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Sample records for active viral replication

  1. Determination of host RNA helicases activity in viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amit; Boris-Lawrie, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    RNA helicases are encoded by all eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells and a minority of viruses. Activity of RNA helicases is necessary for all steps in the expression of cells and viruses and the host innate response to virus infection. Their vast functional repertoire is attributable to the core ATPase-dependent helicase domain in conjunction with flanking domains that are interchangeable and engage viral and cellular cofactors. Here, we address the important issue of host RNA helicases that are necessary for replication of a virus. The chapter covers approaches to identification and characterization of candidate helicases and methods to define the biochemical and biophysical parameters of specificity and functional activity of the enzymes. We discuss the context of cellular RNA helicase activity and virion-associated RNA helicases. The methodology and choice of controls fosters the assessment of the virologic scope of RNA helicases across divergent cell lineages and viral replication cycles. PMID:22713331

  2. Two separate mechanisms of enforced viral replication balance innate and adaptive immune activation.

    PubMed

    Shaabani, Namir; Khairnar, Vishal; Duhan, Vikas; Zhou, Fan; Tur, Rita Ferrer; Häussinger, Dieter; Recher, Mike; Tumanov, Alexei V; Hardt, Cornelia; Pinschewer, Daniel; Christen, Urs; Lang, Philipp A; Honke, Nadine; Lang, Karl S

    2016-02-01

    The induction of innate and adaptive immunity is essential for controlling viral infections. Limited or overwhelming innate immunity can negatively impair the adaptive immune response. Therefore, balancing innate immunity separately from activating the adaptive immune response would result in a better antiviral immune response. Recently, we demonstrated that Usp18-dependent replication of virus in secondary lymphatic organs contributes to activation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. Whether specific mechanisms can balance innate and adaptive immunity separately remains unknown. In this study, using lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and replication-deficient single-cycle LCMV vectors, we found that viral replication of the initial inoculum is essential for activating virus-specific CD8(+) T cells. In contrast, extracellular distribution of virus along the splenic conduits is necessary for inducing systemic levels of type I interferon (IFN-I). Although enforced virus replication is driven primarily by Usp18, B cell-derived lymphotoxin beta contributes to the extracellular distribution of virus along the splenic conduits. Therefore, lymphotoxin beta regulates IFN-I induction independently of CD8(+) T-cell activity. We found that two separate mechanisms act together in the spleen to guarantee amplification of virus during infection, thereby balancing the activation of the innate and adaptive immune system. PMID:26553386

  3. The paradox of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in sooty mangabeys: active viral replication without disease progression.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Lisa A

    2004-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsm causes an asymptomatic infection in its natural host, the sooty mangabey, but induces an immunodeficiency syndrome very similar to human AIDS when transferred to a new host species such as the rhesus macaque. Unexpectedly, SIVsm replication dynamics is comparable in the two species, with rapid accumulation of viral mutations and a high viral load detected in both mangabeys and macaques. In contrast, clear differences are observed in immune parameters. Pathogenic SIV infection in macaques is associated with decreased CD4+ T cell numbers and signs of generalized immune activation, such as increased numbers of cycling and apoptotic T cells, hyperplasic lymphoid tissues, and exacerbated immune responses. Mangabeys with asymptomatic SIV infection show normal T cell regeneration parameters and signs of a moderate immune response, appropriate in the setting of chronic viral infection. The comparative analysis of simian models thus suggests that viral load alone cannot account for progression to disease, and that the capacity of primate lentiviruses to induce abnormal immune activation underlies AIDS pathogenesis. PMID:14766388

  4. Hydroxylated Tropolones Inhibit Hepatitis B Virus Replication by Blocking Viral Ribonuclease H Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Gaofeng; Lomonosova, Elena; Cheng, Xiaohong; Moran, Eileen A.; Meyers, Marvin J.; Le Grice, Stuart F. J.; Thomas, Craig J.; Jiang, Jian-kang; Meck, Christine; Hirsch, Danielle R.; D'Erasmo, Michael P.; Suyabatmaz, Duygu M.; Murelli, Ryan P.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a major human pathogen despite the development of both antiviral drugs and a vaccine, in part because the current therapies do not suppress HBV replication far enough to eradicate the virus. Here, we screened 51 troponoid compounds for their ability to suppress HBV RNaseH activity and HBV replication based on the activities of α-hydroxytropolones against HIV RNaseH, with the goal of determining whether the tropolone pharmacophore may be a promising scaffold for anti-HBV drug development. Thirteen compounds inhibited HBV RNaseH, with the best 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) being 2.3 μM. Similar inhibition patterns were observed against HBV genotype D and C RNaseHs, implying limited genotype specificity. Six of 10 compounds tested against HBV replication in culture suppressed replication via blocking of viral RNaseH activity, with the best 50% effective concentration (EC50) being 0.34 μM. Eighteen compounds inhibited recombinant human RNaseH1, and moderate cytotoxicity was observed for all compounds (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50] = 25 to 79 μM). Therapeutic indexes ranged from 3.8 to 94. Efficient inhibition required an intact α-hydroxytropolone moiety plus one or more short appendages on the tropolone ring, but a wide variety of constituents were permissible. These data indicate that troponoids and specifically α-hydroxytropolones are promising lead candidates for development as anti-HBV drugs, providing that toxicity can be minimized. Potential anti-RNaseH drugs are envisioned to be employed in combination with the existing nucleos(t)ide analogs to suppress HBV replication far enough to block genomic maintenance, with the goal of eradicating infection. PMID:25451058

  5. Hydroxylated tropolones inhibit hepatitis B virus replication by blocking viral ribonuclease H activity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Gaofeng; Lomonosova, Elena; Cheng, Xiaohong; Moran, Eileen A; Meyers, Marvin J; Le Grice, Stuart F J; Thomas, Craig J; Jiang, Jian-kang; Meck, Christine; Hirsch, Danielle R; D'Erasmo, Michael P; Suyabatmaz, Duygu M; Murelli, Ryan P; Tavis, John E

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a major human pathogen despite the development of both antiviral drugs and a vaccine, in part because the current therapies do not suppress HBV replication far enough to eradicate the virus. Here, we screened 51 troponoid compounds for their ability to suppress HBV RNaseH activity and HBV replication based on the activities of α-hydroxytropolones against HIV RNaseH, with the goal of determining whether the tropolone pharmacophore may be a promising scaffold for anti-HBV drug development. Thirteen compounds inhibited HBV RNaseH, with the best 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) being 2.3 μM. Similar inhibition patterns were observed against HBV genotype D and C RNaseHs, implying limited genotype specificity. Six of 10 compounds tested against HBV replication in culture suppressed replication via blocking of viral RNaseH activity, with the best 50% effective concentration (EC50) being 0.34 μM. Eighteen compounds inhibited recombinant human RNaseH1, and moderate cytotoxicity was observed for all compounds (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50]=25 to 79 μM). Therapeutic indexes ranged from 3.8 to 94. Efficient inhibition required an intact α-hydroxytropolone moiety plus one or more short appendages on the tropolone ring, but a wide variety of constituents were permissible. These data indicate that troponoids and specifically α-hydroxytropolones are promising lead candidates for development as anti-HBV drugs, providing that toxicity can be minimized. Potential anti-RNaseH drugs are envisioned to be employed in combination with the existing nucleos(t)ide analogs to suppress HBV replication far enough to block genomic maintenance, with the goal of eradicating infection. PMID:25451058

  6. VIRUS INFECTION RAPIDLY ACTIVATES THE P58IPK PATHWAY, DELAYING PEAK KINASE ACTIVATION TO ENHANCE VIRAL REPLICATION

    PubMed Central

    GOODMAN, ALAN G.; TANNER, BERTRAND C. W.; CHANG, STEWART T.; ESTEBAN, MARIANO; KATZE, MICHAEL G.

    2011-01-01

    Previously we showed that the cellular protein P58IPK contributes to viral protein synthesis by decreasing the activity of the anti-viral protein, PKR. Here, we constructed a mathematical model to examine the P58IPK pathway and investigated temporal behavior of this biological system. We find that influenza virus infection results in the rapid activation of P58IPK which delays and reduces maximal PKR and eIF2α phosphorylation, leading to increased viral protein levels. We confirmed that the model could accurately predict viral and host protein levels at extended time points by testing it against experimental data. Sensitivity analysis of relative reaction rates describing P58IPK activity and the downstream proteins through which it functions helped identify processes that may be the most beneficial targets to thwart virus replication. Together, our study demonstrates how computational modeling can guide experimental design to further understand a specific metabolic signaling pathway during viral infection in a mammalian system. PMID:21612809

  7. Immune activation driven by CTLA-4 blockade augments viral replication at mucosal sites in simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, Valentina; Tryniszewska, Elzbieta; Ma, Zhong Min; Vaccari, Monica; Boasso, Adriano; Tsai, Wen-Po; Petrovas, Constantinos; Fuchs, Dietmar; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Venzon, David; Shearer, Gene M; Koup, Richard A; Lowy, Israel; Miller, Christopher J; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2008-04-15

    The importance of chronic immune activation in progression to AIDS has been inferred by correlative studies in HIV-infected individuals and in nonhuman primate models of SIV infection. Using the SIV(mac251) macaque model, we directly address the impact of immune activation by inhibiting CTLA-4, an immunoregulatory molecule expressed on activated T cells and a subset of regulatory T cells. We found that CTLA-4 blockade significantly increased T cell activation and viral replication in primary SIV(mac251) infection, particularly at mucosal sites, and increased IDO expression and activity. Accordingly, protracted treatment with anti-CTLA-4 Ab of macaques chronically infected with SIV(mac251) decreased responsiveness to antiretroviral therapy and abrogated the ability of therapeutic T cell vaccines to decrease viral set point. These data provide the first direct evidence that immune activation drives viral replication, and suggest caution in the use of therapeutic approaches for HIV infection in vivo that increase CD4(+) T cell proliferation. PMID:18390726

  8. Role of Accessory Proteins of HTLV-1 in Viral Replication, T Cell Activation, and Cellular Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Bindhu; Nair, Amithraj; Lairmore, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), causes adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), and initiates a variety of immune mediated disorders. The viral genome encodes common structural and enzymatic proteins characteristic of all retroviruses and utilizes alternative splicing and alternate codon usage to make several regulatory and accessory proteins encoded in the pX region (pX ORF I to IV). Recent studies indicate that the accessory proteins p12I, p27I, p13II, and p30II, encoded by pX ORF I and II, contribute to viral replication and the ability of the virus to maintain typical in vivo expression levels. Proviral clones that are mutated in either pX ORF I or II, while fully competent in cell culture, are severely limited in their replicative capacity in a rabbit model. These HTLV-1 accessory proteins are critical for establishment of viral infectivity, enhance T- lymphocyte activation and potentially alter gene transcription and mitochondrial function. HTLV-1 pX ORF I expression is critical to the viral infectivity in resting primary lymphocytes suggesting a role for the calcineurin-binding protein p12I in lymphocyte activation. The endoplasmic reticulum and cis-Golgi localizing p12I activates NFAT, a key T cell transcription factor, through calcium-mediated signaling pathways and may lower the threshold of lymphocyte activation via the JAK/STAT pathway. In contrast p30II localizes to the nucleus and represses viral promoter activity, but may regulate cellular gene expression through p300/CBP or related co-activators of transcription. The mitochondrial localizing p13II induces morphologic changes in the organelle and may influence energy metabolism infected cells. Future studies of the molecular details HTLV-1 “accessory” proteins interactions will provide important new directions for investigations of HTLV-1 and related viruses associated with lymphoproliferative diseases. Thus, the accessory proteins of HTLV-1, once thought to be dispensable for

  9. Relevance of Viroporin Ion Channel Activity on Viral Replication and Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Torres, Jose L; Verdiá-Báguena, Carmina; Castaño-Rodriguez, Carlos; Aguilella, Vicente M; Enjuanes, Luis

    2015-07-01

    Modification of host-cell ionic content is a significant issue for viruses, as several viral proteins displaying ion channel activity, named viroporins, have been identified. Viroporins interact with different cellular membranes and self-assemble forming ion conductive pores. In general, these channels display mild ion selectivity, and, eventually, membrane lipids play key structural and functional roles in the pore. Viroporins stimulate virus production through different mechanisms, and ion channel conductivity has been proved particularly relevant in several cases. Key stages of the viral cycle such as virus uncoating, transport and maturation are ion-influenced processes in many viral species. Besides boosting virus propagation, viroporins have also been associated with pathogenesis. Linking pathogenesis either to the ion conductivity or to other functions of viroporins has been elusive for a long time. This article summarizes novel pathways leading to disease stimulated by viroporin ion conduction, such as inflammasome driven immunopathology. PMID:26151305

  10. Relevance of Viroporin Ion Channel Activity on Viral Replication and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nieto-Torres, Jose L.; Verdiá-Báguena, Carmina; Castaño-Rodriguez, Carlos; Aguilella, Vicente M.; Enjuanes, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Modification of host-cell ionic content is a significant issue for viruses, as several viral proteins displaying ion channel activity, named viroporins, have been identified. Viroporins interact with different cellular membranes and self-assemble forming ion conductive pores. In general, these channels display mild ion selectivity, and, eventually, membrane lipids play key structural and functional roles in the pore. Viroporins stimulate virus production through different mechanisms, and ion channel conductivity has been proved particularly relevant in several cases. Key stages of the viral cycle such as virus uncoating, transport and maturation are ion-influenced processes in many viral species. Besides boosting virus propagation, viroporins have also been associated with pathogenesis. Linking pathogenesis either to the ion conductivity or to other functions of viroporins has been elusive for a long time. This article summarizes novel pathways leading to disease stimulated by viroporin ion conduction, such as inflammasome driven immunopathology. PMID:26151305

  11. Human metapneumovirus infection activates the TSLP pathway that drives excessive pulmonary inflammation and viral replication in mice.

    PubMed

    Lay, Margarita K; Céspedes, Pablo F; Palavecino, Christian E; León, Miguel A; Díaz, Rodrigo A; Salazar, Francisco J; Méndez, Gonzalo P; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2015-06-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a leading cause of acute respiratory tract infections in children and the elderly. The mechanism by which this virus triggers an inflammatory response still remains unknown. Here, we evaluated whether the thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) pathway contributes to lung inflammation upon hMPV infection. We found that hMPV infection promotes TSLP expression both in human airway epithelial cells and in the mouse lung. hMPV infection induced lung infiltration of OX40L(+) CD11b(+) DCs. Mice lacking the TSLP receptor deficient mice (tslpr(-/-) ) showed reduced lung inflammation and hMPV replication. These mice displayed a decreased number of neutrophils as well a reduction in levels of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine/CCL17, IL-5, IL-13, and TNF-α in the airways upon hMPV infection. Furthermore, a higher frequency of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells was found in tslpr(-/-) mice compared to WT mice, which could contribute to controlling viral spread. Depletion of neutrophils in WT and tslpr(-/-) mice decreased inflammation and hMPV replication. Remarkably, blockage of TSLP or OX40L with specific Abs reduced lung inflammation and viral replication following hMPV challenge in mice. Altogether, these results suggest that activation of the TSLP pathway is pivotal in the development of pulmonary pathology and pulmonary hMPV replication. PMID:25763996

  12. Long Terminal Repeat Circular DNA as Markers of Active Viral Replication of Human T Lymphotropic Virus-1 in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fox, James M; Hilburn, Silva; Demontis, Maria-Antonietta; Brighty, David W; Rios Grassi, Maria Fernanda; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Taylor, Graham P; Martin, Fabiola

    2016-01-01

    Clonal expansion of human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infected cells in vivo is well documented. Unlike human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HTLV-1 plasma RNA is sparse. The contribution of the “mitotic” spread of HTLV-1 compared with infectious spread of the virus to HTLV-1 viral burden in established infection is uncertain. Since extrachromosomal long terminal repeat (LTR) DNA circles are indicators of viral replication in HIV-1 carriers with undetectable plasma HIV RNA, we hypothesised that HTLV-1 LTR circles could indicate reverse transcriptase (RT) usage and infectious activity. 1LTR and 2LTR DNA circles were measured in HTLV-1 cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of asymptomatic carriers (ACs) and patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) or adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL). 1LTR DNA circles were detected in 14/20 patients at a mean of 1.38/100 PBMC but did not differentiate disease status nor correlate with HTLV-1 DNA copies. 2LTR DNA circles were detected in 30/31 patients and at higher concentrations in patients with HTLV-1-associated diseases, independent of HTLV-1 DNA load. In an incident case the 2LTR DNA circle concentration increased 2.1 fold at the onset of HAM/TSP compared to baseline. Detectable and fluctuating levels of HTLV-1 DNA circles in patients indicate viral RT usage and virus replication. Our results indicate HTLV-1 viral replication capacity is maintained in chronic infection and may be associated with disease onset. PMID:26985903

  13. Long Terminal Repeat Circular DNA as Markers of Active Viral Replication of Human T Lymphotropic Virus-1 in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Fox, James M; Hilburn, Silva; Demontis, Maria-Antonietta; Brighty, David W; Rios Grassi, Maria Fernanda; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Taylor, Graham P; Martin, Fabiola

    2016-03-01

    Clonal expansion of human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infected cells in vivo is well documented. Unlike human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HTLV-1 plasma RNA is sparse. The contribution of the "mitotic" spread of HTLV-1 compared with infectious spread of the virus to HTLV-1 viral burden in established infection is uncertain. Since extrachromosomal long terminal repeat (LTR) DNA circles are indicators of viral replication in HIV-1 carriers with undetectable plasma HIV RNA, we hypothesised that HTLV-1 LTR circles could indicate reverse transcriptase (RT) usage and infectious activity. 1LTR and 2LTR DNA circles were measured in HTLV-1 cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of asymptomatic carriers (ACs) and patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) or adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL). 1LTR DNA circles were detected in 14/20 patients at a mean of 1.38/100 PBMC but did not differentiate disease status nor correlate with HTLV-1 DNA copies. 2LTR DNA circles were detected in 30/31 patients and at higher concentrations in patients with HTLV-1-associated diseases, independent of HTLV-1 DNA load. In an incident case the 2LTR DNA circle concentration increased 2.1 fold at the onset of HAM/TSP compared to baseline. Detectable and fluctuating levels of HTLV-1 DNA circles in patients indicate viral RT usage and virus replication. Our results indicate HTLV-1 viral replication capacity is maintained in chronic infection and may be associated with disease onset. PMID:26985903

  14. Experimentally-induced immune activation in natural hosts of SIV induces significant increases in viral replication and CD4+ T cell depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, Ruy M

    2008-01-01

    Chronically SIVagm-infected African green monkeys (AGMs) have a remarkably stable non-pathogenic disease course, with levels of immune activation in chronic SIVagm infection similar to those observed in uninfected monkeys and stable viral loads (VLs) for long periods of time. In vivo administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or an IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (Ontak) to chronically SIVagm-infected AGMs triggered increases in immune activation and subsequently of viral replication and depletion of intestinal CD4{sup +} T cells. Our study indicates that circulating microbial products can increase viral replication by inducing immune activation and increasing the number of viral target cells, thus demonstrating that immune activation and T cell prolifeation are key factors in AIDS pathogenesis.

  15. Direct interaction of cellular hnRNP-F and NS1 of influenza A virus accelerates viral replication by modulation of viral transcriptional activity and host gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jun Han; Kim, Sung-Hak; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q.; Song, Min-Suk; Baek, Yun Hee; Jin, Xun; Choi, Joong-Kook; Kim, Chul-Joong; Kim, Hyunggee; Choi, Young Ki

    2010-02-05

    To investigate novel NS1-interacting proteins, we conducted a yeast two-hybrid analysis, followed by co-immunoprecipitation assays. We identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F (hnRNP-F) as a cellular protein interacting with NS1 during influenza A virus infection. Co-precipitation assays suggest that interaction between hnRNP-F and NS1 is a common and direct event among human or avian influenza viruses. NS1 and hnRNP-F co-localize in the nucleus of host cells, and the RNA-binding domain of NS1 directly interacts with the GY-rich region of hnRNP-F determined by GST pull-down assays with truncated proteins. Importantly, hnRNP-F expression levels in host cells indicate regulatory role on virus replication. hnRNP-F depletion by small interfering RNA (siRNA) shows 10- to 100-fold increases in virus titers corresponding to enhanced viral RNA polymerase activity. Our results delineate novel mechanism of action by which NS1 accelerates influenza virus replication by modulating normal cellular mRNA processes through direct interaction with cellular hnRNP-F protein.

  16. The 6-Aminoquinolone WC5 Inhibits Human Cytomegalovirus Replication at an Early Stage by Interfering with the Transactivating Activity of Viral Immediate-Early 2 Protein ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Loregian, Arianna; Mercorelli, Beatrice; Muratore, Giulia; Sinigalia, Elisa; Pagni, Silvana; Massari, Serena; Gribaudo, Giorgio; Gatto, Barbara; Palumbo, Manlio; Tabarrini, Oriana; Cecchetti, Violetta; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    WC5 is a 6-aminoquinolone that potently inhibits the replication of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) but has no activity, or significantly less activity, against other herpesviruses. Here we investigated the nature of its specific anti-HCMV activity. Structure-activity relationship studies on a small series of analogues showed that WC5 possesses the most suitable pattern of substitutions around the quinolone scaffold to give potent and selective anti-HCMV activity. Studies performed to identify the possible target of WC5 indicated that it prevents viral DNA synthesis but does not significantly affect DNA polymerase activity. In yield reduction experiments with different multiplicities of infection, the anti-HCMV activity of WC5 appeared to be highly dependent on the viral inoculum, suggesting that WC5 may act at an initial stage of virus replication. Consistently, time-of-addition and time-of-removal studies demonstrated that WC5 affects a phase of the HCMV replicative cycle that precedes viral DNA synthesis. Experiments to monitor the effects of the compound on virus attachment and entry showed that it does not inhibit either process. Evaluation of viral mRNA and protein expression revealed that WC5 targets an event of the HCMV replicative cycle that follows the transcription and translation of immediate-early genes and precedes those of early and late genes. In cell-based assays to test the effects of WC5 on the transactivating activity of the HCMV immediate-early 2 (IE2) protein, WC5 markedly interfered with IE2-mediated transactivation of viral early promoters. Finally, WC5 combined with ganciclovir in checkerboard experiments exhibited highly synergistic activity. These findings suggest that WC5 deserves further investigation as a candidate anti-HCMV drug with a novel mechanism of action. PMID:20194695

  17. Activation of NF-κB by Human Papillomavirus 16 E1 Limits E1-Dependent Viral Replication through Degradation of E1

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Tomomi; Tanaka, Katsuyuki; Ohno, Shin-ichi; Egawa, Nagayasu; Yugawa, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT NF-κB is a family of transcription factors that regulate gene expression involved in many processes, such as the inflammatory response and cancer progression. Little is known about associations of NF-κB with the human papillomavirus (HPV) life cycle. We have developed a tissue culture system to conditionally induce E1-dependent replication of the human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) genome in human cervical keratinocytes and found that expression of HPV16 E1, a viral helicase, results in reduction of IκBα and subsequent activation of NF-κB in a manner dependent on helicase activity. Exogenous expression of a degradation-resistant mutant of IκBα, which inhibits the activation of NF-κB, enhanced E1-dependent replication of the viral genome. Wortmannin, a broad inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks), and, to a lesser extent, VE-822, an ATR kinase inhibitor, but not KU55933, an ATM kinase inhibitor, suppressed the activation of NF-κB and augmented E1-dependent replication of the HPV16 genome. Interestingly, the enhancement of E1-dependent replication of the viral genome was associated with increased stability of E1 in the presence of wortmannin as well as the IκBα mutant. Collectively, we propose that expression of E1 induces NF-κB activation at least in part through the ATR-dependent DNA damage response and that NF-κB in turn limits E1-dependent replication of HPV16 through degradation of E1, so that E1 and NF-κB may constitute a negative feedback loop. IMPORTANCE A major risk factor in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers is persistent infection with high-risk HPVs. To eradicate viruses from infected tissue, it is important to understand molecular mechanisms underlying the establishment and maintenance of persistent infection. In this study, we obtained evidence that human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E1, a viral DNA helicase essential for amplification of the viral genomes, induces NF-κB activation and that this limits E1-dependent

  18. Both cis and trans Activities of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus 3D Polymerase Are Essential for Viral RNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Herod, Morgan R.; Ferrer-Orta, Cristina; Loundras, Eleni-Anna; Ward, Joseph C.; Verdaguer, Nuria; Rowlands, David J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Picornaviridae is a large family of positive-sense RNA viruses that contains numerous human and animal pathogens, including foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The picornavirus replication complex comprises a coordinated network of protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions involving multiple viral and host-cellular factors. Many of the proteins within the complex possess multiple roles in viral RNA replication, some of which can be provided in trans (i.e., via expression from a separate RNA molecule), while others are required in cis (i.e., expressed from the template RNA molecule). In vitro studies have suggested that multiple copies of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) 3D are involved in the viral replication complex. However, it is not clear whether all these molecules are catalytically active or what other function(s) they provide. In this study, we aimed to distinguish between catalytically active 3D molecules and those that build a replication complex. We report a novel nonenzymatic cis-acting function of 3D that is essential for viral-genome replication. Using an FMDV replicon in complementation experiments, our data demonstrate that this cis-acting role of 3D is distinct from the catalytic activity, which is predominantly trans acting. Immunofluorescence studies suggest that both cis- and trans-acting 3D molecules localize to the same cellular compartment. However, our genetic and structural data suggest that 3D interacts in cis with RNA stem-loops that are essential for viral RNA replication. This study identifies a previously undescribed aspect of picornavirus replication complex structure-function and an important methodology for probing such interactions further. IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an important animal pathogen responsible for foot-and-mouth disease. The disease is endemic in many parts of the world with outbreaks within livestock resulting in major economic losses. Propagation of the viral genome

  19. AUF1 p45 Promotes West Nile Virus Replication by an RNA Chaperone Activity That Supports Cyclization of the Viral Genome

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Susann; Schmidt, Tobias; Geissler, René; Lilie, Hauke; Chabierski, Stefan; Ulbert, Sebastian; Liebert, Uwe G.; Golbik, Ralph P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A central aspect of current virology is to define the function of cellular proteins (host factors) that support the viral multiplication process. This study aimed at characterizing cellular proteins that assist the RNA replication process of the prevalent human pathogen West Nile virus (WNV). Using in vitro and cell-based approaches, we defined the p45 isoform of AU-rich element RNA-binding protein 1 (AUF1) as a host factor that enables efficient WNV replication. It was demonstrated that AUF1 p45 has an RNA chaperone activity, which aids the structural rearrangement and cyclization of the WNV RNA that is required by the viral replicase to initiate RNA replication. The obtained data suggest the RNA chaperone activity of AUF1 p45 is an important determinant of the WNV life cycle. IMPORTANCE In this study, we identified a cellular protein, AUF1 (also known as heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein D [hnRNPD]), acting as a helper (host factor) of the multiplication process of the important human pathogen West Nile virus. Several different variants of AUF1 exist in the cell, and one variant, AUF1 p45, was shown to support viral replication most significantly. Interestingly, we obtained a set of experimental data indicating that a main function of AUF1 p45 is to modify and thus prepare the West Nile virus genome in such a way that the viral enzyme that generates progeny genomes is empowered to do this considerably more efficiently than in the absence of the host factor. The capability of AUF1 p45 to rearrange the West Nile virus genome was thus identified to be an important aspect of a West Nile virus infection. PMID:25078689

  20. Cholesterol biosynthesis modulation regulates dengue viral replication.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, Christopher; Lebreton, Aude; Young Ng, Chuan; Lim, Joanne Y H; Liu, Wei; Vasudevan, Subhash; Labow, Mark; Gu, Feng; Gaither, L Alex

    2009-06-20

    We performed a focused siRNA screen in an A549 dengue type 2 New Guinea C subgenomic replicon cell line (Rluc-replicon) that contains a Renilla luciferase cassette. We found that siRNA mediated knock down of mevalonate diphospho decarboxylase (MVD) inhibited viral replication of the Rluc-replicon and DEN-2 NGC live virus replication in A549 cells. When the Rluc-replicon A459 cells were grown in delipidated media the replicon expression was suppressed and MVD knock down could further sensitize Renilla expression. Hymeglusin and zaragozic acid A could inhibit DEN-2 NGC live virus replication in K562 cells, while lovastatin could inhibit DEN-2 NGC live virus replication in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Renilla expression could be rescued in fluvastatin treated A549 Rluc-replicon cells after the addition of mevalonate, and partially restored with geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, or farnesyl pyrophosphate. Our data suggest genetic and pharmacological modulation of cholesterol biosynthesis can regulate dengue virus replication. PMID:19419745

  1. A Novel Functional Site in the PB2 Subunit of Influenza A Virus Essential for Acetyl-CoA Interaction, RNA Polymerase Activity, and Viral Replication*

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Dai; Shoji, Masaki; Yamayoshi, Seiya; Hirota, Takenori; Nagae, Monami; Yanagisawa, Shin; Nakano, Masahiro; Ohmi, Naho; Noda, Takeshi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Kuzuhara, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The PA, PB1, and PB2 subunits, components of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of influenza A virus, are essential for viral transcription and replication. The PB2 subunit binds to the host RNA cap (7-methylguanosine triphosphate (m7GTP)) and supports the endonuclease activity of PA to “snatch” the cap from host pre-mRNAs. However, the structure of PB2 is not fully understood, and the functional sites remain unknown. In this study, we describe a novel Val/Arg/Gly (VRG) site in the PB2 cap-binding domain, which is involved in interaction with acetyl-CoA found in eukaryotic histone acetyltransferases (HATs). In vitro experiments revealed that the recombinant PB2 cap-binding domain that includes the VRG site interacts with acetyl-CoA; moreover, it was found that this interaction could be blocked by CoA and various HAT inhibitors. Interestingly, m7GTP also inhibited this interaction, suggesting that the same active pocket is capable of interacting with acetyl-CoA and m7GTP. To elucidate the importance of the VRG site on PB2 function and viral replication, we constructed a PB2 recombinant protein and recombinant viruses including several patterns of amino acid mutations in the VRG site. Substitutions of the valine and arginine residues or of all 3 residues of the VRG site to alanine significantly reduced the binding ability of PB2 to acetyl-CoA and its RNA polymerase activity. Recombinant viruses containing the same mutations could not be replicated in cultured cells. These results indicate that the PB2 VRG sequence is a functional site that is essential for acetyl-CoA interaction, RNA polymerase activity, and viral replication. PMID:25063805

  2. Analysis of the earliest steps of hepadnavirus replication: genome repair after infectious entry into hepatocytes does not depend on viral polymerase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Köck, J; Schlicht, H J

    1993-01-01

    Hepadnaviruses contain a relaxed circular DNA genome (RC-DNA) with discontinuities in both strands. Upon infectious entry into a host cell, this genome is converted into a covalently closed superhelical form (CCC-DNA), which later serves as the template for transcription. Here we examined whether the viral polymerase activity is required for this repair reaction. Primary hepatocytes prepared from embryonated duck eggs were infected with the duck hepatitis B virus. Conversion of the RC-DNA into the CCC-DNA was then analyzed by a newly developed polymerase chain reaction technique. This method allows the efficient discrimination between the two DNA forms and is sensitive enough to monitor repair of the infecting viral DNA in the absence of replication and amplification. Thus, we were able to monitor this process in the presence of a potent inhibitor of the viral polymerase, the nucleoside analog 2',3'-dideoxyguanosine. The data show that inhibition of the viral polymerase activity has no influence on genome repair, suggesting that this enzymatic function is not required for conversion of the RC-DNA into the CCC-DNA. Consequently, antiviral drugs blocking the polymerase activity cannot prevent the infectious entry of the virus into a host cell. Images PMID:8331730

  3. Abortive infection of snakehead fish vesiculovirus in ZF4 cells was associated with the RLRs pathway activation by viral replicative intermediates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenwen; Asim, Muhammad; Yi, Lizhu; Hegazy, Abeer M; Hu, Xianqin; Zhou, Yang; Ai, Taoshan; Lin, Li

    2015-01-01

    Snakehead fish vesiculovirus (SHVV) is a negative strand RNA virus which can cause great economic losses in fish culture. To facilitate the study of SHVV-host interactions, the susceptibility of zebrafish embryonic fibroblast cell line (ZF4) to the SHVV was investigated in this report. The results showed that high amount of viral mRNAs and cRNAs were detected at the 3 h post-infection. However, the expressions of the viral mRNAs and cRNA were decreased dramatically after 6 h post-infection. In addition, the expressions of interferon (IFN) and interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx were all up regulated significantly at the late stage of the infection. Meanwhile, the expressions of Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) were also all up-regulated significantly during the infection. Two isoforms of DrLGP2 from zebrafish were also cloned and analyzed. Interestingly, the expression of DrLGP2a but not DrLGP2b was significantly up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels, indicating that the two DrLGP2 isoforms might play different roles during the SHVV infection. Transfection experiment showed that viral replicative intermediates were required for the activation of IFN-α expression. Taken together, the abortive infection of SHVV in ZF4 cells was associated with the activation of RLRs pathway, which was activated by viral replicative intermediates. PMID:25794284

  4. Hepatitis C Virus RNA Replication Depends on Specific Cis- and Trans-Acting Activities of Viral Nonstructural Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kazakov, Teymur; Yang, Feng; Ramanathan, Harish N.; Kohlway, Andrew; Diamond, Michael S.; Lindenbach, Brett D.

    2015-01-01

    Many positive-strand RNA viruses encode genes that can function in trans, whereas other genes are required in cis for genome replication. The mechanisms underlying trans- and cis-preferences are not fully understood. Here, we evaluate this concept for hepatitis C virus (HCV), an important cause of chronic liver disease and member of the Flaviviridae family. HCV encodes five nonstructural (NS) genes that are required for RNA replication. To date, only two of these genes, NS4B and NS5A, have been trans-complemented, leading to suggestions that other replicase genes work only in cis. We describe a new quantitative system to measure the cis- and trans-requirements for HCV NS gene function in RNA replication and identify several lethal mutations in the NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, and NS5B genes that can be complemented in trans, alone or in combination, by expressing the NS3–5B polyprotein from a synthetic mRNA. Although NS5B RNA binding and polymerase activities can be supplied in trans, NS5B protein expression was required in cis, indicating that NS5B has a cis-acting role in replicase assembly distinct from its known enzymatic activity. Furthermore, the RNA binding and NTPase activities of the NS3 helicase domain were required in cis, suggesting that these activities play an essential role in RNA template selection. A comprehensive complementation group analysis revealed functional linkages between NS3-4A and NS4B and between NS5B and the upstream NS3–5A genes. Finally, NS5B polymerase activity segregated with a daclatasvir-sensitive NS5A activity, which could explain the synergy of this antiviral compound with nucleoside analogs in patients. Together, these studies define several new aspects of HCV replicase structure-function, help to explain the potency of HCV-specific combination therapies, and provide an experimental framework for the study of cis- and trans-acting activities in positive-strand RNA virus replication more generally. PMID:25875808

  5. Dual Role of Novel Ingenol Derivatives from Euphorbia tirucalli in HIV Replication: Inhibition of De Novo Infection and Activation of Viral LTR

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Celina M.; Price, Sarah L.; Shirk, Erin N.; Cunha, Rodrigo D.; Pianowski, Luiz F.; Clements, Janice E.; Tanuri, Amilcar; Gama, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection is not cleared by antiretroviral drugs due to the presence of latently infected cells that are not eliminated with current therapies and persist in the blood and organs of infected patients. New compounds to activate these latent reservoirs have been evaluated so that, along with HAART, they can be used to activate latent virus and eliminate the latently infected cells resulting in eradication of viral infection. Here we describe three novel diterpenes isolated from the sap of Euphorbia tirucalli, a tropical shrub. These molecules, identified as ingenols, were modified at carbon 3 and termed ingenol synthetic derivatives (ISD). They activated the HIV-LTR in reporter cell lines and human PBMCs with latent virus in concentrations as low as 10 nM. ISDs were also able to inhibit the replication of HIV-1 subtype B and C in MT-4 cells and human PBMCs at concentrations of EC50 0.02 and 0.09 µM respectively, which are comparable to the EC50 of some antiretroviral currently used in AIDS treatment. Control of viral replication may be caused by downregulation of surface CD4, CCR5 and CXCR4 observed after ISD treatment in vitro. These compounds appear to be less cytotoxic than other diterpenes such as PMA and prostratin, with effective dose versus toxic dose TI>400. Although the mechanisms of action of the three ISDs are primarily attributed to the PKC pathway, downregulation of surface receptors and stimulation of the viral LTR might be differentially modulated by different PKC isoforms. PMID:24827152

  6. Activity of a novel quinoxaline derivative against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase and viral replication.

    PubMed Central

    Kleim, J P; Bender, R; Billhardt, U M; Meichsner, C; Riess, G; Rösner, M; Winkler, I; Paessens, A

    1993-01-01

    S-2720 [6-chloro-3,3-dimethyl-4-(isopropenyloxycarbonyl)-3,4- dihydroquinoxalin-2(1H)-thione], a quinoxaline derivative, was found to be a very potent inhibitor of both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) activity and HIV-1 replication in tissue culture. Like other nonnucleoside RT inhibitors, S-2720 does not affect the HIV-2 RT. A S-2720-resistant virus was selected and shown to possess a mutation within the RT-coding region that has not previously been described. Notably, this mutation gives rise to a dramatic decrease in enzyme activity. S-2720, therefore, belongs to a new class of RT inhibitors that bind differently to the RT than other known nonnucleoside RT inhibitors. As no toxic effects were observed with S-2720 in mice, these quinoxaline derivatives deserve further evaluation to prove their potency as possible therapeutic agents for HIV-1 infection. PMID:7692812

  7. Lymphoid cells in the spleens of woodchuck hepatitis virus-infected woodchucks are a site of active viral replication.

    PubMed Central

    Korba, B E; Wells, F; Tennant, B C; Cote, P J; Gerin, J L

    1987-01-01

    Lymphoid cells were purified from the spleens of 15 woodchucks and examined for the presence of woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV). Lymphoid cells from the spleens of eight of eight chronically infected animals contained high levels of WHV RNA and DNA. A 100-fold lower level of WHV DNA was found in the spleen from one of five animals that had recovered from acute WHV infections 2 years before this analysis. No WHV nucleic acids were observed in either of two uninfected animals. WHV DNA patterns in the lymphoid cells from the spleens of the chronically infected animals, which included the presence of single-stranded DNA and RNA-DNA hybrid molecules, were identical to those observed in WHV-infected liver. WHV DNA in these cells was present in intact, 27-nm core particles which also contained the endogenous DNA polymerase activity. These results indicate that the spleen is a site of active WHV DNA replication and is most likely a major source of WHV-infected cells in the circulating lymphoid cell population. Images PMID:3573141

  8. HSV-1 ICP0: paving the way for viral replication.

    PubMed

    Smith, Miles C; Boutell, Chris; Davido, David J

    2011-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has two distinct phases of its viral life cycle: lytic and latent. One viral immediate-early protein that is responsible for determining the balance between productive lytic replication and reactivation from latency is infected cell protein 0 (ICP0). ICP0 is a 775-amino acid really interesting new gene (RING)-finger-containing protein that possesses E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, which is required for ICP0 to activate HSV-1 gene expression, disrupt nuclear domain (ND) 10 structures, mediate the degradation of cellular proteins, and evade the host cell's intrinsic and innate antiviral defenses. This article examines our current understanding of ICP0's transactivating, E3 ubiquitin ligase, and antihost defense activities and their inter-relationships to one another. Lastly, we will discuss how these properties of ICP0 may be utilized as possible targets for HSV-1 antiviral therapies. PMID:21765858

  9. Mathematical model of the Tat-Rev regulation of HIV-1 replication in an activated cell predicts the existence of oscillatory dynamics in the synthesis of viral components

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) makes possible the realization of regulatory strategies that can lead to complex dynamical behavior of the system. We analyze the strategy which is based on two feedback mechanisms, one mediating a positive regulation of the virus replication by Tat protein via the antitermination of the genomic RNAs transcription on TAR (transactivation responsive) element of the proviral DNA and the second mechanism providing a negative regulation of the splicing of the full-length (9 kb) RNAs and incompletely spliced (4 kb) RNAs via their transport from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Although the existence of these two regulatory feedback loops has been considered in other mathematical models, none of them examined the conditions for the emergence of complex oscillatory patterns in the intracellular dynamics of viral components. Results We developed a mechanistic mathematical model for the Tat-Rev mediated regulation of HIV-1 replication, which considers the activation of proviral DNA transcription, the Tat-specific antitermination of transcription on TAR-element, resulting in the synthesis of the full-length 9 kb RNA, the splicing of the 9 kb RNA down to the 4 kb RNA and the 4 kb RNA to 2 kb RNA, the transport of 2 kb mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by the intracellular mechanisms, the multiple binding of the Rev protein to RRE (Rev Response Element) sites on 9 kb and 4 kb RNA resulting in their export to the cytoplasm and the synthesis of Tat and Rev proteins in the cytoplasm followed by their transport into the nucleus. The degradation of all viral proteins and RNAs both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus is described. The model parameters values were derived from the published literature data. The model was used to examine the dynamics of the synthesis of the viral proteins Tat and Rev, the mRNAs under the intracellular conditions specific for activated HIV-1 infected macrophages. In addition, we

  10. HSV-1 Remodels Host Telomeres To Facilitate Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhong; Kim, Eui Tae; Vladimirova, Olga; Dheekollu, Jayaraju; Wang, Zhuo; Newhart, Alyshia; Liu, Dongmei; Myers, Jaclyn L.; Hensley, Scott E.; Moffat, Jennifer; Janicki, Susan M.; Fraser, Nigel W.; Knipe, David M.; Weitzman, Matthew D.; Lieberman, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Telomeres protect the ends of cellular chromosomes. We show here that infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) results in chromosomal structural aberrations at telomeres and the accumulation of telomere dysfunction-induced DNA damage foci (TIFs). At the molecular level, HSV-1 induces transcription of telomere repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), followed by the proteolytic degradation of the telomere protein TPP1, and loss of the telomere repeat DNA signal. The HSV-1 encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase ICP0 is required for TERRA transcription and facilitates TPP1 degradation. shRNA depletion of TPP1 increases viral replication, arguing that TPP1inhibits viral replication. Viral replication protein ICP8 forms foci that coincide with telomeric proteins and ICP8 null virus failed to degrade telomere DNA signal. These findings suggest that HSV-1 reorganizes telomeres to form ICP8-associated pre-replication foci and promotes viral genomic replication. PMID:25497088

  11. Immunoactivation induced by chronic viral infection inhibits viral replication and drives immunosuppression through sustained IFN-I responses.

    PubMed

    Honke, Nadine; Shaabani, Namir; Merches, Katja; Gassa, Asmae; Kraft, Anke; Ehrhardt, Katrin; Häussinger, Dieter; Löhning, Max; Dittmer, Ulf; Hengel, Hartmut; Recher, Mike; Lang, Philipp A; Lang, Karl S

    2016-02-01

    Acute or chronic viral infections can lead to generalized immunosuppression. Several mechanisms, such as immunopathology of CD8(+) T cells, inhibitory receptors, or regulatory T (Treg) cells, contribute to immune dysfunction. Moreover, patients with chronic viral infections usually do not respond to vaccination, a finding that has not been previously explained. Recently, we reported that CD169(+) macrophages enforce viral replication, which is essential for guaranteeing antigen synthesis and efficient adaptive immune responses. In the present study, we used a chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection mouse model to determine whether this mechanism is affected by chronic viral infection, which may impair the activation of adaptive immunity. We found that enforced viral replication of a superinfecting virus is completely blunted in chronically infected mice. This absence of enforced viral replication in CD169(+) macrophages is not explained by CD8(+) T-cell-mediated immunopathology but rather by prolonged IFN-I responses. Consequently, the absence of viral replication impairs both antigen production and the adaptive immune response against the superinfecting virus. These findings indicate that chronic infection leads to sustained IFN-I action, which is responsible for the absence of an antiviral immune response against a secondary viral infection. PMID:26507703

  12. Uracil DNA Glycosylase BKRF3 Contributes to Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Replication through Physical Interactions with Proteins in Viral DNA Replication Complex

    PubMed Central

    Su, Mei-Tzu; Liu, I-Hua; Wu, Chia-Wei; Chang, Shu-Ming; Tsai, Ching-Hwa; Yang, Pei-Wen; Chuang, Yu-Chia; Lee, Chung-Pei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BKRF3 shares sequence homology with members of the uracil-N-glycosylase (UNG) protein family and has DNA glycosylase activity. Here, we explored how BKRF3 participates in the DNA replication complex and contributes to viral DNA replication. Exogenously expressed Flag-BKRF3 was distributed mostly in the cytoplasm, whereas BKRF3 was translocated into the nucleus and colocalized with the EBV DNA polymerase BALF5 in the replication compartment during EBV lytic replication. The expression level of BKRF3 increased gradually during viral replication, coupled with a decrease of cellular UNG2, suggesting BKRF3 enzyme activity compensates for UNG2 and ensures the fidelity of viral DNA replication. In immunoprecipitation-Western blotting, BKRF3 was coimmunoprecipitated with BALF5, the polymerase processivity factor BMRF1, and the immediate-early transactivator Rta. Coexpression of BMRF1 appeared to facilitate the nuclear targeting of BKRF3 in immunofluorescence staining. Residues 164 to 255 of BKRF3 were required for interaction with Rta and BALF5, whereas residues 81 to 166 of BKRF3 were critical for BMRF1 interaction in glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown experiments. Viral DNA replication was defective in cells harboring BKRF3 knockout EBV bacmids. In complementation assays, the catalytic mutant BKRF3(Q90L,D91N) restored viral DNA replication, whereas the leucine loop mutant BKRF3(H213L) only partially rescued viral DNA replication, coupled with a reduced ability to interact with the viral DNA polymerase and Rta. Our data suggest that BKRF3 plays a critical role in viral DNA synthesis predominantly through its interactions with viral proteins in the DNA replication compartment, while its enzymatic activity may be supplementary for uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) function during virus replication. IMPORTANCE Catalytic activities of both cellular UDG UNG2 and viral UDGs contribute to herpesviral DNA replication. To ensure that the enzyme

  13. Aquareovirus NS80 Initiates Efficient Viral Replication by Retaining Core Proteins within Replication-Associated Viral Inclusion Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Liming; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Hong; Yan, Shicui; Chen, Qingxiu; Zhang, Fuxian; Fang, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Viral inclusion bodies (VIBs) are specific intracellular compartments for reoviruses replication and assembly. Aquareovirus nonstructural protein NS80 has been identified to be the major constituent for forming globular VIBs in our previous study. In this study, we investigated the role of NS80 in viral structural proteins expression and viral replication. Immunofluorescence assays showed that NS80 could retain five core proteins or inner-capsid proteins (VP1-VP4 and VP6), but not outer-capsid proteins (VP5 and VP7), within VIBs in co-transfected or infected cells. Further co-immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed that NS80 could interact with each core protein respectively. In addition, we found that newly synthesized viral RNAs co-localized with VIBs. Furthermore, time-course analysis of viral structural proteins expression showed that the expression of NS80 was detected first, followed by the detection of inner shell protein VP3, and then of other inner-capsid proteins, suggesting that VIBs were essential for the formation of viral core frame or progeny virion. Moreover, knockdown of NS80 by shRNA not only inhibited the expression of aquareovirus structural proteins, but also inhibited viral infection. These results indicated that NS80-based VIBs were formed at earlier stage of infection, and NS80 was able to coordinate the expression of viral structural proteins and viral replication. PMID:25938226

  14. Simian virus 40 T antigen can transcriptionally activate and mediate viral DNA replication in cells which lack the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Trifillis, P; Picardi, J; Alwine, J C

    1990-01-01

    Simian virus 40 T antigen is a multifunctional protein which has recently been shown to form a complex with the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product (Rb protein) (J.A. DeCaprio, J.W. Ludlow, J. Figge, J.-Y. Shaw, C.-M. Huang, W.-H. Lee, E. Marsilio, E. Paucha, and D.M. Livingston, Cell 54:275-283, 1988; P. Whyte, K.J. Buchkovich, J.M. Horowitz, S.H. Friend, M. Raybuck, R.A. Weinberg, and E. Harlow, Nature (London) 334:124-129, 1988). This interaction may facilitate some of the functions of T antigen. The ability of simian virus 40 T antigen to mediate transcriptional activation and viral DNA replication was tested in human osteosarcoma cell lines U-2OS and Saos-2, which are Rb positive and Rb negative, respectively. Both functions of T antigen were efficient in both cell lines. Hence, these functions can occur in the absence of Rb protein. Images PMID:2154611

  15. Balancing viral replication in spleen and liver determines the outcome of systemic virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lang, K S; Lang, P A

    2015-12-01

    The innate immune system limits virus replication during systemic infection by producing type I interferons (IFN-I) but still has to allow viral replication to achieve maximal innate and adaptive immune activation. Some spleen and lymph node resident antigen presenting cells (APCs) show limited response to IFN-I due to expression of the endogenous inhibitor of IFN-I signaling, Usp18. Therefore, virus in this spleen niche replicates despite high levels of IFN-I. This enforced viral replication leads to an exorbitant propagation of viral antigens and viral RNA. Viral antigen leads to massive activation of the adaptive immune system, while viral RNA to activated innate immunity. In contrast to these APCs, liver resident Kupffer cells, take up most of the systemic virus and suppress its replication in response to IFN-I. In addition, virus specific CD8 + T cells which are primed in the spleen migrate to the liver and kill virus infected cells. In this review we discuss the different mechanisms, which influence immune activation in spleen and antiviral mechanisms in the liver and how they determine the outcome of virus infection. PMID:26666281

  16. Cyclophilins as Modulators of Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Frausto, Stephen D.; Lee, Emily; Tang, Hengli

    2013-01-01

    Cyclophilins are peptidyl‐prolyl cis/trans isomerases important in the proper folding of certain proteins. Mounting evidence supports varied roles of cyclophilins, either positive or negative, in the life cycles of diverse viruses, but the nature and mechanisms of these roles are yet to be defined. The potential for cyclophilins to serve as a drug target for antiviral therapy is evidenced by the success of non-immunosuppressive cyclophilin inhibitors (CPIs), including Alisporivir, in clinical trials targeting hepatitis C virus infection. In addition, as cyclophilins are implicated in the predisposition to, or severity of, various diseases, the ability to specifically and effectively modulate their function will prove increasingly useful for disease intervention. In this review, we will summarize the evidence of cyclophilins as key mediators of viral infection and prospective drug targets. PMID:23852270

  17. Arrest of Viral Proliferation by Ectopic Copies of Its Cognate Replication Origin.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Manuel S; Sharan, Chakradhari

    2015-01-01

    The initiation step of DNA replication is the crucial determinant of proliferation in all organisms. This step depends on the specific interaction of DNA sequences present at origins of DNA replication and their cognate activators. We wished to explore the hypothesis that the presence of ectopic origin copies may interfere with proper genome duplication. Bacteriophage λ was used as a model system. To this end, the outcome of an infection of an E. coli strain harboring ectopic copies of the λ origin region was analyzed. By measuring the effect on the host growth, viral production, and electro-microscopic visualization of the resulting λ replicative intermediates, we concluded that the ectopic copies had prevented the normal initiation step of λ DNA replication. These results suggest that DNA decoys encoding viral origins could constitute effective tools to specifically arrest viral proliferation. PMID:26110319

  18. Viral Polymerase-Helicase Complexes Regulate Replication Fidelity To Overcome Intracellular Nucleotide Depletion

    PubMed Central

    Stapleford, Kenneth A.; Rozen-Gagnon, Kathryn; Das, Pratyush Kumar; Saul, Sirle; Poirier, Enzo Z.; Blanc, Hervé; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Merits, Andres

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To date, the majority of work on RNA virus replication fidelity has focused on the viral RNA polymerase, while the potential role of other viral replicase proteins in this process is poorly understood. Previous studies used resistance to broad-spectrum RNA mutagens, such as ribavirin, to identify polymerases with increased fidelity that avoid misincorporation of such base analogues. We identified a novel variant in the alphavirus viral helicase/protease, nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) that operates in concert with the viral polymerase nsP4 to further alter replication complex fidelity, a functional linkage that was conserved among the alphavirus genus. Purified chikungunya virus nsP2 presented delayed helicase activity of the high-fidelity enzyme, and yet purified replication complexes manifested stronger RNA polymerization kinetics. Because mutagenic nucleoside analogs such as ribavirin also affect intracellular nucleotide pools, we addressed the link between nucleotide depletion and replication fidelity by using purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis inhibitors. High-fidelity viruses were more resistant to these conditions, and viral growth could be rescued by the addition of exogenous nucleosides, suggesting that mutagenesis by base analogues requires nucleotide pool depletion. This study describes a novel function for nsP2, highlighting the role of other components of the replication complex in regulating viral replication fidelity, and suggests that viruses can alter their replication complex fidelity to overcome intracellular nucleotide-depleting conditions. IMPORTANCE Previous studies using the RNA mutagen ribavirin to select for drug-resistant variants have highlighted the essential role of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in regulating replication fidelity. However, the role of other viral replicase components in replication fidelity has not been studied in detail. We identified here an RNA mutagen-resistant variant of the nsP2 helicase

  19. Viral Replication Protein Inhibits Cellular Cofilin Actin Depolymerization Factor to Regulate the Actin Network and Promote Viral Replicase Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Kovalev, Nikolay; de Castro Martín, Isabel Fernández; Barajas, Daniel; Risco, Cristina; Nagy, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses exploit host cells by co-opting host factors and lipids and escaping host antiviral responses. Previous genome-wide screens with Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) in the model host yeast have identified 18 cellular genes that are part of the actin network. In this paper, we show that the p33 viral replication factor interacts with the cellular cofilin (Cof1p), which is an actin depolymerization factor. Using temperature-sensitive (ts) Cof1p or actin (Act1p) mutants at a semi-permissive temperature, we find an increased level of TBSV RNA accumulation in yeast cells and elevated in vitro activity of the tombusvirus replicase. We show that the large p33 containing replication organelle-like structures are located in the close vicinity of actin patches in yeast cells or around actin cable hubs in infected plant cells. Therefore, the actin filaments could be involved in VRC assembly and the formation of large viral replication compartments containing many individual VRCs. Moreover, we show that the actin network affects the recruitment of viral and cellular components, including oxysterol binding proteins and VAP proteins to form membrane contact sites for efficient transfer of sterols to the sites of replication. Altogether, the emerging picture is that TBSV, via direct interaction between the p33 replication protein and Cof1p, controls cofilin activities to obstruct the dynamic actin network that leads to efficient subversion of cellular factors for pro-viral functions. In summary, the discovery that TBSV interacts with cellular cofilin and blocks the severing of existing filaments and the formation of new actin filaments in infected cells opens a new window to unravel the way by which viruses could subvert/co-opt cellular proteins and lipids. By regulating the functions of cofilin and the actin network, which are central nodes in cellular pathways, viruses could gain supremacy in subversion of cellular factors for pro-viral functions. PMID:26863541

  20. SIV antigen immunization induces transient antigen-specific T cell responses and selectively activates viral replication in draining lymph nodes in retroviral suppressed rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV infection causes a qualitative and quantitative loss of CD4+ T cell immunity. The institution of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) restores CD4+ T cell responses to many pathogens, but HIV-specific responses remain deficient. Similarly, therapeutic immunization with HIV antigens of chronically infected, ART treated subjects results in poor induction of HIV-specific CD4 responses. In this study, we used a macaque model of ART treatment during chronic infection to study the virologic consequences of SIV antigen stimulation in lymph nodes early after immunization. Rhesus CMV (RhCMV) seropositive, Mamu A*01 positive rhesus macaques were chronically infected with SIVmac251 and treated with ART. The immune and viral responses to SIV gag and RhCMV pp65 antigen immunization in draining lymph nodes and peripheral blood were analyzed. Animals were immunized on contralateral sides with SIV gag and RhCMV pp65 encoding plasmids, which allowed lymph nodes draining each antigen to be obtained at the same time from the same animal for direct comparison. Results We observed that both SIV and RhCMV immunizations stimulated transient antigen-specific T cell responses in draining lymph nodes. The RhCMV-specific responses were potent and sustained (50 days post-immunization) in the periphery, while the SIV-specific responses were transient and extinguished quickly. The SIV antigen stimulation selectively induced transient SIV replication in draining lymph nodes. Conclusions The data are consistent with a model whereby viral replication in response to SIV antigen stimulation limits the generation of SIV antigen-specific responses and suggests a potential mechanism for the early loss and poor HIV-specific CD4+ T cell response observed in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:21752277

  1. Virus-specific antibodies allow viral replication in the marginal zone, thereby promoting CD8(+) T-cell priming and viral control.

    PubMed

    Duhan, Vikas; Khairnar, Vishal; Friedrich, Sarah-Kim; Zhou, Fan; Gassa, Asmae; Honke, Nadine; Shaabani, Namir; Gailus, Nicole; Botezatu, Lacramioara; Khandanpour, Cyrus; Dittmer, Ulf; Häussinger, Dieter; Recher, Mike; Hardt, Cornelia; Lang, Philipp A; Lang, Karl S

    2016-01-01

    Clinically used human vaccination aims to induce specific antibodies that can guarantee long-term protection against a pathogen. The reasons that other immune components often fail to induce protective immunity are still debated. Recently we found that enforced viral replication in secondary lymphoid organs is essential for immune activation. In this study we used the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) to determine whether enforced virus replication occurs in the presence of virus-specific antibodies or virus-specific CD8(+) T cells. We found that after systemic recall infection with LCMV-WE the presence of virus-specific antibodies allowed intracellular replication of virus in the marginal zone of spleen. In contrast, specific antibodies limited viral replication in liver, lung, and kidney. Upon recall infection with the persistent virus strain LCMV-Docile, viral replication in spleen was essential for the priming of CD8(+) T cells and for viral control. In contrast to specific antibodies, memory CD8(+) T cells inhibited viral replication in marginal zone but failed to protect mice from persistent viral infection. We conclude that virus-specific antibodies limit viral infection in peripheral organs but still allow replication of LCMV in the marginal zone, a mechanism that allows immune boosting during recall infection and thereby guarantees control of persistent virus. PMID:26805453

  2. Virus-specific antibodies allow viral replication in the marginal zone, thereby promoting CD8+ T-cell priming and viral control

    PubMed Central

    Duhan, Vikas; Khairnar, Vishal; Friedrich, Sarah-Kim; Zhou, Fan; Gassa, Asmae; Honke, Nadine; Shaabani, Namir; Gailus, Nicole; Botezatu, Lacramioara; Khandanpour, Cyrus; Dittmer, Ulf; Häussinger, Dieter; Recher, Mike; Hardt, Cornelia; Lang, Philipp A.; Lang, Karl S.

    2016-01-01

    Clinically used human vaccination aims to induce specific antibodies that can guarantee long-term protection against a pathogen. The reasons that other immune components often fail to induce protective immunity are still debated. Recently we found that enforced viral replication in secondary lymphoid organs is essential for immune activation. In this study we used the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) to determine whether enforced virus replication occurs in the presence of virus-specific antibodies or virus-specific CD8+ T cells. We found that after systemic recall infection with LCMV-WE the presence of virus-specific antibodies allowed intracellular replication of virus in the marginal zone of spleen. In contrast, specific antibodies limited viral replication in liver, lung, and kidney. Upon recall infection with the persistent virus strain LCMV-Docile, viral replication in spleen was essential for the priming of CD8+ T cells and for viral control. In contrast to specific antibodies, memory CD8+ T cells inhibited viral replication in marginal zone but failed to protect mice from persistent viral infection. We conclude that virus-specific antibodies limit viral infection in peripheral organs but still allow replication of LCMV in the marginal zone, a mechanism that allows immune boosting during recall infection and thereby guarantees control of persistent virus. PMID:26805453

  3. Going viral: a review of replication-selective oncolytic adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Christopher; Oronsky, Bryan; Scicinski, Jan; Fanger, Gary R.; Stirn, Meaghan; Oronsky, Arnold; Reid, Tony R.

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses have had a tumultuous course, from the initial anecdotal reports of patients having antineoplastic effects after natural viral infections a century ago to the development of current cutting-edge therapies in clinical trials. Adenoviruses have long been the workhorse of virotherapy, and we review both the scientific and the not-so-scientific forces that have shaped the development of these therapeutics from wild-type viral pathogens, turning an old foe into a new friend. After a brief review of the mechanics of viral replication and how it has been modified to engineer tumor selectivity, we give particular attention to ONYX-015, the forerunner of virotherapy with extensive clinical testing that pioneered the field. The findings from those as well as other oncolytic trials have shaped how we now view these viruses, which our immune system has evolved to vigorously attack, as promising immunotherapy agents. PMID:26280277

  4. HMGB1 Protein Binds to Influenza Virus Nucleoprotein and Promotes Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Moisy, Dorothée; Avilov, Sergiy V.; Jacob, Yves; Laoide, Brid M.; Ge, Xingyi; Baudin, Florence; Jestin, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Influenza virus has evolved replication strategies that hijack host cell pathways. To uncover interactions between viral macromolecules and host proteins, we applied a phage display strategy. A library of human cDNA expression products displayed on filamentous phages was submitted to affinity selection for influenza viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs). High-mobility-group box (HMGB) proteins were found to bind to the nucleoprotein (NP) component of vRNPs. HMGB1 and HMGB2 bind directly to the purified NP in the absence of viral RNA, and the HMG box A domain is sufficient to bind the NP. We show that HMGB1 associates with the viral NP in the nuclei of infected cells, promotes viral growth, and enhances the activity of the viral polymerase. The presence of a functional HMGB1 DNA-binding site is required to enhance influenza virus replication. Glycyrrhizin, which reduces HMGB1 binding to DNA, inhibits influenza virus polymerase activity. Our data show that the HMGB1 protein can play a significant role in intranuclear replication of influenza viruses, thus extending previous findings on the bornavirus and on a number of DNA viruses. PMID:22696656

  5. The Viral E8^E2C Repressor Limits Productive Replication of Human Papillomavirus 16

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Elke; Dreer, Marcel; Fertey, Jasmin; Iftner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Productive replication of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) occurs only in differentiated keratinocyte cells. In addition to the viral E2 activator protein, HPV16 and related HPV types express transcripts coding for an E8^E2C fusion protein, which limits genome replication in undifferentiated keratinocytes. To address E8^E2C's role in productive replication of HPV16, stable keratinocyte cell lines containing wild-type (wt), E8^E2C knockout (E8−), or E8 KWK mutant (mt) genomes, in which conserved E8 residues were inactivated, were established. Copy numbers of E8− and E8 KWK mt genomes and amounts of early and late viral transcripts were greatly increased compared to those for the wt in undifferentiated keratinocytes, suggesting that HPV16 E8^E2C activities are highly dependent upon the E8 part. Upon differentiation in organotypic cultures, E8 mt genomes displayed higher early viral transcript levels, but no changes in cellular differentiation or virus-induced cellular DNA replication in suprabasal cells were observed. E8 mt genomes were amplified to higher copy numbers and showed increased L1 transcripts compared to wt genomes. Furthermore, the number of cells expressing the viral late protein E4 or L1 or amplifying viral genomes was greatly increased in E8 mt cell lines. In wild-type cells, E8^E2C transcript levels did not decrease by differentiation. Our data indicate that the E8^E2C repressor limits viral transcription and replication throughout the complete life cycle of HPV16. PMID:24198405

  6. Histone deacetylase 6 inhibition enhances oncolytic viral replication in glioma

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Kaufmann, Johanna K.; Wang, Pin-Yi; Nguyen, Tran; Speranza, Maria-Carmela; Kasai, Kazue; Okemoto, Kazuo; Otsuki, Akihiro; Nakano, Ichiro; Fernandez, Soledad; Goins, William F.; Grandi, Paola; Glorioso, Joseph C.; Lawler, Sean; Cripe, Timothy P.; Chiocca, E. Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic viral (OV) therapy, which uses genetically engineered tumor-targeting viruses, is being increasingly used in cancer clinical trials due to the direct cytolytic effects of this treatment that appear to provoke a robust immune response against the tumor. As OVs enter tumor cells, intrinsic host defenses have the potential to hinder viral replication and spread within the tumor mass. In this report, we show that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) in tumor cells appears to alter the trafficking of post-entry OVs from the nucleus toward lysosomes. In glioma cell lines and glioma-stem–like cells, HDAC6 inhibition (HDAC6i) by either pharmacologic or genetic means substantially increased replication of oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (oHSV). Moreover, HDAC6i increased shuttling of post-entry oHSV to the nucleus. In addition, electron microscopic analysis revealed that post-entry oHSVs are preferentially taken up into glioma cells through the endosomal pathway rather than via fusion at the cell surface. Together, these findings illustrate a mechanism of glioma cell defense against an incoming infection by oHSV and identify possible approaches to enhance oHSV replication and subsequent lysis of tumor cells. PMID:26524593

  7. Histone deacetylase 6 inhibition enhances oncolytic viral replication in glioma.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Kaufmann, Johanna K; Wang, Pin-Yi; Nguyen, Tran; Speranza, Maria-Carmela; Kasai, Kazue; Okemoto, Kazuo; Otsuki, Akihiro; Nakano, Ichiro; Fernandez, Soledad; Goins, William F; Grandi, Paola; Glorioso, Joseph C; Lawler, Sean; Cripe, Timothy P; Chiocca, E Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Oncolytic viral (OV) therapy, which uses genetically engineered tumor-targeting viruses, is being increasingly used in cancer clinical trials due to the direct cytolytic effects of this treatment that appear to provoke a robust immune response against the tumor. As OVs enter tumor cells, intrinsic host defenses have the potential to hinder viral replication and spread within the tumor mass. In this report, we show that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) in tumor cells appears to alter the trafficking of post-entry OVs from the nucleus toward lysosomes. In glioma cell lines and glioma-stem-like cells, HDAC6 inhibition (HDAC6i) by either pharmacologic or genetic means substantially increased replication of oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (oHSV). Moreover, HDAC6i increased shuttling of post-entry oHSV to the nucleus. In addition, electron microscopic analysis revealed that post-entry oHSVs are preferentially taken up into glioma cells through the endosomal pathway rather than via fusion at the cell surface. Together, these findings illustrate a mechanism of glioma cell defense against an incoming infection by oHSV and identify possible approaches to enhance oHSV replication and subsequent lysis of tumor cells. PMID:26524593

  8. Inactivation of the Human Cytomegalovirus US20 Gene Hampers Productive Viral Replication in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cavaletto, Noemi; Luganini, Anna

    2015-01-01

    a key target for viral dissemination and replication in the host, and to contribute to both viral persistence and associated inflammation and vascular diseases. Replication in endothelial cells depends on the activities of a set of viral proteins that regulate different stages of the HCMV replication cycle in an endothelial cell type-specific manner and thereby act as determinants of viral tropism. Here, we report the requirement of a HCMV protein as a postentry tropism factor in endothelial cells. The identification and characterization of HCMV endotheliotropism-regulating proteins will advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of HCMV-related pathogenesis and help lead to the design of new antiviral strategies able to exploit these functions. PMID:26311874

  9. Timed interactions between viral and cellular replication factors during the initiation of SV40 in vitro DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Poonam; Nasheuer, Heinz-Peter; Hartmann, Hella; Grosse, Frank; Fanning, Ellen; Weisshart, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    The initiation of SV40 (simian virus 40) DNA replication requires the co-operative interactions between the viral Tag (large T-antigen), RPA (replication protein A) and Pol (DNA polymerase α-primase) on the template DNA. Binding interfaces mapped on these enzymes and expressed as peptides competed with the mutual interactions of the native proteins. Prevention of the genuine interactions was accomplished only prior to the primer synthesis step and blocked the assembly of a productive initiation complex. Once the complex was engaged in the synthesis of an RNA primer and its extension, the interfering effects of the peptides ceased, suggesting a stable association of the replication factors during the initiation phase. Specific antibodies were still able to disrupt preformed interactions and inhibited primer synthesis and extension activities, underlining the crucial role of specific protein–protein contacts during the entire initiation process. PMID:17666013

  10. RNase P Ribozymes Inhibit the Replication of Human Cytomegalovirus by Targeting Essential Viral Capsid Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhu; Reeves, Michael; Ye, Jun; Trang, Phong; Zhu, Li; Sheng, Jingxue; Wang, Yu; Zen, Ke; Wu, Jianguo; Liu, Fenyong

    2015-01-01

    An engineered RNase P-based ribozyme variant, which was generated using the in vitro selection procedure, was used to target the overlapping mRNA region of two proteins essential for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication: capsid assembly protein (AP) and protease (PR). In vitro studies showed that the generated variant, V718-A, cleaved the target AP mRNA sequence efficiently and its activity was about 60-fold higher than that of wild type ribozyme M1-A. Furthermore, we observed a reduction of 98%–99% in AP/PR expression and an inhibition of 50,000 fold in viral growth in cells with V718-A, while a 75% reduction in AP/PR expression and a 500-fold inhibition in viral growth was found in cells with M1-A. Examination of the antiviral effects of the generated ribozyme on the HCMV replication cycle suggested that viral DNA encapsidation was inhibited and as a consequence, viral capsid assembly was blocked when the expression of AP and PR was inhibited by the ribozyme. Thus, our study indicates that the generated ribozyme variant is highly effective in inhibiting HCMV gene expression and blocking viral replication, and suggests that engineered RNase P ribozyme can be potentially developed as a promising gene-targeting agent for anti-HCMV therapy. PMID:26114473

  11. Drug targeting of HIV-1 RNA.DNA hybrid structures: thermodynamics of recognition and impact on reverse transcriptase-mediated ribonuclease H activity and viral replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Tsai-Kun; Barbieri, Christopher M; Lin, Hsin-Chin; Rabson, Arnold B; Yang, Gengcheng; Fan, Yupeng; Gaffney, Barbara L; Jones, Roger A; Pilch, Daniel S

    2004-08-01

    RNA degradation via the ribonuclease H (RNase H) activity of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) is a critical component of the reverse transcription process. In this connection, mutations of RT that inactivate RNase H activity result in noninfectious virus particles. Thus, interfering with the RNase H activity of RT represents a potential vehicle for the inhibition of HIV-1 replication. Here, we demonstrate an approach for inhibiting the RNase H activity of HIV-1 RT by targeting its RNA.DNA hybrid substrates. Specifically, we show that the binding of the 4,5-disubstituted 2-deoxystreptamine aminoglycosides, neomycin, paromomycin, and ribostamycin, to two different chimeric RNA-DNA duplexes, which mimic two distinct intermediates in the reverse transcription process, inhibits specific RT-mediated RNase H cleavage, with this inhibition being competitive in nature. UV melting and isothermal titration calorimetry studies reveal a correlation between the relative binding affinities of the three drugs for each of the chimeric RNA-DNA host duplexes and the relative extents to which the drugs inhibit RT-mediated RNase H cleavage of the duplexes. Significantly, this correlation also extends to the relative efficacies with which the drugs inhibit HIV-1 replication. In the aggregate, our results highlight a potential strategy for AIDS chemotherapy that should not be compromised by the unusual genetic diversity of HIV-1. PMID:15274628

  12. Transcriptional profiling reveals molecular signatures associated with HIV permissiveness in Th1Th17 cells and identifies Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma as an intrinsic negative regulator of viral replication

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We previously demonstrated that primary Th1Th17 cells are highly permissive to HIV-1, whereas Th1 cells are relatively resistant. Molecular mechanisms underlying these differences remain unknown. Results Exposure to replication competent and single-round VSV-G pseudotyped HIV strains provide evidence that superior HIV replication in Th1Th17 vs. Th1 cells was regulated by mechanisms located at entry and post-entry levels. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling identified transcripts upregulated (n = 264) and downregulated (n = 235) in Th1Th17 vs. Th1 cells (p-value < 0.05; fold change cut-off 1.3). Gene Set Enrichment Analysis revealed pathways enriched in Th1Th17 (nuclear receptors, trafficking, p38/MAPK, NF-κB, p53/Ras, IL-23) vs. Th1 cells (proteasome, interferon α/β). Differentially expressed genes were classified into biological categories using Gene Ontology. Th1Th17 cells expressed typical Th17 markers (IL-17A/F, IL-22, CCL20, RORC, IL-26, IL-23R, CCR6) and transcripts functionally linked to regulating cell trafficking (CEACAM1, MCAM), activation (CD28, CD40LG, TNFSF13B, TNFSF25, PTPN13, MAP3K4, LTB, CTSH), transcription (PPARγ, RUNX1, ATF5, ARNTL), apoptosis (FASLG), and HIV infection (CXCR6, FURIN). Differential expression of CXCR6, PPARγ, ARNTL, PTPN13, MAP3K4, CTSH, SERPINB6, PTK2, and ISG20 was validated by RT-PCR, flow cytometry and/or confocal microscopy. The nuclear receptor PPARγ was preferentially expressed by Th1Th17 cells. PPARγ RNA interference significantly increased HIV replication at levels post-entry and prior HIV-DNA integration. Finally, the activation of PPARγ pathway via the agonist Rosiglitazone induced the nuclear translocation of PPARγ and a robust inhibition of viral replication. Conclusions Thus, transcriptional profiling in Th1Th17 vs. Th1 cells demonstrated that HIV permissiveness is associated with a superior state of cellular activation and limited antiviral properties and identified PPARγ as an

  13. The N-Terminal of Aquareovirus NS80 Is Required for Interacting with Viral Proteins and Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Hong; Chen, Qingxiu; Zhang, Fuxian; Fang, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Reovirus replication and assembly occurs within viral inclusion bodies that formed in specific intracellular compartments of cytoplasm in infected cells. Previous study indicated that aquareovirus NS80 is able to form inclusion bodies, and also can retain viral proteins within its inclusions. To better understand how NS80 performed in viral replication and assembly, the functional regions of NS80 associated with other viral proteins in aquareovirus replication were investigated in this study. Deletion mutational analysis and rotavirus NSP5-based protein association platform were used to detect association regions. Immunofluorescence images indicated that different N-terminal regions of NS80 could associate with viral proteins VP1, VP4, VP6 and NS38. Further co-immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed the interaction between VP1, VP4, VP6 or NS38 with different regions covering the N-terminal amino acid (aa, 1–471) of NS80, respectively. Moreover, removal of NS80 N-terminal sequences required for interaction with proteins VP1, VP4, VP6 or NS38 not only prevented the capacity of NS80 to support viral replication in NS80 shRNA-based replication complementation assays, but also inhibited the expression of aquareovirus proteins, suggesting that N-terminal regions of NS80 are necessary for viral replication. These results provided a foundational basis for further understanding the role of NS80 in viral replication and assembly during aquareovirus infection. PMID:26871941

  14. Pathogenicity of Pepper mild mottle virus Is Controlled by the RNA Silencing Suppression Activity of Its Replication Protein but Not the Viral Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Shinya; Kubota, Kenji; Kanda, Ayami; Ohki, Takehiro; Meshi, Tetsuo

    2007-04-01

    ABSTRACT Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) infects pepper plants, causing mosaic symptoms on the upper developing leaves. We investigated the relationship between a virus pathogenicity determinant domain and the appearance of mosaic symptoms. Genetically modified PMMoV mutants were constructed, which had a base substitution in the 130K replication protein gene causing an amino acid change or a truncation of the 3' terminal pseudoknot structure. Only one substitution mutant (at amino acid residue 349) failed to cause symptoms, although its accumulation was relatively high. Conversely, the pseudoknot mutants showed the lower accumulation, but they still caused mosaic symptoms as severe as the wild-type virus. Therefore, the level of virus accumulation in a plant does not necessarily correlate with the development of mosaic symptoms. The activity to suppress posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) was impaired in the asymptomatic mutant. Consequently, pathogenicity causing mosaic symptoms should be controlled by combat between host PTGS and its suppression by the 130K replication protein rather than virus accumulation. PMID:18943281

  15. Viral hijacking of a replicative helicase loader and its implications for helicase loading control and phage replication.

    PubMed

    Hood, Iris V; Berger, James M

    2016-01-01

    Replisome assembly requires the loading of replicative hexameric helicases onto origins by AAA+ ATPases. How loader activity is appropriately controlled remains unclear. Here, we use structural and biochemical analyses to establish how an antimicrobial phage protein interferes with the function of the Staphylococcus aureus replicative helicase loader, DnaI. The viral protein binds to the loader's AAA+ ATPase domain, allowing binding of the host replicative helicase but impeding loader self-assembly and ATPase activity. Close inspection of the complex highlights an unexpected locus for the binding of an interdomain linker element in DnaI/DnaC-family proteins. We find that the inhibitor protein is genetically coupled to a phage-encoded homolog of the bacterial helicase loader, which we show binds to the host helicase but not to the inhibitor itself. These findings establish a new approach by which viruses can hijack host replication processes and explain how loader activity is internally regulated to prevent aberrant auto-association. PMID:27244442

  16. Viral hijacking of a replicative helicase loader and its implications for helicase loading control and phage replication

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Iris V; Berger, James M

    2016-01-01

    Replisome assembly requires the loading of replicative hexameric helicases onto origins by AAA+ ATPases. How loader activity is appropriately controlled remains unclear. Here, we use structural and biochemical analyses to establish how an antimicrobial phage protein interferes with the function of the Staphylococcus aureus replicative helicase loader, DnaI. The viral protein binds to the loader’s AAA+ ATPase domain, allowing binding of the host replicative helicase but impeding loader self-assembly and ATPase activity. Close inspection of the complex highlights an unexpected locus for the binding of an interdomain linker element in DnaI/DnaC-family proteins. We find that the inhibitor protein is genetically coupled to a phage-encoded homolog of the bacterial helicase loader, which we show binds to the host helicase but not to the inhibitor itself. These findings establish a new approach by which viruses can hijack host replication processes and explain how loader activity is internally regulated to prevent aberrant auto-association. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14158.001 PMID:27244442

  17. ACH-806, an NS4A antagonist, inhibits hepatitis C virus replication by altering the composition of viral replication complexes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wengang; Sun, Yongnian; Hou, Xiaohong; Zhao, Yongsen; Fabrycki, Joanne; Chen, Dawei; Wang, Xiangzhu; Agarwal, Atul; Phadke, Avinash; Deshpande, Milind; Huang, Mingjun

    2013-07-01

    Treatment of hepatitis C patients with direct-acting antiviral drugs involves the combination of multiple small-molecule inhibitors of distinctive mechanisms of action. ACH-806 (or GS-9132) is a novel, small-molecule inhibitor specific for hepatitis C virus (HCV). It inhibits viral RNA replication in HCV replicon cells and was active in genotype 1 HCV-infected patients in a proof-of-concept clinical trial (1). Here, we describe a potential mechanism of action (MoA) wherein ACH-806 alters viral replication complex (RC) composition and function. We found that ACH-806 did not affect HCV polyprotein translation and processing, the early events of the formation of HCV RC. Instead, ACH-806 triggered the formation of a homodimeric form of NS4A with a size of 14 kDa (p14) both in replicon cells and in Huh-7 cells where NS4A was expressed alone. p14 production was negatively regulated by NS3, and its appearance in turn was associated with reductions in NS3 and, especially, NS4A content in RCs due to their accelerated degradation. A previously described resistance substitution near the N terminus of NS3, where NS3 interacts with NS4A, attenuated the reduction of NS3 and NS4A conferred by ACH-806 treatment. Taken together, we show that the compositional changes in viral RCs are associated with the antiviral activity of ACH-806. Small molecules, including ACH-806, with this novel MoA hold promise for further development and provide unique tools for clarifying the functions of NS4A in HCV replication. PMID:23629709

  18. 14-Deoxy-11,12-dehydroandrographolide exerts anti-influenza A virus activity and inhibits replication of H5N1 virus by restraining nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wentao; Li, Yongtao; Chen, Sunrui; Wang, Mengli; Zhang, Anding; Zhou, Hongbo; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin

    2015-06-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus has become a worldwide public health threat, and current antiviral therapies have limited activity against the emerging, resistant influenza viruses. Therefore, effective drugs with novel targets against influenza A viruses, H5N1 strains in particular, should be developed. In the present study, 14-deoxy-11,12-dehydroandrographolide (DAP), a major component of the traditional Chinese medicine Andrographis paniculata, exerted potent anti-influenza A virus activity against A/chicken/Hubei/327/2004 (H5N1), A/duck/Hubei/XN/2007 (H5N1), A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), A/NanChang/08/2010 (H1N1) and A/HuNan/01/2014 (H3N2) in vitro. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, a series of experiments was conducted using A/chicken/Hubei/327/2004 (H5N1) as an example. Our results demonstrated that DAP strongly inhibited H5N1 replication by reducing the production of viral nucleoprotein (NP) mRNA, NP and NS1proteins, whereas DAP had no effect on the absorption and release of H5N1 towards/from A549 cells. DAP also effectively restrained the nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes. This inhibitory effect ought to be an important anti-H5N1 mechanism of DAP. Meanwhile, DAP significantly reduced the upregulated expression of all the tested proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-α, IL-1β and IFN-β) and chemokines (CXCL-10 and CCL-2) stimulated by H5N1. Overall results suggest that DAP impairs H5N1 replication at least in part by restraining nuclear export of vRNP complexes, and the inhibition of viral replication leads to a subsequent decrease of the intense proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression. In turn, the effect of modification of the host excessive immune response may contribute to overcoming H5N1. To our knowledge, this study is the first to reveal the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities of DAP in vitro against H5N1 influenza A virus infection. PMID:25800824

  19. A Symmetric Region of the HIV-1 Integrase Dimerization Interface Is Essential for Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Serrao, Erik; Thys, Wannes; Demeulemeester, Jonas; Al-Mawsawi, Laith Q.; Christ, Frauke; Debyser, Zeger; Neamati, Nouri

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an important target for contemporary antiretroviral drug design research. Historically, efforts at inactivating the enzyme have focused upon blocking its active site. However, it has become apparent that new classes of allosteric inhibitors will be necessary to advance the antiretroviral field in light of the emergence of viral strains resistant to contemporary clinically used IN drugs. In this study we have characterized the importance of a close network of IN residues, distant from the active site, as important for the obligatory multimerization of the enzyme and viral replication as a whole. Specifically, we have determined that the configuration of six residues within a highly symmetrical region at the IN dimerization interface, composed of a four-tiered aromatic interaction flanked by two salt bridges, significantly contributes to proper HIV-1 replication. Additionally, we have utilized a quantitative luminescence assay to examine IN oligomerization and have determined that there is a very low tolerance for amino acid substitutions along this region. Even conservative residue substitutions negatively impacted IN multimerization, resulting in an inactive viral enzyme and a non-replicative virus. We have shown that there is a very low tolerance for amino acid variation at the symmetrical dimeric interface region characterized in this study, and therefore drugs designed to target the amino acid network detailed here could be expected to yield a significantly reduced number of drug-resistant escape mutations compared to contemporary clinically-evaluated antiretrovirals. PMID:23028829

  20. Structural organization of poliovirus RNA replication is mediated by viral proteins of the P2 genomic region.

    PubMed Central

    Bienz, K; Egger, D; Troxler, M; Pasamontes, L

    1990-01-01

    Transcriptionally active replication complexes bound to smooth membrane vesicles were isolated from poliovirus-infected cells. In electron microscopic, negatively stained preparations, the replication complex appeared as an irregularly shaped, oblong structure attached to several virus-induced vesicles of a rosettelike arrangement. Electron microscopic immunocytochemistry of such preparations demonstrated that the poliovirus replication complex contains the proteins coded by the P2 genomic region (P2 proteins) in a membrane-associated form. In addition, the P2 proteins are also associated with viral RNA, and they can be cross-linked to viral RNA by UV irradiation. Guanidine hydrochloride prevented the P2 proteins from becoming membrane bound but did not change their association with viral RNA. The findings allow the conclusion that the protein 2C or 2C-containing precursor(s) is responsible for the attachment of the viral RNA to the vesicular membrane and for the spatial organization of the replication complex necessary for its proper functioning in viral transcription. A model for the structure of the viral replication complex and for the function of the 2C-containing P2 protein(s) and the vesicular membranes is proposed. Images PMID:2154600

  1. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Utilizes an Autophagic Pathway During Viral Replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with positive-strand RNA viruses results in the rearrangement of intracellular membranes into viral replication complexes (VRC) which are the sites of viral RNA replication. Cellular autophagy has been proposed to be a mechanism of VRC formation for a number of positive-stranded RNA viruse...

  2. Nbs1-dependent binding of Mre11 to adenovirus E4 mutant viral DNA is important for inhibiting DNA replication

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Shomita S.; Bridge, Eileen

    2008-04-25

    Adenovirus (Ad) infections stimulate the activation of cellular DNA damage response and repair pathways. Ad early regulatory proteins prevent activation of DNA damage responses by targeting the MRN complex, composed of the Mre11, Rad50 and Nbs1 proteins, for relocalization and degradation. In the absence of these viral proteins, Mre11 colocalizes with viral DNA replication foci. Mre11 foci formation at DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation depends on the Nbs1 component of the MRN complex and is stabilized by the mediator of DNA damage checkpoint protein 1 (Mdc1). We find that Nbs1 is required for Mre11 localization at DNA replication foci in Ad E4 mutant infections. Mre11 is important for Mdc1 foci formation in infected cells, consistent with its role as a sensor of DNA damage. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicate that both Mre11 and Mdc1 are physically bound to viral DNA, which could account for their localization in viral DNA containing foci. Efficient binding of Mre11 to E4 mutant DNA depends on the presence of Nbs1, and is correlated with a significant E4 mutant DNA replication defect. Our results are consistent with a model in which physical interaction of Mre11 with viral DNA is mediated by Nbs1, and interferes with viral DNA replication.

  3. An inhibitor of viral RNA replication is encoded by a plant resistance gene.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Naito, Satoshi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2007-08-21

    The tomato Tm-1 gene confers resistance to tomato mosaic virus (ToMV). Here, we report that the extracts of Tm-1 tomato cells (GCR237) have properties that inhibit the in vitro RNA replication of WT ToMV more strongly than that of the Tm-1-resistance-breaking mutant of ToMV, LT1. We purified this inhibitory activity and identified a polypeptide of approximately 80 kDa (p80(GCR237)) using LC-tandem MS. The amino acid sequence of p80(GCR237) had no similarity to any characterized proteins. The p80(GCR237) gene cosegregated with Tm-1; transgenic expression of p80(GCR237) conferred resistance to ToMV within tomato plants; and the knockdown of p80(GCR237) sensitized Tm-1 tomato plants to ToMV, indicating that Tm-1 encodes p80(GCR237) itself. We further show that in vitro-synthesized Tm-1 (p80(GCR237)) protein binds to the replication proteins of WT ToMV and inhibits their function at a step before, but not after, the viral replication complex is formed on the membrane surfaces. Such binding was not observed for the replication proteins of LT1. These results suggest that Tm-1 (p80(GCR237)) inhibits the replication of WT ToMV RNA through binding to the replication proteins. PMID:17699618

  4. An inhibitor of viral RNA replication is encoded by a plant resistance gene

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Naito, Satoshi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    The tomato Tm-1 gene confers resistance to tomato mosaic virus (ToMV). Here, we report that the extracts of Tm-1 tomato cells (GCR237) have properties that inhibit the in vitro RNA replication of WT ToMV more strongly than that of the Tm-1-resistance-breaking mutant of ToMV, LT1. We purified this inhibitory activity and identified a polypeptide of ≈80 kDa (p80GCR237) using LC–tandem MS. The amino acid sequence of p80GCR237 had no similarity to any characterized proteins. The p80GCR237 gene cosegregated with Tm-1; transgenic expression of p80GCR237 conferred resistance to ToMV within tomato plants; and the knockdown of p80GCR237 sensitized Tm-1 tomato plants to ToMV, indicating that Tm-1 encodes p80GCR237 itself. We further show that in vitro-synthesized Tm-1 (p80GCR237) protein binds to the replication proteins of WT ToMV and inhibits their function at a step before, but not after, the viral replication complex is formed on the membrane surfaces. Such binding was not observed for the replication proteins of LT1. These results suggest that Tm-1 (p80GCR237) inhibits the replication of WT ToMV RNA through binding to the replication proteins. PMID:17699618

  5. Borna Disease Virus Phosphoprotein Modulates Epigenetic Signaling in Neurons To Control Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Bonnaud, Emilie M.; Szelechowski, Marion; Bétourné, Alexandre; Foret, Charlotte; Thouard, Anne; Gonzalez-Dunia, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding the modalities of interaction of neurotropic viruses with their target cells represents a major challenge that may improve our knowledge of many human neurological disorders for which viral origin is suspected. Borna disease virus (BDV) represents an ideal model to analyze the molecular mechanisms of viral persistence in neurons and its consequences for neuronal homeostasis. It is now established that BDV ensures its long-term maintenance in infected cells through a stable interaction of viral components with the host cell chromatin, in particular, with core histones. This has led to our hypothesis that such an interaction may trigger epigenetic changes in the host cell. Here, we focused on histone acetylation, which plays key roles in epigenetic regulation of gene expression, notably for neurons. We performed a comparative analysis of histone acetylation patterns of neurons infected or not infected by BDV, which revealed that infection decreases histone acetylation on selected lysine residues. We showed that the BDV phosphoprotein (P) is responsible for these perturbations, even when it is expressed alone independently of the viral context, and that this action depends on its phosphorylation by protein kinase C. We also demonstrated that BDV P inhibits cellular histone acetyltransferase activities. Finally, by pharmacologically manipulating cellular acetylation levels, we observed that inhibiting cellular acetyl transferases reduces viral replication in cell culture. Our findings reveal that manipulation of cellular epigenetics by BDV could be a means to modulate viral replication and thus illustrate a fascinating example of virus-host cell interaction. IMPORTANCE Persistent DNA viruses often subvert the mechanisms that regulate cellular chromatin dynamics, thereby benefitting from the resulting epigenetic changes to create a favorable milieu for their latent and persistent states. Here, we reasoned that Borna disease virus (BDV), the only

  6. Nucleolin interacts with influenza A nucleoprotein and contributes to viral ribonucleoprotein complexes nuclear trafficking and efficient influenza viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Terrier, Olivier; Carron, Coralie; De Chassey, Benoît; Dubois, Julia; Traversier, Aurélien; Julien, Thomas; Cartet, Gaëlle; Proust, Anaïs; Hacot, Sabine; Ressnikoff, Denis; Lotteau, Vincent; Lina, Bruno; Diaz, Jean-Jacques; Moules, Vincent; Rosa-Calatrava, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses replicate their single-stranded RNA genomes in the nucleus of infected cells and these replicated genomes (vRNPs) are then exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and plasma membrane before budding. To achieve this export, influenza viruses hijack the host cell export machinery. However, the complete mechanisms underlying this hijacking remain not fully understood. We have previously shown that influenza viruses induce a marked alteration of the nucleus during the time-course of infection and notably in the nucleolar compartment. In this study, we discovered that a major nucleolar component, called nucleolin, is required for an efficient export of vRNPs and viral replication. We have notably shown that nucleolin interacts with the viral nucleoprotein (NP) that mainly constitutes vRNPs. Our results suggest that this interaction could allow vRNPs to “catch” the host cell export machinery, a necessary step for viral replication. PMID:27373907

  7. Nucleolin interacts with influenza A nucleoprotein and contributes to viral ribonucleoprotein complexes nuclear trafficking and efficient influenza viral replication.

    PubMed

    Terrier, Olivier; Carron, Coralie; De Chassey, Benoît; Dubois, Julia; Traversier, Aurélien; Julien, Thomas; Cartet, Gaëlle; Proust, Anaïs; Hacot, Sabine; Ressnikoff, Denis; Lotteau, Vincent; Lina, Bruno; Diaz, Jean-Jacques; Moules, Vincent; Rosa-Calatrava, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses replicate their single-stranded RNA genomes in the nucleus of infected cells and these replicated genomes (vRNPs) are then exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and plasma membrane before budding. To achieve this export, influenza viruses hijack the host cell export machinery. However, the complete mechanisms underlying this hijacking remain not fully understood. We have previously shown that influenza viruses induce a marked alteration of the nucleus during the time-course of infection and notably in the nucleolar compartment. In this study, we discovered that a major nucleolar component, called nucleolin, is required for an efficient export of vRNPs and viral replication. We have notably shown that nucleolin interacts with the viral nucleoprotein (NP) that mainly constitutes vRNPs. Our results suggest that this interaction could allow vRNPs to "catch" the host cell export machinery, a necessary step for viral replication. PMID:27373907

  8. Low viral predation pressure in cold hypersaline Arctic sediments and limits on lytic replication.

    PubMed

    Colangelo-Lillis, Jesse; Wing, Boswell A; Whyte, Lyle G

    2016-04-01

    Viruses are ubiquitous drivers of microbial ecology and evolution and contribute to biogeochemical cycling. Attention to these attributes has been more substantial for marine viruses than viruses of other environments. Microscopy-based investigation of the viral communities from two cold, hypersaline Arctic springs was undertaken to explore the effects of these conditions on microbe-viral ecology. Sediments and water samples were collected along transects from each spring, from anoxic spring outlets through oxygenated downstream channels. Viral abundance, virus-microbe ratios and modelled virus-microbe contact rates were lower than comparable aqueous and sedimentary environments and most similar to deep subsurface sediments. No individual cell from either spring was visibly infected. Viruses in these springs appear to play a smaller role in controlling microbial populations through lytic activity than in marine water column or surface sedimentary environments. Relief from viral predation indicates the microbial communities are primarily controlled by nutrient limitation. The similarity of these springs to deep subsurface sediments suggests a biogeographic divide in viral replication strategy in marine sediments. PMID:26743115

  9. The Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 vhs-UL41 Gene Secures Viral Replication by Temporarily Evading Apoptotic Cellular Response to Infection: Vhs-UL41 Activity Might Require Interactions with Elements of Cellular mRNA Degradation Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Barzilai, Ari; Zivony-Elbom, Ifaat; Sarid, Ronit; Noah, Eran; Frenkel, Niza

    2006-01-01

    We have previously shown that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection is associated with early destabilization/degradation of infected cell mRNAs and consequent shutoff of host protein synthesis by the activity of the virion-associated host shutoff (vhs) UL41 protein. Wild-type (wt) virus destabilized/degraded the housekeeping β-actin and α-tubulin mRNAs as well host stress functions, like the heat shock 70 protein induced postinfection. vhs mutants did not degrade the mRNAs. Elaborate studies by others have been concerned with the mode of mRNA degradation and the mRNAs affected. We now describe vhs activity in primary cultures of mouse cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Specifically, (i) upon infection in the presence of actinomycin D to test activity of input viral particles, there was a generalized inhibition of protein synthesis, which depended on the input multiplicity of infection (MOI). (ii) Low-MOI infection with vhs-1 mutant virus was associated with increased synthesis of all apparent proteins. Higher MOIs caused some shutoff, albeit significantly lower than that of wt virus. This pattern could reflect an interaction(s) of vhs-1 protein with host machinery involved in cellular mRNA destabilization/degradation, sequestering this activity. (iii) wt virus infection was associated with cell survival, at least for a while, whereas mutant virus induced apoptotic cell death at earlier times. (iv) wt virus replicated well in the CGNs, whereas there was no apparent replication of the vhs-1 mutant virus. (v) The vhs-1 mutant could serve as helper virus for composite amplicon vectors carrying marker genes and the human p53 gene. Ongoing studies test the use of vhs-1-based composite oncolytic vectors towards cancer gene therapy. PMID:16352574

  10. Activation of BPV-1 replication in vitro by the transcription factor E2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liu; Li, Rong; Mohr, Ian J.; Clark, Robin; Botchan, Michael R.

    1991-10-01

    Soluble extracts from uninfected murine cells supplemented with purified viral E1 and E2 proteins support the replication of exogenously added papilloma virus DNA. The E2 transactivator stimulates the binding of the E1 replication protein to the minimal origin of replication and activates DNA replication. These results support the concept that transcription factors have a direct role in the initiation of DNA replication in eukaryotes by participating in the assembly of a complex at the origin of replication.

  11. A pyrazolotriazolopyrimidinamine inhibitor of bovine viral diarrhea virus replication that targets the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Paeshuyse, Jan; Letellier, Carine; Froeyen, Matheus; Dutartre, Hélène; Vrancken, Robert; Canard, Bruno; De Clercq, Erik; Gueiffier, Alain; Teulade, Jean-Claude; Herdewijn, Piet; Puerstinger, Gerhard; Koenen, Frank; Kerkhofs, Pierre; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Neyts, Johan

    2009-06-01

    [7-[3-(1,3-Benzodioxol-5-yl)propyl]-2-(2-furyl)-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine] (LZ37) was identified as a selective inhibitor of in vitro bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) replication. The EC(50) values for inhibition of BVDV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) formation, viral RNA synthesis and production of infectious virus were 4.3+/-0.7microM, 12.9+/-1microM and 5.8+/-0.6microM, respectively. LZ37 proved inactive against the hepatitis C virus and the flavivirus yellow fever. LZ37 inhibits BVDV replication at a time point that coincides with the onset of intracellular viral RNA synthesis. Drug-resistant mutants carried the F224Y mutation in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). LZ37 showed cross-resistance with the imidazopyrrolopyridine AG110 [which selects for the E291G drug resistance mutation] as well as with the imidazopyridine BPIP [which selects for the F224S drug-resistant mutation]. LZ37 did not inhibit the in vitro activity of purified recombinant BVDV RdRp. Molecular modelling revealed that F224 is located near the tip of the finger domain of the RdRp. Docking of LZ37 in the crystal structure of the BVDV RdRp revealed several potential contacts including: (i) hydrophobic contacts of LZ37 with A221, A222, G223, F224 and A392; (ii) a stacking interaction between F224 side chain and the ring system of LZ37 and (iii) a hydrogen bond between the amino function of LZ37 and the O backbone atom of A392. It is concluded that LZ37 interacts with the same binding site as BPIP or VP32947 at the top of the finger domain of the polymerase that is a "hot spot" for inhibition of pestivirus replication. PMID:19428605

  12. Human Papilloma Viral DNA Replicates as a Stable Episome in Cultured Epidermal Keratinocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporta, Robert F.; Taichman, Lorne B.

    1982-06-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is poorly understood because systems for its growth in tissue culture have not been developed. We report here that cultured human epidermal keratinocytes could be infected with HPV from plantar warts and that the viral DNA persisted and replicated as a stable episome. There were 50-200 copies of viral DNA per cell and there was no evidence to indicate integration of viral DNA into the cellular genome. There was also no evidence to suggest that viral DNA underwent productive replication. We conclude that cultured human epidermal keratinocytes may be a model for the study of certain aspects of HPV biology.

  13. The cis-acting replication element of the Hepatitis C virus genome recruits host factors that influence viral replication and translation.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Marco, Pablo; Romero-López, Cristina; Berzal-Herranz, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    The cis-acting replication element (CRE) of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA genome is a region of conserved sequence and structure at the 3' end of the open reading frame. It participates in a complex and dynamic RNA-RNA interaction network involving, among others, essential functional domains of the 3' untranslated region and the internal ribosome entry site located at the 5' terminus of the viral genome. A proper balance between all these contacts is critical for the control of viral replication and translation, and is likely dependent on host factors. Proteomic analyses identified a collection of proteins from a hepatoma cell line as CRE-interacting candidates. A large fraction of these were RNA-binding proteins sharing highly conserved RNA recognition motifs. The vast majority of these proteins were validated by bioinformatics tools that consider RNA-protein secondary structure. Further characterization of representative proteins indicated that hnRNPA1 and HMGB1 exerted negative effects on viral replication in a subgenomic HCV replication system. Furthermore DDX5 and PARP1 knockdown reduced the HCV IRES activity, suggesting an involvement of these proteins in HCV translation. The identification of all these host factors provides new clues regarding the function of the CRE during viral cycle progression. PMID:27165399

  14. The cis-acting replication element of the Hepatitis C virus genome recruits host factors that influence viral replication and translation

    PubMed Central

    Ríos-Marco, Pablo; Romero-López, Cristina; Berzal-Herranz, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    The cis-acting replication element (CRE) of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA genome is a region of conserved sequence and structure at the 3′ end of the open reading frame. It participates in a complex and dynamic RNA-RNA interaction network involving, among others, essential functional domains of the 3′ untranslated region and the internal ribosome entry site located at the 5′ terminus of the viral genome. A proper balance between all these contacts is critical for the control of viral replication and translation, and is likely dependent on host factors. Proteomic analyses identified a collection of proteins from a hepatoma cell line as CRE-interacting candidates. A large fraction of these were RNA-binding proteins sharing highly conserved RNA recognition motifs. The vast majority of these proteins were validated by bioinformatics tools that consider RNA-protein secondary structure. Further characterization of representative proteins indicated that hnRNPA1 and HMGB1 exerted negative effects on viral replication in a subgenomic HCV replication system. Furthermore DDX5 and PARP1 knockdown reduced the HCV IRES activity, suggesting an involvement of these proteins in HCV translation. The identification of all these host factors provides new clues regarding the function of the CRE during viral cycle progression. PMID:27165399

  15. Autographa californica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus DNA Polymerase C Terminus Is Required for Nuclear Localization and Viral DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guozhong

    2014-01-01

    insufficient for viral DNA synthesis and virus replication. Rather, we identified three features, including two nuclear localization signals and a highly conserved 10-amino-acid sequence in the AcMNPV DNApol C terminus, all three of which are important for both nuclear localization of DNApol and for DNApol activity, as measured by viral DNA synthesis and virus replication. PMID:25008932

  16. Modeling the Intracellular Dynamics of Influenza Virus Replication To Understand the Control of Viral RNA Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Frensing, Timo; Reichl, Udo

    2012-01-01

    Influenza viruses transcribe and replicate their negative-sense RNA genome inside the nucleus of host cells via three viral RNA species. In the course of an infection, these RNAs show distinct dynamics, suggesting that differential regulation takes place. To investigate this regulation in a systematic way, we developed a mathematical model of influenza virus infection at the level of a single mammalian cell. It accounts for key steps of the viral life cycle, from virus entry to progeny virion release, while focusing in particular on the molecular mechanisms that control viral transcription and replication. We therefore explicitly consider the nuclear export of viral genome copies (vRNPs) and a recent hypothesis proposing that replicative intermediates (cRNA) are stabilized by the viral polymerase complex and the nucleoprotein (NP). Together, both mechanisms allow the model to capture a variety of published data sets at an unprecedented level of detail. Our findings provide theoretical support for an early regulation of replication by cRNA stabilization. However, they also suggest that the matrix protein 1 (M1) controls viral RNA levels in the late phase of infection as part of its role during the nuclear export of viral genome copies. Moreover, simulations show an accumulation of viral proteins and RNA toward the end of infection, indicating that transport processes or budding limits virion release. Thus, our mathematical model provides an ideal platform for a systematic and quantitative evaluation of influenza virus replication and its complex regulation. PMID:22593159

  17. Cyclophilin E Functions as a Negative Regulator to Influenza Virus Replication by Impairing the Formation of the Viral Ribonucleoprotein Complex

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zengfu; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhao, Zhendong; Xu, Chongfeng; Zhang, Ke; Chen, Caiwei; Sun, Lei; Gao, George F.; Ye, Xin; Liu, Wenjun

    2011-01-01

    Background The nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza A virus is a multifunctional protein that plays a critical role in the replication and transcription of the viral genome. Therefore, examining host factors that interact with NP may shed light on the mechanism of host restriction barriers and the tissue tropism of influenza A virus. Here, Cyclophilin E (CypE), a member of the peptidyl-propyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) family, was found to bind to NP and inhibit viral replication and transcription. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, CypE was found to interact with NP but not with the other components of the viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP): PB1, PB2, and PA. Mutagenesis data revealed that the CypE domain comprised of residues 137–186 is responsible for its binding to NP. Functional analysis results indicated that CypE is a negative regulator in the influenza virus life cycle. Furthermore, knock-down of CypE resulted in increased levels of three types of viral RNA, suggesting that CypE negatively affects viral replication and transcription. Moreover, up-regulation of CypE inhibited the activity of influenza viral polymerase. We determined that the molecular mechanism by which CypE negatively regulates influenza virus replication and transcription is by interfering with NP self-association and the NP-PB1 and NP-PB2 interactions. Conclusions/Significance CypE is a host restriction factor that inhibits the functions of NP, as well as viral replication and transcription, by impairing the formation of the vRNP. The data presented here will help us to better understand the molecular mechanisms of host restriction barriers, host adaptation, and tissue tropism of influenza A virus. PMID:21887220

  18. KSHV encoded LANA recruits Nucleosome Assembly Protein NAP1L1 for regulating viral DNA replication and transcription

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Namrata; Thakker, Suhani; Verma, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of latency is an essential for lifelong persistence and pathogenesis of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is the most abundantly expressed protein during latency and is important for viral genome replication and transcription. Replication-coupled nucleosome assembly is a major step in packaging the newly synthesized DNA into chromatin, but the mechanism of KSHV genome chromatinization post-replication is not understood. Here, we show that nucleosome assembly protein 1-like protein 1 (NAP1L1) associates with LANA. Our binding assays revealed an association of LANA with NAP1L1 in KSHV-infected cells, which binds through its amino terminal domain. Association of these proteins confirmed their localization in specific nuclear compartments of the infected cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays from NAP1L1-depleted cells showed LANA-mediated recruitment of NAP1L1 at the terminal repeat (TR) region of the viral genome. Presence of NAP1L1 stimulated LANA-mediated DNA replication and persistence of a TR-containing plasmid. Depletion of NAP1L1 led to a reduced nucleosome positioning on the viral genome. Furthermore, depletion of NAP1L1 increased the transcription of viral lytic genes and overexpression decreased the promoter activities of LANA-regulated genes. These results confirmed that LANA recruitment of NAP1L1 helps in assembling nucleosome for the chromatinization of newly synthesized viral DNA. PMID:27599637

  19. KSHV encoded LANA recruits Nucleosome Assembly Protein NAP1L1 for regulating viral DNA replication and transcription.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Namrata; Thakker, Suhani; Verma, Subhash C

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of latency is an essential for lifelong persistence and pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is the most abundantly expressed protein during latency and is important for viral genome replication and transcription. Replication-coupled nucleosome assembly is a major step in packaging the newly synthesized DNA into chromatin, but the mechanism of KSHV genome chromatinization post-replication is not understood. Here, we show that nucleosome assembly protein 1-like protein 1 (NAP1L1) associates with LANA. Our binding assays revealed an association of LANA with NAP1L1 in KSHV-infected cells, which binds through its amino terminal domain. Association of these proteins confirmed their localization in specific nuclear compartments of the infected cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays from NAP1L1-depleted cells showed LANA-mediated recruitment of NAP1L1 at the terminal repeat (TR) region of the viral genome. Presence of NAP1L1 stimulated LANA-mediated DNA replication and persistence of a TR-containing plasmid. Depletion of NAP1L1 led to a reduced nucleosome positioning on the viral genome. Furthermore, depletion of NAP1L1 increased the transcription of viral lytic genes and overexpression decreased the promoter activities of LANA-regulated genes. These results confirmed that LANA recruitment of NAP1L1 helps in assembling nucleosome for the chromatinization of newly synthesized viral DNA. PMID:27599637

  20. HTLV-1 Rex Tunes the Cellular Environment Favorable for Viral Replication.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Kazumi; Watanabe, Toshiki

    2016-03-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) Rex is a viral RNA binding protein. The most important and well-known function of Rex is stabilizing and exporting viral mRNAs from the nucleus, particularly for unspliced/partially-spliced mRNAs encoding the structural proteins essential for viral replication. Without Rex, these unspliced viral mRNAs would otherwise be completely spliced. Therefore, Rex is vital for the translation of structural proteins and the stabilization of viral genomic RNA and, thus, for viral replication. Rex schedules the period of extensive viral replication and suppression to enter latency. Although the importance of Rex in the viral life-cycle is well understood, the underlying molecular mechanism of how Rex achieves its function has not been clarified. For example, how does Rex protect unspliced/partially-spliced viral mRNAs from the host cellular splicing machinery? How does Rex protect viral mRNAs, antigenic to eukaryotic cells, from cellular mRNA surveillance mechanisms? Here we will discuss these mechanisms, which explain the function of Rex as an organizer of HTLV-1 expression based on previously and recently discovered aspects of Rex. We also focus on the potential influence of Rex on the homeostasis of the infected cell and how it can exert its function. PMID:26927155

  1. HTLV-1 Rex Tunes the Cellular Environment Favorable for Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Kazumi; Watanabe, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) Rex is a viral RNA binding protein. The most important and well-known function of Rex is stabilizing and exporting viral mRNAs from the nucleus, particularly for unspliced/partially-spliced mRNAs encoding the structural proteins essential for viral replication. Without Rex, these unspliced viral mRNAs would otherwise be completely spliced. Therefore, Rex is vital for the translation of structural proteins and the stabilization of viral genomic RNA and, thus, for viral replication. Rex schedules the period of extensive viral replication and suppression to enter latency. Although the importance of Rex in the viral life-cycle is well understood, the underlying molecular mechanism of how Rex achieves its function has not been clarified. For example, how does Rex protect unspliced/partially-spliced viral mRNAs from the host cellular splicing machinery? How does Rex protect viral mRNAs, antigenic to eukaryotic cells, from cellular mRNA surveillance mechanisms? Here we will discuss these mechanisms, which explain the function of Rex as an organizer of HTLV-1 expression based on previously and recently discovered aspects of Rex. We also focus on the potential influence of Rex on the homeostasis of the infected cell and how it can exert its function. PMID:26927155

  2. Positive-strand RNA viruses stimulate host phosphatidylcholine synthesis at viral replication sites.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiantao; Zhang, Zhenlu; Chukkapalli, Vineela; Nchoutmboube, Jules A; Li, Jianhui; Randall, Glenn; Belov, George A; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2016-02-23

    All positive-strand RNA viruses reorganize host intracellular membranes to assemble their viral replication complexes (VRCs); however, how these viruses modulate host lipid metabolism to accommodate such membrane proliferation and rearrangements is not well defined. We show that a significantly increased phosphatidylcholine (PC) content is associated with brome mosaic virus (BMV) replication in both natural host barley and alternate host yeast based on a lipidomic analysis. Enhanced PC levels are primarily associated with the perinuclear ER membrane, where BMV replication takes place. More specifically, BMV replication protein 1a interacts with and recruits Cho2p (choline requiring 2), a host enzyme involved in PC synthesis, to the site of viral replication. These results suggest that PC synthesized at the site of VRC assembly, not the transport of existing PC, is responsible for the enhanced accumulation. Blocking PC synthesis by deleting the CHO2 gene resulted in VRCs with wider diameters than those in wild-type cells; however, BMV replication was significantly inhibited, highlighting the critical role of PC in VRC formation and viral replication. We further show that enhanced PC levels also accumulate at the replication sites of hepatitis C virus and poliovirus, revealing a conserved feature among a group of positive-strand RNA viruses. Our work also highlights a potential broad-spectrum antiviral strategy that would disrupt PC synthesis at the sites of viral replication but would not alter cellular processes. PMID:26858414

  3. Positive-strand RNA viruses stimulate host phosphatidylcholine synthesis at viral replication sites

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiantao; Zhang, Zhenlu; Chukkapalli, Vineela; Nchoutmboube, Jules A.; Li, Jianhui; Randall, Glenn; Belov, George A.; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    All positive-strand RNA viruses reorganize host intracellular membranes to assemble their viral replication complexes (VRCs); however, how these viruses modulate host lipid metabolism to accommodate such membrane proliferation and rearrangements is not well defined. We show that a significantly increased phosphatidylcholine (PC) content is associated with brome mosaic virus (BMV) replication in both natural host barley and alternate host yeast based on a lipidomic analysis. Enhanced PC levels are primarily associated with the perinuclear ER membrane, where BMV replication takes place. More specifically, BMV replication protein 1a interacts with and recruits Cho2p (choline requiring 2), a host enzyme involved in PC synthesis, to the site of viral replication. These results suggest that PC synthesized at the site of VRC assembly, not the transport of existing PC, is responsible for the enhanced accumulation. Blocking PC synthesis by deleting the CHO2 gene resulted in VRCs with wider diameters than those in wild-type cells; however, BMV replication was significantly inhibited, highlighting the critical role of PC in VRC formation and viral replication. We further show that enhanced PC levels also accumulate at the replication sites of hepatitis C virus and poliovirus, revealing a conserved feature among a group of positive-strand RNA viruses. Our work also highlights a potential broad-spectrum antiviral strategy that would disrupt PC synthesis at the sites of viral replication but would not alter cellular processes. PMID:26858414

  4. Viral Determinants of miR-122-Independent Hepatitis C Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Hopcraft, Sharon E.; Azarm, Kristopher D.; Israelow, Benjamin; Lévêque, Nicolas; Schwarz, Megan C.; Hsu, Tien-Huei; Chambers, Matthew T.; Sourisseau, Marion; Semler, Bert L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication requires binding of the liver-specific microRNA (miRNA) miR-122 to two sites in the HCV 5′ untranslated region (UTR). Although we and others have shown that viral genetics impact the amount of active miR-122 required for replication, it is unclear if HCV can replicate in the complete absence of this miRNA. To probe the absolute requirements for miR-122 and the genetic basis for those requirements, we used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) technology to knock out miR-122 in Huh-7.5 cells and reconstituted these knockout (KO) cells with either wild-type miR-122 or a mutated version of this miRNA. We then characterized the replication of the wild-type virus, as well as a mutated HCV bearing 5′ UTR substitutions to restore binding to the mutated miR-122, in miR-122 KO Huh-7.5 cells expressing no, wild-type, or mutated miR-122. We found that while replication was most efficient when wild-type or mutated HCV was provided with the matched miR-122, inefficient replication could be observed in cells expressing the mismatched miR-122 or no miR-122. We then selected viruses capable of replicating in cells expressing noncognate miR-122 RNAs. Unexpectedly, these viruses contained multiple mutations throughout their first 42 nucleotides that would not be predicted to enhance binding of the provided miR-122. These mutations increased HCV RNA replication in cells expressing either the mismatched miR-122 or no miR-122. These data provide new evidence that HCV replication can occur independently of miR-122 and provide unexpected insights into how HCV genetics influence miR-122 requirements. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of liver cancer in the Western Hemisphere. HCV infection requires miR-122, which is expressed only in liver cells, and thus is one reason that replication of this virus occurs efficiently only in cells of hepatic origin. To understand how HCV genetics impact mi

  5. Drug Repurposing Approach Identifies Inhibitors of the Prototypic Viral Transcription Factor IE2 that Block Human Cytomegalovirus Replication.

    PubMed

    Mercorelli, Beatrice; Luganini, Anna; Nannetti, Giulio; Tabarrini, Oriana; Palù, Giorgio; Gribaudo, Giorgio; Loregian, Arianna

    2016-03-17

    New targets for antiviral strategies are needed against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a major human pathogen. A cell-based screen aimed at finding inhibitors of the viral transcription factor Immediate-Early 2 (IE2) was performed in HCMV-infected cells expressing EGFP under the control of an IE2-inducible viral promoter. Screening of a library of bioactive small molecules led to the identification of several compounds able to inhibit EGFP expression and also HCMV replication with potency in the low-micromolar range. Follow-up studies with four selected hits indicated that they all block viral DNA synthesis as well as viral Early and Late gene expression. Furthermore, mechanistic studies confirmed that the compounds specifically act via inhibition of IE2 transactivating activity, thus blocking viral Early gene expression and the progression of virus replication. These results provide proof of concept for identifying small molecules that modulate the activity of a microbial transcription factor to control pathogen replication. PMID:26877023

  6. Determining Host Metabolic Limitations on Viral Replication via Integrated Modeling and Experimental Perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Elsa W.; Ruggero, Nicholas A.; Covert, Markus W.

    2012-01-01

    Viral replication relies on host metabolic machinery and precursors to produce large numbers of progeny - often very rapidly. A fundamental example is the infection of Escherichia coli by bacteriophage T7. The resource draw imposed by viral replication represents a significant and complex perturbation to the extensive and interconnected network of host metabolic pathways. To better understand this system, we have integrated a set of structured ordinary differential equations quantifying T7 replication and an E. coli flux balance analysis metabolic model. Further, we present here an integrated simulation algorithm enforcing mutual constraint by the models across the entire duration of phage replication. This method enables quantitative dynamic prediction of virion production given only specification of host nutritional environment, and predictions compare favorably to experimental measurements of phage replication in multiple environments. The level of detail of our computational predictions facilitates exploration of the dynamic changes in host metabolic fluxes that result from viral resource consumption, as well as analysis of the limiting processes dictating maximum viral progeny production. For example, although it is commonly assumed that viral infection dynamics are predominantly limited by the amount of protein synthesis machinery in the host, our results suggest that in many cases metabolic limitation is at least as strict. Taken together, these results emphasize the importance of considering viral infections in the context of host metabolism. PMID:23093930

  7. Roles of Serine and Threonine Residues of Mumps Virus P Protein in Viral Transcription and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Pickar, Adrian; Xu, Pei; Elson, Andrew; Li, Zhuo; Zengel, James

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mumps virus (MuV), a paramyxovirus containing a negative-sense nonsegmented RNA genome, is a human pathogen that causes an acute infection with symptoms ranging from parotitis to mild meningitis and severe encephalitis. Vaccination against mumps virus has been effective in reducing mumps cases. However, recently large outbreaks have occurred in vaccinated populations. There is no anti-MuV drug. Understanding replication of MuV may lead to novel antiviral strategies. MuV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase minimally consists of the phosphoprotein (P) and the large protein (L). The P protein is heavily phosphorylated. To investigate the roles of serine (S) and threonine (T) residues of P in viral RNA transcription and replication, P was subjected to mass spectrometry and mutational analysis. P, a 392-amino acid residue protein, has 64 S and T residues. We have found that mutating nine S/T residues significantly reduced and mutating residue T at 101 to A (T101A) significantly enhanced activity in a minigenome system. A recombinant virus containing the P-T101A mutation (rMuV-P-T101A) was recovered and analyzed. rMuV-P-T101A grew to higher titers and had increased protein expression at early time points. Together, these results suggest that phosphorylation of MuV-P-T101 plays a negative role in viral RNA synthesis. This is the first time that the P protein of a paramyxovirus has been systematically analyzed for S/T residues that are critical for viral RNA synthesis. IMPORTANCE Mumps virus (MuV) is a reemerging paramyxovirus that caused large outbreaks in the United States, where vaccination coverage is very high. There is no anti-MuV drug. In this work, we have systematically analyzed roles of Ser/Thr residues of MuV P in viral RNA synthesis. We have identified S/T residues of P critical for MuV RNA synthesis and phosphorylation sites that are important for viral RNA synthesis. This work leads to a better understanding of viral RNA synthesis as well as to potential

  8. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) inhibits replication and viral morphogenesis of dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Soto-Acosta, Rubén; Bautista-Carbajal, Patricia; Syed, Gulam H; Siddiqui, Aleem; Del Angel, Rosa M

    2014-09-01

    Dengue is the most common mosquito borne viral disease in humans. The infection with any of the 4 dengue virus serotypes (DENV) can either be asymptomatic or manifest in two clinical forms, the mild dengue fever or the more severe dengue hemorrhagic fever that may progress into dengue shock syndrome. A DENV replicative cycle relies on host lipid metabolism; specifically, DENV infection modulates cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, generating a lipid-enriched cellular environment necessary for viral replication. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the anti-DENV effect of the Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), a hypolipidemic agent with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. A dose-dependent inhibition in viral yield and NS1 secretion was observed in supernatants of infected cells treated for 24 and 48 h with different concentrations of NDGA. To evaluate the effect of NDGA in DENV replication, a DENV4 replicon transfected Vero cells were treated with different concentrations of NDGA. NDGA treatment significantly reduced DENV replication, reiterating the importance of lipids in viral replication. NDGA treatment also led to reduction in number of lipid droplets (LDs), the neutral lipid storage organelles involved in DENV morphogenesis that are known to increase in number during DENV infection. Furthermore, NDGA treatment resulted in dissociation of the C protein from LDs. Overall our results suggest that NDGA inhibits DENV infection by targeting genome replication and viral assembly. PMID:25017471

  9. Viral and Cellular Components of AAV2 Replication Compartments.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Rebecca; Seyffert, Michael; Pereira, Bruna de Andrade; Fraefel, Cornel

    2013-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is a helpervirus-dependent parvovirus with a bi-phasic life cycle comprising latency in absence and lytic replication in presence of a helpervirus, such as adenovirus (Ad) or herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Helpervirus-supported AAV2 replication takes place in replication compartments (RCs) in the cell nucleus where virus DNA replication and transcription occur. RCs consist of a defined set of helper virus-, AAV2-, and cellular proteins. Here we compare the profile of cellular proteins recruited into AAV2 RCs or identified in Rep78-associated complexes when either Ad or HSV-1 is the helpervirus, and we discuss the potential roles of some of these proteins in AAV2 and helpervirus infection. PMID:24222808

  10. Annexin V Incorporated into Influenza Virus Particles Inhibits Gamma Interferon Signaling and Promotes Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Berri, Fatma; Haffar, Ghina; Lê, Vuong Ba; Sadewasser, Anne; Paki, Katharina; Lina, Bruno; Wolff, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the budding process, influenza A viruses (IAVs) incorporate multiple host cell membrane proteins. However, for most of them, their significance in viral morphogenesis and infectivity remains unknown. We demonstrate here that the expression of annexin V (A5) is upregulated at the cell surface upon IAV infection and that a substantial proportion of the protein is present in lipid rafts, the site of virus budding. Western blotting and immunogold analysis of highly purified IAV particles showed the presence of A5 in the virion. Significantly, gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-induced Stat phosphorylation and IFN-γ-induced 10-kDa protein (IP-10) production in macrophage-derived THP-1 cells was inhibited by purified IAV particles. Disruption of the IFN-γ signaling pathway was A5 dependent since downregulation of its expression or its blockage reversed the inhibition and resulted in decreased viral replication in vitro. The functional significance of these results was also observed in vivo. Thus, IAVs can subvert the IFN-γ antiviral immune response by incorporating A5 into their envelope during the budding process. IMPORTANCE Many enveloped viruses, including influenza A viruses, bud from the plasma membrane of their host cells and incorporate cellular surface proteins into viral particles. However, for the vast majority of these proteins, only the observation of their incorporation has been reported. We demonstrate here that the host protein annexin V is specifically incorporated into influenza virus particles during the budding process. Importantly, we showed that packaged annexin V counteracted the antiviral activity of gamma interferon in vitro and in vivo. Thus, these results showed that annexin V incorporated in the viral envelope of influenza viruses allow viral escape from immune surveillance. Understanding the role of host incorporated protein into virions may reveal how enveloped RNA viruses hijack the host cell machinery for their own purposes. PMID

  11. Subcellular localization of host and viral proteins associated with tobamovirus RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Yuka; Komoda, Keisuke; Yamanaka, Takuya; Tamai, Atsushi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Funada, Ryo; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Naito, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2003-01-15

    Arabidopsis TOM1 (AtTOM1) and TOM2A (AtTOM2A) are integral membrane proteins genetically identified to be necessary for efficient intracellular multiplication of tobamoviruses. AtTOM1 interacts with the helicase domain polypeptide of tobamovirus-encoded replication proteins and with AtTOM2A, suggesting that both AtTOM1 and AtTOM2A are integral components of the tobamovirus replication complex. We show here that AtTOM1 and AtTOM2A proteins tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) are targeted to the vacuolar membrane (tonoplast)-like structures in plant cells. In subcellular fractionation analyses, GFP-AtTOM2A, AtTOM2A and its tobacco homolog NtTOM2A were predominantly fractionated to low-density tonoplast-rich fractions, whereas AtTOM1-GFP, AtTOM1 and its tobacco homolog NtTOM1 were distributed mainly into the tonoplast-rich fractions and partially into higher-buoyant-density fractions containing membranes from several other organelles. The tobamovirus-encoded replication proteins were co-fractionated with both NtTOM1 and viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity. The replication proteins were also found in the fractions containing non-membrane-bound proteins, but neither NtTOM1 nor the polymerase activity was detected there. These observations suggest that the formation of tobamoviral RNA replication complex occurs on TOM1-containing membranes and is facilitated by TOM2A. PMID:12514140

  12. Interaction of NCOR/SMRT Repressor Complexes with Papillomavirus E8^E2C Proteins Inhibits Viral Replication.

    PubMed

    Dreer, Marcel; Fertey, Jasmin; van de Poel, Saskia; Straub, Elke; Madlung, Johannes; Macek, Boris; Iftner, Thomas; Stubenrauch, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) such as HPV16 and 31 can lead to ano-genital and oropharyngeal cancers and HPV types from the beta genus have been implicated in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. HPV replicate as nuclear extrachromosomal plasmids at low copy numbers in undifferentiated cells. HPV16 and 31 mutants have indicated that these viruses express an E8^E2C protein which negatively regulates genome replication. E8^E2C shares the DNA-binding and dimerization domain (E2C) with the essential viral replication activator E2 and the E8 domain replaces the replication/transcription activation domain of E2. The HR-HPV E8 domain is required for inhibiting viral transcription and the replication of the viral origin mediated by viral E1 and E2 proteins. We show now that E8^E2C also limits replication of HPV1, a mu-PV and HPV8, a beta-PV, in normal human keratinocytes. Proteomic analyses identified all NCoR/SMRT corepressor complex components (HDAC3, GPS2, NCoR, SMRT, TBL1 and TBLR1) as co-precipitating host cell proteins for HPV16 and 31 E8^E2C proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization experiments revealed that NCoR/SMRT components interact with HPV1, 8, 16 and 31 E8^E2C proteins in an E8-dependent manner. SiRNA knock-down experiments confirm that NCoR/SMRT components are critical for both the inhibition of transcription and HPV origin replication by E8^E2C proteins. Furthermore, a dominant-negative NCoR fragment activates transcription and replication only from HPV16 and 31 wt but not from mutant genomes encoding NCoR/SMRT-binding deficient E8^E2C proteins. In summary, our data suggest that the repressive function of E8^E2C is highly conserved among HPV and that it is mediated by an E8-dependent interaction with NCoR/SMRT complexes. Our data also indicate for the first time that NCoR/SMRT complexes not only are involved in inhibiting cellular and viral transcription but also in controlling the replication of HPV origins

  13. Interaction of NCOR/SMRT Repressor Complexes with Papillomavirus E8^E2C Proteins Inhibits Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Dreer, Marcel; Fertey, Jasmin; van de Poel, Saskia; Straub, Elke; Madlung, Johannes; Macek, Boris; Iftner, Thomas; Stubenrauch, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) such as HPV16 and 31 can lead to ano-genital and oropharyngeal cancers and HPV types from the beta genus have been implicated in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. HPV replicate as nuclear extrachromosomal plasmids at low copy numbers in undifferentiated cells. HPV16 and 31 mutants have indicated that these viruses express an E8^E2C protein which negatively regulates genome replication. E8^E2C shares the DNA-binding and dimerization domain (E2C) with the essential viral replication activator E2 and the E8 domain replaces the replication/transcription activation domain of E2. The HR-HPV E8 domain is required for inhibiting viral transcription and the replication of the viral origin mediated by viral E1 and E2 proteins. We show now that E8^E2C also limits replication of HPV1, a mu-PV and HPV8, a beta-PV, in normal human keratinocytes. Proteomic analyses identified all NCoR/SMRT corepressor complex components (HDAC3, GPS2, NCoR, SMRT, TBL1 and TBLR1) as co-precipitating host cell proteins for HPV16 and 31 E8^E2C proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization experiments revealed that NCoR/SMRT components interact with HPV1, 8, 16 and 31 E8^E2C proteins in an E8-dependent manner. SiRNA knock-down experiments confirm that NCoR/SMRT components are critical for both the inhibition of transcription and HPV origin replication by E8^E2C proteins. Furthermore, a dominant-negative NCoR fragment activates transcription and replication only from HPV16 and 31 wt but not from mutant genomes encoding NCoR/SMRT-binding deficient E8^E2C proteins. In summary, our data suggest that the repressive function of E8^E2C is highly conserved among HPV and that it is mediated by an E8-dependent interaction with NCoR/SMRT complexes. Our data also indicate for the first time that NCoR/SMRT complexes not only are involved in inhibiting cellular and viral transcription but also in controlling the replication of HPV origins

  14. Wolbachia Blocks Viral Genome Replication Early in Infection without a Transcriptional Response by the Endosymbiont or Host Small RNA Pathways.

    PubMed

    Rainey, Stephanie M; Martinez, Julien; McFarlane, Melanie; Juneja, Punita; Sarkies, Peter; Lulla, Aleksei; Schnettler, Esther; Varjak, Margus; Merits, Andres; Miska, Eric A; Jiggins, Francis M; Kohl, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The intracellular endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia can protect insects against viral infection, and is being introduced into mosquito populations in the wild to block the transmission of arboviruses that infect humans and are a major public health concern. To investigate the mechanisms underlying this antiviral protection, we have developed a new model system combining Wolbachia-infected Drosophila melanogaster cell culture with the model mosquito-borne Semliki Forest virus (SFV; Togaviridae, Alphavirus). Wolbachia provides strong antiviral protection rapidly after infection, suggesting that an early stage post-infection is being blocked. Wolbachia does appear to have major effects on events distinct from entry, assembly or exit as it inhibits the replication of an SFV replicon transfected into the cells. Furthermore, it causes a far greater reduction in the expression of proteins from the 3' open reading frame than the 5' non-structural protein open reading frame, indicating that it is blocking the replication of viral RNA. Further to this separation of the replicase proteins and viral RNA in transreplication assays shows that uncoupling of viral RNA and replicase proteins does not overcome Wolbachia's antiviral activity. This further suggests that replicative processes are disrupted, such as translation or replication, by Wolbachia infection. This may occur by Wolbachia mounting an active antiviral response, but the virus did not cause any transcriptional response by the bacterium, suggesting that this is not the case. Host microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in protection, but again we found that host cell miRNA expression was unaffected by the bacterium and neither do our findings suggest any involvement of the antiviral siRNA pathway. We conclude that Wolbachia may directly interfere with early events in virus replication such as translation of incoming viral RNA or RNA transcription, and this likely involves an intrinsic (as opposed to an induced

  15. Wolbachia Blocks Viral Genome Replication Early in Infection without a Transcriptional Response by the Endosymbiont or Host Small RNA Pathways

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Melanie; Juneja, Punita; Sarkies, Peter; Lulla, Aleksei; Schnettler, Esther; Varjak, Margus; Merits, Andres; Miska, Eric A.; Jiggins, Francis M.; Kohl, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The intracellular endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia can protect insects against viral infection, and is being introduced into mosquito populations in the wild to block the transmission of arboviruses that infect humans and are a major public health concern. To investigate the mechanisms underlying this antiviral protection, we have developed a new model system combining Wolbachia-infected Drosophila melanogaster cell culture with the model mosquito-borne Semliki Forest virus (SFV; Togaviridae, Alphavirus). Wolbachia provides strong antiviral protection rapidly after infection, suggesting that an early stage post-infection is being blocked. Wolbachia does appear to have major effects on events distinct from entry, assembly or exit as it inhibits the replication of an SFV replicon transfected into the cells. Furthermore, it causes a far greater reduction in the expression of proteins from the 3´ open reading frame than the 5´ non-structural protein open reading frame, indicating that it is blocking the replication of viral RNA. Further to this separation of the replicase proteins and viral RNA in transreplication assays shows that uncoupling of viral RNA and replicase proteins does not overcome Wolbachia’s antiviral activity. This further suggests that replicative processes are disrupted, such as translation or replication, by Wolbachia infection. This may occur by Wolbachia mounting an active antiviral response, but the virus did not cause any transcriptional response by the bacterium, suggesting that this is not the case. Host microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in protection, but again we found that host cell miRNA expression was unaffected by the bacterium and neither do our findings suggest any involvement of the antiviral siRNA pathway. We conclude that Wolbachia may directly interfere with early events in virus replication such as translation of incoming viral RNA or RNA transcription, and this likely involves an intrinsic (as opposed to an induced

  16. Early microbial translocation blockade reduces SIV-mediated inflammation and viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Kristoff, Jan; Haret-Richter, George; Ma, Dongzhu; Ribeiro, Ruy M.; Xu, Cuiling; Cornell, Elaine; Stock, Jennifer L.; He, Tianyu; Mobley, Adam D.; Ross, Samantha; Trichel, Anita; Wilson, Cara; Tracy, Russell; Landay, Alan; Apetrei, Cristian; Pandrea, Ivona

    2014-01-01

    Damage to the intestinal mucosa results in the translocation of microbes from the intestinal lumen into the circulation. Microbial translocation has been proposed to trigger immune activation, inflammation, and coagulopathy, all of which are key factors that drive HIV disease progression and non-HIV comorbidities; however, direct proof of a causal link is still lacking. Here, we have demonstrated that treatment of acutely SIV-infected pigtailed macaques with the drug sevelamer, which binds microbial lipopolysaccharide in the gut, dramatically reduces immune activation and inflammation and slightly reduces viral replication. Furthermore, sevelamer administration reduced coagulation biomarkers, confirming the contribution of microbial translocation in the development of cardiovascular comorbidities in SIV-infected nonhuman primates. Together, our data suggest that early control of microbial translocation may improve the outcome of HIV infection and limit noninfectious comorbidities associated with AIDS. PMID:24837437

  17. Hepatitis C Virus Translation Preferentially Depends on Active RNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Helene Minyi; Aizaki, Hideki; Machida, Keigo; Ou, J.-H. James; Lai, Michael M. C.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA initiates its replication on a detergent-resistant membrane structure derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the HCV replicon cells. By performing a pulse-chase study of BrU-labeled HCV RNA, we found that the newly-synthesized HCV RNA traveled along the anterograde-membrane traffic and moved away from the ER. Presumably, the RNA moved to the site of translation or virion assembly in the later steps of viral life cycle. In this study, we further addressed how HCV RNA translation was regulated by HCV RNA trafficking. When the movement of HCV RNA from the site of RNA synthesis to the Golgi complex was blocked by nocodazole, an inhibitor of ER-Golgi transport, HCV protein translation was surprisingly enhanced, suggesting that the translation of viral proteins occurred near the site of RNA synthesis. We also found that the translation of HCV proteins was dependent on active RNA synthesis: inhibition of viral RNA synthesis by an NS5B inhibitor resulted in decreased HCV viral protein synthesis even when the total amount of intracellular HCV RNA remained unchanged. Furthermore, the translation activity of the replication-defective HCV replicons or viral RNA with an NS5B mutation was greatly reduced as compared to that of the corresponding wildtype RNA. By performing live cell labeling of newly synthesized HCV RNA and proteins, we further showed that the newly synthesized HCV proteins colocalized with the newly synthesized viral RNA, suggesting that HCV RNA replication and protein translation take place at or near the same site. Our findings together indicate that the translation of HCV RNA is coupled to RNA replication and that the both processes may occur at the same subcellular membrane compartments, which we term the replicasome. PMID:22937067

  18. Replication protein of tobacco mosaic virus cotranslationally binds the 5′ untranslated region of genomic RNA to enable viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura-Nagaya, Kazue; Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Huang, Ying-Ping; Miyashita, Shuhei; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Genomic RNA of positive-strand RNA viruses replicate via complementary (i.e., negative-strand) RNA in membrane-bound replication complexes. Before replication complex formation, virus-encoded replication proteins specifically recognize genomic RNA molecules and recruit them to sites of replication. Moreover, in many of these viruses, selection of replication templates by the replication proteins occurs preferentially in cis. This property is advantageous to the viruses in several aspects of viral replication and evolution, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been characterized. Here, we used an in vitro translation system to show that a 126-kDa replication protein of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), a positive-strand RNA virus, binds a 5′-terminal ∼70-nucleotide region of TMV RNA cotranslationally, but not posttranslationally. TMV mutants that carried nucleotide changes in the 5′-terminal region and showed a defect in the binding were unable to synthesize negative-strand RNA, indicating that this binding is essential for template selection. A C-terminally truncated 126-kDa protein, but not the full-length 126-kDa protein, was able to posttranslationally bind TMV RNA in vitro, suggesting that binding of the 126-kDa protein to the 70-nucleotide region occurs during translation and before synthesis of the C-terminal inhibitory domain. We also show that binding of the 126-kDa protein prevents further translation of the bound TMV RNA. These data provide a mechanistic explanation of how the 126-kDa protein selects replication templates in cis and how fatal collision between translating ribosomes and negative-strand RNA-synthesizing polymerases on the genomic RNA is avoided. PMID:24711385

  19. Correlative light and electron microscopy enables viral replication studies at the ultrastructural level.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Kirsi; Vihinen, Helena; Kallio, Katri; Jokitalo, Eija; Ahola, Tero

    2015-11-15

    Electron microscopy (EM) is a powerful tool to study structural changes within cells caused e.g. by ectopic protein expression, gene silencing or virus infection. Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) has proven to be useful in cases when it is problematic to identify a particular cell among a majority of unaffected cells at the EM level. In this technique the cells of interest are first identified by fluorescence microscopy and then further processed for EM. CLEM has become crucial when studying positive-strand RNA virus replication, as it takes place in nanoscale replication sites on specific cellular membranes. Here we have employed CLEM for Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replication studies both by transfecting viral replication components to cells or by infecting different cell types. For the transfection-based system, we developed an RNA template that can be detected in the cells even in the absence of replication and thus allows exploration of lethal mutations in viral proteins. In infected mammalian and mosquito cells, we were able to find replication-positive cells by using a fluorescently labeled viral protein even in the cases of low infection efficiency. The fluorescent region within these cells was shown to correspond to an area rich in modified membranes. These results show that CLEM is a valuable technique for studying virus replication and membrane modifications at the ultrastructural level. PMID:25916619

  20. The Association of Receptor of Activated Protein Kinase C 1(RACK1) with Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Viral Protein VP5 and Voltage-dependent Anion Channel 2 (VDAC2) Inhibits Apoptosis and Enhances Viral Replication*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wencheng; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xu, Zhichao; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiaoqi; Cao, Hong; Wang, Yongqiang; Zheng, Shijun J.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious, and immunosuppressive avian disease caused by IBD virus (IBDV). Our previous report indicates that IBDV VP5 induces apoptosis via interaction with voltage-dependent anion channel 2 (VDAC2). However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. We report here that receptor of activated protein kinase C 1 (RACK1) interacts with both VDAC2 and VP5 and that they could form a complex. We found that overexpression of RACK1 inhibited IBDV-induced apoptosis in DF-1 cells and that knockdown of RACK1 by small interfering RNA induced apoptosis associated with activation of caspases 9 and 3 and suppressed IBDV growth. These results indicate that RACK1 plays an antiapoptotic role during IBDV infection via interaction with VDAC2 and VP5, suggesting that VP5 sequesters RACK1 and VDAC2 in the apoptosis-inducing process. PMID:25583988

  1. Oligomerization of Baculovirus LEF-11 Is Involved in Viral DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhan-Qi; Hu, Nan; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Ting-Ting; Cao, Ming-Ya; Li, Hai-Qing; Lei, Xue-Jiao; Chen, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Min-Hui

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that baculovirus Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) late expression factor 11 (lef-11) is associated with viral DNA replication and have demonstrated that it potentially interacts with itself; however, whether LEF-11 forms oligomers and the impact of LEF-11 oligomerization on viral function have not been substantiated. In this study, we first demonstrated that LEF-11 is capable of forming oligomers. Additionally, a series of analyses using BmNPV LEF-11 truncation mutants indicated that two distinct domains control LEF-11 oligomerization (aa 42–61 and aa 72–101). LEF-11 truncation constructs were inserted into a lef-11-knockout BmNPV bacmid, which was used to demonstrate that truncated LEF-11 lacking either oligomerization domain abrogates viral DNA replication. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis was used to determine that the conserved hydrophobic residues Y58&I59 (representing Y58 and I59), I85 and L88&L89 (representing L88 and L89) are required for LEF-11 oligomerization and viral DNA replication. Collectively, these data indicate that BmNPV LEF-11 oligomerization influences viral DNA replication. PMID:26660313

  2. Oligomerization of Baculovirus LEF-11 Is Involved in Viral DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhan-Qi; Hu, Nan; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Ting-Ting; Cao, Ming-Ya; Li, Hai-Qing; Lei, Xue-Jiao; Chen, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Min-Hui

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that baculovirus Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) late expression factor 11 (lef-11) is associated with viral DNA replication and have demonstrated that it potentially interacts with itself; however, whether LEF-11 forms oligomers and the impact of LEF-11 oligomerization on viral function have not been substantiated. In this study, we first demonstrated that LEF-11 is capable of forming oligomers. Additionally, a series of analyses using BmNPV LEF-11 truncation mutants indicated that two distinct domains control LEF-11 oligomerization (aa 42-61 and aa 72-101). LEF-11 truncation constructs were inserted into a lef-11-knockout BmNPV bacmid, which was used to demonstrate that truncated LEF-11 lacking either oligomerization domain abrogates viral DNA replication. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis was used to determine that the conserved hydrophobic residues Y58&I59 (representing Y58 and I59), I85 and L88&L89 (representing L88 and L89) are required for LEF-11 oligomerization and viral DNA replication. Collectively, these data indicate that BmNPV LEF-11 oligomerization influences viral DNA replication. PMID:26660313

  3. Enterovirus 71 induces autophagy by regulating has-miR-30a expression to promote viral replication.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuxuan; Xu, Wentao; Chen, Deyan; Feng, Chunhong; Zhang, Li; Wang, Xiaohui; Lv, Xiaowen; Zheng, Nan; Jin, Yu; Wu, Zhiwei

    2015-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), the etiological agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, has increasingly become a public health challenge around the world. Previous studies reported that EV71 infection can induce autophagic machinery to enhance viral replication in vitro and in vivo, but did not address the underlying mechanisms. Increasing evidence suggests that autophagy, in a virus-specific manner, may function to degrade viruses or facilitate viral replication. In this study, we reported that EV71 infection of human epidermoid carcinoma (Hep2) and African green monkey kidney cells (Vero) induced autophagy, which is beneficial for viral replication. Our investigation of the mechanisms revealed that EV71 infection resulted in the reduction of cellular miR-30a, which led to the inhibition of Beclin-1, a key autophagy-promoting gene that plays important roles at the early phase of autophagosome formation. We provided further evidence that by modulating cellular miR-30a level through either overexpression or inhibition, one can inhibit or promote EV71 replication, respectively, through regulating autophagic activity. PMID:26515789

  4. Overview of hepatitis B viral replication and genetic variability.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shuping; Revill, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) greatly increases the risk for liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV isolates worldwide can be divided into ten genotypes. Moreover, the immune clearance phase selects for mutations in different parts of the viral genome. The outcome of HBV infection is shaped by the complex interplay of the mode of transmission, host genetic factors, viral genotype and adaptive mutations, as well as environmental factors. Core promoter mutations and mutations abolishing hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) expression have been implicated in acute liver failure, while genotypes B, C, subgenotype A1, core promoter mutations, preS deletions, C-terminal truncation of envelope proteins, and spliced pregenomic RNA are associated with HCC development. Our efforts to treat and prevent HBV infection are hampered by the emergence of drug resistant mutants and vaccine escape mutants. This paper provides an overview of the HBV life cycle, followed by review of HBV genotypes and mutants in terms of their biological properties and clinical significance. PMID:27084035

  5. Nucleotides in the polyomavirus enhancer that control viral transcription and DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, W J; Berger, S L; Triezenberg, S J; Folk, W R

    1987-01-01

    The polyomavirus enhancer is required in cis for high-level expression of the viral early region and for replication of the viral genome. We introduced multiple mutations in the enhancer which reduced transcription and DNA replication. Polyomaviruses with these mutant enhancers formed very small plaques in whole mouse embryo cells. Revertants of the viral mutants were isolated and characterized. Reversion occurred by any of the following events: restoration of guanosines at nucleotide (nt) 5134 and nt 5140 within the adenovirus 5 E1A enhancer core AGGAAGTGACT; acquisition of an A----G mutation at nt 5258, which is the same mutation that enables polyomavirus to grow in embryonal carcinoma F9 cells; duplication of mutated sequences between nt 5146 and 5292 (including sequences homologous with immunoglobulin G, simian virus 40, and bovine papillomavirus enhancer elements). Reversion restored both the replicative and transcriptional functions of the viruses. Revertants that acquired the F9 mutation at nt 5258 grew at least 20-fold better than the original mutant in whole mouse embryo cells, but replicated only marginally better than the original mutant in 3T6 cells. Viruses with a reversion of the mutation at nt 5140 replicated equally well in both types of cells. Since individual nucleotides in the polyomavirus enhancer simultaneously altered DNA replication and transcription in specific cell types, it is likely that these processes rely upon a common element, such as an enhancer-binding protein. Images PMID:3037332

  6. Hepatitis B Virus Stimulated Fibronectin Facilitates Viral Maintenance and Replication through Two Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Sheng; Wang, Jun; Chen, Tie-Long; Li, Hao-Yu; Wan, Yu-Shun; Peng, Nan-Fang; Gui, Xi-En; Zhu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Fibronectin (FN) is a high molecular weight extracellular matrix protein that functions in cell adhesion, growth, migration, and embryonic development. However, little is known about the role of FN during viral infection. In the present study, we found significantly higher levels of FN in sera, and liver tissues from hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients relative to healthy individuals. HBV expression enhanced FN mRNA and protein levels in the hepatic cell lines Huh7 and HepG2. HBV infection of susceptible HepG2-sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide cells also increased FN expression. We also found that transcriptional factor specificity protein 1 was involved in the induction of FN by HBV. Knockdown of FN expression significantly inhibited HBV DNA replication and protein synthesis through activating endogenous IFN-α production. In addition, FN interacted with the transforming growth factor β-activated protein kinase 1 (TAK1) and TAK1-binding protein complex and attenuated interferon signaling by inhibiting TAK1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, the nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65 was found to be inhibited by FN. We also observed that FN promoted HBV enhancers to support HBV expression. These results suggest novel functions of endogenous FN involved in immune evasion and maintenance of HBV replication. PMID:27023403

  7. Thyroid hormone-dependent epigenetic suppression of herpes simplex virus-1 gene expression and viral replication in differentiated neuroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Figliozzi, Robert W; Chen, Feng; Balish, Matthew; Ajavon, Amakoe; Hsia, S Victor

    2014-11-15

    A global HSV-1 gene repression occurs during latency in sensory neurons where most viral gene transcriptions are suppressed. The molecular mechanisms of gene silencing and how stress factors trigger the reactivation are not well understood. Thyroid hormones are known to be altered due to stress, and with its nuclear receptor impart transcriptional repression or activation depending upon the hormone level. Therefore we hypothesized that triiodothyronine (T3) treatment of infected differentiated neuron like cells would reduce the ability of HSV-1 to produce viral progeny compared to untreated infected cells. Previously we identified putative thyroid hormone receptor elements (TREs) within the promoter regions of HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) and other key genes. Searching for a human cell line that can model neuronal HSV-1 infection, we performed HSV-1 infection experiments on differentiated human neuroendocrine cells, LNCaP. Upon androgen deprivation these cells undergo complete differentiation and exhibit neuronal-like morphology and physiology. These cells were readily infected by our HSV-1 recombinant virus, expressing GFP and maintaining many processes iconic of dendritic morphology. Our results demonstrated that differentiated LNCaP cells produced suppressive effects on HSV-1 gene expression and replication compared to its undifferentiated counterpart and T3 treatment has further decreased the viral plaque counts compared to untreated cells. Upon washout of the T3 viral plaque counts were restored, indicating an increase of viral replication. The qRT-PCR experiments using primers for TK showed reduced expression under T3 treatment. ChIP assays using a panel of antibodies for H3 lysine 9 epigenetic marks showed increased repressive marks on the promoter regions of TK. In conclusion we have demonstrated a T3 mediated quiescent infection in differentiated LNCaP cells that has potential to mimic latent infection. In this HSV-1 infection model thyroid hormone

  8. Thyroid Hormone-dependent Epigenetic Suppression of Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Gene Expression and Viral Replication in Differentiated Neuroendocrine Cells

    PubMed Central

    Figliozzi, Robert W.; Chen, Feng; Balish, Matthew; Ajavon, Amakoe; Hsia, S. Victor

    2014-01-01

    A global HSV-1 gene repression occurs during latency in sensory neurons where most viral gene transcriptions are suppressed. The molecular mechanisms of gene silencing and how stress factors trigger the reactivation are not well understood. Thyroid hormones are known to be altered due to stress, and with its nuclear receptor impart transcriptional repression or activation depending upon the hormone level. Therefore we hypothesized that triiodothyronine (T3) treatment of infected differentiated neuron like cells would reduce the ability of HSV-1 to produce viral progeny compared to untreated infected cells. Previously we identified putative thyroid hormone receptor elements (TREs) within the promoter regions of HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) and other key genes. Searching for a human cell line that can model neuronal HSV-1 infection, we performed HSV-1 infection experiments on differentiated human neuroendocrine cells, LNCaP. Upon androgen deprivation these cells undergo complete differentiation and exhibit neuronal-like morphology and physiology. These cells were readily infected by our HSV-1 recombinant virus, expressing GFP and maintaining many processes iconic of dendritic morphology. Our results demonstrated that differentiated LNCaP cells produced suppressive effects on HSV-1 gene expression and replication compared to its undifferentiated counterpart and T3 treatment have further decreased the viral plaque counts compared to untreated cells. Upon washout of the T3 viral plaque counts were restored, indicating an increase of viral replication. The qRT-PCR experiments using primers for TK showed reduced expression under T3 treatment. ChIP assays using a panel of antibodies for H3 lysine 9 epigenetic marks showed increased repressive marks on the promoter regions of TK. In conclusion we have demonstrated a T3 mediated quiescent infection in differentiated LNCaP cells that has potential to mimic latent infection. In this HSV-1 infection model thyroid hormone

  9. Hepatitis C Virus NS2 Protein Triggers Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Suppresses its Own Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    von dem Bussche, Annette; Machida, Raiki; Li, Ke; Loevinsohn, Gideon; Khander, Amrin; Wang, Jianguo; Wakita, Takaji; Wands, Jack R.; Li, Jisu

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims We previously reported that the NS2 protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) inhibits the expression of reporter genes driven by a variety of cellular and viral promoters. The aim of the study was to determine whether the broad transcriptional repression is caused by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Methods Phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α and HCV replication were detected by Western and Northern blot, respectively. De novo protein synthesis was measured by metabolic labeling. Activation of ER stress responsive genes was determined by promoter reporter assay, as well as mRNA and protein measurement by real time PCR and Western blot. Results Transient or inducible NS2 protein expression increased eIF2α phosphorylation and reduced de novo protein synthesis. It up-regulated promoter activities and transcript levels of ER stress inducible genes including GRP78, ATF6, and GADD153, as well as GRP78 protein level. The same effect was observed when NS2 was synthesized as part of the core-E1-E2-p7-NS2 polypeptide. NS2 protein also inhibited reporter gene expression from the HCV internal ribosome entry site and consequently reduced HCV replication. The full-length HCV replicon activated GRP78, ATF6, and GADD153 promoters more efficiently than the subgenomic replicon lacking the coding sequence for both the structural proteins and NS2. Abrogation of HCV infection/replication, by an inhibitor of the NS3 protease, relieved ER stress. Conclusions HCV infection can induce ER stress, with NS2 protein being a major mediator. The stress can be relieved by a feedback mechanism. PMID:20801537

  10. The Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Membranous Web and Associated Nuclear Transport Machinery Limit Access of Pattern Recognition Receptors to Viral Replication Sites

    PubMed Central

    Neufeldt, Christopher J.; Joyce, Michael A.; Van Buuren, Nicholas; Levin, Aviad; Kirkegaard, Karla; Gale Jr., Michael; Tyrrell, D. Lorne J.; Wozniak, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive-strand RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family and a major cause of liver disease worldwide. HCV replicates in the cytoplasm, and the synthesis of viral proteins induces extensive rearrangements of host cell membranes producing structures, collectively termed the membranous web (MW). The MW contains the sites of viral replication and assembly, and we have identified distinct membrane fractions derived from HCV-infected cells that contain replication and assembly complexes enriched for viral RNA and infectious virus, respectively. The complex membrane structure of the MW is thought to protect the viral genome limiting its interactions with cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and thereby preventing activation of cellular innate immune responses. Here we show that PRRs, including RIG-I and MDA5, and ribosomes are excluded from viral replication and assembly centers within the MW. Furthermore, we present evidence that components of the nuclear transport machinery regulate access of proteins to MW compartments. We show that the restricted assess of RIG-I to the MW can be overcome by the addition of a nuclear localization signal sequence, and that expression of a NLS-RIG-I construct leads to increased immune activation and the inhibition of viral replication. PMID:26863439

  11. The Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Membranous Web and Associated Nuclear Transport Machinery Limit Access of Pattern Recognition Receptors to Viral Replication Sites.

    PubMed

    Neufeldt, Christopher J; Joyce, Michael A; Van Buuren, Nicholas; Levin, Aviad; Kirkegaard, Karla; Gale, Michael; Tyrrell, D Lorne J; Wozniak, Richard W

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive-strand RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family and a major cause of liver disease worldwide. HCV replicates in the cytoplasm, and the synthesis of viral proteins induces extensive rearrangements of host cell membranes producing structures, collectively termed the membranous web (MW). The MW contains the sites of viral replication and assembly, and we have identified distinct membrane fractions derived from HCV-infected cells that contain replication and assembly complexes enriched for viral RNA and infectious virus, respectively. The complex membrane structure of the MW is thought to protect the viral genome limiting its interactions with cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and thereby preventing activation of cellular innate immune responses. Here we show that PRRs, including RIG-I and MDA5, and ribosomes are excluded from viral replication and assembly centers within the MW. Furthermore, we present evidence that components of the nuclear transport machinery regulate access of proteins to MW compartments. We show that the restricted assess of RIG-I to the MW can be overcome by the addition of a nuclear localization signal sequence, and that expression of a NLS-RIG-I construct leads to increased immune activation and the inhibition of viral replication. PMID:26863439

  12. (Mechanisms of inhibition of viral replication in plants)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    During the last year we have made a number of important observations in the fields of virology and plant molecular biology. By directly sequencing Tomato Mosaic Virus (ToMV) movement genes, previously undetected sequence alterations common to specific viral strains were found. The difficulty in regenerating transgenic tomato plants containing the Tm-2 gene was overcome. Tobacco plants transformed with Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) are being characterized. Analysis of transgenic tobacco plants expressing CMV coat protein have shown no correlation between coat protein expression and level of resistance. Specific amino acid changes have been found to correlate with CMV resistance breaking and degree of pathogenicity. Satellite RNAs are shown to be too unstable for use as a biological control agent. The aphid transmission domain CMV has been localized to one (or more) of three amino acids; constructs have been made to determine the exact amino acids involved. 15 refs.

  13. Ultrashort pulsed laser treatment inactivates viruses by inhibiting viral replication and transcription in the host nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Tsen, Shaw-Wei D.; Chapa, Travis; Beatty, Wandy; Xu, Baogang; Tsen, Kong-Thon; Achilefu, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation is a new method for virus reduction in pharmaceuticals and blood products. Current evidence suggests that ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation inactivates viruses through an impulsive stimulated Raman scattering process, resulting in aggregation of viral capsid proteins. However, the specific functional defect(s) in viruses inactivated in this manner have not been demonstrated. This information is critical for the optimization and the extension of this treatment platform to other applications. Toward this goal, we investigated whether viral internalization, replication, or gene expression in cells were altered by ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation. Murine Cytomegalovirus (MCMV), an enveloped DNA virus, was used as a model virus. Using electron and fluorescence microscopy, we found that laser-treated MCMV virions successfully internalized in cells, as evidenced by the detection of intracellular virions, which was confirmed by the detection of intracellular viral DNA via PCR. Although the viral DNA itself remained polymerase-amplifiable after laser treatment, no viral replication or gene expression was observed in cells infected with laser-treated virus. These results, along with evidence from previous studies, support a model whereby the laser treatment stabilizes the capsid, which inhibits capsid uncoating within cells. By targeting the mechanical properties of viral capsids, ultrashort pulsed laser treatment represents a unique potential strategy to overcome viral mutational escape, with implications for combatting emerging or drug-resistant pathogens. PMID:25086212

  14. Proteasome inhibitors induce apoptosis and reduce viral replication in primary effusion lymphoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saji, Chiaki; Higashi, Chizuka; Niinaka, Yasufumi; Yamada, Koji; Noguchi, Kohji; Fujimuro, Masahiro

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constitutive NF-{kappa}B signaling is essential for the survival and growth of PEL cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B signaling is upregulated by the proteasome-dependent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteasome inhibitors suppress NF-{kappa}B signaling and induce apoptosis in PEL cells through stabilization of I{kappa}B{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteasome inhibitors suppress viral replication in PEL cells during lytic KSHV infection. -- Abstract: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). This study provides evidence that proteasomal activity is required for both survival of PEL cells stably harboring the KSHV genome and viral replication of KSHV. We evaluated the cytotoxic effects of proteasome inhibitors on PEL cells. The proteasome inhibitors MG132, lactacystin, and proteasome inhibitor I dramatically inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of PEL cells through the accumulation of p21 and p27. Furthermore, proteasome inhibitors induced the stabilization of NF-{kappa}B inhibitory molecule (I{kappa}B{alpha}) and suppressed the transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B in PEL cells. The NF-{kappa}B specific inhibitor BAY11-7082 also induced apoptosis in PEL cells. The constitutive activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling is essential for the survival and growth of B cell lymphoma cells, including PEL cells. NF-{kappa}B signaling is upregulated by proteasome-dependent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}. The suppression of NF-{kappa}B signaling by proteasome inhibitors may contribute to the induction of apoptosis in PEL cells. In addition, proteasome activity is required for KSHV replication in KSHV latently infected PEL cells. MG132 reduced the production of progeny virus from PEL cells at low concentrations, which do not affect PEL cell growth. These findings suggest that proteasome inhibitors

  15. Role of Type I Interferon Signaling in Human Metapneumovirus Pathogenesis and Control of Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Andrew K.; Erickson, John J.; Schuster, Jennifer E.; Boyd, Kelli L.; Tollefson, Sharon J.; Johnson, Monika; Gilchuk, Pavlo; Joyce, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Type I IFN signaling, which is initiated through activation of the alpha interferon receptor (IFNAR), regulates the expression of proteins that are crucial contributors to immune responses. Paramyxoviruses, including human metapneumovirus (HMPV), have evolved mechanisms to inhibit IFNAR signaling, but the specific contribution of IFNAR signaling to the control of HMPV replication, pathogenesis, and adaptive immunity is unknown. We used IFNAR-deficient (IFNAR−/−) mice to assess the effect of IFNAR signaling on HMPV replication and the CD8+ T cell response. HMPV-infected IFNAR−/− mice had a higher peak of early viral replication but cleared the virus with kinetics similar to those of wild-type (WT) mice. However, IFNAR−/− mice infected with HMPV displayed less airway dysfunction and lung inflammation. CD8+ T cells of IFNAR−/− mice after HMPV infection expressed levels of the inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1) similar to those of WT mice. However, despite lower expression of inhibitory programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), HMPV-specific CD8+ T cells of IFNAR−/− mice were more functionally impaired than those of WT mice and upregulated the inhibitory receptor Tim-3. Analysis of the antigen-presenting cell subsets in the lungs revealed that the expansion of PD-L1low dendritic cells (DCs), but not PD-L1high alveolar macrophages, was dependent on IFNAR signaling. Collectively, our results indicate a role for IFNAR signaling in the early control of HMPV replication, disease progression, and the development of an optimal adaptive immune response. Moreover, our findings suggest an IFNAR-independent mechanism of lung CD8+ T cell impairment. IMPORTANCE Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a leading cause of acute respiratory illness. CD8+ T cells are critical for clearing viral infection, yet recent evidence shows that HMPV and other respiratory viruses induce CD8+ T cell impairment via PD-1–PD-L1 signaling. We sought to understand the role of

  16. Identification of a new dengue virus inhibitor that targets the viral NS4B protein and restricts genomic RNA replication.

    PubMed

    van Cleef, Koen W R; Overheul, Gijs J; Thomassen, Michael C; Kaptein, Suzanne J F; Davidson, Andrew D; Jacobs, Michael; Neyts, Johan; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; van Rij, Ronald P

    2013-08-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an important human arthropod-borne virus with a major impact on public health. Nevertheless, a licensed vaccine or specific treatment is still lacking. We therefore screened the NIH Clinical Collection (NCC), a library of drug-like small molecules, for inhibitors of DENV replication using a cell line that contains a stably replicating DENV serotype 2 (DENV2) subgenomic replicon. The most potent DENV inhibitor in the NCC was δ opioid receptor antagonist SDM25N. This compound showed antiviral activity against wild-type DENV2 in both Hela and BHK-21 cells, but not in the C6/36 cell line derived from the mosquito Aedes albopictus. The structurally related compound naltrindole also inhibited DENV replication, albeit less potently. Using a transient subgenomic replicon, we demonstrate that SDM25N restricts genomic RNA replication rather than translation of the viral genome. We identified a single amino acid substitution (F164L) in the NS4B protein that confers resistance to SDM25N. Remarkably, an NS4B amino acid substitution (P104L), which was previously shown to confer resistance to the DENV inhibitor NITD-618, also provided resistance to SDM25N. In conclusion, we have identified a new DENV inhibitor, SDM25N, which restricts genomic RNA replication by - directly or indirectly - targeting the viral NS4B protein. PMID:23735301

  17. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induced Synthesis of a Novel Viral Factor Mediates Efficient Replication of Genotype-1 Hepatitis E Virus

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Vidya P.; Madhvi, Abhilasha; Bakshi, Karishma; Srivastava, Akriti; Shalimar; Nayak, Baibaswata; CT, Ranjith Kumar; Surjit, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute hepatitis in many parts of the world including Asia, Africa and Latin America. Though self-limiting in normal individuals, it results in ~30% mortality in infected pregnant women. It has also been reported to cause acute and chronic hepatitis in organ transplant patients. Of the seven viral genotypes, genotype-1 virus infects humans and is a major public health concern in South Asian countries. Sporadic cases of genotype-3 and 4 infection in human and animals such as pigs, deer, mongeese have been reported primarily from industrialized countries. Genotype-5, 6 and 7 viruses are known to infect animals such as wild boar and camel, respectively. Genotype-3 and 4 viruses have been successfully propagated in the laboratory in mammalian cell culture. However, genotype-1 virus replicates poorly in mammalian cell culture and no other efficient model exists to study its life cycle. Here, we report that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress promotes genotype-1 HEV replication by inducing cap-independent, internal initiation mediated translation of a novel viral protein (named ORF4). Importantly, ORF4 expression and stimulatory effect of ER stress inducers on viral replication is specific to genotype-1. ORF4 protein sequence is mostly conserved among genotype-1 HEV isolates and ORF4 specific antibodies were detected in genotype-1 HEV patient serum. ORF4 interacted with multiple viral and host proteins and assembled a protein complex consisting of viral helicase, RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), X, host eEF1α1 (eukaryotic elongation factor 1 isoform-1) and tubulinβ. In association with eEF1α1, ORF4 stimulated viral RdRp activity. Furthermore, human hepatoma cells that stably express ORF4 or engineered proteasome resistant ORF4 mutant genome permitted enhanced viral replication. These findings reveal a positive role of ER stress in promoting genotype-1 HEV replication and pave the way towards development of an efficient model of the

  18. Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 2 Vector Induces Dendritic Cell Maturation Without Viral RNA Replication/Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Kenichiro; Fukumura, Masayuki; Ohtsuka, Junpei; Kawano, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The dendritic cell (DC), a most potent antigen-presenting cell, plays a key role in vaccine therapy against infectious diseases and malignant tumors. Although advantages of viral vectors for vaccine therapy have been reported, potential risks for adverse effects prevent them from being licensed for clinical use. Human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2), one of the members of the Paramyxoviridae family, is a nonsegmented and negative-stranded RNA virus. We have developed a reverse genetics system for the production of infectious hPIV2 lacking the F gene (hPIV2ΔF), wherein various advantages for vaccine therapy exist, such as cytoplasmic replication/transcription, nontransmissible infectivity, and extremely high transduction efficacy in various types of target cells. Here we demonstrate that hPIV2ΔF shows high transduction efficiency in human DCs, while not so high in mouse DCs. In addition, hPIV2ΔF sufficiently induces maturation of both human and murine DCs, and the maturation state of both human and murine DCs is almost equivalent to that induced by lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, alkylating agent β-propiolactone-inactivated hPIV2ΔF (BPL-hPIV2ΔF) elicits DC maturation without viral replication/transcription. These results suggest that hPIV2ΔF may be a useful tool for vaccine therapy as a novel type of paramyxoviral vector, which is single-round infectious vector and has potential adjuvant activity. PMID:23790317

  19. Epstein-Barr Virus BZLF1-Mediated Downregulation of Proinflammatory Factors Is Essential for Optimal Lytic Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuqing; Long, Xubing; Huang, Lu; Yang, Mengtian; Yuan, Yan; Wang, Yan; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Elevated secretion of inflammatory factors is associated with latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and the pathology of EBV-associated diseases; however, knowledge of the inflammatory response and its biological significance during the lytic EBV cycle remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the immediate early transcriptional activator BZLF1 suppresses the proinflammatory factor tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) by binding to the promoter of TNF-α and preventing NF-κB activation. A BZLF1Δ207-210 mutant with a deletion of 4 amino acids (aa) in the protein-protein binding domain was not able to inhibit the proinflammatory factors TNF-α and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and reduced viral DNA replication with complete transcriptional activity during EBV lytic gene expression. TNF-α depletion restored the viral replication mediated by BZLF1Δ207-210. Furthermore, a combination of TNF-α- and IFN-γ-neutralizing antibodies recovered BZLF1Δ207-210-mediated viral replication, indicating that BZLF1 attenuates the antiviral response to aid optimal lytic replication primarily through the inhibition of TNF-α and IFN-γ secretion during the lytic cycle. These results suggest that EBV BZLF1 attenuates the proinflammatory responses to facilitate viral replication. IMPORTANCE The proinflammatory response is an antiviral and anticancer strategy following the complex inflammatory phenotype. Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection strongly correlates with an elevated secretion of inflammatory factors in a variety of severe diseases, while the inflammatory responses during the lytic EBV cycle have not been established. Here, we demonstrate that BZLF1 acts as a transcriptional suppressor of the inflammatory factors TNF-α and IFN-γ and confirm that BZLF1-facilitated escape from the TNF-α and IFN-γ response during the EBV lytic life cycle is required for optimal viral replication. This finding implies that the EBV lytic cycle employs a distinct strategy to

  20. Replicational release of geminivirus genomes from tandemly repeated copies: evidence for rolling-circle replication of a plant viral DNA.

    PubMed

    Stenger, D C; Revington, G N; Stevenson, M C; Bisaro, D M

    1991-09-15

    Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of Nicotiana benthamiana plants with Ti plasmids containing tandem genome repeats derived from different strains of the gemini-virus beet curly top virus (BCTV) resulted in the production of unit-length recombinant progeny genomes in systemically infected plants. When two putative plus-strand origins of replication were present in constructs used as inocula, a replicational escape mechanism was favored that resulted in progeny genomes of a single predominant genotype. The genotype was dependent upon the arrangement of repeated parental genomes in the inocula. Sequencing across the junction between parental BCTV strains in the recombinant progeny allowed mapping of the plus-strand origin of replication to a 20-base-pair sequence within the conserved hairpin found in all geminivirus genomes. In contrast, when inocula contained tandemly repeated BCTV genome sequences but only a single conserved hairpin, a number of different progeny genotypes were simultaneously replicated in infected plants, a result expected if unit-length viral genomes were generated by random intramolecular recombination events. These results and other considerations indicate that geminivirus DNA replication occurs by a rolling-circle mechanism. PMID:1896448

  1. Recruitment of Arabidopsis RNA Helicase AtRH9 to the Viral Replication Complex by Viral Replicase to Promote Turnip Mosaic Virus Replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinzi; Xiong, Ruyi; Bernards, Mark; Wang, Aiming

    2016-01-01

    Positive-sense RNA viruses have a small genome with very limited coding capacity and are highly dependent on host components to fulfill their life cycle. Recent studies have suggested that DEAD-box RNA helicases play vital roles in many aspects of RNA metabolism. To explore the possible role of the RNA helicases in viral infection, we used the Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV)-Arabidopsis pathosystem. The Arabidopsis genome encodes more than 100 putative RNA helicases (AtRH). Over 41 Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants carrying genetic lesions in the corresponding 26 AtRH genes were screened for their requirement in TuMV infection. TuMV infection assays revealed that virus accumulation significantly decreased in the Arabidopsis mutants of three genes, AtRH9, AtRH26, and PRH75. In the present work, AtRH9 was further characterized. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays showed that AtRH9 interacted with the TuMV NIb protein, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Moreover, the subcellular distribution of AtRH9 was altered in the virus-infected cells, and AtRH9 was recruited to the viral replication complex. These results suggest that Arabidopsis AtRH9 is an important component of the TuMV replication complex, possibly recruited via its interaction with NIb. PMID:27456972

  2. Recruitment of Arabidopsis RNA Helicase AtRH9 to the Viral Replication Complex by Viral Replicase to Promote Turnip Mosaic Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yinzi; Xiong, Ruyi; Bernards, Mark; Wang, Aiming

    2016-01-01

    Positive-sense RNA viruses have a small genome with very limited coding capacity and are highly dependent on host components to fulfill their life cycle. Recent studies have suggested that DEAD-box RNA helicases play vital roles in many aspects of RNA metabolism. To explore the possible role of the RNA helicases in viral infection, we used the Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV)-Arabidopsis pathosystem. The Arabidopsis genome encodes more than 100 putative RNA helicases (AtRH). Over 41 Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants carrying genetic lesions in the corresponding 26 AtRH genes were screened for their requirement in TuMV infection. TuMV infection assays revealed that virus accumulation significantly decreased in the Arabidopsis mutants of three genes, AtRH9, AtRH26, and PRH75. In the present work, AtRH9 was further characterized. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays showed that AtRH9 interacted with the TuMV NIb protein, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Moreover, the subcellular distribution of AtRH9 was altered in the virus-infected cells, and AtRH9 was recruited to the viral replication complex. These results suggest that Arabidopsis AtRH9 is an important component of the TuMV replication complex, possibly recruited via its interaction with NIb. PMID:27456972

  3. Foot-and-mouth disease virus utilizes an autophagic pathway during viral replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the type species of the Aphthovirus genus, of the family Picornaviridae. Infection of cells with positive-strand RNA viruses results in a rearrangement of intracellular membranes into viral replication complexes. However, the origin of these membranes remains u...

  4. INSECT VIRUS: ASSAYS FOR VIRAL REPLICATION AND PERSISTENCE IN MAMMALIAN CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Viral pesticidal agents must be evaluated for potential health hazards prior to utilization. ssessment of the likelihood of replication in humans has included in vitro exposure of human cells to the potential pesticidal agent. revious in vitro evaluation strategies have lacked po...

  5. Influenza Virus Induces Inflammatory Response in Mouse Primary Cortical Neurons with Limited Viral Replication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gefei; Li, Rui; Jiang, Zhiwu; Gu, Liming; Chen, Yanxia; Dai, Jianping; Li, Kangsheng

    2016-01-01

    Unlike stereotypical neurotropic viruses, influenza A viruses have been detected in the brain tissues of human and animal models. To investigate the interaction between neurons and influenza A viruses, mouse cortical neurons were isolated, infected with human H1N1 influenza virus, and then examined for the production of various inflammatory molecules involved in immune response. We found that replication of the influenza virus in neurons was limited, although early viral transcription was not affected. Virus-induced neuron viability decreased at 6 h postinfection (p.i.) but increased at 24 h p.i. depending upon the viral strain. Virus-induced apoptosis and cytopathy in primary cortical neurons were not apparent at 24 h p.i. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and type I interferons were upregulated at 6 h and 24 h p.i. These results indicate that the influenza virus induces inflammatory response in mouse primary cortical neurons with limited viral replication. The cytokines released in viral infection-induced neuroinflammation might play critical roles in influenza encephalopathy, rather than in viral replication-induced cytopathy. PMID:27525278

  6. Influenza Virus Induces Inflammatory Response in Mouse Primary Cortical Neurons with Limited Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhiwu; Gu, Liming; Chen, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    Unlike stereotypical neurotropic viruses, influenza A viruses have been detected in the brain tissues of human and animal models. To investigate the interaction between neurons and influenza A viruses, mouse cortical neurons were isolated, infected with human H1N1 influenza virus, and then examined for the production of various inflammatory molecules involved in immune response. We found that replication of the influenza virus in neurons was limited, although early viral transcription was not affected. Virus-induced neuron viability decreased at 6 h postinfection (p.i.) but increased at 24 h p.i. depending upon the viral strain. Virus-induced apoptosis and cytopathy in primary cortical neurons were not apparent at 24 h p.i. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and type I interferons were upregulated at 6 h and 24 h p.i. These results indicate that the influenza virus induces inflammatory response in mouse primary cortical neurons with limited viral replication. The cytokines released in viral infection-induced neuroinflammation might play critical roles in influenza encephalopathy, rather than in viral replication-induced cytopathy. PMID:27525278

  7. Amphotericin B Inhibits Enterovirus 71 Replication by Impeding Viral Entry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fengwen; Zhao, Xiaoxiao; Hu, Siqi; Li, Jian; Yin, Lijuan; Mei, Shan; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Ying; Ren, Lili; Cen, Shan; Zhao, Zhendong; Wang, Jianwei; Jin, Qi; Liang, Chen; Ai, Bin; Guo, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease that leads to cardiopulmonary complications and death in young children. There is thus an urgent need to find new treatments to control EV71 infection. In this study, we report potent inhibition of EV71 by a polyene antibiotic Amphotericin B. Amphotericin B profoundly diminished the expression of EV71 RNA and viral proteins in the RD cells and the HEK293 cells. As a result, EV71 production was inhibited by Amphotericin B with an EC50 (50% effective concentration) of 1.75 μM in RD cells and 0.32 μM in 293 cells. In addition to EV71, EV68 was also strongly inhibited by Amphotericin B. Results of mechanistic studies revealed that Amphotericin B targeted the early stage of EV71 infection through impairing the attachment and internalization of EV71 by host cells. As an effective anti-fungi drug, Amphotericin B thus holds the promise of formulating a novel therapeutic to treat EV71 infection. PMID:27608771

  8. Amphotericin B Inhibits Enterovirus 71 Replication by Impeding Viral Entry

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fengwen; Zhao, Xiaoxiao; Hu, Siqi; Li, Jian; Yin, Lijuan; Mei, Shan; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Ying; Ren, Lili; Cen, Shan; Zhao, Zhendong; Wang, Jianwei; Jin, Qi; Liang, Chen; Ai, Bin; Guo, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease that leads to cardiopulmonary complications and death in young children. There is thus an urgent need to find new treatments to control EV71 infection. In this study, we report potent inhibition of EV71 by a polyene antibiotic Amphotericin B. Amphotericin B profoundly diminished the expression of EV71 RNA and viral proteins in the RD cells and the HEK293 cells. As a result, EV71 production was inhibited by Amphotericin B with an EC50 (50% effective concentration) of 1.75 μM in RD cells and 0.32 μM in 293 cells. In addition to EV71, EV68 was also strongly inhibited by Amphotericin B. Results of mechanistic studies revealed that Amphotericin B targeted the early stage of EV71 infection through impairing the attachment and internalization of EV71 by host cells. As an effective anti-fungi drug, Amphotericin B thus holds the promise of formulating a novel therapeutic to treat EV71 infection. PMID:27608771

  9. Role of pentraxin 3 in shaping arthritogenic alphaviral disease: from enhanced viral replication to immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Foo, Suan-Sin; Chen, Weiqiang; Taylor, Adam; Sheng, Kuo-Ching; Yu, Xing; Teng, Terk-Shin; Reading, Patrick C; Blanchard, Helen; Garlanda, Cecilia; Mantovani, Alberto; Ng, Lisa F P; Herrero, Lara J; Mahalingam, Suresh

    2015-02-01

    The rising prevalence of arthritogenic alphavirus infections, including chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV), and the lack of antiviral treatments highlight the potential threat of a global alphavirus pandemic. The immune responses underlying alphavirus virulence remain enigmatic. We found that pentraxin 3 (PTX3) was highly expressed in CHIKV and RRV patients during acute disease. Overt expression of PTX3 in CHIKV patients was associated with increased viral load and disease severity. PTX3-deficient (PTX3(-/-)) mice acutely infected with RRV exhibited delayed disease progression and rapid recovery through diminished inflammatory responses and viral replication. Furthermore, binding of the N-terminal domain of PTX3 to RRV facilitated viral entry and replication. Thus, our study demonstrates the pivotal role of PTX3 in shaping alphavirus-triggered immunity and disease and provides new insights into alphavirus pathogenesis. PMID:25695775

  10. Hepatitis B viral replication influences the expression of natural killer cell ligands

    PubMed Central

    Koumbi, Lemonica; Pollicino, Teresa; Raimondo, Giovanni; Kumar, Naveenta; Karayiannis, Peter; Khakoo, Salim I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is accounting for over one million deaths annually due to immune-mediated chronic liver damage. Natural killer (NK) cells are abundant in the liver and contribute in HBV persistence. NK cytotoxic effects are controlled by signals from activating and inhibitory receptors. HBV may circumvent host antiviral immunity via the regulation of NK receptors and their ligands. We investigated the effect of viral replication and HBeAg mutations on NK mediators expression in the livers of chronic HBV (CHB) patients and in cell cultures. Methods HBV monomers bearing hotspot mutations in the basal core promoter and precore region were transfected into HepG2 cells using a plasmid-free assay. Serum viremia and liver HBV RNA were measured in 19 CHB patients. The expression of HBV RNA and of NKG2D ligands, B7H6, DNAX accessory molecule-1, lectin-like transcript 1 (LLT1), LFA-1 and TRAIL was measured in the livers of CHB patients and transfected cells. Results In general, high HBV replication in CHB patients and cell lines upregulated the mRNA of all NK cell ligands and particularly the inhibitory NK cell ligand, LLT1. The exception was the NKG2D ligand, MICA, that was significantly decreased in patients with high serum viremia and intrahepatic HBV RNA levels. Conclusions HBV replication has differential effects on NK cell ligands suggesting a potential escape mechanisms through up-regulation of LLT1 and down-regulation of MICA. A general trend towards upregulating NK cell ligands can be counteracted by decreasing MICA and hence weakening NK surveillance. PMID:27366037

  11. Dynamic and Nucleolin-Dependent Localization of Human Cytomegalovirus UL84 to the Periphery of Viral Replication Compartments and Nucleoli

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions within subcellular compartments are required for viral genome replication. To understand the localization of the human cytomegalovirus viral replication factor UL84 relative to other proteins involved in viral DNA synthesis and to replicating viral DNA in infected cells, we created a recombinant virus expressing a FLAG-tagged version of UL84 (UL84FLAG) and used this virus in immunofluorescence assays. UL84FLAG localization differed at early and late times of infection, transitioning from diffuse distribution throughout the nucleus to exclusion from the interior of replication compartments, with some concentration at the periphery of replication compartments with newly labeled DNA and the viral DNA polymerase subunit UL44. Early in infection, UL84FLAG colocalized with the viral single-stranded DNA binding protein UL57, but colocalization became less prominent as infection progressed. A portion of UL84FLAG also colocalized with the host nucleolar protein nucleolin at the peripheries of both replication compartments and nucleoli. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of nucleolin resulted in a dramatic elimination of UL84FLAG from replication compartments and other parts of the nucleus and its accumulation in the cytoplasm. Reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation of viral proteins from infected cell lysates revealed association of UL84, UL44, and nucleolin. These results indicate that UL84 localization during infection is dynamic, which is likely relevant to its functions, and suggest that its nuclear and subnuclear localization is highly dependent on direct or indirect interactions with nucleolin. IMPORTANCE The protein-protein interactions among viral and cellular proteins required for replication of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA genome are poorly understood. We sought to understand how an enigmatic HCMV protein critical for virus replication, UL84, localizes relative to other viral and

  12. Dynamic and nucleolin-dependent localization of human cytomegalovirus UL84 to the periphery of viral replication compartments and nucleoli.

    PubMed

    Bender, Brian J; Coen, Donald M; Strang, Blair L

    2014-10-01

    Protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions within subcellular compartments are required for viral genome replication. To understand the localization of the human cytomegalovirus viral replication factor UL84 relative to other proteins involved in viral DNA synthesis and to replicating viral DNA in infected cells, we created a recombinant virus expressing a FLAG-tagged version of UL84 (UL84FLAG) and used this virus in immunofluorescence assays. UL84FLAG localization differed at early and late times of infection, transitioning from diffuse distribution throughout the nucleus to exclusion from the interior of replication compartments, with some concentration at the periphery of replication compartments with newly labeled DNA and the viral DNA polymerase subunit UL44. Early in infection, UL84FLAG colocalized with the viral single-stranded DNA binding protein UL57, but colocalization became less prominent as infection progressed. A portion of UL84FLAG also colocalized with the host nucleolar protein nucleolin at the peripheries of both replication compartments and nucleoli. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of nucleolin resulted in a dramatic elimination of UL84FLAG from replication compartments and other parts of the nucleus and its accumulation in the cytoplasm. Reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation of viral proteins from infected cell lysates revealed association of UL84, UL44, and nucleolin. These results indicate that UL84 localization during infection is dynamic, which is likely relevant to its functions, and suggest that its nuclear and subnuclear localization is highly dependent on direct or indirect interactions with nucleolin. Importance: The protein-protein interactions among viral and cellular proteins required for replication of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA genome are poorly understood. We sought to understand how an enigmatic HCMV protein critical for virus replication, UL84, localizes relative to other viral and cellular

  13. Mapping of Betapapillomavirus Human Papillomavirus 5 Transcription and Characterization of Viral-Genome Replication Function

    PubMed Central

    Sankovski, Eve; Männik, Andres; Geimanen, Jelizaveta; Ustav, Ene

    2014-01-01

    Betapapillomavirus replication and transcription have not been studied in detail because of a lack of suitable cellular systems supporting human papillomavirus (HPV) genome replication. We have recently shown that the human osteosarcoma cell line U2OS provides a useful environment for the genome replication of many different HPVs, including the betapapillomaviruses HPV5 and HPV8. Using mutational analysis and complementation assay, we demonstrated herein that the viral early proteins E1 and E2 are viral transfactors that are necessary and sufficient for HPV5 genome replication. We also identified four HPV5 early promoter regions with transcription start sites (TSSs) at nucleotides (nt) 184/191, 460, 840, and 1254, respectively, and the HPV late promoter with a TSS at nt 7640. In addition, we mapped the HPV5 early polyadenylation cleavage sites via 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3′RACE) to nt 4457 and 4475. In total, 14 different viral mRNA species, originating from the HPV5 genome, were mapped in U2OS cells during transient and stable replication. The main splicing donor and acceptor sites identified herein are consistent with the data previously obtained in HPV5-positive skin lesions. In addition, we identified novel E8 open reading frame (ORF)-containing transcripts (E8^E1C and E8^E2C) expressed from the HPV5 genome. Similar to several other papillomaviruses, the product of the E8^E2C mRNA acts as a repressor of viral genome replication. PMID:24198410

  14. Human polyoma JC virus minor capsid proteins, VP2 and VP3, enhance large T antigen binding to the origin of viral DNA replication: Evidence for their involvement in regulation of the viral DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Saribas, A. Sami; Mun, Sarah; Johnson, Jaslyn; El-Hajmoussa, Mohammad; White, Martyn K.; Safak, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    JC virus (JCV) lytically infects the oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system in a subset of immunocompromized patients and causes the demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. JCV replicates and assembles into infectious virions in the nucleus. However, understanding the molecular mechanisms of its virion biogenesis remains elusive. In this report, we have attempted to shed more light on this process by investigating molecular interactions between large T antigen (LT-Ag), Hsp70 and minor capsid proteins, VP2/VP3. We demonstrated that Hsp70 interacts with VP2/VP3 and LT-Ag; and accumulates heavily in the nucleus of the infected cells. We also showed that VP2/VP3 associates with LT-Ag through their DNA binding domains resulting in enhancement in LT-Ag DNA binding to Ori and induction in viral DNA replication. Altogether, our results suggest that VP2/VP3 and Hsp70 actively participate in JCV DNA replication and may play critical roles in coupling of viral DNA replication to virion encapsidation. PMID:24418532

  15. Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.-R.; Lei, H.-Y.; Liu, M.-T.; Wang, J.-R.; Chen, S.-H.; Jiang-Shieh, Y.-F.; Lin, Y.-S.; Yeh, T.-M.; Liu, C.-C.; Liu, H.-S.

    2008-05-10

    Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication.

  16. Sequence Variability in Viral Genome Non-coding Regions Likely Contribute to Observed Differences in Viral Replication Amongst MARV Strains

    PubMed Central

    ALONSO, JESUS A.; PATTERSON, JEAN L.

    2013-01-01

    The Marburg viruses Musoke (MARV-Mus) and Angola (MARV-Ang) have highly similar genomic sequences. Analysis of viral replication using various assays consistently identified MARV-Ang as the faster replicating virus. Non-coding genomic regions of negative sense RNA viruses are known to play a role in viral gene expression. A comparison of the six non-coding regions using bicistronic minigenomes revealed that the first two non-coding regions (NP / VP35 and VP35 / VP40) differed significantly in their transcriptional regulation. Deletion mutation analysis of the MARV-Mus NP / VP35 region further revealed that the MARV polymerase (L) is able to initiate production of the downstream gene without the presence of highly conserved regulatory signals. Bicistronic minigenome assays also identified the VP30 mRNA 5′ untranslated region as an rZAP-targeted RNA motif. Overall, our studies indicate that the high variation of MARV non-coding regions may play a significant role in observed differences in transcription and/or replication. PMID:23510675

  17. A cell-based screening system for influenza A viral RNA transcription/replication inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Makoto; Shimojima, Masayuki; Goto, Hideo; Watanabe, Shinji; Hatta, Yasuko; Kiso, Maki; Furuta, Yousuke; Horimoto, Taisuke; Peters, Noel R.; Hoffmann, F. Michael; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Although two classes of antivirals, NA inhibitors and M2 ion channel blockers, are licensed for influenza treatment, dual resistant mutants, including highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses, have appeared. Alternative treatment options are, therefore, needed. Influenza A viral RNA (vRNA) transcription/replication is a promising target for antiviral development, since it is essential for virus replication. Accordingly, an efficient and reliable method to identify vRNA transcription/replication inhibitors is desirable. Here, we developed a cell-based screening system by establishing a cell line that stably expresses influenza viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP). Compound library screening using this cell line allowed us to identify a compound that inhibits vRNA transcription/replication by using reporter protein expression from virus-like RNA as a readout and virus replication in vitro. vRNP-expressing cells have potential as a simple and convenient high-throughput screening (HTS) system, and, thus, are promising to identify vRNA transcription/replication inhibitors for various RNA viruses, especially for primary screens. PMID:23346363

  18. The Nuclear DNA Sensor IFI16 Acts as a Restriction Factor for Human Papillomavirus Replication through Epigenetic Modifications of the Viral Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Lo Cigno, Irene; De Andrea, Marco; Borgogna, Cinzia; Albertini, Silvia; Landini, Manuela M.; Peretti, Alberto; Johnson, Karen E.; Chandran, Bala; Landolfo, Santo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human interferon-inducible IFI16 protein, an innate immune sensor of intracellular DNA, was recently demonstrated to act as a restriction factor for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection by inhibiting both viral-DNA replication and transcription. Through the use of two distinct cellular models, this study provides strong evidence in support of the notion that IFI16 can also restrict human papillomavirus 18 (HPV18) replication. In the first model, an immortalized keratinocyte cell line (NIKS) was used, in which the IFI16 protein was knocked down through the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology and overexpressed following transduction with the adenovirus IFI16 (AdVIFI16) vector. The second model consisted of U2OS cells transfected by electroporation with HPV18 minicircles. In differentiated IFI16-silenced NIKS-HPV18 cells, viral-load values were significantly increased compared with differentiated control cells. Consistent with this, IFI16 overexpression severely impaired HPV18 replication in both NIKS and U2OS cells, thus confirming its antiviral restriction activity. In addition to the inhibition of viral replication, IFI16 was also able to reduce viral transcription, as demonstrated by viral-gene expression analysis in U2OS cells carrying episomal HPV18 minicircles and HeLa cells. We also provide evidence that IFI16 promotes the addition of heterochromatin marks and the reduction of euchromatin marks on viral chromatin at both early and late promoters, thus reducing both viral replication and transcription. Altogether, these results argue that IFI16 restricts chromatinized HPV DNA through epigenetic modifications and plays a broad surveillance role against viral DNA in the nucleus that is not restricted to herpesviruses. IMPORTANCE Intrinsic immunity is mediated by cellular restriction factors that are constitutively expressed and active even before a pathogen enters the cell. The host nuclear factor IFI

  19. RNA polymerase II is aberrantly phosphorylated and localized to viral replication compartments following herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, S A; Long, M C; Lam, V; Spencer, C A

    1994-01-01

    During lytic infection, herpes simplex virus subverts the host cell RNA polymerase II transcription machinery to efficiently express its own genome while repressing the expression of most cellular genes. The mechanism by which RNA polymerase II is directed to the viral delayed-early and late genes is still unresolved. We report here that RNA polymerase II is preferentially localized to viral replication compartments early after infection with herpes simplex virus type 1. Concurrent with recruitment of RNA polymerase II into viral compartments is a rapid and aberrant phosphorylation of the large subunit carboxy-terminal domain (CTD). Aberrant phosphorylation of the CTD requires early viral gene expression but is not dependent on viral DNA replication or on the formation of viral replication compartments. Localization of RNA polymerase II and modifications to the CTD may be instrumental in favoring transcription of viral genes and repressing specific transcription of cellular genes. Images PMID:8289400

  20. Mitochondrial Bioenergetic Alterations in Mouse Neuroblastoma Cells Infected with Sindbis Virus: Implications to Viral Replication and Neuronal Death

    PubMed Central

    Silva da Costa, Leandro; Pereira da Silva, Ana Paula; Da Poian, Andrea T.; El-Bacha, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic resources crucial for viral replication are provided by the host. Details of the mechanisms by which viruses interact with host metabolism, altering and recruiting high free-energy molecules for their own replication, remain unknown. Sindbis virus, the prototype of and most widespread alphavirus, causes outbreaks of arthritis in humans and serves as a model for the study of the pathogenesis of neurological diseases induced by alphaviruses in mice. In this work, respirometric analysis was used to evaluate the effects of Sindbis virus infection on mitochondrial bioenergetics of a mouse neuroblastoma cell lineage, Neuro 2a. The modulation of mitochondrial functions affected cellular ATP content and this was synchronous with Sindbis virus replication cycle and cell death. At 15 h, irrespective of effects on cell viability, viral replication induced a decrease in oxygen consumption uncoupled to ATP synthesis and a 36% decrease in maximum uncoupled respiration, which led to an increase of 30% in the fraction of oxygen consumption used for ATP synthesis. Decreased proton leak associated to complex I respiration contributed to the apparent improvement of mitochondrial function. Cellular ATP content was not affected by infection. After 24 h, mitochondria dysfunction was clearly observed as maximum uncoupled respiration reduced 65%, along with a decrease in the fraction of oxygen consumption used for ATP synthesis. Suppressed respiration driven by complexes I- and II-related substrates seemed to play a role in mitochondrial dysfunction. Despite the increase in glucose uptake and glycolytic flux, these changes were followed by a 30% decrease in ATP content and neuronal death. Taken together, mitochondrial bioenergetics is modulated during Sindbis virus infection in such a way as to favor ATP synthesis required to support active viral replication. These early changes in metabolism of Neuro 2a cells may form the molecular basis of neuronal dysfunction and Sindbis

  1. Roles of Phosphorylation of the Nucleocapsid Protein of Mumps Virus in Regulating Viral RNA Transcription and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Zengel, James; Pickar, Adrian; Xu, Pei; Lin, Alita

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mumps virus (MuV) is a paramyxovirus with a negative-sense nonsegmented RNA genome. The viral RNA genome is encapsidated by the nucleocapsid protein (NP) to form the ribonucleoprotein (RNP), which serves as a template for transcription and replication. In this study, we investigated the roles of phosphorylation sites of NP in MuV RNA synthesis. Using radioactive labeling, we first demonstrated that NP was phosphorylated in MuV-infected cells. Using both liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and in silico modeling, we identified nine putative phosphorylated residues within NP. We mutated these nine residues to alanine. Mutation of the serine residue at position 439 to alanine (S439A) was found to reduce the phosphorylation of NP in transfected cells by over 90%. The effects of these mutations on the MuV minigenome system were examined. The S439A mutant was found to have higher activity, four mutants had lower activity, and four mutants had similar activity compared to wild-type NP. MuV containing the S439A mutation had 90% reduced phosphorylation of NP and enhanced viral RNA synthesis and viral protein expression at early time points after infection, indicating that S439 is the major phosphorylation site of NP and its phosphorylation plays an important role in downregulating viral RNA synthesis. IMPORTANCE Mumps virus (MuV), a paramyxovirus, is an important human pathogen that is reemerging in human populations. Nucleocapsid protein (NP) of MuV is essential for viral RNA synthesis. We have identified the major phosphorylation site of NP. We have found that phosphorylation of NP plays a critical role in regulating viral RNA synthesis. The work will lead to a better understanding of viral RNA synthesis and possible novel targets for antiviral drug development. PMID:25948749

  2. Coxsackievirus B3 infection induces autophagic flux, and autophagosomes are critical for efficient viral replication.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaodan; Chen, Zijian; Tang, Shengjie; Wu, Fei; Xiong, Sidong; Dong, Chunsheng

    2016-08-01

    Autophagy is an intrinsic cellular process that can degrade cytoplasmic components. It has been reported that several pathogens hijack this process to facilitate their replication. Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), a member of the family Picornaviridae, induces autophagy upon infection. However, the details of CVB3-induced autophagy remain a subject of debate. This study applied a combination of multiple assays for the measurement of autophagy and demonstrated that CVB3 induces a complete autophagic flux. Experiments with infected HEK293A cells revealed that autophagosomes were induced upon CVB3 infection. Most of these autophagosomes were mCherry positive in mCherry-GFP-LC3 cells. Conversely, mCherry-positive autophagosomes were rescued to green positive when treated with the acidification inhibitors chloroquine (CQ) and bafilomycin A1 (BAF), suggesting that autophagosomes fused with late endosomes or lysosomes. The co-localization of LC3-positive puncta with lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) or LysoTracker confirmed that the autophagosomes fused primarily with lysosomes. Interestingly, the disruption of autophagosome formation by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or ATG5 siRNA treatment during viral infection significantly decreased CVB3 replication. However, inhibitors of lysosomal acidification, fusion, or degradation did not affect viral replication. Therefore, autolysosomes may not be critical for viral replication in vitro. PMID:27224983

  3. Usp18 Driven Enforced Viral Replication in Dendritic Cells Contributes to Break of Immunological Tolerance in Autoimmune Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong-Er; Iliakis, George; Xu, Haifeng C.; Häussinger, Dieter; Recher, Mike; Löhning, Max

    2013-01-01

    Infection with viruses carrying cross-reactive antigens is associated with break of immunological tolerance and induction of autoimmune disease. Dendritic cells play an important role in this process. However, it remains unclear why autoimmune-tolerance is broken during virus infection, but usually not during exposure to non-replicating cross-reactive antigens. Here we show that antigen derived from replicating virus but not from non-replicating sources undergoes a multiplication process in dendritic cells in spleen and lymph nodes. This enforced viral replication was dependent on Usp18 and was essential for expansion of autoreactive CD8+ T cells. Preventing enforced virus replication by depletion of CD11c+ cells, genetically deleting Usp18, or pharmacologically inhibiting of viral replication blunted the expansion of autoreactive CD8+ T cells and prevented autoimmune diabetes. In conclusion, Usp18-driven enforced viral replication in dendritic cells can break immunological tolerance and critically influences induction of autoimmunity. PMID:24204252

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase: effect on viral replication of mutations at highly conserved residues.

    PubMed

    Cannon, P M; Wilson, W; Byles, E; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    1994-08-01

    Sequence comparisons of the integrase (IN) proteins from different retroviruses have identified several highly conserved residues. We have introduced mutations at 16 of these sites into the integrase gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and analyzed the phenotypes of the resulting viruses. The viruses were all normal for p24 content and reverse transcriptase activity. In addition, all of the mutants could infect T-cell lines and undergo reverse transcription, as assessed by PCR analysis. Most of the mutant viruses also had normal Western blot (immunoblot) profiles, although three of the mutations resulted in reduced signals for IN relative to the wild type on the immunoblots and mutation of residue W235 completely abolished recognition of the protein by pooled sera from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-positive patients. Mutations that have previously been shown to abolish activity in in vitro studies produced noninfectious viruses. The substitution of W235 was notable in producing a noninfectious virus, despite previous reports of this residue being nonessential for IN activity in vitro (A.D. Leavitt, L. Shiue, and H.E. Varmus, J. Biol. Chem. 268:2113-2119, 1993). In addition, we have identified four highly conserved residues that can be mutated without any affect on viral replication in T-cell lines. PMID:8035478

  5. 3C protein of feline coronavirus inhibits viral replication independently of the autophagy pathway.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Li-En; Huang, Wei-Pang; Tang, Da-Jay; Wang, Ying-Ting; Chen, Ching-Tang; Chueh, Ling-Ling

    2013-12-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) can cause either asymptomatic enteric infection or fatal peritonitis in cats. Although the mutation of FCoV accessory gene 3c has been suggested to be related to the occurrence of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), how the 3C protein is involved in this phenomenon remains unknown. To investigate the role of the 3C protein, a full-length 3c gene was transiently expressed and the cytoplasmic distribution of the protein was found to be primarily in the perinuclear region. Using 3c-stable expression cells, the replication of a 3c-defective FCoV strain was titrated and a significant decrease in replication (p<0.05) was observed. The mechanism underlying the decreased FIPV replication caused by the 3C protein was further investigated; neither the induction nor inhibition of autophagy rescued the viral replication. Taken together, our data suggest that the 3C protein might have a virulence-suppressing effect in FCoV-infected cats. Deletion of the 3c gene could therefore cause more efficient viral replication, which leads to a fatal infection. PMID:24050534

  6. Viral Reorganization of the Secretory Pathway Generates Distinct Organelles for RNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Nai-Yun; Ilnytska, Olha; Belov, Georgiy; Santiana, Marianita; Chen, Ying-Han; Takvorian, Peter M.; Pau, Cyrilla; van der Schaar, Hilde; Kaushik-Basu, Neerja; Balla, Tamas; Cameron, Craig E.; Ehrenfeld, Ellie; van Kuppeveld, Frank J.M.; Altan-Bonnet, Nihal

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Many RNA viruses remodel intracellular membranes to generate specialized sites for RNA replication. How membranes are remodeled and what properties make them conducive for replication are unknown. Here we show how RNA viruses can manipulate multiple components of the cellular secretory pathway to generate organelles specialized for replication that are distinct in protein and lipid composition from the host cell. Specific viral proteins modulate effector recruitment by Arf1 GTPase and its guanine nucleotide exchange factor GBF1, promoting preferential recruitment of phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase IIIβ (PI4KIIIβ) to membranes over coat proteins, yielding uncoated phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) lipid-enriched organelles. The PI4P-rich lipid micro-environment is essential for both enteroviral and flaviviral RNA replication; PI4KIIIβ inhibition interferes with this process; and enteroviral RNA polymerases specifically bind PI4P. These findings reveal how RNA viruses can selectively exploit specific elements of the host to form specialized organelles where cellular phosphoinositide lipids are key to regulating viral RNA replication. PMID:20510927

  7. Intrinsic host restriction factors of human cytomegalovirus replication and mechanisms of viral escape

    PubMed Central

    Landolfo, Santo; De Andrea, Marco; Dell’Oste, Valentina; Gugliesi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Before a pathogen even enters a cell, intrinsic immune defenses are active. This first-line defense is mediated by a variety of constitutively expressed cell proteins collectively termed “restriction factors” (RFs), and they form a vital element of the immune response to virus infections. Over time, however, viruses have evolved in a variety ways so that they are able to overcome these RF defenses via mechanisms that are specific for each virus. This review provides a summary of the universal characteristics of RFs, and goes on to focus on the strategies employed by some of the most important RFs in their attempt to control human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. This is followed by a discussion of the counter-restriction mechanisms evolved by viruses to circumvent the host cell’s intrinsic immune defenses. RFs include nuclear proteins IFN-γ inducible protein 16 (IFI16) (a Pyrin/HIN domain protein), Sp100, promyelocytic leukemia, and hDaxx; the latter three being the keys elements of nuclear domain 10 (ND10). IFI16 inhibits the synthesis of virus DNA by down-regulating UL54 transcription - a gene encoding a CMV DNA polymerase; in response, the virus antagonizes IFI16 via a process involving viral proteins UL97 and pp65 (pUL83), which results in the mislocalizing of IFI16 into the cytoplasm. In contrast, viral regulatory proteins, including pp71 and IE1, seek to modify or disrupt the ND10 proteins and thus block or reverse their inhibitory effects upon virus replication. All in all, detailed knowledge of these HCMV counter-restriction mechanisms will be fundamental for the future development of new strategies for combating HCMV infection and for identifying novel therapeutic agents. PMID:27563536

  8. Intrinsic host restriction factors of human cytomegalovirus replication and mechanisms of viral escape.

    PubMed

    Landolfo, Santo; De Andrea, Marco; Dell'Oste, Valentina; Gugliesi, Francesca

    2016-08-12

    Before a pathogen even enters a cell, intrinsic immune defenses are active. This first-line defense is mediated by a variety of constitutively expressed cell proteins collectively termed "restriction factors" (RFs), and they form a vital element of the immune response to virus infections. Over time, however, viruses have evolved in a variety ways so that they are able to overcome these RF defenses via mechanisms that are specific for each virus. This review provides a summary of the universal characteristics of RFs, and goes on to focus on the strategies employed by some of the most important RFs in their attempt to control human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. This is followed by a discussion of the counter-restriction mechanisms evolved by viruses to circumvent the host cell's intrinsic immune defenses. RFs include nuclear proteins IFN-γ inducible protein 16 (IFI16) (a Pyrin/HIN domain protein), Sp100, promyelocytic leukemia, and hDaxx; the latter three being the keys elements of nuclear domain 10 (ND10). IFI16 inhibits the synthesis of virus DNA by down-regulating UL54 transcription - a gene encoding a CMV DNA polymerase; in response, the virus antagonizes IFI16 via a process involving viral proteins UL97 and pp65 (pUL83), which results in the mislocalizing of IFI16 into the cytoplasm. In contrast, viral regulatory proteins, including pp71 and IE1, seek to modify or disrupt the ND10 proteins and thus block or reverse their inhibitory effects upon virus replication. All in all, detailed knowledge of these HCMV counter-restriction mechanisms will be fundamental for the future development of new strategies for combating HCMV infection and for identifying novel therapeutic agents. PMID:27563536

  9. Mutations in the Cytoplasmic Domain of the Newcastle Disease Virus Fusion Protein Confer Hyperfusogenic Phenotypes Modulating Viral Replication and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Sweety; Khattar, Sunil K.; Paldurai, Anandan; Palaniyandi, Senthilkumar; Zhu, Xiaoping; Collins, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    The Newcastle disease virus (NDV) fusion protein (F) mediates fusion of viral and host cell membranes and is a major determinant of NDV pathogenicity. In the present study, we demonstrate the effects of functional properties of F cytoplasmic tail (CT) amino acids on virus replication and pathogenesis. Out of a series of C-terminal deletions in the CT, we were able to rescue mutant viruses lacking two or four residues (rΔ2 and rΔ4). We further rescued viral mutants with individual amino acid substitutions at each of these four terminal residues (rM553A, rK552A, rT551A, and rT550A). In addition, the NDV F CT has two conserved tyrosine residues (Y524 and Y527) and a dileucine motif (LL536-537). In other paramyxoviruses, these residues were shown to affect fusion activity and are central elements in basolateral targeting. The deletion of 2 and 4 CT amino acids and single tyrosine substitution resulted in hyperfusogenic phenotypes and increased viral replication and pathogenesis. We further found that in rY524A and rY527A viruses, disruption of the targeting signals did not reduce the expression on the apical or basolateral surface in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, whereas in double tyrosine mutant, it was reduced on both the apical and basolateral surfaces. Interestingly, in rL536A and rL537A mutants, the F protein expression was more on the apical than on the basolateral surface, and this effect was more pronounced in the rL537A mutant. We conclude that these wild-type residues in the NDV F CT have an effect on regulating F protein biological functions and thus modulating viral replication and pathogenesis. PMID:23843643

  10. MAIT cells are activated during human viral infections.

    PubMed

    van Wilgenburg, Bonnie; Scherwitzl, Iris; Hutchinson, Edward C; Leng, Tianqi; Kurioka, Ayako; Kulicke, Corinna; de Lara, Catherine; Cole, Suzanne; Vasanawathana, Sirijitt; Limpitikul, Wannee; Malasit, Prida; Young, Duncan; Denney, Laura; Moore, Michael D; Fabris, Paolo; Giordani, Maria Teresa; Oo, Ye Htun; Laidlaw, Stephen M; Dustin, Lynn B; Ho, Ling-Pei; Thompson, Fiona M; Ramamurthy, Narayan; Mongkolsapaya, Juthathip; Willberg, Christian B; Screaton, Gavin R; Klenerman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are abundant in humans and recognize bacterial ligands. Here, we demonstrate that MAIT cells are also activated during human viral infections in vivo. MAIT cells activation was observed during infection with dengue virus, hepatitis C virus and influenza virus. This activation-driving cytokine release and Granzyme B upregulation-is TCR-independent but dependent on IL-18 in synergy with IL-12, IL-15 and/or interferon-α/β. IL-18 levels and MAIT cell activation correlate with disease severity in acute dengue infection. Furthermore, HCV treatment with interferon-α leads to specific MAIT cell activation in vivo in parallel with an enhanced therapeutic response. Moreover, TCR-independent activation of MAIT cells leads to a reduction of HCV replication in vitro mediated by IFN-γ. Together these data demonstrate MAIT cells are activated following viral infections, and suggest a potential role in both host defence and immunopathology. PMID:27337592

  11. Targeting the pseudorabies virus DNA polymerase processivity factor UL42 by RNA interference efficiently inhibits viral replication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Ping; Huang, Li-Ping; Du, Wen-Juan; Wei, Yan-Wu; Wu, Hong-Li; Feng, Li; Liu, Chang-Ming

    2016-08-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a conserved gene-silencing mechanism in which small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) induce the sequence-specific degradation of homologous RNAs. It has been shown to be a novel and effective antiviral therapy against a wide range of viruses. The pseudorabies virus (PRV) processivity factor UL42 can enhance the catalytic activity of the DNA polymerase and is essential for viral replication, thus it may represent a potential drug target of antiviral therapy against PRV infection. Here, we synthesized three siRNAs (siR-386, siR-517, and siR-849) directed against UL42 and determined their antiviral activities in cell culture. We first examined the kinetics of UL42 expression and found it was expressed with early kinetics during PRV replication. We verified that siR-386, siR-517, and siR-849 efficiently inhibited UL42 expression in an in vitro transfection system, thereby validating their inhibitory effects. Furthermore, we confirmed that these three siRNAs induced potent inhibitory effects on UL42 expression after PRV infection, comparable to the positive control siRNA, siR-1046, directed against the PRV DNA polymerase, the UL30 gene product, which is essential for virus replication. In addition, PRV replication was markedly reduced upon downregulation of UL42 expression. These results indicate that UL42-targeted RNAi efficiently inhibits target gene expression and impairs viral replication. This study provides a new clue for the design of an intervention strategy against herpesviruses by targeting their processivity factors. PMID:27387827

  12. The critical protein interactions and structures that elicit growth deregulation in cancer and viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Horng D.; May, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in biomedicine is to define the critical targets and network interactions that are subverted to elicit growth deregulation in human cells. Understanding and developing rational treatments for cancer requires a definition of the key molecular targets and how they interact to elicit the complex growth deregulation phenotype. Viral proteins provide discerning and powerful probes to understand both how cells work and how they can be manipulated using a minimal number of components. The small DNA viruses have evolved to target inherent weaknesses in cellular protein interaction networks to hijack the cellular DNA and protein replication machinery. In the battle to escape the inevitability of senescence and programmed cell death, cancers have converged on similar mechanisms, through the acquisition and selection of somatic mutations that drive unchecked cellular replication in tumors. Understanding the dynamic mechanisms through which a minimal number of viral proteins promote host cells to undergo unscheduled and pathological replication is a powerful strategy to identify critical targets that are also disrupted in cancer. Viruses can therefore be used as tools to probe the system-wide protein-protein interactions and structures that drive growth deregulation in human cells. Ultimately this can provide a path for developing system context-dependent therapeutics. This review will describe ongoing experimental approaches using viruses to study pathways deregulated in cancer, with a particular focus on viral cellular protein-protein interactions and structures. PMID:21061422

  13. The critical protein interactions and structures that elicit growth deregulation in cancer and viral replication.

    PubMed

    Ou, Horng D; May, Andrew P; O'Shea, Clodagh C

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in biomedicine is to define the critical targets and network interactions that are subverted to elicit growth deregulation in human cells. Understanding and developing rational treatments for cancer requires a definition of the key molecular targets and how they interact to elicit the complex growth deregulation phenotype. Viral proteins provide discerning and powerful probes to understand both how cells work and how they can be manipulated using a minimal number of components. The small DNA viruses have evolved to target inherent weaknesses in cellular protein interaction networks to hijack the cellular DNA and protein replication machinery. In the battle to escape the inevitability of senescence and programmed cell death, cancers have converged on similar mechanisms, through the acquisition and selection of somatic mutations that drive unchecked cellular replication in tumors. Understanding the dynamic mechanisms through which a minimal number of viral proteins promote host cells to undergo unscheduled and pathological replication is a powerful strategy to identify critical targets that are also disrupted in cancer. Viruses can therefore be used as tools to probe the system-wide protein-protein interactions and structures that drive growth deregulation in human cells. Ultimately this can provide a path for developing system context-dependent therapeutics. This review will describe ongoing experimental approaches using viruses to study pathways deregulated in cancer, with a particular focus on viral cellular protein-protein interactions and structures. PMID:21061422

  14. Ginseng Protects Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus by Modulating Multiple Immune Cells and Inhibiting Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Yu-Na; Lee, Young-Tae; Hwang, Hye Suk; Kim, Ki-Hye; Ko, Eun-Ju; Kim, Min-Chul; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng has been used in humans for thousands of years but its effects on viral infection have not been well understood. We investigated the effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection using in vitro cell culture and in vivo mouse models. RGE partially protected human epithelial (HEp2) cells from RSV-induced cell death and viral replication. In addition, RGE significantly inhibited the production of RSV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) in murine dendritic and macrophage-like cells. More importantly, RGE intranasal pre-treatment prevented loss of mouse body weight after RSV infection. RGE treatment improved lung viral clearance and enhanced the production of interferon (IFN-γ) in bronchoalveolar lavage cells upon RSV infection of mice. Analysis of cellular phenotypes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids showed that RGE treatment increased the populations of CD8+ T cells and CD11c+ dendritic cells upon RSV infection of mice. Taken together, these results provide evidence that ginseng has protective effects against RSV infection through multiple mechanisms, which include improving cell survival, partial inhibition of viral replication and modulation of cytokine production and types of immune cells migrating into the lung. PMID:25658239

  15. Unraveling the Structure of Viral Replication Complexes at Super-Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Linnik, Olga; Liesche, Johannes; Tilsner, Jens; Oparka, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    During infection, many RNA viruses produce characteristic inclusion bodies that contain both viral and host components. These structures were first described over a century ago and originally termed “X-bodies,” as their function was not immediately appreciated. Whilst some inclusion bodies may represent cytopathic by-products of viral protein over-accumulation, X-bodies have emerged as virus “factories,” quasi-organelles that coordinate diverse viral infection processes such as replication, protein expression, evasion of host defenses, virion assembly, and intercellular transport. Accordingly, they are now generally referred to as viral replication complexes (VRCs). We previously used confocal fluorescence microscopy to unravel the complex structure of X-bodies produced by Potato virus X (PVX). Here we used 3D-structured illumination (3D-SIM) super-resolution microscopy to map the PVX X-body at a finer scale. We identify a previously unrecognized membrane structure induced by the PVX “triple gene block” (TGB) proteins, providing new insights into the complex interplay between virus and host within the X-body. PMID:23386855

  16. Unraveling the structure of viral replication complexes at super-resolution.

    PubMed

    Linnik, Olga; Liesche, Johannes; Tilsner, Jens; Oparka, Karl J

    2013-01-01

    During infection, many RNA viruses produce characteristic inclusion bodies that contain both viral and host components. These structures were first described over a century ago and originally termed "X-bodies," as their function was not immediately appreciated. Whilst some inclusion bodies may represent cytopathic by-products of viral protein over-accumulation, X-bodies have emerged as virus "factories," quasi-organelles that coordinate diverse viral infection processes such as replication, protein expression, evasion of host defenses, virion assembly, and intercellular transport. Accordingly, they are now generally referred to as viral replication complexes (VRCs). We previously used confocal fluorescence microscopy to unravel the complex structure of X-bodies produced by Potato virus X (PVX). Here we used 3D-structured illumination (3D-SIM) super-resolution microscopy to map the PVX X-body at a finer scale. We identify a previously unrecognized membrane structure induced by the PVX "triple gene block" (TGB) proteins, providing new insights into the complex interplay between virus and host within the X-body. PMID:23386855

  17. MAIT cells are activated during human viral infections

    PubMed Central

    van Wilgenburg, Bonnie; Scherwitzl, Iris; Hutchinson, Edward C.; Leng, Tianqi; Kurioka, Ayako; Kulicke, Corinna; de Lara, Catherine; Cole, Suzanne; Vasanawathana, Sirijitt; Limpitikul, Wannee; Malasit, Prida; Young, Duncan; Denney, Laura; Barnes, Eleanor; Ball, Jonathan; Burgess, Gary; Cooke, Graham; Dillon, John; Gore, Charles; Foster, Graham; Guha, Neil; Halford, Rachel; Herath, Cham; Holmes, Chris; Howe, Anita; Hudson, Emma; Irving, William; Khakoo, Salim; Koletzki, Diana; Martin, Natasha; Mbisa, Tamyo; McKeating, Jane; McLauchlan, John; Miners, Alec; Murray, Andrea; Shaw, Peter; Simmonds, Peter; Spencer, Chris; Targett-Adams, Paul; Thomson, Emma; Vickerman, Peter; Zitzmann, Nicole; Moore, Michael D.; Fabris, Paolo; Giordani, Maria Teresa; Oo, Ye Htun; Laidlaw, Stephen M.; Dustin, Lynn B.; Ho, Ling-Pei; Thompson, Fiona M.; Ramamurthy, Narayan; Mongkolsapaya, Juthathip; Willberg, Christian B.; Screaton, Gavin R.; Klenerman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are abundant in humans and recognize bacterial ligands. Here, we demonstrate that MAIT cells are also activated during human viral infections in vivo. MAIT cells activation was observed during infection with dengue virus, hepatitis C virus and influenza virus. This activation—driving cytokine release and Granzyme B upregulation—is TCR-independent but dependent on IL-18 in synergy with IL-12, IL-15 and/or interferon-α/β. IL-18 levels and MAIT cell activation correlate with disease severity in acute dengue infection. Furthermore, HCV treatment with interferon-α leads to specific MAIT cell activation in vivo in parallel with an enhanced therapeutic response. Moreover, TCR-independent activation of MAIT cells leads to a reduction of HCV replication in vitro mediated by IFN-γ. Together these data demonstrate MAIT cells are activated following viral infections, and suggest a potential role in both host defence and immunopathology. PMID:27337592

  18. hCLE/C14orf166, a cellular protein required for viral replication, is incorporated into influenza virus particles

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Frandsen, Ariel; de Lucas, Susana; Pérez-González, Alicia; Pérez-Cidoncha, Maite; Roldan-Gomendio, Alejandro; Pazo, Alejandra; Marcos-Villar, Laura; Landeras-Bueno, Sara; Ortín, Juan; Nieto, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    The influenza A virus polymerase associates with a number of cellular transcription-related factors, including the RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). We previously described that the cellular protein hCLE/C14orf166 interacts with and stimulates influenza virus polymerase as well as RNAP II activities. Here we show that, despite the considerable cellular shut-off observed in infected cells, which includes RNAP II degradation, hCLE protein levels increase throughout infection in a virus replication-dependent manner. Human and avian influenza viruses of various subtypes increase hCLE levels, but other RNA or DNA viruses do not. hCLE colocalises and interacts with viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNP) in the nucleus, as well as in the cytoplasm late in infection. Furthermore, biochemical analysis of purified virus particles and immunoelectron microscopy of infected cells show hCLE in virions, in close association with viral vRNP. These findings indicate that hCLE, a cellular protein important for viral replication, is one of the very few examples of transcription factors that are incorporated into particles of an RNA-containing virus. PMID:26864902

  19. A virally encoded small peptide regulates RTA stability and facilitates Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic replication.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Tareq; Yuan, Yan

    2013-03-01

    In both mammalian and viral genomes, a large proportion of sequences are transcribed and annotated as noncoding RNAs. A polyadenylated RNA of 3.0 kb (T3.0) is transcribed from the opposite strand of the open reading frame 50 (ORF50) DNA template in the genome of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and has been annotated previously as a noncoding RNA. ORF50 encodes the replication and transcription activator (RTA), which controls the switch of the virus between the latent and lytic phases of the life cycle. Here we show that T3.0 encodes a small peptide of 48 amino acids (designated viral small peptide 1 [vSP-1]). vSP-1 interacts with RTA at the protein abundance regulatory signal (PARS) motifs, and the association prevents RTA from being subjected to degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. As a consequence, vSP-1 facilitates KSHV gene expression and lytic replication. This finding reveals a novel mechanism of gene regulation in the viral life cycle. PMID:23302891

  20. Cyclophilin A Interacts with Viral VP4 and Inhibits the Replication of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nian; Zhang, Lizhou; Chen, Yuming; Lu, Zhen; Gao, Li; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Yulong; Gao, Honglei; Cui, Hongyu; Li, Kai; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    Nonstructural protein VP4, a serine protease of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of polyprotein pVP2-VP4-VP3 to form the viral proteins VP2, VP4, and VP3, is essential to the replication of IBDV. However, the interacting partners of VP4 in host cells and the effects of the interaction on the IBDV lifecycle remain incompletely elucidated. In this study, using the yeast two-hybrid system, the putative VP4-interacting partner cyclophilin A (CypA) was obtained from a chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) expression library. CypA was further confirmed to interact with VP4 of IBDV using co-immunoprecipitation (CO-IP), GST pull-down, and confocal microscopy assays. Moreover, we found that the overexpression of CypA suppressed IBDV replication, whereas the knock-down of CypA by small interfering RNAs promoted the replication of IBDV. Taken together, our findings indicate that the host cell protein CypA interacts with viral VP4 and inhibits the replication of IBDV. PMID:26090438

  1. Repression of bovine papilloma virus replication is mediated by a virally encoded trans-acting factor.

    PubMed

    Berg, L; Lusky, M; Stenlund, A; Botchan, M R

    1986-08-29

    Cells transformed with bovine papilloma virus type 1 mutants in the E6 or E6/7 genes are resistant to high-copy-number amplification of wild-type DNA after supertransfection. Transient and stable replication assays demonstrate this effect. If the supertransfected DNA has a mutation in a newly defined gene (M), this cellular immunity to high-copy-number replication is overcome, resulting in transient replication of the input DNA. In contrast, the resident plasmid does not participate in amplification and is maintained at a constant low copy number. Cotransformation of M- mutants and wild-type DNA into these cells leads to shutoff of replication of both genomes. Thus, M- mutants define a trans-acting negative modulator that regulates viral replication. This function is distinct from the positive factors required for replication. We propose a model that explains why the loss of E6 and E6/7 function leads to immunity of the infected cell. PMID:3017567

  2. Combination therapy including CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and entecavir induces early viral response and enhanced inhibition of viral replication in a woodchuck model of chronic hepadnaviral infection.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhongji; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Pei, Rongjuan; Zhang, Ejuan; Kemper, Thekla; Vollmer, Jörg; Davis, Heather L; Glebe, Dieter; Gerlich, Wolfram; Roggendorf, Michael; Lu, Mengji

    2016-01-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) stimulate immune cells via TLR9 and are potentially useful immunomodulators for the treatment of chronic viral infections. In the present study, different classes of CpGs were tested for their capacities for innate immune activation and antiviral activities in the woodchuck model. A class P CpG ODN was found to stimulate interferon (IFN) production in woodchuck peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro, and following subcutaneous administration in vivo, it was observed to induce IFN and MxA expression in woodchuck PBMCs. Combination treatment with CpG ODN and entecavir (ETV) led to effective suppression of the woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) load in the woodchucks, with early viral responses and inhibition of replication. The woodchuck hepatitis surface antigen (WHsAg) serum concentrations were strongly decreased by CpG and ETV together but not by either agent alone, indicating synergistic effects. However, viral control post-treatment was still transient, similar to that observed with ETV alone. Significantly elevated levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) but not of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in some of the woodchucks receiving CpG ODN were noted, but these increases were resolved before the completion of treatment and were not associated with an elevated serum bilirubin level or coagulation disorders, suggesting the absence of a significant safety concern. PMID:26585244

  3. Coat protein activation of alfalfa mosaic virus replication is concentration dependent.

    PubMed

    Guogas, Laura M; Laforest, Siana M; Gehrke, Lee

    2005-05-01

    Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and ilarvirus RNAs are infectious only in the presence of the viral coat protein; therefore, an understanding of coat protein's function is important for defining viral replication mechanisms. Based on in vitro replication experiments, the conformational switch model states that AMV coat protein blocks minus-strand RNA synthesis (R. C. Olsthoorn, S. Mertens, F. T. Brederode, and J. F. Bol, EMBO J. 18:4856-4864, 1999), while another report states that coat protein present in an inoculum is required to permit minus-strand synthesis (L. Neeleman and J. F. Bol, Virology 254:324-333, 1999). Here, we report on experiments that address these contrasting results with a goal of defining coat protein's function in the earliest stages of AMV replication. To detect coat-protein-activated AMV RNA replication, we designed and characterized a subgenomic luciferase reporter construct. We demonstrate that activation of viral RNA replication by coat protein is concentration dependent; that is, replication was strongly stimulated at low coat protein concentrations but decreased progressively at higher concentrations. Genomic RNA3 mutations preventing coat protein mRNA translation or disrupting coat protein's RNA binding domain diminished replication. The data indicate that RNA binding and an ongoing supply of coat protein are required to initiate replication on progeny genomic RNA transcripts. The data do not support the conformational switch model's claim that coat protein inhibits the initial stages of viral RNA replication. Replication activation may correlate with low local coat protein concentrations and low coat protein occupancy on the multiple binding sites present in the 3' untranslated regions of the viral RNAs. PMID:15827190

  4. Human cytomegalovirus RL13 protein interacts with host NUDT14 protein affecting viral DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guili; Ren, Gaowei; Cui, Xin; Lu, Zhitao; Ma, Yanping; Qi, Ying; Huang, Yujing; Liu, Zhongyang; Sun, Zhengrong; Ruan, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    The interaction between the host and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is important in determining the outcome of a viral infection. The HCMV RL13 gene product exerts independent, inhibitory effects on viral growth in fibroblasts and epithelial cells. At present, there are few reports on the interactions between the HCMV RL13 protein and human host proteins. The present study provided direct evidence for the specific interaction between HCMV RL13 and host nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X (nudix)‑type motif 14 (NUDT14), a UDP‑glucose pyrophosphatase, using two‑hybrid screening, an in vitro glutathione S‑transferase pull‑down assay, and co‑immunoprecipitation in human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells. Additionally, the RL13 protein was shown to co‑localize with the NUDT14 protein in the HEK293 cell membrane and cytoplasm, demonstrated using fluorescence confocal microscopy. Decreasing the expression level of NUDT14 via NUDT14‑specific small interfering RNAs increased the number of viral DNA copies in the HCMV‑infected cells. However, the overexpression of NUDT14 in a stably expressing cell line did not affect viral DNA levels significantly in the HCMV infected cells. Based on the known functions of NUDT14, the results of the present study suggested that the interaction between the RL13 protein and NUDT14 protein may be involved in HCMV DNA replication, and that NUDT14 may offer potential in the modulation of viral infection. PMID:26781650

  5. Proficient Replication of the Yeast Genome by a Viral DNA Polymerase.

    PubMed

    Stodola, Joseph L; Stith, Carrie M; Burgers, Peter M

    2016-05-27

    DNA replication in eukaryotic cells requires minimally three B-family DNA polymerases: Pol α, Pol δ, and Pol ϵ. Pol δ replicates and matures Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand of the replication fork. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pol δ is a three-subunit enzyme (Pol3-Pol31-Pol32). A small C-terminal domain of the catalytic subunit Pol3 carries both iron-sulfur cluster and zinc-binding motifs, which mediate interactions with Pol31, and processive replication with the replication clamp proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), respectively. We show that the entire N-terminal domain of Pol3, containing polymerase and proofreading activities, could be effectively replaced by those from bacteriophage RB69, and could carry out chromosomal DNA replication in yeast with remarkable high fidelity, provided that adaptive mutations in the replication clamp PCNA were introduced. This result is consistent with the model that all essential interactions for DNA replication in yeast are mediated through the small C-terminal domain of Pol3. The chimeric polymerase carries out processive replication with PCNA in vitro; however, in yeast, it requires an increased involvement of the mutagenic translesion DNA polymerase ζ during DNA replication. PMID:27072134

  6. Construction of a subgenomic CV-B3 replicon expressing emerald green fluorescent protein to assess viral replication of a cardiotropic enterovirus strain in cultured human cells.

    PubMed

    Wehbe, Michel; Huguenin, Antoine; Leveque, Nicolas; Semler, Bert L; Hamze, Monzer; Andreoletti, Laurent; Bouin, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    Coxsackieviruses B (CV-B) (Picornaviridae) are a common infectious cause of acute myocarditis in children and young adults, a disease, which is a precursor to 10-20% of chronic myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cases. The mechanisms involved in the disease progression from acute to chronic myocarditis phase and toward the DCM clinical stage are not fully understood but are influenced by both viral and host factors. Subgenomic replicons of CV-B can be used to assess viral replication mechanisms in human cardiac cells and evaluate the effects of potential antiviral drugs on viral replication activities. Our objectives were to generate a reporter replicon from a cardiotropic prototype CV-B3/28 strain and to characterize its replication properties into human cardiac primary cells. To obtain this replicon, a cDNA plasmid containing the full CV-B3/28 genome flanked by a hammerhead ribozyme sequence and an MluI restriction site was generated and used as a platform for the insertion of sequences encoding emerald green fluorescent protein (EmGFP) in place of those encoding VP3. In vitro transcribed RNA from this plasmid was transfected into HeLa cells and human primary cardiac cells and was able to produce EmGFP and VP1-containing polypeptides. Moreover, non-structural protein biological activity was assessed by the specific cleavage of eIF4G1 by viral 2A(pro). Viral RNA replication was indirectly demonstrated by inhibition assays, fluoxetine was added to cell culture and prevented the EmGFP synthesis. Our results indicated that the EmGFP CV-B3 replicon was able to replicate and translate as well as the CV-B3/28 prototype strain. Our EmGFP CV-B3 replicon will be a valuable tool to readily investigate CV-B3 replication activities in human target cell models. PMID:26800776

  7. Viral Evasion of Natural Killer Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi; Li, Xiaojuan; Kuang, Ersheng

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a key role in antiviral innate defenses because of their abilities to kill infected cells and secrete regulatory cytokines. Additionally, NK cells exhibit adaptive memory-like antigen-specific responses, which represent a novel antiviral NK cell defense mechanism. Viruses have evolved various strategies to evade the recognition and destruction by NK cells through the downregulation of the NK cell activating receptors. Here, we review the recent findings on viral evasion of NK cells via the impairment of NK cell-activating receptors and ligands, which provide new insights on the relationship between NK cells and viral actions during persistent viral infections. PMID:27077876

  8. Viral terminal protein directs early organization of phage DNA replication at the bacterial nucleoid

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Espín, Daniel; Holguera, Isabel; Ballesteros-Plaza, David; Carballido-López, Rut; Salas, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism leading to protein-primed DNA replication has been studied extensively in vitro. However, little is known about the in vivo organization of the proteins involved in this fundamental process. Here we show that the terminal proteins (TPs) of phages ϕ29 and PRD1, infecting the distantly related bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, respectively, associate with the host bacterial nucleoid independently of other viral-encoded proteins. Analyses of phage ϕ29 revealed that the TP N-terminal domain (residues 1–73) possesses sequence-independent DNA-binding capacity and is responsible for its nucleoid association. Importantly, we show that in the absence of the TP N-terminal domain the efficiency of ϕ29 DNA replication is severely affected. Moreover, the TP recruits the phage DNA polymerase to the bacterial nucleoid, and both proteins later are redistributed to enlarged helix-like structures in an MreB cytoskeleton-dependent way. These data disclose a key function for the TP in vivo: organizing the early viral DNA replication machinery at the cell nucleoid. PMID:20823229

  9. The influenza A virus PB2 polymerase subunit is required for the replication of viral RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Perales, B; Ortín, J

    1997-01-01

    The transcription and replication of influenza virus RNA (vRNA) were reconstituted in vivo. The experimental approach involved the transfection of plasmids encoding the viral subunits of the polymerase and the nucleoprotein into cells infected with a vaccinia virus recombinant virus expressing the T7 RNA polymerase. As templates, one of two model RNAs was transfected: vNSZ or cNSZ RNA. The RNAs were 240 nucleotides in length, contained the terminal sequences of the NS viral segment, and were of negative or positive polarity, respectively. The accumulation of cRNA and mRNA in cells transfected with vNSZ RNA and the accumulation of vRNA and mRNA in cells transfected with cNSZ RNA were determined by RNase protection assays with labeled vNSZ-L or cNSZ-L probes. The patterns of protected bands obtained indicated that both cRNA replication intermediate and mRNA accumulated when the system was reconstituted with vNSZ RNA. Likewise, both vRNA and mRNA accumulated after reconstitution with cNSZ RNA. The reconstitution of incomplete systems in which any of the subunits of the polymerase or the model RNA were omitted was completely negative for the accumulation of cRNA or vRNA, indicating that the presence of the PB2 subunit in the polymerase is required for replication of vRNA. PMID:8995663

  10. A prophage-encoded actin-like protein required for efficient viral DNA replication in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Catriona; Heyer, Antonia; Pfeifer, Eugen; Polen, Tino; Wittmann, Anja; Krämer, Reinhard; Frunzke, Julia; Bramkamp, Marc

    2015-05-26

    In host cells, viral replication is localized at specific subcellular sites. Viruses that infect eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells often use host-derived cytoskeletal structures, such as the actin skeleton, for intracellular positioning. Here, we describe that a prophage, CGP3, integrated into the genome of Corynebacterium glutamicum encodes an actin-like protein, AlpC. Biochemical characterization confirms that AlpC is a bona fide actin-like protein and cell biological analysis shows that AlpC forms filamentous structures upon prophage induction. The co-transcribed adaptor protein, AlpA, binds to a consensus sequence in the upstream promoter region of the alpAC operon and also interacts with AlpC, thus connecting circular phage DNA to the actin-like filaments. Transcriptome analysis revealed that alpA and alpC are among the early induced genes upon excision of the CGP3 prophage. Furthermore, qPCR analysis of mutant strains revealed that both AlpA and AlpC are required for efficient phage replication. Altogether, these data emphasize that AlpAC are crucial for the spatio-temporal organization of efficient viral replication. This is remarkably similar to actin-assisted membrane localization of eukaryotic viruses that use the actin cytoskeleton to concentrate virus particles at the egress sites and provides a link of evolutionary conserved interactions between intracellular virus transport and actin. PMID:25916847

  11. Diminished viral replication and compartmentalization of hepatitis C virus in hepatocellular carcinoma tissue.

    PubMed

    Harouaka, Djamila; Engle, Ronald E; Wollenberg, Kurt; Diaz, Giacomo; Tice, Ashley B; Zamboni, Fausto; Govindarajan, Sugantha; Alter, Harvey; Kleiner, David E; Farci, Patrizia

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and quasispecies distribution within the tumor of patients with HCV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can provide insight into the role of HCV in hepatocarcinogenesis and, conversely, the effect of HCC on the HCV lifecycle. In a comprehensive study of serum and multiple liver specimens from patients with HCC who underwent liver transplantation, we found a sharp and significant decrease in HCV RNA in the tumor compared with surrounding nontumorous tissues, but found no differences in multiple areas of control non-HCC cirrhotic livers. Diminished HCV replication was not associated with changes in miR-122 expression. HCV genetic diversity was significantly higher in livers containing HCC compared with control non-HCC cirrhotic livers. Tracking of individual variants demonstrated changes in the viral population between tumorous and nontumorous areas, the extent of which correlated with the decline in HCV RNA, suggesting HCV compartmentalization within the tumor. In contrast, compartmentalization was not observed between nontumorous areas and serum, or in controls between different areas of the cirrhotic liver or between liver and serum. Our findings indicate that HCV replication within the tumor is restricted and compartmentalized, suggesting segregation of specific viral variants in malignant hepatocytes. PMID:26787866

  12. A prophage-encoded actin-like protein required for efficient viral DNA replication in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Catriona; Heyer, Antonia; Pfeifer, Eugen; Polen, Tino; Wittmann, Anja; Krämer, Reinhard; Frunzke, Julia; Bramkamp, Marc

    2015-01-01

    In host cells, viral replication is localized at specific subcellular sites. Viruses that infect eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells often use host-derived cytoskeletal structures, such as the actin skeleton, for intracellular positioning. Here, we describe that a prophage, CGP3, integrated into the genome of Corynebacterium glutamicum encodes an actin-like protein, AlpC. Biochemical characterization confirms that AlpC is a bona fide actin-like protein and cell biological analysis shows that AlpC forms filamentous structures upon prophage induction. The co-transcribed adaptor protein, AlpA, binds to a consensus sequence in the upstream promoter region of the alpAC operon and also interacts with AlpC, thus connecting circular phage DNA to the actin-like filaments. Transcriptome analysis revealed that alpA and alpC are among the early induced genes upon excision of the CGP3 prophage. Furthermore, qPCR analysis of mutant strains revealed that both AlpA and AlpC are required for efficient phage replication. Altogether, these data emphasize that AlpAC are crucial for the spatio-temporal organization of efficient viral replication. This is remarkably similar to actin-assisted membrane localization of eukaryotic viruses that use the actin cytoskeleton to concentrate virus particles at the egress sites and provides a link of evolutionary conserved interactions between intracellular virus transport and actin. PMID:25916847

  13. Diminished viral replication and compartmentalization of hepatitis C virus in hepatocellular carcinoma tissue

    PubMed Central

    Harouaka, Djamila; Engle, Ronald E.; Wollenberg, Kurt; Diaz, Giacomo; Tice, Ashley B.; Zamboni, Fausto; Govindarajan, Sugantha; Alter, Harvey; Kleiner, David E.; Farci, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and quasispecies distribution within the tumor of patients with HCV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can provide insight into the role of HCV in hepatocarcinogenesis and, conversely, the effect of HCC on the HCV lifecycle. In a comprehensive study of serum and multiple liver specimens from patients with HCC who underwent liver transplantation, we found a sharp and significant decrease in HCV RNA in the tumor compared with surrounding nontumorous tissues, but found no differences in multiple areas of control non-HCC cirrhotic livers. Diminished HCV replication was not associated with changes in miR-122 expression. HCV genetic diversity was significantly higher in livers containing HCC compared with control non-HCC cirrhotic livers. Tracking of individual variants demonstrated changes in the viral population between tumorous and nontumorous areas, the extent of which correlated with the decline in HCV RNA, suggesting HCV compartmentalization within the tumor. In contrast, compartmentalization was not observed between nontumorous areas and serum, or in controls between different areas of the cirrhotic liver or between liver and serum. Our findings indicate that HCV replication within the tumor is restricted and compartmentalized, suggesting segregation of specific viral variants in malignant hepatocytes. PMID:26787866

  14. Cyclooxygenase activity is important for efficient replication of mouse hepatitis virus at an early stage of infection

    PubMed Central

    Raaben, Matthijs; Einerhand, Alexandra WC; Taminiau, Lucas JA; van Houdt, Michel; Bouma, Janneke; Raatgeep, Rolien H; Büller, Hans A; de Haan, Cornelis AM; Rossen, John WA

    2007-01-01

    Cyclooxygenases (COXs) play a significant role in many different viral infections with respect to replication and pathogenesis. Here we investigated the role of COXs in the mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) infection cycle. Blocking COX activity by different inhibitors or by RNA interference affected MHV infection in different cells. The COX inhibitors reduced MHV infection at a post-binding step, but early in the replication cycle. Both viral RNA and viral protein synthesis were affected with subsequent loss of progeny virus production. Thus, COX activity appears to be required for efficient MHV replication, providing a potential target for anti-coronaviral therapy. PMID:17555580

  15. Expression of Raf kinase inhibitor protein is downregulated in response to Newcastle disease virus infection to promote viral replication.

    PubMed

    Yin, Renfu; Liu, Xinxin; Bi, Yuhai; Xie, Guangyao; Zhang, Pingze; Meng, Xin; Ai, Lili; Xu, Rongyi; Sun, Yuzhang; Stoeger, Tobias; Ding, Zhuang

    2015-09-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a severe and economically significant disease affecting almost the entire poultry industry worldwide. However, factors that affect NDV replication in host cells are poorly understood. Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) is a physiological inhibitor of c-RAF kinase and NF-κB signalling, known for their functions in the control of immune response as well as tumour invasion and metastasis. In the present study, we investigated the consequences of overexpression of host RKIP during viral infection. We demonstrate that NDV infection represses RKIP expression thereby promoting virus replication. Experimental upregulation of RKIP in turn acts as a potential antiviral defence mechanism in host cells that restricts NDV replication by repressing the activation of Raf/MEK/ERK and IκBα/NF-κB signalling pathways. Our results not only extend the concept of linking NDV-host interactions, but also reveal RKIP as a new class of protein-kinase-inhibitor protein that affects NDV replication with therapeutic potential. PMID:26297355

  16. Development of replication-competent viral vectors for HIV vaccine delivery

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Christopher L.; Picker, Louis J.; King, C. Richter

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Briefly describe some of the replication-competent (RC) vectors being investigated for development of candidate HIV vaccines focusing primarily on technologies that have advanced to testing in macaques or have entered clinical trials. Recent findings RC viral vectors have advanced to the stage were decisions can be made regarding future development of HIV vaccines. The viruses being used as RC vector platforms vary considerably, and their unique attributes make it possible to test multiple vaccine design concepts and also mimic various aspects of an HIV infection. RC viral vectors encoding SIV or HIV proteins can be used to safely immunize macaques, and in some cases, there is evidence of significant vaccine efficacy in challenge protection studies. Several live HIV vaccine vectors are in clinical trials to evaluate immunogenicity, safety, the effect of mucosal delivery, and potential effects of pre-existing immunity. Summary A variety of DNA and RNA viruses are being used to develop RC viral vectors for HIV vaccine delivery. Multiple viral vector platforms have proven to be safe and immunogenic with evidence of efficacy in macaques. Some of the more advanced HIV vaccine prototypes based on vesicular stomatitis virus, vaccinia virus, measles virus, and Sendai virus are in clinical trials. PMID:23925000

  17. Enteroviruses harness the cellular endocytic machinery to remodel the host cell cholesterol landscape for effective viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Ilnytska, Olha; Santiana, Marianita; Hsu, Nai-Yun; Du, Wen-Li; Chen, Ying-Han; Viktorova, Ekaterina G.; Belov, Georgy; Brinker, Anita; Storch, Judith; Moore, Christopher; Dixon, Joseph L.; Altan-Bonnet, Nihal

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol is a critical component of cellular membranes, regulating assembly and function of membrane-based protein/lipid complexes. Many RNA viruses, including enteroviruses, remodel host membranes to generate organelles with unique lipid blueprints on which they assemble replication complexes and synthesize viral RNA. Here we find that clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is harnessed by enteroviruses to traffic cholesterol from the plasma membrane (PM) and extracellular medium to replication organelles where cholesterol then regulates viral polyprotein processing and facilitates genome synthesis. When CME is disrupted, cellular cholesterol pools are instead stored in lipid droplets; cholesterol cannot be trafficked to replication organelles; and replication is inhibited. In contrast, replication is stimulated in cholesterol-elevated cells like those lacking caveolins or those from Niemann-Pick disease patients. Our findings indicate cholesterol as a critical determinant for enteroviral replication and outline roles for the endocytic machinery in both the enteroviral lifecycle and host cell cholesterol homeostasis. PMID:24034614

  18. Enhancement of autophagy during lytic replication by the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus replication and transcription activator.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hui-Ju; Yang, Zhilong; Zhou, You; Wood, Charles

    2010-08-01

    Autophagy is one of two major degradation systems in eukaryotic cells. The degradation mechanism of autophagy is required to maintain the balance between the biosynthetic and catabolic processes and also contributes to defense against invading pathogens. Recent studies suggest that a number of viruses can evade or subvert the host cell autophagic pathway to enhance their own replication. Here, we investigated the effect of autophagy on the KSHV (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) life cycle. We found that the inhibition of autophagy reduces KSHV lytic reactivation from latency, and an enhancement of autophagy can be detected during KSHV lytic replication. In addition, RTA (replication and transcription activator), an essential viral protein for KSHV lytic reactivation, is able to enhance the autophagic process, leading to an increase in the number of autophagic vacuoles, an increase in the level of the lipidated LC3 protein, and the formation of autolysosomes. Moreover, the inhibition of autophagy affects RTA-mediated lytic gene expression and viral DNA replication. These results suggest that RTA increases autophagy activation to facilitate KSHV lytic replication. This is the first report demonstrating that autophagy is involved in the lytic reactivation of KSHV. PMID:20484505

  19. Epstein-Barr Virus LF2 Protein Regulates Viral Replication by Altering Rta Subcellular Localization▿†

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, Andreas M. F.; Calderwood, Michael A.; Johannsen, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The switch from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent infection to lytic replication is governed by two viral transactivators, Zta and Rta. We previously reported that the EBV protein LF2 binds Rta, inhibits Rta promoter activation, and blocks EBV replication in cells. In addition, LF2 induces SUMO2/3 modification of Rta. We now show that this modification occurs at four lysines within the Rta activation domain (426, 446, 517, and 530) and that sumoylation of Rta is not essential for its repression. Coexpression studies demonstrated that Rta is sequestered to the extranuclear cytoskeleton in the presence of LF2. We mapped the LF2 binding site to Rta amino acids (aa) 476 to 519 and showed that LF2 binding is critical for Rta relocalization and repression. The core of this binding site, Rta aa 500 to 526, confers LF2-mediated relocalization and repression onto the artificial transcription factor GAL4-VP16. Mutational analysis of LF2 provided further evidence that Rta redistribution is essential for repression. Rta localization changes during replication of the LF2-positive P3HR1 genome, but not during replication of the LF2-negative B95-8 genome. BLRF2 protein expression was decreased and delayed in P3HR1 cells compared with B95-8 cells, consistent with reduced Rta activity. By contrast, BMRF1 expression, regulated primarily by Zta, did not differ significantly between the two cell lines. Our results support a model in which LF2 regulates EBV replication by binding to Rta and redistributing it out of the nucleus. PMID:20631124

  20. A DNA Binding Protein Is Required for Viral Replication and Transcription in Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; Shi, Yanghui; Quan, Yanping; Nie, Zuoming; Zhang, Yaozhou; Yu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A DNA-binding protein (DBP) [GenBank accession number: M63416] of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) has been reported to be a regulatory factor in BmNPV, but its detailed functions remain unknown. In order to study the regulatory mechanism of DBP on viral proliferation, genome replication, and gene transcription, a BmNPV dbp gene knockout virus dbp-ko-Bacmid was generated by the means of Red recombination system. In addition, dbp-repaired virus dbp-re-Bacmid was constructed by the means of the Bac to Bac system. Then, the Bacmids were transfected into BmN cells. The results of this viral titer experiment revealed that the TCID50 of the dbp-ko-Bacmid was 0; however, the dbp-re-Bacmid was similar to the wtBacmid (p>0.05), indicating that the dbp-deficient would lead to failure in the assembly of virus particles. In the next step, Real-Time PCR was used to analyze the transcriptional phases of dbp gene in BmN cells, which had been infected with BmNPV. The results of the latter experiment revealed that the transcript of dbp gene was first detected at 3 h post-infection. Furthermore, the replication level of virus genome and the transcriptional level of virus early, late, and very late genes in BmN cells, which had been transfected with 3 kinds of Bacmids, were analyzed by Real-Time PCR. The demonstrating that the replication level of genome was lower than that of wtBacmid and dbp-re-Bacmid (p<0.01). The transcriptional level of dbp-ko-Bacmid early gene lef-3, ie-1, dnapol, late gene vp39 and very late gene p10 were statistically significantly lower than dbp-re-Bacmid and wtBacmid (p<0.01). The results presented are based on Western blot analysis, which indicated that the lack of dbp gene would lead to low expressions of lef3, vp39, and p10. In conclusion, dbp was not only essential for early viral replication, but also a viral gene that has a significant impact on transcription and expression during all periods of baculovirus life cycle. PMID:27414795

  1. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine inhibits replication of human enteroviruses B and D by targeting viral protein 2C.

    PubMed

    Ulferts, Rachel; van der Linden, Lonneke; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Lanke, Kjerstin H W; Leyssen, Pieter; Coutard, Bruno; De Palma, Armando M; Canard, Bruno; Neyts, Johan; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2013-04-01

    Although the genus Enterovirus contains many important human pathogens, there is no licensed drug for either the treatment or the prophylaxis of enterovirus infections. We report that fluoxetine (Prozac)--a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor--inhibits the replication of human enterovirus B (HEV-B) and HEV-D but does not affect the replication of HEV-A and HEV-C or human rhinovirus A or B. We show that fluoxetine interferes with viral RNA replication, and we identified viral protein 2C as the target of this compound. PMID:23335743

  2. Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Cavaliere, Valeria; Annoscia, Desiderato; Varricchio, Paola; Caprio, Emilio; Nazzi, Francesco; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2013-11-12

    Large-scale losses of honey bee colonies represent a poorly understood problem of global importance. Both biotic and abiotic factors are involved in this phenomenon that is often associated with high loads of parasites and pathogens. A stronger impact of pathogens in honey bees exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides has been reported, but the causal link between insecticide exposure and the possible immune alteration of honey bees remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin negatively modulates NF-κB immune signaling in insects and adversely affects honey bee antiviral defenses controlled by this transcription factor. We have identified in insects a negative modulator of NF-κB activation, which is a leucine-rich repeat protein. Exposure to clothianidin, by enhancing the transcription of the gene encoding this inhibitor, reduces immune defenses and promotes the replication of the deformed wing virus in honey bees bearing covert infections. This honey bee immunosuppression is similarly induced by a different neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, but not by the organophosphate chlorpyriphos, which does not affect NF-κB signaling. The occurrence at sublethal doses of this insecticide-induced viral proliferation suggests that the studied neonicotinoids might have a negative effect at the field level. Our experiments uncover a further level of regulation of the immune response in insects and set the stage for studies on neural modulation of immunity in animals. Furthermore, this study has implications for the conservation of bees, as it will contribute to the definition of more appropriate guidelines for testing chronic or sublethal effects of pesticides used in agriculture. PMID:24145453

  3. Herpes simplex virus origin-binding protein (UL9) loops and distorts the viral replication origin.

    PubMed Central

    Koff, A; Schwedes, J F; Tegtmeyer, P

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the role of the herpes simplex virus origin-binding protein (UL9) in the initiation of DNA replication, we have examined the effect of UL9 binding on the structure of the viral origin of replication. UL9 loops and alters the DNA helix of the origin regardless of the phasing of the binding sites. DNase I and micrococcal nuclease footprinting show that UL9 binds two sites in the origin and loops the AT-rich DNA between them independent of the topology of the DNA. KMnO4 and dimethyl sulfate footprinting further show that UL9 alters the DNA helix in the AT region. In contrast to the looping reaction, however, helical distortion requires the free energy of supercoiled DNA. UL9 also loops and distorts the origin DNA of a replication-defective mutant with a 6-bp insertion in the AT region. Because the helical distortion of this mutant DNA is different from that of functional origins, we conclude that an imperfect tertiary structure of the mutant DNA may contribute to its loss of replication function. Images PMID:1851878

  4. Phosphorylation of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and its role in replication of a plus-strand RNA virus.

    PubMed

    Jakubiec, Anna; Tournier, Vincent; Drugeon, Gabrièle; Pflieger, Stéphanie; Camborde, Laurent; Vinh, Joëlle; Héricourt, François; Redeker, Virginie; Jupin, Isabelle

    2006-07-28

    Central to the process of plus-strand RNA virus genome amplification is the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Understanding its regulation is of great importance given its essential function in viral replication and the common architecture and catalytic mechanism of polymerases. Here we show that Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) RdRp is phosphorylated, when expressed both individually and in the context of viral infection. Using a comprehensive biochemical approach, including metabolic labeling and mass spectrometry analyses, phosphorylation sites were mapped within an N-terminal PEST sequence and within the highly conserved palm subdomain of RNA polymerases. Systematic mutational analysis of the corresponding residues in a reverse genetic system demonstrated their importance for TYMV infectivity. Upon mutation of the phosphorylation sites, distinct steps of the viral cycle appeared affected, but in contrast to other plus-strand RNA viruses, the interaction between viral replication proteins was unaltered. Our results also highlighted the role of another TYMV-encoded replication protein as an antagonistic protein that may prevent the inhibitory effect of RdRp phosphorylation on viral infectivity. Based on these data, we propose that phosphorylation-dependent regulatory mechanisms are essential for viral RdRp function and virus replication. PMID:16717096

  5. Herpesvirus-dependent amplification and inversion of cell-associated viral thymidine kinase gene flanked by viral a sequences and linked to an origin of viral DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Mocarski, E S; Roizman, B

    1982-01-01

    The genome of herpes simplex virus 1 or 2 consists of two components, L and S, which invert relative to each other during infection. As a result, viral DNA consists of four equimolar populations of molecules differing solely in the relative orientations of the L and S components. Previous studies have shown that the a sequences, located in the same orientation at the genomic termini and in inverted orientation at the L-S junction, play a key role in the inversion of L and S components. In this report we describe a virus-dependent system designed to allow identification of the viral genes capable of acting in trans to invert DNA flanked by inverted copies of a sequences. In this system, cells are converted to the thymidine kinase-positive phenotype with a chimeric plasmid carrying the thymidine kinase gene flanked by inverted copies of the a sequence and linked to an origin of viral DNA replication derived from the S component. The DNA introduced into the cells is retained and propagated in its original sequence arrangement as head-to-tail concatemers. Infection of these cells with herpes simplex virus 1 or 2 results in as much as 100-fold amplification of the plasmid sequences and inversion of the DNA flanked by copies of the a sequence. In infected cells, the amplified resident DNA accumulates in head-to-tail concatemers and no rearrangement other than the inversions could be detected. These results suggest that the a sequence-dependent inversions required trans-acting viral gene products. Images PMID:6291055

  6. Replication of Epstein-Barr virus oriLyt: lack of a dedicated virally encoded origin-binding protein and dependence on Zta in cotransfection assays.

    PubMed Central

    Fixman, E D; Hayward, G S; Hayward, S D

    1995-01-01

    Using a transient replication assay in which cosmid DNAs were cotransfected into Vero cells, we had previously demonstrated that oriLyt replication required six Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded replication genes. No oriLyt origin-binding protein was identified in this study, but oriLyt replication in the cotransfection assay was also dependent on the three lytic cycle transactivators Zta, Rta, and Mta and an activity encoded by the EBV Sal/I F fragment. We have now used expression plasmids for the six known replication proteins to further examine the question of the requirement for an oriLyt origin-binding protein. The activity in Sal/I-F was shown to be encoded by BKRF3. The predicted product of this open reading frame is an enzyme, uracyl DNA glycosylase, not an origin-binding protein, and is dispensable for replication in assays using expression plasmids. BBLF2, which is positionally related to the gene for the herpes simplex virus (HSV) UL9 origin-binding protein, was confirmed to be expressed as a spliced transcript with BBLF3 and not as an independent product. Examination of the requirement for the EBV transactivators revealed that Rta, while contributing to replication efficiency, was dispensable. Mta could be substituted by HSV IE63, and in complementation experiments with HSV replication genes, Mta was no longer required for replication of EBV oriLyt, suggesting that the contribution of Mta to replication may be indirect. Zta continued to be required for detectable oriLyt replication both with the EBV replication proteins and in the complementation assays with HSV replication proteins. We conclude that EBV does not encode an equivalent of HSV UL9 and that Zta is the sole virally encoded protein serving an essential origin-binding function. PMID:7707526

  7. Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication and viral helicase by ethyl acetate extract of the marine feather star Alloeocomatella polycladia.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Atsuya; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Furuta, Atsushi; Matsuda, Yasuyoshi; Fujita, Osamu; Tani, Hidenori; Fujita, Yoshihisa; Fujimoto, Yuusuke; Ikeda, Masanori; Kato, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Naoya; Maekawa, Shinya; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Nakakoshi, Masamichi; Tsubuki, Masayoshi; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Noda, Naohiro; Tanaka, Junichi; Moriishi, Kohji

    2012-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a causative agent of acute and chronic hepatitis, leading to the development of hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We prepared extracts from 61 marine organisms and screened them by an in vitro fluorescence assay targeting the viral helicase (NS3), which plays an important role in HCV replication, to identify effective candidates for anti-HCV agents. An ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the feather star Alloeocomatella polycladia exhibited the strongest inhibition of NS3 helicase activity, with an IC(50) of 11.7 µg/mL. The extract of A. polycladia inhibited interaction between NS3 and RNA but not ATPase of NS3. Furthermore, the replication of the replicons derived from three HCV strains of genotype 1b in cultured cells was suppressed by the extract with an EC(50) value of 23 to 44 µg/mL, which is similar to the IC(50) value of the NS3 helicase assay. The extract did not induce interferon or inhibit cell growth. These results suggest that the unknown compound(s) included in A. polycladia can inhibit HCV replication by suppressing the helicase activity of HCV NS3. This study may present a new approach toward the development of a novel therapy for chronic hepatitis C. PMID:22690141

  8. Aptamers targeting rabies virus-infected cells inhibit viral replication both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hong-Ru; Liu, Quan; Zheng, Xue-Xing; Gai, Wei-Wei; Xue, Xiang-hong; Hu, Gui-Qiu; Wu, Hong-Xia; Wang, Hua-Lei; Yang, Song-Tao; Xia, Xian-Zhu

    2013-05-01

    Rabies is an acute fatal encephalitis disease that affects many warm-blooded mammals. The causative agent of the disease is Rabies virus (RABV). Currently, no approved therapy is available once the clinical signs have appeared. Aptamers, oligonucleotide ligands capable of binding a variety of molecular targets with high affinity and specificity, have recently emerged as promising therapeutic agents. In this study, sixteen high-affinity single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamers were generated by cell-SELEX. Viral titer assays revealed aptamers could specifically inhibit the replication of RABV in cells but did not inhibit the replication of canine distemper virus or canine parvovirus. In addition, the FO21 and FO24 aptamers, with and without PEGylation, were found to effectively protect mice against lethal RABV challenge. When mice were inoculated with aptamers for 24h prior to inoculation with CVS-11, approximately 87.5% of the mice survived. Here, we report aptamers that could significantly protect the mice from a lethal dose of RABV in vitro and in vivo, as demonstrated by the results for survival rate, weight loss and viral titers. These results indicate that FO21 and FO24 aptamers are a promising agent for specific antiviral against RABV infections. PMID:23333291

  9. Endemic versus epidemic viral spreads display distinct patterns of HTLV-2b replication

    SciTech Connect

    Gabet, Anne-Sophie; Moules, Vincent; Sibon, David; Nass, Catharie C.; Mortreux, Franck; Mauclere, Philippe; Gessain, Antoine; Murphy, Edward L.; Wattel, Eric . E-mail: wattel@lyon.fnclcc.fr

    2006-02-05

    As the replication pattern of leukemogenic PTLVs possesses a strong pathogenic impact, we investigated HTLV-2 replication in vivo in asymptomatic carriers belonging into 2 distinct populations infected by the same HTLV-2b subtype. They include epidemically infected American blood donors, in whom HTLV-2b has been present for only 30 years, and endemically infected Bakola Pygmies from Cameroon, characterized by a long viral endemicity (at least few generations). In blood donors, both the circulating proviral loads and the degree of infected cell proliferation were largely lower than those characterizing asymptomatic carriers infected with leukemogenic PTLVs (HTLV-1, STLV-1). This might contribute to explain the lack of known link between HTLV-2b infection and the development of malignancies in this population. In contrast, endemically infected individuals displayed high proviral loads resulting from the extensive proliferation of infected cells. The route and/or the duration of infection, viral genetic drift, host immune response, genetic background, co-infections or a combination thereof might have contributed to these differences between endemically and epidemically infected subjects. As the clonality pattern observed in endemically infected individuals is very reminiscent of that of leukemogenic PTLVs at the pre-leukemic stage, our results highlight the possible oncogenic effect of HTLV-2b infection in such population.

  10. A novel in vitro replication system for Dengue virus. Initiation of RNA synthesis at the 3'-end of exogenous viral RNA templates requires 5'- and 3'-terminal complementary sequence motifs of the viral RNA.

    PubMed

    You, S; Padmanabhan, R

    1999-11-19

    Positive strand viral replicases are membrane-bound complexes of viral and host proteins. The mechanism of viral replication and the role of host proteins are not well understood. To understand this mechanism, a viral replicase assay that utilizes extracts from dengue virus-infected mosquito (C6/36) cells and exogenous viral RNA templates is reported in this study. The 5'- and 3'-terminal regions (TR) of the template RNAs contain the conserved elements including the complementary (cyclization) motifs and stem-loop structures. RNA synthesis in vitro requires both 5'- and 3'-TR present in the same template molecule or when the 5'-TR RNA was added in trans to the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) RNA. However, the 3'-UTR RNA alone is not active. RNA synthesis occurs by elongation of the 3'-end of the template RNA to yield predominantly a double-stranded hairpin-like RNA product, twice the size of the template RNA. These results suggest that an interaction between 5'- and 3'-TR of the viral RNA that modulates the 3'-UTR RNA structure is required for RNA synthesis by the viral replicase. The complementary cyclization motifs of the viral genome also seem to play an important role in this interaction. PMID:10559263

  11. Integrative Functional Genomics of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Identifies Host Dependencies in Complete Viral Replication Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qisheng; Zhang, Yong-Yuan; Chiu, Stephan; Hu, Zongyi; Lan, Keng-Hsin; Cha, Helen; Sodroski, Catherine; Zhang, Fang; Hsu, Ching-Sheng; Thomas, Emmanuel; Liang, T. Jake

    2014-01-01

    Recent functional genomics studies including genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screens demonstrated that hepatitis C virus (HCV) exploits an extensive network of host factors for productive infection and propagation. How these co-opted host functions interact with various steps of HCV replication cycle and exert pro- or antiviral effects on HCV infection remains largely undefined. Here we present an unbiased and systematic strategy to functionally interrogate HCV host dependencies uncovered from our previous infectious HCV (HCVcc) siRNA screen. Applying functional genomics approaches and various in vitro HCV model systems, including HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp), single-cycle infectious particles (HCVsc), subgenomic replicons, and HCV cell culture systems (HCVcc), we identified and characterized novel host factors or pathways required for each individual step of the HCV replication cycle. Particularly, we uncovered multiple HCV entry factors, including E-cadherin, choline kinase α, NADPH oxidase CYBA, Rho GTPase RAC1 and SMAD family member 6. We also demonstrated that guanine nucleotide binding protein GNB2L1, E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2J1, and 39 other host factors are required for HCV RNA replication, while the deubiquitinating enzyme USP11 and multiple other cellular genes are specifically involved in HCV IRES-mediated translation. Families of antiviral factors that target HCV replication or translation were also identified. In addition, various virologic assays validated that 66 host factors are involved in HCV assembly or secretion. These genes included insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), a proviral factor, and N-Myc down regulated Gene 1 (NDRG1), an antiviral factor. Bioinformatics meta-analyses of our results integrated with literature mining of previously published HCV host factors allows the construction of an extensive roadmap of cellular networks and pathways involved in the complete HCV replication cycle. This comprehensive study of HCV host

  12. Bromovirus RNA replication and transcription require compatibility between the polymerase- and helicase-like viral RNA synthesis proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Dinant, S; Janda, M; Kroner, P A; Ahlquist, P

    1993-01-01

    The positive-strand RNA bromoviruses encode two nonstructural proteins, 1a and 2a, involved in RNA-dependent RNA replication. These proteins have extensive sequence similarities with methyltransferase, helicase, and polymerase proteins of other plant and animal viruses. 1a and 2a can also form a complex in vitro. To explore whether 1a-2a interaction is required for RNA replication in vivo, we reassorted the 1a and 2a genes from two different bromoviruses, brome mosaic virus (BMV) and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV). 1a and 2a were expressed independently of viral replication by using RNA- or DNA-based transient expression, and their in vivo RNA replication activities were tested in protoplasts with BMV and CCMV RNA3 templates. RNA-based transient expression confirmed prior indications that bromovirus RNA replication is more sensitive to reductions in 1a expression than to reductions in 2a expression. DNA-based expression of the homologous combinations of 1a and 2a supported high levels of RNA synthesis, but both 1a-2a heterologous combinations exhibited RNA synthesis defects. The combination of CCMV 1a and BMV 2a did not support detectable synthesis of negative-strand, positive-strand, or subgenomic RNA. The converse combination of BMV 1a and CCMV 2a was preferentially defective in positive-strand and subgenomic RNA accumulation, showing that 1a-2a interaction is involved in these processes in ways distinct from negative-strand RNA synthesis, which was only slightly affected. These results indicate that at least some functions of 1a and 2a operate in a mutually dependent manner in vivo and that the mechanisms of positive- and negative-strand RNA synthesis are differentiated in part by features of such interactions. Images PMID:8230440

  13. The logic of DNA replication in double-stranded DNA viruses: insights from global analysis of viral genomes

    PubMed Central

    Kazlauskas, Darius; Krupovic, Mart; Venclovas, Česlovas

    2016-01-01

    Genomic DNA replication is a complex process that involves multiple proteins. Cellular DNA replication systems are broadly classified into only two types, bacterial and archaeo-eukaryotic. In contrast, double-stranded (ds) DNA viruses feature a much broader diversity of DNA replication machineries. Viruses differ greatly in both completeness and composition of their sets of DNA replication proteins. In this study, we explored whether there are common patterns underlying this extreme diversity. We identified and analyzed all major functional groups of DNA replication proteins in all available proteomes of dsDNA viruses. Our results show that some proteins are common to viruses infecting all domains of life and likely represent components of the ancestral core set. These include B-family polymerases, SF3 helicases, archaeo-eukaryotic primases, clamps and clamp loaders of the archaeo-eukaryotic type, RNase H and ATP-dependent DNA ligases. We also discovered a clear correlation between genome size and self-sufficiency of viral DNA replication, the unanticipated dominance of replicative helicases and pervasive functional associations among certain groups of DNA replication proteins. Altogether, our results provide a comprehensive view on the diversity and evolution of replication systems in the DNA virome and uncover fundamental principles underlying the orchestration of viral DNA replication. PMID:27112572

  14. The logic of DNA replication in double-stranded DNA viruses: insights from global analysis of viral genomes.

    PubMed

    Kazlauskas, Darius; Krupovic, Mart; Venclovas, Česlovas

    2016-06-01

    Genomic DNA replication is a complex process that involves multiple proteins. Cellular DNA replication systems are broadly classified into only two types, bacterial and archaeo-eukaryotic. In contrast, double-stranded (ds) DNA viruses feature a much broader diversity of DNA replication machineries. Viruses differ greatly in both completeness and composition of their sets of DNA replication proteins. In this study, we explored whether there are common patterns underlying this extreme diversity. We identified and analyzed all major functional groups of DNA replication proteins in all available proteomes of dsDNA viruses. Our results show that some proteins are common to viruses infecting all domains of life and likely represent components of the ancestral core set. These include B-family polymerases, SF3 helicases, archaeo-eukaryotic primases, clamps and clamp loaders of the archaeo-eukaryotic type, RNase H and ATP-dependent DNA ligases. We also discovered a clear correlation between genome size and self-sufficiency of viral DNA replication, the unanticipated dominance of replicative helicases and pervasive functional associations among certain groups of DNA replication proteins. Altogether, our results provide a comprehensive view on the diversity and evolution of replication systems in the DNA virome and uncover fundamental principles underlying the orchestration of viral DNA replication. PMID:27112572

  15. Temperature-sensitive vaccinia virus mutants identify a gene with an essential role in viral replication.

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, R E; Anderson, M K; Evans, E; Traktman, P

    1990-01-01

    Vaccinia virus mutants ts2 and ts25, members of the same complementation group, exhibit a temperature-dependent arrest at the stage of viral DNA replication. The lesions responsible for the mutant phenotypes have been localized to the far left region of the HindIII B genomic fragment by marker rescue studies. Hybrid selection analyses established that the DNA fragments positive for rescue represented the first open reading frame of the HindIII B fragment and encoded a 30-kilodalton protein. The gene is expressed early after infection as a rightwardly transcribed 1-kilobase-pair mRNA whose coordinates were determined by S1 nuclease mapping. To further the phenotypic analysis of the mutants, the accumulation of viral DNA sequences during permissive and nonpermissive infections was quantitated. The extent of the DNA- phenotype was shown to vary in different cell types. In mouse L cells at either high or low multiplicity of infection, nonpermissive DNA synthesis was less than 5% of that seen in permissive infections. This severe defect was mirrored by correspondingly low viral yields. In infections of BSC40 monkey cells, however, the deficiencies in both DNA synthesis and virus production were far less severe. For one mutant (ts2), the temperature sensitivity in BSC40 cells varied inversely with the multiplicity of infection. Images PMID:2296077

  16. The anti-obesity drug orlistat reveals anti-viral activity.

    PubMed

    Ammer, Elisabeth; Nietzsche, Sandor; Rien, Christian; Kühnl, Alexander; Mader, Theresa; Heller, Regine; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Henke, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The administration of drugs to inhibit metabolic pathways not only reduces the risk of obesity-induced diseases in humans but may also hamper the replication of different viral pathogens. In order to investigate the value of the US Food and Drug Administration-approved anti-obesity drug orlistat in view of its anti-viral activity against different human-pathogenic viruses, several anti-viral studies, electron microscopy analyses as well as fatty acid uptake experiments were performed. The results indicate that administrations of non-cytotoxic concentrations of orlistat reduced the replication of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) in different cell types significantly. Moreover, orlistat revealed cell protective effects and modified the formation of multi-layered structures in CVB3-infected cells, which are necessary for viral replication. Lowering fatty acid uptake from the extracellular environment by phloretin administrations had only marginal impact on CVB3 replication. Finally, orlistat reduced also the replication of varicella-zoster virus moderately but had no significant influence on the replication of influenza A viruses. The data support further experiments into the value of orlistat as an inhibitor of the fatty acid synthase to develop new anti-viral compounds, which are based on the modulation of cellular metabolic pathways. PMID:25680890

  17. Cytokine influence on simian immunodeficiency virus replication within primary macrophages. TNF-alpha, but not GMCSF, enhances viral replication on a per-cell basis.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, D. G.; Horvath, C. J.; Hansen-Moosa, A.; MacKey, J. J.; Sehgal, P. K.; Daniel, M. D.; Desrosiers, R. C.; Ringler, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The control of HIV-1 or SIV replication within macrophages is probably influenced by a variety of viral and cellular factors. Of the cellular factors, the authors have studied cytokine influence on SIV replication in vitro utilizing simian alveolar macrophages and uncloned SIVmacMTV, a macrophage-tropic variant. The approach allowed quantification of viral replication on a per-cell basis. As reported for HIV-1 replication in macrophages, TNF-alpha significantly increased SIV production in these macrophage cultures. GMCSF also resulted in marked increases in SIV gag protein in culture supernatants. However, after correcting for differences in total cell numbers and numbers of gag-containing cells in the treated and untreated cultures, GMCSF did not upregulate SIV production on a per-cell basis. IL-6 increased SIV replication little if at all but induced significantly greater cytopathic changes in the treated cultures compared with infected, untreated cultures. In contrast, IFN-gamma greatly decreased replication. Our results for GMCSF, IFN-gamma, and IL-6 are in contrast to previously published reports of cytokine control of HIV-1 growth in target cells, and they stress the importance of cell number analyses and the use of primary cultures in the study of lentiviral replication kinetics in macrophages. Images Figure 5 PMID:1928304

  18. A truncated form of Nef selected during pathogenic reversion of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239Deltanef increases viral replication.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Lisa A; Metzner, Karin J; Ivanovic, Tijana; Cheng, Hua; Louis-Virelizier, Jean; Connor, Ruth I; Cheng-Mayer, Cecilia

    2003-01-01

    The live, attenuated vaccine simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239Deltanef efficiently protects rhesus macaques against infection with wild-type SIVmac but occasionally causes CD4(+) T-cell depletion and progression to simian AIDS (SAIDS). Virus recovered from a vaccinated macaque (Rh1490) that progressed to SAIDS had acquired an additional deletion in the nef gene, resulting in a frameshift that restored the original nef open reading frame (R. I. Connor, D. C. Montefiori, J. M. Binley, J. P. Moore, S. Bonhoeffer, A. Gettie, E. A. Fenamore, K. E. Sheridan, D. D. Ho, P. J. Dailey, and P. A. Marx, J. Virol. 72:7501-7509, 1998). Intravenous inoculation of the Rh1490 viral isolate into four naive rhesus macaques induced CD4(+) T-cell depletion and disease in three out of four animals within 2 years, indicating a restoration of virulence. A DNA fragment encompassing the truncated nef gene amplified from the Rh1490 isolate was inserted into the genetic backbone of SIVmac239. The resulting clone, SIVmac239-Delta2nef, expressed a Nef protein of approximately 23 kDa, while the original SIVmac239Deltanef clone expressed a shorter protein of 8 kDa. The revertant form of Nef did not cause downregulation of CD4, CD3, or major histocompatibility complex class I. The infectivity of SIVmac239-Delta2nef was similar to that of SIVmac239Deltanef in single-cycle assays using indicator cell lines. In contrast, SIVmac239-Delta2nef replicated more efficiently than SIVmac239Deltanef in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures infected under unstimulated conditions. The p27 Gag antigen levels in SIVmac239-Delta2nef-infected cultures were still lower than those obtained with wild-type SIVmac239, consistent with a partial recovery of Nef function. The transcriptional activity of long terminal repeat (LTR)-luciferase constructs containing the nef deletions did not differ markedly from that of wild-type LTR. Introduction of a premature stop codon within Nef-Delta2 abolished the

  19. Enterovirus 71 induces dsRNA/PKR-dependent cytoplasmic redistribution of GRP78/BiP to promote viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Jheng, Jia-Rong; Wang, Shin-Chyang; Jheng, Chao-Rih; Horng, Jim-Tong

    2016-01-01

    GRP78/BiP is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein with the important function of maintaining ER homeostasis, and the overexpression of GRP78/BiP alleviates ER stress. Our previous studies showed that infection with enterovirus 71 (EV71), a (+)RNA picornavirus, induced GRP78/BiP upregulation; however, ectopic GRP78/BiP overexpression in ER downregulates virus replication and viral particle formation. The fact that a virus infection increases GRP78/BiP expression, which is unfavorable for virus replication, is counterintuitive. In this study, we found that the GRP78/BiP protein level was elevated in the cytoplasm instead of in the ER in EV71-infected cells. Cells transfected with polyinosinic–polycytidylic acid, a synthetic analog of replicative double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), but not with viral proteins, also exhibited upregulation and elevation of GRP78/BiP in the cytosol. Our results further demonstrate that EV71 infections induce the dsRNA/protein kinase R-dependent cytosolic accumulation of GRP78/BiP. The overexpression of a GRP78/BiP mutant lacking a KDEL retention signal failed to inhibit both dithiothreitol-induced eIF2α phosphorylation and viral replication in the context of viral protein synthesis and viral titers. These data revealed that EV71 infection might cause upregulation and aberrant redistribution of GRP78/BiP to the cytosol, thereby facilitating virus replication. PMID:27004760

  20. Enterovirus 71 induces dsRNA/PKR-dependent cytoplasmic redistribution of GRP78/BiP to promote viral replication.

    PubMed

    Jheng, Jia-Rong; Wang, Shin-Chyang; Jheng, Chao-Rih; Horng, Jim-Tong

    2016-01-01

    GRP78/BiP is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein with the important function of maintaining ER homeostasis, and the overexpression of GRP78/BiP alleviates ER stress. Our previous studies showed that infection with enterovirus 71 (EV71), a (+)RNA picornavirus, induced GRP78/BiP upregulation; however, ectopic GRP78/BiP overexpression in ER downregulates virus replication and viral particle formation. The fact that a virus infection increases GRP78/BiP expression, which is unfavorable for virus replication, is counterintuitive. In this study, we found that the GRP78/BiP protein level was elevated in the cytoplasm instead of in the ER in EV71-infected cells. Cells transfected with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, a synthetic analog of replicative double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), but not with viral proteins, also exhibited upregulation and elevation of GRP78/BiP in the cytosol. Our results further demonstrate that EV71 infections induce the dsRNA/protein kinase R-dependent cytosolic accumulation of GRP78/BiP. The overexpression of a GRP78/BiP mutant lacking a KDEL retention signal failed to inhibit both dithiothreitol-induced eIF2α phosphorylation and viral replication in the context of viral protein synthesis and viral titers. These data revealed that EV71 infection might cause upregulation and aberrant redistribution of GRP78/BiP to the cytosol, thereby facilitating virus replication. PMID:27004760

  1. The N-terminus of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) nonstructural protein 2 modulates viral genome RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Wu, Rui; Zheng, Fengwei; Zhao, Cheng; Pan, Zishu

    2015-12-01

    Pestivirus nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) is a multifunctional, hydrophobic protein with an important but poorly understood role in viral RNA replication and infectious virus production. In the present study, based on sequence analysis, we mutated several representative conserved residues within the N-terminus of NS2 of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and investigated how these mutations affected viral RNA replication and infectious virus production. Our results demonstrated that the mutation of two aspartic acids, NS2/D60A or NS2/D60K and NS2/D78K, in the N-terminus of NS2 abolished infectious virus production and that the substitution of arginine for alanine at position 100 (NS2/R100A) resulted in significantly decreased viral titer. The serial passage of cells containing viral genomic RNA molecules generated the revertants NS2/A60D, NS2/K60D and NS2/K78D, leading to the recovery of infectious virus. In the context of the NS2/R100A mutant, the NS2/I90L mutation compensated for infectious virus production. The regulatory roles of the indicated amino acid residues were identified to occur at the viral RNA replication level. These results revealed a novel function for the NS2 N-terminus of CSFV in modulating viral RNA replication. PMID:26232654

  2. Replication of HIV-1 deleted Nef mutants in chronically immune activated human T cells.

    PubMed

    Shapira-Nahor, Orit; Maayan, Shlomo; Peden, Keith W C; Rabinowitz, Ruth; Schlesinger, Michael; Alian, Akram; Panet, Amos

    2002-11-10

    Lymphocytes (PBMC) obtained from blood of HIV-sera negative Ethiopian immigrants (ETH) were highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection in vitro with no need for stimulation by mitogens. As the HIV nef gene product has been shown to enhance viral replication in stimulated primary lymphocytes, we investigated in this work the role of Nef in viral replication in the ETH cells. Lymphocytes obtained from ETH individuals supported high replication of wild-type HIV-1 and low but significant replication level of the two deleted Nef mutants (encode truncated Nef proteins consisting only of either the first 35 or the first 86 amino acids of Nef). In contrast, no replication was observed in nonactivated cells obtained from non-ETH individuals. After activation of the PBMC from ETH individuals with PHA, replication of both wild-type strains and the two deleted Nef mutant viruses further increased. The CD4(+) T cells of ETH individuals exhibited elevated levels of the surface activation markers CD45RO and HLA-DR, compared with T cells derived from non-ETH group. Likewise, expression of the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 on these cells was higher in the ETH group than in the non-ETH group. Replication of HIV-1 wild-type and the isogenic-deleted Nef mutants was significantly correlated with the proportion of ETH cells expressing CD45RO and the chemokine receptors. This study suggests that HIV-1 may respond differently to several activation states characteristic of T cells. One activation state, defined by chronically activated lymphocytes from ETH individuals, is permissive to the wild-type HIV-1 and, to a lesser degree, to the Nef mutants. Further activation of these cells by exogenous stimuli enhances replication of the virus. Our results support the notion that Nef enhances the basal level of T cell activation and consequently, viral replication. PMID:12482665

  3. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Inhibition of Human Rhinovirus Replication by a New Pseudosubstrate of Viral 2A Protease

    PubMed Central

    Falah, Nisrine; Violot, Sébastien; Décimo, Didier; Berri, Fatma; Foucault-Grunenwald, Marie-Laure; Ohlmann, Théophile; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Morfin, Florence; Lina, Bruno; Riteau, Béatrice

    2012-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) remain a significant public health problem as they are the major cause of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Unfortunately, to date no vaccine or antiviral against these pathogens is available. Here, using a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified a 6-amino-acid hit peptide, LVLQTM, which acted as a pseudosubstrate of the viral 2A cysteine protease (2Apro) and inhibited its activity. This peptide was chemically modified with a reactive electrophilic fluoromethylketone group to form a covalent linkage with the nucleophilic active-site thiol of the enzyme. Ex vivo and in vivo experiments showed that thus converted, LVLQTM was a strong inhibitor of HRV replication in both A549 cells and mice. To our knowledge, this is the first report validating a compound against HRV infection in a mouse model. PMID:22072773

  4. Coagulation, Protease Activated Receptors and Viral Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Antoniak, Silvio; Mackman, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    The coagulation protease cascade plays an essential role in hemostasis. In addition, a clot contributes to host defense by limiting the spread of pathogens. Coagulation proteases induce intracellular signaling by cleavage of cell surface receptors called protease-activated receptors (PARs). These receptors allow cells to sense changes in the extracellular environment, such as infection. Viruses activate the coagulation cascade by inducing tissue factor expression and by disrupting the endothelium. Virus infection of the heart can cause myocarditis, cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Recent studies using a mouse model have shown that tissue factor, thrombin and PAR-1 signaling all positively regulate the innate immune during viral myocarditis. In contrast, PAR-2 signaling was found to inhibit interferon-β expression and the innate immune response. These observations suggest that anticoagulants may impair the innate immune response to viral infection and that inhibition of PAR-2 may be a new target to reduce viral myocarditis.. PMID:24203054

  5. Early Cytokine Dysregulation and Viral Replication Are Associated with Mortality During Lethal Influenza Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Alexander J.; Harris, Seth; Marsteller, Nathan; Condon, Shirley A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Infection with influenza A virus (IAV) leads to acute lung injury and possibly fatal complications, especially in immunocompromised, elderly, or chronically infected individuals. Therefore, it is important to study the factors that lead to pathology and mortality in infected hosts. In this report, we analyze immune responses to infection at a sublethal (0.1 LD50) and lethal (1 LD50) dose of the highly pathogenic IAV A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8). Our experiments revealed that infection with a 1 LD50 dose induced peak viral titers at day 2 compared to day 4 in the 0.1 LD50 dose. Moreover, early cytokine dysregulation was observed in the lethal dose with significantly elevated levels of IFN-α, TNF-α, CXCL9, IL-6, and MCP-1 produced at day 2. Early inflammatory responses following infection with 1 LD50 correlated with a greater influx of neutrophils into the lung. However, depletion of neutrophils enhanced morbidity following IAV infection. Though no differences in CD8+ cell function were observed, CD4+ effector responses were impaired in the lungs 8 days after infection with 1 LD50. Histological analysis revealed significant pathology in lethally infected mice at day 2 and day 6 postinfection, when viral titers remained high. Treating lethally infected mice with oseltamivir inhibited viral titers to sublethal levels, and abrogated the pathology associated with the lethal dose. Together, these results suggest that early cytokine dysregulation and viral replication play a role in pulmonary damage and high mortality in lethally infected mice. PMID:24787235

  6. Histatin 5-Derived Peptide with Improved Fungicidal Properties Enhances Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication by Promoting Viral Entry

    PubMed Central

    Groot, Fedde; Sanders, Rogier W.; ter Brake, Olivier; Nazmi, Kamran; Veerman, Enno C. I.; Bolscher, Jan G. M.; Berkhout, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are found in a number of body compartments and are secreted at mucosal surfaces, where they form part of the innate immune system. Many of these small peptides have a broad spectrum of inhibitory activity against bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses. Generally, the peptide's mode of action is binding and disruption of membranes due to its amphipathic properties. Histatin 5 is a salivary peptide that inhibits Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungus that causes oropharyngeal candidiasis in a majority of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients progressing towards AIDS. Previously, we increased the fungicidal properties of histatin 5 by replacing amino acids in the active domain of histatin 5 (Dh-5) (A. L. Ruissen, J. Groenink, E. J. Helmerhorst, E. Walgreen-Weterings, W. van’t Hof, E. C. Veerman, and A. V. Nieuw Amerongen, Biochem. J. 356:361-368, 2001). In the current study, we tested the anti-HIV-1 activity of Dh-5 and its derivatives. Although Dh-5 inhibited HIV-1 replication, none of the peptide variants were more effective in this respect. In contrast, one of the derivatives, Dhvar2, significantly increased HIV-1 replication by promoting the envelope-mediated cell entry process. Most likely, Dhvar2 affects membranes, thereby facilitating fusion of viral and cellular membranes. This study shows that modification of antimicrobial peptides in order to improve their activity against a pathogen may have unpredictable and unwanted side effects on other pathogens. PMID:16940535

  7. Replication of the Rotavirus Genome Requires an Active Ubiquitin-Proteasome System▿

    PubMed Central

    López, Tomás; Silva-Ayala, Daniela; López, Susana; Arias, Carlos F.

    2011-01-01

    Here we show that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is required for the efficient replication of rotavirus RRV in MA104 cells. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 decreased the yield of infectious virus under conditions where it severely reduces the synthesis of not only viral but also cellular proteins. Addition of nonessential amino acids to the cell medium restored both viral protein synthesis and cellular protein synthesis, but the production of progeny viruses was still inhibited. In medium supplemented with nonessential amino acids, we showed that MG132 does not affect rotavirus entry but inhibits the replication of the viral genome. It was also shown that it prevents the efficient incorporation into viroplasms of viral polymerase VP1 and the capsid proteins VP2 and VP6, which could explain the inhibitory effect of MG132 on genome replication and infectious virus yield. We also showed that ubiquitination is relevant for rotavirus replication since the yield of rotavirus progeny in cells carrying a temperature-sensitive mutation in the E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme was reduced at the restrictive temperature. In addition, overexpression of ubiquitin in MG132-treated MA104 cells partially reversed the effect of the inhibitor on virus yield. Altogether, these data suggest that the ubiquitin-proteasome (UP) system has a very complex interaction with the rotavirus life cycle, with both the ubiquitination and proteolytic activities of the system being relevant for virus replication. PMID:21900156

  8. A conserved amphipathic helix in the N-terminal regulatory region of the papillomavirus E1 helicase is required for efficient viral DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Morin, Geneviève; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Di Lello, Paola; Bergeron-Labrecque, Fanny; Omichinski, James G; Archambault, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    The papillomavirus E1 helicase, with the help of E2, assembles at the viral origin into a double hexamer that orchestrates replication of the viral genome. The N-terminal region (NTR) of E1 is essential for DNA replication in vivo but dispensable in vitro, suggesting that it has a regulatory function. By deletion analysis, we identified a conserved region of the E1 NTR needed for efficient replication of viral DNA. This region is predicted to form an amphipathic α-helix (AH) and shows sequence similarity to portions of the p53 and herpes simplex virus (HSV) VP16 transactivation domains known as transactivation domain 2 (TAD2) and VP16C, which fold into α-helices upon binding their target proteins, including the Tfb1/p62 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae/human) subunit of general transcription factor TFIIH. By nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), we found that a peptide spanning the E1 AH binds Tfb1 on the same surface as TAD2/VP16C and with a comparable affinity, suggesting that it does bind as an α-helix. Furthermore, the E1 NTRs from several human papillomavirus (HPV) types could activate transcription in yeast, and to a lesser extent in mammalian cells, when fused to a heterologous DNA-binding domain. Mutation of the three conserved hydrophobic residues in the E1 AH, analogous to those in TAD2/VP16C that directly contact their target proteins, decreased transactivation activity and, importantly, also reduced by 50% the ability of E1 to support transient replication of DNA in C33A cells, at a step following assembly of the E1-E2-ori preinitiation complex. These results demonstrate the existence of a conserved TAD2/VP16C-like AH in E1 that is required for efficient replication of viral DNA. PMID:21450828

  9. Non-viral gene-activated matrices

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Erica G.; Duffy, Garry P.; Cryan, Sally-Ann; Curtin, Caroline M.; O’Brien, Fergal J.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of producing enhanced therapeutics for regenerative medicine, our laboratory develops gene-activated matrices (GAMs) using non-viral gene therapy (GT) in combination with collagen-based scaffolds engineered specifically for tissue repair. Non-viral vectors have been referred to as a minority pursuit in GT but considering the concerns associated with viral vectors and as transient gene expression is such a key consideration, further research is clearly warranted for tissue engineering (TE) applications. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are well regarded for their capability in bone regeneration but as primary cells, they are difficult to transfect. We have recently optimised the non-viral vector, polyethyleneimine (PEI), to achieve high transfection efficiencies in MSCs. Subsequently, a series of PEI-based GAMs were developed using collagen, collagen-glycosaminoglycan and collagen-nanohydroxyapatite (collagen-nHa) scaffolds whereby transgene expression was detected up to 21 d with the collagen-nHa scaffold providing the most prolonged expression. Moreover, all PEI-based GAMs contained a low plasmid DNA dose of 2 µg which is far below doses often required in previous GAMs. Having successfully developed these GAMs, the ephrinB2 gene has recently been incorporated to produce a novel therapeutic GAM for bone repair. Herein, we discuss our recent investigations in the development and application of non-viral GAMs. PMID:23538777

  10. Activation of the Antiviral Kinase PKR and Viral Countermeasures

    PubMed Central

    Dauber, Bianca; Wolff, Thorsten

    2009-01-01

    The interferon-induced double-stranded (ds)RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) limits viral replication by an eIF2α-mediated block of translation. Although many negative-strand RNA viruses activate PKR, the responsible RNAs have long remained elusive, as dsRNA, the canonical activator of PKR, has not been detected in cells infected with such viruses. In this review we focus on the activating RNA molecules of different virus families, in particular the negative-strand RNA viruses. We discuss the recently identified non-canonical activators 5′-triphosphate RNA and the vRNP of influenza virus and give an update on strategies of selected RNA and DNA viruses to prevent activation of PKR. PMID:21994559

  11. HIV and SIV infection - the role of cellular restriction and immune responses in viral replication and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kenneth C.; Burdo, Tricia H.

    2009-01-01

    The human immune deficiency (HIV) and simian immune deficiency (SIV) viruses have long biological history. Both viruses evolved from Africa and reminants of them can be found in the “fossil record” of several species in which they are not endemic. SIV remains endemic in several species of monkeys in Africa where it does not cause immune deficiency. HIV and SIV actively replicate within humans and Asian non-human primates, despite cellular and genetic viral restriction factors and genes, and at times robust innate and adaptive immune responses. While Lentivirus are considered “slow viruses” it is clear in humans and susceptible Asian monkeys that virus production is rapid and highly active resulting in a massive loss of CD4+ memory effector T cells early after infection and a continued race between viral evolution, cytotoxic lymphocytes, and failed neutralizing antibody responses. Concurrently, HIV and SIV can infect monocyte/macrophage populations in blood and more importantly in tissues, including the central nervous system, where the virus can remain sequestered and not cleared by antiretroviral therapy, and hide for years. This review will discuss species and cellular barriers to infection, and the role of innate and acquired immunity with infection and pathogenesis of HIV and SIV in select species. PMID:19400864

  12. Analysis of an Autographa californica Nucleopolyhedrovirus lef-11 Knockout: LEF-11 Is Essential for Viral DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Guangyun; Blissard, Gary W.

    2002-01-01

    The Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) lef-11 gene was previously identified by transient late expression assays as a gene important for viral late gene expression. The lef-11 gene was not previously identified as necessary for DNA replication in transient origin-dependent plasmid DNA replication assays. To examine the role of lef-11 in the context of the infection cycle, we generated a deletion of the lef-11 gene by recombination in an AcMNPV genome propagated as a BACmid in Escherichia coli. The resulting AcMNPV lef-11-null BACmid (vAclef11KO) was unable to propagate in cell culture, although a “repair” AcMNPV BACmid (vAclef11KO-REP), which was generated by transposition of the lef-11 gene into the polyhedrin locus of the vAclef11KO BACmid, was able to replicate in a manner similar to wild-type or control AcMNPV viruses. Thus, the lef-11 gene is essential for viral replication in Sf9 cells. The vAclef11KO BACmid was examined to determine if the defect in viral replication resulted from a defect in DNA replication or from a defect in late transcription. The lef-11-null BACmid and control BACmids were transfected into Sf9 cells, and viral DNA replication was monitored. The viral DNA genome of the lef-11-null BACmid (vAclef11KO) was not amplified, whereas replication and amplification of the genomes of the repair BACmid (vAclef11KO-REP), wild-type AcMNPV, and a nonpropagating gp64-null control BACmid (vAcGUSgp64KO) were readily detected. Northern blot analysis of transcripts from selected early, late, and very late genes showed that late and very late transcription was absent in cells transfected with the lef-11-null BACmid. Thus, in contrast to prior studies using transient replication and late expression assays, studies of a lef-11-null BACmid indicate that LEF-11 is required for viral DNA replication during the infection cycle. PMID:11861844

  13. Lipid Droplet-Binding Protein TIP47 Regulates Hepatitis C Virus RNA Replication through Interaction with the Viral NS5A Protein

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Dorothee A.; Camus, Grégory; Herker, Eva; Webster, Brian R.; Tsou, Chia-Lin; Greene, Warner C.; Yen, Tien-Sze Benedict; Ott, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    The nonstructural protein NS5A has emerged as a new drug target in antiviral therapies for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection. NS5A is critically involved in viral RNA replication that takes place at newly formed membranes within the endoplasmic reticulum (membranous web) and assists viral assembly in the close vicinity of lipid droplets (LDs). To identify host proteins that interact with NS5A, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen with the N-terminus of NS5A (amino acids 1–31), a well-studied α-helical domain important for the membrane tethering of NS5A. Our studies identified the LD-associated host protein, Tail-Interacting Protein 47 (TIP47) as a novel NS5A interaction partner. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments in Huh7 hepatoma cells confirmed the interaction of TIP47 with full-length NS5A. shRNA-mediated knockdown of TIP47 caused a more than 10-fold decrease in the propagation of full-length infectious HCV in Huh7.5 hepatoma cells. A similar reduction was observed when TIP47 was knocked down in cells harboring an autonomously replicating HCV RNA (subgenomic replicon), indicating that TIP47 is required for efficient HCV RNA replication. A single point mutation (W9A) in NS5A that disrupts the interaction with TIP47 but preserves proper subcellular localization severely decreased HCV RNA replication. In biochemical membrane flotation assays, TIP47 cofractionated with HCV NS3, NS5A, NS5B proteins, and viral RNA, and together with nonstructural viral proteins was uniquely distributed to lower-density LD-rich membrane fractions in cells actively replicating HCV RNA. Collectively, our data support a model where TIP47—via its interaction with NS5A—serves as a novel cofactor for HCV infection possibly by integrating LD membranes into the membranous web. PMID:23593007

  14. The 32 kDa subunit of replication protein A (RPA) participates in the DNA replication of Mung bean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) by interacting with the viral Rep protein.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Islam, Mohammad Nurul; Choudhury, Nirupam Roy; Karjee, Sumona; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Mung bean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is a member of genus begomoviridae and its genome comprises of bipartite (two components, namely DNA-A and DNA-B), single-stranded, circular DNA of about 2.7 kb. During rolling circle replication (RCR) of the DNA, the stability of the genome and maintenance of the stem-loop structure of the replication origin is crucial. Hence the role of host single-stranded DNA-binding protein, Replication protein A (RPA), in the RCR of MYMIV was examined. Two RPA subunits, namely the RPA70 kDa and RPA32 kDa, were isolated from pea and their roles were validated in a yeast system in which MYMIV DNA replication has been modelled. Here, we present evidences that only the RPA32 kDa subunit directly interacted with the carboxy terminus of MYMIV-Rep both in vitro as well as in yeast two-hybrid system. RPA32 modulated the functions of Rep by enhancing its ATPase and down regulating its nicking and closing activities. The possible role of these modulations in the context of viral DNA replication has been discussed. Finally, we showed the positive involvement of RPA32 in transient replication of the plasmid DNA bearing MYMIV replication origin using an in planta based assay. PMID:17182628

  15. Functional dissection of latency-associated nuclear antigen 1 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus involved in latent DNA replication and transcription of terminal repeats of the viral genome.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chunghun; Sohn, Hekwang; Lee, Daeyoup; Gwack, Yousang; Choe, Joonho

    2002-10-01

    Latency-associated nuclear antigen 1 (LANA1) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is implicated in the maintenance of the viral genome during latent infection. LANA1 colocalizes with KSHV episomes on the host chromosome and mediates their maintenance by attaching these viral structures to host chromosomes. Data from long-term selection of drug resistance in cells conferred by plasmids containing the terminal repeat (TR) sequence of KSHV revealed that KSHV TRs and LANA1 act as cis and trans elements of viral latent replication, respectively. In this study, we further characterized the cis- and trans-acting elements of KSHV latent replication by using a transient replication assay with a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme, DpnI. Transient reporter and replication assays disclosed that the orientation and basal transcriptional activity of TR constructs did not significantly affect the efficiency of replication. However, at least two TR units were necessary for efficient replication. The N-terminal 90 amino acids comprising the chromosome-binding domain of LANA1 were required for the mediation of LANA1 C-terminal DNA-binding and dimerization domains to support the transient replication of KSHV TRs. LANA1 interacted with components of the origin recognition complexes (ORCs), similar to Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1. Our data suggest that LANA1 recruits ORCs to KSHV TRs for latent replication of the viral genome. PMID:12239308

  16. Recruitment of a SAP18-HDAC1 complex into HIV-1 virions and its requirement for viral replication.

    PubMed

    Sorin, Masha; Cano, Jennifer; Das, Supratik; Mathew, Sheeba; Wu, Xuhong; Davies, Kelvin P; Shi, Xuanling; Cheng, S-W Grace; Ott, David; Kalpana, Ganjam V

    2009-06-01

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is a virally encoded protein required for integration of viral cDNA into host chromosomes. INI1/hSNF5 is a component of the SWI/SNF complex that interacts with HIV-1 IN, is selectively incorporated into HIV-1 (but not other retroviral) virions, and modulates multiple steps, including particle production and infectivity. To gain further insight into the role of INI1 in HIV-1 replication, we screened for INI1-interacting proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. We found that SAP18 (Sin3a associated protein 18 kD), a component of the Sin3a-HDAC1 complex, directly binds to INI1 in yeast, in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, we found that IN also binds to SAP18 in vitro and in vivo. SAP18 and components of a Sin3A-HDAC1 complex were specifically incorporated into HIV-1 (but not SIV and HTLV-1) virions in an HIV-1 IN-dependent manner. Using a fluorescence-based assay, we found that HIV-1 (but not SIV) virion preparations harbour significant deacetylase activity, indicating the specific recruitment of catalytically active HDAC into the virions. To determine the requirement of virion-associated HDAC1 to HIV-1 replication, an inactive, transdominant negative mutant of HDAC1 (HDAC1(H141A)) was utilized. Incorporation of HDAC1(H141A) decreased the virion-associated histone deacetylase activity. Furthermore, incorporation of HDAC1(H141A) decreased the infectivity of HIV-1 (but not SIV) virions. The block in infectivity due to virion-associated HDAC1(H141A) occurred specifically at the early reverse transcription stage, while entry of the virions was unaffected. RNA-interference mediated knock-down of HDAC1 in producer cells resulted in decreased virion-associated HDAC1 activity and a reduction in infectivity of these virions. These studies indicate that HIV-1 IN and INI1/hSNF5 bind SAP18 and selectively recruit components of Sin3a-HDAC1 complex into HIV-1 virions. Furthermore, HIV-1 virion-associated HDAC1 is required for efficient early post

  17. Synaptogyrin-2 Promotes Replication of a Novel Tick-borne Bunyavirus through Interacting with Viral Nonstructural Protein NSs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiyu; Qi, Xian; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Xiaodong; Liang, Mifang; Li, Chuan; Li, Dexin; Cardona, Carol J; Xing, Zheng

    2016-07-29

    Synaptogyrin-2 is a non-neuronal member of the synaptogyrin family involved in synaptic vesicle biogenesis and trafficking. Little is known about the function of synaptogyrin-2. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease characterized by high fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytopenia with high mortality, caused by a novel tick-borne phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. Our previous studies have shown that the viral nonstructural protein NSs forms inclusion bodies (IBs) that are involved in viral immune evasion, as well as viral RNA replication. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanism by which NSs formed the IBs, a lipid droplet-based structure confirmed by NSs co-localization with perilipin A and adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP). Through a high throughput screening, we identified synaptogyrin-2 to be highly up-regulated in response to SFTS bunyavirus (SFTSV) infection and to be a promoter of viral replication. We demonstrated that synaptogyrin-2 interacted with NSs and was translocated into the IBs, which were reconstructed from lipid droplets into large structures in infection. Viral RNA replication decreased, and infectious virus titers were lowered significantly when synaptogyrin-2 was silenced in specific shRNA-expressing cells, which correlated with the reduced number of the large IBs restructured from regular lipid droplets. We hypothesize that synaptogyrin-2 is essential to promoting the formation of the IBs to become virus factories for viral RNA replication through its interaction with NSs. These findings unveil the function of synaptogyrin-2 as an enhancer in viral infection. PMID:27226560

  18. The Oncogenic Small Tumor Antigen of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Is an Iron-Sulfur Cluster Protein That Enhances Viral DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Sabrina H.; Wang, Ranran; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Knight, Simon A. B.; Buck, Christopher B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) plays an important role in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). MCPyV small T (sT) antigen has emerged as the key oncogenic driver in MCC carcinogenesis. It has also been shown to promote MCPyV LT-mediated replication by stabilizing LT. The importance of MCPyV sT led us to investigate sT functions and to identify potential ways to target this protein. We discovered that MCPyV sT purified from bacteria contains iron-sulfur (Fe/S) clusters. Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis showed that MCPyV sT coordinates a [2Fe-2S] and a [4Fe-4S] cluster. We also observed phenotypic conservation of Fe/S coordination in the sTs of other polyomaviruses. Since Fe/S clusters are critical cofactors in many nucleic acid processing enzymes involved in DNA unwinding and polymerization, our results suggested the hypothesis that MCPyV sT might be directly involved in viral replication. Indeed, we demonstrated that MCPyV sT enhances LT-mediated replication in a manner that is independent of its previously reported ability to stabilize LT. MCPyV sT translocates to nuclear foci containing actively replicating viral DNA, supporting a direct role for sT in promoting viral replication. Mutations of Fe/S cluster-coordinating cysteines in MCPyV sT abolish its ability to stimulate viral replication. Moreover, treatment with cidofovir, a potent antiviral agent, robustly inhibits the sT-mediated enhancement of MCPyV replication but has little effect on the basal viral replication driven by LT alone. This finding further indicates that MCPyV sT plays a direct role in stimulating viral DNA replication and introduces cidofovir as a possible drug for controlling MCPyV infection. IMPORTANCE MCPyV is associated with a highly aggressive form of skin cancer in humans. Epidemiological surveys for MCPyV seropositivity and sequencing analyses of healthy human skin suggest that MCPyV may represent a common component of the human skin microbial flora. However, much of the

  19. Impact of Primary Elvitegravir Resistance-Associated Mutations in HIV-1 Integrase on Drug Susceptibility and Viral Replication Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Hluhanich, Rebecca M.; Goodman, Derrick D.; Andreatta, Kristen N.; Margot, Nicolas A.; Ye, Linda; Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Barnes, Tiffany L.; Novikov, Nikolai; Chen, Xiaowu; Svarovskaia, Evguenia S.; McColl, Damian J.; White, Kirsten L.; Miller, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Elvitegravir (EVG) is an effective HIV-1 integrase (IN) strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) in advanced clinical development. Primary INSTI resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) at six IN positions have been identified in HIV-1-infected patients failing EVG-containing regimens in clinical studies: T66I/A/K, E92Q/G, T97A, S147G, Q148R/H/K, and N155H. In this study, the effect of these primary IN mutations, alone and in combination, on susceptibility to the INSTIs EVG, raltegravir (RAL), and dolutegravir (DTG); IN enzyme activities; and viral replication fitness was characterized. Recombinant viruses containing the six most common mutations exhibited a range of reduced EVG susceptibility: 92-fold for Q148R, 30-fold for N155H, 26-fold for E92Q, 10-fold for T66I, 4-fold for S147G, and 2-fold for T97A. Less commonly observed primary IN mutations also showed a range of reduced EVG susceptibilities: 40- to 94-fold for T66K and Q148K and 5- to 10-fold for T66A, E92G, and Q148H. Some primary IN mutations exhibited broad cross-resistance between EVG and RAL (T66K, E92Q, Q148R/H/K, and N155H), while others retained susceptibility to RAL (T66I/A, E92G, T97A, and S147G). Dual combinations of primary IN mutations further reduced INSTI susceptibility, replication capacity, and viral fitness relative to either mutation alone. Susceptibility to DTG was retained by single primary IN mutations but reduced by dual mutation combinations with Q148R. Primary EVG RAMs also diminished IN enzymatic activities, concordant with their structural proximity to the active site. Greater reductions in viral fitness of dual mutation combinations may explain why some primary INSTI RAMs do not readily coexist on the same HIV-1 genome but rather establish independent pathways of resistance to EVG. PMID:23529738

  20. Impact of primary elvitegravir resistance-associated mutations in HIV-1 integrase on drug susceptibility and viral replication fitness.

    PubMed

    Abram, Michael E; Hluhanich, Rebecca M; Goodman, Derrick D; Andreatta, Kristen N; Margot, Nicolas A; Ye, Linda; Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Barnes, Tiffany L; Novikov, Nikolai; Chen, Xiaowu; Svarovskaia, Evguenia S; McColl, Damian J; White, Kirsten L; Miller, Michael D

    2013-06-01

    Elvitegravir (EVG) is an effective HIV-1 integrase (IN) strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) in advanced clinical development. Primary INSTI resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) at six IN positions have been identified in HIV-1-infected patients failing EVG-containing regimens in clinical studies: T66I/A/K, E92Q/G, T97A, S147G, Q148R/H/K, and N155H. In this study, the effect of these primary IN mutations, alone and in combination, on susceptibility to the INSTIs EVG, raltegravir (RAL), and dolutegravir (DTG); IN enzyme activities; and viral replication fitness was characterized. Recombinant viruses containing the six most common mutations exhibited a range of reduced EVG susceptibility: 92-fold for Q148R, 30-fold for N155H, 26-fold for E92Q, 10-fold for T66I, 4-fold for S147G, and 2-fold for T97A. Less commonly observed primary IN mutations also showed a range of reduced EVG susceptibilities: 40- to 94-fold for T66K and Q148K and 5- to 10-fold for T66A, E92G, and Q148H. Some primary IN mutations exhibited broad cross-resistance between EVG and RAL (T66K, E92Q, Q148R/H/K, and N155H), while others retained susceptibility to RAL (T66I/A, E92G, T97A, and S147G). Dual combinations of primary IN mutations further reduced INSTI susceptibility, replication capacity, and viral fitness relative to either mutation alone. Susceptibility to DTG was retained by single primary IN mutations but reduced by dual mutation combinations with Q148R. Primary EVG RAMs also diminished IN enzymatic activities, concordant with their structural proximity to the active site. Greater reductions in viral fitness of dual mutation combinations may explain why some primary INSTI RAMs do not readily coexist on the same HIV-1 genome but rather establish independent pathways of resistance to EVG. PMID:23529738

  1. The interaction between the Hepatitis C proteins NS4B and NS5A is involved in viral replication

    PubMed Central

    David, Naama; Yaffe, Yakey; Hagoel, Lior; Elazar, Menashe; Glenn, Jeffrey S.; Hirschberg, Koret; Sklan, Ella H.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicates in membrane associated, highly ordered replication complexes (RCs). These complexes include viral and host proteins necessary for viral RNA genome replication. The interaction network among viral and host proteins underlying the formation of these RCs is yet to be thoroughly characterized. Here, we investigated the association between NS4B and NS5A, two critical RC components. We characterized the interaction between these proteins using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and a mammalian two-hybrid system. Specific tryptophan residues within the C-terminal domain (CTD) of NS4B were shown to mediate this interaction. Domain I of NS5A, was sufficient to mediate its interaction with NS4B. Mutations in the NS4B CTD tryptophan residues abolished viral replication. Moreover, one of these mutations also affected NS5A hyperphosphorylation. These findings provide new insights into the importance of the NS4B–NS5A interaction and serve as a starting point for studying the complex interactions between the replicase subunits. PMID:25462354

  2. Temporal order of evolution of DNA replication systems inferred by comparison of cellular and viral DNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Koonin, Eugene V

    2006-01-01

    Background The core enzymes of the DNA replication systems show striking diversity among cellular life forms and more so among viruses. In particular, and counter-intuitively, given the central role of DNA in all cells and the mechanistic uniformity of replication, the core enzymes of the replication systems of bacteria and archaea (as well as eukaryotes) are unrelated or extremely distantly related. Viruses and plasmids, in addition, possess at least two unique DNA replication systems, namely, the protein-primed and rolling circle modalities of replication. This unexpected diversity makes the origin and evolution of DNA replication systems a particularly challenging and intriguing problem in evolutionary biology. Results I propose a specific succession for the emergence of different DNA replication systems, drawing argument from the differences in their representation among viruses and other selfish replicating elements. In a striking pattern, the DNA replication systems of viruses infecting bacteria and eukaryotes are dominated by the archaeal-type B-family DNA polymerase (PolB) whereas the bacterial replicative DNA polymerase (PolC) is present only in a handful of bacteriophage genomes. There is no apparent mechanistic impediment to the involvement of the bacterial-type replication machinery in viral DNA replication. Therefore, I hypothesize that the observed, markedly unequal distribution of the replicative DNA polymerases among the known cellular and viral replication systems has a historical explanation. I propose that, among the two types of DNA replication machineries that are found in extant life forms, the archaeal-type, PolB-based system evolved first and had already given rise to a variety of diverse viruses and other selfish elements before the advent of the bacterial, PolC-based machinery. Conceivably, at that stage of evolution, the niches for DNA-viral reproduction have been already filled with viruses replicating with the help of the archaeal

  3. Geneticin Stabilizes the Open Conformation of the 5′ Region of Hepatitis C Virus RNA and Inhibits Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Mateos, Ascensión; Díaz-Toledano, Rosa; Block, Timothy M.; Prieto-Vega, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The aminoglycoside Geneticin (G418) is known to inhibit cell culture proliferation, via virus-specific mechanisms, of two different virus genera from the family Flaviviridae. Here, we tried to determine whether Geneticin can selectively alter the switching of the nucleotide 1 to 570 RNA region of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and, if so, whether this inhibits viral growth. Two structure-dependent RNases known to specifically cleave HCV RNA were tested in the presence or absence of the drug. One was the Synechocystis sp. RNase P ribozyme, which cleaves the tRNA-like domain around the AUG start codon under high-salt buffer conditions; the second was Escherichia coli RNase III, which recognizes a double-helical RNA switch element that changes the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) from a closed (C) conformation to an open (O) one. While the drug did not affect RNase P activity, it did inhibit RNase III in the micromolar range. Kinetic studies indicated that the drug favors the switch from the C to the O conformation of the IRES by stabilizing the distal double-stranded element and inhibiting further processing of the O form. We demonstrate that, because the RNA in this region is highly conserved and essential for virus survival, Geneticin inhibits HCV Jc1 NS3 expression, the release of the viral genomic RNA, and the propagation of HCV in Huh 7.5 cells. Our study highlights the crucial role of riboswitches in HCV replication and suggests the therapeutic potential of viral-RNA-targeted antivirals. PMID:26621620

  4. Sphingosine kinase 2 is a chikungunya virus host factor co-localized with the viral replication complex

    PubMed Central

    Reid, St Patrick; Tritsch, Sarah R; Kota, Krishna; Chiang, Chih-Yuan; Dong, Lian; Kenny, Tara; Brueggemann, Ernest E; Ward, Michael D; Cazares, Lisa H; Bavari, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging alphavirus which causes severe and prolonged arthralgic febrile illness. The recent global spread of the virus and lack of approved therapeutic options makes it imperative to gain greater insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying CHIKV pathogenesis, in particular host factors recruited by the virus. In the current study, we identify sphingosine kinase 2 (SK2) as a CHIKV host factor co-localized with the viral replication complex (VRC) during infection. SK2 was demonstrated to co-localize with viral RNA and nonstructural proteins. Targeted impairment of SK2 expression or function significantly inhibited CHIKV infection. Furthermore, affinity purification-mass spectrometry studies revealed that SK2 associates with a number of proteins involved in cellular gene expression specifically during viral infection, suggesting a role in replication. Collectively these results identify SK2 as a novel CHIKV host factor. PMID:26576339

  5. The nsp2 Replicase Proteins of Murine Hepatitis Virus and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Are Dispensable for Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Rachel L.; Sims, Amy C.; Brockway, Sarah M.; Baric, Ralph S.; Denison, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    The positive-stranded RNA genome of the coronaviruses is translated from ORF1 to yield polyproteins that are proteolytically processed into intermediate and mature nonstructural proteins (nsps). Murine hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) polyproteins incorporate 16 protein domains (nsps), with nsp1 and nsp2 being the most variable among the coronaviruses and having no experimentally confirmed or predicted functions in replication. To determine if nsp2 is essential for viral replication, MHV and SARS-CoV genome RNA was generated with deletions of the nsp2 coding sequence (MHVΔnsp2 and SARSΔnsp2, respectively). Infectious MHVΔnsp2 and SARSΔnsp2 viruses recovered from electroporated cells had 0.5 to 1 log10 reductions in peak titers in single-cycle growth assays, as well as a reduction in viral RNA synthesis that was not specific for any positive-stranded RNA species. The Δnsp2 mutant viruses lacked expression of both nsp2 and an nsp2-nsp3 precursor, but cleaved the engineered chimeric nsp1-nsp3 cleavage site as efficiently as the native nsp1-nsp2 cleavage site. Replication complexes in MHVΔnsp2-infected cells lacked nsp2 but were morphologically indistinguishable from those of wild-type MHV by immunofluorescence. nsp2 expressed in cells by stable retroviral transduction was specifically recruited to viral replication complexes upon infection with MHVΔnsp2. These results demonstrate that while nsp2 of MHV and SARS-CoV is dispensable for viral replication in cell culture, deletion of the nsp2 coding sequence attenuates viral growth and RNA synthesis. These findings also provide a system for the study of determinants of nsp targeting and function. PMID:16227261

  6. The nsp2 replicase proteins of murine hepatitis virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus are dispensable for viral replication.

    PubMed

    Graham, Rachel L; Sims, Amy C; Brockway, Sarah M; Baric, Ralph S; Denison, Mark R

    2005-11-01

    The positive-stranded RNA genome of the coronaviruses is translated from ORF1 to yield polyproteins that are proteolytically processed into intermediate and mature nonstructural proteins (nsps). Murine hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) polyproteins incorporate 16 protein domains (nsps), with nsp1 and nsp2 being the most variable among the coronaviruses and having no experimentally confirmed or predicted functions in replication. To determine if nsp2 is essential for viral replication, MHV and SARS-CoV genome RNA was generated with deletions of the nsp2 coding sequence (MHVDeltansp2 and SARSDeltansp2, respectively). Infectious MHVDeltansp2 and SARSDeltansp2 viruses recovered from electroporated cells had 0.5 to 1 log10 reductions in peak titers in single-cycle growth assays, as well as a reduction in viral RNA synthesis that was not specific for any positive-stranded RNA species. The Deltansp2 mutant viruses lacked expression of both nsp2 and an nsp2-nsp3 precursor, but cleaved the engineered chimeric nsp1-nsp3 cleavage site as efficiently as the native nsp1-nsp2 cleavage site. Replication complexes in MHVDeltansp2-infected cells lacked nsp2 but were morphologically indistinguishable from those of wild-type MHV by immunofluorescence. nsp2 expressed in cells by stable retroviral transduction was specifically recruited to viral replication complexes upon infection with MHVDeltansp2. These results demonstrate that while nsp2 of MHV and SARS-CoV is dispensable for viral replication in cell culture, deletion of the nsp2 coding sequence attenuates viral growth and RNA synthesis. These findings also provide a system for the study of determinants of nsp targeting and function. PMID:16227261

  7. Transient viral DNA replication and repression of viral transcription are supported by the C-terminal domain of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E1 protein.

    PubMed

    Ferran, M C; McBride, A A

    1998-01-01

    The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E1 protein is important for viral DNA replication and transcriptional repression. It has been proposed that the full-length E1 protein consists of a small N-terminal and a larger C-terminal domain. In this study, it is shown that an E1 polypeptide containing residues 132 to 605 (which represents the C-terminal domain) is able to support transient viral DNA replication, although at a level lower than that supported by the wild-type protein. This domain can also repress E2-mediated transactivation from the P89 promoter as well as the wild-type E1 protein can. PMID:9420289

  8. The HIV-1 Tat Protein Has a Versatile Role in Activating Viral Transcription ▿

    PubMed Central

    Das, Atze T.; Harwig, Alex; Berkhout, Ben

    2011-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that the Tat protein has a pivotal role in HIV-1 replication because it stimulates transcription from the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter by binding to the TAR hairpin in the nascent RNA transcript. However, a multitude of additional Tat functions have been suggested. The importance of these functions is difficult to assess in replication studies with Tat-mutated HIV-1 variants because of the dominant negative effect on viral gene expression. We therefore used an HIV-1 construct that does not depend on the Tat-TAR interaction for transcription to reevaluate whether or not Tat has a second essential function in HIV-1 replication. This HIV-rtTA variant uses the incorporated Tet-On gene expression system for activation of transcription and replicates efficiently upon complete TAR deletion. Here we demonstrated that Tat inactivation does nevertheless severely inhibit replication. Upon long-term culturing, the Tat-minus HIV-rtTA variant acquired mutations in the U3 region that improved promoter activity and reestablished replication. We showed that in the absence of a functional TAR, Tat remains important for viral transcription via Sp1 sequence elements in the U3 promoter region. Substitution of these U3 sequences with nonrelated promoter elements created a virus that replicates efficiently without Tat in SupT1 T cells. These results indicate that Tat has a versatile role in transcription via TAR and U3 elements. The results also imply that Tat has no other essential function in viral replication in cultured T cells. PMID:21752913

  9. Targeted mutagenesis of the human papillomavirus type 16 E2 transactivation domain reveals separable transcriptional activation and DNA replication functions.

    PubMed

    Sakai, H; Yasugi, T; Benson, J D; Dowhanick, J J; Howley, P M

    1996-03-01

    The E2 gene products of papillomavirus play key roles in viral replication, both as regulators of viral transcription and as auxiliary factors that act with E1 in viral DNA replication. We have carried out a detailed structure-function analysis of conserved amino acids within the N-terminal domain of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E2 protein. These mutants were tested for their transcriptional activation activities as well as transient DNA replication and E1 binding activities. Analysis of the stably expressed mutants revealed that the transcriptional activation and replication activities of HPV16 E2 could be dissociated. The 173A mutant was defective for the transcriptional activation function but retained wild-type DNA replication activity, whereas the E39A mutant wild-type transcriptional activation function but was defective in transient DNA replication assays. The E39A mutant was also defective for HPV16 E1 binding in vitro, suggesting that the ability of E2 protein to form a complex with E1 appears to be essential for its function as an auxiliary replication factor. PMID:8627680

  10. [ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF THE DIHYDROQUERCETIN DURING THE COXSACKIEVIRUS B4 REPLICATION IN VITRO].

    PubMed

    Galochkina, A V; Zarubaev, V V; Kiselev, O I; Babkin, V A; Ostroukhova, L A

    2016-01-01

    A study of the antiviral activity of antioxidants against viral infections is believed to be essential for creating complex antiviral agents. Dihydroquercetin is considered as the most active antioxidant extracted from Larix gmelinii. In this work, we present results of experiments of the antiviral properties of dihydroquercetin against a member of the family Picarnaviridae--Coxsackievirus B4 in vitro. We have estimated that dihydroquercetin reduces viral titers at 100 µg/ml concentration as compared with control of virus. We have shown using the plaque assay that CPE of virusis reduced in the presence of dihydroquercetin at 100 µg/ml. Study of the phase of viral lifecycle, in which dihydroquercetin acted, demonstrated that the highest efficacy of the antiviral therapy was reached at early stages of virus reproduction (1-3 hours post infection). These results show that dihydroquercetin has antiviralproperty against Coxsackievirus B4. This drug and other antioxidants can be tested as inhibitors of viral replication. PMID:27145597

  11. The Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex promotes viral RNA translation and replication by differential mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Jungfleisch, Jennifer; Chowdhury, Ashis; Alves-Rodrigues, Isabel; Tharun, Sundaresan; Díez, Juana

    2015-01-01

    The Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex binds to the 3′ end of cellular mRNAs and promotes 3′ end protection and 5′–3′ decay. Interestingly, this complex also specifically binds to cis-acting regulatory sequences of viral positive-strand RNA genomes promoting their translation and subsequent recruitment from translation to replication. Yet, how the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex regulates these two processes remains elusive. Here, we show that Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex acts differentially in these processes. By using a collection of well-characterized lsm1 mutant alleles and a system that allows the replication of Brome mosaic virus (BMV) in yeast we show that the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex integrity is essential for both, translation and recruitment. However, the intrinsic RNA-binding ability of the complex is only required for translation. Consistent with an RNA-binding-independent function of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex on BMV RNA recruitment, we show that the BMV 1a protein, the sole viral protein required for recruitment, interacts with this complex in an RNA-independent manner. Together, these results support a model wherein Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex binds consecutively to BMV RNA regulatory sequences and the 1a protein to promote viral RNA translation and later recruitment out of the host translation machinery to the viral replication complexes. PMID:26092942

  12. An Acute Immune Response to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Replication Contributes to Viral Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Baseler, Laura J; Falzarano, Darryl; Scott, Dana P; Rosenke, Rebecca; Thomas, Tina; Munster, Vincent J; Feldmann, Heinz; de Wit, Emmie

    2016-03-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first identified in a human with severe pneumonia in 2012. Since then, infections have been detected in >1500 individuals, with disease severity ranging from asymptomatic to severe, fatal pneumonia. To elucidate the pathogenesis of this virus and investigate mechanisms underlying disease severity variation in the absence of autopsy data, a rhesus macaque and common marmoset model of MERS-CoV disease were analyzed. Rhesus macaques developed mild disease, and common marmosets exhibited moderate to severe, potentially lethal, disease. Both nonhuman primate species exhibited respiratory clinical signs after inoculation, which were more severe and of longer duration in the marmosets, and developed bronchointerstitial pneumonia. In marmosets, the pneumonia was more extensive, with development of severe airway lesions. Quantitative analysis showed significantly higher levels of pulmonary neutrophil infiltration and higher amounts of pulmonary viral antigen in marmosets. Pulmonary expression of the MERS-CoV receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4, was similar in marmosets and macaques. These results suggest that increased virus replication and the local immune response to MERS-CoV infection likely play a role in pulmonary pathology severity. Together, the rhesus macaque and common marmoset models of MERS-CoV span the wide range of disease severity reported in MERS-CoV-infected humans, which will aid in investigating MERS-CoV disease pathogenesis. PMID:26724387

  13. The Ubiquitin-Conjugating System: Multiple Roles in Viral Replication and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Calistri, Arianna; Munegato, Denis; Carli, Ilaria; Parolin, Cristina; Palù, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Through the combined action of ubiquitinating and deubiquitinating enzymes, conjugation of ubiquitin to a target protein acts as a reversible post-translational modification functionally similar to phosphorylation. Indeed, ubiquitination is more and more recognized as a central process for the fine regulation of many cellular pathways. Due to their nature as obligate intracellular parasites, viruses rely on the most conserved host cell machineries for their own replication. Thus, it is not surprising that members from almost every viral family are challenged by ubiquitin mediated mechanisms in different steps of their life cycle and have evolved in order to by-pass or exploit the cellular ubiquitin conjugating system to maximize their chance to establish a successful infection. In this review we will present several examples of the complex interplay that links viruses and the ubiquitin conjugation machinery, with a special focus on the mechanisms evolved by the human immunodeficiency virus to escape from cellular restriction factors and to exit from infected cells. PMID:24805990

  14. Effects of ER stress on unfolded protein responses, cell survival, and viral replication in primary effusion lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Shigemi, Zenpei; Baba, Yusuke; Hara, Naoko; Matsuhiro, Jumpei; Kagawa, Hiroki; Watanabe, Tadashi; Fujimuro, Masahiro

    2016-01-15

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), a subtype of non-Hodgkin's B-lymphoma, is an aggressive neoplasm caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in immunosuppressed patients. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which induces expression of ER chaperones, which in turn decrease ER stress, leading to ER homeostasis. The UPR is necessary for not only ER homeostasis but also persistent infection by, and replication of, many viruses. However, the precise roles and regulation of the UPR in KSHV infection remain poorly understood. Here, we found that IRE1α and PERK were significantly downregulated in PEL cells cultured under normal conditions, compared with KSHV-uninfected B-lymphoma cells. IRE1α and PERK mRNA levels were decreased in PEL cells, and KSHV-encoded LANA and v-cyclin D led to suppressed IRE1α transcription. Thapsigargin-induced ER stress activated the UPR and increased the mRNA levels of UPR-related molecules, including IRE1α and PERK, in PEL cells. However the IRE1α and PERK mRNA levels in PEL cells were lower than those in KSHV-uninfected cells. Furthermore, ER stress induced by brefeldin A and thapsigargin dramatically reduced the viability of PEL cells, compared with KSHV-uninfected cells, and induced apoptosis of PEL cells via the pro-apoptotic UPR through expression of CHOP and activation of caspase-9. In addition to the pro-apoptotic UPR, thapsigargin-induced ER stress enhanced transcription of lytic genes, including RTA, K-bZIP and K8.1, and viral production in PEL cells resulted in induction of the lytic cycle. Thus, we demonstrated downregulation of IRE1α and PERK in PEL cells, transcriptional suppression of IRE1α by LANA and v-cyclin D, apoptosis induction in PEL cells by ER stress, and potentiation of lytic replication by ER stress. PMID:26692493

  15. Equine Herpesvirus Type 1 Enhances Viral Replication in CD172a+ Monocytic Cells upon Adhesion to Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Laval, Kathlyn; Favoreel, Herman W.; Poelaert, Katrien C. K.; Van Cleemput, Jolien

    2015-01-01

    via cell-associated viremia in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and subsequently infects the endothelial cells (EC) of the pregnant uterus or central nervous system, leading in some cases to abortion and/or neurological disorders. Recently, we demonstrated that CD172a+ monocytic carrier cells serve as a “Trojan horse” to facilitate EHV-1 spread from blood to target organs. Here, we investigated the mechanism underlying the transmission of EHV-1 from CD172a+ cells to EC. We demonstrated that EHV-1 infection induces cellular changes in CD172a+ cells, promoting their adhesion to EC. We found that both cell-to-cell contacts and the secretion of soluble factors by EC activate EHV-1 replication in CD172a+ cells. This facilitates transfer of cytoplasmic viral material to EC, resulting mainly in a nonproductive infection. Our findings give new insights into how EHV-1 may spread to EC of target organs in vaccinated horses. PMID:26292328

  16. Rift Valley Fever Virus Nonstructural Protein NSs Promotes Viral RNA Replication and Transcription in a Minigenome System

    PubMed Central

    Ikegami, Tetsuro; Peters, C. J.; Makino, Shinji

    2005-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which belongs to the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae, has a tripartite negative-strand genome (S, M, and L segments) and is an important mosquito-borne pathogen for domestic animals and humans. We established an RVFV T7 RNA polymerase-driven minigenome system in which T7 RNA polymerase from an expression plasmid drove expression of RNA transcripts for viral proteins and minigenome RNA transcripts carrying a reporter gene between both termini of the M RNA segment in 293T cells. Like other viruses of the Bunyaviridae family, replication and transcription of the RVFV minigenome required expression of viral N and L proteins. Unexpectedly, the coexpression of an RVFV nonstructural protein, NSs, with N and L proteins resulted in a significant enhancement of minigenome RNA replication. Coexpression of NSs protein with N and L proteins also enhanced minigenome mRNA transcription in the cells expressing viral-sense minigenome RNA transcripts. NSs protein expression increased the RNA replication of minigenomes that originated from S and L RNA segments. Enhancement of minigenome RNA synthesis by NSs protein occurred in cells lacking alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) genes, indicating that the effect of NSs protein on minigenome RNA replication was unrelated to a putative NSs protein-induced inhibition of IFN-α/β production. Our finding that RVFV NSs protein augmented minigenome RNA synthesis was in sharp contrast to reports that Bunyamwera virus (genus Bunyavirus) NSs protein inhibits viral minigenome RNA synthesis, suggesting that RVFV NSs protein and Bunyamwera virus NSs protein have distinctly different biological roles in viral RNA synthesis. PMID:15827175

  17. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) co-infection induced chlamydial persistence/stress does not require viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Schoborg, Robert V.; Borel, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydiae may exist at the site of infection in an alternative replicative form, called the aberrant body (AB). ABs are produced during a viable but non-infectious developmental state termed “persistence” or “chlamydial stress.” As persistent/stressed chlamydiae: (i) may contribute to chronic inflammation observed in diseases like trachoma; and (ii) are more resistant to current anti-chlamydial drugs of choice, it is critical to better understand this developmental stage. We previously demonstrated that porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) co-infection induced Chlamydia pecorum persistence/stress in culture. One critical characteristic of persistence/stress is that the chlamydiae remain viable and can reenter the normal developmental cycle when the stressor is removed. Thus, we hypothesized that PEDV-induced persistence would be reversible if viral replication was inhibited. Therefore, we performed time course experiments in which Vero cells were C. pecorum/PEDV infected in the presence of cycloheximide (CHX), which inhibits viral but not chlamydial protein synthesis. CHX-exposure inhibited PEDV replication, but did not inhibit induction of C. pecorum persistence at 24 h post-PEDV infection, as indicated by AB formation and reduced production of infectious EBs. Interestingly, production of infectious EBs resumed when CHX-exposed, co-infected cells were incubated 48–72 h post-PEDV co-infection. These data demonstrate that PEDV co-infection-induced chlamydial persistence/stress is reversible and suggest that this induction (i) does not require viral replication in host cells; and (ii) does not require de novo host or viral protein synthesis. These data also suggest that viral binding and/or entry may be required for this effect. Because the PEDV host cell receptor (CD13 or aminopeptidase N) stimulates cellular signaling pathways in the absence of PEDV infection, we suspect that PEDV co-infection might alter CD13 function and induce the chlamydiae to

  18. Evidence for and Localization of Vegetative Viral DNA Replication by Autoradiographic Detection of RNA·DNA Hybrids in Sections of Tumors Induced by Shope Papilloma Virus

    PubMed Central

    Orth, Gérard; Jeanteur, Philippe; Croissant, Odile

    1971-01-01

    The occurrence and localization of vegetative viral DNA replication was studied in sections of tumors induced by the rabbit Shope papilloma virus, in cottontail and domestic rabbit papillomas, in primary domestic rabbit carcinoma, and in transplantable VX2 carcinoma, by in situ hybridization of radioactive RNA complementary to viral DNA. Vegetative viral DNA replication and viral protein synthesis were compared by means of cytological hybridization and immunofluorescence techniques on adjacent frozen sections. Vegetative viral DNA replication is completely repressed in the proliferating cellular layers of these tumors, which suggests a provirus state of the viral genome, as in other cells transformed by oncogenic DNA viruses. Vegetative viral DNA replication is induced, after initiation of the keratinization, in cells of cottonail rabbit papillomas, where it is usually followed by viral protein synthesis; this illustrates the influence of the physiological state of the host cell on the control of viral functions. Vegetative viral DNA replication is deteced only in a few cells of domestic rabbit papillomas, at the end of the keratinization process; this observation provides indirect evidence that the DNA synthesis specifically induced in these tumors after the onset of keratinization reflects mostly the induction of cellular DNA synthesis. Images PMID:4331563

  19. A Novel, Highly Selective Inhibitor of Pestivirus Replication That Targets the Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Paeshuyse, Jan; Leyssen, Pieter; Mabery, Eric; Boddeker, Nina; Vrancken, Robert; Froeyen, Matheus; Ansari, Israrul H.; Dutartre, Hélène; Rozenski, Jef; Gil, Laura H. V. G.; Letellier, Carine; Lanford, Robert; Canard, Bruno; Koenen, Frank; Kerkhofs, Pierre; Donis, Ruben O.; Herdewijn, Piet; Watson, Julia; De Clercq, Erik; Puerstinger, Gerhard; Neyts, Johan

    2006-01-01

    We report on the highly potent and selective antipestivirus activity of 5-[(4-bromophenyl)methyl]-2-phenyl-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine (BPIP). The 50% effective concentration (EC50) for inhibition of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-induced cytopathic effect formation was 0.04 ± 0.01 μM. Comparable reduction of viral RNA synthesis (EC50 = 0.12 ± 0.02 μM) and production of infectious virus (EC50 = 0.074 ± 0.003 μM) were observed. The selectivity index (ratio of 50% cytostatic concentration/EC50) of BPIP was ∼2,000. BPIP was inactive against the hepatitis C virus subgenomic replicon and yellow fever virus but demonstrated weak activity against GB virus. Drug-resistant mutants were at least 300-fold less susceptible to BPIP than wild-type virus; showed cross-resistance to N-propyl-N-[2-(2H-1,2,4-triazino[5,6-b]indol-3-ylthio)ethyl]-1-propanamine (VP32947), and carried the F224S mutation in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). When the F224S mutation was introduced into an infectious clone, the drug-resistant phenotype was obtained. BPIP did not inhibit the in vitro activity of recombinant BVDV RdRp, but did inhibit the activity of replication complexes (RCs). Computational docking revealed that F224 is located at the top of the finger domain of the polymerase. Docking of BPIP in the crystal structure of the BVDV RdRp revealed aromatic ring stacking, some hydrophobic contacts, and a hydrogen bond. Since two structurally unrelated compounds, i.e., BPIP and VP32947, target the same region of the BVDV RdRp, this position may be expected to be critical in the functioning of the polymerase or assembly of the RC. The potential of BPIP for the treatment of pestivirus and hepacivirus infections is discussed. PMID:16352539

  20. Function of ubiquitin (Ub) specific protease 15 (USP15) in HIV-1 replication and viral protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Pyeon, Dohun; Timani, Khalid Amine; Gulraiz, Fahad; He, Johnny J; Park, In-Woo

    2016-09-01

    HIV-1 Nef is necessary and may be sufficient for HIV-1-associated AIDS pathogenicity, in that knockout of Nef alone can protect HIV-infected patients from AIDS. We therefore investigated the feasibility of physical knockout of Nef, using the host ubiquitin proteasome system in HIV-1-infected cells. Our co-immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that Nef interacted with ubiquitin specific protease 15 (USP15), and that USP15, which is known to stabilize cellular proteins, degraded Nef. Nef could also cause decay of USP15, although Nef-mediated degradation of USP15 was weaker than USP15-mediated Nef degradation. Direct interaction between Nef and USP15 was essential for the observed reciprocal decay of the proteins. Further, USP15 degraded not only Nef but also HIV-1 structural protein, Gag, thereby substantially inhibiting HIV-1 replication. However, Gag did not degrade USP15, indicating that the Nef and USP15 complex, in distinction to other viral proteins, play an integral role in coordinating viral protein degradation and hence HIV-1 replication. Moreover, Nef and USP15 globally suppressed ubiquitylation of cellular proteins, indicating that these proteins are major determinants for the stability of cellular as well as viral proteins. Taken together, these data indicate that Nef and USP15 are vital in regulating degradation of viral and cellular proteins and thus HIV-1 replication, and specific degradation of viral, not cellular proteins, by USP15 points to USP15 as a candidate therapeutic agent to combat AIDS by eliminating viral proteins from the infected cells via USP15-mediated proteosomal degradation. PMID:27460547

  1. Identification of Proteins Bound to Dengue Viral RNA In Vivo Reveals New Host Proteins Important for Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Stacia L.; Soderblom, Erik J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue virus is the most prevalent cause of arthropod-borne infection worldwide. Due to the limited coding capacity of the viral genome and the complexity of the viral life cycle, host cell proteins play essential roles throughout the course of viral infection. Host RNA-binding proteins mediate various aspects of virus replication through their physical interactions with viral RNA. Here we describe a technique designed to identify such interactions in the context of infected cells using UV cross-linking followed by antisense-mediated affinity purification and mass spectrometry. Using this approach, we identified interactions, several of them novel, between host proteins and dengue viral RNA in infected Huh7 cells. Most of these interactions were subsequently validated using RNA immunoprecipitation. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing, we showed that more than half of these host proteins are likely involved in regulating virus replication, demonstrating the utility of this method in identifying biologically relevant interactions that may not be identified using traditional in vitro approaches. PMID:26733069

  2. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation is required for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus replication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngnam; Lee, Changhee

    2015-10-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly enteropathogenic coronavirus of swine that causes acute enteritis with high mortality in nursery piglets. To date, the cellular factors involved in PEDV replication have not been well defined. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) that serves as a critical component of cellular signal transduction pathways to modulate a variety of cellular functions has been shown to regulate several viral infections. In the present study, we found that PEDV activates ERK1/2 early in infection independently of viral replication. The PEDV-induced ERK1/2 activation resulted in the phosphorylation of its downstream substrate Elk-1 in infected cells. Treatment with ERK inhibitors or ERK1/2 knockdown significantly suppressed viral progeny production. Inhibition of ERK activation also diminished viral protein expression and genomic and subgenomic RNA transcription. These findings indicate that the ERK signaling pathway plays an important role in the PEDV life cycle and beneficially contributes to viral infection. PMID:26115165

  3. Investigating the role of viral integral membrane proteins in promoting the assembly of nepovirus and comovirus replication factories

    PubMed Central

    Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Formation of plant virus membrane-associated replication factories requires the association of viral replication proteins and viral RNA with intracellular membranes, the recruitment of host factors and the modification of membranes to form novel structures that house the replication complex. Many viruses encode integral membrane proteins that act as anchors for the replication complex. These hydrophobic proteins contain transmembrane domains and/or amphipathic helices that associate with the membrane and modify its structure. The comovirus Co-Pro and NTP-binding (NTB, putative helicase) proteins and the cognate nepovirus X2 and NTB proteins are among the best characterized plant virus integral membrane replication proteins and are functionally related to the picornavirus 2B, 2C, and 3A membrane proteins. The identification of membrane association domains and analysis of the membrane topology of these proteins is discussed. The evidence suggesting that these proteins have the ability to induce membrane proliferation, alter the structure and integrity of intracellular membranes, and modulate the induction of symptoms in infected plants is also reviewed. Finally, areas of research that need further investigation are highlighted. PMID:23439982

  4. Influence of genome-scale RNA structure disruption on the replication of murine norovirus—similar replication kinetics in cell culture but attenuation of viral fitness in vivo

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Nora; Arias, Armando; Dry, Inga; Bailey, Dalan; Witteveldt, Jeroen; Evans, David J.; Goodfellow, Ian; Simmonds, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms by which certain RNA viruses, such as hepatitis C virus, establish persistent infections and cause chronic disease are of fundamental importance in viral pathogenesis. Mammalian positive-stranded RNA viruses establishing persistence typically possess genome-scale ordered RNA secondary structure (GORS) in their genomes. Murine norovirus (MNV) persists in immunocompetent mice and provides an experimental model to functionally characterize GORS. Substitution mutants were constructed with coding sequences in NS3/4- and NS6/7-coding regions replaced with sequences with identical coding and (di-)nucleotide composition but disrupted RNA secondary structure (F1, F2, F1/F2 mutants). Mutants replicated with similar kinetics to wild-type (WT) MNV3 in RAW264.7 cells and primary macrophages, exhibited similar (highly restricted) induction and susceptibility to interferon-coupled cellular responses and equal replication fitness by serial passaging of co-cultures. In vivo, both WT and F1/F2 mutant viruses persistently infected mice, although F1, F2 and F1/F2 mutant viruses were rapidly eliminated 1–7 days post-inoculation in competition experiments with WT. F1/F2 mutants recovered from tissues at 9 months showed higher synonymous substitution rates than WT and nucleotide substitutions that potentially restored of RNA secondary structure. GORS plays no role in basic replication of MNV but potentially contributes to viral fitness and persistence in vivo. PMID:23630317

  5. Thiazolides Elicit Anti-Viral Innate Immunity and Reduce HIV Replication

    PubMed Central

    Trabattoni, Daria; Gnudi, Federica; Ibba, Salomè V.; Saulle, Irma; Agostini, Simone; Masetti, Michela; Biasin, Mara; Rossignol, Jean-Francois; Clerici, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Nitazoxanide (Alinia®, NTZ) and tizoxanide (TIZ), its active circulating metabolite, belong to a class of agents known as thiazolides (TZD) endowed with broad anti-infective activities. TIZ and RM-4848, the active metabolite of RM-5038, were shown to stimulate innate immunity in vitro. Because natural resistance to HIV-1 infection in HIV-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals is suggested to be associated with strong innate immune responses, we verified whether TIZ and RM-4848 could reduce the in vitro infectiousness of HIV-1. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 20 healthy donors were infected in vitro with HIV-1BaL in the presence/absence of TIZ or RM4848. HIV-1 p24 were measured at different timepoints. The immunomodulatory abilities of TZD were evaluated by the expression of type I IFN pathway genes and the production of cytokines and chemokines. TZD drastically inhibited in vitro HIV-1 replication (>87%). This was associated with the activation of innate immune responses and with the up-regulation of several interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including those involved in cholesterol pathway, particularly the cholesterol-25 hydroxylase (CH25H). TZD inhibition of HIV-1 replication in vitro could be due to their ability to stimulate potent and multifaceted antiviral immune responses. These data warrant the exploration of TZD as preventive/therapeutic agent in HIV infection. PMID:27250526

  6. Thiazolides Elicit Anti-Viral Innate Immunity and Reduce HIV Replication.

    PubMed

    Trabattoni, Daria; Gnudi, Federica; Ibba, Salomè V; Saulle, Irma; Agostini, Simone; Masetti, Michela; Biasin, Mara; Rossignol, Jean-Francois; Clerici, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Nitazoxanide (Alinia(®), NTZ) and tizoxanide (TIZ), its active circulating metabolite, belong to a class of agents known as thiazolides (TZD) endowed with broad anti-infective activities. TIZ and RM-4848, the active metabolite of RM-5038, were shown to stimulate innate immunity in vitro. Because natural resistance to HIV-1 infection in HIV-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals is suggested to be associated with strong innate immune responses, we verified whether TIZ and RM-4848 could reduce the in vitro infectiousness of HIV-1. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 20 healthy donors were infected in vitro with HIV-1BaL in the presence/absence of TIZ or RM4848. HIV-1 p24 were measured at different timepoints. The immunomodulatory abilities of TZD were evaluated by the expression of type I IFN pathway genes and the production of cytokines and chemokines. TZD drastically inhibited in vitro HIV-1 replication (>87%). This was associated with the activation of innate immune responses and with the up-regulation of several interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including those involved in cholesterol pathway, particularly the cholesterol-25 hydroxylase (CH25H). TZD inhibition of HIV-1 replication in vitro could be due to their ability to stimulate potent and multifaceted antiviral immune responses. These data warrant the exploration of TZD as preventive/therapeutic agent in HIV infection. PMID:27250526

  7. Replication of Tobamovirus RNA.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus and other tobamoviruses have served as models for studying the mechanisms of viral RNA replication. In tobamoviruses, genomic RNA replication occurs via several steps: (a) synthesis of viral replication proteins by translation of the genomic RNA; (b) translation-coupled binding of the replication proteins to a 5'-terminal region of the genomic RNA; (c) recruitment of the genomic RNA by replication proteins onto membranes and formation of a complex with host proteins TOM1 and ARL8; (d) synthesis of complementary (negative-strand) RNA in the complex; and (e) synthesis of progeny genomic RNA. This article reviews current knowledge on tobamovirus RNA replication, particularly regarding how the genomic RNA is specifically selected as a replication template and how the replication proteins are activated. We also focus on the roles of the replication proteins in evading or suppressing host defense systems. PMID:27296148

  8. Impact of Nucleotide Mutations at the HNF3- and HNF4-Binding Sites in Enhancer 1 on Viral Replication in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun-young; Kim, Hyung-jin; Park, Channy; So, Hong-seob; Park, Rae Kil

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims The hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome contains binding sites for hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNF) 3 and 4 in the core domain of enhancer 1 (Enh1), and mutations in this domain have a strong impact on virus replication. We aimed to identify frequent base-mutation sites in the core domain of Enh1 and to examine the impact of these mutations on viral replication. Methods We studied virological characteristics and genetic sequences in 387 patients with chronic hepatitis B. We evaluated functional differences associated with specific mutations within the core domain of Enh1. Results Mutations in the core domain were found with significant frequency in C1126 (122/387 [31.5%], the binding site for HNF3) and in C1134 (106/387 [27.4%], the binding site for HNF4). A single mutation at nt 1126 (C1126) was identified in 17/123 (13.8%), and 105/123 (85.4%) had double mutations (C1126/1134). The level of HBV DNA (log10 copies/mL) was lower in single mutants (C1126, 5.81±1.25) than in wild (6.80±1.65) and double mutants (C1126/1134, 6.81±1.54). Similarly, the relative luciferase activity of C1126 and C1126/C1134 was 0.18 and 1.12 times that of the wild-type virus, respectively. Conclusions Mutations in the HNF3 binding site inhibit viral replication, whereas mutations at the HNF4 binding site restore viral replication. PMID:24073315

  9. Nuclear localization of dengue virus nonstructural protein 5 does not strictly correlate with efficient viral RNA replication and inhibition of type I interferon signaling.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Bühler, Sandra; Selisko, Barbara; Davidson, Andrew; Mulder, Klaas; Canard, Bruno; Miller, Sven; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an important human pathogen, especially in the tropical and subtropical parts of the world, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. DENV replication occurs in the cytoplasm; however, a high proportion of nonstructural protein 5 (NS5), containing methyltransferase (MTase) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activities, accumulates in the nuclei of infected cells. The present study investigates the impact of nuclear localization of NS5 on its known functions, including viral RNA replication and subversion of the type I interferon response. By using a mutation analysis approach, we identified the most critical residues within the αβ nuclear localization signal (αβNLS), which are essential for the nuclear accumulation of this protein. Although we observed an overall correlation between reduced nuclear accumulation of NS5 and impaired RNA replication, we identified one mutant with drastically reduced amounts of nuclear NS5 and virtually unaffected RNA replication, arguing that nuclear localization of NS5 does not correlate strictly with DENV replication, at least in cell culture. Because NS5 plays an important role in blocking interferon signaling via STAT-2 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 2) degradation, the abilities of the NLS mutants to block this pathway were investigated. All mutants were able to degrade STAT-2, with accordingly similar type I interferon resistance phenotypes. Since the NLS is contained within the RdRp domain, the MTase and RdRp activities of the mutants were determined by using recombinant full-length NS5. We found that the C-terminal region of the αβNLS is a critical functional element of the RdRp domain required for polymerase activity. These results indicate that efficient DENV RNA replication requires only minimal, if any, nuclear NS5, and they identify the αβNLS as a structural element required for proper RdRp activity. PMID:23408610

  10. Dichloroacetate blocks aerobic glycolytic adaptation to attenuated measles virus and promotes viral replication leading to enhanced oncolysis in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Meng, Gang; Su, Lei; Chen, Aiping; Xia, Mao; Xu, Chun; Yu, Decai; Jiang, Aiqin; Wei, Jiwu

    2015-01-30

    Targeting reprogrammed energy metabolism such as aerobic glycolysis is a potential strategy for cancer treatment. However, tumors exhibiting low-rate glycolysis or metabolic heterogeneity might be resistant to such treatment. We hypothesized that a therapeutic modality that drove cancer cells to high-rate glycolysis might sensitize cancer cells to interference directed against metabolic flux. In this study, we found that attenuated oncolytic measles virus Edmonston strain (MV-Edm) caused glioblastoma cells to shift to high-rate aerobic glycolysis; this adaptation was blocked by dichloroacetate (DCA), an inhibitor of glycolysis, leading to profound cell death of cancer cells but not of normal cells. DCA enhanced viral replication by mitigating mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS)-mediated innate immune responses. In a subcutaneous glioblastoma (GBM) xenograft mouse model, low-dose MV-Edm and DCA significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo. We found that DCA impaired glycolysis (blocking bioenergetic generation) and enhanced viral replication (increasing bioenergetic consumption), which, in combination, accelerated bioenergetic exhaustion leading to necrotic cell death. Taken together, oncolytic MV-Edm sensitized cancer cells to DCA, and in parallel, DCA promoted viral replication, thus, improving oncolysis. This novel therapeutic approach should be readily incorporated into clinical trials. PMID:25575816

  11. Formation of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Core of Optimal Stability Is Crucial for Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Forshey, Brett M.; von Schwedler, Uta; Sundquist, Wesley I.; Aiken, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Virions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other lentiviruses contain conical cores consisting of a protein shell composed of the viral capsid protein (CA) surrounding an internal viral ribonucleoprotein complex. Although genetic studies have implicated CA in both early and late stages of the virus replication cycle, the mechanism of core disassembly following penetration of target cells remains undefined. Using quantitative assays for analyzing HIV-1 core stability in vitro, we identified point mutations in CA that either reduce or increase the stability of the HIV-1 core without impairing conical core formation in virions. Alterations in core stability resulted in severely attenuated HIV-1 replication and impaired reverse transcription in target cells with only minimal effects on viral DNA synthesis in permeabilized virions in vitro. We conclude that formation of a viral core of optimal stability is a prerequisite for efficient HIV-1 infection and suggest that disassembly of the HIV-1 core is a regulated step in infection that may be an attractive target for pharmacologic intervention. PMID:11991995

  12. Heat shock protein 70 is associated with CSFV NS5A protein and enhances viral RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengcheng; Kang, Kai; Ning, Pengbo; Peng, Yangxin; Lin, Zhi; Cui, Hongjie; Cao, Zhi; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yanming

    2015-08-01

    The non-structural 5A (NS5A) protein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is proven to be involved in viral replication and can also modulate cellular signaling via to its ability to interact with various cellular proteins. Here, HSP70/NS5A complex formation is confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and GST-pulldown studies. Additionally, the N-terminal amino acids (29-240) of NS5A were identified as the interaction region through in vivo deletion analyses, and confocal microscopy showed that NS5A and HSP70 colocalized in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of HSP70 via the eukaryotic expression plasmid pDsRED N1 or lentivirus significantly promoted viral RNA synthesis. Whereas the knockdown of HSP70 by lentivirus-mediated shRNA or inhibition by quercetin markedly decreased the viral load. These data suggest that HSP70 plays a critical role in the viral life cycle, particularly during the virus RNA replication period. The investigation of HSP70 protein functions may be beneficial for developing new strategies to treat CSFV infection. PMID:25827528

  13. Development of viable TAP-tagged dengue virus for investigation of host-virus interactions in viral replication.

    PubMed

    Poyomtip, Teera; Hodge, Kenneth; Matangkasombut, Ponpan; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Pisitkun, Trairak; Jirawatnotai, Siwanon; Chimnaronk, Sarin

    2016-03-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus responsible for life-threatening dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). The viral replication machinery containing the core non-structural protein 5 (NS5) is implicated in severe dengue symptoms but molecular details remain obscure. To date, studies seeking to catalogue and characterize interaction networks between viral NS5 and host proteins have been limited to the yeast two-hybrid system, computational prediction and co-immunoprecipitation (IP) of ectopically expressed NS5. However, these traditional approaches do not reproduce a natural course of infection in which a number of DENV NS proteins colocalize and tightly associate during the replication process. Here, we demonstrate the development of a recombinant DENV that harbours a TAP tag in NS5 to study host-virus interactions in vivo. We show that our engineered DENV was infective in several human cell lines and that the tags were stable over multiple viral passages, suggesting negligible structural and functional disturbance of NS5. We further provide proof-of-concept for the use of rationally tagged virus by revealing a high confidence NS5 interaction network in human hepatic cells. Our analysis uncovered previously unrecognized hnRNP complexes and several low-abundance fatty acid metabolism genes, which have been implicated in the viral life cycle. This study sets a new standard for investigation of host-flavivirus interactions. PMID:26669909

  14. Equine Viperin Restricts Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Replication by Inhibiting the Production and/or Release of Viral Gag, Env, and Receptor via Distortion of the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan-Dong; Na, Lei; Zhu, Chun-Hui; Shen, Nan; Yang, Fei; Fu, Xian-Qiu; Wang, Yu-Hong; Fu, Li-Hua; Wang, Jia-Yi; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Wang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viperin is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated multifunctional protein that regulates virus replication and possesses broad antiviral activity. In many cases, viperin interferes with the trafficking and budding of viral structural proteins by distorting the membrane transportation system. The lentivirus equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has been studied extensively. In this study, we examined the restrictive effect of equine viperin (eViperin) on EIAV replication and investigated the possible molecular basis of this restriction to obtain insights into the effect of this cellular factor on retroviruses. We demonstrated that EIAV infection of primary equine monocyte-derived macrophages (eMDMs) upregulated the expression of eViperin. The overexpression of eViperin significantly inhibited the replication of EIAV in eMDMs, and knockdown of eViperin transcription enhanced the replication of EIAV in eMDMs by approximately 45.8%. Further experiments indicated that eViperin restricts EIAV at multiple steps of viral replication. The overexpression of eViperin inhibited EIAV Gag release. Both the α-helix domain and radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) domain were required for this activity. However, the essential motifs in SAM were different from those reported for the inhibition of HIV-1 Gag by human viperin. Furthermore, eViperin disrupted the synthesis of both EIAV Env and receptor, which consequently inhibited viral production and entry, respectively, and this disruption was dependent on the eViperin α-helix domain. Using immunofluorescence assays and electron microscopy, we demonstrated that the α-helix domain is responsible for the distortion of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Finally, EIAV did not exhibit counteracting eViperin at the protein level. IMPORTANCE In previous studies, viperin was indicated as restricting virus replications primarily by the inhibition of virus budding. Here, we show that viperin may have multiple antiviral mechanisms

  15. Identification of a novel multiple kinase inhibitor with potent antiviral activity against influenza virus by reducing viral polymerase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Yutaka; Kakisaka, Michinori; Chutiwitoonchai, Nopporn; Tajima, Shigeru; Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko; Aida, Yoko

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Screening of 50,000 compounds and subsequent lead optimization identified WV970. • WV970 has antiviral effects against influenza A, B and highly pathogenic viral strains. • WV970 inhibits viral genome replication and transcription. • A target database search suggests that WV970 may bind to a number of kinases. • KINOMEscan screening revealed that WV970 has inhibitory effects on 15 kinases. - Abstract: Neuraminidase inhibitors are the only currently available influenza treatment, although resistant viruses to these drugs have already been reported. Thus, new antiviral drugs with novel mechanisms of action are urgently required. In this study, we identified a novel antiviral compound, WV970, through cell-based screening of a 50,000 compound library and subsequent lead optimization. This compound exhibited potent antiviral activity with nanomolar IC{sub 50} values against both influenza A and B viruses but not non-influenza RNA viruses. Time-of-addition and indirect immunofluorescence assays indicated that WV970 acted at an early stage of the influenza life cycle, but likely after nuclear entry of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP). Further analyses of viral RNA expression and viral polymerase activity indicated that WV970 inhibited vRNP-mediated viral genome replication and transcription. Finally, structure-based virtual screening and comprehensive human kinome screening were used to demonstrate that WV970 acts as a multiple kinase inhibitor, many of which are associated with influenza virus replication. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that WV970 is a promising anti-influenza drug candidate and that several kinases associated with viral replication are promising drug targets.

  16. BRD4 Phosphorylation Regulates HPV E2-Mediated Viral Transcription, Origin Replication, and Cellular MMP-9 Expression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Nin, Dawn Sijin; Lee, A-Young; Simanski, Scott; Kodadek, Thomas; Chiang, Cheng-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Post-translational modification can modulate protein conformation and alter binding partner recruitment within gene regulatory regions. Here, we report that bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4), a transcription co-factor and chromatin regulator, uses a phosphorylation-induced switch mechanism to recruit E2 protein encoded by cancer-associated human papillomavirus (HPV) to viral early gene and cellular matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) promoters. Enhanced MMP-9 expression, induced upon keratinocyte differentiation, occurs via BRD4-dependent recruitment of active AP-1 and NF-κB to their target sequences. This is triggered by replacement of AP-1 family members JunB and JunD by c-Jun and by re-localization of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. In addition, BRD4 phosphorylation is critical for E2- and origin-dependent HPV DNA replication. A class of phospho-BRD4-targeting compounds, distinct from the BET bromodomain inhibitors, effectively blocks BRD4 phosphorylation-specific functions in transcription and factor recruitment. PMID:27477287

  17. The Isomerase Active Site of Cyclophilin A Is Critical for Hepatitis C Virus Replication*

    PubMed Central

    Chatterji, Udayan; Bobardt, Michael; Selvarajah, Suganya; Yang, Feng; Tang, Hengli; Sakamoto, Noayo; Vuagniaux, Gregoire; Parkinson, Tanya; Gallay, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Cyclosporine A and nonimmunosuppressive cyclophilin (Cyp) inhibitors such as Debio 025, NIM811, and SCY-635 block hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in vitro. This effect was recently confirmed in HCV-infected patients where Debio 025 treatment dramatically decreased HCV viral load, suggesting that Cyps inhibitors represent a novel class of anti-HCV agents. However, it remains unclear how these compounds control HCV replication. Recent studies suggest that Cyps are important for HCV replication. However, a profound disagreement currently exists as to the respective roles of Cyp members in HCV replication. In this study, we analyzed the respective contribution of Cyp members to HCV replication by specifically knocking down their expression by both transient and stable small RNA interference. Only the CypA knockdown drastically decreased HCV replication. The re-expression of an exogenous CypA escape protein, which contains escape mutations at the small RNA interference recognition site, restored HCV replication, demonstrating the specificity for the CypA requirement. We then mutated residues that reside in the hydrophobic pocket of CypA where proline-containing peptide substrates and cyclosporine A bind and that are vital for the enzymatic or the hydrophobic pocket binding activity of CypA. Remarkably, these CypA mutants fail to restore HCV replication, suggesting for the first time that HCV exploits either the isomerase or the chaperone activity of CypA to replicate in hepatocytes and that CypA is the principal mediator of the Cyp inhibitor anti-HCV activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that the HCV NS5B polymerase associates with CypA via its enzymatic pocket. The study of the roles of Cyps in HCV replication should lead to the identification of new targets for the development of alternate anti-HCV therapies. PMID:19380579

  18. Transcription elongation regulator 1 (TCERG1) regulates competent RNA polymerase II-mediated elongation of HIV-1 transcription and facilitates efficient viral replication

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Control of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) release from pausing has been proposed as a checkpoint mechanism to ensure optimal RNAPII activity, especially in large, highly regulated genes. HIV-1 gene expression is highly regulated at the level of elongation, which includes transcriptional pausing that is mediated by both viral and cellular factors. Here, we present evidence for a specific role of the elongation-related factor TCERG1 in regulating the extent of HIV-1 elongation and viral replication in vivo. Results We show that TCERG1 depletion diminishes the basal and viral Tat-activated transcription from the HIV-1 LTR. In support of a role for an elongation mechanism in the transcriptional control of HIV-1, we found that TCERG1 modifies the levels of pre-mRNAs generated at distal regions of HIV-1. Most importantly, TCERG1 directly affects the elongation rate of RNAPII transcription in vivo. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that TCERG1 regulates HIV-1 transcription by increasing the rate of RNAPII elongation through the phosphorylation of serine 2 within the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNAPII and suggest a mechanism for the involvement of TCERG1 in relieving pausing. Finally, we show that TCERG1 is required for HIV-1 replication. Conclusions Our study reveals that TCERG1 regulates HIV-1 transcriptional elongation by increasing the elongation rate of RNAPII and phosphorylation of Ser 2 within the CTD. Based on our data, we propose a general mechanism for TCERG1 acting on genes that are regulated at the level of elongation by increasing the rate of RNAPII transcription through the phosphorylation of Ser2. In the case of HIV-1, our evidence provides the basis for further investigation of TCERG1 as a potential therapeutic target for the inhibition of HIV-1 replication PMID:24165037

  19. Universal Temporal Profile of Replication Origin Activation in Eukaryotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldar, Arach

    2011-03-01

    The complete and faithful transmission of eukaryotic genome to daughter cells involves the timely duplication of mother cell's DNA. DNA replication starts at multiple chromosomal positions called replication origin. From each activated replication origin two replication forks progress in opposite direction and duplicate the mother cell's DNA. While it is widely accepted that in eukaryotic organisms replication origins are activated in a stochastic manner, little is known on the sources of the observed stochasticity. It is often associated to the population variability to enter S phase. We extract from a growing Saccharomyces cerevisiae population the average rate of origin activation in a single cell by combining single molecule measurements and a numerical deconvolution technique. We show that the temporal profile of the rate of origin activation in a single cell is similar to the one extracted from a replicating cell population. Taking into account this observation we exclude the population variability as the origin of observed stochasticity in origin activation. We confirm that the rate of origin activation increases in the early stage of S phase and decreases at the latter stage. The population average activation rate extracted from single molecule analysis is in prefect accordance with the activation rate extracted from published micro-array data, confirming therefore the homogeneity and genome scale invariance of dynamic of replication process. All these observations point toward a possible role of replication fork to control the rate of origin activation.

  20. Potent and selective inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and HIV-2 replication by a class of bicyclams interacting with a viral uncoating event.

    PubMed Central

    De Clercq, E; Yamamoto, N; Pauwels, R; Baba, M; Schols, D; Nakashima, H; Balzarini, J; Debyser, Z; Murrer, B A; Schwartz, D

    1992-01-01

    A series of bicyclams have been shown to be potent and selective inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The compounds are inhibitory to the replication of various HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains in various human T-cell systems, including peripheral blood lymphocytes, at 0.14-1.4 microM, without being toxic to the host cells at 2.2 mM. The bicyclam JM2763 is active against 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (zidovudine; AZT)-resistant HIV-1 strains and acts additively with AZT. Mechanism of action studies revealed that the bicyclams (i.e., JM2763) interact with an early event of the retrovirus replicative cycle, which could be tentatively identified as a viral uncoating event. Images PMID:1608936

  1. Viral precursor protein P3 and its processed products perform discrete and essential functions in the poliovirus RNA replication complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The differential use of protein precursors and their products is a key strategy used during poliovirus replication. To characterize the role of protein precursors during replication, we examined the complementation profiles of mutants that inhibited 3D polymerase or 3C-RNA binding activity. We showe...

  2. Staufen1 promotes HCV replication by inhibiting protein kinase R and transporting viral RNA to the site of translation and replication in the cells

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Updesh; Pandey, Ashutosh K.; Mishra, Priya; Sengupta, Amitabha; Pandey, Virendra N.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to chronic hepatitis C (CHC), which often progresses to liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The molecular mechanisms that establish CHC and cause its subsequent development into LC and HCC are poorly understood. We have identified a cytoplasmic double-stranded RNA binding protein, Stau1, which is crucial for HCV replication. In this study, Stau1 specifically interacted with the variable-stem-loop region in the 3′ NTR and domain IIId of the HCV-IRES in the 5′ NTR, and promoted HCV replication and translation. Stau1 coimmunoprecipitates HCV NS5B and a cell factor, protein kinase R (PKR), which is critical for interferon-induced cellular antiviral and antiproliferative responses. Like Stau1, PKR displayed binding specificity to domain IIId of HCV-IRES. Stau1 binds to PKR and strongly inhibits PKR-autophosphorylation. We demonstrated that the transport of HCV RNA on the polysomes is Stau1-dependent, being mainly localized in the monosome fractions when Stau1 is downregulated and exclusively localized in the polysomes when Stau1 is overexpressed. Our findings suggest that HCV may appropriate Stau1 to its advantage to prevent PKR-mediated inhibition of eIF2α, which is required for the synthesis of HCV proteins for translocation of viral RNA genome to the polysomes for efficient translation and replication. PMID:27106056

  3. Staufen1 promotes HCV replication by inhibiting protein kinase R and transporting viral RNA to the site of translation and replication in the cells.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Updesh; Pandey, Ashutosh K; Mishra, Priya; Sengupta, Amitabha; Pandey, Virendra N

    2016-06-20

    Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to chronic hepatitis C (CHC), which often progresses to liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The molecular mechanisms that establish CHC and cause its subsequent development into LC and HCC are poorly understood. We have identified a cytoplasmic double-stranded RNA binding protein, Stau1, which is crucial for HCV replication. In this study, Stau1 specifically interacted with the variable-stem-loop region in the 3' NTR and domain IIId of the HCV-IRES in the 5' NTR, and promoted HCV replication and translation. Stau1 coimmunoprecipitates HCV NS5B and a cell factor, protein kinase R (PKR), which is critical for interferon-induced cellular antiviral and antiproliferative responses. Like Stau1, PKR displayed binding specificity to domain IIId of HCV-IRES. Stau1 binds to PKR and strongly inhibits PKR-autophosphorylation. We demonstrated that the transport of HCV RNA on the polysomes is Stau1-dependent, being mainly localized in the monosome fractions when Stau1 is downregulated and exclusively localized in the polysomes when Stau1 is overexpressed. Our findings suggest that HCV may appropriate Stau1 to its advantage to prevent PKR-mediated inhibition of eIF2α, which is required for the synthesis of HCV proteins for translocation of viral RNA genome to the polysomes for efficient translation and replication. PMID:27106056

  4. Separation of the transcriptional activation and replication functions of the bovine papillomavirus-1 E2 protein.

    PubMed

    Winokur, P L; McBride, A A

    1992-11-01

    Replication of bovine papillomavirus-1 (BPV-1) DNA requires two viral gene products, the E1 protein and the full-length E2 protein. The 48 kDa E2 protein is a site-specific DNA-binding protein that binds to several sites which lie adjacent to the BPV-1 origin of replication. The 85 amino acid C-terminal domain contains the specific DNA binding and dimerization properties of the protein. The approximately 200 amino acid N-terminal domain is crucial for transcriptional activation. Both of these domains are highly conserved among different papillomaviruses. An internal hinge region separates the two functional domains. The region varies in amino acid sequence and length among the E2 proteins of different papillomaviruses. A series of mutations were constructed within the E2 open reading frame which delete various regions of the conserved DNA binding and transactivation domains as well as the internal hinge region. Two mutated E2 proteins that lack portions of the conserved DNA-binding domain but which support DNA replication were identified using transient replication assays. These mutated E2 proteins were unable to function as transcriptional activators. Conversely, two E2 proteins containing large deletions of the hinge region were able to activate transcription, but were defective for replication. Thus, the replication and transactivation functions of the E2 protein are separable. PMID:1327758

  5. Secondary mutations in viruses resistant to HIV-1 integrase inhibitors that restore viral infectivity and replication kinetics.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Koichiro; Wakasa-Morimoto, Chiaki; Kobayashi, Masanori; Miki, Shigeru; Noshi, Takeshi; Seki, Takahiro; Kanamori-Koyama, Mikiko; Kawauchi, Shinobu; Suyama, Akemi; Fujishita, Toshio; Yoshinaga, Tomokazu; Garvey, Edward P; Johns, Brian A; Foster, Scott A; Underwood, Mark R; Sato, Akihiko; Fujiwara, Tamio

    2009-02-01

    Passage of HIV-1 in the presence of integrase inhibitors (INIs) generates resistant viruses that have mutations in the integrase region. Integrase-resistant mutations Q148K and Q148R were identified as primary mutations with the passage of HIV-1 IIIB in the presence of INIs S-1360 or S/GSK-364735, respectively. Secondary amino acid substitutions E138K or G140S were observed when passage with INI was continued. The role of these mutations was investigated with molecular clones. Relative to Q148K alone, Q148K/E138K had 2- and >6-fold increases in resistance to S-1360 and S/GSK-364735, respectively, and the double mutant had slightly better infectivity and replication kinetics. In contrast, Q148K/G140S and Q148R/E138K had nearly equivalent or slightly reduced fold resistance to the INI compared with their respective Q148 primary mutants, and had increases in infectivity and replication kinetics. Recovery of these surrogates of viral fitness coincided with the recovery of integration efficiency of viral DNA into the host cell chromosome for these double mutants. These data show that recovery of viral integration efficiency can be an important factor for the emergence and maintenance of INI-resistant mutations. PMID:19027039

  6. Pur-Alpha Induces JCV Gene Expression and Viral Replication by Suppressing SRSF1 in Glial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sariyer, Ilker Kudret; Sariyer, Rahsan; Otte, Jessica; Gordon, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Objective PML is a rare and fatal demyelinating disease of the CNS caused by the human polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV), which occurs in AIDS patients and those on immunosuppressive monoclonal antibody therapies (mAbs). We sought to identify mechanisms that could stimulate reactivation of JCV in a cell culture model system and targeted pathways which could affect early gene transcription and JCV T-antigen production, which are key steps of the viral life cycle for blocking reactivation of JCV. Two important regulatory partners we have previously identified for T-antigen include Pur-alpha and SRSF1 (SF2/ASF). SRSF1, an alternative splicing factor, is a potential regulator of JCV whose overexpression in glial cells strongly suppresses viral gene expression and replication. Pur-alpha has been most extensively characterized as a sequence-specific DNA- and RNA-binding protein which directs both viral gene transcription and mRNA translation, and is a potent inducer of the JCV early promoter through binding to T-antigen. Methods and Results Pur-alpha and SRSF1 both act directly as transcriptional regulators of the JCV promoter and here we have observed that Pur-alpha is capable of ameliorating SRSF1-mediated suppression of JCV gene expression and viral replication. Interestingly, Pur-alpha exerted its effect by suppressing SRSF1 at both the protein and mRNA levels in glial cells suggesting this effect can occur independent of T-antigen. Pur-alpha and SRSF1 were both localized to oligodendrocyte inclusion bodies by immunohistochemistry in brain sections from patients with HIV-1 associated PML. Interestingly, inclusion bodies were typically positive for either Pur-alpha or SRSF1, though some cells appeared to be positive for both proteins. Conclusions Taken together, these results indicate the presence of an antagonistic interaction between these two proteins in regulating of JCV gene expression and viral replication and suggests that they play an important role during viral

  7. Viral replication in excised fin tissues (VREFT) corresponds with prior exposure of Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grady, C.A.; Gregg, J.L.; Wade, R.M.; Winton, J.R.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Procedures for a viral replication in excised fin tissue (VREFT) assay were adapted to Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, and optimized both to reduce processing time and to provide the greatest resolution between na??ve herring and those previously exposed to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), Genogroup IVa. The optimized procedures included removal of the left pectoral fin from a euthanized fish, inoculation of the fin with >105 plaque-forming units (PFU) mL-1 VHSV for 1 h, rinsing the fin in fresh medium six times to remove unadsorbed virions, incubation of the fin in fresh medium for 4 days and enumeration of the viral titre in a sample of the incubation medium by plaque assay. The optimized VREFT assay was effective at identifying the prior exposure history of laboratory-reared Pacific herring to VHSV. The geometric mean VREFT value was significantly greater (P < 0.01) among na??ve herring (1.2 ?? 103 PFU mL-1) than among groups that survived exposure to VHSV (1.0-2.9 ?? 102 PFU mL-1); additionally, the proportion of cultures with no detectable virus was significantly greater (P = 0.0002) among fish that survived exposure to VHSV (39-47%) than among na??ve fish (3.3%). The optimized VREFT assay demonstrates promise for identifying VHSV exposure history and forecasting disease potential in populations of wild Pacific herring. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Treatment with novel RSV Ig RI-002 controls viral replication and reduces pulmonary damage in immunocompromised Sigmodon hispidus.

    PubMed

    Boukhvalova, M; Blanco, J C G; Falsey, A R; Mond, J

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in several high health risk populations, including infants, elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with lower respiratory tract RSV infection can exceed 80%. It has been shown that RSV replication in immunosuppressed individuals is significantly prolonged, but the contribution of pulmonary damage, if any, to the pathogenesis of RSV disease in this susceptible population is not known. In this work, we tested RI-002, a novel standardized Ig formulation containing a high level of RSV-neutralizing Ab, for its ability to control RSV infection in immunocompromised cotton rats Sigmodon hispidus. Animals immunosuppressed by repeat cyclophosphamide injections were infected with RSV and treated with RI-002. Prolonged RSV replication, characteristic of immunosuppressed cotton rats, was inhibited by RI-002 administration. Ab treatment reduced detection of systemic dissemination of viral RNA. Importantly, pulmonary interstitial inflammation and epithelial hyperplasia that were significantly elevated in immunosuppressed animals were reduced by RI-002 administration. These results indicate the potential of RI-002 to improve outcome of RSV infection in immunocompromised subjects not only by controlling viral replication, but also by reducing damage to lung parenchyma and epithelial airway lining, but further studies are needed. PMID:26367224

  9. Isolation of Enzymatically Active Replication Complexes from Feline Calicivirus-Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Green, Kim Y.; Mory, Aaron; Fogg, Mark H.; Weisberg, Andrea; Belliot, Gaël; Wagner, Mariam; Mitra, Tanaji; Ehrenfeld, Ellie; Cameron, Craig E.; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.

    2002-01-01

    A membranous fraction that could synthesize viral RNA in vitro in the presence of magnesium salt, ribonucleotides, and an ATP-regenerating system was isolated from feline calicivirus (FCV)-infected cells. The enzymatically active component of this fraction was designated FCV replication complexes (RCs), by analogy to other positive-strand RNA viruses. The newly synthesized RNA was characterized by Northern blot analysis, which demonstrated the production of both full-length (8.0-kb) and subgenomic-length (2.5-kb) RNA molecules similar to those synthesized in FCV-infected cells. The identity of the viral proteins associated with the fraction was investigated. The 60-kDa VP1 major capsid protein was the most abundant viral protein detected. VP2, a minor structural protein encoded by open reading frame 3 (ORF3), was also present. Nonstructural proteins associated with the fraction included the precursor polypeptides Pro-Pol (76 kDa) and p30-VPg (43 kDa), as well as the mature nonstructural proteins p32 (derived from the N-terminal region of the ORF1 polyprotein), p30 (the putative “3A-like” protein), and p39 (the putative nucleoside triphosphatase). The isolation of enzymatically active RCs containing both viral and cellular proteins should facilitate efforts to dissect the contributions of the virus and the host to FCV RNA replication. PMID:12163578

  10. The K526R substitution in viral protein PB2 enhances the effects of E627K on influenza virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenjun; Wang, Pui; Mok, Bobo Wing-Yee; Lau, Siu-Ying; Huang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Wai-Lan; Zheng, Min; Wen, Xi; Yang, Shigui; Chen, Yu; Li, Lanjuan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Chen, Honglin

    2014-01-01

    Host-adaptive strategies, such as the E627K substitution in the PB2 protein, are critical for replication of avian influenza A viruses in mammalian hosts. Here we show that mutation PB2-K526R is present in some human H7N9 influenza isolates, in nearly 80% of H5N1 human isolates from Indonesia and, in conjunction with E627K, in almost all seasonal H3N2 viruses since 1970. Polymerase complexes containing PB2-526R derived from H7N9, H5N1 or H3N2 viruses exhibit increased polymerase activity. PB2-526R also enhances viral transcription and replication in cells. In comparison with viruses carrying 627K, H7N9 viruses carrying both 526R and 627K replicate more efficiently in mammalian (but not avian) cells and in mouse lung tissues, and cause greater body weight loss and mortality in infected mice. PB2-K526R interacts with nuclear export protein and our results suggest that it contributes to enhance replication for certain influenza virus subtypes, particularly in combination with 627K. PMID:25409547

  11. Ebselen Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Helicase Binding to Nucleic Acid and Prevents Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) is both a protease, which cleaves viral and host proteins, and a helicase that separates nucleic acid strands, using ATP hydrolysis to fuel the reaction. Many antiviral drugs, and compounds in clinical trials, target the NS3 protease, but few helicase inhibitors that function as antivirals have been reported. This study focuses on the analysis of the mechanism by which ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3-one), a compound previously shown to be a HCV antiviral agent, inhibits the NS3 helicase. Ebselen inhibited the abilities of NS3 to unwind nucleic acids, to bind nucleic acids, and to hydrolyze ATP, and about 1 μM ebselen was sufficient to inhibit each of these activities by 50%. However, ebselen had no effect on the activity of the NS3 protease, even at 100 times higher ebselen concentrations. At concentrations below 10 μM, the ability of ebselen to inhibit HCV helicase was reversible, but prolonged incubation of HCV helicase with higher ebselen concentrations led to irreversible inhibition and the formation of covalent adducts between ebselen and all 14 cysteines present in HCV helicase. Ebselen analogues with sulfur replacing the selenium were just as potent HCV helicase inhibitors as ebselen, but the length of the linker between the phenyl and benzisoselenazol rings was critical. Modifications of the phenyl ring also affected compound potency over 30-fold, and ebselen was a far more potent helicase inhibitor than other, structurally unrelated, thiol-modifying agents. Ebselen analogues were also more effective antiviral agents, and they were less toxic to hepatocytes than ebselen. Although the above structure–activity relationship studies suggest that ebselen targets a specific site on NS3, we were unable to confirm binding to either the NS3 ATP binding site or nucleic acid binding cleft by examining the effects of ebselen on NS3 proteins lacking key cysteines. PMID:25126694

  12. Nucleolin associates with the human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase accessory subunit UL44 and is necessary for efficient viral replication.

    PubMed

    Strang, Blair L; Boulant, Steeve; Coen, Donald M

    2010-02-01

    In the eukaryotic cell, DNA replication entails the interaction of multiple proteins with the DNA polymerase processivity factor PCNA. As the structure of the presumptive human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA polymerase processivity factor UL44 is highly homologous to that of PCNA, we hypothesized that UL44 also interacts with numerous proteins. To investigate this possibility, recombinant HCMV expressing FLAG-tagged UL44 was generated and used to immunoprecipitate UL44 and associated proteins from infected cell lysates. Unexpectedly, nucleolin, a major protein component of the nucleolus, was identified among these proteins by mass spectrometry and Western blotting. The association of nucleolin and UL44 in infected cell lysate was confirmed by reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation in the presence and absence of nuclease. Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that the level of nucleolin increases during infection and that nucleolin becomes distributed throughout the nucleus. Furthermore, the colocalization of nucleolin and UL44 in infected cell nuclei was observed by immunofluorescence assays. Assays of HCMV-infected cells treated with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting nucleolin mRNA indicated that nucleolin was required for efficient virus production, viral DNA synthesis, and the expression of a late viral protein, with a correlation between the efficacy of knockdown and the effect on virus replication. In contrast, the level of neither global protein synthesis nor the replication of an unrelated virus (reovirus) was reduced in siRNA-treated cells. Taken together, our results indicate an association of nucleolin and UL44 in HCMV-infected cells and a role for nucleolin in viral DNA synthesis. PMID:20007282

  13. Matriptase Proteolytically Activates Influenza Virus and Promotes Multicycle Replication in the Human Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Alexandre; Gravel, Émilie; Cloutier, Alexandre; Marois, Isabelle; Colombo, Éloïc; Désilets, Antoine; Verreault, Catherine; Leduc, Richard; Marsault, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Influenza viruses do not encode any proteases and must rely on host proteases for the proteolytic activation of their surface hemagglutinin proteins in order to fuse with the infected host cells. Recent progress in the understanding of human proteases responsible for influenza virus hemagglutinin activation has led to the identification of members of the type II transmembrane serine proteases TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 and human airway trypsin-like protease; however, none has proved to be the sole enzyme responsible for hemagglutinin cleavage. In this study, we identify and characterize matriptase as an influenza virus-activating protease capable of supporting multicycle viral replication in the human respiratory epithelium. Using confocal microscopy, we found matriptase to colocalize with hemagglutinin at the apical surface of human epithelial cells and within endosomes, and we showed that the soluble form of the protease was able to specifically cleave hemagglutinins from H1 virus, but not from H2 and H3 viruses, in a broad pH range. We showed that small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of matriptase in human bronchial epithelial cells significantly blocked influenza virus replication in these cells. Lastly, we provide a selective, slow, tight-binding inhibitor of matriptase that significantly reduces viral replication (by 1.5 log) of H1N1 influenza virus, including the 2009 pandemic virus. Our study establishes a three-pronged model for the action of matriptase: activation of incoming viruses in the extracellular space in its shed form, upon viral attachment or exit in its membrane-bound and/or shed forms at the apical surface of epithelial cells, and within endosomes by its membrane-bound form where viral fusion takes place. PMID:23365447

  14. Tight Chk1 Levels Control Replication Cluster Activation in Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, Jennifer M.; Barbosa, Pedro; Libeau, Pierre; Priam, Pierre; Narassimprakash, Hemalatha; Grodzenski, Xenia; Marheineke, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication in higher eukaryotes initiates at thousands of origins according to a spatio-temporal program. The ATR/Chk1 dependent replication checkpoint inhibits the activation of later firing origins. In the Xenopus in vitro system initiations are not sequence dependent and 2-5 origins are grouped in clusters that fire at different times despite a very short S phase. We have shown that the temporal program is stochastic at the level of single origins and replication clusters. It is unclear how the replication checkpoint inhibits late origins but permits origin activation in early clusters. Here, we analyze the role of Chk1 in the replication program in sperm nuclei replicating in Xenopus egg extracts by a combination of experimental and modelling approaches. After Chk1 inhibition or immunodepletion, we observed an increase of the replication extent and fork density in the presence or absence of external stress. However, overexpression of Chk1 in the absence of external replication stress inhibited DNA replication by decreasing fork densities due to lower Cdk2 kinase activity. Thus, Chk1 levels need to be tightly controlled in order to properly regulate the replication program even during normal S phase. DNA combing experiments showed that Chk1 inhibits origins outside, but not inside, already active clusters. Numerical simulations of initiation frequencies in the absence and presence of Chk1 activity are consistent with a global inhibition of origins by Chk1 at the level of clusters but need to be combined with a local repression of Chk1 action close to activated origins to fit our data. PMID:26046346

  15. Autophagy Activated by Bluetongue Virus Infection Plays a Positive Role in Its Replication.

    PubMed

    Lv, Shuang; Xu, Qingyuan; Sun, Encheng; Yang, Tao; Li, Junping; Feng, Yufei; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Haixiu; Zhang, Jikai; Wu, Donglai

    2015-08-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an important pathogen of wild and domestic ruminants. Despite extensive study in recent decades, the interplay between BTV and host cells is not clearly understood. Autophagy as a cellular adaptive response plays a part in many viral infections. In our study, we found that BTV1 infection triggers the complete autophagic process in host cells, as demonstrated by the appearance of obvious double-membrane autophagosome-like vesicles, GFP-LC3 dots accumulation, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and increased levels of autophagic flux in BSR cells (baby hamster kidney cell clones) and primary lamb lingual epithelial cells upon BTV1 infection. Moreover, the results of a UV-inactivated BTV1 infection assay suggested that the induction of autophagy was dependent on BTV1 replication. Therefore, we investigated the role of autophagy in BTV1 replication. The inhibition of autophagy by pharmacological inhibitors (3-MA, CQ) and RNA interference (siBeclin1) significantly decreased viral protein synthesis and virus yields. In contrast, treating BSR cells with rapamycin, an inducer of autophagy, promoted viral protein expression and the production of infectious BTV1. These findings lead us to conclude that autophagy is activated by BTV1 and contributes to its replication, and provide novel insights into BTV-host interactions. PMID:26287233

  16. Autophagy Activated by Bluetongue Virus Infection Plays a Positive Role in Its Replication

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Shuang; Xu, Qingyuan; Sun, Encheng; Yang, Tao; Li, Junping; Feng, Yufei; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Haixiu; Zhang, Jikai; Wu, Donglai

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an important pathogen of wild and domestic ruminants. Despite extensive study in recent decades, the interplay between BTV and host cells is not clearly understood. Autophagy as a cellular adaptive response plays a part in many viral infections. In our study, we found that BTV1 infection triggers the complete autophagic process in host cells, as demonstrated by the appearance of obvious double-membrane autophagosome-like vesicles, GFP-LC3 dots accumulation, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and increased levels of autophagic flux in BSR cells (baby hamster kidney cell clones) and primary lamb lingual epithelial cells upon BTV1 infection. Moreover, the results of a UV-inactivated BTV1 infection assay suggested that the induction of autophagy was dependent on BTV1 replication. Therefore, we investigated the role of autophagy in BTV1 replication. The inhibition of autophagy by pharmacological inhibitors (3-MA, CQ) and RNA interference (siBeclin1) significantly decreased viral protein synthesis and virus yields. In contrast, treating BSR cells with rapamycin, an inducer of autophagy, promoted viral protein expression and the production of infectious BTV1. These findings lead us to conclude that autophagy is activated by BTV1 and contributes to its replication, and provide novel insights into BTV-host interactions. PMID:26287233

  17. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Latent Gene vFLIP Inhibits Viral Lytic Replication through NF-κB-Mediated Suppression of the AP-1 Pathway: a Novel Mechanism of Virus Control of Latency▿

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Feng-Chun; Zhou, Fu-Chun; Xie, Jian-Ping; Kang, Tao; Greene, Whitney; Kuhne, Kurt; Lei, Xiu-Fen; Li, Qui-Hua; Gao, Shou-Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency is central to the evasion of host immune surveillances and induction of KSHV-related malignancies. The mechanism of KSHV latency remains unclear. Here, we show that the KSHV latent gene vFLIP promotes viral latency by inhibiting viral lytic replication. vFLIP suppresses the AP-1 pathway, which is essential for KSHV lytic replication, by activating the NF-κB pathway. Thus, by manipulating two convergent cellular pathways, vFLIP regulates both cell survival and KSHV lytic replication to promote viral latency. These results also indicate that the effect of the NF-κB pathway on KSHV replication is determined by the status of the AP-1 pathway and hence provide a mechanistic explanation for the contradictory role of the NF-κB pathway in KSHV replication. Since the NF-κB pathway is commonly activated during infection of gammaherpesviruses, these findings might have general implications for the control of gammaherpesviral latency. PMID:18305042

  18. Human Transbodies to HCV NS3/4A Protease Inhibit Viral Replication and Restore Host Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Jittavisutthikul, Surasak; Seesuay, Watee; Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Thueng-in, Kanyarat; Srimanote, Potjanee; Werner, Rolf G.; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2016-01-01

    A safe and effective direct acting anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) agent is still needed. In this study, human single chain variable fragments of antibody (scFvs) that bound to HCV NS3/4A protein were produced by phage display technology. The engineered scFvs were linked to nonaarginines (R9) for making them cell penetrable. HCV-RNA-transfected Huh7 cells treated with the transbodies produced from four different transformed E. coli clones had reduced HCV-RNA inside the cells and in the cell spent media, as well as fewer HCV foci in the cell monolayer compared to the transfected cells in culture medium alone. The transbodies-treated transfected cells also had up-expression of the genes coding for the host innate immune response, including TRIF, TRAF3, IRF3, IL-28B, and IFN-β. Computerized homology modeling and intermolecular docking predicted that the effective transbodies interacted with several critical residues of the NS3/4A protease, including those that form catalytic triads, oxyanion loop, and S1 and S6 pockets, as well as a zinc-binding site. Although insight into molecular mechanisms of the transbodies need further laboratory investigation, it can be deduced from the current data that the transbodies blocked the HCV NS3/4A protease activities, leading to the HCV replication inhibition and restoration of the virally suppressed host innate immunity. The engineered antibodies should be tested further for treatment of HCV infection either alone, in combination with current therapeutics, or in a mixture with their cognates specific to other HCV proteins. PMID:27617013

  19. Human Transbodies to HCV NS3/4A Protease Inhibit Viral Replication and Restore Host Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Jittavisutthikul, Surasak; Seesuay, Watee; Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Thueng-In, Kanyarat; Srimanote, Potjanee; Werner, Rolf G; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2016-01-01

    A safe and effective direct acting anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) agent is still needed. In this study, human single chain variable fragments of antibody (scFvs) that bound to HCV NS3/4A protein were produced by phage display technology. The engineered scFvs were linked to nonaarginines (R9) for making them cell penetrable. HCV-RNA-transfected Huh7 cells treated with the transbodies produced from four different transformed E. coli clones had reduced HCV-RNA inside the cells and in the cell spent media, as well as fewer HCV foci in the cell monolayer compared to the transfected cells in culture medium alone. The transbodies-treated transfected cells also had up-expression of the genes coding for the host innate immune response, including TRIF, TRAF3, IRF3, IL-28B, and IFN-β. Computerized homology modeling and intermolecular docking predicted that the effective transbodies interacted with several critical residues of the NS3/4A protease, including those that form catalytic triads, oxyanion loop, and S1 and S6 pockets, as well as a zinc-binding site. Although insight into molecular mechanisms of the transbodies need further laboratory investigation, it can be deduced from the current data that the transbodies blocked the HCV NS3/4A protease activities, leading to the HCV replication inhibition and restoration of the virally suppressed host innate immunity. The engineered antibodies should be tested further for treatment of HCV infection either alone, in combination with current therapeutics, or in a mixture with their cognates specific to other HCV proteins. PMID:27617013

  20. Profiling Kinase Activity during Hepatitis C Virus Replication Using a Wortmannin Probe.

    PubMed

    Desrochers, Geneviève F; Sherratt, Allison R; Blais, David R; Nasheri, Neda; Ning, Zhibin; Figeys, Daniel; Goto, Natalie K; Pezacki, John Paul

    2015-09-11

    To complete its life cycle, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces changes to numerous aspects of its host cell. As kinases act as regulators of many pathways utilized by HCV, they are likely enzyme targets for virally induced inhibition or activation. Herein, we used activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), which allows for the identification of active enzymes in complex protein samples and the quantification of their activity, to identify kinases that displayed differential activity in HCV-expressing cells. We utilized an ABPP probe, wortmannin-yne, based on the kinase inhibitor wortmannin, which contains a pendant alkyne group for bioconjugation using bioorthogonal chemistry. We observed changes in the activity of kinases involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, apoptosis pathways, and cell cycle control. These results establish changes to the active kinome, as reported by wortmannin-yne, in the proteome of human hepatoma cells actively replicating HCV. The observed changes include kinase activity that affect viral entry, replication, assembly, and secretion, implying that HCV is regulating the pathways that it uses for its life cycle through modulation of the active kinome. PMID:27617927

  1. Activation of a human chromosomal replication origin by protein tethering

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaomi; Liu, Guoqi; Leffak, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The specification of mammalian chromosomal replication origins is incompletely understood. To analyze the assembly and activation of prereplicative complexes (pre-RCs), we tested the effects of tethered binding of chromatin acetyltransferases and replication proteins on chromosomal c-myc origin deletion mutants containing a GAL4-binding cassette. GAL4DBD (DNA binding domain) fusions with Orc2, Cdt1, E2F1 or HBO1 coordinated the recruitment of the Mcm7 helicase subunit, the DNA unwinding element (DUE)-binding protein DUE-B and the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase activator Cdc45 to the replicator, and restored origin activity. In contrast, replication protein binding and origin activity were not stimulated by fusion protein binding in the absence of flanking c-myc DNA. Substitution of the GAL4-binding site for the c-myc replicator DUE allowed Orc2 and Mcm7 binding, but eliminated origin activity, indicating that the DUE is essential for pre-RC activation. Additionally, tethering of DUE-B was not sufficient to recruit Cdc45 or activate pre-RCs formed in the absence of a DUE. These results show directly in a chromosomal background that chromatin acetylation, Orc2 or Cdt1 suffice to recruit all downstream replication initiation activities to a prospective origin, and that chromosomal origin activity requires singular DNA sequences. PMID:23658226

  2. Glycolytic control of vacuolar-type ATPase activity: A mechanism to regulate influenza viral infection

    SciTech Connect

    Kohio, Hinissan P.; Adamson, Amy L.

    2013-09-15

    As new influenza virus strains emerge, finding new mechanisms to control infection is imperative. In this study, we found that we could control influenza infection of mammalian cells by altering the level of glucose given to cells. Higher glucose concentrations induced a dose-specific increase in influenza infection. Linking influenza virus infection with glycolysis, we found that viral replication was significantly reduced after cells were treated with glycolytic inhibitors. Addition of extracellular ATP after glycolytic inhibition restored influenza infection. We also determined that higher levels of glucose promoted the assembly of the vacuolar-type ATPase within cells, and increased vacuolar-type ATPase proton-transport activity. The increase of viral infection via high glucose levels could be reversed by inhibition of the proton pump, linking glucose metabolism, vacuolar-type ATPase activity, and influenza viral infection. Taken together, we propose that altering glucose metabolism may be a potential new approach to inhibit influenza viral infection. - Highlights: • Increased glucose levels increase Influenza A viral infection of MDCK cells. • Inhibition of the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase inhibited Influenza A viral infection. • Inhibition of hexokinase induced disassembly the V-ATPase. • Disassembly of the V-ATPase and Influenza A infection was bypassed with ATP. • The state of V-ATPase assembly correlated with Influenza A infection of cells.

  3. Viral distribution and activity in Antarctic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guixa-Boixereu, Núria; Vaqué, Dolors; Gasol, Josep M.; Sánchez-Cámara, Jaime; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    Variability in abundance of virus-like particles (VLP), VLP decay rates and prokaryotic mortality due to viral infection were determined in three Antarctic areas: Bellingshausen Sea, Bransfield Strait and Gerlache Strait, during December 1995 and February 1996. VLP abundance showed very small spatial variability in the three areas (7×10 6-2×10 7 VLP ml -1). VLP abundance, on the other hand, decreased one order of magnitude from the surface to the bottom, in two stations where deep vertical profiles were sampled. Low seasonal variability in VLP abundance was found when comparing each area separately. Diel VLP variability was also very low. VLP abundance showed the lowest values when solar irradiation was maximal, in two of the three stations where diel cycles were examined. Viral decay rates (VDR) were determined using KCN in two kinds of experiments. Type 1 experiments were performed in 6 stations to determine viral decay. Type 2 experiments were carried out in 2 stations to examine the influence of temperature and organic matter concentration on viral decay. VDR was not influenced by these parameters. Prokaryotic mortality due to viral infection was always higher than that due to bacterivores in the stations where both factors of prokaryotic mortality were measured. Viral infection accounted for all the prokaryotic heterotrophic production in Bellingshausen Sea and Gerlache Strait and for half of the prokaryotic heterotrophic production in Bransfield Strait. These high values of prokaryotic mortality due to viral infection are difficult to reconcile in nature, and more work is necessary to determine the mechanisms involved in the disappearance of viruses.

  4. Pin1 Interacts with the Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Polymerase Catalytic Subunit and Regulates Viral DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Yohei; Ryo, Akihide; Kawashima, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Kanda, Teru; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (Pin1) protein is known as a regulator which recognizes phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motifs and increases the rate of cis and trans amide isomer interconversion, thereby altering the conformation of its substrates. We found that Pin1 knockdown using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) technology resulted in strong suppression of productive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA replication. We further identified the EBV DNA polymerase catalytic subunit, BALF5, as a Pin1 substrate in glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown and immunoprecipitation assays. Lambda protein phosphatase treatment abolished the binding of BALF5 to Pin1, and mutation analysis of BALF5 revealed that replacement of the Thr178 residue by Ala (BALF5 T178A) disrupted the interaction with Pin1. To further test the effects of Pin1 in the context of virus infection, we constructed a BALF5-deficient recombinant virus. Exogenous supply of wild-type BALF5 in HEK293 cells with knockout recombinant EBV allowed efficient synthesis of viral genome DNA, but BALF5 T178A could not provide support as efficiently as wild-type BALF5. In conclusion, we found that EBV DNA polymerase BALF5 subunit interacts with Pin1 through BALF5 Thr178 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Pin1 might modulate EBV DNA polymerase conformation for efficient, productive viral DNA replication. PMID:23221557

  5. IFN-α subtypes: distinct biological activities in anti-viral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gibbert, K; Schlaak, JF; Yang, D; Dittmer, U

    2013-01-01

    During most viral infections, the immediate host response is characterized by an induction of type I IFN. These cytokines have various biological activities, including anti-viral, anti-proliferative and immunomodulatory effects. After induction, they bind to their IFN-α/β receptor, which leads to downstream signalling resulting in the expression of numerous different IFN-stimulated genes. These genes encode anti-viral proteins that directly inhibit viral replication as well as modulate immune function. Thus, the induction of type I IFN is a very powerful tool for the host to fight virus infections. Many viruses evade this response by various strategies like the direct suppression of IFN induction or inhibition of the IFN signalling pathway. Therefore, the therapeutic application of exogenous type I IFN or molecules that induce strong IFN responses should be of great potential for future immunotherapies against viral infections. Type I IFN is currently used as a treatment in chronic hepatitis B and C virus infection, but as yet is not widely utilized for other viral infections. One reason for this restricted clinical use is that type I IFN belongs to a multigene family that includes 13 different IFN-α subtypes and IFN-β, whose individual anti-viral and immunomodulatory properties have so far not been investigated in detail to improve IFN therapy against viral infections in humans. In this review, we summarize the recent achievements in defining the distinct biological functions of type I IFN subtypes in cell culture and in animal models of viral infection as well as their clinical usage in chronic hepatitis virus infections. PMID:23072338

  6. Three-Dimensional Analysis of a Viral RNA Replication Complex Reveals a Virus-Induced Mini-Organelle

    PubMed Central

    Kopek, Benjamin G; Perkins, Guy; Miller, David J; Ellisman, Mark H; Ahlquist, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Positive-strand RNA viruses are the largest genetic class of viruses and include many serious human pathogens. All positive-strand RNA viruses replicate their genomes in association with intracellular membrane rearrangements such as single- or double-membrane vesicles. However, the exact sites of RNA synthesis and crucial topological relationships between relevant membranes, vesicle interiors, surrounding lumens, and cytoplasm generally are poorly defined. We applied electron microscope tomography and complementary approaches to flock house virus (FHV)–infected Drosophila cells to provide the first 3-D analysis of such replication complexes. The sole FHV RNA replication factor, protein A, and FHV-specific 5-bromouridine 5'-triphosphate incorporation localized between inner and outer mitochondrial membranes inside ∼50-nm vesicles (spherules), which thus are FHV-induced compartments for viral RNA synthesis. All such FHV spherules were outer mitochondrial membrane invaginations with interiors connected to the cytoplasm by a necked channel of ∼10-nm diameter, which is sufficient for ribonucleotide import and product RNA export. Tomographic, biochemical, and other results imply that FHV spherules contain, on average, three RNA replication intermediates and an interior shell of ∼100 membrane-spanning, self-interacting protein As. The results identify spherules as the site of protein A and nascent RNA accumulation and define spherule topology, dimensions, and stoichiometry to reveal the nature and many details of the organization and function of the FHV RNA replication complex. The resulting insights appear relevant to many other positive-strand RNA viruses and support recently proposed structural and likely evolutionary parallels with retrovirus and double-stranded RNA virus virions. PMID:17696647

  7. At the crossroads of autophagy and infection: Noncanonical roles for ATG proteins in viral replication.

    PubMed

    Solvik, Tina; Debnath, Jayanta

    2016-08-29

    Autophagy-related (ATG) proteins have increasingly demonstrated functions other than cellular self-eating. In this issue, Mauthe et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201602046) conduct an unbiased RNA interference screen of the ATG proteome to reveal numerous noncanonical roles for ATG proteins during viral infection. PMID:27573461

  8. Endoplasmic Reticulum: The Favorite Intracellular Niche for Viral Replication and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Brey, Inés; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest intracellular organelle. It forms a complex network of continuous sheets and tubules, extending from the nuclear envelope (NE) to the plasma membrane. This network is frequently perturbed by positive-strand RNA viruses utilizing the ER to create membranous replication factories (RFs), where amplification of their genomes occurs. In addition, many enveloped viruses assemble progeny virions in association with ER membranes, and viruses replicating in the nucleus need to overcome the NE barrier, requiring transient changes of the NE morphology. This review first summarizes some key aspects of ER morphology and then focuses on the exploitation of the ER by viruses for the sake of promoting the different steps of their replication cycles. PMID:27338443

  9. Endoplasmic Reticulum: The Favorite Intracellular Niche for Viral Replication and Assembly.

    PubMed

    Romero-Brey, Inés; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest intracellular organelle. It forms a complex network of continuous sheets and tubules, extending from the nuclear envelope (NE) to the plasma membrane. This network is frequently perturbed by positive-strand RNA viruses utilizing the ER to create membranous replication factories (RFs), where amplification of their genomes occurs. In addition, many enveloped viruses assemble progeny virions in association with ER membranes, and viruses replicating in the nucleus need to overcome the NE barrier, requiring transient changes of the NE morphology. This review first summarizes some key aspects of ER morphology and then focuses on the exploitation of the ER by viruses for the sake of promoting the different steps of their replication cycles. PMID:27338443

  10. PTB binds to the 3' untranslated region of the human astrovirus type 8: a possible role in viral replication.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Hernández, Wendy; Velez-Uriza, Dora; Valdés, Jesús; Vélez-Del Valle, Cristina; Salas-Benito, Juan; Martínez-Contreras, Rebeca; García-Espítia, Matilde; Salas-Benito, Mariana; Vega-Almeida, Tania; De Nova-Ocampo, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    The 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of human astroviruses (HAstV) consists of two hairpin structures (helix I and II) joined by a linker harboring a conserved PTB/hnRNP1 binding site. The identification and characterization of cellular proteins that interact with the 3'UTR of HAstV-8 virus will help to uncover cellular requirements for viral functions. To this end, mobility shift assays and UV cross-linking were performed with uninfected and HAstV-8-infected cell extracts and HAstV-8 3'UTR probes. Two RNA-protein complexes (CI and CII) were recruited into the 3'UTR. Complex CII formation was compromised with cold homologous RNA, and seven proteins of 35, 40, 45, 50, 52, 57/60 and 75 kDa were cross-linked to the 3'UTR. Supermobility shift assays indicated that PTB/hnRNP1 is part of this complex, and 3'UTR-crosslinked PTB/hnRNP1 was immunoprecipitated from HAstV-8 infected cell-membrane extracts. Also, immunofluorescence analyses revealed that PTB/hnRNP1 is distributed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of uninfected cells, but it is mainly localized perinuclearly in the cytoplasm of HAstV-8 infected cells. Furthermore, the minimal 3'UTR sequences recognized by recombinant PTB are those conforming helix I, and an intact PTB/hnRNP1-binding site. Finally, small interfering RNA-mediated PTB/hnRNP1 silencing reduced synthesis viral genome and virus yield in CaCo2 cells, suggesting that PTB/hnRNP1 is required for HAstV replication. In conclusion, PTB/hnRNP1 binds to the 3'UTR HAstV-8 and is required or participates in viral replication. PMID:25406089

  11. PTB Binds to the 3’ Untranslated Region of the Human Astrovirus Type 8: A Possible Role in Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa-Hernández, Wendy; Velez-Uriza, Dora; Valdés, Jesús; Vélez-Del Valle, Cristina; Salas-Benito, Juan; Martínez-Contreras, Rebeca; García-Espítia, Matilde; Salas-Benito, Mariana; Vega-Almeida, Tania; De Nova-Ocampo, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    The 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of human astroviruses (HAstV) consists of two hairpin structures (helix I and II) joined by a linker harboring a conserved PTB/hnRNP1 binding site. The identification and characterization of cellular proteins that interact with the 3′UTR of HAstV-8 virus will help to uncover cellular requirements for viral functions. To this end, mobility shift assays and UV cross-linking were performed with uninfected and HAstV-8-infected cell extracts and HAstV-8 3′UTR probes. Two RNA-protein complexes (CI and CII) were recruited into the 3′UTR. Complex CII formation was compromised with cold homologous RNA, and seven proteins of 35, 40, 45, 50, 52, 57/60 and 75 kDa were cross-linked to the 3′UTR. Supermobility shift assays indicated that PTB/hnRNP1 is part of this complex, and 3′UTR-crosslinked PTB/hnRNP1 was immunoprecipitated from HAstV-8 infected cell-membrane extracts. Also, immunofluorescence analyses revealed that PTB/hnRNP1 is distributed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of uninfected cells, but it is mainly localized perinuclearly in the cytoplasm of HAstV-8 infected cells. Furthermore, the minimal 3′UTR sequences recognized by recombinant PTB are those conforming helix I, and an intact PTB/hnRNP1-binding site. Finally, small interfering RNA-mediated PTB/hnRNP1 silencing reduced synthesis viral genome and virus yield in CaCo2 cells, suggesting that PTB/hnRNP1 is required for HAstV replication. In conclusion, PTB/hnRNP1 binds to the 3′UTR HAstV-8 and is required or participates in viral replication. PMID:25406089

  12. Targeted disruption of influenza A virus hemagglutinin in genetically modified mice reduces viral replication and improves disease outcome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Song; Chen, Chao; Yang, Zhou; Chi, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Ji-Long

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus can cause acute respiratory infection in animals and humans around the globe, and is still a major threat to animal husbandry and public health. Due to antigenic drift and antigenic shift of the virus, development of novel anti-influenza strategies has become an urgent task. Here we generated transgenic (TG) mice stably expressing a short-hairpin RNA specifically targeting hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza A virus, and investigated the susceptibility of the mice to influenza virus infection. We found that HA expression was dramatically disrupted in TG mice infected with WSN or PR8 virus. Importantly, the animals showed reduced virus production in lungs, slower weight loss, attenuated acute organ injury and consequently increased survival rates as compared to wild type (WT) mice after the viral infection. Moreover, TG mice exhibited a normal level of white blood cells following the virus infection, whereas the number of these cells was significantly decreased in WT mice with same challenge. Together, these experiments demonstrate that the TG mice are less permissive for influenza virus replication, and suggest that shRNA-based efficient disruption of viral gene expression in animals may be a useful strategy for prevention and control of a viral zoonosis. PMID:27033724

  13. Viral DNA tethering domains complement replication-defective mutations in the p12 protein of MuLV Gag.

    PubMed

    Schneider, William M; Brzezinski, Jonathon D; Aiyer, Sriram; Malani, Nirav; Gyuricza, Mercedes; Bushman, Frederic D; Roth, Monica J

    2013-06-01

    The p12 protein of murine leukemia virus (MuLV) group-specific antigen (Gag) is associated with the preintegration complex, and mutants of p12 (PM14) show defects in nuclear entry or retention. Here we show that p12 proteins engineered to encode peptide sequences derived from known viral tethering proteins can direct chromatin binding during the early phase of viral replication and rescue a lethal p12-PM14 mutant. Peptides studied included segments of Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA)(1-23), human papillomavirus 8 E2, and prototype foamy virus chromatin-binding sequences. Amino acid substitutions in Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus LANA and prototype foamy virus chromatin-binding sequences that blocked nucleosome association failed to rescue MuLV p12-PM14. Rescue by a larger LANA peptide, LANA(1-32), required second-site mutations that are predicted to reduce peptide binding affinity to chromosomes, suggesting that excessively high binding affinity interfered with Gag/p12 function. This is supported by confocal microscopy of chimeric p12-GFP fusion constructs showing the reverted proteins had weaker association to condensed mitotic chromosomes. Analysis of the integration-site selection of these chimeric viruses showed no significant change in integration profile compared with wild-type MuLV, suggesting release of the tethered p12 post mitosis, before viral integration. PMID:23661057

  14. Targeted disruption of influenza A virus hemagglutinin in genetically modified mice reduces viral replication and improves disease outcome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Song; Chen, Chao; Yang, Zhou; Chi, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Ji-Long

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus can cause acute respiratory infection in animals and humans around the globe, and is still a major threat to animal husbandry and public health. Due to antigenic drift and antigenic shift of the virus, development of novel anti-influenza strategies has become an urgent task. Here we generated transgenic (TG) mice stably expressing a short-hairpin RNA specifically targeting hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza A virus, and investigated the susceptibility of the mice to influenza virus infection. We found that HA expression was dramatically disrupted in TG mice infected with WSN or PR8 virus. Importantly, the animals showed reduced virus production in lungs, slower weight loss, attenuated acute organ injury and consequently increased survival rates as compared to wild type (WT) mice after the viral infection. Moreover, TG mice exhibited a normal level of white blood cells following the virus infection, whereas the number of these cells was significantly decreased in WT mice with same challenge. Together, these experiments demonstrate that the TG mice are less permissive for influenza virus replication, and suggest that shRNA-based efficient disruption of viral gene expression in animals may be a useful strategy for prevention and control of a viral zoonosis. PMID:27033724

  15. Local Production of Tumor Necrosis Factor Encoded by Recombinant Vaccinia Virus is Effective in Controlling Viral Replication in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambhi, Sharan K.; Kohonen-Corish, Maija R. J.; Ramshaw, Ian A.

    1991-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has pleiotropic effects on a wide variety of cell types. In vitro studies have demonstrated that TNF has antiviral properties and is induced in response to viral infections. However, a role for TNF in the antiviral immune response of the host has yet to be demonstrated. Here we describe the construction of and studies using a recombinant vaccinia virus that encodes the gene for murine TNF-α. By comparing the replication of and immune responses elicited by the TNF-encoding virus to a similarly constructed control virus, we hoped to observe immunobiological effects of TNF in the host. The in vivo experiments with this recombinant virus demonstrate that the localized production of TNF-α during a viral infection leads to the rapid and efficient clearance of the virus in normal mice and attenuates the otherwise lethal pathogenicity of the virus in immunodeficient animals. This attenuation occurs early in the infection (by postinfection hour 24) and is not due to the enhancement of cellular or antibody responses by the vaccinia virus-encoded TNF. This evidence suggests that attenuation of the recombinant virus is due to a direct antiviral effect of TNF on cells at the site of infection. Therefore, these results support the suggestion that TNF produced by immune cells may be an important effector mechanism of viral clearance in vivo.

  16. Marek's disease virus influences the core gut microbiome of the chicken during the early and late phases of viral replication.

    PubMed

    Perumbakkam, Sudeep; Hunt, Henry D; Cheng, Hans H

    2014-10-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is an important neoplastic disease of chickens caused by the Marek's disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus. In this study, dysbiosis induced by MDV on the core gut flora of chicken was assessed using next generation sequence (NGS) analysis. Total fecal and cecum-derived samples from individual birds were used to estimate the influence of MDV infection on the gut microbiome of chicken. Our analysis shows that MDV infection alters the core gut flora in the total fecal samples relatively early after infection (2-7 days) and in the late phase of viral infection (28-35 days) in cecal samples, corresponding well with the life cycle of MDV. Principle component analyses of total fecal and cecal samples showed clustering at the early and late time points, respectively. The genus Lactobacillus was exclusively present in the infected samples in both total fecal and cecal bird samples. The community colonization of core gut flora was altered by viral infection, which manifested in the enrichment of several genera during the early and late phases of MDV replication. The results suggest a relationship between viral infection and microbial composition of the intestinal tract that may influence inflammation and immunosuppression of T and B cells in the host. PMID:25065611

  17. Replication of Murine Cytomegalovirus in Differentiated Macrophages as a Determinant of Viral Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Laura K.; Slater, Jacquelyn S.; Karabekian, Zaruhi; Virgin, Herbert W.; Biron, Christine A.; Ruzek, Melanie C.; van Rooijen, Nico; Ciavarra, Richard P.; Stenberg, Richard M.; Campbell, Ann E.

    1999-01-01

    Blood monocytes or tissue macrophages play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, providing functions beneficial to both the virus and the host. In vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that differentiated macrophages support MCMV replication, are target cells for MCMV infection within tissues, and harbor latent MCMV DNA. However, this cell type presumably initiates early, antiviral immune responses as well. In addressing this paradoxical role of macrophages, we provide evidence that the proficiency of MCMV replication in macrophages positively correlates with virulence in vivo. An MCMV mutant from which the open reading frames M139, M140, and M141 had been deleted (RV10) was defective in its ability to replicate in macrophages in vitro and was highly attenuated for growth in vivo. However, depletion of splenic macrophages significantly enhanced, rather than deterred, replication of both wild-type (WT) virus and RV10 in the spleen. The ability of RV10 to replicate in intact or macrophage-depleted spleens was independent of cytokine production, as this mutant virus was a poor inducer of cytokines compared to WT virus in both intact organs and macrophage-depleted organs. Macrophages were, however, a major contributor to the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and gamma interferon in response to WT virus infection. Thus, the data indicate that tissue macrophages serve a net protective role and may function as “filters” in protecting other highly permissive cell types from MCMV infection. The magnitude of virus replication in tissue macrophages may dictate the amount of virus accessible to the other cells. Concomitantly, infection of this cell type initiates the production of antiviral immune responses to guarantee efficient clearance of acute MCMV infection. PMID:10364349

  18. Replication of murine cytomegalovirus in differentiated macrophages as a determinant of viral pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hanson, L K; Slater, J S; Karabekian, Z; Virgin, H W; Biron, C A; Ruzek, M C; van Rooijen, N; Ciavarra, R P; Stenberg, R M; Campbell, A E

    1999-07-01

    Blood monocytes or tissue macrophages play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, providing functions beneficial to both the virus and the host. In vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that differentiated macrophages support MCMV replication, are target cells for MCMV infection within tissues, and harbor latent MCMV DNA. However, this cell type presumably initiates early, antiviral immune responses as well. In addressing this paradoxical role of macrophages, we provide evidence that the proficiency of MCMV replication in macrophages positively correlates with virulence in vivo. An MCMV mutant from which the open reading frames M139, M140, and M141 had been deleted (RV10) was defective in its ability to replicate in macrophages in vitro and was highly attenuated for growth in vivo. However, depletion of splenic macrophages significantly enhanced, rather than deterred, replication of both wild-type (WT) virus and RV10 in the spleen. The ability of RV10 to replicate in intact or macrophage-depleted spleens was independent of cytokine production, as this mutant virus was a poor inducer of cytokines compared to WT virus in both intact organs and macrophage-depleted organs. Macrophages were, however, a major contributor to the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and gamma interferon in response to WT virus infection. Thus, the data indicate that tissue macrophages serve a net protective role and may function as "filters" in protecting other highly permissive cell types from MCMV infection. The magnitude of virus replication in tissue macrophages may dictate the amount of virus accessible to the other cells. Concomitantly, infection of this cell type initiates the production of antiviral immune responses to guarantee efficient clearance of acute MCMV infection. PMID:10364349

  19. Up-Regulation of Mcl-1 and Bak by Coronavirus Infection of Human, Avian and Animal Cells Modulates Apoptosis and Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yanxin; Liao, Ying; Fang, Shouguo; Tam, James P.; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Virus-induced apoptosis and viral mechanisms that regulate this cell death program are key issues in understanding virus-host interactions and viral pathogenesis. Like many other human and animal viruses, coronavirus infection of mammalian cells induces apoptosis. In this study, the global gene expression profiles are first determined in IBV-infected Vero cells at 24 hours post-infection by Affymetrix array, using avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) as a model system. It reveals an up-regulation at the transcriptional level of both pro-apoptotic Bak and pro-survival myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1). These results were further confirmed both in vivo and in vitro, in IBV-infected embryonated chicken eggs, chicken fibroblast cells and mammalian cells at transcriptional and translational levels, respectively. Interestingly, the onset of apoptosis occurred earlier in IBV-infected mammalian cells silenced with short interfering RNA targeting Mcl-1 (siMcl-1), and was delayed in cells silenced with siBak. IBV progeny production and release were increased in infected Mcl-1 knockdown cells compared to similarly infected control cells, while the contrary was observed in infected Bak knockdown cells. Furthermore, IBV infection-induced up-regulation of GADD153 regulated the expression of Mcl-1. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathways by chemical inhibitors and knockdown of GADD153 by siRNA demonstrated the involvement of ER-stress response in regulation of IBV-induced Mcl-1 expression. These results illustrate the sophisticated regulatory strategies evolved by a coronavirus to modulate both virus-induced apoptosis and viral replication during its replication cycle. PMID:22253918

  20. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Replication Inhibitor That Interferes with the Nucleic Acid Unwinding of the Viral Helicase

    PubMed Central

    Adedeji, Adeyemi O.; Singh, Kamalendra; Calcaterra, Nicholas E.; DeDiego, Marta L.; Enjuanes, Luis; Weiss, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a highly contagious disease, caused by SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), for which there are no approved treatments. We report the discovery of a potent inhibitor of SARS-CoV that blocks replication by inhibiting the unwinding activity of the SARS-CoV helicase (nsp13). We used a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based helicase assay to screen the Maybridge Hitfinder chemical library. We identified and validated a compound (SSYA10-001) that specifically blocks the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and dsDNA unwinding activities of nsp13, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of 5.70 and 5.30 μM, respectively. This compound also has inhibitory activity (50% effective concentration [EC50] = 8.95 μM) in a SARS-CoV replicon assay, with low cytotoxicity (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50] = >250 μM), suggesting that the helicase plays a still unidentified critical role in the SARS-CoV life cycle. Enzyme kinetic studies on the mechanism of nsp13 inhibition revealed that SSYA10-001 acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor of nsp13 with respect to nucleic acid and ATP substrates. Moreover, SSYA10-001 does not affect ATP hydrolysis or nsp13 binding to the nucleic acid substrate. SSYA10-001 did not inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) helicase, other bacterial and viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, or reverse transcriptase. These results suggest that SSYA10-001 specifically blocks nsp13 through a novel mechanism and is less likely to interfere with the functions of cellular enzymes that process nucleic acids or ATP. Hence, it is possible that SSYA10-001 inhibits unwinding by nsp13 by affecting conformational changes during the course of the reaction or translocation on the nucleic acid. SSYA10-001 will be a valuable tool for studying the specific role of nsp13 in the SARS-CoV life cycle, which could be a model for other nidoviruses and also a candidate for further development as a SARS antiviral target. PMID:22733076

  1. Effects of the W153L Substitution in HIV Reverse Transcriptase on Viral Replication and Drug Resistance to Multiple Categories of Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong-Tao; Colby-Germinario, Susan P.; Oliveira, Maureen; Rajotte, Daniel; Bethell, Richard

    2014-01-01

    A W153L substitution in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) was recently identified by selection with a novel nucleotide-competing RT inhibitor (NcRTI) termed compound A that is a member of the benzo[4,5]furo[3,2,d]pyrimidin-2-one NcRTI family of drugs. To investigate the impact of W153L, alone or in combination with the clinically relevant RT resistance substitutions K65R (change of Lys to Arg at position 65), M184I, K101E, K103N, E138K, and Y181C, on HIV-1 phenotypic susceptibility, viral replication, and RT enzymatic function, we generated recombinant RT enzymes and viruses containing each of these substitutions or various combinations of them. We found that W153L-containing viruses were impaired in viral replicative capacity and were hypersusceptible to tenofovir (TFV) while retaining susceptibility to most nonnucleoside RT inhibitors. The nucleoside 3TC retained potency against W153L-containing viruses but not when the M184I substitution was also present. W153L was also able to reverse the effects of the K65R substitution on resistance to TFV, and K65R conferred hypersusceptibility to compound A. Biochemical assays demonstrated that W153L alone or in combination with K65R, M184I, K101E, K103N, E138K, and Y181C impaired enzyme processivity and polymerization efficiency but did not diminish RNase H activity, providing mechanistic insights into the low replicative fitness associated with these substitutions. We show that the mechanism of the TFV hypersusceptibility conferred by W153L is mainly due to increased efficiency of TFV-diphosphate incorporation. These results demonstrate that compound A and/or derivatives thereof have the potential to be important antiretroviral agents that may be combined with tenofovir to achieve synergistic results. PMID:24867966

  2. Decreased human immunodeficiency virus type 1 plasma viremia during antiretroviral therapy reflects downregulation of viral replication in lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, O J; Pantaleo, G; Holodniy, M; Schnittman, S; Niu, M; Graziosi, C; Pavlakis, G N; Lalezari, J; Bartlett, J A; Steigbigel, R T

    1995-01-01

    Although several immunologic and virologic markers measured in peripheral blood are useful for predicting accelerated progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, their validity for evaluating the response to antiretroviral therapy and their ability to accurately reflect changes in lymphoid organs remain unclear. In the present study, changes in certain virologic markers have been analyzed in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissue during antiretroviral therapy. Sixteen HIV-infected individuals who were receiving antiretroviral therapy with zidovudine for > or = 6 months were randomly assigned either to continue on zidovudine alone or to add didanosine for 8 weeks. Lymph node biopsies were performed at baseline and after 8 weeks. Viral burden (i.e., HIV DNA copies per 10(6) mononuclear cells) and virus replication in mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood and lymph node and plasma viremia were determined by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. Virologic and immunologic markers remained unchanged in peripheral blood and lymph node of patients who continued on zidovudine alone. In contrast, a decrease in virus replication in lymph nodes was observed in four of six patients who added didanosine to their regimen, and this was associated with a decrease in plasma viremia. These results indicate that decreases in plasma viremia detected during antiretroviral therapy reflect downregulation of virus replication in lymphoid tissue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7597072

  3. An Essential Viral Transcription Activator Modulates Chromatin Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Gibeault, Rebecca L.; Bildersheim, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Although ICP4 is the only essential transcription activator of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), its mechanisms of action are still only partially understood. We and others propose a model in which HSV-1 genomes are chromatinized as a cellular defense to inhibit HSV-1 transcription. To counteract silencing, HSV-1 would have evolved proteins that prevent or destabilize chromatinization to activate transcription. These proteins should act as HSV-1 transcription activators. We have shown that HSV-1 genomes are organized in highly dynamic nucleosomes and that histone dynamics increase in cells infected with wild type HSV-1. We now show that whereas HSV-1 mutants encoding no functional ICP0 or VP16 partially enhanced histone dynamics, mutants encoding no functional ICP4 did so only minimally. Transient expression of ICP4 was sufficient to enhance histone dynamics in the absence of other HSV-1 proteins or HSV-1 DNA. The dynamics of H3.1 were increased in cells expressing ICP4 to a greater extent than those of H3.3. The dynamics of H2B were increased in cells expressing ICP4, whereas those of canonical H2A were not. ICP4 preferentially targets silencing H3.1 and may also target the silencing H2A variants. In infected cells, histone dynamics were increased in the viral replication compartments, where ICP4 localizes. These results suggest a mechanism whereby ICP4 activates transcription by disrupting, or preventing the formation of, stable silencing nucleosomes on HSV-1 genomes. PMID:27575707

  4. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF6 gene is essential in viral lytic replication.

    PubMed

    Peng, Can; Chen, Jungang; Tang, Wei; Liu, Chunlan; Chen, Xulin

    2014-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with Kaposis's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. KSHV encodes at least 8 open reading frames (ORFs) that play important roles in its lytic DNA replication. Among which, ORF6 of KSHV encodes an ssDNA binding protein that has been proved to participate in origin-dependent DNA replication in transient assays. To define further the function of ORF6 in the virus life cycle, we constructed a recombinant virus genome with a large deletion within the ORF6 locus by using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system. Stable 293T cells carrying the BAC36 (wild type) and BACΔ6 genomes were generated. When monolayers of 293T-BAC36 and 293T-BACΔ6 cells were induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and sodium butyrate, infectious virus was detected from the 293T-BAC36 cell supernatants only and not from the 293T- BACΔ6 cell supernatants. DNA synthesis was defective in 293T-BACΔ6 cells. Expression of ORF6 in trans in BACΔ6-containing cells was able to rescue both defects. Our results provide genetic evidence that ORF6 is essential for KSHV lytic replication. The stable 293T cells carrying the BAC36 and BACΔ6 genomes could be used as tools to investigate the detailed functions of ORF6 in the lytic replication of KSHV. PMID:24911362

  5. Bovine Mx1 enables resistance against foot-and-mouth disease virus in naturally susceptible cells by inhibiting the replication of viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, H-M; Xia, X-Z; Hu, G-X; Yu, L; He, H-B

    2016-03-01

    Innate immunity, especially the anti-viral genes, exerts an important barrier function in preventing viral infections. Myxovirus-resistant (Mx) gene take an anti-viral role, whereas its effects on foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in naturally susceptible cells are still unclear. The bovine primary fetal tracheal epithelial cell line BPTE-siMx1, in which bovine Mx1 gene was silenced, was established and treated with IFN alpha for 6 hr before FMDV infection. The copy numbers of the negative and positive strand viral RNA were determined by strand-specific real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. The TCID50 of BPTE-siMx1 cells increased at least 17-fold as compared to control cells BPTE-LacZ at 8 hr post infection, thus silencing of bovine Mx1 could promote the replication of FMDV. The amount of both the negative and positive strand viral RNA in BPTE-siMx1 cells significantly increased as compared to BPTE-LacZ cells, indicating that the replication levels of viral RNA were promoted by silencing bovine Mx1. The bovine Mx1 gene could provide resistance against FMDV in the bovine primary fetal tracheal epithelial cells via suppressing the replication of viral RNA. PMID:26982472

  6. Roles of HIV-1 capsid in viral replication and immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Le Sage, Valerie; Mouland, Andrew J; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando

    2014-11-26

    The primary roles of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid (CA) protein are to encapsidate and protect the viral RNA genome. It is becoming increasing apparent that HIV-1 CA is a multifunctional protein that acts early during infection to coordinate uncoating, reverse transcription, nuclear import of the pre-integration complex and integration of double stranded viral DNA into the host genome. Additionally, numerous recent studies indicate that CA is playing a crucial function in HIV-1 immune evasion. Here we summarize the current knowledge on HIV-1 CA and its interactions with the host cell to promote infection. The fact that CA engages in a number of different protein-protein interactions with the host makes it an interesting target for the development of new potent antiviral agents. PMID:25036886

  7. Stem cell gene therapy for HIV: strategies to inhibit viral entry and replication.

    PubMed

    DiGiusto, David L

    2015-03-01

    Since the demonstration of a cure of an HIV+ patient with an allogeneic stem cell transplant using naturally HIV-resistant cells, significant interest in creating similar autologous products has fueled the development of a variety of "cell engineering" approaches to stem cell therapy for HIV. Among the more well-studied strategies is the inhibition of viral entry through disruption of expression of viral co-receptors or through competitive inhibitors of viral fusion with the cell membrane. Preclinical evaluation of these approaches often starts in vitro but ultimately is tested in animal models prior to clinical implementation. In this review, we trace the development of several key approaches (meganucleases, short hairpin RNA (shRNA), and fusion inhibitors) to modification of hematopoietic stem cells designed to impart resistance to HIV to their T-cell and monocytic progeny. The basic evolution of technologies through in vitro and in vivo testing is discussed as well as the pros and cons of each approach and how the addition of postentry inhibitors may enhance the overall antiviral efficacy of these approaches. PMID:25578054

  8. Wild-Type-Like Viral Replication Potential of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Mutants Lacking Palmitoylation Signals

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Woan-Eng; Lin, Hui-Hua; Chen, Steve S.-L.

    2005-01-01

    Palmitoylation of the cytoplasmic domain of the human immunodeficiency type virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) transmembrane protein, gp41, has been implicated in Env targeting to detergent-resistant lipid rafts, Env incorporation into the virus, and viral infectivity. In contrast, we provide evidence here to show that HIV-1 infectivity, Env targeting to lipid rafts, and Env incorporation into the virus are independent of cytoplasmic tail palmitoylation. The T-cell (T)-tropic HXB2-based virus, which utilizes CXCR4 as the entry coreceptor, carrying a Cys-to-Ser mutation at residue 764 or 837 or at both replicated with wild-type (WT) virus replication kinetics in CD4+ T cells. The properties of Env expression, precursor processing, cell surface expression, and Env incorporation of these three mutant viruses were normal compared to those of the WT virus. These three mutant Env proteins all effectively mediated one-cycle virus infection. When the Cys residues were replaced by Ala residues, all single and double mutants still retained the phenotypes of infectivity, Env incorporation, and lipid raft localization of the WT Env. When Cys-to-Ala substitutions were introduced into the macrophage (M)-tropic ConB virus, which utilizes CCR5 as the coreceptor, these mutations did not affect the replication potential, Env phenotypes, lipid raft targeting, or Env assembly into the virus of the WT Env. These T- and M-tropic mutants also productively replicated in human primary CD4+ T cells. Moreover, mutations at both Cys residues significantly reduced the level of palmitoylation of the Env. Our results together support the notion that palmitoylation of the cytoplasmic tail of the HIV-1 Env is not essential for the HIV-1 virus life cycle. PMID:15956582

  9. Loss of CARD9-mediated innate activation attenuates severe influenza pneumonia without compromising host viral immunity.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Takayuki; Iizasa, Ei'ichi; Kobayashi, Noritada; Yoshida, Hiroki; Hara, Hiromitsu

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus (IFV) infection is a common cause of severe viral pneumonia associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is difficult to control with general immunosuppressive therapy including corticosteroids due to the unfavorable effect on viral replication. Studies have suggested that the excessive activation of the innate immunity by IFV is responsible for severe pathologies. In this study, we focused on CARD9, a signaling adaptor known to regulate innate immune activation through multiple innate sensor proteins, and investigated its role in anti-IFV defense and lung pathogenesis in a mouse model recapitulating severe influenza pneumonia with ARDS. We found that influenza pneumonia was dramatically attenuated in Card9-deficient mice, which showed improved mortality with reduced inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the infected lungs. However, viral clearance, type-I interferon production, and the development of anti-viral B and T cell immunity were not compromised by CARD9 deficiency. Syk or CARD9-deficient DCs but not macrophages showed impaired cytokine but not type-I interferon production in response to IFV in vitro, indicating a possible role for the Syk-CARD9 pathway in DCs in excessive inflammation of IFV-infected lungs. Therefore, inhibition of this pathway is an ideal therapeutic target for severe influenza pneumonia without affecting viral clearance. PMID:26627732

  10. Loss of CARD9-mediated innate activation attenuates severe influenza pneumonia without compromising host viral immunity

    PubMed Central

    Uematsu, Takayuki; Iizasa, Ei’ichi; Kobayashi, Noritada; Yoshida, Hiroki; Hara, Hiromitsu

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus (IFV) infection is a common cause of severe viral pneumonia associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is difficult to control with general immunosuppressive therapy including corticosteroids due to the unfavorable effect on viral replication. Studies have suggested that the excessive activation of the innate immunity by IFV is responsible for severe pathologies. In this study, we focused on CARD9, a signaling adaptor known to regulate innate immune activation through multiple innate sensor proteins, and investigated its role in anti-IFV defense and lung pathogenesis in a mouse model recapitulating severe influenza pneumonia with ARDS. We found that influenza pneumonia was dramatically attenuated in Card9-deficient mice, which showed improved mortality with reduced inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the infected lungs. However, viral clearance, type-I interferon production, and the development of anti-viral B and T cell immunity were not compromised by CARD9 deficiency. Syk or CARD9-deficient DCs but not macrophages showed impaired cytokine but not type-I interferon production in response to IFV in vitro, indicating a possible role for the Syk-CARD9 pathway in DCs in excessive inflammation of IFV-infected lungs. Therefore, inhibition of this pathway is an ideal therapeutic target for severe influenza pneumonia without affecting viral clearance. PMID:26627732

  11. Ebola virus VP40 late domains are not essential for viral replication in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Gabriele; Ebihara, Hideki; Takada, Ayato; Noda, Takeshi; Kobasa, Darwyn; Jasenosky, Luke D; Watanabe, Shinji; Kim, Jin H; Feldmann, Heinz; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2005-08-01

    Ebola virus particle formation and budding are mediated by the VP40 protein, which possesses overlapping PTAP and PPXY late domain motifs (7-PTAPPXY-13). These late domain motifs have also been found in the Gag proteins of retroviruses and the matrix proteins of rhabdo- and arenaviruses. While in vitro studies suggest a critical role for late domain motifs in the budding of these viruses, including Ebola virus, it remains unclear as to whether the VP40 late domains play a role in Ebola virus replication. Alteration of both late domain motifs drastically reduced VP40 particle formation in vitro. However, using reverse genetics, we were able to generate recombinant Ebola virus containing mutations in either or both of the late domains. Viruses containing mutations in one or both of their late domain motifs were attenuated by one log unit. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy did not reveal appreciable differences between the mutant and wild-type viruses released from infected cells. These findings indicate that the Ebola VP40 late domain motifs enhance virus replication but are not absolutely required for virus replication in cell culture. PMID:16051823

  12. A Comprehensive Analysis of Replicating Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Genomes Delineates the Viral Transcription Program and Suggests a Role for mcv-miR-M1 in Episomal Persistence.

    PubMed

    Theiss, Juliane Marie; Günther, Thomas; Alawi, Malik; Neumann, Friederike; Tessmer, Uwe; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam

    2015-07-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is considered the etiological agent of Merkel cell carcinoma and persists asymptomatically in the majority of its healthy hosts. Largely due to the lack of appropriate model systems, the mechanisms of viral replication and MCPyV persistence remain poorly understood. Using a semi-permissive replication system, we here report a comprehensive analysis of the role of the MCPyV-encoded microRNA (miRNA) mcv-miR-M1 during short and long-term replication of authentic MCPyV episomes. We demonstrate that cells harboring intact episomes express high levels of the viral miRNA, and that expression of mcv-miR-M1 limits DNA replication. Furthermore, we present RACE, RNA-seq and ChIP-seq studies which allow insight in the viral transcription program and mechanisms of miRNA expression. While our data suggest that mcv-miR-M1 can be expressed from canonical late strand transcripts, we also present evidence for the existence of an independent miRNA promoter that is embedded within early strand coding sequences. We also report that MCPyV genomes can establish episomal persistence in a small number of cells for several months, a time period during which viral DNA as well as LT-Ag and viral miRNA expression can be detected via western blotting, FISH, qPCR and southern blot analyses. Strikingly, despite enhanced replication in short term DNA replication assays, a mutant unable to express the viral miRNA was severely limited in its ability to establish long-term persistence. Our data suggest that MCPyV may have evolved strategies to enter a non- or low level vegetative stage of infection which could aid the virus in establishing and maintaining a lifelong persistence. PMID:26218535

  13. A Comprehensive Analysis of Replicating Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Genomes Delineates the Viral Transcription Program and Suggests a Role for mcv-miR-M1 in Episomal Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Theiss, Juliane Marie; Günther, Thomas; Alawi, Malik; Neumann, Friederike; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is considered the etiological agent of Merkel cell carcinoma and persists asymptomatically in the majority of its healthy hosts. Largely due to the lack of appropriate model systems, the mechanisms of viral replication and MCPyV persistence remain poorly understood. Using a semi-permissive replication system, we here report a comprehensive analysis of the role of the MCPyV-encoded microRNA (miRNA) mcv-miR-M1 during short and long-term replication of authentic MCPyV episomes. We demonstrate that cells harboring intact episomes express high levels of the viral miRNA, and that expression of mcv-miR-M1 limits DNA replication. Furthermore, we present RACE, RNA-seq and ChIP-seq studies which allow insight in the viral transcription program and mechanisms of miRNA expression. While our data suggest that mcv-miR-M1 can be expressed from canonical late strand transcripts, we also present evidence for the existence of an independent miRNA promoter that is embedded within early strand coding sequences. We also report that MCPyV genomes can establish episomal persistence in a small number of cells for several months, a time period during which viral DNA as well as LT-Ag and viral miRNA expression can be detected via western blotting, FISH, qPCR and southern blot analyses. Strikingly, despite enhanced replication in short term DNA replication assays, a mutant unable to express the viral miRNA was severely limited in its ability to establish long-term persistence. Our data suggest that MCPyV may have evolved strategies to enter a non- or low level vegetative stage of infection which could aid the virus in establishing and maintaining a lifelong persistence. PMID:26218535

  14. PKR activation enhances replication of classical swine fever virus in PK-15 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Jun; Yang, You-Tian; Zhao, Ming-Qiu; Dong, Xiao-Ying; Gou, Hong-Chao; Pei, Jing-Jing; Chen, Jin-Ding

    2015-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious swine disease that is responsible for economic losses worldwide. Protein kinase R (PK)R is an important protein in the host viral response; however, the role of PKR in CSFV infection remains unknown. This issue was addressed in the present study using the PK-15 swine kidney cell line. We found that CSFV infection increased the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF)2α and its kinase PKR. However, the expression of viral proteins continued to increase. Furthermore, PKR overexpression enhanced CSFV replication, while PKR inhibition resulted in reduced CSFV replication and an increase in interferon (IFN) induction. In addition, PKR was responsible for eIF2α phosphorylation in CSFV-infected cells. These results suggest that the activation of PKR during CSFV infection is beneficial to the virus. The virus is able to commandeer the host cell's translation machinery for viral protein synthesis while evading innate immune defenses. PMID:25899421

  15. Unabated Adenovirus Replication following Activation of the cGAS/STING-Dependent Antiviral Response in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Eric

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cGAS/STING DNA sensing complex has recently been established as a predominant pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) for DNA-directed type I interferon (IFN) innate immune activation. Using replication-defective adenovirus vectors and replication-competent wild-type adenovirus, we have modeled the influence of the cGAS/STING cascade in permissive human cell lines (A549, HeLa, ARPE19, and THP1). Wild-type adenovirus induced efficient early activation of the cGAS/STING cascade in a cell-specific manner. In all responsive cell lines, cGAS/STING short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown resulted in a loss of TBK1 and interferon response factor 3 (IRF3) activation, a lack of beta interferon transcript induction, loss of interferon-dependent STAT1 activation, and diminished induction of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Adenoviruses that infect through the coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) (Ad2 and Ad5) and the CD46 (Ad35) and desmoglein-2 (Ad7) viral receptors all induce the cGAS/STING/TBK1/IRF3 cascade. The magnitude of the IRF3/IFN/ISG antiviral response was strongly influenced by serotype, with Ad35>Ad7>Ad2. For each serotype, no enhancement of viral DNA replication or virus production occurred in cGAS or STING shRNA-targeted cell line pools. We found no replication advantage in permissive cell lines that do not trigger the cGAS/STING cascade following infection. The cGAS/STING/TBK1/IRF3 cascade was not a direct target of viral antihost strategies, and we found no evidence that Ad stimulation of the cGAS/STING DNA response had an impact on viral replication efficiency. IMPORTANCE This study shows for the first time that the cGAS DNA sensor directs a dominant IRF3/IFN/ISG antiviral response to adenovirus in human cell lines. Activation of cGAS occurs with viruses that infect through different high-affinity receptors (CAR, CD46, and desmoglein-2), and the magnitude of the cGAS/STING DNA response cascade is influenced by serotype-specific functions

  16. Cell-Free and Cell-Based Approaches to Explore the Roles of Host Membranes and Lipids in the Formation of Viral Replication Compartment Induced by Tombusviruses

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Peter D.; Pogany, Judit; Xu, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Plant positive strand RNA viruses are intracellular infectious agents that take advantage of cellular lipids and membranes to support replication and protect viral RNA from degradation by host antiviral responses. In this review, we discuss how Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) co-opts lipid transfer proteins and modulates lipid metabolism and transport to facilitate the assembly of the membrane-bound viral replicase complexes within intricate replication compartments. Identification and characterization of the proviral roles of specific lipids and proteins involved in lipid metabolism based on results from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) model host and cell-free approaches are discussed. The review also highlights the advantage of using liposomes with chemically defined composition to identify specific lipids required for TBSV replication. Remarkably, all the known steps in TBSV replication are dependent on cellular lipids and co-opted membranes. PMID:26950140

  17. Human Heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40/DnaJB1) promotes influenza A virus replication by assisting nuclear import of viral ribonucleoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Jyoti; Tripathi, Shashank; Kumar, Amrita; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Cox, Nancy J.; Lal, Renu B.; Sambhara, Suryaprakash; Lal, Sunil K.

    2016-01-01

    A unique feature of influenza A virus (IAV) life cycle is replication of the viral genome in the host cell nucleus. The nuclear import of IAV genome is an indispensable step in establishing virus infection. IAV nucleoprotein (NP) is known to mediate the nuclear import of viral genome via its nuclear localization signals. Here, we demonstrate that cellular heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40/DnaJB1) facilitates the nuclear import of incoming IAV viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) and is important for efficient IAV replication. Hsp40 was found to interact with NP component of IAV RNPs during early stages of infection. This interaction is mediated by the J domain of Hsp40 and N-terminal region of NP. Drug or RNAi mediated inhibition of Hsp40 resulted in reduced nuclear import of IAV RNPs, diminished viral polymerase function and attenuates overall viral replication. Hsp40 was also found to be required for efficient association between NP and importin alpha, which is crucial for IAV RNP nuclear translocation. These studies demonstrate an important role for cellular chaperone Hsp40/DnaJB1 in influenza A virus life cycle by assisting nuclear trafficking of viral ribonucleoproteins. PMID:26750153

  18. Human Heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40/DnaJB1) promotes influenza A virus replication by assisting nuclear import of viral ribonucleoproteins.

    PubMed

    Batra, Jyoti; Tripathi, Shashank; Kumar, Amrita; Katz, Jacqueline M; Cox, Nancy J; Lal, Renu B; Sambhara, Suryaprakash; Lal, Sunil K

    2016-01-01

    A unique feature of influenza A virus (IAV) life cycle is replication of the viral genome in the host cell nucleus. The nuclear import of IAV genome is an indispensable step in establishing virus infection. IAV nucleoprotein (NP) is known to mediate the nuclear import of viral genome via its nuclear localization signals. Here, we demonstrate that cellular heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40/DnaJB1) facilitates the nuclear import of incoming IAV viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) and is important for efficient IAV replication. Hsp40 was found to interact with NP component of IAV RNPs during early stages of infection. This interaction is mediated by the J domain of Hsp40 and N-terminal region of NP. Drug or RNAi mediated inhibition of Hsp40 resulted in reduced nuclear import of IAV RNPs, diminished viral polymerase function and attenuates overall viral replication. Hsp40 was also found to be required for efficient association between NP and importin alpha, which is crucial for IAV RNP nuclear translocation. These studies demonstrate an important role for cellular chaperone Hsp40/DnaJB1 in influenza A virus life cycle by assisting nuclear trafficking of viral ribonucleoproteins. PMID:26750153

  19. A Temporal Gate for Viral Enhancers to Co-opt Toll-Like-Receptor Transcriptional Activation Pathways upon Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kropp, Kai A.; Hsieh, Wei Yuan; Isern, Elena; Forster, Thorsten; Krause, Eva; Brune, Wolfram; Angulo, Ana; Ghazal, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Viral engagement with macrophages activates Toll-Like-Receptors (TLRs) and viruses must contend with the ensuing inflammatory responses to successfully complete their replication cycle. To date, known counter-strategies involve the use of viral-encoded proteins that often employ mimicry mechanisms to block or redirect the host response to benefit the virus. Whether viral regulatory DNA sequences provide an opportunistic strategy by which viral enhancer elements functionally mimic innate immune enhancers is unknown. Here we find that host innate immune genes and the prototypical viral enhancer of cytomegalovirus (CMV) have comparable expression kinetics, and positively respond to common TLR agonists. In macrophages but not fibroblasts we show that activation of NFκB at immediate-early times of infection is independent of virion-associated protein, M45. We find upon virus infection or transfection of viral genomic DNA the TLR-agonist treatment results in significant enhancement of the virus transcription-replication cycle. In macrophage time-course infection experiments we demonstrate that TLR-agonist stimulation of the viral enhancer and replication cycle is strictly delimited by a temporal gate with a determined half-maximal time for enhancer-activation of 6 h; after which TLR-activation blocks the viral transcription-replication cycle. By performing a systematic siRNA screen of 149 innate immune regulatory factors we identify not only anticipated anti-viral and pro-viral contributions but also new factors involved in the CMV transcription-replication cycle. We identify a central convergent NFκB-SP1-RXR-IRF axis downstream of TLR-signalling. Activation of the RXR component potentiated direct and indirect TLR-induced activation of CMV transcription-replication cycle; whereas chromatin binding experiments using wild-type and enhancer-deletion virus revealed IRF3 and 5 as new pro-viral host transcription factor interactions with the CMV enhancer in macrophages. In a

  20. Host protein Snapin interacts with human cytomegalovirus pUL130 and affects viral DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guili; Ren, Gaowei; Cui, Xin; Lu, Zhitao; Ma, Yanpin; Qi, Ying; Huang, Yujing; Liu, Zhongyang; Sun, Zhengrong; Ruan, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    The interplay between the host and Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) plays a pivotal role in the outcome of an infection. HCMV growth in endothelial and epithelial cells requires expression of viral proteins UL128, UL130, and UL131 proteins (UL128-131), of which UL130 is the largest gene and the only one that is not interrupted by introns.Mutation of the C terminus of the UL130 protein causes reduced tropism of endothelial cells (EC). However, very few host factors have been identified that interact with the UL130 protein. In this study, HCMV UL130 protein was shown to directly interact with the human protein Snapin in human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells by Yeast two-hybrid screening, in vitro glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down, and co-immunoprecipitation. Additionally, heterologous expression of protein UL130 revealed co-localization with Snapin in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of HEK293 cells using fluorescence confocal microscopy. Furthermore, decreasing the level of Snapin via specific small interfering RNAs decreased the number of viral DNA copies and titer inHCMV-infected U373-S cells. Taken together, these results suggest that Snapin, the pUL130 interacting protein, has a role in modulating HCMV DNA synthesis. PMID:27240978

  1. Influenza virus replication in lung epithelial cells depends on redox-sensitive pathways activated by NOX4-derived ROS.

    PubMed

    Amatore, Donatella; Sgarbanti, Rossella; Aquilano, Katia; Baldelli, Sara; Limongi, Dolores; Civitelli, Livia; Nencioni, Lucia; Garaci, Enrico; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Palamara, Anna Teresa

    2015-01-01

    An overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated by NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) has been related to airway inflammation typical of influenza infection. Virus-induced oxidative stress may also control viral replication, but the mechanisms underlying ROS production, as well as their role in activating intracellular pathways and specific steps of viral life cycle under redox control have to be fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that influenza A virus infection of lung epithelial cells causes a significant ROS increase that depends mainly on NOX4, which is upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels, while the expression of NOX2, the primary source of ROS in inflammatory cells, is downregulated. Inhibition of NOX4 activity through chemical inhibitors or RNA silencing blocks the ROS increase, prevents MAPK phosphorylation, and inhibits viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) nuclear export and viral release. Overall these data, obtained in cell lines and primary culture, describe a so far unrecognized role for NOX4-derived ROS in activating redox-regulated intracellular pathways during influenza virus infection and highlight their relevance in controlling specific steps of viral replication in epithelial cells. Pharmacological modulation of NOX4-mediated ROS production may open the way for new therapeutic approaches to fighting influenza by targeting cell and not the virus. PMID:25154738

  2. Degradation of cellular mir-27 by a novel, highly abundant viral transcript is important for efficient virus replication in vivo.

    PubMed

    Marcinowski, Lisa; Tanguy, Mélanie; Krmpotic, Astrid; Rädle, Bernd; Lisnić, Vanda J; Tuddenham, Lee; Chane-Woon-Ming, Béatrice; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Erhard, Florian; Benkartek, Corinna; Babic, Marina; Zimmer, Ralf; Trgovcich, Joanne; Koszinowski, Ulrich H; Jonjic, Stipan; Pfeffer, Sébastien; Dölken, Lars

    2012-02-01

    Cytomegaloviruses express large amounts of viral miRNAs during lytic infection, yet, they only modestly alter the cellular miRNA profile. The most prominent alteration upon lytic murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection is the rapid degradation of the cellular miR-27a and miR-27b. Here, we report that this regulation is mediated by the ∼1.7 kb spliced and highly abundant MCMV m169 transcript. Specificity to miR-27a/b is mediated by a single, apparently optimized, miRNA binding site located in its 3'-UTR. This site is easily and efficiently retargeted to other cellular and viral miRNAs by target site replacement. Expression of the 3'-UTR of m169 by an adenoviral vector was sufficient to mediate its function, indicating that no other viral factors are essential in this process. Degradation of miR-27a/b was found to be accompanied by 3'-tailing and -trimming. Despite its dramatic effect on miRNA stability, we found this interaction to be mutual, indicating potential regulation of m169 by miR-27a/b. Most interestingly, three mutant viruses no longer able to target miR-27a/b, either due to miRNA target site disruption or target site replacement, showed significant attenuation in multiple organs as early as 4 days post infection, indicating that degradation of miR-27a/b is important for efficient MCMV replication in vivo. PMID:22346748

  3. Deficiency of the B Cell-Activating Factor Receptor Results in Limited CD169+ Macrophage Function during Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haifeng C.; Huang, Jun; Khairnar, Vishal; Duhan, Vikas; Pandyra, Aleksandra A.; Grusdat, Melanie; Shinde, Prashant; McIlwain, David R.; Maney, Sathish Kumar; Gommerman, Jennifer; Löhning, Max; Ohashi, Pamela S.; Mak, Tak W.; Pieper, Kathrin; Sic, Heiko; Speletas, Matthaios; Eibel, Hermann; Ware, Carl F.; Tumanov, Alexei V.; Kruglov, Andrey A.; Nedospasov, Sergei A.; Häussinger, Dieter; Recher, Mike; Lang, Karl S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The B cell-activating factor (BAFF) is critical for B cell development and humoral immunity in mice and humans. While the role of BAFF in B cells has been widely described, its role in innate immunity remains unknown. Using BAFF receptor (BAFFR)-deficient mice, we characterized BAFFR-related innate and adaptive immune functions following infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). We identified a critical role for BAFFR signaling in the generation and maintenance of the CD169+ macrophage compartment. Consequently, Baffr−/− mice exhibited limited induction of innate type I interferon production after viral infection. Lack of BAFFR signaling reduced virus amplification and presentation following viral infection, resulting in highly reduced antiviral adaptive immune responses. As a consequence, BAFFR-deficient mice showed exacerbated and fatal disease after viral infection. Mechanistically, transient lack of B cells in Baffr−/− animals resulted in limited lymphotoxin expression, which is critical for maintenance of CD169+ cells. In conclusion, BAFFR signaling affects both innate and adaptive immune activation during viral infections. IMPORTANCE Viruses cause acute and chronic infections in humans resulting in millions of deaths every year. Innate immunity is critical for the outcome of a viral infection. Innate type I interferon production can limit viral replication, while adaptive immune priming by innate immune cells induces pathogen-specific immunity with long-term protection. Here, we show that BAFFR deficiency not only perturbed B cells, but also resulted in limited CD169+ macrophages. These macrophages are critical in amplifying viral particles to trigger type I interferon production and initiate adaptive immune priming. Consequently, BAFFR deficiency resulted in reduced enforced viral replication, limited type I interferon production, and reduced adaptive immunity compared to BAFFR

  4. Replication stress activates DNA repair synthesis in mitosis.

    PubMed

    Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Ying, Songmin; Bjerregaard, Victoria A; Bursomanno, Sara; Aleliunaite, Aiste; Wu, Wei; Mankouri, Hocine W; Shen, Huahao; Liu, Ying; Hickson, Ian D

    2015-12-10

    Oncogene-induced DNA replication stress has been implicated as a driver of tumorigenesis. Many chromosomal rearrangements characteristic of human cancers originate from specific regions of the genome called common fragile sites (CFSs). CFSs are difficult-to-replicate loci that manifest as gaps or breaks on metaphase chromosomes (termed CFS 'expression'), particularly when cells have been exposed to replicative stress. The MUS81-EME1 structure-specific endonuclease promotes the appearance of chromosome gaps or breaks at CFSs following replicative stress. Here we show that entry of cells into mitotic prophase triggers the recruitment of MUS81 to CFSs. The nuclease activity of MUS81 then promotes POLD3-dependent DNA synthesis at CFSs, which serves to minimize chromosome mis-segregation and non-disjunction. We propose that the attempted condensation of incompletely duplicated loci in early mitosis serves as the trigger for completion of DNA replication at CFS loci in human cells. Given that this POLD3-dependent mitotic DNA synthesis is enhanced in aneuploid cancer cells that exhibit intrinsically high levels of chromosomal instability (CIN(+)) and replicative stress, we suggest that targeting this pathway could represent a new therapeutic approach. PMID:26633632

  5. Long non-coding RNA GAS5 inhibited hepatitis C virus replication by binding viral NS3 protein.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xijing; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Ping; Qi, Zhongtian

    2016-05-01

    HCV infection has a complex and dynamic process which involves a large number of viral and host factors. Long non-coding RNA GAS5 inhibits liver fibrosis and liver tumor migration and invasion. However, the contribution of GAS5 on HCV infection remains unknown. In this study, GAS5 was gradually upregulated during HCV infection in Huh7 cells. In addition, GAS5 attenuated virus replication with its 5' end sequences, as confirmed by different GAS5 truncations. Moreover, this 5' end sequences showed RNA-protein interaction with HCV NS3 protein that could act as a decoy to inhibit its functions, which contributed to the suppression of HCV replication. Finally, the innate immune responses remained low in HCV infected Huh7 cells, ruling out the possibility of GAS5 to modulate innate immunity. Thus, HCV stimulated endogenous GAS5 can suppress HCV infection by acting as HCV NS3 protein decoy, providing a potential role of GAS5 as a diagnostic or therapeutic target. PMID:26945984

  6. Temperature-dependent innate defense against the common cold virus limits viral replication at warm temperature in mouse airway cells

    PubMed Central

    Foxman, Ellen F.; Storer, James A.; Fitzgerald, Megan E.; Wasik, Bethany R.; Hou, Lin; Zhao, Hongyu; Turner, Paul E.; Pyle, Anna Marie; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Most isolates of human rhinovirus, the common cold virus, replicate more robustly at the cool temperatures found in the nasal cavity (33–35 °C) than at core body temperature (37 °C). To gain insight into the mechanism of temperature-dependent growth, we compared the transcriptional response of primary mouse airway epithelial cells infected with rhinovirus at 33 °C vs. 37 °C. Mouse airway cells infected with mouse-adapted rhinovirus 1B exhibited a striking enrichment in expression of antiviral defense response genes at 37 °C relative to 33 °C, which correlated with significantly higher expression levels of type I and type III IFN genes and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) at 37 °C. Temperature-dependent IFN induction in response to rhinovirus was dependent on the MAVS protein, a key signaling adaptor of the RIG-I–like receptors (RLRs). Stimulation of primary airway cells with the synthetic RLR ligand poly I:C led to greater IFN induction at 37 °C relative to 33 °C at early time points poststimulation and to a sustained increase in the induction of ISGs at 37 °C relative to 33 °C. Recombinant type I IFN also stimulated more robust induction of ISGs at 37 °C than at 33 °C. Genetic deficiency of MAVS or the type I IFN receptor in infected airway cells permitted higher levels of viral replication, particularly at 37 °C, and partially rescued the temperature-dependent growth phenotype. These findings demonstrate that in mouse airway cells, rhinovirus replicates preferentially at nasal cavity temperature due, in part, to a less efficient antiviral defense response of infected cells at cool temperature. PMID:25561542

  7. Characteristics of Nipah virus and Hendra virus replication in different cell-lines and their suitability for anti-viral screening

    PubMed Central

    Aljofan, Mohamad; Saubern, Simon; Meyer, Adam G.; Marsh, Glenn; Meers, Joanne; Mungall, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    We have recently described the development and validation of a High Throughput Screening assay suitable for Henipavirus antiviral identification. While we are confident this assay is robust and effective, we wished to investigate assay performance in a range of alternative cell lines to determine if assay sensitivity and specificity could be improved. We evaluated ten different cell lines for their susceptibility to Hendra and Nipah virus infection and their sensitivity of detection of the effects of the broad spectrum antiviral, ribavirin and nine novel antivirals identified using our initial screening approach. Cell lines were grouped into three categories with respect to viral replication. Virus replicated best in Vero and BSR cells, followed by Hep2, HeLa, BHK-21 and M17 cells. The lowest levels of RNA replication and viral protein expression were observed in BAEC, MMEC, A549 and ECV304 cells. Eight cell lines appeared to be similarly effective at discriminating the antiviral effects of ribavirin (<2.7 fold difference). The two cells lines most sensitive to the effect of ribavirin (ECV304 and BAEC) also displayed the lowest levels of viral replication while Vero cells were the least sensitive suggesting excess viral replication may limit drug efficacy and cell lines which limit viral replication may result in enhanced antiviral efficacy. However, there was no consistent trend observed with the other nine antivirals tested. While improvements in antiviral sensitivity in other cell lines may indicate an important role in future HTS assays, the slightly lower sensitivity to antiviral detection in Vero cells has inherent advantages in reducing the number of partially effective lead molecules identified during initial screens. Comparison of a panel of 54 novel antiviral compounds identified during routine screening of an in-house compound library in Vero, BHK-21 and BSR cells suggests no clear advantage of screening in either cell type. PMID:19428741

  8. The Envelope Cytoplasmic Tail of HIV-1 Subtype C Contributes to Poor Replication Capacity through Low Viral Infectivity and Cell-to-Cell Transmission.

    PubMed

    Santos da Silva, Eveline; Mulinge, Martin; Lemaire, Morgane; Masquelier, Cécile; Beraud, Cyprien; Rybicki, Arkadiusz; Servais, Jean-Yves; Iserentant, Gilles; Schmit, Jean-Claude; Seguin-Devaux, Carole; Perez Bercoff, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The cytoplasmic tail (gp41CT) of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) mediates Env incorporation into virions and regulates Env intracellular trafficking. Little is known about the functional impact of variability in this domain. To address this issue, we compared the replication of recombinant virus pairs carrying the full Env (Env viruses) or the Env ectodomain fused to the gp41CT of NL4.3 (EnvEC viruses) (12 subtype C and 10 subtype B pairs) in primary CD4+ T-cells and monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDMs). In CD4+ T-cells, replication was as follows: B-EnvEC = B-Env>C-EnvEC>C-Env, indicating that the gp41CT of subtype C contributes to the low replicative capacity of this subtype. In MDMs, in contrast, replication capacity was comparable for all viruses regardless of subtype and of gp41CT. In CD4+ T-cells, viral entry, viral release and viral gene expression were similar. However, infectivity of free virions and cell-to-cell transmission of C-Env viruses released by CD4+ T-cells was lower, suggestive of lower Env incorporation into virions. Subtype C matrix only minimally rescued viral replication and failed to restore infectivity of free viruses and cell-to-cell transmission. Taken together, these results show that polymorphisms in the gp41CT contribute to viral replication capacity and suggest that the number of Env spikes per virion may vary across subtypes. These findings should be taken into consideration in the design of vaccines. PMID:27598717

  9. The C-Terminal Domain of Chikungunya Virus nsP2 Independently Governs Viral RNA Replication, Cytopathicity, and Inhibition of Interferon Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Fros, Jelke J.; van der Maten, Erika; Vlak, Just M.

    2013-01-01

    Alphavirus nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) has pivotal roles in viral RNA replication, host cell shutoff, and inhibition of antiviral responses. Mutations that individually rendered other alphaviruses noncytopathic were introduced into chikungunya virus nsP2. Results show that (i) nsP2 mutation P718S only in combination with KR649AA or adaptive mutation D711G allowed noncytopathic replicon RNA replication, (ii) prohibiting nsP2 nuclear localization abrogates inhibition of antiviral interferon-induced JAK-STAT signaling, and (iii) nsP2 independently affects RNA replication, cytopathicity, and JAK-STAT signaling. PMID:23864632

  10. New World and Old World Alphaviruses Have Evolved to Exploit Different Components of Stress Granules, FXR and G3BP Proteins, for Assembly of Viral Replication Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dal Young; Reynaud, Josephine M.; Rasalouskaya, Aliaksandra; Akhrymuk, Ivan; Mobley, James A.; Frolov, Ilya; Frolova, Elena I.

    2016-01-01

    The positive-strand RNA viruses initiate their amplification in the cell from a single genome delivered by virion. This single RNA molecule needs to become involved in replication process before it is recognized and degraded by cellular machinery. In this study, we show that distantly related New World and Old World alphaviruses have independently evolved to utilize different cellular stress granule-related proteins for assembly of complexes, which recruit viral genomic RNA and facilitate formation of viral replication complexes (vRCs). Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) utilizes all members of the Fragile X syndrome (FXR) family, while chikungunya and Sindbis viruses exploit both members of the G3BP family. Despite being in different families, these proteins share common characteristics, which determine their role in alphavirus replication, namely, the abilities for RNA-binding and for self-assembly into large structures. Both FXR and G3BP proteins interact with virus-specific, repeating amino acid sequences located in the C-termini of hypervariable, intrinsically disordered domains (HVDs) of viral nonstructural protein nsP3. We demonstrate that these host factors orchestrate assembly of vRCs and play key roles in RNA and virus replication. Only knockout of all of the homologs results in either pronounced or complete inhibition of replication of different alphaviruses. The use of multiple homologous proteins with redundant functions mediates highly efficient recruitment of viral RNA into the replication process. This independently evolved acquisition of different families of cellular proteins by the disordered protein fragment to support alphavirus replication suggests that other RNA viruses may utilize a similar mechanism of host factor recruitment for vRC assembly. The use of different host factors by alphavirus species may be one of the important determinants of their pathogenesis. PMID:27509095

  11. Bovine viral diarrhea virus NS3 serine proteinase: polyprotein cleavage sites, cofactor requirements, and molecular model of an enzyme essential for pestivirus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J; Mendez, E; Caron, P R; Lin, C; Murcko, M A; Collett, M S; Rice, C M

    1997-01-01

    Members of the Flaviviridae encode a serine proteinase termed NS3 that is responsible for processing at several sites in the viral polyproteins. In this report, we show that the NS3 proteinase of the pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) (NADL strain) is required for processing at nonstructural (NS) protein sites 3/4A, 4A/4B, 4B/5A, and 5A/5B but not for cleavage at the junction between NS2 and NS3. Cleavage sites of the proteinase were determined by amino-terminal sequence analysis of the NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, and NS5B proteins. A conserved leucine residue is found at the P1 position of all four cleavage sites, followed by either serine (3/4A, 4B/5A, and 5A/5B sites) or alanine (4A/4B site) at the P1' position. Consistent with this cleavage site preference, a structural model of the pestivirus NS3 proteinase predicts a highly hydrophobic P1 specificity pocket. trans-Processing experiments implicate the 64-residue NS4A protein as an NS3 proteinase cofactor required for cleavage at the 4B/5A and 5A/5B sites. Finally, using a full-length functional BVDV cDNA clone, we demonstrate that a catalytically active NS3 serine proteinase is essential for pestivirus replication. PMID:9188600

  12. Viral activities and life cycles in deep subseafloor sediments.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Tim; Orsi, William D; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2015-12-01

    Viruses are highly abundant in marine subsurface sediments and can even exceed the number of prokaryotes. However, their activity and quantitative impact on microbial populations are still poorly understood. Here, we use gene expression data from published continental margin subseafloor metatranscriptomes to qualitatively assess viral diversity and activity in sediments up to 159 metres below seafloor (mbsf). Mining of the metatranscriptomic data revealed 4651 representative viral homologues (RVHs), representing 2.2% of all metatranscriptome sequence reads, which have close translated homology (average 77%, range 60-97% amino acid identity) to viral proteins. Archaea-infecting RVHs are exclusively detected in the upper 30 mbsf, whereas RVHs for filamentous inoviruses predominate in the deepest sediment layers. RVHs indicative of lysogenic phage-host interactions and lytic activity, notably cell lysis, are detected at all analysed depths and suggest a dynamic virus-host association in the marine deep biosphere studied here. Ongoing lytic viral activity is further indicated by the expression of clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat-associated cascade genes involved in cellular defence against viral attacks. The data indicate the activity of viruses in subsurface sediment of the Peruvian margin and suggest that viruses indeed cause cell mortality and may play an important role in the turnover of subseafloor microbial biomass. PMID:26109514

  13. Coronavirus Nsp10, a Critical Co-factor for Activation of Multiple Replicative Enzymes*

    PubMed Central

    Bouvet, Mickaël; Lugari, Adrien; Posthuma, Clara C.; Zevenhoven, Jessika C.; Bernard, Stéphanie; Betzi, Stéphane; Imbert, Isabelle; Canard, Bruno; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Lécine, Patrick; Pfefferle, Susanne; Drosten, Christian; Snijder, Eric J.; Decroly, Etienne; Morelli, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The RNA-synthesizing machinery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is composed of 16 non-structural proteins (nsp1–16) encoded by ORF1a/1b. The 148-amino acid nsp10 subunit contains two zinc fingers and is known to interact with both nsp14 and nsp16, stimulating their respective 3′-5′ exoribonuclease and 2′-O-methyltransferase activities. Using alanine-scanning mutagenesis, in cellulo bioluminescence resonance energy transfer experiments, and in vitro pulldown assays, we have now identified the key residues on the nsp10 surface that interact with nsp14. The functional consequences of mutations introduced at these positions were first evaluated biochemically by monitoring nsp14 exoribonuclease activity. Disruption of the nsp10-nsp14 interaction abrogated the nsp10-driven activation of the nsp14 exoribonuclease. We further showed that the nsp10 surface interacting with nsp14 overlaps with the surface involved in the nsp10-mediated activation of nsp16 2′-O-methyltransferase activity, suggesting that nsp10 is a major regulator of SARS-CoV replicase function. In line with this notion, reverse genetics experiments supported an essential role of the nsp10 surface that interacts with nsp14 in SARS-CoV replication, as several mutations that abolished the interaction in vitro yielded a replication-negative viral phenotype. In contrast, mutants in which the nsp10-nsp16 interaction was disturbed proved to be crippled but viable. These experiments imply that the nsp10 surface that interacts with nsp14 and nsp16 and possibly other subunits of the viral replication complex may be a target for the development of antiviral compounds against pathogenic coronaviruses. PMID:25074927

  14. Coronavirus Nsp10, a critical co-factor for activation of multiple replicative enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Mickaël; Lugari, Adrien; Posthuma, Clara C; Zevenhoven, Jessika C; Bernard, Stéphanie; Betzi, Stéphane; Imbert, Isabelle; Canard, Bruno; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Lécine, Patrick; Pfefferle, Susanne; Drosten, Christian; Snijder, Eric J; Decroly, Etienne; Morelli, Xavier

    2014-09-12

    The RNA-synthesizing machinery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is composed of 16 non-structural proteins (nsp1-16) encoded by ORF1a/1b. The 148-amino acid nsp10 subunit contains two zinc fingers and is known to interact with both nsp14 and nsp16, stimulating their respective 3'-5' exoribonuclease and 2'-O-methyltransferase activities. Using alanine-scanning mutagenesis, in cellulo bioluminescence resonance energy transfer experiments, and in vitro pulldown assays, we have now identified the key residues on the nsp10 surface that interact with nsp14. The functional consequences of mutations introduced at these positions were first evaluated biochemically by monitoring nsp14 exoribonuclease activity. Disruption of the nsp10-nsp14 interaction abrogated the nsp10-driven activation of the nsp14 exoribonuclease. We further showed that the nsp10 surface interacting with nsp14 overlaps with the surface involved in the nsp10-mediated activation of nsp16 2'-O-methyltransferase activity, suggesting that nsp10 is a major regulator of SARS-CoV replicase function. In line with this notion, reverse genetics experiments supported an essential role of the nsp10 surface that interacts with nsp14 in SARS-CoV replication, as several mutations that abolished the interaction in vitro yielded a replication-negative viral phenotype. In contrast, mutants in which the nsp10-nsp16 interaction was disturbed proved to be crippled but viable. These experiments imply that the nsp10 surface that interacts with nsp14 and nsp16 and possibly other subunits of the viral replication complex may be a target for the development of antiviral compounds against pathogenic coronaviruses. PMID:25074927

  15. C2 from Beet curly top virus promotes a cell environment suitable for efficient replication of geminiviruses, providing a novel mechanism of viral synergism.

    PubMed

    Caracuel, Zaira; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Huguet, Stéphanie; Arroyo-Mateos, Manuel; Rodríguez-Negrete, Edgar A; Bejarano, Eduardo R

    2012-05-01

    • Geminiviruses are plant viruses with circular, single-stranded (ss) DNA genomes that infect a wide range of species and cause important losses in agriculture. Geminiviruses do not encode their own DNA polymerase, and rely on the host cell machinery for their replication. • Here, we identify a positive effect of the curtovirus Beet curly top virus (BCTV) on the begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) infection in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. • Our results show that this positive effect is caused by the promotion of TYLCSV replication by BCTV C2. Transcriptomic analyses of plants expressing C2 unveil an up-regulation of cell cycle-related genes induced on cell cycle re-entry; experiments with two mutated versions of C2 indicate that this function resides in the N-terminal part of C2, which is also sufficient to enhance geminiviral replication. Moreover, C2 expression promotes the replication of other geminiviral species, but not of RNA viruses. • We conclude that BCTV C2 has a novel function in the promotion of viral replication, probably by restoring the DNA replication competency of the infected cells and thus creating a favourable cell environment for viral spread. Because C2 seems to have a broad impact on the replication of geminiviruses, this mechanism might have important epidemiological implications. PMID:22404507

  16. Immunodominant epitopes in nsp2 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus are dispensable for replication but play an important role in viral pathogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the largest protein of the virus. Besides its crucial role in viral replication, recent studies indicated its involvement in modulating host immunity. In this study, each of the six identified immu...

  17. Evidence for Early Local Viral Replication and Local Production of Antiviral Immunity upon Mucosal Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus SHIV89.6 Infection in Macaca nemestrina

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Zandrea; Larsen, Kay; Thompson, Jannelle; Stevens, Yvonne; Finn, Eric; Hu, Shiu-Lok; Bosch, Marnix L.

    2001-01-01

    Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is largely a result of heterosexual exposure, leading many investigators to evaluate mucosal vaccines for protection against intravaginal (i.vag.) transmission in macaque models of AIDS. Relatively little is known, however, about the dynamics of viral replication and the ensuing immune response following mucosal infection. We have utilized a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) to study the differences in viremia, CD4 T-cell percentages, and mucosal and systemic anti-SHIV humoral and cellular immune responses during primary infection of animals infected either intravenously (i.v.) or i.vag. Positive viral cocultures, peripheral blood mononuclear cell viral load peaks, and CD4 cell declines were delayed by 1 week in the i.vag. inoculated animals compared to the animals infected i.v., demonstrating delayed viral spreading to the periphery. In contrast, mucosal anti-SHIV antibody levels were greater in magnitude and arose more rapidly and mucosal CD8+ T-cell responses were enhanced in the i.vag. group animals, whereas both the magnitudes and times of onset of systemic immune responses for the animals in the two groups did not differ. These observations demonstrate that compartmentalization of viral replication and induction of local antiviral immunity occur in the genital tract early after i.vag. but not i.v. inoculation. Induction of mucosal immunity to target this local, contained replication should be a goal in HIV vaccine development. PMID:11507204

  18. Lychee flower extract inhibits proliferation and viral replication of HSV-1-infected corneal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chang-Min; Chiang, Samuel Tung-Hsing; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Chen, Yi-Chen; Yang, Deng-Jye; Chen, Ya-Yu; Lin, Hui-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) is capable of causing a wide array of human ocular diseases. Herpes simplex virus keratitis (HSK)-induced cytopathogenicity together with the chronic immune-inflammatory reaction can trigger stromal scarring, thinning, and neovascularization which may lead to permanent vision impairment. Lychee flower extract (LFE) is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the mechanism of the Statens Seruminstitut rabbit corneal (SIRC) epithelial cells infected by HSV-1 and examined the antiviral capabilities of LFE. Methods SIRC cells were pretreated with different concentrations of LFE (0.2, 0.1, and 0.05 μg/ml) and then infected with 1 MOI of HSV-1 for 24 h. The cell viability or morphology was evaluated in this study. In addition, the supernatants and cell extracts were collected for Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK), plaque assay, and western blotting. Results We found that HSV-1-induced cell proliferation is regulated through inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p70s6k phosphorylation in response to the LFE. In addition, the LFE enhanced the autophagy protein expression (Beclin-1 and light chain 3, LC3) and decreased the viral titers. Conclusions These results showed the antiviral capabilities and the protective effects of LFE. Taken together, our data indicate that LFE has potential as an anti-HSK (herpes simplex keratitis) for HSV-1 infection. PMID:26937165

  19. A single amino acid change, Q114R, in the cleavage-site sequence of Newcastle disease virus fusion protein attenuates viral replication and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Samal, Sweety; Kumar, Sachin; Khattar, Sunil K; Samal, Siba K

    2011-10-01

    A key determinant of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) virulence is the amino acid sequence at the fusion (F) protein cleavage site. The NDV F protein is synthesized as an inactive precursor, F(0), and is activated by proteolytic cleavage between amino acids 116 and 117 to produce two disulfide-linked subunits, F(1) and F(2). The consensus sequence of the F protein cleavage site of virulent [(112)(R/K)-R-Q-(R/K)-R↓F-I(118)] and avirulent [(112)(G/E)-(K/R)-Q-(G/E)-R↓L-I(118)] strains contains a conserved glutamine residue at position 114. Recently, some NDV strains from Africa and Madagascar were isolated from healthy birds and have been reported to contain five basic residues (R-R-R-K-R↓F-I/V or R-R-R-R-R↓F-I/V) at the F protein cleavage site. In this study, we have evaluated the role of this conserved glutamine residue in the replication and pathogenicity of NDV by using the moderately pathogenic Beaudette C strain and by making Q114R, K115R and I118V mutants of the F protein in this strain. Our results showed that changing the glutamine to a basic arginine residue reduced viral replication and attenuated the pathogenicity of the virus in chickens. The pathogenicity was further reduced when the isoleucine at position 118 was substituted for valine. PMID:21677091

  20. PKR Activation Favors Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus Replication in Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gamil, Amr A.A.; Xu, Cheng; Mutoloki, Stephen; Evensen, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase R (PKR) is a Type I interferon (IFN) stimulated gene that has important biological and immunological functions. In viral infections, in general, PKR inhibits or promotes viral replication, but PKR-IPNV interaction has not been previously studied. We investigated the involvement of PKR during infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) infection using a custom-made rabbit antiserum and the PKR inhibitor C16. Reactivity of the antiserum to PKR in CHSE-214 cells was confirmed after IFNα treatment giving an increased protein level. IPNV infection alone did not give increased PKR levels by Western blot, while pre-treatment with PKR inhibitor before IPNV infection gave decreased eukaryotic initiation factor 2-alpha (eIF2α) phosphorylation. This suggests that PKR, despite not being upregulated, is involved in eIF2α phosphorylation during IPNV infection. PKR inhibitor pre-treatment resulted in decreased virus titers, extra- and intracellularly, concomitant with reduction of cells with compromised membranes in IPNV-permissive cell lines. These findings suggest that IPNV uses PKR activation to promote virus replication in infected cells. PMID:27338445

  1. The role of Vif oligomerization and RNA chaperone activity in HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Batisse, Julien; Guerrero, Santiago; Bernacchi, Serena; Sleiman, Dona; Gabus, Caroline; Darlix, Jean-Luc; Marquet, Roland; Tisné, Carine; Paillart, Jean-Christophe

    2012-11-01

    The viral infectivity factor (Vif) is essential for the productive infection and dissemination of HIV-1 in non-permissive cells that involve most natural HIV-1 target cells. Vif counteracts the packaging of two cellular cytidine deaminases named APOBEC3G (A3G) and A3F by diverse mechanisms including the recruitment of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and the proteasomal degradation of A3G/A3F, the inhibition of A3G mRNA translation or by a direct competition mechanism. In addition, Vif appears to be an active partner of the late steps of viral replication by participating in virus assembly and Gag processing, thus regulating the final stage of virion formation notably genomic RNA dimerization and by inhibiting the initiation of reverse transcription. Vif is a small pleiotropic protein with multiple domains, and recent studies highlighted the importance of Vif conformation and flexibility in counteracting A3G and in binding RNA. In this review, we will focus on the oligomerization and RNA chaperone properties of Vif and show that the intrinsic disordered nature of some Vif domains could play an important role in virus assembly and replication. Experimental evidence demonstrating the RNA chaperone activity of Vif will be presented. PMID:22728817

  2. Influenza B virus non-structural protein 1 counteracts ISG15 antiviral activity by sequestering ISGylated viral proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chen; Sridharan, Haripriya; Chen, Ran; Baker, Darren P; Wang, Shanshan; Krug, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 and its conjugation to proteins (ISGylation) are strongly induced by type I interferon. Influenza B virus encodes non-structural protein 1 (NS1B) that binds human ISG15 and provides an appropriate model for determining how ISGylation affects virus replication in human cells. Here using a recombinant virus encoding a NS1B protein defective in ISG15 binding, we show that NS1B counteracts ISGylation-mediated antiviral activity by binding and sequestering ISGylated viral proteins, primarily ISGylated viral nucleoprotein (NP), in infected cells. ISGylated NP that is not sequestered by mutant NS1B acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor of oligomerization of the more abundant unconjugated NP. Consequently formation of viral ribonucleoproteins that catalyse viral RNA synthesis is inhibited, causing decreased viral protein synthesis and virus replication. We verify that ISGylated NP is largely responsible for inhibition of viral RNA synthesis by generating recombinant viruses that lack known ISGylation sites in NP. PMID:27587337

  3. Partial Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication by Type I Interferons: Impact of Cell-to-Cell Viral Transfer▿

    PubMed Central

    Vendrame, Daniela; Sourisseau, Marion; Perrin, Virginie; Schwartz, Olivier; Mammano, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFN) inhibit several steps of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) replication cycle. Some HIV proteins, like Vif and Vpu, directly counteract IFN-induced restriction factors. Other mechanisms are expected to modulate the extent of IFN inhibition. Here, we studied the impact of IFN on various aspects of HIV replication in primary T lymphocytes. We confirm the potent effect of IFN on Gag p24 production in supernatants. Interestingly, IFN had a more limited effect on HIV spread, measured as the appearance of Gag-expressing cells. Primary isolates displayed similar differences in the inhibition of p24 release and virus spread. Virus emergence was the consequence of suboptimal inhibition of HIV replication and was not due to the selection of resistant variants. Cell-to-cell HIV transfer, a potent means of virus replication, was less sensitive to IFN than infection by cell-free virions. These results suggest that IFN are less active in cell cultures than initially thought. They help explain the incomplete protection by naturally secreted IFN during HIV infection and the unsatisfactory outcome of IFN treatment in HIV-infected patients. PMID:19706714

  4. Illuminating the Sites of Enterovirus Replication in Living Cells by Using a Split-GFP-Tagged Viral Protein

    PubMed Central

    van der Schaar, H. M.; Melia, C. E.; van Bruggen, J. A. C.; Strating, J. R. P. M.; van Geenen, M. E. D.; Koster, A. J.; Bárcena, M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Like all other positive-strand RNA viruses, enteroviruses generate new organelles (replication organelles [ROs]) with a unique protein and lipid composition on which they multiply their viral genome. Suitable tools for live-cell imaging of enterovirus ROs are currently unavailable, as recombinant enteroviruses that carry genes that encode RO-anchored viral proteins tagged with fluorescent reporters have not been reported thus far. To overcome this limitation, we used a split green fluorescent protein (split-GFP) system, comprising a large fragment [strands 1 to 10; GFP(S1-10)] and a small fragment [strand 11; GFP(S11)] of only 16 residues. The GFP(S11) (GFP with S11 fragment) fragment was inserted into the 3A protein of the enterovirus coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), while the large fragment was supplied by transient or stable expression in cells. The introduction of GFP(S11) did not affect the known functions of 3A when expressed in isolation. Using correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM), we showed that GFP fluorescence was detected at ROs, whose morphologies are essentially identical to those previously observed for wild-type CVB3, indicating that GFP(S11)-tagged 3A proteins assemble with GFP(S1-10) to form GFP for illumination of bona fide ROs. It is well established that enterovirus infection leads to Golgi disintegration. Through live-cell imaging of infected cells expressing an mCherry-tagged Golgi marker, we monitored RO development and revealed the dynamics of Golgi disassembly in real time. Having demonstrated the suitability of this virus for imaging ROs, we constructed a CVB3 encoding GFP(S1-10) and GFP(S11)-tagged 3A to bypass the need to express GFP(S1-10) prior to infection. These tools will have multiple applications in future studies on the origin, location, and function of enterovirus ROs. IMPORTANCE Enteroviruses induce the formation of membranous structures (replication organelles [ROs]) with a unique protein and lipid composition

  5. Illuminating the Sites of Enterovirus Replication in Living Cells by Using a Split-GFP-Tagged Viral Protein.

    PubMed

    van der Schaar, H M; Melia, C E; van Bruggen, J A C; Strating, J R P M; van Geenen, M E D; Koster, A J; Bárcena, M; van Kuppeveld, F J M

    2016-01-01

    Like all other positive-strand RNA viruses, enteroviruses generate new organelles (replication organelles [ROs]) with a unique protein and lipid composition on which they multiply their viral genome. Suitable tools for live-cell imaging of enterovirus ROs are currently unavailable, as recombinant enteroviruses that carry genes that encode RO-anchored viral proteins tagged with fluorescent reporters have not been reported thus far. To overcome this limitation, we used a split green fluorescent protein (split-GFP) system, comprising a large fragment [strands 1 to 10; GFP(S1-10)] and a small fragment [strand 11; GFP(S11)] of only 16 residues. The GFP(S11) (GFP with S11 fragment) fragment was inserted into the 3A protein of the enterovirus coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), while the large fragment was supplied by transient or stable expression in cells. The introduction of GFP(S11) did not affect the known functions of 3A when expressed in isolation. Using correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM), we showed that GFP fluorescence was detected at ROs, whose morphologies are essentially identical to those previously observed for wild-type CVB3, indicating that GFP(S11)-tagged 3A proteins assemble with GFP(S1-10) to form GFP for illumination of bona fide ROs. It is well established that enterovirus infection leads to Golgi disintegration. Through live-cell imaging of infected cells expressing an mCherry-tagged Golgi marker, we monitored RO development and revealed the dynamics of Golgi disassembly in real time. Having demonstrated the suitability of this virus for imaging ROs, we constructed a CVB3 encoding GFP(S1-10) and GFP(S11)-tagged 3A to bypass the need to express GFP(S1-10) prior to infection. These tools will have multiple applications in future studies on the origin, location, and function of enterovirus ROs. IMPORTANCE Enteroviruses induce the formation of membranous structures (replication organelles [ROs]) with a unique protein and lipid composition specialized for

  6. Replication-associated activities of purified human papillomavirus type 11 E1 helicase.

    PubMed

    Rocque, W J; Porter, D J; Barnes, J A; Dixon, E P; Lobe, D C; Su, J L; Willard, D H; Gaillard, R; Condreay, J P; Clay, W C; Hoffman, C R; Overton, L K; Pahel, G; Kost, T A; Phelps, W C

    2000-03-01

    Replication of human papillomavirus type11 (HPV11) requires both the E1 and the E2 proteins. E1 is structurally and functionally similar to SV40 large T-antigen and is a DNA helicase/NTPase that binds to the origin of replication and initiates viral DNA replication. The biochemical characterization of HPV E1 is incompletely documented in the literature in part because of difficulties in expressing and purifying the protein. Herein, we report a method for the overexpression of full-length, untagged E1 (73.5 kDa) in baculovirus-infected Trichoplusia ni insect cells and the purification to homogeneity using a two-step procedure. The purified protein is a nonspecific NTPase that hydrolyzes ATP, dATP, UTP, or GTP equally well. Point mutations were made in the putative NTPase domain to verify that the activities observed were encoded by E1. Purified mutant D523N had negligible ATPase and helicase activities but retained DNA-binding activity. Sedimentation equilibrium ultracentrifugation and glycerol gradient centrifugation demonstrated that the wild-type protein is primarily a hexamer in its purified form. Secondary structure determination by circular dichroism revealed a large percentage of alpha-helical structure consistent with secondary structure predictions. These data define a fundamental set of biochemical and kinetic parameters for HPV E1 which are a critical prerequisite to future mechanistic studies of the enzyme. PMID:10686145

  7. The Hepatitis B Virus Genotype Affects the Persistence of Viral Replication in Immunodeficient NOG Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Yoshinobu; Miyagi, Takuya; Hikita, Hayato; Yoshioka, Teppei; Mukai, Kaori; Nawa, Takatoshi; Sakamori, Ryotaro; Ohkawa, Kazuyoshi; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Takahashi, Takeshi; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Ryo, Akihide; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims At least eight genotypes of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) have been identified. HBV genotype C is the most common genotype in Japan, although the incidence of HBV genotype A is increasing. The reason underlying the differences in viral multiplication of the HBV genotypes is unclear, especially in vivo. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the differences in HBV load and the persistence of viremia in vivo between genotypes A and C. Methods Immunodeficient NOG mice were transfected by hydrodynamic injection with the HBV expression plasmids pHBA1.2 or pHBC1.2, which contain overlength (1.2-mer) copies of the genomes of HBV genotype A or C, respectively. Results One day after transfection, the number of HBcAg-positive hepatocytes and serum HBV DNA levels were similar between mice transfected with pHBA1.2 and pHBC1.2. Serum levels of HBV DNA, HBsAg and HBeAg in mice transfected with pHBA1.2 were maintained over 5 months. In contrast, those in mice with pHBC1.2 gradually decreased over time and reached undetectable levels within 3 months after transfection. HBcAg-stained hepatocytes were detected in mice transfected with pHBA1.2, but not pHBC1.2, 5 months post-transfection. Double-staining immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of cleaved caspase3-stained, HBcAg-positive hepatocytes in the pHBC1.2-transfected mice was higher than in the pHBA1.2-transfected mice 3 days post-transfection. Moreover, the plasmid DNA and covalently closed circular DNA levels were decreased in the livers of pHBC1.2-transfected mice. These results suggested that hepatocytes expressing HBV genotype C were eliminated by apoptosis in the absence of immune cells more often than in hepatocytes expressing HBV genotype A. Conclusions Immunodeficient mice transfected with HBV genotype A develop persistent viremia, whereas those transfected with HBV genotype C exhibit transient viremia accompanied by apoptosis of HBV-expressing hepatocytes. This differences may affect the

  8. Bovine papillomavirus type 1 DNA replication: the transcriptional activator E2 acts in vitro as a specificity factor.

    PubMed Central

    Bonne-Andréa, C; Tillier, F; McShan, G D; Wilson, V G; Clertant, P

    1997-01-01

    We previously devised cell-free conditions supporting efficient replication of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) DNA (C. Bonne-Andréa, S. Santucci, and P. Clertant, J. Virol. 69:3201-3205, 1995): the use of highly active preparations of viral initiator protein E1, together with extract from a particular cell source, allowed the synthesis of complete DNA circles through successive rounds of replication; this occurred in the absence of the viral transcriptional activator E2, required in vivo for the replication of viral genomes. We now report that adding E2 to cell-free assays produced only slight effects both on the yield of E1-dependent DNA synthesis and on the quality of newly made DNA molecules when a template carrying a wild-type BPV1 replication origin (ori) was used. The performance of mouse cell extracts, unable to sustain efficient BPV1 DNA replication in the presence of E1 only, was likewise not improved by the addition of E2. In a proper in vitro environment, E1 is thus fully capable of efficiently initiating viral DNA synthesis by itself, an activity which is not enhanced by interaction with E2. An important effect, however, was detected: E2 totally suppressed the nonspecific replication of ori-defective DNA templates, otherwise observed in high E1 concentrations. We examined the requirements for building a minimal DNA sequence behaving in vitro as a specific ori sequence under stringent recognition conditions, i.e., in the presence of both E1 and E2. Only two elements, the 18-bp E1 binding palindrome and an AT-rich sequence, were required in cis to allow specific cell-free DNA replication; there seemed to be no need for an E2 binding site to ensure discrimination between specific ori templates and other DNA molecules, even in the presence of E2. This suggests that during the initiation of BPV1 DNA replication, at least in vitro, E2 acts as a specificity factor restricting the action of E1 to a defined ori sequence; this function, likely not demanding

  9. Serine 192 in the tiny RS repeat of the adenoviral L4-33K splicing enhancer protein is essential for function and reorganization of the protein to the periphery of viral replication centers

    SciTech Connect

    Oestberg, Sara; Toermaenen Persson, Heidi; Akusjaervi, Goeran

    2012-11-25

    The adenovirus L4-33K protein is a key regulator involved in the temporal shift from early to late pattern of mRNA expression from the adenovirus major late transcription unit. L4-33K is a virus-encoded alternative splicing factor, which enhances processing of 3 Prime splice sites with a weak sequence context. Here we show that L4-33K expressed from a plasmid is localized at the nuclear margin of uninfected cells. During an infection L4-33K is relocalized to the periphery of E2A-72K containing viral replication centers. We also show that serine 192 in the tiny RS repeat of the conserved carboxy-terminus of L4-33K, which is critical for the splicing enhancer function of L4-33K, is necessary for the nuclear localization and redistribution of the protein to viral replication sites. Collectively, our results show a good correlation between the activity of L4-33K as a splicing enhancer protein and its localization to the periphery of viral replication centers.

  10. Selective recruitment of host factors by HSV-1 replication centers

    PubMed Central

    LANG, Feng-Chao; LI, Xin; VLADMIROVA, Olga; LI, Zhuo-Ran; CHEN, Gui-Jun; XIAO, Yu; LI, Li-Hong; LU, Dan-Feng; HAN, Hong-Bo; ZHOU, Ju-Min

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) enters productive infection after infecting epithelial cells, where it controls the host nucleus to make viral proteins, starts viral DNA synthesis and assembles infectious virions. In this process, replicating viral genomes are organized into replication centers to facilitate viral growth. HSV-1 is known to use host factors, including host chromatin and host transcription regulators, to transcribe its genes; however, the invading virus also encounters host defense and stress responses to inhibit viral growth. Recently, we found that HSV-1 replication centers recruit host factor CTCF but exclude βH2A.X. Thus, HSV-1 replication centers may selectively recruit cellular factors needed for viral growth, while excluding host factors that are deleterious for viral transcription or replication. Here we report that the viral replication centers selectively excluded modified histone H3, including heterochromatin mark H3K9me3, H3S10P and active chromatin mark H3K4me3, but not unmodified H3. We found a dynamic association between the viral replication centers and host RNA polymerase II. The centers also recruited components of the DNA damage response pathway, including 53BP1, BRCA1 and host antiviral protein SP100. Importantly, we found that ATM kinase was needed for the recruitment of CTCF to the viral centers. These results suggest that the HSV-1 replication centers took advantage of host signaling pathways to actively recruit or exclude host factors to benefit viral growth. PMID:26018857

  11. Viral Replication, Persistence in Water and Genetic Characterization of Two Influenza A Viruses Isolated from Surface Lake Water

    PubMed Central

    Lebarbenchon, Camille; Yang, My; Keeler, Shamus P.; Ramakrishnan, Muthannan A.; Brown, Justin D.; Stallknecht, David E.; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2011-01-01

    Water-borne transmission has been suggested as an important transmission mechanism for Influenza A (IA) viruses in wild duck populations; however, relatively few studies have attempted to detect IA viruses from aquatic habitats. Water-isolated viruses have rarely been genetically characterized and evaluation for persistence in water and infectivity in natural hosts has never been documented. In this study, we focused on two IA viruses (H3N8 and H4N6 subtypes) isolated from surface lake water in Minnesota, USA. We investigated the relative prevalence of the two virus subtypes in wild duck populations at the sampling site and their genetic relatedness to IA viruses isolated in wild waterbirds in North America. Viral persistence under different laboratory conditions (temperature and pH) and replication in experimentally infected Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were also characterized. Both viruses were the most prevalent subtype one year following their isolation in lake water. The viruses persisted in water for an extended time period at constant temperature (several weeks) but infectivity rapidly reduced under multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Furthermore, the two isolates efficiently replicated in Mallards. The complete genome characterization supported that these isolates originated from genetic reassortments with other IA viruses circulating in wild duck populations during the year of sampling. Based on phylogenetic analyses, we couldn't identify genetically similar viruses in duck populations in the years following their isolation from lake water. Our study supports the role for water-borne transmission for IA viruses but also highlights that additional field and experimental studies are required to support inter-annual persistence in aquatic habitats. PMID:22028909

  12. Love the one you're with: replicate viral adaptations converge on the same phenotypic change.

    PubMed

    Miller, Craig R; Nagel, Anna C; Scott, LuAnn; Settles, Matt; Joyce, Paul; Wichman, Holly A

    2016-01-01

    Parallelism is important because it reveals how inherently stochastic adaptation is. Even as we come to better understand evolutionary forces, stochasticity limits how well we can predict evolutionary outcomes. Here we sought to quantify parallelism and some of its underlying causes by adapting a bacteriophage (ID11) with nine different first-step mutations, each with eight-fold replication, for 100 passages. This was followed by whole-genome sequencing five isolates from each endpoint. A large amount of variation arose-281 mutational events occurred representing 112 unique mutations. At least 41% of the mutations and 77% of the events were adaptive. Within wells, populations generally experienced complex interference dynamics. The genome locations and counts of mutations were highly uneven: mutations were concentrated in two regulatory elements and three genes and, while 103 of the 112 (92%) of the mutations were observed in ≤4 wells, a few mutations arose many times. 91% of the wells and 81% of the isolates had a mutation in the D-promoter. Parallelism was moderate compared to previous experiments with this system. On average, wells shared 27% of their mutations at the DNA level and 38% when the definition of parallel change is expanded to include the same regulatory feature or residue. About half of the parallelism came from D-promoter mutations. Background had a small but significant effect on parallelism. Similarly, an analyses of epistasis between mutations and their ancestral background was significant, but the result was mostly driven by four individual mutations. A second analysis of epistasis focused on de novo mutations revealed that no isolate ever had more than one D-promoter mutation and that 56 of the 65 isolates lacking a D-promoter mutation had a mutation in genes D and/or E. We assayed time to lysis in four of these mutually exclusive mutations (the two most frequent D-promoter and two in gene D) across four genetic backgrounds. In all cases

  13. Love the one you’re with: replicate viral adaptations converge on the same phenotypic change

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Anna C.; Scott, LuAnn; Settles, Matt; Wichman, Holly A.

    2016-01-01

    Parallelism is important because it reveals how inherently stochastic adaptation is. Even as we come to better understand evolutionary forces, stochasticity limits how well we can predict evolutionary outcomes. Here we sought to quantify parallelism and some of its underlying causes by adapting a bacteriophage (ID11) with nine different first-step mutations, each with eight-fold replication, for 100 passages. This was followed by whole-genome sequencing five isolates from each endpoint. A large amount of variation arose—281 mutational events occurred representing 112 unique mutations. At least 41% of the mutations and 77% of the events were adaptive. Within wells, populations generally experienced complex interference dynamics. The genome locations and counts of mutations were highly uneven: mutations were concentrated in two regulatory elements and three genes and, while 103 of the 112 (92%) of the mutations were observed in ≤4 wells, a few mutations arose many times. 91% of the wells and 81% of the isolates had a mutation in the D-promoter. Parallelism was moderate compared to previous experiments with this system. On average, wells shared 27% of their mutations at the DNA level and 38% when the definition of parallel change is expanded to include the same regulatory feature or residue. About half of the parallelism came from D-promoter mutations. Background had a small but significant effect on parallelism. Similarly, an analyses of epistasis between mutations and their ancestral background was significant, but the result was mostly driven by four individual mutations. A second analysis of epistasis focused on de novo mutations revealed that no isolate ever had more than one D-promoter mutation and that 56 of the 65 isolates lacking a D-promoter mutation had a mutation in genes D and/or E. We assayed time to lysis in four of these mutually exclusive mutations (the two most frequent D-promoter and two in gene D) across four genetic backgrounds. In all cases

  14. Timeless links replication termination to mitotic kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Dheekollu, Jayaraju; Wiedmer, Andreas; Hayden, James; Speicher, David; Gotter, Anthony L; Yen, Tim; Lieberman, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms that coordinate the termination of DNA replication with progression through mitosis are not completely understood. The human Timeless protein (Tim) associates with S phase replication checkpoint proteins Claspin and Tipin, and plays an important role in maintaining replication fork stability at physical barriers, like centromeres, telomeres and ribosomal DNA repeats, as well as at termination sites. We show here that human Tim can be isolated in a complex with mitotic entry kinases CDK1, Auroras A and B, and Polo-like kinase (Plk1). Plk1 bound Tim directly and colocalized with Tim at a subset of mitotic structures in M phase. Tim depletion caused multiple mitotic defects, including the loss of sister-chromatid cohesion, loss of mitotic spindle architecture, and a failure to exit mitosis. Tim depletion caused a delay in mitotic kinase activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as a reduction in global histone H3 S10 phosphorylation during G2/M phase. Tim was also required for the recruitment of Plk1 to centromeric DNA and formation of catenated DNA structures at human centromere alpha satellite repeats. Taken together, these findings suggest that Tim coordinates mitotic kinase activation with termination of DNA replication. PMID:21573113

  15. Virucidal activity of Colombian Lippia essential oils on dengue virus replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ocazionez, Raquel Elvira; Meneses, Rocio; Torres, Flor Angela; Stashenko, Elena

    2010-05-01

    The inhibitory effect of Lippia alba and Lippia citriodora essential oils on dengue virus serotypes replication in vitro was investigated. The cytotoxicity (CC50) was evaluated by the MTT assay and the mode of viral inhibitory effect was investigated with a plaque reduction assay. The virus was treated with the essential oil for 2 h at 37 masculineC before cell adsorption and experiments were conducted to evaluate inhibition of untreated-virus replication in the presence of oil. Antiviral activity was defined as the concentration of essential oil that caused 50% reduction of the virus plaque number (IC50). L. alba oil resulted in less cytotoxicity than L. citriodora oil (CC50: 139.5 vs. 57.6 microg/mL). Virus plaque reduction for all four dengue serotypes was observed by treatment of the virus before adsorption on cell. The IC50 values for L. alba oil were between 0.4-32.6 microg/mL and between 1.9-33.7 microg/mL for L. citriodora oil. No viral inhibitory effect was observed by addition of the essential oil after virus adsorption. The inhibitory effect of the essential oil seems to cause direct virus inactivation before adsorption on host cell. PMID:20512244

  16. DNA replication and cancer: From dysfunctional replication origin activities to therapeutic opportunities.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Anne-Sophie; Walter, David; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-06-01

    A dividing cell has to duplicate its DNA precisely once during the cell cycle to preserve genome integrity avoiding the accumulation of genetic aberrations that promote diseases such as cancer. A large number of endogenous impacts can challenge DNA replication and cells harbor a battery of pathways to promote genome integrity during DNA replication. This includes suppressing new replication origin firing, stabilization of replicating forks, and the safe restart of forks to prevent any loss of genetic information. Here, we describe mechanisms by which oncogenes can interfere with DNA replication thereby causing DNA replication stress and genome instability. Further, we describe cellular and systemic responses to these insults with a focus on DNA replication restart pathways. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of exploiting intrinsic replicative stress in cancer cells for targeted therapy. PMID:26805514

  17. A Combined Genetic-Proteomic Approach Identifies Residues within Dengue Virus NS4B Critical for Interaction with NS3 and Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Chatel-Chaix, Laurent; Fischl, Wolfgang; Scaturro, Pietro; Cortese, Mirko; Kallis, Stephanie; Bartenschlager, Marie; Fischer, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease worldwide. Approved vaccines are not available, and targets suitable for the development of antiviral drugs are lacking. One possible drug target is nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B), because it is absolutely required for virus replication; however, its exact role in the DENV replication cycle is largely unknown. With the aim of mapping NS4B determinants critical for DENV replication, we performed a reverse genetic screening of 33 NS4B mutants in the context of an infectious DENV genome. While the majority of these mutations were lethal, for several of them, we were able to select for second-site pseudoreversions, most often residing in NS4B and restoring replication competence. To identify all viral NS4B interaction partners, we engineered a fully viable DENV genome encoding an affinity-tagged NS4B. Mass spectrometry-based analysis of the NS4B complex isolated from infected cells identified the NS3 protease/helicase as a major interaction partner of NS4B. By combining the genetic complementation map of NS4B with a replication-independent expression system, we identified the NS4B cytosolic loop—more precisely, amino acid residue Q134—as a critical determinant for NS4B-NS3 interaction. An alanine substitution at this site completely abrogated the interaction and DENV RNA replication, and both were restored by pseudoreversions A69S and A137V. This strict correlation between the degree of NS4B-NS3 interaction and DENV replication provides strong evidence that this viral protein complex plays a pivotal role during the DENV replication cycle, hence representing a promising target for novel antiviral strategies. IMPORTANCE With no approved therapy or vaccine against dengue virus infection, the viral nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B) represents a possible drug target, because it is indispensable for virus replication. However, little is known about its precise structure and

  18. Resveratrol enhances HBV replication through activating Sirt1-PGC-1α-PPARα pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yixian; Li, Yongjun; Huang, Chenjie; Ying, Lixiong; Xue, Jihua; Wu, Haicong; Chen, Zhi; Yang, Zhenggang

    2016-01-01

    The population of hepatitis B combined with a number of metabolic disorders is increasing significantly. Resveratrol (RSV) has been used as a preclinical drug for the treatment of the metabolic disorders. However, the impact of RSV on HBV replication remains unknown. In this study, the HBV-expressing hepatocelluar carcinoma cell line and mouse model created by hydrodynamic injection of viral DNA were used. We found that RSV activates Sirt1, which in turn deacetylates PGC-1α and subsequently increases the transcriptional activity of PPARα, leading to the enhanced HBV transcription and replication in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we found that this pathway is also required for fasting-induced HBV transcription. Taken together, this study identifies that RSV enhances HBV transcription and replication especially acting on the core promoter, which depends on Sirt1-PGC-1α-PPARα pathway. We conclude that RSV may exacerbate the progression of hepatitis B and that patients with hepatitis B infection should be cautious taking RSV as a dietary supplement. PMID:27098390

  19. Resveratrol enhances HBV replication through activating Sirt1-PGC-1α-PPARα pathway.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yixian; Li, Yongjun; Huang, Chenjie; Ying, Lixiong; Xue, Jihua; Wu, Haicong; Chen, Zhi; Yang, Zhenggang

    2016-01-01

    The population of hepatitis B combined with a number of metabolic disorders is increasing significantly. Resveratrol (RSV) has been used as a preclinical drug for the treatment of the metabolic disorders. However, the impact of RSV on HBV replication remains unknown. In this study, the HBV-expressing hepatocelluar carcinoma cell line and mouse model created by hydrodynamic injection of viral DNA were used. We found that RSV activates Sirt1, which in turn deacetylates PGC-1α and subsequently increases the transcriptional activity of PPARα, leading to the enhanced HBV transcription and replication in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we found that this pathway is also required for fasting-induced HBV transcription. Taken together, this study identifies that RSV enhances HBV transcription and replication especially acting on the core promoter, which depends on Sirt1-PGC-1α-PPARα pathway. We conclude that RSV may exacerbate the progression of hepatitis B and that patients with hepatitis B infection should be cautious taking RSV as a dietary supplement. PMID:27098390

  20. Targeting human respiratory syncytial virus transcription anti-termination factor M2-1 to inhibit in vivo viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Bailly, B.; Richard, C.-A.; Sharma, G.; Wang, L.; Johansen, L.; Cao, J.; Pendharkar, V.; Sharma, D.-C.; Galloux, M.; Wang, Y.; Cui, R.; Zou, G.; Guillon, P.; von Itzstein, M.; Eléouët, J.-F.; Altmeyer, R.

    2016-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants, elderly and immunocompromised individuals. To date, no specific antiviral drug is available to treat or prevent this disease. Here, we report that the Smoothened receptor (Smo) antagonist cyclopamine acts as a potent and selective inhibitor of in vitro and in vivo hRSV replication. Cyclopamine inhibits hRSV through a novel, Smo-independent mechanism. It specifically impairs the function of the hRSV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex notably by reducing expression levels of the viral anti-termination factor M2-1. The relevance of these findings is corroborated by the demonstration that a single R151K mutation in M2-1 is sufficient to confer virus resistance to cyclopamine in vitro and that cyclopamine is able to reduce virus titers in a mouse model of hRSV infection. The results of our study open a novel avenue for the development of future therapies against hRSV infection. PMID:27194388

  1. Differential responses of Africanized and European honey bees (Apis mellifera) to viral replication following mechanical transmission or Varroa destructor parasitism.

    PubMed

    Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Goodwin, Paul H; Reyes-Quintana, Mariana; Koleoglu, Gun; Correa-Benítez, Adriana; Petukhova, Tatiana

    2015-03-01

    For the first time, adults and brood of Africanized and European honey bees (Apis mellifera) were compared for relative virus levels over 48 h following Varroa destructor parasitism or injection of V. destructor homogenate. Rates of increase of deformed wing virus (DWV) for Africanized versus European bees were temporarily lowered for 12h with parasitism and sustainably lowered over the entire experiment (48 h) with homogenate injection in adults. The rates were also temporarily lowered for 24h with parasitism but were not affected by homogenate injection in brood. Rates of increase of black queen cell virus (BQCV) for Africanized versus European bees were similar with parasitism but sustainably lowered over the entire experiment with homogenate injection in adults and were similar for parasitism and homogenate injection in brood. Analyses of sac brood bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus were limited as detection did not occur after both homogenate injection and parasitism treatment, or levels were not significantly higher than those following control buffer injection. Lower rates of replication of DWV and BQCV in Africanized bees shows that they may have greater viral resistance, at least early after treatment. PMID:25527405

  2. Dengue virus NS1 protein interacts with the ribosomal protein RPL18: this interaction is required for viral translation and replication in Huh-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Salazar, Margot; Angel-Ambrocio, Antonio H; Soto-Acosta, Ruben; Bautista-Carbajal, Patricia; Hurtado-Monzon, Arianna M; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L; Ludert, Juan E; Del Angel, Rosa M

    2015-10-01

    Given dengue virus (DENV) genome austerity, it uses cellular molecules and structures for virion entry, translation and replication of the genome. NS1 is a multifunctional protein key to viral replication and pathogenesis. Identification of cellular proteins that interact with NS1 may help in further understanding the functions of NS1. In this paper we isolated a total of 64 proteins from DENV infected human hepatic cells (Huh-7) that interact with NS1 by affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation assays. The subcellular location and expression levels during infection of the ribosomal proteins RPS3a, RPL7, RPL18, RPL18a plus GAPDH were determined. None of these proteins changed their expression levels during infection; however, RPL-18 was redistributed to the perinuclear region after 48hpi. Silencing of the RPL-18 does not affect cell translation efficiency or viability, but it reduces significantly viral translation, replication and viral yield, suggesting that the RPL-18 is required during DENV replicative cycle. PMID:26092250

  3. Oncolytic poxvirus armed with Fas ligand leads to induction of cellular Fas receptor and selective viral replication in FasR-negative cancer.

    PubMed

    Sathaiah, M; Thirunavukkarasu, P; O'Malley, M E; Kavanagh, M A; Ravindranathan, R; Austin, F; Guo, Z S; Bartlett, D L

    2012-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor superfamily members, including Fas ligand and TRAIL, have been studied extensively for cancer therapy, including as components of gene therapy. We examined the use of FasL expression to achieve tumor-selective replication of an oncolytic poxvirus (vFasL), and explored its biology and therapeutic efficacy for FasR- and FasR+ cancers. Infection of FasR+ normal and MC38 cancer cells by vFasL led to abortive viral replication owing to acute apoptosis and subsequently showed both reduced pathogenicity in non-tumor-bearing mice and reduced efficacy in FasR+ tumor-bearing mice. Infection of FasR- B16 cancer cells by vFasL led to efficient viral replication, followed by late induction of FasR and subsequent apoptosis. Treatment with vFasL as compared with its parental virus (vJS6) led to increased tumor regression and prolonged survival of mice with FasR- cancer (B16) but not with FasR+ cancer (MC38). The delayed induction of FasR by viral infection in FasR- cells provides for potential increased efficacy beyond the limit of the direct oncolytic effect. FasR induction provides one mechanism for tumor-selective replication of oncolytic poxviruses in FasR- cancers with enhanced safety. The overall result is both a safer and more effective oncolytic virus for FasR- cancer. PMID:22116377

  4. Intracellular membrane association of the N-terminal domain of classical swine fever virus NS4B determines viral genome replication and virulence.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Tomokazu; Ruggli, Nicolas; Nagashima, Naofumi; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Igarashi, Manabu; Mine, Junki; Hofmann, Martin A; Liniger, Matthias; Summerfield, Artur; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2015-09-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes a highly contagious disease in pigs that can range from a severe haemorrhagic fever to a nearly unapparent disease, depending on the virulence of the virus strain. Little is known about the viral molecular determinants of CSFV virulence. The nonstructural protein NS4B is essential for viral replication. However, the roles of CSFV NS4B in viral genome replication and pathogenesis have not yet been elucidated. NS4B of the GPE-  vaccine strain and of the highly virulent Eystrup strain differ by a total of seven amino acid residues, two of which are located in the predicted trans-membrane domains of NS4B and were described previously to relate to virulence, and five residues clustering in the N-terminal part. In the present study, we examined the potential role of these five amino acids in modulating genome replication and determining pathogenicity in pigs. A chimeric low virulent GPE- -derived virus carrying the complete Eystrup NS4B showed enhanced pathogenicity in pigs. The in vitro replication efficiency of the NS4B chimeric GPE-  replicon was significantly higher than that of the replicon carrying only the two Eystrup-specific amino acids in NS4B. In silico and in vitro data suggest that the N-terminal part of NS4B forms an amphipathic α-helix structure. The N-terminal NS4B with these five amino acid residues is associated with the intracellular membranes. Taken together, this is the first gain-of-function study showing that the N-terminal domain of NS4B can determine CSFV genome replication in cell culture and viral pathogenicity in pigs. PMID:26018962

  5. A new antiviral screening method that simultaneously detects viral replication, cell viability, and cell toxicity.

    PubMed

    Matza-Porges, Sigal; Eisen, Kobi; Ibrahim, Hadeel; Haberman, Adva; Fridlender, Bertold; Joseph, Gili

    2014-11-01

    Viruses cause a variety of illnesses in humans, yet only a few antiviral drugs have been developed; thus, new antiviral drugs are urgently needed. Plants could be a good source of antiviral drugs, they do not have mobility and can only defend themselves by producing compounds against pathogens such as viruses in their own fix environment. These compounds may have the potential to inhibit animal and human viruses as well. In this study, a fast and reliable method for screening plant extracts for specific antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) was developed. This method distinguishes between host cell death due to infectivity and multiplicity of the virus versus toxicity of the plant extract. Extracts from 80 plant and plant organs were screened using this approach. Six plant extracts showed potential to exert specific HSV-1 growth inhibition activity. In two cases, different organs from the same plant showed similar active results. With this method it is possible to screen a large number of extracts in a rapid and accurate way to detect antiviral substances against HSV-I and other viruses. PMID:25152527

  6. The presence of tomato leaf curl Kerala virus AC3 protein enhances viral DNA replication and modulates virus induced gene-silencing mechanism in tomato plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Geminiviruses encode few viral proteins. Most of the geminiviral proteins are multifunctional and influence various host cellular processes for the successful viral infection. Though few viral proteins like AC1 and AC2 are well characterized for their multiple functions, role of AC3 in the successful viral infection has not been investigated in detail. Results We performed phage display analysis with the purified recombinant AC3 protein with Maltose Binding Protein as fusion tag (MBP-AC3). Putative AC3 interacting peptides identified through phage display were observed to be homologous to peptides of proteins from various metabolisms. We grouped these putative AC3 interacting peptides according to the known metabolic function of the homologous peptide containing proteins. In order to check if AC3 influences any of these particular metabolic pathways, we designed vectors for assaying DNA replication and virus induced gene-silencing of host gene PCNA. Investigation with these vectors indicated that AC3 enhances viral replication in the host plant tomato. In the PCNA gene-silencing experiment, we observed that the presence of functional AC3 ORF strongly manifested the stunted phenotype associated with the virus induced gene-silencing of PCNA in tomato plants. Conclusions Through the phage display analysis proteins from various metabolic pathways were identified as putative AC3 interacting proteins. By utilizing the vectors developed, we could analyze the role of AC3 in viral DNA replication and host gene-silencing. Our studies indicate that AC3 is also a multifunctional protein. PMID:21496351

  7. Productive replication of nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus in peripheral blood monocytic cells, a strategy for viral dissemination and kidney infection in chickens.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vishwanatha R A P; Trus, Ivan; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Li, Yewei; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the replication kinetics of nephropathogenic (B1648) and respiratory (Massachusetts-M41) IBV strains were compared in vitro in respiratory mucosa explants and blood monocytes (KUL01(+) cells), and in vivo in chickens to understand why some IBV strains have a kidney tropism. B1648 was replicating somewhat better than M41 in the epithelium of the respiratory mucosa explants and used more KUL01(+) cells to penetrate the deeper layers of the respiratory tract. B1648 was productively replicating in KUL01(+) monocytic cells in contrast with M41. In B1648 inoculated animals, 10(2.7-6.8) viral RNA copies/100 mg were detected in tracheal secretions at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 days post inoculation (dpi), 10(2.4-4.5) viral RNA copies/mL in plasma at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 dpi and 10(1.8-4.4) viral RNA copies/10(6) mononuclear cells in blood at 2, 4, 6 and 8 dpi. In M41 inoculated animals, 10(2.6-7.0) viral RNA copies/100 mg were detected in tracheal secretions at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dpi, but viral RNA was not demonstrated in plasma and mononuclear cells (except in one chicken at 6 dpi). Infectious virus was detected only in plasma and mononuclear cells of the B1648 group. At euthanasia (12 dpi), viral RNA and antigen positive cells were detected in lungs, liver, spleen and kidneys of only the B1648 group and in tracheas of both the B1648 and M41 group. In conclusion, only B1648 can easily disseminate to internal organs via a cell-free and -associated viremia with KUL01(+) cells as important carrier cells. PMID:27412035

  8. DNA Helicase Activity Is Associated with the Replication Initiator Protein Rep of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Geminivirus▿

    PubMed Central

    Clérot, Danielle; Bernardi, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    The Rep protein of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a single-stranded DNA virus of plants, is the replication initiator essential for virus replication. TYLCSV Rep has been classified among ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA+ ATPases), in superfamily 3 of small DNA and RNA virus replication initiators whose paradigmatic member is simian virus 40 large T antigen. Members of this family are DNA- or RNA-dependent ATPases with helicase activity necessary for viral replication. Another distinctive feature of AAA+ ATPases is their quaternary structure, often composed of hexameric rings. TYLCSV Rep has ATPase activity, but the helicase activity, which is instrumental in further characterization of the mechanism of rolling-circle replication used by geminiviruses, has been a longstanding question. We present results showing that TYLCSV Rep lacking the 121 N-terminal amino acids has helicase activity comparable to that of the other helicases: requirements for a 3′ overhang and 3′-to-5′ polarity of unwinding, with some distinct features and with a minimal AAA+ ATPase domain. We also show that the helicase activity is dependent on the oligomeric state of the protein. PMID:16943286

  9. Myxoma virus protein M029 is a dual function immunomodulator that inhibits PKR and also conscripts RHA/DHX9 to promote expanded host tropism and viral replication.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Masmudur M; Liu, Jia; Chan, Winnie M; Rothenburg, Stefan; McFadden, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV)-encoded protein M029 is a member of the poxvirus E3 family of dsRNA-binding proteins that antagonize the cellular interferon signaling pathways. In order to investigate additional functions of M029, we have constructed a series of targeted M029-minus (vMyx-M029KO and vMyx-M029ID) and V5-tagged M029 MYXV. We found that M029 plays a pivotal role in determining the cellular tropism of MYXV in all mammalian cells tested. The M029-minus viruses were able to replicate only in engineered cell lines that stably express a complementing protein, such as vaccinia E3, but underwent abortive or abated infection in all other tested mammalian cell lines. The M029-minus viruses were dramatically attenuated in susceptible host European rabbits and caused no observable signs of myxomatosis. Using V5-tagged M029 virus, we observed that M029 expressed as an early viral protein is localized in both the nuclear and cytosolic compartments in virus-infected cells, and is also incorporated into virions. Using proteomic approaches, we have identified Protein Kinase R (PKR) and RNA helicase A (RHA)/DHX9 as two cellular binding partners of M029 protein. In virus-infected cells, M029 interacts with PKR in a dsRNA-dependent manner, while binding with DHX9 was not dependent on dsRNA. Significantly, PKR knockdown in human cells rescued the replication defect of the M029-knockout viruses. Unexpectedly, this rescue of M029-minus virus replication by PKR depletion could then be reversed by RHA/DHX9 knockdown in human monocytic THP1 cells. This indicates that M029 not only inhibits generic PKR anti-viral pathways, but also binds and conscripts RHA/DHX9 as a pro-viral effector to promote virus replication in THP1 cells. Thus, M029 is a critical host range and virulence factor for MYXV that is required for replication in all mammalian cells by antagonizing PKR-mediated anti-viral functions, and also conscripts pro-viral RHA/DHX9 to promote viral replication specifically in myeloid

  10. Myxoma Virus Protein M029 Is a Dual Function Immunomodulator that Inhibits PKR and Also Conscripts RHA/DHX9 to Promote Expanded Host Tropism and Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Masmudur M.; Liu, Jia; Chan, Winnie M.; Rothenburg, Stefan; McFadden, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV)-encoded protein M029 is a member of the poxvirus E3 family of dsRNA-binding proteins that antagonize the cellular interferon signaling pathways. In order to investigate additional functions of M029, we have constructed a series of targeted M029-minus (vMyx-M029KO and vMyx-M029ID) and V5-tagged M029 MYXV. We found that M029 plays a pivotal role in determining the cellular tropism of MYXV in all mammalian cells tested. The M029-minus viruses were able to replicate only in engineered cell lines that stably express a complementing protein, such as vaccinia E3, but underwent abortive or abated infection in all other tested mammalian cell lines. The M029-minus viruses were dramatically attenuated in susceptible host European rabbits and caused no observable signs of myxomatosis. Using V5-tagged M029 virus, we observed that M029 expressed as an early viral protein is localized in both the nuclear and cytosolic compartments in virus-infected cells, and is also incorporated into virions. Using proteomic approaches, we have identified Protein Kinase R (PKR) and RNA helicase A (RHA)/DHX9 as two cellular binding partners of M029 protein. In virus-infected cells, M029 interacts with PKR in a dsRNA-dependent manner, while binding with DHX9 was not dependent on dsRNA. Significantly, PKR knockdown in human cells rescued the replication defect of the M029-knockout viruses. Unexpectedly, this rescue of M029-minus virus replication by PKR depletion could then be reversed by RHA/DHX9 knockdown in human monocytic THP1 cells. This indicates that M029 not only inhibits generic PKR anti-viral pathways, but also binds and conscripts RHA/DHX9 as a pro-viral effector to promote virus replication in THP1 cells. Thus, M029 is a critical host range and virulence factor for MYXV that is required for replication in all mammalian cells by antagonizing PKR-mediated anti-viral functions, and also conscripts pro-viral RHA/DHX9 to promote viral replication specifically in myeloid

  11. Viral RNA patterns and high viral load reliably define oropharynx carcinomas with active HPV16 involvement.

    PubMed

    Holzinger, Dana; Schmitt, Markus; Dyckhoff, Gerhard; Benner, Axel; Pawlita, Michael; Bosch, Franz X

    2012-10-01

    Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) that are associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection carry a more favorable prognosis than those that are HPV-negative. However, it remains unclear which biomarker(s) can reliably determine which OPSCC specimens are truly driven by HPV infection. In this study, we analyzed 199 fresh-frozen OPSCC specimens for HPV DNA, viral load, RNA expression patterns typical for cervical carcinomas (CxCaRNA(+)), and the HPV-targeted tumor suppressor protein p16(INK4a) as markers for HPV infection. In this set of specimens, there was a 49% prevalence of DNA for the cancer-associated HPV type 16 (HPV(+)). However, there was only a 16% prevalence of high viral load and only a 20% prevalence of CxCaRNA(+), a marker of HPV16 carcinogenic activity. Among the CxCaRNA(+) tumors, 78% of the specimens exhibited overexpression of p16(INK4a), which also occurred in 14% of the HPV-negative tumors. Using a multivariate survival analysis with HPV negativity as the reference group, CxCaRNA(+) as a single marker conferred the lowest risk of death [HR = 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.13-0.61] from oropharyngeal cancer, closely followed by high viral load (HR = 0.32, 95% CI, 0.14-0.73). In contrast, a weaker inverse association was found for OPSCC that were HPV(+) and p16(INK4a) high (HR = 0.55, 95% CI, 0.29-1.08). In summary, our findings argued that viral load or RNA pattern analysis is better suited than p16(INK4a) expression to identify HPV16-driven tumors in OPSCC patient populations. PMID:22991302

  12. Two single amino acid substitutions in the intervening region of Newcastle disease virus HN protein attenuate viral replication and pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Ji, Yanhong; Lin, Zhongqing; Fu, Yuguang; Muhammad Dafallah, Rihab; Zhu, Qiyun

    2015-01-01

    Among the proteins encoded by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the attachment protein (HN) is an important determinant of virulence and pathogenicity. HN has been molecularly characterized at the protein level; however, the relationship between the molecular character of HN and the animal pathotype it causes has not been well explored. Here, we revisited the intervening region (IR) of the HN stalk and extended the known biological functions of HN. Three distinct substitutions (A89Q, P93A, and L94A) in the IR of genotype VII NDV (G7 strain) HN protein were analyzed. The A89Q and L94A mutations weakened the fusion promotion activity of HN to 44% and 41% of that of wild type, respectively, whereas P93A decreased the neuraminidase activity to 21% of the parental level. At the virus level, P93A and L94A-bearing viruses displayed impaired receptor recognition ability, neuraminidase activity, and fusion-promoting activity, all of which led to virus attenuation. In addition, the L94A-mutated virus showed a dramatic decline in replication and was attenuated in cells and in chickens. Our data demonstrate that the HN biological activities and functions modulated by these specific amino acids in the IR are associated with NDV replication and pathogenicity. PMID:26267791

  13. Early viral replication and induced or constitutive immunity in rainbow trout families with differential resistance to Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, M.K.; LaPatra, S.E.; Woodson, J.C.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess correlates of innate resistance in rainbow trout full-sibling families that differ in susceptibility to Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). As part of a commercial breeding program, full-sibling families were challenged with IHNV by waterborne exposure at the 1 g size to determine susceptibility to IHNV. Progeny from select families (N = 7 families) that varied in susceptibility (ranging from 32 to 90% cumulative percent mortality (CPM)) were challenged again at the 10 g size by intra-peritoneal injection and overall mortality, early viral replication and immune responses were evaluated. Mortality challenges included 20–40 fish per family while viral replication and immune response studies included 6 fish per family at each time point (24, 48 and 72 h post-infection (hpi)). CPM at the 1 g size was significantly correlated with CPM at the 10 g size, indicating that inherent resistance was a stable trait irrespective of size. In the larger fish, viral load was measured by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR in the anterior kidney and was a significant predictor of family disease outcome at 48 hpi. Type I interferon (IFN) transcript levels were significantly correlated with an individual's viral load at 48 and 72 hpi, while type II IFN gene expression was significantly correlated with an individual's viral load at 24 and 48 hpi. Mean family type I but not type II IFN gene expression was weakly associated with susceptibility at 72 hpi. There was no association between mean family susceptibility and the constitutive expression of a range of innate immune genes (e.g. type I and II IFN pathway genes, cytokine and viral recognition receptor genes). The majority of survivors from the challenge had detectable serum neutralizing antibody titers but no trend was observed among families. This result suggests that even the most resistant families experienced sufficient levels of viral replication to trigger specific

  14. HCV Infection Induces Autocrine Interferon Signaling by Human Liver Endothelial Cell and Release of Exosomes, Which Inhibits Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Giugliano, Silvia; Kriss, Michael; Golden-Mason, Lucy; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Stone, Amy E.L.; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Mitchell, Angela; Khetani, Salman R.; Yamane, Daisuke; Stoddard, Mark; Li, Hui; Shaw, George M.; Edwards, Michael G.; Lemon, Stanley M.; Gale, Michael; Shah, Vijay H.; Rosen, Hugo R.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) make up a large proportion of the non-parenchymal cells in the liver. LSECs are involved in induction of immune tolerance, but little is known about their functions during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Methods Primary human LSECs (HLSECs) and immortalized liver endothelial cells (TMNK-1) were exposed to various forms of HCV, including full-length transmitted/founder virus, sucrose-purified Japanese Fulminant Hepatitis-1 (JFH-1), a virus encoding a luciferase reporter, and the HCV-specific pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules. Cells were analyzed by confocal immunofluorescence, immunohistochemical, and PCR assays. Results HLSECs internalized HCV, independent of cell–cell contacts; HCV RNA was translated but not replicated. Through pattern recognition receptors (TLR7 and retinoic acid inducible gene 1), HCV RNA induced consistent and broad transcription of multiple interferons (IFNs); supernatants from primary HLSECs transfected with HCV-specific pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules increased induction of IFNs and IFN-stimulated genes in HLSECs. Recombinant type I and type III IFNs strongly up-regulated HLSEC transcription of interferon λ 3 (IFNL3) and viperin (RSAD2), which inhibit replication of HCV. Compared to CD8+ T cells, HLSECs suppressed HCV replication within Huh7.5.1 cells, also inducing IFN-stimulated genes in co-culture. Conditioned media from IFN-stimulated HLSECs induced expression of antiviral genes by uninfected primary human hepatocytes. Exosomes, derived from HLSECs following stimulation with either type I or type III IFNs, controlled HCV replication in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions Cultured HLSECs produce factors that mediate immunity against HCV. HLSECs induce self-amplifying IFN-mediated responses and release of exosomes with antiviral activity. PMID:25447848

  15. Inhibition of host protein synthesis by Sindbis virus: correlation with viral RNA replication and release of nuclear proteins to the cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Miguel A; García-Moreno, Manuel; Carrasco, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Infection of mammalian cells by Sindbis virus (SINV) profoundly blocks cellular mRNA translation. Experimental evidence points to viral non-structural proteins (nsPs), in particular nsP2, as the mediator of this inhibition. However, individual expression of nsP1, nsP2, nsP3 or nsP1-4 does not block cellular protein synthesis in BHK cells. Trans-complementation of a defective SINV replicon lacking most of the coding region for nsPs by the co-expression of nsP1-4 propitiates viral RNA replication at low levels, and inhibition of cellular translation is not observed. Exit of nuclear proteins including T-cell intracellular antigen and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein is clearly detected in SINV-infected cells, but not upon the expression of nsPs, even when the defective replicon was complemented. Analysis of a SINV variant with a point mutation in nsP2, exhibiting defects in the shut-off of host protein synthesis, indicates that both viral RNA replication and the release of nuclear proteins to the cytoplasm are greatly inhibited. Furthermore, nucleoside analogues that inhibit cellular and viral RNA synthesis impede the blockade of host mRNA translation, in addition to the release of nuclear proteins. Prevention of the shut-off of host mRNA translation by nucleoside analogues is not due to the inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation, as this prevention is also observed in PKR(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts that do not phosphorylate eIF2α after SINV infection. Collectively, our observations are consistent with the concept that for the inhibition of cellular protein synthesis to occur, viral RNA replication must take place at control levels, leading to the release of nuclear proteins to the cytoplasm. PMID:25329362

  16. Discordant Impact of HLA on Viral Replicative Capacity and Disease Progression in Pediatric and Adult HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Adland, Emily; Paioni, Paolo; Thobakgale, Christina; Laker, Leana; Mori, Luisa; Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Csala, Anna; Clapson, Margaret; Flynn, Jacquie; Novelli, Vas; Hurst, Jacob; Naidoo, Vanessa; Shapiro, Roger; Huang, Kuan-Hsiang Gary; Frater, John; Prendergast, Andrew; Prado, Julia G.; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Walker, Bruce D.; Carrington, Mary; Jooste, Pieter; Goulder, Philip J. R.

    2015-01-01

    HLA class I polymorphism has a major influence on adult HIV disease progression. An important mechanism mediating this effect is the impact on viral replicative capacity (VRC) of the escape mutations selected in response to HLA-restricted CD8+ T-cell responses. Factors that contribute to slow progression in pediatric HIV infection are less well understood. We here investigate the relationship between VRC and disease progression in pediatric infection, and the effect of HLA on VRC and on disease outcome in adult and pediatric infection. Studying a South African cohort of >350 ART-naïve, HIV-infected children and their mothers, we first observed that pediatric disease progression is significantly correlated with VRC. As expected, VRCs in mother-child pairs were strongly correlated (p = 0.004). The impact of the protective HLA alleles, HLA-B*57, HLA-B*58:01 and HLA-B*81:01, resulted in significantly lower VRCs in adults (p<0.0001), but not in children. Similarly, in adults, but not in children, VRCs were significantly higher in subjects expressing the disease-susceptible alleles HLA-B*18:01/45:01/58:02 (p = 0.007). Irrespective of the subject, VRCs were strongly correlated with the number of Gag CD8+ T-cell escape mutants driven by HLA-B*57/58:01/81:01 present in each virus (p = 0.0002). In contrast to the impact of VRC common to progression in adults and children, the HLA effects on disease outcome, that are substantial in adults, are small and statistically insignificant in infected children. These data further highlight the important role that VRC plays both in adult and pediatric progression, and demonstrate that HLA-independent factors, yet to be fully defined, are predominantly responsible for pediatric non-progression. PMID:26076345

  17. Discordant Impact of HLA on Viral Replicative Capacity and Disease Progression in Pediatric and Adult HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Adland, Emily; Paioni, Paolo; Thobakgale, Christina; Laker, Leana; Mori, Luisa; Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Csala, Anna; Clapson, Margaret; Flynn, Jacquie; Novelli, Vas; Hurst, Jacob; Naidoo, Vanessa; Shapiro, Roger; Huang, Kuan-Hsiang Gary; Frater, John; Prendergast, Andrew; Prado, Julia G; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Walker, Bruce D; Carrington, Mary; Jooste, Pieter; Goulder, Philip J R

    2015-06-01

    HLA class I polymorphism has a major influence on adult HIV disease progression. An important mechanism mediating this effect is the impact on viral replicative capacity (VRC) of the escape mutations selected in response to HLA-restricted CD8+ T-cell responses. Factors that contribute to slow progression in pediatric HIV infection are less well understood. We here investigate the relationship between VRC and disease progression in pediatric infection, and the effect of HLA on VRC and on disease outcome in adult and pediatric infection. Studying a South African cohort of >350 ART-naïve, HIV-infected children and their mothers, we first observed that pediatric disease progression is significantly correlated with VRC. As expected, VRCs in mother-child pairs were strongly correlated (p = 0.004). The impact of the protective HLA alleles, HLA-B*57, HLA-B*58:01 and HLA-B*81:01, resulted in significantly lower VRCs in adults (p<0.0001), but not in children. Similarly, in adults, but not in children, VRCs were significantly higher in subjects expressing the disease-susceptible alleles HLA-B*18:01/45:01/58:02 (p = 0.007). Irrespective of the subject, VRCs were strongly correlated with the number of Gag CD8+ T-cell escape mutants driven by HLA-B*57/58:01/81:01 present in each virus (p = 0.0002). In contrast to the impact of VRC common to progression in adults and children, the HLA effects on disease outcome, that are substantial in adults, are small and statistically insignificant in infected children. These data further highlight the important role that VRC plays both in adult and pediatric progression, and demonstrate that HLA-independent factors, yet to be fully defined, are predominantly responsible for pediatric non-progression. PMID:26076345

  18. The capsid protein of beak and feather disease virus binds to the viral DNA and is responsible for transporting the replication-associated protein into the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Heath, Livio; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Rybicki, Edward P

    2006-07-01

    Circoviruses lack an autonomous DNA polymerase and are dependent on the replication machinery of the host cell for de novo DNA synthesis. Accordingly, the viral DNA needs to cross both the plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope before replication can occur. Here we report on the subcellular distribution of the beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) capsid protein (CP) and replication-associated protein (Rep) expressed via recombinant baculoviruses in an insect cell system and test the hypothesis that the CP is responsible for transporting the viral genome, as well as Rep, across the nuclear envelope. The intracellular localization of the BFDV CP was found to be directed by three partially overlapping bipartite nuclear localization signals (NLSs) situated between residues 16 and 56 at the N terminus of the protein. Moreover, a DNA binding region was also mapped to the N terminus of the protein and falls within the region containing the three putative NLSs. The ability of CP to bind DNA, coupled with the karyophilic nature of this protein, strongly suggests that it may be responsible for nuclear targeting of the viral genome. Interestingly, whereas Rep expressed on its own in insect cells is restricted to the cytoplasm, coexpression with CP alters the subcellular localization of Rep to the nucleus, strongly suggesting that an interaction with CP facilitates movement of Rep into the nucleus. PMID:16809327

  19. The Capsid Protein of Beak and Feather Disease Virus Binds to the Viral DNA and Is Responsible for Transporting the Replication-Associated Protein into the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Livio; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Rybicki, Edward P.

    2006-01-01

    Circoviruses lack an autonomous DNA polymerase and are dependent on the replication machinery of the host cell for de novo DNA synthesis. Accordingly, the viral DNA needs to cross both the plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope before replication can occur. Here we report on the subcellular distribution of the beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) capsid protein (CP) and replication-associated protein (Rep) expressed via recombinant baculoviruses in an insect cell system and test the hypothesis that the CP is responsible for transporting the viral genome, as well as Rep, across the nuclear envelope. The intracellular localization of the BFDV CP was found to be directed by three partially overlapping bipartite nuclear localization signals (NLSs) situated between residues 16 and 56 at the N terminus of the protein. Moreover, a DNA binding region was also mapped to the N terminus of the protein and falls within the region containing the three putative NLSs. The ability of CP to bind DNA, coupled with the karyophilic nature of this protein, strongly suggests that it may be responsible for nuclear targeting of the viral genome. Interestingly, whereas Rep expressed on its own in insect cells is restricted to the cytoplasm, coexpression with CP alters the subcellular localization of Rep to the nucleus, strongly suggesting that an interaction with CP facilitates movement of Rep into the nucleus. PMID:16809327

  20. Mutations Designed by Ensemble Defect to Misfold Conserved RNA Structures of Influenza A Segments 7 and 8 Affect Splicing and Attenuate Viral Replication in Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tian; Nogales, Aitor; Baker, Steven F; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Turner, Douglas H

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus is a significant public health threat, but little is understood about the viral RNA structure and function. Current vaccines and therapeutic options to control influenza A virus infections are mostly protein-centric and of limited effectiveness. Here, we report using an ensemble defect approach to design mutations to misfold regions of conserved mRNA structures in influenza A virus segments 7 and 8. Influenza A mutant viruses inhibit pre-mRNA splicing and attenuate viral replication in cell culture, thus providing evidence for functions of the targeted regions. Targeting these influenza A viral RNA regions provides new possibilities for designing vaccines and therapeutics against this important human respiratory pathogen. The results also demonstrate that the ensemble defect approach is an efficient way to test for function of RNA sequences. PMID:27272307

  1. Mutations Designed by Ensemble Defect to Misfold Conserved RNA Structures of Influenza A Segments 7 and 8 Affect Splicing and Attenuate Viral Replication in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Tian; Nogales, Aitor; Baker, Steven F; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Turner, Douglas H

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus is a significant public health threat, but little is understood about the viral RNA structure and function. Current vaccines and therapeutic options to control influenza A virus infections are mostly protein-centric and of limited effectiveness. Here, we report using an ensemble defect approach to design mutations to misfold regions of conserved mRNA structures in influenza A virus segments 7 and 8. Influenza A mutant viruses inhibit pre-mRNA splicing and attenuate viral replication in cell culture, thus providing evidence for functions of the targeted regions. Targeting these influenza A viral RNA regions provides new possibilities for designing vaccines and therapeutics against this important human respiratory pathogen. The results also demonstrate that the ensemble defect approach is an efficient way to test for function of RNA sequences. PMID:27272307

  2. Initiation of polyoma virus DNA replication in vitro and its dependence on the viral gene A protein.

    PubMed Central

    Clertant, P; Cuzin, F

    1980-01-01

    Initiation of polyoma virus DNA replication is dependent on the activity of the early protein affected by the tsa mutations (large-T antigen). An in vitro DNA synthesizing system blocked at the initiation stage was designed by preparing nuclei from cells shifted to high temperature after infection with a polyoma tsa mutant. Addition to these nuclei of extracts from wild type virus-infected cells resulted in a limited, but reproducible stimulation of deoxynucleoside monophosphate incorporation. At least for a significant part, this stimulation was shown to correspond to an increased synthesis of molecules identified as polyoma replicative intermediates by their sedimentation coefficient and endonuclease Hpa II cleavage pattern. The non-random distribution of label observed among restriction fragments was that expected from an initiation event occuring at the physiological origin. This activity was reduced to background level in extracts from tsa-infected cells shifted to high temperature and was specifically inhibited by addition of Fab fragments from anti-polyoma virus T antigen immunoglobulins. Images PMID:6253915

  3. Low-Replicating Viruses and Strong Anti-Viral Immune Response Associated with Prolonged Disease Control in a Superinfected HIV-1 LTNP Elite Controller

    PubMed Central

    Pernas, María; Casado, Concepción; Arcones, Carolina; Llano, Anuska; Sánchez-Merino, Víctor; Mothe, Beatriz; Vicario, José L.; Grau, Eulalia; Ruiz, Lidia; Sánchez, Jorge; Telenti, Amalio; Yuste, Eloísa; Brander, Christian; Galíndez, Cecilio López-

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the causes for the lack of clinical progression in a superinfected HIV-1 LTNP elite controller patient. Methodology and Principal Findings We studied host genetic, virological and immunological factors associated with viral control in a SI long term non progressor elite controller (LTNP-EC). The individual contained both viruses and maintained undetectable viral loads for >20 years and he did not express any of the described host genetic polymorphisms associated with viral control. None of four full-length gp160 recombinants derived from the LTNP-EC replicated in heterologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells. CTL responses after SI were maintained in two samples separated by 9 years and they were higher in breadth and magnitude than responses seen in most of 250 treatment naïve patients and also 25 controller subjects. The LTNP-EC showed a neutralization response, against 4 of the 6 viruses analyzed, superior to other ECs. Conclusions The study demonstrated that a strong and sustained cellular and humoral immune response and low replicating viruses are associated with viral control in the superinfected LTNP-EC. PMID:22384103

  4. Broadening of Virus-Specific CD8+ T-Cell Responses Is Indicative of Residual Viral Replication in Aviremic SIV Controllers

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Takushi; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Hiroshi; Akari, Hirofumi; Naruse, Taeko K.; Kimura, Akinori; Matano, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Control of HIV replication is a rare immunological event, providing clues to understand the viral control mechanism. CD8+ T-cell responses are crucial for virus control, but it is unclear whether lasting HIV containment can be achieved after establishment of infection. Here, we describe lasting SIV containment in a macaque AIDS model. Analysis of ten rhesus macaques that controlled viremia for 2 years post-infection found accumulation of proviral gag and nef CD8+ T-cell escape mutations in four of them. These four controllers mounted CD8+ T cells targeting Gag, Nef, and other viral proteins at 4 months, suggesting that broadening of CD8+ T-cell targets can be an indicator of the beginning of viral control failure. The remaining six aviremic SIV controllers, however, harbored proviruses without mutations and showed no or little broadening of their CD8+ T-cell responses in the chronic phase. Indeed, three of the latter six exhibiting no change in CD8+ T-cell targets showed gradual decreases in SIV-specific CD8+ T-cell frequencies, implying a concomitant reduction in viral replication. Thus, stability of the breadth of virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses may represent a status of lasting HIV containment by CD8+ T cells. PMID:26536034

  5. A novel coding-region RNA element modulates infectious dengue virus particle production in both mammalian and mosquito cells and regulates viral replication in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Groat-Carmona, Anna Maria; Orozco, Susana; Friebe, Peter; Payne, Anne; Kramer, Laura; Harris, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an enveloped flavivirus with a positive-sense RNA genome transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, causing the most important arthropod-borne viral disease affecting humans. Relatively few cis-acting RNA regulatory elements have been described in the DENV coding-region. Here, by introducing silent mutations into a DENV-2 infectious clone, we identify the conserved capsid-coding region 1 (CCR1), an RNA sequence element that regulates viral replication in mammalian cells and to a greater extent in Ae. albopictus mosquito cells. These defects were confirmed in vivo, resulting in decreased replication in Ae. aegypti mosquito bodies and dissemination to the salivary glands. Furthermore, CCR1 does not regulate translation, RNA synthesis or virion retention but likely modulates assembly, as mutations resulted in the release of non-infectious viral particles from both cell types. Understanding the role of CCR1 could help characterize the poorly-defined stage of assembly in the DENV life cycle and uncover novel anti-viral targets. PMID:22840606

  6. Apigenin Restricts FMDV Infection and Inhibits Viral IRES Driven Translational Activity

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Suhong; Fan, Wenchun; Qian, Ping; Zhang, Dong; Wei, Yurong; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Xiangmin

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants that is caused by FMD virus (FMDV). FMD outbreaks have occurred in livestock-containing regions worldwide. Apigenin, which is a flavonoid naturally existing in plant, possesses various pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant and antiviral activities. Results show that apigenin can inhibit FMDV-mediated cytopathogenic effect and FMDV replication in vitro. Further studies demonstrate the following: (i) apigenin inhibits FMDV infection at the viral post-entry stage; (ii) apigenin does not exhibit direct extracellular virucidal activity; and (iii) apigenin interferes with the translational activity of FMDV driven by internal ribosome entry site. Studies on applying apigein in vivo are required for drug development and further identification of potential drug targets against FDMV infection. PMID:25835532

  7. Potent Intracellular Knock-Down of Influenza A Virus M2 Gene Transcript by DNAzymes Considerably Reduces Viral Replication in Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Binod; Rajput, Roopali; Pati, Dibya Ranjan; Khanna, Madhu

    2015-09-01

    Influenza A virus has been known to be an important respiratory pathogen and cause of several epidemics and devastating pandemics leading to loss of life and resources across the globe. The M2 ion channel protein is highly conserved and essentially required during the trafficking, assembly, and budding processes of virus, thus an attractive target for designing antiviral drugs. We designed several 10-23 DNAzymes (Dz) targeting different regions of the M2 gene and analyzed their ability to specifically cleave the target RNA in both cell-free system as well as in cell culture using transient transfections. Dz114, among several others, directed against the predicted single-stranded bulge regions showed 70% inhibition of M2 gene expression validated by PCR and Western blot analysis. The activity was dependent on Mg(2+) (10-50 mM) in a dose-dependent manner. The mutant-Dz against M2 gene showed no down-regulation thereby illustrating high level of specificity of designed Dz114 towards the target RNA. Our findings suggest that Dz may be used as potential inhibitor of viral RNA replication and can be explored further for development of an effective therapeutic agent against influenza infection. These catalytic nucleic acid molecules may further be investigated as an alternative to the traditional influenza vaccines that require annual formulation. PMID:26021603

  8. HSV-1-induced activation of NF-κB protects U937 monocytic cells against both virus replication and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Marino-Merlo, Francesca; Papaianni, Emanuela; Medici, Maria Antonietta; Macchi, Beatrice; Grelli, Sandro; Mosca, Claudia; Borner, Christoph; Mastino, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is a crucial player of the antiviral innate response. Intriguingly, however, NF-κB activation is assumed to favour herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection rather than restrict it. Apoptosis, a form of innate response to viruses, is completely inhibited by HSV in fully permissive cells, but not in cells incapable to fully sustain HSV replication, such as immunocompetent cells. To resolve the intricate interplay among NF-κB signalling, apoptosis and permissiveness to HSV-1 in monocytic cells, we utilized U937 monocytic cells in which NF-κB activation was inhibited by expressing a dominant-negative IκBα. Surprisingly, viral production was increased in monocytic cells in which NF-κB was inhibited. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB led to increased apoptosis following HSV-1 infection, associated with lysosomal membrane permeabilization. High expression of late viral proteins and induction of apoptosis occurred in distinct cells. Transcriptional analysis of known innate response genes by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR excluded a contribution of the assayed genes to the observed phenomena. Thus, in monocytic cells NF-κB activation simultaneously serves as an innate process to restrict viral replication as well as a mechanism to limit the damage of an excessive apoptotic response to HSV-1 infection. This finding may clarify mechanisms controlling HSV-1 infection in monocytic cells. PMID:27584793

  9. [KIL-d] Protein Element Confers Antiviral Activity via Catastrophic Viral Mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Genjiro; Weissman, Jonathan S; Tanaka, Motomasa

    2015-11-19

    Eukaryotic cells are targeted by pathogenic viruses and have developed cell defense mechanisms against viral infection. In yeast, the cellular extrachromosomal genetic element [KIL-d] alters killer activity of M double-stranded RNA killer virus and confers cell resistance against the killer virus. However, its underlying mechanism and the molecular nature of [KIL-d] are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that [KIL-d] is a proteinaceous prion-like aggregate with non-Mendelian cytoplasmic transmission. Deep sequencing analyses revealed that [KIL-d] selectively increases the rate of de novo mutation in the killer toxin gene of the viral genome, producing yeast harboring a defective mutant killer virus with a selective growth advantage over those with WT killer virus. These results suggest that a prion-like [KIL-d] element reprograms the viral replication machinery to induce mutagenesis and genomic inactivation via the long-hypothesized mechanism of "error catastrophe." The findings also support a role for prion-like protein aggregates in cellular defense and adaptation. PMID:26590718

  10. Specific induction of endogenous viral restriction factors using CRISPR/Cas-derived transcriptional activators

    PubMed Central

    Bogerd, Hal P.; Kornepati, Anand V. R.; Marshall, Joy B.; Kennedy, Edward M.; Cullen, Bryan R.

    2015-01-01

    Whereas several mammalian proteins can restrict the replication of HIV-1 and other viruses, these are often not expressed in relevant target cells. A potential method to inhibit viral replication might therefore be to use synthetic transcription factors to induce restriction factor expression. In particular, mutants of the RNA-guided DNA binding protein Cas9 that have lost their DNA cleavage activity could be used to recruit transcription activation domains to specific promoters. However, initial experiments revealed only weak activation unless multiple promoter-specific single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) were used. Recently, the recruitment of multiple transcription activation domains by a single sgRNA, modified to contain MS2-derived stem loops that recruit fusion proteins consisting of the MS2 coat protein linked to transcription activation domains, was reported to induce otherwise silent cellular genes. Here, we demonstrate that such “synergistic activation mediators” can induce the expression of two restriction factors, APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3B (A3B), in human cells that normally lack these proteins. We observed modest activation of endogenous A3G or A3B expression using single sgRNAs but high expression when two sgRNAs were used. Whereas the induced A3G and A3B proteins both blocked infection by an HIV-1 variant lacking a functional vif gene by inducing extensive dC-to-dU editing, only the induced A3B protein inhibited wild-type HIV-1. These data demonstrate that Cas9-derived transcriptional activators have the potential to be used for screens for endogenous genes that affect virus replication and raise the possibility that synthetic transcription factors might prove clinically useful if efficient delivery mechanisms could be developed. PMID:26668372

  11. Specific induction of endogenous viral restriction factors using CRISPR/Cas-derived transcriptional activators.

    PubMed

    Bogerd, Hal P; Kornepati, Anand V R; Marshall, Joy B; Kennedy, Edward M; Cullen, Bryan R

    2015-12-29

    Whereas several mammalian proteins can restrict the replication of HIV-1 and other viruses, these are often not expressed in relevant target cells. A potential method to inhibit viral replication might therefore be to use synthetic transcription factors to induce restriction factor expression. In particular, mutants of the RNA-guided DNA binding protein Cas9 that have lost their DNA cleavage activity could be used to recruit transcription activation domains to specific promoters. However, initial experiments revealed only weak activation unless multiple promoter-specific single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) were used. Recently, the recruitment of multiple transcription activation domains by a single sgRNA, modified to contain MS2-derived stem loops that recruit fusion proteins consisting of the MS2 coat protein linked to transcription activation domains, was reported to induce otherwise silent cellular genes. Here, we demonstrate that such "synergistic activation mediators" can induce the expression of two restriction factors, APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3B (A3B), in human cells that normally lack these proteins. We observed modest activation of endogenous A3G or A3B expression using single sgRNAs but high expression when two sgRNAs were used. Whereas the induced A3G and A3B proteins both blocked infection by an HIV-1 variant lacking a functional vif gene by inducing extensive dC-to-dU editing, only the induced A3B protein inhibited wild-type HIV-1. These data demonstrate that Cas9-derived transcriptional activators have the potential to be used for screens for endogenous genes that affect virus replication and raise the possibility that synthetic transcription factors might prove clinically useful if efficient delivery mechanisms could be developed. PMID:26668372

  12. Host Acyl Coenzyme A Binding Protein Regulates Replication Complex Assembly and Activity of a Positive-Strand RNA Virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiantao; Diaz, Arturo; Mao, Lan; Ahlquist, Paul

    2012-01-01

    All positive-strand RNA viruses reorganize host intracellular membranes to assemble their replication complexes. Similarly, brome mosaic virus (BMV) induces two alternate forms of membrane-bound RNA replication complexes: vesicular spherules and stacks of appressed double-membrane layers. The mechanisms by which these membrane rearrangements are induced, however, remain unclear. We report here that host ACB1-encoded acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) binding protein (ACBP) is required for the assembly and activity of both BMV RNA replication complexes. ACBP is highly conserved among eukaryotes, specifically binds to long-chain fatty acyl-CoA, and promotes general lipid synthesis. Deleting ACB1 inhibited BMV RNA replication up to 30-fold and resulted in formation of spherules that were ∼50% smaller but ∼4-fold more abundant than those in wild-type (wt) cells, consistent with the idea that BMV 1a invaginates and maintains viral spherules by coating the inner spherule membrane. Furthermore, smaller and more frequent spherules were preferentially formed under conditions that induce layer formation in wt cells. Conversely, cellular karmella structures, which are arrays of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes formed upon overexpression of certain cellular ER membrane proteins, were formed normally, indicating a selective inhibition of 1a-induced membrane rearrangements. Restoring altered lipid composition largely complemented the BMV RNA replication defect, suggesting that ACBP was required for maintaining lipid homeostasis. Smaller and more frequent spherules are also induced by 1a mutants with specific substitutions in a membrane-anchoring amphipathic α-helix, implying that the 1a-lipid interactions play critical roles in viral replication complex assembly. PMID:22345450

  13. AAV-mediated delivery of zinc finger nucleases targeting hepatitis B virus inhibits active replication.

    PubMed

    Weber, Nicholas D; Stone, Daniel; Sedlak, Ruth Hall; De Silva Feelixge, Harshana S; Roychoudhury, Pavitra; Schiffer, Joshua T; Aubert, Martine; Jerome, Keith R

    2014-01-01

    Despite an existing effective vaccine, hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a major public health concern. There are effective suppressive therapies for HBV, but they remain expensive and inaccessible to many, and not all patients respond well. Furthermore, HBV can persist as genomic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) that remains in hepatocytes even during otherwise effective therapy and facilitates rebound in patients after treatment has stopped. Therefore, the need for an effective treatment that targets active and persistent HBV infections remains. As a novel approach to treat HBV, we have targeted the HBV genome for disruption to prevent viral reactivation and replication. We generated 3 zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) that target sequences within the HBV polymerase, core and X genes. Upon the formation of ZFN-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSB), imprecise repair by non-homologous end joining leads to mutations that inactivate HBV genes. We delivered HBV-specific ZFNs using self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV) vectors and tested their anti-HBV activity in HepAD38 cells. HBV-ZFNs efficiently disrupted HBV target sites by inducing site-specific mutations. Cytotoxicity was seen with one of the ZFNs. scAAV-mediated delivery of a ZFN targeting HBV polymerase resulted in complete inhibition of HBV DNA replication and production of infectious HBV virions in HepAD38 cells. This effect was sustained for at least 2 weeks following only a single treatment. Furthermore, high specificity was observed for all ZFNs, as negligible off-target cleavage was seen via high-throughput sequencing of 7 closely matched potential off-target sites. These results show that HBV-targeted ZFNs can efficiently inhibit active HBV replication and suppress the cellular template for HBV persistence, making them promising candidates for eradication therapy. PMID:24827459

  14. AAV-Mediated Delivery of Zinc Finger Nucleases Targeting Hepatitis B Virus Inhibits Active Replication

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Nicholas D.; Stone, Daniel; Sedlak, Ruth Hall; De Silva Feelixge, Harshana S.; Roychoudhury, Pavitra; Schiffer, Joshua T.; Aubert, Martine; Jerome, Keith R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite an existing effective vaccine, hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a major public health concern. There are effective suppressive therapies for HBV, but they remain expensive and inaccessible to many, and not all patients respond well. Furthermore, HBV can persist as genomic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) that remains in hepatocytes even during otherwise effective therapy and facilitates rebound in patients after treatment has stopped. Therefore, the need for an effective treatment that targets active and persistent HBV infections remains. As a novel approach to treat HBV, we have targeted the HBV genome for disruption to prevent viral reactivation and replication. We generated 3 zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) that target sequences within the HBV polymerase, core and X genes. Upon the formation of ZFN-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSB), imprecise repair by non-homologous end joining leads to mutations that inactivate HBV genes. We delivered HBV-specific ZFNs using self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV) vectors and tested their anti-HBV activity in HepAD38 cells. HBV-ZFNs efficiently disrupted HBV target sites by inducing site-specific mutations. Cytotoxicity was seen with one of the ZFNs. scAAV-mediated delivery of a ZFN targeting HBV polymerase resulted in complete inhibition of HBV DNA replication and production of infectious HBV virions in HepAD38 cells. This effect was sustained for at least 2 weeks following only a single treatment. Furthermore, high specificity was observed for all ZFNs, as negligible off-target cleavage was seen via high-throughput sequencing of 7 closely matched potential off-target sites. These results show that HBV-targeted ZFNs can efficiently inhibit active HBV replication and suppress the cellular template for HBV persistence, making them promising candidates for eradication therapy. PMID:24827459

  15. Viral diseases and pathogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It includes classification of viral infection. It describes common ways of virus entry, replication, and transmission. It introduces the routes of viral invasion and molecular basis for viral pathogenesis....

  16. The Consequences of Replicating in the Wrong Orientation: Bacterial Chromosome Duplication without an Active Replication Origin

    PubMed Central

    Dimude, Juachi U.; Stockum, Anna; Midgley-Smith, Sarah L.; Upton, Amy L.; Foster, Helen A.; Khan, Arshad; Saunders, Nigel J.; Retkute, Renata

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chromosome replication is regulated in all organisms at the assembly stage of the replication machinery at specific origins. In Escherichia coli, the DnaA initiator protein regulates the assembly of replication forks at oriC. This regulation can be undermined by defects in nucleic acid metabolism. In cells lacking RNase HI, replication initiates independently of DnaA and oriC, presumably at persisting R-loops. A similar mechanism was assumed for origin-independent synthesis in cells lacking RecG. However, recently we suggested that this synthesis initiates at intermediates resulting from replication fork fusions. Here we present data suggesting that in cells lacking RecG or RNase HI, origin-independent synthesis arises by different mechanisms, indicative of these two proteins having different roles in vivo. Our data support the idea that RNase HI processes R-loops, while RecG is required to process replication fork fusion intermediates. However, regardless of how origin-independent synthesis is initiated, a fraction of forks will proceed in an orientation opposite to normal. We show that the resulting head-on encounters with transcription threaten cell viability, especially if taking place in highly transcribed areas. Thus, despite their different functions, RecG and RNase HI are both important factors for maintaining replication control and orientation. Their absence causes severe replication problems, highlighting the advantages of the normal chromosome arrangement, which exploits a single origin to control the number of forks and their orientation relative to transcription, and a defined termination area to contain fork fusions. Any changes to this arrangement endanger cell cycle control, chromosome dynamics, and, ultimately, cell viability. PMID:26530381

  17. Novel antiviral activity of bromocriptine against dengue virus replication.

    PubMed

    Kato, Fumihiro; Ishida, Yuki; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka; Watanabe, Satoru; Vasudevan, Subhash G; Tajima, Shigeru; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Youichi; Ichiyama, Koji; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yoshii, Kentaro; Takashima, Ikuo; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Miura, Tomoyuki; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Hishiki, Takayuki

    2016-07-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infectious disease is a major public health problem worldwide; however, licensed vaccines or specific antiviral drugs against this infection are not available. To identify novel anti-DENV compounds, we screened 1280 pharmacologically active compounds using focus reduction assay. Bromocriptine (BRC) was found to have potent anti-DENV activity and low cytotoxicity (half maximal effective concentration [EC50], 0.8-1.6 μM; and half maximal cytotoxicity concentration [CC50], 53.6 μM). Time-of-drug-addition and time-of-drug-elimination assays suggested that BRC inhibits translation and/or replication steps in the DENV life cycle. A subgenomic replicon system was used to verify that BRC restricts RNA replication step. Furthermore, a single amino acid substitution (N374H) was detected in the NS3 protein that conferred resistance to BRC. In summary, BRC was found to be a novel DENV inhibitor and a potential candidate for the treatment of DENV infectious disease. PMID:27181378

  18. Loss of Smu1 function de-represses DNA replication and over-activates ATR-dependent replication checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Ren, Laifeng; Liu, Yao; Guo, Liandi; Wang, Haibin; Ma, Lei; Zeng, Ming; Shao, Xin; Yang, Chunlei; Tang, Yaxiong; Wang, Lei; Liu, Cong; Li, Mingyuan

    2013-06-28

    Smu1 is an evolutionarily conserved gene that encodes a member of the WD40-repeat protein family. Disruption of Smu1 function leads to multiple cellular defects including chromosomal instability, aberrant DNA replication and alternative RNA splicing events. In this paper, we show that Smu1 is a chromatin-bound protein that functions as a negative regulator of DNA replication. Knockdown of Smu1 gene expression promotes excessive incorporation of dNTP analogue, implicating the acceleration of DNA synthesis. Smu1-silenced cells show an excessive activation of replication checkpoint in response to ultraviolate (UV) or hydroxyurea treatment, indicating that abnormal stimulation of DNA replication leads to instability of genomic structure. Hence, we propose that Smu1 participates in the protection of genomic integrity by negatively regulating the process of DNA synthesis. PMID:23727573

  19. Modulation of HIV-1 Gag NC/p1 cleavage efficiency affects protease inhibitor resistance and viral replicative capacity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mutations in the substrate of HIV-1 protease, especially changes in the NC/p1 cleavage site, can directly contribute to protease inhibitor (PI) resistance and also compensate for defects in viral replicative capacity (RC) due to a drug resistant protease. These NC/p1 changes are known to enhance processing of the Gag protein. To investigate the capacity of HIV-1 to modulate Gag cleavage and its consequences for PI resistance and RC, we performed a detailed enzymatic and virological analysis using a set of PI resistant NC/p1 variants (HXB2431V, HXB2436E+437T, HXB2437T and HXB2437V). Results Here, we demonstrate that single NC/p1 mutants, which displayed only a slight increase in PI resistance did not show an obvious change in RC. In contrast, the double NC/p1 mutant, which displayed a clear increase in processing efficiency and PI resistance, demonstrated a clear reduction in RC. Cleavage analysis showed that a tridecameric NC/p1 peptide representing the double NC/p1 mutant was cleaved in two specific ways instead of one. The observed decrease in RC for the double NC/p1 mutant (HXB2436E+437T) could (partially) be restored by either reversion of the 436E change or by acquisition of additional changes in the NC/p1 cleavage site at codon 435 or 438 as was revealed during in vitro evolution experiments. These changes not only restored RC but also reduced PI resistance levels. Furthermore these changes normalized Gag processing efficiency and obstructed the novel secondary cleavage site observed for the double NC/p1 mutant. Conclusions The results of this study clearly demonstrate that HIV-1 can modulate Gag processing and thereby PI resistance. Distinct increases in Gag cleavage and PI resistance result in a reduced RC that can only be restored by amino acid changes in NC/p1 which reduce Gag processing to an optimal rate. PMID:22462820

  20. RNase L Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome During Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Arindam; Banerjee, Shuvojit; Franchi, Luigi; Loo, Yueh-Ming; Gale, Michael; Núñez, Gabriel; Silverman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The NLRP3 inflammasome assembles in response to danger signals, triggering self-cleavage of procaspase-1 and production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β. Although virus infection activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, the underlying events remain incompletely understood. We report that virus activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome involves the 2′,5′-oligoadenylate (2-5A) synthetase (OAS)/RNase L system, a component of the interferon-induced antiviral response that senses double stranded RNA and activates endoribonuclease RNase L to cleave viral and cellular RNAs. The absence of RNase L reduces IL-1β production in influenza A virus-infected mice. RNA cleavage products generated by RNase L enhance IL-1β production but require the presence of 2′,3′-cyclic phosphorylated termini characteristic of RNase L activity. Additionally, these cleavage products stimulate NLRP3 complex formation with the DExD/H-box helicase, DHX33, and mitochondrial adapter protein, MAVS, which are each required for effective NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Thus, RNA cleavage events catalyzed by RNase L are required for optimal inflammasome activation during viral infections. PMID:25816776

  1. The Viral Polymerase Inhibitor 7-Deaza-2’-C-Methyladenosine Is a Potent Inhibitor of In Vitro Zika Virus Replication and Delays Disease Progression in a Robust Mouse Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Zmurko, Joanna; Marques, Rafael E.; Schols, Dominique; Verbeken, Erik; Kaptein, Suzanne J.F.; Neyts, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus typically causing a dengue-like febrile illness, but neurological complications, such as microcephaly in newborns, have potentially been linked to this viral infection. We established a panel of in vitro assays to allow the identification of ZIKV inhibitors and demonstrate that the viral polymerase inhibitor 7-deaza-2’-C-methyladenosine (7DMA) efficiently inhibits replication. Infection of AG129 (IFN-α/β and IFN-γ receptor knock-out) mice with ZIKV resulted in acute neutrophilic encephalitis with viral antigens accumulating in neurons of the brain and spinal cord. Additionally, high levels of viral RNA were detected in the spleen, liver and kidney, and levels of IFN-γ and IL-18 were systematically increased in serum of ZIKV-infected mice. Interestingly, the virus was also detected in testicles of infected mice. In line with its in vitro anti-ZIKV activity, 7DMA reduced viremia and delayed virus-induced morbidity and mortality in infected mice, which also validates this small animal model to assess the in vivo efficacy of novel ZIKV inhibitors. Since AG129 mice can generate an antibody response, and have been used in dengue vaccine studies, the model can also be used to assess the efficacy of ZIKV vaccines.   PMID:27163257

  2. The Viral Polymerase Inhibitor 7-Deaza-2'-C-Methyladenosine Is a Potent Inhibitor of In Vitro Zika Virus Replication and Delays Disease Progression in a Robust Mouse Infection Model.

    PubMed

    Zmurko, Joanna; Marques, Rafael E; Schols, Dominique; Verbeken, Erik; Kaptein, Suzanne J F; Neyts, Johan

    2016-05-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus typically causing a dengue-like febrile illness, but neurological complications, such as microcephaly in newborns, have potentially been linked to this viral infection. We established a panel of in vitro assays to allow the identification of ZIKV inhibitors and demonstrate that the viral polymerase inhibitor 7-deaza-2'-C-methyladenosine (7DMA) efficiently inhibits replication. Infection of AG129 (IFN-α/β and IFN-γ receptor knock-out) mice with ZIKV resulted in acute neutrophilic encephalitis with viral antigens accumulating in neurons of the brain and spinal cord. Additionally, high levels of viral RNA were detected in the spleen, liver and kidney, and levels of IFN-γ and IL-18 were systematically increased in serum of ZIKV-infected mice. Interestingly, the virus was also detected in testicles of infected mice. In line with its in vitro anti-ZIKV activity, 7DMA reduced viremia and delayed virus-induced morbidity and mortality in infected mice, which also validates this small animal model to assess the in vivo efficacy of novel ZIKV inhibitors. Since AG129 mice can generate an antibody response, and have been used in dengue vaccine studies, the model can also be used to assess the efficacy of ZIKV vaccines.  . PMID:27163257

  3. Novel Inhibitors of Neurotropic Alphavirus Replication That Improve Host Survival in a Mouse Model of Acute Viral Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Sindac, Janice; Yestrepsky, Bryan D.; Barraza, Scott J.; Bolduc, Kyle L.; Blakely, Pennelope K.; Keep, Richard F.; Irani, David N.; Miller, David J.; Larsen, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    Arboviral encephalitis is a potentially devastating human disease with no approved therapies that target virus replication. We previously discovered a novel class of thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole-based inhibitors active against neurotropic alphaviruses such as western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) in cultured cells. In this report we describe initial development of these novel antiviral compounds, including bioisosteric replacement of the 4H-thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole core with indole to improve metabolic stability and the introduction of chirality to assess target enantioselectivity. Selected modifications enhanced antiviral activity while maintaining low cytotoxicity, increased stability to microsomal metabolism, and also revealed striking enantiospecific activity in cultured cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate improved outcomes (both symptoms and survival) following treatment with indole analog 9h (CCG-203926) in an in vivo mouse model of alphaviral encephalitis that closely correlate with the enantiospecific in vitro antiviral activity. These results represent a substantial advancement in the early preclinical development of a promising class of novel antiviral drugs against virulent neurotropic alphaviruses. PMID:22428985

  4. Activities of proteasome and m-calpain are essential for Chikungunya virus replication.

    PubMed

    Karpe, Yogesh A; Pingale, Kunal D; Kanade, Gayatri D

    2016-10-01

    Replication of many viruses is dependent on the ubiquitin proteasome system. The present study demonstrates that Chikungunya virus replication increases proteasome activity and induces unfolded protein response (UPR) in cultured cells. Further, it was seen that the virus replication was dependent on the activities of proteasomes and m-calpain. Proteasome inhibition induced accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins and earlier visualization of UPR. PMID:27206501

  5. Antiviral Activities of Different Interferon Types and Subtypes against Hepatitis E Virus Replication.

    PubMed

    Todt, Daniel; François, Catherine; Anggakusuma; Behrendt, Patrick; Engelmann, Michael; Knegendorf, Leonard; Vieyres, Gabrielle; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Hartmann, Rune; Pietschmann, Thomas; Duverlie, Gilles; Steinmann, Eike

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E in humans and a member of the genusOrthohepevirusin the familyHepeviridae HEV infections are the common cause of acute hepatitis but can also take chronic courses. Ribavirin is the treatment of choice for most patients, and type I interferon (IFN) has been evaluated in a few infected transplant patientsin vivo In this study, the antiviral effects of different exogenously administered interferons were investigated by using state-of-the-art subgenomic replicon and full-length HEV genome cell culture models. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) subgenomic replicons based on the genotype 2a JFH1 isolate served as the reference. The experiments revealed that HEV RNA replication was inhibited by the application of all types of IFN, including IFN-α (type I), IFN-γ (type II), and IFN-λ3 (type III), but to a far lesser extent than HCV replication. Simultaneous determination of interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression levels for all IFN types demonstrated efficient downregulation by HEV. Furthermore, different IFN-α subtypes were also able to block viral replication in combination with ribavirin. The IFN-α subtypes 2a and 2b exerted the strongest antiviral activity against HEV. In conclusion, these data demonstrate for the first time moderate anti-HEV activities of types II and III IFNs and different IFN-α subtypes. As HEV employed a potent anti-interferon mechanism by restricting ISG expression, exogenous application of IFNs as immunotherapy should be carefully assessed. PMID:26787701

  6. Inhibition of Simian Virus 40 replication by targeting the molecular chaperone function and ATPase activity of T antigen

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Christine M.; Seguin, Sandlin P.; Fewell, Sheara W.; Zhang, Haijiang; Ishwad, Chandra; Vats, Abhay; Lingwood, Cifford A.; Wipf, Peter; Fanning, Ellen; Pipas, James M.; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Polyomaviruses such as BK virus and JC virus have been linked to several diseases, but treatments that thwart their propagation are limited in part because of slow growth and cumbersome culturing conditions. In contrast, the replication of one member of this family, Simian Virus 40 (SV40), is robust and has been well-characterized. SV40 replication requires two domains within the viral-encoded large tumor antigen (TAg): The ATPase domain and the N-terminal J domain, which stimulates the ATPase activity of the Hsp70 chaperone. To assess whether inhibitors of polyomavirus replication could be identified, we examined a recently described library of small molecules, some of which inhibit chaperone function. One compound, MAL2-11B, inhibited both TAg’s endogenous ATPase activity and the TAg-mediated activation of Hsp70. MAL2-11B also reduced SV40 propagation in plaque assays and compromised DNA replication in cell culture and in vitro. Furthermore, the compound significantly reduced the growth of BK virus in a human kidney cell line. These data indicate that pharmacological inhibition of TAg’s chaperone and ATPase activities may provide a route to combat polyomavirus-mediated disease. PMID:19200446

  7. Ultrastructural Studies of H-1 Parvovirus Replication VI. Simultaneous Autoradiographic and Immunochemical Intranuclear Localization of Viral DNA Synthesis and Protein Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Irwin I.; Rhode, Solon L.

    1978-01-01

    The localization of H-1 viral replicative-form double-stranded DNA and progeny single-stranded DNA replication in parasynchronously infected, simian virus 40-transformed newborn human kidney cells was studied with high-resolution electron microscope autoradiography (80-nm silver grains). We analyzed wild-type H-1 and ts1 H-1 (a conditional mutant defective in progeny single-stranded DNA synthesis). The proportion of the total DNA synthesis that was viral was estimated to be >90% by comparing the amount of [3H]thymidine uptake in cultures infected with wild-type H-1 versus ts14 (an H-1 mutant defective in DNA replication). Simultaneous staining with cytochrome c-conjugated anti-H-1 immunoglobulin G was performed to ensure that cells incorporating [3H]thymidine (2- to 60-min pulses) were H-1 infected. The sites of H-1 replicative-form (in ts1-infected cells) and progeny (in wild-type-infected cells) DNA synthesis were identical. Immunospecifically labeled nuclei at the earliest stages of infection exhibited dense clusters of silver grains over material extruded from nucleolar fibrillar centers. These foci became larger with increasing cellular damage, forming a limited number of H-1 DNA synthetic centers in the euchromatin. Each island-like focus was surrounded by tufts of heterochromatin containing high concentrations of unassembled H-1 capsid proteins. In late phases of infection, the heterochromatin became completely marginated, and the nucleoplasm contained only euchromatin that exhibited randomly distributed sites of H-1 DNA replication. This indicates that H-1 DNA synthesis begins at localized euchromatic or nucleolar sites and then spreads outward. Immunostained heterochromatin and nucleolar chromatin never incorporated [3H]thymidine. Our results suggest that H-1 proteins and cellular cofactors associated with the fibrillar component of the nucleolus and the euchromatin may play a role in the regulation of H-1 DNA synthesis. Images PMID:340710

  8. Poly(A)-binding protein interacts with the nucleocapsid protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and participates in viral replication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoye; Bai, Juan; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Xianwei; Li, Yufeng; Jiang, Ping

    2012-12-01

    Interactions between host factors and the viral protein play important roles in host adaptation and regulation of virus replication. Poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), a host cellular protein that enhances translational efficiency by circularizing mRNAs, was identified by yeast two-hybrid screening as a cellular partner for PRRSV nucleocapsid (N) protein in porcine alveolar macrophages. The specific interaction of PRRSV N protein with PABP was confirmed in infected cells by co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro by GST pull-down assay. We showed by confocal microscopy that the PABP co-localized with the PRRSV N protein. Using a series of deletion mutants, the interactive domain of N protein with PABP was mapped to a region of amino acids 52-69. For PABP, C-terminal half, which interestingly interacts other translation regulators, was determined to be the domain interactive with N protein. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated silencing of PABP in cells resulted in significantly reduced PRRSV RNA synthesis, viral encoded protein expression and viral titer. Overall, the results presented here point toward an important role for PABP in regulating PRRSV replication. PMID:22985629

  9. Characterization of viral replication and the immune response in bison peripheral blood mononuclear cells following in vitro bovine viral diarrhea virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae that has significant negative economic impact on beef and dairy production worldwide. In recent years, the North American bison industry has grown considerably with increases in the numbers of both wild and private herds. ...

  10. Viral RNA but no evidence of replication can be detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of hepatitis E virus infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Ippagunta, Sirish Kumar; Naik, Sita; Jameel, Shahid; KN, Sudha Ramana; Aggarwal, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an important cause of acute viral hepatitis in several developing countries, but has recently been shown to cause chronic hepatitis in immunosuppressed persons. Other hepatotropic viruses that cause chronic infection have been shown to infect peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and to persist in those cells. We therefore decided to look for evidence of replication of HEV in PBMCs obtained from patients with acute hepatitis E, using strand-specific assays for positive and negative HEV RNA. Of the 44 patients with acute hepatitis E during an outbreak in India, including 27 with detectable IgM anti-HEV and 19 with detectable serum HEV RNA, 11 had detectable HEV RNA in their PBMCs. However, of the six PBMC specimens with strong HEV RNA signal, none had detectable negative-strand-HEV RNA, a marker of viral replication. These findings indicate the presence of HEV RNA but the absence of its replication in PBMCs from patients with acute hepatitis E. PMID:20659304

  11. Rolling-circle amplification for the detection of active porcine circovirus type 2 DNA replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Navidad, Paolo Dominic; Li, Hao; Mankertz, Annette; Meehan, Brian

    2008-09-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections in pigs have diverse clinical presentations and are considered economically important diseases worldwide. However, despite intensive research, the early pathogenesis of PCV2 and the primary target cells for PCV2 infections and replication are still unknown. Rolling-circle amplification (RCA) is an amplification technique for small, circular DNA templates that essentially mimics rolling-circle replication in vitro. In this study, the amplification of PCV2-specific DNAs using randomly primed RCA has been demonstrated. This novel approach has circumvented the normal requirement for conventional virus isolation procedures for the characterization of PCV2 DNAs from clinical samples. In addition, the potential utility of a strand-specific derivative of RCA was further investigated. Specifically, strand-specific RCA for the detection of active virus replication following the amplification of complementary sense PCV2 DNAs, which occur as double-stranded replicative intermediates that are present only during de novo viral DNA replication both in vitro and in vivo has been demonstrated. PMID:18606463

  12. Antiviral Activity of Arabinosylthymine in Herpesviral Replication: Mechanism of Action In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Aswell, J. F.; Allen, G. P.; Jamieson, A. T.; Campbell, D. E.; Gentry, G. A.

    1977-01-01

    1-β-d-Arabinofuranosylthymine (ara-T), a metabolite of the sponge Tethya crypta, has shown selective activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) replication (G. A. Gentry and J. F. Aswell, Virology 65:294–296, 1975). Analysis of HSV-infected and uninfected cell lysates by CsCl isopycnic centrifugation showed that ara-T blocked the incorporation of [3H]hypoxanthine into viral deoxyribonucleic acid and, to a large extent, into host deoxyribonucleic acid of infected (but not uninfected) cells. Additional experiments with [γ-32P]adenosine 5′-triphosphate as a radiophosphate donor demonstrated that ara-T is phosphorylated by extracts of HSV-infected BHK cells and not by those of uninfected cells. At an ara-T concentration that almost completely inhibited the growth of LM cells, which had been transformed to a pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside kinase+ (dPyK+) phenotype by ultraviolet-inactivated HSV-1, the growth of uninfected LM cells was not affected. These results indicate that the viral dPyK is responsible for the selective antiviral activity of ara-T. This conclusion was further supported by experiments that showed that the replication of a variety of dPyK− mutants of HSV-1 and HSV-2 were not affected by ara-T and that ara-T inhibited the phosphorylation of deoxycytidine and deoxythymidine by HSV-1 dPyK, but not by host deoxycytidine and deoxythymidine kinases, respectively. Ara-T also selectively inhibited the replication of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) in vitro and was effective against EHV-1 infection in vivo in hamsters. Further, EHV-1 was inhibited by ara-T and by bromodeoxyuridine in LM cells lacking a cytosol thymidine kinase, suggesting that EHV-1 induces a dPyK. Finally, spectrophotometric assay for thymine suggested that ara-T is not a substrate for nucleoside phosphorylase of hamster liver, and a microbiological assay indicated that substantial amounts of ara-T were excreted in the urine of uninfected hamsters that had received a single

  13. Antiviral Activity of Hatay Propolis Against Replication of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Ayse; Duran, Gulay Gulbol; Duran, Nizami; Jenedi, Kemal; Bolgul, Behiye Sezgin; Miraloglu, Meral; Muz, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Propolis is a bee product widely used in folk medicine and possessing many pharmacological properties. In this study we aimed to investigate: i) the antiviral activities of Hatay propolis samples against HSV-1 and HSV-2 in HEp-2 cell line, and ii) the presence of the synergistic effects of propolis with acyclovir against these viruses. Material/Methods All experiments were carried out in HEp-2 cell cultures. Proliferation assays were performed in 24-well flat bottom microplates. We inoculated 1×105 cells per ml and RPMI 1640 medium with 10% fetal calf serum into each well. Studies to determine cytotoxic effect were performed. To investigate the presence of antiviral activity of propolis samples, different concentrations of propolis (3200, 1600, 800, 400, 200, 100, 75, 50, and 25 μg/mL) were added into the culture medium. The amplifications of HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA were performed by real-time PCR method. Acyclovir (Sigma, USA) was chosen as a positive control. Cell morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results The replication of HSV-1 and HSV-2 was significantly suppressed in the presence of 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL of Hatay propolis. We found that propolis began to inhibit HSV-1 replication after 24 h of incubation and propolis activity against HSV-2 was found to start at 48 h following incubation. The activity of propolis against both HSV-1 and HSV-2 was confirmed by a significant decrease in the number of viral copies. Conclusions We determined that Hatay propolis samples have important antiviral effects compared with acyclovir. In particular, the synergy produced by antiviral activity of propolis and acyclovir combined had a stronger effect against HSV-1 and HSV-2 than acyclovir alone. PMID:26856414

  14. The Combination of the R263K and T66I Resistance Substitutions in HIV-1 Integrase Is Incompatible with High-Level Viral Replication and the Development of High-Level Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jiaming; Mesplède, Thibault; Oliveira, Maureen; Anstett, Kaitlin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The R263K substitution in integrase has been selected in tissue culture with dolutegravir (DTG) and has been reported for several treatment-experienced individuals receiving DTG as part of salvage therapy. The R263K substitution seems to be incompatible with the presence of common resistance mutations associated with raltegravir (RAL), a different integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI). T66I is a substitution that is common in individuals who have developed resistance against a different INSTI termed elvitegravir (EVG), but it is not known whether these two mutations might be compatible in the context of resistance against DTG or what impact the combination of these substitutions might have on resistance against INSTIs. E138K is a common secondary substitution observed with various primary resistance substitutions in RAL- and EVG-treated individuals. Viral infectivity, replicative capacity, and resistance against INSTIs were measured in cell-based assays. Strand transfer and 3′ processing activities were measured biochemically. The combination of the R263K and T66I substitutions decreased HIV-1 infectivity, replicative capacity, and strand transfer activity. The addition of the E138K substitution partially compensated for these deficits and resulted in high levels of resistance against EVG but not against DTG or RAL. These findings suggest that the presence of the T66I substitution will not compromise the activity of DTG and may also help to prevent the additional generation of the R263K mutation. Our observations support the use of DTG in second-line therapy for individuals who experience treatment failure with EVG due to the T66I substitution. IMPORTANCE The integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) elvitegravir and dolutegravir are newly developed inhibitors against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). HIV drug-resistant mutations in integrase that can arise in individuals treated with elvitegravir commonly include the T66I

  15. Therapeutic doses of irradiation activate viral transcription and induce apoptosis in HIV-1 infected cells.

    PubMed

    Iordanskiy, Sergey; Van Duyne, Rachel; Sampey, Gavin C; Woodson, Caitlin M; Fry, Kelsi; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Guo, Jia; Wu, Yuntao; Romerio, Fabio; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2015-11-01

    The highly active antiretroviral therapy reduces HIV-1 RNA in plasma to undetectable levels. However, the virus continues to persist in the long-lived resting CD4(+) T cells, macrophages and astrocytes which form a viral reservoir in infected individuals. Reactivation of viral transcription is critical since the host immune response in combination with antiretroviral therapy may eradicate the virus. Using the chronically HIV-1 infected T lymphoblastoid and monocytic cell lines, primary quiescent CD4(+) T cells and humanized mice infected with dual-tropic HIV-1 89.6, we examined the effect of various X-ray irradiation (IR) doses (used for HIV-related lymphoma treatment and lower doses) on HIV-1 transcription and viability of infected cells. Treatment of both T cells and monocytes with IR, a well-defined stress signal, led to increase of HIV-1 transcription, as evidenced by the presence of RNA polymerase II and reduction of HDAC1 and methyl transferase SUV39H1 on the HIV-1 promoter. This correlated with the increased GFP signal and elevated level of intracellular HIV-1 RNA in the IR-treated quiescent CD4(+) T cells infected with GFP-encoding HIV-1. Exposition of latently HIV-1infected monocytes treated with PKC agonist bryostatin 1 to IR enhanced transcription activation effect of this latency-reversing agent. Increased HIV-1 replication after IR correlated with higher cell death: the level of phosphorylated Ser46 in p53, responsible for apoptosis induction, was markedly higher in the HIV-1 infected cells following IR treatment. Exposure of HIV-1 infected humanized mice with undetectable viral RNA level to IR resulted in a significant increase of HIV-1 RNA in plasma, lung and brain tissues. Collectively, these data point to the use of low to moderate dose of IR alone or in combination with HIV-1 transcription activators as a potential application for the "Shock and Kill" strategy for latently HIV-1 infected cells. PMID:26184775

  16. Blocking CXCL9 Decreases HIV-1 Replication and Enhances the Activity of Prophylactic Antiretrovirals in Human Cervical Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Macura, Sherrill L.; Lathrop, Melissa J.; Gui, Jiang; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Rollenhagen, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The interferon-gamma–induced chemokine CXCL9 is expressed in a wide range of inflammatory conditions including those affecting the female genital tract. CXCL9 promotes immune cell recruitment, activation, and proliferation. The role of CXCL9 in modulating HIV-1 infection of cervicovaginal tissues, a main portal of viral entry, however, has not been established. We report a link between CXCL9 and HIV-1 replication in human cervical tissues and propose CXCL9 as a potential target to enhance the anti–HIV-1 activity of prophylactic antiretrovirals. Design: Using ex vivo infection of human cervical tissues as a model of mucosal HIV-1 acquisition, we described the effect of CXCL9 neutralization on HIV-1 gene expression and mucosal CD4+ T-cell activation. The anti-HIV-1 activity of tenofovir, the leading mucosal pre-exposure prophylactic microbicide, alone or in combination with CXCL9 neutralization was also studied. Methods: HIV-1 replication was evaluated by p24 ELISA. HIV-1 DNA and RNA, and CD4, CCR5, and CD38 transcription were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Frequency of activated cervical CD4+ T cells was quantified using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Results: Antibody blocking of CXCL9 reduced HIV-1 replication by decreasing mucosal CD4+ T-cell activation. CXCL9 neutralization in combination with suboptimal concentrations of tenofovir, possibly present in the cervicovaginal tissues of women using the drug inconsistently, demonstrated an earlier and greater decrease in HIV-1 replication compared with tissues treated with tenofovir alone. Conclusions: CXCL9 neutralization reduces HIV-1 replication and may be an effective target to enhance the efficacy of prophylactic antiretrovirals. PMID:26545124

  17. Phosphoproteomic Analysis of KSHV-Infected Cells Reveals Roles of ORF45-Activated RSK during Lytic Replication

    PubMed Central

    Avey, Denis; Tepper, Sarah; Li, Wenwei; Turpin, Zachary; Zhu, Fanxiu

    2015-01-01

    Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic virus which has adapted unique mechanisms to modulate the cellular microenvironment of its human host. The pathogenesis of KSHV is intimately linked to its manipulation of cellular signaling pathways, including the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. We have previously shown that KSHV ORF45 contributes to the sustained activation of both ERK and p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK, a major functional mediator of ERK/MAPK signaling) during KSHV lytic replication. ORF45-activated RSK is required for optimal KSHV lytic gene expression and progeny virion production, though the underlying mechanisms downstream of this activation are still unclear. We hypothesized that the activation of RSK by ORF45 causes differential phosphorylation of cellular and viral substrates, affecting biological processes essential for efficient KSHV lytic replication. Accordingly, we observed widespread and significant differences in protein phosphorylation upon induction of lytic replication. Mass-spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic screening identified putative substrates of ORF45-activated RSK in KSHV-infected cells. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that nuclear proteins, including several transcriptional regulators, were overrepresented among these candidates. We validated the ORF45/RSK-dependent phosphorylation of several putative substrates by employing KSHV BAC mutagenesis, kinase inhibitor treatments, and/or CRISPR-mediated knockout of RSK in KSHV-infected cells. Furthermore, we assessed the consequences of knocking out these substrates on ORF45/RSK-dependent regulation of gene expression and KSHV progeny virion production. Finally, we show data to support that ORF45 regulates the translational efficiency of a subset of viral/cellular genes with complex secondary structure in their 5’ UTR. Altogether, these data shed light on the mechanisms by which KSHV ORF45 manipulates

  18. Optimal Replication Activity of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus RNA Polymerase Requires Phosphorylation of a Residue(s) at Carboxy-Terminal Domain II of Its Accessory Subunit, Phosphoprotein P

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Leroy N.; Englund, Nathan; Das, Tapas; Banerjee, Amiya K.; Pattnaik, Asit K.

    1999-01-01

    The phosphoprotein, P, of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a key subunit of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex. The protein is phosphorylated at multiple sites in two different domains. We recently showed that specific serine and threonine residues within the amino-terminal acidic domain I of P protein must be phosphorylated for in vivo transcription activity, but not for replication activity, of the polymerase complex. To examine the role of phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain II residues of the P protein in transcription and replication, we have used a panel of mutant P proteins in which the phosphate acceptor sites (Ser-226, Ser-227, and Ser-233) were altered to alanines either individually or in various combinations. Analyses of the mutant proteins for their ability to support replication of a VSV minigenomic RNA suggest that phosphorylation of either Ser-226 or Ser-227 is necessary for optimal replication activity of the protein. The mutant protein (P226/227) in which both of these residues were altered to alanines was only about 8% active in replication compared to the wild-type (wt) protein. Substitution of alanine for Ser-233 did not have any adverse effect on replication activity of the protein. In contrast, all the mutant proteins showed activities similar to that of the wt protein in transcription. These results indicate that phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain II residues of P protein are required for optimal replication activity but not for transcription activity. Furthermore, substitution of glutamic acid residues for Ser-226 and Ser-227 resulted in a protein that was only 14% active in replication but almost fully active in transcription. Taken together, these results, along with our earlier studies, suggest that phosphorylation of residues at two different domains in the P protein regulates its activity in transcription and replication of the VSV genome. PMID:10364310

  19. Checkpoint Activation of an Unconventional DNA Replication Program in Tetrahymena

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Pamela Y.; Lee, Po-Hsuen; Meng, Xiangzhou; Kapler, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    The intra-S phase checkpoint kinase of metazoa and yeast, ATR/MEC1, protects chromosomes from DNA damage and replication stress by phosphorylating subunits of the replicative helicase, MCM2-7. Here we describe an unprecedented ATR-dependent pathway in Tetrahymena thermophila in which the essential pre-replicative complex proteins, Orc1p, Orc2p and Mcm6p are degraded in hydroxyurea-treated S phase cells. Chromosomes undergo global changes during HU-arrest, including phosphorylation of histone H2A.X, deacetylation of histone H3, and an apparent diminution in DNA content that can be blocked by the deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate. Most remarkably, the cell cycle rapidly resumes upon hydroxyurea removal, and the entire genome is replicated prior to replenishment of ORC and MCMs. While stalled replication forks are elongated under these conditions, DNA fiber imaging revealed that most replicating molecules are produced by new initiation events. Furthermore, the sole origin in the ribosomal DNA minichromosome is inactive and replication appears to initiate near the rRNA promoter. The collective data raise the possibility that replication initiation occurs by an ORC-independent mechanism during the recovery from HU-induced replication stress. PMID:26218270

  20. Dual effect of nitric oxide on SARS-CoV replication: Viral RNA production and palmitoylation of the S protein are affected

    SciTech Connect

    Akerstroem, Sara; Gunalan, Vithiagaran; Keng, Choong Tat; Tan, Yee-Joo; Mirazimi, Ali

    2009-12-05

    Nitric oxide is an important molecule playing a key role in a broad range of biological process such as neurotransmission, vasodilatation and immune responses. While the anti-microbiological properties of nitric oxide-derived reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) such as peroxynitrite, are known, the mechanism of these effects are as yet poorly studied. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) belongs to the family Coronaviridae, was first identified during 2002-2003. Mortality in SARS patients ranges from between 6 to 55%. We have previously shown that nitric oxide inhibits the replication cycle of SARS-CoV in vitro by an unknown mechanism. In this study, we have further investigated the mechanism of the inhibition process of nitric oxide against SARS-CoV. We found that peroxynitrite, an intermediate product of nitric oxide in solution formed by the reaction of NO with superoxide, has no effect on the replication cycle of SARS-CoV, suggesting that the inhibition is either directly effected by NO or a derivative other than peroxynitrite. Most interestingly, we found that NO inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV by two distinct mechanisms. Firstly, NO or its derivatives cause a reduction in the palmitoylation of nascently expressed spike (S) protein which affects the fusion between the S protein and its cognate receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2. Secondly, NO or its derivatives cause a reduction in viral RNA production in the early steps of viral replication, and this could possibly be due to an effect on one or both of the cysteine proteases encoded in Orf1a of SARS-CoV.

  1. Decreased Dengue Replication and an Increased Anti-viral Humoral Response with the use of Combined Toll-Like Receptor 3 and 7/8 Agonists in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Sariol, Carlos A.; Martínez, Melween I.; Rivera, Francheska; Rodríguez, Idia Vanessa; Pantoja, Petraleigh; Abel, Kristina; Arana, Teresa; Giavedoni, Luis; Hodara, Vida; White, Laura J.; Angleró, Yesseinia I.; Montaner, Luis J.; Kraiselburd, Edmundo N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Pathogenic versus protective outcomes to Dengue virus (DENV) infection are associated with innate immune function. This study aimed to determine the role of increased TLR3- and TLR7/8-mediated innate signaling after Dengue infection of rhesus macaques in vivo to evaluate its impact on disease and anti-DENV immune responses. Methodology/Principal Findings TLR3 and TLR7/8 agonists (emulsified in Montanide) were administered subcutaneously to rhesus macaques at 48 hours and 7 days after DENV infection. The Frequency and activation of myeloid dendritic cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and B cells were measured by flow cytometry while the serum levels of 14 different cytokines and chemokines were quantified. Adaptive immune responses were measured by DENV-specific antibody subtype measurements. Results showed that the combined TLR agonists reduced viral replication and induced the development of a proinflammatory reaction, otherwise absent in Dengue infection alone, without any clear signs of exacerbated disease. Specifically, the TLR-induced response was characterized by activation changes in mDC subsets concurrent with higher serum levels of CXCL-10 and IL-1Ra. TLR stimulation also induced higher titers of anti-DENV antibodies and acted to increase the IgG2/IgG1 ratio of anti-DENV to favor the subtype associated with DENV control. We also observed an effect of DENV-mediated suppression of mDC activation consistent with prior in vitro studies. Conclusions/Significance These data show that concurrent TLR3/7/8 activation of the innate immune response after DENV infection in vivo acts to increase antiviral mechanisms via increased inflammatory and humoral responses in rhesus macaques, resulting in decreased viremia and melioration of the infection. These findings underscore an in vivo protective rather than a pathogenic role for combined TLR3/7/8-mediated activation in Dengue infection of rhesus macaques. Our study provides definitive proof-of-concept into

  2. The combination of tacrolimus and entecavir improves the remission of HBV-associated glomerulonephritis without enhancing viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lifen; Ye, Zhiming; Liang, Huaban; Zhang, Bin; Xu, Lixia; Feng, Zhonglin; Liu, Shuangxin; Shi, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tacrolimus inhibits hepatitis B virus entry into hepatocytes through targeting the HBV receptor, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tacrolimus combined with entecavir antiviral therapy for HBV-associated glomerulonephritis patients with biopsy-proven membranous nephropathy. Method: A cohort of 42 patients was enrolled in this retrospective study. Twenty-three patients received Tacrolimus (0.05 mg/kg/day) in combination entecavir over 24 weeks, whereas the other 19 patients only received entecavir monotherapy. Results: The probability of proteinuria remission in the Tacrolimus+entecavir group was 69 and 87% after 12 and 24 weeks, whereas was only 26 and 42%, respectively, in the entecavir group. The mean time to partial or complete remission was 18.6 weeks in the Tacrolimus+entecavir group and 34.3 weeks in the entecavir group (P<0.001). A decrease in the HBV DNA titer was observed in all patients with active HBV replication. None of the HBV carriers in the Tacrolimus+entecavir group showed evidence of HBV reactivation. The serum creatinine and alanine aminotransferase levels remained stable in both groups. The Tacrolimus target trough concentration was 5-10 ng/mL. Conclusion: Tacrolimus combined with entecavir rapidly and effectively induced remission of HBV-GN in Chinese adults. Furthermore, Tacrolimus may have a synergistic antiviral effect with entecavir.

  3. Dengue virus NS1 enhances viral replication and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Alayli, Farah; Scholle, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Dengue virus (DV) has become the most prevalent arthropod borne virus due to globalization and climate change. It targets dendritic cells during infection and leads to production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Several DV non-structural proteins (NS) modulate activation of human dendritic cells. We investigated the effect of DV NS1 on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mo-DCs) during dengue infection. NS1 is secreted into the serum of infected individuals where it interacts with various immune mediators and cell types. We purified secreted DV1 NS1 from supernatants of 293T cells that over-express the protein. Upon incubation with mo-DCs, we observed NS1 uptake and enhancement of early DV1 replication. As a consequence, mo-DCs that were pre-exposed to NS1 produced more pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to subsequent DV infection compared to DCs exposed to heat-inactivated NS1 (HNS1). Therefore the presence of exogenous NS1 is able to modulate dengue infection in mo-DCs. PMID:27348054

  4. High-resolution crystal structure of a hepatitis B virus replication inhibitor bound to the viral core protein.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, Klaus; Lam, Angela M; Lukacs, Christine; Vogel, Robert; Ren, Suping; Espiritu, Christine; Baydo, Ruth; Atkins, Kateri; Abendroth, Jan; Liao, Guochun; Efimov, Andrey; Hartman, George; Flores, Osvaldo A

    2015-12-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein is essential for HBV replication and an important target for antiviral drug discovery. We report the first, to our knowledge, high-resolution crystal structure of an antiviral compound bound to the HBV core protein. The compound NVR-010-001-E2 can induce assembly of the HBV core wild-type and Y132A mutant proteins and thermostabilize the proteins with a Tm increase of more than 10 °C. NVR-010-001-E2 binds at the dimer-dimer interface of the core proteins, forms a new interaction surface promoting protein-protein interaction, induces protein assembly, and increases stability. The impact of naturally occurring core protein mutations on antiviral activity correlates with NVR-010-001-E2 binding interactions determined by crystallography. The crystal structure provides understanding of a drug efficacy mechanism related to the induction and stabilization of protein-protein interactions and enables structure-guided design to improve antiviral potency and drug-like properties. PMID:26598693

  5. High-resolution crystal structure of a hepatitis B virus replication inhibitor bound to the viral core protein

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, Klaus; Lam, Angela M.; Lukacs, Christine; Vogel, Robert; Ren, Suping; Espiritu, Christine; Baydo, Ruth; Atkins, Kateri; Abendroth, Jan; Liao, Guochun; Efimov, Andrey; Hartman, George; Flores, Osvaldo A.

    2015-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein is essential for HBV replication and an important target for antiviral drug discovery. We report the first, to our knowledge, high-resolution crystal structure of an antiviral compound bound to the HBV core protein. The compound NVR-010–001-E2 can induce assembly of the HBV core wild-type and Y132A mutant proteins and thermostabilize the proteins with a Tm increase of more than 10 °C. NVR-010–001-E2 binds at the dimer–dimer interface of the core proteins, forms a new interaction surface promoting protein–protein interaction, induces protein assembly, and increases stability. The impact of naturally occurring core protein mutations on antiviral activity correlates with NVR-010–001-E2 binding interactions determined by crystallography. The crystal structure provides understanding of a drug efficacy mechanism related to the induction and stabilization of protein–protein interactions and enables structure-guided design to improve antiviral potency and drug-like properties. PMID:26598693

  6. Signals at the bacteriophage phi 29 DNA replication origins required for protein p6 binding and activity.

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, M; Gutiérrez, J; Prieto, I; Hermoso, J M; Salas, M

    1989-01-01

    Protein p6 of Bacillus subtilis phage phi 29 binds specifically to the ends of the viral DNA that contain the replication origins, giving rise to a nucleoprotein structure. DNA regions recognized by protein p6 have been mapped by deletion analysis and DNase I footprinting. Main protein p6-recognition signals have been located between nucleotides 62 and 125 at the right phi 29 DNA end and between nucleotides 46 and 68 at the left end. In addition, recognition signals are also present at other sites within 200-300 bp at each phi 29 DNA end. Protein p6 does not seem to recognize a specific sequence in the DNA, but rather a structural feature, which could be bendability. The formation of the protein p6-DNA nucleoprotein complex is likely to be the structural basis for the protein p6 activity in the initiation of replication. Images PMID:2767056

  7. APOBEC3G inhibits HIV-1 RNA elongation by inactivating the viral trans-activation response element.

    PubMed

    Nowarski, Roni; Prabhu, Ponnandy; Kenig, Edan; Smith, Yoav; Britan-Rosich, Elena; Kotler, Moshe

    2014-07-29

    Deamination of cytidine residues in viral DNA is a major mechanism by which APOBEC3G (A3G) inhibits vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. dC-to-dU transition following RNase-H activity leads to viral cDNA degradation, production of non-functional proteins, formation of undesired stop codons and decreased viral protein synthesis. Here, we demonstrate that A3G provides an additional layer of defense against HIV-1 infection dependent on inhibition of proviral transcription. HIV-1 transcription elongation is regulated by the trans-activation response (TAR) element, a short stem-loop RNA structure required for elongation factors binding. Vif-deficient HIV-1-infected cells accumulate short viral transcripts and produce lower amounts of full-length HIV-1 transcripts due to A3G deamination of the TAR apical loop cytidine, highlighting the requirement for TAR loop integrity in HIV-1 transcription. We further show that free single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) termini are not essential for A3G activity and a gap of CCC motif blocked with juxtaposed DNA or RNA on either or 3'+5' ends is sufficient for A3G deamination. These results identify A3G as an efficient mutator and that deamination of (-)SSDNA results in an early block of HIV-1 transcription. PMID:24859335

  8. APOBEC3G Inhibits HIV-1 RNA Elongation by Inactivating the Viral Trans-Activation Response Element

    PubMed Central

    Nowarski, Roni; Prabhu, Ponnandy; Kenig, Edan; Smith, Yoav; Britan-Rosich, Elena; Kotler, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Deamination of cytidine residues in viral DNA (vDNA) is a major mechanism by which APOBEC3G (A3G) inhibits vif-deficient HIV-1 replication. dC to dU transition following RNase-H activity leads to viral cDNA degradation, production of non-functional proteins, formation of undesired stop codons and decreased viral protein synthesis. Here we demonstrate that A3G provides an additional layer of defence against HIV-1 infection dependent on inhibition of proviral transcription. HIV-1 transcription elongation is regulated by the trans-activation response (TAR) element, a short stem-loop RNA structure required for elongation factors binding. Vif-deficient HIV-1-infected cells accumulate short viral transcripts and produce lower amounts of full-length HIV-1 transcripts due to A3G deamination of the TAR apical loop cytidine, highlighting the requirement for TAR loop integrity in HIV-1 transcription. Finally, we show that free ssDNA termini are not essential for A3G activity and a gap of CCC motif blocked with juxtaposed DNA or RNA on either or 3′+5′ ends is sufficient for A3G deamination, identifying A3G as an efficient mutator, and that deamination of (−)SSDNA results in an early block of HIV-1 transcription. PMID:24859335

  9. Distinct Kinetics of Viral Replication, T Cell Infiltration, and Fibrosis in Three Phases of Myocarditis following Theiler's Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Fumitaka; Omura, Seiichi; Kawai, Eiichiro; Martinez, Nicholas E.; Acharya, Madan M.; Reddy, Pratap C.; Chaitanya, Ganta Vijay; Alexander, J. Steven; Tsunoda, Ikuo

    2014-01-01

    We established a novel model of myocarditis induced with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), which has been used as a viral model for multiple sclerosis and seizure/epilepsy. Following TMEV infection, C3H mice developed severe myocarditis with T cell infiltration, while C57BL/6 mice had mild lesions and SJL/J mice had no inflammation in the heart. In C3H mice, myocarditis was divided into three phases: acute viral, subacute immune, and chronic fibrotic phases. Using toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-deficient C3H mice, we found that interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, TLR4, and anti-viral immune responses were associated with myocarditis susceptibility. PMID:25460083

  10. Inhibition of viral replication reduces regulatory T cells and enhances the antiviral immune response in chronic hepatitis B

    SciTech Connect

    Stoop, Jeroen N. . E-mail: j.n.stoop@erasmusmc.nl; Molen, Renate G. van der . E-mail: r.vandermolen@erasmusmc.nl; Kuipers, Ernst J. . E-mail: e.j.kuipers@erasmusmc.nl; Kusters, Johannes G. . E-mail: j.g.kusters@erasmusmc.nl; Janssen, Harry L.A. . E-mail: h.janssen@erasmusmc.nl

    2007-04-25

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a key role in the impaired immune response that is typical for a chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. To gain more insight in the mechanism that is responsible for this impaired immune response, the effect of viral load reduction resulting from treatment with the nucleotide analogue adefovir dipivoxil on the percentages of Treg and HBV-specific T-cell responses was analyzed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 12 patients were collected at baseline and during treatment. In parallel to the decline in viral load, we found a decline in circulating Treg, combined with an increase in HBV core antigen-specific IFN-{gamma} production and proliferation. The production of IL10 did not decrease during therapy. In conclusion, adefovir induced viral load reduction results in a decline of circulating Treg together with a partial recovery of the immune response.

  11. Interactome analysis of the EV71 5' untranslated region in differentiated neuronal cells SH-SY5Y and regulatory role of FBP3 in viral replication.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsing-I; Chang, Ying-Ying; Lin, Jhao-Yin; Kuo, Rei-Lin; Liu, Hao-Ping; Shih, Shin-Ru; Wu, Chih-Ching

    2016-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a single-stranded RNA virus, is one of the most serious neurotropic pathogens in the Asia-Pacific region. Through interactions with host proteins, the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of EV71 is important for viral replication. To gain a protein profile that interact with the EV71 5'UTR in neuronal cells, we performed a biotinylated RNA-protein pull-down assay in conjunction with LC-MS/MS analysis. A total of 109 proteins were detected and subjected to Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) analyses. These proteins were found to be highly correlated with biological processes including RNA processing/splicing, epidermal cell differentiation, and protein folding. A protein-protein interaction network was constructed using the STRING online database to illustrate the interactions of those proteins that are mainly involved in RNA processing/splicing or protein folding. Moreover, we confirmed that the far-upstream element binding protein 3 (FBP3) was able to bind to the EV71 5'UTR. The redistribution of FBP3 in subcellular compartments was observed after EV71 infection, and the decreased expression of FBP3 in host neuronal cells markedly inhibited viral replication. Our results reveal various host proteins that potentially interact with the EV71 5'UTR in neuronal cells, and we found that FBP3 could serve as a positive regulator in host cells. PMID:27291656

  12. Recursion-based depletion of human immunodeficiency virus-specific naive CD4(+) T cells may facilitate persistent viral replication and chronic viraemia leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Okada, Seiji; Matano, Tetsuro

    2016-09-01

    Although antiretroviral therapy has made human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection a controllable disease, it is still unclear how viral replication persists in untreated patients and causes CD4(+) T-cell depletion leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in several years. Theorists tried to explain it with the diversity threshold theory in which accumulated mutations in the HIV genome make the virus so diverse that the immune system will no longer be able to recognize all the variants and fail to control the viraemia. Although the theory could apply to a number of cases, macaque AIDS models using simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) have shown that failed viral control at the set point is not always associated with T-cell escape mutations. Moreover, ev