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Sample records for active uc patients

  1. Sixteen years of collaborative learning through active sense-making in physics (CLASP) at UC Davis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Wendell; Webb, David; Paul, Cassandra; West, Emily; Bowen, Mark; Weiss, Brenda; Coleman, Lawrence; De Leone, Charles

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes our large reformed introductory physics course at UC Davis, which bioscience students have been taking since 1996. The central feature of this course is a focus on sense-making by the students during the 5 h per week discussion/labs in which the students take part in activities emphasizing peer-peer discussions, argumentation, and presentations of ideas. The course differs in many fundamental ways from traditionally taught introductory physics courses. After discussing the unique features of CLASP and its implementation at UC Davis, various student outcome measures are presented that show increased performance by students who took the CLASP course compared to students who took a traditionally taught introductory physics course. Measures we use include upper-division GPAs, MCAT scores, FCI gains, and MPEX-II scores.

  2. Enantioselective Collision-Activated Dissociation of Gas-Phase Tryptophan Induced by Chiral Recognition of Protonated uc(l)-Alanine Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujihara, Akimasa; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Tajiri, Michiko; Wada, Yoshinao; Hayakawa, Shigeo

    2016-06-01

    Enantioselective dissociation in the gas phase is important for enantiomeric enrichment and chiral transmission processes in molecular clouds regarding the origin of homochirality in biomolecules. Enantioselective collision-activated dissociation (CAD) of tryptophan (Trp) and the chiral recognition ability of uc(l)-alanine peptides (uc(l)-Ala n ; n = 2-4) were examined using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. CAD spectra of gas-phase heterochiral H+(uc(d)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala n ) and homochiral H+(uc(l)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala n ) noncovalent complexes were obtained as a function of the peptide size n. The H2O-elimination product was observed in CAD spectra of both heterochiral and homochiral complexes for n = 2 and 4, and in homochiral H+(uc(l)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala3), indicating that the proton is attached to the uc(l)-alanine peptide, and H2O loss occurs from H+(uc(l)-Ala n ) in the noncovalent complexes. H2O loss did not occur in heterochiral H+(uc(d)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala3), where NH3 loss and (H2O + CO) loss were the primary dissociation pathways. In heterochiral H+(uc(d)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala3), the protonation site is the amino group of uc(d)-Trp, and NH3 loss and (H2O + CO) loss occur from H+(uc(d)-Trp). uc(l)-Ala peptides recognize uc(d)-Trp through protonation of the amino group for peptide size n = 3. NH3 loss and (H2O + CO) loss from H+(uc(d)-Trp) proceeds via enantioselective CAD in gas-phase heterochiral H+(uc(d)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala3) at room temperature, whereas uc(l)-Trp dissociation was not observed in homochiral H+(uc(l)-Trp)(uc(l)-Ala3). These results suggest that enantioselective dissociation induced by chiral recognition of uc(l)-Ala peptides through protonation could play an important role in enantiomeric enrichment and chiral transmission processes of amino acids.

  3. Differential Expression of MUC12, MUC16, and MUC20 in Patients with Active and Remission Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesús K.; Ascaño-Gutiérrez, Ilse; Furuzawa-Carballeda, Janette; Fonseca-Camarillo, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Background. Patients with UC have shown an important defect in the secretion and maintenance of the mucosal barrier as part of inadequate expression of mucin genes. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of MUC12, MUC16, and MUC20 in colonic tissue from patients with UC in regard to their clinical outcomes. Methods. We included a total of 40 patients with UC and 30 normal controls. Mucin gene expression was performed by RT-PCR and protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results. Patients with active UC showed no significant expression of MUC12 gene in mucosa compared to the group of patients with UC in remission and the normal control group. MUC16 gene expression was significantly increased in the UC active and remission groups compared to the normal control group (P = 0.03). MUC20 gene expression was found significantly decreased in patients with active UC compared to both remission group (P = 0.001) and normal controls (P = 0.001). Furthermore, an association was found between MUC20 gene expression and the presence of histological remission in patients with UC (P = 0.003, OR = 0.37). Conclusions. An increased gene expression of MUC16 and MUC20 was found in patients with remission UC. PMID:26770020

  4. Low prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in active ulcerative colitis patients.

    PubMed

    Rossen, N G; Bart, A; Verhaar, N; van Nood, E; Kootte, R; de Groot, P F; D'Haens, G R; Ponsioen, C Y; van Gool, T

    2015-05-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is thought to originate from a disbalance in the interplay between the gut microbiota and the innate and adaptive immune system. Apart from the bacterial microbiota, there might be other organisms, such as parasites or viruses, that could play a role in the aetiology of UC. The primary objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in a cohort of patients with active UC and compare that to the prevalence in healthy controls. We studied patients with active UC confirmed by endoscopy included in a randomised prospective trial on the faecal transplantation for UC. A cohort of healthy subjects who served as donors in randomised trials on faecal transplantation were controls. Healthy subjects did not have gastrointestinal symptoms and were extensively screened for infectious diseases by a screenings questionnaire, extensive serologic assessment for viruses and stool analysis. Potential parasitic infections such as Blastocystis were diagnosed with the triple faeces test (TFT). The prevalence of Blastocystis sp. were compared between groups by Chi-square testing. A total of 168 subjects were included, of whom 45 had active UC [median age 39.0 years, interquartile range (IQR) 32.5-49.0, 49 % male] and 123 were healthy subjects (median age 27 years, IQR 22.0-37.0, 54 % male). Blastocystis sp. was present in the faeces of 40/123 (32.5 %) healthy subjects and 6/45 (13.3 %) UC patients (p = 0.014). Infection with Blastocystis is significantly less frequent in UC patients as compared to healthy controls. PMID:25680316

  5. Cessna UC-78 Bobcat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1944-01-01

    Cessna UC-78 Bobcat: Known by some as the 'Double-breasted Cub, ' the Cessna UC-78 Bobcat was the Cessna model T-50 produced for the Air Corps during World War II as a light personnel transport. Versions were also ordered to train pilots on multi-engine aircraft. This example served with the NACA at Langley from the summer 1944 until summer 1945.

  6. A new paradigm in ulcerative colitis: regulatory T cells are key factor which induces/exacerbates UC through an immune imbalance.

    PubMed

    Hanai, Hiroyuki; Iida, Takayuki; Ikeya, Kentaro; Abe, Jinrou; Maruyama, Yasuhiko; Shimura, Teruyuki; Sugimoto, Ken; Watanabe, Fumitoshi

    2013-06-01

    Leukocytapheresis (LCAP) appears to remove or inactivate inflammatory cells and to reset immunological responses, resulting to cure responders of ulcerative colitis (UC). The changes of T cell subsets were investigated in UC patients treated with LCAP. Levels of T cell subsets in peripheral blood before and after LCAP were analysed by flow cytometric analysis. Of 20 UC patients, 13 (65%) achieved remission and 2 (10%) showed the improvement of UC symptoms. Ratios of some T cell subtypes such as regulatory T (Treg) cells and memory T cells to CD4(+) T cells changed significantly only in responders. Especially, ratio of resting Treg/CD4(+) T cells was significantly increased after the first LCAP session, and then one of activated Treg/CD4(+) T cells was increased after 2 week. This may lead to the development of a new UC paradigm in which an imbalance in Treg cell subsets triggers the onset and/or exacerbation of UC. PMID:23280396

  7. Disease Severity and Immune Activity Relate to Distinct Interkingdom Gut Microbiome States in Ethnically Distinct Ulcerative Colitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mar, Jordan S.; LaMere, Brandon J.; Lin, Din L.; Levan, Sophia; Nazareth, Michelle; Mahadevan, Uma

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Significant gut microbiota heterogeneity exists among ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, though the clinical implications of this variance are unknown. We hypothesized that ethnically distinct UC patients exhibit discrete gut microbiotas with unique metabolic programming that differentially influence immune activity and clinical status. Using parallel 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer 2 sequencing of fecal samples (UC, 30; healthy, 13), we corroborated previous observations of UC-associated bacterial diversity depletion and demonstrated significant Saccharomycetales expansion as characteristic of UC gut dysbiosis. Furthermore, we identified four distinct microbial community states (MCSs) within our cohort, confirmed their existence in an independent UC cohort, and demonstrated their coassociation with both patient ethnicity and disease severity. Each MCS was uniquely enriched for specific amino acid, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism pathways and exhibited significant luminal enrichment of the metabolic products of these pathways. Using a novel ex vivo human dendritic cell and T-cell coculture assay, we showed that exposure to fecal water from UC patients caused significant Th2 skewing in CD4+ T-cell populations compared to that of healthy participants. In addition, fecal water from patients in whom their MCS was associated with the highest level of disease severity induced the most dramatic Th2 skewing. Combined with future investigations, these observations could lead to the identification of highly resolved UC subsets based on defined microbial gradients or discrete microbial features that may be exploited for the development of novel, more effective therapies. PMID:27531910

  8. lncRNA uc009yby.1 promotes renal cell proliferation and is associated with poor survival in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xingfeng; Lan, Tianbiao; Chen, Yan; Shao, Ziyun; Yang, Cheng; Peng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The expression and function of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) remains unclear. The present study measured the expression profiles of three lncRNAs (uc009yby.1, ENST00000514034, and ENST00000450687) using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and assessed their signatures in distinguishing ccRCC from matched normal tissues via analysis of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The expression of uc009yby.1 was inhibited by transfection of renal cells with small interfering RNA, and then the cell proliferation was evaluated by using a Cell Counting Kit-8. The results showed that the expressions of uc009yby.1 and ENST00000514034 were markedly increased in ccRCC compared with the matched normal tissues (P<0.0001 and P=0.0008, respectively), whereas the ENST00000450687 expression was not significantly altered. ROC curves yielded an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.7000 for uc009yby.1, with sensitivity of 54.29% and specificity of 82.86%; and an AUC value of 0.6627 for ENST00000514034, with sensitivity of 60.00% and specificity of 67.14%. Furthermore, knockdown of uc009yby.1 suppressed renal cell proliferation (Day 0, P=0.7844; Day 1, P=0.0018; Day 2, P=0.0001; Day 3, P<0.000; Day 4, P<0.0001). Taken together, these findings suggest that the expression profiles of uc009yby.1 and ENST00000514034 may serve as novel biomarkers for ccRCC detection, and that uc009yby.1 is strongly associated with renal cell proliferation. PMID:27602119

  9. Fatigue is highly associated with poor health-related quality of life, disability and depression in newly-diagnosed patients with inflammatory bowel disease, independent of disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, B L; Zoëga, H; Shah, S A; LeLeiko, N; Lidofsky, S; Bright, R; Flowers, N; Law, M; Moniz, H; Merrick, M; Sands, B E

    2014-01-01

    Background Fatigue is common in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Data on fatigue in newly diagnosed patients are unavailable. Aim To report prevalence of fatigue in newly diagnosed CD and UC patients and examine its association with health-related quality of life (HRQOL), depression and disability. Methods The Ocean State Crohn's and Colitis Area Registry (OSCCAR) is a statewide cohort of newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease patients in Rhode Island. Fatigue was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue Scale. Patients were administered instruments measuring HRQOL, overall disability and work impairment, and depression. Results Fatigue was prevalent in 26.4% of 220 subjects. Cohen's d effect sizes for fatigue were large: Short-Form 36 Health Survey mental health component (CD 1.5, UC 1.4) and physical health component (CD 1.4, UC 1.4), EuroQol-5D valuation of current health state (CD 1.2, UC 1.0), Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (CD 1.9, UC 1.6) and Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (CD 1.8, UC 1.7). Fatigued patients reported more work impairment (Score difference: CD 29.5%, UC 23.8%) and activity impairment (score difference: CD 32.3%, UC 25.7%) on the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire. Fatigue's association with all scores remained highly significant despite controlling for disease activity. Conclusions Fatigue is strongly associated with poor HRQOL, disability and depression similarly in CD and UC even when controlling for disease activity. Fatigue's association with a wide range of patient-reported outcome measures suggests that monitoring fatigue is a simple way to screen for overall disruption in patient life. PMID:24612278

  10. Countering fear renewal: changes in the UCS representation generalize across contexts.

    PubMed

    Leer, Arne; Engelhard, Iris M

    2015-03-01

    After treatment of anxiety disorders, fear often returns. Analogue studies show that outside the extinction context the conditional stimulus (CS) activates the acquisition memory (CS predicts unconditional stimulus; UCS), rather than the extinction memory (CS does not predict UCS). Conditioning theory postulates that fear also diminishes after a reduction in the subjective cost of the UCS, which can occur in absence of any changes in the CS-UCS association. We hypothesized that fear reduction via "UCS deflation" generalizes across context. Healthy students underwent acquisition in context A with neutral CSs and 100dB white noise as UCS. One group received post-conditioning UCS exposure, in which UCS intensity decreased over time ("ABAdefl"). Another group received UCS presentations at equal intensity ("ABActrl"). Two groups did a filler task ("ABB"; "ABA"). Then, all groups underwent extinction in context B and were retested in context A (ABA-groups) or B (ABB-group). During each CS participants rated UCS expectancy and UCS cost. Results showed the typical increase in UCS expectancy following the context switch from extinction to test phase. In contrast, UCS deflation caused a reduction in cost ratings that was maintained after the context change. Findings suggest that UCS deflation techniques may reduce fear renewal. PMID:25645174

  11. Characteristic endoscopic findings and risk factors for cytomegalovirus-associated colitis in patients with active ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Yutaka; Ando, Takafumi; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Watanabe, Osamu; Miyahara, Ryoji; Nakamura, Masanao; Yamamura, Takeshi; Goto, Hidemi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To identify characteristic endoscopic findings and risk factors for cytomegalovirus (CMV)-associated colitis in patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: A total of 149 UC patients admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology, Nagoya University Hospital, from January 2004 to December 2013 with exacerbation of UC symptoms were enrolled in this retrospective study. All medical records, including colonoscopy results, were reviewed. CMV infection was determined by the presence of CMV antigen, CMV inclusion bodies in biopsy specimens, or positive specific immunohistochemical staining for CMV. Multivariate analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for CMV colitis. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis indicated independent associations with the extent of disease (pancolitis) and use of > 400 mg corticosteroids for the previous 4 wk. In contrast, no association was seen with sex, age at UC diagnosis, immunomodulator use, or infliximab use. Punched-out ulceration was also significantly associated with CMV infection in patients with active UC (odds ratio = 12.672, 95%CI: 4.210-38.143). CONCLUSION: Identification of a total corticosteroid dose > 400 mg for 4 wk, extensive colitis and a specific endoscopic finding of punched-out ulcer might facilitate the more rapid diagnosis and timely initiation of antiviral therapy for CMV-associated colitis in patients with active UC. PMID:27014426

  12. The Correlation of Serum IL-12B Expression With Disease Activity in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Won; Chung, Sook Hee; Moon, Chang Mo; Che, Xiumei; Kim, Seung Won; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Genetic variants in IL12B, encoding the p40 subunit common in interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interleukin-23, were identified as the susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aimed to identify the correlation of serum IL-12B expression with disease activity in patients with IBD and evaluate the possibility of IL-12B as a biomarker for assessing inflammatory status in IBD. A total of 102 patients with IBD, including 38, 32, and 32 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and intestinal Behçet's disease (intestinal BD), respectively, were included. The clinical and laboratory data from the patients were collected at the time of serum IL-12B measurement. Serum IL-12B levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median IL-12B levels in patients with CD, UC, and intestinal BD were significantly higher than those in controls (1.87, 2.74, and 2.73 pg/mL, respectively, vs. 1.42 pg/mL, all P <0.05). IL-12B concentrations were associated with disease activity in patients with UC and intestinal BD but not in those with CD. IL-12B levels were increased with increasing disease activity in patients with UC (P <0.001). Likewise, patients with active intestinal BD had higher IL-12B levels than those without active disease (P = 0.008). IL-12B levels were correlated with the endoscopic disease activity of UC (P = 0.002) and intestinal BD (P = 0.001) but not that of CD. Serum IL-12B levels were significantly correlated with clinical and endoscopic disease activity in patients with UC and intestinal BD, suggesting its potential use as a biomarker for assessing disease activity in these patients. PMID:27281077

  13. Exercise Decreases Risk of Future Active Disease in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients in Remission

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Patricia D.; Kappelman, Michael D.; Martin, Christopher F.; Chen, Wenli; Sandler, Robert S.; Long, Millie D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although exercise impacts quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), little is known about its role in disease activity. Among IBD patients in remission, we aimed to evaluate the association between exercise and subsequent active disease. Methods We performed a prospective study using the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America (CCFA) Partners Internet-based cohort of individuals with self-reported IBD. We identified participants in remission, defined as short Crohn's disease activity index (sCDAI) <150 or simple clinical colitis activity index (SCCAI) ≤2. The primary exposure was exercise status, measured using the validated Godin leisure time activity index. The primary study outcome, assessed after six months, was active disease defined using the above disease activity index thresholds. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to describe the independent association between exercise and risk of active disease. Results We identified 1308 patients with Crohn's Disease (CD) and 549 with ulcerative or indeterminate colitis (UC/IC) in remission, of whom 227(17.4%) with CD and 135 (24.6%) with UC/IC developed active disease after 6 months. Higher exercise level was associated with decreased risk of active disease for CD (adjusted RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.55-0.94) and UC/IC (adjusted RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.54-1.13). Conclusions In patients with CD in remission, those with higher exercise levels were significantly less likely to develop active disease at six months. In patients with UC/IC in remission, patients with higher exercise levels were less likely to develop active disease at six months, however this was not statistically significant. PMID:25723616

  14. Ulcerative Colitis Activity Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin, in a Patient with Longstanding Disease under Continuous Treatment with Mesalazine

    PubMed Central

    Sfendouraki, Elissavet; Karianos, Theodoros; Saranti, Sofia; Tsitsimelis, Dimitrios; Vrettos, Ioannis; Kalliakmanis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background. The presence of ulcerative colitis (UC) with no bowel symptoms, as fever of unknown origin (FUO), is uncommon. Objective. To describe the case of an 80-year-old woman who presented with fever, with a history of UC under treatment with mesalazine. Case Presentation. She was admitted due to fever lasting for 12 days with no associated symptoms. Seven years earlier, she was diagnosed with UC. After an extended workup for FUO that failed to reach the diagnosis, she underwent a gallium-67 scintigraphy. This revealed a persistent diffuse concentration of gallium-67 in the ascending colon at 24-hour imaging that remained stable at 48- and 72-hour imaging without any topographic change after the use of laxatives. Considering the results and in the absence of another diagnosis, the patient was treated with 30 mg prednisone daily and mesalazine, as treatment of active UC. Subsequently, the patient's condition improved markedly and the fever retreated. One month later, she was reevaluated with a gallium-67 scintigraphy with total absence of gallium-67 concentration in the ascending colon. Conclusion. UC activity must be included in the differential diagnosis of FUO in patients with longstanding disease, since fever may present alone, with no other manifestations. PMID:27504121

  15. Ulcerative Colitis Activity Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin, in a Patient with Longstanding Disease under Continuous Treatment with Mesalazine.

    PubMed

    Voukelatou, Panagiota; Sfendouraki, Elissavet; Karianos, Theodoros; Saranti, Sofia; Tsitsimelis, Dimitrios; Vrettos, Ioannis; Kalliakmanis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background. The presence of ulcerative colitis (UC) with no bowel symptoms, as fever of unknown origin (FUO), is uncommon. Objective. To describe the case of an 80-year-old woman who presented with fever, with a history of UC under treatment with mesalazine. Case Presentation. She was admitted due to fever lasting for 12 days with no associated symptoms. Seven years earlier, she was diagnosed with UC. After an extended workup for FUO that failed to reach the diagnosis, she underwent a gallium-67 scintigraphy. This revealed a persistent diffuse concentration of gallium-67 in the ascending colon at 24-hour imaging that remained stable at 48- and 72-hour imaging without any topographic change after the use of laxatives. Considering the results and in the absence of another diagnosis, the patient was treated with 30 mg prednisone daily and mesalazine, as treatment of active UC. Subsequently, the patient's condition improved markedly and the fever retreated. One month later, she was reevaluated with a gallium-67 scintigraphy with total absence of gallium-67 concentration in the ascending colon. Conclusion. UC activity must be included in the differential diagnosis of FUO in patients with longstanding disease, since fever may present alone, with no other manifestations. PMID:27504121

  16. Gene Signature Distinguishes Patients with Chronic Ulcerative Colitis Harboring Remote Neoplastic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Pekow, Joel; Dougherty, Urszula; Huang, Yong; Gometz, Edward; Nathanson, Jeff; Cohen, Greg; Levy, Shawn; Kocherginsky, Masha; Venu, Nanda; Westerhoff, Maria; Hart, John; Noffsinger, Amy E.; Hanauer, Stephen B; Hurst, Roger D.; Fichera, Alessandro; Joseph, Loren J; Liu, Qiang; Bissonnette, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals with ulcerative colitis (UC) are at increased risk for colorectal cancer. The standard method of surveillance for neoplasia in UC by colonoscopy is invasive and can miss flat lesions. We sought to identify a gene expression signature in non-dysplastic mucosa without active inflammation that could serve as a marker for remote neoplastic lesions. Methods Gene expression was analyzed by cDNA microarray in 5 normal controls, 4 UC patients without dysplasia, and 11 UC patients harboring remote neoplasia. Common gene ontology pathways of significantly differentially expressed genes were identified. Expression of genes which were progressively and significantly up-regulated from controls, to UC without neoplasia, to UC with remote neoplasia were evaluated by real time PCR. Several gene products were also examined by immunohistochemistry. Results 468 genes were significantly up-regulated and 541 genes were significantly down-regulated in UC patints with neoplasia compared to UC patients without neoplasia. Nine genes (ACSL1, BIRC3, CLC, CREM, ELTD1, FGG, S100A9, THBD, and TPD52L1) were progressively and significantly up-regulated from controls to non-dysplastic UC to UC with neoplasia. Immunostaining of proteins revealed increased expression of S100A9 and REG1α in UC-associated cancer and in non-dysplastic tissue from UC patients harboring remote neoplasia, compared to UC patients without neoplasia and controls. Conclusions Gene expression changes occurring as a field effect in the distal colon of patients with chronic UC identify patients harboring remote neoplastic lesions. These markers may lead to a more accurate and less invasive method of detection of neoplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:23388545

  17. Patients with active inflammatory bowel disease lack immature peripheral blood plasmacytoid and myeloid dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Baumgart, D C; Metzke, D; Schmitz, J; Scheffold, A; Sturm, A; Wiedenmann, B; Dignass, A U

    2005-01-01

    Background: Breakdown of tolerance against the commensal microflora is believed to be a major factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Dendritic cells (DC) have been implicated in this process in various animal models, but data on human DC in IBD are very limited. Aim: To characterise plasmacytoid DC (PDC) and myeloid DC (MDC) in patients with active versus inactive IBD and healthy controls. Patients and Methods: Peripheral blood was obtained from 106 patients (Crohn’s disease (CD) n = 49, ulcerative colitis (UC) n = 57) and healthy controls (n = 19). Disease activity was scored using the modified Truelove Witts (MTWSI) for UC and the Harvey Bradshaw severity indices (HBSI) for CD. Four colour flow cytometric analysis was used to identify, enumerate, and phenotype DC. DC from patients with acute flare ups and healthy controls were cultured and stimulated with CpG ODN 2006 or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results: IBD patients in remission (PDC UC, 0.39%; CD, 0.35%; MDC-1 UC, 0.23%; CD, 0.22% of PBMC) have slightly lower numbers of circulating DC compared with healthy controls (PDC 0.41%, MDC-1 0.25% of PBMC). In acute flare ups IBD patients experience a significant drop of DC (PDC UC, 0.04%; CD, 0.11%; MDC-1 UC, 0.11%; CD, 0.14% of PBMC) that correlates with disease activity (correlation coefficients: PDC MTWSI, 0.93; HBSI, 0.79; MDC-1 MTWSI, 0.75; HBSI, 0.81). Moreover, both express α4β7 integrin and display an immature phenotype. Freshly isolated PDC and MDC-1 from untreated flaring IBD patients express higher baseline levels of CD86 which increases further in culture and upon stimulation compared with healthy controls. Conclusion: IBD patients lack immature blood DC during flare ups which possibly migrate to the gut. An aberrant response to microbial surrogate stimuli suggests a disturbed interaction with commensals. PMID:15647187

  18. uc(Pegasus) Facility Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, J. C.; Lewicki, B. T.; Burke, S. P.; Eidietis, N. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Ford, B. A.; Garstka, G. D.; Unterberg, E. A.; Winz, G. R.

    2003-10-01

    Extensive new capabilities have been installed on the uc(Pegasus) ST facility. A new laboratory configuration allows separation of all power systems from the experimental hall. Data acquisition, control, and support facilities have been improved. New magnetic field power supplies utilize unique high-power 2700V IGCT switch modules to provide bipolar waveform control for the high-stress solenoid magnet, while 900V IGBTs provide uni/bipolar control of the PF and TF systems. The coil sets are independently controlled by pulse-width-modulated circuits developed by the HIT group. Capacitor charging, dumping, and monitoring are controlled by a PCI-based multichannel data acquisition and control system. These upgrades will provide: 1) increased V-s and loop voltage control for higher plasma current and suppression of MHD modes; 2) increased toroidal field with fast-ramp capability for improved access to the low-q, high βt regime; and 3) flexible equilibrium field control for radial position and modest shape control.

  19. Assessing Colonic Exposure, Safety, and Clinical Activity of SRT2104, a Novel Oral SIRT1 Activator, in Patients with Mild to Moderate Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Sands, Bruce E.; Joshi, Shashidhar; Haddad, Jonathan; Freudenberg, Johannes M.; Oommen, Deepa Elizabeth; Hoffmann, Ethan; Jacobson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sirtuins are a class of proteins with important physiologic roles in metabolism and inflammation. Sirtuin (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog) 1, or SIRT1, activation is an unexplored therapeutic approach for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: Patients with mild to moderately active UC were blindly randomized to 50 mg or 500 mg daily of SRT2104, a selective activator of SIRT1, for 8 weeks. Colonic exposure and safety were assessed, as well as blinded endoscopic scoring and disease activity by Mayo score, Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index and fecal calprotectin. Results: Across both SRT2104 groups, only 3 of 26 evaluable subjects achieved remission on blinded endoscopic assessment. Clinical remission (Mayo score ≤2, no subscore >1) was achieved in 4 patients (2 of 13 evaluable patients in each dose group). Fecal calprotectin levels declined with treatment in both groups, but after 56 days of treatment subjects were still found to have levels approximately 4-fold elevated above normal. One subject experienced an SAE requiring study withdrawal and another was withdrawn for a severe UC flare; 19 subjects (61%) across both treatment groups experienced at least 1 treatment emergent adverse event. Average drug exposure increased in a dose-dependent manner for escalating doses of SRT2104, and colonic exposure was 140 to 160 times higher than plasma exposures. Conclusions: SRT2104 did not demonstrate significant clinical activity in mild to moderately active UC. This suggests that further evaluation of SRT2104 as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of UC is not warranted. PMID:26595549

  20. Assessment of Disease-Related Therapeutic Protein Drug-Drug Interaction for Etrolizumab in Patients With Moderately to Severely Active Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohui; Kenny, Jane R; Dickmann, Leslie; Maciuca, Romeo; Looney, Caroline; Tang, Meina T

    2016-06-01

    The efficacy and safety of etrolizumab, a humanized IgG1 mAb, were evaluated in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) in a phase 2 study (EUCALYPTUS). The current study assessed the risk of therapeutic protein drug-drug interaction (TP-DDI) of etrolizumab on CYP3A activity in patients with UC. Literature review was performed to compare serum proinflammatory cytokine levels and pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of CYP3A substrate drugs between patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and healthy subjects. Treatment effect of etrolizumab on CYP3A activity was evaluated by measuring colonic CYP3A4 mRNA expression and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) in EUCALYPTUS patients. Literature data suggested similar levels between IBD patients and healthy subjects for serum proinflammatory cytokines and PK parameters of CYP3A substrate drugs. Additionally, treatment with etrolizumab did not change colonic CYP3A4 mRNA expression or serum CRP levels in UC patients. In conclusion, our results indicate a low TP-DDI risk for etrolizumab in UC patients, particularly on medications metabolized by CYP3A. PMID:26412221

  1. C. Judson King of UC Berkeley

    SciTech Connect

    Prausnitz, John

    2005-06-01

    In the middle of the UC Berkeley campus, next to the Main Library, South Hall is the last surviving building from the original campus, founded about 135 years ago. A tiny tree-shaded appendix to this venerated classical building houses Berkeley's Center for Studies in Higher Education, directed by C. Judson King, former Provost and Senior Vice President--Academic Affairs of the ten-campus University of California and long-time Professor of Chemical Engineering at Berkeley. Jud came to Berkeley in 1963 as assistant professor of chemical engineering, following receipt of a doctor's degree from MIT and a subsequent short appointment as director of the MIT chemical engineering practice school station at what was then Esso (now Exxon) in New Jersey. His undergraduate degree is from Yale. Starting with his MIT doctoral dissertation on gas absorption, Jud has devoted much of his professional career to separation processes. His teaching and research activities have been primarily concerned with separation of mixtures with emphasis on liquid-liquid extraction and drying. As a consultant to Procter and Gamble, he contributed to the technology of making instant coffee. His life-long activities in hiking and camping stimulated Jud's interest in the manufacture of freeze-dried foods (e.g. turkey meat) to minimize the weight of his hiking back-pack. Jud is internationally known not only for his many research publications but even more, for his acclaimed textbook ''Separation Processses'' (McGraw-Hill, second edition 1980) that is used in standard chemical engineering courses in the US and abroad.

  2. SERENDIP - The UC Berkeley SETI project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, C.; Bowyer, S.; Werthimer, D.; Malina, R. F.

    1993-10-01

    The UC Berkeley SERENDIP (search for extraterrestrial radio emissions from nearby developed intelligent populations) SETI project searches for narrow band radio signals from extraterrestrial civilizations. The search is based on a piggyback data acquisition system and an off-line data analysis system. The SERENDIP systems are described and progress is reviewed.

  3. UCS-PROMOVE: The engineer of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villas-Boas, V.

    2010-06-01

    The Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS) elaborated the cooperative project called 'The engineer of the future', with the objective of promoting science and engineering among high school teachers and students. This project aims to improve the quality of the teaching and to increase the interest of students in technological areas, leading to a future career in engineering. The activities of this project were planned to give meaning and foundation to the teaching-learning process of science and for the application of theory in the solution of real problems, while articulating scientific, economic, environmental, social and political aspects and also to reinforce the important role of engineering in society. Amongst the activities to be offered to high school teachers and students are a specialisation course for teachers based upon new educational methodologies, workshops in different areas of science and technology, a programme entitled 'Encouraging girls in technology, science and engineering', science fairs and visits to the industries of the region. Activities with the engineering instructors of UCS are also being developed in order to help them to incorporate in their classes more effective pedagogical strategies for educating the engineer-to-be.

  4. Evaluation of a multiplex PCR assay for detection of cytomegalovirus in stool samples from patients with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Saifun; Iraha, Atsushi; Hokama, Akira; Uehara, Ayako; Parrott, Gretchen; Ohira, Tetsuya; Kaida, Masatoshi; Kinjo, Tetsu; Kinjo, Takeshi; Hirata, Tetsuo; Kinjo, Nagisa; Fujita, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate a multiplex PCR assay for the detection of bacterial and viral enteropathogens in stool samples from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 300 individuals, including immunocompetent patients, immunocompromised patients, and patients with UC. Stool samples were collected from the recto-sigmoid region of the colon by endoscopy. The samples were qualitatively analyzed for bacterial and viral enteropathogens with a multiplex PCR assay using a Seeplex® Kit. Additional clinical and laboratory data were collected from the medical records. RESULTS: A multiplex PCR assay detected 397 pathogens (191 bacteria and 206 viruses) in 215 samples (71.7%). The most frequently detected bacteria were Escherichia coli H7, 85 (28.3%); followed by Aeromonas spp., 43 (14.3%); and Clostridium perfringens, 36 (12.0%) samples. The most prevalent viruses were Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), 90 (30.0%); followed by human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6), 53 (17.7%); and cytomegalovirus (CMV), 37 (12.3%) samples. The prevalence rate of CMV infection was significantly higher in the immunocompromised group than in the immunocompetent group (P < 0.01). CMV infection was more common in patients with UC (26/71; 36.6%) than in the immunocompetent patients excluding UC (6/188; 3.2%) (P < 0.01). CMV infection was more prevalent in UC active patients (25/58; 43.1%) than in UC inactive patients (1/13; 7.7%) (P < 0.05). Among 4 groups which defined by the UC activity and immunosuppressive drugs, the prevalence rate of CMV infection was highest in the UC active patients with immunosuppressive drugs (19/34; 55.8%). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection was more common in the immunocompromised patients excluding UC (18/41; 43.9%) than in the immunocompetent patients excluding UC (47/188; 25.0%) (P < 0.05). The simultaneous presence of CMV and EBV and/or HHV6 in UC active patients (14/58; 24.1%) was greater than in immunocompromised patients excluding UC (5/41; 12.2%) (P < 0

  5. Specific immunotherapy plus Clostridium butyricum alleviates ulcerative colitis in patients with food allergy.

    PubMed

    Bin Lan; Yang, Fan; Lu, Dong; Lin, Zhenlv

    2016-01-01

    The aberrant T cell activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation, such as ulcerative colitis (UC). C. butyricum (Cb) is a probiotic and has been employed in the treatment of immune diseases. This study tests a hypothesis that specific immunotherapy (SIT) plus oral Cb (an over-the-counter probiotic) alleviates the UC symptoms. In this study, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, clinical study at our hospital. A total of 80 patients with relapsing-remitting ulcerative colitis and high levels of specific IgE antibody was randomly divided into 4 groups, and were treated with SIT or/and Cb, or placebo, respectively for 1 year. The results showed that a food antigen-specific Th2 polarization immune response was observed in UC patients with food allergy (FA). The frequency of regulatory B cells was significantly less in UC patients with FA as compared with healthy subjects. The UC patients with FA were treated with SIT and Cb showed significant amelioration of UC clinical symptoms, reduction of using UC-control medicines, and suppression of the skewed Th2 polarization, which did not occur in those treated with either SIT alone, or Cb alone, or placebo. In conclusion, combination of SIT and Cb efficiently alleviates a fraction of UC patients. PMID:27167186

  6. Specific immunotherapy plus Clostridium butyricum alleviates ulcerative colitis in patients with food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Bin Lan, B; Yang, Fan; Lu, Dong; Lin, Zhenlv

    2016-01-01

    The aberrant T cell activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation, such as ulcerative colitis (UC). C. butyricum (Cb) is a probiotic and has been employed in the treatment of immune diseases. This study tests a hypothesis that specific immunotherapy (SIT) plus oral Cb (an over-the-counter probiotic) alleviates the UC symptoms. In this study, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, clinical study at our hospital. A total of 80 patients with relapsing-remitting ulcerative colitis and high levels of specific IgE antibody was randomly divided into 4 groups, and were treated with SIT or/and Cb, or placebo, respectively for 1 year. The results showed that a food antigen-specific Th2 polarization immune response was observed in UC patients with food allergy (FA). The frequency of regulatory B cells was significantly less in UC patients with FA as compared with healthy subjects. The UC patients with FA were treated with SIT and Cb showed significant amelioration of UC clinical symptoms, reduction of using UC-control medicines, and suppression of the skewed Th2 polarization, which did not occur in those treated with either SIT alone, or Cb alone, or placebo. In conclusion, combination of SIT and Cb efficiently alleviates a fraction of UC patients. PMID:27167186

  7. Clinical value of fecal calprotectin in determining disease activity of ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jun-Ying; Ouyang, Qin; Li, Guo-Dong; Xiao, Nan-Ping

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate possibility and clinical application of fecal calprotectin in determining disease activity of ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the concentrations of calprotectin in feces obtained from 66 patients with UC and 20 controls. C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), acid glycoprotein (AGP) were also measured and were compared with calprotectin in determining disease activity of UC. The disease activity of UC was also determined by the Sutherland criteria. RESULTS: The fecal calprotectin concentration in the patients with active UC was significantly higher than that in the inactive UC and in the controls (402.16 ± 48.0 μg/g vs 35.93 ± 3.39 μg/g, 11.5 ± 3.42 μg/g, P < 0.01). The fecal calprotectin concentration in the inactive UC group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). A significant difference was also found in the patients with active UC of mild, moderate and severe degrees. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristics (AUCROC) was 0.975, 0.740, 0.692 and 0.737 for fecal calprotectin, CRP, ESR and AGP, respectively. There was a strong correlation between the fecal calprotectin concentration and the endoscopic gradings for UC (r = 0.866, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Calprotectin in the patient’s feces can reflect the disease activity of UC and can be used as a rational fecal marker for intestinal inflammation in clinical practice. This kind of marker is relatively precise, simple and noninvasive when compared with other commonly-used markers such as CRP, ESR and AGP. PMID:18176961

  8. Creating an Engaging Library Orientation: First Year Experience Courses at UC San Diego

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Crystal; Turnbow, Dominique; Roth, Amanda; Friedman, Lia; Heskett, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of an engaging library orientation module for UC San Diego First Year Experience (FYE) courses. The library module included a brief in-class presentation about research concepts and library services, an online interactive library scavenger hunt given as an in-class activity, and a homework assignment where…

  9. Clinical features of active tuberculosis that developed during anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jang Wook; Park, Ji Hoon; Kim, Jeong Wook; Kang, Sang Bum; Koo, Ja Seol; Kim, Young-Ho; Kim, You Sun; Joo, Young Eun; Chang, Sae Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy for active ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with increased risks of tuberculosis (TB) infection. We analyzed the incidence and clinical features of Korean patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who developed active TB during anti-TNF therapy. Methods Ten cases of active TB developed in patients treated with infliximab (n=592) or adalimumab (n=229) for UC (n=160) or CD (n=661) were reviewed. We analyzed demographics, interval between start of anti-TNF therapy and active TB development, tests for latent TB infection (LTBI), concomitant medications, and the details of diagnosis and treatments for TB. Results The incidence of active TB was 1.2% (10/821): 1.5% (9/592) and 0.4% (1/229) in patients receiving infliximab and adalimumab, respectively. The median time to the development of active TB after initiation of anti-TNF therapy was three months (range: 2–36). Three patients had past histories of treatment for TB. Positive findings in a TB skin test (TST) and/or interferon gamma releasing assay (IGRA) were observed in three patients, and two of them received anti-TB prophylaxis. Two patients were negative by both TST and IGRA. The most common site of active TB was the lungs, and the active TB was cured in all patients. Conclusions Active TB can develop during anti-TNF therapy in IBD patients without LTBI, and even in those with histories of TB treatment or LTBI prophylaxis. Physicians should be aware of the potential for TB development during anti-TNF therapy, especially in countries with a high prevalence of TB. PMID:27175115

  10. Glycosylation and sulphation of colonic mucus glycoproteins in patients with ulcerative colitis and in healthy subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Morita, H; Kettlewell, M G; Jewell, D P; Kent, P W

    1993-01-01

    Studies have been made of mucus glycoprotein biosynthesis in different regions of the lower gastrointestinal tract in normal patients and those with ulcerative colitis (UC), active or inactive, by means of 3H-glucosamine (3H-GlcNH2)--35S-sulphate double labelling of epithelial biopsy specimens under culture conditions. The time based rate of 3H-GlcNH2 labelling of mucus in rectal tissue was similar to that in active or inactive UC whereas the rate of 35SO4(2) labelling was significantly increased in active disease. The 3H specific activities measuring the amount of isotopic incorporation into surface and tissue mucus glycoproteins were increased in patients with active UC compared with normal or inactive subjects. The 35S specific activities did not differ significantly between patients with active UC and those in remission. In the rectum, glycosylation of mucus glycoproteins decreases with the increasing age of the patient. Regional differences in 3H-labelling of mucus components are reported for ascending colon, transverse colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. Sulphation (35S-labelling) was higher in all parts of the colon in left sided UC. Results point to accelerated glycosylation of core proteins in the active phase of UC. PMID:8344580

  11. Vitiligo in a patient receiving infliximab for refractory ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Waleed A; Al-Enzy, Saleh A; Alsurayei, Saqer A; Ismail, Ali E

    2011-06-01

    Infliximab is a chimerical monoclonal antibody that inhibits pro-inflammatory activity of tumour-necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and it is the primary biological agent used in the treatment of moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis (UC). We report a case of vitiligo following infliximab administration in a patient with refractory UC. The case serves as a reminder of adverse cutaneous reactions induced by TNFα-antagonist therapy. PMID:21684486

  12. UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Paul

    2012-05-31

    This is the final report of the UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence which spanned from 2005-2012. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program, to provide a new generation of engineers and scientists with knowledge and skills to create advanced automotive technologies. The UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence established in 2005 is focused on research, education, industrial collaboration and outreach within automotive technology. UC Davis has had two independent GATE centers with separate well-defined objectives and research programs from 1998. The Fuel Cell Center, administered by ITS-Davis, has focused on fuel cell technology. The Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Design Center (HEV Center), administered by the Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, has focused on the development of plug-in hybrid technology using internal combustion engines. The merger of these two centers in 2005 has broadened the scope of research and lead to higher visibility of the activity. UC Davis's existing GATE centers have become the campus's research focal points on fuel cells and hybrid-electric vehicles, and the home for graduate students who are studying advanced automotive technologies. The centers have been highly successful in attracting, training, and placing top-notch students into fuel cell and hybrid programs in both industry and government.

  13. Light atom quantum oscillations in UC and US

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yiu, Yuen; Aczel, Adam A.; Granroth, Garrett E.; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Stone, Matthew B.; Buyers, W. J. L.; Lin, J. Y. Y.; Samolyuk, German D.; Stocks, George Malcolm; Nagler, Stephen E.

    2016-01-19

    High energy vibrational scattering in the binary systems UC and US is measured using time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering. A clear set of well-defined peaks equally separated in energy is observed in UC, corresponding to harmonic oscillations of the light C atoms in a cage of heavy U atoms. The scattering is much weaker in US and only a few oscillator peaks are visible. We show how the difference between the materials can be understood by considering the neutron scattering lengths and masses of the lighter atoms. Monte Carlo ray tracing is used to simulate the scattering, with near quantitative agreementmore » with the data in UC, and some differences with US. The possibility of observing anharmonicity and anisotropy in the potentials of the light atoms is investigated in UC. Lastly, the observed data is well accounted for by considering each light atom as a single atom isotropic quantum harmonic oscillator.« less

  14. Light atom quantum oscillations in UC and US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiu, Yuen; Aczel, A. A.; Granroth, G. E.; Abernathy, D. L.; Stone, M. B.; Buyers, W. J. L.; Lin, J. Y. Y.; Samolyuk, G. D.; Stocks, G. M.; Nagler, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    High-energy vibrational scattering in the binary systems UC and US is measured using time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering. A clear set of well-defined peaks equally separated in energy is observed in UC, corresponding to harmonic oscillations of the light C atoms in a cage of heavy U atoms. The scattering is much weaker in US and only a few oscillator peaks are visible. We show how the difference between the materials can be understood by considering the neutron scattering lengths and masses of the lighter atoms. Monte Carlo ray tracing is used to simulate the scattering, with near quantitative agreement with the data in UC, and some differences with US. The possibility of observing anharmonicity and anisotropy in the potentials of the light atoms is investigated in UC. Overall, the observed data is well accounted for by considering each light atom as a single atom isotropic quantum harmonic oscillator.

  15. Light atom quantum oscillations in UC and US

    SciTech Connect

    Yiu, Yuen; Aczel, Adam A.; Granroth, Garrett E.; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Stone, Matthew B.; Buyers, W. J. L.; Lin, J. Y. Y.; Samolyuk, German D.; Stocks, George Malcolm; Nagler, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    High energy vibrational scattering in the binary systems UC and US is measured using time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering. A clear set of well-defined peaks equally separated in energy is observed in UC, corresponding to harmonic oscillations of the light C atoms in a cage of heavy U atoms. The scattering is much weaker in US and only a few oscillator peaks are visible. We show how the difference between the materials can be understood by considering the neutron scattering lengths and masses of the lighter atoms. Monte Carlo ray tracing is used to simulate the scattering, with near quantitative agreement with the data in UC, and some differences with US. The possibility of observing anharmonicity and anisotropy in the potentials of the light atoms is investigated in UC. Lastly, the observed data is well accounted for by considering each light atom as a single atom isotropic quantum harmonic oscillator.

  16. Disposition of ( UC)methyl bromide in rats after inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, J.A.; Dutcher, J.S.; Medinsky, M.A.; Henderson, R.F.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the disposition and metabolism of ( UC)methyl bromide in rats after inhalation. Male Fischer-344 rats were exposed nose only to a vapor concentration of 337 nmol ( UC)methyl bromide/liter air (9.0 ppm, 25C, 620 torr) for 6 hr. Urine, feces, expired air, and tissues were collected for up to 65 hr after exposure. Elimination of UC as UCO2 was the major route of excretion with about 47% (3900 nmol/rat) of the total ( UC)methyl bromide absorbed excreted by this route. CO2 excretion exhibited a biphasic elimination pattern with 85% of the UCO2 being excreted with a half-time of 3.9 +/- 0.1 hr (anti x +/- SE) and 15% excreted with a half-time of 11.4 +/- 0.2 hr. Half-times for elimination of UC in urine and feces were 9.6 +/- 0.1 and 16.1 +/- 0.1 hr, respectively. By 65 hr after exposure, about 75% of the initial radioactivity had been excreted with 25% remaining in the body. Radioactivity was widely distributed in tissues immediately following exposure with lung (250 nmol equivalents/g), adrenal (240 nmol equivalents/g), and nasal turbinates (110 nmol equivalents/g) containing the highest concentrations of UC. Radioactivity in livers immediately after exposure accounted for about 17% of the absorbed methyl bromide. Radioactivity in all other tissues examined accounted for about 10% of the absorbed methyl bromide. Elimination half-times of UC from tissues were on the order of 1.5 to 8 hr. In all tissues examined, over 90% of the UC in the tissues was methyl bromide metabolities. The data from this study indicate that after inhalation methyl bromide is rapidly metabolized in tissues and readily excreted. 22 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  17. Solid Organ Transplantation in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD): Analysis of Transplantation Outcome and IBD Activity in a Large Single Center Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzler, Fabian; Friedrich, Matthias; Stallhofer, Johannes; Schönermarck, Ulf; Fischereder, Michael; Habicht, Antje; Karbalai, Nazanin; Wolf, Christiane; Angelberger, Marianne; Olszak, Torsten; Beigel, Florian; Tillack, Cornelia; Göke, Burkhard; Zachoval, Reinhart; Denk, Gerald; Guba, Markus; Rust, Christian; Grüner, Norbert; Brand, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, limited data of the outcome of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in patients after solid organ transplantation (SOT) are available. We aimed to analyze effects of SOT on the IBD course in a large IBD patient cohort. Methods Clinical data from 1537 IBD patients were analyzed for patients who underwent SOT (n = 31) between July 2002 and May 2014. Sub-analyses included SOT outcome parameters, IBD activity before and after SOT, and efficacy of IBD treatment. Results 4.74% of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 0.84% of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) underwent SOT (p = 2.69 x 10−6, UC vs. CD). 77.4% of patients with SOT underwent liver transplantation (LTx) with tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive therapy after SOT. All LTx were due to primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) or PSC overlap syndromes. Six patients (19.4%) required renal transplantation and one patient (3.2%) heart transplantation. A survival rate of 83.9% after a median follow-up period of 103 months was observed. Before SOT, 65.0% of patients were in clinical remission and 5 patients received immunosuppressive therapy (16.1%). After SOT, 61.0% of patients were in remission (p = 1.00 vs. before SOT) and 29.0% required IBD-specific immunosuppressive or anti-TNF therapy (p = 0.54 vs. before SOT). 42.9% of patients with worsening of IBD after SOT were at higher risk of needing steroid therapy for increased IBD activity (p = 0.03; relative risk (RR): 10.29; 95% CI 1.26–84.06). Four patients (13.0%) needed anti-TNF therapy after SOT (response rate 75%). Conclusions SOT was more common in UC patients due to the higher prevalence of PSC-related liver cirrhosis in UC. Despite mainly tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive regimens, outcome of SOT and IBD was excellent in this cohort. In this SOT cohort, concomitant immunosuppressive therapy due to IBD was well tolerated. PMID:26288187

  18. Associations between diet and disease activity in ulcerative colitis patients using a novel method of data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Elizabeth A; Edmond, Laurie M; Tasker, Shiona M; Kong, San Choon; Curno, Richard; Cummings, John H

    2005-01-01

    Background The relapsing nature and varying geographical prevalence of ulcerative colitis (UC) implicates environmental factors such as diet in its aetiology. Methods In order to determine which foods might be related to disease activity in UC a new method of dietary analysis was developed and applied. Eighty-one UC patients were recruited at all stages of the disease process. Following completion of a 7 d diet diary, clinical assessment including a sigmoidoscopic examination (scale 0 (normal mucosa) to 6 (very active disease)) was conducted. Food weights for each person were adjusted (divided) by the person's calorific intake for the week. Each food consumed was given a food sigmoidoscopy score (FSS) calculated by summing the products of the (adjusted) weight of food consumed and sigmoidoscopy score for each patient and occurrence of food and dividing by the total (adjusted) weight of the food consumed by all 81 patients. Thus, foods eaten in large quantities by patients with very active disease have high FSSs and vice versa. Foods consumed by <10 people or weighing <1 kg for the whole group were excluded, leaving 75 foods. Results High FSS foods were characterized by high levels of the anti-thiamin additive sulfite (Mann-Whitney, p < 0.001), i.e. bitter, white wine, burgers, soft drinks from concentrates, sausages, lager and red wine. Caffeine also has anti-thiamin properties and decaffeinated coffee was associated with a better clinical state than the caffeine containing version. Beneficial foods (average intake per week) included pork (210 g), breakfast cereals (200 g), lettuce (110 g), apples and pears (390 g), milk (1250 ml), melon (350 g), bananas (350 g), bacon (120 g), beef and beef products (500 g), tomatoes (240 g), soup (700 g), citrus fruits (300 g), fish (290 g), yogurt (410 g), cheese (110 g), potatoes (710 g) and legumes (120 g). Conclusions The dietary analysis method described provides a new tool for establishing relationships between diet and

  19. Rotational Rehybridization and the High Temperature Phase of UC2

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Xiaodong; Rudin, Sven P.; Batista, Enrique R.; Clark, David L.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Martin, Richard L.

    2012-12-03

    The screened hybrid approximation (HSE) of density functional theory (DFT) is used to examine the structural, optical, and electronic properties of the high temperature phase, cubic UC(2). This phase contains C(2) units with a computed C-C distance of 1.443 Å which is in the range of a CC double bond; U is formally 4+, C(2) 4-. The closed shell paramagnetic state (NM) was found to lie lowest. Cubic UC(2) is found to be a semiconductor with a narrow gap, 0.4 eV. Interestingly, the C(2) units connecting two uranium sites can rotate freely up to an angle of 30°, indicating a hindered rotational solid. Ab-initio molecular dynamic simulations (HSE) show that the rotation of C(2) units in the low temperature phase (tetragonal UC(2)) occurs above 2000 K, in good agreement with experiment. The computed energy barrier for the phase transition from tetragonal UC(2) to cubic UC(2) is around 1.30 eV per UC(2). What is fascinating about this system is that at high temperature, the phase transformation to the cubic phase is associated with a rehybridization of the C atoms from sp to sp(3).

  20. Leukocyte Activation in Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Minervino, Daniele; Gumiero, Daniela; Nicolazzi, Maria Anna; Carnicelli, Annamaria; Fuorlo, Mariella; Guidone, Caterina; Di Gennaro, Leonardo; Fattorossi, Andrea; Mingrone, Geltrude; Landolfi, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The rising prevalence of obesity is a major global health problem. In severe obesity, bariatric surgery (BS) allows to obtain a significant weight loss and comorbidities improvement, among them one of the factors is the thrombotic risk. In this observational study, we measured indices of leukocyte activation in severely obese patients as markers of increased thrombotic risk in relation with serum markers of inflammation before and after BS. Frequency of polymorphonuclear neutrophil-platelet (PLT) and monocyte (MONO)-PLT aggregates as well as of tissue factor (TF) expressing MONOs was measured in the peripheral blood of 58 consecutive obese patients and 30 healthy controls. In 31 of the 58 obese patients, data obtained at the enrollment were compared with those obtained at 3, 6, and 12 months after BS. Compared with healthy controls, obese patients showed a higher frequency of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL)-PLT aggregates (7.47 ± 2.45 [6.82–8.11]% vs 5.85 ± 1.89 [5.14–6.55]%, P = 0.001), MONO-PLT aggregates (12.31 ± 7.33 [10.38–14.24]% vs 8.14 ± 2.22 [7.31–8.97]%, P < 0.001), and TF expressing MONOs (4.01 ± 2.11 [3.45–4.56]% vs 2.64 ± 1.65 [2.02–3.25]%, P = 0.002). PMNL-PLT and MONO-PLT aggregate frequency was positively correlated with TF expressing MONOs (R2 = 0.260, P = 0.049 and R2 = 0.318, P = 0.015, respectively). BS was performed in 31 patients and induced a significant reduction of the body mass index, and waist and hip circumferences. These effects were associated with a significant decrease of PMNL-PLT aggregates at 12 months (7.58 ± 2.27 [6.75–8.42]% vs 4.47 ± 1.11 [3.93–5.01]%, P < 0.001), and a reduction of TF expressing MONOs at 6 (3.82 ± 2.04 [3.07–4.57]% vs 1.60 ± 1.69 [0.30–2.90]%, P = 0.008) and 12 months (3.82 ± 2.04 [3.07–4.57]% vs 1.71 ± 0.54 [1.45–1.97]%, P = 0.001) after BS. These data suggest that leukocyte

  1. Fecal calprotectin and ulcerative colitis endoscopic activity index as indicators of mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Taghvaei, Tarang; Maleki, Iradj; Nagshvar, Farshad; Fakheri, Hafez; Hosseini, Vahid; Valizadeh, Seyed Mohammad; Neishaboori, Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic, idiopathic, inflammatory large bowel disease with recurrent variable periods of exacerbation. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the correlation of UCEIS with fecal calprotectin (FC) level to assess disease activity in UC patients in order to determine whether FC can prognosticate clinical outcome and disease activity of UC instead of colonoscopic evaluation. Our endoscopic investigations revealed the extension of UC as the following: proctitis (11.6%), procto-sigmoiditis (18.5%), left-sided colitis (15.8%), extensive colitis (11.7%), and normal endoscopy (42.4%). Conclusively, we suggest that FC can be used as a reliable tool to evaluate disease activity in ulcerative colitis patients. Moreover, our findings indicate a significant correlation between FC level and mucosal healing. PMID:25366383

  2. Rectal budesonide and mesalamine formulations in active ulcerative proctosigmoiditis: efficacy, tolerance, and treatment approach

    PubMed Central

    Christophi, George P; Rengarajan, Arvind; Ciorba, Matthew A

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an immune-mediated disease of the colon that is characterized by diffuse and continuous inflammation contiguous from the rectum. Half of UC patients have inflammation limited to the distal colon (proctitis or proctosigmoiditis) that primarily causes symptoms of bloody diarrhea and urgency. Mild-to-moderate distal UC can be effectively treated with topical formulations (rectal suppositories, enemas, or foam) of mesalamine or steroids to reduce mucosal inflammation and alleviate symptoms. Enemas or foam formulations adequately reach up to the splenic flexure, have a minimal side-effect profile, and induce remission alone or in combination with systemic immunosuppressive therapy. Herein, we compare the efficacy, cost, patient tolerance, and side-effect profiles of steroid and mesalamine rectal formulations in distal UC. Patients with distal mild-to-moderate UC have a remission rate of approximately 75% (NNT =2) after treatment for 6 weeks with mesalamine enemas. Rectal budesonide foam induces remission in 41.2% of patients with mild-to-moderate active distal UC compared to 24% of patient treated with placebo (NNT =5). However, rectal budesonide has better patient tolerance profile compared to enema formulations. Despite its favorable efficacy, safety, and cost profiles, patients and physicians significantly underuse topical treatments for treating distal colitis. This necessitates improved patient education and physician familiarity regarding the indications, effectiveness, and potential financial and tolerability barriers in using rectal formulations. PMID:27274301

  3. Expression of guanylate cyclase-C, guanylin, and uroguanylin is downregulated proportionally to the ulcerative colitis disease activity index

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Danfeng; Niu, Junkun; Miao, Jiarong; Dong, Xiangqian; Wang, Hong; Yang, Gang; Wang, Kunhua; Miao, Yinglei

    2016-01-01

    The transmembrane receptor guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) signaling pathway has been implicated in several gastrointestinal disorders. Activation of GC-C via guanylin (Gn) and uroguanylin (Ugn) regulates intestinal fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. However, how it regulates the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is still unclear. Here, we investigated the activation of GC-C signaling in ulcerative colitis (UC) of different clinical severities. A total of 60 UC patients and 20 normal controls were recruited. Evaluation of the UC disease activity index (DAI) was performed using a modified Mayo scoring system. The expression of GC-C, Gn and Ugn in the colonic mucosa was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. We found that the UC patients had significantly lower expression of GC-C, Gn and Ugn than the controls. Furthermore, there were significant differences for GC-C, Gn and Ugn expression for the UC groups of Grade 1, 2 and 3, and their expression levels were reduced with increases in their DAI. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GC-C, Gn and Ugn are downregulated in UC, and this downregulation is more significant with aggravation of the clinical condition. Therefore, the GC-C signaling pathway may be implicated in the progression of UC. PMID:27125248

  4. ChE at UC Santa Barbara.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seborg, Dale E.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the chemical engineering program at the University of California, Santa Barbara, including history of the department, faculty research interests and professional activities, graduate and undergraduate programs, and research in nuclear engineering. (SK)

  5. Patient Activation: Public Libraries and Health Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malachowski, Margot

    2011-01-01

    Patient activation is a new term for a perennial problem. People know what they need to do for their health: exercise, eat right, and get enough rest--but how are they motivated to actually do these things? This is what patient activation is. From this author's vantage point as a medical librarian, public libraries are well-placed to be part of…

  6. UCS-PROMOVE: The Engineer of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villas-Boas, V.

    2010-01-01

    The Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS) elaborated the cooperative project called "The engineer of the future", with the objective of promoting science and engineering among high school teachers and students. This project aims to improve the quality of the teaching and to increase the interest of students in technological areas, leading to a…

  7. The uc(Polarbear)-2 and the Simons Array Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, A.; Ade, P.; Akiba, Y.; Aleman, C.; Arnold, K.; Baccigalupi, C.; Barch, B.; Barron, D.; Bender, A.; Boettger, D.; Borrill, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Cukierman, A.; Dobbs, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunner, R.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fabbian, G.; Feeney, S.; Feng, C.; Fujino, T.; Fuller, G.; Gilbert, A.; Goeckner-Wald, N.; Groh, J.; Haan, T. De; Hall, G.; Halverson, N.; Hamada, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Hill, C.; Holzapfel, W.; Hori, Y.; Howe, L.; Inoue, Y.; Irie, F.; Jaehnig, G.; Jaffe, A.; Jeong, O.; Katayama, N.; Kaufman, J.; Kazemzadeh, K.; Keating, B.; Kermish, Z.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Kusaka, A.; Jeune, M. Le; Lee, A.; Leon, D.; Linder, E.; Lowry, L.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Miller, N.; Mizukami, K.; Montgomery, J.; Navaroli, M.; Nishino, H.; Peloton, J.; Poletti, D.; Puglisi, G.; Rebeiz, G.; Raum, C.; Reichardt, C.; Richards, P.; Ross, C.; Rotermund, K.; Segawa, Y.; Sherwin, B.; Shirley, I.; Siritanasak, P.; Stebor, N.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, J.; Tajima, O.; Takada, S.; Takakura, S.; Takatori, S.; Tikhomirov, A.; Tomaru, T.; Westbrook, B.; Whitehorn, N.; Yamashita, T.; Zahn, A.; Zahn, O.

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview of the design and status of the uc(Polarbear)-2 and the Simons Array experiments. uc(Polarbear)-2 is a cosmic microwave background polarimetry experiment which aims to characterize the arc-minute angular scale B-mode signal from weak gravitational lensing and search for the degree angular scale B-mode signal from inflationary gravitational waves. The receiver has a 365 mm diameter focal plane cooled to 270 mK. The focal plane is filled with 7588 dichroic lenslet-antenna-coupled polarization sensitive transition edge sensor (TES) bolometric pixels that are sensitive to 95 and 150 GHz bands simultaneously. The TES bolometers are read-out by SQUIDs with 40 channel frequency domain multiplexing. Refractive optical elements are made with high-purity alumina to achieve high optical throughput. The receiver is designed to achieve noise equivalent temperature of 5.8 \\upmu K_CMB√{s} in each frequency band. uc(Polarbear)-2 will deploy in 2016 in the Atacama desert in Chile. The Simons Array is a project to further increase sensitivity by deploying three uc(Polarbear)-2 type receivers. The Simons Array will cover 95, 150, and 220 GHz frequency bands for foreground control. The Simons Array will be able to constrain tensor-to-scalar ratio and sum of neutrino masses to σ (r) = 6× 10^{-3} at r = 0.1 and sum m_{\\upnu } (σ =1) to 40 meV.

  8. High energy physics at UC Riverside

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This report discusses progress made for the following two tasks: experimental high energy physics, Task A, and theoretical high energy physics, Task B. Task A1 covers hadron collider physics. Information for Task A1 includes: personnel/talks/publications; D0: proton-antiproton interactions at 2 TeV; SDC: proton-proton interactions at 40 TeV; computing facilities; equipment needs; and budget notes. The physics program of Task A2 has been the systematic study of leptons and hadrons. Information covered for Task A2 includes: personnel/talks/publications; OPAL at LEP; OPAL at LEP200; CMS at LHC; the RD5 experiment; LSND at LAMPF; and budget notes. The research activities of the Theory Group are briefly discussed and a list of completed or published papers for this period is given.

  9. Adrenal function in patients with active tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, D J; Naraqi, S; Temu, P; Turtle, J R

    1989-01-01

    Although tuberculosis is a recognised cause of adrenal insufficiency, little is known about adrenal function in patients with active tuberculosis. Ninety Melanesian adults with active tuberculosis (30 pulmonary, 30 miliary, 30 extrapulmonary) had adrenal function assessed prospectively before and three to four weeks after starting antituberculous chemotherapy. Basal serum cortisol concentrations were normal in 55 (61%) and raised in 35 (39%) of the subjects. No patient had a low basal cortisol concentration. After Synacthen stimulation, cortisol responses were normal in 81 (92%) of the patients and subnormal in seven (8%). After antituberculous chemotherapy the response to Synacthen stimulation was normal in all but one patient. It is concluded that adrenal dysfunction is an uncommon problem in patients with active tuberculosis, and that, contrary to recent reports, antituberculous chemotherapy regimens that include rifampicin do not have an adverse effect on adrenal function. PMID:2763243

  10. The UC-LLNL Regional Climate System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.L.; Kim, Jinwon

    1996-09-01

    The UC-LLNL Regional Climate System Model has been under development since 1991. The unique system simulates climate from the global scale down to the watershed catchment scale, and consists of data pre- and post- processors, and four model components. The four model components are (1) a mesoscale atmospheric simulation model, (2) a soil-plant-snow model, (3) a watershed hydrology-riverflow model, and (4) a suite of crop response models. The first three model components have been coupled, and the system includes two-way feedbacks between the soil-plant-snow model and the mesoscale atmospheric simulation model. This three-component version of RCSM has been tested, validated, and successfully used for operational quantitative precipitation forecasts and seasonal water resource studies over the southwestern US. We are currently implementation and validating the fourth component, the Decision Support system for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT). A description of the UC-LLNL RCSM and some recent results are presented.

  11. 20 CFR 603.4 - What is the confidentiality requirement of Federal UC law?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the confidentiality requirement of Federal UC law? 603.4 Section 603.4 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL-STATE UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION (UC) PROGRAM; CONFIDENTIALITY AND DISCLOSURE OF STATE UC INFORMATION Confidentiality...

  12. The College Selection Process of Freshmen Admitted to UC Davis: The Range of Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Bonnie L.

    Considerations in selecting a college were studied with a random sample of 768 freshmen admitted to the University of California (UC), Davis, in fall 1984. Major findings are: freshmen admitted to UC Davis had considerable breadth of knowledge about many other colleges and academic programs; over 80 percent applied to colleges besides UC Davis;…

  13. The UC2-x - Carbon eutectic: A laser heating study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, D.; Boboridis, K.; Morel, S.; De Bruycker, F.

    2015-11-01

    The UC2-x - carbon eutectic has been studied by laser heating and fast multi-wavelength pyrometry under inert atmosphere. The study has been carried out on three compositions, two of which close to the phase boundary of the UC2-x - C miscibility gap (with C/U atomic ratios 2 and 2.1), and one, more crucial, with a large excess of carbon (C/U = 2.82). The first two compositions were synthesised by arc-melting. This synthesis method could not be applied to the last composition, which was therefore completed directly by laser irradiation. The U - C - O composition of the samples was checked by using a combustion method in an ELTRA® analyser. The eutectic temperature, established to be 2737 K ± 20 K, was used as a radiance reference together with the cubic - tetragonal (α → β) solid state transition, fixed at 2050 K ± 20 K. The normal spectral emissivity of the carbon-richer compounds increases up to 0.7, whereas the value 0.53 was established for pure hypostoichiometric uranium dicarbide at the limit of the eutectic region. This increase is analysed in the light of the demixing of excess carbon, and used for the determination of the liquidus temperature (3220 K ± 50 K for UC2.82). Due to fast solid state diffusion, also fostered by the cubic - tetragonal transition, no obvious signs of a lamellar eutectic structure could be observed after quenching to room temperature. The eutectic surface C/UC2-x composition could be qualitatively, but consistently, followed during the cooling process with the help of the recorded radiance spectra. Whereas the external liquid surface is almost entirely constituted by uranium dicarbide, it gets rapidly enriched in demixed carbon upon freezing. Demixed carbon seems to quickly migrate towards the inner bulk during further cooling. At the α → β transition, uranium dicarbide covers again the almost entire external surface.

  14. Thermodynamic and experimental study of UC powders ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Guyadec, F.; Rado, C.; Joffre, S.; Coullomb, S.; Chatillon, C.; Blanquet, E.

    2009-09-01

    Mixed plutonium and uranium carbide (UPuC) is considered as a possible fuel material for future nuclear reactors. However, UPuC is pyrophoric and fine powders of UPuC are subject to temperature increase due to oxidation with air and possible ignition during conditioning and handling. In a first approach and to allow easier experimental conditions, this study was undertaken on uranium monocarbide (UC) with the aim to determine safe handling conditions for the production and reprocessing of uranium carbide fuels. The reactivity of uranium monocarbide in oxidizing atmosphere was studied in order to analyze the ignition process. Experimental thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) revealed that UC powder obtained by arc melting and milling is highly reactive in air at about 200 °C. The phases formed at the various observed stages of the oxidation process were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. At the same time, ignition was analyzed thermodynamically along isothermal sections of the U-C-O ternary diagram and the pressure of the gas produced by the UC + O 2 reaction was calculated. Two possible oxidation schemes were identified on the U-C-O phase diagram and assumptions are proposed concerning the overall oxidation and ignition paths. It is particularly important to understand the mechanisms involved since temperatures as high as 2500 °C could be reached, leading to CO(g) production and possibly to a blast effect.

  15. [Pseudocholinesterase activity in type 1 bipolar patients].

    PubMed

    Ezzaher, Asma; Haj Mouhamed, Dhouha; Mechri, Anwar; Neffati, Fadoua; Douki, Wahiba; Gaha, Lotfi; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the variation of pseudocholinesterase activity (BuChE) in bipolar patients and to explore its relation to the clinical and therapeutic characteristics of this disease. Our study included 105 patients with bipolar disorder and 100 control subjects aged 38.7 ± 12.2 and 36.4 ± 15.7 y, respectively. BuChE was determined by kinetic methods on Cobas Integra 400 plus™. Compared with controls, patients had a significantly higher pseudocholinesterase activity. Moreover, this increase was significantly associated (p = 0.001) with bipolar disorder with sensibility of 58% and specificity of 62% at threshold of 7392 IU/L. There was no significant change in pseudocholinesterase activity in relation to illness episodes and treatment, whereas the lowest values of this activity were seen in euthymic patients and those taking psychotics. Therefore, this activity is a real interest in the biological monitoring of patients as a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases associated with bipolar disorder. But it would be most useful to evaluate their interest as a predictor of bipolar disorder in patients at risk. PMID:22294139

  16. Resveratrol Exerts Dosage-Dependent Effects on the Self-Renewal and Neural Differentiation of hUC-MSCs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinxin; Ma, Shanshan; Meng, Nan; Yao, Ning; Zhang, Kun; Li, Qinghua; Zhang, Yanting; Xing, Qu; Han, Kang; Song, Jishi; Yang, Bo; Guan, Fangxia

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (RES) plays a critical role in the fate of cells and longevity of animals via activation of the sirtuins1 (SIRT1) gene. In the present study, we intend to investigate whether RES could promote the self-renewal and neural-lineage differentiation in human umbilical cord derived MSCs (hUC-MSCs) in vitro at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 μM, and whether it exerts the effects by modulating the SIRT1 signaling. Herein, we demonstrated that RES at the concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 2.5 μM could promote cell viability and proliferation, mitigate senescence and induce expression of SIRT1 and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) while inhibit the expression of p53 and p16. However, the effects were reversed by 5 and 10 μM of RES. Furthermore, RES could promote neural differentiation in a dose-dependent manner as evidenced by morphological changes and expression of neural markers (Nestin, βIII-tubulin and NSE), as well as pro-neural transcription factors Neurogenin (Ngn)1, Ngn2 and Mash1. Taken together, RES exerts a dosage-dependent effect on the self-renewal and neural differentiation of hUC-MSCs via SIRT1 signaling. The current study provides a new strategy to regulate the fate of hUC-MSCs and suggests a more favorable in vitro cell culture conditions for hUC-MSCs-based therapies for some intractable neurological disorders. PMID:27109421

  17. Resveratrol Exerts Dosage-Dependent Effects on the Self-Renewal and Neural Differentiation of hUC-MSCs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinxin; Ma, Shanshan; Meng, Nan; Yao, Ning; Zhang, Kun; Li, Qinghua; Zhang, Yanting; Xing, Qu; Han, Kang; Song, Jishi; Yang, Bo; Guan, Fangxia

    2016-05-31

    Resveratrol (RES) plays a critical role in the fate of cells and longevity of animals via activation of the sirtuins1 (SIRT1) gene. In the present study, we intend to investigate whether RES could promote the self-renewal and neural-lineage differentiation in human umbilical cord derived MSCs (hUC-MSCs) in vitro at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 μM, and whether it exerts the effects by modulating the SIRT1 signaling. Herein, we demonstrated that RES at the concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 2.5 μM could promote cell viability and proliferation, mitigate senescence and induce expression of SIRT1 and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) while inhibit the expression of p53 and p16. However, the effects were reversed by 5 and 10 μM of RES. Furthermore, RES could promote neural differentiation in a dose-dependent manner as evidenced by morphological changes and expression of neural markers (Nestin, βIII-tubulin and NSE), as well as pro-neural transcription factors Neurogenin (Ngn)1, Ngn2 and Mash1. Taken together, RES exerts a dosage-dependent effect on the self-renewal and neural differentiation of hUC-MSCs via SIRT1 signaling. The current study provides a new strategy to regulate the fate of hUC-MSCs and suggests a more favorable in vitro cell culture conditions for hUC-MSCs-based therapies for some intractable neurological disorders. PMID:27109421

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of probiotic Bifidobacterium: Enhancement of IL-10 production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from ulcerative colitis patients and inhibition of IL-8 secretion in HT-29 cells

    PubMed Central

    Imaoka, Akemi; Shima, Tatsuichiro; Kato, Kimitoshi; Mizuno, Shigeaki; Uehara, Toshiki; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Setoyama, Hiromi; Hara, Taeko; Umesaki, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the anti-inflammatory activity of probiotic Bifidobacteria in Bifidobacteria-fermented milk (BFM) which is effective against active ulcerative colitis (UC) and exacerbations of UC, and to explore the immunoregulatory mechanisms. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) from UC patients or HT-29 cells were co-cultured with heat-killed probiotic bacteria or culture supernatant of Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult (BbrY) or Bifidobacterium bifidum strain Yakult (BbiY) to estimate the amount of IL-10 or IL-8 secreted. RESULTS: Both strains of probiotic Bifidobacteria contained in the BFM induced IL-10 production in PBMNC from UC patients, though BbrY was more effective than BbiY. Conditioned medium (CM) and DNA of both strains inhibited IL-8 secretion in HT-29 cells stimulated with TNF-α, whereas no such effect was observed with heat-killed bacteria. The inhibitory effect of CM derived from BbiY was greater than that of CM derived from BbrY. DNAs of the two strains had a comparable inhibitory activity against the secretion of IL-8. CM of BbiY induced a repression of IL-8 gene expression with a higher expression of IκB-ζ mRNA 4 h after culture of HT-29 cells compared to that in the absence of CM. CONCLUSION: Probiotic Bifidobacterium strains in BFM enhance IL-10 production in PBMNC and inhibit IL-8 secretion in intestinal epithelial cells, suggesting that BFM has anti-inflammatory effects against ulcerative colitis. PMID:18442197

  19. UC Merced Center for Computational Biology Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, Michael; Watanabe, Masakatsu

    2010-11-30

    Final report for the UC Merced Center for Computational Biology. The Center for Computational Biology (CCB) was established to support multidisciplinary scientific research and academic programs in computational biology at the new University of California campus in Merced. In 2003, the growing gap between biology research and education was documented in a report from the National Academy of Sciences, Bio2010 Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists. We believed that a new type of biological sciences undergraduate and graduate programs that emphasized biological concepts and considered biology as an information science would have a dramatic impact in enabling the transformation of biology. UC Merced as newest UC campus and the first new U.S. research university of the 21st century was ideally suited to adopt an alternate strategy - to create a new Biological Sciences majors and graduate group that incorporated the strong computational and mathematical vision articulated in the Bio2010 report. CCB aimed to leverage this strong commitment at UC Merced to develop a new educational program based on the principle of biology as a quantitative, model-driven science. Also we expected that the center would be enable the dissemination of computational biology course materials to other university and feeder institutions, and foster research projects that exemplify a mathematical and computations-based approach to the life sciences. As this report describes, the CCB has been successful in achieving these goals, and multidisciplinary computational biology is now an integral part of UC Merced undergraduate, graduate and research programs in the life sciences. The CCB began in fall 2004 with the aid of an award from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under its Genomes to Life program of support for the development of research and educational infrastructure in the modern biological sciences. This report to DOE describes the research and academic programs

  20. Physical activity in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Achamrah, Najate; Coëffier, Moïse; Déchelotte, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is often associated with physical hyperactivity. Recent studies have established links between anorexia and hyperactivity, suggesting the existence of commonalities in neural pathways. How physical activity should be managed during the clinical care of patients with anorexia remains controversial. This review first focuses on the implication of hyperactivity in the pathophysiology of AN. Hyperactivity during refeeding of patients with AN has been associated with increased energy needs to achieve weight gain, poorer clinical outcome, longer hospitalization, and increased psychiatric comorbidity. This typically leads to the prescription of bed rest. However, current knowledge suggests that preserving some kind of physical activity during refeeding of patients with AN should be safe and beneficial for the restoration of body composition, the preservation of bone mineral density, and the management of mood and anxiety. In the absence of standardized guidelines, it is suggested here that physical activity during refeeding of patients with AN should be personalized according to the physical and mental status of each patient. More research is needed to assess whether programmed physical activity may be a beneficial part of the treatment of AN. PMID:27052638

  1. Prolidase activity in chronic plaque psoriasis patients

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Nurten; Ozgöztas, Orhan; Sezen, Hatice; Yesilova, Yavuz; Turan, Enver

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, T-cell-mediated and hyperproliferative skin disease characterized by erythematous, squamous, sharply circumscribed and infiltrated plaques. The metabolisms of the collagen proteins undergo considerable changes due to the acceleration of their turnovers as a result of increased prolidase activity in psoriasis patients. Aim To determine the level of prolidase activity in psoriasis patients and evaluate its relationship with the oxidative system. Material and methods The serum prolidase enzyme activity, total antioxidant levels and total oxidant levels of 40 psoriasis patients and a control group including 47 healthy individuals were analyzed by using their serum samples, and their oxidative stress indices were calculated. Results The prolidase levels (p < 0.01), total oxidant levels (p < 0.01) and oxidative stress index levels (p < 0.001) of the patient group were higher than the corresponding parameters in the control group. The total antioxidant level was low (p < 0.01). Although a positive correlation was found between the prolidase and total antioxidant levels and the total oxidant level, no correlation was found between prolidase and the oxidative stress index. Conclusions It has been determined that the activity of the prolidase enzyme increases due to the increased collage turnover in psoriasis patients. Increased serum oxidant levels and oxidative stress indices values may play a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. PMID:26015776

  2. [Peculiarities of verbal activity in migraine patients].

    PubMed

    Latysheva, N V; Iakovlev, O N; Filatova, E G

    2003-01-01

    We applied associative verbal experiment to analyze verbal activity of migraineurs. A test group consisted of 49 patients with migraine, a control one--of 20 healthy people. Reliable decrease of free associations number, verbs and plants, semantic index and changes of non-productive association index and coefficient were observed. Average depression level, higher anxiety and negative correlations with indexes calculated were found. Verbal activity of migraineurs, their ability to concentrate and to control adequateness of task fulfillment were decreased. That was caused by pain, depression, anxiety and neurotization. Verbal activity is influenced by individual emotional features (calculated indexes do not correlate with the visual analogue scale). PMID:12938648

  3. Medical Therapy of Active Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Bürger, Martin; Schmidt, Carsten; Teich, Niels; Stallmach, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Medical therapy of mild and moderate ulcerative colitis (UC) of any extent is evidence-based and standardized by national and international guidelines. However, patients with steroid-refractory UC still represent a challenge. Methods A literature search using PubMed (search terms: ulcerative colitis, therapy, new, 1-2008-2015) resulted in 821 publications. For the current article, 88 citations were extracted including 36 randomized controlled studies, 18 reviews, and 8 meta-analyses. Results In steroid-refractory UC, early intensive therapy using anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibodies or the calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporine and tacrolimus is indicated in any case to prevent progression to a toxic megacolon and/or to avoid proctocolectomy. In patients with chronic disease activity, treatment with anti-TNF antibodies has a higher level of evidence than azathioprine therapy and should therefore be preferred. However, there is a subgroup of UC patients who may achieve prolonged steroid-free remission on azathioprine monotherapy. The importance of vedolizumab, a newly registered inhibiting antibody against integrin, has not yet been fully clarified since direct comparison studies are lacking, in particular in relation to anti-TNF antibodies. Conclusion There is a great need for additional innovative therapies, especially in cases of primary non-response or secondary loss of response to anti-TNF antibodies. New small molecules (Janus kinase inhibitors) are promising with an acceptable safety profile and efficacy in UC. Further, strategies that target the intestinal microbiome are currently considered for patients with active or relapsing UC, and may in the future open up new therapeutic options. PMID:26557831

  4. Approaches to improve the stability of the antiviral agent UC781 in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Damian, Festo; Fabian, Judit; Friend, David R; Kiser, Patrick F

    2010-08-30

    In this work, we evaluated the chemical stability profiles of UC781 based solutions to identify excipients that stabilize the microbicidal agent UC781. When different antioxidants were added to UC781 in sulfobutylether-beta-cyclodextrin (SBE-beta-CD) solutions and subjected to a 50 degrees C stability study, it was observed that EDTA was a better stabilizing agent than sodium metabisulfite, glutathione or ascorbic acid. Some antioxidants accelerated the degradation of UC781, suggesting metal-catalyzed degradation of UC781. Furthermore, we observed substantial degradation of UC781 when stored in 1% Tween 80 and 1% DMSO solutions alone or in those with 10mM EDTA. On the other hand, improved stability of UC781 in the presence of 100 and 200mM of EDTA was observed in these solutions. The addition of both EDTA and citric acid in the stock solutions resulted in recovery of more than 60% of UC781 after 12 weeks. Generally, 10% SBE-beta-CD in the presence of EDTA and citric acid stabilized UC781 solutions: the amount of UC781 recovered approaching 95% after 12 weeks of storage at 40 degrees C. We also showed that the desulfuration reaction of the UC781 thioamide involves oxygen by running solution stability studies in deoxygenated media. Improved stability of UC781 in the present study indicates that the incorporation of EDTA, citric acid and SBE-beta-CD and the removal of oxygen in formulations of this drug will aid in increasing the stability of UC781 where solutions of the drug are required. PMID:20510342

  5. A New Center for Science Education at UC Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, I.

    1998-01-01

    The Space Sciences Laboratory at UC Berkeley has established a new Center for Science Education through the Laboratory's Senior Fellow program. The Center has a two-fold mission: (1) science education research through collaborations with UCB Graduate School of Education faculty, and (2) education and outreach projects that bring NASA research to the K-14 and general public communities. The Center is the host of two major education and outreach programs funded by NASA - The Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) and the Science Education Gateway (SEGway) Project. The SECEF - a collaborative between UC Berkeley and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center - is one of four Forums that have been funded through the Office of Space Science as part of their Education Ecosystem. SEGway is a partnership between science research centers, science museums, and teachers, for the purpose of developing Internet-based, inquiry activities for the K-12 classroom that tap NASA remote sensing data. We will describe the Center for Science Education's history and vision, as well as summarize our core programs.

  6. Linking estrogen receptor β expression with inflammatory bowel disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Pierdominici, Marina; Maselli, Angela; Varano, Barbara; Barbati, Cristiana; Cesaro, Paola; Spada, Cristiano; Zullo, Angelo; Lorenzetti, Roberto; Rosati, Marco; Rainaldi, Gabriella; Limiti, Maria Rosaria; Guidi, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) whose pathogenesis is only poorly understood. Estrogens have a complex role in inflammation and growing evidence suggests that these hormones may impact IBD pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrated a significant reduction (p < 0.05) of estrogen receptor (ER)β expression in peripheral blood T lymphocytes from CD/UC patients with active disease (n = 27) as compared to those in remission (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 29). Accordingly, in a subgroup of CD/UC patients undergoing to anti-TNF-α therapy and responsive to treatment, ERβ expression was higher (p < 0.01) than that observed in not responsive patients and comparable to that of control subjects. Notably, ERβ expression was markedly decreased in colonic mucosa of CD/UC patients with active disease, reflecting the alterations observed in peripheral blood T cells. ERβ expression inversely correlated with interleukin (IL)-6 serum levels and exogenous exposure of both T lymphocytes and intestinal epithelial cells to this cytokine resulted in ERβ downregulation. These results demonstrate that the ER profile is altered in active IBD patients at both mucosal and systemic levels, at least in part due to IL-6 dysregulation, and highlight the potential exploitation of T cell-associated ERβ as a biomarker of endoscopic disease activity. PMID:26497217

  7. Alteration of T cell maturation and proliferation in the mouse thymus induced by serum factors from patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, M; Aiso, S; Hibi, T; Watanabe, N; Iwao, Y; Yoshida, T; Asakura, H; Tsuru, S; Tsuchiya, M

    1987-01-01

    Recently it has been reported that patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) often have thymus abnormalities, although the precise mechanisms which induce those abnormalities remain unclear. We have examined the effect of serum fractions from patients with UC and other colonic diseases on mouse thymus to clarify the possible existence of factors which have thymus growth activity. These fractions were separated from sera of patients with UC by gel filtration and anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography. In mice given UC serum fractions; (i) remarkable increases in weight and total cell number of the thymus were observed from day 4 to day 9; (ii) a significant increase in the number of peanut agglutinin (PNA)+ thymus cells was demonstrated using flow cytometry on day 9; (iii) on quantitative analysis of surface antigens the percentage of Lyt-2+ thymus cells decreased and that of L3T4+ thymus cells increased remarkably on day 13; the number of bright Thy-1.2+ cells and of dull Lyt-1+ cells increased. In contrast, the serum fractions from patients with other colonic diseases and from normal persons caused little change in mouse thymus throughout the study. The results suggest that factors fractionated from the serum of patients with UC disturb intra-thymic T cell maturation and enhance the proliferation of thymus cells. PMID:3498579

  8. Molecular structure of uranium carbides: Isomers of UC3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalazar, M. Fernanda; Rayón, Víctor M.; Largo, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    In this article, the most relevant isomers of uranium tricarbide are studied through quantum chemical methods. It is found that the most stable isomer has a fan geometry in which the uranium atom is bonded to a quasilinear C3 unit. Both, a rhombic and a ring CU(C2) structures are found about 104-125 kJ/mol higher in energy. Other possible isomers including linear geometries are located even higher. For each structure, we provide predictions for those molecular properties (vibrational frequencies, IR intensities, dipole moments) that could eventually help in their experimental detection. We also discuss the possible routes for the formation of the different UC3 isomers as well as the bonding situation by means of a topological analysis of the electron density.

  9. Molecular structure of uranium carbides: isomers of UC3.

    PubMed

    Zalazar, M Fernanda; Rayón, Víctor M; Largo, Antonio

    2013-03-21

    In this article, the most relevant isomers of uranium tricarbide are studied through quantum chemical methods. It is found that the most stable isomer has a fan geometry in which the uranium atom is bonded to a quasilinear C3 unit. Both, a rhombic and a ring CU(C2) structures are found about 104-125 kJ/mol higher in energy. Other possible isomers including linear geometries are located even higher. For each structure, we provide predictions for those molecular properties (vibrational frequencies, IR intensities, dipole moments) that could eventually help in their experimental detection. We also discuss the possible routes for the formation of the different UC3 isomers as well as the bonding situation by means of a topological analysis of the electron density. PMID:23534639

  10. LLNL/UC (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)/(University of California) AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) facility and research program

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.C.; Proctor, I.D.; Southon, J.R.; Caffee, M.W.; Heikkinen, D.W.; Roberts, M.L.; Moore, T.L.; Turteltaub, K.W.; Nelson, D.E.; Loyd, D.H.; Vogel, J.S.

    1990-04-18

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California (UC) now have in operation a large AMS spectrometer built as part of a new multiuser laboratory centered on an FN tandem. AMS measurements are expected to use half of the beam time of the accelerator. LLNL use of AMS is in research on consequences of energy usage. Examples include global warming, geophysical site characterization, radiation biology and dosimetry, and study of mutagenic and carcinogenic processes. UC research activities are in clinical applications, archaeology and anthropology, oceanography, and geophysical and geochemical research. Access is also possible for researchers outside the UC system. The technological focus of the laboratory is on achieving high rates of sample through-put, unattended operation, and advances in sample preparation methods. Because of the expected growth in the research programs and the other obligations of the present accelerator, we are designing a follow-on dedicated facility for only AMS and microprobe analysis that will contain at least two accelerators with multiple spectrometers. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Immunohistochemical Studies on Galectin Expression in Colectomised Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Block, Mattias; Mölne, Johan; Leffler, Hakon; Börjesson, Lars; Breimer, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aetiology and pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) are essentially unknown. Galectins are carbohydrate-binding lectins involved in a large number of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Little is known about the role of galectins in human UC. In this immunohistochemical exploratory study, both epithelial and inflammatory cell galectin expression were studied in patients with a thoroughly documented clinical history and were correlated with inflammatory activity. Material and Methods. Surgical whole intestinal wall colon specimens from UC patients (n = 22) and controls (n = 10) were studied. Clinical history, pharmacological treatment, and modified Mayo-score were recorded. Tissue inflammation was graded, and sections were stained with antibodies recognizing galectin-1, galectin-2, galectin-3, and galectin-4. Results. Galectin-1 was undetectable in normal and UC colonic epithelium, while galectin-2, galectin-3, and galectin-4 were strongly expressed. A tendency towards diminished epithelial expression with increased inflammatory grade for galectin-2, galectin-3, and galectin-4 was also found. In the inflammatory cells, a strong expression of galectin-2 and a weak expression of galectin-3 were seen. No clear-cut correlation between epithelial galectin expression and severity of the disease was found. Conclusion. Galectin expression in patients with UC seems to be more dependent on disease focality and individual variation than on degree of tissue inflammation. PMID:26885508

  12. 20 CFR 603.4 - What is the confidentiality requirement of Federal UC law?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is the confidentiality requirement of Federal UC law? 603.4 Section 603.4 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL-STATE UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION (UC) PROGRAM; CONFIDENTIALITY AND DISCLOSURE...

  13. Serum ST2 in inflammatory bowel disease: a potential biomarker for disease activity.

    PubMed

    Boga, Salih; Alkim, Huseyin; Koksal, Ali Riza; Ozagari, Ayse Aysim; Bayram, Mehmet; Tekin Neijmann, Sebnem; Sen, Ilker; Alkim, Canan

    2016-06-01

    ST2, a specific ligand of interleukin 33, was described as a biomarker protein of inflammatory processes and overexpression of ST2 in ulcerative colitis (UC) was shown previously. We aimed to investigate the potential relationship of serum ST2 levels with the clinical, endoscopic and histopathological activity scores in UC and Crohn's disease (CD). Serum ST2 levels were determined in 143 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (83 UC and 60 CD), in 50 healthy controls (HC), and in 32 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Serum ST2 levels were elevated in IBD (56.8 (41.9-87.2) pg/mL) compared to HC and IBS (30.7 (20.2-54.3), p<0.001 and 39.9 (25.9-68.7) pg/mL, p=0.002, respectively). No significant difference was found between UC (54.2 (41.3-93.0) pg/mL) and CD (63.8 (42.7-88.4) pg/mL) and between IBS and HC. Serum ST2 levels were significantly increased in active UC compared to inactive UC (72.5 (44.1-99.5) vs 40.0 (34.7-51.6) pg/mL, p<0.001) and in active CD in comparison with inactive CD (63.8 (42.7-88.4) vs 48.4 (29.6-56.9) pg/mL, p=0.036). Patients with CD showing fistulizing behavior had significantly higher ST2 levels compared to patients with inflammatory and stricturing CD (p<0.001). Clinical activity scores of patients with UC and CD were correlated with serum ST2 levels (r=0.692, p<0.001 and r=0.242, p=0.043, respectively). Serum ST2 levels showed stepwise increases with the increasing histopathological scores of patients with UC and CD (p<0.001 for both). The present study highlights significant associations between ST2 and IBD presence and activity and demonstrates elevated serum ST2 levels in patients with active CD as a novel finding. PMID:27001944

  14. Soluble ST2: A new and promising activity marker in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Jiménez, David; Núñez, Lucía E; Beltrán, Caroll J; Candia, Enzo; Suazo, Cristóbal; Álvarez-Lobos, Manuel; González, María-Julieta; Hermoso, Marcela A; Quera, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To correlate circulating soluble ST2 (sST2) levels with the severity of ulcerative colitis (UC) and serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and to demonstrate the predictive power of sST2 levels for differentiation between active and inactive UC. METHODS: We recruited 153 patients: 82 with UC, 26 with Crohn’s disease (CD) and 43 disease controls [non-inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)]. Subjects were excluded if they had diagnosis of asthma, autoimmune diseases or hypertension. The serum levels of sST2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines [pg/mL; median (25th-75th)] as well as clinical features, endoscopic and histological features, were subjected to analyses. The sST2 performance for discrimination between active and inactive UC, non-IBD and healthy controls (HC) was determined with regard to sensitivity and specificity, and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (r). To validate the method, the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) was determined (AUC, 95% CI) and the total ST2 content of the colonic mucosa in UC patients was correlated with circulating levels of sST2. RESULTS: The serum sST2 value was significantly higher in patients with active [235.80 (90.65-367.90) pg/mL] rather than inactive UC [33.19 (20.04-65.32) pg/mL], based on clinical, endoscopic and histopathological characteristics, as well as compared with non-IBD and HC (P < 0.001). The median level of sST2 in CD patients was 54.17 (35.02-122.0) pg/mL, significantly higher than that of the HC group only (P < 0.01). The cutoff was set at 74.87 pg/mL to compare active with inactive UC in a multicenter cohort of patients. Values of sensitivity, specificity, and ability to correctly classify UC, according to activity, were 83.33%, 83.33% and 83.33%, respectively. The AUC of the ROC curve to assess the ability of this molecule to discriminate between active vs inactive UC was 0.92 (0.86-0.97, P < 0.0001). The serum levels of sST2 in patients with UC significantly

  15. Adalimumab in Patients with Active Noninfectious Uveitis.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Glenn J; Dick, Andrew D; Brézin, Antoine P; Nguyen, Quan Dong; Thorne, Jennifer E; Kestelyn, Philippe; Barisani-Asenbauer, Talin; Franco, Pablo; Heiligenhaus, Arnd; Scales, David; Chu, David S; Camez, Anne; Kwatra, Nisha V; Song, Alexandra P; Kron, Martina; Tari, Samir; Suhler, Eric B

    2016-09-01

    Background Patients with noninfectious uveitis are at risk for long-term complications of uncontrolled inflammation, as well as for the adverse effects of long-term glucocorticoid therapy. We conducted a trial to assess the efficacy and safety of adalimumab as a glucocorticoid-sparing agent for the treatment of noninfectious uveitis. Methods This multinational phase 3 trial involved adults who had active noninfectious intermediate uveitis, posterior uveitis, or panuveitis despite having received prednisone treatment for 2 or more weeks. Investigators and patients were unaware of the study-group assignments. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive adalimumab (a loading dose of 80 mg followed by a dose of 40 mg every 2 weeks) or matched placebo. All patients received a mandatory prednisone burst followed by tapering of prednisone over the course of 15 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was the time to treatment failure occurring at or after week 6. Treatment failure was a multicomponent outcome that was based on assessment of new inflammatory lesions, best corrected visual acuity, anterior chamber cell grade, and vitreous haze grade. Nine ranked secondary efficacy end points were assessed, and adverse events were reported. Results The median time to treatment failure was 24 weeks in the adalimumab group and 13 weeks in the placebo group. Among the 217 patients in the intention-to-treat population, those receiving adalimumab were less likely than those in the placebo group to have treatment failure (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.70; P<0.001). Outcomes with regard to three secondary end points (change in anterior chamber cell grade, change in vitreous haze grade, and change in best corrected visual acuity) were significantly better in the adalimumab group than in the placebo group. Adverse events and serious adverse events were reported more frequently among patients who received adalimumab (1052.4 vs. 971.7 adverse events

  16. Primary Care Provider Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Two Self-Management Support Programs for Vulnerable Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ratanawongsa, Neda; Bhandari, Vijay K; Handley, Margaret; Rundall, Thomas; Hammer, Hali; Schillinger, Dean

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary care providers (PCPs) in safety net settings face barriers to optimizing care for patients with diabetes. We conducted this study to assess PCPs' perspectives on the effectiveness of two language-concordant diabetes self-management support programs. Methods One year postintervention, we surveyed PCPs whose patients with diabetes participated in a three-arm multiclinic randomized controlled trial comparing usual care (UC), weekly automated telephone self-management (ATSM) support with nurse care management, and monthly group medical visits (GMVs). We compared PCP perspectives on patient activation to create and achieve goals, quality of care, and barriers to care using regression models accounting for within-PCP clustering. Results Of 113 eligible PCPs caring for 330 enrolled patients, 87 PCPs (77%) responded to surveys about 245 (74%) enrolled patients. Intervention patients were more likely to be perceived by PCPs as activated to create and achieve goals for chronic care when compared with UC patients (standardized effect size, ATSM vs UC, +0.41, p = 0.01; GMV vs UC, +0.31, p = 0.05). Primary care providers rated quality of care as higher for patients exposed to ATSM compared to UC (odds ratio 3.6, p < 0.01). Compared with GMV patients, ATSM patients were more likely to be perceived by PCPs as overcoming barriers related to limited English proficiency (82% ATSM vs 44% GMV, p = 0.01) and managing medications (80% ATSM vs 53% GMV, p = 0.01). Conclusions Primary care providers perceived that patients receiving ATSM support had overcome barriers, participated more actively, and received higher quality diabetes care. These views of clinician stakeholders lend additional evidence for the potential to upscale ATSM more broadly to support PCPs in their care of diverse, multilinguistic populations. PMID:22401329

  17. [Tissue grafts: an activity concerning many patients].

    PubMed

    Loty, B

    1997-11-15

    Tissue allografts mainly include corneas, bone (and cartilage, tendon, ligament, aponevrosis), skin, vessels and cardiac valves. All these grafts have been widely used for many years and were the subject of a large number of experimental and clinical studies. The different steps allowing the obtention of different tissue allografts have in fact a common organization through tissue procurement and banking activities. Tissue banks have a central situation ensuring security, safety, traceability and distribution of tissues. Appropriate organization of the banks, and respect of high level standards are thus mandatory. Tissue transplantation activity in France has been studied through national surveys: they concern more than 600 hospitals and clinics, and grafts procured in France (excluding imported allografts) are around 15,000 a year. Precise regulation implied by the bioethical law published in 1994 and homogeneous organization of the activity allow the use of stringent and regularly updated standards, allowing the distribution to the patients of safe grafts procured in ethical conditions. The actual shortage of tissue allografts in France implies increasing procurement through a better organization of retrieval in hospitals and clinics and donation promotion. PMID:9501596

  18. Mo uc(v) Energy Levels and f values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Lin; Beck, Donald R.

    2004-05-01

    Relativistic Configuration Interaction (RCI) calculations have been done for the lowest 12 J=0 even parity levels, and the lowest 30 J=1 odd parity levels of Mo uc(v.) For the J=0 4d^2 and 4d 5d energy differences, the average error is 229 cm-1 ( M. I. Cabeza, F. G. Meijer, and L. Iglesias, Phys. Scr. 34), 223 (1986). For the other J=0 levels, the average difference with experiment (A. Tauheed, M. S. Z. Chaghtai, and K. Rahimullah, Phys. Scr. 31), 369 (1985) is considerably greater. Our average energy errors for the 11 known ^2 J=1 levels is 233 cm-1, excluding the 5s 5p ^1 P level, which is 1580 cm-1 higher than observed ^2. We predict positions of 19 4p^5 4d^3 levels, as well as f values for the 360 transitions between the calculated levels. Gauge agreements are good for transitions with f > .01. Details of the methodology have been published elsewhere (D. R. Beck and L. Pan, Phys. Scr. 69), 91 (2004).

  19. Laser-Induced Fluorescence in plasmas at UC Irvine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, R.

    2003-10-01

    For about 25 years laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) has been performed at UC Irvine with many people contributing over that time period. A central contributor to the work has been Raul Stern, whether directly involved with the experiments at hand or via physics advice obtained wherever he could be found worldwide spreading the joys of LIF. At Irvine LIF has been developed (1,2) and used for ion tagging (3), spatial diffusion (4,5), velocity-space diffusion (6), optical tomography (7), and plasma processing (8) among many other fascinating experimental results. This talk will review the LIF work at Irvine with special note of Stern's contributions and influence. 1.) D. Hill, S. Fornaca, M. Wickham, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 309 (1983) 2.) G.D. Severn, D.A. Edrich, and R. McWilliams, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 10 (1998). 3.) R. Stern, D. Hill, N. Rynn, Phys. Lett. A93, 127 (1983) 4.) M. Okubo, R. McWilliams, Phys. Fluids 30, 2849 (1987). 5.) R. McWilliams, M. K. Okubo and N. S. Wolf, Phys. Fluids B 2(3), 523 (1990). 6.) J. Bowles, R. McWilliams, N. Rynn, Phys. Plasmas 1, 3814 (1994). 7.) R. McWilliams, R. Koslover), Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 37 (1987). 8.) R. McWilliams, D. Edrich, Thin Solid Films 435, 1 (2003).

  20. {sup 1}H NMR-based spectroscopy detects metabolic alterations in serum of patients with early-stage ulcerative colitis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ying; Lin, Lianjie; Xu, Yanbin; Lin, Yan; Jin, Yu; Zheng, Changqing

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Twenty ulcerative colitis patients and nineteen healthy controls were enrolled. •Increased 3-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, phenylalanine, and decreased lipid were found. •We report early stage diagnosis of ulcerative colitis using NMR-based metabolomics. -- Abstract: Ulcerative colitis (UC) has seriously impaired the health of citizens. Accurate diagnosis of UC at an early stage is crucial to improve the efficiency of treatment and prognosis. In this study, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR)-based metabolomic analysis was performed on serum samples collected from active UC patients (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 19), respectively. The obtained spectral profiles were subjected to multivariate data analysis. Our results showed that consistent metabolic alterations were present between the two groups. Compared to healthy controls, UC patients displayed increased 3-hydroxybutyrate, β-glucose, α-glucose, and phenylalanine, but decreased lipid in serum. These findings highlight the possibilities of NMR-based metabolomics as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for UC.

  1. Initial Performance of uc(Bicep3): A Degree Angular Scale 95 GHz Band Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W. L. K.; Ade, P. A. R.; Ahmed, Z.; Alexander, K. D.; Amiri, M.; Barkats, D.; Benton, S. J.; Bischoff, C. A.; Bock, J. J.; Bowens-Rubin, R.; Buder, I.; Bullock, E.; Buza, V.; Connors, J. A.; Filippini, J. P.; Fliescher, S.; Grayson, J. A.; Halpern, M.; Harrison, S. A.; Hilton, G. C.; Hristov, V. V.; Hui, H.; Irwin, K. D.; Kang, J.; Karkare, K. S.; Karpel, E.; Kefeli, S.; Kernasovskiy, S. A.; Kovac, J. M.; Kuo, C. L.; Megerian, K. G.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nguyen, H. T.; O'Brient, R.; Ogburn, R. W.; Pryke, C.; Reintsema, C. D.; Richter, S.; Sorensen, C.; Staniszewski, Z. K.; Steinbach, B.; Sudiwala, R. V.; Teply, G. P.; Thompson, K. L.; Tolan, J. E.; Tucker, C. E.; Turner, A. D.; Vieregg, A. G.; Weber, A. C.; Wiebe, D. V.; Willmert, J.; Yoon, K. W.

    2015-12-01

    uc(Bicep3) is a 550-mm aperture telescope with cold, on-axis, refractive optics designed to observe at the 95-GHz band from the South Pole. It is the newest member of the uc(Bicep)/Keck family of inflationary probes specifically designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at degree angular scales. uc(Bicep3) is designed to house 1280 dual-polarization pixels, which, when fully populated, totals to ˜ 9× the number of pixels in a single Keck 95-GHz receiver, thus further advancing the uc(Bicep)/Keck program's 95 GHz mapping speed. uc(Bicep3) was deployed during the austral summer of 2014-2015 with nine detector tiles, to be increased to its full capacity of 20 in the second season. After instrument characterization, measurements were taken, and CMB observation commenced in April 2015. Together with multi-frequency observation data from Planck, uc(Bicep2), and the Keck Array, uc(Bicep3) is projected to set upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio to r ≲ 0.03 at 95 % C.L.

  2. Evolution of spatial resolution in breast CT at UC Davis

    SciTech Connect

    Gazi, Peymon M.; Yang, Kai; Burkett, George W.; Aminololama-Shakeri, Shadi; Anthony Seibert, J.; Boone, John M.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) technology for the purpose of breast cancer screening has been a focus of research at UC Davis since the late 1990s. Previous studies have shown that improvement in spatial resolution characteristics of this modality correlates with greater microcalcification detection, a factor considered a potential limitation of bCT. The aim of this study is to improve spatial resolution as characterized by the modulation transfer function (MTF) via changes in the scanner hardware components and operational schema. Methods: Four prototypes of pendant-geometry, cone-beam breast CT scanners were designed and developed spanning three generations of design evolution. To improve the system MTF in each bCT generation, modifications were made to the imaging components (x-ray tube and flat-panel detector), system geometry (source-to-isocenter and detector distance), and image acquisition parameters (technique factors, number of projections, system synchronization scheme, and gantry rotational speed). Results: Characterization of different generations of bCT systems shows these modifications resulted in a 188% improvement of the limiting MTF properties from the first to second generation and an additional 110% from the second to third. The intrinsic resolution degradation in the azimuthal direction observed in the first generation was corrected by changing the acquisition from continuous to pulsed x-ray acquisition. Utilizing a high resolution detector in the third generation, along with modifications made in system geometry and scan protocol, resulted in a 125% improvement in limiting resolution. An additional 39% improvement was obtained by changing the detector binning mode from 2 × 2 to 1 × 1. Conclusions: These results underscore the advancement in spatial resolution characteristics of breast CT technology. The combined use of a pulsed x-ray system, higher resolution flat-panel detector and changing the scanner geometry and image

  3. Evolution of spatial resolution in breast CT at UC Davis

    PubMed Central

    Gazi, Peymon M.; Yang, Kai; Burkett, George W.; Aminololama-Shakeri, Shadi; Anthony Seibert, J.; Boone, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) technology for the purpose of breast cancer screening has been a focus of research at UC Davis since the late 1990s. Previous studies have shown that improvement in spatial resolution characteristics of this modality correlates with greater microcalcification detection, a factor considered a potential limitation of bCT. The aim of this study is to improve spatial resolution as characterized by the modulation transfer function (MTF) via changes in the scanner hardware components and operational schema. Methods: Four prototypes of pendant-geometry, cone-beam breast CT scanners were designed and developed spanning three generations of design evolution. To improve the system MTF in each bCT generation, modifications were made to the imaging components (x-ray tube and flat-panel detector), system geometry (source-to-isocenter and detector distance), and image acquisition parameters (technique factors, number of projections, system synchronization scheme, and gantry rotational speed). Results: Characterization of different generations of bCT systems shows these modifications resulted in a 188% improvement of the limiting MTF properties from the first to second generation and an additional 110% from the second to third. The intrinsic resolution degradation in the azimuthal direction observed in the first generation was corrected by changing the acquisition from continuous to pulsed x-ray acquisition. Utilizing a high resolution detector in the third generation, along with modifications made in system geometry and scan protocol, resulted in a 125% improvement in limiting resolution. An additional 39% improvement was obtained by changing the detector binning mode from 2 × 2 to 1 × 1. Conclusions: These results underscore the advancement in spatial resolution characteristics of breast CT technology. The combined use of a pulsed x-ray system, higher resolution flat-panel detector and changing the scanner geometry and image

  4. Exploring Contextual Factors and Patient Activation: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Sample of Patients with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jie; Mortensen, Karoline; Bloodworth, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Patient activation has been considered as a "blockbuster drug of the century." Patients with mental disorders are less activated compared to patients with other chronic diseases. Low activation due to mental disorders can affect the efficiency of treatment of other comorbidities. Contextual factors are significantly associated with…

  5. The Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor UC-781 Inhibits Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection of Human Cervical Tissue and Dissemination by Migratory Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Patricia; Kiselyeva, Yana; Wallace, Greg; Romano, Joseph; Griffin, George; Margolis, Leonid; Shattock, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus remains the major route of transmission worldwide; thus, there is an urgent need for additional prevention strategies, particularly those that could be controlled by women. Using cellular and tissue explant models, we have evaluated the potential activity of thiocarboxanilide nonnucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor UC-781 as a vaginal microbicide. We were able to demonstrate a potent dose-dependent effect against R5 and X4 infections of T cells. In human cervical explant cultures, UC-781 was not only able to inhibit direct infection of mucosal tissue but was able to prevent dissemination of virus by migratory cells. UC-781 formulated into a carbopol gel (0.1%) retained significant activity against both direct tissue infection and transinfection mediated by migratory cells. Furthermore, UC-781 demonstrated prolonged inhibitory effects able to prevent both localized and disseminated infections up to 6 days post compound treatment. Additional studies were carried out to determine the concentration of compound that might be required to block a primary infection within draining lymph nodes. While a greater dose of compound was required to inhibit both X4 and R5 infections of lymphoid versus cervical explants, this was equivalent to a 1:3,000 dilution of the 0.1% formulation. Furthermore, a 2-h exposure to the compound prevented infection of lymphoid tissue when challenged up to 2 days later. The prolonged protection observed following pretreatment of both genital and lymphoid tissues with UC-781 suggests that this class of inhibitors may have unique advantages over other classes of potential microbicide candidates. PMID:16103169

  6. PERCEIVED AND ACTUAL QUALITY OF LIFE WITH ULCERATIVE COLITIS: A COMPARISON OF MEDICALLY AND SURGICALLY TREATED PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Waljee, Akbar K.; Higgins, Peter DR; Waljee, Jennifer F.; Tujios, Shannan R; Saxena, Aditi; Brown, Lindsay Kennedy; Chaudhary, Meghana N; Morris, Arden M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Patients with chronic Ulcerative Colitis (UC) often refuse colectomy despite data indicating that it might improve quality of life. We hypothesized that perceived utility values are different for patients living with UC compared to UC patients after total proctocolectomy. Our aims were to compare the perceived utility assigned by UC patients with and without a colectomy to standardized chronic UC and post-colectomy scenarios, and to compare the utility of actual health states among groups. Methods We surveyed patients in a tertiary referral center from 3 groups including non-UC, UC patients without colectomy, and UC patients who were post-colectomy. We measured the Time-Trade-Off utilities of subjects for standardized scenarios describing moderate UC and a post-colectomy state. Among all UC patients (with and without colectomy), we measured Time-Trade-Off utility for their own health state. Results Responses were obtained from 150 patients per group (n=450). The non-UC patients regarded UC and colectomy scenarios equally (0.92), which was similar to UC patients without colectomy (0.90 and 0.91). Post-colectomy patients strongly preferred the colectomy scenario to the UC scenario (0.86 vs. 0.92, p<0.001). The median utility of UC patients without colectomy for their actual health state was higher than that of post-colectomy patients (0.96 and 0.92, p<0.05). Patients with more social support were more likely to have undergone colectomy compared with patients with little social support (OR=1.20 per dependent/supporter). Conclusions Patients living with UC prefer their actual health state to a perceived UC scenario or a post-colectomy scenario. Patients who have undergone colectomy equate the quality of life in their actual state with that in a post-colectomy scenario and prefer each to a perceived chronic UC state. Given the variety of preferences and the importance of social support, opportunities to interact with UC patients who have previously undergone

  7. Patient Activation and Mental Health Care Experiences Among Women Veterans.

    PubMed

    Kimerling, Rachel; Pavao, Joanne; Wong, Ava

    2016-07-01

    We utilized a nationally representative survey of women veteran primary care users to examine associations between patient activation and mental health care experiences. A dose-response relationship was observed, with odds of high quality ratings significantly greater at each successive level of patient activation. Higher activation levels were also significantly associated with preference concordant care for gender-related preferences (use of female providers, women-only settings, and women-only groups as often as desired). Results add to the growing literature documenting better health care experiences among more activated patients, and suggest that patient activation may play an important role in promoting engagement with mental health care. PMID:25917224

  8. Patient Activation and Mental Health Care Experiences Among Women Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Pavao, Joanne; Wong, Ava

    2016-01-01

    We utilized a nationally representative survey of women veteran primary care users to examine associations between patient activation and mental health care experiences. A dose–response relationship was observed, with odds of high quality ratings significantly greater at each successive level of patient activation. Higher activation levels were also significantly associated with preference concordant care for gender-related preferences (use of female providers, women-only settings, and women-only groups as often as desired). Results add to the growing literature documenting better health care experiences among more activated patients, and suggest that patient activation may play an important role in promoting engagement with mental health care. PMID:25917224

  9. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA – CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY (UC-CEIN)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA GRANT NUMBER: 0830117
    Title: University of California – Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC-CEIN)
    Investigator: Andre E. Nel
    Institution: University of California - Los Angeles
    EPA Project Officer: Nor...

  10. Pharmacological intervention based on fecal calprotectin levels in patients with ulcerative colitis at high risk of a relapse: A prospective, randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Öhman, Lena; Stotzer, Per-Ove; Isaksson, Stefan; Überbacher, Otto; Ung, Kjell-Arne; Strid, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Background Targeted therapy, using biomarkers to assess disease activity in ulcerative colitis (UC), has been proposed. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate whether pharmacological intervention guided by fecal calprotectin (FC) prolongs remission in patients with UC. Methods A total of 91 adults with UC in remission were randomized to an intervention group or a control group. Analysis of FC was performed monthly, during 18 months. A FC value of 300 µg/g was set as the cut-off for intervention, which was a dose escalation of the oral 5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) agent. The primary study end-point was the number of patients to have relapsed by month 18. Results There were relapses in 18 (35.3%) and 20 (50.0%) patients in the intervention and the control groups, respectively (p = 0.23); and 28 (54.9%) patients in the intervention group and 28 (70.0%) patients in the control group had a FC > 300 µg/g, of which 8 (28.6%) and 16 (57.1%) relapsed, respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusion Active intervention significantly reduced relapse rates, although no significant difference was reached between the groups overall. Thus, FC-levels might be used to identify patients with UC at risk for a flare, and a dose escalation of their 5-ASA agent is a therapeutic option for these patients. PMID:25653861

  11. Undenatured type II collagen (UC-II®) for joint support: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background UC-II contains a patented form of undenatured type II collagen derived from chicken sternum. Previous preclinical and clinical studies support the safety and efficacy of UC-II in modulating joint discomfort in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of UC-II in moderating joint function and joint pain due to strenuous exercise in healthy subjects. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in healthy subjects who had no prior history of arthritic disease or joint pain at rest but experienced joint discomfort with physical activity. Fifty-five subjects who reported knee pain after participating in a standardized stepmill performance test were randomized to receive placebo (n = 28) or the UC-II (40 mg daily, n = 27) product for 120 days. Joint function was assessed by changes in degree of knee flexion and knee extension as well as measuring the time to experiencing and recovering from joint pain following strenuous stepmill exertion. Results After 120 days of supplementation, subjects in the UC-II group exhibited a statistically significant improvement in average knee extension compared to placebo (81.0 ± 1.3º vs 74.0 ± 2.2º; p = 0.011) and to baseline (81.0 ± 1.3º vs 73.2 ± 1.9º; p = 0.002). The UC-II cohort also demonstrated a statistically significant change in average knee extension at day 90 (78.8 ± 1.9º vs 73.2 ± 1.9º; p = 0.045) versus baseline. No significant change in knee extension was observed in the placebo group at any time. It was also noted that the UC-II group exercised longer before experiencing any initial joint discomfort at day 120 (2.8 ± 0.5 min, p = 0.019), compared to baseline (1.4 ± 0.2 min). By contrast, no significant changes were seen in the placebo group. No product related adverse events were observed during the study. At study conclusion, five

  12. Bilberry-Derived Anthocyanins Modulate Cytokine Expression in the Intestine of Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Gottier, Claudia; Biedermann, Luc; Zeitz, Jonas; Lang, Silvia; Weber, Achim; Rogler, Gerhard; Scharl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims We previously demonstrated that anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract (ARBE) inhibits IFN-γ-induced signalling and downstream effects in human monocytic cells and ameliorates disease activity in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Here, we studied the molecular mechanisms of ARBE-mediated effects in vitro and by analysing colonic tissue and serum samples of UC patients treated with an oral anthocyanin-rich bilberry preparation during an open label clinical trial. Methods Colon specimens obtained during an open pilot study using ARBE for the treatment of mild-to-moderate UC were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Cytokine levels in patients’ serum were quantified by ELISA. Cell culture experiments were performed using THP-1 monocytic cells. Results ARBE treatment inhibited the expression of IFN-γ-receptor 2 in human THP-1 monocytic cells. Colon biopsies of UC patients who responded to the 6-week long ARBE treatment revealed reduced amounts of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α. Levels of phosphorylated (activated) p65-NF-κB were reduced in these patients. Further, patients with successful ARBE treatment featured enhanced levels of Th17-cell specific cytokine IL-22 and immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10 as well as reduced serum levels of TNF-α and MCP-1, but enhanced levels of IL-17A, in contrast to patients that did not reach remission after ARBE treatment. Conclusions Our data suggest a molecular mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of ARBE treatment in UC patients by modulating T-cell cytokine signalling and inhibiting IFN-γ signal transduction. These data are of particular interest, since ARBE is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of IBD. PMID:27152519

  13. 46 CFR 54.25-3 - Steel plates (modifies UCS-6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...; see 46 CFR 54.01-1) will be allowed only in Class III pressure vessels (see Table 54.01-5(b)). ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). 54.25-3 Section 54.25-3... Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-3 Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). The...

  14. 46 CFR 54.25-3 - Steel plates (modifies UCS-6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...; see 46 CFR 54.01-1) will be allowed only in Class III pressure vessels (see Table 54.01-5(b)). ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). 54.25-3 Section 54.25-3... Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-3 Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). The...

  15. 46 CFR 54.25-3 - Steel plates (modifies UCS-6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; see 46 CFR 54.01-1) will be allowed only in Class III pressure vessels (see table 54.01-5(b)). ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). 54.25-3 Section 54.25-3... Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-3 Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). The...

  16. 46 CFR 54.25-3 - Steel plates (modifies UCS-6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...; see 46 CFR 54.01-1) will be allowed only in Class III pressure vessels (see Table 54.01-5(b)). ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). 54.25-3 Section 54.25-3... Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-3 Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). The...

  17. 46 CFR 54.25-3 - Steel plates (modifies UCS-6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; see 46 CFR 54.01-1) will be allowed only in Class III pressure vessels (see table 54.01-5(b)). ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). 54.25-3 Section 54.25-3... Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-3 Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). The...

  18. A High-Resolution VLA Study of M17-UC1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. Olivia; De Pree, C. G.; Goss, W. M.

    1998-06-01

    Using the Very Large Array, we have observed the H66α radio recombination line (RRL) emission at 1.3 cm and the H52α RRL emission at 7 mm toward the ultracompact H II region M17-UC1 and the nearby arc-shaped structure to the east. The angular resolution of the data is 1"-2". The compact H II region (deconvolved size ~0.6" or 0.006 pc) is one of a number of H II regions with broad (>=35 km s-1) RRLs. The line parameters of the nearby arc of ionized emission (hereafter the Arc), about 1" or 0.01 pc to the east of UC1, are remarkably constant over an area of 16.5" × 3" (0.17 pc × 0.03 pc). The derived LTE electron temperature from the H66α line (T*H66α) is 6600 K in M17-UC1 and 8200 K in the Arc region. H2O maser emission at 1.3 cm from the region of M17-UC1 was observed in the D array with a beam of 4". Observations of the H2O maser emission toward M17-UC1 reveal four masers within 30" of M17-UC1 two of these sources were previously known. We discuss the region near M17-UC1 as an example of shock-induced star formation consisting of a hot, young, massive star surrounded by ionized material, perhaps resulting from a stellar wind outflow. We compare M17-UC1 with the six other known examples of broad-line RRL emission from ultracompact H II regions.

  19. Experimental study of UC polycrystals in the prospect of improving the as-fabricated sample purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raveu, Gaëlle; Martin, Guillaume; Fiquet, Olivier; Garcia, Philippe; Carlot, Gaëlle; Palancher, Hervé; Bonnin, Anne; Khodja, Hicham; Raepsaet, Caroline; Sauvage, Thierry; Barthe, Marie-France

    2014-12-01

    Uranium and plutonium carbides are candidate fuels for Generation IV nuclear reactors. This study is focused on the characterization of uranium monocarbide samples. The successive fabrication steps were carried out under atmospheres containing low oxygen and moisture concentrations (typically less than 100 ppm) but sample transfers occurred in air. Six samples were sliced from four pellets elaborated by carbothermic reaction under vacuum. Little presence of UC2 is expected in these samples. The α-UC2 phase was indeed detected within one of these UC samples during an XRD experiment performed with synchrotron radiation. Moreover, oxygen content at the surface of these samples was depth profiled using a recently developed nuclear reaction analysis method. Large oxygen concentrations were measured in the first micron below the sample surface and particularly in the first 100-150 nm. UC2 inclusions were found to be more oxidized than the surrounding matrix. This work points out to the fact that more care must be given at each step of UC fabrication since the material readily reacts with oxygen and moisture. A new glovebox facility using a highly purified atmosphere is currently being built in order to obtain single phase UC samples of better purity.

  20. Low Level Engraftment and Improvement following a Single Colonoscopic Administration of Fecal Microbiota to Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Damman, Christopher J.; Brittnacher, Mitchell J.; Westerhoff, Maria; Hayden, Hillary S.; Radey, Matthew; Hager, Kyle R.; Marquis, Sara R.; Miller, Samuel I.; Zisman, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an investigational treatment for diseases thought to involve alterations in the intestinal microbiota including ulcerative colitis (UC). Case reports have described therapeutic benefit of FMT in patients with UC, possibly due to changes in the microbiota. We measured the degree to which the transplanted microbiota engraft following FMT in patients with UC using a donor similarity index (DSI). Methods Seven patients with mild to moderate UC (UC disease activity index scores 3–10) received a single colonoscopic administration of FMT. Metagenomic sequence data from stool were analyzed using an alignment-free comparison tool, to measure the DSI, and a phylogenetic analysis tool, to characterize taxonomic changes. Clinical, endoscopic, histologic, and fecal calprotectin outcome measures were also collected. Results One of 5 patients from whom sequencing data were available achieved the primary endpoint of 50% donor similarity at week 4; an additional 2 patients achieved 40% donor similarity. One patient with 40% donor similarity achieved clinical and histologic remission 1 month after FMT. However, these were lost by 2−3 months, and loss correlated with a decrease in DSI. The remaining patients did not demonstrate clinical response or remission. Histology scores improved in all but 1 patient. No patients remained in remission at 3 months after FMT. Conclusions Following a single colonoscopic fecal transplant, a DSI of 40-50% is achieved in about two-thirds of recipients. This level of engraftment correlated with a temporary clinical improvement in only 1/5 patients. Larger sample sizes could further validate this method for measuring engraftment, and changes in transplant frequency or method might improve microbiota engraftment and efficacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01742754 PMID:26288277

  1. Uptake and excretion of ( UC)methyl bromide as influenced by exposure concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Medinsky, M.A.; Dutcher, J.S.; Bond, J.A.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Snipes, M.B.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Cheng, Y.S.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    Uptake of methyl bromide and pathways for excretion of UC were investigated in male Fischer-344 rats after nose-only inhalation of 50, 300, 5700, or 10,400 nmol (1.6 to 310 ppm) of ( UC)methyl bromide/liter of air for 6 hr. Fractional uptake of methyl bromide decreased at the highest concentrations, 5700 and 10,400 nmol/liter, with 37 and 27% of the inhaled methyl bromide absorbed, respectively, compared to 48% at the lower levels. Total methyl bromide absorbed was 9 or 40 mol/kg body wt after exposure to 50 or 300 nmol/liter, respectively. Elimination of UC was linearly related to the amount of methyl bromide absorbed as determined from urine, feces, expired CO2, and parent compound collected for 66 hr after the end of exposure. Exhaled UCO2 was the dominant route of excretion, with from 1.2 to 110 mol (50% of amount absorbed) exhaled, and was described by a two-component negative exponential function; 85% was exhaled with t1/2 of 4 hr, and the remaining 15% was exhaled with a t1/2 of 17 hr. The rate of exhalation of UCO2 was not affected by the amount of ( UC)methyl bromide absorbed. From 0.4 to 54 mol was excreted in urine (20% of amount absorbed). The half-time for excretion of UC in urine was approximately 10 hr, and the rate of excretion was not dependent on the amount of ( UC)methyl bromide absorbed. Little UC was exhaled as methyl bromide (<4% of the dose) or excreted in feces (<2%). At the end of 66 hr, 25% of the UC absorbed remained in the rats. Liver, kidneys, adrenals, lungs, thymus, and turbinates (maxilloturbinates, ethmoturbinates, and nasal epithelial membrane) contained the highest concentrations of UC. Results indicated that uptake of inhaled methyl bromide could be saturated. Any ( UC)methyl bromide equivalents absorbed, however, would be excreted by concentration-independent mechanisms. 20 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Exploring Patient Activation in the Clinic: Measurement from Three Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Christy J. W.; Ledford, Christopher C.; Childress, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To further conceptualize and operationalize patient activation (PA), using measures from patient, physician, and researcher perspectives. Data Source/Study Setting. Multimethod observation in 2010 within a family medicine clinic. Study Design. Part of an intervention with 130 patients with type 2 diabetes, this observational study…

  3. Long-term alteration of intestinal microbiota in patients with ulcerative colitis by antibiotic combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Koido, Shigeo; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Kajiura, Takayuki; Shinozaki, Junko; Suzuki, Manabu; Saito, Keisuke; Takakura, Kazuki; Tsukinaga, Shintaro; Odahara, Shunichi; Yukawa, Toyokazu; Mitobe, Jimi; Kajihara, Mikio; Uchiyama, Kan; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Tajiri, Hisao

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that intestinal bacteria, such as Fusobacterium varium (F. varium), contribute to the clinical activity in ulcerative colitis (UC); thus, an antibiotic combination therapy (amoxicillin, tetracycline, and metronidazole (ATM)) against F. varium can induce and maintain UC remission. Therefore, we investigated whether ATM therapy induces a long-term alteration of intestinal microbiota in patients with UC. Patients with UC were enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Biopsy samples at the beginning of the trial and again at 3 months after treatment completion were randomly obtained from 20 patients. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) in mucosa-associated bacterial components was examined to assess the alteration of the intestinal microbiota. Profile changes of T-RFLP in mucosa-associated bacterial components were found in 10 of 12 patients in the treatment group and in none of 8 in the placebo group. Dice similarity coefficients using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (Dice-UPGMA) confirmed that the similarity of mucosal microbiota from the descending colon was significantly decreased after the ATM therapy, and this change was maintained for at least 3 months. Moreover, at 3 months after treatment completion, the F. varium/β-actin ratio, examined by real-time PCR using nested PCR products from biopsy samples, was reduced less than 40% in 8 of 12 treated patients, which was higher, but not significantly, than in 4 of 8 patients in the placebo group. Together, these results suggest that ATM therapy induces long-term alterations in the intestinal microbiota of patients with UC, which may be associated, at least in part, with clinical effects of the therapy. PMID:24489770

  4. LncRNA-uc.167 influences cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of P19 cells by regulating Mef2c.

    PubMed

    Song, Guixian; Shen, Yahui; Ruan, Zhongbao; Li, Xing; Chen, Yumei; Yuan, Wei; Ding, Xiangwei; Zhu, Li; Qian, Lingmei

    2016-09-15

    In our previous study we screened thousands of lncRNAs for their relationship with ventricular septal defect. Among these lncRNAs, uc.167 attracted our attention for its high level of conservation and that it was antisense to the Mef2c gene, which encodes myocyte enhancer factor 2C. This study aims to investigate the role of uc.167 during cardiomyocyte maturation in P19 cells induction and possible mechanism. The uc.167 expression level in human heart tissue of ventricular septum defect (VSD) was evaluated by qRT-PCR. The UCSC database was searched to investigate the bioinformatics of uc.167. We constructed overexpression vector of uc.167 and Mef2c. To detect proliferation and apoptosis, we combined cell cycle analysis and CCK8, Hoechst staining, flow cytometry and caspase-3 assays, respectively. The cardiomyogenesis related RNAs (cTnT, GATA4, and Mef2c) and proteins were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. In this study, we found that uc.167 expression was significantly increased in VSD heart tissues. uc.167 is on the opposite strand to the coding gene Mef2c. The expression model of Mef2c and uc.167 showed an opposite correlation in the embryonic development and process of differentiation of P19 cells into cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of uc.167 inhibited proliferation but promoted apoptosis in P19 cells compared with the vector group, and those relative mRNAs and proteins decreased during the differentiation process. Whereas, co-expression of Mef2c and uc.167 can partially reverse the negative effects of uc.167 on proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. Taken together, our findings suggest that uc.167 contributes to the development potential of VSD and may constitute a potential therapeutic target in this disease. uc.167 influences cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of P19 cell by regulating Mef2c. PMID:27268728

  5. Increasing Patient Activation Could Improve Outcomes for Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shawn L; Siegel, Corey A

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex disease process that often requires the integration of skills from various health care providers to adequately meet the needs of patients with IBD. The medical and surgical treatment options for IBD have become more complicated and are frequently a source of angst for both the patient and provider. However, it has become more important than ever to engage patients in navigating the treatment algorithm. Although novel in the IBD world, the concept of patients' becoming more active and effective managers of their care has been well studied in other disease processes such as diabetes mellitus and mental illness. This idea of patient activation refers to a patient understanding his or her role in the care process and having the skill sets and self-reliance necessary to manage his or her own health care. Over the past decade, evidence supporting the role of patient activation in chronic illness has grown, revealing improved health outcomes, enhanced patient experiences, and lower overall costs. Patient activation can be measured, and interventions have been shown to improve levels of activation over time and influence outcomes. A focus on patient activation is very appropriate for patients with IBD because this may potentially serve as a tool for IBD providers to not only improve patient outcomes and experience but also reduce health care costs. PMID:26422517

  6. Sports, Physical Activity and Patient-Reported Outcomes After Medial Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty in Young Patients.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tilman; Streit, Julia; Gotterbarm, Tobias; Bruckner, Thomas; Merle, Christian; Streit, Marcus R

    2015-11-01

    One hundred-and-one patients age 60 or younger following medial mobile bearing UKA were reviewed retrospectively with a minimum follow-up of 2 years using the Schulthess activity score, Tegner, UCLA and SF-36 score to assess their level of physical activity and quality of life. Patients showed a rapid recovery and resumption of their activities with a return-to-activity rate of 93%. Most common activities were low impact, whereas high-impact activities showed a significant decrease. Precaution was found to be the main reason for a decrease in the level of activity. The results of this study demonstrate that patients age 60 or younger following medial UKA were able to return to regular physical activities with almost two-thirds of the patients reaching a high activity level (UCLA≥7). PMID:26088397

  7. Lower paraoxonase 1 activity in Tunisian bipolar I patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the variations of paraoxonase activity and lipid profile in bipolar I patients, and the association of this activity with the sociodemographic, clinical and therapeutic characteristics of this population. Patients and methods Our study included 66 patients with bipolar I disorder and 64 controls aged 37.9 ± 12.6 and 36.3 ± 18.2 years, respectively. Paraoxonase activity was determined by kinetic methods; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (c-HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (c-LDL), triglycerides and total cholesterol were determined by enzymatic methods; apolipoprotein (Apo)A1, ApoB and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) were determined by immunoturbidimetry using Konelab 30 equipment (Thermo Scientific). Results Compared with controls, patients had a significantly lower paraoxonase activity and ApoA1 level, and significantly higher total cholesterol, c-LDL and Lp(a) level and ApoB/ApoA1 ratio. Furthermore, paraoxonase activity was significantly correlated with c-HDL values (r = 0.5612; P < 0.001). The lowest paraoxonase activity was noted in relation to age and body mass index (BMI). Moreover, it was associated with gender but not with smoking and alcohol consumption status. In patients, there was no significant change in paraoxonase activity in relation to illness episodes, whereas the lowest values of this activity were seen in manic patients. In contrast, paraoxonase activity was significantly associated with treatment. Indeed, patients taking lithium had the lowest levels. Conclusions Bipolar patients had a significant decrease in paraoxonase activity and perturbations in their lipid profile that contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Decrease in this activity was significantly associated with treatment with lithium but not with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Therefore, such patients require specific care, particularly with regard to their lipid profile. PMID:20964824

  8. Correlation Between Sunspot Number and Ca uc(ii) K Emission Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertello, Luca; Pevtsov, Alexei; Tlatov, Andrey; Singh, Jagdev

    2016-06-01

    Long-term synoptic observations in the resonance line of Ca uc(ii) K constitute a fundamental database for a variety of retrospective analyses of the state of the solar magnetism. Synoptic Ca uc(ii) K observations began in late 1904 at the Kodaikanal Observatory in India. In the early 1970s, the National Solar Observatory (NSO) at Sacramento Peak (USA) started a new program of daily Sun-as-a-star observations in the Ca uc(ii) K line. Today the NSO is continuing these observations through its Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) facility. These different data sets can be combined into a single disk-integrated Ca uc(ii) K index time series that describes the average properties of the chromospheric emission over several solar cycles. We present such a Ca uc(ii) K composite and discuss its correlation with the new entirely revised sunspot number data series. For this preliminary investigation, the scaling factor between pairs of time series was determined assuming a simple linear model for the relationship between the monthly mean values during the duration of overlapping observations.

  9. Genome-wide Pathway Analysis Using Gene Expression Data of Colonic Mucosa in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Creanza, Teresa M.; Bossa, Fabrizio; Palumbo, Orazio; Maglietta, Rosalia; Ancona, Nicola; Corritore, Giuseppe; Latiano, Tiziana; Martino, Giuseppina; Biscaglia, Giuseppe; Scimeca, Daniela; De Petris, Michele P.; Carella, Massimo; Annese, Vito; Andriulli, Angelo; Latiano, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) share some pathogenetic features. To provide new steps on the role of altered gene expression, and the involvement of gene networks, in the pathogenesis of these diseases, we performed a genome-wide analysis in 15 patients with CD and 14 patients with UC by comparing the RNA from inflamed and noninflamed colonic mucosa. Methods: Two hundred ninety-eight differentially expressed genes in CD and 520 genes in UC were identified. By bioinformatic analyses, 34 pathways for CD, 6 of them enriched in noninflamed and 28 in inflamed tissues, and 19 pathways for UC, 17 in noninflamed and 2 in inflamed tissues, were also highlighted. Results: In CD, the pathways included genes associated with cytokines and cytokine receptors connection, response to external stimuli, activation of cell proliferation or differentiation, cell migration, apoptosis, and immune regulation. In UC, the pathways were associated with genes related to metabolic and catabolic processes, biosynthesis and interconversion processes, leukocyte migration, regulation of cell proliferation, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Conclusions: In UC, the pattern of inflammation of colonic mucosa is due to a complex interaction network between host, gut microbiome, and diet, suggesting that bacterial products or endogenous synthetic/catabolic molecules contribute to impairment of the immune response, to breakdown of epithelial barrier, and to enhance the inflammatory process. In patients with CD, genes encoding a large variety of proteins, growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules may lead to uncontrolled inflammation with ensuing destruction of epithelial cells, inappropriate stimulation of antimicrobial and T cells differentiation, and inflammasome events. PMID:25901971

  10. Altered Colonic Mucosal Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) Derived Lipid Mediators in Ulcerative Colitis: New Insight into Relationship with Disease Activity and Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Eiden, Michael; Shute, Janis K.; Brown, James F.; Calder, Philip C.; Trebble, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a relapsing inflammatory disorder of unconfirmed aetiology, variable severity and clinical course, characterised by progressive histological inflammation and with elevation of eicosanoids which have a known pathophysiological role in inflammation. Therapeutic interventions targetting eicosanoids (5-aminosalicylates (ASA)) are effective first line and adjunctive treatments in mild-moderate UC for achieving and sustaining clinical remission. However, the variable clinical response to 5-ASA and frequent deterioration in response to cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitors, has prompted an in depth simultaneous evaluation of multiple lipid mediators (including eicosanoids) within the inflammatory milieu in UC. We hypothesised that severity of inflammation is associated with alteration of lipid mediators, in relapsing UC. Design Study was case-control design. Mucosal lipid mediators were determined by LC-MS/MS lipidomics analysis on mucosal biopsies taken from patients attending outpatients with relapsing UC. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to investigate the association of mucosal lipid mediators, with the disease state and severity graded histologically. Results Levels of PGE2, PGD2, TXB2, 5-HETE, 11-HETE, 12-HETE and 15-HETE are significantly elevated in inflamed mucosa and correlate with severity of inflammation, determined using validated histological scoring systems. Conclusions Our approach of capturing inflammatory mediator signature at different stages of UC by combining comprehensive lipidomics analysis and computational modelling could be used to classify and predict mild-moderate inflammation; however, predictive index is diminished in severe inflammation. This new technical approach could be developed to tailor drug treatments to patients with active UC, based on the mucosal lipid mediator profile. PMID:24204637

  11. Circulating thymic hormone activity in young cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Consolini, R; Cei, B; Cini, P; Bottone, E; Casarosa, L

    1986-01-01

    We measured serum levels of Facteur Thymique Sérique (FTS) in 56 young cancer patients compared to normal controls. All patients who received immunosuppressive therapy had low age-corrected titres of FTS. Low levels were also found at diagnosis and off therapy. Plasma from 22 patients contained factors capable of inhibiting biological activity of FTS in vitro. The nature of this inhibitor has not been elucidated. No zinc deficiency was found in the patients studied, suggesting that FTS is secreted in its active form. Our study points out the importance of monitoring FTS activity in young cancer patients for its implications on immunological surveillance. The practical applications of thymic hormone therapy in cancer patients are discussed. PMID:3802571

  12. Clostridium Difficile Infection Worsen Outcome of Hospitalized Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Lin, Qian-Yun; Fei, Jia-Xi; Zhang, Yan; Lin, Min-Yi; Jiang, Shuang-Hong; Wang, Pu; Chen, Ye

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has increased rapidly over the past several decades in North America and Europe. However, the exact global epidemiology remains unclear because of insufficient data from developing countries. A total of 646 hospitalized adult IBD patients were enrolled; and their fresh stool specimens were obtained and used for Clostridium difficile detection. The incidence of CDI in Crohn's disease (CD) patients (12.7%) was significantly lower than that in Ulcerative disease (UC) patients (19.3%). Among the toxin types, A(+)B(+) strain was the most common. Length of stay, hospitalization frequency and bowel surgery rate were significantly higher in the CDI than in the non-CDI group in CD or UC patients. More patients in CDI-CD group were still in active and even clinical moderate or severe CD stage than non-CDI-CD group after 2 years of following-up. Fistula, antibiotics and infliximab usage likely increased the CDI rate in CD patients, Infliximab treatment was considered a risk factor in UC patients. CDI is an exacerbating public health issue that may influence IBD course, increase expenditures, and delay the remission of IBD patients. IBD patients with CDI require urgent attention. PMID:27417996

  13. Clostridium Difficile Infection Worsen Outcome of Hospitalized Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Lin, Qian-Yun; Fei, Jia-Xi; Zhang, Yan; Lin, Min-Yi; Jiang, Shuang-Hong; Wang, Pu; Chen, Ye

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has increased rapidly over the past several decades in North America and Europe. However, the exact global epidemiology remains unclear because of insufficient data from developing countries. A total of 646 hospitalized adult IBD patients were enrolled; and their fresh stool specimens were obtained and used for Clostridium difficile detection. The incidence of CDI in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients (12.7%) was significantly lower than that in Ulcerative disease (UC) patients (19.3%). Among the toxin types, A+B+ strain was the most common. Length of stay, hospitalization frequency and bowel surgery rate were significantly higher in the CDI than in the non-CDI group in CD or UC patients. More patients in CDI-CD group were still in active and even clinical moderate or severe CD stage than non-CDI-CD group after 2 years of following-up. Fistula, antibiotics and infliximab usage likely increased the CDI rate in CD patients, Infliximab treatment was considered a risk factor in UC patients. CDI is an exacerbating public health issue that may influence IBD course, increase expenditures, and delay the remission of IBD patients. IBD patients with CDI require urgent attention. PMID:27417996

  14. Sexual activity among patients in psychiatric hospital wards.

    PubMed

    Warner, James; Pitts, Nicola; Crawford, Mike J; Serfaty, Marc; Prabhakaran, Pramod; Amin, Rizkar

    2004-10-01

    In psychiatric hospitals, sexual activity between patients raises special difficulties regarding consent. We undertook a questionnaire survey of inpatients in the mental health units of three hospitals to identify the nature and frequency of sexual activity. A contemporaneous staff questionnaire was used in an attempt to validate the patient reports. Of the 100 patients who participated (response rate 60%), 30 reported engaging in some form of sexual activity including 10 who had sexual intercourse. All sexual intercourse was consensual, but only 2 respondents used condoms. Staff questionnaires suggested levels of sexual activity congruent with patient reports. This survey underlines the conflict between an individual's right to sexual expression and the need to protect vulnerable patients. PMID:15459258

  15. Recommendations for physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Petajan, J H; White, A T

    1999-03-01

    For many years, patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, have been advised to avoid exercise. MS is believed to be autoimmune in origin, mediated by activated T cells which penetrate the blood-brain barrier and attack myelin. The pathophysiology, with respect to function is an impairment of saltatory conduction, specifically, slowing of conduction speed and/or conduction block. Symptoms can temporarily worsen on exposure to heat or during physical exercise. Exercise programmes must be designed to activate working muscles but avoid overload that results in conduction block. Fatigue, often severe, affects about 85% of MS patients and, along with motor and sensory symptoms, results in decreased mobility and reduced quality of life. Physical activity and recreation are reduced in patients with MS. Before developing recommendations, physical activity patterns and the physical effects of MS should be assessed in individual patients. Patients may then be functionally classified. Physical activity can also be classified in a pyramid structure, with the most basic functions forming the base and the most integrated functions on top. The muscular fitness pyramid progresses through passive range of motion, active resistive, specific strengthening and integrated strength exercises Overall physical activity may be increased according to functional level by performing activities of daily living, incorporating inefficiencies into daily living, pursuing more active recreation and eventually developing a structured exercise programme. The importance of the proper exercise environment, balance and coordination issues and factors related to adherence are discussed. PMID:10222541

  16. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Improves the Quality of Life in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yao; Zhu, Weiming; Gong, Jianfeng; Guo, Dong; Gu, Lili; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. To determine the effect of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on quality of life (QoL) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods. Fourteen IBD patients, including 11 Ulcerative colitis (UC) and 3 Crohn's disease (CD), were treated with FMT via colonoscopy or nasojejunal tube infusion. QoL was measured by IBD Questionnaire (IBDQ). Disease activity and IBDQ were evaluated at enrollment and four weeks after treatment. Patients' attitude concerning the treatment was also investigated. Results. One patient was excluded due to intolerance. All the other patients finished the study well. Mean Mayo score in UC patients decreased significantly (5.80 ± 1.87 versus 1.50 ± 1.35, P < 0.01). Mean IBDQ scores of both UC and CD patients increased (135.50 ± 27.18 versus 177.30 ± 20.88, P = 0.00063, and 107.33 ± 9.45 versus 149.00 ± 20.07, P = 0.024) four weeks after fecal microbiota transplantation. There was no correlation between the IBDQ score and Mayo score before and after FMT. Patients refused to take FMT as treatment repeatedly in a short time. Conlusions. Fecal microbiota transplantation improves quality of life significantly in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26146498

  17. Plasma thymic hormone activity in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, C. H.; Greenberg, Lynn E.; Chapman, S. W.; Goldstein, G.; Lewis, Verna M.; Twomey, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    To further characterize the immunological abnormalities in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, the thymic hormone activity in their plasma was measured. Of the sixteen patients in the study, seven had chronic diffuse candidiasis, five had candidiasis with endocrinopathies and four had candidiasis with thymoma. Only one patient, an anergic child with chronic diffuse candidiasis had severe deficiency of plasma thymic hormone activity. Two patients, a woman with candidiasis and multiple endocrinopathies and an elderly man with metastatic epithelial thymoma had supranormal values. These studies indicate that the immunological deficit in most patients with these forms of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is not due to deficiency of a thymic inductive activity and suggest that an intrinsic defect exists in the maturation of antigen-responsive lymphoid cells. PMID:743805

  18. Inadvertant hypothermia and active warming for surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Judith

    Inadvertant hypothermia is common among surgical patients and can result in serious complications. This article describes active warming systems which can be used preoperatively and intraoperatively to prevent hypothermia and maintain normothermia (normal body temperature). PMID:22067488

  19. Variables associated with patient activation in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Goodworth, Marie-Christine R; Stepleman, Lara; Hibbard, Judith; Johns, Lisa; Wright, Dustin; Hughes, Mary D; Williams, Mitzi J

    2016-01-01

    Identifying variables associated with patient activation in the multiple sclerosis population could serve to facilitate better multiple sclerosis self-management behaviors. Using a cross-sectional survey design, 199 participants were recruited from a multiple sclerosis center in the Southeastern United States. Depression, multiple sclerosis quality of life, and multiple Sclerosis self-efficacy were all significantly correlated with patient activation. Results of a hierarchical regression indicated that patient activation was significantly related to educational attainment, depression, and self-efficacy but not to quality of life. The results suggest several possible targets for intervention to increase patient activation, including health literacy, depression symptoms, and self-efficacy for multiple sclerosis disease management. PMID:24591120

  20. Management of Hypertension: Adapting New Guidelines for Active Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanji, Jeffrey L.; Batt, Mark E.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses recent guidelines on hypertension from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and details the latest management protocols for patients with high blood pressure. The article helps physicians interpret the guidelines for treating active patients, highlighting diagnosis, step care revision, pharmacology, and sports participation…

  1. Decreased Prolidase Activity in Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Mahmut; Atli, Abdullah; Kaplan, İbrahim; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Bez, Yasin; Özdemir, Pınar Güzel; Sır, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many neurochemical systems have been implicated in the development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The prolidase enzyme is a cytosolic exopeptidase that detaches proline or hydroxyproline from the carboxyl terminal position of dipeptides. Prolidase has important biological effects, and to date, its role in the etiology of PTSD has not been studied. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate prolidase activity in patients with PTSD. Methods The study group consisted of patients who were diagnosed with PTSD after the earthquake that occurred in the province of Van in Turkey in 2011 (n=25); the first control group consisted of patients who experienced the earthquake but did not show PTSD symptoms (n=26) and the second control group consisted of patients who have never been exposed to a traumatic event (n=25). Prolidase activities in the patients and the control groups were determined by the ELISA method using commercial kits. Results Prolidase activity in the patient group was significantly lower when compared to the control groups. Prolidase activity was also significantly lower in the traumatized healthy subjects compared to the other healthy group (p<0.01). Conclusion The findings of the present study suggest that the decrease in prolidase activity may have neuroprotective effects in patients with PTSD. PMID:27482243

  2. Second primary cancers in patients with urothelial cancers

    PubMed Central

    Altok, Muammer; Akdeniz, Fırat; Yıldız, Güner; Divrik, Rauf Taner

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the second primary cancers (SPCs) in patients with urothelial cancer (UC). Materials and Methods The records of 2,339 patients whose UC was diagnosed between January 1974 and December 2012 were reviewed. All data about characteristics of patients, of UC and, of SPC was, recorded digitally. We investigated the prevalence and the type of second or higher order cancers, and the factors associated with SPC. Results Total 260 patients (11.1%) had SPC, 14 had a third primary cancer and one had a fourth primary cancer. The most common SPC with UC was lung cancer (29.6%). Of all 260 with SPC, 64 (24.6%) had synchronous (within the 6 months) SPC, 120 (46.2%) had subsequent SPC and, 76 (29.2%) had antecedent SPC. The mean duration of SPC was 56 months in patients with subsequent SPC and 75.8 months in patients with antecedent SPC. The mean age at the time of diagnosis of UC was higher in patients with SPC. The ratio of male gender, body mass index, blood type, status of smoking and, occupational risk was similar in both groups. Total amount of smoking and the mean follow-up were higher in patients with SPC. Conclusions The majority of the patients with UC have long life expectancy. In patients with UC, the risk of having another cancer is quite higher than normal population. The physicians managing patients with UC should look for SPC.

  3. Selenoprotein expression in Hürthle cell carcinomas and in the human Hürthle cell carcinoma line XTC.UC1.

    PubMed

    Menth, Marianne; Schmutzler, Cornelia; Mentrup, Birgit; Hoang-Vu, Cuong; Takahashi, Kazuhiko; Honjoh, Tsutomu; Köhrle, Josef

    2005-05-01

    Hürthle cell carcinomas (HTC) are characterized by mitochondrial amplification and enhanced oxygen metabolism. To clarify if defects in enzymes scavenging reactive oxygen species are involved in the pathogenesis of HTC, we analyzed selenium (Se)-dependent expression of various detoxifying selenoproteins in the HTC cell line XTC.UC1. Glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase activity was found both in cell lysates and conditioned media of XTC.UC1 cells and was increased by Na(2)SeO(3). Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of thioredoxin reductase both in cell lysates and conditioned media and of glutathione peroxidase 3 in conditioned media. Type I 5'-deiodinase, another selenoprotein that catalyzes thyroid hormone metabolism, was detectable only in cell lysates by enzyme assay and Western blot, and responded to stimulation by both Na(2)SeO(3) and retinoic acid. A selenoprotein P signal was detected in conditioned media by Western blot, but was not enhanced by Na(2)SeO(3) treatment. In situ hybridization revealed glutathione peroxidase mRNAs in HTC specimen; glutathione peroxidase 3 mRNA levels were reduced. These data suggest adequate expression and Se-dependent regulation of a couple of selenoproteins involved in antioxidant defense and thyroid hormone metabolism in XTC.UC1 cells, so far giving no evidence of a role of these proteins in the pathogenesis of HTCs. PMID:15929660

  4. Complement Activation in Patients with Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Thurman, Joshua M.; Wong, Maria; Renner, Brandon; Frazer-Abel, Ashley; Giclas, Patricia C.; Joy, Melanie S.; Jalal, Diana; Radeva, Milena K.; Gassman, Jennifer; Gipson, Debbie S.; Kaskel, Frederick; Friedman, Aaron; Trachtman, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent pre-clinical studies have shown that complement activation contributes to glomerular and tubular injury in experimental FSGS. Although complement proteins are detected in the glomeruli of some patients with FSGS, it is not known whether this is due to complement activation or whether the proteins are simply trapped in sclerotic glomeruli. We measured complement activation fragments in the plasma and urine of patients with primary FSGS to determine whether complement activation is part of the disease process. Study Design Plasma and urine samples from patients with biopsy-proven FSGS who participated in the FSGS Clinical Trial were analyzed. Setting and Participants We identified 19 patients for whom samples were available from weeks 0, 26, 52 and 78. The results for these FSGS patients were compared to results in samples from 10 healthy controls, 10 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), 20 patients with vasculitis, and 23 patients with lupus nephritis. Outcomes Longitudinal control of proteinuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Measurements Levels of the complement fragments Ba, Bb, C4a, and sC5b-9 in plasma and urine. Results Plasma and urine Ba, C4a, sC5b-9 were significantly higher in FSGS patients at the time of diagnosis than in the control groups. Plasma Ba levels inversely correlated with the eGFR at the time of diagnosis and at the end of the study. Plasma and urine Ba levels at the end of the study positively correlated with the level of proteinuria, the primary outcome of the study. Limitations Limited number of patients with samples from all time-points. Conclusions The complement system is activated in patients with primary FSGS, and elevated levels of plasma Ba correlate with more severe disease. Measurement of complement fragments may identify a subset of patients in whom the complement system is activated. Further investigations are needed to confirm our findings and to determine the prognostic significance of

  5. Synchronization of EEG activity in patients with bipolar disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panischev, O. Yu; Demin, S. A.; Muhametshin, I. G.; Demina, N. Yu

    2015-12-01

    In paper we apply the method based on the Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) to determine the differences in frequency-phase synchronization of the cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) activities in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). We found that for healthy subjects the frequency-phase synchronization of EEGs from long-range electrodes was significantly better for BD patients. In BD patients a high synchronization of EEGs was observed only for short-range electrodes. Thus, the FNS is a simple graphical method for qualitative analysis can be applied to identify the synchronization effects in EEG activity and, probably, may be used for the diagnosis of this syndrome.

  6. Management of patients with active caries.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Peter

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports on a mechanism to manage caries as a disease and to medically intervene in the disease process to halt progression. The goal of this paper is to provide this alternative to a surgical-only approach. The management of caries begins with assessing lesion activity and the potential for arrest. This requires a clinical and radiological assessment and evaluation of risk. Hopeless teeth are extracted and large cavities filled to reduce infection. Risk reduction strategies are employed so efforts to arrest lesions can be successful. Teeth with lesions in the enamel or outer third of the dentin should be sealed, not restored, as restorations can weaken teeth and can be traumatic to pulps. PMID:25076627

  7. Macrophage and dendritic cell subsets in IBD: ALDH+ cells are reduced in colon tissue of patients with ulcerative colitis regardless of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson, Maria K; Brynjólfsson, Siggeir F; Dige, Anders; Uronen-Hansson, Heli; Börjesson, Lars G.; Bengtsson, Jonas L.; Gudjonsson, Sigurdur; Öhman, Lena; Agnholt, Jørgen; Sjövall, Henrik; Agace, William W; Wick, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of the homeostatic balance of intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (MQs) may contribute to inflammatory bowel disease. We characterized DC and MQ populations, including their ability to produce retinoic acid, in clinical material encompassing Crohn’s ileitis, Crohn’s colitis and ulcerative colitis (UC) as well as mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) draining these sites. Increased CD14+DRint MQs characterized inflamed intestinal mucosa while total CD141+ or CD1c+ DCs numbers were unchanged. However, CD103+ DCs, including CD141+CD103+ and CD1c+CD103+ DCs, were reduced in inflamed intestine. In MLNs, two CD14− DC populations were identified: CD11cintHLADRhi and CD11chiHLADRint cells. A marked increase of CD11chiHLADRint DC, particularly DRintCD1c+ DCs, characterized MLNs draining inflamed intestine. The fraction of DC and MQ populations expressing aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, reflecting retinoic acid synthesis, in UC colon, both in active disease and remission, were reduced compared to controls and inflamed Crohn’s colon. In contrast, no difference in the frequency of ALDH+ cells among blood precursors was detected between UC patients in remission and non-inflamed controls. This suggests that ALDH activity in myeloid cells in the colon of UC patients, regardless of whether the disease is active or in remission, is influenced by the intestinal environment. PMID:26080709

  8. Follow the Money: Engineering at Stanford and UC Berkeley during the Rise of Silicon Valley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Stephen B.

    2009-01-01

    A comparison of the engineering schools at UC Berkeley and Stanford during the 1940s and 1950s shows that having an excellent academic program is necessary but not sufficient to make a university entrepreneurial (an engine of economic development). Key factors that made Stanford more entrepreneurial than Cal during this period were superior…

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Vancomycin-Heteroresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis Strain UC7032, Isolated from Food

    PubMed Central

    Pietta, Ester; Bassi, Daniela; Fontana, Cecilia; Puglisi, Edoardo; Cappa, Fabrizio; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis strain UC7032 was isolated from ready-to-eat cured meat and is heteroresistant to glycopeptide antibiotics. The draft whole-genome analysis revealed that this strain shows common characteristics typical of strains that are involved in nosocomial infections. PMID:24072859

  10. A novel UCS memory retrieval-extinction procedure to inhibit relapse to drug seeking

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yi-xiao; Xue, Yan-xue; Liu, Jian-feng; Shi, Hai-shui; Jian, Min; Han, Ying; Zhu, Wei-li; Bao, Yan-ping; Wu, Ping; Ding, Zeng-bo; Shen, Hao-wei; Shi, Jie; Shaham, Yavin; Lu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported that a conditioned stimulus (CS) memory retrieval-extinction procedure decreases reinstatement of cocaine and heroin seeking in rats and heroin craving in humans. Here we show that non-contingent cocaine or methylphenidate injections (UCS retrieval) 1 h before the extinction sessions decreases cocaine-priming-induced reinstatement, spontaneous recovery, and renewal of cocaine seeking in rats. Unlike the CS-based memory retrieval-extinction procedure, the UCS memory retrieval manipulation decreases renewal and reinstatement of cocaine seeking in the presence of cocaine cues that were not present during extinction training and also decreases cocaine seeking when the procedure commences after 28 days of abstinence. The inhibitory effect of the UCS retrieval manipulation on cocaine-priming-induced reinstatement is mediated by regulation of AMPA-receptor endocytosis in the basolateral amygdala. The UCS memory retrieval-extinction procedure has superior relapse prevention characteristics than the CS memory retrieval-extinction procedure and could be a promising method for decreasing relapse in human addicts. PMID:26169171

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium sporogenes Strain UC9000 Isolated from Raw Milk

    PubMed Central

    La Torre, Angela; Zotta, Teresa; Orrù, Luigi; Lamontanara, Antonella; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium sporogenes is a causative agent of food spoilage and is often used as the nontoxigenic surrogate for Clostridium botulinum. Here, we described the draft genome sequence and annotation of C. sporogenes strain UC9000 isolated from raw milk. PMID:27081128

  12. What Was It like? Being in the Pioneer Class at UC Merced

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Entering the UC Merced campus and turning onto Scholars Lane, students saw, in this order, large cow pastures surrounding the campus, tall chainlink fences enclosing construction materials, orange fences stating "limits of construction," and across the small road, the residence facilities. Students who were willing to brave this combination of…

  13. 78 FR 23969 - In the Matter of UC Hub Group, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of UC Hub Group, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading April 19, 2013. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack of current and accurate...

  14. Environmental Profiles of Paper vs. Electronic UC-CEAS Annual Reports

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2010, the University of Cincinnati College of Engineering and Applied Sciences (UC-CEAS) created a new electronic format for the Annual Report that could be distributed through the college’s website to replace the prior print version. In order to determine the environmental co...

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium sporogenes Strain UC9000 Isolated from Raw Milk.

    PubMed

    La Torre, Angela; Bassi, Daniela; Zotta, Teresa; Orrù, Luigi; Lamontanara, Antonella; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium sporogenesis a causative agent of food spoilage and is often used as the nontoxigenic surrogate forClostridium botulinum Here, we described the draft genome sequence and annotation ofC. sporogenesstrain UC9000 isolated from raw milk. PMID:27081128

  16. A New Campus Building on Efficiency: University of California (UC) Merced Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    The University of California (UC), Merced partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit two existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% as part of DOE’s Commercial Buildings Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  17. 46 CFR 54.25-7 - Requirement for postweld heat treatment (modifies UCS-56).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) for applicable requirements.) (b) Cargo tanks which are fabricated of carbon or low alloy steel as... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-7 Requirement for postweld heat treatment (modifies UCS-56). (a) Postweld heat treatment is required for all...

  18. Physical Activity in Hemodialysis Patients Measured by Triaxial Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Edimar Pedrosa; Reboredo, Maycon Moura; Carvalho, Erich Vidal; Teixeira, Daniel Rodrigues; Carvalho, Laís Fernanda Caldi d'Ornellas; Filho, Gilberto Francisco Ferreira; de Oliveira, Julio César Abreu; Sanders-Pinheiro, Helady; Chebli, Júlio Maria Fonseca; de Paula, Rogério Baumgratz; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle

    2015-01-01

    Different factors can contribute to a sedentary lifestyle among hemodialysis (HD) patients, including the period they spend on dialysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate characteristics of physical activities in daily life in this population by using an accurate triaxial accelerometer and to correlate these characteristics with physiological variables. Nineteen HD patients were evaluated using the DynaPort accelerometer and compared to nineteen control individuals, regarding the time spent in different activities and positions of daily life and the number of steps taken. HD patients were more sedentary than control individuals, spending less time walking or standing and spending more time lying down. The sedentary behavior was more pronounced on dialysis days. According to the number of steps taken per day, 47.4% of hemodialysis patients were classified as sedentary against 10.5% in control group. Hemoglobin level, lower extremity muscle strength, and physical functioning of SF-36 questionnaire correlated significantly with the walking time and active time. Looking accurately at the patterns of activity in daily life, HDs patients are more sedentary, especially on dialysis days. These patients should be motivated to enhance the physical activity. PMID:26090432

  19. Physical Activity in Hemodialysis Patients Measured by Triaxial Accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Edimar Pedrosa; Reboredo, Maycon Moura; Carvalho, Erich Vidal; Teixeira, Daniel Rodrigues; Carvalho, Laís Fernanda Caldi d'Ornellas; Filho, Gilberto Francisco Ferreira; de Oliveira, Julio César Abreu; Sanders-Pinheiro, Helady; Chebli, Júlio Maria Fonseca; de Paula, Rogério Baumgratz; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle

    2015-01-01

    Different factors can contribute to a sedentary lifestyle among hemodialysis (HD) patients, including the period they spend on dialysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate characteristics of physical activities in daily life in this population by using an accurate triaxial accelerometer and to correlate these characteristics with physiological variables. Nineteen HD patients were evaluated using the DynaPort accelerometer and compared to nineteen control individuals, regarding the time spent in different activities and positions of daily life and the number of steps taken. HD patients were more sedentary than control individuals, spending less time walking or standing and spending more time lying down. The sedentary behavior was more pronounced on dialysis days. According to the number of steps taken per day, 47.4% of hemodialysis patients were classified as sedentary against 10.5% in control group. Hemoglobin level, lower extremity muscle strength, and physical functioning of SF-36 questionnaire correlated significantly with the walking time and active time. Looking accurately at the patterns of activity in daily life, HDs patients are more sedentary, especially on dialysis days. These patients should be motivated to enhance the physical activity. PMID:26090432

  20. [Creative arts activity in manually handicapped patients].

    PubMed

    Wolf, N

    1986-02-01

    Congenital or acquired conditions directly or indirectly causal in total or partial impairment of manual function are set out. The possibilities for creative-expressive activity, using various techniques, nothwithstanding manual disabilities are pointed out. In Cefischer, who until his war-related loss of both upper limbs had been a renowned cartoonist, a comparison of his works, drawn initially by hand and later with the mouth, reveals his characteristic style of expression having remained the same. Further examples are given of creative expression in the presence of manual disability even under extreme circumstances (such as 11 years of confinement to the Iron Lung). Arts and crafts work of persons with leprosy-related manual handicaps are mentioned; typewriter graphics as a method inaugurated by Basset is presented as used in young people with total manual disability. Partial disability of manual function due to arthritis was present in Renoir, Jawlensky, and Grandma Moses, the course of their conditions is described over time. Contents and form of their pictures, after long years of being manually disabled, do not reveal any essential changes in comparison to their earlier ones. PMID:2938233

  1. Procoagulant activity in patients with sickle cell trait.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, Andrew S; Pizzey, Arnold; Trompeter, Sara; Meiselman, Herbert; Mohandas, Narla; Dumanski, Jan P; Westerman, Maxwell P

    2012-06-01

    Patients with sickle cell trait (STr) are usually considered to be asymptomatic. However, complications, including hypercoagulability, increased risk of venous thromboembolism and the exertional exercise syndrome with rhabdomyolysis and sudden death, have been described. The exact cause of these adverse events is unclear. We have investigated two patients, a set of monozygotic twins with STr, to establish their procoagulant activity status as a potential indicator of thrombotic risk. In-vivo thrombin generation was assessed by the measurement of prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) and thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT). D-dimer was used as a marker of fibrinolytic activity. The potential to generate thrombin was determined using an ex-vivo thrombin generation test (TGT). The impact of red blood cell (RBC)-derived microparticle shedding and RBC rheology were examined. TAT (>60 μg/l) and F1 + 2 (948 pmol/l) were markedly elevated in patient 2 but within the normal reference range in patient 1 (TAT = 2.5 μg/l; F1 + 2 = 138 pmol/l). D-dimer levels (0.9 mg/l FEU) were similarly elevated in both patients. TGT peak thrombin and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) were elevated to similar degrees in both patients. Flow cytometric analysis for RBC-derived microparticles showed that both patients had elevated levels on two occasions. RBC deformability, blood viscosity and RBC aggregation were normal and similar in both patients. The results demonstrated different coagulation activity in the patients with one patient in a prothrombotic state, suggesting that there may be two levels of hypercoagulability in STr. Measurement of such differences would allow for separation of high and low-risk patients from serious complications. PMID:22343687

  2. Development of the Patient Activation Measure for mental health.

    PubMed

    Green, Carla A; Perrin, Nancy A; Polen, Michael R; Leo, Michael C; Hibbard, Judith H; Tusler, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Our objective was to adapt the physical health Patient Activation Measure (PAM) for use among people with mental health conditions (PAM-MH). Data came from three studies among people with chronic mental health conditions and were combined in Rasch analyses. The PAM-MH's psychometric properties equal those of the original 13-item PAM. Test-retest reliability and concurrent validity were good, and the PAM-MH showed sensitivity to change. The PAM-MH appears to be a reliable and valid measure of patient activation among individuals with mental health problems. It appears to have potential for use in assessing change in activation. PMID:19728074

  3. Circulating memory B cells and plasmablasts are associated with the levels of serum immunoglobulin in patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinrui; Jiang, Yanfang; Zhu, Yonggang; Zhang, Manli; Li, Man; Wang, Hongjuan; Gao, Pujun

    2016-05-01

    Humoural immunity is crucial for the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC), but the precise perturbation of B cell immunity is poorly understood. This study is aimed at evaluating the numbers of different subsets of circulating memory B cells, plasmablasts, and the levels of serum immunoglobulin in UC patients. Total of 23 patients with active UC and 14 healthy controls (HC) were examined for the numbers of different subsets of circulating memory B cells and plasmablasts before and after treatment with mesalazine for 8-12 weeks by flow cytometry. Disease activity was evaluated by the Mayo clinic score. The levels of serum immunoglobulin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in individual subjects. In comparison with that in HC, significantly reduced numbers of IgG(+)  IgD(-)  CD27(+)  CD19(+) memory B cells, increased numbers of CD20(-)  CD19(+) plasmablast subsets, and higher serum IgG levels were detected in UC patients. The concentrations of serum IgG, the numbers of CD138(+)  CD38(+)  CD20(-)  CD19(+) , and IgG(+)  CD38(+)  CD20(-)  CD19(+) plasmablasts were negatively associated with the numbers of IgG(+)  IgD(-)  CD27(+)  CD19(+) memory B cells. Furthermore, the values of Mayo clinic score, CRP, or ESR in UC patients were negatively correlated with the numbers of IgG(+)  IgD(-)  CD27(+)  CD19(+) memory B cells, while positively correlated with the serum IgG levels and the numbers of plasmablast subsets. Following treatment with mesalazine, the numbers of circulating IgG(+)  IgD(-)  CD27(+)  CD19(+) memory B cells were significantly increased, while the numbers of CD138(+)  CD38(+)  CD20(-)  CD19(+) and IgG(+)  CD38(+)  CD20(-)  CD19(+) plasmablasts were reduced in UC patients. These decreased IgG(+)  IgD(-)  CD27(+)  CD19(+) memory B cells and increased plasmablasts may be involved in the pathogenic process of UC. PMID:26800315

  4. [Physical activity in patients with microvascular complications of diabetes].

    PubMed

    Matoulek, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Physical activity is often underestimated and little used in the treatment of diabetes. The fear of damage, especially in patients with diabetes complications is one of the reasons why it occurs. Physical activity plays an important role in prevention of the progression of peripheral neuropathy and its impact is primarily on the development of muscle strength and the ability to replace the function of nerve fibers damaged disabilities. Demonstrable effect on neuropathy is already recorded a few weeks of regular exercise, long-term programs then demonstrate the safety of occurrence of ulcers in compliance with basic foot care. Present autonomic neuropathy cannot predict response to cardiac respectively, heart rate and blood pressure. Due to other risks (silent ischemia, arrhythmia etc.), it is appropriate to stress test before a prescription of exercise programs. Monitoring of blood pressure, heart rate and blood glucose during the first hours of physical activity is necessary. In patients with autonomic neuropathy of the gastrointestinal tract may significantly affect the composition of the diet not only the ability of physical activity, but can also affect hypoglycaemia due to a slow carbohydrate absorption in these patients. Another risk in patients with autonomic neuropathy is orthostatic hypotension, which may potentiate antihypertensive drugs in "white coat" hypertension. Prescription of patients with retinopathy depends on the form and degree of retinopathy. Only proliferative retinopathy can significantly reduce exercise prescription, and it is always necessary to consult with ophthalmologist. In patients with nephropathy is an important stage of renal insufficiency for prescription of physical activity. Prescription is then influenced by the degree of renal insufficiency in addition to the presence of other associated diseases (anemia, hypertension, osteopathy etc.). Physical activity is essential in patients on dialysis respectively. After renal

  5. A transcribed ultraconserved noncoding RNA, Uc.173, is a key molecule for the inhibition of lead-induced neuronal apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lijian; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Li; Luo, Yuanwei; Liu, Zhenzhong; Dai, Lijun; Jiang, Yiguo

    2016-01-01

    As a common toxic metal, lead has significant neurotoxicity to brain development. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) function in multiple biological processes. However, whether lncRNAs are involved in lead-induced neurotoxicity remains unclear. Uc.173 is a lncRNA from a transcribed ultra-conservative region (T-UCR) of human, mouse and rat genomes. We established a lead-induced nerve injury mouse model. It showed the levels of Uc.173 decreased significantly in hippocampus tissue and serum of the model. We further tested the expression of Uc.173 in serum of lead-exposed children, which also showed a tendency to decrease. To explore the effects of Uc.173 on lead-induced nerve injury, we overexpressed Uc.173 in an N2a mouse nerve cell line and found Uc.173 had an inhibitory effect on lead-induced apoptosis of N2a. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of Uc.173 in apoptosis associated with lead-induced nerve injury, we predicted the target microRNAs of Uc.173 by using miRanda, TargetScan and RegRNA. After performing quantitative real-time PCR and bioinformatics analysis, we showed Uc.173 might inter-regulate with miR-291a-3p in lead-induced apoptosis and regulate apoptosis-associated genes. Our study suggests Uc.173 significantly inhibits the apoptosis of nerve cells, which may be mediated by inter-regulation with miRNAs in lead-induced nerve injury. PMID:26683706

  6. A transcribed ultraconserved noncoding RNA, Uc.173, is a key molecule for the inhibition of lead-induced neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Nan, Aruo; Zhou, Xinke; Chen, Lijian; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Li; Luo, Yuanwei; Liu, Zhenzhong; Dai, Lijun; Jiang, Yiguo

    2016-01-01

    As a common toxic metal, lead has significant neurotoxicity to brain development. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) function in multiple biological processes. However, whether lncRNAs are involved in lead-induced neurotoxicity remains unclear. Uc.173 is a lncRNA from a transcribed ultra-conservative region (T-UCR) of human, mouse and rat genomes. We established a lead-induced nerve injury mouse model. It showed the levels of Uc.173 decreased significantly in hippocampus tissue and serum of the model. We further tested the expression of Uc.173 in serum of lead-exposed children, which also showed a tendency to decrease. To explore the effects of Uc.173 on lead-induced nerve injury, we overexpressed Uc.173 in an N2a mouse nerve cell line and found Uc.173 had an inhibitory effect on lead-induced apoptosis of N2a. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of Uc.173 in apoptosis associated with lead-induced nerve injury, we predicted the target microRNAs of Uc.173 by using miRanda, TargetScan and RegRNA. After performing quantitative real-time PCR and bioinformatics analysis, we showed Uc.173 might inter-regulate with miR-291a-3p in lead-induced apoptosis and regulate apoptosis-associated genes. Our study suggests Uc.173 significantly inhibits the apoptosis of nerve cells, which may be mediated by inter-regulation with miRNAs in lead-induced nerve injury. PMID:26683706

  7. UC Assurance Plan For Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory July2007

    SciTech Connect

    Chernowski, John

    2007-07-09

    This Division ES&H Self-Assessment Manual describes how the Laboratory administers a division self-assessment program that conforms to the institutional requirements promulgated in the 'LBNL Environment, Safety and Health Self-Assessment Program' (LBNL/PUB-5344, latest revision). The institutional program comprises all appraisal and reporting activities that identify environmental, safety, and health deficiencies and associated corrective actions. It is designed to meet U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for self-assessment. Self-assessment is a continuous process of information gathering and evaluation. A division selfassessment program should describe methods for gathering and documenting information, and methods to analyze these performance data to identify trends and root causes and their corrections.

  8. The Influence of Health Literacy and Patient Activation on Patient Information Seeking and Sharing.

    PubMed

    Ledford, Christy J W; Cafferty, Lauren A; Russell, Travis C

    2015-01-01

    This study provided an assessment of how patients looked for information to prepare for a clinical appointment and whether they shared those findings with their provider. A cross-sectional survey allowed insight into patient attitudes, motivations, and behavior in clinical real time. At two hospital-based clinics, 243 patients completed surveys before and after clinical appointments. Younger patients with higher communicative and critical health literacy prepared for clinical appointments with information searches. The predicted association of health literacy and patient activation with information sharing was not supported. This study shows that patients with higher patient activation perceived that their providers responded more positively to patient-obtained medical information. The role of critical health literacy may show that individuals choosing to seek information are considering not just their ability to conduct the search but also their ability to synthesize and critically analyze the results of the information search. An implication for providers is to become skilled in directly asking or passively surveying what outside information sources the patient has engaged with, no matter if the patient does or does not introduce the information. PMID:26513034

  9. Cast adrift: Gortex cast liners allow greater patient activity.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, Gerald; Miller, Deborah M

    2003-01-01

    Extremity fractures are a common injury, with nearly 1.5 million cases reported in the United States in 1998. Treatment often involves lengthy periods of immobilization. This report outlines the use of a Gortex cast liner by a subject who was able to engage in swimming and scuba diving during the healing process. We report that a Gortex cast liner may be considered for an active patient who is keen to return to limited activities during fracture healing. Apparently because of a lack of knowledge of their existence, physicians currently are underutilizing this method of casting in active patients. The use of Gortex liners elsewhere has been reported to have higher patient and physician satisfaction in both use and performance, with no reported detrimental effects on outcome. PMID:14518627

  10. Demoralization, Patient Activation, and the Outcome of Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Block, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    It is now well established that psychosocial factors can adversely impact the outcome of spine surgery. This article discusses in detail one such recently-identified "risk" factor: demoralization. Several studies conducted by the author indicate that demoralization, an emotional construct distinct from depression, is associated with poorer pain reduction, less functional improvement and decreased satisfaction among spine surgery patients. However, there are indications that the adverse impact of risk factors such as demoralization can be mitigated by psychosocial "maximizing" factors-characteristics that propel the patient towards positive surgical results. One of these maximizing factors, patient activation, is discussed in depth. The patient activation measure (PAM), an inventory assessing the extent to which patients are active and engaged in their health care, is associated not only with improved spine surgery results, but with better outcomes across a broad range of medical conditions. Other maximizing factors are discussed in this article. The author concludes that the past research focus on psychosocial risk factors has limited the value of presurgical psychological screening, and that future research, as well as clinical assessment, should recognize that the importance of evaluating patients' strengths as well as their vulnerabilities. PMID:27417599

  11. Infliximab treatment reduces complement activation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Familian, A; Voskuyl, A; van Mierlo, G J; Heijst, H; Twisk, J; Dijkmans, B; Hack, C

    2005-01-01

    Background: Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blocking agents decrease C reactive protein (CRP) levels in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It has been shown that CRP may contribute to complement activation in RA. Objective: To assess the effect of intravenous infliximab treatment on complement activation, especially that mediated by CRP, in RA. Methods: 35 patients with active RA (28 joint count Disease Activity Score (DAS28) >4.4) were treated with intravenous injections of infliximab (3 mg/kg, at weeks 0, 2, 6, 14, and 22). Clinical response and plasma levels of complement activation products, of CRP and of CRP-complement complexes, which are specific markers for CRP mediated complement activation, were assessed at the indicated time points up to 22 weeks. The relationship between CRP and CRP-complement complexes was analysed by paired t test between two time points and by generalised estimated equation, to test differences of variables over time. Results: At 2 weeks after the first dose, infliximab significantly reduced overall C3 and C4 activation and plasma levels of CRP and CRP-complement complexes were also significantly reduced at this time point. The effects of infliximab on CRP and complement continued throughout the observation period and were more pronounced in patients with a good response to infliximab treatment. Conclusion: Treatment with infliximab decreases plasma levels of CRP and CRP dependent complement activation products and concomitantly may reduce complement activation in RA. Complement activation may be among the effector mechanisms of TNF in RA. PMID:15958758

  12. Alteration of spontaneous brain activity in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiaxing; Chen, Ji; Yu, Qian; Fan, Cunxiu; Zhang, Ran; Lin, Jianzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Fan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results in a decrease in oxygen transport to the brain. The aim of the present study was to explore the alteration of spontaneous brain activity induced by hypoxia in patients with COPD. Patients and methods Twenty-five stable patients with COPD and 25 matching healthy volunteers were investigated. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of blood oxygenation level-dependent signal at resting state in the brain was analyzed using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results Whole-brain analysis using functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant decreases in ALFF in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri and right lingual gyrus and an increase in ALFF in the left postcentral gyrus of patients with COPD. After controlling for SaO2, patients with COPD only showed an increase in ALFF in the left postcentral gyrus. Region of interest analysis showed a decrease in ALFF in the left precentral gyrus and an increase in ALFF in the left caudate nucleus of patients with COPD. In all subjects, ALFF in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri and right lingual gyrus showed positive correlations with visual reproduction. Conclusion We demonstrated abnormal spontaneous brain activity of patients with COPD, which may have a pathophysiologic meaning. PMID:27555761

  13. Distribution of Active and Resting Periods in the Motor Activity of Patients with Depression and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hauge, Erik; Berle, Jan Øystein; Dilsaver, Steven; Oedegaard, Ketil J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Alterations of activity are prominent features of the major functional psychiatric disorders. Motor activity patterns are characterized by bursts of activity separated by periods with inactivity. The purpose of the present study has been to analyze such active and inactive periods in patients with depression and schizophrenia. Methods Actigraph registrations for 12 days from 24 patients with schizophrenia, 23 with depression and 29 healthy controls. Results Patients with schizophrenia and depression have distinctly different profiles with regard to the characterization and distribution of active and inactive periods. The mean duration of active periods is lowest in the depressed patients, and the duration of inactive periods is highest in the patients with schizophrenia. For active periods the cumulative probability distribution, using lengths from 1 to 35 min, follows a straight line on a log-log plot, suggestive of a power law function, and a similar relationship is found for inactive periods, using lengths from 1 to 20 min. For both active and inactive periods the scaling exponent is higher in the depressed compared to the schizophrenic patients. Conclusion The present findings add to previously published results, with other mathematical methods, suggesting there are important differences in control systems regulating motor behavior in these two major groups of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26766953

  14. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity in patients with iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    Gedikbasi, Asuman; Akalin, Nilgul; Gunaldi, Meral; Yilmaz, Deniz; Mert, Meral; Harmankaya, Ozlem; Soylu, Aliye; Karakaya, Pinar; Kumbasar, Abdulbaki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In this study we aimed to detect paraoxonase 1 (PON-1) activity in iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and to compare it with healthy controls by observing the change after iron therapy. Material and methods In this study, 50 adult patients with IDA and 40 healthy subjects were enrolled. All patients were analyzed at the beginning and after treatment according to laboratory assessments. Results Mean paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in the iron deficiency anemia group were significantly lower than mean activities of the control group (102.4 ±19.2 U/l and 163.3 ±13.68 U/l, respectively and 157.3 ±26.4 U/l and 256.1 ±24.6 U/l, respectively; p = 0.0001 for both). Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities significantly increased after treatment for IDA (143.2 ±13.9 and 197.6 ±27.9 U/l, respectively, p = 0.0001). Mean activities after treatment with iron were significantly lower than mean activities in the control group (p = 0.002; p = 0.0001 respectively). Conclusions Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in patients with IDA significantly increased after treatment with iron therapy. In adults IDA may also be one of the factors associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:27478448

  15. VLT near- to mid-IR imaging and spectroscopy of the M 17 UC1 - IRS5 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiwei; Nürnberger, Dieter E. A.; Chini, Rolf; Jiang, Zhibo; Fang, Min

    2015-06-01

    Aims: We investigate the surroundings of the hypercompact H ii region M 17 UC1 to probe the physical properties of the associated young stellar objects and the environment of massive star formation. Methods: We use diffraction-limited near-IR (VLT/NACO) and mid-IR (VLT/VISIR) images to reveal the different morphologies at various wavelengths. Likewise, we investigate the stellar and nebular content of the region with VLT/SINFONI integral field spectroscopy with a resolution R ˜ 1500 at H + K bands. Results: Five of the seven point sources in this region show L-band excess emission. A geometric match is found between the H2 emission and near-IR polarized light in the vicinity of IRS5A, and between the diffuse mid-IR emission and near-IR polarization north of UC1. The H2 emission is typical for dense photodissociation regions (PDRs), which are initially far-ultraviolet pumped and repopulated by collisional de-excitation. The spectral types of IRS5A and B273A are B3-B7 V/III and G4-G5 III, respectively. The observed infrared luminosity LIR in the range 1-20 μm is derived for three objects; we obtain 2.0 × 103 L⊙ for IRS5A, 13 L⊙ for IRS5C, and 10 L⊙ for B273A. Conclusions: IRS5 might be a young quadruple system. Its primary star IRS5A is confirmed to be a high-mass protostellar object (˜9 M⊙, ˜1 × 105 yrs); it might have terminated accretion due to the feedback from stellar activities (radiation pressure, outflow) and the expanding H ii region of M 17. The object UC1 might also have terminated accretion because of the expanding hypercompact H ii region, which it ionizes. The disk clearing process of the low-mass young stellar objects in this region might be accelerated by the expanding H ii region. The outflows driven by UC1 are running south-north with its northeastern side suppressed by the expanding ionization front of M 17; the blue-shifted outflow lobe of IRS5A is seen in two types of tracers along the same line of sight in the form of H2 emission

  16. Complement Activation in Trauma Patients Alters Platelet Function.

    PubMed

    Atefi, Gelareh; Aisiku, Omozuanvbo; Shapiro, Nathan; Hauser, Carl; Dalle Lucca, Jurandir; Flaumenhaft, Robert; Tsokos, George C

    2016-09-01

    Trauma remains the main cause of death for both civilians and those in uniform. Trauma-associated coagulopathy is a complex process involving inflammation, coagulation, and platelet dysfunction. It is unknown whether activation of complement, which occurs invariably in trauma patients, is involved in the expression of trauma-associated coagulopathy. We designed a prospective study in which we enrolled 40 trauma patients and 30 healthy donors upon arrival to the emergency department of BIDMC. Platelets from healthy individuals were incubated with sera from trauma patients and their responsiveness to a thrombin receptor-activating peptide was measured using aggregometry. Complement deposition on platelets from trauma patients was measured by flow cytometry. Normal platelets displayed hypoactivity after incubation with trauma sera even though exposure to trauma sera resulted in increased agonist-induced calcium flux. Depletion of complement from sera further blocked activation of hypoactive platelets. Conversely, complement activation increased aggregation of platelets. Platelets from trauma patients were found to have significantly higher amounts of C3a and C4d on their surface compared with platelets from controls. Depletion of complement (C4d, C3a) reversed the ability of trauma sera to augment agonist-induced calcium flux in donor platelets. Our data indicate that complement enhances platelet aggregation. Despite its complement content, trauma sera render platelets hypoactive and complement depletion further blocks activation of hypoactive platelets. The defect in platelet activation induced by trauma sera is distal to receptor activation since agonist-induced Ca2+ flux is elevated in the presence of trauma sera owing to complement deposition. PMID:27355402

  17. Mesalamine Dose Escalation Reduces Fecal Calprotectin In Patients With Quiescent Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Osterman, Mark T.; Aberra, Faten N; Cross, Raymond; Liakos, Steven; McCabe, Robert; Shafran, Ira; Wolf, Douglas; Hardi, Robert; Nessel, Lisa; Brensinger, Colleen; Gilroy, Erin; Lewis, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Among patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis (UC), lower fecal concentrations of calprotectin are associated with lower rates of relapse. We performed an open-label, randomized, controlled trial to investigate whether increasing doses mesalamine reduce concentrations of fecal calprotectin (FC) in patients with quiescent UC. Methods We screened 119 patients with UC in remission, based on Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index scores, FC >50 mcg/g, and intake of no more than 3g/day of mesalamine. Participants taking mesalamine formulations other than multimatrix mesalamine were switched to multimatrix mesalamine (2.4 g/day) for 6 weeks; 52 participants were then randomly assigned (1:1) to a group that continued its current dose of mesalamine (controls, n=26) or a group that increased its dose by 2.4 g/day for 6 weeks (n=26). The primary outcome was continued remission with FC<50 mcg/g. Secondary outcomes were continued remission with FC<100 mcg/g or <200 mcg/g (among patients with pre-randomization values above these levels). Results The primary outcome was achieved by 3.8% of controls and 26.9% of the dose escalation group (P=.0496). More patients in the dose escalation group reduced FC to below 100 mcg/g (P=.04) and 200 mcg/g (P=.005). Among the patients who were still in remission after the randomization phase, clinical relapse occurred sooner in patients with FC >200 mcg/g compared to those with FC <200 mcg/g (P=.01). Conclusion Among patients with quiescent UC and increased levels of FC, increasing the dose of mesalamine by 2.4 g/day reduced fecal concentrations of calprotectin to those associated with lower rates of relapse. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00652145 PMID:24793028

  18. Does modafinil enhance activity of patients with myotonic dystrophy?

    PubMed Central

    Lammers, G.J.; van Dijk, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    We performed a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study in 13 patients with myotonic dystrophy to address the question whether modafinil, known to improve hypersomnolence in myotonic dystrophy, may improve levels of activity as well. We used the Epworth Sleepiness Scale as a measure of hypersomnolence and a structured interview of the patient and the partner or housemate as a measure of activity. We additionally used a restricted form of the RAND-36 to relate a possible improvement of activity to perceived general health. We confirmed earlier positive findings of modafinil regarding reduced somnolence (p = 0.015), but no significant effects were seen regarding activity levels (p = 0.2 for patients’ self-reports and 0.5 for partners’ reports). PMID:17285226

  19. Non Activated Protein C Supplementation in Septic Pediatric Hematological Patients

    PubMed Central

    Perillo, Teresa; Muggeo, Paola; Arcamone, Giampaolo; Leonardis, Francesco De; Santoro, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine safety and efficacy of non-activated Protein C (PC) supplementation in our cohort of septic pediatric hematological patients. We conducted a retrospective study of 22 septic patients receiving human plasma-derived PC concentrate from 2008 to 2015 at our Pediatric Oncology Center (Bari, Italy). The Surviving sepsis campaign definitions for sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock were used to define the patients’ septic status. For each patient, we calculated Lansky performance status scale (LPSS) and a risk score defined the Hematologic risk score (HRS) that we created in 2007. Patients were defined as High risk for severe sepsis/septic shock in case of HRS>3. HRS<3 identified low risk patients. Baseline serum PC levels, PC administration dosage and duration and days until a 20% improvement in LPSS. Observed baseline serum PC levels (bPC) blood concentrations ranged from 31 to 80%. Patients received PC supplementation in case of low age-related bPC levels or >10% PC concentration decrease within 12 hours from the first evaluation. All patients received 80 U/kg/day PC, intravenously, every twenty-four hours. No drug-related adverse event was observed. The observed sepsis-related mortality rate in our cohort was 9%. PC supplementation in our cohort appeared to be safe, and, probably due to prompt PC administration, we observed an overall mortality that was much lower than expected mortality in cancer severe septic patients. PMID:27433305

  20. Space Station UCS antenna pattern computation and measurement. [UHF Communication Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Lu, Ba P.; Johnson, Larry A.; Fournet, Jon S.; Panneton, Robert J.; Ngo, John D.; Eggers, Donald S.; Arndt, G. D.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the interference to the Space Station Ultrahigh Frequency (UHF) Communication Subsystem (UCS) antenna radiation pattern due to its environment - Space Station. A hybrid Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) technique was applied in this study. The antenna was modeled using the Method of Moments (MOM) and the radiation patterns were computed using the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) in which the effects of the reflected and diffracted fields from surfaces, edges, and vertices of the Space Station structures were included. In order to validate the CEM techniques, and to provide confidence in the computer-generated results, a comparison with experimental measurements was made for a 1/15 scale Space Station mockup. Based on the results accomplished, good agreement on experimental and computed results was obtained. The computed results using the CEM techniques for the Space Station UCS antenna pattern predictions have been validated.

  1. Demoralization, Patient Activation, and the Outcome of Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Block, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    It is now well established that psychosocial factors can adversely impact the outcome of spine surgery. This article discusses in detail one such recently-identified “risk” factor: demoralization. Several studies conducted by the author indicate that demoralization, an emotional construct distinct from depression, is associated with poorer pain reduction, less functional improvement and decreased satisfaction among spine surgery patients. However, there are indications that the adverse impact of risk factors such as demoralization can be mitigated by psychosocial “maximizing” factors—characteristics that propel the patient towards positive surgical results. One of these maximizing factors, patient activation, is discussed in depth. The patient activation measure (PAM), an inventory assessing the extent to which patients are active and engaged in their health care, is associated not only with improved spine surgery results, but with better outcomes across a broad range of medical conditions. Other maximizing factors are discussed in this article. The author concludes that the past research focus on psychosocial risk factors has limited the value of presurgical psychological screening, and that future research, as well as clinical assessment, should recognize that the importance of evaluating patients’ strengths as well as their vulnerabilities. PMID:27417599

  2. MF2KtoMF05UC, a Program To Convert MODFLOW-2000 Files to MODFLOW-2005 and UCODE_2005 Files

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harbaugh, Arlen W.

    2007-01-01

    The program MF2KtoMF05UC has been developed to convert MODFLOW-2000 input files for use by MODFLOW-2005 and UCODE_2005. MF2KtoMF05UC was written in the Fortran 90 computer language. This report documents the use of MF2KtoMF05UC.

  3. Automated Quantitation of Uterine Contractility (UC) and Fetal Heart Rate (FHR) in Labor Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Bieniarz, J.; Rabin, S.; Mercado, R.; Altamirano, Z.; Burd, L.; Scommegna, A.

    1981-01-01

    Automated quantitation of UC and FHR tabulated in half hour averages throughout labor could improve human expertise in early diagnosis of fetal distress. Such continuous 24 hr/day surveillance system developed in our laboratory for simultaneous monitoring of 10 women in labor is presented. Clinical reliability and usefulness of data supplied by the computer are being validated now by clinical and biochemical assessment of the fetus, newborn, and baby.

  4. Motolimod effectively drives immune activation in advanced cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Dietsch, Gregory N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A novel approach to immunotherapy is the activation of toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8). Motolimod, a selective TLR8 agonist can act in concert with approved immunotherapies to sensitize T cells and augment natural killer (NK) cell function. Despite treatment with chemotherapeutic agents and advance disease, cancer patients remain sensitive to motolimod.

  5. Exercise in Treating Hypertension: Tailoring Therapies for Active Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chintanadilok, Jirayos

    2002-01-01

    Exercise can be definitive therapy for some, and adjunctive therapy for many, people with hypertension, though people with secondary hypertension may not derive as much benefit. Low-to- moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can help with mild hypertension and reduce drug dosages in more severe cases. For active patients requiring medication,…

  6. Fatty acyltranferases in serum in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients

    SciTech Connect

    Zielenski, J.; Newman, L.J.; Slomiany, B.L.; Slomiany, A.

    1987-05-01

    Studies on serum and gastrointestinal secretion from CF patient is suggest that defective accumulation of mucus in gastrointestinal tract and excessive amount of a protease resistant peptides in serum are related to the abnormal activity of enzymes responsible for fatty acylation of proteins. Here, the authors investigated the fatty acyltransferase activities in serum of normal and CF patients. A 15 l of serum was mixed with 0.85 nmol ( UC)palmitoyl CoA, 200 g of serine and threonine and incubated at 37C for 30 min. The incubates were immediately frozen, dried extracted with C/M and chromatographed in chloroform/methanol/water. The incorporation of ( UC)palmitate was determined using linear radioscanner and authoradiography. The results of HPTLC revealed that CF serum in addition of ACAT and LCAT contained enzymes responsible for the transfer of ( UC)palmitate to monoacylphosphoglycerides, and serine and threonine. In normal serum the formation of a small amount of palmitoyl serine and palmitoyl threonine was also observed but the acylation of monoacylphosphoglycerides was not detectable. The authors conclude that in cystic fibrosis the abnormal fatty acyltransferases are responsible for the occurrence of protease resistant glycoprotein, unusual peptides in serum and possibly for the modification of membrane proteins and lipids.

  7. Evaluating a science diversity program at UC Berkeley: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Matsui, John; Liu, Roger; Kane, Caroline M

    2003-01-01

    For the past three decades, much attention has been focused on developing diversity programs designed to improve the academic success of underrepresented minorities, primarily in mathematics, science, and engineering. However, ethnic minorities remain underrepresented in science majors and careers. Over the last 10 years, the Biology Scholars Program (BSP), a diversity program at the University of California (UC), Berkeley, has worked to increase the participation and success of students majoring in the biological sciences. A quantitative comparison of students in and out of the program indicates that students in BSP graduate with a degree in biology at significantly higher rates than students not in BSP regardless of race/ethnicity. Furthermore, students who are in BSP have statistically lower high school grade point averages (GPAs) and Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) scores than students not in BSP. African-American and Hispanic students who join BSP graduate with significantly higher UC Berkeley biology GPAs than non-BSP African-American and Hispanic students, respectively. Majority (Asian and White) students in BSP graduate with statistically similar UC GPAs despite having lower SAT scores than non-BSP majority students. Although BSP students are more successful in completing a biology degree than non-program members, the results raise a series of questions about why the program works and for whom. PMID:12888847

  8. Initial source and site characterization studies for the U.C. Santa Barbara campus

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, R.; Nicholson, C.; Steidl, J.; Gurrola, L.; Alex, C.; Cochran, E.; Ely, G.; Tyler, T.

    1997-12-01

    The University of California Campus-Laboratory Collaboration (CLC) project is an integrated 3 year effort involving Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and four UC campuses - Los Angeles (UCLA), Riverside (UCR), Santa Barbara (UCSB), and San Diego (UCSD) - plus additional collaborators at San Diego State University (SDSU), at Los Alamos National Laboratory and in industry. The primary purpose of the project is to estimate potential ground motions from large earthquakes and to predict site-specific ground motions for one critical structure on each campus. This project thus combines the disciplines of geology, seismology, geodesy, soil dynamics, and earthquake engineering into a fully integrated approach. Once completed, the CLC project will provide a template to evaluate other buildings at each of the four UC campuses, as well as provide a methodology for evaluating seismic hazards at other critical sites in California, including other UC locations at risk from large earthquakes. Another important objective of the CLC project is the education of students and other professional in the application of this integrated, multidisciplinary, state-of-the-art approach to the assessment of earthquake hazard. For each campus targeted by the CLC project, the seismic hazard study will consist of four phases: Phase I - Initial source and site characterization, Phase II - Drilling, logging, seismic monitoring, and laboratory dynamic soil testing, Phase III - Modeling of predicted site-specific earthquake ground motions, and Phase IV - Calculations of 3D building response. This report cover Phase I for the UCSB campus and incudes results up through March 1997.

  9. Fecal Calprotectin is an Accurate Tool and Correlated to Seo Index in Prediction of Relapse in Iranian Patients With Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyed Vahid; Jafari, Peyman; Taghavi, Seyed Alireza; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Moini, Maryam; Mehrabi, Manoosh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The natural clinical course of Ulcerative Colitis (UC) is characterized by episodes of relapse and remission. Fecal Calprotectin (FC) is a relatively new marker of intestinal inflammation and is an available, non-expensive tool for predicting relapse of quiescent UC. The Seo colitis activity index is a clinical index for assessment of the severity of UC. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of FC and the Seo colitis activity index and their correlation in prediction of UC exacerbation. Patients and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 157 patients with clinical and endoscopic diagnosis of UC selected randomly from 1273 registered patients in Fars province’s IBD registry center in Shiraz, Iran, were followed from October 2012 to October 2013 for 12 months or shorter, if they had a relapse. Two patients left the study before completion and one patient had relapse because of discontinuation of drugs. The participants' clinical and serum factors were evaluated every three months. Furthermore, stool samples were collected at the beginning of study and every three months and FC concentration (commercially available enzyme linked immunoassay) and the Seo Index were assessed. Then univariate analysis, multiple variable logistic regression, Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, and Pearson’s correlation test (r) were used for statistical analysis of data. Results: According to the results, 74 patients (48.1%) relapsed during the follow-up (33 men and 41 women). Mean ± SD of FC was 862.82 ± 655.97 μg/g and 163.19 ± 215.85 μg/g in relapsing and non-relapsing patients, respectively (P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age, number of previous relapses, FC and the Seo index were significant predictors of relapse. ROC curve analysis of FC level and Seo activity index for prediction of relapse demonstrated area under the curve of 0.882 (P < 0.001) and 0.92 1(P < 0.001), respectively

  10. Patient activation and advocacy: which literacy skills matter most?

    PubMed

    Martin, Laurie T; Schonlau, Matthias; Haas, Ann; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Buka, Stephen L; Rudd, Rima

    2011-01-01

    Attention to the effect of a patient's literacy skills on health care interactions is relatively new. So, too, are studies of either structural or personal factors that inhibit or support a patient's ability to navigate health services and systems and to advocate for their own needs within a service delivery system. Contributions of the structural environment, of interpersonal dynamics, and of a variety of psychological and sociological factors in the relationship between patients and providers have long been under study. Less frequently examined is the advocacy role expected of patients. However, the complex nature of health care in the United States increasingly requires a proactive stance. This study examined whether four literacy skills (reading, numeracy, speaking, and listening) were associated with patient self-advocacy--a component of health literacy itself--when faced with a hypothetical barrier to scheduling a medical appointment. Although all literacy skills were significantly associated with advocacy when examined in isolation, greater speaking and listening skills remained significantly associated with better patient advocacy when all four skills were examined simultaneously. These findings suggest that speaking and listening skills and support for such skills may be important factors to consider when developing patient activation and advocacy skills. PMID:21951251

  11. Acute Myocardial Infarction Complicating Active Ulcerative Colitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Papadimitraki, Eva D.; Ahamed, Mubarak; Bunce, Nicholas H.

    2011-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease that predominantly affects the gastrointestinal (GI) tract but can involve extraintestinal organs including musculoskeletal system and skin. The most frequent cardiac manifestations of UC are pericarditis and myocarditis. Patients display an increased risk for venous thromboembolic complications and mesenteric ischemia, but the association with ischemic heart disease and myocardial infarction is uncertain. We present the case of a 27-year-old man with anti-PRIII ANCA-positive ulcerative colitis and increased factor VIII activity who presented with an acute myocardial infarction. We discuss possible causative links between these clinical entities and demonstrate the role of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with underlying inflammatory conditions who present with chest pain and evidence of myocardial damage. PMID:24826231

  12. Effect of trimebutine on colonic myoelectrical activity in IBS patients.

    PubMed

    Frexinos, J; Fioramonti, J; Bueno, L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of trimebutine 100 mg i.v. and placebo on colonic myoelectrical activity was investigated in 10 patients with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) (5 constipated and 5 diarrhoeic), using an intraluminal probe supporting 8 groups of electrodes. At each site examined from transverse to sigmoid colon, the electromyograms exhibited two kinds of spike bursts: short spike bursts (SSB) localized at one electrode site and appearing rhythmically at 10.3/min, and long spike bursts (LSB), isolated or propagated orally or aborally. Computerized analysis of the duration of each kind of spike burst showed that, as compared to the control, trimebutine 100 mg, selectively inhibited by 43 to 73% the mean duration of LSB activity in the transverse, descending and sigmoid colon, from 0 to 30 min after administration. The inhibitory effect was similar in constipated and diarrhoeic patients. Placebo injection did not significantly affect (p greater than 0.05) the duration of LSB and SSB activity. Variance analysis indicated that the inhibitory effect of trimebutine was significantly greater (p less than 0.05) on LSB activity in the transverse than the descending colon, and that it was absent from the sigmoid colon. The results suggest that trimebutine selectively inhibits the propulsive activity of the proximal two thirds of the colon in IBS patients, and that this effect cannot entirely explain its therapeutic efficacy in IBS. PMID:3987797

  13. Brain activation induced by psychological stress in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Castro, M N; Villarreal, M F; Bolotinsky, N; Papávero, E; Goldschmidt, M G; Costanzo, E Y; Drucaroff, L; Wainsztein, A; de Achával, D; Pahissa, J; Bär, K-J; Nemeroff, C B; Guinjoan, S M

    2015-10-01

    Environmental influences are critical for the expression of genes putatively related to the behavioral and cognitive phenotypes of schizophrenia. Among such factors, psychosocial stress has been proposed to play a major role in the expression of symptoms. However, it is unsettled how stress interacts with pathophysiological pathways to produce the disease. We studied 21 patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy controls aged 18 to 50years with 3T-fMRI, in which a period of 6min of resting state acquisition was followed by a block design, with three blocks of 1-min control-task, 1-min stress-task and 1-min rest after-task. Self-report of stress and PANSS were measured. Limbic structures were activated in schizophrenia patients by simple tasks and remained active during, and shortly after stress. In controls, stress-related brain activation was more time-focused, and restricted to the stressful task itself. Negative symptom severity was inversely related to activation of anterior cingulum and orbitofrontal cortex. Results might represent the neurobiological aspect of hyper-reactivity to normal stressful situations previously described in schizophrenia, thus providing evidence on the involvement of limbic areas in the response to stress in schizophrenia. Patients present a pattern of persistent limbic activation probably contributing to hypervigilance and subsequent psychotic thought distortions. PMID:26190301

  14. Selecting patients with severe sepsis for drotrecogin alfa (activated) therapy.

    PubMed

    Sollet, Jean-Pierre; Garber, Gary E

    2002-12-01

    Selecting patients for drotrecogin alfa (activated) (Xigris; Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN) therapy outside of a clinical trial setting requires knowledge of the rationale that led the Protein C Worldwide Evaluation in Severe Sepsis (PROWESS) investigators to select the various entry criteria for the trial. Enrollment criteria for the study included a known or suspected infection, presence of at least 3 systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, and dysfunction of > or =1 organ or system. The infection criteria used in PROWESS were designed to be straightforward and were based on common clinical and radiological data. Although previous definitions of sepsis required only 2 SIRS criteria, the PROWESS trial investigators required the presence of > or =3 SIRS criteria to improve the sensitivity and specificity of these criteria for the diagnosis of sepsis. Acute organ dysfunction, the diagnostic criterion for severe sepsis, was used to define the study population because it identifies patients at significant risk of death. Characteristics of drotrecogin alfa (activated)-treated patients, including infection, modified SIRS criteria, and organ dysfunction, were similar to those of the placebo group and the general sepsis population. Proper clinical judgment and use of the these inclusion criteria as a guide will help clinicians select and treat sepsis patients with drotrecogin alfa (activated). PMID:12521613

  15. Barriers associated with reduced physical activity in COPD patients*

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Priscila Batista; Stelmach, Rafael; Carvalho, Celso Ricardo Fernandes; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Carvalho-Pinto, Regina Maria; Cukier, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of COPD patients to perform activities of daily living (ADL); to identify barriers that prevent these individuals from performing ADL; and to correlate those barriers with dyspnea severity, six-minute walk test (6MWT), and an ADL limitation score. METHODS: In COPD patients and healthy, age-matched controls, the number of steps, the distance walked, and walking time were recorded with a triaxial accelerometer, for seven consecutive days. A questionnaire regarding perceived barriers and the London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL) scale were used in order to identify the factors that prevent the performance of ADL. The severity of dyspnea was assessed with two scales, whereas submaximal exercise capacity was determined on the basis of the 6MWT. RESULTS: We evaluated 40 COPD patients and 40 controls. In comparison with the control values, the mean walk time was significantly shorter for COPD patients (68.5 ± 25.8 min/day vs. 105.2 ± 49.4 min/day; p < 0.001), as was the distance walked (3.9 ± 1.9 km/day vs. 6.4 ± 3.2 km/day; p < 0.001). The COPD patients also walked fewer steps/day. The most common self-reported barriers to performing ADL were lack of infrastructure, social influences, and lack of willpower. The 6MWT distance correlated with the results obtained with the accelerometer but not with the LCADL scale results. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COPD are less active than are healthy adults of a comparable age. Physical inactivity and the barriers to performing ADL have immediate implications for clinical practice, calling for early intervention measures. PMID:25410838

  16. Fecal Microbial Composition of Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease Patients in Remission and Subsequent Exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Edgar S.; Jonkers, Daisy M. A. E.; Savelkoul, Paul H.; Masclee, Ad A.; Pierik, Marieke J.; Penders, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited studies have examined the intestinal microbiota composition in relation to changes in disease course of IBD over time. We aimed to study prospectively the fecal microbiota in IBD patients developing an exacerbation during follow-up. Design Fecal samples from 10 Crohn’s disease (CD) and 9 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients during remission and subsequent exacerbation were included. Active disease was determined by colonoscopy and/or fecal calprotectine levels. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy, antibiotic use, enema use and/or medication changes between consecutive samples. The microbial composition was assessed by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Results After quality control, 6,194–11,030 sequences per sample were available for analysis. Patient-specific shifts in bacterial composition and diversity were observed during exacerbation compared to remission, but overarching shifts within UC or CD were not observed. Changes in the bacterial community composition between remission and exacerbation as assessed by Bray-Curtis dissimilarity, were significantly larger in CD versus UC patients (0.59 vs. 0.42, respectively; p = 0.025). Thiopurine use was found to be a significant cause of clustering as shown by Principal Coordinate Analysis and was associated with decreases in bacterial richness (Choa1 501.2 vs. 847.6 in non-users; p<0.001) and diversity (Shannon index: 5.13 vs. 6.78, respectively; p<0.01). Conclusion Shifts in microbial composition in IBD patients with changing disease activity over time seem to be patient-specific, and are more pronounced in CD than in UC patients. Furthermore, thiopurine use was found to be associated with the microbial composition and diversity, and should be considered when studying the intestinal microbiota in relation to disease course. PMID:24608638

  17. Vinflunine treatment in patients with metastatic urothelial cancer: A Nordic retrospective multicenter analysis

    PubMed Central

    Holmsten, Karin; Dohn, Line; Jensen, Niels Viggo; Shah, Carl-Henrik; Jäderling, Fredrik; Pappot, Helle; Ullén, Anders

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, vinflunine was introduced as a second-line treatment to be used after the failure of platinum therapy in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC). The present study investigated the administered vinflunine to patients with mUC in standard clinical practice with the aim of evaluating treatment patterns, response, survival parameters and side-effects. Data were collected retrospectively from the first 100 mUC patients treated with vinflunine at three Nordic cancer centers associated with the Nordic Urothelial Cancer Oncology Group. The overall response rate was 23% and complete response was observed in one patient. The median progression-free survival (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) were 2.8 (range, 0.5–34.3) and 6.3 (range, 0.3–39.7) months, respectively. An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) of 2 was present in 20% of the patients, and those patients exhibited significantly shorter mOS (4.1 vs. 7.0 months, P=0.001) and a significantly higher degree of grade 3/4 toxicity (P=0.026) compared with ECOG PS 0–1 patients. Furthermore, patients without visceral metastases had significantly longer mOS than patients with visceral metastases (10.6 vs. 6.0 months, P=0.008). The median number of cycles of vinflunine was 3 (range, 1–28). The current data confirms that vinflunine is an active agent for second-line treatment in an unselected clinical cohort of patients with mUC. ECOG PS and presence of visceral metastases were significant prognostic parameters. In particular, patients with ECOG PS 2 receiving vinflunine had a shorter mOS and a higher frequency of severe toxicity, and, thus, should be treated with caution. Furthermore, the present study observed large inter-individual differences in radiological response and OS, indicating the need for further development of improved patient selection tools to optimize vinflunine treatment in platinum-refractory mUC patients. PMID:27446429

  18. Asymmetric pallidal neuronal activity in patients with cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    Moll, Christian K E; Galindo-Leon, Edgar; Sharott, Andrew; Gulberti, Alessandro; Buhmann, Carsten; Koeppen, Johannes A; Biermann, Maxine; Bäumer, Tobias; Zittel, Simone; Westphal, Manfred; Gerloff, Christian; Hamel, Wolfgang; Münchau, Alexander; Engel, Andreas K

    2014-01-01

    The origin of asymmetric clinical manifestation of symptoms in patients suffering from cervical dystonia (CD) is hitherto poorly understood. Dysregulated neuronal activity in the basal ganglia has been suggested to have a role in the pathophysiology of CD. Here, we re-assessed the question to what extent relative changes occur in the direct vs. indirect basal ganglia pathway in CD, whether these circuit changes are lateralized, and how these alterations relate to CD symptoms. To this end, we recorded ongoing single cell and local field potential (LFP) activity from the external (GPe) and internal pallidal segment (GPi) of 13 CD patients undergoing microelectrode-guided stereotactic surgery for deep brain stimulation in the GPi. We compared pallidal recordings from CD patients operated under local anaesthesia (LA) with those obtained in CD patients operated under general anaesthesia (GA). In awake patients, mean GPe discharge rate (52 Hz) was lower than that of GPi (72 Hz). Mean GPi discharge ipsilateral to the side of head turning was higher than contralateral and correlated with torticollis symptom severity. Lateralized differences were absent at the level of the GPe and in recordings from patients operated under GA. Furthermore, in the GPi of CD patients there was a subpopulation of theta-oscillatory cells with unique bursting characteristics. Power and coherence of GPe- and GPi-LFPs were dominated by a theta peak and also exhibited band-specific interhemispheric differences. Strong cross-frequency coupling of low-gamma amplitude to theta phase was a feature of pallidal LFPs recorded under LA, but not GA. These results indicate that CD is associated with an asymmetric pallidal outflow. Based on the finding of symmetric neuronal discharges in the GPe, we propose that an imbalanced interhemispheric direct pathway gain may be involved in CD pathophysiology. PMID:24574981

  19. Basophil Activation Test with Food Additives in Chronic Urticaria Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up

    2014-01-01

    The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the tested food additives. One patient responded to monosodium glutamate, showing 18.7% of CD203c-positive basophils. Another patient showed a positive BAT result to sodium benzoate. Both patients had clinical correlations with the agents, which were partly determined by elimination diets. The present study suggested that at least a small proportion of patients with CU had symptoms associated with food additives. The results may suggest the potential utility of the BAT to identity the role of food additives in CU. PMID:24527415

  20. Step activity monitoring in lumbar stenosis patients undergoing decompressive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Tim; Winter, Corinna; Brandes, Mirko; Hackenberg, Lars; Wassmann, Hansdetlef; Liem, Dennis; Rosenbaum, Dieter; Bullmann, Viola

    2010-01-01

    Symptomatic degenerative central lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a frequent indication for decompressive spinal surgery, to reduce spinal claudication. No data are as yet available on the effect of surgery on the level of activity measured with objective long-term monitoring. The aim of this prospective, controlled study was to objectively quantify the level of activity in central LSS patients before and after surgery, using a continuous measurement device. The objective data were correlated with subjective clinical results and the radiographic degree of stenosis. Forty-seven patients with central LSS and typical spinal claudication scheduled for surgery were included. The level of activity (number of gait cycles) was quantified for 7 consecutive days using the StepWatch Activity Monitor (SAM). Visual analogue scales (VAS) for back and leg pain, Oswestry disability index and Roland–Morris score were used to assess the patients’ clinical status. The patients were investigated before surgery and 3 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, the radiographic extent of central LSS was measured digitally on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography. The following results were found preoperatively: 3,578 gait cycles/day, VAS for back pain 5.7 and for leg pain 6.5. Three months after surgery, the patients showed improvement: 4,145 gait cycles/day, VAS for back pain 4.0 and for leg pain 3.0. Twelve months after surgery, the improvement continued: 4,335 gait cycles/day, VAS for back pain 4.1 and for leg pain 3.3. The clinical results and SAM results showed significant improvement when preoperative data were compared with data 3 and 12 months after surgery. The results 12 months after surgery did not differ significantly from those 3 months after surgery. The level of activity correlated significantly with the degree of leg pain. The mean cross-sectional area of the spinal canal at the central LSS was 94 mm2. The radiographic results did not

  1. Oxidative Stress Markers in Intestinal Mucosa of Tunisian Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bouzid, Dorra; Gargouri, Bochra; Mansour, Riadh Ben; Amouri, Ali; Tahri, Nabil; Lassoued, Saloua; Masmoudi, Hatem

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), Crohn's disease (CrD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders. The precise etiology of IBD remains unclear, and it is thought that interactions among various factors, including, genetic factors, the host immune system and environmental factors, cause disruption of intestinal homeostasis, leading to dysregulated inflammatory responses of the gut. As inflammation is intimately related to formation of reactive intermediates, including, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress has been proposed as a mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of IBD. The purpose of this study is to examine the lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and anti-oxidative profile in Tunisian IBD. Materials and Methods: Malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes (CD), protein thiol levels, as well as the catalase (CAT) activity were evaluated in intestinal biopsies of 17 patients affected by IBD (12 CrD and 5 UC) and 12 healthy control individuals. Results: Oxidative stress was confirmed in these two types of disease biopsies as compared to controls. MDA and CD levels were significantly increased in both UC and CrD patients’ biopsies as compared to controls’ biopsies (P < 0.001). CAT activity was similar in UC and CrD biopsies’ and was not significantly increased in IBD patients’ biopsies compared with controls’ biopsies (P > 0.05). Anon-significant decrease in thiol (SH) level was observed in both UC and CrD patients’ biopsies compared with controls’ biopsies (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Increased levels of MDA and CD in IBD patients’ biopsies underline the implication of oxidative stress in the physiopathology of IBD. PMID:23680711

  2. Patient Participation and Physical Activity during Rehabilitation and Future Functional Outcomes in Patients following Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Lenze, Eric J.; Munin, Michael C.; Harrison, Christopher C; Brach, Jennifer S

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined the association between physical activity recorded by Actigraphy during therapy sessions (therapy) to therapist rated patient participation and self reported future functional outcomes. We hypothesized those participants who were more active during rehab would have higher participation scores and better functional outcomes following hip fracture compared to those who were less active. Design Longitudinal study with 3 and 6 month follow-up. Setting Participants were recruited from skilled nursing (SN) and inpatient rehabilitation (IR) facilities. Participants Participants included 18 community dwelling older adults admitted to SN or IR facilities after hip fracture. Participants were included if they were ≥ 60 years of age and ambulatory with or without assistance from a device or another person. Intervention Not Applicable Main Outcome Measure Physical activity was quantified during participants’ rehab using the Actigraph accelerometer worn consecutively over 5 days. The Pittsburgh Participation Rating Scale was used to quantify patient participation during their inpatient therapy sessions. Self reported functional outcomes were measured by the Hip Fracture Functional Recovery Scale (HFRS) at baseline, 3 and 6 months following fracture. Results Participants with higher Actigraphy counts during rehab were ranked by their therapists as having excellent participation compared to those who were less active. Participants who were more active reported better functional abilities at both 3 and 6 month time points and achieved 78% and 91% recovery of self reported pre-fracture function compared to those who were less active achieving 64% and 73% recovery. Conclusion Actigraphy provides an objective measure of physical activity exhibiting predictive validity for future functional outcomes and concurrent validity against patient participation in patients after hip fracture. PMID:19345777

  3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients' Participation, Attitude and Preferences Toward Exercise.

    PubMed

    Chae, J; Yang, H I; Kim, B; Park, S J; Jeon, J Y

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the level of exercise participation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to investigate their intention, attitude and preference toward exercise. The data of 158 IBD patients that participated in a self-administered survey at Severance Hospital between March 2013 and November 2013 were included in this cross sectional and descriptive analysis. Questionnaires included 3 sections to determine the IBD patient's current exercise participation, attitude toward exercise, and exercise preferences. This study investigated IBD patients both collectively, and according to their specific disease: Crohn's disease (CD) (n=62), Ulcerative colitis (UC) (n=73) and intestinal Behçet's disease (BD) (n=23). IBD patients currently participate in 103 min/week of exercise including mild, moderate and strenuous intensity, with BD patients being the least active, followed by CD, and UC being most active. The majority of IBD patients found exercise to be pleasant (57.7%), beneficial (80.5%), sensible (71.8%), uplifting (61%) and good (70.5%), and 44.4% found exercise to be enjoyable. This study shows the IBD patients' participation, attitude and preferences toward exercise and provides much needed information for the development of evidence based exercise programs that are specific to IBD. PMID:27191208

  4. Predictors of Abdominal Pain in Depressed Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Srinath, Arvind I.; Goyal, Alka; Zimmerman, Lori A.; Newara, Melissa C.; Kirshner, Margaret A.; McCarthy, F. Nicole; Keljo, David; Binion, David; Bousvaros, Athos; DeMaso, David R.; Youk, Ada; Szigethy, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have high rates of abdominal pain. The study aims were to (1) Evaluate biological and psychological correlates of abdominal pain in depressed youth with IBD, (2) Determine predictors of abdominal pain in Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods 765 patients ages 9–17 with IBD seen over 3 years at two sites were screened for depression. Depressed youth completed comprehensive assessments for abdominal pain, psychological (depression and anxiety), and biological (IBD-related, through disease activity indices and laboratory values) realms. Results 217 patients with IBD (161 CD, 56 UC) were depressed. 163 (120 CD, 43 UC) patients had complete API scores. In CD, abdominal pain was associated with depression (r=0.33; p<0.001), diarrhea (r=0.34; p=0.001), ESR (r=0.22; p=0.02), low albumin (r=0.24; p=.01), weight loss (r=0.33; p=0.001), and abdominal tenderness (r=0.38, p=0.002). A multivariate model with these significant correlates represented 32% of the variance in pain. Only depression (p=0.03), weight loss (p=0.04), and abdominal tenderness (p=0.01) predicted pain for CD patients. In UC, pain was associated with depression (r=0.46; p=0.002) and nocturnal stools (r=.32; p=.046). In the multivariate model with these significant correlates 23% of the variance was explained, and only depression (p=0.02) predicted pain. Conclusions The psychological state of pediatric patients with IBD may increase the sensitivity to abdominal pain. Thus, screening for and treating comorbid depression may prevent excessive medical testing and unnecessary escalation of IBD medications. PMID:24983975

  5. Sexual Activity and Heart Patients: A Contemporary Perspective.

    PubMed

    Stein, Ricardo; Sardinha, Aline; Araújo, Claudio Gil S

    2016-04-01

    Sexual activity (SA) encompasses several behaviors such as kissing (Ki), touching (T), oral (O) stimulation, masturbation (M), and vaginal/anal intercourse (I). The acronym KiTOMI is proposed here to represent these behaviors. SA, particularly coitus, is a major aspect of health-related quality of life and is often considered the most pleasant and rewarding exercise performed during an entire lifetime. Although several studies have been conducted on sexuality, relatively limited information is available regarding SA in patients with heart disease. Moreover, the level of evidence of this limited information is nearly always B or C. This article provides a comprehensive and updated review of the relevant literature and offers evidence and expert-based practical messages regarding SA in patients with heart disease. Considering the rationale for exercise prescription, SA is typically well tolerated by most clinically stable patients with heart disease. Even in more debilitated and sicker individuals, KiT activities would most likely be feasible and desirable. The absolute risk of major adverse cardiovascular events during SA is typically very low. Even lower death rates have been reported for specific groups, such as women in general, aerobically fit men, and asymptomatic young adults with congenital heart disease. Finally, we emphasize the relevance of sexual counselling for patients and their partners, including the proper use of medications to treat erectile dysfunction. Counselled patients will be reassured and adequately informed regarding how to gradually resume habitual SA after a major cardiac event or procedure, starting with KiT and progressively advancing to KiTOM until all KiTOMI activities are allowed. PMID:26690295

  6. Bandwidth and gain enhancement of optically transparent 60-GHz CPW-fed antenna by using BSIS-UC-EBG structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Tian, Huiping; Guo, Zheng; Yang, Daquan; Zhou, Jian; Ji, Yuefeng

    2015-06-01

    A method in terms of bandwidth and gain enhancement is presented for optically transparent coplanar waveguide fed (CPW-Fed) antenna, which supports unlicensed 60 GHz band (57-66 GHz) applications. The original antenna and mesh antenna in [8] were designed on a transparent material that is made of a 0.2-mm-thick fused silica 7980 Corning substrate (ɛr: 3.8 and tan δ: 0.0001). However, the peak gains of -5.3 and -5.4 dBi at 60 GHz of those antennas can be further improved. Thus, in this paper, a novel bidirectional symmetric I-shaped slot uniplanar compact electromagnetic band-gap (BSIS-UC-EBG) structure with a reflection phase band of 58.0-62.1 GHz is proposed to improve antenna performance. Based on this BSIS-UC-EBG structure, both transparent BSIS-UC-EBG antenna and transparent mesh BSIS-UC-EBG antenna with enhanced properties are presented and discussed. The analysis results show that the impedance bandwidth (the peak gain) of transparent BSIS-UC-EBG antenna and transparent mesh BSIS-UC-EBG antenna are enhanced to 36.6% (4.7 dBi) and 44.7% (5.8 dBi), respectively. In addition, we also discuss the comparison of radiation patterns at 60 GHz, and the results illustrate that the radiation patterns are basically identical.

  7. The Effect of a Patient Portal With Electronic Messaging on Patient Activation Among Chronically Ill Patients: Controlled Before-and-After Study

    PubMed Central

    Linna, Miika; Rönkkö, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that providing patients with access to their medical records and secure messaging with health care professionals improves health outcomes in chronic care by encouraging and activating patients to manage their own condition. Objectives The aim was to evaluate the effect of access to a patient portal on patient activation among chronically ill patients. Further, the relationship between temporal proximity of a severe diagnosis and patient activation were assessed. Methods A total of 876 chronically ill patients from public primary care were allocated to either an intervention group receiving immediate access to a patient portal that included their medical records, care plan, and secure messaging with a care team, or to a control group receiving usual care. Patient Activation Measure (PAM) at baseline and at 6-month follow-up was obtained from 80 patients in the intervention group and 57 patients in the control group; thus, a total of 137 patients were included in the final analysis. Results No significant effect of access to patient portal on patient activation was detected in this study (F 1,133=1.87, P=.17, η2=0.01). Patients starting at a lower level of activation demonstrated greater positive change in activation compared to patients starting at higher levels of activation in both the intervention and control groups. Further, patients diagnosed with a severe diagnosis during the intervention showed greater positive change in patient activation compared to patients whose last severe diagnosis was made more than 2 years ago. The results also suggest that the intervention had greatest effect on patients starting at the highest level of patient activation (difference in change of patient activation=4.82, P=.13), and among patients diagnosed within a year of the intervention (difference in change of patient activation=7.65, P=.12). Conclusions Time since last severe diagnosis and patient activation at baseline may affect changes in

  8. Evaluation of macrophage antiviral activity in patients affected by neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Merendino, R A; Iannello, D; Arena, A; Bonina, L; Greco, V; Mesiti, M; Chillemi, S; Mastroeni, P

    1988-01-01

    The intrinsic antiviral activity of macrophages has been studied in healthy donors and in patients affected by breast cancer and melanoma. In vitro differentiated macrophages from blood-derived monocytes were infected with measles virus, herpes simplex virus type 2 and adenovirus 17. The challenge was carried out with different multiplicities of infection and the synthesis of virus was tested by evaluating the single cycle growth curve in 24 h. The results obtained show that the restriction of virus infectivity by macrophages is strongly influenced by the multiplicity of infection. This was particularly evident with the adenovirus 17. Moreover, macrophages from patients with melanoma and breast cancer showed an impairment of the intrinsic antiviral activity in comparison with normal subjects. PMID:2842553

  9. Paraoxonase Activity and Oxidative Status in Patients with Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Akyüz, Servet; Somuk, Battal Tahsin; Soyalic, Harun; Yılmaz, Beyhan; Taskin, Abdullah; Bilinc, Hasan; Aksoy, Nurten

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate serum paraoxanase-1 (PON) activity, total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), and the oxidative stress index (OSI) in tinnitus; and to compare the results with data from healthy subjects. Subjects and Methods A total of 114 subjects-54 patients with tinnitus and 60 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Serum PON activity, TOS, TAS, and OSI levels were measured. Results In the tinnitus group, TAS, and PON were significantly lower than in the control group (p<0.001). However, the TOS, and OSI levels were significantly higher in the tinnitus group than in the control group (p<0.001). Conclusions According to the data obtained from the present study, patients with tinnitus were exposed to potent oxidative stress. Oxidative stress may be the key contributing factor to the pathogenesis of tinnitus. PMID:27144229

  10. Role and mechanisms of action of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 in the maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis patients: An update

    PubMed Central

    Scaldaferri, Franco; Gerardi, Viviana; Mangiola, Francesca; Lopetuso, Loris Riccardo; Pizzoferrato, Marco; Petito, Valentina; Papa, Alfredo; Stojanovic, Jovana; Poscia, Andrea; Cammarota, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease, whose etiology is still unclear. Its pathogenesis involves an interaction between genetic factors, immune response and the “forgotten organ”, Gut Microbiota. Several studies have been conducted to assess the role of antibiotics and probiotics as additional or alternative therapies for Ulcerative Colitis. Escherichia coli Nissle (EcN) is a nonpathogenic Gram-negative strain isolated in 1917 by Alfred Nissle and it is the active component of microbial drug Mutaflor® (Ardeypharm GmbH, Herdecke, Germany and EcN, Cadigroup, In Italy) used in many gastrointestinal disorder including diarrhea, uncomplicated diverticular disease and UC. It is the only probiotic recommended in ECCO guidelines as effective alternative to mesalazine in maintenance of remission in UC patients. In this review we propose an update on the role of EcN 1917 in maintenance of remission in UC patients, including data about efficacy and safety. Further studies may be helpful for this subject to further the full use of potential of EcN. PMID:27350728

  11. Role and mechanisms of action of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 in the maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis patients: An update.

    PubMed

    Scaldaferri, Franco; Gerardi, Viviana; Mangiola, Francesca; Lopetuso, Loris Riccardo; Pizzoferrato, Marco; Petito, Valentina; Papa, Alfredo; Stojanovic, Jovana; Poscia, Andrea; Cammarota, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2016-06-28

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease, whose etiology is still unclear. Its pathogenesis involves an interaction between genetic factors, immune response and the "forgotten organ", Gut Microbiota. Several studies have been conducted to assess the role of antibiotics and probiotics as additional or alternative therapies for Ulcerative Colitis. Escherichia coli Nissle (EcN) is a nonpathogenic Gram-negative strain isolated in 1917 by Alfred Nissle and it is the active component of microbial drug Mutaflor(®) (Ardeypharm GmbH, Herdecke, Germany and EcN, Cadigroup, In Italy) used in many gastrointestinal disorder including diarrhea, uncomplicated diverticular disease and UC. It is the only probiotic recommended in ECCO guidelines as effective alternative to mesalazine in maintenance of remission in UC patients. In this review we propose an update on the role of EcN 1917 in maintenance of remission in UC patients, including data about efficacy and safety. Further studies may be helpful for this subject to further the full use of potential of EcN. PMID:27350728

  12. Factors affecting daily activities of patients with cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Zhou, Cheng-ye; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yun-feng; Zou, Chang-lin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke is the leading cause of death and long-term disability. This study was undertaken to investigate the factors influencing daily activities of patients with cerebral infarction so as to take interventional measures earlier to improve their daily activities. METHODS: A total of 149 patients with first-episode cerebral infarction were recruited into this prospective study. They were admitted to the Encephalopathy Center, Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College in Zhejiang Province from August 2008 to December 2008. The baseline characteristics of the patients and cerebral infarction risk factors on the first day of admission were recorded. White blood cell (WBC) count, plasma glucose (PG), and many others of laboratory targets were collected in the next morning. Barthel index (BI) was calculated at 2 weeks and 3 months respectively after onset of the disease at the outpatient clinic or by telephone call. Lung infection, urinary tract infection and atrial fibrillation if any were recorded on admission. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and the GCS scores were recorded within 24 hours on and after admission, at the second week, and at the third month after the onset of cerebral infarction respectively. RESULTS: The factors of BI at 2 weeks and 3 months after onset were the initial PG level, WBC count and initial NIHSS scores. Besides, urinary tract infection on admission was also the factor for BI at 3 months. CONCLUSION: Active measures should be taken to control these factors to improve the daily activities of patients with cerebral infarction. PMID:25214953

  13. Elastic Scattering Spectroscopy as an Optical Marker of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity and Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Diaz, Eladio; Atkinson, Christopher; Jepeal, Lisa I.; Berg, Adam; Huang, Christopher S.; Cerda, Sandra R.; O’Brien, Michael J.; Bigio, Irving J.; Farraye, Francis A.; Singh, Satish K.

    2016-01-01

    Background In 10% to 15% of individuals, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is difficult to classify as ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn’s disease (CD). Previous work has demonstrated that probe-based elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS) can produce spectra, informed by parameters like tissue ultrastructure and hemoglobin content, capable of differentiating pathologies. This study investigates whether ESS is an in vivo optical biomarker for the presence, activity, and type of IBD in the colon. Methods Pilot study, a retrospective data analysis. ESS spectra of endoscopically normal and inflamed colon were obtained from 48 patients with IBD and 46 non-IBD controls. Measurements from patients with IBD were categorized as CD or UC based on clinical diagnosis. Spectra were analyzed using high-dimensional methods. Leave-one-patient-out cross-validation was used to obtain diagnostic performance estimates. Results Patients with IBD were distinguishable from non-IBD controls with a sensitivity of 0.93 and specificity of 0.91 based on readings from endoscopically normal mucosa, and 0.94 and 0.93 from inflamed mucosa. In patients with IBD, histologically normal and inflamed colon were distinguishable with per-class accuracies of 0.83 and 0.89, respectively; histologically normal from inactive inflammation with accuracies of 0.73 and 0.89, respectively; and inactive from active colitis with accuracies of 0.87 and 0.84, respectively. The diagnosis of CD versus UC was made with per-class accuracies of 0.92 and 0.87 in normal and 0.87 and 0.85 in inflamed mucosa, respectively. Conclusions ESS, a simple, low-cost clinically friendly optical biopsy modality, has the potential to enhance the endoscopic assessment of IBD and its activity in real time and may help to distinguish CD from UC. PMID:24798637

  14. Therapeutic Efficacy of pH-Dependent Release Formulation of Mesalazine on Active Ulcerative Colitis Resistant to Time-Dependent Release Formulation: Analysis of Fecal Calprotectin Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Kousaku; Ishihara, Shunji; Yuki, Takafumi; Onishi, Koji; Kushiyama, Yoshinori; Miyaoka, Youichi; Yuki, Mika; Komazawa, Yoshinori; Tanimura, Takashi; Sonoyama, Hiroki; Tada, Yasumasa; Kusunoki, Ryusaku; Fukuba, Nobuhiko; Oshima, Naoki; Moriyama, Ichiro; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Few reports have compared the clinical efficacy of a pH-dependent release formulation of mesalazine (pH-5-ASA) with a time-dependent release formulation (time-5-ASA). We examined whether pH-5-ASA is effective for active ulcerative colitis (UC) in patients resistant to time-5-ASA. Methods. We retrospectively and prospectively analyzed the efficacy of pH-5-ASA in mildly to moderately active UC patients in whom time-5-ASA did not successfully induce or maintain remission. The clinical efficacy of pH-5-ASA was assessed by clinical activity index (CAI) before and after switching from time-5-ASA. In addition, the efficacy of pH-5-ASA on mucosal healing (MH) was evaluated in a prospective manner by measuring fecal calprotectin concentration. Results. Thirty patients were analyzed in a retrospective manner. CAI was significantly reduced at both 4 and 8 weeks after switching to pH-5-ASA. In the prospective study (n = 14), administration of pH-5-ASA also significantly reduced CAI scores at 4 and 8 weeks in these patients who were resistant to time-5-ASA. In addition, fecal calprotectin concentration was significantly decreased along with improvement in CAI after switching to pH-5-ASA. Conclusions. Our results suggest that pH-5-ASA has clinical efficacy for mildly to moderately active patients with UC in whom time-5-ASA did not successfully induce or maintain remission. PMID:25478568

  15. Health Literacy and Education as Mediators of Racial Disparities in Patient Activation Within an Elderly Patient Cohort.

    PubMed

    Eneanya, Nwamaka D; Winter, Michael; Cabral, Howard; Waite, Katherine; Henault, Lori; Bickmore, Timothy; Hanchate, Amresh; Wolf, Michael; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    The Patient Activation Measure (PAM) assesses facets of patient engagement to identify proactive health behaviors and is an important predictor of health outcomes. Health literacy and education are also important for patient participation and successful navigation of the health care system. Because health literacy, education, and patient activation are associated with racial disparities, we sought to investigate whether health literacy and education would mediate racial differences in patient activation. Participants were 265 older adults who participated in a computer-based exercise interventional study. Health literacy was assessed using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA). Of 210 eligible participants, 72% self-identified as Black and 28% as White. In adjusted analyses, education and health literacy each significantly reduced racial differences in patient activation. These findings are especially important when considering emerging data on the significance of patient activation and new strategies to increase patient engagement. PMID:27524777

  16. Geometric complexity identifies platelet activation in familial hypercholesterolemic patients.

    PubMed

    Bianciardi, Giorgio; Aglianò, Margherita; Volpi, Nila; Stefanutti, Claudia

    2015-06-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), a genetic disease, is associated with a severe incidence of athero-thrombotic events, related, also, to platelet hyperreactivity. A plethora of methods have been proposed to identify those activated circulating platelets, none of these has proved really effective. We need efficient methods to identify the circulating platelet status in order to follow the patients after therapeutic procedures. We propose the use of computerized fractal analysis for an objective characterization of the complexity of circulating platelet shapes observed by means of transmission electron microscopy in order to characterize the in vivo hyperactivated platelets of familial hypercholesterolemic patients, distinguishing them from the in vivo resting platelets of healthy individuals. Platelet boundaries were extracted by means of automatically image analysis. Geometric complexity (fractal dimension, D) by box counting was automatically calculated. The platelet boundary observed by electron microscopy is fractal, the shape of the circulating platelets is more complex in FH (n = 6) than healthy subjects (n = 5, P < 0.01), with 100% correct classification in selected individuals. In vitro activated platelets from healthy subjects show an analogous increase of D. The observed high D in the platelet boundary in FH originates from the in vivo platelet activation. Computerized fractal analysis of platelet shape observed by transmission electron microscopy can provide accurate, quantitative data to study platelet activation in familial hypercholesterolemia and after administration of drugs or other therapeutic procedures. PMID:25877374

  17. Resting state activity in patients with disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Soddu, Andrea; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Demertzi, Athena; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Tshibanda, Luaba; Di, Haibo; Mélanie, Boly; Papa, Michele; Laureys, Steven; Noirhomme, Quentin

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in the study of spontaneous brain activity have demonstrated activity patterns that emerge with no task performance or sensory stimulation; these discoveries hold promise for the study of higher-order associative network functionality. Additionally, such advances are argued to be relevant in pathological states, such as disorders of consciousness (DOC), i.e., coma, vegetative and minimally conscious states. Recent studies on resting state activity in DOC, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques, show that functional connectivity is disrupted in the task-negative or the default mode network. However, the two main approaches employed in the analysis of resting state functional connectivity data (i.e., hypothesis-driven seed-voxel and data-driven independent component analysis) present multiple methodological difficulties, especially in non-collaborative DOC patients. Improvements in motion artifact removal and spatial normalization are needed before fMRI resting state data can be used as proper biomarkers in severe brain injury. However, we anticipate that such developments will boost clinical resting state fMRI studies, allowing for easy and fast acquisitions and ultimately improve the diagnosis and prognosis in the absence of DOC patients' active collaboration in data acquisition. PMID:21693087

  18. Evidence for brain glial activation in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Loggia, Marco L; Chonde, Daniel B; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Arabasz, Grae; Catana, Ciprian; Edwards, Robert R; Hill, Elena; Hsu, Shirley; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Ji, Ru-Rong; Riley, Misha; Wasan, Ajay D; Zürcher, Nicole R; Albrecht, Daniel S; Vangel, Mark G; Rosen, Bruce R; Napadow, Vitaly; Hooker, Jacob M

    2015-03-01

    Although substantial evidence has established that microglia and astrocytes play a key role in the establishment and maintenance of persistent pain in animal models, the role of glial cells in human pain disorders remains unknown. Here, using the novel technology of integrated positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging and the recently developed radioligand (11)C-PBR28, we show increased brain levels of the translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of glial activation, in patients with chronic low back pain. As the Ala147Thr polymorphism in the TSPO gene affects binding affinity for (11)C-PBR28, nine patient-control pairs were identified from a larger sample of subjects screened and genotyped, and compared in a matched-pairs design, in which each patient was matched to a TSPO polymorphism-, age- and sex-matched control subject (seven Ala/Ala and two Ala/Thr, five males and four females in each group; median age difference: 1 year; age range: 29-63 for patients and 28-65 for controls). Standardized uptake values normalized to whole brain were significantly higher in patients than controls in multiple brain regions, including thalamus and the putative somatosensory representations of the lumbar spine and leg. The thalamic levels of TSPO were negatively correlated with clinical pain and circulating levels of the proinflammatory citokine interleukin-6, suggesting that TSPO expression exerts pain-protective/anti-inflammatory effects in humans, as predicted by animal studies. Given the putative role of activated glia in the establishment and or maintenance of persistent pain, the present findings offer clinical implications that may serve to guide future studies of the pathophysiology and management of a variety of persistent pain conditions. PMID:25582579

  19. q-Painlevé VI Equation Arising from q-UC Hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Teruhisa; Masuda, Tetsu

    2006-03-01

    We study the q-difference analogue of the sixth Painlevé equation ( q- P VI) by means of tau functions associated with the affine Weyl group of type D 5. We prove that a solution of q- P VI coincides with a self-similar solution of the q-UC hierarchy. As a consequence, we obtain in particular algebraic solutions of q- P VI in terms of the universal character which is a generalization of the Schur polynomial attached to a pair of partitions.

  20. Strong Earthquake Motion Estimates for Three Sites on the U.C. Riverside Campus

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, R.; Elgamal, A.; Heuze, F.; Lai, T.; Lavalle, D.; Lawrence, B.; Liu, P.C.; Matesic, L.; Park, S.; Riemar, M.; Steidl, J.; Vucetic, M.; Wagoner, J.; Yang, Z.

    2000-11-01

    The approach of the Campus Earthquake Program (CEP) is to combine the substantial expertise that exists within the UC system in geology, seismology, and geotechnical engineering, to estimate the earthquake strong motion exposure of UC facilities. These estimates draw upon recent advances in hazard assessment, seismic wave propagation modeling in rocks and soils, and dynamic soil testing. The UC campuses currently chosen for application of our integrated methodology are Riverside, San Diego, and Santa Barbara. The procedure starts with the identification of possible earthquake sources in the region and the determination of the most critical fault(s) related to earthquake exposure of the campus. Combined geological, geophysical, and geotechnical studies are then conducted to characterize each campus with specific focus on the location of particular target buildings of special interest to the campus administrators. We drill and geophysically log deep boreholes next to the target structure, to provide direct in-situ measurements of subsurface material properties, and to install uphole and downhole 3-component seismic sensors capable of recording both weak and strong motions. The boreholes provide access below the soil layers, to deeper materials that have relatively high seismic shear-wave velocities. Analyses of conjugate downhole and uphole records provide a basis for optimizing the representation of the low-strain response of the sites. Earthquake rupture scenarios of identified causative faults are combined with the earthquake records and with nonlinear soil models to provide site-specific estimates of strong motions at the selected target locations. The predicted ground motions are shared with the UC consultants, so that they can be used as input to the dynamic analysis of the buildings. Thus, for each campus targeted by the CEP project, the strong motion studies consist of two phases, Phase 1--initial source and site characterization, drilling, geophysical

  1. Strong earthquake motion estimates for three sites on the U.C. San Diego campus

    SciTech Connect

    Day, S; Doroudian, M; Elgamal, A; Gonzales, S; Heuze, F; Lai, T; Minster, B; Oglesby, D; Riemer, M; Vernon, F; Vucetic, M; Wagoner, J; Yang, Z

    2002-05-07

    The approach of the Campus Earthquake Program (CEP) is to combine the substantial expertise that exists within the UC system in geology, seismology, and geotechnical engineering, to estimate the earthquake strong motion exposure of UC facilities. These estimates draw upon recent advances in hazard assessment, seismic wave propagation modeling in rocks and soils, and dynamic soil testing. The UC campuses currently chosen for application of our integrated methodology are Riverside, San Diego, and Santa Barbara. The procedure starts with the identification of possible earthquake sources in the region and the determination of the most critical fault(s) related to earthquake exposure of the campus. Combined geological, geophysical, and geotechnical studies are then conducted to characterize each campus with specific focus on the location of particular target buildings of special interest to the campus administrators. We drill, sample, and geophysically log deep boreholes next to the target structure, to provide direct in-situ measurements of subsurface material properties, and to install uphole and downhole 3-component seismic sensors capable of recording both weak and strong motions. The boreholes provide access below the soil layers, to deeper materials that have relatively high seismic shear-wave velocities. Analyses of conjugate downhole and uphole records provide a basis for optimizing the representation of the low-strain response of the sites. Earthquake rupture scenarios of identified causative faults are combined with the earthquake records and with nonlinear soil models to provide site-specific estimates of strong motions at the selected target locations. The predicted ground motions are shared with the UC consultants, so that they can be used as input to the dynamic analysis of the buildings. Thus, for each campus targeted by the CEP project, the strong motion studies consist of two phases, Phase 1--initial source and site characterization, drilling

  2. Evidence for altered opioid activity in patients with cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Lissoni, P.; Barni, S.; Paolorossi, F.; Crispino, S.; Rovelli, F.; Ferri, L.; Delitala, G.; Tancini, G.

    1987-01-01

    Endogenous opioid peptides have been shown to be involved in the regulation of tumour growth. At present, however, no data are available about the secretion of opioid peptides in cancer patients. To draw some preliminary conclusions on opioid brain function in human neoplasms, we evaluated hypophyseal hormone responses to the administration of a met-enkephalin analogue, FK 33-824. The study included 14 patients affected by early or advanced neoplastic disease, 12 healthy subjects and 7 patients with a chronic medical illness other than cancer. FK 33-824 was given intravenously at a dose of 0.3 mg. Venous blood samples were collected at zero time, and 30, 60 and 120 min after drug administration. In each sample, PRL, GH, LH, cortisol and beta-endorphin levels were measured by RIA. In all normal subjects and in patients with non-neoplastic chronic illness, FK 33-824 induced a rise in PRL and GH levels, and a decrease in LH, cortisol and beta-endorphin. A normal endocrine response to FK 33-824 was seen in our cancer patient only, while in the other cases with tumour no hormonal changes or a paradoxical response were seen after FK 33-824. Based on the fact that an abnormal endocrine response to FK 33-824 has been described in hypothalamic-pituitary disorders, in which anomalous brain opioid activity has been demonstrated, these results suggest the existence of an altered function of the opioid system in cancer patients, the clinical importance of which remains to be determined. PMID:2963662

  3. Retarded release phosphatidylcholine benefits patients with chronic active ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Stremmel, W; Merle, U; Zahn, A; Autschbach, F; Hinz, U; Ehehalt, R

    2005-01-01

    Background and aims: We examined the hypothesis of an anti-inflammatory effect of phosphatidylcholine in ulcerative colitis. Methods: A phase IIA, double blind, randomised, placebo controlled study was performed in 60 patients with chronic active, non steroid dependent, ulcerative colitis, with a clinical activity index (CAI) of ⩾4. Retarded release phosphatidylcholine rich phospholipids and placebo were administered at a dose of 6 g daily over three months. The primary end point was a change in CAI towards clinical remission (CAI ⩽3) or CAI improvement by ⩾50%. Secondary end points included ⩾50% changes in endoscopic activity index (EAI), histology, and quality of life scores. Results: Induction of clinical remission (CAI ⩽3) as the primary outcome variable was attained by 16 (53%) patients in the phosphatidylcholine treated group compared with three (10%) in the placebo group (p<0.00001). The rate of clinical remission and CAI improvement was 90% in the phosphatidylcholine group and only 10% in the placebo group. A median drop of seven points in the CAI score (70% improvement) was recorded in the phosphatidylcholine group compared with no change in the placebo group. Secondary end point analysis revealed concomitant drops in EAI and histology scores (p = 0.00016 and p = 0.0067 compared with placebo, respectively). Improvement in quality of life was reported by 16 of 29 evaluated patients in the phosphatidylcholine group compared with two of 30 in the placebo group (p = 0.00005). Conclusion: Retarded release oral phosphatidylcholine is effective in alleviating inflammatory activity caused by ulcerative colitis. PMID:15951544

  4. Evidence for brain glial activation in chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Loggia, Marco L.; Chonde, Daniel B.; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Arabasz, Grae; Catana, Ciprian; Edwards, Robert R.; Hill, Elena; Hsu, Shirley; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Ji, Ru-Rong; Riley, Misha; Wasan, Ajay D.; Zürcher, Nicole R.; Albrecht, Daniel S.; Vangel, Mark G.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Napadow, Vitaly; Hooker, Jacob M.

    2015-01-01

    Although substantial evidence has established that microglia and astrocytes play a key role in the establishment and maintenance of persistent pain in animal models, the role of glial cells in human pain disorders remains unknown. Here, using the novel technology of integrated positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging and the recently developed radioligand 11C-PBR28, we show increased brain levels of the translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of glial activation, in patients with chronic low back pain. As the Ala147Thr polymorphism in the TSPO gene affects binding affinity for 11C-PBR28, nine patient–control pairs were identified from a larger sample of subjects screened and genotyped, and compared in a matched-pairs design, in which each patient was matched to a TSPO polymorphism-, age- and sex-matched control subject (seven Ala/Ala and two Ala/Thr, five males and four females in each group; median age difference: 1 year; age range: 29–63 for patients and 28–65 for controls). Standardized uptake values normalized to whole brain were significantly higher in patients than controls in multiple brain regions, including thalamus and the putative somatosensory representations of the lumbar spine and leg. The thalamic levels of TSPO were negatively correlated with clinical pain and circulating levels of the proinflammatory citokine interleukin-6, suggesting that TSPO expression exerts pain-protective/anti-inflammatory effects in humans, as predicted by animal studies. Given the putative role of activated glia in the establishment and or maintenance of persistent pain, the present findings offer clinical implications that may serve to guide future studies of the pathophysiology and management of a variety of persistent pain conditions. PMID:25582579

  5. Dynamic hyperinflation during activities of daily living in COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cláudia S; Nogueira, Fabiana R; Porto, Elias F; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Nascimento, Oliver A; Camelier, Aquiles; Jardim, José R

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether some activities of daily living (ADLs) usually related to dyspnea sensation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with dynamic lung hyperinflation (DH) and whether the use of simple energy conservation techniques (ECTs) might reduce this possible hyperinflation. Eighteen patients (mean age: 65.8 ± 9.8 years) with moderate-to-severe COPD performed six ADLs (walking on a treadmill, storing pots, walking 56 meters carrying a 5-kilogram weight, climbing stairs, simulating taking a shower, and putting on shoes) and had their inspiratory capacity (IC) measured before and after each task. The patients were moderately obstructed with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1): 1.4 ± 0.4 L (50% ± 12.4); FEV1/forced vital capacity: 0.4 ± 8.1; residual volume/total lung capacity: 52.7 ± 10.2, and a reduction in IC was seen after all six activities (p < 0.05): (1) going upstairs, 170 mL; (2) walking 56 meters carrying 5 kilogram weight, 150 mL; (3) walking on a treadmill without and with ECT, respectively, 230 mL and 235 mL; (4) storing pots without and with ECT, respectively, 170 mL and 128 mL; (5) taking a shower without and with ECT, respectively, 172 mL and 118 mL; and (6) putting on shoes without and with ECT, respectively, 210 mL and 78 mL). Patients with moderate to severe COPD develop DH after performing common ADLs involving the upper and lower limbs. Simple ECTs may avoid DH in some of these ADLs. PMID:25896955

  6. Innate mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are activated in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Serriari, N-E; Eoche, M; Lamotte, L; Lion, J; Fumery, M; Marcelo, P; Chatelain, D; Barre, A; Nguyen-Khac, E; Lantz, O; Dupas, J-L; Treiner, E

    2014-05-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are characterized by a deregulated immune response targeting the gut bacterial flora. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ib-restricted innate-like lymphocytes with anti-bacterial functions. They display an effector/memory phenotype and are found in large numbers in the blood, mucosae and liver. They have also been implicated in inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Therefore, we aimed to analyse the possible involvement of MAIT cells in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). To this end, a phenotypical and functional analysis of MAIT cells isolated from the blood of healthy subjects, CD and UC patients was undertaken. MAIT cells were also quantified in ileal biopsies of CD patients. The frequency of blood MAIT cells was specifically reduced in IBD patients compared with healthy donors, whereas it was dramatically greater in the inflamed versus healthy tissue. MAIT cells were activated as they expressed significantly more the Ki67 antigen, and this was accompanied by phenotypical changes such as increased expression of natural killer (NK)G2D and B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA). Finally, in-vitro-activated MAIT cells from CD and UC patients secreted significantly more interleukin (IL)-17, together with a decreased interferon (IFN)-γ in CD but an increased IL-22 in UC. These data show that MAIT cells are activated in IBD, which results in an increased recruitment towards the inflamed tissues, an altered phenotype and a switch in the pattern of cytokine secretion. This is the first demonstration that MAIT cells are immune players in IBD, whose precise functions in this context need to be addressed. PMID:24450998

  7. Active core rewarming avoids bioelectrical impedance changes in postanesthetic patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Postoperative hypothermia is a common cause of complications in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Hypothermia is known to elicit electrophysiological, biochemical, and cellular alterations thus leading to changes in the active and passive membrane properties. These changes might influence the bioelectrical impedance (BI). Our aim was to determine whether the BI depends on the core temperature. Methods We studied 60 patients (52 female and 8 male) age 40 to 80 years with an ASA I-II classification that had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy under balanced inhalation anesthesia. The experimental group (n = 30) received active core rewarming during the transanesthetic and postanesthesic periods. The control group (n = 30) received passive external rewarming. The BI was recorded by using a 4-contact electrode system to collect dual sets of measurements in the deltoid muscle. The body temperature, hemodynamic variables, respiratory rate, blood-gas levels, biochemical parameters, and shivering were also measured. The Mann-Whitney unpaired t-test was used to determine the differences in shivering between each group at each measurement period. Measurements of body temperature, hemodynamics variables, respiratory rate, and BI were analyzed using the two-way repeated-measures ANOVA. Results The gradual decrease in the body temperature was followed by the BI increase over time. The highest BI values (95 ± 11 Ω) appeared when the lowest values of the temperature (35.5 ± 0.5°C) were reached. The active core rewarming kept the body temperature within the physiological range (over 36.5°C). This effect was accompanied by low stable values (68 ± 3 Ω) of BI. A significant decrease over time in the hemodynamic values, respiratory rate, and shivering was seen in the active core-rewarming group when compared with the controls. The temporal course of shivering was different from those of body temperatue and BI. The control patients showed a

  8. Prevention of urinary tract infections in palliative radiation for vertebral metastasis and spinal compression: A pilot study in 71 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Manas, Ana . E-mail: amanas.hdoc@salud.madrid.org; Glaria, Luis; Pena, Carmen; Sotoca, Amalia; Lanzos, Eduardo; Fernandez, Castalia; Riviere, Marc

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of bladder instillations of hyaluronic acid (HA) on the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients receiving emergency radiotherapy for metastatic spinal cord compression. Methods and Materials: Patients were recruited consecutively at one center and assigned to usual care (UC) (n = 34, mean age 62.2 years) or UC with once-weekly HA instillation (UC + HA) (Cystistat: 40 mg in 50 mL phosphate-buffered saline) (n = 37; mean age, 63.1 years). All patients had an indwelling catheter and received radiotherapy. UTI status was assessed at baseline and during hospitalization. Results: At baseline, patient groups were comparable, except for the prevalence of UTI at baseline, which was 11.8% and 0% in the UC and UC + HA patients, respectively (p = 0.0477). During hospitalization, 76.5% (vs. 11.8% at baseline, p < 0.0001) of the UC patients had a UTI compared with 13.5% (vs. 0% at baseline, p = 0.0541) of the UC + HA patients (p < 0.0001). Both groups were hospitalized for similar periods (19.8 days [UC] vs. 18.5 days, p = 0.4769) and received equivalent radiotherapy sessions (4.6 [UC] vs. 5.8 sessions, p = 0.2368). Conclusions: Patients receiving UC + HA had a 5.7-fold decrease in UTI prevalence over the hospitalization period compared to UC patients, suggesting that bladder instillations of HA effectively prevent UTI in patients with indwelling catheters receiving radiotherapy for nerve compression.

  9. Placebo Response is Driven by UCS Revaluation: Evidence, Neurophysiological Consequences and a Quantitative Model

    PubMed Central

    Puviani, Luca; Rama, Sidita

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing scientific interest in the placebo effect and increasing understanding of neurobiological mechanisms, theoretical modeling of the placebo response remains poorly developed. The most extensively accepted theories are expectation and conditioning, involving both conscious and unconscious information processing. However, it is not completely understood how these mechanisms can shape the placebo response. We focus here on neural processes which can account for key properties of the response to substance intake. It is shown that placebo response can be conceptualized as a reaction of a distributed neural system within the central nervous system. Such a reaction represents an integrated component of the response to open substance administration (or to substance intake) and is updated through “unconditioned stimulus (UCS) revaluation learning”. The analysis leads to a theorem, which proves the existence of two distinct quantities coded within the brain, these are the expected or prediction outcome and the reactive response. We show that the reactive response is updated automatically by implicit revaluation learning, while the expected outcome can also be modulated through conscious information processing. Conceptualizing the response to substance intake in terms of UCS revaluation learning leads to the theoretical formulation of a potential neuropharmacological treatment for increasing unlimitedly the effectiveness of a given drug. PMID:27436417

  10. Placebo Response is Driven by UCS Revaluation: Evidence, Neurophysiological Consequences and a Quantitative Model.

    PubMed

    Puviani, Luca; Rama, Sidita

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing scientific interest in the placebo effect and increasing understanding of neurobiological mechanisms, theoretical modeling of the placebo response remains poorly developed. The most extensively accepted theories are expectation and conditioning, involving both conscious and unconscious information processing. However, it is not completely understood how these mechanisms can shape the placebo response. We focus here on neural processes which can account for key properties of the response to substance intake. It is shown that placebo response can be conceptualized as a reaction of a distributed neural system within the central nervous system. Such a reaction represents an integrated component of the response to open substance administration (or to substance intake) and is updated through "unconditioned stimulus (UCS) revaluation learning". The analysis leads to a theorem, which proves the existence of two distinct quantities coded within the brain, these are the expected or prediction outcome and the reactive response. We show that the reactive response is updated automatically by implicit revaluation learning, while the expected outcome can also be modulated through conscious information processing. Conceptualizing the response to substance intake in terms of UCS revaluation learning leads to the theoretical formulation of a potential neuropharmacological treatment for increasing unlimitedly the effectiveness of a given drug. PMID:27436417

  11. Differentiation of UC-MSCs into hepatocyte-like cells in partially hepatectomized model rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zheng; Kuang, Qiaoting; Lao, Xue-Jun; Yang, Jie; Huang, Weidong; Zhou, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) surviving and differentiating into hepatocyte-like cells in partially hepatectomized model rats. MSCs were isolated from human umbilical cord and cultured with collagenase digestion. Cell surface markers were detected and fifth generation UC-MSCs were labeled with PKH26. The partially hepatectomized model rats were injected with the labeled human umbilical cord MSCs and transplanted through the portal vein. The survival of the labeled cells, in differentiation conditions and the expression of hepatic marker albumin were observed at post-transplantation 1, 2 and 3 weeks under a fluorescence microscope. It was found that the human umbilical cord MSCs could be cultured and amplified in vitro. Following transplantation to the partially hepatectomized liver of the model rat, the cells survived and expresses the hepatic marker albumin in vivo. After being labeled with PKH26, the cells were visualized as red fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope. In the frozen sections of the liver, the marked cells scattered around and most of them expressed albumin with green fluorescence under the fluorescence microscope. In conclusion, the transplanted human umbilical cord MSCs survived and differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells. The human umbilical cord MSCs may therefore be a main source of hepatocytes in transplantation. PMID:27602090

  12. Development of telescope control system for the 50cm telescope of UC Observatory Santa Martina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Reveco, Johnny; Vanzi, Leonardo; Fernández, Jose M.; Escarate, Pedro; Suc, Vincent

    2012-09-01

    The main telescope of the UC Observatory Santa Martina is a 50cm optical telescope donated by ESO to Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile. During the past years the telescope has been refurbished and used as the main facility for testing and validating new instruments under construction by the center of Astro-Engineering UC. As part of this work, the need to develop a more efficient and flexible control system arises. The new distributed control system has been developed on top of Internet Communication Engine (ICE), a framework developed by Zeroc Inc. This framework features a lightweight but powerful and flexible inter-process communication infrastructure and provides binding to classic and modern programming languages, such as, C/C++, java, c#, ruby-rail, objective c, etc. The result of this work shows ICE as a real alternative for CORBA and other de-facto distribute programming framework. Classical control software architecture has been chosen and comprises an observation control system (OCS), the orchestrator of the observation, which controls the telescope control system (TCS), and detector control system (DCS). The real-time control and monitoring system is deployed and running over ARM based single board computers. Other features such as logging and configuration services have been developed as well. Inter-operation with other main astronomical control frameworks are foreseen in order achieve a smooth integration of instruments when they will be integrated in the main observatories in the north of Chile

  13. Uranium self-diffusion in UC doped with Y, Zr, La or Ce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, T.; Matzke, Hj.

    1980-06-01

    Metal diffusion in UC and (U, Pu) C is increased at intermediate temperatures (e.g. 1200 to 1600°C) by factors of between 10 and 1000 by small additions of impurities (e.g. 0.1 to 2% of Fe, Ni, Ta). This can be explained by impurityvacancy interactions. All impurities studied so far had smaller atomic sizes than the substituted U and Pu atoms. In the present work, the effect of the bigger impurity atoms La and Ce on uranium self-diffusion in UC 1 ± x is studied. Further data are reported on Zr and Y as additives. The results show that Zr, Ce, and possibly Y can decrease metal atom self-diffusion rates. This effect can, however, easily be overcompensated by other impurities such as Fe and W which increase uranium self-diffusion. There is no obvious relation between the enhancement or diminution factor of the impurities and the lattice parameter of the doped carbide or the atomic size of the impurity atom.

  14. Scintigraphic assessment of indium-111-labeled granulocyte splenic pooling: A new approach to inflammatory bowel disease activity

    SciTech Connect

    Loreal, O.; Moisan, A.; Bretagne, J.F.; LeCloirec, J.; Raoul, J.L.; Gastard, J.; Herry, J.Y. )

    1990-09-01

    We have conducted a prospective study into the sensitivity and the specificity of the fall in splenic activity (FSA) as an index of activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). FSA was measured on scintiscans obtained at 3 and 24 hr postinjection of indium-111-labeled granulocytes. One hundred and twenty-two scans were acquired in 96 patients who were divided into six groups: Gr. I = normal volunteers (n = 10); Gr. II = inflammatory rheumatism (n = 10); Gr. III = abscesses (n = 17); Gr. IV = ulcerative colitis (UC: n = 23); Gr. V = colonic Crohn's disease (CCD: n = 22); and Gr. VI = ileal Crohn's disease (ICD: n = 14). FSA for Groups I and II was constantly below 10%, but it was increased in the other four groups (abscesses: 39% +/- 12%; UC: 35% +/- 13.5%; CCD: 23.7% +/- 14.7%; ICD: 21.5% +/- 11.7%). There was a significant correlation between fecal excretion of 111In (FEI) and FSA in patients with IBD (UC: r = 0.71, p less than 0.001; CCD: r = 0.74, p less than 0.001; ICD: r = 0.43, p less than 0.001). FSA was followed in 16 patients with IBD after medical treatment and there was a significant correlation between variations in FSA and in FEI (r = 0.879, p less than 0.001). FSA is a very sensitive although nonspecific index of disease activity in IBD and may replace FEI in the assessment of IBD activity.

  15. Muscle activation patterns in patients with recurrent shoulder instability

    PubMed Central

    Jaggi, Anju; Noorani, Ali; Malone, Alex; Cowan, Joseph; Lambert, Simon; Bayley, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to present muscle patterns observed with the direction of instability in a series of patients presenting with recurrent shoulder instability. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was carried out on shoulder instability cases referred for fine wire dynamic electromyography (DEMG) studies at a specialist upper limb centre between 1981 and 2003. An experienced consultant clinical neurophysiologist performed dual needle insertion into four muscles (pectoralis major (PM), latissimus dorsi (LD), anterior deltoid (AD) and infraspinatus (IS)) in shoulders that were suspected to have increased or suppressed activation of muscles that could be contributing to the instability. Raw EMG signals were obtained while subjects performed simple uniplanar movements of the shoulder. The presence or absence of muscle activation was noted and compared to clinical diagnosis and direction of instability. Results: A total of 140 (26.6%) shoulders were referred for fine wire EMG, and 131 studies were completed. Of the shoulders tested, 122 shoulders (93%) were identified as having abnormal patterns and nine had normal patterns. PM was found to be more active in 60% of shoulders presenting with anterior instability. LD was found to be more active in 81% of shoulders with anterior instability and 80% with posterior instability. AD was found to be more active in 22% of shoulders with anterior instability and 18% with posterior instability. IS was found to be inappropriately inactive in only 3% of shoulders with anterior instability but in 25% with posterior instability. Clinical assessment identified 93% of cases suspected to have muscle patterning, but the specificity of the clinical assessment was only correct in 11% of cases. Conclusion: The DEMG results suggest that increased activation of LD may play a role in both anterior and posterior shoulder instability; increased activation of PM may play a role in anterior instability. PMID:23493512

  16. Corticosteroid-sparing effect of rifaximin, a nonabsorbable oral antibiotic, in active ulcerative colitis: Preliminary clinical experience

    PubMed Central

    Guslandi, Mario; Giollo, Patrizia; Testoni, Pier Alberto

    2004-01-01

    Background The role of enteric flora in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease constitutes the rationale for the use of antibiotics as adjuvant agents in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease. Objective The aim of this study was to assess, in a preliminary fashion, the efficacy of the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin in the treatment of exacerbation of UC in patients with a history of poor corticosteroid tolerance. Methods This open label pilot study was conducted in the Gastroenterology Unit, S. Raffaele University Hospital (Milan, Italy). Male and female patients aged 18 to 65 years with an established diagnosis of left-sided UC who were experiencing a clinical relapse during maintenance treatment with mesalamine and with a history of poor tolerance to corticosteroid therapy were included in the study. They received rifaximin 400 mg BID for 4 weeks while continuing to receive mesalamine 2.4 g/d. Disease activity before and after treatment was assessed using Rachmilewitz's Activity Index (RAI). A final RAI score <6 was considered clinical remission. Results Ten patients (9 men, 1 woman; mean [sd]age, 48.1 [12.3] years [range, 23–64 years]) participated in the study. The RAI decreased in all patients. Rifaximin treatment induced clinical remission in 7 patients (70%). No adverse effects were reported. Conclusions Due to our study design, no definitive Conclusions can be drawn. However, our preliminary data suggest that rifaximin may be beneficial in the treatment of active UC, obviating corticosteroid therapy in most cases. PMID:24672084

  17. High tibial osteotomies in the young active patient

    PubMed Central

    Traub, Shaun; Efird, Chad

    2010-01-01

    Unicompartmental changes in the knee of a young athlete remains a difficult and controversial problem in orthopaedics. Excessive premature loading of articular cartilage, most often the result of a knee injury, has been shown to result in increased degenerative changes and pain in the younger patient. Instability may also contribute to the degeneration of cartilage and must therefore be considered in the treatment of osteoarthritis in the young adult. High tibial osteotomy has been described as a treatment option for malalignment in the older, less active adult and has shown promising results in a younger, more active population. Osteotomies for instability are more controversial and should be considered in more complex injury patterns. PMID:20076957

  18. Secretion of Alpha-Hemolysin by Escherichia coli Disrupts Tight Junctions in Ulcerative Colitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Hengameh Chloé; Du, Zhengyu; Struve, Carsten; Charbon, Godefroid; Karczewski, Jurgen; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Petersen, Andreas Munk; Wells, Jerry M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The potential of Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients to damage the integrity of the intestinal epithelium was investigated. Methods: E. coli strains isolated from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and healthy controls were tested for virulence capacity by molecular techniques and cytotoxic assays and transepithelial electric resistance (TER). E. coli isolate p19A was selected, and deletion mutants were created for alpha-hemolysin (α-hemolysin) (hly) clusters and cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (cnf1). Probiotic E. coli Nissle and pathogenic E. coli LF82 were used as controls. Results: E. coli strains from patients with active UC completely disrupted epithelial cell tight junctions shortly after inoculation. These strains belong to phylogenetic group B2 and are all α-hemolysin positive. In contrast, probiotic E. coli Nissle, pathogenic E. coli LF82, four E. coli from patients with inactive UC and three E. coli strains from healthy controls did not disrupt tight junctions. E. coli p19A WT as well as cnf1, and single loci of hly mutants from cluster I and II were all able to damage Caco-2 (Heterogeneous human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma) cell tight junctions. However, this phenotype was lost in a mutant with knockout (Δ) of both hly loci (P<0.001). Conclusions: UC-associated E. coli producing α-hemolysin can cause rapid loss of tight junction integrity in differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayers. This effect was abolished in a mutant unable to express α-hemolysin. These results suggest that high Hly expression may be a mechanism by which specific strains of E. coli pathobionts can contribute to epithelial barrier dysfunction and pathophysiology of disease in IBD. PMID:26938480

  19. 78 FR 53195 - Proposed Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey) Activity: Comment Request... patient satisfaction with VA's dental services. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the... refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0764 (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey)'' in any...

  20. Resting state activity in patients with disorders of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Soddu, Andrea; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Demertzi, Athena; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Tshibanda, Luaba; Di, Haibo; Boly, Mélanie; Papa, Michele; Laureys, Steven; Noirhomme, Quentin

    Summary Recent advances in the study of spontaneous brain activity have demonstrated activity patterns that emerge with no task performance or sensory stimulation; these discoveries hold promise for the study of higher-order associative network functionality. Additionally, such advances are argued to be relevant in pathological states, such as disorders of consciousness (DOC), i.e., coma, vegetative and minimally conscious states. Recent studies on resting state activity in DOC, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques, show that functional connectivity is disrupted in the task-negative or the default mode network. However, the two main approaches employed in the analysis of resting state functional connectivity data (i.e., hypothesis-driven seed-voxel and data-driven independent component analysis) present multiple methodological difficulties, especially in non-collaborative DOC patients. Improvements in motion artifact removal and spatial normalization are needed before fMRI resting state data can be used as proper biomarkers in severe brain injury. However, we anticipate that such developments will boost clinical resting state fMRI studies, allowing for easy and fast acquisitions and ultimately improve the diagnosis and prognosis in the absence of DOC patients’ active collaboration in data acquisition. PMID:21693087

  1. Epithelial Cell-Derived a Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase-17 Confers Resistance to Colonic Inflammation Through EGFR Activation

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Masayuki; Horiuchi, Keisuke; Sasaki, Aya; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Okabayashi, Koji; Hasegawa, Hirotoshi; Kitagawa, Yuko; Okada, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial regeneration is a key process for the recovery from ulcerative colitis (UC). Here we demonstrate that a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17 (ADAM17), a main sheddase for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, is essential for defensive epithelial properties against UC by promoting epithelial cell growth and goblet cell differentiation in mouse and human. Mice with systemic deletion of Adam17 developed severe dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis when compared to mice with myeloid cell Adam17 deletion or control littermates. ADAM17 was predominantly expressed by regenerating epithelia in control mice, and its loss or inhibition attenuated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation, epithelial proliferation, mucus production and barrier functions. Conversely, ectopic EGFR stimulation promoted epithelial regeneration thereby partially rescuing the severe colitis caused by ADAM17 deficiency. In UC patients, epithelial ADAM17 expression positively correlated with both cell proliferation and goblet cell number. These findings suggest that maintaining ADAM17–EGFR epithelial signaling is necessary for the recovery from UC and would be beneficial to therapeutic strategies targeting ADAM17-mediated TNF-α shedding. PMID:27077118

  2. MHEALTH INTERVENTION DEVELOPMENT TO SUPPORT PATIENTS WITH ACTIVE TUBERCULOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Iribarren, Sarah J.; Beck, Susan L.; Pearce, Patricia F.; Chirico, Cristina; Etchevarria, Mirta; Rubinstein, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile Health (mHealth) based interventions have been increasingly used to improve a broad range of health outcomes. However, few researchers have reported on the process or the application of theory to guide the development of mHealth based interventions, or specifically for tuberculosis (TB) treatment management. Aims To describe the steps, process, and considerations in developing a text messaging-based intervention to promote treatment adherence and provide support to patients with active TB. Methods Traditional qualitative techniques, including semi-structured interviews, field notes, content analysis, iterative coding, and thematic analysis, were used to design and document the intervention development with a multidisciplinary team of researchers, clinicians, administrators, and patients who were in active TB treatment. The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model was used to guide the coding scheme for content analysis of patient-directed TB educational material and intervention development. Results The development steps included: a) establishing intervention components, including justifications, considerations, timing and frequency of components; b) developing educational messages, including cultural adaption, text or short message service (SMS) formatting, and prioritizing message delivery order; and c) determining implementation protocol. A set of 16 IMB-based messages were developed for the educational component. Final intervention development was achieved in 3 months. Conclusion A collaborative approach and application of a theory to guide the intervention design and development is supported. Although a collaborative approach was more time consuming, it resulted in a more responsive, culturally appropriate, and comprehensive intervention. Considerations for developing a text messaging based intervention are provided and may serve as a guide for similar interventions. Further empirical evidence is needed for applying the IMB model

  3. Diagnostic Value of Fecal Calprotectin in Patient with Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Hamed; Barzin, Gilda; Yousefinia, Mahsa; Mohammadkhani, Ashraf; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Sharifi, Amir Houshang; Tayebi, Sirous; Malekzadeh, Reza; Ansari, Reza

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammation limited to the mucosal layer of the colon. Calprotectin is a zinc and calcium binding protein derived from neutrophils and monocytes. It is easily detectable in tissue samples, body fluids, and stools, which makes it a potentially valuable marker of inflammation. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the value of fecal calprotectin (FC) as a marker of disease activity in patients with UC. METHODS Seventy three eligible subjects underwent ileocolonoscopy and multiple biopsies were obtained from different parts of the colon and terminal ileum. All patients underwent blood and stool sampling as well as an interview to assess the disease severity utilizing ulcerative colitis activity index (UCAI), subjectively. The diagnostic value of the FC in comparison with Mayo disease activity index as the gold standard technique, was then evaluated. RESULTS Mean FC level increased linearly according to Mayo disease activity index (r=0.44, p<0.001) and was significantly different between levels of Mayo disease activity index (p=0.003). In multivariate analysis, Mayo disease activity index, positive CRP and ESR were associated with FC level. FC level > 21.4 ng/ml was able to discriminate between active and inactive phases of UC according to Mayo disease activity index>2 with 72.3% sensitivity and 73.1% specificity. The combination of FC > 21.4 ng/ml and UCAI score of 7 had a 46.8% sensitivity and 88% specificity to diagnose Mayo disease activity index >2. Furthermore, FC level <21.4 ng/ml in combination with UCAI score of <3 showed a highly considerable specificity of 98% to discriminate the remission phase of UC (Mayo disease activity index <2), although with a low sensitivity (31%). CONCLUSION FC appears to be a non-invasive biomarker with moderate accuracy to discriminate the active phase of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The value of FC especially in combination with UCAI is

  4. Personalized Strategies to Activate and Empower Patients in Health Care and Reduce Health Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jie; Mullins, C. Daniel; Novak, Priscilla; Thomas, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Designing culturally sensitive personalized interventions is essential to sustain patients' involvement in their treatment and encourage patients to take an active role in their own health and health care. We consider patient activation and empowerment as a cyclical process defined through patient accumulation of knowledge, confidence, and…

  5. Efficacy and safety of two pH-dependent-release mesalamine doses in moderately active ulcerative colitis: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yasuo; Iida, Mitsuo; Ito, Hiroaki; Saida, Isamu

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The therapeutic effect of mesalamine is considered to be dose-dependent; however, no consensus has been reached regarding the optimal doses for individual patients. This study aimed to provide new insight for dose optimization using two doses of pH-dependent release mesalamine for induction of remission of moderately active ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods In a multicenter, double-blind, randomized study, 110 patients with moderately active UC were assigned to two groups after treatment with a constant dose of mesalamine. Fifty-five patients were treated with a pH-dependent release formulation of 3.6 or 4.8 g/day for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was a decrease in the UC disease activity index (UCDAI) adjusted by covariates. Results In the full analysis set (n=110), the mean decrease in UCDAI was 3.1 in the 3.6 g/day group and 3.4 in the 4.8 g/day group (P>0.05). In a subgroup analysis, the effectiveness of the 4.8 g/day dose was greater in particular populations, such as those who had been previously treated with a lower dose of mesalamine and those with more severe disease. The safety was comparable between the two groups. Conclusions The results suggest that treatment with pH-dependent release mesalamine at either 3.6 or 4.8 g/day was effective and safe for the induction of remission in patients with moderately active UC. However, the patients receiving mesalamine at 2.4 g/day but in whom the therapeutic effect is not sufficient and having more severe symptoms (UCDAI 9-10), benefit from higher doses of mesalamine compared to others. PMID:26884735

  6. Antischistosomal activity of artemisinin derivatives in vivo and in patients.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Mohamed E M; Krishna, Sanjeev; Greten, Henry Johannes; Kremsner, Peter G; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is a helminthic disease affecting more than 200 million people in the tropics as well as returning travellers. Treatment mainly relies on a single drug, praziquantel. Praziquantel cannot kill developing schistosomula resulting in frequent treatment failures and re-infections. Monotherapy also favors the selection for resistance. New drugs are therefore urgently needed. The activity of the semi-synthetic artemisinin derivatives artemether, artesunate and arteether is not restricted to malaria. We reviewed their anti-schistosomal activity in vivo and in patients by searching the PubMed database for publications since 1983 with the search terms "artemisinin" and "Schistosoma". Reports on in vivo studies in animals and clinical trials in human beings were selected. S. mansoni, S. japonicum, and S. haematobium have been tested in mice, rabbits, hamsters, and dogs. These artemisinin derivatives strongly reduced total worm rates with stronger reduction rates for female worms than for males. The drugs also reduced egg burden and egg-caused granulomata in the host liver. Artemisinin-type drugs induced oxidative and metabolic stress leading to morphological damage and decreased fertility of the parasites. Although artemether and artesunate have been investigated in numerous clinical trials, the poor quality of many has led to inconsistent results and has not provided convincing evidence on the therapeutic value against schistosomiasis. Despite these methodological concerns, clinical trials may indicate anti-schistosomal activity in patients. Convincing clinical trials providing unambiguous evidence are now needed. Furthermore, suitable treatment protocols for combination therapy to prevent/treat praziquantel-resistant Schistosoma strains should be investigated. PMID:26902577

  7. Thermodynamic Factors Affecting UC1-xNxIrradiation and Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemer, T.B.

    2005-04-22

    There is interest in attempting to synthesize nearly pure uranium nitride (UN) kernels for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel. Because the proposed process involves carbothermic conversion of a urania-carbon mixture in nitrogen and because there is a complete ideal solution of uranium carbide (UC) and UN, which is written as UC{sub 1-x}N{sub x}, the practical value of x for fuel irradiation needs to be determined. Insight is to be gained by relevant thermodynamic calculations of carbide-nitride equilibria for the fuel and fission product systems. The equilibria are readily compared on the nitrogen-based Ellingham diagram, which, in turn, provides guidance in interpreting past irradiations and in synthesis of the UC{sub 1-x}N{sub x} kernels.

  8. Role of oral nitrate in the nitrosation of ( UC)proline by conventional microflora and germ-free rats

    SciTech Connect

    Mallett, A.K.; Rowland, I.R.; Walters, D.G.; Gangolli, S.D.; Cottrell, R.C.; Massey, R.C.

    1985-11-01

    The urinary excretion of N-nitroso-L-(U- UC)proline by conventional microflora and germ free rats was used to assess the role of the gut bacteria and oral nitrate in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds. The formation of nitrosoproline was qualitatively similar in conventional and germfree rats suggesting no involvement of the intestinal flora in this reaction. Furthermore, nitrosamino acid production was similar following the administration of nitrate and (U- UC)proline or (U- UC)proline alone, demonstrating no involvement of exogenous nitrate under the conditions of the experiment. Dietary contamination with nitrate/nitrite was negligible. The results are consistent with the suggestion that nitrate/nitrite reserves in the body are important in the formation of nitrosoproline in vivo.

  9. Fractionation of radioactivity in the milk of goats administered UC-aflatoxin B1

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, T.; Hsieh, D.P.

    1985-05-01

    A detailed fractionation of radioactivity in the milk of goats administered UC-aflatoxin B1 at low doses was performed. The milk collected in the first 24 h following dosing contained radioactivity equivalent to 0.45-1.1% of the dose given. The radioactivity in each sample was partitioned into 4 fractions: ether, protein, dichloromethane, and water-alcohol. Over 80% of the radioactivity was detected in the dichloromethane fraction, of which over 95% was attributable to aflatoxin M1. No aflatoxin B1 or other known aflatoxin metabolites were detected in any fraction. The results indicate that the major metabolite of aflatoxin B1 in goat milk is aflatoxin M1 and that other metabolites, including conjugates, are of minor significance.

  10. Molecular Cores in Different Evolutionary Stages near Luminous IRAS Sources and UC HII Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lei; Wu, Yue-Fang

    2007-06-01

    We report the results of 12CO and 13CO J=1 0 observations of eight candidates of Ultra-Compact (UC) HII regions with the Purple Mountain Observatory (PMO) Qinghai 13.7 -m telescope, which resulted in revealing 11 molecular cores. Their masses range from 130 to 1.7×104 Modot, with different spatial scales (1~ 6 pc). Also presented are the relevant HCO+ J=1 0 maps, which enabled us to investigate more detailed structures of these cores. Further comparisons show that four of the cores deviated from the centers of infrared (MIR) emission of Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX), while others correspond either to bright MIR sources or diffuse MIR background. This indicates various evolutionary phases of the cores, including quite early ones for those without MIR sources.

  11. FIFI: The MPE Garching/UC Berkeley Far-Infrared Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geis, Norbert; Genzel, Reinhard; Haggerty, M.; Herrmann, F.; Jackson, J.; Madden, Suzanne C.; Nikola, T.; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Rumitz, M.; Stacey, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the performance characteristics of the MPE Garching/UC Berkeley Far-Infrared Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FIFI) for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The spectrometer features two or three cryogenic tunable Fabry-Perot filters in series giving spectral resolution R of up to 10(exp 5) in the range of 40 microns less than lambda less than 200 microns, and an imaging 5x5 array of photoconductive detectors with variable focal plane plate scale. The instrument works at background limited sensitivity of up to 2 x 10(exp -19) W cm(exp -2) Hz(exp -1/2) per pixel per resolution element at R = 10(exp 5) on the KAO.

  12. Tissue Plasminogen Activator and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Levels in Patients with Acute Paraquat Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Su-Jin; Kim, Su-Ji; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) plasma levels, and their possible implications on clinical outcome, we measured tPA and PAI-1 levels in 101 patients with acute paraquat (PQ) intoxication. The control group consisted of patients who ingested non-PQ pesticides during the same period. tPA and PAI-1 levels were higher in the PQ group than in the controls. PQ levels were significantly correlated with ingested amount, timelag to hospital, tPA level, and hospitalization duration. tPA levels were correlated with PAI-1, fibrin degradation product (FDP), and D-dimer. D-dimer levels were lower in the PQ group than in the controls. Univariate analysis indicated the following significant determinants of death: age, ingested amount, PQ level, timelag to hospital, serum creatinine, lipase, pH, pCO2, HCO3-, WBC, FDP, PAI-1, and tPA. However, multivariate analysis indicated that only PQ level was significant independent factor predicting death. In conclusion, tPA and PAI-1 levels were higher, while D-dimer levels were lower in the PQ group than in the controls, implying that ROS stimulate tPA and PAI-1, but PAI-1 activity overrides tPA activity in this setting. Decreased fibrinolytic activity appears to be one of the clinical characteristics of acute PQ intoxication. PMID:21468253

  13. Relationship between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Iwakura, Masahiro; Okura, Kazuki; Shibata, Kazuyuki; Kawagoshi, Atsuyoshi; Sugawara, Keiyu; Takahashi, Hitomi; Shioya, Takanobu

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the relationship between balance impairments and physical activity in COPD. There has been no study investigating the relationship between balance and objectively measured physical activity. Here we investigated the association between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients. Materials and methods Twenty-two outpatients with COPD (mean age, 72±7 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 53%±21% predicted) and 13 age-matched healthy control subjects (mean age, 72±6 years) participated in the study. We assessed all 35 subjects’ balance (one-leg standing test [OLST] times, Short Physical Performance Battery total scores, standing balance test scores, 4 m gait speed, and five-times sit-to-stand test [5STST]) and physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day [MV-PA]). Possible confounders were assessed in the COPD group. The between-group differences in balance test scores and physical activity were analyzed. A correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted in the COPD group. Results The COPD patients exhibited significant reductions in OLST times (P=0.033), Short Physical Performance Battery scores (P=0.013), 4 m gait speed (P<0.001), five-times sit-to-stand times (P=0.002), daily steps (P=0.003), and MV-PA (P=0.022) compared to the controls; the exception was the standing balance test scores. The correlation and multivariate regression analyses revealed significant independent associations between OLST times and daily steps (P<0.001) and between OLST times and MV-PA (P=0.014) in the COPD group after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Conclusion Impairments in balance and reductions in physical activity were observed in the COPD group. Deficits in balance are independently associated with physical inactivity. PMID:27445470

  14. Active surveillance for prostate cancer: patient selection and management

    PubMed Central

    Klotz, L.

    2010-01-01

    Screening for prostate cancer using prostate-specific antigen (psa) has been appealing. However, the significant associated decline in prostate cancer mortality comes at the cost of a very high rate of diagnosis, and many patients with indolent, non-life-threatening cancer are exposed to the risk of significant side effects from radical treatment. Most men with favourable-risk prostate cancer are not destined to die of their disease, even in the absence of treatment. The challenge is to identify the subset that harbour more aggressive disease early enough that curative therapy is still a possibility, thereby allowing the others to enjoy improved quality of life, free from the side effects of treatment. This article reviews current research into active surveillance in favourable-risk disease and some of the issues that arise when prostate cancer is monitored rather than being treated immediately. PMID:20882126

  15. Thyroid axis activity and suicidal behavior in depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Duval, Fabrice; Mokrani, Marie-Claude; Lopera, Felix Gonzalez; Diep, Thanh Son; Rabia, Hassen; Fattah, Saïd

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between suicidal behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis activity in depressed patients. The serum levels of thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were evaluated before and after 0800 and 2300 h thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) challenges, on the same day, in 95 medication-free DSM-IV euthyroid major depressed inpatients and 44 healthy hospitalized controls. Compared to controls: (1) patients with a positive suicide history (PSH; n=53) showed lower basal FT4 (at 0800 h: p<0.005; at 2300 h: p<0.03), but normal FT3 levels, while patients with a negative suicide history (NSH; n=42) showed normal FT4 and FT3 levels; (2) TSH responses to TRH (DeltaTSH) were blunted in NSHs (at 0800 h: p<0.03; at 2300 h: p<0.00001), but not in PSHs; (3) both NSHs and PSHs showed lower DeltaDeltaTSH values (differences between 2300 h-DeltaTSH and 0800 h-DeltaTSH) (p<0.000001 and p<0.003, respectively). Compared to NSHs, basal FT4 levels were reduced in PSHs (at 0800 h: p<0.002; at 2300h: p<0.006). HPT parameters were not significantly different between recent suicide attempters (n=32) and past suicide attempters (n=21). However, compared to controls, recent suicide attempters showed lower 2300 h-DeltaTSH (p<0.04) and DeltaDeltaTSH (p<0.002) values, and lower basal FT4 values (at 0800 h: p<0.006; at 2300 h: p<0.02). Our results, obtained in a large sample of depressed inpatients, indicate that various degrees of HPT axis dysregulation are associated with the history of suicide. PMID:20129737

  16. The Chicago Public Schools (CPS)/University of Chicago (UC) Internet Project (CUIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, D.; Rebull, L. M.; Munoz-Franco, L.; Jay, M. J.; Burke, R. D.; Fenstermacher, K. D.; Lenz, D. D.; MacNaught, H.; Marks, M. D.; Murphy, J.; Thomas, C.; York, D. G.; Anderson, D.; Chisom, Y.; Dynis, R.; Letts, J.; Lewis, E.; Harris, E.; Segneri, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Chicago Public Schools (CPS)/University of Chicago (UC) Internet Project (CUIP) is a collaborative pilot project among the UC, CPS Central Administration, and 24 public schools in the Woodlawn, Hyde Park/ South Kenwood, and North Kenwood/Oakland neighborhoods. Our primary goal is connecting these schools to the Internet, emphasizing the continued support of the schools and their teachers after the computers and connections are in place. We work with principals, department heads, and individual teachers to create and nurture a self-sustaining computer culture that will both maintain the network systems and incorporate the technology into the curriculum. We also encourage the schools to take advantage of ther new connectivity by collaborating and sharing resources among themselves. Formal interactions are fostered with museums and research centers, locally and nationally. CUIP is committed to supporting these schools as they use the Internet to enhance student learning. CUIP's goals include: providing T-1 internet connectivity to 24 local schools, supporting the technology coordinator in each school in order to ensure continuous Internet connectivity, and developing effective technology plans, including technology upgrades; nurturing and supporting teachers interested in incorporating technology in their classroom; fostering an environment in which the students can acquire a wide range of comptuer skills appropriate to the current job market; and fostering similar community-based efforts, around Chicago and the nation. CUIP's milestones include: internet service connected to 12 schools; technology interns placed in some CUIP schools in collaboration with Governors State University; email provided to more than half of the 660 teachers in connected schools; and World Wide Web for Teachers, a summer class on curriculum uses of the Web, taught by CUIP staff to 23 of over 100 public school teacher applicants.

  17. Peripheral Endocannabinoid System Activity in Patients Treated With Sibutramine

    PubMed Central

    Engeli, Stefan; Heusser, Karsten; Janke, Jürgen; Gorzelniak, Kerstin; Bátkai, Sándor; Pacher, Pál; Harvey-White, Judith; Luft, Friedrich C.; Jordan, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Objective The endocannabinoid system (ECS) promotes weight gain and obesity-associated metabolic changes. Weight loss interventions may influence obesity-associated risk indirectly through modulation of the peripheral ECS. We investigated the effect of acute and chronic treatment with sibutramine on components of the peripheral ECS. Methods and Procedures Twenty obese otherwise healthy patients received randomized, double-blind, crossover treatment with placebo and 15 mg/day sibutramine for 5 days each, followed by 12 weeks open-label sibutramine treatment. We determined circulating anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol and expression levels of endocannabinoid genes in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue biopsies. Results Body weight was stable during the acute treatment period and decreased by 6.0 ± 0.8 kg in those patients completing 3 months of sibutramine treatment (P < 0.05). Circulating endocannabinoids and the expression of ECS genes did not change with acute or chronic sibutramine treatment. Discussion The ECS is activated in obesity. We did not find any influence of 5% body weight loss induced by sibutramine on circulating levels of endocannabinoids and adipose-tissue expression of endocannabinoid genes in obese subjects. These data confirm our previous findings on dietary weight loss and suggest that the dysregulation of the ECS may be a cause rather than a consequence of obesity. PMID:18356837

  18. Providers, Payers, The Community, And Patients Are All Obliged To Get Patient Activation And Engagement Ethically Right

    PubMed Central

    Danis, Marion; Solomon, Mildred

    2016-01-01

    Active and engaged patients seek the understanding, knowledge, and skills to promote their own health. Efforts to promote such patient activation and engagement are ethically justified because they are consonant with the well-established principle of respect for persons and, as the evidence shows, because they are likely to produce better outcomes for patients. Yet patient activation and engagement can also go ethically awry if, for example, nonadherent patients are abandoned or are unduly disadvantaged by punitive policies and practices, or if the conditions for successful activation and engagement are missing. In this article we discuss the ethical issues and responsibilities that pertain to patients, clinicians, health care organizations, delivery systems, insurers, payers, and communities. For example, physicians or payers could hold patients blameworthy for not following recommendations, but we suggest that a better approach would be for providers and payers to empower patients to effectively share responsibility for defining goals and achieving them. An ethical approach to patient activation and engagement should place obligations not only on patients but also on clinicians, health care organizations and delivery systems, insurers, and communities. PMID:23381534

  19. Fecal Calprotectin and Clinical Disease Activity in Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Turner, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore fecal calprotectin levels in pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) in relation with the validated clinical activity index PUCAI. Methods. This study included all 37 children (median age 14 years) with UC who had calprotectin measured (PhiCal ELISA Test) by the time of PUCAI assessment at the Children's Hospital of Helsinki in a total of 62 visits. Calprotectin values <100 μg/g of stool were considered as normal. The best cut-off value of each measure to predict 3-month clinical outcome was derived by maximizing sensitivity and specificity. Results. In clinically active disease (PUCAI ≥ 10), calprotectin was elevated in 29/32 patients (91% sensitivity). When in clinical remission, 26% (8/30) of the children had normal calprotectin but 7 (23%) had an exceedingly high level (>1000 μg/g). The best cut-off value for calprotectin for predicting poor outcome was 800 μg/g (sensitivity 73%, specificity 72%; area under the ROC curve being 0.71 (95%CI 0.57–0.85)) and for the PUCAI best cut-off values >10 (sensitivity 62%, specificity 64%; area under the ROC curve 0.714 (95%CI 0.58–0.85)). Conclusion. The clinical relevance of somewhat elevated calprotectin during clinical remission in pediatric UC is not known and, until further evidence accumulates, does not indicate therapy escalation. PMID:23533791

  20. Cumulative genetic risk and prefrontal activity in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Walton, Esther; Turner, Jessica; Gollub, Randy L; Manoach, Dara S; Yendiki, Anastasia; Ho, Beng-Choon; Sponheim, Scott R; Calhoun, Vince D; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2013-05-01

    The lack of consistency of genetic associations in highly heritable mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia, remains a challenge in molecular psychiatry. Because clinical phenotypes for psychiatric disorders are often ill defined, considerable effort has been made to relate genetic polymorphisms to underlying physiological aspects of schizophrenia (so called intermediate phenotypes), that may be more reliable. Given the polygenic etiology of schizophrenia, the aim of this work was to form a measure of cumulative genetic risk and study its effect on neural activity during working memory (WM) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neural activity during the Sternberg Item Recognition Paradigm was measured in 79 schizophrenia patients and 99 healthy controls. Participants were genotyped, and a genetic risk score (GRS), which combined the additive effects of 41 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 34 risk genes for schizophrenia, was calculated. These risk SNPs were chosen according to the continuously updated meta-analysis of genetic studies on schizophrenia available at www.schizophreniaresearchforum.org. We found a positive relationship between GRS and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex inefficiency during WM processing. GRS was not correlated with age, performance, intelligence, or medication effects and did not differ between acquisition sites, gender, or diagnostic groups. Our study suggests that cumulative genetic risk, combining the impact of many genes with small effects, is associated with a known brain-based intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia. The GRS approach could provide an advantage over studying single genes in studies focusing on the genetic basis of polygenic conditions such as neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22267534

  1. Physical Activity Enjoyment and Self-Efficacy As Predictors of Cancer Patients' Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Nadine; Wiskemann, Joachim; Sieverding, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) can support cancer patients during medical treatment by reducing side-effects and increasing quality of life. However, PA levels mostly decline after diagnosis. Which factors can explain if patients are able to remain or even increase their PA level? Self-efficacy is an important cognitive factor that has been linked to cancer patients' PA across many studies. In contrast, affective factors such as PA enjoyment have rarely been examined. We compare the influence of self-efficacy and PA enjoyment on cancer patients' PA levels after completion of an exercise or stress-management intervention. Methods: Outpatient cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34%, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION study, a 4-week intervention (1 h counseling followed by weekly phone calls), with pre-test (T1), post-test (T2), and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise intervention (emphasizing self-regulatory strategies for behavior change) or to a stress management intervention (coping and relaxation techniques). Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA, a measure of maintenance self-efficacy (7 items, Cronbach's α = 0.88) and PA enjoyment (2 items, Cronbach's α = 0.89). Regression analyses were calculated with PA level (at T2 and T3) as dependent variable and relative weight analyses were conducted. The study was registered at clinicalTrials.gov (unique identifier:NCT01576107; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01576107?term=motivaction&rank=1). Results: Baseline self-efficacy and change in PA enjoyment significantly predicted cancer patients' PA level at T2 adjusting for baseline PA and type of intervention. Relative weight (RW) analysis revealed that PA enjoyment (baseline and change together) explained 34.3% of the dependent variable, self-efficacy (baseline and change) explained 38.4%. At follow

  2. 20 CFR 603.22 - What information must State UC agencies disclose for purposes of an IEVS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of HHS (in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture) and set forth in 42 CFR 435.960... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What information must State UC agencies disclose for purposes of an IEVS? 603.22 Section 603.22 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND...

  3. 20 CFR 603.23 - What information must State UC agencies obtain from other agencies, and crossmatch with wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What information must State UC agencies obtain from other agencies, and crossmatch with wage information, for purposes of an IEVS? 603.23 Section 603.23 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  4. 20 CFR 603.22 - What information must State UC agencies disclose for purposes of an IEVS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of HHS (in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture) and set forth in 42 CFR 435.960... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What information must State UC agencies disclose for purposes of an IEVS? 603.22 Section 603.22 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND...

  5. 20 CFR 603.23 - What information must State UC agencies obtain from other agencies, and crossmatch with wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What information must State UC agencies obtain from other agencies, and crossmatch with wage information, for purposes of an IEVS? 603.23 Section 603.23 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  6. Heat transfer characteristics of uc(d)-mannitol as a phase change material for a medium thermal energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibahara, Makoto; Liu, Qiusheng; Fukuda, Katsuya

    2015-11-01

    Melting process and heat transfer characteristics of uc(d)-mannitol were investigated experimentally and numerically to construct a fundamental database of the waste heat recovery systems for ships. uc(d-)Mannitol which has relatively high latent heat was selected in this study as a phase-change material for medium thermal energy storage. Experimental results indicate that the melting temperature and latent heat of uc(d)-mannitol were affected by the heating rate. The weight of uc(d)-mannitol did not decrease with the increase in temperature between 436 and 455 K. Moreover, numerical simulation was conducted using the commercial CFD code, ANSYS FLUENT. On the basis of the numerical simulation, melting process was affected by natural convection at the inner wall. As the heat flux of the cartridge heater input came from the inner wall, the liquid fraction increased from the inner wall to the outer wall through natural convection. The numerical result was compared with the experimental data. The temperature of the numerical simulation was approximately consistent with the experimental data. Moreover, the local heat transfer coefficients at the heater surface were calculated by the result of the numerical simulation. The heat transfer coefficients decreased during the phase change. It was considered that the heat transfer process changed from conductive heat transfer of solid state to natural convection heat transfer of liquid state as the liquid fraction increased with time.

  7. The Issue of Transfer: Transfer Data from CPEC/UC/CSU & the Transfer Assembly. Student Equity Report #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jorge R.

    This report examines the flow of transfer students from Orange County community colleges to the University of California (UC), the California State University (CSU), and regionally accredited independent colleges as reported to the California Postsecondary Education Commission (CPEC) and the Center for the Study of Community Colleges (CSCC). Data…

  8. Recent Changes in UC Admissions Policies. Parent/Student Guide = Unos cambios recientes en los reglamentos de ingreso de la universidad de California. Guia de padres/estudiantes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, Inc., Palo Alto, CA.

    This parent/student guide describes recent changes in admissions policies at the University of California (UC). Traditionally, UC admitted the top 12.5% of high school graduating seniors, but beginning in 2001, the top 4% of students in the graduating class of every high school are eligible if they have completed 11 specific "a-f" courses by the…

  9. Fifteen Years Later--Highlights of the Class of 1973: Their Postgraduate Studies, Occupations and Impressions of UC Davis. Research Synopsis No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Davis. Office of Student Affairs Research and Information.

    A random sample of 1184 graduates of University of California (UC) Davis from calendar year 1973 was contacted to collect data about long-term career outcomes and attachment to UC Davis. Approximately 59% of the sample responded. Data from the sample are presented to illustrate: graduates who have undertaken some graduate level coursework or have…

  10. Phenomenological correlates of metabolic activity in 18 patients with chronic schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Van Gelder, P.; Brodie, J.D.; Overall, J.E.; Cancro, R.; Gomez-Mont, F.

    1987-02-01

    Using (11C)-deoxy-D-glucose and positron emission tomography (PET), the authors measured brain metabolism in 18 patients with chronic schizophrenia to assess which of the metabolic measures from two test conditions was more closely related to the patients' differing clinical characteristics. The two conditions were resting and activation, and an eye tracking task was used. Patients with more negative symptoms showed lower global metabolic rates and more severe hypofrontality than did the patients with fewer negative symptoms. Differences among the patients were distinguished by the task: sicker patients failed to show a metabolic activation response. These findings suggest that cerebral metabolic patterns reflect clinical characteristics of schizophrenic patients.

  11. Cooperative Activities of the University of California Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaupre, Linda

    The report documents current cooperation activities between University of California (UC) libraries and others. Information about programs, procedures, and agreements was gathered in the fall of 1976 from staff members at the nine UC campuses and from librarians at other California institutions. Information sharing between on-campus and off-campus…

  12. Influence of mental practice on upper limb muscle activity and activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, JuHyung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of mental practice on muscle activity of the upper extremity and performance of daily activities in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] In this research, mental practice was conducted by 2 chronic hemiplegic stroke patients. Mental practice was conducted 30 minutes a day, 5 times a week, for 2 weeks. Evaluation was conducted 4 times before and after intervention. Muscle activity was measured using a surface electromyogram test, and the Modified Barthel Index was used to measure changes in the ability to carry out daily activities. [Results] Both the muscle activity of the upper extremity and capability to perform daily activities showed improved outcomes after mental practice was conducted. [Conclusion] Through this research, mental practice was proven to be effective in improving the muscle activity of upper extremity and capability to perform daily activities in chronic hemiplegic stroke patients. PMID:27134412

  13. 76 FR 56504 - Proposed Information Collection (Spinal Cord Injury Patient Care Survey) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Spinal Cord Injury Patient Care Survey) Activity: Comment Request... spinal cord patients' satisfaction with VA rehabilitation and health care system. Affected Public... of automated collection techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title:...

  14. Personalized Strategies to Activate and Empower Patients in Health Care and Reduce Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Mullins, C Daniel; Novak, Priscilla; Thomas, Stephen B

    2016-02-01

    Designing culturally sensitive personalized interventions is essential to sustain patients' involvement in their treatment and encourage patients to take an active role in their own health and health care. We consider patient activation and empowerment as a cyclical process defined through patient accumulation of knowledge, confidence, and self-determination for their own health and health care. We propose a patient-centered, multilevel activation and empowerment framework (individual-, health care professional-, community-, and health care delivery system-level) to inform the development of culturally informed personalized patient activation and empowerment (P-PAE) interventions to improve population health and reduce racial and ethnic disparities. We discuss relevant Affordable Care Act payment and delivery policy reforms and how they affect patient activation and empowerment. Such policies include Accountable Care Organizations and value-based purchasing, patient-centered medical homes, and the community health benefit. Challenges and possible solutions to implementing the P-PAE are discussed. Comprehensive and longitudinal data sets with consistent P-PAE measures are needed to conduct comparative effectiveness analyses to evaluate the optimal P-PAE model. We believe the P-PAE model is timely and sustainable and will be critical to engaging patients in their treatment, developing patients' abilities to manage their health, helping patients express concerns and preferences regarding treatment, empowering patients to ask questions about treatment options, and building up strategic patient-provider partnerships through shared decision making. PMID:25845376

  15. Report of a Rare Case of Nasal Mucosa Pyoderma Vegetans in a Patient with Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Vahedi, Homayoon; Nozari, Neda; Sotoudeh, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Some dermatologic manifestations are common in ulcerative colitis (UC). Herein, we present a 36-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis and uncommon nasal mucosa pyoderma vegetans. The patient presented to our hospital with symptoms of active colitis and a concomitant 3×4×5 cm dermato-mucosal lesion in her left nasal lumen. After surgery of the mucosal lesion, the treatment for her active colitis was initiated with intravenous infliximab and oral asacol. After a 1-year follow-up, no sign of recurrence favoring mucosal lesion was noted and symptoms of ulcerative colitis were managed properly. PMID:26106471

  16. Aberrant activation of nuclear factor of activated T cell 2 in lamina propria mononuclear cells in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Tsung-Chieh; Hsieh, Sen-Yung; Hsieh, Yi-Yueh; Chen, Tse-Chin; Yeh, Chien-Yu; Lin, Chun-Jung; Lin, Deng-Yn; Chiu, Cheng-Tang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of nuclear factor of activated T cell 2 (NFAT2), the major NFAT protein in peripheral T cells, in sustained T cell activation and intractable inflammation in human ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: We used two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis, immunohistochemistry, double immunohistochemical staining, and confocal microscopy to inspect the expression of NFAT2 in 107, 15, 48 and 5 cases of UC, Crohn’s disease (CD), non-specific colitis, and 5 healthy individuals, respectively. RESULTS: Up-regulation with profound nucleo-translocation/activation of NFAT2 of lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) of colonic mucosa was found specifically in the affected colonic mucosa from patients with UC, as compared to CD or NC (P < 0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test). Nucleo-translocation/activation of NFAT2 primarily occurred in CD8+T, but was less prominent in CD4+ T cells or CD20+B cells. It was strongly associated with the disease activity, including endoscopic stage (τ = 0.2145, P = 0.0281) and histologic grade (τ = 0.4167, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: We disclose for the first time the nucleo-translocation/activatin of NFAT2 in lamina propria mononuclear cells in ulcerative colitis. Activation of NFAT2 was specific for ulcerative colitis and highly associated with disease activity. Since activation of NFAT2 is implicated in an auto-regulatory positive feedback loop of sustained T-cell activation and NFAT proteins play key roles in the calcium/calcineurin signaling pathways, our results not only provide new insights into the mechanism for sustained intractable inflammation, but also suggest the calcium-calcineurin/NFAT pathway as a new therapeutic target for ulcerative colitis. PMID:18350607

  17. The Broadband Anti-reflection Coated Extended Hemispherical Silicon Lenses for uc(Polarbear-2) Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siritanasak, P.; Aleman, C.; Arnold, K.; Cukierman, A.; Hazumi, M.; Kazemzadeh, K.; Keating, B.; Matsumura, T.; Lee, A. T.; Lee, C.; Quealy, E.; Rosen, D.; Stebor, N.; Suzuki, A.

    2015-12-01

    uc(Polarbear-2) (PB-2) is a next-generation receiver that is part of the Simons Array cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment which is located in the Atacama desert in Northern Chile. The primary scientific goals of the Simons Array are a deep search for the CMB B-mode signature of gravitational waves from inflation and the characterization of large-scale structure using its effect on CMB polarization. The PB-2 receiver will deploy with 1897 dual-polarization sinuous antenna-coupled pixels, each with a directly contacting extended hemispherical silicon lens. Every pixel has dual polarization sensitivity in two spectral bands centered at 95 and 150 GHz, for a total of 7588 transition edge sensor bolometers operating at 270 mK. To achieve the PB-2 detector requirements, we developed a broadband anti-reflection (AR) coating for the extended hemispherical lenses that uses two molds to apply two layers of epoxy, Stycast 1090 and Stycast 2850FT. Our measurements of the absorption loss from the AR coating on a flat surface at cryogenic temperatures show less than 1 % absorption, and the coating has survived multiple thermal cycles. We can control the diameter of the coating within 25 \\upmu m and translation errors are within 25 \\upmu m in all directions, which results in less than 1 % decrease in transmittance. We also find the performance of the AR-coated lens matches very well with simulations.

  18. Examination of UC-ZrC after long term irradiation at thermionic temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L.; Johnson, H. O.

    1972-01-01

    Two fluoride tungsten clad UC-ZrC fueled capsules, designated as V-2C and V-2D, were examined a hot cell after irradiation in NASA Plum Brook Reactor at a maximum cladding temperature of 1930 K for 11,089 and 12,031 hours to burnups of 3.0 x 10 to the 20th power and 2.1 x 10 to the 20th power fission/c.c. respectively. Percentage of fission gas release from the fuel material was measured by radiochemical means. Cladding deformation, fuel-cladding interaction and microstructures of fuel, cladding, and fuel-cladding interface were studied metallographically. Compositions of dispersions in fuel, fuel matrix and fuel-cladding interaction layer were analyzed by electron microprobe techniques. Axial and radial distributions of burnup were determined by gamma-scan, autoradiography and isotopic burnup analysis. The results are presented and discussed in conjunction with the requirements of thermionic fuel elements for space power application.

  19. Development of Readout Electronics for uc(POLARBEAR-2) Cosmic Microwave Background Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, K.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; Barron, D.; Bender, A. N.; Cukierman, A.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M.; Elleflot, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Hazumi, M.; Holzapfel, W.; Hori, Y.; Keating, B.; Kusaka, A.; Lee, A.; Montgomery, J.; Rotermund, K.; Shirley, I.; Suzuki, A.; Whitehorn, N.

    2016-01-01

    The readout of transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers with a large multiplexing factor is key for the next generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiment, uc(Polarbear)-2 (Suzuki in J Low Temp Phys 176:719, 2014), having 7588 TES bolometers. To enable the large arrays, we have been developing a readout system with a multiplexing factor of 40 in the frequency domain. Extending that architecture to 40 bolometers requires an increase in the bandwidth of the SQUID electronics, above 4 MHz. This paper focuses on cryogenic readout and shows how it affects cross talk and the responsivity of the TES bolometers. A series resistance, such as equivalent series resistance of capacitors for LC filters, leads to non-linear response of the bolometers. A wiring inductance modulates a voltage across the bolometers and causes cross talk. They should be controlled well to reduce systematic errors in CMB observations. We have been developing a cryogenic readout with a low series impedance and have tuned bolometers in the middle of their transition at a high frequency (> 3 MHz).

  20. Clinical and arthroscopic findings in recreationally active patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the diagnostic accuracy of standard clinical tests for the shoulder in recreational athletes with activity related pain. Design Cohort study with index test of clinical examination and reference standard of arthroscopy. Setting Sports Medicine clinic in Sheffield, U.K. Participants 101 recreational athletes (82 male, 19 female; mean age 40.8 ± 14.6 years) over a six year period. Interventions Bilateral evaluation of movements of the shoulder followed by standardized shoulder tests, formulation of clinical diagnosis and shoulder arthroscopy conducted by the same surgeon. Main Outcome Measurements Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio for a positive test and over-all accuracy of clinical examination was examined retrospectively and compared with arthroscopy. Results Isolated pathology was rare, most patients (72%) having more than one injury recorded. O'Brien's clinical test had a mediocre sensitivity (64%) and over-all accuracy (54%) for diagnosing SLAP lesions. Hawkins test and Jobe's test had the highest but still not impressive over-all accuracy (67%) and sensitivity (67%) for rotator cuff pathology respectively. External and internal impingement tests showed similar levels of accuracy. When a positive test was observed in one of a combination of shoulder tests used for diagnosing SLAP lesions or rotator cuff disease, sensitivity increased substantially whilst specificity decreased. Conclusions The diagnostic accuracy of isolated standard shoulder tests in recreational athletes was over-all very poor, potentially due to the majority of athletes (71%) having concomitant shoulder injuries. Most likely, this means that many of these injuries are missed in general practice and treatment is therefore delayed. Clinical examination of the shoulder should involve a combination of clinical tests in order to identify likely intra articular pathology which may warrant referral to specialist for surgery. PMID:20157421

  1. CSF2 Overexpression Is Associated with STAT5 Phosphorylation and Poor Prognosis in Patients with Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yi-Ying; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Huang, Chun-Nung; Li, Ching-Chia; Li, Wei-Ming; Yeh, Bi-Wen; Liang, Peir-In; Wu, Ting-Feng; Li, Chien-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urothelial carcinoma (UC) commonly occurs in the urinary bladder (UB) and rarely in upper the upper urinary tract (UT). Its molecular pathogenesis, however, remains obscure. Though the constitutive phosphorylation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5 (STAT5) is an important part of carcinogenesis generally, researchers have not systematically investigated this process specifically in relation to UC. The present study addresses this gap. Through data mining a published transcriptomic database of UBUCs (GSE32894), it identified Colony Stimulating Factor 2 (CSF2) as the stepwise upregulated gene of much significance among those related to the positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT5 (GO:0042523). Since the phosphorylation of STAT5, a key process in the development of UC, is closely associated with CSF2, we then examine CSF2 transcript and protein expression, justifying their association with clinicopathological features and survival in our well-established cohort of patients with UC. Design: Laser capture microdissection in conjunction with real-time qRT-PCR are used to detect CSF2 transcript levels in 24 UBUCs and 6 non-tumor urothelium samples. We then used the H-score method to evaluate the immunohistochemistry in order to determine CSF2 protein expression in 296 UBUCs and 340 UTUCs, respectively. After correlating protein expression status with key clinicopathological features, the prognostic significance of CSF2 protein expression was determined for disease-specific survival (DSS) and metastasis-free survival (MeFS). Results: We exclusively detected the CSF2 transcript, which was stepwise upregulated in tumor lesions (p=0.010). In both groups of UC we found overexpression of CSF2 significantly related to incremental pT status (UTUC, p=0.011; UBUC, p<0.001), as well as with perineural invasion (UTUC, p=0.002; UBUC, p=0.001). Univariate analysis found a close correlation between CSF2 overexpression and unfavorable

  2. The long noncoding RNAs PVT1 and uc002mbe.2 in sera provide a new supplementary method for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jinyu; Han, Junqing; Zhang, Jian; Li, Guanzhen; Liu, Hui; Cui, Xianping; Xu, Yantian; Li, Tao; Liu, Juan; Wang, Chuanxi

    2016-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignancy of the liver in adults worldwide. Several studies have demonstrated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the development of various types of cancer, including HCC. These findings prompted us to examine the detectability of lncRNAs in blood samples from patients with HCC. In this study, we explored the expression levels of 31 cancer-related lncRNAs in sera from 71 HCC patients and 64 healthy individuals by reverse transcription and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). We found that 25 lncRNAs could be detected in the serum and that 7 had significantly different expression levels. A 2-lncRNA signature (PVT1 and uc002mbe.2) identified by stepwise regression showed potential as a diagnostic marker for HCC. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.764 (95% CI: 0.684-0.833). The sensitivity and specificity values of this serum 2-lncRNA signature for distinguishing HCC patients from the healthy group were 60.56% and 90.62%, respectively. The diagnostic ability of the combination of the serum 2-lncRNA signature with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was much greater than that of AFP alone. The expression levels of the 2 lncRNAs were associated with clinical parameters including tumor size, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage, and serum bilirubin. PMID:27495068

  3. The long noncoding RNAs PVT1 and uc002mbe.2 in sera provide a new supplementary method for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jinyu; Han, Junqing; Zhang, Jian; Li, Guanzhen; Liu, Hui; Cui, Xianping; Xu, Yantian; Li, Tao; Liu, Juan; Wang, Chuanxi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignancy of the liver in adults worldwide. Several studies have demonstrated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the development of various types of cancer, including HCC. These findings prompted us to examine the detectability of lncRNAs in blood samples from patients with HCC. In this study, we explored the expression levels of 31 cancer-related lncRNAs in sera from 71 HCC patients and 64 healthy individuals by reverse transcription and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). We found that 25 lncRNAs could be detected in the serum and that 7 had significantly different expression levels. A 2-lncRNA signature (PVT1 and uc002mbe.2) identified by stepwise regression showed potential as a diagnostic marker for HCC. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.764 (95% CI: 0.684–0.833). The sensitivity and specificity values of this serum 2-lncRNA signature for distinguishing HCC patients from the healthy group were 60.56% and 90.62%, respectively. The diagnostic ability of the combination of the serum 2-lncRNA signature with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was much greater than that of AFP alone. The expression levels of the 2 lncRNAs were associated with clinical parameters including tumor size, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage, and serum bilirubin. PMID:27495068

  4. Efficacy and Safety of Adalimumab in Moderately to Severely Active Cases of Ulcerative Colitis: A Meta-Analysis of Published Placebo-Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zong Mei; Li, Wei; Jiang, Xue Liang

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adalimumab (ADA) in moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC) patients who are unresponsive to traditional therapy. Methods Electronic databases, including the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases, were searched to April 20, 2014. UC-related randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared ADA with placebo were eligible. Review Manager 5.1 was used for data analysis. Results This meta-analysis included three RCTs. ADA was considerably more effective compared with a placebo, and it increased the ratio of patients with clinical remission, clinical responses, mucosal healing and inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire responses in the induction and maintenance phases (p<0.05), as well as patients with steroid-free remission (p<0.05) during the maintenance phase. Clinical remission was achieved in a greater number of UC cases in the ADA 160/80/40 mg groups (0/2/4 week, every other week) compared with the placebo group at week 8 (p=0.006) and week 52 (p=0.0002), whereas the week 8 clinical remission rate was equivalent between the ADA 80/40 mg groups and the placebo group. Among the patients who received immunomodulators (IMM) at baseline, ADA was superior to the placebo in terms of inducing clinical remission (p=0.01). Between-group differences were not observed in terms of serious adverse events (p=0.61). Conclusions ADA, particularly at doses of 160/80/40 mg (0/2/4 week, every other week), is effective and safe in patients with moderate-to-severe UC who are unresponsive to traditional treatment. Concomitant IMM therapy may improve the short-term therapeutic efficacy of ADA. PMID:26780088

  5. Active Student Participation May Enhance Patient Centeredness: Patients' Assessments of the Clinical Education Ward for Integrative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tauschel, Diethard; Neumann, Melanie; Lutz, Gabriele; Valk-Draad, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the impact of active student participation on quality of care in an integrative inpatient setting. Methods. Over a two-year period, we surveyed all patients treated on the Clinical Education Ward for Integrative Medicine (CEWIM), where final-year medical students are integrated into an internal medicine ward complementing conventional medicine with anthroposophic medicine. Patients treated on the regular wards of the same internal medicine department served as the control group (CG). General quality of care was studied with the Picker Inpatient Questionnaire, physician empathy with the Consultation and Relational Empathy measure, and patient enablement with the Patient Enablement Index. ANCOVA was used to control for covariates while examining significant differences between both patient groups. Results. Comparison of the CG wards and the CEWIM revealed no significant differences in medical treatment success. The CEWIM, however, achieved better results for physician-patient interaction, physician empathy, and patient enablement. Eighty Percent of the CEWIM patients rated student participation as positively impacting quality of care. Conclusion. Our results indicate that incorporating students in an integrative healthcare setting may result in greater patient centeredness. Further studies are needed to determine whether this is due to organizational advantages, students' empathic activity, the impact of teaching, or learner-teacher interaction. PMID:23573149

  6. Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients without Limitation of Physical Function: The Role of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tallner, Alexander; Waschbisch, Anne; Hentschke, Christian; Pfeifer, Klaus; Mäurer, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, in general, show reduced physical function, physical activity, and quality of life. Positive associations between physical activity and quality of life have been reported. In particular, we were interested in the relation between physical activity and mental health in MS patients without limitation of physical function, since limitations of physical function may influence both physical activity and quality of life. Assessment comprised the Baecke questionnaire on physical activity, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We ranked our sample according to physical activity into four groups and performed an ANOVA to analyze the relationship between levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Then we performed a subgroup analysis and included patients with unlimited walking distance and a score of less than 18 in the BDI. Most active vs. inactive patients were compared for the mental subscales of the SF-36 and depression scores. From 632 patients, 265 met inclusion criteria and hence quartiles were filled with 67 patients each. Active and inactive patients did not differ considerably in physical function. In contrast, mental subscales of the SF-36 were higher in active patients. Remarkable and significant differences were found regarding vitality, general health perception, social functioning and mental health, all in favor of physically active patients. Our study showed that higher physical activity is still associated with higher mental health scores even if limitations of physical function are accounted for. Therefore, we believe that physical activity and exercise have considerable health benefits for MS patients. PMID:26147422

  7. Active Patient Participation in the Development of an Online Intervention

    PubMed Central

    van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn M; Snippe, Harm Wouter; Gouw, Hans; Zijlstra, Josée M; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Background An important and challenging part of living with cancer relates to the repeated visits to the hospital. Since how patients cope between these post-diagnostic visits depends partly on the information and support received from their physician during the visits, it is important to make the most of them. Recent findings reinforce the importance of training not only the health care professionals in communication skills, but providing patients with support in communication as well. Delivering such supportive interventions online can have potential benefits in terms of accessibility, cost-effectiveness, and ability to tailor information to personal needs. However, problems with attrition (dropout, non-usage) during the test phase and poor uptake after implementation are frequently reported. The marginal level of engagement of the patient as end user seems to play a role in this. Therefore, recent research suggests integrating theory-based development methods with methods that promote involvement of the patient at an early stage. This paper describes a participatory protocol, used to let patients guide a theory-informed development process. Objective The objective of this project was to apply a bottom-up inspired procedure to develop a patient-centered intervention with corresponding evaluation and implementation plan. Methods The applied development protocol was based on the intervention mapping framework, combined with patient participatory methods that were inspired by the participation ladder and user-centred design methods. Results The applied protocol led to a self-directed online communication intervention aimed at helping patients gain control during their communications with health care professionals. It also led to an evaluation plan and an implementation plan. The protocol enabled the continuous involvement of patient research partners and the partial involvement of patient service users, which led to valuable insights and improvements. Conclusions

  8. Baseline Platelet Activation and Reactivity in Patients with Critical Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    de Borst, Gert Jan; Verhaar, Marianne C.; Roest, Mark; Moll, Frans L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) have a high risk to develop cardiovascular events (CVE). We hypothesized that in CLI patients platelets would display increased baseline activation and reactivity. Objectives We investigated baseline platelet activation and platelet reactivity in patients with CLI. Patients/Methods In this study baseline platelet activation and platelet reactivity in response to stimulation of all major platelet activation pathways were determined in 20 CLI patients (11 using aspirin and 9 using vitamin K-antagonists) included in the Juventas-trial (clinicaltrials.gov NCT00371371) and in 17 healthy controls. Platelet activation was quantified with flow cytometric measurement of platelet P-selectin expression and fibrinogen binding. Results CLI patients not using aspirin showed higher baseline platelet activation compared to healthy controls. Maximal reactivity to stimulation of the collagen and thrombin activation pathway was decreased in CLI patients compared to healthy controls. In line, attenuated platelet reactivity to stimulation of multiple activation pathways was associated with several traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Conclusions Baseline platelet activation was increased in CLI patients, whereas the reactivity of circulating platelets to several stimulatory agents is decreased. Reactivity of platelets was inversely correlated with cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26148006

  9. Utilization of molasses sugar for lactic acid production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii mutant Uc-3 in batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Dumbrepatil, Arti; Adsul, Mukund; Chaudhari, Shivani; Khire, Jayant; Gokhale, Digambar

    2008-01-01

    Efficient lactic acid production from cane sugar molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii mutant Uc-3 in batch fermentation process is demonstrated. Lactic acid fermentation using molasses was not significantly affected by yeast extract concentrations. The final lactic acid concentration increased with increases of molasses sugar concentrations up to 190 g/liter. The maximum lactic acid concentration of 166 g/liter was obtained at a molasses sugar concentration of 190 g/liter with a productivity of 4.15 g/liter/h. Such a high concentration of lactic acid with high productivity from molasses has not been reported previously, and hence mutant Uc-3 could be a potential candidate for economical production of lactic acid from molasses at a commercial scale. PMID:17981933

  10. Predictors of relapse in patients with ulcerative colitis in remission after one-year of infliximab therapy.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Klaudia; Lakatos, Péter László; Nagy, Ferenc; Szepes, Zoltán; Miheller, Pál; Papp, Mária; Palatka, Károly; Bálint, Anita; Bor, Renáta; Wittmann, Tibor; Molnár, Tamás

    2013-12-01

    BACKGROUND. Some of the most important questions relating to the use of biological therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases concern the duration of maintenance therapy. The RASH study revealed that previous use of biological therapy and dose intensification are associated with restarting of biological therapy in Crohn's disease. The aim of the study was to assess the disease course and frequency of relapse of ulcerative colitis (UC) following discontinuation of infliximab in patients with remission and to determine predictive factors for relapse. PATIENTS AND METHODS. Fifty-one UC patients who had achieved clinical remission following 1 year of infliximab therapy and for whom infliximab was then discontinued participated in this prospective observational study. 15.7% of the patients received infliximab before the 1-year period of biological therapy analyzed in the study. Biological therapy was restarted in case of recurrent clinical activity. Data were collected from four Hungarian IBD centers. RESULTS. Thirty-five percent of the patients needed to be retreated with infliximab within 1 year after treatment cessation. Logistic regression analysis revealed that previous biological therapy (p = 0.021) was associated with the need of restarting infliximab. None of the data relating to patients' demographic and clinical characteristics, concomitant therapy and CRP level showed association with the need for restarting biological therapy. CONCLUSIONS. Biological therapy was restarted at a median of 4 months after discontinuation in more than every third UC patients who had been in clinical remission following 1 year of infliximab therapy. Response to retreatment with infliximab was favorable in the majority of the patients who relapsed. PMID:24131338

  11. Personalized Strategies to Activate and Empower Patients in Health Care and Reduce Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Mullins, C. Daniel; Novak, Priscilla; Thomas, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Designing culturally-sensitive personalized interventions is essential to sustain patients’ involvement in their treatment, and encourage patients to take an active role in their own health and health care. We consider patient activation and empowerment as a cyclical process defined through patient accumulation of knowledge, confidence, and self-determination for their own health and health care. We propose a patient-centered, multi-level activation and empowerment framework (individual-, health care professional-, community-, and health care delivery system-level) to inform the development of culturally informed personalized patient activation and empowerment (P-PAE) interventions to improve population health, and reduce racial and ethnic disparities. We discuss relevant Affordable Care Act payment and delivery policy reforms, and how they impact patient activation and empowerment. Such policies include Accountable Care Organizations and Value Based Purchasing, Patient Centered Medical Homes, and the Community Health Benefit. Challenges and possible solutions to implementing the P-PAE are discussed. Comprehensive and longitudinal data sets with consistent P-PAE measures are needed to conduct comparative effectiveness analyses to evaluate the optimal P-PAE model. We believe the P-PAE model is timely and sustainable, and will be critical to engaging patients in their treatment, developing patients’ abilities to manage their health, helping patients to express concerns and preferences regarding treatment, empowering patients to ask questions about treatment options, and building up strategic patient-provider partnerships through shared decision making. PMID:25845376

  12. 78 FR 79079 - Agency Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey); Activities under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey); Activities under OMB Review... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900- 0764 (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey)'' in any correspondence....gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0764 (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey)'' in...

  13. Are There Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Suicidal Activity among Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Kalman J.; Harrow, Martin; Faull, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    Are there gender-specific risk factors for suicidal activity among patients with schizophrenia and depression? A total of 74 schizophrenia patients (51 men, 23 women) and 77 unipolar nonpsychotic depressed patients (26 men, 51 women) from the Chicago Follow-up Study were studied prospectively at 2 years posthospitalization and again at 7.5 years.…

  14. 75 FR 16912 - Proposed Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey) Activity: Comment Request... measure patients' satisfaction with VA's dental services. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on..., Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey, VA Form 10-0503. OMB Control Number: 2900-New (VA Form 10-0503)....

  15. Clinicians' and Patients' Assessment of Activity Overuse and Underuse and Its Relation to Physical Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Annemieke Bonny; Preuper, Henrica R. Schiphorst; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2012-01-01

    To explore clinicians' and patients' (self)-assessment of activity overuse and underuse, and its relationship with physical capacity in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP). Study design was cross-sectional. Participants included patients with CMP, admitted to a multidisciplinary outpatient pain rehabilitation program. The main…

  16. Formation of Diastereoisomeric Piperazine-2,5-dione from uc(dl)-Alanine in the Presence of Olivine and Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchida, Shigeshi; Naraoka, Hiroshi; Masuda, Harue

    2016-04-01

    uc(dl)-Alanine (Ala) was heated with/without powdered olivine and water at 120 °C for 8 days to investigate the formation of the diastereoisomers of piperazine-2,5-dione (diketopiperazine, DKP). When only uc(dl)-Ala was heated with a small amount of water, 3.0 % of uc(dl)-Ala changed to cis- and trans-DKP after 8 days. DKPs were not detected after heating when no water was added. The presence of a small amount of water is important factor controlling peptide production rates under thermal conditions. When DL-Ala was heated with olivine powder for 8 days, the yields of cis- and trans-DKP were 6.8 and 4.9 %, respectively. The high yield of cis-DKP compared with trans-DKP was attributed to greater thermal stability of cis-DKP. After heating for 8 days, the diastereoisomeric excess of cis-DKP without olivine was 7.3 %, whereas a much higher value of 16.3 % was obtained in the presence of olivine. Taken together, these results show that olivine is not only an efficient catalyst for the formation of DKPs but that it also play a significant role in determining the diastereoisomer selectivity of these cyclic dipeptides.

  17. Production of Cs and Fr isotopes from a high-density UC targets with different grain dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panteleev, V. N.; Alyakrinskiy, O.; Barbui, M.; Barzakh, A. E.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Lhersonneau, G.; Mezilev, K. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Moroz, F. V.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Stroe, L.; Tecchio, L. B.; Tonezzer, M.; Volkov, Yu. M.

    2009-12-01

    A UC target material of 11.3±0.5 g/cm^3 uranium density with the grain size of 20 and 5μm manufactured in a form of pills by the method of powder metallurgy has been tested on-line within the temperature range of 1800-2100 ° C . The mass of uranium exposed to the beam was 4-7g. The yields and release rates of Cs and Fr isotopes produced by fission and spallation reactions of 238U by 1GeV protons have been measured. The yields of Cs and Fr isotopes obtained from the tested target materials have been compared, including yields of very short-lived Fr isotopes with half-lives down to 1ms. Temperature-resistant materials (porous graphite and tantalum foil) have been used for the internal-container construction, which holds the UC target pills inside a tungsten external container heated by the resistant heating. The fastest release and the highest efficiency for short-lived isotopes have been obtained for the targets with the internal container manufactured from the tantalum foil. Results of on-line tests of a big mass target (730g of 5μm grain UC target material) have been discussed.

  18. Energy-dependent cell volume maintenance in UC-11MG human astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Lomneth, R; Gruenstein, E I

    1989-10-01

    Swelling of astrocytes in the brain is a major cause of the morbidity and mortality associated with stroke and head trauma. Using a human astrocytoma cell line (UC-11MG) as a model system, we studied cell volume changes caused by ATP depletion under conditions mimicking hypoxia. ATP levels were reduced to less than 10% of control using the metabolic inhibitors KCN or antimycin in combination with glucose deprivation. This was sufficient to eliminate ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake, indicating the Na+-K+-adenosinetriphosphatase was not operating. Furosemide-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake was reduced by approximately 60%, indicating Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport was also sensitive to ATP loss. ATP depletion resulted in a 30-40% reduction of cell volume within 60 min. ATP depletion also resulted in a net loss of intracellular K+. This loss of K+ could be blocked by Ba2+, indicating the K+ loss was through a conductive channel. When the net K+ loss was blocked by Ba2+, the volume decrease was also prevented. The cells remained viable throughout the time period as judged by exclusion of ethidium bromide by 99% of the cells and recovery of ATP levels to 75% of control within 60 min. We conclude that ATP depletion, following inhibition of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, causes astrocytes to shrink because of a more rapid loss of K+ than uptake of Na+. Thus it appears that ATP depletion alone is not sufficient to account for the rapid phase of astrocytic swelling observed during cerebral ischemia. PMID:2801931

  19. Evaluation of Potential Hydrocarbon Transport at the UC-4 Emplacement Hole, Central Nevada Test Area

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, Brad F.; Papelis, Charalambos; Pohll, Greg; Sloop, Derek

    1998-09-30

    Emplacement hole UC-4 was drilled in 1969 at the Central Nevada Test Area and left filled with drilling mud. Surface characterization samples collected from abandoned mud pits in the area yielded elevated concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbon, thereby raising a concern that the mud-filled emplacement hole may be leaching hydrocarbons into alluvial aquifers. This study was initiated to address this concern. An analytical solution for flow near a wellbore was used to calculate the amount of time it would take for a contaminant to move through the mud-filled well and into the surrounding aquifer. No hydraulic data are available from the emplacement hole; therefore, ranges of hydraulic conductivity and porosity were used in 100 Monte Carlo realizations to estimate a median travel time. Laboratory experiments were performed on samples collected from the central mud pit to determine the hydrocarbon release function for the bentonite drilling mud. The median contaminant breakthrough took about 12,000 years to travel 10 m, while the initial breakthrough took about 300 years and the final breakthrough took about 33,000 years. At a distance of about 10 m away from the emplacement hole, transport velocity is dominated by the hydraulics of the aquifer and not by the emplacement hole hydraulics. It would take an additional 45,500 years for the contaminant to travel 800 m to the U.S. Department of Energy land exclusion boundary. Travel times were primarily affected by the hydraulic conductivity and porosity of the drilling mud, then by the hydraulic conductivity, porosity and hydraulic gradient of the alluvial aquifer, followed by the hydrocarbon release function.

  20. [Measurement of physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Magnussen, Helgo; Waschki, Benjamin; Watz, Henrik

    2009-04-15

    Physical activity is an important parameter related to morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome/diabetes, mental disorders, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In COPD, lower levels of physical activity as reported by the patients are associated with a faster annual lung function decline, increased number of hospitalizations, and higher risk of mortality. Self-reported physical activity, however, correlates only poorly with objectively quantified physical activity in patients with COPD. Recent data show that physical activity can reliably be measured in a substantial number of patients with COPD. Extrapulmonary effects of COPD are associated with reduced physical activity. Clinical characteristics commonly used to assess disease severity like the forced expiratory volume in 1 s or the 6-min walk distance only incompletely reflect the physical activity of patients with COPD. PMID:19399389

  1. Validity of a Questionnaire to Assess the Physical Activity Level in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiraud, Thibaut; Granger, Richard; Bousquet, Marc; Gremeaux, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare, in coronary artery disease patients, physical activity (PA) assessed with the Dijon Physical Activity Questionnaire (DPAQ) and the true PA objectively measured using an accelerometer. Seventy patients wore an accelerometer (MyWellness Key actimeter) throughout 1 week after a cardiac rehabilitation program that…

  2. Danish cohort of monozygotic inflammatory bowel disease twins: Clinical characteristics and inflammatory activity

    PubMed Central

    Moller, Frederik Trier; Knudsen, Lina; Harbord, Marcus; Satsangi, Jack; Gordon, Hannah; Christiansen, Lene; Christensen, Kaare; Jess, Tine; Andersen, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe the establishment of a Danish inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) twin cohort with focus on concordance of treatment and inflammatory markers. METHODS: We identified MZ twins, likely to be discordant or concordant for IBD, by merging information from the Danish Twin Register and the National Patient Register. The twins were asked to provide biological samples, questionnaires, and data access to patient files and public registries. Biological samples were collected via a mobile laboratory, which allowed for immediate centrifugation, fractionation, and storage of samples. The mean time from collection of samples to storage in the -80 °C mobile freezer was less than one hour. The diagnoses where validated using the Copenhagen diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: We identified 159 MZ IBD twin pairs, in a total of 62 (39%) pairs both twins agreed to participate. Of the supposed 62 IBD pairs, the IBD diagnosis could be confirmed in 54 pairs. The cohort included 10 concordant pairs, whereof some were discordant for either treatment or surgery. The 10 concordant pairs, where both pairs suffered from IBD, included eight CD/CD pairs, one UC/UC pair and one UC/IBDU pair. The discordant pairs comprised 31 UC, 5 IBDU (IBD unclassified), and 8 CD discordant pairs. In the co-twins not affected by IBD, calprotectin was above 100 μg/g in 2 participants, and above 50 μg/g in a further 5 participants. CONCLUSION: The presented IBD twin cohorts are an excellent resource for bioinformatics studies with proper adjustment for disease-associated exposures including medication and inflammatory activity in the co-twins. PMID:27275097

  3. Type 2 diabetes and dog walking: patients' longitudinal perspectives about implementing and sustaining physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Peel, Elizabeth; Douglas, Margaret; Parry, Odette; Lawton, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Background Physical activity is particularly important for people with type 2 diabetes, as evidence suggests that any reduction in sedentary time is good for metabolic health. Aim To explore type 2 diabetes patients' talk about implementing and sustaining physical activity. Design of study Longitudinal, qualitative study using repeat in-depth interviews with 20 patients over 4 years following clinical diagnosis. Setting Patients were recruited from 16 general practices and three hospitals across Lothian, Scotland. Results Discussion, and salience, of physical activity was marginal in patient accounts of their diabetes management. Patients claimed to have only received vague and non-specific guidance about physical activity from health professionals, and emphasised a perceived lack of interest and encouragement. Aside from walking, physical activities which were adopted tended to attenuate over time. Patients' accounts revealed how walking a dog assisted this kind of activity maintenance over time. Three main themes are highlighted in the analysis: 1) incidental walking; 2) incremental physical activity gains; and 3) augmenting physical activity maintenance. The problems arising from walking without a dog (for example, lack of motivation) are also examined. Conclusion Asking patients about pet preferences might seem tangential to medical interactions. However, encouraging dog walking or identifying another interest that promotes a regular commitment to undertake physical activity may yield long-term health benefits. PMID:20822690

  4. Serum of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis inhibits differentiation of osteochondrogenic precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Janak L; Verschueren, Patrick; Lems, Willem F; Bravenboer, Nathalie; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke; Bakker, Astrid D; Luyten, Frank P

    2016-05-01

    Delayed fracture healing is frequently experienced in patients with systemic inflammation such as during rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The reasons for this are diverse, but could also be caused by inflammatory cytokines and/or growth factors in serum from patients with active disease. We hypothesized that serum from patients with active RA contains circulating inflammatory factors that inhibit differentiation of osteochondrogenic precursors. Serum was obtained from 15 patients with active RA (active RA-sera) and from the same patients in clinical remission 1 year later (remission RA-sera; controls). The effect of active RA-sera on osteochondrogenic differentiation of chondrogenic ATDC5 cells and primary human periosteum-derived progenitor cells (HPDC) was determined in micromass culture. In ATDC5 cells, active RA-sera reduced Ki67 transcription levels by 40% and cartilage matrix accumulation by 14% at day 14, and Alp transcription levels by 16%, and matrix mineralization by 17% at day 21 compared with remission RA-sera. In HPDCs, active RA-sera inhibited metabolic activity by 8%, SOX9 transcription levels by 14%, and cartilage matrix accumulation by 7% at day 7 compared with remission RA-sera. In conclusion, sera from patients with active RA negatively affect differentiation of osteochondrogenic precursors, and as a consequence may contribute to delayed fracture healing in these patients. PMID:27050327

  5. Radioaerosol lung clearance in patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, M.P.; Baughman, R.P.; Hughes, J.; Fernandez-Ulloa, M.

    1985-05-01

    Pulmonary radioaerosol clearance rate of /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriamine pentacetate (DTPA) in 14 patients with untreated sarcoidosis was compared with /sup 67/Ga lung scan and increased lymphocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Nine healthy nonsmoking subjects had a mean DTPA clearance rate of 1.18%/min (range, 0.54 to 1.60%/min). Eight of 14 patients with sarcoidosis had clearance rates greater than 1.60%/min. Of those 8 patients with abnormal DTPA clearance, 4 had positive gallium scans, 4 had more than 17% lymphocytes in the BAL fluid, and 3 had both tests positive. To study the cause of abnormal DTPA clearance, 23 subjects (including 3 normal controls, all 14 patients with sarcoidosis, and 6 patients with localized disease on chest roentgenogram) underwent both DTPA clearance studies and BAL for quantitation of the amount of albumin in lung fluid. There was a positive correlation between the rate of DTPA clearance and the albumin concentration in lung fluid (r = 0.87, p less than 0.01).

  6. Signaling pathway models as biomarkers: Patient-specific simulations of JNK activity predict the survival of neuroblastoma patients.

    PubMed

    Fey, Dirk; Halasz, Melinda; Dreidax, Daniel; Kennedy, Sean P; Hastings, Jordan F; Rauch, Nora; Munoz, Amaya Garcia; Pilkington, Ruth; Fischer, Matthias; Westermann, Frank; Kolch, Walter; Kholodenko, Boris N; Croucher, David R

    2015-12-22

    Signaling pathways control cell fate decisions that ultimately determine the behavior of cancer cells. Therefore, the dynamics of pathway activity may contain prognostically relevant information different from that contained in the static nature of other types of biomarkers. To investigate this hypothesis, we characterized the network that regulated stress signaling by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway in neuroblastoma cells. We generated an experimentally calibrated and validated computational model of this network and used the model to extract prognostic information from neuroblastoma patient-specific simulations of JNK activation. Switch-like JNK activation mediates cell death by apoptosis. An inability to initiate switch-like JNK activation in the simulations was significantly associated with poor overall survival for patients with neuroblastoma with or without MYCN amplification, indicating that patient-specific simulations of JNK activation could stratify patients. Furthermore, our analysis demonstrated that extracting information about a signaling pathway to develop a prognostically useful model requires understanding of not only components and disease-associated changes in the abundance or activity of the components but also how those changes affect pathway dynamics. PMID:26696630

  7. Patient specific proteolytic activity of monocyte-derived macrophages and osteoclasts predicted with temporal kinase activation states during differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Keon-Young; Li, Weiwei A.; Platt, Manu O.

    2012-01-01

    Patient-to-patient variability in disease progression continues to complicate clinical decisions of treatment regimens for cardiovascular diseases, metastatic cancers and osteoporosis. Here, we investigated if monocytes, circulating white blood cells that enter tissues and contribute to disease progression by differentiating into macrophages or osteoclasts, could be useful in understanding this variability. Monocyte-derived macrophages and osteoclasts produce cysteine cathepsins, powerful extracellular matrix proteases which have been mechanistically linked to accelerated atherosclerotic, osteoporotic, and tumor progression. We hypothesized that multivariate analysis of temporal kinase activation states during monocyte differentiation could predict cathepsin proteolytic responses of monocyte-derived macrophages and osteoclasts in a patient-specific manner. Freshly isolated primary monocytes were differentiated with M-CSF or RANKL into macrophages or osteoclasts, respectively, and phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt, p38 MAPK, JNK, c-jun, and IκB-α were measured at days 1, 3, 6, and 9. In parallel, cell diameters and numbers of nuclei were measured, and multiplex cathepsin zymography was used to quantify cathepsins K, L, S, and V activity from cell extracts and conditioned media. There was extensive patient-to-patient variability in temporal kinase activation states, cell morphologies, and cathepsin K, L, S, and V proteolytic activity. Partial least squares regression models trained with temporal kinase activation states successfully predicted patient-specific morphological characteristics (mean cell diameter and number of nuclei) and patient-specific cathepsin proteolytic activity with predictability as high as 95%, even with the challenge of incorporating the complex, unknown cues from individual patients’ unique genetic and biochemical backgrounds. This personalized medicine approach considers patient variability in kinase signals to predict cathepsin activity

  8. Repeated activation of mania by atypical antipsychotics in a patient

    PubMed Central

    Raghunath, Ashwati

    2012-01-01

    A 50-year-old, white female patient was diagnosed with schizophrenia in her teens. Her illness did not respond adequately to treatment until she was placed on a combination of fluoxetine and conventional antipsychotics. She discontinued the conventional antipsychotics on a number of occasions, which caused her to become psychotic, but not manic. On two separate occasions she was placed on atypical antipsychotics that were associated with the occurrence of manic symptoms. Once the patient was restarted on conventional antipsychotics, she remained stable. PMID:23188864

  9. Use of Virtual Patients in an Advanced Therapeutics Pharmacy Course to Promote Active, Patient-Centered Learning

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Rima A.; Benedict, Neal

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess student satisfaction and learning of course objectives following the integration of virtual patient cases designed to promote active, patient-centered learning in an advanced therapeutics pharmacy course. Design. A dynamic virtual patient platform that incorporated a branched-narrative, decision-making teaching model was used in an advanced therapeutics course to supplement lecture content. Assessment. Presimulation and postsimulation tests were used to assess student learning. The use of virtual patients significantly enhanced student learning for both higher- and lower-level test questions (p<0.001 and p=0.01, respectively). Students agreed or strongly agreed that the virtual patient cases provided an effective way to learn (72%), were enjoyable (69%), and were appropriate in content (80%), and that more should be incorporated (59%). Conclusion. The use of virtual patients in an advanced therapeutics practicum effectively promoted active, patient-centered learning; engaged students in an interactive and dynamic educational technology; encouraged teamwork; enhanced higher-level student learning; and improved student satisfaction in the course. PMID:25147397

  10. Patient Mood and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Alzheimer Disease: Relationship Between Patient and Caregiver Reports.

    PubMed

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective study investigated the relationship between self-reports and caregiver perceptions of patients' depressive symptoms and the respective ability of these reports to predict instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) beyond what is accounted for by cognitive abilities in 71 patients with mild Alzheimer disease. Patients completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form, and caregivers completed the Behavior Rating Scale for Dementia assessing their perception of patients' depressive symptoms. Caregivers also completed IADL items from the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Inventory. Cognitive measures included the Mini-Mental State Examination, Logical Memory from the Wechsler Memory Scale III, and Trail Making Test, Part B. The relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms and caregiver report of patients' depressive symptoms showed a trend toward significance (r = .22, P = .06). Measures of depressive symptoms significantly predicted 12.5% of the variance in IADLs performance, beyond that accounted for by patient demographics and cognitive functioning. Interestingly, patients' reports, rather than caregivers', were particularly useful in this prediction. PMID:26071443

  11. Patient Engagement and Activation in Three Underserved Beacon Communities.

    PubMed

    Jardins, Terrisca Des; Drone, Shenetta A; Hashisaka, Susan; Hazzard, Jobyna; Hunt, Susan B; Massey, Kimberly; Rein, Alison; Schachter, Abigail; Turske, Scott

    2015-08-01

    Whether the setting is urban, rural, or somewhere in between, engagement strategies for the underserved require a great deal of flexibility and sensitivity to the socioeconomic, cultural, and geographic conditions of the patient population. The following report details how three unique communities designed specific strategies to engage underserved populations in the management of their chronic conditions. PMID:26320912

  12. HLA-DR, DQ and T cell antigen receptor constant beta genes in Japanese patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, K; Atoh, M; Konoeda, Y; Yagita, A; Inoko, H; Sekiguchi, S

    1990-01-01

    We studied the T cell antigen receptor (TcR) constant beta chain genes on HLA typed Japanese patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). A TcR constant beta EcoRI 6.0-kb fragment was present in all Japanese UC patients (n = 17) but completely absent in the controls (n = 35) (chi2 = 47.6, P less than 0.001). The frequency of HLA-DR2 antigen was significantly higher in UC patients (85% versus 28% in controls, P less than 0.001). Furthermore, HLA-DQw1 antigen was also increased in UC patients (96% versus 60% in controls, P less than 0.001). However, HLA-DR4 antigen was significantly decreased in UC patients (12% versus 37%, P = 0.02). HLA-DR1 antigen was not found in UC patients and was present in only 15% of the controls. These results suggest that TcR beta chain and HLA-DQw1 antigen may be important in the pathogenesis of Japanese UC. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1973647

  13. A comparative study of oxidant-antioxidant status in stable and active vitiligo patients.

    PubMed

    Ines, Dammak; Sonia, Boudaya; Riadh, Ben Mansour; Amel, El Gaied; Slaheddine, Marrekchi; Hamida, Turki; Hamadi, Attia; Basma, Hentati

    2006-09-01

    The pathogenetic mechanisms in vitiligo have not been completely clarified. One of the major hypotheses in the pathogenesis of vitiligo is the oxidative stress hypothesis. The active or stable phase of vitiligo is defined on the basis of the progression or appearance of new lesions in the last 3 months and the absence of new lesions or their progression in the last 6 months, respectively. Eighteen patients with active vitiligo, 18 patients with stable vitiligo, and 40 controls were included in this study. We examined serum levels of malondialdehyde, selenium, vitamin E and A, and the erythrocyte activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. Our results revealed a significantly higher level of serum malondialdehyde, selenium in patients with active disease compared with the controls. Significant higher increase in erythrocytes superoxide dismutase activities was observed in active vitiligo group, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity was decreased significantly in active disease, whereas erythrocyte catalase activity and plasma vitamin E and A levels were not different in vitiligo patients as compared with controls. Our study shows that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of both active and stable vitiligo but increased imbalance of antioxidants was observed in the blood of active vitiligo patients. PMID:16897080

  14. Deoxyribonuclease activity of polyclonal IgGs: a putative serological marker in patients with spondyloarthritides.

    PubMed

    Kundzer, Alena V; Volkova, Margarita V; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Rödiger, Stefan; Schierack, Peter; Generalov, I; Nevinsky, Georgy A; Roggenbuck, Dirk

    2013-07-01

    Antibodies executing catalytic activity are referred to as antibody enzymes or short "abzymes" and may have diagnostic relevance. Abzymes with deoxyribonuclease (DNase) activity have been demonstrated in patients with autoimmune and infectious diseases. Despite several reports on the occurrence of DNase abzymes in systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases, conclusive data about DNase activity of antibodies in patients with spondyloarthritides (SpAs) are lacking. In recent cross-sectional studies evaluating levels of IgG DNase activity in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), reactive arthritis (ReA), and ankylosing spondylitis (AS), DNase activity of IgG has been assessed by the rivanol clot method and confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Remarkably, levels of IgG DNase activity were significantly higher in sera of SpA patients than those in control subjects. In patients with PsA, ReA, and AS, a positive correlation of DNase IgG activity with synovitis, disease activity, and stage of spondylitis was observed, respectively. Given the involvement of autoimmune reactions in cytolysis and connective tissue degradation in PsA, ReA, and to a lesser extent in AS, abzymes might have an impact on the pathophysiology of SpAs. Detection of IgG DNase activity in patients suffering from SpA represents an exciting new research field and may assist in the differential diagnosis of SpA. PMID:23592052

  15. Simulation of rice plant temperatures using the UC Davis Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm (ACASA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, A.; Pyles, D.; Paw U, K.

    2009-12-01

    The thermal environment in the plant canopy affects plants’ growth processes such as flowering and ripening. High temperatures often cause grain sterility and poor filling in serial crops, and reduce their production in tropical and temperate regions. With global warming predicted, these effects have become a major concern worldwide. In this study, we observed the plant body temperature profiles for the rice canopy and simulate them using a higher-order closure micrometeorological model to understand the relationship between plant temperatures and atmospheric condition. Experiments were conducted in rice paddy during 2007-summer season under warm temperate climate in Japan. Leaf temperatures at three different height (0.3, 0.5, 0.7m) and panicle temperatures at 0.9m were measured using fine-thermocouples. The UC Davis Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm (ACASA) was used to calculate plant body temperature profiles in the canopy. ACASA is based on the radiation transfer, higher-order closure of turbulent equations for mass and heat exchange, and detailed plant physiological parameterization for the canopy-atmosphere-soil system. Water temperature was almost constant of 21-23 C throughout the summer because of continuous irrigation. Therefore, larger difference between air temperature at 2 m and water temperature was found on daytime. Observed leaf/panicle temperature was lower near the water surface and higher on upper layer in the canopy. Difference of temperatures between 0.3 m and 0.9 m was around 3-4 C for daytime, and around 1-2 C for nighttime. Calculated result of ACASA recreated these trends of plant temperature profile sufficiently. However, the relationship between plant and air temperature in the canopy was a little different from observed, i.e. observed leaf/panicle temperature were almost the same as air temperature, in contrast the simulated air temperature was 0.5-1.5 C higher than plant temperatures for the both of daytime and night time

  16. Characterization of physical activity and sitting time among patients on hemodialysis using a new physical activity instrument

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Kirsten L.; Painter, Patricia; Delgado, Cynthia; Doyle, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objective Physical activity questionnaires usually focus on moderate to vigorous activities and may not accurately capture physical activity or variation in levels of activity among extremely inactive groups like dialysis patients. Design Cross-sectional study Setting Three dialysis facilities in the San Francisco Bay Area Subjects 68 prevalent hemodialysis patients Intervention We administered a new physical activity questionnaire designed to capture activity in the lower end of the range, the Low Physical Activity Questionnaire (LoPAQ). Main Outcome Measure Outcome measures were correlation with a validated physical activity questionnaire, the Minnesota Leisure Time Activity (LTA) questionnaire and with self-reported physical function (Physical Function score of the SF-36) and physical performance (gait speed, chair stand, balance, and Short Physical Performance Battery [SPPB]) . We also determined whether patients who were frail or reported limitations in activities of daily living (ADL) were less active on the LoPAQ. Results 68 participants (mean age 59 ± 14 years, 59% men) completed the study. Patients were inactive according to the LoPAQ, with a median (IQR) of 517 (204 – 1190) kcal/week of physical activity. Although activity from the LTA was lower than on the LoPAQ (411 (61 – 902) kcal/week), the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.20), and results from the two instruments were strongly correlated (rho =0.62, p < 0.001). In addition, higher physical activity measured by the LoPAQ was correlated with better self-reported functioning (rho = 0.64, p < 0.001), better performance on gait speed (rho = 0.32, p=0.02), balance (rho = 0.45, p < 0.001), and chair rising (rho = −0.32, p=0.03) tests and with higher SPPB total score (rho = 0.51, p < 0.001). Frail patients and patients with ADL limitations were less active than those who were not frail or limited. Conclusion The LoPAQ performed similarly to the Minnesota LTA questionnaire in our

  17. Controversial constitutive TSHR activity: patients, physiology, and in vitro characterization.

    PubMed

    Huth, S; Jaeschke, H; Schaarschmidt, J; Paschke, R

    2014-06-01

    G protein-coupled receptors constitute a large family of transmembrane receptors, which activate cellular responses by signal transmission and regulation of second messenger metabolism after ligand binding. For several of these receptors it is known that they also signal ligand-independently. The G protein-coupled thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is characterized by a high level of constitutive activity in the wild type state. However, little is known yet concerning the physiological relevance of the constitutive wild type TSHR activity. Certainly, knowledge of the physiological relevance of constitutive wild type receptor activity is necessary to better understand thyroid physiology and it is a prerequisite for the development of better therapies for nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Based on a literature search regarding all published TSHR mutations, this review covers several mutations which are clearly associated with a hyperthyroidism-phenotype, but interestingly show a lack of constitutive activity determined by in vitro characterization. Possible reasons for the observed discrepancies between clinical phenotypes and in vitro characterization results for constitutive TSHR activity are reviewed. All current in vitro characterization methods for constitutive TSHR mutations are "preliminary attempts" and may well be revised by more comprehensive and even better approaches. However, a standardized approach for the determination of constitutive activity can help to identify TSHR mutations for which the investigation of additional signaling mechanisms would be most interesting to find explanations for the current clinical phenotype/in vitro discrepancies and thereby also define suitable methods to explore the physiological relevance of constitutive wild type TSHR activity. PMID:24845969

  18. [Vaccines and preventive activities in patients with inflammatory arthritis].

    PubMed

    Casals-Sánchez, J L; Casals Vázquez, C; Vázquez Sánchez, M Á; Giménez Basallote, S

    2013-10-01

    Patients with inflammatory arthritis and eligible for immunosuppressive therapy account for more than 1% of general population, and represents a significant workload on family doctors. They are prone to other comorbidities, with an increased cardiovascular risk and a higher incidence of infections than the general population, especially skin infections and pneumonitis. This comorbidity can be considered vulnerable to a prevention program-prevention of cardiovascular risk, cancer screening, vaccination schedule for adults. As for prevention through vaccination, importance should be given to pneumococcal infection - significant in adults aged 50 or over, especially amongst immunosuppressed patients. The 13-valent conjugate vaccine, which has been recently approved for adults, must be considered. An attempt has been made to write a simple, applicable document on preventive measures that should be implemented both at primary and secondary care level for those adults. PMID:24095166

  19. Cerebral Activity Changes in Different Traditional Chinese Medicine Patterns of Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qi; Zhang, Peihai; Pan, Junjie; Li, Zhengjie; Liu, Jixin; Li, Guangsen; Qin, Wei; You, Yaodong; Yu, Xujun; Sun, Jinbo; Dong, Minghao; Gong, Qiyong; Guo, Jun; Chang, Degui

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pattern differentiation is the foundation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). This study aims to investigate the differences in cerebral activity in ED patients with different TCM patterns. Methods. 27 psychogenic ED patients and 27 healthy subjects (HS) were enrolled in this study. Each participant underwent an fMRI scan in resting state. The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) was used to detect the brain activity changes in ED patients with different patterns. Results. Compared to HS, ED patients showed an increased cerebral activity in bilateral cerebellum, insula, globus pallidus, parahippocampal gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and middle cingulate cortex (MCC). Compared to the patients with liver-qi stagnation and spleen deficiency pattern (LSSDP), the patients with kidney-yang deficiency pattern (KDP) showed an increased activity in bilateral brainstem, cerebellum, hippocampus, and the right insula, thalamus, MCC, and a decreased activity in bilateral putamen, medial frontal gyrus, temporal pole, and the right caudate nucleus, OFC, anterior cingulate cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex (P < 0.005). Conclusions. The ED patients with different TCM patterns showed different brain activities. The differences in cerebral activity between LSSDP and KDP were mainly in the emotion-related regions, including prefrontal cortex and cingulated cortex. PMID:26180534

  20. The migration and differentiation of hUC-MSCs(CXCR4/GFP) encapsulated in BDNF/chitosan scaffolds for brain tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuanjun; Zhao, Longxiang; Gu, Jun; Nie, Dekang; Chen, Yinan; Zuo, Hao; Huan, Wei; Shi, Jinlong; Chen, Jian; Shi, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We previously developed a biomaterial scaffold that could effectively provide seed cells to a lesion cavity resulting from traumatic brain injury. However, we subsequently found that few transplanted human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) are able to migrate from the scaffold to the lesion boundary. Stromal derived-cell factor-1α and its receptor chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor (CXCR)4 are chemotactic factors that control cell migration and stem cell recruitment to target areas. Given the low expression level of CXCR4 on the hUC-MSC membrane, lentiviral vectors were used to generate hUC-MSCs stably expressing CXCR4 fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) (hUC-MSCs(CXCR4/GFP)). We constructed a scaffold in which recombinant human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was linked to chitosan scaffolds with the crosslinking agent genipin (CGB scaffold). The scaffold containing hUC-MSCs(CXCR4/GFP) was transplanted into the lesion cavity of a rat brain, providing exogenous hUC-MSCs to both lesion boundary and cavity. These results demonstrate a novel strategy for inducing tissue regeneration after traumatic brain injury. PMID:27147644

  1. Assessment of global disease activity in RA patients monitored in the METEOR database: the patient's versus the rheumatologist's opinion.

    PubMed

    Gvozdenović, Emilia; Koevoets, Rosanne; Wolterbeek, Ron; van der Heijde, Désirée; Huizinga, Tom W J; Allaart, Cornelia F; Landewé, Robert B M

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the patient's (PtGDA) and physician's (PhGDA) assessment of global disease activity and to identify factors that might influence these differences as well as factors that may influence the patient's and the physician's scores separately. Anonymous data were used from 2,117 Dutch patients included in the Measurement of efficacy of Treatment in the Era of Rheumatology database. PtGDA and PhGDA were scored independently on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) with 0 and 100 as extremes. The agreement, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), was calculated and a Bland-Altman plot was created to visualize the differences between PtGDA and PhGDA. Linear mixed model analysis was used to model PtGDA and PhGDA. Logistic repeated measurements were used to model the difference in PtGDA and PhGDA (PtGDA > PhGDA versus PtGDA ≤ PhGDA). Gender patient, gender physician, age, swollen joint count (SJC), tender joint count, VAS pain, disease duration, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were considered as possible determinants in both models. Mean (standard deviation) age was 57 (15) years and 67 % of the patients were female. Agreement between PtGDA and PhGDA was moderate (ICC, 0.57). Patients scored on average 11 units higher (worse) than rheumatologists (95 % limits of agreement, -25.2 to 47.6). Patient's perception of pain (VAS) was positively associated with a PtGDA being higher than PhGDA. Similarly, ESR and swollen joint counts were positively associated with a PtGDA being lower or equal to the PhGDA. Patients rate global disease activity consistently higher than their rheumatologists. Patients base their judgment primarily on the level of pain, physicians on the level of SJC and ESR. PMID:24068385

  2. Leisure-time physical activity in Canadians living with Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis: population-based estimates.

    PubMed

    Mack, Diane E; Wilson, Philip M; Gilmore, Jennica C; Gunnell, Katie E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide population-based estimates of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in Canadians diagnosed with Crohn disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). Data were derived from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 3.1 (2005). Those diagnosed with CD (n = 474; 61.60% female) or UC (n = 637; 65.10% female) were compared with those not reporting CD/UC (n = 113,685; 53.60% female). The most prevalent forms of LTPA reported were walking and gardening/yard work. Individuals with CD were more likely to be classified as "inactive" (OR = 1.34; 95% CI [1.12, 1.61]) and less likely to be "active" (OR = 0.69; 95% CI [0.55, 0.87]) than those not reporting CD/UC. These trends were mirrored for those living with UC, although statistical significance was not attained. Despite claims advocating the benefits of LTPA for ameliorating complications associated with CD/UC, prevalence estimates from a population-based sample of Canadians living with CD/UC suggest that the majority do not meet current public health guidelines. Results offer benchmarks for prevalence of LTPA in those diagnosed with CD/UC. Findings suggest that many living with this condition will not benefit from the protective role of LTPA on complications associated with CD/UC. PMID:21814062

  3. WANDA B.: Weight and Activity with Blood Pressure Monitoring System for Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Myung-kyung; Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Chen, Victor; Hong, Wen-Sao; Macbeth, Jamie; Nahapetian, Ani; Figueras, Florence-Joy; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2010-01-01

    Heart failure is a leading cause of death in the United States, with around 5 million Americans currently suffering from congestive heart failure. The WANDA B. wireless health technology leverages sensor technology and wireless communication to monitor heart failure patient activity and to provide tailored guidance. Patients who have cardiovascular system disorders can measure their weight, blood pressure, activity levels, and other vital signs in a real-time automated fashion. The system was developed in conjunction with the UCLA Nursing School and the UCLA Wireless Health Institute for use on actual patients. It is currently in use with real patients in a clinical trial. PMID:20083451

  4. Newly diagnosed lung cancer patients' preferences for and beliefs about physical activity prior to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Karvinen, Kristina H; Vallance, Jeff; Walker, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    Physical activity has been found to have a number of benefits for lung cancer patients yet very little information is available concerning physical activity beliefs and preferences for this population. The purpose of the study was to explore physical activity programming and counseling preferences and beliefs about physical activity in newly diagnosed lung cancer patients scheduled to receive chemotherapy. A total of 43 new diagnosed lung cancer patients completed a researcher-administered survey prior to commencing chemotherapy. Results indicated that only 7 participants (17%) reported meeting public health recommendations for physical activity yet the majority of participants (n = 28) indicated interest or possible interest in physical activity counseling. Many participants also indicated interest or possible interest in an exercise program (n = 29) for lung cancer survivors, preferring it to start during chemotherapy (n = 20), for it to be home based (n = 21), and moderate in intensity (n = 22). The most common behavioral belief (advantage) of physical activity was to build/maintain strength (n = 26) and the most common control belief (barrier) was fatigue (n = 11). These data suggest that physical activity counseling and programming may be well received by newly diagnosed lung cancer patients. Information about physical activity and programming preferences and beliefs from this study may be useful for the design of optimal physical activity interventions for lung cancer patients. PMID:26813963

  5. Noninvasive Imaging of the High Frequency Brain Activity in Focal Epilepsy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yunfeng; Worrell, Gregory A.; Zhang, Huishi Clara; Yang, Lin; Brinkmann, Benjamin; Nelson, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    High frequency (HF) activity represents a potential biomarker of the epileptogenic zone in epilepsy patients, the removal of which is considered to be crucial for seizure-free surgical outcome. We proposed a high frequency source imaging (HFSI) approach to noninvasively image the brain sources of scalp recorded high frequency EEG activity. Both computer simulation and clinical patient data analysis were performed to investigate the feasibility of using the HFSI approach to image the sources of HF activity from noninvasive scalp EEG recordings. The HF activity was identified from high-density scalp recordings after high-pass filtering the EEG data and the EEG segments with HF activity were concatenated together to form repetitive HF activity. Independent component analysis was utilized to extract the components corresponding to the HF activity. Noninvasive EEG source imaging using realistic geometric boundary element head modeling was then applied to image the sources of the pathological HF brain activity. Five medically intractable focal epilepsy patients were studied and the estimated sources were found to be concordant with the surgical resection or intracranial recordings of the patients. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, that source imaging from the scalp HF activity could help to localize the seizure onset zone (SOZ) and provide a novel noninvasive way of studying the epileptic brain in humans. This study also indicates the potential application of studying HF activity in the pre-surgical planning of medically intractable epilepsy patients. PMID:24845275

  6. Total hip arthroplasty in patients 50 years or less: do we improve activity profiles?

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Margaret; Harris-Hayes, Marcie; Steger-May, Karen; Pashos, Gail; Clohisy, John C

    2013-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to use step activity monitoring to quantify activity changes after total hip arthroplasty in patients 50 years or less. Secondly, we investigated whether step activity measurements correlated with the Harris hip and UCLA scores. We prospectively analyzed 37 patients (age ≤ 50) treated with primary THA. Patient activity was recorded with a step activity monitor. Harris hip and UCLA scores were analyzed. Total daily stride counts increased by an average of 30.0%. Increases were noted in the percent of daily time spent at high, moderate and low activity. Increases in daily time spent at high activity moderately correlated with the UCLA activity score but did not correlate with the HHS. Both the UCLA score and the HHS did not correlate with mean daily strides. Following THA, patients ≤ 50 years of age increase their activity by taking more daily strides and improve their activity profile by spending more time at higher activity. Improvements in step activity moderately correlate with improvements in UCLA scores. PMID:23499406

  7. Physical Activity and Reported Barriers to Activity Among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kaabi, Juma; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Afandi, Bachar; Parkar, Hasratali; Nagelkerke, Nicolaas

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to assess the physical activity practice among type 2 diabetic patients in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of type 2 diabetic patients who participated in the outpatient clinics in Al-Ain District, during 2006. The patients completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire, and measurements of blood pressure, body mass index, body fat, abdominal circumference, glycemic control (HbA1c), and fasting lipid profile. RESULTS: Of the 390 patients recruited, only 25% reported an increase in their physical activity levels following the diagnosis of diabetes, and only 3% reported physical activity levels that meet the recommended guidelines. More than half of the study subjects had uncontrolled hypertension (53%) and unacceptable lipid profiles; 71% had a high low-density lipoprotein (LDL), 73% had low high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and 59% had hypertriglyceridemia. Forty-four percent were obese and a further 34% were overweight. Abdominal obesity was also common (59%). Only 32% had an acceptable glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS: The physical activity practice of type 2 diabetic patients in the UAE is largely inadequate to meet the recommended level necessary to prevent or ameliorate diabetic complications. Interventions aiming at overcoming the barriers to physical activity are urgently needed. PMID:20043039

  8. Physical activity in patients with heart failure: barriers and motivations with special focus on sex differences

    PubMed Central

    Klompstra, Leonie; Jaarsma, Tiny; Strömberg, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background Adherence to recommendations for physical activity is low in both male and female patients with heart failure (HF). Men are more physically active than women. In order to successfully promote physical activity, it is therefore essential to explore how much and why HF patients are physically active and if this is related to sex. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate physical activity in HF patients, to describe the factors related to physical activity, and to examine potential barriers and motivations to physical activity with special focus on sex differences. Methods The study had a cross-sectional survey design. HF patients living at home received a questionnaire during May–July 2014, with questions on physical activity (from the Short Form-International Physical Activity Questionnaire), and potential barriers and motivations to physical activity. Results A total of 154 HF patients, 27% women, with a mean age of 70±10 were included. In total, 23% of the patients reported a high level of physical activity, 46% a moderate level, and 34% a low level. Higher education, self-efficacy, and motivation were significantly associated with a higher amount of physical activity. Symptoms or severity of the disease were not related to physical activity. All the potential barriers to exercise were reported to be of importance. Psychological motivations were most frequently rated as being the most important motivation (41%) to be physically active. Physical motivations (33%) and social motivations were rated as the least important ones (22%). Women had significantly higher total motivation to be physically active. These differences were found in social, physical, and psychological motivations. Discussion One-third of the HF patients had a low level of physical activity in their daily life. Severity of the disease or symptoms were not related, whereas level of education, exercise self-efficacy, and motivation were important factors to take into account when

  9. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as potential biomarkers for disease activity and the role of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Khojah, Hani M; Ahmed, Sameh; Abdel-Rahman, Mahran S; Hamza, Al-Badr

    2016-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have distinct contribution to the destructive, proliferative synovitis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and play a prominent role in cell-signaling events. However, few studies had clarified the role of individual ROS and RNS in the etiopathogenesis of RA. To date, most of the studies were concerned with the measurement of the total oxidative and nitrative stress levels in RA. The aim of this study was to monitor the levels of individual ROS and RNS to emphasize the role that each plays in the pathogenesis of RA and their usefulness as possible biomarkers for the disease activity. In addition, the effect of an antioxidant (ascorbic acid), added to the treatment regimen, on the levels of ROS, RNS and disease activity has been evaluated. Forty-two Saudi RA patients and 40 healthy controls of both genders were included in this study. Serum levels of six different ROS and three different RNS were measured using specific fluorescent probes. The ROS included the hydroxyl radical ((•)OH), the superoxide anion (O2(•-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the singlet oxygen ((1)O2), the hypochlorite radical (OHCl(•)), and the peroxyl radical (ROO(•)). The RNS included nitric oxide (NO(•)), nitrogen dioxide (ONO-) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-). The main clinical and biochemical markers for disease activity were assessed and correlated with ROS and RNS levels. The clinical markers included the 28 swollen joint count (SJC-28), the 28-tender joint count (TJC-28), morning stiffness and symmetric arthritis, in addition to the disease activity score assessing 28 joints with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR). The biochemical markers included undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-3), ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP), rheumatoid factor (RF) and anticyclic citrullinated polypeptide (Anti-CCP). Ascorbic acid (1mg/day) was added as an antioxidant to the regular treatment regimen of RA patients

  10. Ghrelin and adipokines as circulating markers of disease activity in patients with Takayasu arteritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The current markers of disease activity in Takayasu arteritis (TA) are insufficient for proper assessment. We investigated circulating levels of unacylated and acylated ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin and their relationships with disease activity in patients with TA. Methods This study included 31 patients with TA and 32 sex-, age- and body mass index-matched healthy controls. Disease activity was assessed in TA patients using various tools, including Kerr's criteria, disease extent index-Takayasu, physician's global assessment, radiological parameters, and laboratory markers. Plasma unacylated and acylated ghrelin, and serum leptin and adiponectin levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Unacylated and acylated ghrelin levels were found to be significantly lower in TA patients than that in healthy controls. Patients with active disease had lower unacylated ghrelin levels than those with inactive disease and had lower acylated ghrelin levels than healthy controls. Ghrelin levels were negatively correlated with various parameters of disease activity. The leptin/ghrelin ratio was significantly higher in TA patients than controls. It was positively correlated with disease activity. There was a positive correlation between unacylated and acylated ghrelin and a negative correlation between leptin and ghrelin. There was no statistical difference in adiponectin levels between TA patients and controls. The radiological activity markers were positively correlated with other parameters of disease activity. Conclusions This study suggests that plasma unacylated and acylated ghrelin levels may be useful in monitoring disease activity and planning treatment strategies for patients with TA. The serum leptin level and leptin/ghrelin ratio may also be used to help assess the disease activity. PMID:23259466

  11. Myeloperoxidase activity and the oxidized proteins in blood neutrophils of patients with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Muravlyova, Larissa; Molotov-Luchanskiy, Vilen; Bakirova, Ryszhan; Klyuyev, Dmitriy; Demidchik, Ludmila; Kolesnikova, Yevgeniya

    2014-10-01

    The main purpose of our investigation was to study myeloperoxidase activity and concentration of oxidized proteins in blood neutrophils of patients with ambulant pneumonia and secondary pneumonia which has arisen on a background of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients were divided into 2 groups. 17 patients with ambulant pneumonia moderate severity and respiratory insufficiency of grade 2 were included in the 1-st group. 20 COPD patients with secondary pneumonia moderate severity and with respiratory insufficiency of grade 2 were included in the 2-nd group. The control group consisted of 15 healthy subjects. The reactive protein carbonyl derivates, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and myeloperoxidase activity were detected in neutrophils. In neutrophils of 1-st group patients the augmentation of reactive protein carbonyl derivates was observed in comparison with healthy ones. In neutrophils of 2-nd group patients the slight decrease of reactive protein carbonyl derivates was observed in comparison with healthy ones (by 17%). In neutrophils of 2-nd group patients the significant increasing AOPP in comparison with healthy ones (p <0.01) and 1 group patients (p <0.05) was fixed. Myeloperoxidase activity was higher in neutrophils of 1-th group patients in comparison with healthy ones. In neutrophils of 2-nd group patients myeloperoxidase activity was higher in comparison with the same of 1 group patients (by 67%, p <0.05). Our results showed the different direction of oxidized proteins formation neutrophils of patients with primary and secondary pneumonia. Besides that the varied degree of myeloperoxidase activity was fixed. Our results require more detailed understanding because they can reflect peculiar mechanisms of pneumonia development and determine the characteristics of their progression. PMID:26461373

  12. Activity and safety of combined rituximab with chlorambucil in patients with mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bauwens, Deborah; Maerevoet, Marie; Michaux, Lucienne; Théate, Ivan; Hagemeijer, Anne; Stul, Michel; Danse, Etienne; Costantini, Sabrina; Vannuffel, Pascal; Straetmans, Nicole; Vekemans, Marie-Christiane; Deneys, Véronique; Ferrant, Augustin; Van Den Neste, Eric

    2005-11-01

    We evaluated the combination of rituximab with chlorambucil in patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) not eligible for aggressive therapy. Fourteen patients (male/female: 9/5) were included (two newly diagnosed, 12 relapsed/refractory). The toxicities were neutropenia, thrombopenia and infection. Nine (64%) patients responded; five (36%) achieved complete remission and four (29%) achieved partial remission. The median progression-free survival for responders was 26 months (95% CI, 4-48). Marrow polymerase chain reaction negativity was attained in seven responders. These results suggest that this schedule may have notable antitumour activity in patients with MCL, including patients in relapse after autologous stem cell transplantation. PMID:16225653

  13. Standard magnitude prize reinforcers can be as efficacious as larger magnitude reinforcers in cocaine-dependent methadone patients

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Barry, Danielle; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Contingency management (CM) reduces cocaine use in methadone patients, but only about 50% of patients respond to CM interventions. This study evaluated whether increasing magnitudes of reinforcement will improve outcomes. Methods Cocaine-dependent methadone patients (N = 240) were randomized to one of four 12-week treatment conditions: usual care (UC), UC plus “standard” prize CM in which average expected prize earnings were about $300, UC plus high magnitude prize CM in which average expected prize earnings were about $900, or UC plus voucher CM with an expected maximum of about $900 in vouchers. Results All three CM conditions yielded significant reductions in cocaine use relative to UC, with effect sizes (d) ranging from 0.38 to 0.59. No differences were noted between CM conditions, with at least 55% of patients in each CM condition achieving one week or more of cocaine abstinence versus 35% in UC. During the 12 weeks after the intervention ended, CM increased time until relapse relative to UC, but the effects of CM were no longer significant at a 12-month follow-up. Conclusions Providing the standard magnitude of $300 in prizes was as effective as larger magnitude CM in cocaine-dependent methadone patients in this study. Given its strong evidence base and relatively low costs, standard magnitude prize CM should be considered for adoption in methadone clinics to encourage cocaine abstinence, but new methods need to be developed to sustain abstinence. PMID:25198284

  14. Successful Interferon Therapy Reverses Enhanced Hepatic Progenitor Cell Activation in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Noritake, Hidenao; Kobayashi, Yoshimasa; Ooba, Yukimasa; Matsunaga, Erika; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Shimoyama, Shin; Yamazaki, Satoru; Chida, Takeshi; Kawata, Kazuhito; Sakaguchi, Takanori; Suda, Takafumi

    2015-12-01

    The enhanced accumulation of hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) is related to the risk of progression to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Interferon (IFN) treatment reduces HCC risk in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of IFN treatment on HPC activation in HCV patients. Immunohistochemical detection and computer-assisted quantitative image analyses of cytokeratin 7 (CK7) were performed to evaluate HPC activation in paired pre- and post-treatment liver biopsies from 18 HCV patients with sustained virological response (SVR) to IFN-based therapy and from 23 patients without SVR, as well as normal liver tissues obtained from surgical resection specimens of 10 patients. Pretreatment HCV livers showed increased CK7 immunoreactivity, compared with normal livers (HCV: median, 1.38%; normal: median, 0.69%, P=0.006). IFN treatment reduced hepatic CK7 immunoreactivity (median, 1.57% pre-IFN vs. 0.69% post-IFN, P=0.006) in SVR patients, but not in non-SVR patients. The development of HCC following IFN treatment was encountered in 3 non-SVR patients who showed high post-IFN treatment CK7 immunoreactivity (>4%). Successful IFN therapy can reverse enhanced HPC activation in HCV patients, which may contribute to the reduced risk of HCC development in these patients. PMID:26308703

  15. Raised serum level of APRIL in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: correlations with disease activity indices.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, M; Darwish, H; Darweesh, H; El-Shehaby, A; Emad, Y

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess serum APRIL levels in SLE patients versus rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and normal control and to correlate serum APRIL levels in SLE patients with disease activity indices. Serum APRIL levels was measured in 40 SLE patients, 20 patients with RA and 20 healthy volunteers who served as control group. Disease activity in SLE patients was assessed by the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index and SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), and results were correlated with serum APRIL levels. Significantly higher serum APRIL levels was observed in SLE patients compared to RA patients and normal controls (p=0.003 and p < or = 0.001, respectively). Positive correlations were found between serum APRIL levels and total BILAG index (r=0.486 and p=0.001), BILAG musculoskeletal score (r=0.848 and p < or = 0.001) and BILAG cardiorespiratory score (r=0.326 and 0.04). Serum APRIL was higher in SLE patients compared to RA patients and normal control subjects and positively correlates with BILAG index and higher levels may be associated with musculoskeletal manifestations of the disease. APRIL antagonism could be a potential therapeutic target in SLE. PMID:20116334

  16. Correlations between the sequelae of stroke and physical activity in Korean adult stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Chun, In-Ae

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated a wide range of stroke patients living in South Korea using the Korean Community Health Survey raw data to determine the correlation between stroke and physical activity. [Subjects and Methods] This study used raw data from the 2012 Korean Community Health Survey. The total number of participants was 228,921; of the 4,475 stroke patients who had been diagnosed by a medical doctor or an oriental medical doctor, the data for 4,460 patients, excluding 15 whose amount of physical activity was unclear, were used in the analysis. [Results] The amount of physical activity performed by patients who had sequelae was significantly lower than that performed by patients who no longer had sequelae. Similarly, for the type of sequelae, palsy in the arms and legs, facial palsy, communication disability, swallowing or eating disability, and visual disability were associated with lower physical activity. Furthermore, as the number of sequelae increased, patients performed significantly less physical activity. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that when decisions on national policies and budgets are made, methods for increasing the physical activity of patients with a history of stroke should be considered. PMID:27390446

  17. Correlations between the sequelae of stroke and physical activity in Korean adult stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Chun, In-Ae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated a wide range of stroke patients living in South Korea using the Korean Community Health Survey raw data to determine the correlation between stroke and physical activity. [Subjects and Methods] This study used raw data from the 2012 Korean Community Health Survey. The total number of participants was 228,921; of the 4,475 stroke patients who had been diagnosed by a medical doctor or an oriental medical doctor, the data for 4,460 patients, excluding 15 whose amount of physical activity was unclear, were used in the analysis. [Results] The amount of physical activity performed by patients who had sequelae was significantly lower than that performed by patients who no longer had sequelae. Similarly, for the type of sequelae, palsy in the arms and legs, facial palsy, communication disability, swallowing or eating disability, and visual disability were associated with lower physical activity. Furthermore, as the number of sequelae increased, patients performed significantly less physical activity. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that when decisions on national policies and budgets are made, methods for increasing the physical activity of patients with a history of stroke should be considered. PMID:27390446

  18. Increased levels of homocysteine in patients with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Akbulut, Sabiye; Altiparmak, Emin; Topal, Firdevs; Ozaslan, Ersan; Kucukazman, Metin; Yonem, Ozlem

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate serum levels of homocysteine (Hcys) and the risk that altered levels carry for thrombosis development in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. METHODS: 55 UC patients and 45 healthy adults were included. Hcys, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were measured in both groups. Clinical history and thromboembolic events were investigated. RESULTS: The average Hcys level in the UC patients was 13.3 ± 1.93 μmmol/L (range 4.60-87) and was higher than the average Hcys level of the control group which was 11.2 ± 3.58 μmmol/L (range 4.00-20.8) (P < 0.001). Vitamin B12 and folic acid average values were also lower in the UC group (P < 0.001). When multivariate regression analysis was performed, it was seen that folic acid deficiency was the only risk factor for hyperhomocysteinemia. Frequencies of thromboembolic complications were not statistically significantly different in UC and control groups. When those with and without a thrombosis history in the UC group were compared according to Hcys levels, it was seen that there were no statistically significant differences. A negative linear relationship was found between folic acid levels and Hcys. CONCLUSION: We could not find any correlations between Hcys levels and history of prior thromboembolic events. PMID:20480528

  19. Locomotor micro-activities associated with therapeutic responses in patients with seasonal affective disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu; Teicher, Martin H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychomotor retardation, leaden paralysis and fatigue are often used to describe patients with depressive disorders. However, there is limited understanding of their meaning and how they are objectively manifested in the physical world. Patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) are characteristically hypoactive, and experience restoration in energy during effective treatment with bright light. In this study, we attempt to identify quantitative metrics of psychomotor activity that correspond to the clinical perceptions of hypoactivity and to the early activating effects of treatment. Methods Novel means of assessing the microstructure of activity was employed using wavelets and Hurst exponents to indicate the proclivity of subjects to persist at higher and lower levels of activity. This was assesed using actigraphs in 16 unmedicated patients with SAD before and following two weeks of bright light therapy. Results Two weeks of phototherapy had no significant effect on mean levels of diurnal activity, but altered the microstructure of the activity. Specifically, phototherapy produced a significant reduction in inertial resistance in patients who had a 50% or greater reduction in Hamilton Depression scores (n=8), as reflected in reduced tendency to persist at low levels of activity. There was also a strong correlation between ratings of fatigue and measures of persistence at high versus low activity in initial responders, but not in initial non-responders. Conclusion These findings suggest that light therapy alters the nature of diurnal activity troughs in early responsive patients, reducing their tendency to persist at low levels, possibly reflecting an alleviation of psychomotor retardation. PMID:27135034

  20. Promotion and support of physical activity in elderly patients on hemodialysis: a case study.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Kotomi; Hashimoto, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to ascertain the optimum strategy for implementing a physical activity intervention in patients on hemodialysis by investigating the physical characteristics of elderly patients on hemodialysis, and their attitude to physical activity and level of daily activity. [Subjects] The Subject were 10 elderly patients on hemodialysis. [Methods] They wore a physical activity monitor for 1 week. Data obtained were analyzed for hemodialysis and non- hemodialysis days, and two-way analysis of variance was used to compare the number of steps and activity levels. A questionnaire was administered to investigate the stage of psychological preparedness for exercise and attitudes toward/awareness of exercise. [Results] There was no significant difference in the number of steps or exercise levels on hemodialysis and non- hemodialysis days. However, on both types of days, subjects spent long periods not engaged in any activity. Most of their activity was either inactivity or sedentary behavior. [Conclusion] Patients on hemodialysis with low physical activity levels are considered to have poor physical function and exercise tolerance. To maintain and improve the physical function of patients on hemodialysis, it will be necessary to reduce their time spent in inactive, and comprehensive care that covers psychosocial aspects should be provided to promote the proactive improvement of physical activity and their attitudes to exercise. PMID:27190487

  1. Promotion and support of physical activity in elderly patients on hemodialysis: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, Kotomi; Hashimoto, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to ascertain the optimum strategy for implementing a physical activity intervention in patients on hemodialysis by investigating the physical characteristics of elderly patients on hemodialysis, and their attitude to physical activity and level of daily activity. [Subjects] The Subject were 10 elderly patients on hemodialysis. [Methods] They wore a physical activity monitor for 1 week. Data obtained were analyzed for hemodialysis and non- hemodialysis days, and two-way analysis of variance was used to compare the number of steps and activity levels. A questionnaire was administered to investigate the stage of psychological preparedness for exercise and attitudes toward/awareness of exercise. [Results] There was no significant difference in the number of steps or exercise levels on hemodialysis and non- hemodialysis days. However, on both types of days, subjects spent long periods not engaged in any activity. Most of their activity was either inactivity or sedentary behavior. [Conclusion] Patients on hemodialysis with low physical activity levels are considered to have poor physical function and exercise tolerance. To maintain and improve the physical function of patients on hemodialysis, it will be necessary to reduce their time spent in inactive, and comprehensive care that covers psychosocial aspects should be provided to promote the proactive improvement of physical activity and their attitudes to exercise. PMID:27190487

  2. Altered Error-Related Activity in Patients with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Kathrin; Wagner, Gerd; Schultz, Christoph; Schachtzabel, Claudia; Nenadic, Igor; Axer, Martina; Reichenbach, Jurgen R.; Sauer, Heinrich; Schlosser, Ralf G. M.

    2009-01-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) and executive cognitive control are core features of schizophrenia. However, findings regarding functional activation strengths are heterogeneous, partly due to differences in task demands and behavioral performance. Previous investigators proposed integrating these heterogeneous findings into a comprehensive model…

  3. Endothelial Activation by Platelets from Sickle Cell Anemia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Proença-Ferreira, Renata; Brugnerotto, Ana Flávia; Garrido, Vanessa Tonin; Dominical, Venina Marcela; Vital, Daiana Morelli; Ribeiro, Marilene de Fátima Reis; dos Santos, Melissa Ercolin; Traina, Fabíola; Olalla-Saad, Sara T.; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Conran, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is associated with a hypercoagulable state. Increased platelet activation is reported in SCA and SCA platelets may present augmented adhesion to the vascular endothelium, potentially contributing to the vaso-occlusive process. We sought to observe the effects of platelets (PLTs) from healthy control (CON) individuals and SCA individuals on endothelial activation, in vitro. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were cultured, in the presence, or not, of washed PLTs from CON or steady-state SCA individuals. Supernatants were reserved for cytokine quantification, and endothelial adhesion molecules (EAM) were analyzed by flow cytometry; gene expressions of ICAM1 and genes of the NF-κB pathway were analyzed by qPCR. SCA PLTs were found to be more inflammatory, displaying increased adhesive properties, an increased production of IL-1β and a tendency towards elevated expressions of P-selectin and activated αIIbβ3. Following culture in the presence of SCA PLTs, HUVEC presented significant augmentations in the expressions of the EAM, ICAM-1 and E-selectin, as well as increased IL-8 production and increased ICAM1 and NFKB1 (encodes p50 subunit of NF-κB) gene expressions. Interestingly, transwell inserts abolished the effects of SCA PLTs on EAM expression. Furthermore, an inhibitor of the NF-κB pathway, BAY 11-7082, also prevented the induction of EAM expression on the HUVEC surface by SCA PLTs. In conclusion, we find further evidence to indicate that platelets circulate in an activated state in sickle cell disease and are capable of stimulating endothelial cell activation. This effect appears to be mediated by direct contact, or even adhesion, between the platelets and endothelial cells and via NFκB-dependent signaling. As such, activated platelets in SCD may contribute to endothelial activation and, therefore, to the vaso-occlusive process. Results provide further evidence to support the use of anti-platelet approaches in association

  4. Endothelial activation by platelets from sickle cell anemia patients.

    PubMed

    Proença-Ferreira, Renata; Brugnerotto, Ana Flávia; Garrido, Vanessa Tonin; Dominical, Venina Marcela; Vital, Daiana Morelli; Ribeiro, Marilene de Fátima Reis; dos Santos, Melissa Ercolin; Traina, Fabíola; Olalla-Saad, Sara T; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Conran, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is associated with a hypercoagulable state. Increased platelet activation is reported in SCA and SCA platelets may present augmented adhesion to the vascular endothelium, potentially contributing to the vaso-occlusive process. We sought to observe the effects of platelets (PLTs) from healthy control (CON) individuals and SCA individuals on endothelial activation, in vitro. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were cultured, in the presence, or not, of washed PLTs from CON or steady-state SCA individuals. Supernatants were reserved for cytokine quantification, and endothelial adhesion molecules (EAM) were analyzed by flow cytometry; gene expressions of ICAM1 and genes of the NF-κB pathway were analyzed by qPCR. SCA PLTs were found to be more inflammatory, displaying increased adhesive properties, an increased production of IL-1β and a tendency towards elevated expressions of P-selectin and activated αIIbβ3. Following culture in the presence of SCA PLTs, HUVEC presented significant augmentations in the expressions of the EAM, ICAM-1 and E-selectin, as well as increased IL-8 production and increased ICAM1 and NFKB1 (encodes p50 subunit of NF-κB) gene expressions. Interestingly, transwell inserts abolished the effects of SCA PLTs on EAM expression. Furthermore, an inhibitor of the NF-κB pathway, BAY 11-7082, also prevented the induction of EAM expression on the HUVEC surface by SCA PLTs. In conclusion, we find further evidence to indicate that platelets circulate in an activated state in sickle cell disease and are capable of stimulating endothelial cell activation. This effect appears to be mediated by direct contact, or even adhesion, between the platelets and endothelial cells and via NFκB-dependent signaling. As such, activated platelets in SCD may contribute to endothelial activation and, therefore, to the vaso-occlusive process. Results provide further evidence to support the use of anti-platelet approaches in association

  5. Computed tomography angiography in patients with active gastrointestinal bleeding*

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Fatima Regina Silva; Cardia, Patricia Prando; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding represents a common medical emergency, with considerable morbidity and mortality rates, and a prompt diagnosis is essential for a better prognosis. In such a context, endoscopy is the main diagnostic tool; however, in cases where the gastrointestinal hemorrhage is massive, the exact bleeding site might go undetected. In addition, a trained professional is not always present to perform the procedure. In an emergency setting, optical colonoscopy presents limitations connected with the absence of bowel preparation, so most of the small bowel cannot be assessed. Scintigraphy cannot accurately demonstrate the anatomic location of the bleeding and is not available at emergency settings. The use of capsule endoscopy is inappropriate in the acute setting, particularly in the emergency department at night, and is a highly expensive method. Digital angiography, despite its high sensitivity, is invasive, presents catheterization-related risks, in addition to its low availability at emergency settings. On the other hand, computed tomography angiography is fast, widely available and minimally invasive, emerging as a promising method in the diagnostic algorithm of these patients, being capable of determining the location and cause of bleeding with high accuracy. Based on a critical literature review and on their own experience, the authors propose a computed tomography angiography protocol to assess the patient with gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:26811556

  6. Increased serum mitochondrial creatine kinase activity as a risk for hepatocarcinogenesis in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    Enooku, Kenichiro; Nakagawa, Hayato; Soroida, Yoko; Ohkawa, Ryunosuke; Kageyama, Yuko; Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Watanabe, Naoko; Tateishi, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Koike, Kazuhiko; Yatomi, Yutaka; Ikeda, Hitoshi

    2014-08-15

    Serum mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) activity was reportedly increased in cirrhotic patients although less prominent than that in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. To elucidate the clinical significance of serum MtCK activity in chronic liver disease, 171 chronic hepatitis C patients were enrolled. Serum MtCK activity in study subjects was correlated with serum albumin, platelet counts, liver stiffness values and serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase. In mouse fibrotic liver induced by bile duct ligation, ubiquitous MtCK mRNA and protein expressions were significantly enhanced and its immunoreactivity was increased, predominantly in hepatocytes. During the mean follow-up period of 2.7 years, HCC developed in 21 patients, in whom serum MtCK activity was significantly higher than that in patients without HCC development. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that higher serum MtCK activity was a risk for HCC development. A cutoff value of MtCK for the prediction of HCC development was determined as 9.0 U/L on receiver operating characteristics analysis, where area under receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.754, with a sensitivity of 61.9%, a specificity of 92.8% and a high negative predictive value of 94.2%. Cumulative incidence of HCC was significantly higher in patients with serum MtCK activity of >9.0 U/L compared to those with serum MtCK activity of ≤ 9.0 U/L even in patients with elevated liver stiffness value, >15 kPa. In conclusion, serum MtCK activity may be increased correlatively with the stage of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular damage. Increased serum MtCK activity is an independent risk for hepatocarcinogenesis in chronic hepatitis C patients. PMID:24420733

  7. Why Patients Do Not Participate in Sports Activities After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Moon Jong; Kang, Yeon Gwi; Chung, Byung June; Chang, Chong Bum; Kim, Tae Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Background It is important to identify the reasons or factors preventing patients from participating in sports activities after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to improve patient satisfaction and general health that can be gained from regular sports activities. Purpose To determine the reasons for lack of participation in regular sports activities after TKA as perceived by patients and to identify specific factors involved. Study Design Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods A total of 369 patients with a follow-up longer than 1 year after TKA were included in this retrospective study. A postal survey regarding sports activities was conducted using a questionnaire gathering information such as sociodemographic data, activity levels, and sports activities after TKA. The reasons perceived by patients for not participating in sports activities were determined. Patients unable to participate in sports activities were compared with patients able to do so in terms of sociodemographic data and pre- and postoperative outcomes. Results Of the 369 patients, 88 (24%) replied that they could not participate in a sports activity. Among the perceived reasons, reasons not related to the replaced knee were more frequent than those related to the replaced knee (76% vs 24%). Symptoms related to the spine or other joints composed 25% of the total perceived reasons. The presence of medical comorbidities accounted for 16%, while symptoms in the nonreplaced knee represented 8% of the reasons. In terms of patient factors, multivariate logistic regression revealed that male sex, a floor-based (ie, non-Western) lifestyle with greater demands on knee flexion, and worse postoperative University of California at Los Angeles activity scale were associated with nonregular sports activity levels. Conclusion The perceived reasons and patient factors hindering regular sports activities after TKA were not restricted to problems with the replaced knee. Nonetheless, orthopaedic surgeons may have a

  8. Metabolic activity of sodium, measured by neutron activation, in the hands of patients suffering from bone diseases: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Spinks, T.J.; Bewley, D.K.; Paolillo, M.; Vlotides, J.; Joplin, G.F.; Ranicar, A.S.O.

    1980-01-01

    Turnover of sodium in the human hand was studied by neutron activation. Patients suffering from various metabolic abnormalities affecting the skeleton, who were undergoing routine neutron activation for the measurement of calcium, were investigated along with a group of healthy volunteers. Neutron activation labels the sodium atoms simultaneously and with equal probability regardless of the turnover time of individual body compartments. The loss of sodium can be described either by a sum of two exponentials or by a single power function. Distinctions between patients and normal subjects were not apparent from the exponential model but were brought out by the power function. The exponent of time in the latter is a measure of clearance rate. The mean values of this parameter in (a) a group of patients suffering from acromegaly; (b) a group including Paget's disease, osteoporosis, Cushing's disease, and hyperparathyroidism; and (c) a group of healthy subjects, were found to be significantly different from each other.

  9. Assessment of selected psychological factors in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaczówka, Anna; Jeżewska, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In the majority of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) mental health problems are demonstrated in the form of excessive anxiety and unstable emotional reactions. Emotional instability affects the wellbeing of these patients, and also their attitude towards the disease and the course of treatment. Aim The objective of the study is to evaluate psychological factors in patients with IBD, and to compare patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and patients suffering from Crohn's disease (CD) with respect to intensity of these factors. Material and methods The study included 108 patients with IBD. NEO-FFI and type-D Scale were used to evaluate personality traits. Anxiety level was measured with STAI. CECS was used to measure the patients’ tendency to suppress negative emotions. Results In the patients with CD 45% of subjects presented type D personality. In the group of patients with UC, type D personality was found in 38%. The higher levels of neuroticism and extraversion were observed in patients with UC, whereas the patients with CD exhibited a higher level of openness to experience and agreeableness. In patients with CD the levels of state anxiety were elevated, whereas in patients with UC higher scores were both for state and trait anxiety. Conclusions There were no statistically significant differences in terms of personality factors in a group of patients with CD and UC. It was found that the majority of patients with IBD suffer elevated or high sense of anxiety. PMID:27110311

  10. The relationship between hope and patient activation in consumers with schizophrenia: Results from longitudinal analyses.

    PubMed

    Oles, Sylwia K; Fukui, Sadaaki; Rand, Kevin L; Salyers, Michelle P

    2015-08-30

    Hope (goal-directed thinking) and patient activation (knowledge and skills to manage one's illness) are both important in managing chronic conditions like schizophrenia. The relationship between hope and patient activation has not been clearly defined. However, hope may be viewed as a foundational, motivating factor that can lead to greater involvement in care and feelings of efficacy. The purpose of the present study was to understand the prospective relationship between hope and patient activation in a sample of adults with schizophrenia (N=118). This study was a secondary data analysis from a study on Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) - a curriculum-based approach to schizophrenia self-management. Data were collected at baseline (prior to any intervention), and at 9 and 18-month follow-up. As predicted, hope and patient activation were significantly related with each other, showing large positive concurrent correlations. Demographics and background characteristics were not significantly related to patient activation or hope. Longitudinal analyses found no specific directional effect, yet suggested that hope and patient activation mutually influence each other over time. Our findings add flexibility in designing recovery-based interventions - fostering hope may not be a pre-requisite for activating consumers to be more involved in their own care. PMID:26165962

  11. Striatal Activity is Associated with Deficits of Cognitive Control and Aberrant Salience for Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ceaser, Alan E.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2016-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis has shown that a large dopamine abnormality exists in the striatum when comparing patients with schizophrenia and controls, and this abnormality is thought to contribute to aberrant salience assignment (or a misattribution of relevance to irrelevant stimuli). This abnormality may also disrupt striatal contributions to cognitive control processing. We examined the relationship between striatal involvement in cognition and aberrant salience symptoms using a task of cognitive control that involves updating, interference control, and simple maintenance. The current study included a sample of 22 patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls and used a slow event-related fMRI design. We predicted that (1) aberrant salience symptoms would be greater for patient's, (2) patients would demonstrate increased errors during interference control trials, given that patients may be inappropriately assigning salience to distracters, and (3) striatal activity during those errors would be correlated with aberrant salience symptoms. We found a trend toward a significant difference between patients and controls on aberrant salience symptoms, and a significant difference between groups on select task conditions. During interference control trials, patients were more likely to inappropriately encode distracters. For patients, both prefrontal and striatal activity was significantly greater when patients inappropriately identified the distracter as correct compared to activity during distracter rejection. During updating, patient prefrontal and striatal activity was significantly lower for incorrect than correct updating trials. Finally, as predicted, for patients the increase of activity during incorrect distracter trials was positively correlated with aberrant salience symptoms, but only for the striatal region. These relationships may have implications for treatments that improve cognitive function and reduce symptom expression. PMID:26869912

  12. Serum Amyloid A Circulating Levels and Disease Activity in Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Giani, Teresa; Fioravanti, Antonella; Iacoponi, Francesca; Simonini, Gabriele; Pagnini, Ilaria; Spreafico, Adriano; Chellini, Federico; Galeazzi, Mauro; Cimaz, Rolando

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between circulating levels of serum amyloid A protein (SAA) and disease activity in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Our study group included 41 JIA patients (9 male, 32 female), classified according to the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) criteria (5); 16 had polyarticular onset disease and 25 had oligoarticular onset disease. Among 25 patients with oligoarticular disease, three had extended oligoarthritis. Serum amyloid A (SAA), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in both patients and 26 healthy controls. SAA levels were higher in JIA patients versus healthy controls (p<0.001). Significant positive correlations were found between SAA and the presence of active joints (rho=0.363, p<0.05), the number of active joints (rho=0.418, p<0.05), ESR (R=0.702, p<0.05) and CRP (R=0.827, p<0.05). No significant correlations between ESR and the presence of active joints (rho=0.221, p=0.225) or between ESR and the number of active joints (rho=0.118, p=0.520) were demonstrated in JIA patients. No significant correlations were obtained between CRP and the presence of active joints (rho=0.034, p=0.855) or between CRP and the number of active joints (rho=0.033, p=0.859). We discovered a significant increase in SAA levels in JIA patients, compared to controls, and a strong positive correlation between SAA level and JIA disease activity. We also discerned SAA to be a more sensitive laboratory marker than ESR and CRP for evaluating the presence and number of active joints. We suggest that SAA can be used as an additional indicator of disease activity in JIA. PMID:22869491

  13. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  14. [Health education for varicose ulcer patients through group activities].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jodo Luis Almeida; Lopes, Marta Julia Marques

    2006-06-01

    It is a report on the group activities carried out with carriers of varicose ulcer in a health unit in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The varicose ulcer presents factors, besides the biological ones, which interfere in the cicatrization, in the relapse cases and in its effective resolution. The proposed activities aimed at producing behavior changes with the intention of achieving self-care, providing information, socializing the participants, and stimulating cooperation, searching for joint solutions, aggregating interdisciplinary spirit and improving the care. Two groups have been formed and a thematic schedule established. The results have showed higher adhesion to the treatment, behavioral changes, and adapted and more effective attitudes of the health team. PMID:17025041

  15. Physical activity in patients with grown-up congenital heart defects after comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Haponiuk, Ireneusz; Jaworski, Radosław; Chojnicki, Maciej; Szalewska, Dominika; Leszczyńska, Katarzyna; Bakuła, Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The group of grown-up patients with congenital heart defects (grown-up congenital heart – GUCH) complains of a number of specific medical and non-medical problems. The presented program of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CCR-GUCH), dedicated to the above mentioned group, can potentially improve the physical activity of GUCH patients. Aim The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program on the physical activity of GUCH patients. Material and methods The invitation to take part in the CCR-GUCH program was addressed to a group of 57 patients (mean age: 23.7 ± 4.1 years) who had undergone the surgical correction of ventricular septal defects (VSD) or atrial septal defects (ASD) at least 12 months earlier. The patients were divided into two groups: A – patients undergoing rehabilitation, and B – patients who did not participate in the program. The patients were initially examined using functional and stress tests, and the program of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation was started in group A. After 30 days, the patients from both groups underwent further testing using the same methods as during the initial evaluation. Results After one month of rehabilitation, the physical activity parameters of patients participating in the CCR-GUCH program (group A) were significantly better than those observed among non-participants (group B). Conclusions The introduction of the comprehensive rehabilitation program improves the physical activity and, consequently, the quality of life of GUCH patients. The CCR-GUCH program appears to be a justified supplement to holistic care in the late rehabilitation of patients after the surgical correction of congenital heart defects. PMID:26336469

  16. Physical Activity and Exercise for Secondary Prevention among Patients with Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Darden, Douglas; Richardson, Caroline; Jackson, Elizabeth A

    2013-12-01

    Most adults do not achieve the recommended levels of physical activity, including patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Furthermore, healthcare providers often do not understand the benefits of physical activity in CVD patients, rather over emphasizing the potential risks related to activity. Recent studies suggest reductions in cardiovascular events including mortality with concomitant improvements in quality of life for many vascular conditions. However gaps in our current knowledge base remain. Recent research on physical activity including use of novel internet based interventions are developing areas of interest have moved to reduce such knowledge gaps. PMID:24396552

  17. Dysregulated Immune Activation in Second-Line HAART HIV+ Patients Is Similar to That of Untreated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Espíndola, Milena S.; Lima, Leonardo J. G.; Soares, Luana S.; Cacemiro, Maira C.; Zambuzi, Fabiana A.; de Souza Gomes, Matheus; Amaral, Laurence R.; Bollela, Valdes R.; Martins-Filho, Olindo A.; Frantz, Fabiani G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Successful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has changed the outcome of AIDS patients worldwide because the complete suppression of viremia improves health and prolongs life expectancy of HIV-1+ patients. However, little attention has been given to the immunological profile of patients under distinct HAART regimens. This work aimed to investigate the differences in the immunological pattern of HIV-1+ patients under the first- or second-line HAART in Brazil. Methods CD4+ T cell counts, Viral load, and plasma concentration of sCD14, sCD163, MCP-1, RANTES, IP-10, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 were assessed for immunological characterization of the following clinical groups: Non-infected individuals (NI; n = 66), HIV-1+ untreated (HIV; n = 46), HIV-1+ treated with first-line HAART (HAART 1; n = 15); and HIV-1+ treated with second-line HAART (HAART 2; n = 15). Results We found that the immunological biosignature pattern of HAART 1 is similar to that of NI individuals, especially in patients presenting slow progression of the disease, while patients under HAART 2 remain in a moderate inflammatory state, which is similar to that of untreated HIV patients pattern. Network correlations revealed that differences in IP-10, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-α, and IL-10 interactions were primordial in HIV disease and treatment. Heat map and decision tree analysis identified that IP-10>TNF-α>IFN-α were the best respective HAART segregation biomarkers. Conclusion HIV patients in different HAART regimens develop distinct immunological biosignature, introducing a novel perspective into disease outcome and potential new therapies that consider HAART patients as a heterogeneous group. PMID:26684789

  18. Phospholipid base exchange activity in the leukocyte membranes of patients with inflammatory disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Niwa, Y.; Sakane, T.; Ozaki, Y.; Kanoh, T.; Taniguchi, S.

    1987-01-01

    Phospholipid base exchange and cholinephosphotransferase (CPT) and ethanolaminephosphotransferase (EPT) activities were assessed in the membranes of neutrophils or lymphocytes from patients with various inflammatory disorders. Ethanolamine exchange activity was significantly enhanced in both neutrophils and lymphocytes from patients with active Behçet's disease, active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and severe bacterial infections and slightly enhanced in those from patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), compared with healthy controls. No abnormal findings were found in CPT, EPT, or serine or choline base exchange activities in the leukocytes from any of the diseased groups tested or in the ethanolamine exchange activity of patients with severe viral infections and inactive SLE, RA, and Behçet's disease. The authors have recently demonstrated the enhancement of transmethylation and phospholipase A2 activity in human leukocyte membranes at the height of inflammatory disease states, as well as the activation of leukocyte ethanolamine exchange by bioactive stimulants. These data postulate that phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis by the base exchange reaction may be the precursor of transmethylation and its subsequent activation of phospholipase A2, leading to the induction of arachidonic acid cascade. PMID:3034067

  19. Overcoming the Influence of Chronic Pain on Older Patients' Difficulty with Recommended Self-Management Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krein, Sarah L.; Heisler, Michele; Piette, John D.; Butchart, Amy; Kerr, Eve A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Many older patients with common chronic conditions also experience chronic pain. We examined how chronic pain affects patients' difficulty with recommended self-management activities and the potential intervening role of self-efficacy (the level of confidence in one's own ability to perform a specific task). Design and Methods: We…

  20. Stress and Activity Management: Group Treatment for Cancer Patients and Spouses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Richard L.; Schag, Cyndie Coscarelli

    1985-01-01

    Studied 51 ambulatory patients with commonly occurring cancers and 25 of their spouses to evaluate a group stress and activity management treatment program. Found support for unique effects of the treatment intervention, but also support for improvement in psychosocial adjustment for patients and spouses with the passage of time. (Author/MCF)

  1. Activity limitation and exertional dyspnea in adult asthmatic patients: What do we know?

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, François; Garcia, Gilles; Ninane, Vincent; Laveneziana, Pierantonio

    2016-08-01

    Limitation of activity is the most cited symptom described by uncontrolled asthma patients. Assessment of activity limitation can be undertaken through several ways, more or less complex, subjective or objective. Yet little is known about the link between patients sensations and objective measurements. The present review reports the current knowledge regarding activity limitation and symptom perception (i.e., exertional dyspnea) in adult patients with asthma. This work is based on references indexed by PubMed, irrespective of the year of publication. Overall, patients with stable asthma do not have a more sedentary lifestyle than healthy subjects. However, during a cycle ergometric test, the maximal load is reduced when FEV1, FVC and muscle strengths are decreased. Additionally, during the six-minute walking test, mild asthma patients walk less than healthy subjects even if the minimal clinically important difference is not reached. The major complaint of asthma patients when exercising is dyspnea that is mainly related to the inspiratory effort and also to dynamic hyperinflation in some circumstances. Finally, the administration of bronchodilator does not improve the ventilatory pattern and the exercise capacity of asthma patients and little is known on its effect on exertional dyspnea. The present review allows to conclude that until now there is no gold standard test allowing the objective assessment of "activity limitation and exertional dyspnea" in asthma patients. PMID:27492522

  2. Interrogation of Patient Smartphone Activity Tracker to Assist Arrhythmia Management.

    PubMed

    Rudner, Joshua; McDougall, Carol; Sailam, Vivek; Smith, Monika; Sacchetti, Alfred

    2016-09-01

    A 42-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation of unknown duration. Interrogation of the patient's wrist-worn activity tracker and smartphone application identified the onset of the arrhythmia as within the previous 3 hours, permitting electrocardioversion and discharge of the patient from the ED. PMID:27045694

  3. Evaluation of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Greek Patients with Advanced Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Panagiotoua, Irene; Roumeliotou, Anna; Symeonidi, Matina; Galanos, Antonis; Kouvaris, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Translation of the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was carried out and its psychometric properties were assessed in a Greek sample of patients with advanced cancer. The scale was translated with the forward-backward procedure into the Greek language. It was initially administered to 136 advanced cancer patients. To assess…

  4. Web-Based Self-Management in Chronic Care: A Study of Change in Patient Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Web-based self-management interventions (W-SMIs) are designed to help a large number of chronically ill people become more actively engaged in their health care. Despite the potential to engage more patients in self-managing their health, the use of W-SMIs by patients and their clinicians is low. Using a self-management conceptual model based on…

  5. Mirror therapy in a patient with a fractured wrist and no active wrist extension.

    PubMed

    Altschuler, Eric L; Hu, Jeong

    2008-01-01

    We report a patient in whom mirror therapy, training moving both hands while watching the reflection of the present or good hand in a parasaggital mirror - a method used for phantom limb and stroke patients - was extremely useful after a fractured wrist with good passive, but no active, extension. PMID:18335358

  6. Epicatechin and Catechin Modulate Endothelial Activation Induced by Platelets of Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Carnevale, R.; Loffredo, L.; Nocella, C.; Bartimoccia, S.; Bucci, T.; De Falco, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Chimenti, I.; Biondi-Zoccai, G.; Pignatelli, P.; Violi, F.; Frati, G.

    2014-01-01

    Platelet activation contributes to the alteration of endothelial function, a critical initial step in atherogenesis through the production and release of prooxidant mediators. There is uncertainty about the precise role of polyphenols in interaction between platelets and endothelial cells (ECs). We aimed to investigate whether polyphenols are able to reduce endothelial activation induced by activated platelets. First, we compared platelet activation and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in 10 healthy subjects (HS) and 10 patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Then, we evaluated the effect of epicatechin plus catechin on platelet-HUVEC interaction by measuring soluble cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), NOx production, and eNOS phosphorylation (p-eNOS) in HUVEC. Compared to HS, PAD patients had enhanced platelet activation. Conversely, PAD patients had lower FMD than HS. Supernatant of activated platelets from PAD patients induced an increase of sCAMs release and a decrease of p-eNOS and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability compared to unstimulated HUVEC. Coincubation of HUVEC, with supernatant of PAD platelets patients, pretreated with a scalar dose of the polyphenols, resulted in a decrease of sCAMs release and in an increase of p-eNOS and NO bioavailability. This study demonstrates that epicatechin plus catechin reduces endothelial activation induced by activated platelets. PMID:25180068

  7. Epicatechin and catechin modulate endothelial activation induced by platelets of patients with peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, R; Loffredo, L; Nocella, C; Bartimoccia, S; Bucci, T; De Falco, E; Peruzzi, M; Chimenti, I; Biondi-Zoccai, G; Pignatelli, P; Violi, F; Frati, G

    2014-01-01

    Platelet activation contributes to the alteration of endothelial function, a critical initial step in atherogenesis through the production and release of prooxidant mediators. There is uncertainty about the precise role of polyphenols in interaction between platelets and endothelial cells (ECs). We aimed to investigate whether polyphenols are able to reduce endothelial activation induced by activated platelets. First, we compared platelet activation and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in 10 healthy subjects (HS) and 10 patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Then, we evaluated the effect of epicatechin plus catechin on platelet-HUVEC interaction by measuring soluble cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), NOx production, and eNOS phosphorylation (p-eNOS) in HUVEC. Compared to HS, PAD patients had enhanced platelet activation. Conversely, PAD patients had lower FMD than HS. Supernatant of activated platelets from PAD patients induced an increase of sCAMs release and a decrease of p-eNOS and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability compared to unstimulated HUVEC. Coincubation of HUVEC, with supernatant of PAD platelets patients, pretreated with a scalar dose of the polyphenols, resulted in a decrease of sCAMs release and in an increase of p-eNOS and NO bioavailability. This study demonstrates that epicatechin plus catechin reduces endothelial activation induced by activated platelets. PMID:25180068

  8. Effectiveness of budesonide MMX (Cortiment) for the treatment of mild-to-moderate active ulcerative colitis: study protocol for a prospective multicentre observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Danese, Silvio; Hart, Ailsa; Dignass, Axel; Louis, Edouard; D'Haens, Geert; Dotan, Iris; Rogler, Gerhard; D'Agay, Laurence; Iannacone, Claudio; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A study has been developed to assess the use and effectiveness of budesonide MMX for mild-to-moderate active ulcerative colitis (UC) in routine clinical practice. Methods and analysis A prospective, multicentre, observational, cohort study of 300 patients prescribed budesonide MMX for the treatment of mild-to-moderate active UC will be conducted in Europe, Israel and Canada. Patients will be treated with budesonide MMX9 mg daily for induction of remission for ≤8 weeks. Data on effectiveness, including patient-reported outcomes, tolerability and use will be recorded at the end of treatment and at ≥2 weeks after. The primary outcome (improvement ≥3 point in the clinical subscores of the UC Disease Activity Index score at the end of treatment) will be compared in: patients who receive budesonide MMX added to mesalazine >2 weeks after increased/optimised mesalazine dose for the treatment of flare (late add-on); patients who receive budesonide MMX added to mesalazine ≤2 weeks since mesalazine increased/optimised for the treatment of flare, or without mesalazine dose modification (early add-on); and patients who receive budesonide MMX as monotherapy for the treatment of flare (mono). Propensity scoring will be used to minimise bias and confounding inherent in observational studies. Ethics and dissemination First ethical approval: Ethikkommission der Ärztekammer Hamburg (12/22/2015). The results will be published in full. Discussion Completion of primary data collection is expected in December 2017. Our results will provide further evidence on the effectiveness of budesonide MMX to support clinicians in their daily practice and inform therapeutic guidelines. Trial registration number NCT02586259. PMID:27239329

  9. Patient-Provider Communication: Understanding the Role of Patient Activation for Latinos in Mental Health Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Dharma E.; Mulvaney-Day, Norah; Fortuna, Lisa; Reinfeld, Sarah; Alegria, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights results from the Right Question Project-Mental Health (RQP-MH), an intervention designed to teach skills in question formulation and to increase patients' participation in decisions about mental health treatment. Of participants in the RQP-MH intervention, 83% were from a Latino background, and 75% of the interviews were…

  10. Impacts of physically active and under-active on clinical outcomes of esophageal cancer patients undergoing esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Cong; Guan, Shanghui; Cheng, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity has been reported to positively influence quality of life and survival in certain cancers. However, the associations between them in esophageal cancer are previously undefined. The aims of this study are to investigate whether physically active esophageal cancer patients have improved quality of life and lower risk of recurrence as well as death compared with physically inactive patients. We evaluated the relationships between postoperative leisure time physical activity and quality of life and recurrence and death among patients diagnosed with esophageal cancer. We respectively used generalized estimating equations and Cox proportional regression to analysis quality of life and survival, adjusting for known potential confounding factors. Comparing esophageal cancer patients reporting more than 9 MET hours per week of postoperative leisure time physical activity with those reporting less, we found improved quality of life. Additionally, we also found that postoperative leisure time physical activity ≥9 MET hours per week, compared with less, was associated with a 23% lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 0.666; 95% CI, 0.481-0.921; P=0.014) and a 53% lower risk of recurrence (HR, 0.306; 95% CI 0.218-0.429; P<0.001). Leisure time physical activity was significantly associated with quality of life and risk of recurrence and death of esophageal cancer patients. Clinicians should consider increasing physical activity, regardless of previous behaviors, as a part of primary cancer treatment. The ultimate goal is to improve quality of life and prolong survival of cancer survivors. PMID:27508099

  11. Circulating activated T cell subsets in autoimmune thyroid diseases: differences between untreated and treated patients.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, H; Okugawa, T; Itoh, M

    1991-11-01

    To investigate the relationships between lymphocyte subsets and thyroid function, peripheral blood lymphocytes were analysed with cell surface antigens of activated (HLA-DR+) T, helper T (CD4+ 2H4-, CD4+ 4B4+) and suppressor-inducer T (CD4+ 2H4+, CD4+ 4B4-) cells subsets in 56 patients with Graves' disease, 16 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 7 patients with typical subacute thyroiditis and 2 patients with the thyrotoxic phase of autoimmune thyroiditis. Both patients with Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis had increased percentages of HLA-DR+ T (Ia+ CD3+) cells as well as HLA-DR+ helper-inducer T (Ia+ CD4+) cells, which seemed to be independent of treatments. The percentage of HLA-DR+ suppressor-cytotoxic T (Ia+ CD8+) cells was increased in euthyroid or hypothyroid patients with Graves' disease following treatment, but was normal in hyperthyroid patients. The percentages of Ia+ CD4+ cells and Ia+ CD8+ were also increased in patients with thyroiditis, whereas these abnormal values normalized in the remission phase. These findings suggest that an increase in Ia+ CD4+ cells characteristically occurs during immune system activation in patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and the thyrotoxic phase of subacute thyroiditis, whereas the activated CD8+ cells in Graves' disease are induced by antithyroidal therapy. PMID:1684685

  12. Altered lower leg muscle activation patterns in patients with cerebral palsy during cycling on an ergometer

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Pinto, Ana; Blumenstein, Tobias; Turova, Varvara; Lampe, Renée

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cycling on a recumbent ergometer constitutes one of the most popular rehabilitation exercises in cerebral palsy (CP). However, no control is performed on how muscles are being used during training. Given that patients with CP present altered muscular activity patterns during cycling or walking, it is possible that an incorrect pattern of muscle activation is being promoted during rehabilitation cycling. This study investigated patterns of muscular activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer in patients with CP and whether those patterns are determined by the degree of spasticity and of mobility. Methods Electromyographic (EMG) recordings of lower leg muscle activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer were performed in 14 adult patients diagnosed with CP and five adult healthy participants. EMG recordings were done with an eight-channel EMG system built in the laboratory. The activity of the following muscles was recorded: Musculus rectus femoris, Musculus biceps femoris, Musculus tibialis anterior, and Musculus gastrocnemius. The degree of muscle spasticity and mobility was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale and the Gross Motor Function Classification System, respectively. Muscle activation patterns were described in terms of onset and duration of activation as well as duration of cocontractions. Results Muscle activation in CP was characterized by earlier onsets, longer periods of activation, a higher occurrence of agonist–antagonist cocontractions, and a more variable cycling tempo in comparison to healthy participants. The degree of altered muscle activation pattern correlated significantly with the degree of spasticity. Conclusion This study confirmed the occurrence of altered lower leg muscle activation patterns in patients with CP during cycling on a recumbent ergometer. There is a need to develop feedback systems that can inform patients and therapists of an incorrect muscle activation during cycling and support the training

  13. Pulmonary Rehabilitation and Physical Activity in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Spruit, Martijn A; Pitta, Fabio; McAuley, Edward; ZuWallack, Richard L; Nici, Linda

    2015-10-15

    Physical inactivity is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared with age-matched healthy individuals or patients with other chronic diseases. Physical inactivity independently predicts poor outcomes across several aspects of this disease, but it is (at least in principle) treatable in patients with COPD. Pulmonary rehabilitation has arguably the greatest positive effect of any current therapy on exercise capacity in COPD; as such, gains in this area should facilitate increases in physical activity. Furthermore, because pulmonary rehabilitation also emphasizes behavior change through collaborative self-management, it may aid in the translation of increased exercise capacity to greater participation in activities involving physical activity. Both increased exercise capacity and adaptive behavior change are necessary to achieve significant and lasting increases in physical activity in patients with COPD. Unfortunately, it is readily assumed that this translation occurs naturally. This concise clinical review will focus on the effects of a comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation program on physical activity in patients with COPD. Changing physical activity behavior in patients with COPD needs an interdisciplinary approach, bringing together respiratory medicine, rehabilitation sciences, social sciences, and behavioral sciences. PMID:26161676

  14. Impact of Diabetes Mellitus on Treatment Outcomes of Patients with Active Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, Kelly E.; Tang, Tania; Golub, Jonathan E.; Dorman, Susan E.; Cronin, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an emerging chronic health condition of developed and developing countries. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with active, culture-confirmed tuberculosis (TB) in Maryland to determine the impact of DM on TB treatment outcomes. Of 297 TB patients, 42 (14%) had DM. Patients with diabetes had 2.0 times higher odds of death than patients without diabetes (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74–5.2, P = 0.18). Adjusting for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), age, weight, and foreign birth, the odds of death were 6.5 times higher in patients with diabetes than patients without diabetes (95% CI 1.1–38.0, P = 0.039). In pulmonary TB patients, time to sputum culture conversion was longer in patients with diabetes than patients without diabetes (median 49 versus 39 days, P = 0.09). Two-month culture conversion proportions were similar (70% and 69%). Treatment failure occurred in 4.1% of patients without diabetes and 6.7% of patients with diabetes (P = 0.51). In conclusion, DM was a risk factor for death in Maryland TB patients. There was a trend toward increased time to culture conversion; two-month culture conversion proportions, however, were similar. PMID:19346391

  15. Physical activity referrals in Swedish primary health care – prescriber and patient characteristics, reasons for prescriptions, and prescribed activities

    PubMed Central

    Leijon, ME; Bendtsen, P; Nilsen, P; Ekberg, K; Ståhle, A

    2008-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, practitioners in primary health care (PHC) settings in many countries have issued written prescriptions to patients to promote increased physical activity or exercise. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse a comprehensive physical activity referral (PAR) scheme implemented in a routine PHC setting in Östergötland County. The study examines characteristics of the PARs recipients and referral practitioners, identifies reasons why practitioners opted to use PARs with their clients, and discusses prescribed activities and prescriptions in relation to PHC registries. Methods Prospective prescription data were obtained for 90% of the primary health care centres in Östergötland County, Sweden, in 2004 and 2005. The study population consisted of patients who were issued PARs after they were deemed likely to benefit from increased physical activity, as assessed by PHC staff. Results During the two-year period, a total of 6,300 patients received PARs. Two-thirds of the patients were female and half of the patients were 45–64 years. Half of the patients (50.8%) who received PARs were recommended a home-based activity, such as walking. One third (33%) of the patients issued PARs were totally inactive, reporting no days of physical activity that lasted for 30 minutes, and 29% stated that they reached this level 1–2 days per week. The number of PARs prescribed per year in relation to the number of unique individuals that visited primary health care during one year was 1.4% in 2004 and 1.2% in 2005. Two-thirds of the combined prescriptions were issued by physicians (38%) and nurses (31%). Physiotherapists and behavioural scientists issued the highest relative number of prescriptions. The most common reasons for issuing PARs were musculoskeletal disorders (39.1%) and overweight (35.4%), followed by high blood pressure (23.3%) and diabetes (23.2%). Conclusion Östergötland County's PAR scheme reached a relatively high proportion

  16. Enhanced neutrophil activity is associated with shorter time to tumor progression in glioblastoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Afsar; Cederarv, Madeleine; Wolmer-Solberg, Nina; Tammik, Charlotte; Stragliotto, Giuseppe; Peredo, Inti; Fornara, Olesja; Xu, Xinling; Dzabic, Mensur; Taher, Chato; Skarman, Petra; Söderberg-Nauclér, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant tumor with a poor outcome that is often positive for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). GBM patients often have excessive numbers of neutrophils and macrophages near and within the tumor. Here, we characterized the cytokine patterns in the blood of GBM patients with and without Valganciclovir treatment. Furthermore, we determined whether neutrophil activation is related to HCMV status and patient outcome. Blood samples for analyses of cytokines and growth factors were collected from 42 GBM patients at the time of diagnosis (n = 42) and at weeks 12 and 24 after surgery. Blood neutrophils of 28 GBM patients were examined for CD11b expression. The levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines—including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17A, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, interferon-γ, interferon-α, tumor necrosis factor α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1were analyzed with a bead-based flow cytometry assay. During the first six months after surgery, neutrophil activity was increased in 12 patients and was unchanged or decreased in 16. Patients with increased neutrophil activity had enhanced IL-12p70, high grade HCMV and a shorter time to tumor progression (TTP) than patients without or decreased neutrophil activity (median TTP; 5.4 vs. 12 months, 95% confidence interval; 1.6–10 vs. 0.1–0.6, hazard ratio = 3 vs. 0.4, p = 0.004). The levels of IL-12p70 were significantly decreased in Valganciclovir treated patients (n = 22, T 12W vs. T 24W, p = 0.03). In conclusion, our findings suggest that neutrophil activation is an early sign of tumor progression in GBM patients. PMID:27057448

  17. Adjuvant oestrogen therapy does not improve disease activity in postmenopausal patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    van den Brink, H R; van Everdingen, A A; van Wijk, M J; Jacobs, J W; Bijlsma, J W

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate whether oestrogens can be used as treatment to diminish disease activity in women with rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS--Forty postmenopausal female patients with active rheumatoid arthritis participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind study on the possible beneficial effect of adjuvant treatment of oestradiol on disease activity. RESULTS--Thirty three patients completed 52 weeks of treatment with 2 mg oestradiol-valerate or placebo. No statistically significant difference was found in and between both treatment groups with regard to articular indices, pain score by visual analogue scale, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and health questionnaire on daily activities before, during and at the end of the study. CONCLUSION--This first randomised prospective placebo-controlled study shows no beneficial effect of oestrogens on disease activity in postmenopausal female patients with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:8311536

  18. Targeted training modifies oscillatory brain activity in schizophrenia patients

    PubMed Central

    Popov, Tzvetan G.; Carolus, Almut; Schubring, David; Popova, Petia; Miller, Gregory A.; Rockstroh, Brigitte S.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of both domain-specific and broader cognitive remediation protocols have been reported for neural activity and overt performance in schizophrenia (SZ). Progress is limited by insufficient knowledge of relevant neural mechanisms. Addressing neuronal signal resolution in the auditory system as a mechanism contributing to cognitive function and dysfunction in schizophrenia, the present study compared effects of two neuroplasticity-based training protocols targeting auditory–verbal or facial affect discrimination accuracy and a standard rehabilitation protocol on magnetoencephalographic (MEG) oscillatory brain activity in an auditory paired-click task. SZ were randomly assigned to either 20 daily 1-hour sessions over 4 weeks of auditory–verbal training (N = 19), similarly intense facial affect discrimination training (N = 19), or 4 weeks of treatment as usual (TAU, N = 19). Pre-training, the 57 SZ showed smaller click-induced posterior alpha power modulation than did 28 healthy comparison participants, replicating Popov et al. (2011b). Abnormally small alpha decrease 300–800 ms around S2 improved more after targeted auditory–verbal training than after facial affect training or TAU. The improvement in oscillatory brain dynamics with training correlated with improvement on a measure of verbal learning. Results replicate previously reported effects of neuroplasticity-based psychological training on oscillatory correlates of auditory stimulus differentiation, encoding, and updating and indicate specificity of cortical training effects. PMID:26082889

  19. Physical Activity Counselling during Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Patients with COPD: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Burtin, Chris; Langer, Daniel; van Remoortel, Hans; Demeyer, Heleen; Gosselink, Rik; Decramer, Marc; Dobbels, Fabienne; Janssens, Wim; Troosters, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Background Pulmonary rehabilitation programs only modestly enhance daily physical activity levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This randomised controlled trial investigates the additional effect of an individual activity counselling program during pulmonary rehabilitation on physical activity levels in patients with moderate to very severe COPD. Methods Eighty patients (66±7 years, 81% male, forced expiratory volume in 1 second 45±16% of predicted) referred for a six‐month multidisciplinary pulmonary rehabilitation program were randomised. The intervention group was offered an additional eight-session activity counselling program. The primary outcomes were daily walking time and time spent in at least moderate intense activities. Results Baseline daily walking time was similar in the intervention and control group (median 33 [interquartile range 16–47] vs 29 [17–44]) whereas daily time spent in at least moderate intensity was somewhat higher in the intervention group (17[4–50] vs 12[2–26] min). No significant intervention*time interaction effects were observed in daily physical activity levels. In the whole group, daily walking time and time spent in at least moderate intense activities did not significantly change over time. Conclusions The present study identified no additional effect of eight individual activity counselling sessions during pulmonary rehabilitation to enhance physical activity levels in patients with COPD. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT00948623 PMID:26697853

  20. [Determination of activated platelets: evaluation of methodology and application for patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, S; Oshida, M; Kiyokawa, T; Aochi, H; Honda, S; Tomiyama, Y; Kurata, Y

    2001-12-01

    Platelet activation causes a change in surface expression of several endogenous proteins, such as CD62P, CD63 and CD40L. Therefore, it is possible to analyze the functional in vivo status of the circulating platelet population directly by flow cytometry. In this study we developed the method to be suitable for use in clinical studies. We used EDTA-2K as anticoagulant since the sample anticoagulated with EDTA-2K, sodium citrate or ACD-A showed no difference in the data of activated platelets. We determined whether fixation of sample is necessary. The samples stained before or without fixation showed abnormally high level of activated platelets, indicating that fixation is necessary before staining. It is controversial whether activated platelets circulate in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura(ITP). We measured activated platelets in patients with ITP using our optimised method. The percentages of CD62P, CD63 and CD40L positive platelets were significantly high in patients with ITP and 24%, 55% and 36% (respectively) of ITP patients showed elevated level of activated platelets. These data indicate that activated platelets circulate in ITP patients. PMID:11797399

  1. Leisure time activities of Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Sadegh; Asgari, Ali; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Yazdani, Farzaneh; Mazdeh, Mehrdokht

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leisure time is one of the most important aspects of life, especially for people with chronic diseases. The concept and types of leisure have frequently been evaluated in different socio-cultural populations. The aim of this study was to identify the nature of leisure activities among a sample of Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and classify the identified types of activities in the context of Iranian culture. Methods: In this qualitative study, semi-structured interview was applied to gather data from 34 MS patients that were selected through purposive sampling. The interviews were continued up to the point of saturation. Content analysis was used to explore experiences of the interviewees regarding their leisure activities. Results: Six categories of leisure activities were extracted for the studied patients with MS i.e.physical, social, individual, art/cultural, educational and spiritual/religious. Conclusion: The results represented the range and heterogeneity of leisure activities amongst the MS patients. Considering participation in spiritual/religious and social activities as leisure time undertaking might reflect cultural diversity in the perception and use of time for recreation. For mental health promotion purposes, paying special attention to the types of activities that people of different socio-cultural background choose for their refreshment could help health care providers in giving tailored advice for patients with MS and other chronic debilitating disease. PMID:27123437

  2. Indomethacin augments lymphokine-activated killer cell generation by patients with malignant mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, L.S.; Bowman, R.V.; Davis, M.R.; Musk, A.W.; Robinson, B.W. )

    1989-10-01

    Human malignant mesothelioma (MM) cells are resistant to natural killer (NK) cell lysis but susceptible to lysis by lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells from control individuals. The present study was performed to determine the capacity of patients with MM (n = 22) and individuals occupationally exposed to asbestos (the major population at risk of developing this disease, n = 52) to generate LAK cells capable of effectively lysing human mesothelioma cells. Compared to controls (n = 20), both patient groups demonstrated significantly depressed LAK cell activity against mesothelioma tumor cell targets (55 +/- 3% lysis by controls vs 34 +/- 3% lysis by patients with MM, P less than 0.005; and 45 +/- 3% lysis by asbestos-exposed individuals, P less than 0.025). Addition of 10 micrograms/ml indomethacin during LAK cell generation restored normal LAK cell activity for patients with MM (52 +/- 6% lysis of cultured human MM cells, P = NS compared to controls), suggesting that the defective cytolytic cell function observed in some patients with MM is a result of prostaglandin-induced immunosuppression. The ability of indomethacin to restore suppressed LAK cell activity in patients with MM suggests that the concomitant use of this agent in ex vivo LAK cell generation and in patients undergoing interleukin/LAK cell therapy may be beneficial.

  3. Asymptomatic Atherosclerosis in Egyptian Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients and Its Relation to Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Elshereef, Rawhya R.; Darwish, Aymen; Ali, Amal; Abdel-kadar, Mohammed; Hamdy, Lamiaa

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To detect the frequency of subclinical atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis patients without clinically evident atherosclerosis and to correlate its presence with the disease activity. Patients and Methods. Our study includes 112 RA patients (group 1) and 40 healthy controls (group 11). All patients and controls were subjected to full history taking, clinical examination, and laboratory investigations. Carotid intima media wall thickness (IMT) and carotid plaques were measured in both groups by B-mode ultrasonography; also color duplex Doppler ultrasound of the brachial artery was done to detect endothelial function. Results. There is atherosclerosis in 31.3% of asymptomatic RA patients compared with only 5% in controls (P = 0.003**). A significant difference was detected in patients with and without atherosclerosis regarding duration of the disease (P = 0.0001***) and patient's age (P = 0.01*). There is highly statistical significant correlation between atherosclerosis and disease activity index. Conclusion. The frequency of subclinical atherosclerosis was high in long-term active RA patients. PMID:25737726

  4. Autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase in patients with chronic thyroiditis: effect of antibody binding on enzyme activities.

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, Y; Hiyama, Y; Shimojo, N; Niimi, H; Nakajima, H; Hosoya, T

    1986-01-01

    Using thyroid peroxidase (TPO), which was purified from the thyroid of patients with Graves' disease, we attempted to determine whether sera from patients with chronic thyroiditis contained antibodies to the enzyme. When the binding was tested by ELISA, sera from patients with chronic thyroiditis revealed high binding activities to TPO. When TPO was incubated with IgG from sera followed by treatment with protein A-Sepharose and centrifugation, the remaining TPO activities in the supernatant fraction were lower in most of the patients, as compared to normal controls. Moreover, IgG purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography from sera in patients interfered with the TPO activities. Titres of anti-TPO antibodies correlated well with those of anti-microsome antibodies. These results indicate the presence of autoantibodies to TPO in sera of most patients with chronic thyroiditis and that TPO may be one component of microsome antigen complexes recognized by the autoantibodies. Studies on the inhibition of TPO by IgG isolated from sera of patients using guaiacol and iodide assays revealed that at least three epitopes of TPO molecule were recognized by autoantibodies and that the antigenic determinants on TPO molecule recognized by autoantibodies could be heterogeneous in patients. PMID:2430744

  5. [Sequential changes in acute phase reactant proteins and complement activation in patients with acute head injuries].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Y; Matsuura, H; Nakazawa, S

    1987-12-01

    The role of immunological mechanisms in head injury is not clearly defined. In this study we investigated the immunological function in patients with acute head injuries. Serum acute phase reactant proteins (APRP), complement activation and immunoglobulines as immunological parameters were studied. APRP are produced in the liver and increase in cancer patients as well as those with acute and chronic inflammations, trauma and autoimmune diseases. APRP are known to be one of the immunosuppressive factors in the serum. Forty patients with acute head injuries were studied. Thirty-four patients were male and six patients were female, ages ranged from 12 to 81 years. Serial blood samples were obtained during the first seven days of trauma. The Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) were recorded at the time of admission for all patients. Clinical outcome was assessed at the time of discharge according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale. The "good" group consisted of patients with good recovery or moderate disability. The "bad" group consisted of patients with severe disability, persistent vegetative state and death. The concentrations of immunoglobulines (IgG, IgM, IgA) were within normal range and humoral immunity was not affected. Complement activation at the time of admission was closely related to GCS (p less than 0.01), but the levels of C4, C3, and C3 activator except for these of CH50 were within normal range.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2451531

  6. Incidence and Location of Pain in Young, Active Patients Following Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Nam, Denis; Nunley, Ryan M; Sauber, Timothy J; Johnson, Staci R; Brooks, Peter J; Barrack, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Persistent pain following hip arthroplasty remains a concern, especially in young, active patients. Four hundred twenty patients less than 60 years of age with a pre-symptomatic UCLA score ≥ 6 (196 total hip arthroplasty [THA]; 224 surface replacement arthroplasty [SRA]) completed a pain-drawing questionnaire investigating the location, severity, and frequency of pain around the hip. At a mean of 2.9 years of follow-up, 40% reported pain in at least one location around the hip. There was no difference in the incidence of groin pain between SRA and THA patients (32% vs. 29%, P=0.6), but THA patients had a greater incidence of anterior (25% vs. 8%, P<0.001) and lateral (20% vs. 10%, P=0.01) thigh pain. A high percentage of young, active patients experience persistent pain following hip arthroplasty. PMID:26067707

  7. Arginase activity - a marker of disease status in patients with visceral leishmaniasis in ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Tamrat; Takele, Yegnasew; Weldegebreal, Teklu; Cloke, Tom; Closs, Ellen; Corset, Camille; Hailu, Asrat; Hailu, Workagegnehu; Sisay, Yifru; Corware, Karina; Corset, Margaux; Modolell, Manuel; Munder, Markus; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne; Müller, Ingrid; Kropf, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms resulting in the profound immune suppression characteristic of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are not fully understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression, is higher in patients with VL and contributes to impaired T cell responses. We recruited patients with VL before and after treatment and healthy controls and measured the arginase metabolism in the blood of these individuals. Our results show that arginase activity is significantly higher in the blood of patients with active VL as compared to controls. These high levels of arginase decline considerably once the patients are successfully treated. We identified the phenotype of arginase-expressing cells among PBMCs as neutrophils and show that their frequency was increased in PBMCs of patients before treatment; this coincides with reduced levels of L-arginine in the plasma and decreased expression levels of CD3ζ in T cells. PMID:23556019

  8. Evaluation of NK and LAK cell activities in neoplastic patients during treatment with morphine.

    PubMed

    Provinciali, M; Di Stefano, G; Raffaeli, W; Pari, G; Desiderio, F; Fabris, N

    1991-07-01

    The cytotoxic activity of Natural Killer (NK) and Lymphokine Activated Killer (LAK) cells in neoplastic patients with or without antalgic treatment was studied. NK cell activity was found reduced in untreated neoplastic patients when compared to healthy subjects. The atalgic treatment with morphine (orally or intrathecally administered) was able to significantly reduce the mean values of NK cell activity found in cancer patients. In three patients the cytotoxicity of NK cells significantly decreased during transfer from oral to intrathecal administration of morphine. In contrast to the NK cell function, the development of LAK cell activity significantly increased in neoplastic patients when compared to healthy controls. Further increments were obtained during treatment with morphine. The oral treatment with morphine was able to determine a higher induction of LAK cells than the intrathecal administration of the drug. Besides providing new knowledge on the effect of morphine on immune system our findings suggest that, in order to include neoplastic patients in clinical trials of adoptive immunotherapy with LAK cells and interleukin-2 (IL-2), the antalgic therapy with oral administration of morphine may represent a better solution than the intrathecal administration of the drug. PMID:1774133

  9. The changing face(book) of psychiatry: can we justify 'following' patients' social media activity?

    PubMed

    Cox-George, Chantal

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with mental health issues may post information on social networking sites that can provide an insight into their mental health status. It could be argued that doctors (and specifically psychiatrists) should understand the way in which social media is used by their patients to gain a better insight into their illnesses. However, choosing to actively monitor a patient's social media activity raises important questions about the way in which medical students, qualified clinicians and other healthcare professionals obtain information about patients. While this may be framed as a mere form of 'collateral history-taking', there are obvious practical and ethical problems with doing so. Here, a case is made against monitoring the social media activity of patients involved with psychiatric services. PMID:26755986

  10. Integrative analysis of breast cancer reveals prognostic haematopoietic activity and patient-specific immune response profiles

    PubMed Central

    Varn, Frederick S.; Andrews, Erik H.; Mullins, David W.; Cheng, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional programmes active in haematopoietic cells enable a variety of functions including dedifferentiation, innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Understanding how these programmes function in the context of cancer can provide valuable insights into host immune response, cancer severity and potential therapy response. Here we present a method that uses the transcriptomes of over 200 murine haematopoietic cells, to infer the lineage-specific haematopoietic activity present in human breast tumours. Correlating this activity with patient survival and tumour purity reveals that the transcriptional programmes of many cell types influence patient prognosis and are found in environments of high lymphocytic infiltration. Collectively, these results allow for a detailed and personalized assessment of the patient immune response to a tumour. When combined with routinely collected patient biopsy genomic data, this method can enable a richer understanding of the complex interplay between the host immune system and cancer. PMID:26725977

  11. Integrative analysis of breast cancer reveals prognostic haematopoietic activity and patient-specific immune response profiles.

    PubMed

    Varn, Frederick S; Andrews, Erik H; Mullins, David W; Cheng, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional programmes active in haematopoietic cells enable a variety of functions including dedifferentiation, innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Understanding how these programmes function in the context of cancer can provide valuable insights into host immune response, cancer severity and potential therapy response. Here we present a method that uses the transcriptomes of over 200 murine haematopoietic cells, to infer the lineage-specific haematopoietic activity present in human breast tumours. Correlating this activity with patient survival and tumour purity reveals that the transcriptional programmes of many cell types influence patient prognosis and are found in environments of high lymphocytic infiltration. Collectively, these results allow for a detailed and personalized assessment of the patient immune response to a tumour. When combined with routinely collected patient biopsy genomic data, this method can enable a richer understanding of the complex interplay between the host immune system and cancer. PMID:26725977

  12. New Model Predicts Fire Activity in South America

    NASA Video Gallery

    UC Irvine scientist Jim Randerson discusses a new model that is able to predict fire activity in South America using sea surface temperature observations of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. The find...

  13. Activated Protein C Resistance Does Not Increase Risk for Recurrent Stroke or Death in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, Christoph; Sonntag, Natalie; Schleef, Michael; Rondak, Ina-Christine; Poppert, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Background Activated protein C (APC) resistance is the most common inherited prothrombotic disorder. The role of APC resistance in ischemic stroke is controversially discussed. Objectives The aim of this single center follow up study was to investigate the effect of APC resistance on stroke recurrence and survival in stroke patients. Patients/Methods We retrospectively identified 966 patients who had had an ischemic stroke or transitory ischemic attack (TIA) and in whom laboratory tests for APC resistance had been conducted. These patients were contacted to determine the primary outcomes of recurrent ischemic stroke or death. Results A total of 858 patients with an average follow up time of 8.48 years were included. APC resistance did not influence cumulative incidence functions for stroke free and total survival. In multivariate analyses, crude and adjusted hazard ratios for recurrent stroke as well as for death where not significantly increased in patients with APC resistance. This also applies to the subgroups of young patients, patients with cryptogenic stroke and patients with atrial fibrillation. Conclusion APC-resistance is not a risk factor for subsequent stroke or death in patients with a first ischemic stroke or TIA. Testing for APC-resistance in stroke patients therefore cannot be routinely recommended. PMID:27508300

  14. Correlation of Paraoxonase Status with Disease Activity Score and Systemic Inflammation in Rheumatoid Arthritic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bindal, Usha Dudeja; Siddiqui, Merajul Haque; Sharma, Dilutpal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite, various preventive efforts on conventional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, the incidence of CVD in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients increases continuously. To solve this conundrum one needs more investigations. Aim The present study was conducted to evaluate the plasma paraoxonase (PON) activity along with the markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and disease activity score-28 (DAS28) in RA patients and clarify their role in determining the probability of RA patients to develop future CVD risk. Materials and Methods Plasma PON, total antioxidant activity (TAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), synovial interleukin-6 (IL-6) and erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated in 40 RA patients aged 40-55 years aged and 40 age-matched healthy controls. The data obtained were compared statistically by using Student’s t-test and Pearson correlation test. Results Besides dyslipidaemia, marked reduction in plasma PON and TAA (p< 0.05) were observed in RA patients as compared with that of healthy controls. Erythrocyte MDA, plasma CRP and synovial IL-6 levels were increased significantly (p<0.05) in RA patients. PON was negatively correlated with MDA (r = - 0.672; p < 0.001), CRP (r = -0.458; p<0.05), IL-6 (r = -0.426; p<0.05) and DAS28 (r = -0.598; p < 0.001), and positively correlated with HDL cholesterol (r = 0.648; p<0.001) and TAA (r = 0.608; p< 0.001) levels in RA patients. Conclusion Alteration in PON activity might contribute to the progression of future CVD risk in RA patients, which may result from interplay of several confounding factors, such as inflammation, oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia. Furthermore, plasma PON activity, CRP and TAA levels could be considered as non-traditional factors to predict CVD risk. Thus, it is suggested that future drugs could be developed to target the non-traditional risk factors in RA patients. PMID:27134854

  15. Collective AIDS Activism and Individuals' Perceived Self-Advocacy in Physician-Patient Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brashers, Dale E.; Haas, Stephen M.; Klingle, Renee S.; Neidig, Judith L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes parallel persuasive processes between social or political activism and personal self-advocacy in a study of AIDS activism and communication patterns between people with HIV or AIDS and health care personnel. Encourages greater patient education about the illness and treatment options. Promotes a more assertive stance toward health care,…

  16. Intestinal Disaccharidase Activity in Patients with Autism: Effect of Age, Gender, and Intestinal Inflammation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushak, Rafail I.; Lauwers, Gregory Y.; Winter, Harland S.; Buie, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal disaccharidase activities were measured in 199 individuals with autism to determine the frequency of enzyme deficiency. All patients had duodenal biopsies that were evaluated morphologically and assayed for lactase, sucrase, and maltase activity. Frequency of lactase deficiency was 58% in autistic children less than or equal to 5 years…

  17. Activity of thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor in the plasma of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Dubis, Joanna; Zuk, Natalia; Grendziak, Ryszard; Zapotoczny, Norbert; Pfanhauser, Monika; Witkiewicz, Wojciech

    2014-04-01

    Patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) experience impaired balance between fibrinolysis and coagulation, manifested by increased prothrombotic tendency and intensified inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the TAFI activity level (thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor) in the plasma of AAA patients. Plasma levels of PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1), urokinase-type plasminogen activator and uPAR (urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor) were measured as markers of fibrinolytic activity. The study showed that the activity of the thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor in the plasma of AAA patients was significantly lower than in the plasma of the control individuals (64.6 ± 10.1 vs. 54.2 ± 10.9%, P < 0.0001). TAFI activity positively correlated with the white blood cell count (r = 0.486, P < 0.005). The uPAR concentration in the AAA patients was statistically significantly higher than in the control group and positively correlated with TAFI activity (r = 0.409, P = 0.02). The levels of PAI-1 and D-dimers (fibrin fragments) were significantly higher in patients with AAA than in the control group (44.3 ± 17.5 vs. 21.7 ± 8.7 ng/ml and 1869.6 ± 1490.1 vs. 181.5 ± 188.6 ng/ml, respectively). Lowered activity of the fibrinolysis inhibitor TAFI may heighten the blood fibrinolytic potential in AAA patients and contribute to the development of comorbidities. Therefore, TAFI participation in AAA pathogenesis cannot be excluded. PMID:24378973

  18. Arginase Activity in the Blood of Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Weldegebreal, Teklu; Hailu, Asrat; Hailu, Workagegnehu; Hurissa, Zewdu; Ali, Jemal; Diro, Ermiyas; Sisay, Yifru; Cloke, Tom; Modolell, Manuel; Munder, Markus; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne; Müller, Ingrid; Kropf, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease associated with high mortality. The most important foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia are in the Northwest and are predominantly associated with high rates of HIV co-infection. Co-infection of visceral leishmaniasis patients with HIV results in higher mortality, treatment failure and relapse. We have previously shown that arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression, was increased in patients with visceral leishmaniasis and in HIV seropositive patients; further our results showed that high arginase activity is a marker of disease severity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that increased arginase activities associated with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV infections synergize in patients co-infected with both pathogens. Methodology/Principal Findings We recruited a cohort of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and a cohort of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV infection from Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia, and recorded and compared their clinical data. Further, we measured the levels of arginase activity in the blood of these patients and identified the phenotype of arginase-expressing cells. Our results show that CD4+ T cell counts were significantly lower and the parasite load in the spleen was significantly higher in co-infected patients. Moreover, our results demonstrate that arginase activity was significantly higher in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma of co-infected patients. Finally, we identified the cells-expressing arginase in the PBMCs as low-density granulocytes. Conclusion Our results suggest that increased arginase might contribute to the poor disease outcome characteristic of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV co-infection. PMID:23349999

  19. Active video gaming in patients with renal transplant: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with renal transplant are at higher risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the general population. Physical activity has been shown to reduce the risk of CVD mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, barriers such as the harsh Canadian climate prevent patients from engaging in and harvesting the health benefits of physical activity. This pilot study explored active video gaming (AVG) as a way for patients with renal transplant to obtain physical activity and examined its effect on their functional status and quality of life (QOL). Main text We recruited nine patients for an 8-week prospective pilot study. All patients received a Microsoft Xbox 360™ video gaming console, a Microsoft Kinect™ sensor, and the video game Your Shape Fitness Evolved 2012. Assessment of each participant before and after the intervention included blood pressure measures, a 6-minute walk test, and the Godin Leisure Time Questionnaire (GLTQ). We analyzed all nine patients at the end of the 8-week study period, and found no changes in blood pressure or GLTQ scores. However, there was a significant increase in the 6-minute walk distance (P = 0.022), which represented a consistent increase for most patients (correlation = 0.977). In addition, participants over the age of 45 years (n = 4) were more likely to use the AVG system (P = 0.042). Conclusion AVG has the potential to improve the functional status in patients with renal transplant. Further research is required to corroborate the full health benefits of AVG in this patient population. PMID:25114788

  20. Variable Activation of the DNA Damage Response Pathways in Patients Undergoing SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shijun; Liang, Grace; Ong, Sang-Ging; Han, Leng; Sanchez-Freire, Veronica; Lee, Andrew S.; Vasanawala, Minal; Segall, George; Wu, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although single photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT MPI) has improved the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with suspected coronary artery disease, it remains a primary source of low dose radiation exposure for cardiac patients. To determine the biological effects of low dose radiation from SPECT MPI, we measured the activation of the DNA damage response pathways using quantitative flow cytometry and single cell gene expression profiling. Methods and Results Blood samples were collected from patients before and after SPECT MPI (n=63). Overall, analysis of all recruited patients showed no marked differences in the phosphorylation of proteins (H2AX, p53, and ATM) following SPECT. The majority of patients also had either down-regulated or unchanged expression in DNA damage response genes at both 24 and 48 hours post-SPECT. Interestingly, a small subset of patients with increased phosphorylation also had significant up-regulation of genes associated with DNA damage, whereas those with no changes in phosphorylation had significant down-regulation or no difference, suggesting that some patients may potentially be more sensitive to low dose radiation exposure. Conclusions Our findings showed that SPECT MPI resulted in a variable activation of the DNA damage response pathways. Although only a small subset of patients had increased protein phosphorylation and elevated gene expression post-imaging, continued care should be taken to reduce radiation exposure to both patients and operators. PMID:25609688

  1. Arginase activity and nitric oxide levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yüksel, Meral; Okur, Hacer Kuzu; Pelin, Zerrin; Öğünç, Ayliz Velioğlu; Öztürk, Levent

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repetitive obstruction of the upper airways, and it is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. There have been several studies demonstrating low levels of nitric oxide in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome compared with healthy controls. In this study, we hypothesized that reduced nitric oxide levels would result in high arginase activity. Arginase reacts with L-arginine and produces urea and L-ornithine, whereas L-arginine is a substrate for nitric oxide synthase, which produces nitric oxide. METHODS: The study group consisted of 51 obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients (M/F: 43/8; mean age 49±10 years of age) and 15 healthy control subjects (M/F: 13/3; mean age 46±14 years of age). Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients were divided into two subgroups based on the presence or absence of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide levels and arginase activity were measured via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of serum samples. RESULTS: Serum nitric oxide levels in the control subjects were higher than in the obstructive sleep apnea patients with and without cardiovascular diseases (p<0.05). Arginase activity was significantly higher (p<0.01) in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients without cardiovascular diseases compared with the control group. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients with cardiovascular diseases had higher arginase activity than the controls (p<0.001) and the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients without cardiovascular diseases (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Low nitric oxide levels are associated with high arginase activity. The mechanism of nitric oxide depletion in sleep apnea patients suggests that increased arginase activity might reduce the substrate availability of nitric oxide synthase and thus could reduce nitric oxide levels. PMID:24714832

  2. Development of the Patient Activation Measure for Mental Health (PAM-MH)

    PubMed Central

    Green, Carla A.; Perrin, Nancy A.; Polen, Michael R.; Leo, Michael C.; Hibbard, Judith H.; Tusler, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To adapt the physical health Patient Activation Measure (PAM) for use among people with mental health conditions (PAM-MH). Research Design Data came from 3 studies among people with chronic mental health conditions and were combined in Rasch analyses. Results The PAM-MH’s psychometric properties equal those of the original 13-item PAM. Test-retest reliability and concurrent validity were good, and the PAM-MH showed sensitivity to change. Conclusions The PAM-MH appears to be a reliable and valid measure of patient activation among individuals with mental health problems. It appears to have potential for use in assessing change in activation. PMID:19728074

  3. Effects of Partners Together in Health (PaTH) Intervention on Physical Activity and Healthy Eating Behaviors: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Bernice C.; Norman, Joseph; Meza, Jane; Krogstrand, Kaye Stanek; Harrington, Susana; Shurmur, Scott; Johnson, Matthew; Schumacher, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite proven efficacy of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in helping patients initiate physical activity and healthy eating changes, less than 50% of CR participants maintain changes 6 months later. Objective The objective of this feasibility study was to test the Partners Together in Health (PaTH) Intervention versus usual care (UC) in improving physical activity and healthy eating behaviors in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients and spouses. Methods An experimental, two-group (n = 17 couples/group), repeated measures design was used. CABG patients in both groups participated in Phase II outpatient CR. Spouses in the PaTH group attended CR with the patient and were asked to make the same physical activity and healthy eating changes as patients. Spouses in the control group attended educational classes with patients. It was theorized that “two persons would be better than one” at making changes and sticking with them long-term. Physical activity behavior was measured using the Actiheart accelerometer; the activity biomarker was an exercise tolerance test. Eating behavior was measured using 3-day food records; the biomarker was the lipid profile. Data were collected at baseline (entrance in CR), 3-months (post-CR), and 6-months. Changes over time were examined using Mann-Whitney U statistics and effect sizes. Results The PaTH intervention was successful primarily in demonstrating improved trends in healthy eating behavior for patients and spouses. No differences were found between the PaTH and UC patients or spouses at 3 or 6 months in the number of minutes/week of physical activity. By 6 months, patients in both groups were, on average, below the national guidelines for PA recommendations (≥ 150 min/week at > 3 METs). Conclusions The couple-focused PaTH intervention demonstrated promise in offsetting the decline in dietary adherence typically seen 6 months after CR. PMID:24434826

  4. Sarcoid-like lymphocytosis of the lower respiratory tract in patients with active Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Smiéjan, J M; Cosnes, J; Chollet-Martin, S; Soler, P; Basset, F M; Le Quintrec, Y; Hance, A J

    1986-01-01

    To re-evaluate the relationship between Crohn's disease and sarcoidosis, we compared the numbers and types of cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage from normal volunteers and patients with Crohn's disease, with other forms of inflammatory bowel disease, and with sarcoidosis. Patients with Crohn's disease, but not patients with other inflammatory bowel disorders, had an increase in the number of T lymphocytes on the surface of the lower respiratory tract similar to that seen in patients with sarcoidosis. As in sarcoidosis, this lymphocytosis results from an expansion of the T4+ T-lymphocyte subset, is characteristic of patients with active disease only, and is not associated with similar abnormalities in the peripheral blood. Thus, patients with apparently localized Crohn's disease have sarcoid-like lymphocytosis of the lower respiratory tract, a finding that emphasizes the systemic nature of Crohn's disease and the disorder's close relationship to sarcoidosis. PMID:3940500

  5. The correlation between muscle activity of the quadriceps and balance and gait in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dae Jung; Park, Seung Kyu; Uhm, Yo Han; Park, Sam Heon; Chun, Dong Whan; Kim, Je Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between quadriceps muscle activity and balance and gait in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-five stroke patients (30 males 25 females; mean age 58.7 years; stroke duration 4.82 months; Korean mini-mental state examination score 26.4) participated in this study. MP100 surface electromyography, BioRescue, and LUKOtronic were used to measure the quadriceps muscle activity, balance, and gait, respectively. [Results] There was a significant correlation between quadriceps muscle activity (vastus lateralis % reference voluntary contraction, vastus medialis % reference voluntary contraction) and balance (limits of stability) and gait (gait velocity) but there was none between vastus lateralis % reference voluntary contraction, vastus medialis % reference voluntary contraction. [Conclusion] An increase in quadriceps muscle activity will improve balance and gait ability. To improve function in stroke patients, training is needed to strengthen the quadriceps muscles.

  6. Effectiveness of behavioral graded activity after first-time lumbar disc surgery: short term results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ostelo, R W J G; de Vet, H C W; Berfelo, M W; Kerckhoffs, M R; Vlaeyen, J W S; Wolters, P M J C; van den Brandt, P A

    2003-12-01

    Behavioral approaches to treating patients following lumbar disc surgery are becoming increasingly popular. The treatment method is based on the assumption that pain and pain disability are not only influenced by somatic pathology, if found, but also by psychological and social factors. A recent study highlighted the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral interventions, as compared to no treatment, for chronic low back patients. However, to the authors' knowledge, there is no randomized controlled trial that evaluates a behavioral program for patients following lumbar disc surgery. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a behavioral graded activity (BGA) program compared to usual care (UC) in physiotherapy following first-time lumbar disc surgery. The BGA program was a patient-tailored intervention based upon operant therapy. The essence of the BGA is to teach patients that it is safe to increase activity levels. The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. Assessments were carried out before and after treatment by an observer blinded to treatment allocation. Patients suffering residual symptoms restricting their activities of daily living and/or work at the 6 weeks post-surgery consultation by the neurosurgeon were included. The exclusion criteria were: complications during surgery, any relevant underlying pathology, and any contraindication to physiotherapy or the BGA program. Primary outcome measures were the patient's Global Perceived Effect and the functional status. Secondary measures were: fear of movement, viewing pain as extremely threatening, pain, severity of the main complaint, range of motion, and relapses. Physiotherapists in the BGA group received proper training. Between November 1997 and December 1999, 105 patients were randomized; 53 into the UC group and 52 into the BGA group. The unadjusted analysis shows a 19.3% (95% CI: 0.1 to 38.5) statistically significant difference to the advantage of the UC group on Global

  7. Activities of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and erythrocyte glutathione dependent enzymes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Ngah, W Z; Shamaan, N A; Said, M H; Azhar, M T

    1993-01-01

    Plasma gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (gamma-GT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were determined in normal and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. No difference in enzyme activities was observed in the three major races of the Malaysian population, i.e. Malay, Chinese and Indian patients. However, plasma gamma-GT, erythrocyte glutathione S-transferase (GST) and GPx activities were significantly increased in all NPC patients, while GR activity remained unchanged. Patients with elevated plasma gamma-GT activities also had increased GST and GPx activities. Plasma gamma-GT and GPx activities were then found to be affected by treatment. Patients with plasma gamma-GT activity greater than 70 IU/l had very poor prognoses but patients with decreased gamma-GT activities were found to be in remission. PMID:8105826

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Intestinal Flora of Uygur and Han Ethnic Chinese Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ping; Cui, Min; Wang, Haikun; Gao, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Tao; Cheng, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To study the correlation between intestinal flora and ulcerative colitis by analyzing the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and healthy controls with Uygur and Han ethnic. Methods. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples and analyzed with real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results. The samples from UC patients, Uygur and Han ethnic combined, had higher abundance of Bacteroides (P = 0.026) but lower Clostridium (P = 0.004), Bifidobacterium spp. (P = 0.009), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.008) than those from healthy controls. Among UC patients, Bacteroides population was raised in acute UC patients (P ≤ 0.05), while the abundance of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., Fusobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the remission. In both UC patients group and control group, no difference was observed in the abundance of these 5 bacteria between the Han and the Uygur group. Conclusions. Variations in the abundance of these five bacterial strains in intestines may be associated with the occurrence of UC in Uygur and Han populations; however, these variations were not associated with ethnic difference. PMID:26839545

  9. Sleep and duodenal motor activity in patients with severe non-ulcer dyspepsia.

    PubMed Central

    David, D; Mertz, H; Fefer, L; Sytnik, B; Raeen, H; Niazi, N; Kodner, A; Mayer, E A

    1994-01-01

    The prevalence of sleep disturbances was studied in patients with severe non-ulcer dyspepsia. It was also considered if the change in sleep pattern was associated with changes in the rhythmic fasting motor activity of the gastrointestinal tract, and if motor events correlate with the patient's symptoms. Motor activity in the duodenum was monitored over a 24 hour period under freely ambulatory conditions in 10 healthy controls and in 10 patients with severe non-ulcer dyspepsia using a transnasally placed catheter with six solid state pressure transducers connected to a digital data logging device. Symptoms and sleep disturbance were assessed by questionnaire and diary. Based on their symptoms, the patients were separated into two groups: those with dyspepsia symptoms only (non-ulcer dyspepsia; n = 5) and those with dyspepsia and additional functional symptoms thought to arise from the lower gastrointestinal tract (non-ulcer dyspepsia+irritable bowel syndrome; n = 5). When compared with either the control or the non-ulcer dyspepsia+irritable bowel syndrome group, non-ulcer dyspepsia patients had a considerably decreased number of migrating motor complexes during the nocturnal period (0.7 v 4.6), a decreased percentage of nocturnal phase I (5.2% v 78.0%), and an increased percentage of the nocturnal period in phase II (94% v 15.4%). Patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia+irritable bowel syndrome were not different from normal controls. Four of the non-ulcer dyspepsia patients and all of the non-ulcer dyspepsia+irritable bowel syndrome patients reported difficulties with sleep. Clusters of high amplitude tonic and phasic activity, not accompanied by subjective reports of discomfort were noted in several patients in both groups during the study. In eight of 10 patients, abdominal pain was reported during normal motor activity, while in one patient, pain correlated with phase III of the migrating motor complex. In contrast with previous reports in patients with irritable

  10. Lithogenic activity as a factor to consider in the metabolic evaluation of patients with calcium lithiasis.

    PubMed

    Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel; Cano-Garcia, Maria Del Carmen; Arrabal-Martin, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    Metabolic evaluation is important in high-risk patients with a history of urinary calculi, in order to prevent recurrence. This study aimed to compare patients with calcium calculi and mild lithogenic activity with those with moderate to severe lithogenic activity. Patients with moderate to severe activity had higher levels of urinary calcium level (271.9 mg/24h versus 172.1 mg/24 h, P < .001), uric acid (612.3 mg/24 h versus 528.9 mg/24h, P = .008), and fasting calcium-creatinine ratio (0.16 versus 0.12, P = .001) compared to those with mild lithogenic activity. No association was observed between lithogenic factors in 24-hour urine and mild lithogenic activity in multivariable analysis. We initially thought that in patients who develop recurrent calculi after 5 years or who have mild lithogenic activity, complete metabolic evaluation would not be necessary. However, based on our study findings, it may be important to conduct further studies assessing the lithogenic activity. PMID:26552354

  11. Recommendations for health-enhancing physical activities in type 2 diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Mynarski, Władysław; Cholewa, Jarosław; Rozpara, Michał; Borek, Zbigniew; Strojek, Krzysztof; Nawrocka, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disease of civilization with epidemiological coverage. An integral component of a comprehensive process of type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention and treatment is reasonably proportioned exercise. The aim of the study was to evaluate the weekly physical activity of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthy subjects with respect to recommendations of the American College of Sports Medicine and American Diabetes Association. [Subjects] The study involved 31 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (treatment duration 9 ± 0.8) and 31 healthy people. [Methods] Physical activity levels were determined by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A χ2 test was applied to determine the percentage of people who met recommendations. [Results] Analysis of the obtained results demonstrated that the intensity of physical activity in patients with diabetes was moderate or low. The men in the control group met the recommendations for standard health-related activities significantly more often than the patients with diabetes. In women, there was no such relationship, since most of the women were insufficiently physically active. [Conclusion] The conclusion to be drawn is that there is an urgent need to develop and implement effective programs to enhance physical activity among people at risk of diseases of civilization, including type 2 diabetes. PMID:26356173

  12. [Activity of salivary glutathione-dependent enzymes in patients with periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Gavriliuk, L A; Shevchenko, N V; Spineĭ, A F; Vartichan, A I; Godorozha, P D; Lysyĭ, L T

    2008-07-01

    Forty-five patients aged 20-47 years who had mild, moderate, or severe periodontitis and 32 healthy individuals (a control group) were studied during 10-15-day treatment with traditional therapy and combined therapy including the traditional approach and the antihomotoxic agent Traumeel S ointment as a supplement. Increased free radical generation and lipid peroxidation were considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Salivary indices are a reflection of a patient's metabolic state and have clinical diagnostic values in patients with oral tissue inflammation. The activities of antioxidative enzymes (glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) were determined in the saliva of patients with periodontitis during traditional and complex (traditional + Traumeel S) therapies. Inflammation led to metabolic disturbances and antioxidative defense system imbalance in patients with periodontitis. The findings suggest that the complex therapy with Traumeel S restored antioxidative defense balance and it was more effective than the traditional therapy in patients with periodontitis. An analysis showed a direct correlation between the activity of antioxidative enzymes and clinical characteristics of the disease. These results reflect the activity of a pathological process and the imbalance of antioxidative defense in patients with periodontitis. PMID:18756728

  13. B lymphocyte activation by insoluble anti-mu antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, H; Schauer, U; Helmke, K

    1986-01-01

    In order to study the capacity of anti-immunoglobulin (Ig) antibodies to induce proliferative responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBC) from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), anti-mu coupled to Sepharose beads (anti-mu) was used as a polyclonal activator. In 18 patients, a strong proliferative response was associated with inactive disease, and the response was lower in clinical active disease (P less than 0.02). An inverse correlation could also be observed in six patients who were studied longitudinally (P less than 0.01). These results indicate that anti-mu responsiveness is closely related to disease activity in SLE. In addition, sequential data obtained from two patients during an early stage of clinical deterioration suggest that a low anti-mu response might be an early indicator of a clinical relapse. In the patients investigated, the anti-mu response was not correlated with the response to pokeweed mitogen (PWM), or with the quantity of B cells. When T cell depleted cell fractions were studied, marked increases in the proliferative responses to anti-mu were observed in some patients. These studies suggest that the response to anti-mu might be modified by T cells to a variable extent in patients with SLE. PMID:3102135

  14. Impact of Acetazolamide and CPAP on Cortical Activity in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients

    PubMed Central

    Stadelmann, Katrin; Latshang, Tsogyal D.; Nussbaumer-Ochsner, Yvonne; Tarokh, Leila; Ulrich, Silvia; Kohler, Malcolm; Bloch, Konrad E.; Achermann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives 1) To investigate the impact of acetazolamide, a drug commonly prescribed for altitude sickness, on cortical oscillations in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). 2) To examine alterations in the sleep EEG after short-term discontinuation of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Design Data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized cross-over design studies were analyzed. Setting Polysomnographic recordings in sleep laboratory at 490 m and at moderate altitudes in the Swiss Alps: 1630 or 1860 m and 2590 m. Patients Study 1: 39 OSAS patients. Study 2: 41 OSAS patients. Interventions Study 1: OSAS patients withdrawn from treatment with CPAP. Study 2: OSAS patients treated with autoCPAP. Treatment with acetazolamide (500–750 mg) or placebo at moderate altitudes. Measurements and Results An evening dose of 500 mg acetazolamide reduced slow-wave activity (SWA; approximately 10%) and increased spindle activity (approximately 10%) during non-REM sleep. In addition, alpha activity during wake after lights out was increased. An evening dose of 250 mg did not affect these cortical oscillations. Discontinuation of CPAP therapy revealed a reduction in SWA (5–10%) and increase in beta activity (approximately 25%). Conclusions The higher evening dose of 500 mg acetazolamide showed the “spectral fingerprint” of Benzodiazepines, while 250 mg acetazolamide had no impact on cortical oscillations. However, both doses had beneficial effects on oxygen saturation and sleep quality. PMID:24710341

  15. Baseline acetylcholinesterase activity and serotonin plasma levels are not associated with delirium in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, Cristiane Damiani; Salluh, Jorge; Soares, Márcio; Vuolo, Francieli; Zanatta, Francieli; Constantino, Larissa de Souza; Zugno, Alexandra Ioppi; Ritter, Cristiane; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether plasma serotonin levels or acetylcholinesterase activities determined upon intensive care unit admission could predict the occurrence of acute brain dysfunction in intensive care unit patients. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted with a sample of 77 non-consecutive patients observed between May 2009 and September 2010. Delirium was determined using the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit tool, and the acetylcholinesterase and serotonin measurements were determined from blood samples collected up to a maximum of 24 h after the admission of the patient to the intensive care unit. Results In the present study, 38 (49.6%) patients developed delirium during their intensive care unit stays. Neither serum acetylcholinesterase activity nor serotonin level was independently associated with delirium. No significant correlations of acetylcholinesterase activity or serotonin level with delirium/coma-free days were observed, but in the patients who developed delirium, there was a strong negative correlation between the acetylcholinesterase level and the number of delirium/coma-free days, indicating that higher acetylcholinesterase levels are associated with fewer days alive without delirium or coma. No associations were found between the biomarkers and mortality. Conclusions Neither serum acetylcholinesterase activity nor serotonin level was associated with delirium or acute brain dysfunction in critically ill patients. Sepsis did not modify these relationships. PMID:26340158

  16. Facilitation of bone resorption activities in synovial lavage fluid patients with mandibular condyle fractures.

    PubMed

    Takano, H; Takahashi, T; Nakata, A; Nogami, S; Yusa, K; Kuwajima, S; Yamazaki, M; Fukuda, M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bone resorption effect of the mediators delivered in joint cavity of patients with mandibular condyle fractures by detecting osteoclast markers using cellular biochemistry methods, and by analysing bone resorption activities via inducing osteoclast differentiation of the infiltrated cells from arthrocentesis. Sixteen joints in 10 patients with mandibular condyle fractures were evaluated. The control group consisted of synovial fluid (SF) samples from seven joints of four volunteers who had no clinical signs or symptoms involving the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) or disc displacement. We collected SF cells from all patients during therapeutic arthrocentesis. The infiltrating cells from TMJ SF were cultured, differentiated into tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclast-like cells and examined bone resorption activities. We also investigated factors related to osteoclast induction of SF, using ELISA procedures. Osteoclast-like cells were induced from the SF cells obtained from all patients with condylar fractures. These multinucleated giant cells were positive for TRAP and actin, and had the ability to absorb dentin slices. The levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), soluble form of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (sRANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), in SF samples from the patients, were significantly higher than in the controls. These findings indicate that bone resorption activities in SF from patients with mandibular condyle fractures were upregulated and may participate in the pathogenesis and wound healing. PMID:26946239

  17. A Nonselective Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor Enhances the Activity of Vinblastine in a Naturally-Occurring Canine Model of Invasive Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Deborah W.; Ruple-Czerniak, Audrey; Ramos-Vara, José A.; Naughton, James F.; Fulkerson, Christopher M.; Honkisz, Sonia I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy is expected to remain an important part of invasive urothelial carcinoma (UC) treatment. Strategies to enhance chemotherapy efficacy are needed. Objective: To determine the chemotherapy-enhancing effects of a nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor on vinblastine in a naturally-occurring canine model of invasive UC. Methods: With IACUC approval, privately-owned dogs with naturally-occurring histologically-diagnosed invasive UC, expected survival ≥6 weeks, and informed owner consent were randomly allocated to receive vinblastine (2.5 mg/m2 intravenously every 2 weeks) plus piroxicam (0.3 mg/kg daily per os) or vinblastine alone (same dose) with the option to receive piroxicam alone when vinblastine failed. Scheduled evaluations included physical exam, standard laboratory analyses, thoracic radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and standardized measurement of urinary tract tumors. Results: Dogs receiving vinblastine alone (n = 27) and vinblastine-piroxicam (n = 24) were similar in age, sex, breed, tumor stage, and grade. Remission occurred more frequently (P <  0.02) with vinblastine-piroxicam (58.3%) than with vinblastine alone (22.2%). The median progression free interval was 143 days with vinblastine alone and 199 days with the combination. Interestingly, the overall median survival time was significantly longer (P <  0.03) in dogs receiving vinblastine alone followed by piroxicam alone (n = 20, 531 days) than in dogs receiving the combination (299 days). Treatment was well tolerated in both arms. Conclusions: Piroxicam significantly enhanced the activity of vinblastine in dogs with UC where the cancer closely mimics the human condition, clearly justifying further study. The study suggest the potential importance of tracking COX inhibitor use in patients in clinical trials as COX inhibitors could affect treatment response. PMID:27376143

  18. The relationship between enthesitis indices and disease activity parameters in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Sivas, Filiz; Mermerci Başkan, Bedriye; Erkol Inal, Esra; Akbulut Aktekin, Lale; Barça, Nurdan; Ozoran, Kürşat; Bodur, Hatice

    2009-03-01

    In this study, patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) were assessed both by patient and physician using two enthesitis indices and the relationship between these indices and disease activity parameters was investigated. The study involved 100 AS patients. The patients were evaluated with 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) for spinal pain (VAS-S), peripheral joint pain (VAS-P), global assessment of patient, and global assessment of doctor. In the laboratory evaluations, the erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR) and serum C-reactive protein levels of the patients were determined. Bath AS disease activity index (BASDAI), Bath AS functional index (BASFI), Bath AS metrology index, and Bath AS radiology index were calculated. The severity of enthesitis was evaluated according to Mander enthesitis index (MEI) and Maastricht ankylosing spondylitis enthesitis score applied by both the patient (MASES-P) him/herself and the physician (MASES-D). There was a correlation between BASDAI and BASFI as well as MEI, MASES-D, and MASES-P indices (r = 0.447, r = 0.342, r = 0.663, r = 0.530, r = 0.464, and r = 0.435, respectively). No correlation between the laboratory parameters and enthesitis indices were detected. In multiple linear regression analysis, BASFI, VAS-S, and female gender (41.3%) were the best predictors of MEI-D, whereas BASFI, VAS-S, female gender, and ESR (32.5%) were the best predictors for MASES-D and BASFI (18.9%) was the best predictor of MASES-P. The assessment of simple and easily applicable MASES score by a patient may be expected to help the physician in clinical practice. When the disease activity of the patients with AS are evaluated, both BASDAI, the clinical importance of which has been confirmed in numerous studies and which is recommended by ASAS, and BASFI, which is valued by patients, should be considered. PMID:18953622

  19. Active Tobacco Smoking and Distant Metastasis in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Sean M.; Ali, Nawal N.; Margalit, Danielle N.; Chan, Annie W.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Distant metastasis is the site of first relapse in approximately one-third of patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma, irrespective of human papillomavirus status. Yet the risk factors associated with distant metastasis are not well characterized. We sought to characterize the relationship between smoking status and distant metastasis. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the association between tobacco smoking status and distant metastasis in a retrospective cohort study of 132 patients who underwent definitive radiation therapy and chemotherapy for Stage III-IVA/B oropharyngeal cancer. Information on tobacco smoking was prospectively collected by patient questionnaires and physician notes at the time of diagnosis. Thirty-three percent of the patients were nonsmokers, 51% were former smokers, 16% were active smokers. The cumulative lifetime tobacco smoking in pack-years was 20 (range, 0-150). Results: With a median follow-up time of 52 months, the overall rate of distant metastasis at 4 years was 8%. Distant metastasis was the most common first site of relapse, occurring in 56% of the patients with recurrences. Active smokers had higher rates of distant metastasis than non-active smokers (including never- and former smokers; 31% vs. 4%, p < 0.001) and former smokers (31% vs. 3%, p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of distant metastasis for patients with lifetime cumulative pack-years >20 and {<=}20 (10% vs. 4%, p = 0.19). In univariate analysis, active smoking (p = 0.0004) and N category (p = 0.009) were predictive of increased risk of distant metastasis. In multivariate analysis, active smoking was the most significant predictive factor for increased risk of distant metastasis (hazard ratio, 12.7, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: This study identified a strong association between active smoking and distant metastasis in patients with oropharyngeal cancer.

  20. Association of celiac disease genes with inflammatory bowel disease in Finnish and Swedish patients.

    PubMed

    Parmar, A S; Lappalainen, M; Paavola-Sakki, P; Halme, L; Färkkilä, M; Turunen, U; Kontula, K; Aromaa, A; Salomaa, V; Peltonen, L; Halfvarson, J; Törkvist, L; D'Amato, M; Saavalainen, P; Einarsdottir, E

    2012-09-01

    Some genetic loci may affect susceptibility to multiple immune system-related diseases. In the current study, we investigated whether the known susceptibility loci for celiac disease (CelD) also associate with Crohn's disease (CD) and/or ulcerative colitis (UC), the two main forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in Finnish patients. A total of 45 genetic markers were genotyped in a Finnish data set comprising 699 IBD patients and 2482 controls. Single-marker association with IBD and its subphenotypes was tested. A meta-analysis with a Swedish UC data set was also performed. A total of 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CD and/or UC (P<0.05). In the subphenotype analysis, rs6974491-ELMO1 (P=0.0002, odds ratio (OR): 2.20) and rs2298428-UBE2L3 (P=5.44 × 10(-5), OR: 2.59) associated with pediatric UC and CD, respectively. In the meta-analysis, rs4819388-ICOSLG (P=0.00042, OR: 0.79) associated with UC. In the subphenotype meta-analysis, rs1738074-TAGAP (P=7.40 × 10(-5), OR: 0.61), rs6974491-ELMO1 (P=0.00052, OR: 1.73) and rs4819388-ICOSLG (P=0.00019, OR: 0.75) associated with familial UC, pediatric UC and sporadic UC, respectively. Multiple CelD risk loci also confer susceptibility for CD and/or UC in the Finnish and Swedish populations. Certain genetic risk variants may furthermore predispose an individual for developing a particular disease phenotype. PMID:22592522

  1. Complement-activating ability of leucocytes from patients with complement factor I deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Marquart, H V; Rasmussen, J M; Leslie, R G

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that normal peripheral blood B cells are capable of activating complement via the alternative pathway (AP), that the activation is associated with complement receptor type 2 (CR2) expression, and that erythrocytes at normal blood levels partially inhibit the activation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether factor I (FI) deficiency, which leads to continued formation of the AP convertase (C3bBb) resulting in the consumption of factor B and C3 and large scale generation of C3b fragments, affects the phenotype and/or function of the patients' B cells. Using flow cytometry, peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) from two FI-deficient patients were investigated for expression of complement receptors and complement regulatory proteins, in vivo-deposited C3 fragments and in vitro complement-activating ability. CR1 levels on B cells were significantly lower in FI-deficient patients than in normal individuals, whereas CR2 levels were found to be reduced, although not to a significant extent. CR1 levels on monocytes and polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) were found to be normal or slightly raised. All leucocyte subpopulations were found to be covered in vivo with C3b fragments. AP activation on B cells from FI-deficient patients in homologous serum was significantly reduced compared with that for normal individuals, whereas no in vitro activation was seen in autologous serum. In addition, the in vivo-bound C3b fragments were degraded to C3d,g when the patients' PBL were incubated in homologous serum containing EDTA. Finally, the patients, erythrocytes failed to exert any inhibition on AP activation in homologous serum. PMID:9301541

  2. [THE IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITY OF PLASMA OF PATIENTS INFECTED WITH HUMAN HIV VIRUS].

    PubMed

    Selimova, L M; Kalnina, L B; Serebrovskaya, L V; Ivanova, L A; Gulyaeva, A N; Nosik, D M

    2015-10-01

    The study was carried out to investigate impact of plasma of patients infected with human HIV virus receiving and not receiving highly active antiviral therapy on: expression of phenotypic markers of lymphocytes (CD3+, CD3+/CD4+, CD3+/CD8+, CD19+, CD3-/CD (16+56)+, CD3+/CD(16+56)+, CD3+/HLA-DR+, CD4+/CD62L+, CD8+/CD38+) in mononuclear cells of blood of donors and secretion of pro-inflammatory (interleukin-1β, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-4 and interleukin-10) cytokines. After 24 hours of activation of mononuclear cells with plasmas it was demonstrated that as compared with control groups, in of plasmas of patients with highly active antiviral therapy increasing of number of CD4+ T-cells and decreasing of CD8+ T-cells is observed. The plasmas of patients with highly active antiviral therapy activate in most instances CD4+ T-cells whereas plasmas of patients without treatment--CD8+ T-cells. The results of detection of cytokines in blood indicate that in patients without treatment inflammatory potential is increased as compared with group of highly active antiviral therapy. The data concerning accumulation of interleukin-1β under cultivation of mononuclear cells with plasmas indicates at its role in preservation of vitality of natural killers. The analysis of immunomodulatory activity of plasma of patients infected with human HIV virus can be recommended as an additional technique of evaluation of functioning of immune system. PMID:26841673

  3. DNA-hydrolysing activity of IgG antibodies from the sera of patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ermakov, Evgeny A.; Smirnova, Ludmila P.; Parkhomenko, Taisiya A.; Dmitrenok, Pavel S.; Krotenko, Nina M.; Fattakhov, Nikolai S.; Bokhan, Nikolay A.; Semke, Arkadiy V.; Ivanova, Svetlana A.; Buneva, Valentina N.; Nevinsky, Georgy A.

    2015-01-01

    It is believed that damage to the membranes of brain cells of schizophrenia (SCZ) patients induces the formation of autoantigens and autoantibodies. Nevertheless, the importance of immunological changes leading to the loss of tolerance to self-antigens in the genesis of SCZ has not been established. The MALDI mass spectra of the IgG light chains of 20 healthy donors were relatively homogeneous and characterized by one peak with only one maximum. In contrast to the healthy donors, the MALDI mass spectra of IgG light chains corresponding to 20 SCZ patients demonstrated, similarly to 20 autoimmune systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, two maxima of a comparable intensity. In addition, the MALDI spectra of the IgG light chains of five SLE and four SCZ patients contained a small additional brightly pronounced peak with remarkably lower molecular mass compared with the main one. DNase autoantibodies (abzymes) can be found in the blood of patients with several autoimmune diseases, while the blood of healthy donors or patients with diseases without a significant disturbance of the immune status does not contain DNase abzymes. Here, we present the first analysis of anti-DNA antibodies and DNase abzymes in the sera of SCZ patients. Several strict criteria have been applied to show that the DNase activity is an intrinsic property of IgGs from the sera of SCZ patients. The sera of approximately 30% of SCZ patients displayed a higher content of antibodies (compared with 37% of SLE) interacting with single- and double-stranded DNA compared with healthy donors. Antibodies with DNase activity were revealed in 80% of the patients. These data indicate that some SCZ patients may show signs of typical autoimmune processes to a certain extent. PMID:26382278

  4. Relationship Between Grip and Pinch Strength and Activities of Daily Living in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jung Hyun; Seo, Kyung Mook; Kim, Don-Kyu; Shin, Hyun Iee; Shin, Hye Eun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between grip and pinch strength and independence in activities of daily living (ADL) in stroke patients. Methods Medical records of 577 stroke patients from January 2010 to February 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients' grip and pinch strength of both hemiplegic and non-hemiplegic hands and the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) score were collected. These patients were divided into three groups: group A (onset duration: ≤3 months), group B (onset duration: >3 months and <2 years), and group C (onset duration: ≥2 years). The correlation between grip and pinch strength and the K-MBI score was analyzed. Results In group A (95 patients), the K-MBI score was significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the grip and pinch strength of both hands in patients with right hemiplegia. Significant (p<0.05) correlation between the K-MBI score and the grip and pinch strength of the hemiplegic hand was shown in patients with left hemiplegia. In group B (69 patients) and group C (73 patients), the K-MBI score was significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the grip and pinch strength of the hemiplegic hand. Conclusion Stroke patients in subacute stage mainly performed activities of daily living using their dominant hand. However, independence in ADL was associated with the strength of the affected dominant hand. For stroke patients in chronic and late chronic stages, their hand power of the affected hand was associated with independence in ADL regardless whether the dominant hand was affected. PMID:26605173

  5. Daily activity level buffers stress-glycemia associations in older sedentary NIDDM patients.

    PubMed

    Aikens, K S; Aikens, J E; Wallander, J L; Hunt, S

    1997-08-01

    Examined glycemic associations with medical variables, activity, daily stress, and mood state in 72 older patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). On three occasions over a 2-week observation period, subjects provided measures of everyday life stress, negative mood state, and daily activities. At the end of this period, fructosamine was assayed to measure glycemic control throughout the assessment period. After controlling for medical variables (age, illness duration, body mass index, caloric intake, and activity) and the main effects of psychological factors (stress; anxious, angry, and depressed mood states), stress interacted with activity such that glycemic elevation was positively associated with stress for subjects below the activity median but not for those above the median. This was unattributable to any overall activity-related differences in fructosamine, stress, or mood. None of the mood states interacted with activity. The findings suggest that extremely low levels of activity may strengthen life stress-glycemia associations in NIDDM. PMID:9298436

  6. Activity performance problems of patients with cardiac diseases and their impact on quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Duruturk, Neslihan; Tonga, Eda; Karatas, Metin; Doganozu, Ersin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To describe the functional consequences of patients with cardiac diseases and analyze associations between activity limitations and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy subjects (mean age: 60.1±12.0 years) were being treated by Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Cardiology Departments were included in the study. Activity limitations and participation restrictions as perceived by the individual were measured by the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). The Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) Scale was used to describe limitations in daily living activities. To detect the impact of activity limitations on quality of life the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) was used. [Results] The subjects described 46 different types of problematic activities. The five most identified problems were walking (45.7%), climbing up the stairs (41.4%), bathing (30%), dressing (28.6%) and outings (27.1%). The associations between COPM performance score with all subgroups of NEADL and NHP; total, energy, physical abilities subgroups, were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Our results showed that patients with cardiac diseases reported problems with a wide range of activities, and that also quality of life may be affected by activities of daily living. COPM can be provided as a patient-focused outcome measure, and it may be a useful tool for identifying those problems. PMID:26311919

  7. Serum activity of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 is decreased in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Bennion, Douglas M; Rosado, Christian A; Haltigan, Emily A; Regenhardt, Robert W; Sumners, Colin; Waters, Michael F

    2016-07-01

    Levels of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a cardio and neuro-protective carboxypeptidase, are dynamically altered after stroke in preclinical models. We sought to characterize the previously unexplored changes in serum ACE2 activity of stroke patients and the mechanism of these changes. Serum samples were obtained from patients during acute ischemic stroke (n=39), conditions mimicking stroke (stroke-alert, n=23), or from control participants (n=20). Enzyme activity levels were analyzed by fluorometric assay and correlated with clinical variables by regression analyses. Serum ACE2 activity was significantly lower in acute ischemic stroke as compared to both control and stroke-alert patients, followed by an increase to control levels at three days. Serum ACE2 activity significantly correlated with the presence of ischemic stroke after controlling for other factors (P=0.01). Additional associations with ACE2 activity included a positive correlation with systolic blood pressure at presentation in stroke-alert (R(2)=0.24, P=0.03), while stroke levels showed no correlation (R(2)=0.01, P=0.50). ACE2 sheddase activity was unchanged between groups. These dynamic changes in serum ACE2 activity in stroke, which concur with preclinical studies, are not likely to be driven primarily by acute changes in blood pressure or sheddase activity. These findings provide new insight for developing therapies targeting this protective system in ischemic stroke. PMID:27488276

  8. Activity performance problems of patients with cardiac diseases and their impact on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Duruturk, Neslihan; Tonga, Eda; Karatas, Metin; Doganozu, Ersin

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] To describe the functional consequences of patients with cardiac diseases and analyze associations between activity limitations and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy subjects (mean age: 60.1±12.0 years) were being treated by Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Cardiology Departments were included in the study. Activity limitations and participation restrictions as perceived by the individual were measured by the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). The Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) Scale was used to describe limitations in daily living activities. To detect the impact of activity limitations on quality of life the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) was used. [Results] The subjects described 46 different types of problematic activities. The five most identified problems were walking (45.7%), climbing up the stairs (41.4%), bathing (30%), dressing (28.6%) and outings (27.1%). The associations between COPM performance score with all subgroups of NEADL and NHP; total, energy, physical abilities subgroups, were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Our results showed that patients with cardiac diseases reported problems with a wide range of activities, and that also quality of life may be affected by activities of daily living. COPM can be provided as a patient-focused outcome measure, and it may be a useful tool for identifying those problems. PMID:26311919

  9. Activated protein C resistance in patients with central retinal vein occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, J; Sellman, A; Bauer, B

    1997-01-01

    AIM/BACKGROUND—A new defect in the anticoagulant system has recently been discovered—activated protein C resistance. The frequency of this disorder has been shown to be increased in young patients (<50 years of age) with central retinal vein occlusion. This study was carried out to determine if there was any overrepresentation of activated protein C resistance in patients >50 years of age with central retinal vein occlusion.
METHODS—Blood samples were obtained from 83 patients >50 years of age and with a history of central retinal vein occlusion. The blood samples were analysed for activated protein C resistance with standard clinical laboratory methods.
RESULTS—In this material 11% of the patients were resistant to activated protein C. The normal incidence of activated protein C resistance in the same geographical area is 10-11%.
CONCLUSION—Activated protein C resistance does not seem to be a cause of central retinal vein occlusion in people older than 50 years.

 PMID:9486021

  10. 'Co-active coaching' could help HIV patients. New type of counseling involves goal-setting.

    PubMed

    Garfinkel, M; Blumenthal, E

    2001-08-01

    A counseling technique that takes an action-oriented approach to helping people make major life changes, much used by business executives and other professionals in recent years, now appears to offer some value to HIV patients. Co-active coaching could be a solution to mild depression and inertia for some HIV-infected patients who have difficulty making decisions about how to spend a life-time living with the disease. PMID:11547701

  11. Serum Cholinesterase Activities Distinguish between Stroke Patients and Controls and Predict 12-Month Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Ben Assayag, Einor; Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shani; Ofek, Keren; Soreq, Lilach; Bova, Irena; Shopin, Ludmila; Berg, Ronan MG; Berliner, Shlomo; Shapira, Itzhak; Bornstein, Natan M; Soreq, Hermona

    2010-01-01

    To date there is no diagnostic biomarker for mild stroke, although elevation of inflammatory biomarkers has been reported at early stages. Previous studies implicated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) involvement in stroke, and circulating AChE activity reflects inflammatory response, since acetylcholine suppresses inflammation. Therefore, carriers of polymorphisms that modify cholinergic activity should be particularly susceptible to inflammatory damage. Our study sought diagnostic values of AChE and Cholinergic Status (CS, the total capacity for acetylcholine hydrolysis) in suspected stroke patients. For this purpose, serum cholinesterase activities, butyrylcholinesterase-K genotype and inflammatory biomarkers were determined in 264 ischemic stroke patients and matched controls during the acute phase. AChE activities were lower (P < 0.001), and butyrylcholinesterase activities were higher in patients than in controls (P = 0.004). When normalized to sampling time from stroke occurrence, both cholinergic parameters were correlated with multiple inflammatory biomarkers, including fibrinogen, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (r = 0.713, r = 0.607; r = 0.421, r = 0.341; r = 0.276, r = 0.255; respectively; all P values < 0.001). Furthermore, very low AChE activities predicted subsequent nonsurvival (P = 0.036). Also, carriers of the unstable butyrylcholinesterase-K variant were more abundant among patients than controls, and showed reduced activity (P < 0.001). Importantly, a cholinergic score combining the two cholinesterase activities discriminated between 94.3% matched pairs of patients and controls, compared with only 75% for inflammatory measures. Our findings present the power of circulation cholinesterase measurements as useful early diagnostic tools for the occurrence of stroke. Importantly, these were considerably more distinctive than the inflammatory biomarkers, albeit closely associated with them, which may open new venues for stroke diagnosis and treatment

  12. Elevated serum interleukin-23 levels in ankylosing spondylitis patients and the relationship with disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Ugur, Mahir; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Melikoglu, Meltem Alkan; Baygutalp, Fatih; Altas, Elif Umay; Seferoglu, Buminhan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum interleukin-23 (IL-23) levels and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).Twenty male patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis according to the 1984 modified New York criteria for AS and twenty male healthy controls were included in this study.The demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Serum IL-23 levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in both the AS and control groups. The Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity ındex (BASDAI), the Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), and the Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) were evaluated as disease activity parameters. The AS patients were divided into two subgroups as active and inactive in respect of CRP, ESR levels and BASDAI scores. The mean serum IL-23 levels of the AS and control groups were 334.45±176.54 pg/ml and 166.49±177.50 pg/ml respectively, and there was a significant difference between the groups. Correlation analysis of serum IL-23 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters showed that there were positive correlations between serum IL-23 levels and the BASDAI, BASFI scores in total, active and inactive patients and the BASMI scores in total and inactive patients and negative correlations between serum IL-23 levels and ESR in inactive patients. It was shown that altered serum IL-23 levels were related to AS disease activity. Further studies in large patient series are necessary to investigate the role of IL-23 protein in etiopathogenesis of AS. PMID:26663940

  13. Fracture of the cemented femoral component following hemiarthroplasty in physically active patient: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Cankaya, Deniz; Yoldas, Burak; Yılmaz, Serdar; Tecirli, Ali; Ozkurt, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fracture of the femoral stem following hip arthroplasty has become very rare since the developments in modern prosthetic designs. Prevention by identifying the risk factors is the best way to overcome these complex problems, as treatment is difficult. Case Report: Femoral component fracture after cemented hemiarthroplasty in a physically active 64-year-old, male patient is reported in this present article. Conclusion: The present case emphasizes the importance of preserving the joint after hip fracture and avoidance of using mono block prosthesis in younger patients. If the patient is physically active, he/she should be advised to limit her/his daily activities to moderate intensity after hemiarthroplasty surgery. PMID:27299090

  14. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in Plasmodium vivax malaria patients evolving with cholestatic jaundice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax infection has been considered a benign and self-limiting disease, however, recent studies highlight the association between vivax malaria and life-threatening manifestations. Increase in reactive oxygen species has already been described in vivax malaria, as a result of the increased metabolic rate triggered by the multiplying parasite, and large quantities of toxic redox-active byproducts generated. The present study aimed to study the oxidative stress responses in patients infected with P. vivax, who developed jaundice (hyperbilirubinaemia) in the course of the disease, a common clinical complication related to this species. Methods An evaluation of the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes profile was performed in 28 healthy individuals and compared with P. vivax infected patients with jaundice, i.e., bilirubin < 51.3 μmol/L (8 patients) or without jaundice (34 patients), on day 1 (D1) and day 14 (D14) after anti-malarial therapy. Results Hyperbilirubinaemia was more frequent among women and patients experiencing their first malarial infection, and lower haemoglobin and higher lactate dehydrogenase levels were observed in this group. Malondialdehyde levels and activity of celuroplasmin and glutathione reductase were increased in the plasma from patients with P. vivax with jaundice compared to the control group on D1. However, the activity of thioredoxin reductase was decreased. The enzymes glutathione reductase, thioredoxin reductase, thiols and malondialdehyde also differed between jaundiced versus non-jaundiced patients. On D14 jaundice and parasitaemia had resolved and oxidative stress biomarkers were very similar to the control group. Conclusion Cholestatic hyperbilirubinaemia in vivax malaria cannot be totally disassociated from malaria-related haemolysis. However, significant increase of lipid peroxidation markers and changes in antioxidant enzymes in patients with P. vivax-related jaundice was observed. These results

  15. C1-bypass complement-activation pathway in patients with chronic urticaria and angio-oedema.

    PubMed

    Ballow, M; Ward, G W; Gershwin, M E; Day, N K

    1975-08-01

    During the routine screening of 152 patients with urticaria or angio-oedema for hypocomplementaemia, 4 patients were found to have low serum levels of the third component of complement (C). These patients were noteworthy and differed from previous reports of patients with urticaria-like skin lesions and hypocomplementaemia because of the absence of immune-complex disease. In addition to the low C3, 2 of these patients were unique on the basis of low serum levels of haemolytic C1, C1q, C1s, and properdin factor B, but normal concentrations of C4 and C2. These C abnormalities may reflect a new clinical entity, and these cases form the first description in man of the C1-bypass complement-activation pathway. PMID:49798

  16. Night locomotor activity and quality of sleep in quetiapine-treated patients with depression.

    PubMed

    Todder, Doron; Caliskan, Serdal; Baune, Bernhard T

    2006-12-01

    This research assesses the development of the night-activity rhythm and quality of sleep during course of treatment among patients with unipolar or bipolar depression and receiving antidepressant treatment plus quetiapine. Twenty-seven patients with major depressive episode were included into a 4-week follow-up study and compared with 27 healthy controls. Motor activity was continuously measured with an electronic wrist device (actigraphy), sleep was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and patients were clinically assessed with the Hamilton depression score. All patients received a standard antidepressant treatment plus quetiapine. Whereas we found a rapid and maintaining improvement of subjective sleep parameters during the 4-week study, we observed a rapid improvement of some objective sleep parameters (actigraph) within the first week, but no further significant change of objective sleep parameters during the rest of the study. Another main finding of this study is that changes of subjectively and objectively assessed sleep parameters do not necessarily reflect clinical improvement of depression during the same timeline. Despite partial clinical remission, objective sleep parameters still showed significantly different patterns compared with controls. This study is the first to examine the effect of quetiapine on locomotor activity alongside with sleep in depression. As the studied patients with depression showed improvement in subjective and objective sleep parameters, quetiapine may be a promising drug for patients with depression and insomnia. Further studies need to investigate in detail the timeline of clinical remission and alterations of objective and subjective sleep parameters. PMID:17110822

  17. Selenium levels and Glutathione peroxidase activity in the plasma of patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    González de Vega, Raquel; Fernández-Sánchez, María Luisa; Fernández, Juan Carlos; Álvarez Menéndez, Francisco Vicente; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2016-09-01

    Selenium, an essential trace element, is involved in the complex system of defense against oxidative stress through selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases (GPx) and other selenoproteins. Because of its antioxidant properties, selenium or its selenospecies at appropriate levels could hinder oxidative stress and so development of diabetes. In this vein, quantitative speciation of selenium in human plasma samples from healthy and diabetic patients (controlled and non-controlled) was carried out by affinity chromatography (AF) coupled on-line to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and isotope dilution analysis (IDA). Similarly, it is well known that patients with diabetes who exhibit poor control of blood glucose show a decreased total antioxidant activity. Thus, we evaluated the enzymatic activity of GPx in diabetic and healthy individuals, using the Paglia and Valentine enzymatic method, observing a significant difference (p<0.05) between the three groups of assayed patients (healthy (n=24): 0.61±0.11U/ml, controlled diabetic (n=38): 0.40±0.12U/ml and non-controlled diabetic patients (n=40): 0.32±0.09U/ml). Our results show that hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress in diabetic patients compared with healthy controls. What is more, glycation of GPx experiments demonstrated that it is the degree of glycation of the selenoenzyme (another species of the Se protein) what actually modulates its eventual activity against ROS in type II diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:27473831

  18. Posttransplant adoptive immunotherapy with activated natural killer cells in patients with metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    deMagalhaes-Silverman, M; Donnenberg, A; Lembersky, B; Elder, E; Lister, J; Rybka, W; Whiteside, T; Ball, E

    2000-01-01

    Relapse after high-dose chemotherapy is the main cause of therapeutic failure in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Adoptive immunotherapy with interleukin-2 (IL-2) plus activated natural killer cells may eliminate residual disease without excessive toxicity. The authors sought to determine if immunotherapy immediately after transplantation would affect engraftment and the toxicity associated with transplantation. Fifteen consecutive patients with metastatic breast cancer were allocated to three cohorts. Cohort 1 (five patients) received high-dose cyclophosphamide, thiotepa, and carboplatin (CTCb) followed by peripheral blood stem cell infusion and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor at 10 micrograms/kg. Cohort 2 (five patients) received in addition rhIL-2 (2 x 10(6) IU/m2/day) for 4 days intravenously via continuous infusion after peripheral blood stem cell infusion. In cohort 3 (five patients), peripheral blood stem cell transplant was followed by infusion of autologous activated NK cells and rhIL-2 (2 x 10(6) IU/m2/day) for 4 days (via continuous intravenous infusion). Generation of activated NK cells was possible in all patients in cohort 3. All patients has successful engraftment. Median time to absolute neutrophil count more than 0.5 x 10(9)/L was 8 days (range, 8 to 11 days) in cohort 1, 9 days (range, 7 to 11 days) in cohort 2, and 9 days (range, 8 to 9 days) in cohort 3. Median time until the platelet count was more than 20 x 10(9)/L was 14 days (range, 9 to 22 days) in cohort 1, 11 days (range, 6 to 14 days) in cohort 2, and 12 days (range, 11 to 21 days) in cohort 3. All patients developed neutropenic fevers, but the overall toxicity associated with the infusion of IL-2 (cohort 2) or IL-2 plus activated NK cells (cohort 3) did not differ from that observed in cohort 1. Complete responses were achieved in one patient in cohort 1, in two patients in cohort 2, and in one patient in cohort 3. In conclusion, post-transplant adoptive immunotherapy with

  19. A self-regulation-based intervention to increase physical activity in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Nadine; Sieverding, Monika; Weidner, Gerdi; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Wiskemann, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The study examined whether a behavior-change intervention focusing on self-regulatory strategies and emphasizing role model support increases physical activity (PA) among insufficiently active (not meeting PA guidelines of 150 min/week) cancer patients. Ambulatory cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION-study, a 4-week intervention (1-hr counseling, followed by weekly phone calls), with pretest (T1), posttest (T2) and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise or to a stress management intervention (active control). The exercise intervention emphasized self-regulatory strategies (e.g. action- and coping planning and self-monitoring); patients were also encouraged to contact a physically active same-sex role model as a potential exercise partner. The active control condition consisted of coping and relaxation techniques. Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA and a measure of perceived stress. PA was validated by Actigraph accelerometry. At T2, 46% of the patients in the exercise group and 19% of stress management patients increased their activity levels to meet PA guidelines (>150 min/week; χ(2)(1) = 5.51, p = .019). At T3, participants in the exercise intervention maintained their exercise level (46%), but also 31% of the stress management patients met the guidelines. All patients reported reductions in perceived stress. Additional analyses comparing patients in the exercise group by role model contact (63% realized contact) revealed that those who had contact with their role model were significantly more likely to adhere to the recommended guidelines (T2:50%; T3:64%) compared to those who did not have contact with a role model (T2:39%; T3:15%), suggesting the potential of mobilizing role model support to facilitate PA. In sum, cancer patients may not only benefit from an exercise

  20. Cumulative disease activity predicts incidental hearing impairment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

    PubMed

    Pascual-Ramos, Virginia; Contreras-Yáñez, Irazú; Rivera-Hoyos, Paula; Enríquez, Lorena; Ramírez-Anguiano, Jaqueline

    2014-03-01

    We previously reported that 24% of 113 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients had hearing impairment (HI). We investigated if disease activity was a predictor of incidental HI. One hundred and four patients completed three consecutive 6 months-apart rheumatic evaluations and concomitant audiometric evaluations which included at least an interview, an otoscopic evaluation, and a pure tone audiometry. HI was defined if the average thresholds for at least one of low-, mid-, or high-frequency ranges were ≥25 decibels (dB) hearing level in one or both ears. Appropriated statistics was used. Internal review board approval was obtained. Patients were most frequently middle-aged (43.4 ± 13.3 years), female (89.4%), and had median disease duration of 5 years and low disease activity. All were receiving RA treatment. At inclusion, 24 patients had HI which was sensorineural in 91.7% of them. Among the 80 patients without HI at baseline, 10 (12.5%) developed incidental HI, and they had more disease activity either at baseline ([median, range] disease activity score-28 joints evaluated-C-reactive protein [DAS28-CRP], 3.9 [1.6-7.3] vs. 2.1 [1-8.7], p = 0.006) or cumulative previous incidental HI (3.4 [1.8-4.8] vs. 2 [1-6.2], p = 0.007) and were more frequently on combined methotrexate and sulfasalazine (20 vs. 1.4%, p = 0.05) than their counterparts. In the adjusted Cox proportional model, cumulative DAS28-CRP was the only variable to predict incidental HI (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.7; p = 0.01). Almost 13% of RA patients with short disease duration and low disease activity developed incidental HI during 1 year. Cumulative disease activity predicted incidental HI. PMID:24435352

  1. Correlation Between Low Bone Density and Disease Activity in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Amiriani, Taghi; Besharat, Sima; Pourramezan, Zahra; Mirkarimi, Honey Sadat; Aghaei, Mehrdad; Joshaghani, Hamidreza; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Faghani, Maryam; Besharat, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Different clinical and epidemiological studies using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry have shown an increased prevalence of low bone mineral density in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between bone density and the disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, 52 patients with ulcerative colitis (duration of the disease less than 5 years) were invited to our research center, Golestan province, northeast of Iran, during February 2012 up to August 2012. A demographic checklist and Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index was completed for each patients and 5 cc of blood sample was taken after obtaining the informed consent. We used colorimetry method for measuring serum calcium, UV method for serum phosphorus and ELISA for serum vitamin D. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was done to evaluate the bone density. Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 16. Normality of data was assessed using Kolmogorov– Smirnov test. T and ANOVA tests were used if data had normal distribution. Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for the remaining data. Correlation between qualitative variables was evaluated by Chi-square test. RESULTS The mean (±SD) age and disease activity of the patients were 37.72 (±12.18) years and 4.78 (±1.98), respectively. There were no correlation between disease activity and mean age. Low bone density was seen in 30.8%, 11.5%, and 15.4% in spine, femur neck, and hip, respectively. There was no relationship between Z-score of total hip, spine, and femur neck with disease activity, age, and duration of disease (p>0.05). CONCLUSION Our results showed an acceptable rate of low bone density in patients with ulcerative colitis without any correlation with the disease activity index. PMID:25628850

  2. Correlation between low bone density and disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Amiriani, Taghi; Besharat, Sima; Pourramezan, Zahra; Mirkarimi, Honey Sadat; Aghaei, Mehrdad; Joshaghani, Hamidreza; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Faghani, Maryam; Besharat, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Different clinical and epidemiological studies using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry have shown an increased prevalence of low bone mineral density in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between bone density and the disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, 52 patients with ulcerative colitis (duration of the disease less than 5 years) were invited to our research center, Golestan province, northeast of Iran, during February 2012 up to August 2012. A demographic checklist and Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index was completed for each patients and 5 cc of blood sample was taken after obtaining the informed consent. We used colorimetry method for measuring serum calcium, UV method for serum phosphorus and ELISA for serum vitamin D. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was done to evaluate the bone density. Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 16. Normality of data was assessed using Kolmogorov- Smirnov test. T and ANOVA tests were used if data had normal distribution. Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for the remaining data. Correlation between qualitative variables was evaluated by Chi-square test. RESULTS The mean (±SD) age and disease activity of the patients were 37.72 (±12.18) years and 4.78 (±1.98), respectively. There were no correlation between disease activity and mean age. Low bone density was seen in 30.8%, 11.5%, and 15.4% in spine, femur neck, and hip, respectively. There was no relationship between Z-score of total hip, spine, and femur neck with disease activity, age, and duration of disease (p>0.05). CONCLUSION Our results showed an acceptable rate of low bone density in patients with ulcerative colitis without any correlation with the disease activity index. PMID:25628850

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: A CS(2-1) survey of UC HII regions (Bronfman+, 1996)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronfman, L.; Nyman, L.-A.; May, J.

    1995-09-01

    We have made a complete survey of the CS(2-1) emission toward IRAS point sources in the galactic plane. The sources observed were selected according to their far infrared (FIR) colors, which are characteristic of UC HII regions. They have 25μm/12μm flux ratios larger than 3.7 and 60μm/12μm flux ratios larger than 19.3. The survey covered a region from b=-2deg to b=2deg from l=300deg to l=0deg and from l=0deg to l=60deg, and from b=-4deg to b=4deg elsewhere. We detected 843 sources out of 1427 sources observed. The distributions of detected and undetected sources in a FIR color-color diagram show some differences, suggesting that more than one type of object is present in our observed sample. (1 data file).

  4. Preparation of UC0.07-0.10N0.90-0.93 spheres for TRISO coated fuel particles

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Jack Lee; Hunt, Rodney Dale; Johnson, Jared A; Silva, Chinthaka M; Lindemer, Terrence

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is considering a new nuclear fuel, which should be much more impervious during a loss of coolant accident. The fuel would consist of tristructural isotropic coated particles with dense uranium nitride (UN) kernels. The objectives of this effort are to make uranium oxide microspheres with adequately dispersed carbon nanoparticles and to convert these microspheres into UN kernels. Recent improvements to internal gelation process were successfully applied to the production of uranium gel spheres with different concentrations of carbon black. After the spheres were washed, a simple, two-step heat profile was used to produce kernels with a chemical composition of UC0.07 0.10N0.90 0.93. The first step involved heating the microspheres to 2023 K in a vacuum, and in the second step, the microspheres were held at 1873 K for 6 hrs in nitrogen.

  5. [Melatonin production in thrombocytes and their functional activity in patients with aspirin asthma].

    PubMed

    Evsiukova, E V; Muraia, E V; Zubzhitskaia, L B; Kveshnoĭ, I M

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study melatonin production in thrombocytes and their functional activity in correlation with 6-sulfatoximelatonin (6-SOM) urinary excretion in patients with aspirin-induced bronchial asthma (AIBA). Forty-three patients with bronchial asthma (BA) were examined. The main group consisted of 26 AIBA patients; the comparison group consisted of 17 BA patients with no intolerance to aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; 30 practically healthy individuals constituted the control group. The study found no melatonin production in thrombocytes of AIBA patients: only 13.0 +/- 1.3% of platelets expressed melatonin, while in healthy people 97.7 +/- 0.6% of the cells did. Besides, daytime urinary excretion of 6-SOM, the main melatonin metabolite, was lower in AIBA patients. Lower daytime and higher nighttime melatonin production in AIBA patients correlated with the acceleration of the 1st phase and increased intensity of thrombocyte aggregation, which evidences high thrombocyte reactivity to the inducing agent. The presence of a pathologic reaction of thrombocytes to exogenous melatonin, manifesting by changes in the 1st stage of aggregation, suggests the presence of pathology in thrombocyte membrane-receptor complex and the calcium homeostasis of the cell, which determines constant activation and the participation of thrombocytes in the development of asthmatic syndrome. PMID:18154178

  6. Phospholipase A2 activity in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblast cells from schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Bennett, E R; Yedgar, S; Lerer, B; Ebstein, R P

    1991-06-01

    We examined the activity of phospholipase A2 in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblast cell lines established from ten schizophrenic patients and ten controls. A novel method for determination of enzyme activity in whole cells was employed, by measuring the hydrolysis of a fluorescent analogue of phosphatidylcholine. No significant difference in phospholipase A2 activity was found between the groups. These results suggest that the previously reported changes in phospholipase A2 activity in plasma and in fresh peripheral cells are indicative of environmental influences and not of "trait" characteristics intrinsic to schizophrenia. PMID:1651772

  7. Attitudes toward physical activity and exercise: comparison of memory clinic patients and their caregivers and prediction of activity levels.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Megan E; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Crossley, Margaret; Morgan, Debra G

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity and exercise (PA&E) reduces cognitive aging, may delay dementia onset, and for persons with dementia, may slow progression and improve quality of life. Memory clinic patients and caregivers described their PA&E and completed the Older Persons' Attitudes Toward Physical Activity and Exercise Questionnaire (OPAPAEQ). Caregivers and patients differed in their PA&E attitudes: patients were less likely to believe in the importance of PA&E for health promotion. PA&E attitudes were explored as predictors of self-reported exercise habits. Belief in the importance of high intensity exercise for health maintenance was the only variable that significantly predicted engagement in regular PA&E. Moreover, caregivers' attitudes toward high intensity exercise predicted memory patients' participation in PA&E. These findings may aid in development of exercise interventions for people with memory problems, and suggest that modification of specific attitudes toward exercise is an important component to ensure maximum participation and engagement in PA&E. PMID:24451476

  8. A patient - centered approach to addressing physical activity in older adults: motivational interviewing.

    PubMed

    Letourneau, Katherine; Goodman, Janice H

    2014-11-01

    Regular physical activity reduces the burden of chronic diseases in older adults, but the majority of this population is relatively sedentary. Individuals considering a change in behavior, such as increasing exercise, often experience a mental state of ambivalence, which can lead to inaction. Ambivalence is resistant to traditional counseling methods used in medical settings, such as patient education. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a conversational style that has been shown to help overcome ambivalence by guiding patients to voice their personal reasons for change. Nurse practitioners are uniquely positioned to use MI with older adults to address ambivalence toward increasing physical activity. PMID:25199152

  9. Sam68 modulates apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells via mediating NF-κB activation in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ji; Zhao, Weijuan; Miao, Xianjing; Li, Liren; Zhang, Dongmei

    2016-07-01

    Sam68 (Src-associated substrate during mitosis of 68 KDa), also known as KHDRBS1 (KH domain containing, RNA binding, signal transduction associated 1), belongs to the prototypic member of the signal transduction activator of RNA (STAR) family of RNA-binding proteins. Sam68 is implicated in various cellular processes including RNA metabolism, apoptosis, signal transduction. Previous researches demonstrated that Sam68 regulated nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) to induce inflammation. However, the expression and biological functions of Sam68 in ulcerative colitis (UC) are not clear. In this study, we reported for the first time that Sam68 was up-regulated in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) of patients with UC. In DSS-induced mouse colitis model, we observed the overexpression of Sam68 accompanied with increased levels of IEC apoptotic markers (active caspase-3 and cleaved PARP) and NF-κB activation indicators (p-p65 and p-IκB) in colitis IECs. Co-localization of Sam68 with active caspase-3 (and p-p65) in IECs of the DSS-induced colitis group further indicated the possible involvement of NF-κB-mediated IEC apoptosis. Applying TNF-α-treated HT-29 cells as an in vitro IEC inflammation model, we confirmed the positive correlation amomg Sam68, NF-κB activation and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation assay identified nuclear translocation and physical interaction of Sam68 and NF-κB subunits in TNF-α-treated HT-29 cells. Besides, depletion of Sam68 by RNA interference greatly alleviated NF-κB activation and apoptosis in TNF-α-treated HT-29 cells. Taken together, our results indicated that Sam68 modulates apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells via mediating NF-κB activation in UC. PMID:27235792

  10. Factors that influence physicians' and medical students' confidence in counseling patients about physical activity.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Fatima Cody; Durkin, Martin W; Stallworth, James Rast; Powell, Caroline Keller; Poston, Mary Beth; Blair, Steven N

    2014-06-01

    Less than half of US adults and two-thirds of US high school students do not meet current US guidelines for physical activity. We examined which factors promoted physicians' and medical students' confidence in counseling patients about physical activity. We established an online exercise survey targeting attending physicians, resident and fellow physicians, and medical students to determine their current level of physical activity and confidence in counseling patients about physical activity. We compared their personal level of physical activity with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines of the US Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). We administered a survey in 2009 and 2010 that used the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A total of 1,949 individuals responded to the survey, of whom 1,751 (i.e., 566 attending physicians, 138 fellow physicians, 806 resident physicians, and 215 medical students) were included in this analysis. After adjusting for their BMI, the odds that physicians and medical students who met USDHHS guidelines for vigorous activity would express confidence in their ability to provide exercise counseling were more than twice that of physicians who did not meet these guidelines. Individuals who were overweight were less likely to be confident than those with normal BMI, after adjusting for whether they met the vigorous exercise guidelines. Physicians with obesity were even less likely to express confidence in regards to exercise counseling. We conclude that physicians and medical students who had a normal BMI and met vigorous USDHHS guidelines were more likely to feel confident about counseling their patients about physical activity. Our findings suggest that graduate medical school education should focus on health promotion in their students, as this will likely lead to improved health behaviors in their students' patient populations. PMID:24682887

  11. In vitro antimicrobial activity of gatifloxacin compared with other quinolones against clinical isolates from cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Rolston, Kenneth V I; Vaziri, Irfan; Frisbee-Hume, Susan; Streeter, Harriet; LeBlanc, Barbara

    2004-11-01

    Owing to the predominance of gram-positive pathogens in neutropenic cancer patients, newer generation quinolones with an expanded gram-positive spectrum and enhanced potency, may have a role to play for prophylaxis and/or empiric therapy in such patients. The in vitro activity of gatifloxacin was compared with that of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and trovafloxacin against 848 recent clinical isolates from cancer patients. Against gram-positive organisms, gatifloxacin was the most active agent tested inhibiting all Aerococcus, Listeria monocytogens, Micrococcus, Stomatococcus mucilaginous, Bacillus, and Rhodococcus equi strains at < or =2 mg/l, its designated susceptibility breakpoint. It was also very active against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and Streptococcus spp. (including penicillin nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae and viridans streptococci). It had moderate activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococci and Enterococcus faecalis, inhibiting 68-80% of these strains at < or =2 mg/l. Gatifloxacin also had good activity against the Enterobacteriaceae (although ciprofloxacin was more potent) inhibiting >95% of isolates at < or =1 mg/l. Nonfermentative gram-negative organisms were less susceptible to all 4 agents. Gatifloxacin was very active against Acinetobacter lwoffi (MIC100 0.12 mg/l) and had moderate activity against Acinetobacter baumanii, Chryseobacterium spp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Pseudomonas species. Alcaligenes xylosoxidans strains were relatively resistant to all 4 agents. PMID:15523180

  12. Respiratory muscle activity and oxygenation during sleep in patients with muscle weakness.

    PubMed

    White, J E; Drinnan, M J; Smithson, A J; Griffiths, C J; Gibson, G J

    1995-05-01

    Patients with respiratory muscle weakness show nocturnal hypoventilation, with oxygen desaturation particularly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, but evidence in individuals with isolated bilateral diaphragmatic paresis (BDP) is conflicting. The effect of sleep on relative activity of the different respiratory muscles of such patients and, consequently, the precise mechanisms causing desaturation have not been clarified. We have studied eight patients, four with generalized muscle weakness and four with isolated BDP during nocturnal sleep with measurements including oxygen saturation and surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of various respiratory muscle groups. Nocturnal oxygenation correlated inversely with postural fall in vital capacity, an index of diaphragmatic strength. During REM sleep, hypopnoea and desaturation occurred particularly during periods of rapid eye movements (phasic REM sleep). In most subjects, such events were "central" in type and associated with marked suppression of intercostal muscle activity, but two subjects had recurrent desaturation due to "obstructive" hypopnoea and/or apnoea. Expiratory activity of the external oblique muscle was present whilst awake and during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in seven of the eight subjects in the semirecumbent posture. This probably represents an "accessory inspiratory" effect, which aids passive caudal diaphragmatic motion as the abdominal muscles relax at the onset of inspiration. Expiratory abdominal muscle activity was suppressed in phasic REM sleep, suggesting that loss of this "accessory inspiratory" effect may contribute to "central" hypopnoea. We conclude that, in patients with muscle weakness, nocturnal oxygenation correlates with diaphragmatic strength.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7656954

  13. Impact of activities in self-esteem of patients in a pulmonary rehabilitation program

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Juliana Nascimento; Tavares, Cecilia Melo Rosa; Squassoni, Selma Denis; Machado, Nadine Cristina; Cordoni, Priscila Kessar; Bortolassi, Luciene Costa; Lapa, Mônica Silveira; Fiss, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate self-esteem and self-image of respiratory diseases patients in a Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program, who participated in socialization and physical fitness activities, and of patients who participated only in physical fitness sessions. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional exploratory study. Out of a total of 60 patients analyzed, all enrolled in the Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program, 42 participated in at least one of the proposed activities, 10 did not participate in any activity and 8 were excluded (7 were discharged and 1 died). Results When the two groups were compared, despite the fact that both demonstrated low self-esteem and self-image, the difference between them was relevant (p<0.05) regarding self-esteem, indicating that those who participated in the proposed socialization activities had better self-esteem than the individuals who only did the physical fitness sessions. Regarding self-image, the difference between the groups was not relevant (p>0.05). Conclusion The Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program patients evaluated presented low self-esteem and self-image; however, those carrying out some socialization activity proposed had better self-esteem as compared to the individuals who did only the physical fitness sessions. PMID:25993068

  14. A new method to evaluate the residual activity in patients undergoing (131)I thyroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Ostinelli, A; Duchini, M; Conti, V; Bonfanti, P; Rossi, S; Cacciatori, M

    2015-12-01

    The radioiodine administration is a standard therapeutic approach to both benign thyroid diseases, such as hyperthyroidism, and carcinomas. The high administered (131)I activities are of radiation protection concern, due to relevant patient residual contamination. The aim of this work was to develop a new procedure based on external radiometric surveys and on a mathematical model in order to estimate the (131)I activity in patients undergoing hyperthyroidism radioiodine therapy. In the first stage of this study, a suitable detector was chosen and its response vs. activity was characterized. The experimental verification was performed measuring the ambient dose equivalent rate from patients receiving radioiodine administration. The results confirm the reliability of the proposed method, as shown by the slight differences between the administered activities and the ones calculated from external measurements. Furthermore, the same procedure was applied to detect the percentage residual activity in patients at two preset time intervals: 4 hours and 4 days after the radioiodine administration. The obtained results clearly highlight that the method can ensure a level of reliability compatible with the radiation protection purposes. PMID:26429386

  15. Remission in rheumatoid arthritis: benefit over low disease activity in patient-reported outcomes and costs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that causes a considerable burden for the patient and society. It is not clear yet whether aiming for remission (REM) is worthwhile, especially when compared with low disease activity (LDA). Methods In 356 consecutive RA patients, we obtained data on physical function (health assessment questionnaire (HAQ)), health-related quality of life (HRQoL: Short Form 36 (SF36), Short Form 6 dimensions (SF-6D), Euro QoL 5D (EQ-5D)), work productivity (work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire (WPAI)), as well as estimation of direct and indirect costs. Cross-sectionally, data were compared in patients within different levels of disease activity according to the simplified disease activity index (SDAI; remission (REM ≤3.3); n = 87; low disease activity (LDA: 3.3 < SDAI ≤11); n = 103; moderate to high disease activity (MDA/HDA) >11 n = 119) by using analyses of variance (ANOVA). Longitudinal investigations assessed patients who changed from LDA to REM and vice versa. Results We found differences in patients achieving REM compared with LDA for HAQ (0.39 ± 0.58 versus 0.72 ± 68), WPAI (percentage impairment while working 11.8% ± 18.7% versus 26.8% ± 23.9%; percentage of overall activity impairment, 10.8% ± 14.1% versus 29.0% ± 23.6%)), EQ-5D (0.89 ± 0.12 versus 0.78 ± 0.6) and SF-36 (physical component score (PCS): 46.0 ± 8.6 versus 38.3 ± 10.5; mental component score (MCS): 49.9 ± 11.1 versus 47.9 ± 12.3) (P < 0.01 for all, except for SF36 MCS). Regarding costs, we found significant differences of direct and indirect costs (P < 0.05) within different levels of disease activity, with higher costs in patients with higher states of disease activity. Longitudinal evaluations confirmed the main analyses. Conclusion Patients with REM show better function, HRQoL, and productivity, even when compared with another

  16. Inflammatory bowel disease activity assessed by fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin: correlation with laboratory parameters, clinical, endoscopic and histological indexes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Research has shown that fecal biomarkers are useful to assess the activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the study is: to evaluate the efficacy of the fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin as indicators of inflammatory activity. Findings A total of 78 patients presenting inflammatory bowel disease were evaluated. Blood tests, the Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI), Mayo Disease Activity Index (MDAI), and Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS) were used for the clinical and endoscopic evaluation. Two tests were performed on the fecal samples, to check the levels of calprotectin and lactoferrin. The performance of these fecal markers for detection of inflammation with reference to endoscopic and histological inflammatory activity was assessed and calculated sensitivity, specificity, accuracy. A total of 52 patient's samples whose histological evaluations showed inflammation, 49 were lactoferrin-positive, and 40 were calprotectin-positive (p = 0.000). Lactoferrin and calprotectin findings correlated with C-reactive protein in both the CD and UC groups (p = 0.006; p = 0.000), with CDAI values (p = 0.043; 0.010), CDEIS values in DC cases (p = 0,000; 0.000), and with MDAI values in UC cases (p = 0.000). Conclusion Fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin are highly sensitive and specific markers for detecting intestinal inflammation. Levels of fecal calprotectin have a proportional correlation to the degree of inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. PMID:19874614

  17. The American Indian Summer Institute in Earth System Science (AISESS) at UC Irvine: A Two-Week Residential Summer Program for High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. R.; Polequaptewa, N.; Leon, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Native Americans remain severely underrepresented in the geosciences, despite a clear need for qualified geoscience professionals within Tribal communities to address critical issues such as natural resource and land management, water and air pollution, and climate change. In addition to the need for geoscience professionals within Tribal communities, increased participation of Native Americans in the geosciences would enhance the overall diversity of perspectives represented within the Earth science community and lead to improved Earth science literacy within Native communities. To address this need, the Department of Earth System Science and the American Indian Resource Program at the University California have organized a two-week residential American Indian Summer Institute in Earth System Science (AISESS) for high-school students (grades 9-12) from throughout the nation. The format of the AISESS program is based on the highly-successful framework of a previous NSF Funded American Indian Summer Institute in Computer Science (AISICS) at UC Irvine and involves key senior personnel from the AISICS program. The AISESS program, however, incorporates a week of camping on the La Jolla Band of Luiseño Indians reservation in Northern San Diego County, California. Following the week of camping and field projects, the students spend a week on the campus of UC Irvine participating in Earth System Science lectures, laboratory activities, and tours. The science curriculum is closely woven together with cultural activities, native studies, and communication skills programs The program culminates with a closing ceremony during which students present poster projects on environmental issues relevant to their tribal communities. The inaugural AISESS program took place from July 15th-28th, 2012. We received over 100 applications from Native American high school students from across the nation. We accepted 40 students for the first year, of which 34 attended the program. The

  18. The use of the percentile method for searching empirical relationships between compression strength (UCS), Point Load (Is50) and Schmidt Hammer (RL) Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Giovanni; Bobbo, Luigi; Vessia, Giovanna

    2014-05-01

    Is50 and RL indices are commonly used to indirectly estimate the compression strength of a rocky deposit by in situ and in laboratory devices. The widespread use of Point load and Schmidt hammer tests is due to the simplicity and the speediness of the execution of these tests. Their indices can be related to the UCS by means of the ordinary least square regression analyses. Several researchers suggest to take into account the lithology to build high correlated empirical expressions (R2 >0.8) to draw UCS from Is50 or RL values. Nevertheless, the lower and upper bounds of the UCS ranges of values that can be estimated by means of the two indirect indices are not clearly defined yet. Aydin (2009) stated that the Schmidt hammer test shall be used to assess the compression resistance of rocks characterized by UCS>12-20 MPa. On the other hand, the Point load measures can be performed on weak rocks but upper bound values for UCS are not suggested. In this paper, the empirical relationships between UCS, RL and Is50 are searched by means of the percentile method (Bruno et al. 2013). This method is based on looking for the best regression function, between measured data of UCS and one of the indirect indices, drawn from a subset sample of the couples of measures that are the percentile values. These values are taken from the original dataset of both measures by calculating the cumulative function. No hypothesis on the probability distribution of the sample is needed and the procedure shows to be robust with respect to odd values or outliers. In this study, the carbonate sedimentary rocks are investigated. According to the rock mass classification of Dobereiner and De Freitas (1986), the UCS values for the studied rocks range between 'extremely weak' to 'strong'. For the analyzed data, UCS varies between 1,18-270,70 MPa. Thus, through the percentile method the best empirical relationships UCS-Is50 and UCS-RL are plotted. Relationships between Is50 and RL are drawn, too

  19. Reduction of contact activation related fibrinolytic activity in factor XII deficient patients. Further evidence for the role of the contact system in fibrinolysis in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Levi, M; Hack, C E; de Boer, J P; Brandjes, D P; Büller, H R; ten Cate, J W

    1991-01-01

    In this study the contribution of activation of the contact system to activation of the fibrinolytic system in vivo was investigated in healthy volunteers and in factor XII deficient patients. The plasminogen activating activity in plasma from healthy volunteers after infusion of desamino D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) was only partially blocked (for 77%) with specific antibodies to tissue-type plasminogen activator and urokinase type plasminogen activator. The residual activity could be quenched by a monoclonal antibody that inhibits factor XII activity and was not present in patients with a factor XII deficiency. The formation of plasmin upon the DDAVP stimulus as reflected by circulating plasmin-alpha 2-antiplasmin complexes was lower in factor XII deficient patients than in healthy volunteers. Activation of the contact system occurred after DDAVP infusion in healthy volunteers and was absent in factor XII deficient patients. These results indicate that DDAVP induces a plasminogen activating activity that is partially dependent on activation of the contact system and that contributes to the overall fibrinolytic activity as indicated by the formation of plasmin-alpha 2-antiplasmin complexes. This fibrinolytic activity is impaired in factor XII deficient patients which may explain the occurrence of thromboembolic complications in these patients. Images PMID:1833421

  20. Identifying minimal hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients by measuring spontaneous brain activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua-Jun; Zhang, Ling; Jiang, Long-Feng; Chen, Qiu-Feng; Li, Jun; Shi, Hai-Bin

    2016-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is associated with aberrant regional intrinsic brain activity in cirrhotic patients. However, few studies have investigated whether altered intrinsic brain activity can be used as a biomarker of MHE among cirrhotic patients. In this study, 36 cirrhotic patients (with MHE, n = 16; without MHE [NHE], n = 20) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Spontaneous brain activity was measured by examining the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in the fMRI signal. MHE was diagnosed based on the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES). A two-sample t-test was used to determine the regions of interest (ROIs) in which ALFF differed significantly between the two groups; then, ALFF values within ROIs were selected as classification features. A linear discriminative analysis was used to differentiate MHE patients from NHE patients. The leave-one-out cross-validation method was used to estimate the performance of the classifier. The classification analysis was 80.6 % accurate (81.3 % sensitivity and 80.0 % specificity) in terms of distinguishing between the two groups. Six ROIs were identified as the most discriminative features, including the bilateral medial frontal cortex/anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, left precentral and postcentral gyrus, right lingual gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and inferior/superior parietal lobule. The ALFF values within ROIs were correlated with PHES in cirrhotic patients. Our findings suggest that altered regional brain spontaneous activity is a useful biomarker for MHE detection among cirrhotic patients. PMID:26886109

  1. Augmented pressor and sympathetic responses to skeletal muscle metaboreflex activation in type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Holwerda, Seth W; Restaino, Robert M; Manrique, Camila; Lastra, Guido; Fisher, James P; Fadel, Paul J

    2016-01-15

    Previous studies have reported exaggerated increases in arterial blood pressure during exercise in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. However, little is known regarding the underlying neural mechanism(s) involved. We hypothesized that T2D patients would exhibit an augmented muscle metaboreflex activation and this contributes to greater pressor and sympathetic responses during exercise. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were measured in 16 patients with T2D (8 normotensive and 8 hypertensive) and 10 healthy controls. Graded isolation of the muscle metaboreflex was achieved by postexercise ischemia (PEI) following static handgrip performed at 30% and 40% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). A cold pressor test (CPT) was also performed as a generalized sympathoexcitatory stimulus. Increases in MAP and MSNA during 30 and 40% MVC handgrip were augmented in T2D patients compared with controls (P < 0.05), and these differences were maintained during PEI (MAP: 30% MVC PEI: T2D, Δ16 ± 2 mmHg vs. controls, Δ8 ± 1 mmHg; 40% MVC PEI: T2D, Δ26 ± 3 mmHg vs. controls, Δ16 ± 2 mmHg, both P < 0.05). MAP and MSNA responses to handgrip and PEI were not different between normotensive and hypertensive T2D patients (P > 0.05). Interestingly, MSNA responses were also greater in T2D patients compared with controls during the CPT (P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings indicate that muscle metaboreflex activation is augmented in T2D patients and this contributes, in part, to augmented pressor and sympathetic responses to exercise in this patient group. Greater CPT responses suggest that a heightened central sympathetic reactivity may be involved. PMID:26566729

  2. Mutations in activation-induced cytidine deaminase in patients with hyper IgM syndrome.

    PubMed

    Minegishi, Y; Lavoie, A; Cunningham-Rundles, C; Bédard, P M; Hébert, J; Côté, L; Dan, K; Sedlak, D; Buckley, R H; Fischer, A; Durandy, A; Conley, M E

    2000-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that mutations in a newly described RNA editing enzyme, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), can cause an autosomal recessive form of hyper IgM syndrome. To determine the relative frequency of mutations in AID, we evaluated a group of 27 patients with hyper IgM syndrome who did not have defects in CD40 ligand and 23 patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Three different mutations in AID were identified in 18 patients with hyper IgM syndrome, including 14 French Canadians, 2 Lumbee Indians, and a brother and sister from Okinawa. No mutations were found in the remaining 32 patients. In the group of patients with hyper IgM syndrome, the patients with mutations in AID were older at the age of diagnosis, were more likely to have positive isohemagglutinins, and were less likely to have anemia, neutropenia, or thrombocytopenia. Lymphoid hyperplasia was seen in patients with hyper IgM syndrome and normal AID as well as the patients with hyper IgM syndrome and defects in AID. PMID:11112359

  3. [Proposal of a conceptual method of supportive care for co-active patients].

    PubMed

    Abidli, Yamine; Piette, Danielle; Casini, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    There is a broad consensus on the importance for health professionals to support co-active patients. However, in practice, very few "patient care partnership" approaches have been developed. We hypothesized that the lack of investment in supporting patient care partnerships is due to the lack of interest in the skills needed by caregivers to provide such support. This paper intends to address thisgap. The patient care partnership method is studied, adapted and developed from existing models. It complements, harmonizes and integrates various schools of thought arising from the need to place the patient at the center of care and life in general. The patient care partnership method includes 7 stages during which the professional accompanies the patient through the process of care. The methodological approach for training professionals is designed to ensure that professionals experience the change as well as its difficulties of the change they expect from the patient in the care relationship. This method now needs to be validated by the experience of other professionals in order define the limits of application and to allow further development. PMID:26168615

  4. Smartphone-Based Patients' Activity Recognition by Using a Self-Learning Scheme for Medical Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junqi; Zhou, Xi; Sun, Yunchuan; Ping, Gong; Zhao, Guoxing; Li, Zhuorong

    2016-06-01

    Smartphone based activity recognition has recently received remarkable attention in various applications of mobile health such as safety monitoring, fitness tracking, and disease prediction. To achieve more accurate and simplified medical monitoring, this paper proposes a self-learning scheme for patients' activity recognition, in which a patient only needs to carry an ordinary smartphone that contains common motion sensors. After the real-time data collection though this smartphone, we preprocess the data using coordinate system transformation to eliminate phone orientation influence. A set of robust and effective features are then extracted from the preprocessed data. Because a patient may inevitably perform various unpredictable activities that have no apriori knowledge in the training dataset, we propose a self-learning activity recognition scheme. The scheme determines whether there are apriori training samples and labeled categories in training pools that well match with unpredictable activity data. If not, it automatically assembles these unpredictable samples into different clusters and gives them new category labels. These clustered samples combined with the acquired new category labels are then merged into the training dataset to reinforce recognition ability of the self-learning model. In experiments, we evaluate our scheme using the data collected from two postoperative patient volunteers, including six labeled daily activities as the initial apriori categories in the training pool. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed self-learning scheme for activity recognition works very well for most cases. When there exist several types of unseen activities without any apriori information, the accuracy reaches above 80 % after the self-learning process converges. PMID:27106584

  5. Cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid of neurosyphilis patients: Identification of Urokinase plasminogen activator using antibody microarrays.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Zheng, Dao-Cheng; Fang, Chang; Huang, Jin-Mei; Ke, Wu-Jian; Wang, Liu-Yuan; Zeng, Wei-Ying; Zheng, He-Ping; Yang, Bin

    2016-04-15

    Little is known regarding protein responses to syphilis infection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients presenting with neurosyphilis. Protein and antibody arrays offer a new opportunity to gain insights into global protein expression profiles in these patients. Here we obtained CSF samples from 46 syphilis patients, 25 of which diagnosed as having central nervous system involvement based on clinical and laboratory findings. The CSF samples were then analyzed using a RayBioH L-Series 507 Antibody Array system designed to simultaneously analyze 507 specific cytokines. The results indicated that 41 molecules showed higher levels in patients with neurosyphilis in comparison with patients without neural involvement. For validation by single target ELISA, we selected five of them (MIP-1a, I-TAC/CXCL11, Urokinase plasminogen activator [uPA], and Oncostatin M) because they have previously been found to be involved in central nervous system (CNS) disorders. The ELISA tests confirmed that uPA levels were significantly higher in the CSF of neurosyphilis patients (109.1±7.88pg/ml) versus patients without CNS involvement (63.86±4.53pg/ml, p<0.0001). There was also a clear correlation between CSF uPA levels and CSF protein levels (p=0.0128) as well as CSF-VDRL titers (p=0.0074) used to diagnose neurosyphilis. No significant difference between the two groups of patients, however, was found in uPA levels in the serum, suggesting specific activation of the inflammatory system in the CNS but not the periphery in neurosyphilis patients. We conclude that measurements of uPA levels in CSF may be an additional parameter for diagnosing neurosyphilis. PMID:27049560

  6. Chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with active and stable relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Moreira, M A; Souza, A L S; Lana-Peixoto, M A; Teixeira, M M; Teixeira, A L

    2006-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the human central nervous system. Although its etiology is unknown, the accumulation and activation of mononuclear cells in the central nervous system are crucial to its pathogenesis. Chemokines have been proposed to play a major role in the recruitment and activation of leukocytes in inflammatory sites. They are divided into subfamilies on the basis of the location of conserved cysteine residues. We determined the levels of some CC and CXC chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 23 relapsing-remitting MS patients under interferon-ss-1a therapy and 16 control subjects using ELISA. MS patients were categorized as having active or stable disease. CXCL10 was significantly increased in the CSF of active MS patients (mean +/- SEM, 369.5 +/- 69.3 pg/mL) when compared with controls (178.5 +/- 29.1 pg/mL, P < 0.05). CSF levels of CCL2 were significantly lower in active MS (144.7 +/- 14.4 pg/mL) than in controls (237.1 +/- 16.4 pg/mL, P < 0.01). There was no difference in the concentration of CCL2 and CXCL10 between patients with stable MS and controls. CCL5 was not detectable in the CSF of most patients or controls. The qualitative and quantitative differences of chemokines in CSF during relapses of MS suggest that they may be useful as a marker of disease activity and of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:16612466

  7. The influence of statin therapy on platelet activity markers in hyperlipidemic patients after ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chmielewski, Henryk; Kaczorowska, Beata; Przybyła, Monika; Baj, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been reported to increase platelet activation. Reducing the level of LDL-C with statins induces important pleiotropic effects such as platelet inhibition. This association between platelet activity and statin therapy may be clinically important in reducing the risk of ischemic stroke. We investigated the effect of simvastatin therapy on platelet activation markers (platelet CD62P, sP-selectin, and platelet-derived microparticles (PDMPs)) in hyperlipidemic patients after ischemic stroke. Material and methods The study group consisted of 21 hyperlipidemic patients after ischemic stroke confirmed by CT, and 20 healthy subjects served as controls. We assessed the CD62P expression on resting and thrombin-activated blood platelets. CD62P and PDMPs were analyzed by the use of monoclonal antibodies anti-CD61 and anti-CD62 on a flow cytometer. The level of sP-selectin in serum was measured by the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) method. All markers were re-analyzed after 6 months of treatment with simvastatin (20 mg/day). Results Hyperlipidemic patients presented a significantly higher percentage of CD62+ platelets and higher reactivity to thrombin compared to control subjects. After simvastatin therapy hyperlipidemic patients showed a reduction of the percentage of resting CD62P(+) platelets (p = 0.005) and a reduction of expression and percentage of CD62P(+) platelets after activation by thrombin (median p < 0.05; percentage: p = 0.001). A decrease of sP-selectin levels (p = 0.001) and percentage of PDMPs (p < 0.05) in this group was also observed. Conclusions HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor therapy in stroke patients with hyperlipidemia may be useful not only due to the lipid-lowering effect but also because of a significant role in reduction of platelet activation and reactivity. PMID:25861297

  8. Level of Physical Activity and In-Hospital Course of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Juliana de Goes; Santos, Marcos Antonio Almeida; Barreto Filho, José Augusto Soares; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes; de Melo, Enaldo Vieira; de Oliveira, Norma Alves; Faro, Gustavo Baptista de Almeida; Sousa, Antônio Carlos Sobral

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the modern world. A sedentary lifestyle, present in 85% of the Brazilian population, is considered a risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease. However, the correlation of a sedentary lifestyle with cardiovascular events (CVE) during hospitalization for ACS is not well established. Objective To evaluate the association between physical activity level, assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), with in-hospital prognosis in patients with ACS. Methods Observational, cross-sectional, and analytical study with 215 subjects with a diagnosis of ACS consecutively admitted to a referral hospital for cardiac patients between July 2009 and February 2011. All volunteers answered the short version of the IPAQ and were observed for the occurrence of CVE during hospitalization with a standardized assessment conducted by the researcher and corroborated by data from medical records. Results The patients were admitted with diagnoses of unstable angina (34.4%), acute myocardial infarction (AMI) without ST elevation (41.4%), and AMI with ST elevation (24.2%). According to the level of physical activity, the patients were classified as non-active (56.3%) and active (43.7%). A CVE occurred in 35.3% of the cohort. The occurrence of in-hospital complications was associated with the length of hospital stay (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15) and physical inactivity (OR = 2.54), and was independent of age, systolic blood pressure, and prior congestive heart failure. Conclusion A physically active lifestyle reduces the risk of CVE during hospitalization in patients with ACS. PMID:26690692

  9. Silibinin Improves the Effects of Methotrexate in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: Pilot Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Saad Abdulrahman; Mortada, Ahmed Hashem; Jasim, Nazar Abdulateef; Gorial, Faiq Isho

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Our study sought to evaluate the effects of silibinin in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with methotrexate (MTX). Methods We conducted a randomized multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial over a 16-week treatment period at the Al-Sader and Baghdad Teaching Hospitals in Najaf and Baghdad, respectively. A total of 60 patients (30 of each sex) with active RA, already maintained on 12 mg MTX weekly for at least three consecutive months, were included in the study. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either 120 mg silibinin twice daily or a placebo, combined with their regular MTX regimen. The patients were evaluated by measuring disease activity score using the 28-joint Disease Activity Score, Simple Disease Activity Index, and Health Assessment Questionnaire–Disability Index scores at the start and end of the study. Blood samples were evaluated for the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), hemoglobin (Hb), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), creatine kinase (CK), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP), and the serum cytokine levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-2. Results Silibinin significantly decreases the already elevated clinical scores compared to placebo treatment. ESR, IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α, anti-CCP, hs-CRP levels were significantly reduced. Additionally, the use of silibinin significantly increases Hb, IL-10, and IL-2 levels. Conclusion Silibinin may improve the effects of MTX on certain biochemical and clinical markers of patients with active RA. PMID:27403238

  10. Microbial Translocation Is Associated with Increased Monocyte Activation and Dementia in AIDS Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ancuta, Petronela; Kamat, Anupa; Kunstman, Kevin J.; Kim, Eun-Young; Autissier, Patrick; Wurcel, Alysse; Zaman, Tauheed; Stone, David; Mefford, Megan; Morgello, Susan; Singer, Elyse J.; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Gabuzda, Dana

    2008-01-01

    Elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an indicator of microbial translocation from the gut, is a likely cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection. LPS induces monocyte activation and trafficking into brain, which are key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). To determine whether high LPS levels are associated with increased monocyte activation and HAD, we obtained peripheral blood samples from AIDS patients and examined plasma LPS by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay, peripheral blood monocytes by FACS, and soluble markers of monocyte activation by ELISA. Purified monocytes were isolated by FACS sorting, and HIV DNA and RNA levels were quantified by real time PCR. Circulating monocytes expressed high levels of the activation markers CD69 and HLA-DR, and harbored low levels of HIV compared to CD4+ T-cells. High plasma LPS levels were associated with increased plasma sCD14 and LPS-binding protein (LBP) levels, and low endotoxin core antibody levels. LPS levels were higher in HAD patients compared to control groups, and were associated with HAD independently of plasma viral load and CD4 counts. LPS levels were higher in AIDS patients using intravenous heroin and/or ethanol, or with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection, compared to control groups. These results suggest a role for elevated LPS levels in driving monocyte activation in AIDS, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of HAD, and provide evidence that cofactors linked to substance abuse and HCV co-infection influence these processes. PMID:18575590

  11. [Myeloperoxidase activity in blood plasma as a criterion of therapy for patients with cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Grigorieva, D V; Gorudko, I V; Kostevich, V A; Sokolov, A V; Buko, I V; Vasilyev, V B; Polonetsky, L Z; Panasenko, O M; Cherenkevich, S N

    2016-03-01

    A significant increase in the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity has been found in plasma of patients with stable angina and with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in comparison with the control group. MPO concentration was significantly increased in plasma of ACS patients. Reduced MPO activity in the treated ACS patients correlated with a favorable outcome of the disease. Generally, changes in plasma MPO concentration coincided with changes in lactoferrin concentration thus confirming the role of neutrophil degranulation in the increase of plasma concentrations of these proteins. The increase in MPO activity was obviously determined by modification of the MPO protein caused by reactive oxygen species and halogen in the molar ratio of 1 : 25 and 1 : 50. The decrease in plasma MPO activity may be associated with increased plasma concentrations of the physiological inhibitor of its activity, ceruloplasmin, and also with modification of the MPO protein with reactive oxygen species and halogen at their molar ratio of 1 : 100 and higher. Thus, MPO activity may be used for evaluation of effectiveness of the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27420626

  12. Impact of pain on health-related quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Schirbel, Anja; Reichert, Anne; Roll, Stephanie; Baumgart, Daniel C; Büning, Carsten; Wittig, Bianca; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Dignass, Axel; Sturm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate intensity, localization and cofactors of pain in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis patients in connection with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and disease activity. METHODS: We reviewed and analyzed the responses of 334 patients to a specifically designed questionnaire based on the short inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (SIBDQ) and the German pain questionnaire. Pain intensity, HRQOL, Crohn’s disease activity index (CDAI) and colitis activity index (CAI) were correlated and verified on a visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS: 87.9% of patients reported pain. Females and males reported comparable pain intensities and HRQOL. Surgery reduced pain in both genders (P = 0.023), whereas HRQOL only improved in females. Interestingly, patients on analgesics reported more pain (P = 0.003) and lower HRQOL (P = 0.039) than patients not on analgesics. A significant correlation was found in UC patients between pain intensity and HRQOL (P = 0.023) and CAI (P = 0.027), and in CD patients between HRQOL and CDAI (P = 0.0001), but not between pain intensity and CDAI (P = 0.35). No correlation was found between patients with low CDAI scores and pain intensity. CONCLUSION: Most IBD patients suffer from pain and have decreased HRQOL. Our study reinforces the need for effective individualized pain therapy in IBD patients. PMID:20593502

  13. Increased hexosaminidase activity in antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects: possible association with higher occurrence in bipolar disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Tunca, Zeliha; Resmi, Halil; Ozkara, H Asuman; Ciliv, Gönenc; Celtikci, Basak; Alptekin, Koksal; Ozerdem, Aysegul; Akdede, Berna Kivircik; Baykara, Burak; Birsoy, Bilge; Ergor, Gul

    2008-07-01

    Dystonic movements and Parkinsonism are frequently seen in gangliosidoses and these conditions have been reported to modify dopaminergic plasticity. We investigated whether the activity of hexosaminidase, a type-two ganglioside (GM2) degrading enzyme, correlates with drug-induced extrapyramidal system (EPS) side effects in psychiatric patients. We compared hexosaminidase activity in the lymphocytes of 29 EPS-positive patients, 13 EPS-negative patients, and 30 healthy volunteers. The activities of A and B isoforms of hexosaminidase were higher in EPS-positive patients than EPS-negative patients and healthy controls. Multivariate analysis suggested an interaction with increased B isoform activity and EPS side effects in female bipolar disorder patients. Higher levels of hexosaminidase enzyme activity may explain the frequent occurrence of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects in mood disorder patients. PMID:18436361

  14. Disparities of conjugating protective enzyme activities in the colon of patients with adenomas and carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Hoensch, Harald P; Roelofs, Hennie MJ; Edler, Lutz; Kirch, Wilhelm; Peters, Wilbert HM

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the metabolic enzymatic capacity of the colon mucosa to detoxify noxious carcinogenic compounds. METHODS: We investigated the activity of 2 conjugating enzymes-the microsomal uridine glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and the cytosomal glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the uninvolved mucosa of the colon transversum and sigmoideum in patients with adenomatous polyps and colorectal cancer. Biopsies were taken from the mucosa during colonoscopies which were done for clinical (diagnostic) reasons. After storage, the biopsy material was homogenized and after differential centrifugation the enzyme assays were performed with 4-nitrophenol (UGT) and 1-chloro 2,4-dinitrobenzene (GST) as substrates. RESULTS: About 48 patients were included of which 28 had adenomas and 20 had colorectal carcinomas confirmed by histopathology. Enzyme activities were expressed as nmol/mg per minute protein for the GST and as pmol/mg per minute protein for the UGT. Analysis of variance (F-test) indicated that both enzymes were more widely distributed in adenoma than in cancer patients. The means ± SD were smaller for cancer patients: GST for adenomas 268 ± 152 vs 241 ± 69 for carcinomas and UGT for adenomas 197 ± 200 vs 150 ± 86 for carcinomas. CONCLUSION: Compared to patients with adenomatous colon polyps those with colorectal carcinoma exhibited a lower capacity of detoxifying enzyme metabolism and their activities clustered over a smaller range. PMID:24106402

  15. Coordinate-based (ALE) meta-analysis of brain activation in patients with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, Mahboobeh; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Pfleiderer, Bettina; Eickhoff, Simon B; Petzke, Frank; Harris, Richard E; Montoya, Pedro; Burgmer, Markus

    2016-05-01

    There are an increasing number of neuroimaging studies that allow a better understanding of symptoms, neural correlates and associated conditions of fibromyalgia. However, the results of these studies are difficult to compare, as they include a heterogeneous group of patients, use different stimulation paradigms, tasks, and the statistical evaluation of neuroimaging data shows high variability. Therefore, this meta-analytic approach aimed at evaluating potential alterations in neuronal brain activity or structure related to pain processing in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients, using quantitative coordinate-based "activation likelihood estimation" (ALE) meta-analysis. 37 FMS papers met the inclusion criteria for an ALE analysis (1,264 subjects, 274 activation foci). A pooled ALE analysis of different modalities of neuroimaging and additional analyses according functional and structural changes indicated differences between FMS patients and controls in the insula, amygdala, anterior/mid cingulate cortex, superior temporal gyrus, the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex, and lingual gyrus. Our analysis showed consistent results across FMS studies with potential abnormalities especially in pain-related brain areas. Given that similar alterations have already been demonstrated in patients with other chronic pain conditions and the lack of adequate control groups of chronic pain subjects in most FMS studies, it is not clear however, whether these findings are associated with chronic pain in general or are unique features of patients with FMS. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1749-1758, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26864780

  16. Nocturnal oscillations in plasma renin activity during sleep in hypertensive patients: the influence of perindopril.

    PubMed

    Brandenberger, G; Imbs, J L; Libert, J P; Ehrhart, J; Simon, C; Santoni, J P; Follenius, M

    1990-01-01

    In previous studies, we established a strong concordance between nocturnal oscillations in plasma renin activity (PRA) and REM-NREM sleep cycles. To determine whether this relation persists in the case of moderate essential hypertension and if it is influenced by antihypertensive therapies affecting renin release, six normal subjects and six hypertensive patients were studied. The normal subjects underwent one control night. The hypertensive patients were studied during a first night when a placebo was given. Four of them underwent a second night following a single dose of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, perindopril; and a third night, 45 days later, with the antihypertensive treatment. In addition, two of the patients underwent two night-studies, after a single and repeated doses of a beta-blocker, atenolol, to see whether preventing renin release modified the sleep structure. The relationship between the nocturnal PRA oscillations and the sleep stage patterns persisted in hypertensive patients receiving placebo. In patients who had low PRA levels, the increases associated with NREM sleep were small. However, the mean relative amplitude of the oscillations, expressed as a percentage of the nocturnal mean, was about 60%, which was similar to that in normotensive subjects. Active renin and PRA oscillations were closely coupled. ACE activity profiles displayed damped fluctuations and no systematic relationship with sleep stages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2172356

  17. In psychopathic patients emotion attribution modulates activity in outcome-related brain areas.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Monika; Sodian, Beate; Döhnel, Katrin; Schwerdtner, Johannes; Meinhardt, Jörg; Hajak, Göran

    2010-05-30

    The understanding that other people's emotional states depend on the fulfilment of their intention is fundamentally important for responding adequately to others. Psychopathic patients show severe deficits in responding adequately to other people's emotion. The present study explored whether these impairments are associated with deficits in the ability to infer others' emotional states. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), identical cartoon stories, depicting a subject whose intention was fulfilled or not fulfilled, were presented to 14 psychopathic patients and 14 non-psychopathic patients. The participants should indicate the protagonist's emotional state. Additionally, a non-mentalizing control condition was presented. The two groups showed no behavioural differences. But in non-psychopathic patients emotion attribution was associated with increased activity of the mirror neuron system, the bilateral supramarginal gyrus and the superior frontal gyrus. In contrast psychopathic patients showed increased activation of regions associated with outcome monitoring and attention, such as the orbitofrontal cortex, the medial frontal cortex and temporo-parietal areas. The results emphasize that although psychopathic patients show no deficits in reasoning about other people's emotion if an explicit evaluation is demanded, they use divergent neural processing strategies that are related to more rational, outcome-oriented processes. PMID:20417065

  18. Surgical Treatment Options for the Young and Active Middle-Aged Patient with Glenohumeral Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Sanjeev; Hsu, Andrew; Lin, Emery C.; Chalmers, Peter; Ellman, Michael; Cole, Brian J.; Verma, Nikhil N.

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic chondral lesions in young and active middle-aged patients continues to be a challenging issue. Surgeons must differentiate between incidental chondral lesions from symptomatic pathology that is responsible for the patient's pain. A thorough history, physical examination, and imaging work up is necessary and often results in a diagnosis of exclusion that is verified on arthroscopy. Treatment of symptomatic glenohumeral chondral lesions depends on several factors including the patient's age, occupation, comorbidities, activity level, degree of injury and concomitant shoulder pathology. Furthermore, the size, depth, and location of symptomatic cartilaginous injury should be carefully considered. Patients with lower functional demands may experience success with nonoperative measures such as injection or anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapy. When conservative management fails, surgical options are broadly classified into palliative, reparative, restorative, and reconstructive techniques. Patients with lower functional demands and smaller lesions are best suited for si