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Sample records for active uc patients

  1. UC781 Microbicide Gel Retains Anti-HIV Activity in Cervicovaginal Lavage Fluids Collected following Twice-Daily Vaginal Application

    PubMed Central

    Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Holder, Angela; Pau, Chou-Pong; McNicholl, Janet M.; Chaikummao, Supraporn; Chonwattana, Wannee; Hart, Clyde E.

    2012-01-01

    The potent nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor UC781 has been safety tested as a vaginal microbicide gel formulation for prevention of HIV-1 sexual transmission. To investigate whether UC781 retained anti-infective activity following exposure to the female genital tract, we conducted an ex vivo analysis of the UC781 levels and antiviral activity in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluids from 25 Thai women enrolled in a 14-day safety trial of twice-daily vaginal application of two concentrations of the UC781 microbicide gel. CVL samples were collected from women in the 0.1% (n = 5), 0.25% (n = 15), and placebo (n = 5) gel arms following the first application of gel (T15 min) and 8 to 24 h after the final application (T8-24 h) and separated into cell-free (CVL-s) and pelletable (CVL-p) fractions. As UC781 is highly hydrophobic, there were significantly higher levels of UC781 in the CVL-p samples than in the CVL-s samples for the UC781 gel arms. In T8-24 h CVL-p samples, 2/5 and 13/15 samples collected from the 0.1% and 0.25% UC781 gel arms, respectively, efficiently blocked infection with ≥4 log10 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) of a CCR5-tropic CRF01_AE HIV-1 virus stock. Independent of the arm, the 11 CVL-p samples with UC781 levels of ≥5 μg/CVL sample reduced infectious HIV by ≥4 log10 TCID50. Our results suggest that the levels and anti-infective activities of UC781 gel formulations are likely to be associated with a cellular or pelletable component in CVL samples. Therefore, cellular and pelletable fractions should be assayed for drug levels and anti-infective activity in preclinical studies of candidate microbicides. PMID:22508307

  2. Sixteen years of collaborative learning through active sense-making in physics (CLASP) at UC Davis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Wendell; Webb, David; Paul, Cassandra; West, Emily; Bowen, Mark; Weiss, Brenda; Coleman, Lawrence; De Leone, Charles

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes our large reformed introductory physics course at UC Davis, which bioscience students have been taking since 1996. The central feature of this course is a focus on sense-making by the students during the 5 h per week discussion/labs in which the students take part in activities emphasizing peer-peer discussions, argumentation, and presentations of ideas. The course differs in many fundamental ways from traditionally taught introductory physics courses. After discussing the unique features of CLASP and its implementation at UC Davis, various student outcome measures are presented that show increased performance by students who took the CLASP course compared to students who took a traditionally taught introductory physics course. Measures we use include upper-division GPAs, MCAT scores, FCI gains, and MPEX-II scores.

  3. Enantioselective Collision-Activated Dissociation of Gas-Phase Tryptophan Induced by Chiral Recognition of Protonated uc(l)-Alanine Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujihara, Akimasa; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Tajiri, Michiko; Wada, Yoshinao; Hayakawa, Shigeo

    2016-06-01

    Enantioselective dissociation in the gas phase is important for enantiomeric enrichment and chiral transmission processes in molecular clouds regarding the origin of homochirality in biomolecules. Enantioselective collision-activated dissociation (CAD) of tryptophan (Trp) and the chiral recognition ability of uc(l)-alanine peptides (uc(l)-Ala n ; n = 2-4) were examined using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. CAD spectra of gas-phase heterochiral H+(uc(d)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala n ) and homochiral H+(uc(l)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala n ) noncovalent complexes were obtained as a function of the peptide size n. The H2O-elimination product was observed in CAD spectra of both heterochiral and homochiral complexes for n = 2 and 4, and in homochiral H+(uc(l)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala3), indicating that the proton is attached to the uc(l)-alanine peptide, and H2O loss occurs from H+(uc(l)-Ala n ) in the noncovalent complexes. H2O loss did not occur in heterochiral H+(uc(d)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala3), where NH3 loss and (H2O + CO) loss were the primary dissociation pathways. In heterochiral H+(uc(d)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala3), the protonation site is the amino group of uc(d)-Trp, and NH3 loss and (H2O + CO) loss occur from H+(uc(d)-Trp). uc(l)-Ala peptides recognize uc(d)-Trp through protonation of the amino group for peptide size n = 3. NH3 loss and (H2O + CO) loss from H+(uc(d)-Trp) proceeds via enantioselective CAD in gas-phase heterochiral H+(uc(d)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala3) at room temperature, whereas uc(l)-Trp dissociation was not observed in homochiral H+(uc(l)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala3). These results suggest that enantioselective dissociation induced by chiral recognition of uc(l)-Ala peptides through protonation could play an important role in enantiomeric enrichment and chiral transmission processes of amino acids.

  4. UCS protein Rng3p is essential for myosin-II motor activity during cytokinesis in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Stark, Benjamin C; James, Michael L; Pollard, Luther W; Sirotkin, Vladimir; Lord, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    UCS proteins have been proposed to operate as co-chaperones that work with Hsp90 in the de novo folding of myosin motors. The fission yeast UCS protein Rng3p is essential for actomyosin ring assembly and cytokinesis. Here we investigated the role of Rng3p in fission yeast myosin-II (Myo2p) motor activity. Myo2p isolated from an arrested rng3-65 mutant was capable of binding actin, yet lacked stability and activity based on its expression levels and inactivity in ATPase and actin filament gliding assays. Myo2p isolated from a myo2-E1 mutant (a mutant hyper-sensitive to perturbation of Rng3p function) showed similar behavior in the same assays and exhibited an altered motor conformation based on limited proteolysis experiments. We propose that Rng3p is not required for the folding of motors per se, but instead works to ensure the activity of intrinsically unstable myosin-II motors. Rng3p is specific to conventional myosin-II and the actomyosin ring, and is not required for unconventional myosin motor function at other actin structures. However, artificial destabilization of myosin-I motors at endocytic actin patches (using a myo1-E1 mutant) led to recruitment of Rng3p to patches. Thus, while Rng3p is specific to myosin-II, UCS proteins are adaptable and can respond to changes in the stability of other myosin motors.

  5. Celiac disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) in one patient: a family study.

    PubMed

    Cadahía, V; Rodrigo, L; Fuentes, D; Riestra, S; de Francisco, R; Fernández, M

    2005-12-01

    We discuss the case of a 17-year-old male who at the age of 7 was diagnosed with celiac disease (CD) together with ulcerative colitis (UC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The patient was treated with gluten-free diet and immunosuppressive drugs (azathioprine), and currently remains asymptomatic. The patient's younger, 12-year-old sister was diagnosed with CD when she was 1.5 years old, and at 7 years she developed type-I diabetes mellitus, which was difficult to control. A family study was made, and both parents were found to be affected with silent CD. All were DQ2 (+). In relation to the case and family study, we provide a series of comments related to CD and its complications.

  6. Differential effects of α4β7 and GPR15 on homing of effector and regulatory T cells from patients with UC to the inflamed gut in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Anika; Zundler, Sebastian; Atreya, Raja; Rath, Timo; Voskens, Caroline; Hirschmann, Simon; López-Posadas, Rocío; Watson, Alastair; Becker, Christoph; Schuler, Gerold; Neufert, Clemens; Atreya, Imke; Neurath, Markus F

    2016-01-01

    Objective Gut homing of lymphocytes via adhesion molecules has recently emerged as new target for therapy in IBDs. We aimed to analyse the in vivo homing of effector (Teff) and regulatory (Treg) T cells to the inflamed gut via α4β7 and G protein receptor GPR15. Design We assessed the expression of homing receptors on T cells in peripheral blood and inflamed mucosa. We studied the migration pattern and homing of Teff and Treg cells to the inflamed gut using intravital confocal microscopy and FACS in a humanised mouse model in dextran sodium sulfate-treated NSG (NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid-Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ) mice. Results Expression of GPR15 and α4β7 was significantly increased on Treg rather than Teff cells in peripheral blood of patients with UC as compared with Crohn’s disease and controls. In vivo analysis in a humanised mouse model showed augmented gut homing of UC Treg cells as compared with controls. Moreover, suppression of UC (but not control) Teff and Treg cell homing was noted upon treatment with the α4β7 antibody vedolizumab. In contrast, siRNA blockade of GPR15 had only effects on homing of Teff cells but did not affect Treg homing in UC. Clinical vedolizumab treatment was associated with marked expansion of UC Treg cells in peripheral blood. Conclusions α4β7 rather than GPR15 is crucial for increased colonic homing of UC Treg cells in vivo, while both receptors control UC Teff cell homing. Vedolizumab treatment impairs homing of UC Treg cells leading to their accumulation in peripheral blood with subsequent suppression of systemic Teff cell expansion. PMID:26209553

  7. Education and Public Outreach Activities for the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager at UC Berkeley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, B. J.; Craig, N.

    2004-08-01

    The Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Program for RHESSI at UC Berkeley develops many resources for the formal and informal education communities as well as the general public. We have developed several inquiry-based classroom activities for middle and high school students all aligned with National Science Education Standards. These activities cover the topics of sunspots, solar flares, the solar cycle, and magnetism on the Sun, highlighting the science investigated by RHESSI. In addition, we conduct ongoing professional development workshops for educators throughout the country. These workshops cover science content as well as pedagogy and curriculum materials. For the public and the informal education communities we have developed a series of lithographs about RHESSI discoveries as well as a website containing information about RHESSI science with images and movies from RHESSI data. The E/PO team also partners with the Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) in it's Sun-Earth Day programs at museums, including "Eclipse 2001", "Venus Transit", and the upcoming "Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge."

  8. Cessna UC-78 Bobcat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1944-01-01

    Cessna UC-78 Bobcat: Known by some as the 'Double-breasted Cub, ' the Cessna UC-78 Bobcat was the Cessna model T-50 produced for the Air Corps during World War II as a light personnel transport. Versions were also ordered to train pilots on multi-engine aircraft. This example served with the NACA at Langley from the summer 1944 until summer 1945.

  9. Aberrant expression of circulating Th17, Th1 and Tc1 cells in patients with active and inactive ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhaogang; Du, Lutao; Xu, Xiaofei; Yang, Yongmei; Wang, Haiyan; Qu, Ailin; Qu, Xun; Wang, Chuanxin

    2013-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory bowel disease, yet its etiology and pathogenesis remain poorly understood. The aberrant expression of T lymphocytes plays an essential role in the progression of UC. This study aimed to evaluate the expression profile of circulating Th17, Th1 and Tc1 cells in patients with active and inactive UC. Our results revealed that the percentage of circulating Th17 cells (CD3+CD8-IL-17+) was significantly increased in patients with active UC when compared with the percentage in patients with inactive UC, Crohn's disease (CD) and healthy controls. The percentages of circulating Th1 (CD3+CD8-IFN-γ+) and Tc1 (CD3+CD8+IFN-γ+) cells were also higher in patients with active UC when compared with the percentages in patients with inactive UC and normal controls, although levels were lower than that in CD. Further analysis showed that Th17 cells were positively correlated with Th1 cells, but not with Tc1 cells. Notably, the three cells had a positive correlation with disease activity, extent of disease, detection of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and c-reactive protein in active UC. Moreover, plasma IL-17 was higher in patients with active UC, and a similar trend applied to the mRNA levels of RORγt and T-bet in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The levels of p-STAT3 and p-STAT5 in PBMCs, as well as the ratio of p-STAT3/p-STAT5, were also elevated in active UC patients. Taken together, our findings revealed that elevated circulating Th17, Th1 and Tc1 cells and the aberrant activation of the STAT pathway may be implicated in the progression of UC. These findings may provide preliminary experimental clues for the development of new therapies for UC.

  10. Differential Expression of MUC12, MUC16, and MUC20 in Patients with Active and Remission Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesús K; Ascaño-Gutiérrez, Ilse; Furuzawa-Carballeda, Janette; Fonseca-Camarillo, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Background. Patients with UC have shown an important defect in the secretion and maintenance of the mucosal barrier as part of inadequate expression of mucin genes. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of MUC12, MUC16, and MUC20 in colonic tissue from patients with UC in regard to their clinical outcomes. Methods. We included a total of 40 patients with UC and 30 normal controls. Mucin gene expression was performed by RT-PCR and protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results. Patients with active UC showed no significant expression of MUC12 gene in mucosa compared to the group of patients with UC in remission and the normal control group. MUC16 gene expression was significantly increased in the UC active and remission groups compared to the normal control group (P = 0.03). MUC20 gene expression was found significantly decreased in patients with active UC compared to both remission group (P = 0.001) and normal controls (P = 0.001). Furthermore, an association was found between MUC20 gene expression and the presence of histological remission in patients with UC (P = 0.003, OR = 0.37). Conclusions. An increased gene expression of MUC16 and MUC20 was found in patients with remission UC.

  11. UC - A Progress Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    component of UC. Each com- ponent is illustrated on the processing of the sentence "Do you know how to print a file on the imagen *?" In some cases, a module...consider some of the patterns used to analyze the question "Do you know how to print a file on the imagen ?" These include <Aux> <NP> <VP>, whose...know how to print a file on the imagen ?" Read do you ALANA recognizes do as an Auxiliary and you as a pronoun, matching the begin- ning of the

  12. In vitro batch cultures of gut microbiota from healthy and ulcerative colitis (UC) subjects suggest that sulphate-reducing bacteria levels are raised in UC and by a protein-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Nazeha A; Walton, Gemma E; Gibson, Glenn R; Tuohy, Kieran M; Andrews, Simon C

    2014-02-01

    Imbalances in gut microbiota composition during ulcerative colitis (UC) indicate a role for the microbiota in propagating the disorder. Such effects were investigated using in vitro batch cultures (with/without mucin, peptone or starch) inoculated with faecal slurries from healthy or UC patients; the growth of five bacterial groups was monitored along with short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. Healthy cultures gave two-fold higher growth and SCFA levels with up to ten-fold higher butyrate production. Starch gave the highest growth and SCFA production (particularly butyrate), indicating starch-enhanced saccharolytic activity. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were the predominant bacterial group (of five examined) for UC inocula whereas they were the minority group for the healthy inocula. Furthermore, SRB growth was stimulated by peptone presumably due to the presence of sulphur-rich amino acids. The results suggest raised SRB levels in UC, which could contribute to the condition through release of toxic sulphide.

  13. Disease Severity and Immune Activity Relate to Distinct Interkingdom Gut Microbiome States in Ethnically Distinct Ulcerative Colitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mar, Jordan S.; LaMere, Brandon J.; Lin, Din L.; Levan, Sophia; Nazareth, Michelle; Mahadevan, Uma

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Significant gut microbiota heterogeneity exists among ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, though the clinical implications of this variance are unknown. We hypothesized that ethnically distinct UC patients exhibit discrete gut microbiotas with unique metabolic programming that differentially influence immune activity and clinical status. Using parallel 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer 2 sequencing of fecal samples (UC, 30; healthy, 13), we corroborated previous observations of UC-associated bacterial diversity depletion and demonstrated significant Saccharomycetales expansion as characteristic of UC gut dysbiosis. Furthermore, we identified four distinct microbial community states (MCSs) within our cohort, confirmed their existence in an independent UC cohort, and demonstrated their coassociation with both patient ethnicity and disease severity. Each MCS was uniquely enriched for specific amino acid, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism pathways and exhibited significant luminal enrichment of the metabolic products of these pathways. Using a novel ex vivo human dendritic cell and T-cell coculture assay, we showed that exposure to fecal water from UC patients caused significant Th2 skewing in CD4+ T-cell populations compared to that of healthy participants. In addition, fecal water from patients in whom their MCS was associated with the highest level of disease severity induced the most dramatic Th2 skewing. Combined with future investigations, these observations could lead to the identification of highly resolved UC subsets based on defined microbial gradients or discrete microbial features that may be exploited for the development of novel, more effective therapies. PMID:27531910

  14. Countering fear renewal: changes in the UCS representation generalize across contexts.

    PubMed

    Leer, Arne; Engelhard, Iris M

    2015-03-01

    After treatment of anxiety disorders, fear often returns. Analogue studies show that outside the extinction context the conditional stimulus (CS) activates the acquisition memory (CS predicts unconditional stimulus; UCS), rather than the extinction memory (CS does not predict UCS). Conditioning theory postulates that fear also diminishes after a reduction in the subjective cost of the UCS, which can occur in absence of any changes in the CS-UCS association. We hypothesized that fear reduction via "UCS deflation" generalizes across context. Healthy students underwent acquisition in context A with neutral CSs and 100dB white noise as UCS. One group received post-conditioning UCS exposure, in which UCS intensity decreased over time ("ABAdefl"). Another group received UCS presentations at equal intensity ("ABActrl"). Two groups did a filler task ("ABB"; "ABA"). Then, all groups underwent extinction in context B and were retested in context A (ABA-groups) or B (ABB-group). During each CS participants rated UCS expectancy and UCS cost. Results showed the typical increase in UCS expectancy following the context switch from extinction to test phase. In contrast, UCS deflation caused a reduction in cost ratings that was maintained after the context change. Findings suggest that UCS deflation techniques may reduce fear renewal.

  15. Fatigue is highly associated with poor health-related quality of life, disability and depression in newly-diagnosed patients with inflammatory bowel disease, independent of disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, B L; Zoëga, H; Shah, S A; LeLeiko, N; Lidofsky, S; Bright, R; Flowers, N; Law, M; Moniz, H; Merrick, M; Sands, B E

    2014-01-01

    Background Fatigue is common in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Data on fatigue in newly diagnosed patients are unavailable. Aim To report prevalence of fatigue in newly diagnosed CD and UC patients and examine its association with health-related quality of life (HRQOL), depression and disability. Methods The Ocean State Crohn's and Colitis Area Registry (OSCCAR) is a statewide cohort of newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease patients in Rhode Island. Fatigue was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue Scale. Patients were administered instruments measuring HRQOL, overall disability and work impairment, and depression. Results Fatigue was prevalent in 26.4% of 220 subjects. Cohen's d effect sizes for fatigue were large: Short-Form 36 Health Survey mental health component (CD 1.5, UC 1.4) and physical health component (CD 1.4, UC 1.4), EuroQol-5D valuation of current health state (CD 1.2, UC 1.0), Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (CD 1.9, UC 1.6) and Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (CD 1.8, UC 1.7). Fatigued patients reported more work impairment (Score difference: CD 29.5%, UC 23.8%) and activity impairment (score difference: CD 32.3%, UC 25.7%) on the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire. Fatigue's association with all scores remained highly significant despite controlling for disease activity. Conclusions Fatigue is strongly associated with poor HRQOL, disability and depression similarly in CD and UC even when controlling for disease activity. Fatigue's association with a wide range of patient-reported outcome measures suggests that monitoring fatigue is a simple way to screen for overall disruption in patient life. PMID:24612278

  16. Serum platelet factor 4 is a reliable activity parameter in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Lei; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Yu, Na; Jia, Ya-Xu; Wan, Shu-Jun; Wang, Fang-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the diagnostic utility of serum platelet factor 4 (PF4) levels and to assess its accuracy in detecting inflammatory bowel disease activity. This study included 45 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 45 patients with Crohn disease (CD), and 30 control subjects at Jinling Hospital between May 2014 and July 2015. Laboratory tests measured white blood count, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and platelet count. PF4 was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to disease activity: active and inactive. Median PF4 values dramatically increased in UC and CD patients compared with the healthy group (UC: 26.64 [20.00–36.22] mg/mL vs 20.02 [14.63–26.83] mg/mL, P = 0.002; CD: 25.56 [18.57–36.36] mg/mL vs 20.02 [14.63–26.83] mg/mL, P = 0.014); however, the serum PF4 levels between UC and CD failed to show a significant difference (26.64 [20.00–36.22] mg/mL vs 25.56 [18.57–36.36] mg/mL, P = 0.521). Furthermore, serum PF4 levels were elevated in both UC and CD patients with active disease (UC: 20.19 [14.89–23.53] mg/mL vs 28.86 [22.57–37.29] mg/mL, P < 0.001; CD: 18.33 [16.72–25.77] mg/mL vs 34.38 [22.58–39.92] mg/mL, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed higher PF4 level as an independent predictor of disease activity in UC and CD patients (UC: odds ratio 30.375, P = 0.002; CD: odds ratio 54.167, P < 0.001). The cut-off level of PF4 for distinguishing active from inactive UC patients was 24.1 mg/mL. While in CD patients, the cut-off level of PF4 was 19.24 mg/mL. Serum PF4 levels could be a potential biomarker for monitoring the disease activity of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:28296751

  17. A brief history of the Bioengineering Institute of California and the UC System-wide Symposia.

    PubMed

    Chien, Shu

    2011-04-01

    The plan to establish a Multicampus Research Unit (MRU) on Bioengineering in the University of California (UC) System started in August 1999. The cooperative efforts of the UC campuses led to the formal establishment of the Bioengineering Institute of California (BIC) in October 2003. Three years prior to the BIC establishment, the System-wide Annual Bioengineering Symposium was started at UC Davis. The Symposia were then hosted sequentially by UC Santa Barbara, UC Berkeley, UCSD, UC Santa Cruz, UC Irvine, UCSF, UCLA, and UC Riverside, with the completion of the first cycle of a decade in the newest campus of UC Merced in 2009. The second cycle began in 2010 with the Symposium returning again to UC Davis. Each campus hosted a wonderful Symposium, with the active participation of students and faculty from all campuses, with the motto of "Ten campuses united as one, learning and growing together." These Symposia have contributed significantly to the collaborative research and training of students and young scientists in bioengineering, as well as fruitful interactions with industry and government agencies, which have provided strong support for these valuable meetings. The BIC will endeavor to further enhance these efforts by fostering research collaborations and joint education and training activities, with the ultimate goal of advancing bioengineering for the improvement of human health and wellbeing.

  18. Serum platelet factor 4 is a reliable activity parameter in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lei; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Yu, Na; Jia, Ya-Xu; Wan, Shu-Jun; Wang, Fang-Yu

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the diagnostic utility of serum platelet factor 4 (PF4) levels and to assess its accuracy in detecting inflammatory bowel disease activity.This study included 45 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 45 patients with Crohn disease (CD), and 30 control subjects at Jinling Hospital between May 2014 and July 2015. Laboratory tests measured white blood count, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and platelet count. PF4 was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to disease activity: active and inactive.Median PF4 values dramatically increased in UC and CD patients compared with the healthy group (UC: 26.64 [20.00-36.22] mg/mL vs 20.02 [14.63-26.83] mg/mL, P = 0.002; CD: 25.56 [18.57-36.36] mg/mL vs 20.02 [14.63-26.83] mg/mL, P = 0.014); however, the serum PF4 levels between UC and CD failed to show a significant difference (26.64 [20.00-36.22] mg/mL vs 25.56 [18.57-36.36] mg/mL, P = 0.521). Furthermore, serum PF4 levels were elevated in both UC and CD patients with active disease (UC: 20.19 [14.89-23.53] mg/mL vs 28.86 [22.57-37.29] mg/mL, P < 0.001; CD: 18.33 [16.72-25.77] mg/mL vs 34.38 [22.58-39.92] mg/mL, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed higher PF4 level as an independent predictor of disease activity in UC and CD patients (UC: odds ratio 30.375, P = 0.002; CD: odds ratio 54.167, P < 0.001). The cut-off level of PF4 for distinguishing active from inactive UC patients was 24.1 mg/mL. While in CD patients, the cut-off level of PF4 was 19.24 mg/mL.Serum PF4 levels could be a potential biomarker for monitoring the disease activity of inflammatory bowel disease.

  19. Knowledge structures in UC, the UNIX consultant

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    The knowledge structures implemented in UC, the UNIX consultant are sufficient for UC to reply to a large range of user queries in the domain of the UNIX operating system. The author describes how these knowledge structures are used in the natural language tasks of parsing, inference, planning, goal detection, and generation, and how they are organized to enable efficient access even with the large database of an expert system. The structuring of knowledge to provide direct answers to common queries and the high usability and efficiency of knowledge structures allow UC to hold an interactive conversation with a user. 12 references.

  20. 9th Annual UC Systemwide Bioengineering Symposium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    Cylindrical Wells Facilitate Single-Molecule Enzymology of Bovine a-Chymotrypsin. Angela Y. Chen , A.S. Jani, L. Zheng, P.J. Burke and James P. Brody...1. Andrew McCammon, Lei Yu , Stephen B. Howell and David A. Gough, UCSDlNitto Denko Technology Corporation • Genentech 3rd Place Award ($250) o A...Shadi Mahjoob UC Riverside Zhenshan Chen UC Riverside Mariela Anguelov Winchester Associates Inc Entcho Anguelov Winchester Associates Inc

  1. Ulcerative Colitis Activity Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin, in a Patient with Longstanding Disease under Continuous Treatment with Mesalazine

    PubMed Central

    Sfendouraki, Elissavet; Karianos, Theodoros; Saranti, Sofia; Tsitsimelis, Dimitrios; Vrettos, Ioannis; Kalliakmanis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background. The presence of ulcerative colitis (UC) with no bowel symptoms, as fever of unknown origin (FUO), is uncommon. Objective. To describe the case of an 80-year-old woman who presented with fever, with a history of UC under treatment with mesalazine. Case Presentation. She was admitted due to fever lasting for 12 days with no associated symptoms. Seven years earlier, she was diagnosed with UC. After an extended workup for FUO that failed to reach the diagnosis, she underwent a gallium-67 scintigraphy. This revealed a persistent diffuse concentration of gallium-67 in the ascending colon at 24-hour imaging that remained stable at 48- and 72-hour imaging without any topographic change after the use of laxatives. Considering the results and in the absence of another diagnosis, the patient was treated with 30 mg prednisone daily and mesalazine, as treatment of active UC. Subsequently, the patient's condition improved markedly and the fever retreated. One month later, she was reevaluated with a gallium-67 scintigraphy with total absence of gallium-67 concentration in the ascending colon. Conclusion. UC activity must be included in the differential diagnosis of FUO in patients with longstanding disease, since fever may present alone, with no other manifestations. PMID:27504121

  2. C. Judson King of UC Berkeley

    SciTech Connect

    Prausnitz, John

    2005-06-01

    In the middle of the UC Berkeley campus, next to the Main Library, South Hall is the last surviving building from the original campus, founded about 135 years ago. A tiny tree-shaded appendix to this venerated classical building houses Berkeley's Center for Studies in Higher Education, directed by C. Judson King, former Provost and Senior Vice President--Academic Affairs of the ten-campus University of California and long-time Professor of Chemical Engineering at Berkeley. Jud came to Berkeley in 1963 as assistant professor of chemical engineering, following receipt of a doctor's degree from MIT and a subsequent short appointment as director of the MIT chemical engineering practice school station at what was then Esso (now Exxon) in New Jersey. His undergraduate degree is from Yale. Starting with his MIT doctoral dissertation on gas absorption, Jud has devoted much of his professional career to separation processes. His teaching and research activities have been primarily concerned with separation of mixtures with emphasis on liquid-liquid extraction and drying. As a consultant to Procter and Gamble, he contributed to the technology of making instant coffee. His life-long activities in hiking and camping stimulated Jud's interest in the manufacture of freeze-dried foods (e.g. turkey meat) to minimize the weight of his hiking back-pack. Jud is internationally known not only for his many research publications but even more, for his acclaimed textbook ''Separation Processses'' (McGraw-Hill, second edition 1980) that is used in standard chemical engineering courses in the US and abroad.

  3. Long non-coding RNA UC001kfo promotes hepatocellular carcinoma proliferation and metastasis by targeting α-SMA.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yanfeng; Qin, Tao; Yin, Shenglu; Zhang, Xianqiang; Gao, Xiaojuan; Mu, Lifen

    2017-03-01

    Several long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been investigated and found to be correlated with the behaviours and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); Specifically, we revealed that the lncRNA UC001kfo was differentially expressed in HCC tissues compared with normal liver tissues using lncRNA microarrays, but its functional role in cancers, including HCC, has not yet been elucidated. The present study found that the expression of UC001kfo was upregulated in HCC tissues and cell lines in comparison with tumour-adjacent tissues and normal hepatocytes, respectively. In addition, a high UC001kfo level was determined to be correlated with macro-vascular invasion and TNM stage of HCC. Specifically, patients with high UC001kfo expression displayed a significantly lower overall survival rate and progression-free survival rate. Moreover, both univariate and multivariate COX regression analyses identified TNM stage and high UC001kfo expression as risk factors for poor prognosis in HCC patients. In addition, UC001kfo was verified to promote the proliferation, metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HCC cells in both in vitro and in vivo assays. Mechanistically, α-SMA was indicated as a potential target gene of UC001kfo in mediating HCC metastasis. In conclusion, UC001kfo promotes HCC proliferation and metastasis by targeting α-SMA, and UC001kfo may potentially serve as a prognostic marker and a therapeutic target for treatment of HCC.

  4. UC Davis Center for Digital Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-19

    currently valid OMB control number PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2 /6/08 2 . REPORT TYPE...Processing (page 1). 2 . Modeling Communication Losses and Interference in Fiber Optic Systems (page 9). 3. Low Detectability Optical Code-Division... 2 DTIC Data Purchase Request Number: FQ8671-0600473 BPN: F1ATA05258B473 Proposal Number: 04-NM-045 Research Title: UC DAVIS CENTER FOR DIGITAL

  5. 46 CFR 54.25-10 - Low temperature operation-ferritic steels (replaces UCS-65 through UCS-67).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Low temperature operation-ferritic steels (replaces UCS... (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-10 Low temperature operation—ferritic steels (replaces UCS-65 through UCS-67). (a) Scope. (1)...

  6. 46 CFR 54.25-10 - Low temperature operation-ferritic steels (replaces UCS-65 through UCS-67).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Low temperature operation-ferritic steels (replaces UCS... (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-10 Low temperature operation—ferritic steels (replaces UCS-65 through UCS-67). (a) Scope. (1)...

  7. 46 CFR 54.25-10 - Low temperature operation-ferritic steels (replaces UCS-65 through UCS-67).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Low temperature operation-ferritic steels (replaces UCS... (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-10 Low temperature operation—ferritic steels (replaces UCS-65 through UCS-67). (a) Scope. (1)...

  8. 46 CFR 54.25-10 - Low temperature operation-ferritic steels (replaces UCS-65 through UCS-67).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Low temperature operation-ferritic steels (replaces UCS... (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-10 Low temperature operation—ferritic steels (replaces UCS-65 through UCS-67). (a) Scope. (1)...

  9. 46 CFR 54.25-10 - Low temperature operation-ferritic steels (replaces UCS-65 through UCS-67).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Low temperature operation-ferritic steels (replaces UCS... (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-10 Low temperature operation—ferritic steels (replaces UCS-65 through UCS-67). (a) Scope. (1)...

  10. UCS-PROMOVE: The engineer of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villas-Boas, V.

    2010-06-01

    The Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS) elaborated the cooperative project called 'The engineer of the future', with the objective of promoting science and engineering among high school teachers and students. This project aims to improve the quality of the teaching and to increase the interest of students in technological areas, leading to a future career in engineering. The activities of this project were planned to give meaning and foundation to the teaching-learning process of science and for the application of theory in the solution of real problems, while articulating scientific, economic, environmental, social and political aspects and also to reinforce the important role of engineering in society. Amongst the activities to be offered to high school teachers and students are a specialisation course for teachers based upon new educational methodologies, workshops in different areas of science and technology, a programme entitled 'Encouraging girls in technology, science and engineering', science fairs and visits to the industries of the region. Activities with the engineering instructors of UCS are also being developed in order to help them to incorporate in their classes more effective pedagogical strategies for educating the engineer-to-be.

  11. UC (UNIX Consultant). A Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    briefly describe each component of UC. Each com- ponent is illustrated on the processing of the sentence "Do you know how to print a file on the imagen ...the imagen ?" These include <Aux> <NP> <VP>, whose associated concept denotes a question, and <Print> <NP I> <on> <NP 2>, whose concept denotes a...located. IW -19- 3.2.. Example We now present a simplified trace of ALANA’s actions while reading "Do you know how to print a file on the imagen ?" Read do

  12. Long noncoding RNA uc.345 promotes tumorigenesis of pancreatic cancer by upregulation of hnRNPL expression

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiaoyuan; Qian, Wenli; Zhang, Bosen; Shi, Minmin; Xie, Junjie; Shen, Baiyong; Xu, Hong; Hou, Zhaoyuan; Chen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to an important functional or regulatory role of long noncoding RNA in cellular processes as well as cancer diseases resulted from the aberrant lncRNA expression. LncRNA could participate in the cancer progression and develop a significant role through the interaction with proteins. In the present study, we report a lncRNA termed uc.345 that is up-regulated in tumor tissues, compared to the corresponding noncancerous tissues. We found that a higher uc.345 expression level was more frequently observed in tissues with increased depth of invasion and advanced TNM tumor node metastasis T stage. Moreover, uc.345 could be used as an independent risk factor for the overall survival (OS) of the pancreatic cancer patients. By employing soft agar assays and tumor xenograft models, we showed that uc.345 could accelerate tumor growth. Further, we discovered that uc.345 could upregulate the hnRNPL expression and that inhibition of (hnRNPL) dampens the tumorigenesis capability of uc.345. Collectively, these results demonstrate that uc.345 functions as an oncogenic lncRNA that promotes tumor progression and serves as a poor predictor for pancreatic cancer patients' overall survival. PMID:27689400

  13. Comparison of energy metabolism and nutritional status of hospitalized patients with Crohn’s disease and those with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Takaoka, Azusa; Sasaki, Masaya; Kurihara, Mika; Iwakawa, Hiromi; Inoue, Mai; Bamba, Shigeki; Ban, Hiromitsu; Andoh, Akira; Miyazaki, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the nutritional status and energy expenditure of hospitalized patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) and those with ulcerative colitis (UC). Twenty-two hospitalized patients with CD and 18 patients with UC were enrolled in this study. We analyzed nutritional status upon admission by using nutritional screening tools including subjective global assessment, malnutrition universal screening tool, and laboratory tests. We measured resting energy expenditure (mREE) of the patients with indirect calorimetry and predicted resting energy expenditure (pREE) was calculated by using the Harris-Benedict equation. Results presented here indicate no significant difference in nutritional parameters and energy metabolism between CD and UC patients. In UC patients, a significant correlation was observed between mREE/body weight and disease activity detected by the Lichtiger and Seo indices. However, there was no correlation between mREE/body weight and Crohn’s disease activity index in CD patients. Inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 levels correlated with mREE/pREE in CD and UC patients while tumor necrosis factor-α was not. In conclusion, energy expenditure significantly correlated with disease activity in UC patients but not in CD patients. These results indicate that establishing daily energy requirements based on disease activity of UC is imperative for improving the nutritional status of patients. PMID:26060351

  14. Creating an Engaging Library Orientation: First Year Experience Courses at UC San Diego

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Crystal; Turnbow, Dominique; Roth, Amanda; Friedman, Lia; Heskett, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of an engaging library orientation module for UC San Diego First Year Experience (FYE) courses. The library module included a brief in-class presentation about research concepts and library services, an online interactive library scavenger hunt given as an in-class activity, and a homework assignment where…

  15. Psychological status in Iranian patients with ulcerative colitis and its relation to disease activity and quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaeian, Mahshid; Afshar, Hamid; Roohafza, Hamid Reza; Daghaghzadeh, Hamed; Feizi, Awat; Sharbafchi, Mohammad Reza; Tabatabaeian, Maryam; Naji, Fateme; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychological profile of inflammatory bowel disease patients is not well studied in Iran. We investigated the psychological status of Iranian patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and its relationship with disease activity and quality of life (QOL). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on adult UC patients. The Lichtiger Colitis Activity Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, General Health Questionnaire-12, and WHOQOL-BREF, were completed by the patients. Results: From 120 studied patients, 35 (29.2%), 48 (40.0%), and 46 (38.3%) had significant anxiety, depression, and psychological distress, respectively. Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress were strongly correlated with disease activity (r = 0.357 to 0.439, P < 0.01). Disease activity was negatively correlated with all QOL dimensions (r = −0.245 to −0.550, P < 0.01). Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress were also negatively correlated with all QOL domains (r = −0.356 to −0.789, P < 0.01). In the regression models, anxiety was independently associated with active disease (β = 4.150, P = 0.049). Furthermore, disease activity was associated with the physical health (β = −0.371, P < 0.001). For almost all of the QOL domains, depression and psychological distress were independent predictors (β = −0.296 to −0.453, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress are highly frequent in UC patients of our society and are strongly associated with disease activity. Depression and psychological distress are important predictors of poor QOL in these patients. Further prospective studies, as well as clinical trials, are warranted in this regard. PMID:26600833

  16. Specific immunotherapy plus Clostridium butyricum alleviates ulcerative colitis in patients with food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Bin Lan, B; Yang, Fan; Lu, Dong; Lin, Zhenlv

    2016-01-01

    The aberrant T cell activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation, such as ulcerative colitis (UC). C. butyricum (Cb) is a probiotic and has been employed in the treatment of immune diseases. This study tests a hypothesis that specific immunotherapy (SIT) plus oral Cb (an over-the-counter probiotic) alleviates the UC symptoms. In this study, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, clinical study at our hospital. A total of 80 patients with relapsing-remitting ulcerative colitis and high levels of specific IgE antibody was randomly divided into 4 groups, and were treated with SIT or/and Cb, or placebo, respectively for 1 year. The results showed that a food antigen-specific Th2 polarization immune response was observed in UC patients with food allergy (FA). The frequency of regulatory B cells was significantly less in UC patients with FA as compared with healthy subjects. The UC patients with FA were treated with SIT and Cb showed significant amelioration of UC clinical symptoms, reduction of using UC-control medicines, and suppression of the skewed Th2 polarization, which did not occur in those treated with either SIT alone, or Cb alone, or placebo. In conclusion, combination of SIT and Cb efficiently alleviates a fraction of UC patients. PMID:27167186

  17. Luminal Cathepsin G and Protease-Activated Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Dabek, Marta; Ferrier, Laurent; Roka, Richard; Gecse, Krisztina; Annahazi, Anita; Moreau, Jacques; Escourrou, Jean; Cartier, Christel; Chaumaz, Gilles; Leveque, Mathilde; Ait-Belgnaoui, Afifa; Wittmann, Tibor; Theodorou, Vassilia; Bueno, Lionel

    2009-01-01

    Impairment of the colonic epithelial barrier and neutrophil infiltration are common features of inflammatory bowel disease. Luminal proteases affect colonic permeability through protease-activated receptors (PARs). We evaluated: (i) whether fecal supernatants from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) trigger alterations of colonic paracellular permeability and inflammation, and (ii) the roles of cathepsin G (Cat-G), a neutrophil serine protease, and its selective receptor, PAR4, in these processes. Expression levels of both PAR4 and Cat-G were determined in colonic biopsies from UC and healthy subjects. The effects of UC fecal supernatants on colonic paracellular permeability were measured in murine colonic strips. Involvement of Cat-G and PAR4 was evaluated using pepducin P4pal-10 and specific Cat-G inhibitor (SCGI), respectively. In addition, the effect of PAR4-activating peptide was assessed. UC fecal supernatants, either untreated or pretreated with SCGI, were infused into mice, and myeloperoxidase activity was determined. PAR4 was found to be overexpressed in UC colonic biopsies. Increased colonic paracellular permeability that was triggered by UC fecal supernatants was blocked by both SCGI (77%) and P4pal-10 (85%). Intracolonic infusion of UC fecal supernatants into mice increased myeloperoxidase activity. This effect was abolished by SCGI. These observations support that both Cat-G and PAR4 play key roles in generating and/or amplifying relapses in UC and provide a rationale for the development of new therapeutic agents in the treatment of this disease. PMID:19528350

  18. Selective granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis as a first-line treatment for steroid naïve patients with active ulcerative colitis: a prospective uncontrolled study.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuo; Yoshimura, Naoki; Saniabadi, Abby R; Saito, Yasushi

    2004-04-01

    Corticosteroid therapy of ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with frequent adverse side effects and poor quality of life. Recently, adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte/macrophage apheresis has shown efficacy in patients with severe steroid refractory UC. The objective of this study was to investigate if, instead of corticosteroids, adsorptive leukocytapheresis has efficacy as the first-line therapy for steroid-naïve patients with active UC. Twenty patients, aged 15-49 years, with a mean clinical activity index (CAI) of 8.6 were recruited. Adsorptive leukocytapheresis was done with Adacolumn, which contains cellulose acetate beads as adsorptive carriers for granulocytes and monocytes (FcgammaR and complement receptors expressing leukocytes). Each patient received 6 to 10 leukocytapheresis sessions of 60-min duration, at 2 sessions/week. Efficacy was assessed 1 week after the last session. Post treatment, the mean CAI was 3.0 (P = 0001), and 17 of 20 patients (85%) were in remission. There were significant falls in C-reactive protein (P = 0.0003), total white cell counts (P = 0.003), neutrophils (P = 0.0029), and monocytes (P = 0.0038), an increase in lymphocytes (P = 0.001), and increases in the blood levels of soluble TNF-alpha receptors I (P = 0.0007) and II (P = 0.0045) in the column outflow (blood return to the patients). Further, at 8 months, 60% of patients had maintained their remission. No severe side effects were reported. In conclusion, adsorptive leukocytapheresis should reduce corticosteroid therapy in patients with moderate UC; cases with early-stage active disease may benefit most.

  19. UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Paul

    2012-05-31

    This is the final report of the UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence which spanned from 2005-2012. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program, to provide a new generation of engineers and scientists with knowledge and skills to create advanced automotive technologies. The UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence established in 2005 is focused on research, education, industrial collaboration and outreach within automotive technology. UC Davis has had two independent GATE centers with separate well-defined objectives and research programs from 1998. The Fuel Cell Center, administered by ITS-Davis, has focused on fuel cell technology. The Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Design Center (HEV Center), administered by the Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, has focused on the development of plug-in hybrid technology using internal combustion engines. The merger of these two centers in 2005 has broadened the scope of research and lead to higher visibility of the activity. UC Davis's existing GATE centers have become the campus's research focal points on fuel cells and hybrid-electric vehicles, and the home for graduate students who are studying advanced automotive technologies. The centers have been highly successful in attracting, training, and placing top-notch students into fuel cell and hybrid programs in both industry and government.

  20. Light atom quantum oscillations in UC and US

    DOE PAGES

    Yiu, Yuen; Aczel, Adam A.; Granroth, Garrett E.; ...

    2016-01-19

    High energy vibrational scattering in the binary systems UC and US is measured using time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering. A clear set of well-defined peaks equally separated in energy is observed in UC, corresponding to harmonic oscillations of the light C atoms in a cage of heavy U atoms. The scattering is much weaker in US and only a few oscillator peaks are visible. We show how the difference between the materials can be understood by considering the neutron scattering lengths and masses of the lighter atoms. Monte Carlo ray tracing is used to simulate the scattering, with near quantitative agreementmore » with the data in UC, and some differences with US. The possibility of observing anharmonicity and anisotropy in the potentials of the light atoms is investigated in UC. Lastly, the observed data is well accounted for by considering each light atom as a single atom isotropic quantum harmonic oscillator.« less

  1. Light atom quantum oscillations in UC and US

    SciTech Connect

    Yiu, Yuen; Aczel, Adam A.; Granroth, Garrett E.; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Stone, Matthew B.; Buyers, W. J. L.; Lin, J. Y. Y.; Samolyuk, German D.; Stocks, George Malcolm; Nagler, Stephen E.

    2016-01-19

    High energy vibrational scattering in the binary systems UC and US is measured using time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering. A clear set of well-defined peaks equally separated in energy is observed in UC, corresponding to harmonic oscillations of the light C atoms in a cage of heavy U atoms. The scattering is much weaker in US and only a few oscillator peaks are visible. We show how the difference between the materials can be understood by considering the neutron scattering lengths and masses of the lighter atoms. Monte Carlo ray tracing is used to simulate the scattering, with near quantitative agreement with the data in UC, and some differences with US. The possibility of observing anharmonicity and anisotropy in the potentials of the light atoms is investigated in UC. Lastly, the observed data is well accounted for by considering each light atom as a single atom isotropic quantum harmonic oscillator.

  2. Glycosylation and sulphation of colonic mucus glycoproteins in patients with ulcerative colitis and in healthy subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Morita, H; Kettlewell, M G; Jewell, D P; Kent, P W

    1993-01-01

    Studies have been made of mucus glycoprotein biosynthesis in different regions of the lower gastrointestinal tract in normal patients and those with ulcerative colitis (UC), active or inactive, by means of 3H-glucosamine (3H-GlcNH2)--35S-sulphate double labelling of epithelial biopsy specimens under culture conditions. The time based rate of 3H-GlcNH2 labelling of mucus in rectal tissue was similar to that in active or inactive UC whereas the rate of 35SO4(2) labelling was significantly increased in active disease. The 3H specific activities measuring the amount of isotopic incorporation into surface and tissue mucus glycoproteins were increased in patients with active UC compared with normal or inactive subjects. The 35S specific activities did not differ significantly between patients with active UC and those in remission. In the rectum, glycosylation of mucus glycoproteins decreases with the increasing age of the patient. Regional differences in 3H-labelling of mucus components are reported for ascending colon, transverse colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. Sulphation (35S-labelling) was higher in all parts of the colon in left sided UC. Results point to accelerated glycosylation of core proteins in the active phase of UC. PMID:8344580

  3. IBS-like symptoms in patients with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Gracie, David J; Ford, Alexander C

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are chronic gastrointestinal disorders that, until recently, have been considered dichotomous conditions falling on either side of a functional-organic divide. However, persistent gastrointestinal symptoms, akin to those of IBS, are observed in up to one in three patients with quiescent UC. Whether these lower gastrointestinal symptoms are secondary to coexistent IBS or occult UC disease activity is uncertain, but when objective evidence of disease activity is lacking, escalation of conventional pharmacotherapy in such patients is often ineffective. The etiologies of both UC and IBS remain unclear, but dysregulation of the enteric nervous system, an altered microbiome, low-grade mucosal inflammation, and activation of the brain–gut axis is common to both; this suggests that some overlap between the two conditions is plausible. How best to investigate and manage IBS-type symptoms in UC patients remains unclear. Studies that have assessed patients with UC who meet criteria for IBS for subclinical inflammation have been conflicting in their results. Although evidence-based treatments for IBS exist, their efficacy in UC patients reporting these types of symptoms remains unclear. Given the disturbances in gut microbiota in UC, and the possible role of the brain–gut axis in the generation of such symptoms, treatments such as probiotics, fecal transfer, antidepressants, or psychological therapies would seem logical approaches to use in this group of patients. However, there are only limited data for all of these therapies; this suggests that randomized controlled trials to investigate their efficacy in this setting may be warranted. PMID:25733921

  4. IBS-like symptoms in patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Gracie, David J; Ford, Alexander C

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are chronic gastrointestinal disorders that, until recently, have been considered dichotomous conditions falling on either side of a functional-organic divide. However, persistent gastrointestinal symptoms, akin to those of IBS, are observed in up to one in three patients with quiescent UC. Whether these lower gastrointestinal symptoms are secondary to coexistent IBS or occult UC disease activity is uncertain, but when objective evidence of disease activity is lacking, escalation of conventional pharmacotherapy in such patients is often ineffective. The etiologies of both UC and IBS remain unclear, but dysregulation of the enteric nervous system, an altered microbiome, low-grade mucosal inflammation, and activation of the brain-gut axis is common to both; this suggests that some overlap between the two conditions is plausible. How best to investigate and manage IBS-type symptoms in UC patients remains unclear. Studies that have assessed patients with UC who meet criteria for IBS for subclinical inflammation have been conflicting in their results. Although evidence-based treatments for IBS exist, their efficacy in UC patients reporting these types of symptoms remains unclear. Given the disturbances in gut microbiota in UC, and the possible role of the brain-gut axis in the generation of such symptoms, treatments such as probiotics, fecal transfer, antidepressants, or psychological therapies would seem logical approaches to use in this group of patients. However, there are only limited data for all of these therapies; this suggests that randomized controlled trials to investigate their efficacy in this setting may be warranted.

  5. ChE at UC Santa Barbara.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seborg, Dale E.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the chemical engineering program at the University of California, Santa Barbara, including history of the department, faculty research interests and professional activities, graduate and undergraduate programs, and research in nuclear engineering. (SK)

  6. Vitiligo in a patient receiving infliximab for refractory ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Waleed A; Al-Enzy, Saleh A; Alsurayei, Saqer A; Ismail, Ali E

    2011-06-01

    Infliximab is a chimerical monoclonal antibody that inhibits pro-inflammatory activity of tumour-necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and it is the primary biological agent used in the treatment of moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis (UC). We report a case of vitiligo following infliximab administration in a patient with refractory UC. The case serves as a reminder of adverse cutaneous reactions induced by TNFα-antagonist therapy.

  7. UCS-PROMOVE: The Engineer of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villas-Boas, V.

    2010-01-01

    The Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS) elaborated the cooperative project called "The engineer of the future", with the objective of promoting science and engineering among high school teachers and students. This project aims to improve the quality of the teaching and to increase the interest of students in technological areas, leading…

  8. Establishing an active patient partnership.

    PubMed

    Herrier, R N; Boyce, R W

    1995-04-01

    Pharmacists face many changes in the coming decade, some of which threaten their professional survival. Although uncertainty may currently prevail, one of these changes, the shift in the patient-health care professional relationship from the patient taking a passive role to an active partnering role, provides pharmacists with many opportunities to realize the vision of patient-centered care that has been advocated by pharmacy innovators and leaders for almost three decades. To take advantage of these changes, pharmacists must modify their practice paradigms and use their existing strengths, such as easy patient access and high levels of patient trust, to help develop a new model of pharmaceutical care. The concern that the magnitude of these changes will prevent successful practice transformations may be exaggerated. In reality, these proposed "new" roles have been in existence for much of this century. Most pharmacists can expand and enhance their traditional roles as self-care advisors and patient educators simply by incremental improvements in interpersonal and clinical skills. Rather than a Star Trek approach to "go where no man has gone before," the profession needs only a pharmaceutical sequel to Back to the Future.

  9. Evidence of trace conditioning in comatose patients revealed by the reactivation of EEG responses to alerting sounds.

    PubMed

    Juan, Elsa; Nguepnjo Nguissi, Nathalie Ata; Tzovara, Athina; Viceic, Dragana; Rusca, Marco; Oddo, Mauro; Rossetti, Andrea O; De Lucia, Marzia

    2016-11-01

    Trace conditioning refers to a learning process occurring after repeated presentation of a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS+) and a salient unconditioned stimulus (UCS) separated by a temporal gap. Recent studies have reported that trace conditioning can occur in humans in reduced levels of consciousness by showing a transfer of the unconditioned autonomic response to the CS+ in healthy sleeping individuals and in vegetative state patients. However, no previous studies have investigated the neural underpinning of trace conditioning in the absence of consciousness in humans. In the present study, we recorded the EEG activity of 29 post-anoxic comatose patients while presenting a trace conditioning paradigm using neutral tones as CS+ and alerting sounds as UCS. Most patients received therapeutic hypothermia and all were deeply unconscious according to standardized clinical scales. After repeated presentation of the CS+ and UCS couple, learning was assessed by measuring the EEG activity during the period where the UCS is omitted after CS+ presentation. Specifically we assessed the 'reactivation' of the neural response to UCS omission by applying a decoding algorithm derived from the statistical model of the EEG activity in response to the UCS presentation. The same procedure was used in a group of 12 awake healthy controls. We found a reactivation of the UCS response in absence of stimulation in eight patients (five under therapeutic hypothermia) and four healthy controls. Additionally, the reactivation effect was temporally specific within trials since it manifested primarily at the specific latency of UCS presentation and significantly less before or after this period. Our results show for the first time that trace conditioning may manifest as a reactivation of the EEG activity related to the UCS and even in the absence of consciousness.

  10. High energy physics at UC Riverside

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This report discusses progress made for the following two tasks: experimental high energy physics, Task A, and theoretical high energy physics, Task B. Task A1 covers hadron collider physics. Information for Task A1 includes: personnel/talks/publications; D0: proton-antiproton interactions at 2 TeV; SDC: proton-proton interactions at 40 TeV; computing facilities; equipment needs; and budget notes. The physics program of Task A2 has been the systematic study of leptons and hadrons. Information covered for Task A2 includes: personnel/talks/publications; OPAL at LEP; OPAL at LEP200; CMS at LHC; the RD5 experiment; LSND at LAMPF; and budget notes. The research activities of the Theory Group are briefly discussed and a list of completed or published papers for this period is given.

  11. Associations between diet and disease activity in ulcerative colitis patients using a novel method of data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Elizabeth A; Edmond, Laurie M; Tasker, Shiona M; Kong, San Choon; Curno, Richard; Cummings, John H

    2005-01-01

    Background The relapsing nature and varying geographical prevalence of ulcerative colitis (UC) implicates environmental factors such as diet in its aetiology. Methods In order to determine which foods might be related to disease activity in UC a new method of dietary analysis was developed and applied. Eighty-one UC patients were recruited at all stages of the disease process. Following completion of a 7 d diet diary, clinical assessment including a sigmoidoscopic examination (scale 0 (normal mucosa) to 6 (very active disease)) was conducted. Food weights for each person were adjusted (divided) by the person's calorific intake for the week. Each food consumed was given a food sigmoidoscopy score (FSS) calculated by summing the products of the (adjusted) weight of food consumed and sigmoidoscopy score for each patient and occurrence of food and dividing by the total (adjusted) weight of the food consumed by all 81 patients. Thus, foods eaten in large quantities by patients with very active disease have high FSSs and vice versa. Foods consumed by <10 people or weighing <1 kg for the whole group were excluded, leaving 75 foods. Results High FSS foods were characterized by high levels of the anti-thiamin additive sulfite (Mann-Whitney, p < 0.001), i.e. bitter, white wine, burgers, soft drinks from concentrates, sausages, lager and red wine. Caffeine also has anti-thiamin properties and decaffeinated coffee was associated with a better clinical state than the caffeine containing version. Beneficial foods (average intake per week) included pork (210 g), breakfast cereals (200 g), lettuce (110 g), apples and pears (390 g), milk (1250 ml), melon (350 g), bananas (350 g), bacon (120 g), beef and beef products (500 g), tomatoes (240 g), soup (700 g), citrus fruits (300 g), fish (290 g), yogurt (410 g), cheese (110 g), potatoes (710 g) and legumes (120 g). Conclusions The dietary analysis method described provides a new tool for establishing relationships between diet and

  12. Solid Organ Transplantation in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD): Analysis of Transplantation Outcome and IBD Activity in a Large Single Center Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzler, Fabian; Friedrich, Matthias; Stallhofer, Johannes; Schönermarck, Ulf; Fischereder, Michael; Habicht, Antje; Karbalai, Nazanin; Wolf, Christiane; Angelberger, Marianne; Olszak, Torsten; Beigel, Florian; Tillack, Cornelia; Göke, Burkhard; Zachoval, Reinhart; Denk, Gerald; Guba, Markus; Rust, Christian; Grüner, Norbert; Brand, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, limited data of the outcome of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in patients after solid organ transplantation (SOT) are available. We aimed to analyze effects of SOT on the IBD course in a large IBD patient cohort. Methods Clinical data from 1537 IBD patients were analyzed for patients who underwent SOT (n = 31) between July 2002 and May 2014. Sub-analyses included SOT outcome parameters, IBD activity before and after SOT, and efficacy of IBD treatment. Results 4.74% of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 0.84% of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) underwent SOT (p = 2.69 x 10−6, UC vs. CD). 77.4% of patients with SOT underwent liver transplantation (LTx) with tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive therapy after SOT. All LTx were due to primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) or PSC overlap syndromes. Six patients (19.4%) required renal transplantation and one patient (3.2%) heart transplantation. A survival rate of 83.9% after a median follow-up period of 103 months was observed. Before SOT, 65.0% of patients were in clinical remission and 5 patients received immunosuppressive therapy (16.1%). After SOT, 61.0% of patients were in remission (p = 1.00 vs. before SOT) and 29.0% required IBD-specific immunosuppressive or anti-TNF therapy (p = 0.54 vs. before SOT). 42.9% of patients with worsening of IBD after SOT were at higher risk of needing steroid therapy for increased IBD activity (p = 0.03; relative risk (RR): 10.29; 95% CI 1.26–84.06). Four patients (13.0%) needed anti-TNF therapy after SOT (response rate 75%). Conclusions SOT was more common in UC patients due to the higher prevalence of PSC-related liver cirrhosis in UC. Despite mainly tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive regimens, outcome of SOT and IBD was excellent in this cohort. In this SOT cohort, concomitant immunosuppressive therapy due to IBD was well tolerated. PMID:26288187

  13. The UC-LLNL Regional Climate System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.L.; Kim, Jinwon

    1996-09-01

    The UC-LLNL Regional Climate System Model has been under development since 1991. The unique system simulates climate from the global scale down to the watershed catchment scale, and consists of data pre- and post- processors, and four model components. The four model components are (1) a mesoscale atmospheric simulation model, (2) a soil-plant-snow model, (3) a watershed hydrology-riverflow model, and (4) a suite of crop response models. The first three model components have been coupled, and the system includes two-way feedbacks between the soil-plant-snow model and the mesoscale atmospheric simulation model. This three-component version of RCSM has been tested, validated, and successfully used for operational quantitative precipitation forecasts and seasonal water resource studies over the southwestern US. We are currently implementation and validating the fourth component, the Decision Support system for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT). A description of the UC-LLNL RCSM and some recent results are presented.

  14. The UC2-x - Carbon eutectic: A laser heating study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, D.; Boboridis, K.; Morel, S.; De Bruycker, F.

    2015-11-01

    The UC2-x - carbon eutectic has been studied by laser heating and fast multi-wavelength pyrometry under inert atmosphere. The study has been carried out on three compositions, two of which close to the phase boundary of the UC2-x - C miscibility gap (with C/U atomic ratios 2 and 2.1), and one, more crucial, with a large excess of carbon (C/U = 2.82). The first two compositions were synthesised by arc-melting. This synthesis method could not be applied to the last composition, which was therefore completed directly by laser irradiation. The U - C - O composition of the samples was checked by using a combustion method in an ELTRA® analyser. The eutectic temperature, established to be 2737 K ± 20 K, was used as a radiance reference together with the cubic - tetragonal (α → β) solid state transition, fixed at 2050 K ± 20 K. The normal spectral emissivity of the carbon-richer compounds increases up to 0.7, whereas the value 0.53 was established for pure hypostoichiometric uranium dicarbide at the limit of the eutectic region. This increase is analysed in the light of the demixing of excess carbon, and used for the determination of the liquidus temperature (3220 K ± 50 K for UC2.82). Due to fast solid state diffusion, also fostered by the cubic - tetragonal transition, no obvious signs of a lamellar eutectic structure could be observed after quenching to room temperature. The eutectic surface C/UC2-x composition could be qualitatively, but consistently, followed during the cooling process with the help of the recorded radiance spectra. Whereas the external liquid surface is almost entirely constituted by uranium dicarbide, it gets rapidly enriched in demixed carbon upon freezing. Demixed carbon seems to quickly migrate towards the inner bulk during further cooling. At the α → β transition, uranium dicarbide covers again the almost entire external surface.

  15. UC Berkeley's Celebration of the International Year of Astronomy 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, B. E.; Croft, S.; Silverman, J. M.; Klein, C.; Modjaz, M.

    2010-08-01

    We present the astronomy outreach efforts undertaken for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 at the University of California, Berkeley. Our department-wide endeavors included a monthly public lecture series by UC Berkeley astronomers and a major astronomy outreach event during a campus-wide university "open house," which included solar observing and a Starlab Planetarium. In addition to sharing our outreach techniques and outcomes, we discuss some of our unique strategies for advertising our events to the local community.

  16. A New Campus Built on Efficiency - UC Merced

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado, Andrea; Parrish, Kristen; Regnier, Cindy

    2013-02-01

    The University of California (UC), Merced partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit two existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% as part of DOE’s Commercial Buildings Partnerships (CBP) Program.1 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) provided technical expertise in support of this DOE program. This case study reports expected savings from proposed design recommendations for the campus, which are subject to change in final construction. It is estimated that UC Merced will achieve the 30% reduction in the two participating buildings, the central plant and the Science & Engineering (S&E) building. The savings from retrofits of those buildings represent about 17% of whole-campus energy use. In addition, the energy saved by the CBP retrofits supports a broader goal, UC Merced’s “Triple Zero” commitment to zero net energy, zero landfill waste, and zero net greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. Although the campus has already made progress toward that goal with its efficient building construction and operation, opportunities for deeper savings remain, as the CBP project demonstrates.

  17. Expression of guanylate cyclase-C, guanylin, and uroguanylin is downregulated proportionally to the ulcerative colitis disease activity index

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Danfeng; Niu, Junkun; Miao, Jiarong; Dong, Xiangqian; Wang, Hong; Yang, Gang; Wang, Kunhua; Miao, Yinglei

    2016-01-01

    The transmembrane receptor guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) signaling pathway has been implicated in several gastrointestinal disorders. Activation of GC-C via guanylin (Gn) and uroguanylin (Ugn) regulates intestinal fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. However, how it regulates the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is still unclear. Here, we investigated the activation of GC-C signaling in ulcerative colitis (UC) of different clinical severities. A total of 60 UC patients and 20 normal controls were recruited. Evaluation of the UC disease activity index (DAI) was performed using a modified Mayo scoring system. The expression of GC-C, Gn and Ugn in the colonic mucosa was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. We found that the UC patients had significantly lower expression of GC-C, Gn and Ugn than the controls. Furthermore, there were significant differences for GC-C, Gn and Ugn expression for the UC groups of Grade 1, 2 and 3, and their expression levels were reduced with increases in their DAI. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GC-C, Gn and Ugn are downregulated in UC, and this downregulation is more significant with aggravation of the clinical condition. Therefore, the GC-C signaling pathway may be implicated in the progression of UC. PMID:27125248

  18. Effects of endoplasmic reticulum stress on the expression of inflammatory cytokines in patients with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Wang, Xue-Ming; Jiang, Li-Jun; Zhang, Meng; Li, Na; Wei, Zhen-Zhen; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Ya-Jiao

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To explore the changes of X-box binding protein 1 splicing (XBP1s) and inflammatory cytokine expression in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). METHODS: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect the forms of XBP1s and the expression of interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-γ, and IL-17α. Differences between patients with UC and normal subjects were then determined. RESULTS: Mononuclear cells of the peripheral blood of normal subjects and UC patients with were stimulated with no drugs (control), phytohemagglutinin (PHA), thapsigargin (TG), or both PHA and TG. XBP1s in patients with UC exhibited splicing, which was greater with co-stimulation than single stimulation. Co-stimulation increased the expression level of IL-2, IFN-γ, and IL-17α. CONCLUSION: The T lymphocytes of both normal subjects and patients with UC responded to ERS by activating the XBP1s-mediated signalling pathway, upregulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines, and increasing the occurrence of inflammation. The mononuclear cells in the peripheral blood of patients with UC were more sensitive to ERS than those in the peripheral blood of normal subjects. PMID:26900298

  19. The College Selection Process of Freshmen Admitted to UC Davis: The Range of Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Bonnie L.

    Considerations in selecting a college were studied with a random sample of 768 freshmen admitted to the University of California (UC), Davis, in fall 1984. Major findings are: freshmen admitted to UC Davis had considerable breadth of knowledge about many other colleges and academic programs; over 80 percent applied to colleges besides UC Davis;…

  20. Microscopic features for initial diagnosis and disease activity evaluation in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Bressenot, Aude; Geboes, Karel; Vignaud, Jean-Michel; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2013-07-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is characterized by 2 major entities: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). In clinical practice, separation of UC and CD has been based on a variety of clinical features, symptoms, endoscopic and radiological, gross and microscopic characteristics. The microscopic diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease is based on a combination of 2 types of lesions: architectural abnormalities and inflammatory features. However, microscopic distinction between these 2 entities can be difficult and often results in an interim diagnosis of "indeterminate colitis." Recommendations are made to encourage pathologists to give an indication of the activity of the disease: in UC, biopsies are used to discriminate between quiescent disease, inactive disease, and different grades of activity; in CD, evaluation of disease activity is limited and inactivity in the biopsy may not reflect inactivity in the patient. The aim of this review was to summarize microscopic features of inflammatory bowel disease for initial diagnosis and evaluation of disease activity in both CD and UC.

  1. UC Merced Center for Computational Biology Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, Michael; Watanabe, Masakatsu

    2010-11-30

    Final report for the UC Merced Center for Computational Biology. The Center for Computational Biology (CCB) was established to support multidisciplinary scientific research and academic programs in computational biology at the new University of California campus in Merced. In 2003, the growing gap between biology research and education was documented in a report from the National Academy of Sciences, Bio2010 Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists. We believed that a new type of biological sciences undergraduate and graduate programs that emphasized biological concepts and considered biology as an information science would have a dramatic impact in enabling the transformation of biology. UC Merced as newest UC campus and the first new U.S. research university of the 21st century was ideally suited to adopt an alternate strategy - to create a new Biological Sciences majors and graduate group that incorporated the strong computational and mathematical vision articulated in the Bio2010 report. CCB aimed to leverage this strong commitment at UC Merced to develop a new educational program based on the principle of biology as a quantitative, model-driven science. Also we expected that the center would be enable the dissemination of computational biology course materials to other university and feeder institutions, and foster research projects that exemplify a mathematical and computations-based approach to the life sciences. As this report describes, the CCB has been successful in achieving these goals, and multidisciplinary computational biology is now an integral part of UC Merced undergraduate, graduate and research programs in the life sciences. The CCB began in fall 2004 with the aid of an award from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under its Genomes to Life program of support for the development of research and educational infrastructure in the modern biological sciences. This report to DOE describes the research and academic programs

  2. Telehealth at UC Davis--a 20-year experience.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Thomas S; Dharmar, Madan; Katz-Bell, Jana; Hartvigsen, Gunnar; Marcin, James P

    2013-05-01

    Telehealth at the University of California Health System began as a telefetal monitoring connection with a rural hospital in 1992 and evolved to become the Center for Health and Technology (CHT) in 2000. The Center supports the vision of the University of California Davis (UC Davis) Health System-a healthier world through bold innovation. The CHT focuses on the four pillars of the academic health center: clinical services, research and scholarly work, education, and public service. Since 1996, the Center has provided more than 33,000 telemedicine consultation (excluding teleradiology, telepathology, and phone consultations) in over 30 clinical specialties and at more than 90 locations across California. Research and continuous evaluation have played an integral role in shaping the telehealth program, as well as strategic collaborations and partnerships. In an effort to expand the field of telehealth the CHT provides telehealth training for health professionals, technical specialists, and administrators. Furthermore, it also plays an integral role in workforce development through the education of the next generation of community primary care physicians through Rural Programs In Medical Education (Rural PRIME) and continuing educational programs for working health professionals through videoconferencing and Web-based modalities. The Center is supported through a variety of funding sources, and its sustainability comes from a mix of fee-for-service payment, contracts, grants, gifts, and institutional funding. Together with key partners, UC Davis has educated and informed initiatives resulting in legislation and policies that advance telehealth. Looking toward the future, UC Davis is focused on technology-enabled healthcare and supporting synergy among electronic health records, health information exchange, mobile health, informatics, and telehealth.

  3. Approaches to improve the stability of the antiviral agent UC781 in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Damian, Festo; Fabian, Judit; Friend, David R; Kiser, Patrick F

    2010-08-30

    In this work, we evaluated the chemical stability profiles of UC781 based solutions to identify excipients that stabilize the microbicidal agent UC781. When different antioxidants were added to UC781 in sulfobutylether-beta-cyclodextrin (SBE-beta-CD) solutions and subjected to a 50 degrees C stability study, it was observed that EDTA was a better stabilizing agent than sodium metabisulfite, glutathione or ascorbic acid. Some antioxidants accelerated the degradation of UC781, suggesting metal-catalyzed degradation of UC781. Furthermore, we observed substantial degradation of UC781 when stored in 1% Tween 80 and 1% DMSO solutions alone or in those with 10mM EDTA. On the other hand, improved stability of UC781 in the presence of 100 and 200mM of EDTA was observed in these solutions. The addition of both EDTA and citric acid in the stock solutions resulted in recovery of more than 60% of UC781 after 12 weeks. Generally, 10% SBE-beta-CD in the presence of EDTA and citric acid stabilized UC781 solutions: the amount of UC781 recovered approaching 95% after 12 weeks of storage at 40 degrees C. We also showed that the desulfuration reaction of the UC781 thioamide involves oxygen by running solution stability studies in deoxygenated media. Improved stability of UC781 in the present study indicates that the incorporation of EDTA, citric acid and SBE-beta-CD and the removal of oxygen in formulations of this drug will aid in increasing the stability of UC781 where solutions of the drug are required.

  4. Molecular structure of uranium carbides: isomers of UC3.

    PubMed

    Zalazar, M Fernanda; Rayón, Víctor M; Largo, Antonio

    2013-03-21

    In this article, the most relevant isomers of uranium tricarbide are studied through quantum chemical methods. It is found that the most stable isomer has a fan geometry in which the uranium atom is bonded to a quasilinear C3 unit. Both, a rhombic and a ring CU(C2) structures are found about 104-125 kJ/mol higher in energy. Other possible isomers including linear geometries are located even higher. For each structure, we provide predictions for those molecular properties (vibrational frequencies, IR intensities, dipole moments) that could eventually help in their experimental detection. We also discuss the possible routes for the formation of the different UC3 isomers as well as the bonding situation by means of a topological analysis of the electron density.

  5. Patient Activation: Public Libraries and Health Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malachowski, Margot

    2011-01-01

    Patient activation is a new term for a perennial problem. People know what they need to do for their health: exercise, eat right, and get enough rest--but how are they motivated to actually do these things? This is what patient activation is. From this author's vantage point as a medical librarian, public libraries are well-placed to be part of…

  6. Therapeutic efficacy of undenatured type-II collagen (UC-II) in comparison to glucosamine and chondroitin in arthritic horses.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R C; Canerdy, T D; Skaggs, P; Stocker, A; Zyrkowski, G; Burke, R; Wegford, K; Goad, J T; Rohde, K; Barnett, D; DeWees, W; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    2009-12-01

    The present investigation evaluated arthritic pain in horses receiving daily placebo, undenatured type II collagen (UC-II) at 320, 480, or 640 mg (providing 80, 120, and 160 mg active UC-II, respectively), and glucosamine and chondroitin (5.4 and 1.8 g, respectively, bid for the first month, and thereafter once daily) for 150 days. Horses were evaluated for overall pain, pain upon limb manipulation, physical examination, and liver and kidney functions. Evaluation of overall pain was based upon a consistent observation of all subjects during a walk and a trot in the same pattern on the same surface. Pain upon limb manipulation was conducted after the walk and trot. It consisted of placing the affected joint in severe flexion for a period of 60 sec. The limb was then placed to the ground and the animal trotted off. The response to the flexion test was then noted with the first couple of strides the animal took. Flexion test was consistent with determining clinically the degree of osteoarthritis in a joint. Horses receiving placebo showed no change in arthritic condition, while those receiving 320 or 480 or 640 mg UC-II exhibited significant reduction in arthritic pain (P < 0.05). UC-II at 480 or 640 mg dose provided equal effects, and therefore, 480 mg dose was considered optimal. With this dose, reduction in overall pain was from 5.7 +/- 0.42 (100%) to 0.7 +/- 0.42 (12%); and in pain upon limb manipulation from 2.35 +/- 0.37 (100%) to 0.52 +/- 0.18 (22%). Although glucosamine and chondroitin treated group showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in pain compared with pretreated values, the efficacy was less compared with that observed with UC-II. In fact, UC-II at 480 or 640 mg dose was found to be more effective than glucosamine and chondroitin in arthritic horses. Clinical condition (body weight, body temperature, respiration rate, and pulse rate), and liver (bilirubin, GGT, and ALP) and kidney (BUN and creatinine) functions remained unchanged, suggesting that

  7. Gram-negative bacteria account for main differences between faecal microbiota from patients with ulcerative colitis and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Vigsnæs, L K; Brynskov, J; Steenholdt, C; Wilcks, A; Licht, T R

    2012-12-01

    Detailed knowledge about the composition of the intestinal microbiota may be critical to unravel the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC), a human chronic inflammatory bowel disease, since the intestinal microbes are expected to influence some of the key mechanisms involved in the inflammatory process of the gut mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the faecal microbiota in patients either with UC in remission (n=6) or with active disease (n=6), and in healthy controls (n=6). The composition of Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria was examined. Antigenic structures of Gram-negative bacteria such as lipopolysaccharides have been related to the inflammatory responses and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Dice cluster analysis and principal component analysis of faecal microbiota profiles obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative PCR, respectively, revealed that the composition of faecal bacteria from UC patients with active disease differed from the healthy controls and that this difference should be ascribed to Gram-negative bacteria. The analysis did not show any clear grouping of UC patients in remission. Even with the relatively low number of subjects in each group, we were able to detect a statistically significant underrepresentation of Lactobacillus spp. and Akkermansia muciniphila in UC patients with clinically active disease compared to the healthy controls. In line with previous communications, we have shown that the microbiota in UC patients with active disease differ from that in healthy controls. Our findings indicate that alterations in the composition of the Gram-negative bacterial population, as well as reduced numbers of lactobacilli and A. muciniphila may play a role in UC.

  8. Use of Cryopreserved, Particulate Human Amniotic Membrane and Umbilical Cord (AM/UC) Tissue: A Case Series Study for Application in the Healing of Chronic Wounds.

    PubMed

    Swan, Jennifer

    2014-11-01

    Human amniotic membrane and umbilical cord tissues (AM/UC) are fetal tissues that contain proteins, cytokines, and growth factors that, when transplanted, can modulate inflammation and promote healing. Lyophilized, particulate AM/UC tissues can be used as wound coverings for chronic dermal ulcers or defects to promote granulation tissue formation and rapid re-epithelialization. This study reviews a case series of 5 patients presenting with chronic nonhealing wounds that received particulate AM/UC tissues (NEOX® FLO, Amniox Medical, Atlanta, GA). For all cases, wounds were debrided in the office setting and a single application of lyophilized particulate was used with minimal additional dressings. The lyophilized AM/UC tissue was placed within the wound bed and a dressing consisting of Adaptic®, 2x2 or 4x4 (Systagenix, Quincy, MA), Kling® (Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, NJ), and ACE™ (3M, St. Paul, MN) wrap were applied. Dressings were kept in place until weekly follow-up appointments in which a new Adaptic, 2x2 and Kling were applied. Overall, healing of wounds was noted to have a mean of 5 weeks to complete epithelialization. Upon complete healing patients were able to return to planned postoperative care and rehabilitation. Wound complications occur despite the best standard of care. Chronic wounds that remain weeks after surgery inhibit patients from progressing to physical rehabilitation and significantly affect patients both physically and mentally. These case presentations demonstrate how use of human AM/UC tissue may help wounds heal quickly and help patients return to normal function.

  9. Water-Dispersible Silica-Coated Upconverting Liposomes: Can a Thin Silica Layer Protect TTA-UC against Oxygen Quenching?

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Light upconversion by triplet–triplet annihilation (TTA-UC) in nanoparticles has received considerable attention for bioimaging and light activation of prodrugs. However, the mechanism of TTA-UC is inherently sensitive for quenching by molecular oxygen. A potential oxygen protection strategy is the coating of TTA-UC nanoparticles with a layer of oxygen-impermeable material. In this work, we explore if (organo)silica can fulfill this protecting role. Three synthesis routes are described for preparing water-dispersible (organo)silica-coated red-to-blue upconverting liposomes. Their upconversion properties are investigated in solution and in A549 lung carcinoma cells. Although it was found that the silica offered no protection from oxygen in solution and after uptake in A549 cancer cells, upon drying of the silica-coated liposome dispersion in an excess of (organo)silica precursor, interesting liposome–silica nanocomposite materials were obtained that were capable of generating blue light upon red light excitation in air. PMID:28317022

  10. LLNL/UC (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)/(University of California) AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) facility and research program

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.C.; Proctor, I.D.; Southon, J.R.; Caffee, M.W.; Heikkinen, D.W.; Roberts, M.L.; Moore, T.L.; Turteltaub, K.W.; Nelson, D.E.; Loyd, D.H.; Vogel, J.S.

    1990-04-18

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California (UC) now have in operation a large AMS spectrometer built as part of a new multiuser laboratory centered on an FN tandem. AMS measurements are expected to use half of the beam time of the accelerator. LLNL use of AMS is in research on consequences of energy usage. Examples include global warming, geophysical site characterization, radiation biology and dosimetry, and study of mutagenic and carcinogenic processes. UC research activities are in clinical applications, archaeology and anthropology, oceanography, and geophysical and geochemical research. Access is also possible for researchers outside the UC system. The technological focus of the laboratory is on achieving high rates of sample through-put, unattended operation, and advances in sample preparation methods. Because of the expected growth in the research programs and the other obligations of the present accelerator, we are designing a follow-on dedicated facility for only AMS and microprobe analysis that will contain at least two accelerators with multiple spectrometers. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  11. 46 CFR 54.25-3 - Steel plates (modifies UCS-6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). 54.25-3 Section 54.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-3 Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). The...

  12. 46 CFR 54.25-3 - Steel plates (modifies UCS-6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). 54.25-3 Section 54.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-3 Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). The...

  13. 46 CFR 54.25-3 - Steel plates (modifies UCS-6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). 54.25-3 Section 54.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-3 Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). The...

  14. 46 CFR 54.25-3 - Steel plates (modifies UCS-6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). 54.25-3 Section 54.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-3 Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). The...

  15. 46 CFR 54.25-3 - Steel plates (modifies UCS-6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). 54.25-3 Section 54.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-3 Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). The...

  16. What explains the intention to be physically active in cancer patients? Different determinants for active and insufficiently active patients.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Nadine; Sieverding, Monika; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Wiskemann, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    In a qualitative elicitation study with 61 cancer patients, a broad range of attitudes toward physical activity could be obtained, especially negative attitudes among insufficiently active patients. Based on these results, a second quantitative study was conducted; 64 patients [40 men; 42% insufficiently active (<150 minutes/week)] completed a Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) questionnaire. Regression analyses revealed that different variables of the TPB are relevant for explaining the intention to exercise for physically active (subjective norm) and insufficiently active (attitudes) cancer patients. Health professionals should adapt their support to the special needs of insufficiently active and active cancer patients.

  17. Mo uc(v) Energy Levels and f values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Lin; Beck, Donald R.

    2004-05-01

    Relativistic Configuration Interaction (RCI) calculations have been done for the lowest 12 J=0 even parity levels, and the lowest 30 J=1 odd parity levels of Mo uc(v.) For the J=0 4d^2 and 4d 5d energy differences, the average error is 229 cm-1 ( M. I. Cabeza, F. G. Meijer, and L. Iglesias, Phys. Scr. 34), 223 (1986). For the other J=0 levels, the average difference with experiment (A. Tauheed, M. S. Z. Chaghtai, and K. Rahimullah, Phys. Scr. 31), 369 (1985) is considerably greater. Our average energy errors for the 11 known ^2 J=1 levels is 233 cm-1, excluding the 5s 5p ^1 P level, which is 1580 cm-1 higher than observed ^2. We predict positions of 19 4p^5 4d^3 levels, as well as f values for the 360 transitions between the calculated levels. Gauge agreements are good for transitions with f > .01. Details of the methodology have been published elsewhere (D. R. Beck and L. Pan, Phys. Scr. 69), 91 (2004).

  18. Alterations of brain activity in fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Sawaddiruk, Passakorn; Paiboonworachat, Sahattaya; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-04-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain with diffuse tenderness at multiple tender points. Despite intense investigations, the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia remains elusive. Evidence shows that it could be due to changes in either the peripheral or central nervous system (CNS). For the CNS changes, alterations in the high brain area of fibromyalgia patients have been investigated but the definite mechanisms are still unclear. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI) have been used to gather evidence regarding the changes of brain morphologies and activities in fibromyalgia patients. Nevertheless, due to few studies, limited knowledge for alterations in brain activities in fibromyalgia is currently available. In this review, the changes in brain activity in various brain areas obtained from reports in fibromyalgia patients are comprehensively summarized. Changes of the grey matter in multiple regions such as the superior temporal gyrus, posterior thalamus, amygdala, basal ganglia, cerebellum, cingulate cortex, SII, caudate and putamen from the MRI as well as the increase of brain activities in the cerebellum, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, somatosensory cortex, insula in fMRI studies are presented and discussed. Moreover, evidence from pharmacological interventions offering benefits for fibromyalgia patients by reducing brain activity is presented. Because of limited knowledge regarding the roles of brain activity alterations in fibromyalgia, this summarized review will encourage more future studies to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in the brains of these patients.

  19. Clinical Efficacy of Beclomethasone Dipropionate in Korean Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon Jee; Kim, Jae Hyun; Yoo, SunHo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) in Korean patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Materials and Methods The medical records of patients with active UC who were treated with BDP were retrospectively reviewed. Partial Mayo Clinic score (pMS) was calculated to determine disease activity. After 4 weeks of therapy, clinical remission, clinical response, and response failure rates were evaluated. Clinical remission was defined as a post-treatment pMS of 0 or 1, clinical response as a decrease of two of three points in pMS and >30% from baseline, and response failure as a lack of clinical response. Also, we considered that clinical remission was included in clinical response. Results Between July 2013 and April 2015, 95 patients with UC received BDP therapy at our institution (median age, 44 years; range, 12–81 years). After 4 weeks of therapy, clinical remission and clinical response rates were 50.5% and 73.7%, respectively. Mean change of pMS before and after BDP therapy was 2.4. There was no significant side effect reported. In multivariate analysis, disease activity was the only factor associated with a favorable response. Clinical remission rate was significantly higher in the mild disease activity group (66.7%) than that in the moderate or severe disease activity group (41.9%) (p=0.024). Conclusion BDP is efficacious in inducing a clinical response or remission in Korean patients with UC. Patients with mild UC were more likely to be in remission than those with moderate or severe UC after receiving BDP for 4 weeks. BDP exhibited a good safety profile. PMID:27873507

  20. Evolution of spatial resolution in breast CT at UC Davis

    SciTech Connect

    Gazi, Peymon M.; Yang, Kai; Burkett, George W.; Aminololama-Shakeri, Shadi; Anthony Seibert, J.; Boone, John M.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) technology for the purpose of breast cancer screening has been a focus of research at UC Davis since the late 1990s. Previous studies have shown that improvement in spatial resolution characteristics of this modality correlates with greater microcalcification detection, a factor considered a potential limitation of bCT. The aim of this study is to improve spatial resolution as characterized by the modulation transfer function (MTF) via changes in the scanner hardware components and operational schema. Methods: Four prototypes of pendant-geometry, cone-beam breast CT scanners were designed and developed spanning three generations of design evolution. To improve the system MTF in each bCT generation, modifications were made to the imaging components (x-ray tube and flat-panel detector), system geometry (source-to-isocenter and detector distance), and image acquisition parameters (technique factors, number of projections, system synchronization scheme, and gantry rotational speed). Results: Characterization of different generations of bCT systems shows these modifications resulted in a 188% improvement of the limiting MTF properties from the first to second generation and an additional 110% from the second to third. The intrinsic resolution degradation in the azimuthal direction observed in the first generation was corrected by changing the acquisition from continuous to pulsed x-ray acquisition. Utilizing a high resolution detector in the third generation, along with modifications made in system geometry and scan protocol, resulted in a 125% improvement in limiting resolution. An additional 39% improvement was obtained by changing the detector binning mode from 2 × 2 to 1 × 1. Conclusions: These results underscore the advancement in spatial resolution characteristics of breast CT technology. The combined use of a pulsed x-ray system, higher resolution flat-panel detector and changing the scanner geometry and image

  1. Linking estrogen receptor β expression with inflammatory bowel disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Pierdominici, Marina; Maselli, Angela; Varano, Barbara; Barbati, Cristiana; Cesaro, Paola; Spada, Cristiano; Zullo, Angelo; Lorenzetti, Roberto; Rosati, Marco; Rainaldi, Gabriella; Limiti, Maria Rosaria; Guidi, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) whose pathogenesis is only poorly understood. Estrogens have a complex role in inflammation and growing evidence suggests that these hormones may impact IBD pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrated a significant reduction (p < 0.05) of estrogen receptor (ER)β expression in peripheral blood T lymphocytes from CD/UC patients with active disease (n = 27) as compared to those in remission (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 29). Accordingly, in a subgroup of CD/UC patients undergoing to anti-TNF-α therapy and responsive to treatment, ERβ expression was higher (p < 0.01) than that observed in not responsive patients and comparable to that of control subjects. Notably, ERβ expression was markedly decreased in colonic mucosa of CD/UC patients with active disease, reflecting the alterations observed in peripheral blood T cells. ERβ expression inversely correlated with interleukin (IL)-6 serum levels and exogenous exposure of both T lymphocytes and intestinal epithelial cells to this cytokine resulted in ERβ downregulation. These results demonstrate that the ER profile is altered in active IBD patients at both mucosal and systemic levels, at least in part due to IL-6 dysregulation, and highlight the potential exploitation of T cell-associated ERβ as a biomarker of endoscopic disease activity. PMID:26497217

  2. Difference in Ulex europaeus agglutinin I-binding activity of decay-accelerating factor detected in the stools of patients with colorectal cancer and ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Hiroaki; Mizuno, Motowo; Nasu, Junichirou; Makidono, Chiho; Hiraoka, Sakiko; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Okada, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Teizo; Tsuji, Takao; Shiratori, Yasushi

    2004-03-01

    Expression of decay-accelerating factor (DAF, CD55), a complement-regulatory glycoprotein, is enhanced in colorectal-cancer (CC) cells and colonic epithelium in ulcerative colitis (UC), and stools from these patients contain increased amounts of DAF. Carbohydrate chains of glycoproteins are often altered during malignant transformation or inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether DAF molecules in patients with CC and those with UC differ with respect to oligosaccharide side chains. We analyzed DAF in stools and homogenates of colonic-tissue specimens obtained from patients with CC or UC using solid-phase enzyme-linked assay and Western blotting for reactivity with the lectins Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), wheat-germ agglutinin, peanut agglutinin, and concanavalin A. UEA-I bound to DAF in stools from patients with UC but not in that from the stools of CC patients, as demonstrated on the solid-phase enzyme-linked assay (P <.05, Mann-Whitney U test) and Western blotting. Binding of UEA-I was specifically inhibited by the addition of fucose. The difference in UEA-I reactivity with DAF was observed also in colonic-tissue homogenates from patients with UC and those with CC. DAF expressed in the mucosa and excreted into the stools of UC patients is different from that expressed in CC with regard to UEA-I reactivity. Future studies should be directed toward determining whether a qualitatively unique isoform of DAF is present, of which sugar chains are specific to CC in UC patients.

  3. Significant differences between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis regarding the impact of body mass index and initial disease activity on responsiveness to azathioprine: results from a European multicenter study in 1,176 patients.

    PubMed

    Holtmann, Martin H; Krummenauer, Frank; Claas, Christina; Kremeyer, Kristina; Lorenz, Dirk; Rainer, Olivia; Vogel, Iris; Böcker, Ulrich; Böhm, Stephan; Büning, Carsten; Duchmann, Rainer; Gerken, Guido; Herfarth, Hans; Lügering, Norbert; Kruis, Wolfgang; Reinshagen, Max; Schmidt, Jan; Stallmach, Andreas; Stein, Jürgen; Sturm, Andreas; Galle, Peter R; Hommes, Daan W; D'Haens, Geert; Rutgeerts, Paul; Neurath, Markus F

    2010-04-01

    In a survey comprising 1,176 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) we recently showed that azathioprine (AZA) beyond 4 years is beneficial in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and in a subset of Crohn's disease (CD) patients. Here, we show for the first time that azathioprine responsiveness depends on body mass index (BMI). The relationship is reciprocal in UC and CD, with a better outcome in UC patients with a BMI<25 and in CD patients with a BMI>25. These observations are particularly interesting considering the evolving concept of a relationship between fatty metabolism and immune regulation. Additionally, we show that CD patients, but not UC patients, respond better to AZA when it is started in clinical remission. This observation may support data favouring a "hit hard and early" regime in CD. Finally, we were able to demonstrate a decrease in the incidence of CD-related complications requiring surgery through treatment with AZA.

  4. Physical activity in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Achamrah, Najate; Coëffier, Moïse; Déchelotte, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is often associated with physical hyperactivity. Recent studies have established links between anorexia and hyperactivity, suggesting the existence of commonalities in neural pathways. How physical activity should be managed during the clinical care of patients with anorexia remains controversial. This review first focuses on the implication of hyperactivity in the pathophysiology of AN. Hyperactivity during refeeding of patients with AN has been associated with increased energy needs to achieve weight gain, poorer clinical outcome, longer hospitalization, and increased psychiatric comorbidity. This typically leads to the prescription of bed rest. However, current knowledge suggests that preserving some kind of physical activity during refeeding of patients with AN should be safe and beneficial for the restoration of body composition, the preservation of bone mineral density, and the management of mood and anxiety. In the absence of standardized guidelines, it is suggested here that physical activity during refeeding of patients with AN should be personalized according to the physical and mental status of each patient. More research is needed to assess whether programmed physical activity may be a beneficial part of the treatment of AN.

  5. Prolidase activity in chronic plaque psoriasis patients

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Nurten; Ozgöztas, Orhan; Sezen, Hatice; Yesilova, Yavuz; Turan, Enver

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, T-cell-mediated and hyperproliferative skin disease characterized by erythematous, squamous, sharply circumscribed and infiltrated plaques. The metabolisms of the collagen proteins undergo considerable changes due to the acceleration of their turnovers as a result of increased prolidase activity in psoriasis patients. Aim To determine the level of prolidase activity in psoriasis patients and evaluate its relationship with the oxidative system. Material and methods The serum prolidase enzyme activity, total antioxidant levels and total oxidant levels of 40 psoriasis patients and a control group including 47 healthy individuals were analyzed by using their serum samples, and their oxidative stress indices were calculated. Results The prolidase levels (p < 0.01), total oxidant levels (p < 0.01) and oxidative stress index levels (p < 0.001) of the patient group were higher than the corresponding parameters in the control group. The total antioxidant level was low (p < 0.01). Although a positive correlation was found between the prolidase and total antioxidant levels and the total oxidant level, no correlation was found between prolidase and the oxidative stress index. Conclusions It has been determined that the activity of the prolidase enzyme increases due to the increased collage turnover in psoriasis patients. Increased serum oxidant levels and oxidative stress indices values may play a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. PMID:26015776

  6. Total Ionizing Dose Test Report for the UC1823A Pulse Width Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Dakai; Forney, James

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the total ionizing dose susceptibility for the UC1823A pulse width modulator manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. The part is suspected to be vulnerable to enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS).

  7. Increased Expression and Cellular Localization of Spermine Oxidase in Ulcerative Colitis and Relationship to Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Shih-Kuang S.; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Blanca Piazuelo, M.; Coburn, Lori A.; Williams, Christopher S.; Delgado, Alberto G.; Casero, Robert A.; Schwartz, David A.; Wilson, Keith T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Polyamines are important in cell growth and wound repair, but have also been implicated in inflammation-induced carcinogenesis. Polyamine metabolism includes back-conversion of spermine to spermidine by the enzyme spermine oxidase (SMO), which produces hydrogen peroxide that causes oxidative stress. In ulcerative colitis (UC), levels of spermine are decreased compared to spermidine. Therefore, we sought to determine if SMO is involved in UC. Methods Colon biopsies and clinical information from subjects undergoing colonoscopy for evaluation of UC or colorectal cancer screening were utilized from 16 normal controls and 53 UC cases. Histopathologic disease severity was graded and the Mayo Disease Activity Index (DAI) and endoscopy subscore assessed. SMO mRNA expression was measured in frozen biopsies by Taq-Man-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Formalin-fixed tissues were used for SMO immunohistochemistry. Results There was a 3.1-fold upregulation of SMO mRNA levels in UC patients compared to controls (P = 0.044), and a 3.7-fold increase in involved left colon versus paired uninvolved right colon (P < 0.001). With worsening histologic injury in UC there was a progressive increase in SMO staining of mononuclear inflammatory cells. There was a similar increase in SMO staining with worsening endoscopic disease severity and strong correlation with the DAI (r = 0.653, P < 0.001). Inflammatory cell SMO staining was increased in involved left colon versus uninvolved right colon. Conclusions SMO expression is upregulated in UC tissues, deriving from increased levels in mononuclear inflammatory cells. Dysregulated polyamine homeostasis may contribute to chronic UC by altering immune responses and increasing oxidative stress. PMID:20127992

  8. When seeing the same physician, highly activated patients have better care experiences than less activated patients.

    PubMed

    Greene, Jessica; Hibbard, Judith H; Sacks, Rebecca; Overton, Valerie

    2013-07-01

    Measures of the patient care experience are now routinely used in public reports and increasingly influence health provider payment. We examined data from 5,002 patients of forty-nine primary care providers to explore the relationship between patient activation-a term referring to the knowledge, skills, and confidence a patient has for managing his or her health care-and the patient care experience. We found that patients at higher levels of activation had more positive experiences than patients at lower levels seeing the same clinician. The observed differential was maintained when we controlled for demographic characteristics and health status. We did not find evidence that patients at higher levels of activation selected providers who were more patient-centric. The findings suggest that the care experience is transactional, shaped by both providers and patients. Strategies to improve the patient experience, therefore, should focus not only on providers but also on improving patients' ability to elicit what they need from their providers.

  9. Sympathetic overactivity in active ulcerative colitis: effects of clonidine.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Raffaello; Ardizzone, Sandro; Palazzolo, Laura; Rimoldi, Alexandra; Perego, Francesca; Barbic, Franca; Bevilacqua, Maurizio; Vago, Luca; Bianchi Porro, Gabriele; Malliani, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Previous reports suggest that inflammatory bowel diseases may be accompanied by abnormalities in the neural autonomic profile. We tested the hypotheses that 1) an exaggerated sympathetic activity characterizes active ulcerative colitis (UC) and 2) a reduction of sympathetic activity by clonidine would be associated with clinical changes of UC. In 23 patients with UC and 20 controls, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), ECG, blood pressure, and respiration were continuously recorded, and plasma catecholamine was evaluated both at rest and during a 75 degrees head-up tilt. Autonomic profile was assessed by MSNA, norepinephrine, epinephrine, spectral markers of low-frequency (LF) cardiac sympathetic (LF(RR); normalized units) and high-frequency (HF) parasympathetic (HF(RR); normalized units) modulation and sympathetic vasomotor control (LF systolic arterial pressure; LF(SAP)), obtained by spectrum analysis of the R-R interval and systolic pressure variability. Among UC patients, 16 agreed to be randomly assigned to 8-wk transdermal clonidine (15 mg/wk, 9 subjects), or placebo (7 patients). An autonomic profile, Disease Activity Index (DAI), and endoscopic pattern were compared before and after clonidine/placebo. At rest, MSNA, heart rate (HR), LF(RR), LF/HF, and LF(SAP) were higher and HF(RR) was lower in patients than in controls. Tilt decreased HF(RR) and increased MSNA and LF(RR) less in patients than in controls. Clonidine decreased HR, MSNA, epinephrine, LF(RR), and increased HF(RR), whereas placebo had no effects. Changes of the autonomic profile after clonidine were associated with reduction of DAI score. An overall increase of sympathetic activity characterized active UC. Normalization of the autonomic profile by clonidine was accompanied by an improvement of the disease.

  10. Experimental study of UC polycrystals in the prospect of improving the as-fabricated sample purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raveu, Gaëlle; Martin, Guillaume; Fiquet, Olivier; Garcia, Philippe; Carlot, Gaëlle; Palancher, Hervé; Bonnin, Anne; Khodja, Hicham; Raepsaet, Caroline; Sauvage, Thierry; Barthe, Marie-France

    2014-12-01

    Uranium and plutonium carbides are candidate fuels for Generation IV nuclear reactors. This study is focused on the characterization of uranium monocarbide samples. The successive fabrication steps were carried out under atmospheres containing low oxygen and moisture concentrations (typically less than 100 ppm) but sample transfers occurred in air. Six samples were sliced from four pellets elaborated by carbothermic reaction under vacuum. Little presence of UC2 is expected in these samples. The α-UC2 phase was indeed detected within one of these UC samples during an XRD experiment performed with synchrotron radiation. Moreover, oxygen content at the surface of these samples was depth profiled using a recently developed nuclear reaction analysis method. Large oxygen concentrations were measured in the first micron below the sample surface and particularly in the first 100-150 nm. UC2 inclusions were found to be more oxidized than the surrounding matrix. This work points out to the fact that more care must be given at each step of UC fabrication since the material readily reacts with oxygen and moisture. A new glovebox facility using a highly purified atmosphere is currently being built in order to obtain single phase UC samples of better purity.

  11. Quantification of process variables for carbothermic synthesis of UC1-xNx fuel microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemer, T. B.; Silva, C. M.; Henry, J. J.; McMurray, J. W.; Voit, S. L.; Collins, J. L.; Hunt, R. D.

    2017-01-01

    This report details the continued investigation of process variables involved in converting sol-gel-derived, urania-carbon microspheres to ∼820-μm-dia. UC1-xNx fuel kernels in flow-through, vertical Mo and W crucibles at temperatures up to 2123 K. Experiments included calcining of air-dried UO3-H2O-C microspheres in Ar and H2-containing gases, conversion of the resulting UO2-C kernels to dense UO2:2UC in the same gases and vacuum, and its conversion in N2 to UC1-xNx (x = ∼0.85). The thermodynamics of the relevant reactions were applied extensively to interpret and control the process variables. Producing the precursor UO2:2UC kernel of ∼96% theoretical density was required, but its subsequent conversion to UC1-xNx at 2123 K was not accompanied by sintering and resulted in ∼83-86% of theoretical density. Increasing the UC1-xNx kernel nitride component to ∼0.98 in flowing N2-H2 mixtures to evolve HCN was shown to be quantitatively consistent with present and past experiments and the only useful application of H2 in the entire process.

  12. Contamination and harm relevant UCS-expectancy bias in spider phobic individuals: influence of treatment.

    PubMed

    van Overveld, Mark; de Jong, Peter J; Huijding, Jorg; Peters, Madelon L

    2010-01-01

    Phobic individuals expect aversive UCS's following encounters with phobic stimuli. Previous research using a thought-experiment procedure showed that contamination rather than harm-related outcome expectancies differentiated best between high and low spider fearful undergraduates. This study investigated the alleged role of these UCS-expectancy biases in the maintenance of phobic complaints. First, this study sought to replicate these earlier findings in a community sample of high spider fearful individuals who applied for treatment (n = 60) and a sample of low spider fear controls (n = 30). Second, the present study tested if UCS-expectancies disappear following successful treatment and whether there were any differences between harm and contamination-related UCS expectancies in this respect. If contamination- and/or harm-related UCS-expectancy biases play a critical role in the maintenance of spider fear, these biases should be substantially reduced after successful treatment. The results showed that spider fearful individuals associated spiders relatively strongly with both harm- and contamination-related outcomes. Consistent with the alleged reciprocal relationship between phobic fear and UCS expectancy bias, both types of biased expectancies were effectively reduced following treatment.

  13. Soluble ST2: A new and promising activity marker in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Jiménez, David; Núñez, Lucía E; Beltrán, Caroll J; Candia, Enzo; Suazo, Cristóbal; Álvarez-Lobos, Manuel; González, María-Julieta; Hermoso, Marcela A; Quera, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To correlate circulating soluble ST2 (sST2) levels with the severity of ulcerative colitis (UC) and serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and to demonstrate the predictive power of sST2 levels for differentiation between active and inactive UC. METHODS: We recruited 153 patients: 82 with UC, 26 with Crohn’s disease (CD) and 43 disease controls [non-inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)]. Subjects were excluded if they had diagnosis of asthma, autoimmune diseases or hypertension. The serum levels of sST2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines [pg/mL; median (25th-75th)] as well as clinical features, endoscopic and histological features, were subjected to analyses. The sST2 performance for discrimination between active and inactive UC, non-IBD and healthy controls (HC) was determined with regard to sensitivity and specificity, and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (r). To validate the method, the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) was determined (AUC, 95% CI) and the total ST2 content of the colonic mucosa in UC patients was correlated with circulating levels of sST2. RESULTS: The serum sST2 value was significantly higher in patients with active [235.80 (90.65-367.90) pg/mL] rather than inactive UC [33.19 (20.04-65.32) pg/mL], based on clinical, endoscopic and histopathological characteristics, as well as compared with non-IBD and HC (P < 0.001). The median level of sST2 in CD patients was 54.17 (35.02-122.0) pg/mL, significantly higher than that of the HC group only (P < 0.01). The cutoff was set at 74.87 pg/mL to compare active with inactive UC in a multicenter cohort of patients. Values of sensitivity, specificity, and ability to correctly classify UC, according to activity, were 83.33%, 83.33% and 83.33%, respectively. The AUC of the ROC curve to assess the ability of this molecule to discriminate between active vs inactive UC was 0.92 (0.86-0.97, P < 0.0001). The serum levels of sST2 in patients with UC significantly

  14. Gamma-N activation of cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, L.; Meek, A.G.; Moskowitz, M.; Cohn, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    High energy gamma radiation (8 to 30 MeV) is gaining acceptance for radiation therapy of patients with deep cancers. This radiation is of sufficient energy to induce photonuclear activation of the elements in the human body. Our results of measurements of nitrogen and phosphorus in an anthropomorphic phantom, a cadaver, and a cancer patient with bremsstrahlung radiation from 15 MeV electrons demonstrate the feasibility of a method to monitor these two elements in the human body in vivo by measuring the radioactivity induced in these targets by photonuclear reactions. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Comparative therapeutic efficacy and safety of type-II collagen (UC-II), glucosamine and chondroitin in arthritic dogs: pain evaluation by ground force plate.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R C; Canerdy, T D; Lindley, J; Konemann, M; Minniear, J; Carroll, B A; Hendrick, C; Goad, J T; Rohde, K; Doss, R; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    2012-10-01

    The investigation was conducted on client-owned moderately arthritic dogs with two objectives: (i) to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of type-II collagen (UC-II) alone or in combination with glucosamine hydrochloride (GLU) and chondroitin sulphate (CHO), and (ii) to determine their tolerability and safety. Dogs in four groups (n = 7-10), were treated daily for a period of 150 days with placebo (Group-I), 10 mg active UC-II (Group-II), 2000 mg GLU + 1600 mg CHO (Group-III), and UC-II + GLU + CHO (Group-IV). On a monthly basis, dogs were evaluated for observational pain (overall pain, pain upon limb manipulation, and pain after physical exertion) using different numeric scales. Pain level was also measured objectively using piezoelectric sensor-based GFP for peak vertical force and impulse area. Dogs were also examined every month for physical, hepatic (ALP, ALT and bilirubin) and renal (BUN and creatinine) functions. Based on observations, significant (p < 0.05) reduction in pain was noted in Group-II, III, and IV dogs. Using GFP, significant increases in peak vertical force (N/kg body wt) and impulse area (N s/kg body wt), indicative of a decrease in arthritis associated pain, were observed in Group-II dogs only. None of the dogs in any group showed changes in physical, hepatic or renal functions. In conclusion, based on GFP data, moderately arthritic dogs treated with UC-II (10 mg) showed a marked reduction in arthritic pain with maximum improvement by day 150. UC-II, GLU and CHO operate through different mechanisms of action, and were well tolerated over a period of 150 days.

  16. UNC-45/CRO1/She4p (UCS) Protein Forms Elongated Dimer and Joins Two Myosin Heads Near Their Actin Binding Region

    SciTech Connect

    H Shi; G Blobel

    2011-12-31

    UNC-45/CRO1/She4p (UCS) proteins have variously been proposed to affect the folding, stability, and ATPase activity of myosins. They are the only proteins known to interact directly with the motor domain. To gain more insight into UCS function, we determined the atomic structure of the yeast UCS protein, She4p, at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. We found that 16 helical repeats are organized into an L-shaped superhelix with an amphipathic N-terminal helix dangling off the short arm of the L-shaped molecule. In the crystal, She4p forms a 193-{angstrom}-long, zigzag-shaped dimer through three distinct and evolutionary conserved interfaces. We have identified She4p's C-terminal region as a ligand for a 27-residue-long epitope on the myosin motor domain. Remarkably, this region consists of two adjacent, but distinct, binding epitopes localized at the nucleotide-responsive cleft between the nucleotide- and actin-filament-binding sites. One epitope is situated inside the cleft, the other outside the cleft. After ATP hydrolysis and Pi ejection, the cleft narrows at its base from 20 to 12 {angstrom} thereby occluding the inside the cleft epitope, while leaving the adjacent, outside the cleft binding epitope accessible to UCS binding. Hence, one cycle of higher and lower binding affinity would accompany one ATP hydrolysis cycle and a single step in the walk on an actin filament rope. We propose that a UCS dimer links two myosins at their motor domains and thereby functions as one of the determinants for step size of myosin on actin filaments.

  17. Venous thromboembolism in patients with active cancer.

    PubMed

    Seddighzadeh, Ali; Shetty, Ranjith; Goldhaber, Samuel Z

    2007-09-01

    Patients with cancer have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). To further define the demographics, comorbidities, and risk factors of VTE in these patients, we analyzed a prospective registry of 5,451 patients with ultrasound confirmed deep vein thrombosis (DVT) from 183 hospitals in the United States. Cancer was reported in 1,768 (39%), of whom 1,096 (62.0%) had active cancer. Of these, 599 (54.7%) were receiving chemotherapy, and 226 (20.6%) had metastases. Lung (18.5%), colorectal (11.8%), and breast cancer (9.0%) were among the most common cancer types. Cancer patients were younger (median age 66 years vs. 70 years; p < 0.0001), were more likely to be male (50.4% vs. 44.5%; p = 0.0005), and had a lower average body mass index (26.6 kg/m(2) vs. 28.9 kg/m(2); p < 0.0001). Cancer patients less often received VTE prophylaxis prior to development of DVT compared to those with no cancer (308 of 1,096, 28.2% vs. 1,196 of 3,444, 34.6%; p < 0.0001). For DVT therapy, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) as monotherapy without warfarin (142 of 1,086, 13.1% vs. 300 of 3,429, 8.7%; p < 0.0001) and inferior vena caval filters (234 of 1,086, 21.5% vs. 473 of 3,429, 13.8%; p < 0.0001) were utilized more often in cancer patients than in DVT patients without cancer. Cancer patients with DVT and neurological disease were twice as likely to receive inferior vena caval filters than those with no cancer (odds ratio 2.17, p = 0.005). In conclusion, cancer patients who develop DVT receive prophylaxis less often and more often receive filters than patients with no cancer who develop DVT. Future studies should focus on ways to improve implementation of prophylaxis in cancer patients and to further define the indications, efficacy, and safety of inferior vena caval filters in this population.

  18. Heart-rate decelerative Pavlovian conditioning with tilt as UCS: towards behavioural control of cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Furedy, J J; Poulos, C X

    1976-06-01

    As part of a programme the ultimate goal of which is to teach behavioural control of stress-induced maladaptive cardiac accelerations through Pavlovian decelerative conditioning, this study was directed at examining the feasibility of using tilting of the body from a head-up to a head-down position as the unconditional stimulus (UCS) to elicit phasic cardiac deceleration as the unconditional response (UCR). Experiment I assessed the reflexive features of the cardiac response to 32 tilt UCS trials delivered at mean intervals of 75 sec. The results yielded a large-magnitude (over 30 BsPM) cardiac decelerative UCR with fast recruitment and complete resistance to habituation. Experiment II examined the feasibility of using the tilt UCS to demonstrate associative control over decelerative responding to a tone as the conditional stimulus (CS). Relative to a control 'backward' UCS-CS group with an interstimulus interval (ISI) of 14.5 sec, a 0.5 sec ISI CS-UCS experimental group demonstrated both orderly acquisition and extinction performance. The magnitude of the conditional deceleration of some 4 BsPM is greater than the extent of control generally achieved with biofeedback, but still constitutes a problem for theoretical accounts of classical conditioning framed in terms of stimulus substitution, and is still only of borderline clinical significance.

  19. [Autonomy of the patient with chronic diseases: from passive patient to active patient].

    PubMed

    González Mestre, Assumpció

    2014-01-01

    Due to social, economic and cultural changes, there has been a transformation of Health Services around the world. A new figure has emerged from this: the Active Patient, more responsible, with more information and willing to change his life as a chronic patient. In order to respond to this new situation, several countries have established initiatives such as self-reliance programmes for chronic patients. The aim of this article is to underline the Expert Patient Programme Catalonia(®) and to explain its operation and the results obtained up until now. The purpose of this program is to improve the experience of chronic disease by patients, from meetings in which an expert patient provides his knowledge and experiences to a group of patients with the same disease, with the aim of promoting changes in habits and lifestyles that improve the quality of life and the coexistence of the person with his chronic process.

  20. Four-Year Maintenance Treatment With Adalimumab in Patients with Moderately to Severely Active Ulcerative Colitis: Data from ULTRA 1, 2, and 3

    PubMed Central

    Colombel, Jean-Frederic; Sandborn, William J; Ghosh, Subrata; Wolf, Douglas C; Panaccione, Remo; Feagan, Brian; Reinisch, Walter; Robinson, Anne M; Lazar, Andreas; Kron, Martina; Huang, Bidan; Skup, Martha; Thakkar, Roopal B

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The safety and efficacy of adalimumab for patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC) has been reported up to week 52 from the placebo-controlled trials ULTRA (Ulcerative Colitis Long-Term Remission and Maintenance with Adalimumab) 1 and 2. Up to 4 years of data for adalimumab-treated patients from ULTRA 1, 2, and the open-label extension ULTRA 3 are presented. METHODS: Remission per partial Mayo score, remission per Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ) score, and mucosal healing rates were assessed in adalimumab-randomized patients from ULTRA 1 and 2 up to week 208. Corticosteroid-free remission was assessed in adalimumab-randomized patients who used corticosteroids at lead-in study baseline. Maintenance of remission per partial Mayo score and mucosal healing was assessed in patients who entered ULTRA 3 in remission per full Mayo score and with mucosal healing, respectively. As observed, last observation carried forward (LOCF) and nonresponder imputation (NRI) were used to report efficacy. Adverse events were reported for any adalimumab-treated patient. RESULTS: A total of 600/1,094 patients enrolled in ULTRA 1 or 2 were randomized to receive adalimumab and included in the intent-to-treat analyses of the studies. Of these, 199 patients remained on adalimumab after 4 years of follow-up. Rates of remission per partial Mayo score, remission per IBDQ score, mucosal healing, and corticosteroid discontinuation at week 208 were 24.7%, 26.3%, 27.7% (NRI), and 59.2% (observed), respectively. Of the patients who were followed up in ULTRA 3 (588/1,094), a total of 360 patients remained on adalimumab 3 years later. Remission per partial Mayo score and mucosal healing after ULTRA 1 or 2 to year 3 of ULTRA 3 were maintained by 63.6% and 59.9% of patients, respectively (NRI). Adverse event rates were stable over time. CONCLUSIONS: Remission, mucosal healing, and improved quality of life were maintained in patients with moderately to

  1. Longer-term effects of home-based exercise interventions on exercise capacity and physical activity in coronary artery disease patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Claes, Jomme; Buys, Roselien; Budts, Werner; Smart, Neil; Cornelissen, Véronique A

    2017-02-01

    Background Exercise-based cardiovascular rehabilitation (CR) improves exercise capacity (EC), lowers cardiovascular risk profile and increases physical functioning in the short term. However, uptake of and adherence to a physically active lifestyle in the long run remain problematic. Home-based (HB) exercise programmes have been introduced in an attempt to enhance long-term adherence to recommended levels of physical activity (PA). The current systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the longer-term effects of HB exercise programmes with usual care (UC) or centre-based (CB) CR in patients referred for CR. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods Non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or randomised trials comparing the effects of HB exercise programmes with UC or CB rehabilitation on EC and/or PA, with a follow-up period of ≥12 months and performed in coronary artery disease patients, were searched in four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials (CENTRAL)) from their inception until September 7, 2016. Standardised mean differences (SMDs) were calculated and pooled by means of random effects models. Risk of bias, publication bias and heterogeneity among trials were also assessed. Results Seven studies could be included in the meta-analysis on EC, but only two studies could be included in the meta-analysis on PA (total number of 1440 patients). The results showed no significant differences in EC between HB rehabilitation and UC (SMD 0.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.13 to 0.33). There was a small but significant difference in EC in favour of HB compared to CB rehabilitation (SMD 0.25, 95% CI 0.02-0.48). No differences were found for PA (SMD 0.37, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.92). Conclusions HB exercise is slightly more effective than CB rehabilitation in terms of maintaining EC. The small number of studies warrants the need for more

  2. Advanced bladder cancer: status of first-line chemotherapy and the search for active agents in the second-line setting.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, David J; Milowsky, Matthew I; Bajorin, Dean F

    2008-09-15

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC) remains a significant health problem affecting an estimated 68,810 people in 2008 alone in the US. The majority of patients with metastatic disease develop disease recurrence, and long-term survival rates are poor. There is no standard of care for the treatment of patients with UC after the failure of cisplatin-based regimens in the first-line setting. Efforts to improve second-line treatment have led to the evaluation of single agents such as vinflunine and pemetrexed, and multidrug combinations with cytotoxic and targeted agents, including trastuzumab and bevacizumab. The authors reviewed the activity of several single agents and combination regimens in patients with UC. Emerging strategies for the measurement of response in clinical trials were also outlined.

  3. Bilberry-Derived Anthocyanins Modulate Cytokine Expression in the Intestine of Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Gottier, Claudia; Biedermann, Luc; Zeitz, Jonas; Lang, Silvia; Weber, Achim; Rogler, Gerhard; Scharl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims We previously demonstrated that anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract (ARBE) inhibits IFN-γ-induced signalling and downstream effects in human monocytic cells and ameliorates disease activity in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Here, we studied the molecular mechanisms of ARBE-mediated effects in vitro and by analysing colonic tissue and serum samples of UC patients treated with an oral anthocyanin-rich bilberry preparation during an open label clinical trial. Methods Colon specimens obtained during an open pilot study using ARBE for the treatment of mild-to-moderate UC were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Cytokine levels in patients’ serum were quantified by ELISA. Cell culture experiments were performed using THP-1 monocytic cells. Results ARBE treatment inhibited the expression of IFN-γ-receptor 2 in human THP-1 monocytic cells. Colon biopsies of UC patients who responded to the 6-week long ARBE treatment revealed reduced amounts of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α. Levels of phosphorylated (activated) p65-NF-κB were reduced in these patients. Further, patients with successful ARBE treatment featured enhanced levels of Th17-cell specific cytokine IL-22 and immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10 as well as reduced serum levels of TNF-α and MCP-1, but enhanced levels of IL-17A, in contrast to patients that did not reach remission after ARBE treatment. Conclusions Our data suggest a molecular mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of ARBE treatment in UC patients by modulating T-cell cytokine signalling and inhibiting IFN-γ signal transduction. These data are of particular interest, since ARBE is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of IBD. PMID:27152519

  4. Follow the Money: Engineering at Stanford and UC Berkeley during the Rise of Silicon Valley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Stephen B.

    2009-01-01

    A comparison of the engineering schools at UC Berkeley and Stanford during the 1940s and 1950s shows that having an excellent academic program is necessary but not sufficient to make a university entrepreneurial (an engine of economic development). Key factors that made Stanford more entrepreneurial than Cal during this period were superior…

  5. What Was It like? Being in the Pioneer Class at UC Merced

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Entering the UC Merced campus and turning onto Scholars Lane, students saw, in this order, large cow pastures surrounding the campus, tall chainlink fences enclosing construction materials, orange fences stating "limits of construction," and across the small road, the residence facilities. Students who were willing to brave this…

  6. A novel UCS memory retrieval-extinction procedure to inhibit relapse to drug seeking.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi-xiao; Xue, Yan-xue; Liu, Jian-feng; Shi, Hai-shui; Jian, Min; Han, Ying; Zhu, Wei-li; Bao, Yan-ping; Wu, Ping; Ding, Zeng-bo; Shen, Hao-wei; Shi, Jie; Shaham, Yavin; Lu, Lin

    2015-07-14

    We recently reported that a conditioned stimulus (CS) memory retrieval-extinction procedure decreases reinstatement of cocaine and heroin seeking in rats and heroin craving in humans. Here we show that non-contingent cocaine or methylphenidate injections (UCS retrieval) 1 h before the extinction sessions decreases cocaine-priming-induced reinstatement, spontaneous recovery, and renewal of cocaine seeking in rats. Unlike the CS-based memory retrieval-extinction procedure, the UCS memory retrieval manipulation decreases renewal and reinstatement of cocaine seeking in the presence of cocaine cues that were not present during extinction training and also decreases cocaine seeking when the procedure commences after 28 days of abstinence. The inhibitory effect of the UCS retrieval manipulation on cocaine-priming-induced reinstatement is mediated by regulation of AMPA-receptor endocytosis in the basolateral amygdala. The UCS memory retrieval-extinction procedure has superior relapse prevention characteristics than the CS memory retrieval-extinction procedure and could be a promising method for decreasing relapse in human addicts.

  7. A New Campus Building on Efficiency: University of California (UC) Merced Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    The University of California (UC), Merced partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit two existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% as part of DOE’s Commercial Buildings Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  8. [Physical activities and sports in asthmatic patients].

    PubMed

    Todaro, A

    1983-05-31

    Asthma patients are too often advised to refrain from sport. Enforced sedentariness, especially in children, leads to muscle hypotonia, reduced mechanical efficiency, paramorphisms, and adverse psychological consequences. Not all asthmatics develop airway spasm as a result of exercise. On the other hand, there are subjects whose bronchial hyper-reactivity is stimulated solely by muscular effort. The pathogenesis of exercise-induced bronchospasm is not fully understood. In any event, numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial and even therapeutic effect of physical exercise and sport in cases of asthma. Provided they are practised with judgment and in accordance with a suitable programme, swimming, activities of an alternating aerobic and anaerobic type, cross-country skiing, gymnastics, and fencing are primarily indicated. Some asthmatics have also won Olympic medals. In the light of the studies carried out so far, it is strongly suggested that asthmatics be encouraged to take up sport suitable to their psychophysical characteristics, and not kept wrapped up in cotton wool.

  9. UC Assurance Plan For Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory July2007

    SciTech Connect

    Chernowski, John

    2007-07-09

    This Division ES&H Self-Assessment Manual describes how the Laboratory administers a division self-assessment program that conforms to the institutional requirements promulgated in the 'LBNL Environment, Safety and Health Self-Assessment Program' (LBNL/PUB-5344, latest revision). The institutional program comprises all appraisal and reporting activities that identify environmental, safety, and health deficiencies and associated corrective actions. It is designed to meet U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for self-assessment. Self-assessment is a continuous process of information gathering and evaluation. A division selfassessment program should describe methods for gathering and documenting information, and methods to analyze these performance data to identify trends and root causes and their corrections.

  10. 46 CFR 54.25-8 - Radiography (modifies UW-11(a), UCS-57, UNF-57, UHA-33, and UHT-57).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiography (modifies UW-11(a), UCS-57, UNF-57, UHA-33... Radiography (modifies UW-11(a), UCS-57, UNF-57, UHA-33, and UHT-57). (a) Full radiography is required for all... requirements.) (b) Class II-L vessels shall be spot radiographed. The exemption provided in UW-11(c) of...

  11. Decreased total and corrected antioxidant capacity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Koutroubakis, Ioannis E; Malliaraki, Niki; Dimoulios, Philippos D; Karmiris, Konstantinos; Castanas, Elias; Kouroumalis, Elias A

    2004-09-01

    Oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidants may play a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related intestinal damage. A new automated assay for the determination of blood total antioxidant capacity (TAC), based on the crocin bleaching method, has been used for the measurement of TAC and corrected TAC (cTAC) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) in comparison to healthy controls (HC). Ninety-four patients with UC, 97 patients with CD, and 72 HC were included in this study. Serum TAC was measured in all patients and controls on an Olympus AU-600 chemistry analyzer using a TAC kit. cTAC was calculated from TAC after subtraction of the interactions due to endogenous uric acid, bilirubin and albumin. Mean serum TAC as well as cTAC levels were significantly lower in both UC and CD patients compared with HC (P < 0.0001). Patients with active UC had no different TAC and cTAC compared to those with inactive disease. Patients with active CD had significantly lower mean TAC compared to those with inactive disease but cTAC was not different between the two phases of disease activity. Patients with proctitis had significantly higher TAC and cTAC compared to patients with left-sided colitis and total colitis. In CD patients no association between disease localization and these markers was found. TAC and cTAC are significantly reduced in IBD patients compared with controls irrespective of disease activity. The decreased antioxidant defenses may be a primary phenomenon severely compromising the mucosa and therefore increase susceptibility to oxidative tissue damage.

  12. Low Level Engraftment and Improvement following a Single Colonoscopic Administration of Fecal Microbiota to Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Damman, Christopher J.; Brittnacher, Mitchell J.; Westerhoff, Maria; Hayden, Hillary S.; Radey, Matthew; Hager, Kyle R.; Marquis, Sara R.; Miller, Samuel I.; Zisman, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an investigational treatment for diseases thought to involve alterations in the intestinal microbiota including ulcerative colitis (UC). Case reports have described therapeutic benefit of FMT in patients with UC, possibly due to changes in the microbiota. We measured the degree to which the transplanted microbiota engraft following FMT in patients with UC using a donor similarity index (DSI). Methods Seven patients with mild to moderate UC (UC disease activity index scores 3–10) received a single colonoscopic administration of FMT. Metagenomic sequence data from stool were analyzed using an alignment-free comparison tool, to measure the DSI, and a phylogenetic analysis tool, to characterize taxonomic changes. Clinical, endoscopic, histologic, and fecal calprotectin outcome measures were also collected. Results One of 5 patients from whom sequencing data were available achieved the primary endpoint of 50% donor similarity at week 4; an additional 2 patients achieved 40% donor similarity. One patient with 40% donor similarity achieved clinical and histologic remission 1 month after FMT. However, these were lost by 2−3 months, and loss correlated with a decrease in DSI. The remaining patients did not demonstrate clinical response or remission. Histology scores improved in all but 1 patient. No patients remained in remission at 3 months after FMT. Conclusions Following a single colonoscopic fecal transplant, a DSI of 40-50% is achieved in about two-thirds of recipients. This level of engraftment correlated with a temporary clinical improvement in only 1/5 patients. Larger sample sizes could further validate this method for measuring engraftment, and changes in transplant frequency or method might improve microbiota engraftment and efficacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01742754 PMID:26288277

  13. Evaluation of Serum Trace Element Levels and Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Translating Basic Research into Clinical Application.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Erfan; Qujeq, Durdi; Taheri, Hassan; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah

    2016-11-18

    The relationship of minerals and trace elements with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is complex. Alterations in their metabolism can be induced by the diseases and their complications. To study the role of trace elements in IBD patients' serum zinc and copper and their related enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), activity were measured in patients with IBD patients as well as in healthy subjects. In addition, the correlation between serum trace element levels, albumin, total protein, urea level, copper/zinc ratio, and disease activity (DA) was determined in these subjects. Serum samples were obtained from 35 patients (19 ulcerative colitis (UC) and 16 Crohn's disease (CD)) in the active phase of the disease and 30 healthy control subjects. Serum levels of zinc, copper, SOD activity, albumin, total protein, and urea were measured. The results were compared between the two groups using independent Student's t test in statistical analysis. Serum levels of zinc, SOD activity, albumin, and total protein were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in patients than controls, while serum urea level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls. Copper concentrations did not differ between patients with IBD (mean ± SD, 58.8 ± 20.7 μg/d) and controls (55.57 ± 12.6 μg/d). Decreased levels of zinc and SOD activity are associated with increased inflammatory processes indicating inappropriate antioxidant system in patients with IBD. Additionally, lower levels of albumin and total protein with higher level of urea reflect metabolic problems in liver system.

  14. Patients with urothelial carcinoma have poor renal outcome regardless of whether they receive nephrouretectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Peir-Haur; Tsai, Hung-Bin; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Chung, Mu-Chi; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Chung, Chi-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The association between urothelial carcinoma (UC) and subsequent ESRD incidence has not been confirmed. This was a population-based study using claims data from the Taiwan National Health Institutes from 1998 to 2010. The study cohort consisted of 26,017 patients with newly diagnosed UC and no history of ESRD, and the comparison cohort consisted of 208,136 matched enrollees without UC. The incidence of ESRD was ascertained through cross-referencing with a registry for catastrophic illnesses. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to estimate the risk of ESRD associated with UC and UC subtype. A total of 979 patients (3.76%) from the UC group and 1,829 (0.88%) from the comparison group developed ESRD. Multivariable analysis indicated that compared with the comparison group, the hazard ratios (HRs) for ESRD were 7.75 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.84 to 8.78) and 3.12 (95% CI: 6.84 to 8.78) in the cohort with upper urinary tract UC (UT-UC) and bladder UC (B-UC), respectively. In addition, there were significantly increased risks for ESRD in UC patients receiving and not receiving nephrouretectomies or aristolochic acids (AA). Moreover, the UC patients receiving segmental ureterectomy and ureteral reimplantation had approximately 1.3-fold and 2.4-fold increased risk for ESRD after control for confounders, respectively. Thus, our data indicate that UT-UC and B-UC independently increased the risk for ESRD in patients after considering about nephrouretectomies or aristolochic acids (AA). In addition, UC patients receiving segmental ureterectomy and ureteral reimplantation had increased risk for ESRD. PMID:27533250

  15. A transcribed ultraconserved noncoding RNA, Uc.173, is a key molecule for the inhibition of lead-induced neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Nan, Aruo; Zhou, Xinke; Chen, Lijian; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Li; Luo, Yuanwei; Liu, Zhenzhong; Dai, Lijun; Jiang, Yiguo

    2016-01-05

    As a common toxic metal, lead has significant neurotoxicity to brain development. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) function in multiple biological processes. However, whether lncRNAs are involved in lead-induced neurotoxicity remains unclear. Uc.173 is a lncRNA from a transcribed ultra-conservative region (T-UCR) of human, mouse and rat genomes. We established a lead-induced nerve injury mouse model. It showed the levels of Uc.173 decreased significantly in hippocampus tissue and serum of the model. We further tested the expression of Uc.173 in serum of lead-exposed children, which also showed a tendency to decrease. To explore the effects of Uc.173 on lead-induced nerve injury, we overexpressed Uc.173 in an N2a mouse nerve cell line and found Uc.173 had an inhibitory effect on lead-induced apoptosis of N2a. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of Uc.173 in apoptosis associated with lead-induced nerve injury, we predicted the target microRNAs of Uc.173 by using miRanda, TargetScan and RegRNA. After performing quantitative real-time PCR and bioinformatics analysis, we showed Uc.173 might inter-regulate with miR-291a-3p in lead-induced apoptosis and regulate apoptosis-associated genes. Our study suggests Uc.173 significantly inhibits the apoptosis of nerve cells, which may be mediated by inter-regulation with miRNAs in lead-induced nerve injury.

  16. [Plasma antithrombin III activity in patients with pulmonary thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Vertun, B; Filipecki, S; Szczepański, M; Wawrzyńska, L; Rózycka, J

    A decreased plasma antithrombin III activity has been noted in 12 out of 20 patients. In 2 patients it was most probably congenital defect, whereas in the remaining 10 patients--acquired. The observed disorders in the activity of antithrombin III with particular reference to anticoagulant therapy have been discussed.

  17. Exploring Contextual Factors and Patient Activation: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Sample of Patients with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jie; Mortensen, Karoline; Bloodworth, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Patient activation has been considered as a "blockbuster drug of the century." Patients with mental disorders are less activated compared to patients with other chronic diseases. Low activation due to mental disorders can affect the efficiency of treatment of other comorbidities. Contextual factors are significantly associated with…

  18. VLT near- to mid-IR imaging and spectroscopy of the M 17 UC1 - IRS5 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiwei; Nürnberger, Dieter E. A.; Chini, Rolf; Jiang, Zhibo; Fang, Min

    2015-06-01

    Aims: We investigate the surroundings of the hypercompact H ii region M 17 UC1 to probe the physical properties of the associated young stellar objects and the environment of massive star formation. Methods: We use diffraction-limited near-IR (VLT/NACO) and mid-IR (VLT/VISIR) images to reveal the different morphologies at various wavelengths. Likewise, we investigate the stellar and nebular content of the region with VLT/SINFONI integral field spectroscopy with a resolution R ˜ 1500 at H + K bands. Results: Five of the seven point sources in this region show L-band excess emission. A geometric match is found between the H2 emission and near-IR polarized light in the vicinity of IRS5A, and between the diffuse mid-IR emission and near-IR polarization north of UC1. The H2 emission is typical for dense photodissociation regions (PDRs), which are initially far-ultraviolet pumped and repopulated by collisional de-excitation. The spectral types of IRS5A and B273A are B3-B7 V/III and G4-G5 III, respectively. The observed infrared luminosity LIR in the range 1-20 μm is derived for three objects; we obtain 2.0 × 103 L⊙ for IRS5A, 13 L⊙ for IRS5C, and 10 L⊙ for B273A. Conclusions: IRS5 might be a young quadruple system. Its primary star IRS5A is confirmed to be a high-mass protostellar object (˜9 M⊙, ˜1 × 105 yrs); it might have terminated accretion due to the feedback from stellar activities (radiation pressure, outflow) and the expanding H ii region of M 17. The object UC1 might also have terminated accretion because of the expanding hypercompact H ii region, which it ionizes. The disk clearing process of the low-mass young stellar objects in this region might be accelerated by the expanding H ii region. The outflows driven by UC1 are running south-north with its northeastern side suppressed by the expanding ionization front of M 17; the blue-shifted outflow lobe of IRS5A is seen in two types of tracers along the same line of sight in the form of H2 emission

  19. Space Station UCS antenna pattern computation and measurement. [UHF Communication Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Lu, Ba P.; Johnson, Larry A.; Fournet, Jon S.; Panneton, Robert J.; Ngo, John D.; Eggers, Donald S.; Arndt, G. D.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the interference to the Space Station Ultrahigh Frequency (UHF) Communication Subsystem (UCS) antenna radiation pattern due to its environment - Space Station. A hybrid Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) technique was applied in this study. The antenna was modeled using the Method of Moments (MOM) and the radiation patterns were computed using the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) in which the effects of the reflected and diffracted fields from surfaces, edges, and vertices of the Space Station structures were included. In order to validate the CEM techniques, and to provide confidence in the computer-generated results, a comparison with experimental measurements was made for a 1/15 scale Space Station mockup. Based on the results accomplished, good agreement on experimental and computed results was obtained. The computed results using the CEM techniques for the Space Station UCS antenna pattern predictions have been validated.

  20. Production of UC-labeled gas in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits by Neisseria cinerea

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, J.M.; Mitchell, E.B. Jr.; Knapp, J.S.; Buttke, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    Six strains of Neisseria cinerea were tested in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits (Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Towson, Md.), and all yielded positive glucose growth indices and negative maltose and fructose growth indices. These results were similar to those achieved with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. However, most of the N. cinerea isolates tested yielded 3-h glucose growth indices that were lower than those obtained with gonococci. UC-labeled gas was produced significantly faster by N. gonorrhoeae than by N. cinerea. Additional studies suggested that the UC-labeled gas produced by N. cinerea was carbon dioxide. N. cinerea strains were similar to Branhamella catarrhalis strains because both species failed to produce detectable acid from glucose, maltose, sucrose, fructose, and lactose in cysteine-tryptic agar media. However, in contrast to N. cinerea strains, B. catarrhalis strains did not metabolize glucose in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits.

  1. Circulating levels of non-phosphorylated undercarboxylated matrix Gla protein are associated with disease severity in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ueland, Thor; Dahl, Christen P; Gullestad, Lars; Aakhus, Svend; Broch, Kaspar; Skårdal, Rita; Vermeer, Cees; Aukrust, Pål; Schurgers, Leon J

    2011-08-01

    We recently demonstrated that circulating MGP [matrix Gla (γ-carboxylated glutamate) protein] levels were associated with left ventricular dysfunction and increased mortality in patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis. We hypothesized that patients with chronic HF (heart failure) would have dysregulated MGP levels. We examined plasma dp-cMGP (non-phosphorylated carboxylated MGP) and dp-ucMGP (non-phosphorylated undercarboxylated MGP) in 179 patients with chronic HF and matched healthy controls as well as the relationship between MGP and cardiac dysfunction as assessed by echocardiographic measurements, inflammation [CRP (C-reactive protein)] and neurohormonal activation [NT-proBNP (N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide)] and the prognostic value of MGP levels in relation to mortality in these patients. We found markedly enhanced plasma dp-cMGP and, in particular, of dp-ucMGP in chronic HF with increasing levels with disease severity. Elevated MGP species were associated with ischaemic aetiology, increased CRP and NT-proBNP levels, as well as systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Finally, dp-ucMGP was associated with long-term heart transplant-free survival (n=48) in univariate, but not in multivariate, analysis. However, plasma dp-ucMGP was markedly higher in patients who died because of progression of HF (n=12) and gave prognostic information also in multivariate analysis. In conclusion, a dysregulated MGP system could be involved in left ventricular dysfunction in patients with chronic HF.

  2. UC-123 Agent Orange Exposure Assessment, Post-Vietnam (1972-1982)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-27

    Consultative Letter 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) Nov 2011 – Mar 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UC-123 Agent Orange Exposure Assessment, Post-Vietnam...88ABW-2012-2550, 27 Apr 2012 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We attempted to quantify potential individual exposures to Agent Orange ...characteristics of dried Agent Orange residue, and the conditions of general exposure. At this time, we conclude that the discernable information suggests

  3. Melanoma inhibitory activity in Brazilian patients with cutaneous melanoma*

    PubMed Central

    Odashiro, Macanori; Hans Filho, Gunter; Pereira, Patricia Rusa; Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta; Stief, Alcione Cavalheiro; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; Odashiro, Alexandre Nakao

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Melanoma inhibitory activity is a protein secreted by melanoma cells and has been used as a tumor marker. Increased Melanoma inhibitory activity serum levels are related to metastatic disease or tumor recurrence. Currently there are no studies on Melanoma inhibitory activity and cutaneous melanoma involving Brazilian patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance and feasibility of measuring Melanoma inhibitory activity levels in Brazilian patients with cutaneous melanoma. METHODS: Blood was obtained from ten patients with proved metastatic cutaneous melanoma (Group 1), 15 patients resected for cutaneous melanoma without metastasis (Group 2) and 5 healthy donors (Group 3). Melanoma inhibitory activity was measured using a commercially available ELISA kit. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference of Melanoma inhibitory activity levels between patients with and without metastasis (p=0.002), and between patients with metastasis and healthy donors (p=0.002). There was no difference between patients without metastasis and healthy donors (p=0.443). CONCLUSION: Melanoma inhibitory activity is a tumor marker for cutaneous melanoma and the Melanoma inhibitory activity-ELISA test can be easily performed. Patients with metastasis have increased Melanoma inhibitory activity serum levels when compared to patients without metastasis and healthy donors. PMID:26131861

  4. Evaluating a science diversity program at UC Berkeley: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Matsui, John; Liu, Roger; Kane, Caroline M

    2003-01-01

    For the past three decades, much attention has been focused on developing diversity programs designed to improve the academic success of underrepresented minorities, primarily in mathematics, science, and engineering. However, ethnic minorities remain underrepresented in science majors and careers. Over the last 10 years, the Biology Scholars Program (BSP), a diversity program at the University of California (UC), Berkeley, has worked to increase the participation and success of students majoring in the biological sciences. A quantitative comparison of students in and out of the program indicates that students in BSP graduate with a degree in biology at significantly higher rates than students not in BSP regardless of race/ethnicity. Furthermore, students who are in BSP have statistically lower high school grade point averages (GPAs) and Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) scores than students not in BSP. African-American and Hispanic students who join BSP graduate with significantly higher UC Berkeley biology GPAs than non-BSP African-American and Hispanic students, respectively. Majority (Asian and White) students in BSP graduate with statistically similar UC GPAs despite having lower SAT scores than non-BSP majority students. Although BSP students are more successful in completing a biology degree than non-program members, the results raise a series of questions about why the program works and for whom.

  5. Initial source and site characterization studies for the U.C. Santa Barbara campus

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, R.; Nicholson, C.; Steidl, J.; Gurrola, L.; Alex, C.; Cochran, E.; Ely, G.; Tyler, T.

    1997-12-01

    The University of California Campus-Laboratory Collaboration (CLC) project is an integrated 3 year effort involving Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and four UC campuses - Los Angeles (UCLA), Riverside (UCR), Santa Barbara (UCSB), and San Diego (UCSD) - plus additional collaborators at San Diego State University (SDSU), at Los Alamos National Laboratory and in industry. The primary purpose of the project is to estimate potential ground motions from large earthquakes and to predict site-specific ground motions for one critical structure on each campus. This project thus combines the disciplines of geology, seismology, geodesy, soil dynamics, and earthquake engineering into a fully integrated approach. Once completed, the CLC project will provide a template to evaluate other buildings at each of the four UC campuses, as well as provide a methodology for evaluating seismic hazards at other critical sites in California, including other UC locations at risk from large earthquakes. Another important objective of the CLC project is the education of students and other professional in the application of this integrated, multidisciplinary, state-of-the-art approach to the assessment of earthquake hazard. For each campus targeted by the CLC project, the seismic hazard study will consist of four phases: Phase I - Initial source and site characterization, Phase II - Drilling, logging, seismic monitoring, and laboratory dynamic soil testing, Phase III - Modeling of predicted site-specific earthquake ground motions, and Phase IV - Calculations of 3D building response. This report cover Phase I for the UCSB campus and incudes results up through March 1997.

  6. Nutritional status in patients with ulcerative colitis in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari, Hamid; Barekat, Sayyed Majid; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Azadbakht, Leila; Shahshahan, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition is common among patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The present study aimed to investigate the nutritional status of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical cross-sectional study, between Dec 2011 and Jun 2012, 99 patients with UC were randomly selected and evaluated. Age, sex, duration of disease, body mass index (BMI) and laboratory parameters recorded for all patients. Nutritional risk index (NRI) was calculated and its association with patients’ variables was assessed with regard to UC disease severity. Results: Twelve patients out of 99 patients had mild UC and 87 patients had moderate to severe UC. Based on the NRI, 90.9% were not malnourished and 9.1% were at moderate to severe risk for malnutrition. Among laboratory parameters only, serum potassium level in patients with moderate to severe UC was significantly higher than those with mild UC (P = 0.017). Other laboratory parameters were similar between patients stratified by US status. Patients age s significantly correlate with serum vitamin D, immunoglobulin a (IgA) and potassium level (P > 0.05), also duration of disease was significantly correlate with Phosphorus (P = 0.024) among laboratory parameters. Conclusion: In studied UC patients, malnutrition risk was based on degree of disease severity. Patients with moderate to severe UC were more at risk for malnutrition compared to the patients with mild UC. Furthermore, among laboratory parameters only serum potassium level was higher among patients with moderate to severe UC compared to others. PMID:24627866

  7. Clostridium Difficile Infection Worsen Outcome of Hospitalized Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Lin, Qian-Yun; Fei, Jia-Xi; Zhang, Yan; Lin, Min-Yi; Jiang, Shuang-Hong; Wang, Pu; Chen, Ye

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has increased rapidly over the past several decades in North America and Europe. However, the exact global epidemiology remains unclear because of insufficient data from developing countries. A total of 646 hospitalized adult IBD patients were enrolled; and their fresh stool specimens were obtained and used for Clostridium difficile detection. The incidence of CDI in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients (12.7%) was significantly lower than that in Ulcerative disease (UC) patients (19.3%). Among the toxin types, A+B+ strain was the most common. Length of stay, hospitalization frequency and bowel surgery rate were significantly higher in the CDI than in the non-CDI group in CD or UC patients. More patients in CDI-CD group were still in active and even clinical moderate or severe CD stage than non-CDI-CD group after 2 years of following-up. Fistula, antibiotics and infliximab usage likely increased the CDI rate in CD patients, Infliximab treatment was considered a risk factor in UC patients. CDI is an exacerbating public health issue that may influence IBD course, increase expenditures, and delay the remission of IBD patients. IBD patients with CDI require urgent attention. PMID:27417996

  8. MF2KtoMF05UC, a Program To Convert MODFLOW-2000 Files to MODFLOW-2005 and UCODE_2005 Files

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harbaugh, Arlen W.

    2007-01-01

    The program MF2KtoMF05UC has been developed to convert MODFLOW-2000 input files for use by MODFLOW-2005 and UCODE_2005. MF2KtoMF05UC was written in the Fortran 90 computer language. This report documents the use of MF2KtoMF05UC.

  9. Exploring Patient Activation in the Clinic: Measurement from Three Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Christy J. W.; Ledford, Christopher C.; Childress, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To further conceptualize and operationalize patient activation (PA), using measures from patient, physician, and researcher perspectives. Data Source/Study Setting. Multimethod observation in 2010 within a family medicine clinic. Study Design. Part of an intervention with 130 patients with type 2 diabetes, this observational study…

  10. Enhancing the Lives of Nursing Home Patients through Reading Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovelace, Terry

    This study investigated the use of reading activities in the enhancement of the lives of nursing-home patients. A special reading group was led by a reading specialist in weekly sessions. Patients voluntarily attended the one-hour sessions and read short selections supplied by the reading specialist. Patients ranged in age from 54 to 91. The…

  11. The Leisure Activities of Mental Patients Prior to Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babow, Irving; Simkin, Sol

    To study the leisure activities, social participation, and organizational participation of mental patients before hospital admission, a three-part research instrument was developed consisting of a structured interview schedule requesting information on the patient's leisure activities, a self-administered questionnaire entitled Survey of Opinions…

  12. Increasing Patient Activation Could Improve Outcomes for Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shawn L; Siegel, Corey A

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex disease process that often requires the integration of skills from various health care providers to adequately meet the needs of patients with IBD. The medical and surgical treatment options for IBD have become more complicated and are frequently a source of angst for both the patient and provider. However, it has become more important than ever to engage patients in navigating the treatment algorithm. Although novel in the IBD world, the concept of patients' becoming more active and effective managers of their care has been well studied in other disease processes such as diabetes mellitus and mental illness. This idea of patient activation refers to a patient understanding his or her role in the care process and having the skill sets and self-reliance necessary to manage his or her own health care. Over the past decade, evidence supporting the role of patient activation in chronic illness has grown, revealing improved health outcomes, enhanced patient experiences, and lower overall costs. Patient activation can be measured, and interventions have been shown to improve levels of activation over time and influence outcomes. A focus on patient activation is very appropriate for patients with IBD because this may potentially serve as a tool for IBD providers to not only improve patient outcomes and experience but also reduce health care costs.

  13. [Faecal lactate as a disease activity index of ulcerative colitis: application to assessment of efficacy in the treatment with total parenteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, M

    1989-08-01

    I investigated changes of faecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in 52 hospitalized patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who had bloody diarrhoea (severe and moderate colitis). The results suggest that molar ratios of faecal lactate could be helpful to monitor the disease activity of UC patients. Faecal SCFA output correlated directly with faecal output. This finding reflected an increase in output of lactate and acetate. In severe colitis, concentrations of faecal lactate were increased, whereas those of faecal major components of SCFA (acetate, propionate and n-buty-rate) were markedly reduced. Further, faecal lactate concentrations were increased in cases with bloody diarrhoea and reduced in those with formed stool. Patients were divided into two groups according with their treatments: patients treated with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or low-residue UC diet. The molar ratio of faecal lactate in the TPN group was reduced below 2% in four weeks, whereas that in the UC diet group was reduced into the 2% mark in eight weeks. These findings support that patients in the former group were more rapidly induced into remission.

  14. Activity recognition in patients with lower limb impairments: do we need training data from each patient?

    PubMed

    Lonini, Luca; Gupta, Aakash; Kording, Konrad; Jayaraman, Arun

    2016-08-01

    Machine learning allows detecting specific physical activities using data from wearable sensors. Such a quantification of patient mobility over time promises to accurately inform clinical decisions for physical rehabilitation. There are two strategies of setting up the machine learning problem: detect one patient's activities using data from the same patient (personal model) or detect their activities using data from other patients (global model), and we currently do not know if personal models are necessary. Here we consider the problem of detecting physical activities from a waist-worn accelerometer in patients who use a knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) to walk. We show that while a model based on healthy subjects has low accuracy, the global model performs as well as the personal model. This is encouraging because it suggests that condition-specific activity recognition algorithms are sufficient and that no data from individual patients is necessary.

  15. Effects of an Individualized Activity Program on Elderly Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Carlota de Lerma; Salter, Charles A.

    1975-01-01

    A combined program of Reality Orientation, Activities of Daily Living, and Recreational Activities, together with environmental stimulation, was applied on an individualized basis to 21 elderly patients suffering from both psychological disorders and long-term physical illness. The motivation to participate in the available activities increased…

  16. Strong earthquake motion estimates for three sites on the U.C. San Diego campus

    SciTech Connect

    Day, S; Doroudian, M; Elgamal, A; Gonzales, S; Heuze, F; Lai, T; Minster, B; Oglesby, D; Riemer, M; Vernon, F; Vucetic, M; Wagoner, J; Yang, Z

    2002-05-07

    The approach of the Campus Earthquake Program (CEP) is to combine the substantial expertise that exists within the UC system in geology, seismology, and geotechnical engineering, to estimate the earthquake strong motion exposure of UC facilities. These estimates draw upon recent advances in hazard assessment, seismic wave propagation modeling in rocks and soils, and dynamic soil testing. The UC campuses currently chosen for application of our integrated methodology are Riverside, San Diego, and Santa Barbara. The procedure starts with the identification of possible earthquake sources in the region and the determination of the most critical fault(s) related to earthquake exposure of the campus. Combined geological, geophysical, and geotechnical studies are then conducted to characterize each campus with specific focus on the location of particular target buildings of special interest to the campus administrators. We drill, sample, and geophysically log deep boreholes next to the target structure, to provide direct in-situ measurements of subsurface material properties, and to install uphole and downhole 3-component seismic sensors capable of recording both weak and strong motions. The boreholes provide access below the soil layers, to deeper materials that have relatively high seismic shear-wave velocities. Analyses of conjugate downhole and uphole records provide a basis for optimizing the representation of the low-strain response of the sites. Earthquake rupture scenarios of identified causative faults are combined with the earthquake records and with nonlinear soil models to provide site-specific estimates of strong motions at the selected target locations. The predicted ground motions are shared with the UC consultants, so that they can be used as input to the dynamic analysis of the buildings. Thus, for each campus targeted by the CEP project, the strong motion studies consist of two phases, Phase 1--initial source and site characterization, drilling

  17. Strong Earthquake Motion Estimates for Three Sites on the U.C. Riverside Campus

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, R.; Elgamal, A.; Heuze, F.; Lai, T.; Lavalle, D.; Lawrence, B.; Liu, P.C.; Matesic, L.; Park, S.; Riemar, M.; Steidl, J.; Vucetic, M.; Wagoner, J.; Yang, Z.

    2000-11-01

    The approach of the Campus Earthquake Program (CEP) is to combine the substantial expertise that exists within the UC system in geology, seismology, and geotechnical engineering, to estimate the earthquake strong motion exposure of UC facilities. These estimates draw upon recent advances in hazard assessment, seismic wave propagation modeling in rocks and soils, and dynamic soil testing. The UC campuses currently chosen for application of our integrated methodology are Riverside, San Diego, and Santa Barbara. The procedure starts with the identification of possible earthquake sources in the region and the determination of the most critical fault(s) related to earthquake exposure of the campus. Combined geological, geophysical, and geotechnical studies are then conducted to characterize each campus with specific focus on the location of particular target buildings of special interest to the campus administrators. We drill and geophysically log deep boreholes next to the target structure, to provide direct in-situ measurements of subsurface material properties, and to install uphole and downhole 3-component seismic sensors capable of recording both weak and strong motions. The boreholes provide access below the soil layers, to deeper materials that have relatively high seismic shear-wave velocities. Analyses of conjugate downhole and uphole records provide a basis for optimizing the representation of the low-strain response of the sites. Earthquake rupture scenarios of identified causative faults are combined with the earthquake records and with nonlinear soil models to provide site-specific estimates of strong motions at the selected target locations. The predicted ground motions are shared with the UC consultants, so that they can be used as input to the dynamic analysis of the buildings. Thus, for each campus targeted by the CEP project, the strong motion studies consist of two phases, Phase 1--initial source and site characterization, drilling, geophysical

  18. Circulating memory B cells and plasmablasts are associated with the levels of serum immunoglobulin in patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinrui; Jiang, Yanfang; Zhu, Yonggang; Zhang, Manli; Li, Man; Wang, Hongjuan; Gao, Pujun

    2016-05-01

    Humoural immunity is crucial for the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC), but the precise perturbation of B cell immunity is poorly understood. This study is aimed at evaluating the numbers of different subsets of circulating memory B cells, plasmablasts, and the levels of serum immunoglobulin in UC patients. Total of 23 patients with active UC and 14 healthy controls (HC) were examined for the numbers of different subsets of circulating memory B cells and plasmablasts before and after treatment with mesalazine for 8-12 weeks by flow cytometry. Disease activity was evaluated by the Mayo clinic score. The levels of serum immunoglobulin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in individual subjects. In comparison with that in HC, significantly reduced numbers of IgG(+) IgD(-) CD27(+) CD19(+) memory B cells, increased numbers of CD20(-) CD19(+) plasmablast subsets, and higher serum IgG levels were detected in UC patients. The concentrations of serum IgG, the numbers of CD138(+) CD38(+) CD20(-) CD19(+), and IgG(+) CD38(+) CD20(-) CD19(+) plasmablasts were negatively associated with the numbers of IgG(+) IgD(-) CD27(+) CD19(+) memory B cells. Furthermore, the values of Mayo clinic score, CRP, or ESR in UC patients were negatively correlated with the numbers of IgG(+) IgD(-) CD27(+) CD19(+) memory B cells, while positively correlated with the serum IgG levels and the numbers of plasmablast subsets. Following treatment with mesalazine, the numbers of circulating IgG(+) IgD(-) CD27(+) CD19(+) memory B cells were significantly increased, while the numbers of CD138(+) CD38(+) CD20(-) CD19(+) and IgG(+) CD38(+) CD20(-) CD19(+) plasmablasts were reduced in UC patients. These decreased IgG(+) IgD(-) CD27(+) CD19(+) memory B cells and increased plasmablasts may be involved in the pathogenic process of UC.

  19. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway enhances cancer cell invasion by upregulating the MMP expression and is associated with poor prognosis in upper urinary tract urothelial cancer.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Masaru; Mikami, Shuji; Kikuchi, Eiji; Kosaka, Takeo; Miyajima, Akira; Nakagawa, Ken; Mukai, Makio; Okada, Yasunori; Oya, Mototsugu

    2010-02-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and the activation of the AhR pathway are involved in xenobiotic-induced toxicity and carcinogenesis. Although xenobiotics, such as cigarette smoke, contribute to the development of urothelial carcinoma (UC), the relationship between AhR and UC is unclear. In the present study, we investigated AhR expression in 209 patients with upper urinary tract UC. The nuclear expression of AhR was significantly associated with histological grade, pathological T stage, lymphovascular invasion and lymph node involvement. A multivariate Cox analysis revealed that nuclear AhR expression was a significant and independent predictor for disease-specific survival (hazard ratio = 2.469, P = 0.013). To determine whether the AhR pathway can be activated in the T24 UC cell line, we examined the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1, which are target genes of the AhR pathway, following exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a ligand of AhR. TCDD treatment upregulated the expression levels of AhR, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. TCDD enhanced T24 cell invasion associated with the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-9. Furthermore, targeting AhR messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in T24 cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) downregulated the mRNA expression of AhR, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9; furthermore, the cells transfected with siRNA for AhR showed decreased invasion activity in comparison with the cells transfected with a non-targeting siRNA. Our results therefore suggest that AhR plays a role in the invasiveness of UC cells and can serve as a marker for the prognosis of upper urinary tract UC.

  20. Transformation of Escherichia coli JM109 using pUC19 by the Yoshida effect.

    PubMed

    Mendes, G P; Vieira, P S; Lanceros-Méndez, S; Kluskens, L D; Mota, M

    2015-08-01

    Transformation of non-competent Escherichia coli JM109 was accomplished using pUC19 as donor plasmid and sepiolite as the acicular material to promote cell piercing via application of friction with a polystyrene stick or a magnetic bar on the surface of a hydrogel containing agar. An automatic spreading setup was built with a conventional stirring plate and compared to manual spreading. Several parameters were optimized, namely, the agar content of the hydrogel (2%), concentration of cells (OD=1.3 corresponding to 1.4×10(9) bacterial cells/mL), concentration of sepiolite (0.01%), manual versus mechanical spreading (automatic spreading more consistent) and spreading time (30s). Efficiency values up to 4.1×10(4) CFU/μg pUC19 were obtained. The method proved to be suitable for a rapid and low cost transformation of non-competent E. coli JM109, where higher values of efficiency do not need to be attained.

  1. Development of telescope control system for the 50cm telescope of UC Observatory Santa Martina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Reveco, Johnny; Vanzi, Leonardo; Fernández, Jose M.; Escarate, Pedro; Suc, Vincent

    2012-09-01

    The main telescope of the UC Observatory Santa Martina is a 50cm optical telescope donated by ESO to Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile. During the past years the telescope has been refurbished and used as the main facility for testing and validating new instruments under construction by the center of Astro-Engineering UC. As part of this work, the need to develop a more efficient and flexible control system arises. The new distributed control system has been developed on top of Internet Communication Engine (ICE), a framework developed by Zeroc Inc. This framework features a lightweight but powerful and flexible inter-process communication infrastructure and provides binding to classic and modern programming languages, such as, C/C++, java, c#, ruby-rail, objective c, etc. The result of this work shows ICE as a real alternative for CORBA and other de-facto distribute programming framework. Classical control software architecture has been chosen and comprises an observation control system (OCS), the orchestrator of the observation, which controls the telescope control system (TCS), and detector control system (DCS). The real-time control and monitoring system is deployed and running over ARM based single board computers. Other features such as logging and configuration services have been developed as well. Inter-operation with other main astronomical control frameworks are foreseen in order achieve a smooth integration of instruments when they will be integrated in the main observatories in the north of Chile

  2. Placebo Response is Driven by UCS Revaluation: Evidence, Neurophysiological Consequences and a Quantitative Model

    PubMed Central

    Puviani, Luca; Rama, Sidita

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing scientific interest in the placebo effect and increasing understanding of neurobiological mechanisms, theoretical modeling of the placebo response remains poorly developed. The most extensively accepted theories are expectation and conditioning, involving both conscious and unconscious information processing. However, it is not completely understood how these mechanisms can shape the placebo response. We focus here on neural processes which can account for key properties of the response to substance intake. It is shown that placebo response can be conceptualized as a reaction of a distributed neural system within the central nervous system. Such a reaction represents an integrated component of the response to open substance administration (or to substance intake) and is updated through “unconditioned stimulus (UCS) revaluation learning”. The analysis leads to a theorem, which proves the existence of two distinct quantities coded within the brain, these are the expected or prediction outcome and the reactive response. We show that the reactive response is updated automatically by implicit revaluation learning, while the expected outcome can also be modulated through conscious information processing. Conceptualizing the response to substance intake in terms of UCS revaluation learning leads to the theoretical formulation of a potential neuropharmacological treatment for increasing unlimitedly the effectiveness of a given drug. PMID:27436417

  3. Management of Hypertension: Adapting New Guidelines for Active Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanji, Jeffrey L.; Batt, Mark E.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses recent guidelines on hypertension from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and details the latest management protocols for patients with high blood pressure. The article helps physicians interpret the guidelines for treating active patients, highlighting diagnosis, step care revision, pharmacology, and sports participation…

  4. Decreased Prolidase Activity in Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Mahmut; Atli, Abdullah; Kaplan, İbrahim; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Bez, Yasin; Özdemir, Pınar Güzel; Sır, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many neurochemical systems have been implicated in the development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The prolidase enzyme is a cytosolic exopeptidase that detaches proline or hydroxyproline from the carboxyl terminal position of dipeptides. Prolidase has important biological effects, and to date, its role in the etiology of PTSD has not been studied. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate prolidase activity in patients with PTSD. Methods The study group consisted of patients who were diagnosed with PTSD after the earthquake that occurred in the province of Van in Turkey in 2011 (n=25); the first control group consisted of patients who experienced the earthquake but did not show PTSD symptoms (n=26) and the second control group consisted of patients who have never been exposed to a traumatic event (n=25). Prolidase activities in the patients and the control groups were determined by the ELISA method using commercial kits. Results Prolidase activity in the patient group was significantly lower when compared to the control groups. Prolidase activity was also significantly lower in the traumatized healthy subjects compared to the other healthy group (p<0.01). Conclusion The findings of the present study suggest that the decrease in prolidase activity may have neuroprotective effects in patients with PTSD. PMID:27482243

  5. Enhanced gastric nitric oxide synthase activity in duodenal ulcer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Rachmilewitz, D; Karmeli, F; Eliakim, R; Stalnikowicz, R; Ackerman, Z; Amir, G; Stamler, J S

    1994-01-01

    Nitric oxide, the product of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory cells, may have a role in tissue injury through its oxidative metabolism. Nitric oxide may have a role in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer and may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the association between gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and peptic disease. In this study, calcium independent nitric oxide synthase activity was detected in human gastric mucosa suggesting expression of the inducible isoform. In 17 duodenal ulcer patients gastric antral and fundic nitric oxide synthase activity was found to be two and 1.5-fold respectively higher than its activity in the antrum and fundus of 14 normal subjects (p < 0.05). H pylori was detected in the antrum of 15 of 17 duodenal ulcer patients and only in 7 of 14 of the control subjects. Antral nitric oxide synthase activity in H pylori positive duodenal ulcer patients was twofold higher than in H pylori positive normal subjects (p < 0.05). In duodenal ulcer patients antral and fundic nitric oxide synthase activity resumed normal values after induction of ulcer healing with ranitidine. Eradication of H pylori did not further affect gastric nitric oxide synthase activity. These findings suggest that in duodenal ulcer patients stimulated gastric mucosal nitric oxide synthase activity, though independent of the H pylori state, may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:7525417

  6. Management of patients with active caries.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Peter

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports on a mechanism to manage caries as a disease and to medically intervene in the disease process to halt progression. The goal of this paper is to provide this alternative to a surgical-only approach. The management of caries begins with assessing lesion activity and the potential for arrest. This requires a clinical and radiological assessment and evaluation of risk. Hopeless teeth are extracted and large cavities filled to reduce infection. Risk reduction strategies are employed so efforts to arrest lesions can be successful. Teeth with lesions in the enamel or outer third of the dentin should be sealed, not restored, as restorations can weaken teeth and can be traumatic to pulps.

  7. Synchronization of EEG activity in patients with bipolar disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panischev, O. Yu; Demin, S. A.; Muhametshin, I. G.; Demina, N. Yu

    2015-12-01

    In paper we apply the method based on the Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) to determine the differences in frequency-phase synchronization of the cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) activities in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). We found that for healthy subjects the frequency-phase synchronization of EEGs from long-range electrodes was significantly better for BD patients. In BD patients a high synchronization of EEGs was observed only for short-range electrodes. Thus, the FNS is a simple graphical method for qualitative analysis can be applied to identify the synchronization effects in EEG activity and, probably, may be used for the diagnosis of this syndrome.

  8. Quantitative metabolomic profiling of serum, plasma, and urine by (1)H NMR spectroscopy discriminates between patients with inflammatory bowel disease and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Schicho, Rudolf; Shaykhutdinov, Rustem; Ngo, Jennifer; Nazyrova, Alsu; Schneider, Christopher; Panaccione, Remo; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Vogel, Hans J; Storr, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Serologic biomarkers for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have yielded variable differentiating ability. Quantitative analysis of a large number of metabolites is a promising method to detect IBD biomarkers. Human subjects with active Crohn's disease (CD) and active ulcerative colitis (UC) were identified, and serum, plasma, and urine specimens were obtained. We characterized 44 serum, 37 plasma, and 71 urine metabolites by use of (1)H NMR spectroscopy and "targeted analysis" to differentiate between diseased and non-diseased individuals, as well as between the CD and UC cohorts. We used multiblock principal component analysis and hierarchical OPLS-DA for comparing several blocks derived from the same "objects" (e.g., subject) to examine differences in metabolites. In serum and plasma of IBD patients, methanol, mannose, formate, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate, and amino acids such as isoleucine were the metabolites most prominently increased, whereas in urine, maximal increases were observed for mannitol, allantoin, xylose, and carnitine. Both serum and plasma of UC and CD patients showed significant decreases in urea and citrate, whereas in urine, decreases were observed, among others, for betaine and hippurate. Quantitative metabolomic profiling of serum, plasma, and urine discriminates between healthy and IBD subjects. However, our results show that the metabolic differences between the CD and UC cohorts are less pronounced.

  9. Is the optimal intervention policy UC superior to the suboptimal policy MFPT over inferred probabilistic Boolean network models?

    PubMed

    Zan, X Z; Liu, W B; Hu, M X; Shen, L Z

    2016-12-19

    A salient problem in translational genomics is the use of gene regulatory networks to determine therapeutic intervention strategies. Theoretically, in a complete network, the optimal policy performs better than the suboptimal policy. However, this theory may not hold if we intervene in a system based on a control policy derived from imprecise inferred networks, especially in the small-sample scenario. In this paper, we compare the performance of the unconstrained (UC) policy with that of the mean-first-passage-time (MFPT) policy in terms of the quality of the determined control gene and the effectiveness of the policy. Our simulation results reveal that the quality of the control gene determined by the robust MFPT policy is better in the small-sample scenario, whereas the sensitive UC policy performs better in the large-sample scenario. Furthermore, given the same control gene, the MFPT policy is more efficient than the UC policy for the small-sample scenario. Owing to these two features, the MFPT policy performs better in the small-sample scenario and the UC policy performs better only in the large-sample scenario. Additionally, using a relatively complex model (gene number N is more than 1) is beneficial for the intervention process, especially for the sensitive UC policy.

  10. Inflammatory bowel diseases activity in patients undergoing pelvic radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Seisen, Thomas; Klotz, Caroline; Mazeron, Renaud; Maroun, Pierre; Petit, Claire; Deutsch, Eric; Bossi, Alberto; Haie-Meder, Christine; Chargari, Cyrus; Blanchard, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Background Few studies with contradictory results have been published on the safety of pelvic radiation therapy (RT) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods From 1989 to 2015, a single center retrospective analysis was performed including all IBD patients who received pelvic external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BT) for a pelvic malignancy. Treatment characteristics, IBD activity and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity were examined. Results Overall, 28 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) (n=13) or ulcerative colitis (n=15) were included in the present study. Median follow-up time after irradiation was 5.9 years. Regarding IBD activity, only one and two patients experienced a severe episode within and after 6 months of follow-up, respectively. Grade 3/4 acute GI toxicity occurred in 3 (11%) patients, whereas one (3.6%) patient experienced late grade 3/4 GI toxicity. Only patients with rectal IBD location (P=0.016) or low body mass index (BMI) (P=0.012) experienced more severe IBD activity within or after 6 months following RT, respectively. Conclusions We report an acceptable tolerance of RT in IBD patients with pelvic malignancies. Specifically, a low risk of uncontrolled flare-up was observed. PMID:28280621

  11. Characteristics of daily arm activities in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Kenneth; Annegarn, Janneke; Lima Passos, Valéria; Savelberg, Hans H; Schols, Annemie M; Wouters, Emiel F; Spruit, Martijn A

    2014-06-01

    Arm activities are required for maintenance of self-care and independent living. This study aimed to investigate whether and to what extent arm activities of daily living (ADL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients differ compared to healthy controls and the extent to which they perform arm ADL at a relatively higher upper limb muscle effort. Daily arm and leg activities were assessed using accelerometers in the home environment (COPD: n=21, healthy: n=24; part 1). The relative efforts of the trapezius, deltoid and biceps muscles were studied using electromyography during domestic arm ADL in a laboratory setting (COPD: n=17, healthy: n=15; part 2). After correction for walking time, the time spent on arm ADL was similar between COPD patients and healthy control subjects (p=0.52), while the intensity of arm activities was lower in COPD patients (p=0.041). In the laboratory setting, arm ADL were performed at a lower intensity by COPD patients, while the trapezius muscle effort was significantly higher during several arm ADL compared to healthy control subjects (p<0.05). COPD patients have a similar duration of arm ADL compared to healthy subjects after correction for walking time, but perform arm activities at a lower intensity. Moreover, patients perform some arm ADL at a relatively higher muscle effort.

  12. [Problems connected with sexual activity in patients with heart disease].

    PubMed

    Rembek, Magdalena; Tylkowski, Michał; Piestrzeniewicz, Katarzyna; Goch, Jan Henryk

    2007-08-01

    The paper presents some basic data on sexual activity in patients with heart disease. The most typical problems of people with stable angina or after myocardial infarction connected with sexual intercourse have been presented. Modulation of risk of heart attack during sexual activity and main problems of sexual dysfunction after acute coronary syndromes have been described.

  13. In vitro fermentation of sugar beet arabino-oligosaccharides by fecal microbiota obtained from patients with ulcerative colitis to selectively stimulate the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Holck, Jesper; Meyer, Anne S; Licht, Tine Rask

    2011-12-01

    The potential prebiotic properties of arabino-oligosaccharides (AOS) derived from sugar beet pulp was studied using mixed cultures of human fecal bacteria from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), in remission or with active disease, and in healthy controls. These results were compared to those for fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), which are known to have a prebiotic effect. Fermentation studies were carried out using a small-scale static batch system, and changes in the fecal microbial communities and metabolites were monitored after 24 h by quantitative real-time PCR and short-chain fatty acid analysis. With a few minor exceptions, AOS affected the communities similarly to what was seen for FOS. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were selectively increased after fermentation of AOS or FOS by fecal microbiota derived from UC patients. The stimulation of growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. was accompanied by a high production of acetate and hence a decrease of pH. The fermentation of AOS may help improve the inflammatory conditions in UC patients through stimulation of bacteria eliciting anti-inflammatory responses and through production of acetate. AOS may therefore represent a new prebiotic candidate for reduction of the risk of flare-ups in UC patients. However, human trials are needed to confirm a health-promoting effect.

  14. Clinical significance of cytomegalovirus infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Elena; Carrera, Elisa; Manzano, Rebeca; Lopez-Sanroman, Antonio

    2013-01-07

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is common in humans. The virus then enters a "latency phase" and can reactivate to different stimuli such as immunosuppression. The clinical significance of CMV infection in inflammatory bowel disease is different in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). CMV does not interfere in the clinical course of CD. However, CMV reactivation is frequent in severe or steroid-resistant UC. It is not known whether the virus exacerbates the disease or simply appears as a bystander of a severe disease. Different methods are used to diagnose CMV colitis. Diagnosis is classically based on histopathological identification of viral-infected cells or CMV antigens in biopsied tissues using haematoxylin-eosin or immunohistochemistry, other tests on blood or tissue samples are currently being investigated. Polymerase chain reaction performed in colonic mucosa has a high sensitivity and a positive result could be associated with a worse prognosis disease; further studies are needed to determine the most appropriate strategy with positive CMV-DNA in colonic mucosa. Specific endoscopic features have not been described in active UC and CMV infection. CMV colitis is usually treated with ganciclovir for several weeks, there are different opinions about whether or not to stop immunosuppressive therapy. Other antiviral drugs may be used. Multicenter controlled studies would needed to determine which subgroup of UC patients would benefit from early antiviral treatment.

  15. The consent process: Enabling or disabling patients' active participation?

    PubMed

    Doherty, Carole; Stavropoulou, Charitini; Saunders, Mark Nk; Brown, Tracey

    2015-10-20

    Standards expected by doctors' regulatory bodies in respect of the process of consent to treatment have arguably sought to restructure the nature of the doctor-patient relationship from one of the paternalism to that of shared decision-making. Yet, few studies have explored empirically, from patients' perspectives, the extent to which the process of consent to treatment enables or disables patients' participation in medical decision-making. Our article examines patients' attitudes towards the consent process, exploring how and why these attitudes influence patients' active participation in decision-making and considering possible consequent medico-legal issues. Data were collected longitudinally using semi-structured interviews and field observations involving 35 patients and 19 of their caregivers, in an English hospital between February and November 2014. These indicate that generally patients defer to the doctor in respect of treatment decision-making. Although most patients and their caregivers wanted detailed information and discussion, they did not necessarily expect that this would be provided. Furthermore, patients perceived that signing the consent form was an obligatory routine principally to protect doctors from legal action should something go wrong. Our study suggests that patients' predominantly paternalistic perceptions of the consent process can not only undermine attempts by doctors to involve them in decision-making but, as patients are now considered in law as informed actors, their perceptions of the consent form as not being in their interests could be a self-fulfilling prophecy if signing is undertaken without due consideration to the content.

  16. Development of the Patient Activation Measure for mental health.

    PubMed

    Green, Carla A; Perrin, Nancy A; Polen, Michael R; Leo, Michael C; Hibbard, Judith H; Tusler, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Our objective was to adapt the physical health Patient Activation Measure (PAM) for use among people with mental health conditions (PAM-MH). Data came from three studies among people with chronic mental health conditions and were combined in Rasch analyses. The PAM-MH's psychometric properties equal those of the original 13-item PAM. Test-retest reliability and concurrent validity were good, and the PAM-MH showed sensitivity to change. The PAM-MH appears to be a reliable and valid measure of patient activation among individuals with mental health problems. It appears to have potential for use in assessing change in activation.

  17. Risk Factors for Urethral Condyloma among Heterosexual Young Male Patients with Condyloma Acuminatum of Penile Skin

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first study that focuses on risk factor of urethral condyloma (UC). The subjects of our study included genital warts patients who had been diagnosed as having condyloma acuminatum of penile skin (CAPS) with/without UC. Relationship with UC of number of life time female partners, co-infection with urethritis, circumcision status, number of CAPS and wart diameter were studied by use of multivariate analysis. Co-infection with urethritis, circumcision status were risk factors of UC in heterosexual young male patients with CAPS. This information will be helpful for providing more professional counseling to patients with genital warts. PMID:27659432

  18. Physical Activity in Patients Treated With Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Thangarasa, Tharshika; Imtiaz, Rameez; Hiremath, Swapnil; Zimmerman, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Patients with chronic diseases are known to benefit from exercise. Despite a lack of compelling evidence, patients with end-stage kidney disease treated with peritoneal dialysis are often discouraged from participating in exercise programs that include resistance training due to concerns about the development of hernias and leaks. The actual effects of physical activity with or without structured exercise programs for these patients remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to more completely define the risks and benefits of physical activity in the end-stage kidney disease population treated with peritoneal dialysis. Methods/design: We will conduct a systematic review examining the effects of physical activity on end-stage kidney disease patients treated with peritoneal dialysis. For the purposes of this review, exercise will be considered a purposive subcategory of physical activity. The primary objective is to determine if physical activity in this patient population is associated with improvements in mental health, physical functioning, fatigue and quality of life and if there is an increase in adverse outcomes. With the help of a skilled librarian, we will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized trials and observational studies. We will include adult end-stage kidney disease patients treated with peritoneal dialysis that have participated in an exercise training program or had their level of physical activity assessed directly or by self-report. The study must include an assessment of the association between physical activity and one of our primary or secondary outcomes measures. We will report study quality using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for randomized controlled trials and the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale for observational studies. Quality across studies will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. The

  19. Dietary iron does not impact the quality of life of patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In animal models, excess luminal iron exacerbates colonic inflammation and cancer development. Moreover, in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients with mild to moderate disease activity dietary fortificant iron intake is inversely related to quality of life. Here we sought to determine whether dietary iron intakes were also related to quality of life in IBD patients in remission. Methods Forty eight patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 42 of which had quiescent disease during this observational study, and 53 healthy control subjects completed quality of life questionnaires and 7-day food diaries. For comparative analysis, 34/group were matched and the linear relationship between dietary iron intakes (total, haem, non-haem or fortificant) and EuroQol quality of life measures was investigated. For UC patients the linear relationship between dietary iron intakes and the scores from the disease specific inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (IBDQ) was also considered. Results The intake of dietary iron, and its various sub-fractions, were not associated with quality of life (EuroQol) in patients with quiescent disease or in healthy control subjects. The picture was similar for the 42 quiescent UC patients when disease-specific IBDQ was used. However, the 6 patients who relapsed during the study again showed an inverse association between IBDQ and dietary iron intake (p = 0.03). Conclusions Our data suggest that dietary iron does not impact on quality of life in quiescent UC patients but support that, once the disease is triggered, luminal iron may be a permissive factor for exacerbation of disease activity resulting in lower quality of life. PMID:24267915

  20. Role of oral nitrate in the nitrosation of ( UC)proline by conventional microflora and germ-free rats

    SciTech Connect

    Mallett, A.K.; Rowland, I.R.; Walters, D.G.; Gangolli, S.D.; Cottrell, R.C.; Massey, R.C.

    1985-11-01

    The urinary excretion of N-nitroso-L-(U- UC)proline by conventional microflora and germ free rats was used to assess the role of the gut bacteria and oral nitrate in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds. The formation of nitrosoproline was qualitatively similar in conventional and germfree rats suggesting no involvement of the intestinal flora in this reaction. Furthermore, nitrosamino acid production was similar following the administration of nitrate and (U- UC)proline or (U- UC)proline alone, demonstrating no involvement of exogenous nitrate under the conditions of the experiment. Dietary contamination with nitrate/nitrite was negligible. The results are consistent with the suggestion that nitrate/nitrite reserves in the body are important in the formation of nitrosoproline in vivo.

  1. Fatty acyltranferases in serum in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients

    SciTech Connect

    Zielenski, J.; Newman, L.J.; Slomiany, B.L.; Slomiany, A.

    1987-05-01

    Studies on serum and gastrointestinal secretion from CF patient is suggest that defective accumulation of mucus in gastrointestinal tract and excessive amount of a protease resistant peptides in serum are related to the abnormal activity of enzymes responsible for fatty acylation of proteins. Here, the authors investigated the fatty acyltransferase activities in serum of normal and CF patients. A 15 l of serum was mixed with 0.85 nmol ( UC)palmitoyl CoA, 200 g of serine and threonine and incubated at 37C for 30 min. The incubates were immediately frozen, dried extracted with C/M and chromatographed in chloroform/methanol/water. The incorporation of ( UC)palmitate was determined using linear radioscanner and authoradiography. The results of HPTLC revealed that CF serum in addition of ACAT and LCAT contained enzymes responsible for the transfer of ( UC)palmitate to monoacylphosphoglycerides, and serine and threonine. In normal serum the formation of a small amount of palmitoyl serine and palmitoyl threonine was also observed but the acylation of monoacylphosphoglycerides was not detectable. The authors conclude that in cystic fibrosis the abnormal fatty acyltransferases are responsible for the occurrence of protease resistant glycoprotein, unusual peptides in serum and possibly for the modification of membrane proteins and lipids.

  2. Personality dimensions and type D personality in female patients with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Sajadinejad, Marzieh Sadat; Molavi, Hossein; Asgari, Karim; Kalantari, Mehrdad; Adibi, Peyman

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Psychological factors such as personality traits may affect the adjustment capacity and Quality of Life (QOL) in Ulcerative Colitis (UC) patients. Type D personality has some similarities with general personality traits of UC patients. The aims of this study were to compare NEO personality profile and type D personality between healthy normal group and UC patients; and to determine the possible relationship between type D personality and QOL in UC patients. Materials and Methods: The sample of study comprised of 58 UC patients and 59 healthy control subjects (from their family members). All participants were requested to fill out NEO-FFI, Type D personality (Ds14) Scale and WHO-Quality of Life Questionnaire. Results: The findings indicated that UC patients scored higher in neuroticism (P<0/01); lower in extraversion (P<0/01) and openness (P<0/05) than healthy controls but their differentiation were not significant in agreeableness and conscientiousness. The findings showed that 59% of UC patients and 33% of the control subjects had type D personality; and the differences in frequency of type D between the two groups were significant (P<0/05). The mean QOL scores of type D personality in UC patients was significantly lower than patients without type D personality (F= 7/55, P<0/01). Type D personality could better predict QOL of UC patients than NEO dimensions. Conclusions: Differences were observed between UC patients and their healthy family members, in terms of personality factors. Type D personality may be regarded as an important factor that may bring about some adverse effects in QOL among UC patients. PMID:23825986

  3. Relationship between disease activity and infection in patients with spondyloarthropathies

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, A; Pacheco-Tena, C; Vazquez-Mellado, J; Burgos-Vargas, R

    2004-01-01

    Methods: A cross sectional study of 95 non-selected patients with SpA (62 men; mean age 26.4 years), who were examined for signs and symptoms of infection and their association with disease activity. 52 had ankylosing spondylitis (AS), 32 undifferentiated SpA (uSpA), 6 chronic reactive arthritis (ReA), and 5 psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Categorical data were analysed by χ2 or Fisher's tests. Results: 53 (56%) patients had infections: 41 (43%) upper respiratory tract (URT), 34 (36%) enteric, and 20 (21%) genitourinary infections. More infections occurred in HLA-B27 positive patients as a whole (39 v 5; p = 0.003) and in uSpA (12 v 2; p = 0.005). In AS and uSpA, infections occurred in ∼50%. 30/39 (77%) patients with active disease (group A) and 23/56 (41%) (group B) (p = 0.001) had infection. There were more enteric infections in group A (47%; p<0.001) and more URT infections in group B (52%; p = NS). 22/30 (73%) patients attributed disease activity to infection. Conclusion: Enteric, and less commonly, URT infections in Mexican patients with SpA, particularly those who were HLA-B27 positive, seem to have a role in the active phase of AS and uSpA. PMID:15361397

  4. Chewing pattern and muscular activation in open bite patients.

    PubMed

    Piancino, Maria Grazia; Isola, Gaetano; Merlo, Andrea; Dalessandri, Domenico; Debernardi, Cesare; Bracco, Pietro

    2012-04-01

    Different studies have indicated, in open bite patients, that masticatory muscles tend to generate a small maximum bite force and to show a reduced cross-sectional area with a lower EMG activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the kinematics parameters of the chewing cycles and the activation of masseters and anterior temporalis muscles of patients with anterior dental open bite malocclusion. There have been no previous reports evaluating both kinematic values and EMG activity of patients with anterior open bite during chewing. Fifty-two young patients (23 boys and 29 girls; mean age±SD 11.5±1.2 and 10.2±1.6years, respectively) with anterior open bite malocclusion and 21 subjects with normal occlusion were selected for the study. Kinematics parameters and surface electromyography (EMG) were simultaneously recorded during chewing a hard bolus with a kinesiograph K7-I Myotronics-Usa. The results showed a statistically significant difference between the open bite patients and the control group for a narrower chewing pattern, a shorter total and closing duration of the chewing pattern, a lower peak of both the anterior temporalis and the masseter of the bolus side. In this study, it has been observed that open bite patients, lacking the inputs from the anterior guidance, that are considered important information for establishing the motor scheme of the chewing pattern, show narrower chewing pattern, shorter lasting chewing cycles and lower muscular activation with respect to the control group.

  5. Physical activity in patients with axial spondyloarthritis: a cross-sectional study of 203 patients.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Stéphanie; Molto, Anna; Dadoun, Sabrina; Rein, Christopher; Hudry, Christophe; Kreis, Sarah; Fautrel, Bruno; Pertuiset, Edouard; Gossec, Laure

    2016-12-01

    Physical activity is recommended in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) but may be insufficiently performed. The objective of this study was to assess physical activity in axial spondyloarthritis and to explore its explanatory factors. This was a cross-sectional study of patients with definite axSpA. The level of physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Long form, IPAQ-L), type of aerobic exercise and the Exercise Benefits and Barriers Score were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to explain levels of exercise at least as recommended by the World Health Organization. In all, 203 patients were included: mean age 46.0 ± 11.6 years, 108 (53.2 %) males, mean Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Activity Index (0-100) 37.8 ± 19.9; 137 (68.8 %) were treated with TNF-inhibitors. In all, 111 patients (54.7 %) were exercising at least as recommended; 96 (47.2 %) were in the 'high physical activity' category. Aerobic exercise >30 min was performed at least once a week by 61 (30.0 %) patients; the most frequent activities were energetic walking (31.0 %) and swimming (21.2 %). Main perceived benefits of exercising were improving physical fitness and functioning of the cardiovascular system, and the main barrier was physical exertion. Patients with paid employment had lower levels of physical activity whereas other demographic variables, disease activity/severity or TNF-inhibitor treatment were not predictive. One half of these patients performed enough physical activity according to the recommendations, similarly to the French population. Levels of physical activity did not appear to be explained by disease-related variables. Physical activity should be encouraged in axSpA.

  6. Fractionation of radioactivity in the milk of goats administered UC-aflatoxin B1

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, T.; Hsieh, D.P.

    1985-05-01

    A detailed fractionation of radioactivity in the milk of goats administered UC-aflatoxin B1 at low doses was performed. The milk collected in the first 24 h following dosing contained radioactivity equivalent to 0.45-1.1% of the dose given. The radioactivity in each sample was partitioned into 4 fractions: ether, protein, dichloromethane, and water-alcohol. Over 80% of the radioactivity was detected in the dichloromethane fraction, of which over 95% was attributable to aflatoxin M1. No aflatoxin B1 or other known aflatoxin metabolites were detected in any fraction. The results indicate that the major metabolite of aflatoxin B1 in goat milk is aflatoxin M1 and that other metabolites, including conjugates, are of minor significance.

  7. FIFI: The MPE Garching/UC Berkeley Far-Infrared Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geis, Norbert; Genzel, Reinhard; Haggerty, M.; Herrmann, F.; Jackson, J.; Madden, Suzanne C.; Nikola, T.; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Rumitz, M.; Stacey, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the performance characteristics of the MPE Garching/UC Berkeley Far-Infrared Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FIFI) for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The spectrometer features two or three cryogenic tunable Fabry-Perot filters in series giving spectral resolution R of up to 10(exp 5) in the range of 40 microns less than lambda less than 200 microns, and an imaging 5x5 array of photoconductive detectors with variable focal plane plate scale. The instrument works at background limited sensitivity of up to 2 x 10(exp -19) W cm(exp -2) Hz(exp -1/2) per pixel per resolution element at R = 10(exp 5) on the KAO.

  8. The Chicago Public Schools (CPS)/University of Chicago (UC) Internet Project (CUIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, D.; Rebull, L. M.; Munoz-Franco, L.; Jay, M. J.; Burke, R. D.; Fenstermacher, K. D.; Lenz, D. D.; MacNaught, H.; Marks, M. D.; Murphy, J.; Thomas, C.; York, D. G.; Anderson, D.; Chisom, Y.; Dynis, R.; Letts, J.; Lewis, E.; Harris, E.; Segneri, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Chicago Public Schools (CPS)/University of Chicago (UC) Internet Project (CUIP) is a collaborative pilot project among the UC, CPS Central Administration, and 24 public schools in the Woodlawn, Hyde Park/ South Kenwood, and North Kenwood/Oakland neighborhoods. Our primary goal is connecting these schools to the Internet, emphasizing the continued support of the schools and their teachers after the computers and connections are in place. We work with principals, department heads, and individual teachers to create and nurture a self-sustaining computer culture that will both maintain the network systems and incorporate the technology into the curriculum. We also encourage the schools to take advantage of ther new connectivity by collaborating and sharing resources among themselves. Formal interactions are fostered with museums and research centers, locally and nationally. CUIP is committed to supporting these schools as they use the Internet to enhance student learning. CUIP's goals include: providing T-1 internet connectivity to 24 local schools, supporting the technology coordinator in each school in order to ensure continuous Internet connectivity, and developing effective technology plans, including technology upgrades; nurturing and supporting teachers interested in incorporating technology in their classroom; fostering an environment in which the students can acquire a wide range of comptuer skills appropriate to the current job market; and fostering similar community-based efforts, around Chicago and the nation. CUIP's milestones include: internet service connected to 12 schools; technology interns placed in some CUIP schools in collaboration with Governors State University; email provided to more than half of the 660 teachers in connected schools; and World Wide Web for Teachers, a summer class on curriculum uses of the Web, taught by CUIP staff to 23 of over 100 public school teacher applicants.

  9. Using Health Information Technology to Foster Engagement: Patients' Experiences with an Active Patient Health Record.

    PubMed

    Rief, John J; Hamm, Megan E; Zickmund, Susan L; Nikolajski, Cara; Lesky, Dan; Hess, Rachel; Fischer, Gary S; Weimer, Melissa; Clark, Sunday; Zieth, Caroline; Roberts, Mark S

    2017-03-01

    Personal health records (PHRs) typically employ "passive" communication strategies, such as non-personalized medical text, rather than direct patient engagement in care. Currently there is a call for more active PHRs that directly engage patients in an effort to improve their health by offering elements such as personalized medical information, health coaches, and secure messaging with primary care providers. As part of a randomized clinical trial comparing "passive" with "active" PHRs, we explore patients' experiences with using an "active" PHR known as HealthTrak. The "passive" elements of this PHR included problem lists, medication lists, information about patient allergies and immunizations, medical and surgical histories, lab test results, health reminders, and secure messaging. The active arm included all of these elements and added personalized alerts delivered through the secure messaging platform to patients for services coming due based on various demographic features (including age and sex) and chronic medical conditions. Our participants were part of the larger clinical trial and were eligible if they had been randomized to the active PHR arm, one that included regular personalized alerts. We conducted focus group discussions on the benefits of this active PHR for patients who are at risk for cardiovascular disease. Forty-one patients agreed to participate and were organized into five separate focus group sessions. Three main themes emerged from the qualitatively analyzed focus groups: participants reported that the active PHR promoted better communication with providers; enabled them to more effectively partner with their providers; and helped them become more proactive about tracking their health information. In conclusion, patients reported improved communication, partnership with their providers, and a sense of self-management, thus adding insights for PHR designers hoping to address low adoption rates and other patient barriers to the development

  10. Theoretical Model for Volume Fraction of UC, 235U Enrichment, and Effective Density of Final U 10Mo Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Devaraj, Arun; Prabhakaran, Ramprashad; Joshi, Vineet V.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; McGarrah, Eric J.; Lavender, Curt A.

    2016-04-12

    The purpose of this document is to provide a theoretical framework for (1) estimating uranium carbide (UC) volume fraction in a final alloy of uranium with 10 weight percent molybdenum (U 10Mo) as a function of final alloy carbon concentration, and (2) estimating effective 235U enrichment in the U 10Mo matrix after accounting for loss of 235U in forming UC. This report will also serve as a theoretical baseline for effective density of as-cast low-enriched U 10Mo alloy. Therefore, this report will serve as the baseline for quality control of final alloy carbon content

  11. Ongoing Contact Activation in Patients with Hereditary Angioedema

    PubMed Central

    Konings, Joke; Cugno, Massimo; Suffritti, Chiara; ten Cate, Hugo; Cicardi, Marco; Govers-Riemslag, José W. P.

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is predominantly caused by a deficiency in C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) (HAE-C1INH). C1INH inhibits activated factor XII (FXIIa), activated factor XI (FXIa), and kallikrein. In HAE-C1INH patients the thrombotic risk is not increased even though activation of the contact system is poorly regulated. Therefore, we hypothesized that contact activation preferentially leads to kallikrein formation and less to activation of the coagulation cascade in HAE-C1INH patients. We measured the levels of C1INH in complex with activated contact factors in plasma samples of HAE-C1INH patients (N=30, 17 during remission and 13 during acute attack) and healthy controls (N=10). We did not detect differences in enzyme-inhibitor complexes between samples of controls, patients during remission and patients during an acute attack. Reconstitution with C1INH did not change this result. Next, we determined the potential to form enzyme-inhibitory complexes after complete in vitro activation of the plasma samples with a FXII trigger. In all samples, enzyme-C1INH levels increased after activation even in patients during an acute attack. However, the levels of FXIIa-C1INH, FXIa-C1INH and kallikrein-C1INH were at least 52% lower in samples taken during remission and 70% lower in samples taken during attack compared to samples from controls (p<0.05). Addition of C1INH after activation led to an increase in levels of FXIIa-C1INH and FXIa-C1INH (p<0.05), which were still lower than in controls (p<0.05), while the levels of kallikrein-C1INH did not change. These results are consistent with constitutive activation and attenuated depletion of the contact system and show that the ongoing activation of the contact system, which is present in HAE-C1INH patients both during remission and during acute attacks, is not associated with preferential generation of kallikrein over FXIa. PMID:24013493

  12. Distinguishing features of an infectious molecular clone of the highly divergent and noncytopathic human immunodeficiency virus type 2 UC1 strain.

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, S W; Quiroga, M; Werner, A; Dina, D; Levy, J A

    1993-01-01

    A full-length infectious molecular clone was derived from the noncytopathic human immunodeficiency virus type 2 UC1 strain (HIV-2UC1) that was originally recoverd from an individual from the Ivory Coast. Like the parental isolate, the molecularly cloned virus (HIV-2UC1mc or UC1 mc) demonstrates a reduced ability to induce syncytium formation, to kill cells, and to down-modulate the cell surface CD4 receptor in infected cells. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA sequence of UC1mc revealed that it is the first full-length infectious molecular clone in the second HIV-2 subgroup previously identified by partial sequence analysis of the HIV-2D205 and HIV-2GH-2 strains. These highly divergent HIV-2 strains appear to be genetically equidistant from other HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac/sm strains. UC1mc is unlike any other HIV-2 or SIVmac/sm strain in that it lacks a cysteine residue at the proposed signal peptide cleavage site in Env. However, site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicate that this missing cysteine is not alone important in the noncytopathic phenotype of UC1mc. Like other HIV-2 and SIV strains, the UC1mc Env transmembrane protein (gp43) is mutated to a truncated form (gp34) after passage in certain T-cell lines. The UC1 molecular clone should be helpful in determining the genetic sequences associated with HIV-2 cytopathicity. Images PMID:8419635

  13. Rapid Response Team Activations in Pediatric Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Acker, Shannon N; Wathen, Beth; Roosevelt, Genie E; Hill, Lauren R S; Schubert, Anna; Reese, Jenny; Bensard, Denis D; Kulungowski, Ann M

    2017-02-01

    Introduction The rapid response team (RRT) is a multidisciplinary team who evaluates hospitalized patients for concerns of nonemergent clinical deterioration. RRT evaluations are mandatory for children whose Pediatric Early Warning System (PEWS) score (assessment of child's behavior, cardiovascular and respiratory status) is ≥4. We aimed to determine if there were differences in characteristics of RRT calls between children who were admitted primarily to either medical or surgical services. We hypothesized that RRT activations would be called for less severely ill children with lower PEWS score on surgical services compared with children admitted to a medical service. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective review of all children with RRT activations between January 2008 and April 2015 at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. We evaluated the characteristics of RRT calls and made comparisons between RRT calls made for children admitted primarily to medical or surgical services. Results A total of 2,991 RRT activations were called, and 324 (11%) involved surgical patients. Surgical patients were older than medical patients (median: 7 vs. 4 years; p < 0.001). RRT evaluations were called for lower PEWS score in surgical patients compared with medical (median: 3 vs. 4, p < 0.001). Surgical patients were more likely to remain on the inpatient ward following the RRT (51 vs. 39%, p < 0.001) and were less likely to require an advanced airway than medical patients (0.9 vs. 2.1%; p = 0.412). RRT evaluations did not differ between day and night shifts (52% day vs. 48% night; p = 0.17). All surgical patients and all but one medical patient survived the event; surgical patients were more likely to survive to hospital discharge (97 vs. 91%, p < 0.001) Conclusions RRT activations are rare events among pediatric surgical patients. When compared with medical patients, RRT evaluation is requested for surgical patients with a lower PEWS

  14. The promise of wearable activity sensors to define patient recovery.

    PubMed

    Appelboom, Geoff; Yang, Annie H; Christophe, Brandon R; Bruce, Eliza M; Slomian, Justine; Bruyère, Olivier; Bruce, Samuel S; Zacharia, Brad E; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Connolly, E Sander

    2014-07-01

    The recent emergence of mobile health--the use of mobile telecommunication and wireless devices to improve health outcomes, services, and research--has inspired a patient-centric approach to monitor health metrics. Sensors embedded in wearable devices are utilized to acquire greater self-knowledge by tracking basic parameters such as blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature as well as data related to exercise, diet, and psychological state. To that end, recent studies on utilizing wireless fitness activity trackers to monitor and promote functional recovery in patients suggest that collecting up-to-date performance data could help patients regain functional independence and help hospitals determine the appropriate length of stay for a patient. This manuscript examines existing functional assessment scales, discusses the use of activity tracking sensors in evaluating functional independence, and explores the growing application of wireless technology in measuring and promoting functional recovery.

  15. Motoneuron activity in patients with different types of tremor.

    PubMed

    Milanov, I

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the segmental motoneuron activity as a possible mechanism of tremor generation. Eighty-three patients with different types of tremor (25 with Parkinsonian, 29 with essential, and 30 with enhanced physiological tremor due to anxiety), 25 Parkinsonian patients without tremor and 30 healthy volunteers were examined. The tremor was studied clinically and by electromyography in all limb positions. The F wave was examined for assessment of motoneuron activity. The wave was recorded after stimulation of the ulnar, median, tibial and fibular nerves. The maximal and mean F wave amplitudes, frequency of occurrence and number of phases were increased, and the duration was prolonged in all group of patients as compared to the healthy persons. The maximal and the mean F/M amplitude ratios, as well as the Fmean./Fmax amplitude ratio were increased in all groups of patients. All F wave parameters were most altered in Parkinsonian tremor patients followed by patients with rigidity. In conclusion increased motoneuron activity participates in generation of different types of tremor and in Parkinsonian rigidity.

  16. Vinflunine treatment in patients with metastatic urothelial cancer: A Nordic retrospective multicenter analysis

    PubMed Central

    Holmsten, Karin; Dohn, Line; Jensen, Niels Viggo; Shah, Carl-Henrik; Jäderling, Fredrik; Pappot, Helle; Ullén, Anders

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, vinflunine was introduced as a second-line treatment to be used after the failure of platinum therapy in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC). The present study investigated the administered vinflunine to patients with mUC in standard clinical practice with the aim of evaluating treatment patterns, response, survival parameters and side-effects. Data were collected retrospectively from the first 100 mUC patients treated with vinflunine at three Nordic cancer centers associated with the Nordic Urothelial Cancer Oncology Group. The overall response rate was 23% and complete response was observed in one patient. The median progression-free survival (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) were 2.8 (range, 0.5–34.3) and 6.3 (range, 0.3–39.7) months, respectively. An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) of 2 was present in 20% of the patients, and those patients exhibited significantly shorter mOS (4.1 vs. 7.0 months, P=0.001) and a significantly higher degree of grade 3/4 toxicity (P=0.026) compared with ECOG PS 0–1 patients. Furthermore, patients without visceral metastases had significantly longer mOS than patients with visceral metastases (10.6 vs. 6.0 months, P=0.008). The median number of cycles of vinflunine was 3 (range, 1–28). The current data confirms that vinflunine is an active agent for second-line treatment in an unselected clinical cohort of patients with mUC. ECOG PS and presence of visceral metastases were significant prognostic parameters. In particular, patients with ECOG PS 2 receiving vinflunine had a shorter mOS and a higher frequency of severe toxicity, and, thus, should be treated with caution. Furthermore, the present study observed large inter-individual differences in radiological response and OS, indicating the need for further development of improved patient selection tools to optimize vinflunine treatment in platinum-refractory mUC patients. PMID:27446429

  17. The Relationship Between Race, Patient Activation, and Working Alliance: Implications for Patient Engagement in Mental Health Care.

    PubMed

    Eliacin, Johanne; Coffing, Jessica M; Matthias, Marianne S; Burgess, Diana J; Bair, Matthew J; Rollins, Angela L

    2016-12-01

    This study explored the relationship between race and two key aspects of patient engagement-patient activation and working alliance-among a sample of African-American and White veterans (N = 152) seeking medication management for mental health conditions. After adjusting for demographics, race was significantly associated with patient activation, working alliance, and medication adherence scores. Patient activation was also associated with working alliance. These results provide support for the consideration of race and ethnicity in facilitating patient engagement and patient activation in mental healthcare. Minority patients may benefit from targeted efforts to improve their active engagement in mental healthcare.

  18. Role and mechanisms of action of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 in the maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis patients: An update

    PubMed Central

    Scaldaferri, Franco; Gerardi, Viviana; Mangiola, Francesca; Lopetuso, Loris Riccardo; Pizzoferrato, Marco; Petito, Valentina; Papa, Alfredo; Stojanovic, Jovana; Poscia, Andrea; Cammarota, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease, whose etiology is still unclear. Its pathogenesis involves an interaction between genetic factors, immune response and the “forgotten organ”, Gut Microbiota. Several studies have been conducted to assess the role of antibiotics and probiotics as additional or alternative therapies for Ulcerative Colitis. Escherichia coli Nissle (EcN) is a nonpathogenic Gram-negative strain isolated in 1917 by Alfred Nissle and it is the active component of microbial drug Mutaflor® (Ardeypharm GmbH, Herdecke, Germany and EcN, Cadigroup, In Italy) used in many gastrointestinal disorder including diarrhea, uncomplicated diverticular disease and UC. It is the only probiotic recommended in ECCO guidelines as effective alternative to mesalazine in maintenance of remission in UC patients. In this review we propose an update on the role of EcN 1917 in maintenance of remission in UC patients, including data about efficacy and safety. Further studies may be helpful for this subject to further the full use of potential of EcN. PMID:27350728

  19. Patterns of Spontaneous Magnetoencephalographic Activity in Schizophrenic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Siekmeier, Peter J.; Stufflebeam, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) non-invasively measures the magnetic fields produced by the brain. Pertinent research articles from 1993 to 2009 that measured spontaneous, whole-head MEG activity in schizophrenic patients were reviewed. Data on localization of oscillatory activity and correlation of these findings with psychotic symptoms are summarized. While the variety of measures used by different research groups makes a quantitative meta-analysis difficult, it appears that MEG activity in patients may exhibit identifiable patterns, defined by topographic organization and frequency band. Specifically, 11 of the 12 studies showed increased theta (4–8 Hz) and delta (1–4 Hz) band oscillations in the temporal lobes of patients; of the 10 studies that examined the relationship between oscillatory activity and symptomatology, 8 found a positive correlation between temporal lobe theta activity and positive schizophrenic symptoms. Abnormally high frontal delta activity was not seen. These findings are analyzed in comparison to the EEG literature on schizophrenics, and possible confounds (e.g., medication effects) are discussed. In the future, MEG might be used to assist in diagnosis, or might be fruitfully used in conjunction with new neuroscience research approaches such as computational modeling, which may be able to link oscillatory activity and cellular-level pathology. PMID:20461010

  20. Patterns of spontaneous magnetoencephalographic activity in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Siekmeier, Peter J; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2010-06-01

    Magnetoencephalography noninvasively measures the magnetic fields produced by the brain. Pertinent research articles from 1993 to 2009 that measured spontaneous, whole-head magnetoencephalography activity in patients with schizophrenia were reviewed. Data on localization of oscillatory activity and correlation of these findings with psychotic symptoms are summarized. Although the variety of measures used by different research groups makes a quantitative meta-analysis difficult, it appears that magnetoencephalography activity in patients may exhibit identifiable patterns, defined by topographic organization and frequency band. Specifically, 11 of the 12 studies showed increased theta (4-8 Hz) and delta (1-4 Hz) band oscillations in the temporal lobes of patients; of the 10 studies that examined the relationship between oscillatory activity and symptomatology, 8 found a positive correlation between temporal lobe theta activity and positive schizophrenic symptoms. Abnormally high frontal delta activity was not seen. These findings are analyzed in comparison with the electroencephalogram literature on schizophrenics, and possible confounds (e.g., medication effects) are discussed. In the future, magnetoencephalography might be used to assist in diagnosis or might be fruitfully used in conjunction with new neuroscience research approaches such as computational modeling, which may be able to link oscillatory activity and cellular-level pathology.

  1. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity in patients with iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    Gedikbasi, Asuman; Akalin, Nilgul; Gunaldi, Meral; Yilmaz, Deniz; Mert, Meral; Harmankaya, Ozlem; Soylu, Aliye; Karakaya, Pinar; Kumbasar, Abdulbaki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In this study we aimed to detect paraoxonase 1 (PON-1) activity in iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and to compare it with healthy controls by observing the change after iron therapy. Material and methods In this study, 50 adult patients with IDA and 40 healthy subjects were enrolled. All patients were analyzed at the beginning and after treatment according to laboratory assessments. Results Mean paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in the iron deficiency anemia group were significantly lower than mean activities of the control group (102.4 ±19.2 U/l and 163.3 ±13.68 U/l, respectively and 157.3 ±26.4 U/l and 256.1 ±24.6 U/l, respectively; p = 0.0001 for both). Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities significantly increased after treatment for IDA (143.2 ±13.9 and 197.6 ±27.9 U/l, respectively, p = 0.0001). Mean activities after treatment with iron were significantly lower than mean activities in the control group (p = 0.002; p = 0.0001 respectively). Conclusions Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in patients with IDA significantly increased after treatment with iron therapy. In adults IDA may also be one of the factors associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:27478448

  2. Active rehabilitation in a pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patient.

    PubMed

    Zebuhr, Carleen; Sinha, Amit; Skillman, Heather; Buckvold, Shannon

    2014-05-01

    Decreased intensive care unit (ICU) mortality has led to an increase in ICU morbidity. ICU-induced immobilization plays a major role in this morbidity. Recently, ICU mobility has been shown to be safe and effective in adolescent and adult patients. We report the successful rehabilitation of an 8-year-old boy with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. A child who is critically ill may safely perform active rehabilitation while on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The gains achieved through active rehabilitation and optimal nutrition can facilitate recovery from severe acute respiratory distress syndrome in select pediatric patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

  3. Alteration of spontaneous brain activity in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiaxing; Chen, Ji; Yu, Qian; Fan, Cunxiu; Zhang, Ran; Lin, Jianzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Fan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results in a decrease in oxygen transport to the brain. The aim of the present study was to explore the alteration of spontaneous brain activity induced by hypoxia in patients with COPD. Patients and methods Twenty-five stable patients with COPD and 25 matching healthy volunteers were investigated. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of blood oxygenation level-dependent signal at resting state in the brain was analyzed using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results Whole-brain analysis using functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant decreases in ALFF in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri and right lingual gyrus and an increase in ALFF in the left postcentral gyrus of patients with COPD. After controlling for SaO2, patients with COPD only showed an increase in ALFF in the left postcentral gyrus. Region of interest analysis showed a decrease in ALFF in the left precentral gyrus and an increase in ALFF in the left caudate nucleus of patients with COPD. In all subjects, ALFF in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri and right lingual gyrus showed positive correlations with visual reproduction. Conclusion We demonstrated abnormal spontaneous brain activity of patients with COPD, which may have a pathophysiologic meaning. PMID:27555761

  4. [Baroreflex behavior in patients with vasovagal syncope during active standing].

    PubMed

    Malamud-Kessler, Caroline; Estañol-Vidal, Bruno; Infante-Vázquez, Óscar; Campos-Sánchez, Miguel; Chiquete, Erwin

    2013-09-01

    INTRODUCTION. Neurally-mediated syncope, also known as vasovagal syncope, is defined as sudden and transient loss of consciousness due to a sudden and deep fall in arterial pressure. AIM. To determine the differences on the hemodynamic parameters mediating the baroreflex during active standing in patients with clinical diagnosis of vasovagal syncope as well as in healthy subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Cross-sectional, observational and comparative study. We included 20 patients diagnosed with neurally-mediated syncope and 30 controls, who underwent active orthostatic test, recording by finometry the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (interbeat interval) in a continuous (beat to beat) and noninvasive fashion. RESULTS. Patients with syncope had a mean supine baseline SBP significantly higher than that of the healthy controls. The measured values of SBP from baseline showed a significant difference between groups, being also lower in the control group. No differences were found between groups in the fall of SBP from the first peak of heart rate to the trough. The recovery time of the SBP to the baseline was no different in controls and in patients. CONCLUSIONS. The baseline SBP and SBP drop measured from baseline in supine position was higher in patients than in healthy subjects. The magnitude of the elevation of heart rate has a tendency to be higher in the patient group compared with the control group. This suggests a sympathetic hyperactivity in patients with syncope.

  5. Reduced Arylsulfatase B Activity in Leukocytes from Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Girish; Burke, Jenifer; Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Sharma, Neha; Katyal, Shivani; Park, R. Lucy; Tobacman, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Summary The enzyme Arylsulfatase B (ARSB; N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase) removes 4-sulfate groups from chondroitin-4-sulfate and dermatan sulfate and is required for the degradation of these sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Since these GAGs accumulate in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF), we investigated the activity of ARSB in leukocytes of patients with CF, to consider if reduced activity of ARSB might contribute to the pathophysiology of CF. Previous cell-based experiments had demonstrated that when the deficiency of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) was corrected in bronchial epithelial cells, the ARSB activity increased significantly. De-identified, citrated blood samples were collected from 16 children with cystic fibrosis and 31 control subjects, seen in the Pediatric Clinic at Rush University Medical Center. Polymorphonuclear (PMN) and mononuclear cell (MC) populations were separated by density gradient, and blinded determinations of ARSB activity were performed using the exogenous substrate 4-methylumbilliferyl sulfate. Interleukin-6 was measured in the plasma samples by ELISA. ARSB activity was significantly less in the PMN and MC from the CF patients than controls (p<0.0001, unpaired t-test, two-tailed). Interleukin-6 levels in plasma were significantly greater in the CF population (p<0.001). Mean age, age range, and male:female ratio of CF patients and controls were similar, and no association of ARSB activity with age, gender, or CFTR genotype was evident. Since recombinant human ARSB is used successfully for replacement therapy in Mucopolysaccharidosis VI, it may be useful to restore ARSB activity to normal levels and increase degradation of sulfated GAGs in CF patients. PMID:22550062

  6. Single fecal microbiota transplantation failed to change intestinal microbiota and had limited effectiveness against ulcerative colitis in Japanese patients

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Shinta; Nanki, Kosaku; Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Saigusa, Keiichiro; Ono, Keiko; Arai, Mari; Sugimoto, Shinya; Kiyohara, Hiroki; Nakashima, Moeko; Takeshita, Kozue; Naganuma, Makoto; Suda, Wataru; Hattori, Masahira

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Recent developments in analytical techniques including next-generation sequencing have clarified the correlation between intestinal microbiota and inflammatory bowel disease. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) is proposed as a potential approach to resolving their dysbiosis; however, its safety and efficacy have not been confirmed. This single-arm, open-label, non-randomized study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of FMT for Japanese patients with UC as the first registered clinical trial in Japan. Methods We enrolled 10 patients with active UC despite medical therapy. The donors were the patients' relatives and were carefully screened for infectious diseases. Fecal material was administered via colonoscopy, and the primary endpoint was the presence or absence of serious adverse events related to FMT. The secondary endpoint was a change in partial Mayo score at 12 weeks post-FMT. Scores ≤2 were considered a clinical response. Fecal samples were collected to follow changes in gut microbiota, while extracted complementary DNA were analyzed by a next-generation sequencer. We obtained written informed consent from all patients and donors. This study was approved by our Institutional Review Board and is registered in the University hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN 000012814). Results Five patients with moderate disease and five with severe disease were enrolled. No severe adverse effects were observed. One patient achieved clinical response; however, none of the patients' microbiota diversity recovered to the donor levels. Conclusions The use of single FMT for UC was safe; however, we failed to show its clinical efficacy and potential to change the intestinal microbiota. PMID:28239315

  7. NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Dialyzed Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Granata, Simona; Masola, Valentina; Zoratti, Elisa; Scupoli, Maria Teresa; Baruzzi, Anna; Messa, Michele; Sallustio, Fabio; Gesualdo, Loreto; Lupo, Antonio; Zaza, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    To assess whether NLR pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a multiprotein complex that mediates the activation of caspase-1 (CASP-1) and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-18 and IL-1β, could be involved in the chronic inflammatory state observed in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment (CKD-HD), we employed several biomolecular techniques including RT-PCR, western blot, FACS analysis, confocal microscopy and microarray. Interestingly, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 15 CKD-HD patients showed higher mRNA levels of NLRP3, CASP-1, ASC, IL-1β, IL-18 and P2X7receptor compared to 15 healthy subjects. Western blotting analysis confirmed the above results. In particular, active forms of CASP-1, IL1-β and IL-18 resulted significantly up-regulated in CKD-HD versus controls. Additionally, elevated mitochondrial ROS level, colocalization of NLRP3/ASC/mitochondria in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CKD-HD patients and down-regulation of CASP-1, IL1-β and IL-18 protein levels in immune-cells of CKD-HD patients stimulated with LPS/ATP in presence of mitoTEMPO, inhibitor of mitochondrial ROS production, suggested a possible role of this organelle in the aforementioned CKD-associated inflammasome activation. Then, microarray analysis confirmed, in an independent microarray study cohort, that NLRP3 and CASP-1, along with other inflammasome-related genes, were up-regulated in 17 CKD-HD patients and they were able to clearly discriminate these patients from 5 healthy subjects. All together these data showed, for the first time, that NLRP3 inflammasome was activated in uremic patients undergoing dialysis treatment and they suggested that this unphysiological condition could be possibly induced by mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:25798846

  8. Predictors of Abdominal Pain in Depressed Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Srinath, Arvind I.; Goyal, Alka; Zimmerman, Lori A.; Newara, Melissa C.; Kirshner, Margaret A.; McCarthy, F. Nicole; Keljo, David; Binion, David; Bousvaros, Athos; DeMaso, David R.; Youk, Ada; Szigethy, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have high rates of abdominal pain. The study aims were to (1) Evaluate biological and psychological correlates of abdominal pain in depressed youth with IBD, (2) Determine predictors of abdominal pain in Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods 765 patients ages 9–17 with IBD seen over 3 years at two sites were screened for depression. Depressed youth completed comprehensive assessments for abdominal pain, psychological (depression and anxiety), and biological (IBD-related, through disease activity indices and laboratory values) realms. Results 217 patients with IBD (161 CD, 56 UC) were depressed. 163 (120 CD, 43 UC) patients had complete API scores. In CD, abdominal pain was associated with depression (r=0.33; p<0.001), diarrhea (r=0.34; p=0.001), ESR (r=0.22; p=0.02), low albumin (r=0.24; p=.01), weight loss (r=0.33; p=0.001), and abdominal tenderness (r=0.38, p=0.002). A multivariate model with these significant correlates represented 32% of the variance in pain. Only depression (p=0.03), weight loss (p=0.04), and abdominal tenderness (p=0.01) predicted pain for CD patients. In UC, pain was associated with depression (r=0.46; p=0.002) and nocturnal stools (r=.32; p=.046). In the multivariate model with these significant correlates 23% of the variance was explained, and only depression (p=0.02) predicted pain. Conclusions The psychological state of pediatric patients with IBD may increase the sensitivity to abdominal pain. Thus, screening for and treating comorbid depression may prevent excessive medical testing and unnecessary escalation of IBD medications. PMID:24983975

  9. Basophil Activation Test identifies the patients with Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria suffering the most active disease

    PubMed Central

    Curto‐Barredo, Laia; Yelamos, Jose; Gimeno, Ramon; Mojal, Sergi; Pujol, Ramon M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The basophil activation test showing CD63 up regulation could be a specific and sensitive in vitro complementary text to the in vivo autologous serum skin test for the activity assessment of the patients suffering autoimmune chronic spontaneous urticaria. The aim of this study is to define the basophil activation test as a useful tool in clinical practice in order to identify those patients with more active disease. Methods We screened 139 patients (96 women) diagnosed of chronic spontaneous urticaria using simultaneously autologous serum skin test and basophil activation test and their relationship with disease activity. Results Positive autologous serum skin test was found in 56.8%; from them, 31.6% were basophil activation test positive. Negative autologous serum skin test result was found in the 43.2% of the sample that showed negative CD63 expression results in all cases, except one. Patients with positive autologous serum skin test and positive CD63 by basophil activation test showed significant higher Urticaria Activity Score of 7 days (P = 0.004) and of 3 weeks (P = 0.001) than patients with positive autologous serum skin test and negative CD63 (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 26.57 ± 10.56 versus 18.40 ± 12.05 for the Urticaria Activity Score of 7 days and 56.47 ± 23.78 versus 39.88 ± 25.44 for the Urticaria Activity Score of 3 weeks). Conclusions The CD63 expression on basophils appears as a reliable in vitro marker, useful in clinical practice in combination with autologous serum skin test to define chronic spontaneous urticaria patients with the highest urticaria activity that impairs a normal life. PMID:27980778

  10. Active cytomegalovirus infection in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Shereen F; Shehata, Iman H; Abdel Aziz, Ghada A; Kamal, Mahmoud M

    2005-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex immunologic skin disorder that is expressed when genetically predisposed individuals are exposed to certain environmental stimuli. Inspite of the high prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and its potent immunomodulatory activities, the relation of CMV to AD is still poorly understood and is still to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of active CMV infection in patients with AD and its possible etiologic role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Also, we tried to find if a relation between active CMV infection and disease severity exists. The present study was carried on 31 patients with AD with various degrees of disease severity. Ten apparently healthy subjects were enrolled in the study as a control group. Anti CMV IgG antibodies were estimated by quantitative enzyme immunoassay to discriminate between recent CMV infection and CMV reactivation. Active CMV infection was diagnosed by using nested PCR to detect CMV DNA in the sera of the studied subjects. The detection rate of CMV genome was higher in patients with AD in comparison to the control group. Cytomegalovirus genome was detected in the sera of 52% (16/31) of patients with AD (87.5% of them were seropositive for anti-CMV IgG antibodies). On the other hand no CMV DNA was detected in any of the serum samples of the control subjects. The difference was statistically significant. No significant relation was found between active CMV infection and disease severity. Also, no significant statistical difference was found between the two studied groups as regards the prevalence of latent CMV infection. In addition, no significant difference was detected between anti-CMV IgG antibody levels in all seropositive subjects. Our results denote that active subclinical CMV infection is more frequent in patients with AD and may have possible immunomodulatory role in the etiopathogenesis of AD but it is not related to disease severity.

  11. Demoralization, Patient Activation, and the Outcome of Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Block, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    It is now well established that psychosocial factors can adversely impact the outcome of spine surgery. This article discusses in detail one such recently-identified “risk” factor: demoralization. Several studies conducted by the author indicate that demoralization, an emotional construct distinct from depression, is associated with poorer pain reduction, less functional improvement and decreased satisfaction among spine surgery patients. However, there are indications that the adverse impact of risk factors such as demoralization can be mitigated by psychosocial “maximizing” factors—characteristics that propel the patient towards positive surgical results. One of these maximizing factors, patient activation, is discussed in depth. The patient activation measure (PAM), an inventory assessing the extent to which patients are active and engaged in their health care, is associated not only with improved spine surgery results, but with better outcomes across a broad range of medical conditions. Other maximizing factors are discussed in this article. The author concludes that the past research focus on psychosocial risk factors has limited the value of presurgical psychological screening, and that future research, as well as clinical assessment, should recognize that the importance of evaluating patients’ strengths as well as their vulnerabilities. PMID:27417599

  12. The Issue of Transfer: Transfer Data from CPEC/UC/CSU & the Transfer Assembly. Student Equity Report #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jorge R.

    This report examines the flow of transfer students from Orange County community colleges to the University of California (UC), the California State University (CSU), and regionally accredited independent colleges as reported to the California Postsecondary Education Commission (CPEC) and the Center for the Study of Community Colleges (CSCC). Data…

  13. 46 CFR 54.25-8 - Radiography (modifies UW-11(a), UCS-57, UNF-57, UHA-33, and UHT-57).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radiography (modifies UW-11(a), UCS-57, UNF-57, UHA-33, and UHT-57). 54.25-8 Section 54.25-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels §...

  14. 46 CFR 54.25-8 - Radiography (modifies UW-11(a), UCS-57, UNF-57, UHA-33, and UHT-57).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radiography (modifies UW-11(a), UCS-57, UNF-57, UHA-33, and UHT-57). 54.25-8 Section 54.25-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels §...

  15. 46 CFR 54.25-8 - Radiography (modifies UW-11(a), UCS-57, UNF-57, UHA-33, and UHT-57).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radiography (modifies UW-11(a), UCS-57, UNF-57, UHA-33, and UHT-57). 54.25-8 Section 54.25-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels §...

  16. 46 CFR 54.25-8 - Radiography (modifies UW-11(a), UCS-57, UNF-57, UHA-33, and UHT-57).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radiography (modifies UW-11(a), UCS-57, UNF-57, UHA-33, and UHT-57). 54.25-8 Section 54.25-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels §...

  17. Exercise in Treating Hypertension: Tailoring Therapies for Active Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chintanadilok, Jirayos

    2002-01-01

    Exercise can be definitive therapy for some, and adjunctive therapy for many, people with hypertension, though people with secondary hypertension may not derive as much benefit. Low-to- moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can help with mild hypertension and reduce drug dosages in more severe cases. For active patients requiring medication,…

  18. Interleukin-19 impairment in active Crohn's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Cantó, Elisabet; Garcia Planella, Esther; Zamora-Atenza, Carlos; Nieto, Juan Camilo; Gordillo, Jordi; Ortiz, Ma Angels; Metón, Isidoro; Serrano, Elena; Vegas, Esteban; García-Bosch, Orlando; Juárez, Cándido; Vidal, Sílvia

    2014-01-01

    The exact function of interleukin-19 (IL-19) on immune response is poorly understood. In mice, IL-19 up-regulates TNFα and IL-6 expression and its deficiency increases susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis. In humans, IL-19 favors a Th2 response and is elevated in several diseases. We here investigate the expression and effects of IL-19 on cells from active Crohn's disease (CD) patient. Twenty-three active CD patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were included. mRNA and protein IL-19 levels were analyzed in monocytes. IL-19 effects were determined in vitro on the T cell phenotype and in the production of cytokines by immune cells. We observed that unstimulated and TLR-activated monocytes expressed significantly lower IL-19 mRNA in active CD patients than in HC (logFC = -1.97 unstimulated; -1.88 with Pam3CSK4; and -1.91 with FSL-1; p<0.001). These results were confirmed at protein level. Exogenous IL-19 had an anti-inflammatory effect on HC but not on CD patients. IL-19 decreased TNFα production in PBMC (850.7 ± 75.29 pg/ml vs 2626.0 ± 350 pg/ml; p<0.01) and increased CTLA4 expression (22.04 ± 1.55% vs 13.98 ± 2.05%; p<0.05) and IL-4 production (32.5 ± 8.9 pg/ml vs 13.5 ± 2.9 pg/ml; p<0.05) in T cells from HC. IL-10 regulated IL-19 production in both active CD patients and HC. We observed that three of the miRNAs that can modulate IL-19 mRNA expression, were up-regulated in monocytes from active CD patients. These results suggested that IL-19 had an anti-inflammatory role in this study. Defects in IL-19 expression and the lack of response to this cytokine could contribute to inflammatory mechanisms in active CD patients.

  19. Evidence for B cell activation in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Youinou, P Y; Irving, W L; Shipley, M; Hayes, J; Lydyard, P M

    1984-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes and in some cases synovial eluate cells from 51 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), were analysed for the percentages of cells bearing surface light chains (total B cells), IgM and IgD. In addition, their capacity to form rosettes with mouse erythrocytes (mRFC)--a property of a B cell subpopulation--was determined. Activity of the disease was assessed by clinical and laboratory criteria and classified as very active, moderately active and inactive. Normal, age and sex matched individuals and a group of patients with a variety of other rheumatological disorders, were used as control populations. Although there was no significant difference in percentages of total B cells in any of the groups compared with normal controls, there was a small but significant increase in the ratio of cells bearing IgM to those bearing IgD in patients with very active disease. This was paralleled by a significant decrease in the mRFC in this disease activity group. Patients with inactive disease showed no change in their proportions of IgM:IgD, but did show a significant increase in mRFC. These results are discussed in terms of the presence of activated B cells in patients with very active RA. PMID:6607144

  20. Brain activation induced by psychological stress in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Castro, M N; Villarreal, M F; Bolotinsky, N; Papávero, E; Goldschmidt, M G; Costanzo, E Y; Drucaroff, L; Wainsztein, A; de Achával, D; Pahissa, J; Bär, K-J; Nemeroff, C B; Guinjoan, S M

    2015-10-01

    Environmental influences are critical for the expression of genes putatively related to the behavioral and cognitive phenotypes of schizophrenia. Among such factors, psychosocial stress has been proposed to play a major role in the expression of symptoms. However, it is unsettled how stress interacts with pathophysiological pathways to produce the disease. We studied 21 patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy controls aged 18 to 50years with 3T-fMRI, in which a period of 6min of resting state acquisition was followed by a block design, with three blocks of 1-min control-task, 1-min stress-task and 1-min rest after-task. Self-report of stress and PANSS were measured. Limbic structures were activated in schizophrenia patients by simple tasks and remained active during, and shortly after stress. In controls, stress-related brain activation was more time-focused, and restricted to the stressful task itself. Negative symptom severity was inversely related to activation of anterior cingulum and orbitofrontal cortex. Results might represent the neurobiological aspect of hyper-reactivity to normal stressful situations previously described in schizophrenia, thus providing evidence on the involvement of limbic areas in the response to stress in schizophrenia. Patients present a pattern of persistent limbic activation probably contributing to hypervigilance and subsequent psychotic thought distortions.

  1. Patient activation and advocacy: which literacy skills matter most?

    PubMed

    Martin, Laurie T; Schonlau, Matthias; Haas, Ann; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Buka, Stephen L; Rudd, Rima

    2011-01-01

    Attention to the effect of a patient's literacy skills on health care interactions is relatively new. So, too, are studies of either structural or personal factors that inhibit or support a patient's ability to navigate health services and systems and to advocate for their own needs within a service delivery system. Contributions of the structural environment, of interpersonal dynamics, and of a variety of psychological and sociological factors in the relationship between patients and providers have long been under study. Less frequently examined is the advocacy role expected of patients. However, the complex nature of health care in the United States increasingly requires a proactive stance. This study examined whether four literacy skills (reading, numeracy, speaking, and listening) were associated with patient self-advocacy--a component of health literacy itself--when faced with a hypothetical barrier to scheduling a medical appointment. Although all literacy skills were significantly associated with advocacy when examined in isolation, greater speaking and listening skills remained significantly associated with better patient advocacy when all four skills were examined simultaneously. These findings suggest that speaking and listening skills and support for such skills may be important factors to consider when developing patient activation and advocacy skills.

  2. Recent Changes in UC Admissions Policies. Parent/Student Guide = Unos cambios recientes en los reglamentos de ingreso de la universidad de California. Guia de padres/estudiantes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, Inc., Palo Alto, CA.

    This parent/student guide describes recent changes in admissions policies at the University of California (UC). Traditionally, UC admitted the top 12.5% of high school graduating seniors, but beginning in 2001, the top 4% of students in the graduating class of every high school are eligible if they have completed 11 specific "a-f"…

  3. Plasma ADAMTS13 activity and von Willebrand Factor Antigen and Activity In Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Monisha; Cao, Wenjing; McDaniel, Jenny K.; Pham, Huy P.; Raju, Dheeraj; Nawalinski, Kelsey; Frangos, Suzanne; Kung, David; Zager, Eric E.; Kasner, Scott E.; Levine, Joshua M.; Zheng, X. Long

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Increased von Willebrand factor (VWF) and reduced ADAMTS13 activity are associated with arterial thrombosis. This may also be the culprit mechanism implicated in delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Objective To determine plasma VWF and ADAMTS13 in patients with SAH and healthy subjects; and to explore the levels of those markers and outcome after SAH. Methods 40 consecutive patients were enrolled between September 2007 and April 2014 in a pilot study. Plasma samples were collected from SAH patients on post-bleed day (PBD) 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 and healthy controls. VWF antigen (VWFAg) and VWF activity (VWFAc) were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay and collagen binding assay, respectively. ADAMTS13 activity was determined by the cleavage of a fluorescent substrate. Univariate descriptive statistics and cluster analyses were performed based on outcomes in the group with SAH only. Results Mean age of SAH patients was 52.4 years (26–84 years) and 30 (75%) were women. 12/40 (30%) had a high Hunt and Hess grade (IV–V) and 25 (62.5%) were treated with coil embolization. Plasma VWFAg and VWFAc were significantly higher in SAH patients than those in healthy subjects on each PBD (p<0.0001). Concurrently, plasma ADAMTS13 activity in SAH patients was significantly lower than that in healthy subjects (p<0.0001). Among those with SAH, cluster analysis demonstrated that patients with higher VWFAg and VWFAc and/or lower ADAMTS13 activity might be at risk of increased mortality. Conclusions The relative deficiency of plasma ADAMTS13 activity in SAH patients may associate with worse outcome. PMID:28102428

  4. Plasma ADAMTS13 activity and von Willebrand factor antigen and activity in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Monisha; Cao, Wenjing; McDaniel, Jenny K; Pham, Huy P; Raju, Dheeraj; Nawalinski, Kelsey; Frangos, Suzanne; Kung, David; Zager, Eric; Kasner, Scott E; Levine, Joshua M; Zheng, X Long

    2017-01-19

    Increased von Willebrand factor (VWF) and reduced ADAMTS13 activity are associated with arterial thrombosis. This may also be the culprit mechanism implicated in delayed cerebral ischaemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). It was our objective to determine plasma VWF and ADAMTS13 in patients with SAH and healthy subjects; and to explore the levels of those markers and outcome after SAH. Forty consecutive patients were enrolled between September 2007 and April 2014 in a pilot study. Plasma samples were collected from SAH patients on post-bleed day (PBD) 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 and healthy controls. VWF antigen (VWFAg) and VWF activity (VWFAc) were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay and collagen binding assay, respectively. ADAMTS13 activity was determined by the cleavage of a fluorescent substrate. Univariate descriptive statistics and cluster analyses were performed based on outcomes in the group with SAH only. Mean age of SAH patients was 52.4 years (26-84 years) and 30 (75 %) were women. 12/40 (30 %) had a high Hunt and Hess grade (IV-V) and 25 (62.5 %) were treated with coil embolisation. Plasma VWFAg and VWFAc were significantly higher in SAH patients than those in healthy subjects on each PBD (p<0.0001). Concurrently, plasma ADAMTS13 activity in SAH patients was significantly lower than that in healthy subjects (p<0.0001). Among those with SAH, cluster analysis demonstrated that patients with higher VWFAg and VWFAc and/or lower ADAMTS13 activity might be at risk of increased mortality. In conclusion, the relative deficiency of plasma ADAMTS13 activity in SAH patients may associate with worse outcome.

  5. Barriers associated with reduced physical activity in COPD patients*

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Priscila Batista; Stelmach, Rafael; Carvalho, Celso Ricardo Fernandes; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Carvalho-Pinto, Regina Maria; Cukier, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of COPD patients to perform activities of daily living (ADL); to identify barriers that prevent these individuals from performing ADL; and to correlate those barriers with dyspnea severity, six-minute walk test (6MWT), and an ADL limitation score. METHODS: In COPD patients and healthy, age-matched controls, the number of steps, the distance walked, and walking time were recorded with a triaxial accelerometer, for seven consecutive days. A questionnaire regarding perceived barriers and the London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL) scale were used in order to identify the factors that prevent the performance of ADL. The severity of dyspnea was assessed with two scales, whereas submaximal exercise capacity was determined on the basis of the 6MWT. RESULTS: We evaluated 40 COPD patients and 40 controls. In comparison with the control values, the mean walk time was significantly shorter for COPD patients (68.5 ± 25.8 min/day vs. 105.2 ± 49.4 min/day; p < 0.001), as was the distance walked (3.9 ± 1.9 km/day vs. 6.4 ± 3.2 km/day; p < 0.001). The COPD patients also walked fewer steps/day. The most common self-reported barriers to performing ADL were lack of infrastructure, social influences, and lack of willpower. The 6MWT distance correlated with the results obtained with the accelerometer but not with the LCADL scale results. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COPD are less active than are healthy adults of a comparable age. Physical inactivity and the barriers to performing ADL have immediate implications for clinical practice, calling for early intervention measures. PMID:25410838

  6. [Serum metabolome by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in patients with ulcerative colitis and celiac disease].

    PubMed

    Sitkin, S I; Tkachenko, E I; Vakhitov, T Ia; Oreshko, L S; Zhigalova, T N

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomics is the emerging science of measurement and analysis of metabolome--the complete set of low molecular weight compounds in a cell, tissue, organ or whole organism. One of the aims of metabolomics is to research the response of an organism to a pathophysiological insult by measuring the concentrations of small molecule metabolites in biofluids and tissues and its dynamics. Intestinal microbiota is most probably involved in the development and maintenance of autoimmune inflammation in ulcerative colitis and celiac disease. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC - MS) of serum generates comprehensive metabolic profiles, reflecting integrated human (systemic) and gut microbial metabolism which may be altered in disease states. The aim of this study was to investigate GC - MS-based serum metabolomic profiles in UC and CD patients. Serum metabolic profiles were collected from 75 individuals: 20 patients with mild-moderate active UC, 35 CD patients, and 20 healthy controls (HC). We characterized 84 serum metabolites by use GC-MS. 18 metabolites at least have a combined (human + microbial) origin. In serum of UC patients, phenylacetic acid (PAA), 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPAA), 3-indolylacetic acid (IAA), succinic acid (SA) and fumaric acid (FA) were the metabolites most prominently increased, whereas 3-phenylpropionic acid (PPA) was significantly decreased. Serum of CD patients showed significant increases in IAA, 3-indolepropionic acid (IPA), SA and FA. Increased serum levels of succinic acid suggest its possible damaging effect on intestinal mucosa especially in ulcerative colitis. Orally administered butyrate + inulin as supplement to mesalazine in UC or gluten free diet in CD was effective in reducing disease activity with a marked improvement of serum metabolomic profiles (including SA reduction) and gut microbiota in both diseases. There were no any adverse events.

  7. Characteristics of physical activity in patients with critical limb ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Sakaki, Satoko; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Junichi; Kubo, Kasuya; Matsumoto, Takuya; Hishinuma, Ryo; Terabe, Yuuta; Ando, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of physical activity of the patients with critical limb ischemia consecutively in order to clarify the characteristics of physical activity of critical limb ischemia. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve patients who were eligible for the 2 months of consecutive evaluation of the amount of physical activity were enrolled in the study (men: 11; woman: 1; mean age: 64.4 [range: 44–80]). A pedometer with an accelerometer was used for the measurement of the number of steps walked as an index of the amount of physical activity. Participants were asked to lead a regular life and no instruction was given as to the number of steps. [Results] The average number of daily steps walked was 2,323 steps (range: 404–6,505). There was no clear tendency in the number of amputation site-specific steps walked. There was also no correlation between the number of steps walked and age as well as the maximum strength of the knee-extension muscle, skin perfusion pressure of the sole and the dorsum, and QOL scores. [Conclusion] The number of steps walked of the patients with critical limb ischemia was remarkably low and no significant association with health-related QOL. PMID:28174472

  8. Examination of UC-ZrC after long term irradiation at thermionic temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L.; Johnson, H. O.

    1972-01-01

    Two fluoride tungsten clad UC-ZrC fueled capsules, designated as V-2C and V-2D, were examined a hot cell after irradiation in NASA Plum Brook Reactor at a maximum cladding temperature of 1930 K for 11,089 and 12,031 hours to burnups of 3.0 x 10 to the 20th power and 2.1 x 10 to the 20th power fission/c.c. respectively. Percentage of fission gas release from the fuel material was measured by radiochemical means. Cladding deformation, fuel-cladding interaction and microstructures of fuel, cladding, and fuel-cladding interface were studied metallographically. Compositions of dispersions in fuel, fuel matrix and fuel-cladding interaction layer were analyzed by electron microprobe techniques. Axial and radial distributions of burnup were determined by gamma-scan, autoradiography and isotopic burnup analysis. The results are presented and discussed in conjunction with the requirements of thermionic fuel elements for space power application.

  9. Prevention of urinary tract infections in palliative radiation for vertebral metastasis and spinal compression: A pilot study in 71 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Manas, Ana . E-mail: amanas.hdoc@salud.madrid.org; Glaria, Luis; Pena, Carmen; Sotoca, Amalia; Lanzos, Eduardo; Fernandez, Castalia; Riviere, Marc

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of bladder instillations of hyaluronic acid (HA) on the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients receiving emergency radiotherapy for metastatic spinal cord compression. Methods and Materials: Patients were recruited consecutively at one center and assigned to usual care (UC) (n = 34, mean age 62.2 years) or UC with once-weekly HA instillation (UC + HA) (Cystistat: 40 mg in 50 mL phosphate-buffered saline) (n = 37; mean age, 63.1 years). All patients had an indwelling catheter and received radiotherapy. UTI status was assessed at baseline and during hospitalization. Results: At baseline, patient groups were comparable, except for the prevalence of UTI at baseline, which was 11.8% and 0% in the UC and UC + HA patients, respectively (p = 0.0477). During hospitalization, 76.5% (vs. 11.8% at baseline, p < 0.0001) of the UC patients had a UTI compared with 13.5% (vs. 0% at baseline, p = 0.0541) of the UC + HA patients (p < 0.0001). Both groups were hospitalized for similar periods (19.8 days [UC] vs. 18.5 days, p = 0.4769) and received equivalent radiotherapy sessions (4.6 [UC] vs. 5.8 sessions, p = 0.2368). Conclusions: Patients receiving UC + HA had a 5.7-fold decrease in UTI prevalence over the hospitalization period compared to UC patients, suggesting that bladder instillations of HA effectively prevent UTI in patients with indwelling catheters receiving radiotherapy for nerve compression.

  10. Long Non-Coding RNA Uc.187 Is Upregulated in Preeclampsia and Modulates Proliferation, Apoptosis, and Invasion of HTR-8/SVneo Trophoblast Cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chunyu; Li, Jingyun; Li, Jun; Liu, Lan; Cheng, Xiaoyan; Jia, Ruizhe

    2017-06-01

    Among the preeclampsia-related long non-cording RNAs (lncRNAs) screened with a gene chip in our preliminary study, uc.187 attracted our attention because of its high conservation across different species and significant positive correlation with preeclampsia (PE). The literature and bioinformatics analysis suggested that lncRNA uc.187 might be associated with cell growth, invasion, and apoptosis. The expression of uc.187 in severe preeclamptic placentas (n = 31) and normal placentas (n = 18) was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We constructed a silencing lentivirus vector (uc.187 siRNA) to explore the biological function of uc.187 in the development and progression of HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells in vitro. Furthermore, we utilized CCK8 analysis, a transwell invasion assay, and flow cytometry to determine the role of uc.187 in the proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis of HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells. The proteins related to proliferation (PCNA, Ki67), invasion (MMP-2/-9 and TIMP-1), and apoptosis (caspase-3, Bcl-2) were evaluated with a Western blot assay. The results showed that there was an obvious upregulation of uc.187 expression in preeclamptic placental tissues. In addition, uc.187 silencing enhanced cell proliferation and invasion and reduced the cellular apoptotic response. Taken together, our findings suggest for the first time that abnormal expression of lncRNA uc.187 may lead to the aberrant biological behavior of HTR-8/SVneo cells. Therefore, we propose uc.187 as a novel lncRNA molecule that might contribute to the development of PE and might represent a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for this disease. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1462-1470, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Basophil activation test with food additives in chronic urticaria patients.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the tested food additives. One patient responded to monosodium glutamate, showing 18.7% of CD203c-positive basophils. Another patient showed a positive BAT result to sodium benzoate. Both patients had clinical correlations with the agents, which were partly determined by elimination diets. The present study suggested that at least a small proportion of patients with CU had symptoms associated with food additives. The results may suggest the potential utility of the BAT to identity the role of food additives in CU.

  12. [Activity of antioxidant enzymes in patients with liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Czeczot, Hanna; Scibior, Dorota; Skrzycki, Michał; Podsiad, Małgorzata

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our studies was the estimation of activities of antioxidant enzymes in patients with liver cirrhosis. We investigated activities of superoxide dismutases (CuZnSOD, MnSOD), catalase (CAT), selenium dependent GSH peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px), selenium independent GSH peroxidase (non-Se-GSH-Px), GSH-S-transferase (GST), GSH reductase (GSHR) and the level ofreduced gutathione (GSH) in cirrhotic and healthy liver tissues. The activities of CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT and GSH-dependent enzymes (except GSHR) were found to be lower in cirrhotic tissue compared to healthy liver. Those changes were associated with decrease of GSH level in cirrhotic tissue compared with control liver tissue. Our results show that antioxidant barrier in liver cirrhosis is impaired. It is associated with decrease of glutathione level and changes of activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSHPx, GST, GSHR) in liver cirrhosis compared with healthy liver.

  13. Neutrophil activation in ivermectin-treated onchocerciasis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Njoo, F L; Hack, C E; Oosting, J; Stilma, J S; Kijlstra, A

    1993-01-01

    Ivermectin is a safe and effective drug for onchocerciasis treatment. In certain individuals, however, therapy is accompanied by adverse reactions. The mechanisms underlying these reactions are not yet known. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether neutrophils are involved in the development of these adverse reactions. Elastase and lactoferrin, two markers for the release of neutrophil azurophilic and specific granule contents respectively, were measured by radioimmunoassays in plasma of onchocerciasis patients with varying degrees of side effects, as well as in control subjects before and 1 and 2 days after ivermectin treatment. A considerable increase of elastase levels after treatment was observed, whereas lactoferrin levels did not change. The percentage of patients with elevated elastase levels was significantly correlated with the degree of side effects. These findings suggest that neutrophil activation may be involved in the development of adverse reactions in these patients. PMID:8222324

  14. Paraoxonase Activity and Oxidative Status in Patients with Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Akyüz, Servet; Somuk, Battal Tahsin; Soyalic, Harun; Yılmaz, Beyhan; Taskin, Abdullah; Bilinc, Hasan; Aksoy, Nurten

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate serum paraoxanase-1 (PON) activity, total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), and the oxidative stress index (OSI) in tinnitus; and to compare the results with data from healthy subjects. Subjects and Methods A total of 114 subjects-54 patients with tinnitus and 60 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Serum PON activity, TOS, TAS, and OSI levels were measured. Results In the tinnitus group, TAS, and PON were significantly lower than in the control group (p<0.001). However, the TOS, and OSI levels were significantly higher in the tinnitus group than in the control group (p<0.001). Conclusions According to the data obtained from the present study, patients with tinnitus were exposed to potent oxidative stress. Oxidative stress may be the key contributing factor to the pathogenesis of tinnitus. PMID:27144229

  15. Assessing physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD.

    PubMed

    Painter, Patricia; Marcus, Robin L

    2013-05-01

    Patients with CKD are characterized by low levels of physical functioning, which, along with low physical activity, predict poor outcomes in those treated with dialysis. The hallmark of clinical care in geriatric practice and geriatric research is the orientation to and assessment of physical function and functional limitations. Although there is increasing interest in physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD, the nephrology field has not focused on this aspect of care. This paper provides an in-depth review of the measurement of physical function and physical activity. It focuses on physiologic impairments and physical performance limitations (impaired mobility and functional limitations). The review is based on established frameworks of physical impairment and functional limitations that have guided research in physical function in the aging population. Definitions and measures for physiologic impairments, physical performance limitations, self-reported function, and physical activity are presented. On the basis of the information presented, recommendations for incorporating routine assessment of physical function and encouragement for physical activity in clinical care are provided.

  16. Muscular activity may improve in edentulous patients after implant treatment.

    PubMed

    Afrashtehfar, Kelvin I; Schimmel, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Data sourcesMedline via Pubmed and the Cochrane Library were searched from January 1980 to September 2013. This was complemented by a manual search of the magazines Deutsche Zahnaerztliche Zeitung, Quintessenz, Zeitschrift für Zahnärztliche Implantologie, Schweizerische Monatszeitschrift and Implantologie. Additionally, the list of reference s of all selected full-text articles and related reviews were further scrutinised for potential included studies in English or German.Study selectionThree review authors independently searched for clinical trials that assessed the muscular activity in the intervention groups: edentulous patients treated with implant-overdentures (IODs) and implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (ISFDPs) and the comparison groups: dentates and edentulous patients treated with mucosa-borne complete removable dental prostheses (CRDPs).Data extraction and synthesisThe primary outcome was the muscular activity (measured by electromyography [EMG]) in masseter or temporalis muscle of the participants during clenching and chewing. The data extraction of each included study consisted of author, year, age range, treatment, number of participants, number of implants inserted, arch treated, opposite jaw, kind and side of the muscles that were measured. EMG gain or loss (unit measured: volt) was considered by using the effect size. For the meta-analyses only the studies that included masseter muscle measured separately from temporalis were considered. Concerning the side of measurement (right and left side measured together or right and left side measured separately), only the dominant type in each category was included.ResultsSixteen articles, out of the initial 646 retrieved abstracts, were analysed. The muscular activity of edentulous subjects increased after implant support therapy during clenching (effect size [ES]: 2.18 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14, 3.23]) and during chewing (ES: 1.45 [95 % CI: 1.21, 1.69]). In addition, the pooled EMG

  17. Secretion of Alpha-Hemolysin by Escherichia coli Disrupts Tight Junctions in Ulcerative Colitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Hengameh Chloé; Du, Zhengyu; Struve, Carsten; Charbon, Godefroid; Karczewski, Jurgen; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Petersen, Andreas Munk; Wells, Jerry M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The potential of Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients to damage the integrity of the intestinal epithelium was investigated. Methods: E. coli strains isolated from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and healthy controls were tested for virulence capacity by molecular techniques and cytotoxic assays and transepithelial electric resistance (TER). E. coli isolate p19A was selected, and deletion mutants were created for alpha-hemolysin (α-hemolysin) (hly) clusters and cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (cnf1). Probiotic E. coli Nissle and pathogenic E. coli LF82 were used as controls. Results: E. coli strains from patients with active UC completely disrupted epithelial cell tight junctions shortly after inoculation. These strains belong to phylogenetic group B2 and are all α-hemolysin positive. In contrast, probiotic E. coli Nissle, pathogenic E. coli LF82, four E. coli from patients with inactive UC and three E. coli strains from healthy controls did not disrupt tight junctions. E. coli p19A WT as well as cnf1, and single loci of hly mutants from cluster I and II were all able to damage Caco-2 (Heterogeneous human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma) cell tight junctions. However, this phenotype was lost in a mutant with knockout (Δ) of both hly loci (P<0.001). Conclusions: UC-associated E. coli producing α-hemolysin can cause rapid loss of tight junction integrity in differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayers. This effect was abolished in a mutant unable to express α-hemolysin. These results suggest that high Hly expression may be a mechanism by which specific strains of E. coli pathobionts can contribute to epithelial barrier dysfunction and pathophysiology of disease in IBD. PMID:26938480

  18. Opsonic activity of blister fluid from burn patients.

    PubMed Central

    Deitch, E A

    1983-01-01

    The combination of skin loss and immune depression after thermal injury predisposes burn patients to an increased risk of infection. Since the commonest site of infection in the burn patient is the burn wound itself, we elected to study the opsonic activity of locally produced blister fluid, from 18 thermally injured patients, for the two most common organisms colonizing the burn wound (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus). Blister fluid was as good an opsonin source for staphylococcus as normal serum. In contrast, the blister fluid did not support either the phagocytosis of the intracellular killing of P. aeruginosa. The poor opsonic activity of blister fluid for P. aeruginosa did not appear to be due to the presence of an inhibitory factor(s) since the addition of normal serum restored the opsonic activity of the blister fluid to normal. The concentrations of immunoglobulins and the complement components C3 and C4 in the blister fluid samples were less than half the level of those in normal serum. The opsonic activity of the blister fluid could not be restored to normal by the addition of either immunoglobulin or heat-inactivated serum (56 degrees C for 30 min). Thus, the opsonic factor(s) missing from the blister fluid was heat labile and thus probably represents complement components. That blister fluid had impaired opsonic activity for P. aeruginosa but not for S. aureus indicated that a local humoral defect may be responsible, at least in part, for the high incidence of gram-negative organisms, especially pseudomonads, colonizing the burn wound after thermal injury. PMID:6411619

  19. High pressure behaviour of uranium dicarbide (UC2): Ab-initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, B. D.; Mukherjee, D.; Joshi, K. D.; Kaushik, T. C.

    2016-08-01

    The structural stability of uranium dicarbide has been examined under hydrostatic compression employing evolutionary structure search algorithm implemented in the universal structure predictor: evolutionary Xtallography (USPEX) code in conjunction with ab-initio electronic band structure calculation method. The ab-initio total energy calculations involved for this purpose have been carried out within both generalized gradient approximations (GGA) and GGA + U approximations. Our calculations under GGA approximation predict the high pressure structural sequence of tetragonal → monoclinic → orthorhombic for this material with transition pressures of ˜8 GPa and 42 GPa, respectively. The same transition sequence is predicted by calculations within GGA + U also with transition pressures placed at ˜24 GPa and ˜50 GPa, respectively. Further, on the basis of comparison of zero pressure equilibrium volume and equation of state with available experimental data, we find that GGA + U approximation with U = 2.5 eV describes this material better than the simple GGA approximation. The theoretically predicted high pressure structural phase transitions are in disagreement with the only high experimental study by Dancausse et al. [J. Alloys. Compd. 191, 309 (1993)] on this compound which reports a tetragonal to hexagonal phase transition at a pressure of ˜17.6 GPa. Interestingly, during lowest enthalpy structure search using USPEX, we do not see any hexagonal phase to be closer to the predicted monoclinic phase even within 0.2 eV/f. unit. More experiments with varying carbon contents in UC2 sample are required to resolve this discrepancy. The existence of these high pressure phases predicted by static lattice calculations has been further substantiated by analyzing the elastic and lattice dynamic stability of these structures in the pressure regimes of their structural stability. Additionally, various thermo-physical quantities such as equilibrium volume, bulk modulus, Debye

  20. Evaluation of Potential Hydrocarbon Transport at the UC-4 Emplacement Hole, Central Nevada Test Area

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, Brad F.; Papelis, Charalambos; Pohll, Greg; Sloop, Derek

    1998-09-30

    Emplacement hole UC-4 was drilled in 1969 at the Central Nevada Test Area and left filled with drilling mud. Surface characterization samples collected from abandoned mud pits in the area yielded elevated concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbon, thereby raising a concern that the mud-filled emplacement hole may be leaching hydrocarbons into alluvial aquifers. This study was initiated to address this concern. An analytical solution for flow near a wellbore was used to calculate the amount of time it would take for a contaminant to move through the mud-filled well and into the surrounding aquifer. No hydraulic data are available from the emplacement hole; therefore, ranges of hydraulic conductivity and porosity were used in 100 Monte Carlo realizations to estimate a median travel time. Laboratory experiments were performed on samples collected from the central mud pit to determine the hydrocarbon release function for the bentonite drilling mud. The median contaminant breakthrough took about 12,000 years to travel 10 m, while the initial breakthrough took about 300 years and the final breakthrough took about 33,000 years. At a distance of about 10 m away from the emplacement hole, transport velocity is dominated by the hydraulics of the aquifer and not by the emplacement hole hydraulics. It would take an additional 45,500 years for the contaminant to travel 800 m to the U.S. Department of Energy land exclusion boundary. Travel times were primarily affected by the hydraulic conductivity and porosity of the drilling mud, then by the hydraulic conductivity, porosity and hydraulic gradient of the alluvial aquifer, followed by the hydrocarbon release function.

  1. Evidence for brain glial activation in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Loggia, Marco L; Chonde, Daniel B; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Arabasz, Grae; Catana, Ciprian; Edwards, Robert R; Hill, Elena; Hsu, Shirley; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Ji, Ru-Rong; Riley, Misha; Wasan, Ajay D; Zürcher, Nicole R; Albrecht, Daniel S; Vangel, Mark G; Rosen, Bruce R; Napadow, Vitaly; Hooker, Jacob M

    2015-03-01

    Although substantial evidence has established that microglia and astrocytes play a key role in the establishment and maintenance of persistent pain in animal models, the role of glial cells in human pain disorders remains unknown. Here, using the novel technology of integrated positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging and the recently developed radioligand (11)C-PBR28, we show increased brain levels of the translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of glial activation, in patients with chronic low back pain. As the Ala147Thr polymorphism in the TSPO gene affects binding affinity for (11)C-PBR28, nine patient-control pairs were identified from a larger sample of subjects screened and genotyped, and compared in a matched-pairs design, in which each patient was matched to a TSPO polymorphism-, age- and sex-matched control subject (seven Ala/Ala and two Ala/Thr, five males and four females in each group; median age difference: 1 year; age range: 29-63 for patients and 28-65 for controls). Standardized uptake values normalized to whole brain were significantly higher in patients than controls in multiple brain regions, including thalamus and the putative somatosensory representations of the lumbar spine and leg. The thalamic levels of TSPO were negatively correlated with clinical pain and circulating levels of the proinflammatory citokine interleukin-6, suggesting that TSPO expression exerts pain-protective/anti-inflammatory effects in humans, as predicted by animal studies. Given the putative role of activated glia in the establishment and or maintenance of persistent pain, the present findings offer clinical implications that may serve to guide future studies of the pathophysiology and management of a variety of persistent pain conditions.

  2. Diverse impact of xeno-free conditions on biological and regenerative properties of hUC-MSCs and their extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Bobis-Wozowicz, Sylwia; Kmiotek, Katarzyna; Kania, Karolina; Karnas, Elzbieta; Labedz-Maslowska, Anna; Sekula, Malgorzata; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Kolcz, Jacek; Boruczkowski, Dariusz; Madeja, Zbigniew; Zuba-Surma, Ewa K

    2017-02-01

    Growing evidence indicates that intracellular signaling mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by stem cells plays a considerable role in triggering the regenerative program upon transplantation. EVs from umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSC-EVs) have been shown to enhance tissue repair in animal models. However, translating such results into clinical practice requires optimized EV collection procedures devoid of animal-originating agents. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the influence of xeno-free expansion media on biological properties of UC-MSCs and UC-MSC-EVs for future applications in cardiac repair in humans. Our results show that proliferation, differentiation, phenotype stability, and cytokine secretion by UC-MSCs vary depending on the type of xeno-free media. Importantly, we found distinct molecular and functional properties of xeno-free UC-MSC-EVs including enhanced cardiomyogenic and angiogenic potential impacting on target cells, which may be explained by elevated concentration of several pro-cardiogenic and pro-angiogenic microRNA (miRNAs) present in the EVs. Our data also suggest predominantly low immunogenic capacity of certain xeno-free UC-MSC-EVs reflected by their inhibitory effect on proliferation of immune cells in vitro. Summarizing, conscious selection of cell culture conditions is required to harvest UC-MSC-EVs with the optimal desired properties including enhanced cardiac and angiogenic capacity, suitable for tissue regeneration.

  3. Biological characteristics and effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) grafting with blood plasma on bone regeneration in rats.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhiguo; Guo, Libin; Fang, Guojun; Cui, Zhenghong; Guo, Shengnan; Liu, Ying

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated the biological characteristics/effect of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) grafting with blood plasma on bone regeneration in rat tibia nonunion. SD rats (142) were randomly divided into four groups: fracture group (positive control); nonunion group (negative control); hUC-MSCs grafting with blood plasma group; and hUC-MSCs grafting with saline group. Rats were administered tetracycline (30 mg/kg) and calcein blue (5 mg/kg) 8 days before killing. The animals were killed under deep anesthesia at 4 and 8 weeks post fracture for radiological evaluation and histological/immunohistological studies. The hUC-MSCs grafting with blood plasma group was similar to fracture group: the fracture line blurred in 4 weeks and disappeared in 8 weeks postoperatively. Histological/immunohistological studies showed that hUC-MSCs were of low immunogenicity which merged in rat bone tissue, differentiated into osteogenic lineages, and completed the healing of nonunion. After stem cell transplantation, regardless of whether plasma or saline was used, new multi-center bone formation was observed; fracture site density was better in stem cell grafting with blood plasma group. We, therefore, concluded that the biological characteristics of hUC-MSCs-treated nonunion were different from the standard fracture healing process, and the proliferative and localization capacity of hUC-MSCs might benefit from the use of blood plasma.

  4. Genetically determined high activity of IL-12 and IL-18 in ulcerative colitis and TLR5 in Crohns disease were associated with non-response to anti-TNF therapy.

    PubMed

    Bank, S; Andersen, P S; Burisch, J; Pedersen, N; Roug, S; Galsgaard, J; Turino, S Y; Brodersen, J B; Rashid, S; Rasmussen, B K; Avlund, S; Olesen, T B; Hoffmann, H J; Nexø, B A; Sode, J; Vogel, U; Andersen, V

    2017-01-31

    Anti-tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is used for treatment of severe cases of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). However, one-third of the patients do not respond to the treatment. A recent study indicated that genetically determined high activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ), are associated with non-response to anti-TNF therapy. Using a candidate gene approach, 21 functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 14 genes in the Toll-like receptors, the inflammasome and the IFNG pathways were assessed in 482 and 256 prior anti-TNF naïve Danish patients with CD and UC, respectively. The results were analysed using logistic regression (adjusted for age and gender). Eight functional SNPs were associated with anti-TNF response either among patients with CD (TLR5 (rs5744174) and IFNGR2 (rs8126756)), UC (IL12B (rs3212217), IL18 (rs1946518), IFNGR1 (rs2234711), TBX21 (rs17250932) and JAK2 (rs12343867)) or in the combined cohort of patient with CD and UC (IBD) (NLRP3 (rs10754558), IL12B (rs3212217) and IFNGR1 (rs2234711)) (P<0.05). Only the association with heterozygous genotype of IL12B (rs3212217) (OR: 0.24, 95% CI: 0.11-0.53, P=0.008) among patients with UC withstood Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. In conclusion, Our results suggest that SNPs associated with genetically determined high activity of TLR5 among patients with CD and genetically determined high IL-12 and IL-18 levels among patients with UC were associated with non-response. Further studies will evaluate whether these genes may help stratifying patients according to the expected response to anti-TNF treatment.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 31 January 2017; doi:10.1038/tpj.2016.84.

  5. Effect of a Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor, UC1728, on LPS-Induced Uveitis in the Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    McLellan, Gillian J.; Aktas, Zeynep; Hennes-Beean, Elizabeth; Kolb, Aaron W.; Larsen, Inna V.; Schmitz, Emily J.; Clausius, Hilary R.; Yang, Jun; Hwang, Sung Hee; Morisseau, Christophe; Inceoglu, Bora; Hammock, Bruce D.; Brandt, Curtis R.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 epoxygenase isozymes convert free arachidonic acid into eicosanoids named epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) that have roles in regulating inflammation. EETs are rapidly converted to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DiHETs) by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Little is known about the potential role of these metabolites in uveitis, but conversion of EETs to DiHETs could contribute to the inflammation. We tested a potent and orally available inhibitor of sEH for its ability to reduce ocular inflammation in a rabbit LPS-induced model of uveitis. Rabbits were treated by subcutaneous injection with the sEH inhibitor (UC1728, 3 mg/kg), or the vehicle control (PEG400) and uveitis was assessed at 6, 24 and 48 h post-intracameral LPS injection using a modified Hackett-McDonald scoring system. Eyes treated by intra-cameral injection of PBS, or by aseptic preparation served as further controls. Signs of inflammation in this model were mild and transient. Treatment with UC1728 did not significantly reduce inflammation compared to animals treated with the PEG400 vehicle. Blood levels of UC1728 were a thousand fold higher than the in vitro determined inhibitory potency (IC50) of the compound suggesting a significant degree of inhibition of sEH in the rabbit. The lack of efficacy suggests that sEH or its substrates the EETs may not be involved in mediating inflammation in this model of uveitis. PMID:28066796

  6. [Gallbladder motor activity in patients with virus hepatitis B].

    PubMed

    Mamos, Arkadiusz; Wichan, Paweł; Chojnacki, Jan; Grzegorczyk, Krzysztof

    2003-12-01

    In acute stage of virus hepatitis B patients often complain of dyspeptic discomfort. They may be a consequence of alimentary tract motor activity disorders including these of gallbladder. Routine ultrasonography in an early phase of virus hepatitis often reveals gallbladder wall thickening what may confirm the above thesis. Thus, a group of 15 patients in an acute phase of virus hepatitis B was subjected to examinations. Gallbladder motor activity was assessed by ultrasonographic method determining its total volume and ejection fraction and volume after test meal stimulus. First examination was performed in the first week since the appearance of yellowing of the walls, successive in 4 and 8 week of the disease. Obtained results were compared to the values obtained in the group of 25 healthy volunteers. It was found out that gallbladder volume was significantly decreased and ejection fraction increased in the acute phase of virus hepatitis B than in the controls. This may speak for gallbladder hyperreactivity in patients in the course of virus hepatitis B. These disorders decreased during two-month observation but even in the 8 week the investigated parameters differed from those found in the control group.

  7. Reduced killer cell activity of lymphocytes from patients with asbestosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, M; Kagamimori, S; Yokoyama, K; Okada, A

    1985-01-01

    Immunological abnormalities in 30 patients with asbestosis were investigated by examining the cytoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity by killer (K) cells from peripheral blood lymphocytes; the effects of interferon on NK activity was also examined. Fifteen men and 15 women (mean age 58; range 40-72) with asbestosis but who were free of complications such as tuberculosis, carcinoma, or steroid treatment were the subjects for study. There were nine cases of type 1, 19 cases of type 2, and two cases of type 3 disease as described in the ILO classification of pneumoconiosis. They were all textile workers with a mean duration of 18 years (3-40 years) since first exposure to chrysotile. Controls matched for age and sex were selected from a population without occupational exposure to asbestos. The activity of the NK and K cells in patients with asbestosis was significantly lower than in the control group, but the populations of NK and K cells in the peripheral blood lymphocytes were not significantly different in the two groups. An in vitro experiment showed that the increase in the cytotoxicity of the NK cell after treatment with interferon-alpha was significantly lower in the subjects than in the controls. These results indicate that one of the defence mechanisms in relation to cancer is deficient in patients with asbestosis. PMID:3978049

  8. Active core rewarming avoids bioelectrical impedance changes in postanesthetic patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Postoperative hypothermia is a common cause of complications in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Hypothermia is known to elicit electrophysiological, biochemical, and cellular alterations thus leading to changes in the active and passive membrane properties. These changes might influence the bioelectrical impedance (BI). Our aim was to determine whether the BI depends on the core temperature. Methods We studied 60 patients (52 female and 8 male) age 40 to 80 years with an ASA I-II classification that had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy under balanced inhalation anesthesia. The experimental group (n = 30) received active core rewarming during the transanesthetic and postanesthesic periods. The control group (n = 30) received passive external rewarming. The BI was recorded by using a 4-contact electrode system to collect dual sets of measurements in the deltoid muscle. The body temperature, hemodynamic variables, respiratory rate, blood-gas levels, biochemical parameters, and shivering were also measured. The Mann-Whitney unpaired t-test was used to determine the differences in shivering between each group at each measurement period. Measurements of body temperature, hemodynamics variables, respiratory rate, and BI were analyzed using the two-way repeated-measures ANOVA. Results The gradual decrease in the body temperature was followed by the BI increase over time. The highest BI values (95 ± 11 Ω) appeared when the lowest values of the temperature (35.5 ± 0.5°C) were reached. The active core rewarming kept the body temperature within the physiological range (over 36.5°C). This effect was accompanied by low stable values (68 ± 3 Ω) of BI. A significant decrease over time in the hemodynamic values, respiratory rate, and shivering was seen in the active core-rewarming group when compared with the controls. The temporal course of shivering was different from those of body temperatue and BI. The control patients showed a

  9. [Spontaneous activity of cutaneous nociceptors in patients with painful polyneuropathy. Report of three patients].

    PubMed

    Campero, Mario; Campero, Sebastián

    2012-11-01

    Painful polyneuropathy may result from selective impairment of small diameter nerve fibers, while tactile and motor functions are preserved. In these patients clinical and electrophysiological assessment is usually unrevealing. We report three patients with a pure painful polyneuropathy. One of them had neurogenic pruritus additionally. Quantitative sensory analysis disclosed a slight warm hypoesthesia (3/3) and paradoxical hot sensation (2/3) in the feet. Intraneural recordings from the peroneal nerve demonstrated abnormal spontaneous activity in 8 of 17 nociceptive afferents. One of them displayed double firing reflecting impulse multiplication. These results support the notion that patients with pain or pruritus with a distal distribution similar to a polyneuropathy, could have small diameter afferent fiber damage, despite normal function of large diameter fibers.

  10. Disease activity, quality of life, and indirect costs of ulcerative colitis in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Stawowczyk, Ewa; Mossakowska, Małgorzata; Pilc, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Ulcerative colitis (UC) require expensive, lifelong treatment, which generates huge direct costs and has a significant impact on the quality of life, especially in the active state of the disease. Aim To assess the indirect costs, health-related quality of life, and clinical characteristics of patients with UC in Poland. Additionally, we investigated the association between activity of UC and productivity loss of patients in a Polish setting. Material and methods A questionnaire survey was conducted using the Patient Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (P-SCCAI) to assess disease activity, as well as the modified Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire to assess productivity loss. The quality of life was presented as utility calculated with the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Indirect costs were assessed with the Human Capital Approach and were expressed in Polish zlotys (PLN) as well as in euros (€). Correlations were presented using the Spearman coefficient. Results We performed our analysis based on 202 full questionnaires collected. Mean patient age and age at disease onset were 33.14 years (standard deviation (SD): 9.90) and 26.35 years (SD: 8.89), respectively. The mean P-SCCAI score in the analysed group of patients was 8.26, and the mean utility was 0.8651. Average and median annual indirect costs per working person were €2043 and €1389 (8543 PLN and 5808 PLN), respectively, calculated using the gross domestic product, as well as €4791 and €3257 (20,026 PLN and 13,615 PLN), respectively, calculated using the gross value added. Total productivity loss was significantly correlated with the disease activity. Conclusions Ulcerative colitis causes a decrease in the quality of life as well as patients’ productivity loss associated with both absenteeism and with presenteeism. PMID:28337239

  11. Clinical significance of plasminogen activator inhibitor activity in patients with exercise-induced ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Sakata, K.; Kurata, C.; Taguchi, T.; Suzuki, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Yamazaki, N.; Rydzewski, A.; Takada, Y.; Takada, A. )

    1990-10-01

    To assess the fibrinolytic system in patients with exercise-induced ischemia and its relation to ischemia and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), 47 patients with CAD confirmed by results of coronary angiography underwent symptom-limited multistage exercise thallium-201 emission computed tomography. All patients with CAD had exercise-induced ischemia as assessed from thallium-201 images. Pre- and peak exercise blood samples from each patient and preexercise blood samples from control subjects were assayed for several fibrinolytic components and were also assayed for plasma adrenaline. The extent of ischemia was defined as delta visual uptake score (total visual uptake score in delayed images minus total visual uptake score in initial images) and the severity of CAD as the number of diseased vessels. In the basal condition, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity was significantly higher in patients with exercise-induced ischemia as compared to control subjects (p less than 0.01), although there were no significant differences in other fibrinolytic variables between the two groups. Moreover, PAI activity in the basal condition displayed a significantly positive correlation with the extent of ischemia (r = 0.47, p less than 0.01). Patients with exercise-induced ischemia were divided into two groups (24 with single-vessel disease and 23 with multivessel disease). There were no significant differences in coronary risk factors, hemodynamics, or plasma adrenaline levels during exercise between single-vessel and multivessel disease except that delta visual uptake score was significantly higher in multivessel disease (p less than 0.01).

  12. Personalized Strategies to Activate and Empower Patients in Health Care and Reduce Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jie; Mullins, C. Daniel; Novak, Priscilla; Thomas, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Designing culturally sensitive personalized interventions is essential to sustain patients' involvement in their treatment and encourage patients to take an active role in their own health and health care. We consider patient activation and empowerment as a cyclical process defined through patient accumulation of knowledge, confidence, and…

  13. Complement factor B activation in patients with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Velickovic, Ivan; Dalloul, Mudar; Wong, Karen A; Bakare, Olufunke; Schweis, Franz; Garala, Maya; Alam, Amit; Medranda, Giorgio; Lekovic, Jovana; Shuaib, Waqas; Tedjasukmana, Andreas; Little, Perry; Hanono, Daniel; Wijetilaka, Ruvini; Weedon, Jeremy; Lin, Jun; Toledano, Roulhac d'Arby; Zhang, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Bb, the active fragment of complement factor B (fB), has been reported to be a predictor of preeclampsia. However, conflicting results have been found by some investigators. We hypothesized that the disagreement in findings may be due to the racial/ethnic differences among various study groups, and that fB activation is significant in women of an ethnic minority with preeclampsia. We investigated the maternal and fetal levels of Bb (the activated fB fragment) in pregnant women of an ethnic minority with or without preeclampsia. We enrolled 291 pregnant women (96% of an ethnic minority, including 78% African-American). Thirteen percent of these were diagnosed with preeclampsia. Maternal venous blood was collected from all participants together with fetal umbilical cord blood samples from 154 deliveries in the 291 women. The results were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and multivariate analyses. Maternal Bb levels were significantly higher in the preeclamptic group than in the nonpreeclamptic group. Levels of Bb in fetal cord blood were similar in both groups. Subgroup analyses of African-American patients' results confirmed the study hypothesis that there would be a significant increase in Bb in the maternal blood of the preeclamptic group and no increase in Bb in the fetal cord blood of this group. These results suggest that a maternal immune response through complement fB might play a role in the development of preeclampsia, particularly in African-American patients.

  14. Involvement of Activated Cdc42 Kinase1 in Colitis and Colorectal Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Chaolan; Gu, Hongxiang; Zhao, Xinmei; Huang, Liyun; Zhou, Sanxi; Zhi, Fachao

    2016-01-01

    Background Activated Cdc42 kinase1 (ACK1) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase which is critical for cell survival, proliferation, and migration. Genomic amplification of ACK1 has been reported in multiple human cancers. We aimed to investigate ACK1 protein expression in colorectal mucosa with inflammation and neoplasm, and to evaluate its correlation with disease activity and severity. Material/Methods A total of 250 individuals who underwent total colonoscopy were collected randomly from January 2007 to May 2013 in Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou, China. Colorectal mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained by endoscopy from 78 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 22 with Crohn’s disease (CD), 20 with infectious colitis, 26 with non-IBD and noninfectious colitis, 16 with sporadic adenomas, 4 with dysplasia-associated lesions or masses, 10 with sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC), 4 with UC-related CRC, 10 with hyperplastic polyps, and 60 without colonic abnormalities. ACK1 protein levels were determined immunohistochemically. The correlations of ACK1 expression with disease activity and severity were also evaluated. Results Significantly increased ACK1 expression was observed in epithelial cells of colorectal mucosa with inflammation and dysplasia compared to controls (P<0.05). ACK1 expression correlated with clinical activity in IBD (χ2=4.57, P=0.033 for UC; χ2=5.68, P=0.017 for CD), as well as grade of dysplasia in preneoplastic lesions (P<0.05). No significant differences in ACK1 expression were found between UC and CD, or between IBD and non-IBD conditions (P>0.05). Conclusions ACK1 protein is increased extensively in colitis and colorectal dysplasia. ACK1 overexpression may play a role in colorectal inflammation and neoplasms. PMID:27926694

  15. Involvement of Activated Cdc42 Kinase1 in Colitis and Colorectal Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chaolan; Zhao, Xinmei; Gu, Hongxiang; Huang, Liyun; Zhou, Sanxi; Zhi, Fachao

    2016-12-07

    BACKGROUND Activated Cdc42 kinase1 (ACK1) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase which is critical for cell survival, proliferation, and migration. Genomic amplification of ACK1 has been reported in multiple human cancers. We aimed to investigate ACK1 protein expression in colorectal mucosa with inflammation and neoplasm, and to evaluate its correlation with disease activity and severity. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 250 individuals who underwent total colonoscopy were collected randomly from January 2007 to May 2013 in Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou, China. Colorectal mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained by endoscopy from 78 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 22 with Crohn's disease (CD), 20 with infectious colitis, 26 with non-IBD and noninfectious colitis, 16 with sporadic adenomas, 4 with dysplasia-associated lesions or masses, 10 with sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC), 4 with UC-related CRC, 10 with hyperplastic polyps, and 60 without colonic abnormalities. ACK1 protein levels were determined immunohistochemically. The correlations of ACK1 expression with disease activity and severity were also evaluated. RESULTS Significantly increased ACK1 expression was observed in epithelial cells of colorectal mucosa with inflammation and dysplasia compared to controls (P<0.05). ACK1 expression correlated with clinical activity in IBD (χ²=4.57, P=0.033 for UC; χ²=5.68, P=0.017 for CD), as well as grade of dysplasia in preneoplastic lesions (P<0.05). No significant differences in ACK1 expression were found between UC and CD, or between IBD and non-IBD conditions (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS ACK1 protein is increased extensively in colitis and colorectal dysplasia. ACK1 overexpression may play a role in colorectal inflammation and neoplasms.

  16. Relationship between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Iwakura, Masahiro; Okura, Kazuki; Shibata, Kazuyuki; Kawagoshi, Atsuyoshi; Sugawara, Keiyu; Takahashi, Hitomi; Shioya, Takanobu

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the relationship between balance impairments and physical activity in COPD. There has been no study investigating the relationship between balance and objectively measured physical activity. Here we investigated the association between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients. Materials and methods Twenty-two outpatients with COPD (mean age, 72±7 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 53%±21% predicted) and 13 age-matched healthy control subjects (mean age, 72±6 years) participated in the study. We assessed all 35 subjects’ balance (one-leg standing test [OLST] times, Short Physical Performance Battery total scores, standing balance test scores, 4 m gait speed, and five-times sit-to-stand test [5STST]) and physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day [MV-PA]). Possible confounders were assessed in the COPD group. The between-group differences in balance test scores and physical activity were analyzed. A correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted in the COPD group. Results The COPD patients exhibited significant reductions in OLST times (P=0.033), Short Physical Performance Battery scores (P=0.013), 4 m gait speed (P<0.001), five-times sit-to-stand times (P=0.002), daily steps (P=0.003), and MV-PA (P=0.022) compared to the controls; the exception was the standing balance test scores. The correlation and multivariate regression analyses revealed significant independent associations between OLST times and daily steps (P<0.001) and between OLST times and MV-PA (P=0.014) in the COPD group after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Conclusion Impairments in balance and reductions in physical activity were observed in the COPD group. Deficits in balance are independently associated with physical inactivity. PMID:27445470

  17. Sulforaphane retards the growth of UM-UC-3 xenographs, induces apoptosis, and reduces survivin in athymic mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengqian; Shan, Yujuan

    2012-05-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate that exists exclusively in cruciferous vegetables, may be the most promising preventive agent for bladder cancer (BC) to date. We previously observed that SFN dramatically inhibits human BC T24 cells in vitro. Our hypothesis is that SFN may attenuate BC growth. To test our hypothesis, we investigated the effect of SFN on human BC UM-UC-3 cell xenografts implanted into athymic mice. Sulforaphane extract was routinely prepared in our laboratory, and its content was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography. Athymic mice were injected subcutaneously with a UM-UC-3 cell suspension (2.0×10(6) cells/200 μL per mouse) and randomly divided into 2 groups. The positive control group was orally gavaged with water, and the treatment group was orally administered SFN from broccoli sprout (12 mg/kg body weight) for 5 weeks. At the end of the experiment, tumor tissues were harvested and processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. The average tumor volume decreased from 4.1±1.67 cm(3) in the positive control mice to 1.5±0.72 cm(3) in the SFN-treated mice, evidencing an inhibitory rate of 63%. The SFN extract also reduced the appearance of tumors, including karyopyknosis and angiogenesis. Sulforaphane extract induced caspase 3 and cytochrome c expression but reduced the expression of survivin. Sulforaphane extract retards the growth of UM-UC-3 xenografts in vivo, confirming its future potential in BC therapy.

  18. Is a Coded Physical Activity Diary Valid for Assessing Physical Activity Level and Energy Expenditure in Stroke Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Vanroy, Christel; Vanlandewijck, Yves; Cras, Patrick; Feys, Hilde; Truijen, Steven; Michielsen, Marc; Vissers, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to determine the concurrent validity of a physical activity diary for measuring physical activity level and total energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Method Sixteen stroke patients kept coded activity diaries and wore SenseWear Pro2 multi-sensor activity monitors during daytime hours for one day. A researcher observed the patients and completed a diary. Data from the patients' diaries were compared with observed and measured data to determine total activity (METs*minutes), activity level and total energy expenditure. Results Spearman correlations between the patients' and researchers' diaries revealed a high correlation for total METs*minutes (rs = 0.75, p<0.01) for sedentary (rs = 0.74,p<0.01) and moderate activities (rs = 0.71,p<0.01) and a very high correlation (rs = 0.92, p<0.01) for the total energy expenditure. Comparisons between the patients' diaries and activity monitor data revealed a low correlation (rs 0.29) for total METs*minutes and energy expenditure. Conclusion Coded self-monitoring activity diaries appear feasible as a low-tech alternative to labor-intensive observational diaries for determining sedentary, moderate, and total physical activity and for quantifying energy expenditure in hospitalized stroke patients. Given the poor correlation with objective measurements of physical activity, however, further research is needed to validate its use against a gold-standard measure of physical activity intensity and energy expenditure. PMID:24905345

  19. Physical Activity Enjoyment and Self-Efficacy As Predictors of Cancer Patients' Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Nadine; Wiskemann, Joachim; Sieverding, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) can support cancer patients during medical treatment by reducing side-effects and increasing quality of life. However, PA levels mostly decline after diagnosis. Which factors can explain if patients are able to remain or even increase their PA level? Self-efficacy is an important cognitive factor that has been linked to cancer patients' PA across many studies. In contrast, affective factors such as PA enjoyment have rarely been examined. We compare the influence of self-efficacy and PA enjoyment on cancer patients' PA levels after completion of an exercise or stress-management intervention. Methods: Outpatient cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34%, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION study, a 4-week intervention (1 h counseling followed by weekly phone calls), with pre-test (T1), post-test (T2), and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise intervention (emphasizing self-regulatory strategies for behavior change) or to a stress management intervention (coping and relaxation techniques). Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA, a measure of maintenance self-efficacy (7 items, Cronbach's α = 0.88) and PA enjoyment (2 items, Cronbach's α = 0.89). Regression analyses were calculated with PA level (at T2 and T3) as dependent variable and relative weight analyses were conducted. The study was registered at clinicalTrials.gov (unique identifier:NCT01576107; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01576107?term=motivaction&rank=1). Results: Baseline self-efficacy and change in PA enjoyment significantly predicted cancer patients' PA level at T2 adjusting for baseline PA and type of intervention. Relative weight (RW) analysis revealed that PA enjoyment (baseline and change together) explained 34.3% of the dependent variable, self-efficacy (baseline and change) explained 38.4%. At follow

  20. Increased Enterococcus faecalis infection is associated with clinically active Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Youlian; Chen, Huiting; He, Hanchang; Du, Yanlei; Hu, Jiaqi; Li, Yingfei; Li, Yuyuan; Zhou, Yongjian; Wang, Hong; Chen, Ye; Nie, Yuqiang

    2016-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the abundance of pathogenic gut microbes in Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and disease severity.We collected clinical data and fecal samples from 47 therapy-naive Chinese patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 67 patients with Crohn disease (CD), and 48 healthy volunteers. Bacteria levels of Fusobacterium species (spp), enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (B fragilis), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E coli), and Enterococcus faecalis (E faecalis) were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated to test associations between bacterial content and clinical parameters.Compared to healthy controls, the levels of both Fusobacterium spp and E faecalis were significantly increased in the feces of patients with IBD (P < 0.01). B fragilis levels were higher (P < 0.05) and E faecalis levels lower (P < 0.05) in patients with CD compared to those with UC. Increased E faecalis colonization in CD associated positively with disease activity (P = 0.015), Crohn disease activity index (CDAI; R = 0.3118, P = 0.0108), and fecal calprotectin (P = 0.016).E faecalis and Fusobacterium spp are significantly enriched in patients with IBD, and increased E faecalis infection is associated with clinically active CD.

  1. Increased Enterococcus faecalis infection is associated with clinically active Crohn disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Youlian; Chen, Huiting; He, Hanchang; Du, Yanlei; Hu, Jiaqi; Li, Yingfei; Li, Yuyuan; Zhou, Yongjian; Wang, Hong; Chen, Ye; Nie, Yuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the abundance of pathogenic gut microbes in Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and disease severity. We collected clinical data and fecal samples from 47 therapy-naive Chinese patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 67 patients with Crohn disease (CD), and 48 healthy volunteers. Bacteria levels of Fusobacterium species (spp), enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (B fragilis), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E coli), and Enterococcus faecalis (E faecalis) were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated to test associations between bacterial content and clinical parameters. Compared to healthy controls, the levels of both Fusobacterium spp and E faecalis were significantly increased in the feces of patients with IBD (P < 0.01). B fragilis levels were higher (P < 0.05) and E faecalis levels lower (P < 0.05) in patients with CD compared to those with UC. Increased E faecalis colonization in CD associated positively with disease activity (P = 0.015), Crohn disease activity index (CDAI; R = 0.3118, P = 0.0108), and fecal calprotectin (P = 0.016). E faecalis and Fusobacterium spp are significantly enriched in patients with IBD, and increased E faecalis infection is associated with clinically active CD. PMID:27684872

  2. Objects earlier than precursors of UC HII regions: Inflow-signpost for a common way of star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Zhu, M.; Xu, D.; Wei, Y.; Zhu, L.

    Searching for objects in the earliest phases of star formation, e.g sources at the beginning of a gravitational collapse, are essential to our understanding of massive star formation. Today a number of precursors of ultra compact HII regions (PUCHs) have been found. Embedded in dense gas and dust, these PUCHs have a high bolometric luminosity but little or no 6 cm radio continuum emission (Molinari, et al. 2000; Beuther, et al. 2002). Evidence for Collapse was found in ultra compact (UC) HII regions and 12 water maser sources (Zhang, et al. 1998; Wu & Evans II 2003). This paper presents the identification of massive cores with no detectable infrared and radio sources. These kinds of cores usually have strong sub-mm emission. A special case is the SCUBA core JCMT 18354-0649S which has both infall and outflow motions as indicated by the profiles of high excitation molecular lines. This core is at a stage earlier than PUCHs. Blue profiles are also found in UC HII region, which indicates that material is still infalling in this phase. Our observations suggest that infall exists in different evolutionary stages for high mass star formation, similar to the low mass cases.

  3. Cancer Prehabilitation for Patients Starting from Active Treatment to Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Shun, Shiow-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this brief summary is to introduce the concept of cancer prehabilitation and the role of oncology nurses in prehabilitation care. Cancer prehabilitation has been defined by Sliver and Baima (2013) as “a process on the cancer continuum of care that occurs between the time of cancer diagnosis and the beginning of acute treatment.” The evidence supports the notion that prehabilitation programs can improve physical and psychological health outcomes and decrease overall health care costs. The care model for cancer prehabilitation should include timely and efficient assessment throughout the care continuum with a focus on improving outcomes in cancer at every stage. During the cancer journey, three types of assessment with different aims are included: (1) prehabilitation assessment pretreatment, (2) rehabilitation assessment at early post treatment, and (3) health promotion assessment at the end of treatment. Specific prehabilitation assessment and interventions for treatment-related complications or major side-effects should be considered. Teaching, counseling, discharge planning, and coordination should also be part of an oncology nurse's role in cancer prehabilitation. It is suggested that cancer care managers or navigators be trained in the assessment of their patients’ physical and psychological status once the cancer diagnosis has been identified and the patient has decided to receive active treatment, especially for those waiting for surgery at home. Oncology nurses could increase their competence with prehabilitation care by gaining knowledge about cancer-related treatments and their outcomes for specific cancers and by strengthening the ability to assess the functional status and psychological distress of their patients. PMID:27981135

  4. THE NASA-UC ETA-EARTH PROGRAM. II. A PLANET ORBITING HD 156668 WITH A MINIMUM MASS OF FOUR EARTH MASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Johnson, John Asher; Fischer, Debra A.; Wright, Jason T.; Henry, Gregory W.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Anderson, Jay; Piskunov, Nikolai E.

    2011-01-10

    We report the discovery of HD 156668 b, an extrasolar planet with a minimum mass of M{sub P} sin i = 4.15 M{sub +}. This planet was discovered through Keplerian modeling of precise radial velocities from Keck-HIRES and is the second super-Earth to emerge from the NASA-UC Eta-Earth Survey. The best-fit orbit is consistent with circular and has a period of P = 4.6455 days. The Doppler semi-amplitude of this planet, K = 1.89 m s{sup -1}, is among the lowest ever detected, on par with the detection of GJ 581 e using HARPS. A longer period (P {approx} 2.3 years), low-amplitude signal of unknown origin was also detected in the radial velocities and was filtered out of the data while fitting the short-period planet. Additional data are required to determine if the long-period signal is due to a second planet, stellar activity, or another source. Photometric observations using the Automated Photometric Telescopes at Fairborn Observatory show that HD 156668 (an old, quiet K3 dwarf) is photometrically constant over the radial velocity period to 0.1 mmag, supporting the existence of the planet. No transits were detected down to a photometric limit of {approx}3 mmag, ruling out transiting planets dominated by extremely bloated atmospheres, but not precluding a transiting solid/liquid planet with a modest atmosphere.

  5. Patient Activation in Type 2 Diabetes: Does It Differ between Men and Women?

    PubMed Central

    van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aim was to investigate whether the degree of patient activation of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is different between men and women. Furthermore, we investigated which factors are associated with patient activation in men and women. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 1615 patients with T2D from general practices. Patient activation was measured with the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to investigate the association between gender and patient activation. Stratified analyses according to gender were performed to investigate which factors are associated with patient activation. Results. No association between gender and PAM score was found after adjustment for all selected confounders (p = 0.094). In men, lower age (p = 0.001), a higher WHO-5 score (p < 0.001), and a lower BMI (p = 0.013) were associated with a higher PAM score. In women, a higher WHO-5 score (p < 0.017) and the absence of macrovascular complications (p < 0.031) were associated with a higher PAM score. Conclusion. There is no difference in the degree of patient activation of men and women with T2D. Age, well-being, and BMI were found to be associated with patient activation in men, whereas well-being and macrovascular complications were found to be associated with patient activation in women. PMID:27656658

  6. Phenomenological correlates of metabolic activity in 18 patients with chronic schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Van Gelder, P.; Brodie, J.D.; Overall, J.E.; Cancro, R.; Gomez-Mont, F.

    1987-02-01

    Using (11C)-deoxy-D-glucose and positron emission tomography (PET), the authors measured brain metabolism in 18 patients with chronic schizophrenia to assess which of the metabolic measures from two test conditions was more closely related to the patients' differing clinical characteristics. The two conditions were resting and activation, and an eye tracking task was used. Patients with more negative symptoms showed lower global metabolic rates and more severe hypofrontality than did the patients with fewer negative symptoms. Differences among the patients were distinguished by the task: sicker patients failed to show a metabolic activation response. These findings suggest that cerebral metabolic patterns reflect clinical characteristics of schizophrenic patients.

  7. Effect of hospitalization on rest-activity rhythm and quality of life of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Parganiha, Arti; Taj, Saba; Chandel, Priyanka; Sultan, Armiya; Choudhary, Vivek

    2014-05-01

    Rest-activity rhythm and quality of life (QoL) in three cohorts, namely (1) cancer in-patients, (2) out-patients, and (3) control subjects were studied. The patients of the former two groups were chosen randomly from the Regional Cancer Center, Raipur, India. All patients received chemotherapy for 3-4 consecutive days. The in-patients remained hospitalized for the entire period of chemotherapy plus one day post treatment. The out-patients, unlike the in-patients, went to their homes daily after treatment. Rest-activity rhythm of the patients was monitored using Actical. Quality of life (QoL) and psychological status of patients were assessed using EORTC QLQ-C30 and Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, respectively. Each subject exhibited significant circadian rhythm in rest-activity. The average values for Mesor, amplitude, peak activity, autocorrelation coefficient and dichotomy index of all three groups varied significantly between one group to the other in the following order: in-patient < out-patient < control. Further, quality of life, measured from responses on functional and symptom scales, was better off in cancer out-patients compared to the in-patients. It is concluded that hospitalization alters rest-activity rhythm parameters markedly and deteriorates QoL in cancer patients. Nevertheless, further extensive investigation is desirable to support the above speculation and to ascertain if hospitalization produces similar effects on patients suffering from diseases other than cancer.

  8. PPARgamma Pro12Ala polymorphism in HIV-1-infected patients with HAART-related lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Saumoy, Maria; Veloso, Sergi; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Domingo, Pere; Chacón, Matilde R; Miranda, Merce; Aragonès, Gerard; Gutiérrez, Maria Mar; Viladés, Consuelo; Peraire, Joaquim; Sirvent, Joan-Josep; López-Dupla, Miguel; Aguilar, Carmen; Richart, Cristóbal; Vidal, Francesc

    2009-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is involved in obesity and in some components of the metabolic syndrome in unselected population. To determine whether PPARgamma genetic variants are associated with the risk of developing lipodystrophy and its associated metabolic disturbances in HIV-1-infected patients treated with HAART and to assess PPARgamma mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). The study group comprised 278 patients infected with HIV-1 and treated with antiretroviral drugs (139 with lipodystrophy and 139 without) and 105 uninfected controls (UC). The PPARgamma Pro12Ala (C%>G) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was assessed using PCR-RFLPs on white cell DNA. PPARgamma mRNA expression in SAT was assessed in 38 patients (25 with lipodystrophy and 13 without) and in 21 UC by real-time PCR. Statistical analysis was based on Student's T tests, Chi(2) tests, Spearman's correlations tests and logistic regression tests. PPARgamma Pro12Ala genotype distribution and allele frequencies were non-significantly different between both HIV-1-infected categories, lipodystrophy vs non-lipodystrophy (p=0.9 and p=0.87, respectively). Lipodystrophic patients harbouring the rare X/Ala genotype (Ala/Ala plus Pro/Ala) had significantly greater plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels compared with carriers of the common Pro/Pro genotype (p=0.029 and p=0.016, respectively) at univariate analyses. At multivariate analyses these associations were no longer significant. There was a near-significant decreased SAT PPARgamma mRNA expression in patients with lipodystrophy compared to UC (p=0.054). PPARgamma Pro12Ala SNP has no effect on the risk of developing lipodystrophy in HIV-1-infected patients treated with HAART. PPARgamma mRNA SAT expression appears decreased in lipodystrophy.

  9. 75 FR 32539 - Agency Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey) Activities Under OMB Review... Form 10-0503).'' Title: Survey of Healthcare Experiences, Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey, VA...

  10. 76 FR 56504 - Proposed Information Collection (Spinal Cord Injury Patient Care Survey) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Spinal Cord Injury Patient Care Survey) Activity: Comment Request... spinal cord patients' satisfaction with VA rehabilitation and health care system. Affected Public... of automated collection techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title:...

  11. Diagnostic Delay in Romanian Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Risk Factors and Impact on the Disease Course and Need for Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zaharie, Roxana; Zaharie, Florin; Tantau, Marcel; Gheorghe, Liana; Gheorghe, Cristian; Gologan, Serban; Cijevschi, Cristina; Trifan, Anca; Dobru, Daniela; Goldis, Adrian; Constantinescu, Gabriel; Iacob, Razvan; Diculescu, Mircea

    2016-01-01

    Background: The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] in Eastern Europe is poorly understood, particularly with regard to diagnostic delay. Here we investigated the factors leading to delayed diagnosis and the effect of the delay on several disease progression and outcome measures. Methods: A total of 1196 IBD cases [682 ulcerative colitis [UC], 478 Crohn’s disease [CD], 36 indeterminate colitis] from the Romanian national registry IBDPROSPECT were reviewed. Standard clinical and demographic factors were evaluated as predictors of a long diagnostic delay in both CD and UC. Diagnostic delay was subsequently evaluated as a potential risk factor for bowel stenoses, bowel fistulas, perianal fistulas, perianal surgery, and intestinal surgery in CD patients. Results: The median diagnostic delay was significantly longer in CD [5 months] than in UC [1 month] patients [p < 0.001]. Compared with 5 months for UC patients, 75% of CD patients were diagnosed within 18 months of symptom onset. In CD patients, extra-ileal location was a protective factor (odds ratio [OR], 0.5; p = 0.03), whereas being an active smoker [OR, 2.09; p = 0.01] and symptom onset during summer [OR, 3.35; p < 0.001] were independent risk factors for a long diagnostic delay [> 18 months]. In UC patients, an age > 40 years was a protective factor [OR, 0.68; p = 0.04] for a long delay. Regarding outcomes, a long diagnostic delay in CD patients positively correlated with bowel stenoses [OR, 3.38; p < 0.01] and any IBD-related surgery [OR, 1.95; p = 0.03] and had a positive trend for intestinal fistulas [OR, 2.64; p = 0.08] and perianal fistulas [OR, 2.9; p = 0.07]. Disease duration since diagnosis positively correlated with bowel stenoses [OR, 1.04; p = 0.04], any IBD-related surgery [OR, 1.04; p = 0.02], and intestinal surgery [OR, 1.07; p < 0.01]. Conclusions: A long diagnostic delay in IBD correlates with an increased frequency of bowel stenoses and need for IBD-related surgery. PMID:26589956

  12. Personalized Strategies to Activate and Empower Patients in Health Care and Reduce Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Mullins, C Daniel; Novak, Priscilla; Thomas, Stephen B

    2016-02-01

    Designing culturally sensitive personalized interventions is essential to sustain patients' involvement in their treatment and encourage patients to take an active role in their own health and health care. We consider patient activation and empowerment as a cyclical process defined through patient accumulation of knowledge, confidence, and self-determination for their own health and health care. We propose a patient-centered, multilevel activation and empowerment framework (individual-, health care professional-, community-, and health care delivery system-level) to inform the development of culturally informed personalized patient activation and empowerment (P-PAE) interventions to improve population health and reduce racial and ethnic disparities. We discuss relevant Affordable Care Act payment and delivery policy reforms and how they affect patient activation and empowerment. Such policies include Accountable Care Organizations and value-based purchasing, patient-centered medical homes, and the community health benefit. Challenges and possible solutions to implementing the P-PAE are discussed. Comprehensive and longitudinal data sets with consistent P-PAE measures are needed to conduct comparative effectiveness analyses to evaluate the optimal P-PAE model. We believe the P-PAE model is timely and sustainable and will be critical to engaging patients in their treatment, developing patients' abilities to manage their health, helping patients express concerns and preferences regarding treatment, empowering patients to ask questions about treatment options, and building up strategic patient-provider partnerships through shared decision making.

  13. Extension and flexion in the upper cervical spine in neck pain patients.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Markus J; Crawford, Rebecca J; Schelldorfer, Sarah; Rausch-Osthoff, Anne-Kathrin; Barbero, Marco; Kool, Jan; Bauer, Christoph M

    2015-08-01

    Neck pain is a common problem in the general population with high risk of ongoing complaints or relapses. Range of motion (ROM) assessment is scientifically established in the clinical process of diagnosis, prognosis and outcome evaluation in neck pain. Anatomically, the cervical spine (CS) has been considered in two regions, the upper and lower CS. Disorders like cervicogenic headache have been clinically associated with dysfunctions of the upper CS (UCS), yet ROM tests and measurements are typically conducted on the whole CS. A cross-sectional study assessing 19 subjects with non-specific neck pain was undertaken to examine UCS extension-flexion ROM in relation to self-reported disability and pain (via the Neck Disability Index (NDI)). Two measurement devices (goniometer and electromagnetic tracking) were employed and compared. Correlations between ROM and the NDI were stronger for the UCS compared to the CS, with the strongest correlation between UCS flexion and the NDI-headache (r = -0.62). Correlations between UCS and CS ROM were fair to moderate, with the strongest correlation between UCS flexion and CS extension ROM (r = -0.49). UCS flexion restriction is related to headache frequency and intensity. Consistency and agreement between both measurement systems and for all tests was high. The results demonstrate that separate UCS ROM assessments for extension and flexion are useful in patients with neck pain.

  14. Preparation of UC0.07-0.10N0.90-0.93 spheres for TRISO coated fuel particles

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Jack Lee; Hunt, Rodney Dale; Johnson, Jared A; Silva, Chinthaka M; Lindemer, Terrence

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is considering a new nuclear fuel, which should be much more impervious during a loss of coolant accident. The fuel would consist of tristructural isotropic coated particles with dense uranium nitride (UN) kernels. The objectives of this effort are to make uranium oxide microspheres with adequately dispersed carbon nanoparticles and to convert these microspheres into UN kernels. Recent improvements to internal gelation process were successfully applied to the production of uranium gel spheres with different concentrations of carbon black. After the spheres were washed, a simple, two-step heat profile was used to produce kernels with a chemical composition of UC0.07 0.10N0.90 0.93. The first step involved heating the microspheres to 2023 K in a vacuum, and in the second step, the microspheres were held at 1873 K for 6 hrs in nitrogen.

  15. Production of spherical UO/sub 2/-UC/sub 2/ for nuclear fuel applications using thermochemical principles

    SciTech Connect

    Stinton, D.P.; Lackey, W.J.; Spence, R.D.

    1981-03-01

    A process for the fabrication of uranium dioxide-uranium dicarbide microspheres for use as an advanced nuclear fuel is described. The uranium-carbon-oxygen phase diagram was used extensively in applying thermochemical principles to the combined process of uranium carbide synthesis and kernel sintering. Variation of the partial pressure of carbon monoxide during the carbothermic reduction of urania plus carbon allowed the kernel composition and density to be controlled. X-ray diffraction, microstructural examination, and detailed chemical analyses were used to identify the kernel composition. A procedure was developed to convert urania plus carbon microspheres produced by a wet-chemical gelation process to a highly dense UO/sub 2/-UC/sub 2/ product at 1550/sup 0/C.

  16. Integration of PacBio RS into Massive Parallel Sequencing and Data Analysis Pipelining at the UC Davis Genome Center

    PubMed Central

    Vanessa, Rashbrook; O'Geen, Henriette; Nguyen, Oanh; Ashtari, Siranoosh; Fan, Xiaohong; Kim, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing and genomic biology has been widely adopted in many fields of biology as next-generation sequencing technology (NGS) has rapidly improved quality, read length, and throughput to make whole genome sequencing and association studies possible in a very cost effective manner. Continued improvement and development of sample preparation protocols and data analysis tools have been significant in helping to extend genome sequencing technology to genomes that were previously difficult to sequence. Recent arrival of Pacific Biosciences RS (PacBio) contributed in furthering such opportunity by providing options for single molecule long read sequencing in real time and kinetic analysis (methylation). PacBio has been employed successfully for sequencing low complexity genomic region such as extremely high GC, long repeats, rearrangement, gene fusion, etc. In this poster we present the optimization of PacBio sample preparation that was fine-tuned to meet unique challenges of sequencing through “difficult-to-sequence” template. We discuss the integration of PacBio into the wet lab equipped with other NGS platforms and data pipelining workflow including cloud computing and robotic sample preparation at the Genome Center. UC Davis Genome Center currently operates NGS technology platforms including HiSeq, MiSeq, PacBio, and has genotyping capacity using Illumina Infinium and GoldenGate technology. UC Davis Genome Center and Bioinformatics Program provides most up-to-date genome technology and informatics support tailored for specific biological goals meeting needs for more than 80 faculty members within Genome Center and more than 200 campus and off-campus researchers.

  17. Evaluation of dairy allergy among ulcerative colitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Judaki, Arezo; Hafeziahmadi, Mohamadreza; Yousefi, Atefe; Havasian, Mohamad Reza; Panahi, Jafar; Sayehmiri, Koroush; Alizadeh, Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    The intestine is the largest mucosal organ of the body and also the first line immune homeostasis. Inflammatory bowel disease or IBD is divided into ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. One of the problems that can occur with UC is dietary allergy to some foods. This study aimed to evaluated the dairy allergy among patients with ulcerative colitis. This study is a Case - control study, that studied 72 patients with Ulcerative Colitis, after recording history of the disease, colonoscopy and confirmed by biopsy and 72 person without history of colitis. In this study, in order to investigate of food allergy, used of the EUROMMUM kit with an international code number DP3420-1601-11E. We used chi-square and Monte Carlo method for analysis of data. Among UC patients, 30.6% mild, 52.8% moderate and 16.6% of cases were in sever stage. 9.7% of them reported a history of abdominal surgery due to disease. According to the chi-square and Monte Carlo methods, dairy allergy (including: cow milk, cow milk UHT and casein) in UC group was significant (P=0.00). This study indicated that there is significant relationship between UC and cow milk, cow milk UHT and casein. UC patients who are allergic to dairy products and the use of dairy products can increase the severity of UC. PMID:25512686

  18. Over-optimistic patient expectations of recovery and leisure activities after arthroscopic meniscus surgery.

    PubMed

    Pihl, Kenneth; Roos, Ewa M; Nissen, Nis; JøRgensen, Uffe; Schjerning, Jeppe; Thorlund, Jonas B

    2016-12-01

    Background and purpose - Patients' expectations of outcomes following arthroscopic meniscus surgery are largely unknown. We investigated patients' expectations concerning recovery and participation in leisure-time activities after arthroscopic meniscus surgery and the postoperative fulfillment of these. Patients and methods - The study sample consisted of 491 consecutively recruited patients (mean age 50 (SD 13) years, 55% men) who were assigned for arthroscopy on suspicion of meniscus injury and later verified by arthroscopy. Before surgery, patients completed questionnaires regarding their expectations of recovery time and postoperative participation in leisure activities. 3 months after surgery, the patients completed questionnaires on their actual level of leisure activity and their degree of satisfaction with their current knee function. We analyzed differences between the expected outcome and the actual outcome, and between fulfilled/exceeded expectations and satisfaction with knee function. Results - 478 patients (97%) completed the follow-up. 91% had expected to be fully recovered within 3 months. We found differences between patients' preoperative expectations of participation in leisure activities postoperatively and their actual participation in these, with 59% having unfulfilled expectations (p < 0.001). Satisfaction with current knee function was associated with expectations of leisure activities being fulfilled/exceeded. Interpretation - In general, patients undergoing arthroscopic meniscus surgery were too optimistic regarding their recovery time and postoperative participation in leisure activities. This highlights the need for shared decision making which should include giving the patient information on realistic expectations of recovery time and regarding participation in leisure-time activities after meniscal surgery.

  19. Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients without Limitation of Physical Function: The Role of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tallner, Alexander; Waschbisch, Anne; Hentschke, Christian; Pfeifer, Klaus; Mäurer, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, in general, show reduced physical function, physical activity, and quality of life. Positive associations between physical activity and quality of life have been reported. In particular, we were interested in the relation between physical activity and mental health in MS patients without limitation of physical function, since limitations of physical function may influence both physical activity and quality of life. Assessment comprised the Baecke questionnaire on physical activity, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We ranked our sample according to physical activity into four groups and performed an ANOVA to analyze the relationship between levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Then we performed a subgroup analysis and included patients with unlimited walking distance and a score of less than 18 in the BDI. Most active vs. inactive patients were compared for the mental subscales of the SF-36 and depression scores. From 632 patients, 265 met inclusion criteria and hence quartiles were filled with 67 patients each. Active and inactive patients did not differ considerably in physical function. In contrast, mental subscales of the SF-36 were higher in active patients. Remarkable and significant differences were found regarding vitality, general health perception, social functioning and mental health, all in favor of physically active patients. Our study showed that higher physical activity is still associated with higher mental health scores even if limitations of physical function are accounted for. Therefore, we believe that physical activity and exercise have considerable health benefits for MS patients. PMID:26147422

  20. Do active patients seek higher quality prenatal care?: A panel data analysis from Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jessica; Golub, Ginger; Kruk, Margaret E; McConnell, Margaret

    2016-11-01

    Despite poverty and limited access to health care, evidence is growing that patients in low-income countries are taking a more active role in their selection of health care providers. Urban areas such as Nairobi, Kenya offer a rich context for studying these "active" patients because of the large number of heterogeneous providers available. We use a unique panel dataset from 2015 in which 402 pregnant women from peri-urban (the "slums" of) Nairobi, Kenya were interviewed three times over the course of their pregnancy and delivery, allowing us to follow women's care decisions and their perceptions of the quality of care they received. We define active antenatal care (ANC) patients as those women who switch ANC providers and explore the prevalence, characteristics and care-seeking behavior of these patients. We analyze whether active ANC patients appear to be seeking out higher quality facilities and whether they are more satisfied with their care. Women in our sample visit over 150 different public and private ANC facilities. Active patients are more educated and more likely to have high risk pregnancies, but have otherwise similar characteristics to non-active patients. We find that active patients are increasingly likely to pay for private care (despite public care being free) and to receive a higher quality of care over the course of their pregnancy. We find that active patients appear more satisfied with their care over the course of pregnancy, as they are increasingly likely to choose to deliver at the facility providing their ANC.

  1. Antibiotics for Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infection in Hospitalized Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Horton, Henry A; Dezfoli, Seper; Berel, Dror; Hirsch, Julianna; Ippoliti, Andrew; McGovern, Dermot; Kaur, Manreet; Shih, David; Dubinsky, Marla; Targan, Stephan R; Fleshner, Phillip; Vasiliauskas, Eric A; Grein, Jonathan; Murthy, Rekha; Melmed, Gil Y

    2014-09-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), namely ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), have worse outcomes with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), including increased readmissions, colectomy, and death. Oral vancomycin is recommended for the treatment of severe CDI, while metronidazole is the standard of care for nonsevere infection. We aimed to assess treatment outcomes of CDI in IBD. We conducted a retrospective observational study of inpatients with CDI and IBD from January 2006 through December 2010. CDI severity was assessed using published criteria. Outcomes included readmission for CDI within 30 days and 12 weeks, length of stay, colectomy, and death. A total of 114 patients met inclusion criteria (UC, 62; CD, 52). Thirty-day readmissions were more common among UC than CD patients (24.2% versus 9.6%; P=0.04). Same-admission colectomy occurred in 27.4% of UC patients and 0% of CD patients (P<0.01). Severe CDI was more common among UC than CD patients (32.2% versus 19.4%; P=0.12) but not statistically significant. Two patients died from CDI-associated complications (UC, 1; CD, 1). Patients with UC and nonsevere CDI had fewer readmissions and shorter lengths of stay when treated with a vancomycin-containing regimen compared to those treated with metronidazole (30-day readmissions, 31.0% versus 0% [P=0.04]; length of stay, 13.62 days versus 6.38 days [P=0.02]). Patients with UC and nonsevere CDI have fewer readmissions and shorter lengths of stay when treated with a vancomycin-containing regimen relative to those treated with metronidazole alone. Patients with ulcerative colitis and CDI should be treated with vancomycin.

  2. Once-daily budesonide MMX in active, mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis: results from the randomised CORE II study

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Simon P L; Danese, Silvio; Kupcinskas, Limas; Alexeeva, Olga; D'Haens, Geert; Gibson, Peter R; Moro, Luigi; Jones, Richard; Ballard, E David; Masure, Johan; Rossini, Matteo; Sandborn, William J

    2014-01-01

    Objective Budesonide MMX is a novel oral formulation of budesonide that uses Multi-Matrix System (MMX) technology to extend release to the colon. This study compared the efficacy of budesonide MMX with placebo in patients with active, mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis (UC). Design Patients were randomised 1:1:1:1 to receive budesonide MMX 9 mg or 6 mg, or Entocort EC 9 mg (budesonide controlled ileal-release capsules; reference arm) or placebo once daily for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was combined clinical and endoscopic remission, defined as UC Disease Activity Index score ≤1 with a score of 0 for rectal bleeding and stool frequency, no mucosal friability on colonoscopy, and a ≥1-point reduction in endoscopic index score from baseline. Results 410 patients were evaluated for efficacy. Combined clinical and endoscopic remission rates with budesonide MMX 9 mg or 6 mg, Entocort EC and placebo were 17.4%, 8.3%, 12.6% and 4.5%, respectively. The difference between budesonide MMX 9 mg and placebo was significant (OR 4.49; 95% CI 1.47 to 13.72; p=0.0047). Budesonide MMX 9 mg was associated with numerically higher rates of clinical (42.2% vs 33.7%) and endoscopic improvement (42.2% vs 31.5%) versus placebo. The rate of histological healing (16.5% vs 6.7%; p=0.0361) and proportion of patients with symptom resolution (23.9% vs 11.2%; p=0.0220) were significantly higher for budesonide MMX 9 mg than placebo. Adverse event profiles were similar across groups. Conclusion Budesonide MMX 9 mg was safe and more effective than placebo at inducing combined clinical and endoscopic remission in patients with active, mild-to-moderate UC. PMID:23436336

  3. Active Patient Participation in the Development of an Online Intervention

    PubMed Central

    van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn M; Snippe, Harm Wouter; Gouw, Hans; Zijlstra, Josée M; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Background An important and challenging part of living with cancer relates to the repeated visits to the hospital. Since how patients cope between these post-diagnostic visits depends partly on the information and support received from their physician during the visits, it is important to make the most of them. Recent findings reinforce the importance of training not only the health care professionals in communication skills, but providing patients with support in communication as well. Delivering such supportive interventions online can have potential benefits in terms of accessibility, cost-effectiveness, and ability to tailor information to personal needs. However, problems with attrition (dropout, non-usage) during the test phase and poor uptake after implementation are frequently reported. The marginal level of engagement of the patient as end user seems to play a role in this. Therefore, recent research suggests integrating theory-based development methods with methods that promote involvement of the patient at an early stage. This paper describes a participatory protocol, used to let patients guide a theory-informed development process. Objective The objective of this project was to apply a bottom-up inspired procedure to develop a patient-centered intervention with corresponding evaluation and implementation plan. Methods The applied development protocol was based on the intervention mapping framework, combined with patient participatory methods that were inspired by the participation ladder and user-centred design methods. Results The applied protocol led to a self-directed online communication intervention aimed at helping patients gain control during their communications with health care professionals. It also led to an evaluation plan and an implementation plan. The protocol enabled the continuous involvement of patient research partners and the partial involvement of patient service users, which led to valuable insights and improvements. Conclusions

  4. The American Indian Summer Institute in Earth System Science (AISESS) at UC Irvine: A Two-Week Residential Summer Program for High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. R.; Polequaptewa, N.; Leon, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Native Americans remain severely underrepresented in the geosciences, despite a clear need for qualified geoscience professionals within Tribal communities to address critical issues such as natural resource and land management, water and air pollution, and climate change. In addition to the need for geoscience professionals within Tribal communities, increased participation of Native Americans in the geosciences would enhance the overall diversity of perspectives represented within the Earth science community and lead to improved Earth science literacy within Native communities. To address this need, the Department of Earth System Science and the American Indian Resource Program at the University California have organized a two-week residential American Indian Summer Institute in Earth System Science (AISESS) for high-school students (grades 9-12) from throughout the nation. The format of the AISESS program is based on the highly-successful framework of a previous NSF Funded American Indian Summer Institute in Computer Science (AISICS) at UC Irvine and involves key senior personnel from the AISICS program. The AISESS program, however, incorporates a week of camping on the La Jolla Band of Luiseño Indians reservation in Northern San Diego County, California. Following the week of camping and field projects, the students spend a week on the campus of UC Irvine participating in Earth System Science lectures, laboratory activities, and tours. The science curriculum is closely woven together with cultural activities, native studies, and communication skills programs The program culminates with a closing ceremony during which students present poster projects on environmental issues relevant to their tribal communities. The inaugural AISESS program took place from July 15th-28th, 2012. We received over 100 applications from Native American high school students from across the nation. We accepted 40 students for the first year, of which 34 attended the program. The

  5. Active Student Participation May Enhance Patient Centeredness: Patients' Assessments of the Clinical Education Ward for Integrative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tauschel, Diethard; Neumann, Melanie; Lutz, Gabriele; Valk-Draad, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the impact of active student participation on quality of care in an integrative inpatient setting. Methods. Over a two-year period, we surveyed all patients treated on the Clinical Education Ward for Integrative Medicine (CEWIM), where final-year medical students are integrated into an internal medicine ward complementing conventional medicine with anthroposophic medicine. Patients treated on the regular wards of the same internal medicine department served as the control group (CG). General quality of care was studied with the Picker Inpatient Questionnaire, physician empathy with the Consultation and Relational Empathy measure, and patient enablement with the Patient Enablement Index. ANCOVA was used to control for covariates while examining significant differences between both patient groups. Results. Comparison of the CG wards and the CEWIM revealed no significant differences in medical treatment success. The CEWIM, however, achieved better results for physician-patient interaction, physician empathy, and patient enablement. Eighty Percent of the CEWIM patients rated student participation as positively impacting quality of care. Conclusion. Our results indicate that incorporating students in an integrative healthcare setting may result in greater patient centeredness. Further studies are needed to determine whether this is due to organizational advantages, students' empathic activity, the impact of teaching, or learner-teacher interaction. PMID:23573149

  6. Study Protocol: A randomized controlled trial of patient navigation-activation to reduce cancer health disparities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cancer health disparities affecting low-income and minority patients are well documented. Root-causes are multifactorial, including diagnostic and treatment delays, social and financial barriers, and poor communication. Patient navigation and communication coaching (activation) are potential interventions to address disparities in cancer treatment. The purpose of this clinical trial is to test the effectiveness of an intervention combining patient navigation and activation to improve cancer treatment. Methods/Design The Rochester Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP) is a National Cancer Institute-sponsored, patient-level randomized trial (RCT) of patient navigation and activation, targeting newly-diagnosed breast and colorectal cancer patients in Rochester, NY. The goal of the program is to decrease cancer health disparities by addressing barriers to receipt of cancer care and promoting patient self-efficacy. The intervention uses trained, paraprofessional patient navigators recruited from the target community, and a detailed training and supervisory program. Recruited patients are randomly assigned to receive either usual care (except for baseline and follow-up questionnaires and interviews) or intervention. The intervention patients receive tailored assistance from their patient navigators, including phone calls, in-person meetings, and behind-the-scenes coordination of care. A total of 344 patients have been recruited. Outcomes measured at three month intervals include timeliness of care, patient adherence, patient satisfaction, quality of life, self-efficacy, health literacy, and cancer knowledge. Discussion This unique intervention combining patient navigation and patient activation is designed to address the multifactorial problem of cancer health disparities. If successful, this study will affect the design and implementation of patient navigation programs. Trials Registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00496678 PMID:20939928

  7. Standard magnitude prize reinforcers can be as efficacious as larger magnitude reinforcers in cocaine-dependent methadone patients

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Barry, Danielle; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Contingency management (CM) reduces cocaine use in methadone patients, but only about 50% of patients respond to CM interventions. This study evaluated whether increasing magnitudes of reinforcement will improve outcomes. Methods Cocaine-dependent methadone patients (N = 240) were randomized to one of four 12-week treatment conditions: usual care (UC), UC plus “standard” prize CM in which average expected prize earnings were about $300, UC plus high magnitude prize CM in which average expected prize earnings were about $900, or UC plus voucher CM with an expected maximum of about $900 in vouchers. Results All three CM conditions yielded significant reductions in cocaine use relative to UC, with effect sizes (d) ranging from 0.38 to 0.59. No differences were noted between CM conditions, with at least 55% of patients in each CM condition achieving one week or more of cocaine abstinence versus 35% in UC. During the 12 weeks after the intervention ended, CM increased time until relapse relative to UC, but the effects of CM were no longer significant at a 12-month follow-up. Conclusions Providing the standard magnitude of $300 in prizes was as effective as larger magnitude CM in cocaine-dependent methadone patients in this study. Given its strong evidence base and relatively low costs, standard magnitude prize CM should be considered for adoption in methadone clinics to encourage cocaine abstinence, but new methods need to be developed to sustain abstinence. PMID:25198284

  8. The relative effect of health literacy and patient activation on provider choice in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Rademakers, Jany; Nijman, Jessica; Brabers, Anne E M; de Jong, Judith D; Hendriks, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    Active provider choice by patients has become an important policy theme in western, countries over the last decades. However, not many patients and consumers exercise their right to, choose. Both health literacy and patient activation are likely to have an impact on the choice process. In, this article the relative effect of health literacy and patient activation on provider choice in the, Netherlands is studied. A questionnaire was sent to a representative sample of 2000 Dutch citizens. The questionnaire, included a measure of functional health literacy, the Dutch version of the Patient Activation Measure, and questions assessing active provider choice, reasons not to engage in it and other ways of provider, selection. The majority of respondents (59.6%) would not search for information on the basis of which they, could select the best provider or hospital. Most people rely on their general practitioner's advice. Both, low literacy and lower patient activation levels were negatively associated with active provider choice. In a regression analysis gender, education and patient activation proved the most important, predictors. The policy focus on active provider choice might result in inequity, with men, less educated, and less activated people being at a disadvantage.

  9. Personalized Strategies to Activate and Empower Patients in Health Care and Reduce Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Mullins, C. Daniel; Novak, Priscilla; Thomas, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Designing culturally-sensitive personalized interventions is essential to sustain patients’ involvement in their treatment, and encourage patients to take an active role in their own health and health care. We consider patient activation and empowerment as a cyclical process defined through patient accumulation of knowledge, confidence, and self-determination for their own health and health care. We propose a patient-centered, multi-level activation and empowerment framework (individual-, health care professional-, community-, and health care delivery system-level) to inform the development of culturally informed personalized patient activation and empowerment (P-PAE) interventions to improve population health, and reduce racial and ethnic disparities. We discuss relevant Affordable Care Act payment and delivery policy reforms, and how they impact patient activation and empowerment. Such policies include Accountable Care Organizations and Value Based Purchasing, Patient Centered Medical Homes, and the Community Health Benefit. Challenges and possible solutions to implementing the P-PAE are discussed. Comprehensive and longitudinal data sets with consistent P-PAE measures are needed to conduct comparative effectiveness analyses to evaluate the optimal P-PAE model. We believe the P-PAE model is timely and sustainable, and will be critical to engaging patients in their treatment, developing patients’ abilities to manage their health, helping patients to express concerns and preferences regarding treatment, empowering patients to ask questions about treatment options, and building up strategic patient-provider partnerships through shared decision making. PMID:25845376

  10. Rosiglitazone for Active Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, James D.; Lichtenstein, Gary R.; Deren, Julius J; Sands, Bruce E.; Hanauer, Stephen B.; Katz, Jeffry A.; Lashner, Bret; Present, Daniel H.; Chuai, Shaokun; Ellenberg, Jonas H.; Nessel, Lisa; Wu, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Thiazolidinedione ligands for the gamma subtype of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARγ), widely used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus, have been proposed as novel therapies for ulcerative colitis. Methods This multicenter randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial compared the efficacy of rosiglitazone (Avandia™) 4 mg orally twice daily versus placebo twice daily for 12 weeks in 105 patients with mild to moderately active UC. Disease activity was measured with the Mayo Score. The primary endpoint was clinical response (≥ 2 point reduction) at week 12. Clinical remission (Mayo Score ≤2), endoscopic remission, and quality of life were secondary outcomes. Results After 12 weeks of therapy, 23 patients (44%) treated with rosiglitazone and 12 patients (23%) treated with placebo achieved clinical response (p=0.04). Remission was achieved in 9 patients (17%) treated with rosiglitazone and 1 patient (2%) treated with placebo (p=0.01). Endoscopic remission was uncommon in either treatment arm (8% rosiglitazone vs. 2% placebo, p=0.34). Clinical improvement was evident as early as 4 weeks (p=0.049). Quality of life was significantly improved at week 8 (p=0.01) but not at week 4 (p=0.48) or 12 (p=0.14). Serious adverse events were rare. Conclusions Rosiglitazone was efficacious in the treatment of mild to moderately active ulcerative colitis. PMID:18325386

  11. [Measurement of physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Magnussen, Helgo; Waschki, Benjamin; Watz, Henrik

    2009-04-15

    Physical activity is an important parameter related to morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome/diabetes, mental disorders, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In COPD, lower levels of physical activity as reported by the patients are associated with a faster annual lung function decline, increased number of hospitalizations, and higher risk of mortality. Self-reported physical activity, however, correlates only poorly with objectively quantified physical activity in patients with COPD. Recent data show that physical activity can reliably be measured in a substantial number of patients with COPD. Extrapulmonary effects of COPD are associated with reduced physical activity. Clinical characteristics commonly used to assess disease severity like the forced expiratory volume in 1 s or the 6-min walk distance only incompletely reflect the physical activity of patients with COPD.

  12. Systematic review of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for assessing disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Marieke J; Fransen, Jaap; Kievit, Wietske; van Riel, Piet LCM

    2016-01-01

    Patient assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be useful in clinical practice, offering a patient-friendly, location independent, and a time-efficient and cost-efficient means of monitoring the disease. The objective of this study was to identify patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) to assess disease activity in RA and to evaluate the measurement properties of these measures. Systematic literature searches were performed in the PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify articles reporting on clinimetric development or evaluation of PROM-based instruments to monitor disease activity in patients with RA. 2 reviewers independently selected articles for review and assessed their methodological quality based on the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) recommendations. A total of 424 abstracts were retrieved for review. Of these abstracts, 56 were selected for reviewing the full article and 34 articles, presenting 17 different PROMs, were finally included. Identified were: Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity Index (RADAI), RADAI-5, Patient-based Disease Activity Score (PDAS) I & II, Patient-derived Disease Activity Score with 28-joint counts (Pt-DAS28), Patient-derived Simplified Disease Activity Index (Pt-SDAI), Global Arthritis Score (GAS), Patient Activity Score (PAS) I & II, Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data (RAPID) 2–5, Patient Reported Outcome-index (PRO-index) continuous (C) & majority (M), Patient Reported Outcome CLinical ARthritis Activity (PRO-CLARA). The quality of reports varied from poor to good. Typically 5 out of 10 clinimetric domains were covered in the validations of the different instruments. The quality and extent of clinimetric validation varied among PROMs of RA disease activity. The Pt-DAS28, RADAI, RADAI-5 and RAPID 3 had the strongest and most extensive validation. The measurement properties least reported and in need of more evidence were: reliability

  13. 75 FR 16912 - Proposed Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey) Activity: Comment Request... measure patients' satisfaction with VA's dental services. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on..., Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey, VA Form 10-0503. OMB Control Number: 2900-New (VA Form 10-0503)....

  14. 78 FR 79079 - Agency Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey); Activities under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey); Activities under OMB Review... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900- 0764 (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey)'' in any correspondence....gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0764 (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey)'' in...

  15. Clinicians' and Patients' Assessment of Activity Overuse and Underuse and Its Relation to Physical Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Annemieke Bonny; Preuper, Henrica R. Schiphorst; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2012-01-01

    To explore clinicians' and patients' (self)-assessment of activity overuse and underuse, and its relationship with physical capacity in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP). Study design was cross-sectional. Participants included patients with CMP, admitted to a multidisciplinary outpatient pain rehabilitation program. The main…

  16. Are There Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Suicidal Activity among Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Kalman J.; Harrow, Martin; Faull, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    Are there gender-specific risk factors for suicidal activity among patients with schizophrenia and depression? A total of 74 schizophrenia patients (51 men, 23 women) and 77 unipolar nonpsychotic depressed patients (26 men, 51 women) from the Chicago Follow-up Study were studied prospectively at 2 years posthospitalization and again at 7.5 years.…

  17. Physical Activity of Depressed Patients and Their Motivation to Exercise: Nordic Walking in Family Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suija, Kadri; Pechter, Ulle; Kalda, Ruth; Tahepold, Heli; Maaroos, Jaak; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to find out how motivated depressed patients are to exercise regularly, to measure the physical activity of depressed patients and to find out how regular Nordic Walking affects the mood and physical fitness of depressed patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Three years after the Prediction of Primary…

  18. Validity of a Questionnaire to Assess the Physical Activity Level in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiraud, Thibaut; Granger, Richard; Bousquet, Marc; Gremeaux, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare, in coronary artery disease patients, physical activity (PA) assessed with the Dijon Physical Activity Questionnaire (DPAQ) and the true PA objectively measured using an accelerometer. Seventy patients wore an accelerometer (MyWellness Key actimeter) throughout 1 week after a cardiac rehabilitation program that…

  19. [Activation of caspases in lymphocytes of patients with depression and anxiety].

    PubMed

    Gerasimovich, E S; Yakovlev, A A; Druzhkova, T A; Grishkina, M N; Guekht, A B; Gulyaeva, N V

    2016-01-01

    The processes in the nervous and immune systems are closely interrelated. In particular, increased apoptosis was reported in lymphocytes of patients with depression. The aim of this study was to assess activities of proteases associated with cell death in lymphocytes of patient with personality disorders accompanied by depression and anxiety. In patients with personality disorders associated with organic brain dysfunction caspase activities were reduced in patients with depression and increased in patients with anxiety. The results may be useful for elucidation of pathogenetic mechanisms of personality disorders and in search of new biomarkers of these diseases.

  20. ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ACTIVITY OF STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID AND MASTICATORY MUSCLES IN PATIENTS WITH VESTIBULAR LESIONS

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglia, Gianluca M.; Barozzi, Stefania; Marin, Federico; Cesarani, Antonio; Ferrario, Virgilio F.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the electromyographic characteristics of masticatory and neck muscles in subjects with vestibular lesions. Surface electromyography of the masseter, temporalis and sternocleidomastoid muscles was performed in 19 patients with Ménière's disease, 12 patients with an acute peripheral vestibular lesion, and 19 control subjects matched for sex and age. During maximum voluntary clenching, patients with peripheral vestibular lesions had the highest co-contraction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (analysis of covariance, p=0.02), the control subjects had the smallest values, and the patients with Ménière's disease had intermediate values. The control subjects had larger standardized muscle activities than the other patient groups (p=0.001). In conclusion, during maximum voluntary tooth clenching, patients with vestibular alterations have both more active neck muscles, and less active masticatory muscles than normal controls. Results underline the importance of a more inclusive craniocervical assessment of patients with vestibular lesions. PMID:19082397

  1. Effectiveness of budesonide MMX (Cortiment) for the treatment of mild-to-moderate active ulcerative colitis: study protocol for a prospective multicentre observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Danese, Silvio; Hart, Ailsa; Dignass, Axel; Louis, Edouard; D'Haens, Geert; Dotan, Iris; Rogler, Gerhard; D'Agay, Laurence; Iannacone, Claudio; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A study has been developed to assess the use and effectiveness of budesonide MMX for mild-to-moderate active ulcerative colitis (UC) in routine clinical practice. Methods and analysis A prospective, multicentre, observational, cohort study of 300 patients prescribed budesonide MMX for the treatment of mild-to-moderate active UC will be conducted in Europe, Israel and Canada. Patients will be treated with budesonide MMX9 mg daily for induction of remission for ≤8 weeks. Data on effectiveness, including patient-reported outcomes, tolerability and use will be recorded at the end of treatment and at ≥2 weeks after. The primary outcome (improvement ≥3 point in the clinical subscores of the UC Disease Activity Index score at the end of treatment) will be compared in: patients who receive budesonide MMX added to mesalazine >2 weeks after increased/optimised mesalazine dose for the treatment of flare (late add-on); patients who receive budesonide MMX added to mesalazine ≤2 weeks since mesalazine increased/optimised for the treatment of flare, or without mesalazine dose modification (early add-on); and patients who receive budesonide MMX as monotherapy for the treatment of flare (mono). Propensity scoring will be used to minimise bias and confounding inherent in observational studies. Ethics and dissemination First ethical approval: Ethikkommission der Ärztekammer Hamburg (12/22/2015). The results will be published in full. Discussion Completion of primary data collection is expected in December 2017. Our results will provide further evidence on the effectiveness of budesonide MMX to support clinicians in their daily practice and inform therapeutic guidelines. Trial registration number NCT02586259. PMID:27239329

  2. Using the Pharmacist Interaction Tracking Tool for Capturing Student-Patient Interactions in Direct and Simulated Patient Care Activities

    PubMed Central

    Schonder, Kristine S.; Pater, Karen S.; McGivney, Melissa S.; Meyer, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To create and implement a standardized data collection tool for capturing student-patient interactions in direct and simulated patient care activities. Design. Faculty members and students determined key elements, design, and an implementation plan for the tool, which was to be used by students across professional years to quantify numbers and types of interactions with patients for tracking student progression toward achievement of curricular outcomes. Assessment. During the 2013-2014 academic year, 27 778 entries were completed, with 17 767 (64%) advanced pharmacy practice experiences, 7272 (26%) introductory pharmacy practice experiences, and 2739 (10%) simulation. Direct patient care interactions occurred with 11 090 patients and 10 983 providers, with 14 252 drug-related problems identified. Data was used by students for their professional portfolios, by administrators for curricular assessment, and to student impact on patient care. Conclusion. The PITT Form enabled the collection of data from actual and simulated patient care activities, allowed for curricular assessment of activities across years, and was used by individual students. PMID:27667842

  3. Using the Pharmacist Interaction Tracking Tool for Capturing Student-Patient Interactions in Direct and Simulated Patient Care Activities.

    PubMed

    Hall, Deanne L; Schonder, Kristine S; Pater, Karen S; McGivney, Melissa S; Meyer, Susan M

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To create and implement a standardized data collection tool for capturing student-patient interactions in direct and simulated patient care activities. Design. Faculty members and students determined key elements, design, and an implementation plan for the tool, which was to be used by students across professional years to quantify numbers and types of interactions with patients for tracking student progression toward achievement of curricular outcomes. Assessment. During the 2013-2014 academic year, 27 778 entries were completed, with 17 767 (64%) advanced pharmacy practice experiences, 7272 (26%) introductory pharmacy practice experiences, and 2739 (10%) simulation. Direct patient care interactions occurred with 11 090 patients and 10 983 providers, with 14 252 drug-related problems identified. Data was used by students for their professional portfolios, by administrators for curricular assessment, and to student impact on patient care. Conclusion. The PITT Form enabled the collection of data from actual and simulated patient care activities, allowed for curricular assessment of activities across years, and was used by individual students.

  4. Extraintestinal manifestations in a large series of Italian inflammatory bowel disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Zippi, Maddalena; Corrado, Claudia; Pica, Roberta; Avallone, Eleonora Veronica; Cassieri, Claudio; De Nitto, Daniela; Paoluzi, Paolo; Vernia, Piero

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate prevalence, type and time of onset of extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) in a series of Italian inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. METHODS: Data of 811 IBD consecutive patients, first referred to our Centre from 2000 to 2011, were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred and eleven IBD patients (437 M, 374 F) were studied: 595 ulcerative colitis (UC) (73.4%) and 216 Crohn’s disease (CD) (26.6%). Among these, 329 (40.6%) showed EIMs: 210 UC (35.3%) and 119 CD (55.1%) (P < 0.0001). Considering the time of the diagnosis of IBD, 37 EIMs (11.2%) were developed before, 229 (69.6%) after and 63 (19.2%) were simultaneous. The type of EIM were as follows: 240 musculoskeletal (29.6%), in 72 CD patients and in 168 UC (P < 0.0001); 47 mucocutaneous (5.8%), in 26 CD and in 21 UC (P = 0.0049); 26 ocular (3.2%), in 16 CD and in 10 UC (CD 7.4% vs UC 1.7%, P = 0.0093); 6 hepatobiliary (0.8%); 10 endocrinological (1.2%). In particular, with regards to the involvement of the musculoskeletal system, arthritis Type 1 was found in 41 CD (19%) and in 61 UC (10.2%) (P = 0.0012) and Type 2 in 25 CD (11.6%) and in 100 UC (16.8%) (P = 0.0012). CONCLUSION: Mucocutaneous manifestations, arthritis Type 1 and uveitis were significantly more frequent in CD than UC. The complications of the musculoskeletal system were the mostly observed ones, often with symptoms more severe than intestinal ones, confirming the need for close cooperation with rheumatologists. PMID:25516659

  5. New Model Predicts Fire Activity in South America

    NASA Video Gallery

    UC Irvine scientist Jim Randerson discusses a new model that is able to predict fire activity in South America using sea surface temperature observations of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. The find...

  6. Downregulation of viral RNA translation by hepatitis C virus non-structural protein NS5A requires the poly(U/UC) sequence in the 3' UTR.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Brett; Li, Zhubing; Liu, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) is essential for viral replication; however, its effect on HCV RNA translation remains controversial partially due to the use of reporters lacking the 3' UTR, where NS5A binds to the poly(U/UC) sequence. We investigated the role of NS5A in HCV translation using a monocistronic RNA containing a Renilla luciferase gene flanked by the HCV UTRs. We found that NS5A downregulated viral RNA translation in a dose-dependent manner. This downregulation required both the 5' and 3' UTRs of HCV because substitution of either sequence with the 5' and 3' UTRs of enterovirus 71 or a cap structure at the 5' end eliminated the effects of NS5A on translation. Translation of the HCV genomic RNA was also downregulated by NS5A. The inhibition of HCV translation by NS5A required the poly(U/UC) sequence in the 3' UTR as NS5A did not affect translation when it was deleted. In addition, we showed that, whilst the amphipathic α-helix of NS5A has no effect on viral translation, the three domains of NS5A can inhibit translation independently, also dependent on the presence of the poly(U/UC) sequence in the 3' UTR. These results suggested that NS5A downregulated HCV RNA translation through a mechanism involving the poly(U/UC) sequence in the 3' UTR.

  7. A Report Card on Latina/o Leadership in California's Public Universities: A Trend Analysis of Faculty, Students, and Executives in the CSU and UC Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Jose L.; Acevedo-Gil, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the status of leadership in two California public higher education systems: California State University (CSU) and the University of California (UC) from 2001 to 2009. Findings reveal that the representation of Latina/o faculty and administrators does not reflect the density in the Latina/o undergraduate student and general…

  8. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells improve liver function and ascites in decompensated liver cirrhosis patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Lin, Hu; Shi, Ming; Xu, Ruonan; Fu, Junliang; Lv, Jiyun; Chen, Liming; Lv, Sa; Li, Yuanyuan; Yu, Shuangjie; Geng, Hua; Jin, Lei; Lau, George K K; Wang, Fu-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    Decompensated liver cirrhosis (LC), a life-threatening complication of chronic liver disease, is one of the major indications for liver transplantation. Recently, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transfusion has been shown to lead to the regression of liver fibrosis in mice and humans. This study examined the safety and efficacy of umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC) in patients with decompensated LC. A total of 45 chronic hepatitis B patients with decompensated LC, including 30 patients receiving UC-MSC transfusion, and 15 patients receiving saline as the control, were recruited; clinical parameters were detected during a 1-year follow-up period. No significant side-effects and complications were observed in either group. There was a significant reduction in the volume of ascites in patients treated with UC-MSC transfusion compared with controls (P < 0.05). UC-MSC therapy also significantly improved liver function, as indicated by the increase of serum albumin levels, decrease in total serum bilirubin levels, and decrease in the sodium model for end-stage liver disease scores. UC-MSC transfusion is clinically safe and could improve liver function and reduce ascites in patients with decompensated LC. UC-MSC transfusion, therefore, might present a novel therapeutic approach for patients with decompensated LC.

  9. Physical activity attenuates neuropsychiatric disturbances and caregiver burden in patients with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Christofoletti, Gustavo; Oliani, Merlyn Mércia; Bucken-Gobbi, Lílian Teresa; Gobbi, Sebastião; Beinotti, Fernanda; Stella, Florindo

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A significant benefit from physical activity has recently been described in some patients who suffer from neurodegenerative diseases. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of physical activity on neuropsychiatric disturbances in demented patients and on the mental burden of their caregivers. METHODS: Assisted by a public geriatric psychiatry clinical unit, we studied 59 patients with dementia. Patients were divided into three groups according to their diagnosis and level of physical activity. Data were assessed through a semi-structured interview. Patients were evaluated with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, the Mini-Sleep Questionnaire and the Baecke Questionnaire. The data were statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and linear regression, with the level of significance set at 5%. RESULTS: Patients with Alzheimer's or vascular dementia who engaged in physical activity had fewer neuropsychiatric symptoms than those who did not. When compared to the control group, the caregivers of patients with vascular dementia who engaged in physical activity had a reduced burden. CONCLUSION: The regular practice of physical activity seems to contribute to a reduction in neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia patients and to attenuate the burden of the caregivers of those patients. PMID:21655755

  10. Plasma chitotriosidase activity in patients with beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Altarescu, G; Rudensky, B; Abrahamov, A; Goldfarb, A; Rund, D; Zimran, A; Elstein, D

    2002-09-01

    Variable increases in chitotriosidase levels have been reported in Italian patients with beta-thalassemia major and intermedia. We measured plasma chitotriosidase levels in Israeli patients with beta-thalassemia to ascertain its use as a universal marker of disease and/or response to therapy. Chitotriosidase levels in 39 adults (16-53 years; 30 with beta-thalassemia major, 9 with intermedia), and in 14 children (0.7-15 years; 12 with beta-thalassemia major, 2 with intermedia) were compared with other measures of disease, such as ferritin, hemoglobin, liver function tests, and genotype. Plasma chitotriosidase levels were normal (0.37 +/- 0.04 mU/mL) in all children. Twelve adults (31%) had elevated levels (>1.33 mU/mL): 11 patients (37%) with thalassemia major and 1 patient (11%) with thalassemia intermedia. A significant correlation was only found between plasma chitotriosidase levels and ferritin levels, and with mean number of transfusions per year. The patient with the highest chitotriosidase (1,440 nmol/mL/hr) had the highest ferritin (5,175 microg/L), required the most transfusions per year (40), and had abnormal liver tests. Normal chitotriosidase levels in the pediatric cohort and increased levels in only some adults may reflect status of iron overload in macrophages; thus there may be a role for monitoring chitotriosidase in patients with beta-thalassemia. Our results confirm results of the Italian cohort; however, in the latter, a more universal correlation was noted and chitotriosidase levels were much higher.

  11. Effect of steroids on the activation status of platelets in patients with Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).

    PubMed

    Bhoria, Preeti; Sharma, Saniya; Varma, Neelam; Malhotra, Pankaj; Varma, Subhash; Luthra-Guptasarma, Manni

    2015-01-01

    The activation status of platelets in Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients--which is still somewhat controversial--is of potential interest, because activated platelets tend to aggregate (leading to excessive clotting or thromboembolic events) but cannot do so when platelet numbers are low, as in ITP. Although corticosteroids are the first line of therapy in ITP, the effect of steroids on activation of platelets has not been evaluated so far. We examined the status of platelet activation (with and without stimulation with ADP) in ITP patients, at the start of therapy (pre-steroid treatment, naive) and post-steroid treatment (classified on the basis of steroid responsiveness). We used flow cytometry to evaluate the levels of expression of P-selectin, and PAC-1 binding to platelets of 55 ITP patients and a similar number of healthy controls, treated with and without ADP. We found that platelets in ITP patients exist in an activated state. In patients who are responsive to steroids, the treatment reverses this situation. Also, the fold activation of platelets upon treatment with ADP is more in healthy controls than in ITP patients; treatment with steroids causes platelets in steroid-responsive patients to become more responsive to ADP-activation, similar to healthy controls. Thus steroids may cause changes in the ability of platelets to get activated with an agonist like ADP. Our results provide new insights into how, and why, steroid therapy helps in the treatment of ITP.

  12. Increased Risk of Urinary Tract Cancer in ESRD Patients Associated with Usage of Chinese Herbal Products Suspected of Containing Aristolochic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo-Meng; Lai, Ming-Nan; Wei, Alan; Chen, Ya-Yin; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Jung-Der

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Both end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and urothelial cancer (UC) are associated with the consumption of Chinese herbal products containing aristolochic acid (AA) by the general population. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of UC associated with AA-related Chinese herbal products among ESRD patients. Methods We conducted a cohort study using the National Health Insurance reimbursement database to enroll all ESRD patients in Taiwan from 1998–2002. Cox regression models were constructed and hazard ratios and confidence intervals were estimated after controlling for potential confounders, including age, sex, residence in region with endemic black foot disease, urinary tract infection, and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen. Results A total of 38,995 ESRD patients were included in the final analysis, and 320 patients developed UC after ESRD. Having been prescribed Mu Tong that was adulterated with Guan Mu Tong (Aristolochia manshuriensis) before 2004, or an estimated consumption of more than 1–100 mg of aristolochic acid, were both associated with an increased risk of UC in the multivariable analyses. Analgesic consumption of more than 150 pills was also associated with an increased risk of UC, although there was little correlation between the two risk factors. Conclusion Consumption of aristolochic acid-related Chinese herbal products was associated with an increased risk of developing UC in ESRD patients. Regular follow-up screening for UC in ESRD patients who have consumed Chinese herbal products is thus necessary. PMID:25170766

  13. Patient Engagement and Activation in Three Underserved Beacon Communities.

    PubMed

    Jardins, Terrisca Des; Drone, Shenetta A; Hashisaka, Susan; Hazzard, Jobyna; Hunt, Susan B; Massey, Kimberly; Rein, Alison; Schachter, Abigail; Turske, Scott

    2015-08-01

    Whether the setting is urban, rural, or somewhere in between, engagement strategies for the underserved require a great deal of flexibility and sensitivity to the socioeconomic, cultural, and geographic conditions of the patient population. The following report details how three unique communities designed specific strategies to engage underserved populations in the management of their chronic conditions.

  14. Characterization of physical activity and sitting time among patients on hemodialysis using a new physical activity instrument

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Kirsten L.; Painter, Patricia; Delgado, Cynthia; Doyle, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objective Physical activity questionnaires usually focus on moderate to vigorous activities and may not accurately capture physical activity or variation in levels of activity among extremely inactive groups like dialysis patients. Design Cross-sectional study Setting Three dialysis facilities in the San Francisco Bay Area Subjects 68 prevalent hemodialysis patients Intervention We administered a new physical activity questionnaire designed to capture activity in the lower end of the range, the Low Physical Activity Questionnaire (LoPAQ). Main Outcome Measure Outcome measures were correlation with a validated physical activity questionnaire, the Minnesota Leisure Time Activity (LTA) questionnaire and with self-reported physical function (Physical Function score of the SF-36) and physical performance (gait speed, chair stand, balance, and Short Physical Performance Battery [SPPB]) . We also determined whether patients who were frail or reported limitations in activities of daily living (ADL) were less active on the LoPAQ. Results 68 participants (mean age 59 ± 14 years, 59% men) completed the study. Patients were inactive according to the LoPAQ, with a median (IQR) of 517 (204 – 1190) kcal/week of physical activity. Although activity from the LTA was lower than on the LoPAQ (411 (61 – 902) kcal/week), the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.20), and results from the two instruments were strongly correlated (rho =0.62, p < 0.001). In addition, higher physical activity measured by the LoPAQ was correlated with better self-reported functioning (rho = 0.64, p < 0.001), better performance on gait speed (rho = 0.32, p=0.02), balance (rho = 0.45, p < 0.001), and chair rising (rho = −0.32, p=0.03) tests and with higher SPPB total score (rho = 0.51, p < 0.001). Frail patients and patients with ADL limitations were less active than those who were not frail or limited. Conclusion The LoPAQ performed similarly to the Minnesota LTA questionnaire in our

  15. Patient Mood and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Alzheimer Disease: Relationship Between Patient and Caregiver Reports.

    PubMed

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective study investigated the relationship between self-reports and caregiver perceptions of patients' depressive symptoms and the respective ability of these reports to predict instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) beyond what is accounted for by cognitive abilities in 71 patients with mild Alzheimer disease. Patients completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form, and caregivers completed the Behavior Rating Scale for Dementia assessing their perception of patients' depressive symptoms. Caregivers also completed IADL items from the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Inventory. Cognitive measures included the Mini-Mental State Examination, Logical Memory from the Wechsler Memory Scale III, and Trail Making Test, Part B. The relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms and caregiver report of patients' depressive symptoms showed a trend toward significance (r = .22, P = .06). Measures of depressive symptoms significantly predicted 12.5% of the variance in IADLs performance, beyond that accounted for by patient demographics and cognitive functioning. Interestingly, patients' reports, rather than caregivers', were particularly useful in this prediction.

  16. Motor imagery evokes increased somatosensory activity in Parkinson's disease patients with tremor.

    PubMed

    Helmich, Rick C; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Toni, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is surprisingly heterogeneous: some patients have a prominent resting tremor, while others never develop this symptom. Here we investigate whether the functional organization of the voluntary motor system differs between PD patients with and without resting tremor, and whether these differences relate to the cerebral circuit producing tremor. We compared 18 PD patients with marked tremor, 20 PD patients without tremor, and 19 healthy controls. Subjects performed a controlled motor imagery task during fMRI scanning. We quantified imagery-related cerebral activity by contrasting imagery of biomechanically difficult and easy movements. Tremor-related activity was identified by relating cerebral activity to fluctuations in tremor amplitude, using electromyography during scanning. PD patients with tremor had better behavioral performance than PD patients without tremor. Furthermore, tremulous PD patients showed increased imagery-related activity in somatosensory area 3a, as compared with both healthy controls and to nontremor PD patients. This effect was independent from tremor-related activity, which was localized to the motor cortex, cerebellum, and thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM). The VIM, with known projections to area 3a, was unique in showing both tremor- and imagery-related responses. We conclude that parkinsonian tremor influences motor imagery by modulating central somatosensory processing through the VIM. This mechanism may explain clinical differences between PD patients with and without tremor.

  17. Attachment and perceived stress in patients with ulcerative colitis, a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Alessandro; Spuri Fornarini, Giulia; Ercolani, Mauro; Campieri, Massimo

    2016-11-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with high perceived psychological stress. The attachment theory provides a psychodynamic perspective to investigate the relationship between close interpersonal relationships and stress in UC. Researchers have hypothesized that the chronic illness might affect personality trait as the attachment style of patients. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: UC patients exhibit a more pronounced attachment insecurity that, in turn, resulted as a determinant of psychological stress. This study suggests that UC could determine a shift towards insecurity in the attachment style that, in turn, promotes psychological stress and increases the risk of psychopathologies. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The more accurate knowledge of attachment insecurity in patients with chronic disorders such as UC may help the nurses to face with often dysfunctional patients' styles of manifesting distress, patterns of help seeking and expectations of health professionals. The knowledge of psychopathological mechanisms in patients with UC could improve the prevention and treatment of psychological disorders in affected patients.

  18. Evaluation of Prognostic Values of Tissue Plasminogen Activator and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gurbuz, Yunus; Ozturk, Baris; Tutuncu, Emin Ediz; Sencan, Irfan; Cicek Senturk, Gonul; Altay, Fatma Aybala

    2015-01-01

    Background: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread disease in Turkey, and was responsible for many deaths in endemic regions during the last decade. The pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood yet. Objectives: In this study we aimed to determine the levels of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) as predictors of prognosis in CCHF. Patients and Methods: Patients who were diagnosed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and IgM positivity in the reference laboratory were included in this study. Tissue Plasminogen activator and PAI-1 levels were measured by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a commercial kit (human t-PA ELISA and human PAL-1 ELISA; BioVendor research and diagnostic products, BioVendor-Laboratorni medicina a.s., Brno, Czech Republic). Results: A total of 46 patients participated in this study. The significant differences between recovering patients and the patients who died, regarding Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), Prothrombin Time (PT), activated Partial Thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thrombocyte and fibrinogen levels, were consistent with many clinical studies in the literature. The fatal cases were found to have higher tPA and PAI-1 levels in contrast to the patients who completely recovered. Conclusions: We think that these findings may help the progress of understanding of CCHF pathogenesis. PMID:26587219

  19. A Nonselective Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor Enhances the Activity of Vinblastine in a Naturally-Occurring Canine Model of Invasive Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Deborah W.; Ruple-Czerniak, Audrey; Ramos-Vara, José A.; Naughton, James F.; Fulkerson, Christopher M.; Honkisz, Sonia I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy is expected to remain an important part of invasive urothelial carcinoma (UC) treatment. Strategies to enhance chemotherapy efficacy are needed. Objective: To determine the chemotherapy-enhancing effects of a nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor on vinblastine in a naturally-occurring canine model of invasive UC. Methods: With IACUC approval, privately-owned dogs with naturally-occurring histologically-diagnosed invasive UC, expected survival ≥6 weeks, and informed owner consent were randomly allocated to receive vinblastine (2.5 mg/m2 intravenously every 2 weeks) plus piroxicam (0.3 mg/kg daily per os) or vinblastine alone (same dose) with the option to receive piroxicam alone when vinblastine failed. Scheduled evaluations included physical exam, standard laboratory analyses, thoracic radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and standardized measurement of urinary tract tumors. Results: Dogs receiving vinblastine alone (n = 27) and vinblastine-piroxicam (n = 24) were similar in age, sex, breed, tumor stage, and grade. Remission occurred more frequently (P <  0.02) with vinblastine-piroxicam (58.3%) than with vinblastine alone (22.2%). The median progression free interval was 143 days with vinblastine alone and 199 days with the combination. Interestingly, the overall median survival time was significantly longer (P <  0.03) in dogs receiving vinblastine alone followed by piroxicam alone (n = 20, 531 days) than in dogs receiving the combination (299 days). Treatment was well tolerated in both arms. Conclusions: Piroxicam significantly enhanced the activity of vinblastine in dogs with UC where the cancer closely mimics the human condition, clearly justifying further study. The study suggest the potential importance of tracking COX inhibitor use in patients in clinical trials as COX inhibitors could affect treatment response. PMID:27376143

  20. Accuracy of 99mTc (V)-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid Scintigraphy and Fecal Calprotectin Compared with Colonoscopy in Localizing Active Lesions in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Basirat, Vahid; Azizi, Zahra; Javid Anbardan, Sanam; Taghizadeh Asl, Mina; Farbod, Yasaman; Teimouri, Azam; Ebrahimi Daryani, Nasser

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Due to limitation of colonoscopy in assessing the entire bowel and patients’ intolerance in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in the current study, we aimed to prospectively compare the accuracy of 99mTc(V)-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and fecal calprotectin with ileocolonoscopy as new methods for localizing inflammations. METHODS Current prospective study conducted between 2012 and 2014 on 30 patients with IBD attending Gastroenterology Clinic of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Fecal calprotectin and disease activity were measured for all participants and all of them underwent 99mTc (V)-DMSA scintigraphy and colonoscopy. The accuracy of 99mTc (V)-DMSA scintigraphy and calprotectin in localizing bowel lesions were calculated. RESULTS A total of 22 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 8 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) were evaluated in our study. Sensitivity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), and positive predictive value (PPV) of scintigraphy and calprotectin over colonoscopy in localization of UC lesions were 86.36%, 0.86%, 100.00% and 90.91%, 0.91, and 100.00%, respectively. Meanwhile, it showed 66.67% sensitivity and 81.25% specificity with PLR=3.56, negative likelihood ratio (NLR)=0.41, PPV=84.21%, and negative predictive value (NPV)= 61.90% in localizing lesions in patients with CD. The calprotectin level had sensitivity, PLR, and PPV of 90.00%, 0.90, and 100.00% in detecting active disease over colonoscopy, respectively. CONCLUSION The 99mTc (V)-DMSA scintigraphy would be an accurate method for detecting active inflammation in follow-up of patients with IBD and assessing response to treatment as a non-invasive and complementary method beside colonoscopy for more accurate diagnosis of CD or UC. PMID:27698971

  1. Effects of far infrared acupoint stimulation on autonomic activity and quality of life in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Su, Ling-Hwa; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Lee, Li-Shan; Wang, Harrison; Liu, Chi-Feng

    2009-01-01

    Patients receiving regular hemodialysis sessions have been known to suffer from fatigue and depression. This experiment was designed to determine the effects of far infrared ray (FIR) stimulation on acupoints of patients suffering from renal failure who are receiving regular hemodialysis. Patients receiving long-term and regular hemodialysis who volunteered for this procedure were randomly selected to undergo either FIR or heat pad (HP) therapy to determine the impact of FIR treatment on these patients. Both the activities of the autonomic nervous system and changes in quality of life were measured before and after treatment to determine the effectiveness of the FIR treatment. Results from this study show that FIR therapy decreases both stress and fatigue levels of these patients. It also stimulates autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity in patients who are diagnosed with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and are receiving regular hemodialysis (HD). Therefore, benefits of FIR stimulation on these patients are clearly demonstrated in this preliminary study.

  2. Cerebral Activity Changes in Different Traditional Chinese Medicine Patterns of Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qi; Zhang, Peihai; Pan, Junjie; Li, Zhengjie; Liu, Jixin; Li, Guangsen; Qin, Wei; You, Yaodong; Yu, Xujun; Sun, Jinbo; Dong, Minghao; Gong, Qiyong; Guo, Jun; Chang, Degui

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pattern differentiation is the foundation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). This study aims to investigate the differences in cerebral activity in ED patients with different TCM patterns. Methods. 27 psychogenic ED patients and 27 healthy subjects (HS) were enrolled in this study. Each participant underwent an fMRI scan in resting state. The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) was used to detect the brain activity changes in ED patients with different patterns. Results. Compared to HS, ED patients showed an increased cerebral activity in bilateral cerebellum, insula, globus pallidus, parahippocampal gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and middle cingulate cortex (MCC). Compared to the patients with liver-qi stagnation and spleen deficiency pattern (LSSDP), the patients with kidney-yang deficiency pattern (KDP) showed an increased activity in bilateral brainstem, cerebellum, hippocampus, and the right insula, thalamus, MCC, and a decreased activity in bilateral putamen, medial frontal gyrus, temporal pole, and the right caudate nucleus, OFC, anterior cingulate cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex (P < 0.005). Conclusions. The ED patients with different TCM patterns showed different brain activities. The differences in cerebral activity between LSSDP and KDP were mainly in the emotion-related regions, including prefrontal cortex and cingulated cortex. PMID:26180534

  3. Physical Activity and Reported Barriers to Activity Among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kaabi, Juma; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Afandi, Bachar; Parkar, Hasratali; Nagelkerke, Nicolaas

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to assess the physical activity practice among type 2 diabetic patients in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of type 2 diabetic patients who participated in the outpatient clinics in Al-Ain District, during 2006. The patients completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire, and measurements of blood pressure, body mass index, body fat, abdominal circumference, glycemic control (HbA1c), and fasting lipid profile. RESULTS: Of the 390 patients recruited, only 25% reported an increase in their physical activity levels following the diagnosis of diabetes, and only 3% reported physical activity levels that meet the recommended guidelines. More than half of the study subjects had uncontrolled hypertension (53%) and unacceptable lipid profiles; 71% had a high low-density lipoprotein (LDL), 73% had low high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and 59% had hypertriglyceridemia. Forty-four percent were obese and a further 34% were overweight. Abdominal obesity was also common (59%). Only 32% had an acceptable glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS: The physical activity practice of type 2 diabetic patients in the UAE is largely inadequate to meet the recommended level necessary to prevent or ameliorate diabetic complications. Interventions aiming at overcoming the barriers to physical activity are urgently needed. PMID:20043039

  4. [Vaccines and preventive activities in patients with inflammatory arthritis].

    PubMed

    Casals-Sánchez, J L; Casals Vázquez, C; Vázquez Sánchez, M Á; Giménez Basallote, S

    2013-10-01

    Patients with inflammatory arthritis and eligible for immunosuppressive therapy account for more than 1% of general population, and represents a significant workload on family doctors. They are prone to other comorbidities, with an increased cardiovascular risk and a higher incidence of infections than the general population, especially skin infections and pneumonitis. This comorbidity can be considered vulnerable to a prevention program-prevention of cardiovascular risk, cancer screening, vaccination schedule for adults. As for prevention through vaccination, importance should be given to pneumococcal infection - significant in adults aged 50 or over, especially amongst immunosuppressed patients. The 13-valent conjugate vaccine, which has been recently approved for adults, must be considered. An attempt has been made to write a simple, applicable document on preventive measures that should be implemented both at primary and secondary care level for those adults.

  5. Newly diagnosed lung cancer patients' preferences for and beliefs about physical activity prior to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Karvinen, Kristina H; Vallance, Jeff; Walker, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    Physical activity has been found to have a number of benefits for lung cancer patients yet very little information is available concerning physical activity beliefs and preferences for this population. The purpose of the study was to explore physical activity programming and counseling preferences and beliefs about physical activity in newly diagnosed lung cancer patients scheduled to receive chemotherapy. A total of 43 new diagnosed lung cancer patients completed a researcher-administered survey prior to commencing chemotherapy. Results indicated that only 7 participants (17%) reported meeting public health recommendations for physical activity yet the majority of participants (n = 28) indicated interest or possible interest in physical activity counseling. Many participants also indicated interest or possible interest in an exercise program (n = 29) for lung cancer survivors, preferring it to start during chemotherapy (n = 20), for it to be home based (n = 21), and moderate in intensity (n = 22). The most common behavioral belief (advantage) of physical activity was to build/maintain strength (n = 26) and the most common control belief (barrier) was fatigue (n = 11). These data suggest that physical activity counseling and programming may be well received by newly diagnosed lung cancer patients. Information about physical activity and programming preferences and beliefs from this study may be useful for the design of optimal physical activity interventions for lung cancer patients.

  6. Noninvasive Imaging of the High Frequency Brain Activity in Focal Epilepsy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yunfeng; Worrell, Gregory A.; Zhang, Huishi Clara; Yang, Lin; Brinkmann, Benjamin; Nelson, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    High frequency (HF) activity represents a potential biomarker of the epileptogenic zone in epilepsy patients, the removal of which is considered to be crucial for seizure-free surgical outcome. We proposed a high frequency source imaging (HFSI) approach to noninvasively image the brain sources of scalp recorded high frequency EEG activity. Both computer simulation and clinical patient data analysis were performed to investigate the feasibility of using the HFSI approach to image the sources of HF activity from noninvasive scalp EEG recordings. The HF activity was identified from high-density scalp recordings after high-pass filtering the EEG data and the EEG segments with HF activity were concatenated together to form repetitive HF activity. Independent component analysis was utilized to extract the components corresponding to the HF activity. Noninvasive EEG source imaging using realistic geometric boundary element head modeling was then applied to image the sources of the pathological HF brain activity. Five medically intractable focal epilepsy patients were studied and the estimated sources were found to be concordant with the surgical resection or intracranial recordings of the patients. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, that source imaging from the scalp HF activity could help to localize the seizure onset zone (SOZ) and provide a novel noninvasive way of studying the epileptic brain in humans. This study also indicates the potential application of studying HF activity in the pre-surgical planning of medically intractable epilepsy patients. PMID:24845275

  7. Valued Life Activities, Smoking Cessation, and Mood in Post-Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Andrew M.; Srour, John Fani; Arrighi, James A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Borrelli, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Continued engagement in valued life activities is a protective factor for depression and has been linked to readiness to quit smoking in medical populations, but has never been examined among Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) patients. The purpose of this study is to investigate relationships among valued life activities, mood, and smoking post-ACS. Methods Participants were 54 post-ACS patients who were smoking before ACS hospitalization. Data on mood, smoking status, engagement in valued activities, restriction of valued activities, and satisfactory replacement of restricted activities was collected 1-12 months post-ACS. Results Depressive symptoms were associated with both less valued activity engagement and greater valued activity restriction. Positive affect was associated with greater valued activity engagement and negative affect was associated with greater valued activity restriction. Satisfactory replacement of restricted activities was associated with greater positive affect, fewer depressive symptoms, and quitting smoking post-ACS. The majority of these relationships remained significant after controlling for relevant covariates, including physical functioning. Conclusions Valued activity restriction and engagement may contribute to depressed mood and failure to quit smoking in ACS patients. Psychotherapies that target greater engagement in valued life activities deserve further investigation in ACS patients. PMID:25471466

  8. Beyond demographics: differences in patient activation across new immigrant, diverse language subgroups.

    PubMed

    Lubetkin, Erica I; Zabor, Emily C; Brennessel, Debra; Kemeny, M Margaret; Hay, Jennifer L

    2014-02-01

    The federal government promotes "patient-centered medical homes" to plan care with respect to patients' cultures and values and support patients' self-care efforts. To promote self-care, the medical home would be best utilized by activated, engaged patients. The objective of this study was to measure and compare patient activation scores in English-, Spanish-, and Haitian Creole-speaking patients seen at an inner-city hospital ambulatory care practice. Patient activation was measured using the patient activation measure (PAM). Mean PAM scores and activation levels differed according to survey language (p < 0.001). US-born participants had higher mean PAM scores than persons born outside of the US. Participants living in the US longer had higher mean PAM scores than participants newer to the US. Levels of activation and mean PAM scores increased with greater comfort reading, speaking, and thinking in English. The mean PAM (SD) score of 61.5 (16.5) for Haitian Creole-speaking Caribbean Blacks was significantly lower than the mean PAM score of 68.8 (15.6) for English-speaking Caribbean Blacks (p value = 0.006). Although mean PAM scores did not significantly differ between Haitian Creole and Spanish speakers, PAM stages differed according to language of survey completion (p < 0.001), with a greater percentage of Haitian Creole speakers being categorized as stage 1 (least activated) as well as stage 4 (most activated). Spanish and Haitian Creole speakers have lower mean PAM scores than English speakers. Mean PAM scores did not differ between Hispanics and non-Hispanics or according to race, illustrating the need to examine the role of language and culture on patient activation.

  9. Effect of radiotherapy on the natural killer (NK)-cell activity of cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnes, K.; Florence, J.; Penny, R.

    1987-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of radiotherapy on peripheral blood natural killer (NK)-cell number and activity in 15 patients with cancer, prior to the commencement and at the completion of radiotherapy. The following observations were made. Prior to radiotherapy NK activity could not be correlated with the stage of malignancy. In all patients with advanced disease and with subnormal baseline NK activity, the outcome of radiotherapy was unfavorable. Following radiotherapy to sites including the mediastinum, patients had decreased NK activity compared with those receiving treatment to other sites. This decrease was not related to the dose of radiotherapy or stage of malignancy. The tumor response was favorable in most patients whose NK activity decreased as a result of radiotherapy. The decrease in NK activity may be associated with a decrease in the percentage of NK (N901) cells in the peripheral blood. The reduction in NK activity in those patients receiving mediastinal irradiation may be due to the large volume of blood which transits the field, so that the NK cells, or their more radiosensitive precursors, may be damaged and/or differentiation inhibited. Thus, these new observations show that radiotherapy does indeed affect the NK activity in cancer patients predominantly when the irradiation site includes the mediastinum.

  10. Uniformities in OSA-UCS and in NCS tested by color difference prediction based on principal hue components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indow, Tarow

    2002-06-01

    The OSA uniform color system is a 3-D collection of color samples according to the regular rhombohedral structure in which each color is surrounded by its 12 nearest neighbors, all perceptually equally different (local uniformity). The Swedish NCS system is a 3-D collection of color samples that vary gradually in each of the three perceptual attributes. It is not clear that this arrangement implies all neighboring pairs along the respective coordinates being perceptually equally different (local uniformity). Of pairs (j,k) of interest, predicted color differences djk were calculated that have the following property. Suppose an observer selects a pair of Munsell grays (Va, Vb) that matches in size with the color difference between (j,k), then djk=|Va-Vb| is predicted by djk, on the average, with error of 0.34 in Munsell V-unit. Variation of djk in this unit was in the order of 0.22V for nearest neighboring pairs (j,k) in various cleavage planes of OSA-UCS and in the order of 0.11V for neighboring pairs (j,k) along s-coordinate and c-coordinate in sheets with fixed hue of NCS. Both were well within the prediction error range, but some systematic trends in values of djk were found.

  11. Numerical study of the hydroclimate of the Southwestern United States using the UC-LLNL regional climate system model

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.L.; Kim, J.

    1996-09-01

    The UC-LLNL Regional Climate System Model (RCSM) has been under development since 1991. This modeling system includes interactions among atmospheric, land surface, and subsurface processes. Important physical processes included in this RCSM are effects of vegetation, surface energy and water budgets, lateral hydrologic transport, and agro-ecosystem response. Our RCSM is composed of a preprocessor fro importing, interpreting, and analyzing multi-scale data, a Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation (MAS) model, a multi-layer soil-plant-snow (SPS) model that is interactively coupled with the atmospheric model, a physically based, fully distributed watershed hydrology-riverflow model (TOPMODEL) and a post-processor for output data analysis. We are currently implementing and validating the Decision Support System for Agro-Economic Transfer (DSSAT). An important feature of our RCSM us the ability to simulate the atmospheric, land surface, and hydrologic variables from the global scale down to the watershed catchment scale. the full coupled MAS and SPS models have been used for experimental operational NWP over the southwestern United States since October 1993. Our watershed hydrology-riverflow model has been set up for the Russian River watershed and the Headwaters to the North Fork of the American River in Northern California.

  12. Preparation of UC0.07-0.10N0.90-0.93 spheres for TRISO coated fuel particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, R. D.; Silva, C. M.; Lindemer, T. B.; Johnson, J. A.; Collins, J. L.

    2014-05-01

    The US Department of Energy is considering a new nuclear fuel that would be less susceptible to ruptures during a loss-of-coolant accident. The fuel would consist of tristructural isotropic coated particles with dense uranium nitride (UN) kernels with diameters of 650 or 800 μm. The objectives of this effort are to make uranium oxide microspheres with adequately dispersed carbon nanoparticles and to convert these microspheres into UN spheres, which could be then sintered into kernels. Recent improvements to the internal gelation process were successfully applied to the production of uranium gel spheres with different concentrations of carbon black. After the spheres were washed and dried, a simple two-step heat profile was used to produce porous microspheres with a chemical composition of UC0.07-0.10N0.90-0.93. The first step involved heating the microspheres to 2023 K in a vacuum, and in the second step, the microspheres were held at 1873 K for 6 h in flowing nitrogen.

  13. Differential UCS expectancy bias in spider fearful individuals: evidence toward an association between spiders and disgust-relevant outcomes.

    PubMed

    van Overveld, Mark; de Jong, Peter J; Peters, Madelon L

    2006-03-01

    Recently, differential UCS expectancies were found for high- and low-predatory fear-relevant animals [Davey, G. C. L., Cavanagh, K., & Lamb, A. (2003). Differential aversive outcome expectancies for high- and low-predation fear-relevant animals. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 34, 117-128]. The present study extends these findings to spider phobia. In a hypothetical experiment, high (n = 27) and low (n = 28) spider fearful individuals estimated the probability that slides of spiders, maggots, pit bull terriers, or rabbits would be followed by a sip of nauseating juice, a shock, or nothing. Maggots were selectively associated with the disgusting juice, pit bull terriers with the harm-related shock, and rabbits with nothing. Spiders were associated with both aversive UCSs, but significantly stronger in the high fear group. Additionally, an expectancy bias toward disgust-relevant consequences was the single best predictor of spider fear. These findings imply that in accordance with the disease-avoidance model, expectations of disgust-relevant consequences are involved in spider phobia.

  14. Ghrelin and adipokines as circulating markers of disease activity in patients with Takayasu arteritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The current markers of disease activity in Takayasu arteritis (TA) are insufficient for proper assessment. We investigated circulating levels of unacylated and acylated ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin and their relationships with disease activity in patients with TA. Methods This study included 31 patients with TA and 32 sex-, age- and body mass index-matched healthy controls. Disease activity was assessed in TA patients using various tools, including Kerr's criteria, disease extent index-Takayasu, physician's global assessment, radiological parameters, and laboratory markers. Plasma unacylated and acylated ghrelin, and serum leptin and adiponectin levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Unacylated and acylated ghrelin levels were found to be significantly lower in TA patients than that in healthy controls. Patients with active disease had lower unacylated ghrelin levels than those with inactive disease and had lower acylated ghrelin levels than healthy controls. Ghrelin levels were negatively correlated with various parameters of disease activity. The leptin/ghrelin ratio was significantly higher in TA patients than controls. It was positively correlated with disease activity. There was a positive correlation between unacylated and acylated ghrelin and a negative correlation between leptin and ghrelin. There was no statistical difference in adiponectin levels between TA patients and controls. The radiological activity markers were positively correlated with other parameters of disease activity. Conclusions This study suggests that plasma unacylated and acylated ghrelin levels may be useful in monitoring disease activity and planning treatment strategies for patients with TA. The serum leptin level and leptin/ghrelin ratio may also be used to help assess the disease activity. PMID:23259466

  15. Cardiovascular symptoms in patients with systemic mast cell activation disease.

    PubMed

    Kolck, Ulrich W; Haenisch, Britta; Molderings, Gerhard J

    2016-08-01

    Traditionally, mast cell activation disease (MCAD) has been considered as just one rare (neoplastic) disease, mastocytosis, focused on the mast cell (MC) mediators tryptase and histamine and the suggestive, blatant symptoms of flushing and anaphylaxis. Recently another form of MCAD, the MC activation syndrome, has been recognized featuring inappropriate MC activation with little to no neoplasia and likely much more heterogeneously clonal and far more prevalent than mastocytosis. Increasing expertise and appreciation has been established for the truly very large menagerie of MC mediators and their complex patterns of release, engendering complex, nebulous presentations of chronic and acute illness best characterized as multisystem polymorbidity of generally inflammatory ± allergic theme. We describe the pathogenesis of MCAD with a particular focus on clinical cardiovascular symptoms and the therapeutic options for MC mediator-induced cardiovascular symptoms.

  16. Assessment of global disease activity in RA patients monitored in the METEOR database: the patient's versus the rheumatologist's opinion.

    PubMed

    Gvozdenović, Emilia; Koevoets, Rosanne; Wolterbeek, Ron; van der Heijde, Désirée; Huizinga, Tom W J; Allaart, Cornelia F; Landewé, Robert B M

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the patient's (PtGDA) and physician's (PhGDA) assessment of global disease activity and to identify factors that might influence these differences as well as factors that may influence the patient's and the physician's scores separately. Anonymous data were used from 2,117 Dutch patients included in the Measurement of efficacy of Treatment in the Era of Rheumatology database. PtGDA and PhGDA were scored independently on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) with 0 and 100 as extremes. The agreement, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), was calculated and a Bland-Altman plot was created to visualize the differences between PtGDA and PhGDA. Linear mixed model analysis was used to model PtGDA and PhGDA. Logistic repeated measurements were used to model the difference in PtGDA and PhGDA (PtGDA > PhGDA versus PtGDA ≤ PhGDA). Gender patient, gender physician, age, swollen joint count (SJC), tender joint count, VAS pain, disease duration, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were considered as possible determinants in both models. Mean (standard deviation) age was 57 (15) years and 67 % of the patients were female. Agreement between PtGDA and PhGDA was moderate (ICC, 0.57). Patients scored on average 11 units higher (worse) than rheumatologists (95 % limits of agreement, -25.2 to 47.6). Patient's perception of pain (VAS) was positively associated with a PtGDA being higher than PhGDA. Similarly, ESR and swollen joint counts were positively associated with a PtGDA being lower or equal to the PhGDA. Patients rate global disease activity consistently higher than their rheumatologists. Patients base their judgment primarily on the level of pain, physicians on the level of SJC and ESR.

  17. Medical student stories of participation in patient care-related activities: the construction of relational identity.

    PubMed

    Warmington, Sally; McColl, Geoffrey

    2017-03-01

    Professional identity formation is acknowledged as one of the fundamental tasks of contemporary medical education. Identity is a social phenomenon, constructed through participation in everyday activities and an integral part of every learning interaction. In this paper we report from an Australian ethnographic study into how medical students and patients use narrative to construct their identities. The dialogic narrative analysis employed focused on the production of meaning through the use of language devices in a given context, and the juxtaposition of multiple perspectives. Two stories told by students about their participation in patient care-related activities reveal how identities are constructed in this context through depictions of the relationships between medical students, patients and clinical teachers. These students use the rhetorical functions of stories to characterise doctors and patients in certain ways, and position themselves in relation to them. They defend common practices that circumvent valid consent processes, justified by the imperative to maximise students' participation in patient care-related activities. In doing so, they identify patients as their adversaries, and doctors as allies. Both students are influenced by others' expectations but one reveals the active nature of identity work, describing subtle acts of resistance. These stories illustrate how practices for securing students' access to patients can influence students' emerging identities, with implications for their future disclosure and consent practices. We argue that more collaborative ways of involving medical students in patient care-related activities will be facilitated if students and clinical teachers develop insight into the relational nature of identity work.

  18. Hyperferritinaemia in Dengue Virus Infected Patients Is Associated with Immune Activation and Coagulation Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Pannuti, Cláudio S.; Brouns, Rosalba M.; van den Berg, Riemsdijk W. A.; van den Ham, Henk-Jan; Martina, Byron E. E.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Netea, Mihai G.; Meijers, Joost C. M.; van Gorp, Eric C. M.; Kallas, Esper G.

    2014-01-01

    Background During a dengue outbreak on the Caribbean island Aruba, highly elevated levels of ferritin were detected in dengue virus infected patients. Ferritin is an acute-phase reactant and hyperferritinaemia is a hallmark of diseases caused by extensive immune activation, such as haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hyperferritinaemia in dengue patients was associated with clinical markers of extensive immune activation and coagulation disturbances. Methodology/Principal Findings Levels of ferritin, standard laboratory markers, sIL-2R, IL-18 and coagulation and fibrinolytic markers were determined in samples from patients with uncomplicated dengue in Aruba. Levels of ferritin were significantly increased in dengue patients compared to patients with other febrile illnesses. Moreover, levels of ferritin associated significantly with the occurrence of viraemia. Hyperferritinaemia was also significantly associated with thrombocytopenia, elevated liver enzymes and coagulation disturbances. The results were validated in a cohort of dengue virus infected patients in Brazil. In this cohort levels of ferritin and cytokine profiles were determined. Increased levels of ferritin in dengue virus infected patients in Brazil were associated with disease severity and a pro-inflammatory cytokine profile. Conclusions/Significance Altogether, we provide evidence that ferritin can be used as a clinical marker to discriminate between dengue and other febrile illnesses. The occurrence of hyperferritinaemia in dengue virus infected patients is indicative for highly active disease resulting in immune activation and coagulation disturbances. Therefore, we recommend that patients with hyperferritinaemia are monitored carefully. PMID:25299654

  19. Myeloperoxidase activity and the oxidized proteins in blood neutrophils of patients with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Muravlyova, Larissa; Molotov-Luchanskiy, Vilen; Bakirova, Ryszhan; Klyuyev, Dmitriy; Demidchik, Ludmila; Kolesnikova, Yevgeniya

    2014-10-01

    The main purpose of our investigation was to study myeloperoxidase activity and concentration of oxidized proteins in blood neutrophils of patients with ambulant pneumonia and secondary pneumonia which has arisen on a background of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients were divided into 2 groups. 17 patients with ambulant pneumonia moderate severity and respiratory insufficiency of grade 2 were included in the 1-st group. 20 COPD patients with secondary pneumonia moderate severity and with respiratory insufficiency of grade 2 were included in the 2-nd group. The control group consisted of 15 healthy subjects. The reactive protein carbonyl derivates, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and myeloperoxidase activity were detected in neutrophils. In neutrophils of 1-st group patients the augmentation of reactive protein carbonyl derivates was observed in comparison with healthy ones. In neutrophils of 2-nd group patients the slight decrease of reactive protein carbonyl derivates was observed in comparison with healthy ones (by 17%). In neutrophils of 2-nd group patients the significant increasing AOPP in comparison with healthy ones (p <0.01) and 1 group patients (p <0.05) was fixed. Myeloperoxidase activity was higher in neutrophils of 1-th group patients in comparison with healthy ones. In neutrophils of 2-nd group patients myeloperoxidase activity was higher in comparison with the same of 1 group patients (by 67%, p <0.05). Our results showed the different direction of oxidized proteins formation neutrophils of patients with primary and secondary pneumonia. Besides that the varied degree of myeloperoxidase activity was fixed. Our results require more detailed understanding because they can reflect peculiar mechanisms of pneumonia development and determine the characteristics of their progression.

  20. Metabolic activity of sodium, measured by neutron activation, in the hands of patients suffering from bone diseases: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Spinks, T.J.; Bewley, D.K.; Paolillo, M.; Vlotides, J.; Joplin, G.F.; Ranicar, A.S.O.

    1980-01-01

    Turnover of sodium in the human hand was studied by neutron activation. Patients suffering from various metabolic abnormalities affecting the skeleton, who were undergoing routine neutron activation for the measurement of calcium, were investigated along with a group of healthy volunteers. Neutron activation labels the sodium atoms simultaneously and with equal probability regardless of the turnover time of individual body compartments. The loss of sodium can be described either by a sum of two exponentials or by a single power function. Distinctions between patients and normal subjects were not apparent from the exponential model but were brought out by the power function. The exponent of time in the latter is a measure of clearance rate. The mean values of this parameter in (a) a group of patients suffering from acromegaly; (b) a group including Paget's disease, osteoporosis, Cushing's disease, and hyperparathyroidism; and (c) a group of healthy subjects, were found to be significantly different from each other.

  1. Altered activity of the serratus anterior during unilateral arm elevation in patients with cervical disorders.

    PubMed

    Helgadottir, H; Kristjansson, E; Einarsson, E; Karduna, A; Jonsson, H

    2011-12-01

    Altered activity in the axioscapular muscles is considered to be an important feature in patients with neck pain. The activity of the serratus anterior (SA) and trapezius muscles during arm elevation has not been investigated in these patients. The objectives of this study was to investigate whether there is a pattern of altered activity in the SA and trapezius in patients with insidious onset neck pain (IONP) (n=22) and whiplash associated disorders (WAD) (n=27). An asymptomatic group was selected for baseline measurements (n=23). Surface electromyography was used to measure the onset of muscle activation and duration of muscle activity of the SA as well as the upper, middle, and lower trapezius during unilateral arm elevation in the three subject groups. Both arms were tested. With no interaction, the main effect for the onset of muscle activation and duration of muscle activity for serratus anterior was statistically significant among the groups. Post hoc comparison revealed a significantly delayed onset of muscle activation and less duration of muscle activity in the IONP group, and in the WAD group compared to the asymptomatic group. There were no group main effects or interaction effects for upper, middle and lower trapezius. This finding may have implications for scapular stability in these patients because the altered activity in the SA may reflect inconsistent or poorly coordinated muscle activation that may reduce the quality of neuromuscular performance and induce an increased load on the cervical and the thoracic spine.

  2. Promotion and support of physical activity in elderly patients on hemodialysis: a case study.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Kotomi; Hashimoto, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to ascertain the optimum strategy for implementing a physical activity intervention in patients on hemodialysis by investigating the physical characteristics of elderly patients on hemodialysis, and their attitude to physical activity and level of daily activity. [Subjects] The Subject were 10 elderly patients on hemodialysis. [Methods] They wore a physical activity monitor for 1 week. Data obtained were analyzed for hemodialysis and non- hemodialysis days, and two-way analysis of variance was used to compare the number of steps and activity levels. A questionnaire was administered to investigate the stage of psychological preparedness for exercise and attitudes toward/awareness of exercise. [Results] There was no significant difference in the number of steps or exercise levels on hemodialysis and non- hemodialysis days. However, on both types of days, subjects spent long periods not engaged in any activity. Most of their activity was either inactivity or sedentary behavior. [Conclusion] Patients on hemodialysis with low physical activity levels are considered to have poor physical function and exercise tolerance. To maintain and improve the physical function of patients on hemodialysis, it will be necessary to reduce their time spent in inactive, and comprehensive care that covers psychosocial aspects should be provided to promote the proactive improvement of physical activity and their attitudes to exercise.

  3. Promotion and support of physical activity in elderly patients on hemodialysis: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, Kotomi; Hashimoto, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to ascertain the optimum strategy for implementing a physical activity intervention in patients on hemodialysis by investigating the physical characteristics of elderly patients on hemodialysis, and their attitude to physical activity and level of daily activity. [Subjects] The Subject were 10 elderly patients on hemodialysis. [Methods] They wore a physical activity monitor for 1 week. Data obtained were analyzed for hemodialysis and non- hemodialysis days, and two-way analysis of variance was used to compare the number of steps and activity levels. A questionnaire was administered to investigate the stage of psychological preparedness for exercise and attitudes toward/awareness of exercise. [Results] There was no significant difference in the number of steps or exercise levels on hemodialysis and non- hemodialysis days. However, on both types of days, subjects spent long periods not engaged in any activity. Most of their activity was either inactivity or sedentary behavior. [Conclusion] Patients on hemodialysis with low physical activity levels are considered to have poor physical function and exercise tolerance. To maintain and improve the physical function of patients on hemodialysis, it will be necessary to reduce their time spent in inactive, and comprehensive care that covers psychosocial aspects should be provided to promote the proactive improvement of physical activity and their attitudes to exercise. PMID:27190487

  4. Correlations between the sequelae of stroke and physical activity in Korean adult stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Chun, In-Ae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated a wide range of stroke patients living in South Korea using the Korean Community Health Survey raw data to determine the correlation between stroke and physical activity. [Subjects and Methods] This study used raw data from the 2012 Korean Community Health Survey. The total number of participants was 228,921; of the 4,475 stroke patients who had been diagnosed by a medical doctor or an oriental medical doctor, the data for 4,460 patients, excluding 15 whose amount of physical activity was unclear, were used in the analysis. [Results] The amount of physical activity performed by patients who had sequelae was significantly lower than that performed by patients who no longer had sequelae. Similarly, for the type of sequelae, palsy in the arms and legs, facial palsy, communication disability, swallowing or eating disability, and visual disability were associated with lower physical activity. Furthermore, as the number of sequelae increased, patients performed significantly less physical activity. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that when decisions on national policies and budgets are made, methods for increasing the physical activity of patients with a history of stroke should be considered. PMID:27390446

  5. Impact of thermal processing and the Maillard reaction on the basophil activation of hazelnut allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Cucu, Tatiana; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Bridts, Chris; Devreese, Bart; Ebo, Didier

    2012-05-01

    Food allergy, an abnormal immunological response due to sensitization to a food component, has become an important health problem, especially in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of thermal processing and glycation on the basophil activation by hazelnut proteins using a basophil activation test. Patients with systemic allergic reactions (SR; n=6) to hazelnut as well as patients with an isolated oral allergy syndrome (OAS; n=4) were investigated. Thermal processing of hazelnut proteins either in the presence or absence of wheat proteins did not result in major changes in the stimulatory activity of the basophils for patients with SR or OAS. For the patients with OAS, incubation of hazelnut proteins with glucose led to complete depletion of the stimulatory activity of the basophils. An increase in stimulatory activity of the basophils for two out of six patients with SR was observed. For the other four patients slight or complete abolition of the stimulatory activity was observed. These results indicate that some patients with SR to hazelnut are at risk when exposed to hazelnut proteins, even in processed foods.

  6. Altered Error-Related Activity in Patients with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Kathrin; Wagner, Gerd; Schultz, Christoph; Schachtzabel, Claudia; Nenadic, Igor; Axer, Martina; Reichenbach, Jurgen R.; Sauer, Heinrich; Schlosser, Ralf G. M.

    2009-01-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) and executive cognitive control are core features of schizophrenia. However, findings regarding functional activation strengths are heterogeneous, partly due to differences in task demands and behavioral performance. Previous investigators proposed integrating these heterogeneous findings into a comprehensive model…

  7. Hematologic and surgical management of the dental patient with plasminogen activator deficiency.

    PubMed

    Scheitler, L E; Hart, N; Phillips, G; Weinberg, J B

    1988-12-01

    Anticoagulation therapy is used to treat patients with a variety of hemostatic disorders in an attempt to prevent thrombus formation. A thorough understanding of the patient's medical history is essential before dental treatment that may require alteration of this anticoagulation therapy. Alteration of anticoagulation therapy should be undertaken only after consultation with the patient's physician because some patients are at greater risk than others for thrombus formation or hemorrhage. This case of a 29-year-old man with plasminogen activator deficiency illustrates how consultation can result in a coordinated treatment plan for medical and dental management formulated to help ensure safe surgical treatment for these medically compromised patients.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Intestinal Flora of Uygur and Han Ethnic Chinese Patients with Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ping; Cui, Min; Wang, Haikun; Gao, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Tao; Cheng, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To study the correlation between intestinal flora and ulcerative colitis by analyzing the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and healthy controls with Uygur and Han ethnic. Methods. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples and analyzed with real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results. The samples from UC patients, Uygur and Han ethnic combined, had higher abundance of Bacteroides (P = 0.026) but lower Clostridium (P = 0.004), Bifidobacterium spp. (P = 0.009), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.008) than those from healthy controls. Among UC patients, Bacteroides population was raised in acute UC patients (P ≤ 0.05), while the abundance of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., Fusobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the remission. In both UC patients group and control group, no difference was observed in the abundance of these 5 bacteria between the Han and the Uygur group. Conclusions. Variations in the abundance of these five bacterial strains in intestines may be associated with the occurrence of UC in Uygur and Han populations; however, these variations were not associated with ethnic difference.

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Intestinal Flora of Uygur and Han Ethnic Chinese Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ping; Cui, Min; Wang, Haikun; Gao, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Tao; Cheng, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To study the correlation between intestinal flora and ulcerative colitis by analyzing the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and healthy controls with Uygur and Han ethnic. Methods. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples and analyzed with real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results. The samples from UC patients, Uygur and Han ethnic combined, had higher abundance of Bacteroides (P = 0.026) but lower Clostridium (P = 0.004), Bifidobacterium spp. (P = 0.009), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.008) than those from healthy controls. Among UC patients, Bacteroides population was raised in acute UC patients (P ≤ 0.05), while the abundance of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., Fusobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the remission. In both UC patients group and control group, no difference was observed in the abundance of these 5 bacteria between the Han and the Uygur group. Conclusions. Variations in the abundance of these five bacterial strains in intestines may be associated with the occurrence of UC in Uygur and Han populations; however, these variations were not associated with ethnic difference. PMID:26839545

  10. Thrombotic risk of reduced ADAMTS13 activity in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Jun; Kim, Ji-Eun; Han, Kyou-Sup; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2016-12-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease in which antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) are generated. Previous studies show concurrence of APS and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; therefore it is plausible to assume that anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibody is also involved in the pathophysiology of APS. We investigated the clinical significance of ADAMTS13 activity and anti-ADAMTS13 antibody in patients with aPLs. Two hundred and sixteen patients with positive lupus anticoagulant and/or anticardiolipin antibody were included. ADAMTS13 activity and anti-ADAMTS13 antibody were measured using fluorescence resonance energy-transfer technology and ELISA, respectively. Reduced ADAMTS13 activity was observed in 40.3% (87/216) of patients with aPLs. Although 33.8% (73/216) of patients were positive for anti-ADAMTS13 antibody, 41 of these 73 patients had normal levels of ADAMTS13 activity. Reduced ADAMTS13 activity was a significant risk factor for thrombotic events. Thrombotic events and age contributed to the reduced level of ADAMTS13 activity. Presence of anti-ADAMTS13 antibody did not show any association with the level of ADAMTS13 activity. Patients with autoimmune diseases tended to show higher levels of anti-ADAMTS13 antibody. Our findings suggest that reduced ADAMTS13 activity is a significant thrombotic risk factor in patients with aPLs irrespective of the presence of anti-ADAMTS13 antibody. Presence of anti-ADAMTS13 antibody is not seen with reduced activity and it tends to be increased in patients with autoimmune diseases.

  11. Computed tomography angiography in patients with active gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Reis, Fatima Regina Silva; Cardia, Patricia Prando; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding represents a common medical emergency, with considerable morbidity and mortality rates, and a prompt diagnosis is essential for a better prognosis. In such a context, endoscopy is the main diagnostic tool; however, in cases where the gastrointestinal hemorrhage is massive, the exact bleeding site might go undetected. In addition, a trained professional is not always present to perform the procedure. In an emergency setting, optical colonoscopy presents limitations connected with the absence of bowel preparation, so most of the small bowel cannot be assessed. Scintigraphy cannot accurately demonstrate the anatomic location of the bleeding and is not available at emergency settings. The use of capsule endoscopy is inappropriate in the acute setting, particularly in the emergency department at night, and is a highly expensive method. Digital angiography, despite its high sensitivity, is invasive, presents catheterization-related risks, in addition to its low availability at emergency settings. On the other hand, computed tomography angiography is fast, widely available and minimally invasive, emerging as a promising method in the diagnostic algorithm of these patients, being capable of determining the location and cause of bleeding with high accuracy. Based on a critical literature review and on their own experience, the authors propose a computed tomography angiography protocol to assess the patient with gastrointestinal bleeding.

  12. Computed tomography angiography in patients with active gastrointestinal bleeding*

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Fatima Regina Silva; Cardia, Patricia Prando; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding represents a common medical emergency, with considerable morbidity and mortality rates, and a prompt diagnosis is essential for a better prognosis. In such a context, endoscopy is the main diagnostic tool; however, in cases where the gastrointestinal hemorrhage is massive, the exact bleeding site might go undetected. In addition, a trained professional is not always present to perform the procedure. In an emergency setting, optical colonoscopy presents limitations connected with the absence of bowel preparation, so most of the small bowel cannot be assessed. Scintigraphy cannot accurately demonstrate the anatomic location of the bleeding and is not available at emergency settings. The use of capsule endoscopy is inappropriate in the acute setting, particularly in the emergency department at night, and is a highly expensive method. Digital angiography, despite its high sensitivity, is invasive, presents catheterization-related risks, in addition to its low availability at emergency settings. On the other hand, computed tomography angiography is fast, widely available and minimally invasive, emerging as a promising method in the diagnostic algorithm of these patients, being capable of determining the location and cause of bleeding with high accuracy. Based on a critical literature review and on their own experience, the authors propose a computed tomography angiography protocol to assess the patient with gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:26811556

  13. Why Patients Do Not Participate in Sports Activities After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Moon Jong; Kang, Yeon Gwi; Chung, Byung June; Chang, Chong Bum; Kim, Tae Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Background It is important to identify the reasons or factors preventing patients from participating in sports activities after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to improve patient satisfaction and general health that can be gained from regular sports activities. Purpose To determine the reasons for lack of participation in regular sports activities after TKA as perceived by patients and to identify specific factors involved. Study Design Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods A total of 369 patients with a follow-up longer than 1 year after TKA were included in this retrospective study. A postal survey regarding sports activities was conducted using a questionnaire gathering information such as sociodemographic data, activity levels, and sports activities after TKA. The reasons perceived by patients for not participating in sports activities were determined. Patients unable to participate in sports activities were compared with patients able to do so in terms of sociodemographic data and pre- and postoperative outcomes. Results Of the 369 patients, 88 (24%) replied that they could not participate in a sports activity. Among the perceived reasons, reasons not related to the replaced knee were more frequent than those related to the replaced knee (76% vs 24%). Symptoms related to the spine or other joints composed 25% of the total perceived reasons. The presence of medical comorbidities accounted for 16%, while symptoms in the nonreplaced knee represented 8% of the reasons. In terms of patient factors, multivariate logistic regression revealed that male sex, a floor-based (ie, non-Western) lifestyle with greater demands on knee flexion, and worse postoperative University of California at Los Angeles activity scale were associated with nonregular sports activity levels. Conclusion The perceived reasons and patient factors hindering regular sports activities after TKA were not restricted to problems with the replaced knee. Nonetheless, orthopaedic surgeons may have a

  14. The relationship between hope and patient activation in consumers with schizophrenia: Results from longitudinal analyses.

    PubMed

    Oles, Sylwia K; Fukui, Sadaaki; Rand, Kevin L; Salyers, Michelle P

    2015-08-30

    Hope (goal-directed thinking) and patient activation (knowledge and skills to manage one's illness) are both important in managing chronic conditions like schizophrenia. The relationship between hope and patient activation has not been clearly defined. However, hope may be viewed as a foundational, motivating factor that can lead to greater involvement in care and feelings of efficacy. The purpose of the present study was to understand the prospective relationship between hope and patient activation in a sample of adults with schizophrenia (N=118). This study was a secondary data analysis from a study on Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) - a curriculum-based approach to schizophrenia self-management. Data were collected at baseline (prior to any intervention), and at 9 and 18-month follow-up. As predicted, hope and patient activation were significantly related with each other, showing large positive concurrent correlations. Demographics and background characteristics were not significantly related to patient activation or hope. Longitudinal analyses found no specific directional effect, yet suggested that hope and patient activation mutually influence each other over time. Our findings add flexibility in designing recovery-based interventions - fostering hope may not be a pre-requisite for activating consumers to be more involved in their own care.

  15. What causes a small increase in radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis patients tapering TNF inhibitors?

    PubMed Central

    Bouman, Chantal A M; den Broeder, Alfons A; van der Maas, Aatke; van den Hoogen, Frank H J; Landewé, Robert B M; van Herwaarden, Noortje

    2017-01-01

    Objective In a randomised controlled trial investigating tapering of TNF inhibitors (TNFi) compared with usual care (UC) in rheumatoid arthritis patients, minimal radiographic progression was more frequent in patients who attempted tapering. Possible explanations include higher incidence of flaring, higher mean disease activity or lower TNFi use. Methods 18 months data from the DRESS study were used. Change in Sharp-van der Heijde (ΔSvdH) score (linear regression) and proportion of patients with >0.5 ΔSvdH (logistic regression) were used as outcomes. The cumulative incidence and number of short-lived and major flares per patient, mean time-weighted disease activity (MTW-DAS28-CRP) and TNFi use were used as independent variables. Regression models were performed stratified per study group and corrected for possible confounders. Results 175 of 180 patients had 18-month data available. The mean ΔSvdH were 0.75 and 0.15 units with 37 of 116 (32%) and 9 of 59 (15%) patients exceeding 0.5 points in the tapering and UC group, respectively (both p<0.05). MTW-DAS28-CRP, but not incidence or number of short-lived or major flares, or TNFi use, was independently associated with the mean progression score, but only in the tapering group. Additional analyses on DAS28-CRP subcomponents showed that this was mainly caused by MTW swollen joint count. No confounders were identified. Conclusions Radiographic progression was associated with higher MTW-DAS28-CRP (and especially swollen joint count), but only in patients who tapered TNFi. This finding stresses the importance of maintaining disease activity as low as possible in patients in whom TNFi is tapered and to check for radiographic progression regularly. Trial registration number NTR 3216; Post-results.

  16. Physical Activity in Breast Cancer Patients during Medical Treatment and in the Aftercare - a Review.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Freerk T; Bloch, Wilhelm; Weissen, Anke; Brockhaus, Marie; Beulertz, Julia; Zimmer, Philipp; Streckmann, Fiona; Zopf, Eva M

    2013-10-01

    Most scientific studies regarding physical activity in cancer patients involve breast cancer patients. It is apparent that physical activity during medical treatment and aftercare is not only feasible and safe but also effective. Current studies clearly show that regular and specific endurance and/or resistance training can reduce a number of side effects caused by medical treatment. Among others, improvements in physical performance, body composition, and quality of life as well as a reduction in fatigue, have been observed. Since inactivity appears to exacerbate lymphedema, patients with lymphedema are also encouraged to exercise. Few studies have been carried out regarding physical exercise in metastatic patients. However, experts in the field also recommend regular physical activity for patients with advanced-stage breast cancer.

  17. Systematic Review with Network Meta-Analysis: Comparative Efficacy of Biologics in the Treatment of Moderately to Severely Active Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Adrian D.; Ainsworth, Claire; Mody, Reema; Bergman, Annika; Ling, Caroline S.; Medjedovic, Jasmina; Smyth, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Biological therapies are increasingly used to treat ulcerative colitis (UC). Aim To compare the efficacy of biologics in adults with moderately-to-severely active UC, stratified by prior exposure to anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken to identify studies of biologics approved for UC. Network meta-analysis was conducted for endpoints at induction and maintenance. Results Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis of induction treatment for anti-TNF therapy-naïve patients. All biologics were more effective than placebo in inducing clinical response, clinical remission, and mucosal healing. Infliximab demonstrated a statistically significant improvement over adalimumab in clinical response (odds ratio [OR] [95% credible interval (CrI)]: 2.19 [1.35–3.55]), clinical remission (OR [95% CrI]: 2.81 [1.49–5.49]), and mucosal healing (OR [95% CrI]: 2.23 [1.21–4.14]); there were no other significant differences between biologics for induction efficacy. Five studies were included in the meta-analysis of maintenance treatment, two studies rerandomised responder patients at end of induction, and three followed the same patients ‘straight through’. To account for design differences, the number of responders at end of induction was assumed to be equivalent to the number rerandomised. Vedolizumab showed significantly different durable clinical response from comparators (OR [95% CrI] infliximab 3.18 [1.14–9.20], golimumab 2.33 [1.04–5.41], and adalimumab 3.96 [1.67–9.84]). In anti-TNF therapy-experienced patients, only vedolizumab and adalimumab could be compared. At induction, no significant differences in efficacy were seen. During maintenance, vedolizumab showed significantly improved rates of mucosal healing versus adalimumab (OR [95% CrI]: 6.72 [1.36–41.0]). Conclusions This study expands the understanding of comparative efficacies of biologic treatments for UC, encompassing

  18. Impacts of physically active and under-active on clinical outcomes of esophageal cancer patients undergoing esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Cong; Guan, Shanghui; Cheng, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity has been reported to positively influence quality of life and survival in certain cancers. However, the associations between them in esophageal cancer are previously undefined. The aims of this study are to investigate whether physically active esophageal cancer patients have improved quality of life and lower risk of recurrence as well as death compared with physically inactive patients. We evaluated the relationships between postoperative leisure time physical activity and quality of life and recurrence and death among patients diagnosed with esophageal cancer. We respectively used generalized estimating equations and Cox proportional regression to analysis quality of life and survival, adjusting for known potential confounding factors. Comparing esophageal cancer patients reporting more than 9 MET hours per week of postoperative leisure time physical activity with those reporting less, we found improved quality of life. Additionally, we also found that postoperative leisure time physical activity ≥9 MET hours per week, compared with less, was associated with a 23% lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 0.666; 95% CI, 0.481-0.921; P=0.014) and a 53% lower risk of recurrence (HR, 0.306; 95% CI 0.218-0.429; P<0.001). Leisure time physical activity was significantly associated with quality of life and risk of recurrence and death of esophageal cancer patients. Clinicians should consider increasing physical activity, regardless of previous behaviors, as a part of primary cancer treatment. The ultimate goal is to improve quality of life and prolong survival of cancer survivors. PMID:27508099

  19. Ileoproctostomy is preferred over ileoanal pull-through in patients with indeterminate colitis.

    PubMed

    Bodzin, J H; Klein, S N; Priest, S G

    1995-07-01

    A 15-year retrospective review was undertaken to evaluate the operative outcomes of patients with indeterminate colitis who were referred for rectal-sparing operations. Review of 95 consecutive patients operated for ulcerative colitis (UC) or indeterminate colitis (IC) revealed characteristics of IC in 13 patients. In the group as a whole, there were 45 females and 50 males; the average age was 33. A total of 64 patients had ileoanal pull-through (IAA). Analysis revealed that four of these patients had IC revealed by findings before operation in three patients and following the first stage of operation in one patient. Three of these four patients have subsequently required permanent ileostomy. Six patients who underwent IAA have subsequently demonstrated signs and symptoms of Crohn's disease (CD). All six have subsequently required ileostomy. Overall 10 patients with CD underwent IAA, and nine have required permanent ileostomy. Fourteen patients had ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) for UC or IC. IRA was performed for patients with IC in nine cases, and five patients with UC elected this operative option. Indications for IRA in patients with UC included obesity, 2; mental retardation, 1; advanced age, 1; and patient preference, 1. Of the patients with IC who underwent IRA, two have subsequently shown signs and symptoms of Crohn's disease. Overall, 14 of 14 patients who had IRA still have functioning IRA. None has required ileostomy. The poor results in patients with UC or IC subsequently shown to have CD have caused us to change our operative approach in patients with any question in the diagnosis of UC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Sports activity following total knee arthroplasty in patients older than 60 years.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Hermann O; Reinhold, Maik; Bernstein, Anke; Suedkamp, Norbert P; Stoehr, Amelie

    2015-01-01

    In a retrospective study with a population over 65 years, sports activity was conducted 6 years after cruciate retaining (CR) total condylar knee arthroplasty (TKA) with rotating platform (RP). Eighty-one Patients (71.8±5.4years) were examined at follow-up 6.4±0.9 years postoperative. Sport was practiced 5.3 hours every week in mean. Patients were active in sports 3.5times per week. Twenty-five percent performed high impact sports, 47% medium impact sports and 52% low impact sports at follow-up. In KOOS sports 60±28 was reached, in WOMAC 12.1±15.1. It can be concluded that in this population 50% of patients were active in medium and low impact sport 6 years after surgery. However, a quarter of patients were also active in high impact sports.

  1. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  2. Striatal Activity is Associated with Deficits of Cognitive Control and Aberrant Salience for Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ceaser, Alan E.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2016-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis has shown that a large dopamine abnormality exists in the striatum when comparing patients with schizophrenia and controls, and this abnormality is thought to contribute to aberrant salience assignment (or a misattribution of relevance to irrelevant stimuli). This abnormality may also disrupt striatal contributions to cognitive control processing. We examined the relationship between striatal involvement in cognition and aberrant salience symptoms using a task of cognitive control that involves updating, interference control, and simple maintenance. The current study included a sample of 22 patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls and used a slow event-related fMRI design. We predicted that (1) aberrant salience symptoms would be greater for patient's, (2) patients would demonstrate increased errors during interference control trials, given that patients may be inappropriately assigning salience to distracters, and (3) striatal activity during those errors would be correlated with aberrant salience symptoms. We found a trend toward a significant difference between patients and controls on aberrant salience symptoms, and a significant difference between groups on select task conditions. During interference control trials, patients were more likely to inappropriately encode distracters. For patients, both prefrontal and striatal activity was significantly greater when patients inappropriately identified the distracter as correct compared to activity during distracter rejection. During updating, patient prefrontal and striatal activity was significantly lower for incorrect than correct updating trials. Finally, as predicted, for patients the increase of activity during incorrect distracter trials was positively correlated with aberrant salience symptoms, but only for the striatal region. These relationships may have implications for treatments that improve cognitive function and reduce symptom expression. PMID:26869912

  3. Patient's Perception of Symptoms Related to Morning Activity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: The SYMBOL Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Jae; Lee, Byung Ki; Jung, Chi Young; Jeon, Young June; Hyun, Dae Sung; Kim, Kyung Chan; Yu, Sung Ken; Choi, Hye Sook; Shin, Won Hyuk

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience more problematic respiratory symptoms and have more trouble performing daily activities in the morning. The aim of this study was to assess the perception of COPD symptoms related to morning activities in patients with severe airflow limitation. Methods Data of 133 patients with severe airflow limitation were analyzed in a prospective, non-interventional study. A clinical symptom questionnaire was completed by patients at baseline. In patients having morning symptoms, defined by at least one or more prominent or aggravating symptom during morning activities, a morning activity questionnaire was also completed at baseline and following 2 months of COPD treatment. Results The most frequently reported COPD symptom was breathlessness (90.8%). Morning symptoms were reported in 76 (57%) patients; these had more frequent and severe clinical COPD symptoms. The most frequently reported morning activity was getting out of bed (82.9%). The long acting muscarinic antagonist (odds ratio [OR], 6.971; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.317 to 11.905) and chest tightness (OR, 0.075; 95% CI, 0.011 to 0.518) were identified as significantly related to absence of morning symptoms. There was no significant correlation between the degree of forced expiratory volume in 1 second improvement and severity score differences of all items of morning activity after 2-month treatment. Conclusions Fifty-seven percent of COPD patients with severe airflow limitation have morning symptoms that limit their morning activities. These patients also have more prevalent and severe COPD symptoms. The results of this study therefore provide valuable information for the development of patient-reported outcomes in COPD. PMID:23269884

  4. Diet and physical activity in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Iafusco, Dario

    2006-01-01

    Patients with type 1 diabetes require adequate amounts of macronutrients to support their training and sustain performance during regular exercise and during competitions. A frequent goal in competitive sports is to improve performance, and athletes may resort to a number of practices that can adversely affect blood glucose control and health in general in an attempt to gain a competitive advantage. These may include unsafe dietary patterns, and the use of nutritional supplements, other ergogenic aids and illegal substances. In this paper we review data on the relationship between insulin therapy and needs of single macronutrients before, during and after regular and competitive exercise in young subjects and athletes with type 1 diabetes. We also list nutrition integrators, available in the gymnasium or as over-the-counter drugs, which are increasingly being used by athletes, and describe their interactions with diabetes.

  5. The PROactive instruments to measure physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Raste, Yogini; Demeyer, Heleen; Louvaris, Zafeiris; de Jong, Corina; Rabinovich, Roberto A.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.; Polkey, Michael I.; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Tabberer, Maggie; Dobbels, Fabienne; Ivanoff, Nathalie; de Boer, Willem I.; van der Molen, Thys; Kulich, Karoly; Serra, Ignasi; Basagaña, Xavier; Troosters, Thierry; Puhan, Milo A.; Karlsson, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    No current patient-centred instrument captures all dimensions of physical activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our objective was item reduction and initial validation of two instruments to measure physical activity in COPD. Physical activity was assessed in a 6-week, randomised, two-way cross-over, multicentre study using PROactive draft questionnaires (daily and clinical visit versions) and two activity monitors. Item reduction followed an iterative process including classical and Rasch model analyses, and input from patients and clinical experts. 236 COPD patients from five European centres were included. Results indicated the concept of physical activity in COPD had two domains, labelled “amount” and “difficulty”. After item reduction, the daily PROactive instrument comprised nine items and the clinical visit contained 14. Both demonstrated good model fit (person separation index >0.7). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the bidimensional structure. Both instruments had good internal consistency (Cronbach's α>0.8), test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥0.9) and exhibited moderate-to-high correlations (r>0.6) with related constructs and very low correlations (r<0.3) with unrelated constructs, providing evidence for construct validity. Daily and clinical visit “PROactive physical activity in COPD” instruments are hybrid tools combining a short patient-reported outcome questionnaire and two activity monitor variables which provide simple, valid and reliable measures of physical activity in COPD patients. PMID:26022965

  6. The PROactive instruments to measure physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Raste, Yogini; Demeyer, Heleen; Louvaris, Zafeiris; de Jong, Corina; Rabinovich, Roberto A; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Polkey, Michael I; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Tabberer, Maggie; Dobbels, Fabienne; Ivanoff, Nathalie; de Boer, Willem I; van der Molen, Thys; Kulich, Karoly; Serra, Ignasi; Basagaña, Xavier; Troosters, Thierry; Puhan, Milo A; Karlsson, Niklas; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith

    2015-10-01

    No current patient-centred instrument captures all dimensions of physical activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our objective was item reduction and initial validation of two instruments to measure physical activity in COPD.Physical activity was assessed in a 6-week, randomised, two-way cross-over, multicentre study using PROactive draft questionnaires (daily and clinical visit versions) and two activity monitors. Item reduction followed an iterative process including classical and Rasch model analyses, and input from patients and clinical experts.236 COPD patients from five European centres were included. Results indicated the concept of physical activity in COPD had two domains, labelled "amount" and "difficulty". After item reduction, the daily PROactive instrument comprised nine items and the clinical visit contained 14. Both demonstrated good model fit (person separation index >0.7). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the bidimensional structure. Both instruments had good internal consistency (Cronbach's α>0.8), test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥0.9) and exhibited moderate-to-high correlations (r>0.6) with related constructs and very low correlations (r<0.3) with unrelated constructs, providing evidence for construct validity.Daily and clinical visit "PROactive physical activity in COPD" instruments are hybrid tools combining a short patient-reported outcome questionnaire and two activity monitor variables which provide simple, valid and reliable measures of physical activity in COPD patients.

  7. Web-Based Self-Management in Chronic Care: A Study of Change in Patient Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Web-based self-management interventions (W-SMIs) are designed to help a large number of chronically ill people become more actively engaged in their health care. Despite the potential to engage more patients in self-managing their health, the use of W-SMIs by patients and their clinicians is low. Using a self-management conceptual model based on…

  8. Evaluation of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Greek Patients with Advanced Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Panagiotoua, Irene; Roumeliotou, Anna; Symeonidi, Matina; Galanos, Antonis; Kouvaris, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Translation of the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was carried out and its psychometric properties were assessed in a Greek sample of patients with advanced cancer. The scale was translated with the forward-backward procedure into the Greek language. It was initially administered to 136 advanced cancer patients. To assess…

  9. Activating Community Health Center Patients in Developing Question-Formulation Skills: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Wei-Hsin; Deen, Darwin; Rothstein, Dan; Santana, Luz; Gold, Marthe R.

    2011-01-01

    The authors developed and delivered a brief patient activation intervention (PAI) that sought to facilitate physician-patient communication. The intervention was designed to assist low-income, racial/ethnic minority users of community health centers in building skills and confidence asking questions. The PAI takes 8 to 10 minutes to deliver and…

  10. Overcoming the Influence of Chronic Pain on Older Patients' Difficulty with Recommended Self-Management Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krein, Sarah L.; Heisler, Michele; Piette, John D.; Butchart, Amy; Kerr, Eve A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Many older patients with common chronic conditions also experience chronic pain. We examined how chronic pain affects patients' difficulty with recommended self-management activities and the potential intervening role of self-efficacy (the level of confidence in one's own ability to perform a specific task). Design and Methods: We…

  11. Interrogation of Patient Smartphone Activity Tracker to Assist Arrhythmia Management.

    PubMed

    Rudner, Joshua; McDougall, Carol; Sailam, Vivek; Smith, Monika; Sacchetti, Alfred

    2016-09-01

    A 42-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation of unknown duration. Interrogation of the patient's wrist-worn activity tracker and smartphone application identified the onset of the arrhythmia as within the previous 3 hours, permitting electrocardioversion and discharge of the patient from the ED.

  12. Telemetry Option in the Measurement of Physical Activity for Patients with Heart Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melczer, Csaba; Melczer, László; Oláh, András; Sélleyné-Gyúró, Mónika; Welker, Zsanett; Ács, Pongrác

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of physical activity among patients with heart failure typically requires a special approach due to the patients' physical status. Nowadays, a technology is already available that can measure the kinematic movements in 3-D by a pacemaker and implantable defibrillator giving an assessment on software. The telemetry data can be…

  13. B cells from African American lupus patients exhibit an activated phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Menard, Laurence C.; Habte, Sium; Gonsiorek, Waldemar; Lee, Deborah; Banas, Dana; Holloway, Deborah A.; Cunningham, Mark; Stetsko, Dawn; Casano, Francesca; Kansal, Selena; Davis, Patricia M.; Carman, Julie; Zhang, Clarence K.; Abidi, Ferva; Furie, Richard; Nadler, Steven G.; Suchard, Suzanne J.

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex systemic autoimmune disease driven by both innate and adaptive immune cells. African Americans tend to present with more severe disease at an earlier age compared with patients of European ancestry. In order to better understand the immunological differences between African American and European American patients, we analyzed the frequencies of B cell subsets and the expression of B cell activation markers from a total of 68 SLE patients and 69 normal healthy volunteers. We found that B cells expressing the activation markers CD86, CD80, PD1, and CD40L, as well as CD19+CD27–IgD– double-negative B cells, were enriched in African American patients vs. patients of European ancestry. In addition to increased expression of CD40L, surface levels of CD40 on B cells were lower, suggesting the engagement of the CD40 pathway. In vitro experiments confirmed that CD40L expressed by B cells could lead to CD40 activation and internalization on adjacent B cells. To conclude, these results indicate that, compared with European American patients, African American SLE patients present with a particularly active B cell component, possibly via the activation of the CD40/CD40L pathway. These data may help guide the development of novel therapies. PMID:27699274

  14. Physical activity referrals in Swedish primary health care – prescriber and patient characteristics, reasons for prescriptions, and prescribed activities

    PubMed Central

    Leijon, ME; Bendtsen, P; Nilsen, P; Ekberg, K; Ståhle, A

    2008-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, practitioners in primary health care (PHC) settings in many countries have issued written prescriptions to patients to promote increased physical activity or exercise. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse a comprehensive physical activity referral (PAR) scheme implemented in a routine PHC setting in Östergötland County. The study examines characteristics of the PARs recipients and referral practitioners, identifies reasons why practitioners opted to use PARs with their clients, and discusses prescribed activities and prescriptions in relation to PHC registries. Methods Prospective prescription data were obtained for 90% of the primary health care centres in Östergötland County, Sweden, in 2004 and 2005. The study population consisted of patients who were issued PARs after they were deemed likely to benefit from increased physical activity, as assessed by PHC staff. Results During the two-year period, a total of 6,300 patients received PARs. Two-thirds of the patients were female and half of the patients were 45–64 years. Half of the patients (50.8%) who received PARs were recommended a home-based activity, such as walking. One third (33%) of the patients issued PARs were totally inactive, reporting no days of physical activity that lasted for 30 minutes, and 29% stated that they reached this level 1–2 days per week. The number of PARs prescribed per year in relation to the number of unique individuals that visited primary health care during one year was 1.4% in 2004 and 1.2% in 2005. Two-thirds of the combined prescriptions were issued by physicians (38%) and nurses (31%). Physiotherapists and behavioural scientists issued the highest relative number of prescriptions. The most common reasons for issuing PARs were musculoskeletal disorders (39.1%) and overweight (35.4%), followed by high blood pressure (23.3%) and diabetes (23.2%). Conclusion Östergötland County's PAR scheme reached a relatively high proportion

  15. [The contribution of Web 2.0 technologies to the empowerment of active patients].

    PubMed

    Oliver-Mora, Martí; Iñiguez-Rueda, Lupicinio

    2017-03-01

    The Spanish health system has recently been marked by the emergence of more active patients who are characterized as being better informed about their disease, having a more participatory attitude, wanting to have a greater influence in making decisions about their health and asserting their rights as patients. Therefore, this article aims to report on how the introduction of Web 2.0 technologies can contribute to the empowering of more active patients. To achieve this, 14 semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients and representatives of patient associations who have used Web 2.0 technologies to interact with other patients or to communicate with health professionals. From the results obtained, we highlight the fact that Web 2.0 technologies provide greater access to health-related information, improve communication between patients and health professionals, and enable the creation of new spaces of interaction among patients. All of the facts above contribute to the formation of a more active role on the part of patients.

  16. Decreased colonization of fecal Clostridium coccoides/Eubacterium rectale species from ulcerative colitis patients in an in vitro dynamic gut model with mucin environment.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, Joan; Van den Abbeele, Pieter; Laukens, Debby; Vigsnaes, Louise Kristine; De Vos, Martine; Boon, Nico; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2012-03-01

    The mucus layer in the colon, acting as a barrier to prevent invasion of pathogens, is thinner and discontinuous in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). A recent developed in vitro dynamic gut model, the M-SHIME, was used to compare long-term colonization of the mucin layer by the microbiota from six healthy volunteers (HV) and six UC patients and thus distinguish the mucin adhered from the luminal microbiota. Although under the same nutritional conditions, short-chain fatty acid production by the luminal communities from UC patients showed a tendency toward a lower butyrate production. A more in-depth community analysis of those microbial groups known to produce butyrate revealed that the diversity of the Clostridium coccoides/Eubacterium rectale and Clostridium leptum group, and counts of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were lower in the luminal fractions of the UC samples. Counts of Roseburia spp. were lower in the mucosal fractions of the UC samples. qPCR analysis for butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase, responsible for butyrate production, displayed a lower abundance in both the luminal and mucosal fractions of the UC samples. The M-SHIME model revealed depletion in butyrate producing microbial communities not restricted to the luminal but also in the mucosal samples from UC patients compared to HV.

  17. Pulmonary Rehabilitation and Physical Activity in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Spruit, Martijn A; Pitta, Fabio; McAuley, Edward; ZuWallack, Richard L; Nici, Linda

    2015-10-15

    Physical inactivity is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared with age-matched healthy individuals or patients with other chronic diseases. Physical inactivity independently predicts poor outcomes across several aspects of this disease, but it is (at least in principle) treatable in patients with COPD. Pulmonary rehabilitation has arguably the greatest positive effect of any current therapy on exercise capacity in COPD; as such, gains in this area should facilitate increases in physical activity. Furthermore, because pulmonary rehabilitation also emphasizes behavior change through collaborative self-management, it may aid in the translation of increased exercise capacity to greater participation in activities involving physical activity. Both increased exercise capacity and adaptive behavior change are necessary to achieve significant and lasting increases in physical activity in patients with COPD. Unfortunately, it is readily assumed that this translation occurs naturally. This concise clinical review will focus on the effects of a comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation program on physical activity in patients with COPD. Changing physical activity behavior in patients with COPD needs an interdisciplinary approach, bringing together respiratory medicine, rehabilitation sciences, social sciences, and behavioral sciences.

  18. Relationship between serum leptin level and disease activity in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Budulgan, Mahmut; Dilek, Banu; Dağ, Şevin Buluttekin; Batmaz, Ibrahim; Yıldız, İsmail; Sarıyıldız, Mustafa Akif; Çevik, Remzi; Nas, Kemal

    2014-03-01

    To determine the relationship between serum leptin levels and disease activity in systemic sclerosis (SSc). A total of 60 subjects (30 controls and 30 patients) were included. The inflammatory markers and leptin levels were evaluated and body mass index (BMI) was measured for both groups. The assessment of the skin involvement was performed based on the modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS). Disease activity was evaluated according to the Valentini scleroderma disease activity index. There was a significant difference between the patient and control groups in terms of BMI (p < 0.05); however there was no difference with regards to age and gender (p > 0.05). Valentini scores and mRSS were determined to be significantly higher in active patients (n = 14) than in inactive patients (n = 16) (p < 0.05). No significant difference was determined between groups in terms of leptin levels (p > 0.05). However, leptin levels were significantly lower in active patients than in inactive patients (p < 0.05). We found a significant positive correlation between serum leptin and BMI (p < 0.05), and leptin and serum C3 levels (p < 0.05); no relationship was detected between leptin and other parameters. Leptin can be used as an activity marker in SSc. Further studies, including larger series, should be carried out to clarify this relationship.

  19. Raising low 'patient activation' rates among Hispanic immigrants may equal expanded coverage in reducing access disparities.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Peter J; Hibbard, Judith; Gibbons, Claire B

    2011-10-01

    There is a growing consensus that activating consumers to become better managers of their health is an essential component of US health care reform. We measured how activated blacks, whites, and Hispanics are-that is, how confident, skillful, and knowledgeable they are about taking an active role in improving their health and health care. We found that patient activation among blacks and Hispanics was low, relative to that of whites. For example, 24.8 percent of Hispanics were at the highest level of patient activation, compared to 39.5 percent of blacks and 45.3 percent of whites. Among Hispanic immigrants, low acculturation and lack of familiarity with the US health care system contribute to low activation. The findings indicate that increasing activation levels among Hispanic immigrants may be as important as expanding insurance coverage in reducing disparities in unmet medical need.

  20. Patient-Provider Communication: Understanding the Role of Patient Activation for Latinos in Mental Health Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Dharma E.; Mulvaney-Day, Norah; Fortuna, Lisa; Reinfeld, Sarah; Alegria, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights results from the Right Question Project-Mental Health (RQP-MH), an intervention designed to teach skills in question formulation and to increase patients' participation in decisions about mental health treatment. Of participants in the RQP-MH intervention, 83% were from a Latino background, and 75% of the interviews were…

  1. Structural and optical characterization of NaGdF4: Ho3+/Yb3+ UC nano-particles for lateral finger mark detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Tiwari, S. P.; Krishna, K. M.; Kumar, K.

    2016-05-01

    Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped NaGdF4 up-conversion (UC) nano-particles were synthesized by thermal decomposition method. X-ray diffraction and FE-SEM image analysis were done to confirm the structure, morphology and determination of particle size. The UC emission spectra for as prepared as well as 100°C, 200°C, 300°C, 400°C, 800°C, 1000°C and 1200°C heated for 3h samples were recorded and there emission intensities were compared at a constant pump power of excitations 98.1 W/cm2. The effect of emission intensity on decay time was also studied through focused and unfocused excitations. The synthesized material was successfully utilized in lateral finger mark detections on the glass substrate through powder dusting method.

  2. Enhanced neutrophil activity is associated with shorter time to tumor progression in glioblastoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Afsar; Cederarv, Madeleine; Wolmer-Solberg, Nina; Tammik, Charlotte; Stragliotto, Giuseppe; Peredo, Inti; Fornara, Olesja; Xu, Xinling; Dzabic, Mensur; Taher, Chato; Skarman, Petra; Söderberg-Nauclér, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant tumor with a poor outcome that is often positive for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). GBM patients often have excessive numbers of neutrophils and macrophages near and within the tumor. Here, we characterized the cytokine patterns in the blood of GBM patients with and without Valganciclovir treatment. Furthermore, we determined whether neutrophil activation is related to HCMV status and patient outcome. Blood samples for analyses of cytokines and growth factors were collected from 42 GBM patients at the time of diagnosis (n = 42) and at weeks 12 and 24 after surgery. Blood neutrophils of 28 GBM patients were examined for CD11b expression. The levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines—including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17A, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, interferon-γ, interferon-α, tumor necrosis factor α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1were analyzed with a bead-based flow cytometry assay. During the first six months after surgery, neutrophil activity was increased in 12 patients and was unchanged or decreased in 16. Patients with increased neutrophil activity had enhanced IL-12p70, high grade HCMV and a shorter time to tumor progression (TTP) than patients without or decreased neutrophil activity (median TTP; 5.4 vs. 12 months, 95% confidence interval; 1.6–10 vs. 0.1–0.6, hazard ratio = 3 vs. 0.4, p = 0.004). The levels of IL-12p70 were significantly decreased in Valganciclovir treated patients (n = 22, T 12W vs. T 24W, p = 0.03). In conclusion, our findings suggest that neutrophil activation is an early sign of tumor progression in GBM patients. PMID:27057448

  3. Leisure time activities of Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Sadegh; Asgari, Ali; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Yazdani, Farzaneh; Mazdeh, Mehrdokht

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leisure time is one of the most important aspects of life, especially for people with chronic diseases. The concept and types of leisure have frequently been evaluated in different socio-cultural populations. The aim of this study was to identify the nature of leisure activities among a sample of Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and classify the identified types of activities in the context of Iranian culture. Methods: In this qualitative study, semi-structured interview was applied to gather data from 34 MS patients that were selected through purposive sampling. The interviews were continued up to the point of saturation. Content analysis was used to explore experiences of the interviewees regarding their leisure activities. Results: Six categories of leisure activities were extracted for the studied patients with MS i.e.physical, social, individual, art/cultural, educational and spiritual/religious. Conclusion: The results represented the range and heterogeneity of leisure activities amongst the MS patients. Considering participation in spiritual/religious and social activities as leisure time undertaking might reflect cultural diversity in the perception and use of time for recreation. For mental health promotion purposes, paying special attention to the types of activities that people of different socio-cultural background choose for their refreshment could help health care providers in giving tailored advice for patients with MS and other chronic debilitating disease. PMID:27123437

  4. Chitotriosidase Activity and Gene Polymorphism in Iranian Patients with Gaucher Disease and Sibling Carriers

    PubMed Central

    MOZAFARI, Hadi; TAGHIKHANI, Mohammad; KHATAMI, Shohreh; ALAEI, Mohammad Reza; VAISI-RAYGANI, Asad; RAHIMI, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chitotriosidase (CT) activity is a useful biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring of Gaucher disease (GD). Its application is limited by some variants in the CT gene. Two main polymorphisms are 24 bp duplication and G102S led to reduce CT activity. The aim of this study was to determine these variants influencing on plasma CT activity. Materials & Methods Blood samples were collected from 33 patients with GD, 15 sibling carriers and 105 healthy individuals serving as controls. CT activity was measured using 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-N,N′,N″triacetylchitotrioside substrate in plasma samples. The CT genotypes of 24 bp duplication and G102S variants were determined using PCR and PCR-RFLP. Results Untreated GD patients had a significantly higher CT activity compared to treated patients (P = 0.021). In addition, chitotriosidase activity in carriers was higher rather than controls. Allele frequencies of 24 bp duplication in GD patients, sibling carriers and controls were 0.21, 0.266 and 0.29 and for G102S were 0.318, 0.366 and 0.219, respectively. Different G102S genotypes had not significant effect on CT activity. Chitotriosidase activity has a positive correlation with age in normal group, carriers, and negative correlation with hemoglobin in GD patients. Using cut-off level of 80.75 nmol/ml/h, sensitivity and specificity of CT activity were 93.9% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion Chitotriosidase activity is a suitable biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring of GD. Determination of 24 bp duplication is helpful for more accurate monitoring the GD patient’s therapy. However, it seems that, specifying of the G102S polymorphism is not required for Iranian GD patients. PMID:27843468

  5. Gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ulcerative colitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Ying-Lei; Xiao, Yu-Liang; Du, Yan; Duan, Li-Ping

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To identify peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression profiles of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, using oligonucleotide microarrays, to gain insights into UC molecular mechanisms. METHODS: The Human OneArray microarrays were used for a complete genome-wide transcript profiling of PBMCs from 12 UC patients and 6 controls. Differential analysis per gene was performed with a random variance model; t test and P values were adjusted to control the false discovery rate (5%). Gene ontology (GO) was deployed to analyze differentially expressed genes at significant levels between patients and controls to identify the biological processes involved in UC. RESULTS: Comparative analysis revealed that 4438 probes (4188 genes) were differentially expressed between the two groups, of which 3689 probes (3590 genes) were down-regulated whereas 749 probes (598 genes) were up-regulated. Many disregulated genes in our data have been reported by previous microarray studies carried out on intestinal mucosa samples, such as S100A8, CEACAM1 and S100A9. GO enrichment analysis revealed 67 high enrichment up-regulated categories and one significant down-regulated category. The up-regulated genes were mainly involved in immune and inflammatory response, cell cycle and proliferation, DNA metabolism and repair. CONCLUSION: Gene expression profiling of PBMCs from patients with UC has highlighted several novel gene categories that could contribute to the pathogenesis of UC. PMID:23745037

  6. ATPase activity of erythrocyte membrane in patients with trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome).

    PubMed

    Xue, Q M; Shen, D G; Dong, W

    1984-11-01

    ATPase activity of crythroyte membranes was determined in 25 cases of Down's syndrome verified by cytological and psychological examinations. The age range of the patients was 8-25 years; 16 males and 9 females. Thirty health male volunteers were selected as the control group. There was a marked reduction of total ATPase, Na+, K+-ATPase, Mg++ATPase activities and rate of ouabain inhibition in the patients with Down's syndrome. The authors suggest that there might exist transport defects in the red cell membranes in such patients.

  7. Physical activity in patients with venous leg ulcer – between engagement and avoidance. A patient perspective

    PubMed Central

    Biguet, Gabriele; Elfving, Britt

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify and describe the qualitative variations in how physical activity is perceived and understood by individuals with current or previous venous leg ulcer. Design: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Method: Twenty-two individuals aged 60–85 years were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed by three researchers using a phenomenographic research approach. A set of categories of descriptions and their internal relationships were constructed based on the essential features of the variation in patients’ perceptions of physical activity. Results: Four categories of descriptions were identified: (i) ‘self-management’, (ii) ‘instructions and support’, (iii) ‘fear of injury’ and (iv) ‘a wish to stay normal’. The categories could be interpreted by a two-dimensional construct: (1) perception of venous leg ulcer as a chronic or acute condition and (2) engagement or avoidance behaviour toward physical activity. Chronicity and behaviour combined together formed a 2 × 2 square housing the four qualitatively different categories. Irrespective of category, the participants reported that information given by caregivers regarding leg ulcer and physical activity was insufficient or contradictory. Written information or exercise programmes were not obtained regularly and not at all in primary care. Conclusion: A dichotomous view emerged from participants’ experiences of physical activity based on (1) perception of venous leg ulcer as a chronic or acute condition and (2) engagement or avoidance behaviour toward physical activity. PMID:21148268

  8. Transition from colitis to cancer: high Wnt activity sustains the tumor-initiating potential of colon cancer stem cell precursors.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Anitha K; Fisher, Robert C; Butterworth, Elizabeth A; Pi, Liya; Chang, Lung-Ji; Appelman, Henry D; Chang, Myron; Scott, Edward W; Huang, Emina H

    2012-10-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the mechanisms involved in colitis-to-cancer transition (CCT) are not well understood. CCT may involve a inflammation-dysplasia-carcinoma progression sequence compared with the better characterized adenoma-carcinoma progression sequence associated with sporadic CRC. One common thread may be activating mutations in components of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which occur commonly as early events in sporadic CRC. To examine this hypothesis, we evaluated possible associations between Wnt/β-catenin signaling and CCT based on the cancer stem cell (CSC) model. Wnt/β-catenin immunostaining indicated that UC patients have a level of Wnt-pathway-active cells that is intermediate between normal colon and CRC. These UC cells exhibiting activation of the Wnt pathway constituted a major subpopulation (52% + 7.21) of the colonic epithelial cells positive for aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), a putative marker of precursor colon CSC (pCCSC). We further fractionated this subpopulation of pCCSC using a Wnt pathway reporter assay. Over successive passages, pCCSCs with the highest Wnt activity exhibited higher clonogenic and tumorigenic potential than pCCSCs with the lowest Wnt activity, thereby establishing the key role of Wnt activity in driving CSC-like properties in these cells. Notably, 5/20 single cell injections of high-Wnt pCCSC resulted in tumor formation, suggesting a correlation with CCT. Attenuation of Wnt/β-catenin in high-Wnt pCCSC by shRNA-mediated downregulation or pharmacological inhibition significantly reduced tumor growth rates. Overall, the results of our study indicates (i) that early activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critical for CCT and (ii) that high levels of Wnt/β-catenin signaling can further demarcate high-ALDH tumor-initiating cells in the nondysplastic epithelium of UC patients. As such, our findings offer plausible diagnostic markers and therapeutic target in the

  9. Assessment of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity and oxidative stress in patients with chronic tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Garca, Mehmet Fatih; Demir, Halit; Turan, Mahfuz; Bozan, Nazım; Kozan, Ahmet; Belli, Şeyda Bayel; Arslan, Ayşe; Cankaya, Hakan

    2014-06-01

    To emphasize the effectiveness of adenosine deaminase (ADA) enzyme, which has important roles in the differentiation of lymphoid cells, and oxidative stress in patients with chronic tonsillitis. Serum and tissue samples were obtained from 25 patients who underwent tonsillectomy due to recurrent episodes of acute tonsillitis. In the control group, which also had 25 subjects, only serum samples were taken as obtaining tissue samples would not have been ethically appropriate. ADA enzyme activity, catalase (CAT), carbonic anhydrase (CA), nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in the serum and tissue samples of patients and control group subjects. The serum values of both groups were compared. In addition, the tissue and serum values of patients were compared. Serum ADA activity and the oxidant enzymes MDA and NO values of the patient group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.001), the antioxidant enzymes CA and CAT values of the patient group were significantly lower than those of the control group (p < 0.001). In addition, while CA, CAT and NO enzyme levels were found to be significantly higher in the tonsil tissue of the patient group when compared to serum levels (p < 0.05), there was no difference between tissue and serum MDA and ADA activity (p > 0.05). Elevated ADA activity may be effective in the pathogenesis of chronic tonsillitis both by impairing tissue structure and contributing to SOR formation.

  10. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Delikanaki-Skaribas, Evangelia; Trail, Marilyn; Wong, William Wai-Lun; Lai, Eugene C

    2009-04-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (PA) energy expenditure (PAEE), are elevated in WL compared with weight stable (WS) PD patients. We measured DEE in 10 PD WL patients and 10 PD WS patients using doubly labeled water (DLW). PAEE was estimated with DLW, activity monitors, and activity questionnaires. REE was measured with indirect calorimetry. We evaluated energy intake (EI) with a patient's 3-day food diary. Data was assessed employing SPSS, Spearman correlation coefficients, and Bland and Altman plots. There was no difference in DEE between the WL and WS groups measured with DLW. There were no differences in REE and EI between groups. DEE (r = 0.548, P < 0.05) and PAEE (r = 0.563, P < 0.01) are related with caloric intake. The WL group had higher PA than the WS group (P < 0.042) only when measured with wrist activity monitors. Results suggest that WL in PD patients cannot be fully explained by an increase in DEE. Large longitudinal studies to examine multiple relationships between variables might provide us with a better understanding of WL among PD patients.

  11. Indomethacin augments lymphokine-activated killer cell generation by patients with malignant mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, L.S.; Bowman, R.V.; Davis, M.R.; Musk, A.W.; Robinson, B.W. )

    1989-10-01

    Human malignant mesothelioma (MM) cells are resistant to natural killer (NK) cell lysis but susceptible to lysis by lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells from control individuals. The present study was performed to determine the capacity of patients with MM (n = 22) and individuals occupationally exposed to asbestos (the major population at risk of developing this disease, n = 52) to generate LAK cells capable of effectively lysing human mesothelioma cells. Compared to controls (n = 20), both patient groups demonstrated significantly depressed LAK cell activity against mesothelioma tumor cell targets (55 +/- 3% lysis by controls vs 34 +/- 3% lysis by patients with MM, P less than 0.005; and 45 +/- 3% lysis by asbestos-exposed individuals, P less than 0.025). Addition of 10 micrograms/ml indomethacin during LAK cell generation restored normal LAK cell activity for patients with MM (52 +/- 6% lysis of cultured human MM cells, P = NS compared to controls), suggesting that the defective cytolytic cell function observed in some patients with MM is a result of prostaglandin-induced immunosuppression. The ability of indomethacin to restore suppressed LAK cell activity in patients with MM suggests that the concomitant use of this agent in ex vivo LAK cell generation and in patients undergoing interleukin/LAK cell therapy may be beneficial.

  12. Arginase activity in peripheral blood of patients with intestinal schistosomiasis, Wonji, Central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getaneh, A; Tamrat, A; Tadesse, K

    2015-07-01

    Morbidity and mortality caused by schistosomiasis usually results from immunopathology. But the underlying mechanisms are not yet clearly understood. Th2-type immune response is thought to be dominant during chronic schistosomiasis, and upregulation of arginase-I is one component of this milieu. A cohort study was conducted to assess arginase activity in peripheral blood of humans with intestinal schistosomiasis in Wonji-Shoa Sugar Estate, Central Ethiopia. Laboratory-confirmed 30 Schistosoma mansoni-infected patients and 18 apparently healthy controls were recruited. Faecal egg count was carried out by Kato-Katz technique. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from whole blood. Activity of arginase in plasma and PBMC lysates was measured, and results were compared with that of controls. Twenty-one of 30 patients had light infection, whereas moderate and heavy intensity infections were observed in eight and only one patient(s), respectively. A significant increase in both PBMC (patients: 59.96 + 82.99, controls: 25.44 + 24.6 mU/mg protein, P < 0.0001) and plasma (patients: 1.61 + 2.19, controls: 0.31 + 0.73 mU/mL plasma, P < 0.0001) arginase activity was observed during human S. mansoni infection. Arginase activity increases in peripheral blood of patients with intestinal schistosomiasis.

  13. Correlation between digestion of the lipid phase of smedds and release of the anti-HIV drug UC 781 and the anti-mycotic drug enilconazole from smedds.

    PubMed

    Goddeeris, C; Coacci, J; Van den Mooter, G

    2007-05-01

    The present studies were conducted primarily to compare the drug release process of the anti-HIV drug UC781 from three different smedds to the smedds digestion profile. The influence of every formulation component on the digestion process, measured as the release of fatty acids, was determined. In addition, the release of the antimycotic drug enilconazole from a smedds was investigated as well in order to study the influence of the type of incorporated drug on oil digestion. Simulsol 1292, Tween 80, Cremophor RH40, ethanol and both drugs reduced the fatty acid release. C8, C10 and C12 fatty acids, originating from oil hydrolysis, were able to reverse the inhibitory effect of phospholipids present in the release medium. Similarly Cremophor RH40 lost its inhibitory capacities in combination with Captex 200P hydrolysis. In addition, UC781 did not decrease fatty acid release in combination with a Captex 200P-Tween 80-ethanol mixture. The release of UC781 from smedds significantly increased compared to the dissolution of the pure drug. The drug release profiles were characterized by rapid and complete release followed by precipitation. In order to detect possible correlations between drug release and oil digestion, release results were compared to those of vehicle digestion experiments. Contrary to what one would assume, a higher extent of fatty acid liberation did not enhance drug release. In other words, drug release does not seem to be driven by the extent of lipid digestion.

  14. Biotransformation of primary nicotine metabolites. I. In vivo metabolism of R-(+)-( UC-NCH3)N-methylnicotinium ion in the guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, W.F.; Crooks, P.A.

    1985-09-01

    The in vivo biotransformation and tissue distribution of the methylated nicotine metabolite R-(+)-( UC-NCH3)N-methylnicotinium acetate was studied in the guinea pig. The detection and quantification of 24-hr urinary metabolites after ip injection was determined by cation-exchange HPLC interfaced to a radiochemical flowthrough detector. The urinary metabolite profile consisted of five peaks. One eluted close to the void, and three coeluted with authentic standards of N-methylcotininium ion, N-methylnornicotinium ion, and N-methylnicotinium ion. A fifth, and as yet unidentified, metabolite was also detected. Tissue distribution of UC label after 24 hr was highest in the adrenal gland and epididymis followed by the gallbladder, bladder, kidney, spleen, and heart. No significant amounts of UC were found in the brain. The results indicate that N-methylcotininium ion and N-methylnornicotinium ion are both formed subsequent to the formation of N-methylnicotinium ion in the metabolism of R-(+)-nicotine in the guinea pig.

  15. Asymptomatic Atherosclerosis in Egyptian Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients and Its Relation to Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Elshereef, Rawhya R.; Darwish, Aymen; Ali, Amal; Abdel-kadar, Mohammed; Hamdy, Lamiaa

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To detect the frequency of subclinical atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis patients without clinically evident atherosclerosis and to correlate its presence with the disease activity. Patients and Methods. Our study includes 112 RA patients (group 1) and 40 healthy controls (group 11). All patients and controls were subjected to full history taking, clinical examination, and laboratory investigations. Carotid intima media wall thickness (IMT) and carotid plaques were measured in both groups by B-mode ultrasonography; also color duplex Doppler ultrasound of the brachial artery was done to detect endothelial function. Results. There is atherosclerosis in 31.3% of asymptomatic RA patients compared with only 5% in controls (P = 0.003**). A significant difference was detected in patients with and without atherosclerosis regarding duration of the disease (P = 0.0001***) and patient's age (P = 0.01*). There is highly statistical significant correlation between atherosclerosis and disease activity index. Conclusion. The frequency of subclinical atherosclerosis was high in long-term active RA patients. PMID:25737726

  16. Carotid Artery Stenting for Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients after Intravenous Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Deguchi, Ichiro; Hayashi, Takeshi; Neki, Hiroaki; Yamane, Fumitaka; Ishihara, Shoichiro; Tanahashi, Norio; Takao, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    We herein report three ischemic stroke patients who underwent emergency carotid artery stenting after receiving intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) treatment. All patients received antiplatelet medications immediately before stent placement for loading as well as dual antiplatelet therapy after stenting. Under high-dose and dual antiplatelet therapy, none of the three patients showed symptomatic intracranial hemorrhaging. However, one case showed reocclusion of the placed stent after acute thrombosis. As a result, new treatment strategies for the use of antiplatelet agents during emergency stent placement must be developed, particularly for patients who have received intravenous t-PA therapy. PMID:27725550

  17. The changing face(book) of psychiatry: can we justify 'following' patients' social media activity?

    PubMed

    Cox-George, Chantal

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with mental health issues may post information on social networking sites that can provide an insight into their mental health status. It could be argued that doctors (and specifically psychiatrists) should understand the way in which social media is used by their patients to gain a better insight into their illnesses. However, choosing to actively monitor a patient's social media activity raises important questions about the way in which medical students, qualified clinicians and other healthcare professionals obtain information about patients. While this may be framed as a mere form of 'collateral history-taking', there are obvious practical and ethical problems with doing so. Here, a case is made against monitoring the social media activity of patients involved with psychiatric services.

  18. Integrative analysis of breast cancer reveals prognostic haematopoietic activity and patient-specific immune response profiles

    PubMed Central

    Varn, Frederick S.; Andrews, Erik H.; Mullins, David W.; Cheng, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional programmes active in haematopoietic cells enable a variety of functions including dedifferentiation, innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Understanding how these programmes function in the context of cancer can provide valuable insights into host immune response, cancer severity and potential therapy response. Here we present a method that uses the transcriptomes of over 200 murine haematopoietic cells, to infer the lineage-specific haematopoietic activity present in human breast tumours. Correlating this activity with patient survival and tumour purity reveals that the transcriptional programmes of many cell types influence patient prognosis and are found in environments of high lymphocytic infiltration. Collectively, these results allow for a detailed and personalized assessment of the patient immune response to a tumour. When combined with routinely collected patient biopsy genomic data, this method can enable a richer understanding of the complex interplay between the host immune system and cancer. PMID:26725977

  19. Active music therapy in the rehabilitation of severe brain injured patients during coma recovery.

    PubMed

    Formisano, R; Vinicola, V; Penta, F; Matteis, M; Brunelli, S; Weckel, J W

    2001-01-01

    Active improvised music therapy may offer an adjuvant from of treatment in the early rehabilitation of severe brain-injured patients. Active music therapy consists of musical improvisation between patient and therapist by singing or by playing different musical instruments, according to the vital functions, the neurological conditions and the motor abilities of the patients. We studied 34 severe brain-injured patients with a mean coma duration of 52 days +/- 37.21 and a mean interval from coma onset to the beginning of rehabilitation of 154 days on average. Our preliminary results show a significant improvement of the collaboration of the severe brain-injured patients and a reduction of undesired behaviours such as inertia (reduced psychomotor initiative) or psychomotor agitation.

  20. Collective AIDS Activism and Individuals' Perceived Self-Advocacy in Physician-Patient Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brashers, Dale E.; Haas, Stephen M.; Klingle, Renee S.; Neidig, Judith L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes parallel persuasive processes between social or political activism and personal self-advocacy in a study of AIDS activism and communication patterns between people with HIV or AIDS and health care personnel. Encourages greater patient education about the illness and treatment options. Promotes a more assertive stance toward health care,…

  1. Intestinal Disaccharidase Activity in Patients with Autism: Effect of Age, Gender, and Intestinal Inflammation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushak, Rafail I.; Lauwers, Gregory Y.; Winter, Harland S.; Buie, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal disaccharidase activities were measured in 199 individuals with autism to determine the frequency of enzyme deficiency. All patients had duodenal biopsies that were evaluated morphologically and assayed for lactase, sucrase, and maltase activity. Frequency of lactase deficiency was 58% in autistic children less than or equal to 5 years…

  2. Deep brain stimulation suppresses pallidal low frequency activity in patients with phasic dystonic movements.

    PubMed

    Barow, Ewgenia; Neumann, Wolf-Julian; Brücke, Christof; Huebl, Julius; Horn, Andreas; Brown, Peter; Krauss, Joachim K; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Kühn, Andrea A

    2014-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus alleviates involuntary movements in patients with dystonia. However, the mechanism is still not entirely understood. One hypothesis is that deep brain stimulation suppresses abnormally enhanced synchronized oscillatory activity within the motor cortico-basal ganglia network. Here, we explore deep brain stimulation-induced modulation of pathological low frequency (4-12 Hz) pallidal activity that has been described in local field potential recordings in patients with dystonia. Therefore, local field potentials were recorded from 16 hemispheres in 12 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation for severe dystonia using a specially designed amplifier allowing simultaneous high frequency stimulation at therapeutic parameter settings and local field potential recordings. For coherence analysis electroencephalographic activity (EEG) over motor areas and electromyographic activity (EMG) from affected neck muscles were recorded before and immediately after cessation of high frequency stimulation. High frequency stimulation led to a significant reduction of mean power in the 4-12 Hz band by 24.8 ± 7.0% in patients with predominantly phasic dystonia. A significant decrease of coherence between cortical EEG and pallidal local field potential activity in the 4-12 Hz range was revealed for the time period of 30 s after switching off high frequency stimulation. Coherence between EMG activity and pallidal activity was mainly found in patients with phasic dystonic movements where it was suppressed after high frequency stimulation. Our findings suggest that high frequency stimulation may suppress pathologically enhanced low frequency activity in patients with phasic dystonia. These dystonic features are the quickest to respond to high frequency stimulation and may thus directly relate to modulation of pathological basal ganglia activity, whereas improvement in tonic features may depend on long-term plastic changes within the

  3. Long-term effectiveness of azathioprine in IBD beyond 4 years: a European multicenter study in 1176 patients.

    PubMed

    Holtmann, Martin H; Krummenauer, Frank; Claas, Christina; Kremeyer, Kristina; Lorenz, Dirk; Rainer, Olivia; Vogel, Iris; Böcker, Ulrich; Böhm, Stephan; Büning, Carsten; Duchmann, Rainer; Gerken, Guido; Herfarth, Hans; Lügering, Norbert; Kruis, Wolfgang; Reinshagen, Max; Schmidt, Jan; Stallmach, Andreas; Stein, Jürgen; Sturm, Andreas; Galle, Peter R; Hommes, Daan W; D'Haens, Geert; Rutgeerts, Paul; Neurath, Markus F

    2006-09-01

    In Crohn's disease the optimal duration of azathioprine treatment is still controversial and for ulcerative colitis only limited data are available to support its efficacy. Charts of 1176 patients with IBD from 16 European centers were analyzed. Flare incidences and steroid dosages were assessed for the time before and during treatment and after discontinuation. Within the first 4 years, azathioprine suppressed flare incidence and steroid consumption in both diseases (P < 0.001). While in CD discontinuation after 3-4 years did not lead to reactivation, this was the case in UC. However, continuation beyond 4 years further improved clinical activity in CD and steroid requirement in both diseases (P < 0.001). Discontinuation of azathioprine may thus be considered after 3-4 years in CD patients in complete remission without steroid requirement. In all other CD patients and for UC patients in general, continuation seems beneficial. These results support a novel differential algorithm for long-term azathioprine therapy in IBD.

  4. Fluoxetine modulates motor performance and cerebral activation of patients recovering from stroke.

    PubMed

    Pariente, J; Loubinoux, I; Carel, C; Albucher, J F; Leger, A; Manelfe, C; Rascol, O; Chollet, F

    2001-12-01

    In order to determine the influence of a single dose of fluoxetine on the cerebral motor activation of lacunar stroke patients in the early phase of recovery, we conducted a prospective, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study on 8 patients with pure motor hemiparesia. Each patient underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examinations: one under fluoxetine and one under placebo. The first was performed 2 weeks after stroke onset and the second a week later. During the two fMRI examinations, patients performed an active controlled motor task with the affected hand and a passive one conducted by the examiner with the same hand. Motor performance was evaluated by motor tests under placebo and under fluoxetine immediately before the examinations to investigate the effect of fluoxetine on motor function. Under fluoxetine, during the active motor task, hyperactivation in the ipsilesional primary motor cortex was found. Moreover, fluoxetine significantly improved motor skills of the affected side. We found that a single dose of fluoxetine was enough to modulate cerebral sensory-motor activation in patients. This redistribution of activation toward the motor cortex output activation was associated with an enhancement of motor performance.

  5. Plasma drug activity assay for treatment optimization in tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Heysell, Scott K; Mtabho, Charles; Mpagama, Stellah; Mwaigwisya, Solomon; Pholwat, Suporn; Ndusilo, Norah; Gratz, Jean; Aarnoutse, Rob E; Kibiki, Gibson S; Houpt, Eric R

    2011-12-01

    Low antituberculosis (TB) drug levels are common, but their clinical significance remains unclear, and methods of measurement are resource intensive. Subjects initiating treatment for sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB were enrolled from Kibong'oto National TB Hospital, Tanzania, and levels of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide were measured at the time of typical peak plasma concentration (C(2 h)). To evaluate the significance of the effect of observed drug levels on Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth, a plasma TB drug activity (TDA) assay was developed using the Bactec MGIT system. Time to detection of plasma-cocultured M. tuberculosis versus time to detection of control growth was defined as a TDA ratio. TDA assays were later performed using the subject's own M. tuberculosis isolate and C(2 h) plasma from the Tanzanian cohort and compared to drug levels and clinical outcomes. Sixteen subjects with a mean age of 37.8 years ± 10.7 were enrolled. Fourteen (88%) had C(2 h) rifampin levels and 11 (69%) had isoniazid levels below 90% of the lower limit of the expected range. Plasma spiked with various concentrations of antituberculosis medications found TDA assay results to be unaffected by ethambutol or pyrazinamide. Yet with a range of isoniazid and rifampin concentrations, TDA exhibited a statistically significant correlation with drug level and drug MIC, and a TDA of ~1.0 indicated the presence of multidrug-resistant TB. In Tanzania, low (≤ 2.0) TDA was significantly associated with both lower isoniazid and rifampin C(2 h) levels, and very low (≤ 1.5) TDA corresponded to a trend toward lack of cure. Study of TDA compared to additional clinical outcomes and as a therapeutic management tool is warranted.

  6. A comparison of red blood cell transfusion utilization between anti-activated factor X and activated partial thromboplastin monitoring in patients receiving unfractionated heparin.

    PubMed

    Belk, K W; Laposata, M; Craver, C

    2016-11-01

    Essentials Anti-activated factor X (Anti-Xa) monitoring is more precise than activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT). 20 804 hospitalized cardiovascular patients monitored with Anti-Xa or aPTT were analyzed. Adjusted transfusion rates were significantly lower for patients monitored with Anti-Xa. Adoption of Anti-Xa protocols could reduce transfusions among cardiovascular patients in the US.

  7. Fibromyalgia in patients with axial spondyloarthritis: epidemiological profile and effect on measures of disease activity.

    PubMed

    Salaffi, Fausto; De Angelis, Rossella; Carotti, Marina; Gutierrez, Marwin; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Atzeni, Fabiola

    2014-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of fibromyalgia (FM) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) or psoriatic arthritis (PsA) characterized by axial involvement (axial-PsA), and to assess the discriminative ability of different versions of the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Activity Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) in measuring disease activity in three different cohorts of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axial-SpA), FM, or both (axial-SpA + FM), this study was divided into two phases: (1) 402 patients with definite AS or axial-PsA were examined to diagnose FM and estimate its prevalence; and (2) 419 patients (111 with axial-SpA, 248 with FM, and 60 with aSpA + FM) were evaluated using the different versions of the ASDAS and BASDAI to assess the effect on disease activity. The overall prevalence of FM in the axial-SpA population was 14.9 %, significantly higher among women (p < 0.0001); the estimated prevalence in AS was 12.7 % and in axial-PsA was 17.2 %. Although the BASDAI scores correlated with those of ASDAS-C-reactive protein (CRP) and ASDAS-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (p < 0.0001), only ASDAS had sufficient discriminatory ability to assess disease activity. The addition of only one marker of inflammation led to an adequate level of significance (ASDAS-CRP, p = 0.0018; ASDAS-ESR, p = 0.003). FM is common in axial-SpA and more prevalent in female patients. Our findings suggest that ASDAS is better than BASDAI in distinguishing patients with disease activity from those with functional impairment. The use of ASDAS may be very useful in clinical practice as it allows treating patients with the most appropriate therapy.

  8. Impaired NADPH oxidase activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes of galactosemia patients.

    PubMed

    Al-Essa, Mazen; Dhaunsi, Gursev S; Al-Qabandi, Wafa'a; Khan, Islam

    2013-07-01

    Galactosemia is an autosomal recessive disorder with a wide range of clinical abnormalities. Cellular oxidative stress is considered as one of the pathogenic mechanisms of galactosemia. In this study, we examined the activity of NADPH oxidase (NOX), a major superoxide-generating enzyme system, in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from galactosemia patients. PBL were isolated from galactosemia patients and healthy control subjects and used for cell culture studies and biochemical assays. PBL were cultured in the presence or absence of galactose or galactose-1-phosphate (Gal-1-P), and enzyme activities and/or gene expression of NOX, catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in the cell homogenates. PBL isolated from galactosemia patients showed significantly reduced (P < 0.01) activities of catalase and GPx; however SOD activity remained unaltered. Galactosemia patients were found to have significantly (P < 0.01) increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in blood lymphocytes. Enzymatic activity of NOX was significantly (P < 0.001) reduced in galactosemia patients; however, Western blotting revealed that NOX-1 protein was not significantly altered. Interestingly, levels of NOX activity in lymphocytes isolated from galactosemia patients significantly increased but remained subnormal when cultured in galactose-deficient medium for two weeks, indicating a galactose-mediated inhibition of NOX. Lymphocytes isolated from control subjects were found to have significantly (P < 0.01) reduced NOX activity when cultured in the presence of galactose or Gal-1-P for two weeks. These results show that galactose-induced cellular oxidative stress is not NOX mediated. However, impairment of the NOX system might be responsible for some of the clinical complications in galactosemia patients.

  9. The correlation between muscle activity of the quadriceps and balance and gait in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dae Jung; Park, Seung Kyu; Uhm, Yo Han; Park, Sam Heon; Chun, Dong Whan; Kim, Je Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between quadriceps muscle activity and balance and gait in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-five stroke patients (30 males 25 females; mean age 58.7 years; stroke duration 4.82 months; Korean mini-mental state examination score 26.4) participated in this study. MP100 surface electromyography, BioRescue, and LUKOtronic were used to measure the quadriceps muscle activity, balance, and gait, respectively. [Results] There was a significant correlation between quadriceps muscle activity (vastus lateralis % reference voluntary contraction, vastus medialis % reference voluntary contraction) and balance (limits of stability) and gait (gait velocity) but there was none between vastus lateralis % reference voluntary contraction, vastus medialis % reference voluntary contraction. [Conclusion] An increase in quadriceps muscle activity will improve balance and gait ability. To improve function in stroke patients, training is needed to strengthen the quadriceps muscles. PMID:27630416

  10. Purine enzyme activities in recent onset rheumatoid arthritis: are there differences between patients and healthy controls?

    PubMed Central

    Stolk, J N; Boerbooms, A M; De Abreu, R A; Kerstens, P J; de Koning, D G; de Graaf, R; Mulder, J; van de Putte, L B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Purine enzyme activities may predict the effectiveness of azathioprine treatment and be associated with increased deaths from infectious diseases. In rheumatoid arthritis, patients show variable responses to azathioprine and a higher percentage of death is caused by infections. The aim of the study was to investigate possible rheumatoid arthritis associated abnormalities of purine enzyme activities by measuring several of these enzymes in patients with recent onset rheumatoid arthritis before treatment with disease modifying antirheumatic drugs or prednisone. METHODS: 23 patients with recent onset rheumatoid arthritis and 28 healthy controls were studied. Activities of the enzymes 5'-nucleotidase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT), and thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) were measured. Assessment of disease activity and blood sampling for routine measurements and HLA typing were done simultaneously. RESULTS: Purine enzyme activities did not differ between patients and healthy controls. Enzyme activities had no significant relations with indices of disease activity or rheumatoid factor titre or with the rheumatoid arthritis associated HLA types. Activity of 5'nucleotidase decreased with age (P < or = 0.05) and was lower by about 27% (P = 0.007) in males than in females. CONCLUSIONS: In rheumatoid arthritis patients, neither the variability in azathioprine effectiveness nor the increased death rate from infections can be explained by pre-existing abnormalities in the activities of the purine enzymes 5'-nucleotidase, PNP, HGPRT, or TPMT at an early stage of the disease, before disease modifying antirheumatic drugs or prednisone treatment. Besides adjustment for age, results of studies involving purine 5' nucleotidase activity should also be adjusted for sex. PMID:8984938

  11. Chemokine and cytokine levels in inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    PubMed

    Singh, Udai P; Singh, Narendra P; Murphy, E Angela; Price, Robert L; Fayad, Raja; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S

    2016-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), two forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are chronic, relapsing, and tissue destructive lesions that are accompanied by the uncontrolled activation of effector immune cells in the mucosa. Recent estimates indicate that there are 1.3 million annual cases of IBD in the United States, 50% of which consists of CD and 50% of UC. Chemokines and cytokines play a pivotal role in the regulation of mucosal inflammation by promoting leukocyte migration to sites of inflammation ultimately leading to tissue damage and destruction. In recent years, experimental studies in rodents have led to a better understanding of the role played by these inflammatory mediators in the development and progression of colitis. However, the clinical literature on IBD remains limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate systemic concentrations of key chemokines and cytokines in forty-two IBD patients with a range of disease activity compared to levels found in ten healthy donors. We found a significant increase in an array of chemokines including macrophage migration factor (MIF), CCL25, CCL23, CXCL5, CXCL13, CXCL10, CXCL11, MCP1, and CCL21 in IBD patients as compared to normal healthy donors (P<0.05). Further, we also report increases in the inflammatory cytokines IL-16, IFN-γ, IL-1β and TNF-α in IBD patients when compared to healthy donors (P<0.05). These data clearly indicate an increase in circulating levels of specific chemokines and cytokines that are known to modulate systemic level through immune cells results in affecting local intestinal inflammation and tissue damage in IBD patients. Blockade of these inflammatory mediators should be explored as a mechanism to alleviate or even reverse symptoms of IBD.

  12. Development of an activity disease score in patients with uveitis (UVEDAI).

    PubMed

    Pato, Esperanza; Martin-Martinez, Mª Auxiliadora; Castelló, Adela; Méndez-Fernandez, Rosalía; Muñoz-Fernández, Santiago; Cordero-Coma, Miguel; Martinez-Costa, Lucia; Valls, Elia; Reyes, Miguel; Francisco, Félix; Esteban, Mar; Fonollosa, Alex; Sanchez-Alonso, Fernando; Fernández-Espartero, Cruz; Diaz-Valle, Teresa; Carrasco, José Miguel; Beltran-Catalán, Emma; Hernández-Garfella, Marisa; Hernández, María Victoria; Pelegrin, Laura; Blanco, Ricardo; Diaz-Valle, David

    2017-04-01

    To develop a disease activity index for patients with uveitis (UVEDAI) encompassing the relevant domains of disease activity considered important among experts in this field. The steps for designing UVEDAI were: (a) Defining the construct and establishing the domains through a formal judgment of experts, (b) A two-round Delphi study with a panel of 15 experts to determine the relevant items, (c) Selection of items: A logistic regression model was developed that set ocular inflammatory activity as the dependent variable. The construct "uveitis inflammatory activity" was defined as any intraocular inflammation that included external structures (cornea) in addition to uvea. Seven domains and 15 items were identified: best-corrected visual acuity, inflammation of the anterior chamber (anterior chamber cells, hypopyon, the presence of fibrin, active posterior keratic precipitates and iris nodules), intraocular pressure, inflammation of the vitreous cavity (vitreous haze, snowballs and snowbanks), central macular edema, inflammation of the posterior pole (the presence and number of choroidal/retinal lesions, vascular inflammation and papillitis), and global assessment from both (patient and physician). From all the variables studied in the multivariate model, anterior chamber cell grade, vitreous haze, central macular edema, inflammatory vessel sheathing, papillitis, choroidal/retinal lesions and patient evaluation were included in UVEDAI. UVEDAI is an index designed to assess the global ocular inflammatory activity in patients with uveitis. It might prove worthwhile to motorize the activity of this extraarticular manifestation of some rheumatic diseases.

  13. Increased chitotriosidase activity in plasma of patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Knapik-Kordecka, Maria; Rorbach-Dolata, Anna; Piwowar, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chitotriosidase (CHIT1) is a chitinolytic enzyme involved mainly in the immune and inflammatory response. It shows increased activity in many pathologies, including in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aimed to investigate this enzyme's activity in plasma of patients with ongoing T2D and indicate factors related to the increased activity of this enzyme. Material and methods Ninety-one patients and 46 control subjects without abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism and inflammatory states were enrolled in the study. Plasma CHIT1 activity was measured by a spectrofluorometric method. Routine laboratory parameters such as blood glucose, total cholesterol and HDL fraction, triglyceride, glycated hemoglobin, white blood cell count and C-reactive protein were measured by standard methods. Results We found that the chitotriosidase activity was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in type 2 diabetic patients and positively associated with parameters of glycemic control (levels of glucose and glycated hemoglobin) and blood pressure. Plasma glucose level and systolic blood pressure were independent determinants of increased CHIT1 activity in T2D patients, even after adjustment for disease duration, body mass index, parameters of inflammation and lipid metabolism. We also found that increased CHIT1 activity was associated with occurrence of diabetic angiopathies. Conclusions This investigation indicates a possible role of chitotriosidase in the course of T2D, especially in relation to development of diabetic angiopathies. PMID:27695487

  14. Health and economic benefits of physical activity for patients with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Herbert, William G

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a traumatic, life-disrupting event with an annual incidence of 17,000 cases in the US. SCI is characterized by progressive physical deconditioning due to limited mobility and lack of modalities to allow safe physical activity that may partially offset these deleterious physical changes. Approximately, 50% of patients with SCI report no leisure-time physical activity and 15% report leisure-time physical activity below the threshold where meaningful health benefits could be realized. Collectively, about 363,000 patients with SCI, or 65% of the entire spinal cord injured population in the US, engages in insufficient physical activity and represents a target population that could derive considerable health benefits from even modest physical activity levels. Currently, the annual direct costs related to SCI exceed US$45 billion in the US. Rehabilitation protocols and technologies aimed to improve functional mobility have potential to significantly reduce the risk of medical complications and cost associated with SCI. Patients who commence routine physical activity in the first post-injury year and experience typical motor function improvements would realize US$290,000 to US$435,000 in lifetime cost savings, primarily due to fewer hospitalizations and less reliance on assistive care. New assistive technologies that allow patients with SCI to safely engage in routine physical activity are desperately needed. PMID:27757043

  15. Health and economic benefits of physical activity for patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Miller, Larry E; Herbert, William G

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a traumatic, life-disrupting event with an annual incidence of 17,000 cases in the US. SCI is characterized by progressive physical deconditioning due to limited mobility and lack of modalities to allow safe physical activity that may partially offset these deleterious physical changes. Approximately, 50% of patients with SCI report no leisure-time physical activity and 15% report leisure-time physical activity below the threshold where meaningful health benefits could be realized. Collectively, about 363,000 patients with SCI, or 65% of the entire spinal cord injured population in the US, engages in insufficient physical activity and represents a target population that could derive considerable health benefits from even modest physical activity levels. Currently, the annual direct costs related to SCI exceed US$45 billion in the US. Rehabilitation protocols and technologies aimed to improve functional mobility have potential to significantly reduce the risk of medical complications and cost associated with SCI. Patients who commence routine physical activity in the first post-injury year and experience typical motor function improvements would realize US$290,000 to US$435,000 in lifetime cost savings, primarily due to fewer hospitalizations and less reliance on assistive care. New assistive technologies that allow patients with SCI to safely engage in routine physical activity are desperately needed.

  16. Clinicians' and patients' assessment of activity overuse and underuse and its relation to physical capacity.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Annemieke Bonny; Preuper, Henrica R Schiphorst; Reneman, Michiel F

    2012-06-01

    To explore clinicians' and patients' (self)-assessment of activity overuse and underuse, and its relationship with physical capacity in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP). Study design was cross-sectional. Participants included patients with CMP, admitted to a multidisciplinary outpatient pain rehabilitation program. The main measures used were as follows: a five-point scale to rate overuse and underuse, filled out by clinicians and patients; a five-point scale to rate physical capacity, filled out by clinicians and patients; and lifting and aerobic capacity. Cohen's κ were calculated to test the agreement between assessments. Depending on the normality, a t-test or a Mann-Whitney U-test was used to test differences between the results of a capacity test and patients' and clinicians' assessments of capacity. A total of 141 patients were included: 42% were men, and 60% had back pain, 21% had neck pain, 19% had pain in a different location. Six percent of the patients rated themselves as underusers; clinicians rated 23% of the patients as underusers. Clinicians and patients fairly agreed (61%; κ=0.23) in their assessments of overuse and underuse. Differences in the physical capacity of overuse and underusers, as assessed by clinicians and patients, were all nonsignificant (P>0.05). The physical capacity of overusers did not differ from that of underusers (P<0.05). In conclusion, although clinicians and patients with CMP fairly agree on their assessment of activity overuse and underuse, the physical capacity of overusers was not different from that of underusers.

  17. Impact of Acetazolamide and CPAP on Cortical Activity in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients

    PubMed Central

    Stadelmann, Katrin; Latshang, Tsogyal D.; Nussbaumer-Ochsner, Yvonne; Tarokh, Leila; Ulrich, Silvia; Kohler, Malcolm; Bloch, Konrad E.; Achermann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives 1) To investigate the impact of acetazolamide, a drug commonly prescribed for altitude sickness, on cortical oscillations in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). 2) To examine alterations in the sleep EEG after short-term discontinuation of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Design Data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized cross-over design studies were analyzed. Setting Polysomnographic recordings in sleep laboratory at 490 m and at moderate altitudes in the Swiss Alps: 1630 or 1860 m and 2590 m. Patients Study 1: 39 OSAS patients. Study 2: 41 OSAS patients. Interventions Study 1: OSAS patients withdrawn from treatment with CPAP. Study 2: OSAS patients treated with autoCPAP. Treatment with acetazolamide (500–750 mg) or placebo at moderate altitudes. Measurements and Results An evening dose of 500 mg acetazolamide reduced slow-wave activity (SWA; approximately 10%) and increased spindle activity (approximately 10%) during non-REM sleep. In addition, alpha activity during wake after lights out was increased. An evening dose of 250 mg did not affect these cortical oscillations. Discontinuation of CPAP therapy revealed a reduction in SWA (5–10%) and increase in beta activity (approximately 25%). Conclusions The higher evening dose of 500 mg acetazolamide showed the “spectral fingerprint” of Benzodiazepines, while 250 mg acetazolamide had no impact on cortical oscillations. However, both doses had beneficial effects on oxygen saturation and sleep quality. PMID:24710341

  18. Optimizing Physical Activity Among Older Adults Post Trauma: Overcoming System and Patient Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, Barbara; Galik, Elizabeth; Wells PT, Chris L.; Boltz, Marie; Holtzman, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    By 2050 it is anticipated that close to half (40%) of all trauma patients will be over the age of 65. Recovery post trauma for these individuals is more complicated than among younger individuals. Specifically there is an increased risk for: (1) functional decline; (2) higher mortality rates; (3) longer length of stay; (4) greater resource consumption; (5) nursing home placement; (6) adverse events such as infections, pressure ulcers and falls; and (7) rehospitalization post discharge. Early mobilization has been shown to improve outcomes. Unfortunately, there are many challenges to early mobilization. The Function Focused Care Intervention was developed to overcome these challenges. The purpose of this paper was to describe the initial recruitment of the first 25 participants and delineate the challenges and successes associated with implementation of this intervention. Overall the intervention was implemented as intended and recruitment rates were consistent with other studies. Most patients were female, white and on average 79 years of age. Optimizing physical activity of patients was a low priority for the nurses with patient safety taking precedence. Patients spent most of the time in bed. Age, depression and tethering were the only factors that were associated with physical activity and functional outcomes of patients. Ongoing work is needed to keep patients physically active in the immediate post trauma recovery period. PMID:26547682

  19. Decreased glutathione levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in untreated and treated schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Raffa, Monia; Mechri, Anwar; Othman, Leila Ben; Fendri, Chiraz; Gaha, Lotfi; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid

    2009-10-01

    There is substantial evidence found in the literature that supports the fact that the presence of oxidative stress may play an important role in the physiopathology of schizophrenia. Previous studies have reported the occurrence of impairments in the glutathione levels and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in patients suffering from schizophrenia. However, most of these studies were performed on treated patients. The present study evaluated treated schizophrenic patients (n=52) along with neuroleptic-free or untreated schizophrenic patients (n=36) and healthy controls (n=46). The blood glutathione levels: total glutathione (GSHt), reduced glutathione (GSHr), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) as well as the activities of the antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) were measured. The psychopathology of the patients was assessed through the Clinical Global Impressions-severity (CGI-severity). The tests revealed that in comparison with the healthy controls, the schizophrenic patients showed significantly lower levels of GSHr, SOD, and CAT. Among the schizophrenic patients, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT were recorded to be significantly lower in untreated patients than in the treated ones. In addition, the levels of both GSHt and GSHr were found to be inversely correlated with the obtained CGI-severity score. These results evidently suggest that a decrease in the glutathione levels and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia is not related to neuroleptic treatment and could be considered as a biological indicator of the degree of severity of the symptoms of schizophrenia.

  20. Active Tobacco Smoking and Distant Metastasis in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Sean M.; Ali, Nawal N.; Margalit, Danielle N.; Chan, Annie W.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Distant metastasis is the site of first relapse in approximately one-third of patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma, irrespective of human papillomavirus status. Yet the risk factors associated with distant metastasis are not well characterized. We sought to characterize the relationship between smoking status and distant metastasis. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the association between tobacco smoking status and distant metastasis in a retrospective cohort study of 132 patients who underwent definitive radiation therapy and chemotherapy for Stage III-IVA/B oropharyngeal cancer. Information on tobacco smoking was prospectively collected by patient questionnaires and physician notes at the time of diagnosis. Thirty-three percent of the patients were nonsmokers, 51% were former smokers, 16% were active smokers. The cumulative lifetime tobacco smoking in pack-years was 20 (range, 0-150). Results: With a median follow-up time of 52 months, the overall rate of distant metastasis at 4 years was 8%. Distant metastasis was the most common first site of relapse, occurring in 56% of the patients with recurrences. Active smokers had higher rates of distant metastasis than non-active smokers (including never- and former smokers; 31% vs. 4%, p < 0.001) and former smokers (31% vs. 3%, p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of distant metastasis for patients with lifetime cumulative pack-years >20 and {<=}20 (10% vs. 4%, p = 0.19). In univariate analysis, active smoking (p = 0.0004) and N category (p = 0.009) were predictive of increased risk of distant metastasis. In multivariate analysis, active smoking was the most significant predictive factor for increased risk of distant metastasis (hazard ratio, 12.7, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: This study identified a strong association between active smoking and distant metastasis in patients with oropharyngeal cancer.

  1. Elevated erythrocyte adenosine deaminase activity in a patient with primary acquired sideroblastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Kanno, H; Fujii, H; Tani, K; Morisaki, T; Takahashi, K; Horiuchi, N; Kizaki, M; Ogawa, T; Miwa, S

    1988-03-01

    We report a case of primary acquired sideroblastic anemia (PASA) associated with elevated erythrocyte adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity. The patient was an 85-year-old Japanese male. Analysis of the peripheral blood revealed pancytopenia, and the bone marrow findings showed marked ringed sideroblasts and chromosomal deletion (46XY, 11q-). The erythrocyte ADA activity was 17 times higher than that of normal control, the leukocyte ADA activity was within the normal range, and the plasma ADA activity was 2 times higher than the normal mean. The adenine nucleotides in the patient's erythrocytes were within normal range. According to starch gel electrophoresis, ADA isozyme of the patient was ADA 1. Western blotting showed an increased amount of ADA protein in the patient's erythrocytes. Southern blotting revealed no gene amplification or large structural change. Dot blot analysis of the reticulocyte mRNA showed no increase in the amount of ADA mRNA in the patient's reticulocytes compared with those of reticulocyte-rich controls. We considered that the mechanism of elevated ADA activity in this acquired defect was similar to that found in hereditary hemolytic anemia associated with ADA overproduction.

  2. Moderate endurance exercise in patients with sickle cell anaemia: effects on oxidative stress and endothelial activation.

    PubMed

    Faes, Camille; Balayssac-Siransy, Edwige; Connes, Philippe; Hivert, Ludovic; Danho, Clotaire; Bogui, Pascal; Martin, Cyril; Pialoux, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated the effects of exercise on the biological parameters involved in vaso-occlusive events in sickle cell anaemia (SCA). The aim of this study was to test how a mild-moderate endurance exercise modulates oxidative stress, nitric oxide bioavailability and endothelial activation in SCA patients and healthy individuals. Eleven patients with SCA and 15 healthy subjects completed a 20-min duration submaximal cycling exercise at ≈45 Watts. Plasma markers of oxidative stress, antioxidant activity, endothelial activation and nitric oxide bioavailability were investigated before and after the exercise. Nitric oxide levels, anti-oxidant capacity, soluble (s)E-selectin and sP-selectin did not change in response to this exercise. Except for the malondialdehyde levels, which increased in the two groups, the other markers of oxidative stress remained unchanged in both groups in response to exercise. Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 levels were increased at the end of exercise in both groups. sL-selectin decreased and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 increased with exercise in SCA patients only. The present data suggest that patients with SCA may undertake mild-moderate physical activities without any acute clinical complications, but care should be taken because oxidative stress and endothelial activation significantly increased in some patients.

  3. Enhanced CCR5+/CCR3+ T helper cell ratio in patients with active cutaneous lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Freutel, S; Gaffal, E; Zahn, S; Bieber, T; Tüting, T; Wenzel, J

    2011-10-01

    Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) is characterized by enhanced interferon α (IFNα) levels in serum and in tissue. Since IFNα promotes a Th1-biased immune response, we hypothesized that a Th1-associated chemokine receptor profile should be a typical finding in patients with active CLE. Therefore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from patients with different CLE subsets (n = 15), healthy controls (n = 13) and patients under immunotherapy with IFNα (n = 7). T helper cells were analysed by flow cytometry for the expression of the chemokines receptor CCR5, indicative for Th1 cells, and of CCR3, indicating Th2. In addition, intracellular levels of the type I IFN-inducible MxA protein were measured. Patients with widespread active CLE skin lesions had a significantly increased expression of CCR5, whereas expression of CCR3 was decreased when compared with healthy controls. MxA expression was significantly enhanced in all investigated CLE subtypes, with the highest levels in patients with widespread skin lesions. The enhanced CCR5/CCR3 ratio closely correlated with the MxA levels in peripheral lymphocytes and with disease activity. Our analyses revealed that active CLE is associated with a systemic type I IFN effect that appears to induce a shift towards a Th1-associated chemokine receptor profile. The CCR5/CCR3 T-helper cell ratio might therefore represent an indirect marker for the disease activity in CLE.

  4. Disease activity patterns over time in patients with SLE: analysis of the Hopkins Lupus Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Györi, Noémi; Giannakou, Ioanna; Chatzidionysiou, Katerina; Magder, Laurence; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Petri, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe SLE disease activity patterns in the Hopkins Lupus Cohort. Methods Disease activity was studied in 1886 patients followed-up for 1–28 years. Disease activity patterns were defined using (1) Physician Global Assessment (PGA) and (2) modified SLE Disease Activity Index (M-SLEDAI) as follows: long quiescent (LQ), M-SLEDAI=0/PGA=0 at all visits; relapsing-remitting (RR), periods of activity (M-SLEDAI>0/PGA>0) interspersed with inactivity (M-SLEDAI=0/PGA=0); chronic active (CA), M-SLEDAI>0/PGA>0 at all visits. The pattern of first 3 consecutive follow-up years was determined in 916 patients as: persistent LQ (pLQ), persistent RR (pRR) and persistent CA (pCA), LQ, RR and CA pattern in each of the 3 years, respectively; mixed, at least two different pattern types were identified. Results The RR pattern accounted for the greatest proportion of follow-up time both by M-SLEDAI and PGA, representing 53.8% and 49.9% of total patient-years, respectively. The second most frequent pattern was LQ based on M-SLEDAI (30.7%) and CA based on PGA (40.4%). For the first 3-year intervals, the mixed pattern type was the most common (56.6%). The pRR was the second most frequent (M-SLEDAI 33.3%, PGA 26.5%), while pLQ (M-SLEDAI 6.4%, PGA 0.7%) and pCA were less frequent (M-SLEDAI 3.7%, PGA 16.3%). Conclusions The RR pattern was the most prevalent pattern. LQ was achieved in a subset of patients, using the M-SLEDAI. However, the PGA captured mild activity missed on the M-SLEDAI in these patients. Over a 3-year perspective, less than half of patients maintained their original pattern. PMID:28243457

  5. Effects of Alprazolam on Cortical Activity and Tremors in Patients with Essential Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Jaime; González de la Aleja, Jesús; Gallego, Juan A.; Romero, Juan P.; Saíz-Díaz, Rosana A.; Benito-León, Julián; Rocon, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Essential tremor (ET) is characterised by postural and action tremors with a frequency of 4–12 Hz. Previous studies suggest that the tremor activity originates in the cerebello-thalamocortical pathways. Alprazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine that attenuates tremors in ET. The mechanisms that mediate the therapeutic action of alprazolam are unknown; however, in healthy subjects, benzodiazepines increase cortical beta activity. In this study, we investigated the effect of alprazolam both on beta and tremor-related cortical activity and on alterations in tremor presentation in ET patients. Therefore, we characterised the dynamics of tremor and cortical activity in ET patients after alprazolam intake. Methods We recorded hand tremors and contralateral cortical activity in four recordings before and after a single dose of alprazolam. We then computed the changes in tremors, cortico-muscular coherence, and cortical activity at the tremor frequency and in the beta band. Results Alprazolam significantly attenuated tremors (EMG: 76.2±22.68%), decreased cortical activity in the tremor frequency range and increased cortical beta activity in all patients (P<0.05). At the same time, the cortico-muscular coherence at the tremor frequency became non-significant (P<0.05). We also found a significant correlation (r = 0.757, P<0.001) between the reduction in tremor severity and the increased ratio of cortical activity in the beta band to the activity observed in the tremor frequency range. Conclusions This study provides the first quantitative analysis of tremor reduction following alprazolam intake. We observed that the tremor severity decreased in association with an increased ratio of beta to tremor-related cortical activity. We hypothesise that the increase in cortical beta activity may act as a blocking mechanism and may dampen the pathological oscillatory activity, which in turn attenuates the observed tremor. PMID:24667763

  6. Increased Serum Activity of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Patients with Acute Variceal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh Sang; Jung, Hyuk Sang; Bae, Kyung Sook; Jung, Young Kul; Kim, Yeon Suk; Choi, Duck Joo; Kim, Yun Soo

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9 can degrade essential components of vascular integrity. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between those MMPs and variceal bleeding (VB). Methods Fifteen controls, 12 patients with acute ulcer bleeding (UB) group, 37 patients with varix (V group), and 35 patients with acute VB group were enrolled. Serum was obtained to measure MMP-2 and -9 activity by zymogram protease assays. Results The activity levels of these compounds were compared with the controls' median value. The median MMP-9 activity was 1.0 in controls, 1.05 in the UB group, 0.43 in the V group, and 0.96 in the VB group. The level of MMP-9 activity was higher in the VB group than in the V group (p<0.001). In the VB group, there was a signifi cant decrease in MMP-9 activity over time after bleeding (p<0.001). The median MMP-2 activity level was 1.0 in controls, 1.01 in the UB group, 1.50 in the V group, and 1.55 in the VB group. The level of MMP-2 activity was similar in the VB and V groups. Conclusions The level of MMP-9 activity increased in association with VB. The role of MMP-9 in the pathogenesis of VB should be verified. PMID:22570756

  7. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells reversed the suppressive deficiency of T regulatory cells from peripheral blood of patients with multiple sclerosis in a co-culture – a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongna; Sun, Jinhua; Wang, Feng; Li, Yan; Bi, Jianzhong; Qu, Tingyu

    2016-01-01

    The immunoregulatory function of T regulatory cells (Tregs) is impaired in multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent studies have shown that umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) exert regulatory effect on the functions of immune cells. Thus, we investigated whether UC-MSCs could improve the impaired function of Tregs from MS patients. Co-cultures of UC-MSCs with PBMCs of MS patients were performed for 3 days. Flow cytometry was used to determine the frequency of Tregs. A cell proliferation assay was used to evaluate the suppressive capacity of Tregs. ELISA was conducted for cytokine analysis in the co-cultures. Our results showed that UC-MSCs significantly increased the frequency of CD4+CD25+CD127low/− Tregs in resting CD4+ T cells (p<0.01) from MS, accompanied by the significantly augmented production of cytokine prostaglandin E2, transforming growth factor (−β1, and interleukin-10, along with a reduced interferon-γ production in these co-cultures (p<0.05 - 0.01). More importantly, UC-MSC-primed Tregs of MS patients significantly inhibited the proliferation of PHA-stimulated autologous and allogeneic CD4+CD25− T effector cells (Teffs) from MS patients and healthy individuals compared to non-UC-MSC-primed (naïve) Tregs from the same MS patients (p<0.01). Furthermore, no remarkable differences in suppressing the proliferation of PHA-stimulated CD4+CD25− Teffs was observed in UC-MSC-primed Tregs from MS patients and naïve Tregs from healthy subjects. The impaired suppressive function of Tregs from MS can be completely reversed in a co-culture by UC-MSC modulation. This report is the first to demonstrate that functional defects of Tregs in MS can be repaired in vitro using a simple UC-MSC priming approach. PMID:27705922

  8. Analysis of scapular muscle EMG activity in patients with idiopathic neck pain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Castelein, Birgit; Cools, Ann; Bostyn, Emma; Delemarre, Jolien; Lemahieu, Trees; Cagnie, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    It is proposed that altered scapular muscle function can contribute to abnormal loading of the cervical spine. However, it is not clear if patients with idiopathic neck pain show altered activity of the scapular muscles. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature regarding the differences or similarities in scapular muscle activity, measured by electromyography ( = EMG), between patients with chronic idiopathic neck pain compared to pain-free controls. Case-control (neck pain/healthy) studies investigating scapular muscle EMG activity (amplitude, timing and fatigue parameters) were searched in Pubmed and Web of Science. 25 articles were included in the systematic review. During rest and activities below shoulder height, no clear differences in mean Upper Trapezius ( = UT) EMG activity exist between patients with idiopathic neck pain and a healthy control group. During overhead activities, no conclusion for scapular EMG amplitude can be drawn as a large variation of results were reported. Adaptation strategies during overhead tasks are not the same between studies. Only one study investigated timing of the scapular muscles and found a delayed onset and shorter duration of the SA during elevation in patients with idiopathic neck pain. For scapular muscle fatigue, no definite conclusions can be made as a wide variation and conflicting results are reported. Further high quality EMG research on scapular muscles (broader than the UT) is necessary to understand/draw conclusions on how scapular muscles react in the presence of idiopathic neck pain.

  9. Activated protein C resistance in patients with central retinal vein occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, J; Sellman, A; Bauer, B

    1997-01-01

    AIM/BACKGROUND—A new defect in the anticoagulant system has recently been discovered—activated protein C resistance. The frequency of this disorder has been shown to be increased in young patients (<50 years of age) with central retinal vein occlusion. This study was carried out to determine if there was any overrepresentation of activated protein C resistance in patients >50 years of age with central retinal vein occlusion.
METHODS—Blood samples were obtained from 83 patients >50 years of age and with a history of central retinal vein occlusion. The blood samples were analysed for activated protein C resistance with standard clinical laboratory methods.
RESULTS—In this material 11% of the patients were resistant to activated protein C. The normal incidence of activated protein C resistance in the same geographical area is 10-11%.
CONCLUSION—Activated protein C resistance does not seem to be a cause of central retinal vein occlusion in people older than 50 years.

 PMID:9486021

  10. WHO disability grade does not influence physical activity in Brazilian leprosy patients.

    PubMed

    Do Prado, Glauber Dias; Prado, Renata Bilion Ruiz; Marciano, Lúcia Helena Soares Camargo; Nardi, Susilene Maria Tonelli; Cordeiro, José Antonio; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz

    2011-09-01

    Disability caused by leprosy may be associated with stigma. The aim of this work is to describe the degree of disability, quality of life and level of physical activity of individuals with leprosy and to identify possible correlations between these factors. Ninety-seven patients from two referral centres were studied. A complete medical history was taken and the World Health Organization degree of physical disability classification (WHO-DG), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the Medical Outcome Study 36-item Short-form health Survey (SF36) were applied. The mean age of patients was 51 +/- 14.9 years old; participants were predominantly men, married, unemployed, had concluded treatment and had had lepromatous leprosy. The WHO-DG and the level of physical activity (P-value = 0.36) were not correlated. The WHO-DG showed that 72.2% of patients had disabilities, 37.1% of whom performed vigorous physical activities. No significant association was observed between the WHO-DG and the domains of the QoL SF-36 except for functional capacity (P-value = 0.02); the physical capacity is generally 'very good' when individuals have no disabilities and 'bad' with severe disabilities. In conclusion, the WHO-DG of leprosy patients does not affect the level of physica activities or quality of life except functional capacity. There is no significan association between physical activities and quality of life in these individuals.

  11. Quality of Life in Swiss Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients: Do Patients and Their Parents Experience Disease in the Same Way?

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Rebekka; Ziade, Farah; Pittet, Valérie; Fournier, Nicolas; Ezri, Jessica; Schoepfer, Alain; Schibli, Susanne; Spalinger, Johannes; Braegger, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) may impair quality of life (QoL) in paediatric patients. We aimed to evaluate in a nationwide cohort whether patients experience QoL in a different way when compared with their parents. Methods: Sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics were prospectively acquired from paediatric patients and their parents included in the Swiss IBD Cohort Study. Disease activity was evaluated by the Paediatric Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (PCDAI) and the Paediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index (PUCAI). We assessed QoL using the KIDSCREEN questionnaire. The QoL domains were analysed and compared between children and parents according to type of disease, parents’ age, origin, education and marital status. Results: We included 110 children and parents (59 Crohn’s disease [CD], 45 ulcerative colitis [UC], 6 IBD unclassified [IBDU]). There was no significant difference in QoL between CD and UC/IBDU, whether the disease was active or in remission. Parents perceived overall QoL, as well as ‘mood’, ‘family’ and ‘friends’ domains, lower than the children themselves, independently of their place of birth and education. However, better concordance was found on ‘school performance’ and ‘physical activity’ domains. Marital status and age of parents significantly influenced the evaluation of QoL. Mothers and fathers being married or cohabiting perceived significantly lower mood, family and friends domains than their children, whereas mothers living alone had a lower perception of the friends domain; fathers living alone had a lower perception of family and mood subscores. Conclusion: Parents of Swiss paediatric IBD patients significantly underestimate overall QoL and domains of QoL of their children independently of origin and education. PMID:26519462

  12. In Vitro Activation of Follicles and Fresh Tissue Auto-transplantation in Primary Ovarian Insufficiency Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Jun; Yao, Guidong; Dong, Fangli; Bu, Zhiqin; Cheng, Yuan; Sato, Yorino; Hu, Linli; Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Jingyuan; Dai, Shanjun; Li, Jing; Sun, Jing; Hsueh, Aaron J.; Kawamura, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Context: Recently, two patients with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) delivered healthy babies after in vitro activation (IVA) treatment followed by auto-transplantation of frozen-thawed ovarian tissues. Objective: This study sought to report the first case of live birth after IVA treatment following fresh ovarian tissue grafting in patients with POI, together with monitoring of follicle development and serum hormonal changes. Design: This was a prospective observational cohort study. Setting: We performed IVA treatment in 14 patients with POI with mean age of 29 years, mean duration since last menses of 3.8 years, and average basal FSH level of 94.5 mIU/mL. Interventions: Prior to IVA treatment, all patients received routine hormonal treatments with no follicle development. We removed one ovary from patients with POI and treated them with Akt stimulators. We improved upon early procedures by grafting back fresh tissues using a simplified protocol. Main Outcome Measures: In six of the 14 patients (43%), a total of 15 follicle development waves were detected, and four patients had successful oocyte retrieval to yield six oocytes. For two patients showing no spontaneous follicle growth, human menopausal gonadotropin treatment induced follicle growth at 6–8 months after grafting. After vitro fertilization of oocyte retrieved, four early embryos were derived. Following embryo transfer, one patient became pregnant and delivered a healthy baby boy, with three other embryos under cryopreservation. Conclusion: IVA technology can effectively activate residual follicles in some patients with POI and allow them to conceive their own genetic offspring. IVA may also be useful for treating patients with ovarian dysfunction including aging women and cancer survivors. PMID:27571179

  13. Relationship Between Grip and Pinch Strength and Activities of Daily Living in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jung Hyun; Seo, Kyung Mook; Kim, Don-Kyu; Shin, Hyun Iee; Shin, Hye Eun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between grip and pinch strength and independence in activities of daily living (ADL) in stroke patients. Methods Medical records of 577 stroke patients from January 2010 to February 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients' grip and pinch strength of both hemiplegic and non-hemiplegic hands and the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) score were collected. These patients were divided into three groups: group A (onset duration: ≤3 months), group B (onset duration: >3 months and <2 years), and group C (onset duration: ≥2 years). The correlation between grip and pinch strength and the K-MBI score was analyzed. Results In group A (95 patients), the K-MBI score was significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the grip and pinch strength of both hands in patients with right hemiplegia. Significant (p<0.05) correlation between the K-MBI score and the grip and pinch strength of the hemiplegic hand was shown in patients with left hemiplegia. In group B (69 patients) and group C (73 patients), the K-MBI score was significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the grip and pinch strength of the hemiplegic hand. Conclusion Stroke patients in subacute stage mainly performed activities of daily living using their dominant hand. However, independence in ADL was associated with the strength of the affected dominant hand. For stroke patients in chronic and late chronic stages, their hand power of the affected hand was associated with independence in ADL regardless whether the dominant hand was affected. PMID:26605173

  14. Patient prognosis based on feature extraction, selection and classification of EEG periodic activity.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-González, Alain; García-Zapirain, Begoña; Maestro Saiz, Iratxe; Yurrebaso Santamaría, Izaskun

    2015-01-01

    Periodic activity in electroencephalography (PA-EEG) is shown as comprising a series of repetitive wave patterns that may appear in different cerebral regions and are due to many different pathologies. The diagnosis based on PA-EEG is an arduous task for experts in Clinical Neurophysiology, being mainly based on other clinical features of patients. Considering this difficulty in the diagnosis it is also very complicated to establish the prognosis of patients who present PA-EEG. The goal of this paper is to propose a method capable of determining patient prognosis based on characteristics of the PA-EEG activity. The approach, based on a parallel classification architecture and a majority vote system has proven successful by obtaining a success rate of 81.94% in the classification of patient prognosis of our database.

  15. Influence of previous physical activity on the outcome of patients treated by thrombolytic therapy for stroke.

    PubMed

    Decourcelle, Amélie; Moulin, Solène; Sibon, Igor; Murao, Kei; Ronzière, Thomas; Godefroy, Olivier; Poli, Mathilde; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Sagnier, Sharmila; Lassalle, Veronica; Okada, Yasushi; Mas, Jean-Louis; Bordet, Régis; Leys, Didier

    2015-11-01

    Physical activity prevents stroke and is associated with less severe strokes. The neuroprotective effect in patients treated with intravenous (i.v.) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), remains uncertain. We aimed at evaluating the relationship between previous physical activity and outcomes in stroke patients treated with i.v. rt-PA. OPHELIE-SPORT was a prospective observational multicenter study conducted in French and Japanese stroke patients treated with i.v. rt-PA. We evaluated the presence, weekly duration (<2, 2-5, >5 h) and intensity (light, moderate, heavy) of previous leisure-time physical activity according to standardized criteria. The primary end-point was an excellent outcome [modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0-1 or similar to the pre-stroke mRS] after 3 months. Secondary end-points were good outcome (mRS 0-2 or similar to the pre-stroke mRS), and death. Of 519 patients, 74 (14.3 %) had regular physical activity before stroke. They were 14 years younger (p < 0.001), treated 25 min earlier (p = 0.004) and more likely to be men, free of pre-stroke handicap (mRS = 0), atrial fibrillation, arterial hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores, at baseline (p = 0.183) and 24 h later (p = 0.203), did not differ between patients with and without physical activity. After adjustment on confounders, there was no association between previous leisure-time physical activity and outcome. Outcomes 3 months after treatment of cerebral ischaemia with i.v. rt-PA are not influenced by previous physical activity.

  16. Activation of the contact system and inflammation after thrombolytic therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Merlini, Piera Angelica; Cugno, Massimo; Rossi, Marco L; Agricola, Pietro; Repetto, Alessandra; Fetiveau, Raffaella; Diotallevi, Paolo; Canosi, Umberto; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Ardissino, Diego

    2004-04-01

    Thrombolytic therapy activates the contact system, and factor XII activation may activate the coagulation cascade and inflammation. It is not known whether an early inflammatory response is induced by thrombolytic therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We prospectively measured the plasma levels of activated factor XII, cleaved kininogen, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (as indexes of the contact phase and coagulation activation), and interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) (as indexes of inflammation) in 39 patients hospitalized for AMI within 12 hours of symptom onset: 26 receiving thrombolytic therapy and 13 heparin alone. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 90 minutes and 24 hours. Patients undergoing thrombolysis had a significant early increase in activated factor XII (from 2.2 ng/ml at baseline to 4.7 ng/ml after 90 minutes; p = 0.0001), cleaved kininogen (from 26% to 37%; p = 0.001), and fragment 1 + 2 (from 1.4 to 2.1 nmol/L; p = 0.0001), whereas the 24-hour levels were similar to baseline levels. The levels of interleukin-6 significantly increased during the first 90 minutes (from 3.9 to 6.3 microg/ml; p = 0.001), and were even higher after 24 hours (11.9 ng/ml, p = 0.0001). CRP levels increased only after 24 hours (p = 0.0001). There were no changes in these parameters in patients receiving heparin alone, except for a 24-hour increase in interleukin-6 and CRP levels. Thus, in patients with AMI receiving thrombolytic therapy, early activation of inflammation parallels the activation of the contact system and the coagulation cascade, which might contribute to microvascular obstruction and reperfusion injury.

  17. Changes in brain activation in breast cancer patients depend on cognitive domain and treatment type

    PubMed Central

    Menning, Sanne; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Veltman, Dick J.; Boogerd, Willem; Oldenburg, Hester S. A.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2017-01-01

    Background Cognitive problems in breast cancer patients are common after systemic treatment, particularly chemotherapy. An increasing number of fMRI studies show altered brain activation in breast cancer patients after treatment, suggestive of neurotoxicity. Previous prospective fMRI studies administered a single cognitive task. The current study employed two task paradigms to evaluate whether treatment-induced changes depend on the probed cognitive domain. Methods Participants were breast cancer patients scheduled to receive systemic treatment (anthracycline-based chemotherapy +/- endocrine treatment, n = 28), or no systemic treatment (n = 24) and no-cancer controls (n = 31). Assessment took place before adjuvant treatment and six months after chemotherapy, or at similar intervals. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation and performance were measured during an executive functioning task and an episodic memory task. Group-by-time interactions were analyzed using a flexible factorial design. Results Task performance did not differ between patient groups and did not change over time. Breast cancer patients who received systemic treatment, however, showed increased parietal activation compared to baseline with increasing executive functioning task load compared to breast cancer patients who did not receive systemic treatment. This hyperactivation was accompanied by worse physical functioning, higher levels of fatigue and more cognitive complaints. In contrast, in breast cancer patients who did not receive systemic treatment, parietal activation normalized over time compared to the other two groups. Conclusions Parietal hyperactivation after systemic treatment in the context of stable levels of executive task performance is compatible with a compensatory processing account of hyperactivation or maintain adequate performance levels. This over-recruitment of brain regions depends on the probed cognitive domain and may represent a response to decreased neural

  18. Temporal leukocyte numbers and granulocyte activation in pulsatile and rotary ventricular assist device patients.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Joshua R; Teuteberg, Jeffrey J; Bermudez, Christian A; Bhama, Jay K; Lockard, Kathleen L; Kormos, Robert L; Wagner, William R

    2014-06-01

    Individual ventricular assist device (VAD) design may affect leukocytes and impact immunity. Few studies have presented leukocyte and infection profiles in VAD patients over the course of the implant period. CD11b (MAC-1) expression on granulocytes is an indicator of activation during inflammation, mediating extravasation and the release of reactive oxygen species in tissue. No reported studies have presented MAC-1 expression on circulating granulocytes in VAD patients. Fifty-six patients implanted at a single center with a HeartMate II (HMII; n = 32), HeartWare (HW; n = 12), or Thoratec pneumatic VAD (PVAD; n = 12) between 1999 and 2011 were followed for 120 days of support. The leukocyte profiles and infectious events of all patients were evaluated; additionally, a subset had MAC-1 expression on circulating granulocytes was measured (HMII n = 9; HW n = 7; PVAD n = 4). All groups exhibited a significant peak in leukocyte numbers at postoperative day (POD) 14 while simultaneously experiencing a significant decrease in hematocrit. HMII patients exhibited a 3.2-fold increase in granulocyte MAC-1 expression at POD 14, and the temporal trend over the implant period differed from that experienced by HW patients. Further, HW patients experienced significantly fewer infection events. Alterations in leukocyte profiles and granulocyte activation experienced by VAD patients appear to be device-specific. Elevations in leukocyte activation may be related to an increased risk for infection, although the specific relationship between these phenomena in this patient group is not known.

  19. Injury of the lower ascending reticular activating system in patients with pontine hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung Ho; Yeo, Sang Seok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have reported about injury of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) in patients with various brain pathologies, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT); however, little is known about injury of the ARAS in patients with pontine hemorrhage. In this study, using DTT, we attempted to investigate injury of the lower ventral and dorsal ARAS in patients with pontine hemorrhage. Twenty-three consecutive patients with pontine hemorrhage and 14 control subjects were recruited into this study. The patients were classified into 2 subgroups on the basis of the preservation of arousal: subgroup A (14 patients)—intact arousal, subgroup B (9 patients)—impaired arousal. The lower ventral and dorsal ARAS between the pontine reticular formation with hypothalamus and thalamic intralaminar nucleus were reconstructed. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and tract volume (TV) values were measured. The TVs of the lower ventral and dorsal ARAS were significantly lower in subgroup B than in the subgroup A and control group (P < 0.05). In terms of FA value, the lower dorsal ARAS were significantly lower in subgroup A and subgroup B than in the control group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, injury of the lower ventral and dorsal ARAS was demonstrated in patients with impaired arousal following pontine hemorrhage. We believe that analysis of the ARAS using DTT would be helpful in evaluation of patients with impaired consciousness after pontine hemorrhage. PMID:27977583

  20. Parathyroid mitogenic activity in plasma from patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    SciTech Connect

    Brandi, M.L.; Aurbach, G.D.; Fitzpatrick, L.A.; Quarto, R.; Spiegel, A.M.; Bliziotes, M.M.; Norton, J.A.; Doppman, J.L.; Marx, S.J.

    1986-05-15

    Hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands is a central feature of familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. We used cultured bovine parathyroid cells to test for mitogenic activity in plasma from patients with this disorder. Normal plasma stimulated (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation, on the average, to the same extent as it was stimulated in a plasma-free control culture. This contrasted with the results of the tests with plasma from patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, in which parathyroid mitogenic activity increased 2400 percent over the control value (P less than 0.001). Plasma from these patients also stimulated the proliferation of bovine parathyroid cells in culture, whereas plasma from normal subjects inhibited it. Parathyroid mitogenic activity in plasma from the patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 was greater than that in plasma from patients with various other disorders, including sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (with adenoma, hyperplasia, or cancer of the parathyroid), sporadic primary hypergastrinemia, sporadic pituitary tumor, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (P less than 0.05). Parathyroid mitogenic activity in the plasma of patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 persisted for up to four years after total parathyroidectomy. The plasma also had far more mitogenic activity in cultures of parathyroid cells than did optimal concentrations of known growth factors or of any parathyroid secretagogue. This mitogenic activity had an apparent molecular weight of 50,000 to 55,000. We conclude that primary hyperparathyroidism in familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may have a humoral cause.

  1. Evaluating disease activity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis using 99mtc-glucosamine

    PubMed Central

    Manolios, Nicholas; Ali, Marina; Camden, Bradley; Aflaky, Elham; Pavic, Katrina; Markewycz, Andrew; De Costa, Robert; Angelides, Socrates

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical utility of a novel radiotracer, 99mTc-glucosamine, in assessing disease activity of both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Material and Methods: Twenty-five patients with RA (nine males and 16 females) and 12 patients with AS (all male) at various stages of disease were recruited for the study. A clinical history and examination was performed, followed by the measurement of hematological, biochemical, and autoimmune serological parameters to assess disease activity. 99mTc-glucosamine was intravenously administered and scans were compared with other imaging modalities, including plain X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bone scans. Results In patients with AS, 99mTc-glucosamine scans were more capable of identifying active disease and differentiating between inflammatory and non-inflammatory causes. In patients with RA, 99mTc-glucosamine accumulated at all known sites of disease involvement. Uptake was most pronounced in patients with active untreated disease. The relative tracer activity in the involved joints increased with time compared with that in the adjoining soft tissue, liver, and cardiac blood pool. Using Spearman’s correlation coefficient, there was a positive correlation among glucosamine scan scores, C-reactive protein (p=0.048), and clinical assessment (p=0.003), which was not noted with bone scans. Conclusion The radiotracer was well tolerated by all patients, with no adverse reactions. 99mTc-glucosamine imaging could detect spinal inflammation in AS. With respect to RA, 99mTc-glucosamine was a viable alternative to 99mTc-labeled methylene diphosphonate nuclear bone scans for imaging inflamed joints and had the added advantage of demonstrating a significant clinical correlation between disease activity and scan findings. PMID:27708974

  2. A self-regulation-based intervention to increase physical activity in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Nadine; Sieverding, Monika; Weidner, Gerdi; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Wiskemann, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The study examined whether a behavior-change intervention focusing on self-regulatory strategies and emphasizing role model support increases physical activity (PA) among insufficiently active (not meeting PA guidelines of 150 min/week) cancer patients. Ambulatory cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION-study, a 4-week intervention (1-hr counseling, followed by weekly phone calls), with pretest (T1), posttest (T2) and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise or to a stress management intervention (active control). The exercise intervention emphasized self-regulatory strategies (e.g. action- and coping planning and self-monitoring); patients were also encouraged to contact a physically active same-sex role model as a potential exercise partner. The active control condition consisted of coping and relaxation techniques. Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA and a measure of perceived stress. PA was validated by Actigraph accelerometry. At T2, 46% of the patients in the exercise group and 19% of stress management patients increased their activity levels to meet PA guidelines (>150 min/week; χ(2)(1) = 5.51, p = .019). At T3, participants in the exercise intervention maintained their exercise level (46%), but also 31% of the stress management patients met the guidelines. All patients reported reductions in perceived stress. Additional analyses comparing patients in the exercise group by role model contact (63% realized contact) revealed that those who had contact with their role model were significantly more likely to adhere to the recommended guidelines (T2:50%; T3:64%) compared to those who did not have contact with a role model (T2:39%; T3:15%), suggesting the potential of mobilizing role model support to facilitate PA. In sum, cancer patients may not only benefit from an exercise

  3. Anxiolytic therapy with alprazolam increases muscle sympathetic activity in patients with panic disorders.

    PubMed

    Béchir, Markus; Schwegler, Kyrill; Chenevard, Rémy; Binggeli, Christian; Caduff, Christian; Büchi, Stefan; Buddeberg, Claus; Lüscher, Thomas F; Noll, Georg

    2007-07-31

    Anxiolytic therapy with the benzodiazepine alprazolam is an established therapy in patients with panic disorder. Normally, panic-like anxiety and its concomitant physical symptoms quickly disappear under such treatment. Therefore we investigated whether there is a difference in sympathetic nervous system in patients with panic disorder compared to healthy controls. Three groups of subjects were included: ten patients with panic disorder, who received alprazolam and 20 healthy control subjects who were given either alprazolam (n=10) or matching placebo (n=10). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and heart rate did not differ at baseline but significantly increased both in patients and healthy controls after intake of alprazolam (1 mg). However, in both groups both MSNA and heart rate were significantly elevated when compared to both baseline and the placebo control group. This study demonstrates (1) that anxiolytic therapy with alprazolam increases muscle sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate not only in patients with panic disorder but also in healthy controls and (2) that a significant difference in sympathetic nervous system activity between patients and controls, at baseline and during the therapy with alprazolam could not be demonstrated.

  4. Classification of multi muscle activation patterns of osteoarthritis patients during level walking.

    PubMed

    von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Valderrabano, Victor

    2010-08-01

    The study compares the timing and frequency changes of surface EMGs recorded from osteoarthritis patients with previous traumatic ankle injury and normal subjects during level walking. EMG intensity (power) was obtained by a wavelet analysis. There were intensity values for each frequency characterized by the wavelets for every time point. The intensities were compounded into Multi Muscle Patterns (MMP) simultaneously showing the time and spectral aspects of the lower leg muscle activity. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the differences between the group of the MMPs from the affected leg (AFL) and the not affected leg (NAL) allow detecting whether a newly measured MMP results from an AFL or NAL. This hypothesis was tested by a spherical classification procedure yielding the correctly classified MMPs thus indicating the significance of the differences between the MMPs of the AFL and NAL. The hypothesis was supported (not falsified) by the results. Thus there were common features of muscle activity in the AFL of most osteoarthritis patients that allowed detecting whether the MMP of a new patient was of the kind seen in most other osteoarthritis patients. The spectral, timing and intensity factors in the MMP that allowed this classification were visualized in the mean MMPs of the patients and the control group. The comparison revealed where on average the relative timing and spectral differences of the muscle activation of osteoarthritis patients and control subjects occurred.

  5. Nicotinamide Effects Oxidative Burst Activity of Neutrophils in Patients with Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Samanci, Tülay; Demirel, Gülderen Yanikkaya; Damci, Taner; Ilkova, Hasan

    2004-01-01

    Neutrophil functions are impaired in patients with diabetes mellitus. Bacterial phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity are reduced at high glucose concentrations in diabetic patients. Defects in neutrophil oxidative burst capacity are of multifactorial origin in diabetes mellitus and correlate with glucose levels. It has been reported that neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity is impaired and superoxide production is reduced in diabetic patients with or without any infections. Nicotinamide is a vitamin B3 derivative and a NAD precursor with immunomodulatory effects. In vitro studies demonstrated that nicotinamide increases NAD and NADH content of beta cells. The authors hypothesized that nicotinamide may restore the impaired oxidative burst capacity of neutrophils in diabetic patients by increasing the NADH content as an electron donor and possibly through NADPH oxidase activity of the cell. In order to test the hypothesis, this placebo-controlled and open study was designed to evaluate neutrophil functions in infection-free poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients as compared to healthy subjects and assess the effects of nicotinamide on neutrophil phagocytosis as well as oxidative burst activity. Thirty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled in the study. Sixteen were females and 14 were males, with a mean age 58 ± 10. All patients were on sulphonylurea treatment and their hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were above 7.5%. The control group consisted of 10 voluntary healthy subjects. Diabetic and control subjects were not significantly different in terms of age, body mass index (BMI), leucocyte and neutrophil counts, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), but HbA1c and fasting glucose levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetes mellitus. Phagocytic activity and respiratory burst indexes were measured by flow cytometric analyses as previously described by Rothe and Valet (Methods Enzyml., 233, 539–548

  6. Tim-3 pathway affects NK cell impairment in patients with active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Hou, Hongyan; Wu, Shiji; Tang, Qing; Huang, Min; Yin, Botao; Huang, Jing; Liu, Weiyong; Mao, Lie; Lu, Yanfang; Sun, Ziyong

    2015-12-01

    Active tuberculosis (TB) patients show impaired NK cell function, and the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we confirmed the decrease in activation, cytokine secretion, and degranulation potential of NK cells in active TB patients. We further investigated whether coinhibitory receptor Tim-3 was involved with impairment of NK cells. Our results revealed that the expression of Tim-3 on NK cells was increased in active TB patients. Tim-3 expression was inversely correlated with IL-12-stimualted IFN-γ production. Moreover, blocking the Tim-3 pathway restored IFN-γ secretion and degranulation of NK cells. Blocking this pathway also increased NK cell cytotoxicity against K562 target cells, and improved the ability of NK cells to control Mtb growth in monocyte-derived macrophages. The Tim-3 expression on NK cells was also observed to be significantly decreased in TB patients post-treatment. In this study, we have identified that Tim-3 is involved with NK cell impairment in TB patients.

  7. Mesalizine-Induced Acute Pancreatitis and Interstitial Pneumonitis in a Patient with Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Min Jae; Lee, Jae Hee

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease. Mesalizine for the first-line therapy of UC has adverse effects include pancreatitis, pneumonia and pericarditis. UC complicated by two coexisting conditions, however, is very rare. Moreover, drug-related pulmonary toxicity is particularly rare. An 11-year-old male patient was hospitalized for recurring upper abdominal pain after meals with vomiting, hematochezia and exertional dyspnea developing at 2 weeks of mesalizine therapy for UC. The serum level of lipase was elevated. Chest X-ray and thorax computed tomography showed interstitial pneumonitis. Mesalizine was discontinued and steroid therapy was initiated. Five days after admission, symptoms were resolved and mesalizine was resumed after a drop in amylase and lipase level. Symptoms returned the following day, however, accompanied by increased the serum levels of amylase and lipase. Mesalizine was discontinued again and recurring symptoms rapidly improved. PMID:26770905

  8. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in two patients with basilar artery occlusion.

    PubMed Central

    Herderscheê, D; Limburg, M; Hijdra, A; Koster, P A

    1991-01-01

    Two patients with angiographically proved basilar artery occlusion were treated with systemic recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) according to protocol. The first patient was in a locked-in state and gradually deteriorated. On repeat angiography the basilar artery remained occluded. He died and necropsy revealed a pontine haemorrhagic infarction. The second patient, who was comatose and with decerebrate posturing, made a remarkable recovery. Angiography showed reperfusion. Therapy was initiated in the first patient after six hours and in the second after two hours. Treatment with rtPA is promising but probably not feasible for every patient. Success may depend on duration of occlusion and composition of occluding thrombus. Images PMID:1901349

  9. Clinical activity of sunitinib in patients with advanced desmoplastic round cell tumor: a case series.

    PubMed

    Italiano, Antoine; Kind, Michèle; Cioffi, Angela; Maki, Robert G; Bui, Binh

    2013-09-01

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare and aggressive malignancy with poor outcome occurring in adolescents and young adults. Therapeutic options for patients with advanced disease are limited. Preclinical studies have shown that VEGFR-2 and VEGFA are overexpressed in DSRCT and that DSRCT xenografts were highly responsive to anti-VEGF agents such as bevacizumab. We report here the clinical activity of sunitinib in eight patients with DSCRT. Our data suggest that sunitinib may be associated with clinical benefit even in heavily pretreated patients.

  10. Electronic assessment of disease activity and functioning in patients with axial spondyloarthritis: challenges and unmet needs.

    PubMed

    Kiltz, Uta; Boonen, Annelies; Braun, Juergen; Richter, Jutta G

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic clinical course of rheumatic conditions indicates a need for regular collection of information on health status to monitor disease activity and functional status. Patient-reported outcomes measures (PROMs) are playing a key role in the evaluation of symptoms and functioning and health, and are crucial in the initiation of treatment in those patients. In recent years, electronic assessments of PROMs (so called ePROMs) have been introduced. This report summarises some of the rationale, opportunities, and results using ePROMs in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA).

  11. Distinct Kinetics in the Frequency of Peripheral CD4+ T Cells in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis Experiencing a Flare during Treatment with Mesalazine or with a Herbal Preparation of Myrrh, Chamomile, and Coffee Charcoal

    PubMed Central

    Langhorst, Jost; Frede, Annika; Knott, Markus; Pastille, Eva; Buer, Jan; Dobos, Gustav J.; Westendorf, Astrid M.

    2014-01-01

    +CD25med pre-flare/flare p = 0.0461; CD4+CD25high baseline/flare p = 0.0269 and pre-flare/flare p = 0.0032). In contrast, no changes in the expression of Foxp3 cells were detected within the subsets of CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells. Of note, no alterations were detected in the suppressive capability of CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy donors, from patients in remission, or from patients with clinical flare. Conclusions In patients with UC experiencing acute flare, the CD4+ T compartment demonstrates a distinctly different pattern during treatment with myrrh, chamomile extract, and coffee charcoal than during treatment with mesalazine. These findings suggest an active repopulation of regulatory T cells during active disease. Trial Registration EU Clinical Trials Register 2007-007928-18/DE PMID:25144293

  12. Antibody-mediated sialidase activity in blood serum of patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Bilyy, Rostyslav; Tomin, Andriy; Mahorivska, Iryna; Shalay, Olga; Lohinskyy, Volodymyr; Stoika, Rostyslav; Kit, Yuriy

    2011-01-01

    Cell surface sialylation is known to be tightly connected with tumorigenicity, invasiveness, metastatic potential, clearance of aged cells, while the sialylation of IgG molecules determines their anti-inflammatory properties. Four sialidases - hydrolytic enzymes responsible for cleavage of sialic residues - were described in different cellular compartments. However, sialidases activity in body fluids, and specifically in blood serum, remains poorly studied. Here, we characterize first known IgG antibodies possessing sialidase-like activity in blood serum of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Ig fractions were precipitated with ammonium sulfate (50% of saturation) from blood serum of 12 healthy donors and 14 MM patients, and screened for the presence of sialidase activity by using 4-MUNA (2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-α-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid) as substrate. High level of sialidase activity was detected in the MM patients, but not in healthy donors. Subsequent antibody purification by protein-G affinity chromatography and HPLC size exclusion chromatography at acidic conditions demonstrated that sialidase activity was attributable to IgG molecules. Sialidase activity was also specific for (Fab)(2) fragment of IgG and blocked by sialidase inhibitor DANA. Sialidase activity of IgG molecule was also confirmed by in gel assay for cleavage of sialidase substrate. Kinetic parameters of the catalysis reaction were described by Michaelis-Menten equation with K(m)  = 44.4-108 µM and k(cat) = 2.7-23.1 min(-1). The action of IgG possessing sialidase-like activity towards human red blood cells resulted in a subsequent increase in their agglutination by the peanut agglutinin, that confirms their desialylation by the studied IgG. This is the first demonstration of the intrinsic sialidase activity of IgG isolated from blood serum of MM patients.

  13. Serum Cytokine Profile in Asian Indian Patients with Takayasu Arteritis and its Association with Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Ruchika; Kabeerdoss, Jayakanthan; Ram, Babu; Prakash, John Antony Jude; Babji, Sudhir; Nair, Aswin; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi; Mathew, John; Balaji, Veeraraghavan; Joseph, George; Danda, Debashish

    2017-01-01

    Background: Arterial inflammation Takayasu arteritis (TA) is an outcome of balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Comprehensive assessment of these cytokines is important for understanding pathogenesis and assessing disease activity. Objective: To study pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines representing different T-helper cell pathway in serum samples of Asian Indian patients with TA and to assess their association with disease activity. Methods: Consecutive Indian patients with TA were assayed for serum interferon-γ, interleukin-6, interleukin-23, interleukin-17, interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor- β levels at baseline and follow up visit. Patients were grouped into active and stable disease based on Indian Takyasu Arteritis clinical Activity Score-2010. Serum levels of these cytokines between active and stable disease and between baseline and follow up visits were compared by non-parametric tests. Results: Among 32 patients enrolled, 15 were classified as active while 17 as stable disease at baseline. IFN-γ levels were significantly higher in active disease than stable disease (p=0.0129) while other cytokines did not differ significantly between 2 groups. Serum levels of none of the cytokines changed significantly over 2 visits in both responders and non-responders. IL23 levels positively correlate with disease duration ((r=0.999; p<0.005). Modest correlation was observed between IFN-γ and IL23 levels at both baseline and follow up and between IFN-γ and IL-6 and CRP at follow up. Conclusion: IFN-γ levels are raised in active disease in TA and correlates well with other biomarkers of disease activity and proinflammatory cytokines. There is also a direct correlation between Il-23 levels and disease duration.

  14. [Melatonin production in thrombocytes and their functional activity in patients with aspirin asthma].

    PubMed

    Evsiukova, E V; Muraia, E V; Zubzhitskaia, L B; Kveshnoĭ, I M

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study melatonin production in thrombocytes and their functional activity in correlation with 6-sulfatoximelatonin (6-SOM) urinary excretion in patients with aspirin-induced bronchial asthma (AIBA). Forty-three patients with bronchial asthma (BA) were examined. The main group consisted of 26 AIBA patients; the comparison group consisted of 17 BA patients with no intolerance to aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; 30 practically healthy individuals constituted the control group. The study found no melatonin production in thrombocytes of AIBA patients: only 13.0 +/- 1.3% of platelets expressed melatonin, while in healthy people 97.7 +/- 0.6% of the cells did. Besides, daytime urinary excretion of 6-SOM, the main melatonin metabolite, was lower in AIBA patients. Lower daytime and higher nighttime melatonin production in AIBA patients correlated with the acceleration of the 1st phase and increased intensity of thrombocyte aggregation, which evidences high thrombocyte reactivity to the inducing agent. The presence of a pathologic reaction of thrombocytes to exogenous melatonin, manifesting by changes in the 1st stage of aggregation, suggests the presence of pathology in thrombocyte membrane-receptor complex and the calcium homeostasis of the cell, which determines constant activation and the participation of thrombocytes in the development of asthmatic syndrome.

  15. A Pronounced Inflammatory Activity Characterizes the Early Fracture Healing Phase in Immunologically Restricted Patients.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Paula; Gaber, Timo; Strehl, Cindy; Jakstadt, Manuela; Hoff, Holger; Schmidt-Bleek, Katharina; Lang, Annemarie; Röhner, Eric; Huscher, Dörte; Matziolis, Georg; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Perka, Carsten; Duda, Georg N; Buttgereit, Frank

    2017-03-08

    Immunologically restricted patients such as those with autoimmune diseases or malignancies often suffer from delayed or insufficient fracture healing. In human fracture hematomas and the surrounding bone marrow obtained from immunologically restricted patients, we analyzed the initial inflammatory phase on cellular and humoral level via flow cytometry and multiplex suspension array. Compared with controls, we demonstrated higher numbers of immune cells like monocytes/macrophages, natural killer T (NKT) cells, and activated T helper cells within the fracture hematomas and/or the surrounding bone marrow. Also, several pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin (IL)-6 and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), chemokines (e.g., Eotaxin and RANTES), pro-angiogenic factors (e.g., IL-8 and Macrophage migration inhibitory factor: MIF), and regulatory cytokines (e.g., IL-10) were found at higher levels within the fracture hematomas and/or the surrounding bone marrow of immunologically restricted patients when compared to controls. We conclude here that the inflammatory activity on cellular and humoral levels at fracture sites of immunologically restricted patients considerably exceeds that of control patients. The initial inflammatory phase profoundly differs between these patient groups and is probably one of the reasons for prolonged or insufficient fracture healing often occurring within immunologically restricted patients.

  16. A Pronounced Inflammatory Activity Characterizes the Early Fracture Healing Phase in Immunologically Restricted Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Paula; Gaber, Timo; Strehl, Cindy; Jakstadt, Manuela; Hoff, Holger; Schmidt-Bleek, Katharina; Lang, Annemarie; Röhner, Eric; Huscher, Dörte; Matziolis, Georg; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Perka, Carsten; Duda, Georg N.; Buttgereit, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Immunologically restricted patients such as those with autoimmune diseases or malignancies often suffer from delayed or insufficient fracture healing. In human fracture hematomas and the surrounding bone marrow obtained from immunologically restricted patients, we analyzed the initial inflammatory phase on cellular and humoral level via flow cytometry and multiplex suspension array. Compared with controls, we demonstrated higher numbers of immune cells like monocytes/macrophages, natural killer T (NKT) cells, and activated T helper cells within the fracture hematomas and/or the surrounding bone marrow. Also, several pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin (IL)-6 and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), chemokines (e.g., Eotaxin and RANTES), pro-angiogenic factors (e.g., IL-8 and Macrophage migration inhibitory factor: MIF), and regulatory cytokines (e.g., IL-10) were found at higher levels within the fracture hematomas and/or the surrounding bone marrow of immunologically restricted patients when compared to controls. We conclude here that the inflammatory activity on cellular and humoral levels at fracture sites of immunologically restricted patients considerably exceeds that of control patients. The initial inflammatory phase profoundly differs between these patient groups and is probably one of the reasons for prolonged or insufficient fracture healing often occurring within immunologically restricted patients. PMID:28282868

  17. Pain in IBD Patients: Very Frequent and Frequently Insufficiently Taken into Account

    PubMed Central

    Ak, Melike; Müller-Mottet, Séverine; Scharl, Sylvie; Biedermann, Luc; Fournier, Nicolas; Frei, Pascal; Pittet, Valerie; Scharl, Michael; Fried, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Pain is a common symptom related to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In addition to abdominal pain, pain can also be an extraintestinal manifestation of IBD. Pain treatment is challenging and a substantial part of IBD patients are treated with opioids. Therefore, a better knowledge on pain symptoms is crucial for a better therapeutic approach to this clinical problem. Methods Patients of the Swiss IBD Cohort Study (SIBDCS) (n = 2152) received a questionnaire regarding pain intensity, pain localization and impact of pain on daily life and social activities. Furthermore, the questionnaire investigated the use of pain-specific medication. Results A vast majority of patients (71%) experienced pain during the disease course. For a substantial part of patients (49% in UC and 55% in CD) pain is a longstanding problem (>5 years). Pain in UC was of shorter duration compared to CD (p < 0.01). Abdominal pain (59.5%) and back pain (38.3%) were the main pain localizations. 67% of patients took pain medication; 24% received no pain treatment. The general quality of life was significantly lower in patients suffering of pain compared to those without pain (38 vs. 77; (-100 very bad; 100 very good) p<0.0001). Conclusions Prevalence of pain is high in patients of the SIBDCS. It is a longstanding problem for the majority of the patients affected. Pain was found to be undertreated in the SIBDCS and was significantly associated with health-related quality of life. Thus, an increased awareness is mandatory to address this frequent complication in the course of IBD. PMID:27332879

  18. Changes in muscle activation after reach training with gravity compensation in chronic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Prange, Gerdienke B; Krabben, Thijs; Renzenbrink, Gerbert J; Ijzerman, Maarten J; Hermens, Hermie J; Jannink, Michiel J A

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effect of gravity compensation training on reaching and underlying changes in muscle activation. In this clinical trial, eight chronic stroke patients with limited arm function received 18 sessions (30 min) of gravity-compensated reach training (during 6 weeks) in combination with a rehabilitation game. Before and after training, unsupported reach (assessing maximal distance, joint angles and muscle activity of eight shoulder and elbow muscles) and the Fugl-Meyer assessment were compared. After training, the maximal reach distance improved significantly by 3.5% of arm length, together with increased elbow extension (+9.2°) and increased elbow extensor activity (+68%). In some patients, a reduced cocontraction of biceps and anterior deltoid was also involved, although this was not significant on group level. Improvements in unsupported reach after gravity compensation training in chronic stroke patients with mild to severe hemiparesis were mainly accompanied by increased activation of prime movers at the elbow, although in some patients, improved selective joint control may also have been involved. Gravity compensation seems to be a suitable way to provide active, task-specific treatment, without the need for high-tech devices. Further research on a larger scale, including control groups and combinations of arm support with functional hand training, is essential to enhance the potential of arm support to complement poststroke arm rehabilitation.

  19. Impact of activities in self-esteem of patients in a pulmonary rehabilitation program

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Juliana Nascimento; Tavares, Cecilia Melo Rosa; Squassoni, Selma Denis; Machado, Nadine Cristina; Cordoni, Priscila Kessar; Bortolassi, Luciene Costa; Lapa, Mônica Silveira; Fiss, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate self-esteem and self-image of respiratory diseases patients in a Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program, who participated in socialization and physical fitness activities, and of patients who participated only in physical fitness sessions. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional exploratory study. Out of a total of 60 patients analyzed, all enrolled in the Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program, 42 participated in at least one of the proposed activities, 10 did not participate in any activity and 8 were excluded (7 were discharged and 1 died). Results When the two groups were compared, despite the fact that both demonstrated low self-esteem and self-image, the difference between them was relevant (p<0.05) regarding self-esteem, indicating that those who participated in the proposed socialization activities had better self-esteem than the individuals who only did the physical fitness sessions. Regarding self-image, the difference between the groups was not relevant (p>0.05). Conclusion The Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program patients evaluated presented low self-esteem and self-image; however, those carrying out some socialization activity proposed had better self-esteem as compared to the individuals who did only the physical fitness sessions. PMID:25993068

  20. ALDH enzymatic activity and CD133 positivity and response to chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Francesca; Bernasconi, Sergio; Porcu, Luca; Erba, Eugenio; Panini, Nicolò; Fruscio, Robert; Sina, Federica; Torri, Valter; Broggini, Massimo; Damia, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    The prognostic/predictive role of both CD133 and Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) expression in human ovarian cancer remains elusive. This is an observational study that investigated the expression of CD133 and of ALDH enzymatic activity in fresh ovarian cancer samples and their association with different clinic-pathological patient' characteristics and explored their possible predictive/prognostic role. We analyzed the expression of CD133 and ALDH enzymatic activity in 108 human ovarian cancer samples. We found that among the total patients analyzed, 13% of them was completely negative for ALDH activity and 26% was negative for CD133 staining. Both markers were variably expressed within the samples and when both studied in the same tumor sample, no statistically significant correlation between ALDH enzymatic activity and CD133 expression was found. No statistical significant correlation was found also between the percentage values of positive ALDH and CD133 cells and the number of serial passages patient's cultures underwent, suggesting that these markers do not confer by themselves a self-renewal growth advantage to the cultures. Lower levels of CD133 were associated with higher tumor grade. No correlation with response to therapy, progression free survival and overall survival was found. Our data suggest that neither ALDH enzymatic activity nor CD133 expression provide additional predictive/prognostic information in ovarian cancer patients.

  1. Plasma tPA-Activity and Progression of Cerebral White Matter Hyperintensities in Lacunar Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    van Overbeek, Ellen C.; Staals, Julie; Knottnerus, Iris L. H.; ten Cate, Hugo; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-activity and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) antigen are considered to be haemostasis-related markers of endothelial activation and relate to presence of cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) as was earlier shown in a cross-sectional study. We investigated whether tPA-activity and PAI-1 levels are associated with WMH progression in a longitudinal study. Methods In 127 first-ever lacunar stroke patients in whom baseline brain MRI and plasma levels of tPA-activity and PAI-1-antigen were available, we obtained a 2-year follow-up MRI. We assessed WMH progression by a visual WMH change scale. We determined the relationship between levels of tPA-activity and PAI-1 and WMH progression, by logistic regression analysis. Results Plasma tPA-activity was associated with periventricular WMH progression (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.01–5.49, with correction for age and sex and baseline presence of WMH), but not with deep or any (periventricular and/or deep) WMH progression. PAI-1 levels were lower in patients with WMH progression, but these results were not significant. Conclusion We found a relationship between plasma tPA-activity and progression of periventricular WMH. More research is needed to determine whether there is a (direct) role of tPA in the development and progression of WMH. PMID:26942412

  2. In vitro activity of sparfloxacin (CI-978; AT-4140) against clinical isolates from cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Rolston, K V; Nguyen, H; Messer, M; LeBlanc, B; Ho, D H; Bodey, G P

    1990-01-01

    The in vitro activity of sparfloxacin, a new quinolone, was compared with those of ciprofloxacin and fleroxacin against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, greater than 90% of which were isolated from blood culture specimens of cancer patients. Sparfloxacin was extremely active against Acinetobacter species, Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter diversus, Enterobacter species, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Proteus vulgaris, and Serratia marcescens (inhibiting greater than 90% of these isolates at a concentration of 0.5 microgram/ml) and moderately active against Pseudomonas species, other Proteus species, and Citrobacter freundii. Sparfloxacin inhibited greater than 90% of staphylococci (including methicillin-resistant and coagulase-negative strains) at a concentration of 0.12 microgram/ml and greater than 90% of streptococci (including Streptococcus pneumoniae) at a concentration of 1.0 microgram/ml. It was also active against Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus species, and Corynebacterium jeikeium, organisms that have become fairly common in cancer patients. PMID:2127348

  3. Abnormal brain activation during movement observation in patients with conversion paralysis.

    PubMed

    Burgmer, Markus; Konrad, Carsten; Jansen, Andreas; Kugel, Harald; Sommer, Jens; Heindel, Walter; Ringelstein, Erich B; Heuft, Gereon; Knecht, Stefan

    2006-02-15

    Dissociative paralysis in conversion disorders has variably been attributed to a lack of movement initiation or an inhibition of movement. While psychodynamic theory suggests altered movement conceptualization, brain activation associated with observation and replication of movements has so far not been assessed neurobiologically. Here, we measured brain activation by functional magnetic resonance imaging during observation and subsequent imitative execution of movements in four patients with dissociative hand paralysis. Compared to healthy controls conversion disorder patients showed decreased activation of cortical hand areas during movement observation. This effect was specific to the side of their dissociative paralysis. No brain activation compatible with movement inhibition was observed. These findings indicate that in dissociative paralysis, there is not only derangement of movement initiation but already of movement conceptualization. This raises the possibility that strategies targeted at reestablishing appropriate movement conceptualization may contribute to the therapy of dissociative paralysis.

  4. Hypercoagulability and Mortality of Patients with Stroke and Active Cancer: The OASIS-CANCER Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Ji; Chung, Jong-Won; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Kim, Seonwoo; Seok, Jin Myoung; Jang, Hye Min; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Chung, Chin-Sang; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bang, Oh Young

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Patients with active cancer are at an increased risk for stroke. Hypercoagulability plays an important role in cancer-related stroke. We aimed to test whether 1) hypercoagulability is a predictor of survival, and 2) correction of the hypercoagulable state leads to better survival in patients with stroke and active cancer. Methods We recruited consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and active systemic cancer between January 2006 and July 2015. Hypercoagulability was assessed using plasma D-dimer levels before and after 7 days of anticoagulation treatment. The study outcomes included overall and 1-year survival. Plasma D-dimer levels before and after treatment were tested in univariate and multivariate Cox regression models. We controlled for systemic metastasis, stroke mechanism, age, stroke severity, primary cancer type, histology, and atrial fibrillation using