, infrared (4000-200 cm(-1)), UV-Visible (200-1100 nm), (1)H NMR and ESR spectroscopy as well as TGA analysis. The molar conductance measurements in DMSO imply non-electrolytic complexes, formulated as [M(APC)2Cl2] where M=Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II). The infrared spectra of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes indicate a bidentate type of bonding for APC through the exocyclic amino and adjacent pyrimidine nitrogen as donors whereas APC coordinated to Pd(II) ion as a monodentated ligand via a pyrimidine nitrogen donor. The magnetic measurements and the electronic absorption spectra support distorted octahedral geometries for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes however a square planar complex was favored for the Pd(II) complex (C2h skeleton symmetry). In addition, we carried out B3LYP and ω-B97XD geometry optimization at 6-31G(d) basis set except for Pd(II) where we implemented LanL2DZ/6-31G(d) combined basis set. The computational results favor all trans geometrical isomers where amino N, pyrimidine N and Cl are trans to each other (structure 1). Finally, APC and its divalent metal ion complexes were screened for their antibacterial activity, and the synthesized complexes were found to be more potent antimicrobial agents than APC against one or more microbial species. PMID:25105264

  17. Synthesis, antimicrobial activity, structural and spectral characterization and DFT calculations of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) complexes of 4-amino-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Tarek A.; Shaaban, Ibrahim A.; Farag, Rabei S.; Zoghaib, Wajdi M.; Afifi, Mahmoud S.

    2015-01-01

    Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II) complexes of 4-amino-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile (APC) have been synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, mass spectrometry, infrared (4000-200 cm-1), UV-Visible (200-1100 nm), 1H NMR and ESR spectroscopy as well as TGA analysis. The molar conductance measurements in DMSO imply non-electrolytic complexes, formulated as [M(APC)2Cl2] where M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pd(II). The infrared spectra of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes indicate a bidentate type of bonding for APC through the exocyclic amino and adjacent pyrimidine nitrogen as donors whereas APC coordinated to Pd(II) ion as a monodentated ligand via a pyrimidine nitrogen donor. The magnetic measurements and the electronic absorption spectra support distorted octahedral geometries for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes however a square planar complex was favored for the Pd(II) complex (C2h skeleton symmetry). In addition, we carried out B3LYP and ω-B97XD geometry optimization at 6-31G(d) basis set except for Pd(II) where we implemented LanL2DZ/6-31G(d) combined basis set. The computational results favor all trans geometrical isomers where amino N, pyrimidine N and Cl are trans to each other (structure 1). Finally, APC and its divalent metal ion complexes were screened for their antibacterial activity, and the synthesized complexes were found to be more potent antimicrobial agents than APC against one or more microbial species.

  18. Establishment of type II 5alpha-reductase over-expressing cell line as an inhibitor screening model.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sunhyae; Lee, Young; Hwang, Seong-Lok; Lee, Min-Ho; Park, Su Jin; Lee, In Ho; Kang, Sangjin; Roh, Seok-Seon; Seo, Young-Joon; Park, Jang-Kyu; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Kim, Chang Deok

    2007-01-01

    Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is the most potent male hormone that causes androgenetic alopecia. The type II 5alpha-reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of testosterone (T) to DHT, therefore it can be expected that specific inhibitors for type II 5alpha-reductase may improve the pathophysiologic status of androgenetic alopecia. In this study, we attempted to establish the reliable and convenient screening model for type II 5alpha-reductase inhibitors. After transfection of human cDNA for type II 5alpha-reductase into HEK293 cells, the type II 5alpha-reductase over-expressing stable cells were selected by G418 treatment. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses confirmed that type II 5alpha-reductase gene was expressed in the stable cells. In in vitro enzymatic assay, 10 microg of stable cell extract completely converted 1 microCi (approximately 0.015 nmol) of T into DHT. The type II 5alpha-reductase activity was inhibited by finasteride in a dose-dependent manner, confirming the reliability of screening system. In cell culture condition, 2 x 10(5) of stable cells completely converted all the input T (approximately 0.03 nmol) into DHT by 4h incubation, demonstrating that the stable cell line can be used as a cell-based assay system. Using this system, we selected the extracts of Curcumae longae rhizoma and Mori ramulus as the potential inhibitors for type II 5alpha-reductase. These results demonstrate that the type II 5alpha-reductase over-expressing stable cell line is a convenient and reliable model for screening and evaluation of inhibitors. PMID:17646096

  19. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) in renal and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Chow, Bryna S M; Allen, Terri J

    2016-08-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is well-considered to be the principal effector of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which binds with strong affinity to the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R) receptor subtype. However, activation of both receptors is likely to stimulate different signalling mechanisms/pathways and produce distinct biological responses. The haemodynamic and non-haemodynamic effects of Ang II, including its ability to regulate blood pressure, maintain water-electrolyte balance and promote vasoconstriction and cellular growth are well-documented to be mediated primarily by the AT1R. However, its biological and functional effects mediated through the AT2R subtype are still poorly understood. Recent studies have emphasized that activation of the AT2R regulates tissue and organ development and provides in certain context a potential counter-regulatory mechanism against AT1R-mediated actions. Thus, this review will focus on providing insights into the biological role of the AT2R, in particular its actions within the renal and cardiovascular system. PMID:27358027

  20. Neutrino masses and leptogenesis in type I and type II seesaw models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Debasish; Das, Mrinal Kumar

    2014-07-01

    The baryon to photon ratio in the present Universe is very accurately measured to be (6.065±0.090)×10-10. We study the possible origin of this baryon asymmetry in the neutrino sector through the generic mechanism of baryogenesis through leptogenesis. We consider both the type I and type II seesaw origin of neutrino masses within the framework of left-right symmetric models (LRSM). Using the latest best-fit global neutrino oscillation data of mass squared differences, mixing angles and Dirac CP phase, we compute the predictions for baryon to photon ratio keeping the Majorana CP phases as free parameters for two different choices of lightest neutrino mass eigenvalue for both normal and inverted hierarchical patterns of neutrino masses. We do our calculation with and without lepton flavor effects being taken into account. We choose different diagonal Dirac neutrino mass matrix for different flavor effects in such a way that the lightest right-handed neutrino mass is in the appropriate range. We also study the predictions for baryon asymmetry when the neutrino masses arise from a combination of both type I and type II seesaw (with dominating type I term) and discriminate between several combinations of Dirac and Majorana CP phases by demanding successful predictions for baryon asymmetry.

  1. Molecular determinants on the insect sodium channel for the specific action of type II pyrethroid insecticides

    SciTech Connect

    Du Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Luo Ningguang; Liu Zhiqi; Lee, Jung-Eun; Khambay, Bhupinder; Dong Ke

    2009-01-15

    Pyrethroid insecticides are classified as type I or type II based on their distinct symptomology and effects on sodium channel gating. Structurally, type II pyrethroids possess an {alpha}-cyano group at the phenylbenzyl alcohol position, which is lacking in type I pyrethroids. Both type I and type II pyrethroids inhibit deactivation consequently prolonging the opening of sodium channels. However, type II pyrethroids inhibit the deactivation of sodium channels to a greater extent than type I pyrethroids inducing much slower decaying of tail currents upon repolarization. The molecular basis of a type II-specific action, however, is not known. Here we report the identification of a residue G{sup 1111} and two positively charged lysines immediately downstream of G{sup 1111} in the intracellular linker connecting domains II and III of the cockroach sodium channel that are specifically involved in the action of type II pyrethroids, but not in the action of type I pyrethroids. Deletion of G{sup 1111}, a consequence of alternative splicing, reduced the sodium channel sensitivity to type II pyrethroids, but had no effect on channel sensitivity to type I pyrethroids. Interestingly, charge neutralization or charge reversal of two positively charged lysines (Ks) downstream of G{sup 1111} had a similar effect. These results provide the molecular insight into the type II-specific interaction of pyrethroids with the sodium channel at the molecular level.

  2. Molecular determinants on the insect sodium channel for the specific action of type II pyrethroid insecticides.

    PubMed

    Du, Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Luo, Ningguang; Liu, Zhiqi; Lee, Jung-Eun; Khambay, Bhupinder; Dong, Ke

    2009-01-15

    Pyrethroid insecticides are classified as type I or type II based on their distinct symptomology and effects on sodium channel gating. Structurally, type II pyrethroids possess an alpha-cyano group at the phenylbenzyl alcohol position, which is lacking in type I pyrethroids. Both type I and type II pyrethroids inhibit deactivation consequently prolonging the opening of sodium channels. However, type II pyrethroids inhibit the deactivation of sodium channels to a greater extent than type I pyrethroids inducing much slower decaying of tail currents upon repolarization. The molecular basis of a type II-specific action, however, is not known. Here we report the identification of a residue G(1111) and two positively charged lysines immediately downstream of G(1111) in the intracellular linker connecting domains II and III of the cockroach sodium channel that are specifically involved in the action of type II pyrethroids, but not in the action of type I pyrethroids. Deletion of G(1111), a consequence of alternative splicing, reduced the sodium channel sensitivity to type II pyrethroids, but had no effect on channel sensitivity to type I pyrethroids. Interestingly, charge neutralization or charge reversal of two positively charged lysines (Ks) downstream of G(1111) had a similar effect. These results provide the molecular insight into the type II-specific interaction of pyrethroids with the sodium channel at the molecular level. PMID:19022275

  3. Relative potencies of Type I and Type II pyrethroids for inhibition of spontaneous firing in neuronal networks.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroids insecticides commonly used in pest control disrupt the normal function of voltage-sensitive sodium channels. We have previously demonstrated that permethrin (a Type I pyrethroid) and deltamethrin (a Type II pyrethroid) inhibit sodium channel-dependent spontaneous netw...

  4. Replication of parainfluenza (Sendai) virus in isolated rat pulmonary type II alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Castleman, W. L.; Northrop, P. J.; McAllister, P. K.

    1989-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were to determine whether alveolar type II epithelial cells isolated from rat lung and maintained in tissue culture would support productive replication of parainfluenza type 1 (Sendai) virus and to determine whether isolated type II cells from neonatal (5-day-old) rats that are more susceptible to viral-induced alveolar dysplasia supported viral replication to a greater extent than those from weanling (25-day-old) rats. Isolated and cultured type II cells from neonatal and weanling rats that were inoculated with Sendai virus supported productive replication as indicated by ultrastructural identification of budding virions and viral nucleocapsids in type II cells and by demonstration of rising titers of infectious virus from inoculated type II cell cultures. Alveolar macrophages from neonatal and weanling rats also supported viral replication, although infectious viral titers in macrophage cultures were lower than those from type II cell cultures. Only minor differences were detected between viral titers from neonatal and weanling type II epithelial cell cultures. Higher densities of viral nucleocapsids were observed in neonatal type II cells than in those from weanling rats. The results indicate that isolated type II alveolar epithelial cells support productive replication of parainfluenza virus and that type II cells are probably more efficient in supporting productive viral replication than are alveolar macrophages. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2541612

  5. Crystal structure, DFT, spectroscopic and biological activity evaluation of analgin complexes with Co(ii), Ni(ii) and Cu(ii).

    PubMed

    Mansour, Ahmed M

    2014-11-14

    Reaction of analgin (NaL) with Co(ii), Ni(ii) and Cu(ii) salts in ethanol affords complexes of the type [ML2], which were characterized by elemental analysis, FT IR, UV-Vis, EPR, TG/DTA, magnetic susceptibility and conductance measurements. The copper(ii) complex crystallizes in the orthorhombic Pbca space group. Analgin behaves as a mono-negatively tridentate ligand via pyrazolone O, sulfonate O and tertiary amino groups. The interaction of the tertiary nitrogen with M(n+) ions is the main factor which determines the stability of complexes as revealed from natural bond orbital analysis data, where the binding energy of [ML2] decreases with an increase in the bond length of the M-N bond. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations were applied in order to realize the electronic structures and to explain the related experimental observations. The anti-bacterial activity was studied on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Coordination of analgin to Ni(ii) and Cu(ii) leads to a significant increase in its antibacterial activity as compared with the Co(ii) complex. PMID:25231028

  6. Induction of tolerance against the arthritogenic antigen with type-II collagen peptide-linked soluble MHC class II molecules.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon-Kyung; Jung, Sundo; Park, Se-Ho

    2016-06-01

    In murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), self-reactive T cells can recognize peptide antigens derived from type-II collagen (CII). Activation of T cells is an important mediator of autoimmune diseases. Thus, T cells have become a focal point of study to treat autoimmune diseases. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of recombinant MHC class II molecules in the regulation of antigen-specific T cells by using a self peptide derived from CII (CII260-274; IAGFKGEQGPKGEPG) linked to mouse I-A(q) in a murine CIA model. We found that recombinant I-A(q)/CII260-274 molecules could be recognized by CII-specific T cells and inhibit the same T cells in vitro. Furthermore, the development of CIA in mice was successfully prevented by in vivo injection of recombinant I-A(q)/CII260-274 molecules. Thus, treatment with recombinant soluble MHC class II molecules in complex with an immunodominant self-peptide might offer a potential therapeutic for chronic inflammation in autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(6): 331-336]. PMID:26779996

  7. Evaluation of mono or mixed cultures of lactic acid bacteria in type II sourdough system.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Raci; Şimşek, Ömer; Küçükçuban, Ayca; Nas, Sebahattin

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of mono and mixed lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures to determine suitable LAB combinations for a type II sourdough system. In this context, previously isolated sourdough LAB strains with antimicrobial activity, which included Lactobacillus plantarum PFC22, Lactobacillus brevis PFC31, Pediococcus acidilactici PFC38, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis PFC80, were used as mono or mixed culture combinations in a fermentation system to produce type II sourdough, and subsequently in bread dough production. Compared to the monoculture fermentation of dough, the use of mixed cultures shortened the adaptation period by half. In addition, the use of mixed cultures ensured higher microbial viability, and enhanced the fruity flavor during bread dough production. It was determined that the combination of L. plantarum PFC22 + P. acidilactici PFC38 + L. sanfranciscensis PFC80 is a promising culture mixture that can be used in the production of type II sourdough systems, and that may also contribute to an increase in metabolic activity during bread production process. PMID:25807196

  8. Automatic recognition of coronal type II radio bursts: The ARBIS 2 method and first observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobzin, Vasili; Cairns, Iver; Robinson, Peter; Steward, Graham; Patterson, Garth

    Major space weather events such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections are usually accompa-nied by solar radio bursts, which can potentially be used for real-time space weather forecasts. Type II radio bursts are produced near the local plasma frequency and its harmonic by fast electrons accelerated by a shock wave moving through the corona and solar wind with a typi-cal speed of 1000 km s-1 . The coronal bursts have dynamic spectra with frequency gradually falling with time and durations of several minutes. We present a new method developed to de-tect type II coronal radio bursts automatically and describe its implementation in an extended Automated Radio Burst Identification System (ARBIS 2). Preliminary tests of the method with spectra obtained in 2002 show that the performance of the current implementation is quite high, ˜ 80%, while the probability of false positives is reasonably low, with one false positive per 100-200 hr for high solar activity and less than one false event per 10000 hr for low solar activity periods. The first automatically detected coronal type II radio bursts are also presented. ARBIS 2 is now operational with IPS Radio and Space Services, providing email alerts and event lists internationally.

  9. Simulation of solar near-relativistic electron events associated with type II radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agueda, N.; Vainio, R.; Lario, D.; Sanahuja, B.; Palin, L.

    2009-04-01

    Near-relativistic electron (E > 30 keV) events are observed in the near-Earth space following solar transient activity; e.g. flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We have developed an inversion method for the analysis of the solar injection and interplanetary transport conditions of near-relativistic (NR) electrons observed by the EPAM instrument on board ACE. We report on the results of our inversion method applied to a number of NR electron events temporally associated with type II radio bursts. We compare the inferred injection time-profiles with the timing of the electromagnetic emissions (X-rays, white-light and radio) observed during the parent solar events. Preliminary results indicate that the source injecting particles may be active for a long period of time (> 3 h) and the timing of this extended injection coincides with the type II radio burst emission. This suggests that coronal shocks producing radio emission are responsible for the acceleration of NR electron events temporally associated with type II radio bursts.

  10. Residential construction demonstration project, Cycle II: Active ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report documents the analysis of the performance of natural and mechanical ventilation in Pacific Northwest homes. The analysis was part of Cycle II of the Residential Construction Demonstration Project, sponsored by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Since 1986, the Residential Construction Demonstration Project (RCDP) has sponsored the collection of data on energy efficient homes in the Pacific Northwest that comply with these new standards and requirements. Cycle II of RCDP was conducted between September 1987 and April 1990. It concentrated on energy innovations in homes built to the Super Good Cents specification. All of the test homes have electric heat and mechanical ventilation systems. Seven different types of active ventilation systems are represented in the homes. Three of these system types are equipped with heat recovery devices, and are represented in approximately a quarter of the test homes. The potential for both natural and mechanical ventilation was measured. Potential structural leakage was measured by blower door testing. Flow rate and operating time of mechanical ventilation systems were measured with flow hoods and hour meters. Actual ventilation was measured by using a passive tracer gas technique for several weeks during the heating season and at times of normal occupancy.

  11. Residential construction demonstration project, Cycle II: Active ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This report documents the analysis of the performance of natural and mechanical ventilation in Pacific Northwest homes. The analysis was part of Cycle II of the Residential Construction Demonstration Project, sponsored by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Since 1986, the Residential Construction Demonstration Project (RCDP) has sponsored the collection of data on energy efficient homes in the Pacific Northwest that comply with these new standards and requirements. Cycle II of RCDP was conducted between September 1987 and April 1990. It concentrated on energy innovations in homes built to the Super Good Cents specification. All of the test homes have electric heat and mechanical ventilation systems. Seven different types of active ventilation systems are represented in the homes. Three of these system types are equipped with heat recovery devices, and are represented in approximately a quarter of the test homes. The potential for both natural and mechanical ventilation was measured. Potential structural leakage was measured by blower door testing. Flow rate and operating time of mechanical ventilation systems were measured with flow hoods and hour meters. Actual ventilation was measured by using a passive tracer gas technique for several weeks during the heating season and at times of normal occupancy.

  12. Effects of Oral Administration of Type II Collagen on Rheumatoid Arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trentham, David E.; Dynesius-Trentham, Roselynn A.; Orav, E. John; Combitchi, Daniel; Lorenzo, Carlos; Sewell, Kathryn Lea; Hafler, David A.; Weiner, Howard L.

    1993-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory synovial disease thought to involve T cells reacting to an antigen within the joint. Type II collagen is the major protein in articular cartilage and is a potential autoantigen in this disease. Oral tolerization to autoantigens suppresses animal models of T cell-mediated autoimmune disease, including two models of rheumatoid arthritis. In this randomized, double-blind trial involving 60 patients with severe, active rheumatoid arthritis, a decrease in the number of swollen joints and tender joints occurred in subjects fed chicken type II collagen for 3 months but not in those that received a placebo. Four patients in the collagen group had complete remission of the disease. No side effects were evident. These data demonstrate clinical efficacy of an oral tolerization approach for rheumatoid arthritis.

  13. Rapid activation of hippocampal casein kinase II during long-term potentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Charriaut-Marlangue, C; Otani, S; Creuzet, C; Ben-Ari, Y; Loeb, J

    1991-01-01

    Several studies suggest that protein kinase C and type II Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase are activated during induction of long-term potentiation (LTP). We now report that casein kinase II (CK-II), which is present in high concentration in the hippocampus, is also activated in the CA1 region during LTP. CK-II activity increased within 2 min after a train of high-frequency electrical stimulations and reached a maximum (2-fold increase) 5 min later before returning to baseline value. The stimulated protein kinase activity, which was blocked by a selective antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, exhibited specific properties of CK-II, including phosphorylation of the specific substrates of CK-II, marked inhibition by a low heparin concentration, and the use of GTP as a phosphate donor. CK-II activity was also selectively and rapidly augmented in another form of LTP produced by bath application of tetraethylammonium; this LTP (called LTPk) is Ca2+ dependent but N-methyl-D-aspartate independent. Phosphorylation of casein that was not inhibited by heparin (i.e., casein kinase I) remained unchanged. We suggest that an increase in CK-II activity is important in LTP induction. Images PMID:1946443

  14. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

    2007-01-01

    The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception) and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating). Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that identification and classification are ongoing. As a group, the HSAN are rare diseases that affect both sexes. HSAN III is almost exclusive to individuals of Eastern European Jewish extraction, with incidence of 1 per 3600 live births. Several hundred cases with HSAN IV have been reported. The worldwide prevalence of HSAN type II is very low. This review focuses on the description of three of the disorders, HSAN II through IV, that are characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance and onset at birth. These three forms of HSAN have been the most intensively studied, especially familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN III), which is often used as a prototype for comparison to the other HSAN. Each HSAN disorder is likely caused by different genetic errors that affect specific aspects of small fiber neurodevelopment, which result in variable phenotypic expression. As genetic tests are routinely used for diagnostic confirmation of HSAN III only, other means of differentiating between the disorders is necessary. Diagnosis is based on the clinical features, the degree of both sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and biochemical evaluations, with pathologic examinations serving to further confirm differences. Treatments for all these disorders are supportive. PMID:17915006

  15. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

    2007-01-01

    The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception) and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating). Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that identification and classification are ongoing. As a group, the HSAN are rare diseases that affect both sexes. HSAN III is almost exclusive to individuals of Eastern European Jewish extraction, with incidence of 1 per 3600 live births. Several hundred cases with HSAN IV have been reported. The worldwide prevalence of HSAN type II is very low. This review focuses on the description of three of the disorders, HSAN II through IV, that are characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance and onset at birth. These three forms of HSAN have been the most intensively studied, especially familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN III), which is often used as a prototype for comparison to the other HSAN. Each HSAN disorder is likely caused by different genetic errors that affect specific aspects of small fiber neurodevelopment, which result in variable phenotypic expression. As genetic tests are routinely used for diagnostic confirmation of HSAN III only, other means of differentiating between the disorders is necessary. Diagnosis is based on the clinical features, the degree of both sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and biochemical evaluations, with pathologic examinations serving to further confirm differences. Treatments for all these disorders are supportive. PMID:17915006

  16. Solar flares associated coronal mass ejections in case of type II radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Beena; Prasad, Lalan; Chandra, Harish; Garia, Suman

    2016-08-01

    We have statistically studied 220 events from 1996 to 2008 (i.e. solar cycle 23). Two set of flare-CME is examined one with Deca-hectometric (DH) type II and other without DH type II radio burst. Out of 220 events 135 (flare-halo CME) are accompanied with DH type II radio burst and 85 are without DH type II radio burst. Statistical analysis is performed to examine the distribution of solar flare-halo CME around the solar disk and to investigate the relationship between solar flare and halo CME parameters in case of with and without DH type II radio burst. In our analysis we have observed that: (i) 10-20° latitudinal belt is more effective than the other belts for DH type II and without DH type II radio burst. In this belt, the southern region is more effective in case of DH type II radio burst, whereas in case of without DH type II radio burst dominance exits in the northern region. (ii) 0-10° longitudinal belt is more effective than the other belts for DH type II radio burst and without DH type II radio burst. In this belt, the western region is more effective in case of DH type II radio burst, while in case of without DH type II radio burst dominance exits in the eastern region. (iii) Mean speed of halo CMEs (1382 km/s) with DH type II radio burst is more than the mean speed of halo CMEs (775 km/s) without DH type II radio burst. (iv) Maximum number of M-class flares is found in both the cases. (v) Average speed of halo CMEs in each class accompanied with DH type II radio burst is higher than the average speed of halo CMEs in each class without DH type II radio burst. (vi) Average speed of halo CMEs, associated with X-class flares, is greater than the other class of solar flares in both the cases.

  17. Type II NKT-TFH cells against Gaucher lipids regulate B-cell immunity and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Shiny; Boddupalli, Chandra Sekhar; Verma, Rakesh; Liu, Jun; Yang, Ruhua; Pastores, Gregory M.; Mistry, Pramod K.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation including B-cell activation is commonly observed in both inherited (Gaucher disease [GD]) and acquired disorders of lipid metabolism. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying B-cell activation in these settings remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that β-glucosylceramide 22:0 (βGL1-22) and glucosylsphingosine (LGL1), 2 major sphingolipids accumulated in GD, can be recognized by a distinct subset of CD1d-restricted human and murine type II natural killer T (NKT) cells. Human βGL1-22– and LGL1-reactive CD1d tetramer–positive T cells have a distinct T-cell receptor usage and genomic and cytokine profiles compared with the classical type I NKT cells. In contrast to type I NKT cells, βGL1-22– and LGL1-specific NKT cells constitutively express T-follicular helper (TFH) phenotype. Injection of these lipids leads to an increase in respective lipid-specific type II NKT cells in vivo and downstream induction of germinal center B cells, hypergammaglobulinemia, and production of antilipid antibodies. Human βGL1-22– and LGL1-specific NKT cells can provide efficient cognate help to B cells in vitro. Frequency of LGL1-specific T cells in GD mouse models and patients correlates with disease activity and therapeutic response. Our studies identify a novel type II NKT-mediated pathway for glucosphingolipid-mediated dysregulation of humoral immunity and increased risk of B-cell malignancy observed in metabolic lipid disorders. PMID:25499455

  18. Altered lipid synthesis in type II pneumonocytes exposed to lung surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, N R; Tesan, M; Tyler, N E; Bleasdale, J E

    1986-01-01

    When type II pneumonocytes were exposed to purified lung surfactant that contained 1-palmitoyl-2-[3H]palmitoyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine, radiolabelled surfactant was apparently taken up by the cells since it could not be removed by either repeated washing or exchange with non-radiolabelled surfactant, but was released when the cells were lysed. After 4 h of exposure to [3H]surfactant, more than half of the 3H within cells remained in disaturated phosphatidylcholine. Incorporation of [3H]choline, [14C]palmitate and [14C]acetate into glycerophospholipids was decreased in type II cells exposed to surfactant and this inhibition, like surfactant uptake, was half-maximal when the extracellular concentration of surfactant was approx. 0.1 mumol of lipid P/ml. Inhibition of incorporation of radiolabelled precursors by surfactant occurred rapidly and reversibly and was not due solely to dilution of the specific radioactivity of intracellular precursors. Activity of dihydroxyacetone-phosphate acyltransferase, but not glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, was decreased in type II cells exposed to surfactant and this was reflected by a decrease in the 14C/3H ratio of total lipids synthesized when cells incubated with [U-14C]glycerol and [2-3H]glycerol were exposed to surfactant. Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol and cholesterol, either individually or mixed in the molar ratio found in surfactant, did not mimic purified surfactant in the inhibition of glycerophospholipid synthesis. In contrast, an apoprotein fraction isolated from surfactant inhibited greatly the incorporation of [3H]choline into lipids and this inhibitory activity was labile to heat and to trypsin. It is concluded that the apparent uptake of surfactant by type II cells in vitro is accompanied by an inhibition of glycerophospholipid synthesis via a mechanism that involves a surfactant apoprotein. Images Fig. 4. PMID:3827860

  19. A Caenorhabditis elegans type I TGF beta receptor can function in the absence of type II kinase to promote larval development.

    PubMed

    Gunther, C V; Georgi, L L; Riddle, D L

    2000-08-01

    The daf-4 gene encodes a type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor in Caenorhabditis elegans that regulates dauer larva formation, body size and male tail patterning. The putative type I receptor partner for DAF-4 in regulating dauer larva formation is DAF-1. Genetic tests of the mechanism of activation of these receptors show that DAF-1 can signal in the absence of DAF-4 kinase activity. A daf-1 mutation enhances dauer formation in a daf-4 null background, whereas overexpression of daf-1 partially rescues a daf-4 mutant. DAF-1 alone cannot fully compensate for the loss of DAF-4 activity, indicating that nondauer development normally results from the activities of both receptors. DAF-1 signaling in the absence of a type II kinase is unique in the type I receptor family. The activity may be an evolutionary remnant, owing to daf-1's origin near the type I/type II divergence, or it may be an innovation that evolved in nematodes. daf-1 and daf-4 promoters both mediated expression of green fluorescent protein in the nervous system, indicating that a DAF-1/DAF-4 receptor complex may activate a neuronal signaling pathway. Signaling from a strong DAF-1/DAF-4 receptor complex or a weaker DAF-1 receptor alone may provide larvae with more precise control of the dauer/nondauer decision in a range of environmental conditions. PMID:10887089

  20. Outcomes After Arthroscopic Repair of Type-II SLAP Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Brockmeier, Stephen F.; Voos, James E.; Williams, Riley J.; Altchek, David W.; Cordasco, Frank A.; Allen, Answorth A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To our knowledge, there has been no prospective study on the results of arthroscopic repair of superior labrum-biceps anchor complex (SLAP) tears with use of modern techniques. The purpose of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the minimum two-year results for patients with type-II SLAP tears that were treated with arthroscopic suture anchor fixation. Methods: Forty-seven patients with symptomatic type-II SLAP tears were evaluated preoperatively and at least two years postoperatively with use of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) and L'Insalata outcomes instruments and physical examination. The study group included thirty-nine male and eight female patients with a mean age of thirty-six years; thirty-four of the forty-seven patients were athletes. Patients with rotator cuff tears requiring repair or concomitant shoulder instability were excluded. Results: At an average of 2.7 years, the median ASES and L'Insalata scores were 97 and 93, respectively, compared with baseline scores of 62 and 65 (p < 0.05). The median patient-reported satisfaction rating was 9 (of 10); forty-one patients (87%) rated the outcome as good or excellent. The median patient-reported satisfaction rating was significantly higher for patients with a discrete traumatic etiology than for those with an atraumatic etiology (9 compared with 7); however, there was no significant difference between these groups in terms of the ASES or L'Insalata outcome scores. Overall, twenty-five (74%) of the thirty-four athletes were able to return to their preinjury level of competition, whereas eleven (92%) of the twelve athletes who reported a discrete traumatic event were able to return to their previous level of competition. There were five complications, including four cases of refractory postoperative stiffness. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that favorable outcomes can be anticipated in the majority of patients after arthroscopic SLAP lesion repair. While only three

  1. Implementing type I & type II error spending for two-sided group sequential designs.

    PubMed

    Rudser, Kyle D; Emerson, Scott S

    2008-05-01

    Group sequential designs have become the mainstay for addressing efficacy and ethical issues when monitoring clinical trials. Several different procedures of defining stopping rules have been developed for the formulation of a sequential design, one of these being direct specification of type I and type II error spending. There are also different methods that have been proposed to fit a two-sided design for a given error spending function. Two methods that differ on when type II error begins to be spent are the flexible implementation of the unified family by Kittelson and Emerson and the method of Chang, Hwang, and Shih. Trial designs formulated by the latter are unable to mimic the boundaries of the unified family, which includes the two-sided symmetric designs of Emerson and Fleming, the two-sided designs of Pampallona and Tsiatis, and the double triangular designs of Whitehead and Stratton. Design operating characteristics of these two methods are compared over a wide range of commonly used size, power and error spending function combinations. PMID:17933592

  2. Unified Model of Type I and Type II Turbulence in the Equitorial E-Layer Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, W., Jr.; Hassan, E.; Smolyakov, A.; Litt, S.; Hatch, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    A new unified two-fluid model for the E-layer for the Type I and Type II plasma instabilities is developed and simulated for the nonlinear dynamics of the electron density, the electric fields, and ion fluid acceleration. Profiles and parameters are taken from the IRI data for the equitorial region ionosphere. Large, spectral simulations for the turbulence and the coherent structures are carried out. The fields are recorded for each sub-second time step in both physical space and wavenubmer space. The growth rate has two peaks in horizontal wavenumber and the nonlinear cascades go both to small scales [~10cm] and large scales [~10-50m]. Horizontal and vertical wavenumber spectra are shown as well as the isotropized energy spectrum of k-n. The S4 scintillation index computed from the density fluctuations and the PDFs for intermittency from the density fluctuations are computed. The PDFs and the net electron density fluxes are computed. Examples are run where the upward density gradient (Type II) is the dominant instability mechanism.

  3. EEG classification of adolescents with type I and type II of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Khaleghi, Ali; Sheikhani, Ali; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Nasrabadi, Ali Moti; Vand, Safa Rafiei; Zarafshan, Hadi; Moeini, Mahdi

    2015-12-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric disorder and has two common types: type I and type II. Early diagnosis of the subtypes is very challenging particularly in adolescence. In this study, 38 adolescents are participated including 18 patients with BD I and 20 patients with BD II. The electroencephalogram signal is recorded by 19 electrodes in open eyes at resting state. After preprocessing, the state of the art methods from various domains are implemented to provide a good feature set for classifying the two groups. In order to improve the classification accuracy, four different feature selection methods named mutual information maximization (MIM), conditional mutual information maximization (CMIM), fast correlation based filter (FCBF), and double input symmetrical relevance (DISR) are applied to select the most informative features. Multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network with a hidden layer containing five neurons is used for classification with and without applying the feature selection methods. The accuracy of 82.68, 86.33, 89.67, 84.61, and 91.83 % were observed using entire extracted features and selected features using MIM, CMIM, FCBF, and DISR methods by MLP, respectively. Therefore, the proposed method can be used in clinical setting for more validation. PMID:26472650

  4. Comparison of Large Subunits of Type II DNA-dependent RNA Polymerases from Higher Plants.

    PubMed

    Kidd, G H; Link, G; Bogorad, L

    1979-10-01

    Two-dimensional tryptic mapping of (125)I-labeled polypeptides has been employed to compare the large subunits of type II DNA-dependent RNA polymerases from maize, parsley (Petroselinum sativum), and wheat. Maps of the 220 kilodalton (kd) and 140 kd subunits from wheat RNA polymerase II differ from those of the corresponding subunits from parsley enzyme II. The 180 kd subunits from maize and parsley type II enzymes also yield dissimilar tryptic maps. Thus, despite similarities in molecular mass, the large subunits of wheat, parsley, and maize type II RNA polymerases are unique to each individual plant species. PMID:16661032

  5. Type I and Type II Interferons Inhibit the Translation of Murine Norovirus Proteins▿

    PubMed Central

    Changotra, Harish; Jia, Yali; Moore, Tara N.; Liu, Guangliang; Kahan, Shannon M.; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Karst, Stephanie M.

    2009-01-01

    Human noroviruses are responsible for more than 95% of nonbacterial epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide. Both onset and resolution of disease symptoms are rapid, suggesting that components of the innate immune response are critical in norovirus control. While the study of the human noroviruses has been hampered by the lack of small animal and tissue culture systems, our recent discovery of a murine norovirus (MNV) and its in vitro propagation have allowed us to begin addressing norovirus replication strategies and immune responses to norovirus infection. We have previously demonstrated that interferon responses are critical to control MNV-1 infection in vivo and to directly inhibit viral replication in vitro. We now extend these studies to define the molecular basis for interferon-mediated inhibition. Viral replication intermediates were not detected in permissive cells pretreated with type I interferon after either infection or transfection of virion-associated RNA, demonstrating a very early block to virion production that is after virus entry and uncoating. A similar absence of viral replication intermediates was observed in infected primary macrophages and dendritic cells pretreated with type I IFN. This was not due to degradation of incoming genomes in interferon-pretreated cells since similar levels of genomes were present in untreated and pretreated cells through 6 h of infection, and these genomes retained their integrity. Surprisingly, this block to the translation of viral proteins was not dependent on the well-characterized interferon-induced antiviral molecule PKR. Similar results were observed in cells pretreated with type II interferon, except that the inhibition of viral translation was dependent on PKR. Thus, both type I and type II interferon signaling inhibit norovirus translation in permissive myeloid cells, but they display distinct dependence on PKR for this inhibition. PMID:19297466

  6. Kinematics of ICMEs/Shocks: Blast Wave Reconstruction Using Type-II Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corona-Romero, P.; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. A.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; De-la-Luz, V.; Mejia-Ambriz, J. C.

    2015-09-01

    We present a physical methodology for reconstructing the trajectory of interplanetary shocks using Type-II radio emission data. This technique calculates the shock trajectory assuming that the disturbance propagates as a blast wave in the interplanetary medium. We applied this blast-wave reconstruction (BWR) technique to analyze eight fast Earth-directed ICMEs/shocks associated with Type-II emissions. The technique deduces a shock trajectory that reproduces the Type-II frequency drifts and calculates shock onset speed, shock travel time, and shock speed at 1 AU. The BWR results agreed well with the Type-II spectra, with data from coronagraph images, in-situ measurements, and interplanetary scintillation observations. Perturbations in the Type-II data affect the accuracy of the BWR technique. This methodology could be applied to track interplanetary shocks causing Type-II emissions in real-time and to predict the shock arrival time and shock speed at 1 AU.

  7. Alveolar epithelial type II cell: defender of the alveolus revisited

    PubMed Central

    Fehrenbach, Heinz

    2001-01-01

    In 1977, Mason and Williams developed the concept of the alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cell as a defender of the alveolus. It is well known that AE2 cells synthesise, secrete, and recycle all components of the surfactant that regulates alveolar surface tension in mammalian lungs. AE2 cells influence extracellular surfactant transformation by regulating, for example, pH and [Ca2+] of the hypophase. AE2 cells play various roles in alveolar fluid balance, coagulation/fibrinolysis, and host defence. AE2 cells proliferate, differentiate into AE1 cells, and remove apoptotic AE2 cells by phagocytosis, thus contributing to epithelial repair. AE2 cells may act as immunoregulatory cells. AE2 cells interact with resident and mobile cells, either directly by membrane contact or indirectly via cytokines/growth factors and their receptors, thus representing an integrative unit within the alveolus. Although most data support the concept, the controversy about the character of hyperplastic AE2 cells, reported to synthesise profibrotic factors, proscribes drawing a definite conclusion today. PMID:11686863

  8. Type II Supernovae: Model Light Curves and Standard Candle Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasen, Daniel; Woosley, S. E.

    2009-10-01

    A survey of Type II supernovae explosion models has been carried out to determine how their light curves and spectra vary with their mass, metallicity, and explosion energy. The presupernova models are taken from a recent survey of massive stellar evolution at solar metallicity supplemented by new calculations at subsolar metallicity. Explosions are simulated by the motion of a piston near the edge of the iron core and the resulting light curves and spectra are calculated using full multi-wavelength radiation transport. Formulae are developed that describe approximately how the model observables (light curve luminosity and duration) scale with the progenitor mass, explosion energy, and radioactive nucleosynthesis. Comparison with observational data shows that the explosion energy of typical supernovae (as measured by kinetic energy at infinity) varies by nearly an order of magnitude—from 0.5 to 4.0 × 1051 ergs, with a typical value of ~0.9 × 1051 ergs. Despite the large variation, the models exhibit a tight relationship between luminosity and expansion velocity, similar to that previously employed empirically to make SNe IIP standardized candles. This relation is explained by the simple behavior of hydrogen recombination in the supernova envelope, but we find a sensitivity to progenitor metallicity and mass that could lead to systematic errors. Additional correlations between light curve luminosity, duration, and color might enable the use of SNe IIP to obtain distances accurate to ~20% using only photometric data.

  9. Polyglandular endocrinopathy type II (Schmidt's syndrome) in a Dobermann pinscher.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, J A; Stone, J; Rick, M; Dunning, M D

    2016-09-01

    A three-year-old, female neutered, Dobermann pinscher was presented for investigation of lethargy, episodic collapse, ataxia and myxoedema. Primary hypothyroidism and primary cortisol-deficient hypoadrenocorticism were diagnosed based on history, physical examination and compatible hormonal analysis. Increased serum concentrations of thyroglobulin autoantibodies and 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies indicated an immune-mediated aetiology. The case was complicated by lymphadenopathy with hand-mirror lymphocytes, classically identified in lymphoma. A polymerase chain reaction test for antigen receptor rearrangement indicated polyclonality and therefore reactive lymphadenopathy. The dog's clinical signs resolved following introduction of levothyroxine and prednisolone. Prioritising the problem-based approach in this case facilitated the diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in addition to hypothyroidism due to the persistence of clinical signs despite thyroxine replacement. Importantly, atypical adrenal gland dysfunction was not misinterpreted as inadequate therapeutic response to thyroxine supplementation. The observation that polyglandular endocrinopathy type II can occur in dogs suggests that in dogs with a suboptimal response to treatment for hypothyroidism or hypoadrenocorticism comorbid endocrinopathies should be investigated. PMID:27487017

  10. Health perceptions among urban American Indians with type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sachin; Davila, Javier; Patel, Sonam; Norman, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1940s, American Indians (AIs) have increasingly urbanized, moving off of reservations in large part due to federal policies of tribal termination and relocation. Though previous AI research has largely focused on reservation-associated challenges, many of these same challenges persist among urban AI populations. One mutual concern is the growing prevalence and incidence of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While behavioral, genetic, and socioeconomic determinants of T2DM have been explored, much less is known about the influence of cultural and psychosocial factors. Recent studies suggest that the way AIs perceive diabetes may affect their health trajectory and explain their poor prognosis. Through the use of the Illness Perception Questionnaire, we explored this hypothesis in a pilot study of urban AI with T2DM living in Los Angeles County. We found that the majority of participants have a neutral perception about their diabetes: They view their condition to be long lasting yet treatable and indicate reasonable understanding of its symptoms and progression. We also identified "personal control," the level of perceived control one has over his or her disease, as a strong correlate of overall illness perception and, thus, a potentially useful psychological metric. PMID:25111842

  11. TYPE II SUPERNOVAE: MODEL LIGHT CURVES AND STANDARD CANDLE RELATIONSHIPS

    SciTech Connect

    Kasen, Daniel; Woosley, S. E.

    2009-10-01

    A survey of Type II supernovae explosion models has been carried out to determine how their light curves and spectra vary with their mass, metallicity, and explosion energy. The presupernova models are taken from a recent survey of massive stellar evolution at solar metallicity supplemented by new calculations at subsolar metallicity. Explosions are simulated by the motion of a piston near the edge of the iron core and the resulting light curves and spectra are calculated using full multi-wavelength radiation transport. Formulae are developed that describe approximately how the model observables (light curve luminosity and duration) scale with the progenitor mass, explosion energy, and radioactive nucleosynthesis. Comparison with observational data shows that the explosion energy of typical supernovae (as measured by kinetic energy at infinity) varies by nearly an order of magnitude-from 0.5 to 4.0 x 10{sup 51} ergs, with a typical value of approx0.9 x 10{sup 51} ergs. Despite the large variation, the models exhibit a tight relationship between luminosity and expansion velocity, similar to that previously employed empirically to make SNe IIP standardized candles. This relation is explained by the simple behavior of hydrogen recombination in the supernova envelope, but we find a sensitivity to progenitor metallicity and mass that could lead to systematic errors. Additional correlations between light curve luminosity, duration, and color might enable the use of SNe IIP to obtain distances accurate to approx20% using only photometric data.

  12. THE STANDARDIZED CANDLE METHOD FOR TYPE II PLATEAU SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Olivares E, Felipe; Hamuy, Mario; Pignata, Giuliano; Maza, Jose; Bersten, Melina; Phillips, Mark M.; Morrel, Nidia I.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Matheson, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we study the 'standardized candle method' using a sample of 37 nearby (redshift z < 0.06) Type II plateau supernovae having BVRI photometry and optical spectroscopy. An analytic procedure is implemented to fit light curves, color curves, and velocity curves. We find that the V-I color toward the end of the plateau can be used to estimate the host-galaxy reddening with a precision of {sigma}(A{sub V}) = 0.2 mag. The correlation between plateau luminosity and expansion velocity previously reported in the literature is recovered. Using this relation and assuming a standard reddening law (R{sub V} = 3.1), we obtain Hubble diagrams (HDs) in the BVI bands with dispersions of {approx}0.4 mag. Allowing R{sub V} to vary and minimizing the spread in the HDs, we obtain a dispersion range of 0.25-0.30 mag, which implies that these objects can deliver relative distances with precisions of 12%-14%. The resulting best-fit value of R{sub V} is 1.4 {+-} 0.1.

  13. Separation and artificial maturation of macerals from type II kerogen

    SciTech Connect

    Kruge, M.A.; Bensley, D.F.; Stankiewicz, B.A.

    1996-12-31

    Immature Type II kerogen (HI=660 mg/g) from the Lower Toarcian of the Paris Basin was separated into an alginite concentrate (HI=952 mg/g) and an amorphous organic matter (AOM) concentrate (HI=573 mg/g) by density centrifugation. The flash pyrolyzate of the alginite was characterized by high relative concentrations of several series of n-alkanones and n-alkenones, in addition to n-alkanes, n-alk-1-enes and n-alkadienes. In sharp contrast, the AOM produced predominantly alkylbenzenes, alkylthiophenes, n-alkanes and n-alk-1-enes upon pyrolysis. Micro-FTIR spectroscopy indicated that the alginite was enriched in aliphatic C-H (particularly CH{sub 2}) and depleted in aromatic C=C, relative to the AOM, consistent with the pyrolysis results. Aliquots of the concentrates were heated separately in gold tubes (24 h, 70 MPa) at fixed temperatures ranging between 250 and 375{degrees}C. Yields of liquid products as a function of temperature were initially greater for the AOM, reaching a maximum at 325{degrees}C. In contrast, the alginite yielded little liquid product at low temperatures, attaining its maximum at 350{degrees}C, at which temperature its yield greatly surpassed that of the AOM. This kerogen is a heterogeneous assemblage of fossil organic matter, exhibiting different degrees of preservation and petroleum potential.

  14. Quantum Spin Hall Effect in Inverted Type II Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chaoxing; Hughes, Taylor L.; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Kang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-03-19

    The quantum spin Hall (QSH) state is a topologically non-trivial state of quantum matter which preserves time-reversal symmetry; it has an energy gap in the bulk, but topologically robust gapless states at the edge. Recently, this novel effect has been predicted and observed in HgTe quantum wells. In this work we predict a similar effect arising in Type-II semiconductor quantum wells made from InAs/GaSb/AlSb. Because of a rare band alignment the quantum well band structure exhibits an 'inverted' phase similar to CdTe/HgTe quantum wells, which is a QSH state when the Fermi level lies inside the gap. Due to the asymmetric structure of this quantum well, the effects of inversion symmetry breaking and inter-layer charge transfer are essential. By standard self-consistent calculations, we show that the QSH state persists when these corrections are included, and a quantum phase transition between the normal insulator and the QSH phase can be electrically tuned by the gate voltage.

  15. Cinnamomin: a multifunctional type II ribosome-inactivating protein.

    PubMed

    He, Wen-Jun; Liu, Wang-Yi

    2003-07-01

    Plant ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are a group of toxic proteins that can irreversibly inactivate ribosomes by specifically removing the conserved adenine base from the "Sarcin/Ricin domain" of the 28S RNA in ribosome. Cinnamomin is a novel type II RIP isolated in our laboratory from the mature seeds of camphor tree. Besides site-specific deadenylation of the A4324 in the Sarcin/Ricin domain of rat ribosome, this protein could also release the adenine base from DNA molecules at multiple sites and from AMP, ADP, dAMP and adenosine. Furthermore, cinnamomin displays cytotoxicity to carcinoma cells and insect larvae by modifying their ribosomal RNA. These functions possessed by cinnamomin shed a new light on the possible application of cinnamomin in the field of immunotoxin design and transgenic reagents. In this review, we introduce the major recent results on cinnamomin obtained in our laboratory, including purification of this protein, characterization of its enzymatic mechanism, structure and function, gene pattern, physiological role and its biological implications in cytotoxicity. PMID:12672471

  16. General critical states in type-II superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badía-Majós, A.; López, C.; Ruiz, H. S.

    2009-10-01

    The magnetic flux dynamics of type-II superconductors within the critical state regime is posed in a generalized framework by using a variational theory supported by well-established physical principles. The equivalence between the variational statement and more conventional treatments based on the solution of the differential Maxwell equations together with appropriate conductivity laws is shown. Advantages of the variational method are emphasized, focusing on its numerical performance that allows us to explore a number of physical scenarios. In particular, we present the extension of the so-called double critical state model to three-dimensional (3D) configurations in which only flux transport ( T states), cutting ( C states), or both mechanisms ( CT states) occur. The theory is applied to several problems. First, we show the features of the transition from T to CT states. Second, we give a generalized expression for the flux cutting threshold in 3D and show its relevance in the slab geometry. In addition, several models that allow us to treat flux depinning and cutting mechanisms are compared. Finally, the longitudinal transport problem (current is applied parallel to the external magnetic field) is analyzed both under T and CT conditions. The complex interaction between shielding and transport is solved.

  17. Type II Radio Bursts as an Indicator of CME Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirk, C. A.; St Cyr, O. C.; Henning, C.; Xie, H.; Gilbert, H. R.; Orlove, M.; Gopalswamy, N.; Odstrcil, D.

    2011-12-01

    We examined a subset of nine low-frequency radio events with type II radio bursts that drifted below 2 megahertz and were detected by the WAVES investigation on the WIND spacecraft. For each event, we identified the associated coronal mass ejection (CME) and derived the electron density using a model of solar wind plasma frequency (fp ≈ 9 * ne1/2, where fp is plasma frequency in kHz and ne is electron density in cm-3) . We also used the pb_inverter program in SolarSoft developed by Howard and Hayes to examine the electron density structure. Expanding on the Van De Hulst process of inverting polarized brightness measurements, the program inverts total brightness measurements from SOHO LASCO images to extract electron density information. From the electron density inferred from radio spectra, we derived the location of the CME using five standard electron density to height models (Leblanc, 1996; Saito, 1977; Bougeret, 1984; Alvarez, 1973; and Fainberg, 1971). Using images from the LASCO instrument on SOHO and the SECCHI instrument on STEREO, we extracted locations of the leading edge of the CME and compared the heights and velocities to those found using the frequency data. For the lowest frequency events, we also compared our results to the outputs of ENLIL, a time-dependent, three-dimensional, MHD model of the heliosphere hosted by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  18. Inert dark matter in type-II seesaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuan-Hung; Nomura, Takaaki

    2014-09-01

    Weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) as a dark matter (DM) candidate is further inspired by recent AMS-02 data, which confirm the excess of positron fraction observed earlier by PAMELA and Fermi-LAT experiments. Additionally, the excess of positron+electron flux is still significant in the measurement of Fermi-LAT. For solving the problems of massive neutrinos and observed excess of cosmic-ray, we study the model with an inert Higgs doublet (IHD) in the framework of type-II seesaw model by imposing a Z 2 symmetry on the IHD, where the lightest particle of IHD is the DM candidate and the neutrino masses originate from the Yukawa couplings of Higgs triplet and leptons. We calculate the cosmic-ray production in our model by using three kinds of neutrino mass spectra, which are classified by normal ordering, inverted ordering and quasi-degeneracy. We find that when the constraints of DM relic density and comic-ray antiproton spectrum are taken into account, the observed excess of positron/electron flux could be explained well in normal ordered neutrino mass spectrum. Moreover, excess of comic-ray neutrinos is implied in our model. We find that our results on < σv> are satisfied with and close to the upper limit of IceCube analysis. More data from comic-ray neutrinos could test our model.

  19. Current developments for type-II superlattice imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutz, Frank; Rehm, Robert; Walther, Martin; Kirste, Lutz; Masur, Michael; Wörl, Andreas; Schmitz, Johannes; Wauro, Matthias; Niemasz, Jasmin; Scheibner, Ralf; Ziegler, Johann

    2011-06-01

    InAs/GaSb-based type-II superlattice photodiodes have considerably gained interest as high-performance infrared detectors. Beside the excellent properties of InAs/GaSb superlattices, like the relatively high effective electron mass suppressing tunneling currents, the low Auger recombination rate, and a high quantum efficiency, the bandgap can be widely adjusted within the infrared spectral range from 3 - 30 μm depending on the layer thickness rather than on composition. Superlattice growth and process technology have shown tremendous progress during the last years. Fully integrated superlattice cameras have been demonstrated by several groups worldwide. Within very few years, the InAs/GaSb superlattice technology has proven its suitability for high-performance infrared imaging detector arrays. At Fraunhofer IAF and AIM, the efforts have been focused on developing a mature fabrication technology for bispectral InAs/GaSb superlattice focal plane arrays for a simultaneous, co-located detection at 3-4 μm and 4-5 μm in the mid-wavelength infrared atmospheric transmission window. A very low number of pixel outages and cluster defects is mandatory for dual-color detector arrays. Sources for pixel outages are manifold and might be caused by dislocations in the substrate, the epitaxial growth process or by imperfections during the focal plane array fabrication process. Process refinements, intense root cause analysis and specific test methodologies employed at various stages during the process have proven to be the key for yield enhancements.

  20. Mineralocorticoid and angiotensin II type 1 receptors in the subfornical organ mediate angiotensin II - induced hypothalamic reactive oxygen species and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Wei; Huang, Bing S; White, Roselyn A; Chen, Aidong; Ahmad, Monir; Leenen, Frans H H

    2016-08-01

    Activation of angiotensinergic pathways by central aldosterone (Aldo)-mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) pathway plays a critical role in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension. The subfornical organ (SFO) contains both MR and angiotensin II type 1 receptors (AT1R) and can relay the signals of circulating Ang II to downstream nuclei such as the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). In Wistar rats, subcutaneous (sc) infusion of Ang II at 500ng/min/kg for 1 or 2weeks increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) as measured by dihydroethidium (DHE) staining in a nucleus - specific pattern. Intra-SFO infusion of AAV-MR- or AT1aR-siRNA prevented the Ang II-induced increase in AT1R mRNA expression in the SFO and decreased MR mRNA. Both MR- and AT1aR-siRNA prevented increases in ROS in the PVN and RVLM. MR- but not AT1aR-siRNA in the SFO prevented the Ang II-induced ROS in the SON. Both MR- and AT1aR-siRNA in the SFO prevented most of the Ang II-induced hypertension as assessed by telemetry. These results indicate that Aldo-MR signaling in the SFO is needed for the activation of Ang II-AT1R-ROS signaling from the SFO to the PVN and RVLM. Activation of Aldo-MR signaling from the SFO to the SON may enhance AT1R dependent activation of pre-sympathetic neurons in the PVN. PMID:27163380

  1. Modulation of human type II secretory phospholipase A2 by sphingomyelin and annexin VI.

    PubMed

    Koumanov, K; Wolf, C; Béreziat, G

    1997-08-15

    Conjectural results have been reported on the capacity of inflammatory secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) to hydrolyse mammalian membrane phospholipids. Development of an assay based on the release of non-esterified fatty acids by the enzyme acting on the organized phospholipid mixture constituting the membrane matrix has led to the identification of two prominent effectors, sphingomyelin (SPH) and annexin. Recombinant human type II sPLA2 hydrolyses red-cell membrane phospholipids with a marked preference for the inner leaflet. This preference is apparently related to the high content of SPH in the outer leaflet, which inhibits sPLA2. This inhibition by SPH is specific for sPLA2. Cholesterol counteracts the inhibition of sPLA2 by SPH, suggesting that the SPH-to-cholesterol ratio accounts in vivo for the variable susceptibility of cell membranes to sPLA2. Different effects were observed of the presence of the non-hydrolysable D-alpha-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (D-DPPC), which renders the membranes rigid but does not inhibit sPLA2. Annexin VI was shown, along with other annexins, to inhibit sPLA2 activity by sequestering the phospholipid substrate. The present study has provided the first evidence that annexin VI, in concentrations that inhibit hydrolysis of purified phospholipid substrates, stimulated the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids by sPLA2. The activation requires the presence of membrane proteins. The effect is specific for type II sPLA2 and is not reproducible with type I PLA2. The activation by annexin VI of sPLA2 acting on red cell membranes results in the preferential release of polyunsaturated fatty acids. It suggests that type II sPLA2, in conjunction with annexin VI, might be involved in the final step of endocytosis and/or exocytosis providing the free polyunsaturated fatty acids acting synergistically to cause membrane fusion. PMID:9337873

  2. Angiotensin II Stimulation of DPP4 Activity Regulates Megalin in the Proximal Tubules.

    PubMed

    Aroor, Annayya; Zuberek, Marcin; Duta, Cornel; Meuth, Alex; Sowers, James R; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Nistala, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Proteinuria is a marker of incipient kidney injury in many disorders, including obesity. Previously, we demonstrated that megalin, a receptor endocytotic protein in the proximal tubule, is downregulated in obese mice, which was prevented by inhibition of dipeptidyl protease 4 (DPP4). Obesity is thought to be associated with upregulation of intra-renal angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling via the Ang II Type 1 receptor (AT₁R) and Ang II suppresses megalin expression in proximal tubule cells in vitro. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that Ang II will suppress megalin protein via activation of DPP4. We used Ang II (200 ng/kg/min) infusion in mice and Ang II (10(-8) M) treatment of T35OK-AT₁R proximal tubule cells to test our hypothesis. Ang II-infused mouse kidneys displayed increases in DPP4 activity and decreases in megalin. In proximal tubule cells, Ang II stimulated DPP4 activity concurrent with suppression of megalin. MK0626, a DPP4 inhibitor, partially restored megalin expression similar to U0126, a mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) kinase kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor and AG1478, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor. Similarly, Ang II-induced ERK phosphorylation was suppressed with MK0626 and Ang II-induced DPP4 activity was suppressed by U0126. Therefore, our study reveals a cross talk between AT₁R signaling and DPP4 activation in the regulation of megalin and underscores the significance of targeting DPP4 in the prevention of obesity related kidney injury progression. PMID:27213360

  3. Angiotensin II Stimulation of DPP4 Activity Regulates Megalin in the Proximal Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Aroor, Annayya; Zuberek, Marcin; Duta, Cornel; Meuth, Alex; Sowers, James R.; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Nistala, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Proteinuria is a marker of incipient kidney injury in many disorders, including obesity. Previously, we demonstrated that megalin, a receptor endocytotic protein in the proximal tubule, is downregulated in obese mice, which was prevented by inhibition of dipeptidyl protease 4 (DPP4). Obesity is thought to be associated with upregulation of intra-renal angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling via the Ang II Type 1 receptor (AT1R) and Ang II suppresses megalin expression in proximal tubule cells in vitro. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that Ang II will suppress megalin protein via activation of DPP4. We used Ang II (200 ng/kg/min) infusion in mice and Ang II (10−8 M) treatment of T35OK-AT1R proximal tubule cells to test our hypothesis. Ang II-infused mouse kidneys displayed increases in DPP4 activity and decreases in megalin. In proximal tubule cells, Ang II stimulated DPP4 activity concurrent with suppression of megalin. MK0626, a DPP4 inhibitor, partially restored megalin expression similar to U0126, a mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) kinase kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor and AG1478, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor. Similarly, Ang II-induced ERK phosphorylation was suppressed with MK0626 and Ang II-induced DPP4 activity was suppressed by U0126. Therefore, our study reveals a cross talk between AT1R signaling and DPP4 activation in the regulation of megalin and underscores the significance of targeting DPP4 in the prevention of obesity related kidney injury progression. PMID:27213360

  4. Inflammatory Signaling by NOD-RIPK2 Is Inhibited by Clinically Relevant Type II Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Peter; Ruan, Qui; Schwerd, Tobias; Hrdinka, Matous; Maki, Jenny L.; Saleh, Danish; Suebsuwong, Chalada; Ray, Soumya; Brennan, Paul E.; Cuny, Gregory D.; Uhlig, Holm H.; Gyrd-Hansen, Mads; Degterev, Alexei; Bullock, Alex N.

    2015-01-01

    Summary RIPK2 mediates pro-inflammatory signaling from the bacterial sensors NOD1 and NOD2, and is an emerging therapeutic target in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We observed that cellular RIPK2 can be potently inhibited by type II inhibitors that displace the kinase activation segment, whereas ATP-competitive type I inhibition was only poorly effective. The most potent RIPK2 inhibitors were the US Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs ponatinib and regorafenib. Their mechanism of action was independent of NOD2 interaction and involved loss of downstream kinase activation as evidenced by lack of RIPK2 autophosphorylation. Notably, these molecules also blocked RIPK2 ubiquitination and, consequently, inflammatory nuclear factor κB signaling. In monocytes, the inhibitors selectively blocked NOD-dependent tumor necrosis factor production without affecting lipopolysaccharide-dependent pathways. We also determined the first crystal structure of RIPK2 bound to ponatinib, and identified an allosteric site for inhibitor development. These results highlight the potential for type II inhibitors to treat indications of RIPK2 activation as well as inflammation-associated cancers. PMID:26320862

  5. Inflammatory Signaling by NOD-RIPK2 Is Inhibited by Clinically Relevant Type II Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Canning, Peter; Ruan, Qui; Schwerd, Tobias; Hrdinka, Matous; Maki, Jenny L; Saleh, Danish; Suebsuwong, Chalada; Ray, Soumya; Brennan, Paul E; Cuny, Gregory D; Uhlig, Holm H; Gyrd-Hansen, Mads; Degterev, Alexei; Bullock, Alex N

    2015-09-17

    RIPK2 mediates pro-inflammatory signaling from the bacterial sensors NOD1 and NOD2, and is an emerging therapeutic target in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We observed that cellular RIPK2 can be potently inhibited by type II inhibitors that displace the kinase activation segment, whereas ATP-competitive type I inhibition was only poorly effective. The most potent RIPK2 inhibitors were the US Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs ponatinib and regorafenib. Their mechanism of action was independent of NOD2 interaction and involved loss of downstream kinase activation as evidenced by lack of RIPK2 autophosphorylation. Notably, these molecules also blocked RIPK2 ubiquitination and, consequently, inflammatory nuclear factor κB signaling. In monocytes, the inhibitors selectively blocked NOD-dependent tumor necrosis factor production without affecting lipopolysaccharide-dependent pathways. We also determined the first crystal structure of RIPK2 bound to ponatinib, and identified an allosteric site for inhibitor development. These results highlight the potential for type II inhibitors to treat indications of RIPK2 activation as well as inflammation-associated cancers. PMID:26320862

  6. Diabetic silkworms for evaluation of therapeutically effective drugs against type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Masaki; Hayashi, Yohei; Miyazaki, Shinya; Sugita, Takuya; Sumiya, Eriko; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that sugar levels in the silkworm hemolymph, i.e., blood, increase immediately (within 1 h) after intake of a high-glucose diet, and that the administration of human insulin decreases elevated hemolymph sugar levels in silkworms. In this hyperglycemic silkworm model, however, administration of pioglitazone or metformin, drugs used clinically for the treatment of type II diabetes, have no effect. Therefore, here we established a silkworm model of type II diabetes for the evaluation of anti-diabetic drugs such as pioglitazone and metformin. Silkworms fed a high-glucose diet over a long time-period (18 h) exhibited a hyperlipidemic phenotype. In these hyperlipidemic silkworms, phosphorylation of JNK, a stress-responsive protein kinase, was enhanced in the fat body, an organ that functionally resembles the mammalian liver and adipose tissue. Fat bodies isolated from hyperlipidemic silkworms exhibited decreased sensitivity to human insulin. The hyperlipidemic silkworms have impaired glucose tolerance, characterized by high fasting hemolymph sugar levels and higher hemolymph sugar levels in a glucose tolerance test. Administration of pioglitazone or metformin improved the glucose tolerance of the hyperlipidemic silkworms. These findings suggest that the hyperlipidemic silkworms are useful for evaluating the hypoglycemic activities of candidate drugs against type II diabetes. PMID:26024298

  7. Higgs potential in the type II seesaw model

    SciTech Connect

    Arhrib, A.; Benbrik, R.; Chabab, M.; Rahili, L.; Ramadan, J.; Moultaka, G.; Peyranere, M. C.

    2011-11-01

    The standard model Higgs sector, extended by one weak gauge triplet of scalar fields with a very small vacuum expectation value, is a very promising setting to account for neutrino masses through the so-called type II seesaw mechanism. In this paper we consider the general renormalizable doublet/triplet Higgs potential of this model. We perform a detailed study of its main dynamical features that depend on five dimensionless couplings and two mass parameters after spontaneous symmetry breaking, and highlight the implications for the Higgs phenomenology. In particular, we determine (i) the complete set of tree-level unitarity constraints on the couplings of the potential and (ii) the exact tree-level boundedness from below constraints on these couplings, valid for all directions. When combined, these constraints delineate precisely the theoretically allowed parameter space domain within our perturbative approximation. Among the seven physical Higgs states of this model, the mass of the lighter (heavier) CP{sub even} state h{sup 0} (H{sup 0}) will always satisfy a theoretical upper (lower) bound that is reached for a critical value {mu}{sub c} of {mu} (the mass parameter controlling triple couplings among the doublet/triplet Higgses). Saturating the unitarity bounds, we find an upper bound m{sub h}{sup 0} or approx. {mu}{sub c} and {mu} < or approx. {mu}{sub c}. In the first regime the Higgs sector is typically very heavy, and only h{sup 0} that becomes SM-like could be accessible to the LHC. In contrast, in the second regime, somewhat overlooked in the literature, most of the Higgs sector is light. In particular, the heaviest state H{sup 0} becomes SM-like, the lighter states being the CP{sub odd} Higgs, the (doubly) charged Higgses, and a decoupled h{sup 0}, possibly

  8. Higgs potential in the type II seesaw model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arhrib, A.; Benbrik, R.; Chabab, M.; Moultaka, G.; Peyranère, M. C.; Rahili, L.; Ramadan, J.

    2011-11-01

    The standard model Higgs sector, extended by one weak gauge triplet of scalar fields with a very small vacuum expectation value, is a very promising setting to account for neutrino masses through the so-called type II seesaw mechanism. In this paper we consider the general renormalizable doublet/triplet Higgs potential of this model. We perform a detailed study of its main dynamical features that depend on five dimensionless couplings and two mass parameters after spontaneous symmetry breaking, and highlight the implications for the Higgs phenomenology. In particular, we determine (i) the complete set of tree-level unitarity constraints on the couplings of the potential and (ii) the exact tree-level boundedness from below constraints on these couplings, valid for all directions. When combined, these constraints delineate precisely the theoretically allowed parameter space domain within our perturbative approximation. Among the seven physical Higgs states of this model, the mass of the lighter (heavier) CPeven state h0 (H0) will always satisfy a theoretical upper (lower) bound that is reached for a critical value μc of μ (the mass parameter controlling triple couplings among the doublet/triplet Higgses). Saturating the unitarity bounds, we find an upper bound mh0

  9. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antibodies in childhood kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bjerre, Anna; Tangeraas, Trine; Heidecke, Harald; Dragun, Duska; Dechend, Ralf; Staff, Anne Cathrine

    2016-08-01

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antibodies (AT1 RAb) have emerged as non-HLA Ab present in patients with acute AMR and risk of graft loss. Furthermore, AT1 RAb have been shown to increase angiotensin II sensitivity which may play a role in the development of CVD and hypertension. Data on AT1 RAb in stable transplant recipients are lacking. The aim of this study was to analyze the levels of AT1 RAb in a cohort of stable patients after kidney transplantation (tx) in childhood. A cross-sectional study of 30 children (median age 14, range 3-19 yr, median time since tx five yr) and 28 adults who were transplanted in childhood (median age 26, range 20-40 yr, median time since tx 18 yr) transplanted between 1993-2006 and 1983-2002, respectively, was performed. Healthy controls were 51 healthy children (5-8 yr) and 199 healthy donors (median age 56.5 yr, range 42-83 yr). Plasma AT1 RAb were analyzed by immunoassay. Median total AT1 RAb IgG concentration was significantly higher in the pediatric-tx group as compared to the adult-tx group (40.0 and 10.95 U/mL, p < 0.0001). For both groups, the tx group showed higher levels: the pediatric-tx group vs. control group (40.0 vs. 13.3 U/mL, p = 0.0006) and the adult-tx group vs. adult control group (10.95 vs. 6.5 U/mL, p < 0.0001). Age was the strongest indicator of high levels of AT1 RAb IgG (p = 0.0003). AT1 RAb total IgG levels are significantly higher in a stable pediatric-tx cohort as compared to adult-tx patients and healthy controls of comparable age groups. The relevance of our findings in relation to age, time since tx, previous or future rejection, and CVD risk merits future studies. PMID:27251358

  10. Theoretical basal Ca II and Mg II fluxes for late-type stars: results from acoustic wave spectra with time-dependent ionization and multilevel radiation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawzy, Diaa E.

    2015-08-01

    Computations of chromospheric models and the resulting spectral line emission fluxes are presented for late-type stars exhibiting very low level of chromospheric activity, referred to as a basal flux stars or low activity stars. The computations are self-consistent, and consider the entire acoustic wave energy spectra generated in the stellar convection zones. We consider multilevel atomic models, take into account departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium and also consider the time-dependent ionization processes of hydrogen. We employ the new finding of the mixing-length parameter α = 1.8. The Ca II H+K and Mg II h+k line fluxes are computed assuming pseudo-partial redistribution. The results show the importance of time-dependent ionization in modelling the middle and high chromospheres. Models without considering time-dependent ionization overestimate the emitted Ca II fluxes by factors between 1.1 and 5.6 for F8V and M0V stars, respectively, while factors between 1.8 for G0V and 17.4 for M0V stars have been obtained for the Mg II fluxes. The theoretically computed basal fluxes in Ca II and Mg II, respectively, follow simple linear formulae depending on the effective temperature log Teff. The obtained results for Ca II fluxes show reasonable agreement with observations.

  11. Molecular phylogeny of type II methane-oxidizing bacteria isolated from various environments.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Jürgen; Galchenko, Valery F; Dunfield, Peter F

    2002-09-01

    Type II methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) were isolated from diverse environments, including rice paddies, pristine and polluted freshwaters and sediments, mangrove roots, upland soils, brackish water ecosystems, moors, oil wells, water purification systems and livestock manure. Isolates were identified based on morphological traits as either Methylocystis spp., Methylosinus sporium or Methylosinus trichosporium. Molecular phylogenies were constructed based on nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences, and on partial sequences of genes encoding PmoA (a subunit of particulate methane monooxygenase), MxaF (a subunit of methanol dehydrogenase) and MmoX (a subunit of soluble methane monooxygenase). The maximum pairwise 16S rDNA difference between isolates was 4.2%, and considerable variability was evident within the Methylocystis (maximum difference 3.6%). Due to this variability, some of the published 'specific' oligonucleotide primers for type II MOB exhibit multiple mismatches with gene sequences from some isolates. The phylogenetic tree constructed from pmoA gene sequences closely mirrored that constructed from 16S rDNA sequences, and both supported the presently accepted taxonomy of type II MOB. Contrary to previously published phylogenetic trees, morphologically distinguishable species were generally monophyletic based on pmoA or 16S rRNA gene sequences. This was not true for phylogenies constructed from mmoX and mxaF gene sequences. The phylogeny of mxaF gene sequences suggested that horizontal transfer of this gene may have occurred across type II MOB species. Soluble methane monooxygenase could not be detected in many Methylocystis strains either by an enzyme activity test (oxidation of naphthalene) or by PCR-based amplification of an mmoX gene. PMID:12213929

  12. Prevalence and temporal pattern of hospital readmissions for patients with type I and type II diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqian; Liu, Yuanyuan; Lv, Yuanjun; Li, Changping; Cui, Zhuang; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Repeated hospitalisation for patients is common and costly, yet partly preventable. However, we know little about readmissions for patients with diabetes in China. The current study aims to assess the frequency and temporal pattern of and risk factors for all-cause readmission among hospitalised patients with diabetes in Tianjin, China. Method This retrospective, cohort analysis used the Tianjin Basic Medical Insurance Register System data of 2011. The patterns of and the reasons for all-cause readmissions for patients with diabetes were described. The differences of readmission-free survival (RFS) between newly and previously diagnosed patients were compared. Time-dependent Cox models were established to identify the risk factors for readmission at different time intervals after discharge. Results Readmission rates were approximately 30%, with the most common diagnoses of cerebral infarction (for type I) or diabetes (for type II) for patients with diabetes. The majority of patients were readmitted to the hospital after more than 90 days, followed by 8–30 days (all p=0.002). Approximately 37.2% and 42.8% of readmitted patients with type I and type II diabetes were diagnosed previously, and the RFS rates for previously diagnosed patients were significantly lower than for newly diagnosed patients at any time interval after discharge. Prior history of diabetes (all p<0.05), length of stay (all p<0.01) and reimbursement ratio (90% vs >92%, all p<0.0002) were consistently associated with the RFS for patients readmitted to the hospital at <7, 8–30, 31–60 and 61–90 days. Conclusions Hospital readmissions among patients with diabetes were affected by the diagnosis status. Patient characteristics and the quality of healthcare might regulate short-interval and long-interval hospital readmission, respectively, after discharge. PMID:26525716

  13. Complementation studies of isovaleric acidemia and glutaric aciduria type II using cultured skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Dubiel, B; Dabrowski, C; Wetts, R; Tanaka, K

    1983-01-01

    Using cultured skin fibroblasts, we studied the heterogeneity of inborn errors of leucine metabolism such as isovaleric acidemia (IVA), glutaric aciduria type II (GA II), and multiple carboxylase deficiency (MC). We first developed a simple macromolecular-labeling test to measure the ability of cells to oxidize [1-14C]isovaleric acid in situ in culture. Cells from two different lines were fused using polyethylene glycol, and the ability of the heterokaryons to oxidize [1-14C]isovaleric acid was tested by the macromolecular-labeling test. The MC line complemented with all 10 IVA lines tested; heterokaryons showed 99 +/- 68% more activity than the unfused mixture of component cells. GA II/IVA heterokaryons exhibited poor growth, but when the culture remained confluent, the GA II cells complemented with all six IVA lines tested, showing a 71 +/- 41% increase in activity. The relatively large standard deviations are due to a few experiments in which significant enhancement of macromolecular-labeling test activity was not observed upon fusion, but significant complementation was clearly observed in repeats of the same combinations. These results are consistent with our previous findings, which indicated that the decreased ability of GA II cells to oxidize isovaleryl-CoA involves a defective electron-transporting system rather than a defective isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase. IVA/IVA heterokaryons showed no complementation in any combination tested, indicating no detectable heterogeneity in isovaleric acidemia. This finding indicates that the same gene is mutated in all IVA lines. Previous results indicated that this gene codes for isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase. PMID:6630517

  14. Over-expression and characterization of active recombinant rat liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase II using baculovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, T M; Mann, W R; Dragland, C J; Anderson, R C; Nemecek, G M; Bell, P A

    1995-01-01

    The cDNA encoding rat liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II) was heterologously expressed using a recombinant baculovirus/insect cell system. Unlike Escherichia coli, the baculovirus-infected insect cells expressed mostly soluble active recombinant CPT-II (rCPT-II). CPT activity from crude lysates of recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells was maximal between 50 and 72 h post-infection, with a peak specific activity of 100-200 times that found in the mock- or wild-type-infected control lysates. Milligram quantities (up to 1.8 mg/l of culture) of active rCPT-II were chromatographically purified from large-scale cultures of insect cells infected with the recombinant baculovirus. The rCPT-II was found to be: (1) similar in size to the native rat liver enzyme (approximately 70 kDa) as judged by SDS/PAGE; (2) immunoreactive with a polyclonal serum raised against rat liver CPT-II; and (3) not glycosylated. Kinetic analysis of soluble rCPT-II revealed Km values for carnitine and palmitoyl-CoA of 950 +/- 27 microM and 34 +/- 5.6 microM respectively. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:7626037

  15. Matrix composition of cartilaginous anlagen in achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino).

    PubMed

    Dertinger, Susanne; Söeder, Stephan; Bösch, Hubert; Aigner, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias represent in vivo models of genetic defects. Achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino), caused by a genetic defect in the major cartilage matrix protein, collagen type II, is a rare and severe skeletal dysplasia. It comprises a severe derangement of the fetal growth plate cartilage with subsequent ossification defects. In this study, we analyzed the matrix composition and cell differentiation pattern in 3 relatives with achondrogenesis type II. Most strikingly we found a strongly reduced collagen type II and moderately reduced aggrecan proteoglycan content in the dysplastic cartilage matrix. Type II collagen is, at least to some extent, replaced by collagens type I III, and VI. Ultrastructural analysis of the dysplastic cartilage matrix demonstrated a distended rER (rough endoplasmic reticulum), which is typical for this condition and most likely related to improper processing and retention of genetically altered type II collagen. Immunostaining for type IIA and X collagens suggest a severe delay in chondrocyte maturation. Thus, the genetic defect in the present cases leads most likely to a severe retention of collagen type II in the rER and, therefore, a strongly reduced collagen deposition and replacement by other interstitial collagens. However, the latter are less efficient in binding aggrecan proteoglycans in the dysplastic cartilage matrix. Additionally, a delay in chondrocyte maturation appears to be important in achondrogenesis type II. PMID:15574381

  16. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro anticancer activity of 18-membered octaazamacrocyclic complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cd(II) and Sn(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kareem, Abdul; Zafar, Hina; Sherwani, Asif; Mohammad, Owais; Khan, Tahir Ali

    2014-10-01

    An effective series of 18 membered octaazamacrocyclic complexes of the type [MLX2], where X = Cl or NO3 have been synthesized by template condensation reaction of oxalyl dihydrazide with dibenzoylmethane and metal salt in 2:2:1 molar ratio. The formation of macrocyclic framework, stereochemistry and their overall geometry have been characterized by various physico-chemical studies viz., elemental analysis, electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), I.R, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and TGA/DTA studies. These studies suggest formation of octahedral macrocyclic complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cd(II) and Sn(II). The molar conductance values suggest nonelectrolytic nature for all the complexes. Thermogravimatric analysis shows that all the complexes are stable up to 600 °C. All these complexes have been tested against different human cancer cell lines i.e. human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep3B), human cervical carcinoma (HeLa), human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) and normal cells (PBMC). The newly synthesized 18-membered octaazamacrocyclic complexes during in vitro anticancer evaluation, displayed moderate to good cytotoxicity on liver (Hep3B), cervical (HeLa) and breast (MCF7) cancer cell lines, respectively. The most effective anticancer cadmium complex (C34H28N10CdO10) was found to be active with IC50 values, 2.44 ± 1.500, 3.55 ± 1.600 and 4.82 ± 1.400 in micro-molar on liver, cervical and breast cancer cell lines, respectively.

  17. Novel Type II Fatty Acid Biosynthesis (FAS II) Inhibitors as Multistage Antimalarial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Florian C.; Glinca, Serghei; Sattler, Julia M.; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Afanador, Gustavo A.; Prigge, Sean T.; Lanzer, Michael; Mueller, Ann-Kristin; Klebe, Gerhard; Schlitzer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is a potentially fatal disease caused by Plasmodium parasites and poses a major medical risk in large parts of the world. The development of new, affordable antimalarial drugs is of vital importance as there are increasing reports of resistance to the currently available therapeutics. In addition, most of the current drugs used for chemoprophylaxis merely act on parasites already replicating in the blood. At this point, a patient might already be suffering from the symptoms associated with the disease and could additionally be infectious to an Anopheles mosquito. These insects act as a vector, subsequently spreading the disease to other humans. In order to cure not only malaria but prevent transmission as well, a drug must target both the blood- and pre-erythrocytic liver stages of the parasite. P. falciparum (Pf) enoyl acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (ENR) is a key enzyme of plasmodial type II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS II). It has been shown to be essential for liver-stage development of Plasmodium berghei and is therefore qualified as a target for true causal chemoprophylaxis. Using virtual screening based on two crystal structures of PfENR, we identified a structurally novel class of FAS inhibitors. Subsequent chemical optimization yielded two compounds that are effective against multiple stages of the malaria parasite. These two most promising derivatives were found to inhibit blood-stage parasite growth with IC50 values of 1.7 and 3.0 µm and lead to a more prominent developmental attenuation of liver-stage parasites than the gold-standard drug, primaquine. PMID:23341167

  18. Ulex europaeus agglutinin II (UEA-II) is a novel, potent inhibitor of complement activation.

    PubMed

    Lekowski, R; Collard, C D; Reenstra, W R; Stahl, G L

    2001-02-01

    Complement is an important mediator of vascular injury following oxidative stress. We recently demonstrated that complement activation following endothelial oxidative stress is mediated by mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and activation of the lectin complement pathway. Here, we investigated whether nine plant lectins which have a binding profile similar to that of MBL competitively inhibit MBL deposition and subsequent complement activation following human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) oxidative stress. HUVEC oxidative stress (1% O(2), 24 hr) significantly increased Ulex europaeus agglutinin II (UEA-II) binding by 72 +/- 9% compared to normoxic cells. UEA-II inhibited MBL binding to HUVEC in a concentration-dependent manner following oxidative stress. Further, MBL inhibited UEA-II binding to HUVEC in a concentration-dependent manner following oxidative stress, suggesting a common ligand. UEA-II (< or = 100 micromol/L) did not attenuate the hemolytic activity, nor did it inhibit C3a des Arg formation from alternative or classical complement pathway-specific hemolytic assays. C3 deposition (measured by ELISA) following HUVEC oxidative stress was inhibited by UEA-II in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50) = 10 pmol/L). UEA-II inhibited C3 and MBL co-localization (confocal microscopy) in a concentration-dependent manner on HUVEC following oxidative stress (IC(50) approximately 1 pmol/L). Finally, UEA-II significantly inhibited complement-dependent neutrophil chemotaxis, but failed to inhibit fMLP-mediated chemotaxis, following endothelial oxidative stress. These data demonstrate that UEA-II is a novel, potent inhibitor of human MBL deposition and complement activation following human endothelial oxidative stress. PMID:11266613

  19. Investigation of resistive losses in type II superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benapfl, Brendan W.

    For low-TC materials, the superconducting transition temperature (TC) is depressed by the application of a magnetic field. In contrast, one of the remarkable features of cuprate high-TC materials is that the superconducting transition is broadened by the application of a magnetic field. Tinkham presented a model for the field-dependent resistive transition of high-T C materials, arising from "phase slippage at a complicated network of channels." Coffey & Clem did not include this field-broadening effect in their sophisticated model for the field and temperature dependence of the surface resistance in type-II superconductors. From the model by Lee & Stroud, treating Josephson Junction-coupled superconducting segments, it is concluded that doped, layered superconductors are certain to have a field-broadened superconducting transition. This effect can be identified by measurements of the resistivity as a function of temperature, magnetic field strength, angle of field with respect to the crystal axis as well as with respect to an induced current density. The iron pnictide materials such as Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 (BaK122) have chemical layers with different compositions, differentiating them from elemental type-II superconductors such as niobium, and also from cuprates, by the absence of copper. Experimental data on BaK122 indicate a field-broadened transition in conjunction with a field-depressed superconducting transition temperature. In this work, techniques associated with Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy were used to measure the temperature and field-induced changes in the surface resistance of single-crystal BaK122 samples. In addition, polycrystalline foils of niobium and a NbTi (70/30) alloy were measured using the same techniques to provide comparison. Measurements were taken as a function of applied magnetic field, temperature, rf field intensity, and angle of the applied field with respect to the rf-induced current. BaK122 sample field-dependent surface

  20. Biophysical Insights into How Spike Threshold Depends on the Rate of Membrane Potential Depolarization in Type I and Type II Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Tsang, Kai-Ming; Wei, Xi-Le; Deng, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic spike threshold plays a critical role in neuronal input-output relations. In many neurons, the threshold potential depends on the rate of membrane potential depolarization (dV/dt) preceding a spike. There are two basic classes of neural excitability, i.e., Type I and Type II, according to input-output properties. Although the dynamical and biophysical basis of their spike initiation has been established, the spike threshold dynamic for each cell type has not been well described. Here, we use a biophysical model to investigate how spike threshold depends on dV/dt in two types of neuron. It is observed that Type II spike threshold is more depolarized and more sensitive to dV/dt than Type I. With phase plane analysis, we show that each threshold dynamic arises from the different separatrix and K+ current kinetics. By analyzing subthreshold properties of membrane currents, we find the activation of hyperpolarizing current prior to spike initiation is a major factor that regulates the threshold dynamics. The outward K+ current in Type I neuron does not activate at the perithresholds, which makes its spike threshold insensitive to dV/dt. The Type II K+ current activates prior to spike initiation and there is a large net hyperpolarizing current at the perithresholds, which results in a depolarized threshold as well as a pronounced threshold dynamic. These predictions are further attested in several other functionally equivalent cases of neural excitability. Our study provides a fundamental description about how intrinsic biophysical properties contribute to the threshold dynamics in Type I and Type II neurons, which could decipher their significant functions in neural coding. PMID:26083350

  1. Isolation and characterization of simian T-cell leukemia virus type II from New World monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y M; Jang, Y J; Kanki, P J; Yu, Q C; Wang, J J; Montali, R J; Samuel, K P; Papas, T S

    1994-01-01

    Since the description of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) and its simian counterpart, simian T-cell leukemia virus type I (STLV-I), the possible existence of other related simian retroviruses has been raised. Here, we report a new retrovirus, STLV-II, which we have identified in spider monkeys (Ateles fusciceps), a New World primate species. Initially, a recombinant HTLV-II envelope protein (RP-IIB) was used to identify anti-STLV-II antibodies in New World monkeys by Western blot (immunoblot) assays. Subsequently, the virus was characterized by Southern blot hybridization, which showed that STLV-II and HTLV-II have a high degree of nucleotide sequence homology but have different restriction enzyme patterns. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the pX-II region of STLV-II provirus revealed 3% variation with the corresponding region of HTLV-II. Electron micrographic studies revealed HTLV-like, type C retrovirus particles outside the cell membranes of STLV-II-infected cells. This study describes the first link between HTLV-II and a simian reservoir in the New World. Further molecular studies of STLV-II infection in different species of New World monkeys, especially from the wild, may provide valuable information about the origin and intragroup relationships of South American monkeys. Spider monkeys infected with STLV-II may serve as an important animal model for HTLV-II infection in humans. Images PMID:7507178

  2. ANALYTIC APPROXIMATION OF CARBON CONDENSATION ISSUES IN TYPE II SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Donald D.

    2013-01-01

    I present analytic approximations for some issues related to condensation of graphite, TiC, and silicon carbide in oxygen-rich cores of supernovae of Type II. Increased understanding, which mathematical analysis can support, renders researchers more receptive to condensation in O-rich supernova gases. Taking SN 1987A as typical, my first analysis shows why the abundance of CO molecules reaches an early maximum in which free carbon remains more abundant than CO. This analysis clarifies why O-rich gas cannot oxidize C if {sup 56}Co radioactivity is as strong as in SN 1987A. My next analysis shows that the CO abundance could be regarded as being in chemical equilibrium if the CO molecule is given an effective binding energy rather than its laboratory dissociation energy. The effective binding energy makes the thermal dissociation rate of CO equal to its radioactive dissociation rate. This preserves possible relevance for the concept of chemical equilibrium. My next analysis shows that the observed abundances of CO and SiO molecules in SN 1987A rule out frequent suggestions that equilibrium condensation of SUNOCONs has occurred following atomic mixing of the He-burning shell with more central zones in such a way as to reproduce roughly the observed spectrum of isotopes in SUNOCONs while preserving C/O > 1. He atoms admixed along with the excess carbon would destroy CO and SiO molecules, leaving their observed abundances unexplained. The final analysis argues that a chemical quasiequilibrium among grains (but not gas) may exist approximately during condensation, so that its computational use is partially justified as a guide to which mineral phases would be stable against reactions with gas. I illustrate this point with quasiequilibrium calculations by Ebel and Grossman that have shown that graphite is stable even when O/C >1 if prominent molecules are justifiably excluded from the calculation of chemical equilibrium.

  3. Screening of three Usher syndrome type II candidate genes

    SciTech Connect

    Bloemker, B.K.; Swaroop, A.; Kimberling, W.J.

    1994-09-01

    Usher syndrome type II (US2) is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in blindness due to retinitis pigmentosa and congenital hearing loss. The disease affects approximately 1 in 20,000 individuals in the general population and is responsible for over 50% of all cases of deafness with blindness. The underlying US2 defect is unknown. The US2 gene has been localized to the 1q41 region of chromosome 1 by linkage studies. Three genes previously localized to 1q were analyzed to assess their candidacy as the US2 gene. These were evaluated by PCR assays using DNA from a YAC contig spanning the US2 region on chromosome 1. The first gene evaluated was the human choroideremia-like gene (hCHML), which had been mapped to chromosome 1q. The sequence on 1q is a homologue of the human choroideremia gene on chromosome X. Choroideremia is a degenerative disorder causing ocular pathology similar to that observed in US2 patients. Therefore, hCHML is a candidate for the US2 gene. Two cDNAs (A and B) from an enriched human retinal pigment epithelium library have been mapped to 1q41 by in situ hybridization. Both cDNAs are considered good candidates. The hCHML and cDNA A were ruled out as candidates for the US2 gene based on negative results from PCR assays performed on YACs spanning the US2 region. cDNA B could not be ruled out as a candidate for the US2 gene by these assays. Answers to many clinical questions regarding US2 will only be resolved after the gene is identified and characterized. Eventually, understanding the function and expression of the US2 gene will provide a basis for the development of therapy.

  4. OPTICAL AND INFRARED ANALYSIS OF TYPE II SN 2006bc

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Joseph S.; Sugerman, B. E. K.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Andrews, J. E.; Clem, J. E-mail: ben.sugerman@goucher.edu E-mail: jandrews@phys.lsu.edu; and others

    2012-07-10

    We present nebular phase optical imaging and spectroscopy and near/mid-IR imaging of the Type II SN 2006bc. Observations reveal the central wavelength of the symmetric H{alpha} line profile to be redshifted with respect to the host galaxy H{alpha} emission by day 325. Such a phenomenon has been argued to result from an asymmetric explosion in the iron-peak elements resulting in a larger mass of {sup 56}Ni and higher excitation of hydrogen on the far side of the supernova (SN) explosion. We also observe a gradual blueshifting of this H{alpha} peak which is indicative of dust formation in the ejecta. Although showing a normal peak brightness, V {approx} -17.2, for a core-collapse SN, 2006bc fades by {approx}6 mag during the first 400 days suggesting either a relatively low {sup 56}Ni yield, an increase in extinction due to new dust, or both. A short-duration flattening of the light curve is observed from day 416 to day 541 suggesting an optical light echo. Based on the narrow time window of this echo, we discuss implications on the location and geometry of the reflecting interstellar medium. With our radiative transfer models, we find an upper limit of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} of dust around SN 2006bc. In the event that all of this dust were formed during the SN explosion, this quantity of dust is still several orders of magnitude lower than that needed to explain the large quantities of dust observed in the early universe.

  5. Establishment of immortalized alveolar type II epithelial cell lines from adult rats.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, K E; Carter, J M; Iype, P T; Kumari, H L; Crosby, L L; Aardema, M J; Isfort, R J; Cody, D; Chestnut, M H; Burns, J L

    1995-01-01

    We developed methodology to isolate and culture rat alveolar Type II cells under conditions that preserved their proliferative capacity, and applied lipofection to introduce an immortalizing gene into the cells. Briefly, the alveolar Type II cells were isolated from male F344 rats using airway perfusion with a pronase solution followed by incubation for 30 min at 37 degrees C. Cells obtained by pronase digestion were predominantly epithelial in morphology and were positive for Papanicolaou and alkaline phosphatase staining. These cells could be maintained on an extracellular matrix of fibronectin and Type IV collagen in a low serum, insulin-supplemented Ham's F12 growth medium for four to five passages. Rat alveolar epithelial cells obtained by this method were transformed with the SV40-T antigen gene and two immortalized cell lines (RLE-6T and RLE-6TN) were obtained. The RLE-6T line exhibits positive nuclear immunostaining for the SV40-T antigen and the RLE-6TN line does not. PCR analysis of genomic DNA from the RLE-6T and RLE-6TN cells demonstrated the T-antigen gene was present only in the RLE-6T line indicating the RLE-6TN line is likely derived from a spontaneous transformant. After more than 50 population doublings, the RLE-6T cells stained positive for cytokeratin, possessed alkaline phosphatase activity, and contained lipid-containing inclusion bodies (phosphine 3R staining); all characteristics of alveolar Type II cells. The RLE-6TN cells exhibited similar characteristics except they did not express alkaline phosphatase activity. Early passage RLE-6T and 6TN cells showed a near diploid chromosome number.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8528500

  6. Inhibition of dihydroceramide desaturase activity by the sphingosine kinase inhibitor SKI II[S

    PubMed Central

    Cingolani, Francesca; Casasampere, Mireia; Sanllehí, Pol; Casas, Josefina; Bujons, Jordi; Fabrias, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine kinase inhibitor (SKI) II has been reported as a dual inhibitor of sphingosine kinases (SKs) 1 and 2 and has been extensively used to prove the involvement of SKs and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in cellular processes. Dihydroceramide desaturase (Des1), the last enzyme in the de novo synthesis of ceramide (Cer), regulates the balance between dihydroceramides (dhCers) and Cers. Both SKs and Des1 have interest as therapeutic targets. Here we show that SKI II is a noncompetitive inhibitor (Ki = 0.3 μM) of Des1 activity with effect also in intact cells without modifying Des1 protein levels. Molecular modeling studies support that the SKI II-induced decrease in Des1 activity could result from inhibition of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase. SKI II, but not the SK1-specific inhibitor PF-543, provoked a remarkable accumulation of dhCers and their metabolites, while both SKI II and PF-543 reduced S1P to almost undetectable levels. SKI II, but not PF543, reduced cell proliferation with accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase. SKI II, but not PF543, induced autophagy. These overall findings should be taken into account when using SKI II as a pharmacological tool, as some of the effects attributed to decreased S1P may actually be caused by augmented dhCers and/or their metabolites. PMID:24875537

  7. Temperature factor for magnetic instability conditions of type - II superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovskii, V.

    2014-10-01

    The macroscopic development of interrelated electrodynamics and thermal states taking place both before and after instability onset in type-II superconductors are studied using the critical state and the flux creep concepts. The physical mechanisms of the non-isothermal formation of the critical state are discussed solving the set of unsteady thermo-electrodynamics equations taking into consideration the unknown moving penetration boundary of the magnetic flux. To make it, the numerical method, which allows to study diffusion phenomena with unknown moving phase-two boundary, is developed. The corresponding non-isothermal flux jump criteria are written. It is proved for the first time that, first, the diffusion phenomena in superconductors have the fission-chain-reaction nature, second, the stability conditions, losses in superconductor and its stable overheating before instability onset are mutually dependent. The results are compared with those following from the existing magnetic instability theory, which does not take into consideration the stable temperature increase of superconductor before the instability onset. It is shown that errors of isothermal approximation are significant for modes closed to adiabatic ones. Therefore, the well-known adiabatic flux jump criterion limits the range of possible stable superconducting states since a correct determination of their stability states must take into account the thermal prehistory of the stable magnetic flux penetration. As a result, the calculation errors in the isothermal approximation will rise when the sweep rate of an external magnetic field or the size of the superconductor’s cross-sectional area increase. The basic conclusions formulated in the framework of the critical state model are verified comparing the experimental results and the numerical analysis of the stability conditions and the temperature dynamics of the helicoid-type superconducting current-carrying element having real voltage

  8. Introductory Industrial Technology II. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towler, Alan L.

    This guide contains 29 learning modules intended for use by technology teachers and students in grade 8. Each module includes a student laboratory activity and instructor's resource sheet. Each student activity includes the following: activity topic and overview, challenge statement, objectives, vocabulary/concepts reinforced, equipment/supplies,…

  9. Expression of the MHC Class II Transactivator (CIITA) type IV promoter in B lymphocytes and regulation by IFN-γ

    PubMed Central

    Piskurich, Janet F.; Gilbert, Carolyn A.; Ashley, Brittany D.; Zhao, Mojun; Chen, Han; Wu, Jian; Wright, Kenneth L.

    2006-01-01

    The MHC class II transactivator (CIITA), the master regulator of MHC class II (MHC II) expression, is a co-activator that controls MHC II transcription. Human B lymphocytes express MHC II constitutively due to persistent activity of CIITA promoter III (pIII), one of the four potential promoters (pI-pIV) of this gene. Although increases in MHC II expression in B cells in response to cytokines have been observed and induction of MHC II and CIITA by IFN-γ has been studied in a number of different cell types, the specific effects of IFN-γ on CIITA expression in B cells have not been studied. To investigate the regulation of CIITA expression by IFN-γ in B cells, RT-PCR, in vivo and in vitro protein/DNA binding studies, and functional promoter analyses were performed. Both MHC II and CIITA type IV-specific RNAs increased in human B lymphocytes in response to IFN-γ treatment. CIITA promoter analysis confirmed that pIV is IFN-γ inducible in B cells and that the GAS and IRF-E sites are necessary for full induction. DNA binding of IRF-1 and IRF-2, members of the IFN regulatory factor family, was up-regulated in B cells in response to IFN-γ and increased the activity of CIITA pIV. In vivo genomic footprint analysis demonstrated proteins binding at the GAS, IRF-E and E box sites of CIITA pIV. Although CIITA pIII is considered to be the hematopoietic-specific promoter of CIITA, these findings demonstrate that pIV is active in B lymphocytes and potentially contributes to the expression of CIITA and MHC II in these cells. PMID:15950283

  10. Functional characterization and inhibition of the type II DNA topoisomerase coded by African swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Coelho, João; Ferreira, Fernando; Martins, Carlos; Leitão, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    DNA topoisomerases are essential for DNA metabolism and while their role is well studied in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, it is less known for virally-encoded topoisomerases. African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus that infects Ornithodoros ticks and all members of the family Suidae, representing a global threat for pig husbandry with no effective vaccine nor treatment. It was recently demonstrated that ASFV codes for a type II topoisomerase, highlighting a possible target for control of the virus. In this work, the ASFV DNA topoisomerase II was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and found to efficiently decatenate kDNA and to processively relax supercoiled DNA. Optimal conditions for its activity were determined and its sensitivity to a panel of topoisomerase poisons and inhibitors was evaluated. Overall, our results provide new knowledge on viral topoisomerases and on ASFV, as well as a possible target for the control of this virus. PMID:27060564

  11. TYPE II-P SUPERNOVAE FROM THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY AND THE STANDARDIZED CANDLE METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, Chris B.; Sako, Masao; Dilday, Benjamin; Jha, Saurabh; Frieman, Joshua A.; Kessler, Richard; Holtzman, Jon; Konishi, Kohki; Yasuda, Naoki; Schneider, D. P.; Sollerman, Jesper; Wheeler, J. Craig; Cinabro, David; Nichol, Robert C.; Lampeitl, Hubert; Smith, Mathew; Atlee, David W.; Bassett, Bruce; Castander, Francisco J.; Goobar, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    We apply the Standardized Candle Method (SCM) for Type II Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P), which relates the velocity of the ejecta of a SN to its luminosity during the plateau, to 15 SNe II-P discovered over the three season run of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey. The redshifts of these SNe-0.027 < z < 0.144-cover a range hitherto sparsely sampled in the literature; in particular, our SNe II-P sample contains nearly as many SNe in the Hubble flow (z > 0.01) as all of the current literature on the SCM combined. We find that the SDSS SNe have a very small intrinsic I-band dispersion (0.22 mag), which can be attributed to selection effects. When the SCM is applied to the combined SDSS-plus-literature set of SNe II-P, the dispersion increases to 0.29 mag, larger than the scatter for either set of SNe separately. We show that the standardization cannot be further improved by eliminating SNe with positive plateau decline rates, as proposed in Poznanski et al. We thoroughly examine all potential systematic effects and conclude that for the SCM to be useful for cosmology, the methods currently used to determine the Fe II velocity at day 50 must be improved, and spectral templates able to encompass the intrinsic variations of Type II-P SNe will be needed.

  12. Estimation of Failure Frequency for Type I and II High Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K.H.

    2001-05-15

    The failure frequency of Type I and Type II High Level Waste tanks was calculated. The degradation mechanism that could lead to large break failure and the credits taken for steps taken to prevent large break failure were considered.

  13. Dissection of the interferon gamma-MHC class II signal transduction pathway reveals that type I and type II interferon systems share common signalling component(s).

    PubMed Central

    Loh, J E; Chang, C H; Fodor, W L; Flavell, R A

    1992-01-01

    We have used a herpes virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) based metabolic selection system to isolate mutants defective in the interferon gamma mediated induction of the MHC class II promoter. All the mutations act in trans and result in no detectable induction of MHC and invariant chain (Ii) gene expression. Scatchard analysis indicates that the mutants have a normal number of surface IFN gamma receptors with the same affinity constant. The mutants fall into two broad categories. One class of mutants is still able to induce MHC class I, IRF-1, 9-27, 1-8 and GBP genes by IFN gamma. A second class of mutants is defective for the IFN gamma induction of all the genes tested; surprisingly, the IFN alpha/beta induction of MHC class I, 9-27, ISG54 and ISG15 genes is also defective in these mutants, although different members of this class can be discriminated by the response of the GBP and IRF-1 genes to type I interferons. These data demonstrate that the signalling pathways of both type I and type II interferon systems share common signal transduction component(s). These mutants will be useful for the study of IFN gamma regulation of class II genes and Ii chain, and to elucidate molecular components of type I and type II interferon signal transduction. Images PMID:1314162

  14. Vacuolar ATPase regulates surfactant secretion in rat alveolar type II cells by modulating lamellar body calcium.

    PubMed

    Chintagari, Narendranath Reddy; Mishra, Amarjit; Su, Lijing; Wang, Yang; Ayalew, Sahlu; Hartson, Steven D; Liu, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Lung surfactant reduces surface tension and maintains the stability of alveoli. How surfactant is released from alveolar epithelial type II cells is not fully understood. Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is the enzyme responsible for pumping H(+) into lamellar bodies and is required for the processing of surfactant proteins and the packaging of surfactant lipids. However, its role in lung surfactant secretion is unknown. Proteomic analysis revealed that vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) dominated the alveolar type II cell lipid raft proteome. Western blotting confirmed the association of V-ATPase a1 and B1/2 subunits with lipid rafts and their enrichment in lamellar bodies. The dissipation of lamellar body pH gradient by Bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1), an inhibitor of V-ATPase, increased surfactant secretion. Baf A1-stimulated secretion was blocked by the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, BAPTA-AM, the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, staurosporine, and the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), KN-62. Baf A1 induced Ca(2+) release from isolated lamellar bodies. Thapsigargin reduced the Baf A1-induced secretion, indicating cross-talk between lamellar body and endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pools. Stimulation of type II cells with surfactant secretagogues dissipated the pH gradient across lamellar bodies and disassembled the V-ATPase complex, indicating the physiological relevance of the V-ATPase-mediated surfactant secretion. Finally, silencing of V-ATPase a1 and B2 subunits decreased stimulated surfactant secretion, indicating that these subunits were crucial for surfactant secretion. We conclude that V-ATPase regulates surfactant secretion via an increased Ca(2+) mobilization from lamellar bodies and endoplasmic reticulum, and the activation of PKC and CaMKII. Our finding revealed a previously unrealized role of V-ATPase in surfactant secretion. PMID:20169059

  15. Non-redox metal ions can promote Wacker-type oxidations even better than copper(II): a new opportunity in catalyst design.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shuhao; Dong, Lei; Chen, Zhuqi; Zhang, Sicheng; Yin, Guochuan

    2015-10-28

    In Wacker oxidation and inspired Pd(ii)/Cu(ii)-catalyzed C-H activations, copper(ii) is believed to serve in re-oxidizing of Pd(0) in the catalytic cycle. Herein we report that non-redox metal ions like Sc(iii) can promote Wacker-type oxidations even better than Cu(ii); both Sc(iii) and Cu(ii) can greatly promote Pd(ii)-catalyzed olefin isomerization in which the redox properties of Cu(ii) are not essential, indicating that the Lewis acid properties of Cu(ii) can play a significant role in Pd(ii)-catalyzed C-H activations in addition to its redox properties. Characterization of catalysts using UV-Vis and NMR indicated that adding Sc(OTf)3 to the acetonitrile solution of Pd(OAc)2 generates a new Pd(ii)/Sc(iii) bimetallic complex having a diacetate bridge which serves as the key active species for Wacker-type oxidation and olefin isomerization. Linkage of trivalent Sc(iii) to the Pd(ii) species makes it more electron-deficient, thus facilitating the coordination of olefin to the Pd(ii) cation. Due to the improved electron transfer from olefin to the Pd(ii) cation, it benefits the nucleophilic attack of water on the olefinic double bond, leading to efficient olefin oxidation. The presence of excess Sc(iii) prevents the palladium(0) black formation, which has been rationalized by the formation of the Sc(iii)H-Pd(ii) intermediate. This intermediate inhibits the reductive elimination of the H-Pd(ii) bond, and facilitates the oxygen insertion to form the HOO-Pd(ii) intermediate, and thus avoids the formation of the inactive palladium(0) black. The Lewis acid promoted Wacker-type oxidation and olefin isomerization demonstrated here may open up a new opportunity in catalyst design for versatile C-H activations. PMID:26390300

  16. Structure and inhibition studies of a type II beta-carbonic anhydrase psCA3 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Pinard, Melissa A; Lotlikar, Shalaka R; Boone, Christopher D; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Patrauchan, Marianna A; McKenna, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are metallo-enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide into bicarbonate and a proton. The β-class CAs (β-CAs) are expressed in prokaryotes, fungi, plants, and more recently have been isolated in some animals. The β-CA class is divided into two subclasses, termed type I and II, defined by pH catalytic activity profile and active site structural configuration. Type I β-CAs display catalytic activity over a broad pH range (6.5-9.0) with the active site zinc tetrahedrally coordinated by three amino acids and a hydroxide/water. In contrast, type II β-CAs are catalytically active only at a pH 8 and higher where they adopt a functional active site configuration like that of type I. However, below pH 8 they are conformationally self-inactivated by the addition of a fourth amino acid coordinating the zinc and thereby displacing the zinc bound solvent. We have determined the structure of psCA3, a type II β-CA, isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) PAO1 at pH 8.3, in its open active state to a resolution of 1.9 Å. The active site zinc is coordinated by Cys42, His98, Cys101 and a water/hydroxide molecule. P. aeruginosa is a multi-drug resistant bacterium and displays intrinsic resistance to most of the currently used antibiotics; therefore, there is a need for new antibacterial targets. Kinetic data confirm that psCA3 belongs to the type II subclass and that sulfamide, sulfamic acid, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid are micromolar inhibitors. In vivo studies identified that among six tested inhibitors representing sulfonamides, inorganic anions, and small molecules, acetazolamide has the most significant dose-dependent inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa growth. PMID:26068018

  17. A fluorescence-based assay for human type II phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, S G; Harris, C O; Parks, D J

    1994-11-01

    A fluorescence assay for quantitation of human Type II Phospholipase A2 activity is described. Hydrolysis of 1-Acyl-2-(N-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxo-1,3-diazole)aminododecanoyl Phosphatidylethanolamine is accompanied by an increase in fluorescence intensity that is linearly proportional to enzyme activity. Substrate is prepared in the absence of detergents as a sonicated dispersion in aqueous buffer. Hydrolysis of the corresponding phosphatidylcholine derivative is more than an order of magnitude slower under identical assay conditions. A plot of initial rate versus substrate concentration could be fit to a simple Michaelis-Menten relationship with Km = 13 microM. In contrast to commonly used radiochemical assays for this enzyme, the method described here is continuous and allows estimation of enzyme activity without separation of substrate from product. Thus, the method is suitable for both kinetic analysis and large-scale screening using automated readers for 96-well tissue culture plates. The fluorescence-based assay displays advantages over other continuous assays for human Type II Phospholipase A2 based on (a) high sensitivity and (b) the use of a commercially available substrate. PMID:7864369

  18. The Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor in Brain Functions: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Guimond, Marie-Odile; Gallo-Payet, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the main active product of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), mediating its action via two major receptors, namely, the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor and the type 2 (AT2) receptor. Recent results also implicate several other members of the renin-angiotensin system in various aspects of brain functions. The first aim of this paper is to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the properties and signaling of the AT2 receptor, its expression in the brain, and its well-established effects. Secondly, we will highlight the potential role of the AT2 receptor in cognitive function, neurological disorders and in the regulation of appetite and the possible link with development of metabolic disorders. The potential utility of novel nonpeptide selective AT2 receptor ligands in clarifying potential roles of this receptor in physiology will also be discussed. If confirmed, these new pharmacological tools should help to improve impaired cognitive performance, not only through its action on brain microcirculation and inflammation, but also through more specific effects on neurons. However, the overall physiological relevance of the AT2 receptor in the brain must also consider the Ang IV/AT4 receptor. PMID:23320146

  19. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 14 activities related to solar energy for secondary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question such as: (1) how much solar heat comes from the sun? or (2) how many times do you have to run water through a flat-plate collector to get a 10 degree rise in…

  20. Cervical cancer: is herpes simplex virus type II a cofactor?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C

    1995-01-01

    In many ways, cervical cancer behaves as a sexually transmitted disease. The major risk factors are multiple sexual partners and early onset of sexual activity. Although high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) play an important role in the development of nearly all cases of cervical cancer, other sexually transmitted infectious agents may be cofactors. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is transmitted primarily by sexual contact and therefore has been implicated as a risk factor. Several independent studies suggest that HSV-2 infections correlate with a higher than normal incidence of cervical cancer. In contrast, other epidemiological studies have concluded that infection with HSV-2 is not a major risk factor. Two separate transforming domains have been identified within the HSV-2 genome, but continued viral gene expression apparently is not necessary for neoplastic transformation. HSV infections lead to unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis, chromosomal amplifications, and mutations. These observations suggest that HSV-2 is not a typical DNA tumor virus. It is hypothesized that persistent or abortive infections induce permanent genetic alterations that interfere with differentiation of cervical epithelium and subsequently induce abnormal proliferation. Thus, HSV-2 may be a cofactor in some but not all cases of cervical cancer. PMID:8665469

  1. Low luminosity Type II supernovae - II. Pointing towards moderate mass precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiro, S.; Pastorello, A.; Pumo, M. L.; Zampieri, L.; Turatto, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Valenti, S.; Agnoletto, I.; Altavilla, G.; Aoki, T.; Brocato, E.; Corsini, E. M.; Di Cianno, A.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Hamuy, M.; Enya, K.; Fiaschi, M.; Folatelli, G.; Desidera, S.; Harutyunyan, A.; Howell, D. A.; Kawka, A.; Kobayashi, Y.; Leibundgut, B.; Minezaki, T.; Navasardyan, H.; Nomoto, K.; Mattila, S.; Pietrinferni, A.; Pignata, G.; Raimondo, G.; Salvo, M.; Schmidt, B. P.; Sollerman, J.; Spyromilio, J.; Taubenberger, S.; Valentini, G.; Vennes, S.; Yoshii, Y.

    2014-04-01

    We present new data for five underluminous Type II-plateau supernovae (SNe IIP), namely SN 1999gn, SN 2002gd, SN 2003Z, SN 2004eg and SN 2006ov. This new sample of low-luminosity SNe IIP (LL SNe IIP) is analysed together with similar objects studied in the past. All of them show a flat light-curve plateau lasting about 100 d, an underluminous late-time exponential tail, intrinsic colours that are unusually red, and spectra showing prominent and narrow P Cygni lines. A velocity of the ejected material below 103 km s-1 is inferred from measurements at the end of the plateau. The 56Ni masses ejected in the explosion are very small (≤10-2 M⊙). We investigate the correlations among 56Ni mass, expansion velocity of the ejecta and absolute magnitude in the middle of the plateau, confirming the main findings of Hamuy, according to which events showing brighter plateau and larger expansion velocities are expected to produce more 56Ni. We propose that these faint objects represent the LL tail of a continuous distribution in parameters space of SNe IIP. The physical properties of the progenitors at the explosion are estimated through the hydrodynamical modelling of the observables for two representative events of this class, namely SN 2005cs and SN 2008in. We find that the majority of LL SNe IIP, and quite possibly all, originate in the core collapse of intermediate-mass stars, in the mass range 10-15 M⊙.

  2. The subthalamic nucleus part II: modelling and simulation of activity.

    PubMed

    Heida, Tjitske; Marani, Enrico; Usunoff, Kamen G

    2008-01-01

    Part I of The Subthalamic Nucleus (volume 198) (STN) accentuates the gap between experimental animal and human information concerning subthalamic development, cytology, topography and connections.The light and electron microscopical cytology focuses on the open nucleus concept and the neuronal types present in the STN. The cytochemistry encompasses enzymes, NO, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), calcium binding proteins, and receptors (dopamine, cannabinoid, opioid, glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin, cholinergic, and calcium channels). The ontogeny of the subthalamic cell cord is also reviewed. The topography concerns the rat, cat, baboon and human STN. The descriptions of the connections are also given from a historical point of view. Recent tracer studies on the rat nigro-subthalamic connection revealed contralateral projections. This monograph (Part II of the two volumes) on the subthalamic nucleus (STN) starts with a systemic model of the basal ganglia to evaluate the position of the STN in the direct, indirect and hyperdirect pathways. A summary of in vitro studies is given, describing STN spontaneous activity as well as responses to depolarizing and hyperpolarizing inputs and high-frequency stimulation. STN bursting activity and the underlying ionic mechanisms are investigated. Deep brain stimulation used for symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease is discussed in terms of the elements that are influenced and its hypothesized mechanisms. This part of the monograph explores the pedunculopontine-subthalamic connections and summarizes attempts to mimic neurotransmitter actions of the pedunculopontine nucleus in cell cultures and high-frequency stimulation on cultured dissociated rat subthalamic neurons. STN cell models - single- and multi-compartment models and system-level models are discussed in relation to subthalamic function and dysfunction. Parts I and II are compared. PMID:18727495

  3. 14 CFR 21.83 - Requirements for issue and amendment of Class II provisional type certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for issue and amendment of Class II provisional type certificates. 21.83 Section 21.83 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Type Certificates § 21.83 Requirements for issue and amendment of Class II provisional...

  4. 33 CFR 159.126a - Suspended solids test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... suspended solids in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. The arithmetic mean of the total suspended solids in 38... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suspended solids test: Type II... Suspended solids test: Type II devices. During the sewage processing test (§ 159.121) 40 effluent...

  5. 33 CFR 159.126a - Suspended solids test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... suspended solids in accordance with 40 CFR part 136. The arithmetic mean of the total suspended solids in 38... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspended solids test: Type II... Suspended solids test: Type II devices. During the sewage processing test (§ 159.121) 40 effluent...

  6. 33 CFR 159.126a - Suspended solids test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... suspended solids in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. The arithmetic mean of the total suspended solids in 38... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suspended solids test: Type II... Suspended solids test: Type II devices. During the sewage processing test (§ 159.121) 40 effluent...

  7. 33 CFR 159.126a - Suspended solids test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... suspended solids in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. The arithmetic mean of the total suspended solids in 38... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suspended solids test: Type II... Suspended solids test: Type II devices. During the sewage processing test (§ 159.121) 40 effluent...

  8. 33 CFR 159.126a - Suspended solids test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... suspended solids in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. The arithmetic mean of the total suspended solids in 38... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspended solids test: Type II... Suspended solids test: Type II devices. During the sewage processing test (§ 159.121) 40 effluent...

  9. Interband cascade light emitting devices based on type-II quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Rui Q.; Lin, C.H.; Murry, S.J.

    1997-06-01

    The authors discuss physical processes in the newly developed type-II interband cascade light emitting devices, and review their recent progress in the demonstration of the first type-II interband cascade lasers and the observation of interband cascade electroluminescence up to room temperature in a broad mid-infrared wavelength region (extended to 9 {mu}m).

  10. 46 CFR 171.072 - Calculation of permeability for Type II subdivision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of permeability for Type II subdivision. 171... permeability for Type II subdivision. When doing calcualtions to show compliance with § 171.070, the following uniform average permeabilities must be assumed: (a) 85 percent in the machinery space. (b) 60 percent...

  11. Phorbol ester-induced sensitisation of adenylyl cyclase type II is related to phosphorylation of threonine 1057.

    PubMed

    Böl, G F; Gros, C; Hülster, A; Bösel, A; Pfeuffer, T

    1997-08-18

    Following up the results from previous studies on chemical fragmentation of TPA-treated, [32P]phosphate labeled adenylyl cyclase type II (AC II) (Böl, G. F., Hülster, A., and Pfeuffer, T. in press) we have replaced serine 871 or threonine 1057 by alanine using site directed mutagenesis. Both mutants had unimpaired catalytic activity, however enhancement by phorbolester TPA was reduced by 60-80 % in the T1057A mutant, but not in the S871A mutant. The stimulation of adenylyl cyclase type II by betagamma subunits of heterotrimeric G-pro teins and that by PKC have been previously shown to be mutually exclusive (Zimmermann and Taussig (1996), J. Biol. Chem. 271, 27161-27166). This is in line with the present findings that AC II expressed in COS-1 cells was only barely stimulated (10%) by coexpressed betagamma-subunits in presence of TPA. Mutation of threonine 1057 to alanine however caused partial regain of betagamma-stimulation in the presence of TPA by 40%, as compared to that of WT adenylyl cyclase type II which was 70% in the absence of TPA. These data strongly implicate the importance of threonine 1057 as phosphate acceptor following PKC-mediated sensitisation of adenylyl cyclase type II. PMID:9268695

  12. A versatile ruthenium(II)-NNC complex catalyst for transfer hydrogenation of ketones and Oppenauer-type oxidation of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Du, Wangming; Wang, Liandi; Wu, Ping; Yu, Zhengkun

    2012-09-10

    A ruthenium(II)-NNC pincer complex containing an unsymmetrical tridentate pyrazolyl-pyridyl-tolyl ligand was synthesized and structually characterized. This complex exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the transfer hydrogenation of ketones in 2-propanol at reflux, and for the Oppenauer-type dehydrogenative oxidation of alcohols in acetone at reflux (see scheme). PMID:22887575

  13. Improving vagal activity ameliorates cardiac fibrosis induced by angiotensin II: in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-Jun; Huang, Ning; Lu, Yi; Zhao, Mei; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Yang, Yang; Yang, Yong-hua; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac remodeling is characterized by overactivity of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and withdrawal of vagal activity. We hypothesized that improving vagal activity could attenuate cardiac fibrosis induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) in vivo and in vitro. Rats were subjected to abdominal aorta constriction (AAC) with or without pyridostigmine (PYR) (31 mg/kg/d). After 8 weeks, PYR significantly decreased Ang II level, AT1 protein expression, and collagen deposition in cardiac tissue and improved heart rate variability, baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac function, which were abolished by atropine. In vitro, treatment of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) with Ang II (10−7 M) increased cell proliferation, migration, transformation, and secretory properties, which were significantly diminished by acetylcholine (ACh, 10−6 M). Subsequently, Ang II significantly increased collagen type I expression as well as metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression and activity. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 expression and Smad3 phosphorylation presented a similar trend. Notably, the knockdown of the acetylcholine M2 receptor by siRNA could abolish ACh anti-fibrotic action. These data implicated cholinesterase inhibitor can increase vagal activity and reduce local Ang II level, and ACh inhibit Ang II pro-fibrotic effects. Our findings suggested that the parasympathetic nervous system can serve as a promising target for cardiac remodeling treatment. PMID:26596640

  14. Treatment of Type II Endoleaks After Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Transcaval Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Mansueto, Giancarlo Cenzi, Daniela; D'Onofrio, Mirko; Petrella, Enrico; Gumbs, Andrew A.; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi

    2005-06-15

    The purpose of the note is to describe a new technique for type II endoleak treatment, using an alternative approach through femoral venous access. Three patients who developed type II endoleak after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm were treated with direct transcaval puncture and embolization inside the aneurysm sac. The detailed technique is described. All patients were treated without any complications and discharged 48 hours after the treatment. At 1 month follow-up the computed tomograph scan did not show a recurrence of a type II endoleak. The management of patients with type II endoleak is a controversial issue and different techniques have been proposed. We suggest an alternative technique for type II endoleak treatment. The feasibility and the advantages of this approach can offer new possibilities for the diagnosis as well as for the treatment of this complication.

  15. The discrimination of type I and type II collagen and the label-free imaging of engineered cartilage tissue.

    PubMed

    Su, Ping-Jung; Chen, Wei-Liang; Li, Tsung-Hsien; Chou, Chen-Kuan; Chen, Te-Hsuen; Ho, Yi-Yun; Huang, Chi-Hsiu; Chang, Shwu-Jen; Huang, Yi-You; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2010-12-01

    Using excitation polarization-resolved second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, we measured SHG intensity as a function of the excitation polarization angle for type I and type II collagens. We determined the second order susceptibility (χ((2))) tensor ratios of type I and II collagens at each pixel, and displayed the results as images. We found that the χ((2)) tensor ratios can be used to distinguish the two types of collagen. In particular, we obtained χ(zzz)/χ(zxx) = 1.40 ± 0.04 and χ(xzx)/χ(zxx) = 0.53 ± 0.10 for type I collagen from rat tail tendon, and χ(zzz)/χ(zxx) = 1.14 ± 0.09 and χ(xzx)/χ(zxx) = 0.29 ± 0.11 for type II collagen from rat trachea cartilage. We also applied this methodology on the label-free imaging of engineered cartilage tissue which produces type I and II collagen simultaneously. By displaying the χ((2)) tensor ratios in the image format, the variation in the χ((2)) tensor ratios can be used as a contrast mechanism for distinguishing type I and II collagens. PMID:20875682

  16. Noncircular semiconductor nanorings of types I and II: Emission kinetics in the excitonic Aharonov-Bohm effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grochol, Michal; Zimmermann, Roland

    2007-11-01

    Transition energies and oscillator strengths of excitons in dependence on magnetic field are investigated in types I and II semiconductor nanorings. A slight deviation from circular (concentric) shape of the type II nanoring gives a better observability of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations since the ground state is always optically active. Kinetic equations for the exciton occupation are solved with acoustic phonon scattering as the major relaxation process, and absorption and luminescence spectra are calculated, showing deviations from equilibrium. The presence of a nonradiative exciton decay leads to a quenching of the integrated photoluminescence with magnetic field.

  17. Mg II Spectral Atlas and Flux Catalog for Late-Type Stars in the Hyades Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Theodore

    2001-01-01

    In the course of a long-running IUE Guest Observer program, UV spectral images were obtained for more than 60 late-type members of the Hyades Cluster in order to investigate their chromospheric emissions. The emission line fluxes extracted from those observations were used to study the dependence of stellar dynamo activity upon age and rotation (IUE Observations of Rapidly Rotating Low-Mass Stars in Young Clusters: The Relation between Chromospheric Activity and Rotation). However, the details of those measurements, including a tabulation of the line fluxes, were never published. The purpose of the investigation summarized here was to extract all of the existing Hyades long-wavelength Mg II spectra in the IUE public archives in order to survey UV chromospheric emission in the cluster, thereby providing a consistent dataset for statistical and correlative studies of the relationship between stellar dynamo activity, rotation, and age over a broad range in mass.

  18. Glutaric aciduria type II: biochemical investigation and treatment of a child diagnosed prenatally.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M J; Curnock, D A; Engel, P C; Shaw, L; Gray, R G; Hull, D; Patrick, A D; Pollitt, R J

    1984-01-01

    Two sibs with the acute neonatal form of glutaric aciduria type II (deficient in vivo activity of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenases) are described. In the second case diagnosis was made prenatally on the basis of reduced oxidation of palmitate by cultured amniotic fluid cells. With prompt intervention in the neonatal period and a carefully controlled diet later, this second progressed well up to 4 months of age but died suddenly of cardiac failure, probably attributable to accumulation of fat. Neither patient showed any congenital morphological abnormality. Cultured fibroblasts from the second case showed a marked defect in the oxidation of a range of substrates requiring acyl-CoA dehydrogenases for their catabolism, but residual activity for some substrates was quite high. Large quantities of sarcosine were excreted in urine, again suggesting that the mutation leaves some residual dehydrogenation activity. Butyryl-, octanoyl- and palmitoyl-CoA dehydrogenases were present in essentially normal quantities in postmortem liver. PMID:6207379

  19. On the source conditions for herringbone structure in type II solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; White, S. M.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation is made of the correlation of the occurrence of the herringbone phenomenon in type II solar radio bursts with various flare properties. It is shown that herringbone is strongly correlated with the intensity of the type II burst: whereas about 21 percent of all type II bursts show herringbone, about 60 percent of the most intense bursts contain herringbone. This fact can explain most of the correlations between herringbone and other properties such as intense type III bursts, type IV emission, and high type II starting frequencies. It is also shown that when this is taken into account, there is no need to postulate two classes of type II burst in order to explain why there appears to be a difference in herringbone occurrence between the set of type II bursts associated with the leading edges of coronal mass ejections, and those not so associated. It is argued that the data are consistent with the idea that all coronal type II bursts are due to blast waves from flares.

  20. AB127. Enzyme replacement therapy in patient with mucopolysaccharidosis type II: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Can, Ngoc Thi Bich; Vu, Dung Chi; Le, Hang Thi Thuy; Nguyen, Khanh Ngoc; Bui, Huong Thi

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type II (Hunter syndrome) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder due to the deficit of iduronate 2-sulfatase, an enzyme catalysing the degradation of the glycosaminoglycans (GAG) dermatan- and heparan-sulfate. Treatment of the disease is mainly performed by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with idursulfase. This article aims to describe clinical characteristics, enzyme activity and genetic finding in the first Vietnamese patient with MPS type II treated with idursulfase (Elaprase) replacement therapy. Methods Clinical features, biochemical finding, enzyme activity, mutation analysis and management in a 4 years 6-month-old girl was study. Based on analysis of a patient’s clinical symptoms associated with enzyme iduronate-2-sulphate sulphatase activity measurement in plasma, the diagnosis of MPS type II was therefore made. Genomic DNAs were extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes from the patient and identify mutation of IDS gene, nine exons and their intronic boundaries of the IDS gene were sequenced using genomic DNA from the patient. The patient has been treated with Elaprase infusion every week with the dose of 0.05 mg/kg/week. Results A 34-month-old boy was presented with coarse facial at 24 months of age. He was admitted with the features of coarse facial, with frontal bossing, prominent supraorbital ridge, large nose and flat nasal bridge, widely spaced teeth, thickened gingival mucosa, and macroglossia, broadly built of the body habitus with a short neck, broad chest, and protuberant abdomen and Mongolian spots at the back and breech, joint finger stiffness, abdominal distension, palpable liver at 3 cm below the costal margin, sleep disturbances/snoring, mental development delay. Laboratory showed: hepatosplenomegaly in ultrasound with right liver length of 127 mm, spleen length of 93 mm, a 6-minute walk test distance of 240 m, DQ 55%, α iduronate sulphate: 0 nmoL/4 h/mL plasma (normal: 600

  1. The Relation between Type II Radio Bursts and Large-scale Coronal Propagating Fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Nariaki

    2014-06-01

    Both type II radio bursts and chromospheric Moreton-Ramsey waves are believed to signify shock waves that propagate in the solar corona. Large-scale coronal propagating fronts (LCPFs), which are also called EIT waves, EUV waves or coronal bright fronts in the literature, were initially thought to be coronal counterparts of Moreton-Ramsey waves, and thus they were expected to be correlated with type II bursts. At present, the prevailing view seems to be that both type II bursts and LCPFs are more closely linked with CMEs than with flares. Here we revisit the relation between type II bursts and LCPFs, by examining radio dynamic spectra (180-25 MHz) as obtained by USAF/RSTN and analyzing EUV and white-light data from SDO and STEREO. In the sample of about 140 type II bursts and LCPFs between April 2010 and January 2013, we find the correlation of 50-60 %. Type II bursts could be associated with eruptions without significant lateral expansion, and fast LCPFs could show no presence in the metric radio spectral range. Using data from STEREO COR-1 that observed the CME as a limb event, in 42 cases we directly measure the height of the CME at the onset of the type II burst. As expected, the height tends to be lower when the type II burst starts at a higher frequency. It is found that those type II bursts that start at higher altitudes and lower frequencies tend to have weaker EUV fronts. This may indicate multiple ways of how LCPFs and type II bursts are related with CMEs.

  2. PREDICTION OF TYPE II SOLAR RADIO BURSTS BY THREE-DIMENSIONAL MHD CORONAL MASS EJECTION AND KINETIC RADIO EMISSION SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J. M.; Cairns, Iver H.; Hillan, D. S.

    2013-08-20

    Type II solar radio bursts are the primary radio emissions generated by shocks and they are linked with impending space weather events at Earth. We simulate type II bursts by combining elaborate three-dimensional MHD simulations of realistic coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at the Sun with an analytic kinetic radiation theory developed recently. The modeling includes initialization with solar magnetic and active region fields reconstructed from magnetograms of the Sun, a flux rope of the initial CME dimensioned with STEREO spacecraft observations, and a solar wind driven with averaged empirical data. We demonstrate impressive accuracy in time, frequency, and intensity for the CME and type II burst observed on 2011 February 15. This implies real understanding of the physical processes involved regarding the radio emission excitation by shocks and supports the near-term development of a capability to predict and track these events for space weather prediction.

  3. p120-Catenin Expressed in Alveolar Type II Cells Is Essential for the Regulation of Lung Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Chignalia, Andreia Z.; Vogel, Stephen M.; Reynolds, Albert B.; Mehta, Dolly; Dull, Randal O.; Minshall, Richard D.; Malik, Asrar B.; Liu, Yuru

    2016-01-01

    The integrity of the lung alveolar epithelial barrier is required for the gas exchange and is important for immune regulation. Alveolar epithelial barrier is composed of flat type I cells, which make up approximately 95% of the gas-exchange surface, and cuboidal type II cells, which secrete surfactants and modulate lung immunity. p120-catenin (p120; gene symbol CTNND1) is an important component of adherens junctions of epithelial cells; however, its function in lung alveolar epithelial barrier has not been addressed in genetic models. Here, we created an inducible type II cell–specific p120-knockout mouse (p120EKO). The mutant lungs showed chronic inflammation, and the alveolar epithelial barrier was leaky to 125I-albumin tracer compared to wild type. The mutant lungs also demonstrated marked infiltration of inflammatory cells and activation of NF-κB. Intracellular adhesion molecule 1, Toll-like receptor 4, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were all up-regulated. p120EKO lungs showed increased expression of the surfactant proteins Sp-B, Sp-C, and Sp-D, and displayed severe inflammation after pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared with wild type. In p120-deficient type II cell monolayers, we observed reduced transepithelial resistance compared to control, consistent with formation of defective adherens junctions. Thus, although type II cells constitute only 5% of the alveolar surface area, p120 expressed in these cells plays a critical role in regulating the innate immunity of the entire lung. PMID:25773174

  4. p120-catenin expressed in alveolar type II cells is essential for the regulation of lung innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Chignalia, Andreia Z; Vogel, Stephen M; Reynolds, Albert B; Mehta, Dolly; Dull, Randal O; Minshall, Richard D; Malik, Asrar B; Liu, Yuru

    2015-05-01

    The integrity of the lung alveolar epithelial barrier is required for the gas exchange and is important for immune regulation. Alveolar epithelial barrier is composed of flat type I cells, which make up approximately 95% of the gas-exchange surface, and cuboidal type II cells, which secrete surfactants and modulate lung immunity. p120-catenin (p120; gene symbol CTNND1) is an important component of adherens junctions of epithelial cells; however, its function in lung alveolar epithelial barrier has not been addressed in genetic models. Here, we created an inducible type II cell-specific p120-knockout mouse (p120EKO). The mutant lungs showed chronic inflammation, and the alveolar epithelial barrier was leaky to (125)I-albumin tracer compared to wild type. The mutant lungs also demonstrated marked infiltration of inflammatory cells and activation of NF-κB. Intracellular adhesion molecule 1, Toll-like receptor 4, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were all up-regulated. p120EKO lungs showed increased expression of the surfactant proteins Sp-B, Sp-C, and Sp-D, and displayed severe inflammation after pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared with wild type. In p120-deficient type II cell monolayers, we observed reduced transepithelial resistance compared to control, consistent with formation of defective adherens junctions. Thus, although type II cells constitute only 5% of the alveolar surface area, p120 expressed in these cells plays a critical role in regulating the innate immunity of the entire lung. PMID:25773174

  5. Enhanced performance of quantum dot solar cells based on type II quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Feng; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Luo, Shuai; Lv, Zun-Ren; Yang, Tao

    2014-10-07

    The characteristics of quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) based on type II QDs are investigated theoretically. Based on a drift-diffusion model, we obtained a much higher open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) as well as conversion efficiency in a type II QDSC, compared to type I QDSCs. The improved V{sub oc} and efficiency are mainly attributed to the much longer Auger recombination lifetime in type II QDs. Moreover, the influence of the carrier lifetime on devices' performance is discussed and clarified. In addition, an explicit criterion to determine the role of quantum dots in solar cells is put forward.

  6. Ultracold fermions in real or fictitious magnetic fields: BCS-BEC evolution and type-I-type-II transition

    SciTech Connect

    Iskin, M.; Sa de Melo, C. A. R.

    2011-04-15

    We study ultracold neutral fermion superfluids in the presence of fictitious magnetic fields, as well as charged fermion superfluids in the presence of real magnetic fields. Charged fermion superfluids undergo a phase transition from type-I to type-II superfluidity, where the magnetic properties of the superfluid change from being a perfect diamagnet without vortices to a partial diamagnet with the emergence of the Abrikosov vortex lattice. The transition from type-I to type-II superfluidity is tuned by changing the scattering parameter (interaction) for fixed density. We also find that neutral fermion superfluids such as {sup 6}Li and {sup 40}K are extreme type-II superfluids and are more robust to the penetration of a fictitious magnetic field in the BCS-BEC crossover region near unitarity, where the critical fictitious magnetic field reaches a maximum as a function of the scattering parameter (interaction).

  7. The optical flares of active star II Pegasi in 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Shenghong; Kim, Kang Min; Lee, Byeong-Cheol

    2015-08-01

    We observed the active star II Peg using high-resolution spectrographs of 2.16m telescope at Xinglong station of NAOC and 1.8m telescope at BOAO of KASI from November to December, 2005. By means of spectral subtraction technique, the chromospheric activities of II Peg are analyzed at several activity indicators, including CaII IRT, Hα, NaI D1D2 and HeI D3 lines. The results demonstrate that the magnetic activity of II Peg is very strong, and its chromospheric activities show rotational modulations which imply there are active regions in its chromosphere. Two flare events were hunted during the observations, which were identified by HeI D3 line emission above the continuum. The first flare was happened in November 2005, the second one in December 2005, and they were located in different hemisphere of the star. This may indicate the evolution of active regions. Considering the photospheric spot activities, the possible origin of the detected flares is discussed.

  8. Interfacial strain effect on type-I and type-II core/shell quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheshlaghi, Negar; Pisheh, Hadi Sedaghat; Karim, M. Rezaul; Malkoc, Derya; Ünlü, Hilmi

    2016-09-01

    A comparative experimental and theoretical study on the calculation of capped core diameter in ZnSe/ZnS, CdSe/Cd(Zn)S type-I and ZnSe/CdS type-II core/shell nanocrystals is presented. The lattice mismatch induced interface strain between core and shell was calculated from continuum elastic theory and applied in effective mass approximation method to obtain the corresponding capped core diameter. The calculated results were compared with diameter of bare cores (CdSe and ZnSe) from transmission electron microscopy images to obtain the amount of the stretched or squeezed core after deposition of tensile or compressive shells. The result of the study showed that the core is squeezed in ZnSe/ZnS and CdSe/Cd(Zn)S after compressive shell and stretched in ZnSe/CdS after tensile shell deposition. The stretched and squeezed amount of the capped core found to be in proportion with lattice mismatch amount in the core/shell structure.

  9. Cytochrome P450 2C9 Type II Binding Studies on Quinoline-4-carboxamide Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chi-Chi; Cape, Jonathan L.; Rushmore, Tom; Crouch, Gregory J.; Jones, Jeffrey P.

    2009-01-01

    CYP2C9 is a significant P450 protein responsible for drug metabolism. With the increased use of heterocyclic compounds in drug design, a rapid and efficient pre-drug screening of these potential type II binding compounds is essential to avoid adverse drug reactions. To understand binding modes, we use quinoline-4-carboxamide analogs to study the factors that determine the structure-activity relationships. The results of this study suggest that the more accessible pyridine with the nitrogen para to the linkage can coordinate directly with the ferric heme iron, but this is not seen for the meta or ortho isomers. The π-cation interaction of the naphthalene moiety and Arg 108 residue may also assist in stabilizing substrate binding within the active-site cavity. The type II substrate binding affinity is determined by the combination of steric, electrostatic, and hydrophobicity factors; meanwhile, it is enhanced by the strength of lone pair electrons coordination with the heme iron. PMID:19053752

  10. Homologous Flare-CME Events and Their Metric Type II Radio Burst Association

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yashiro, S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Akiyama, S.; Uddin, W.; Srivastava, A. K.; Joshi, N. C.; Chandra, R.; Manoharan, P. K.; Mahalakshmi, K.; Dwivedi, V. C.; Jain, R.; Awasthi, A. K.; Nitta, N. V.; Aschwanden, M. J.; Choudhary, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    Active region NOAA 11158 produced many flares during its disk passage. At least two of these flares can be considered as homologous: the C6.6 flare at 06:51 UT and C9.4 flare at 12:41 UT on February 14, 2011. Both flares occurred at the same location (eastern edge of the active region) and have a similar decay of the GOES soft X-ray light curve. The associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) were slow (334 and 337 km/s) and of similar apparent widths (43deg and 44deg), but they had different radio signatures. The second event was associated with a metric type II burst while the first one was not. The COR1 coronagraphs on board the STEREO spacecraft clearly show that the second CME propagated into the preceding CME that occurred 50 min before. These observations suggest that CME-CME interaction might be a key process in exciting the type II radio emission by slow CMEs.

  11. Hypoglycaemic role of wheatgrass and its effect on carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in type II diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Garima; Randhi, Praveen Kumar; Pajaniradje, Sankar; Mohankumar, Kumaravel; Rajagopalan, Rukkumani

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Insulin resistance and insulin insufficiency is the major factor for the prognosis of type II diabetes. Consistent high glucose level leads to multiple secondary complications in diabetic patients. Hence, hypoglycaemic drugs are of significance for reducing the risk of secondary complications in type II diabetes. Various hypoglycaemic drugs are already available in the market, but they are associated with several side effects. Therefore, traditional herbs have emerged as safer alternative for effective hypoglycaemic treatment. The juvenile grass of common wheat is known as wheatgrass (WG). It is commonly used as a health drink and has potent antioxidant efficacy. It has been used to cure DM in folk medicine. The current study was planned to test the hypoglycaemic effect and pathways regulated by WG on DM. We analysed the glucose and insulin levels in plasma, the activity of glucose oxidative enzymes, hexokinase and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase, in serum and glycogen levels in liver of the male albino Wistar rats. Activity of glucose oxidative enzymes and the levels of insulin and liver glycogen were decreased in rats with diabetes, but they were reversed on treatment with WG. Hence, we conclude that WG can act as a potent anti-hyperglycaemic agent. PMID:25116122

  12. Organization of genes required for the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde in three type II methylotrophs

    SciTech Connect

    Bastien, C.; Machlin, S.; Zhang, Y.; Donaldson, K.; Hanson, R.S. )

    1989-12-01

    Restriction maps of genes required for the synthesis of active methanol dehydrogenase in Methylobacterium organophilum XX and Methylobacterium sp. strain AM1 have been completed and compared. In these two species of pink-pigmented, type II methylotrophs, 15 genes were identified that were required for the expression of methanol dehydrogenase activity. None of these genes were required for the synthesis of the prosthetic group of methanol dehydrogenase, pyrroloquinoline quinone. The structural gene required for the synthesis of cytochrome c{sub L}, an electron acceptor uniquely required for methanol dehydrogenase, and the genes encoding small basic peptides that copurified with methanol dehydrogenases were closely linked to the methanol dehydrogenase structural genes. A cloned 22-kilobase DNA insert from Methylsporovibrio methanica 81Z, an obligate type II methanotroph, complemented mutants that contained lesions in four genes closely linked to the methanol dehydrogenase structural genes. The methanol dehydrogenase and cytochrome c{sub L} structural genes were found to be transcribed independently in M. organophilum XX. Only two of the genes required for methanol dehydrogenase synthesis in this bacterium were found to be cotranscribed.

  13. Interband type-II miniband-to-bound state diode lasers for the midinfrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mermelstein, C.; Schmitz, J.; Kiefer, R.; Walther, M.; Wagner, J.

    2004-07-01

    A design for midinfrared diode lasers based on interband type-II miniband-to-bound state transitions is proposed and has been demonstrated experimentally. Type-II miniband-to-bound state laser structures emitting at 3.25μm with active regions consisting of 5 and 10W periods were grown by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy and processed into ridge waveguide lasers. Substrate-side down mounted devices with a 10 period active region and uncoated facets could be operated in continuous-wave (cw) mode up to 185K and as high as 260K in pulsed mode. A high characteristic temperature of 100K has been achieved for heat-sink temperatures below 140K, decreasing to 33K for the 140 to 185K interval. At 110K, a 5 period laser structure exhibited a threshold current density of 177A/cm2 and a slope efficiency of 61mW /A. Single-ended output powers of 144mW in cw mode and exceeding 330mW in pulsed operation were obtained for a substrate-side down mounted 5 period diode laser with high-reflection/antireflection coated mirror facets, operated at 110K.

  14. Type I/II cytokines, JAKs, and new strategies for treating autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Daniella M.; Bonelli, Michael; Gadina, Massimo; O’Shea, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines are major drivers of autoimmunity, and biologic agents targeting cytokines have revolutionized the treatment of immune-mediated diseases. Despite the effectiveness of these drugs, they do not induce complete remission in all patients, prompting the development of alternative strategies—including targeting of intracellular signal transduction pathways downstream of cytokines. Many cytokines that bind type I and type II cytokine receptors are critical regulators of immune-mediated diseases and employ the Janus kinase (JAK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway to exert their effect. Pharmacological inhibition of JAKs block the actions of type I/II cytokines, and within the past 3 years therapeutic JAK inhibitors, or Jakinibs, have become available to rheumatologists. Jakinibs have proven effective for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. Adverse effects of these agents are largely related to their mode of action and include infections and hyperlipidemia. Jakinibs are currently being investigated for a number of new indications, and second-generation selective Jakinibs are being developed and tested. Targeting STATs could be a future avenue for the treatment of rheumatic diseases, although substantial challenges remain. Nonetheless, the ability to therapeutically target intracellular signalling pathways has already created a new paradigm for the treatment of rheumatologic disease. PMID:26633291

  15. Type I/II cytokines, JAKs, and new strategies for treating autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Daniella M; Bonelli, Michael; Gadina, Massimo; O'Shea, John J

    2016-01-01

    Cytokines are major drivers of autoimmunity, and biologic agents targeting cytokines have revolutionized the treatment of immune-mediated diseases. Despite the effectiveness of these drugs, they do not induce complete remission in all patients, prompting the development of alternative strategies - including targeting of intracellular signal transduction pathways downstream of cytokines. Many cytokines that bind type I and type II cytokine receptors are critical regulators of immune-mediated diseases and employ the Janus kinase (JAK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway to exert their effect. Pharmacological inhibition of JAKs blocks the actions of type I/II cytokines, and within the past 3 years therapeutic JAK inhibitors, or Jakinibs, have become available to rheumatologists. Jakinibs have proven effective for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. Adverse effects of these agents are largely related to their mode of action and include infections and hyperlipidemia. Jakinibs are currently being investigated for a number of new indications, and second-generation selective Jakinibs are being developed and tested. Targeting STATs could be a future avenue for the treatment of rheumatologic diseases, although substantial challenges remain. Nonetheless, the ability to therapeutically target intracellular signalling pathways has already created a new paradigm for the treatment of rheumatologic disease. PMID:26633291

  16. Large basolateral processes on type II hair cells are novel processing units in mammalian vestibular organs.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Rémy; Pickett, Sarah B; Nguyen, Tot Bui; Stone, Jennifer S

    2014-10-01

    Sensory receptors in the vestibular system (hair cells) encode head movements and drive central motor reflexes that control gaze, body movements, and body orientation. In mammals, type I and II vestibular hair cells are defined by their shape, contacts with vestibular afferent nerves, and membrane conductance. Here we describe unique morphological features of type II vestibular hair cells in mature rodents (mice and gerbils) and bats. These features are cytoplasmic processes that extend laterally from the hair cell base and project under type I hair cells. Closer analysis of adult mouse utricles demonstrated that the basolateral processes of type II hair cells vary in shape, size, and branching, with the longest processes extending three to four hair cell widths. The hair cell basolateral processes synapse upon vestibular afferent nerves and receive inputs from vestibular efferent nerves. Furthermore, some basolateral processes make physical contacts with the processes of other type II hair cells, forming some sort of network among type II hair cells. Basolateral processes are rare in perinatal mice and do not attain their mature form until 3-6 weeks of age. These observations demonstrate that basolateral processes are significant signaling regions of type II vestibular hair cells and suggest that type II hair cells may directly communicate with each other, which has not been described in vertebrates. PMID:24825750

  17. Enhanced efficacy of an AAV vector encoding chimeric, highly secreted acid alpha-glucosidase in glycogen storage disease type II.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baodong; Zhang, Haoyue; Benjamin, Daniel K; Brown, Talmage; Bird, Andrew; Young, Sarah P; McVie-Wylie, Alison; Chen, Y-T; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2006-12-01

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSD-II; Pompe disease; MIM 232300) is an inherited muscular dystrophy caused by deficiency in the activity of the lysosomal enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). We hypothesized that chimeric GAA containing an alternative signal peptide could increase the secretion of GAA from transduced cells and enhance the receptor-mediated uptake of GAA in striated muscle. The relative secretion of chimeric GAA from transfected 293 cells increased up to 26-fold. Receptor-mediated uptake of secreted, chimeric GAA corrected cultured GSD-II patient cells. High-level hGAA was sustained in the plasma of GSD-II mice for 24 weeks following administration of an AAV2/8 vector encoding chimeric GAA; furthermore, GAA activity was increased and glycogen content was significantly reduced in striated muscle and in the brain. Administration of only 1 x 10(10) vector particles increased GAA activity in the heart and diaphragm for >18 weeks, whereas 3 x 10(10) vector particles increased GAA activity and reduced glycogen content in the heart, diaphragm, and quadriceps. Furthermore, an AAV2/2 vector encoding chimeric GAA produced secreted hGAA for >12 weeks in the majority of treated GSD-II mice. Thus, chimeric, highly secreted GAA enhanced the efficacy of AAV vector-mediated gene therapy in GSD-II mice. PMID:16987711

  18. Effects of low molecular weight chondroitin sulfate on type II collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1J mice.

    PubMed

    Cho, So Yean; Sim, Joon-Soo; Jeong, Choon Sik; Chang, Seung Yeup; Choi, Don Woong; Toida, Toshihiko; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2004-01-01

    In order to evaluate the improvement in the treatment of chronic arthritis, we investigated chondroitin sulfate depolymerization product (low molecular weight chondroitin sulfate, LMWCS) and intact chondroitin sulfate (CS) in vitro and in vivo. LMWCS was prepared by a chemical depolymerization process induced by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of copper salts. LMWCS (300 mg/kg) and CS (1200 mg/kg) were orally administered to DBA/1J mice once daily for 14 d prior to initial immunization with type II collagen. Their elastase activities and the production of cytokines in sera were examined on type II collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1J mice. We also compared the paracellular transport of LMWCS and CS across Caco-2 cell monolayers and examined the inhibitory effects on elastase activities. LMWCS inhibited elastase activity slightly, but CS did not show inhibition. Hind paw edema was significantly decreased by LMWCS treatment. Levels of anti-type II collagen antibody and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in sera were also reduced by LMWCS treatment but not in case of CS, although no significant difference was observed between LMWCS and CS on interleukin-6 (IL-6) induction. The LMWCS preparation showed preventive effects on the type II collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1J mice and better permeability through Caco-2 cells. PMID:14709897

  19. Identificat