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Sample records for active wnt signaling

  1. Wnt Signaling in Neurogenesis during Aging and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Michael; Do, Huong

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, much progress has been made regarding our understanding of neurogenesis in both young and old animals and where it occurs throughout the lifespan, although the growth of new neurons declines with increasing age. In addition, physical activity can reverse this age-dependent decline in neurogenesis. Highly correlated with this decline is the degree of inter and intracellular Wnt signaling, the molecular mechanisms of which have only recently started to be elucidated. So far, most of what we know about intracellular signaling during/following exercise centers around the CREB/CRE initiated transcriptional events. Relatively little is known, however, about how aging and physical activity affect the Wnt signaling pathway. Herein, we briefly review the salient features of neurogenesis in young and then in old adult animals. Then, we discuss Wnt signaling and review the very few in vitro and in vivo studies that have examined the Wnt signaling pathways in aging and physical activity. PMID:24961268

  2. Notum deacylates Wnt proteins to suppress signalling activity.

    PubMed

    Kakugawa, Satoshi; Langton, Paul F; Zebisch, Matthias; Howell, Steven A; Chang, Tao-Hsin; Liu, Yan; Feizi, Ten; Bineva, Ganka; O'Reilly, Nicola; Snijders, Ambrosius P; Jones, E Yvonne; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2015-03-12

    Signalling by Wnt proteins is finely balanced to ensure normal development and tissue homeostasis while avoiding diseases such as cancer. This is achieved in part by Notum, a highly conserved secreted feedback antagonist. Notum has been thought to act as a phospholipase, shedding glypicans and associated Wnt proteins from the cell surface. However, this view fails to explain specificity, as glypicans bind many extracellular ligands. Here we provide genetic evidence in Drosophila that Notum requires glypicans to suppress Wnt signalling, but does not cleave their glycophosphatidylinositol anchor. Structural analyses reveal glycosaminoglycan binding sites on Notum, which probably help Notum to co-localize with Wnt proteins. They also identify, at the active site of human and Drosophila Notum, a large hydrophobic pocket that accommodates palmitoleate. Kinetic and mass spectrometric analyses of human proteins show that Notum is a carboxylesterase that removes an essential palmitoleate moiety from Wnt proteins and thus constitutes the first known extracellular protein deacylase. PMID:25731175

  3. Activation of the Canonical Wnt Signaling Pathway Induces Cementum Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Han, Pingping; Ivanovski, Saso; Crawford, Ross; Xiao, Yin

    2015-07-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling is important in tooth development but it is unclear whether it can induce cementogenesis and promote the regeneration of periodontal tissues lost because of disease. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the influence of canonical Wnt signaling enhancers on human periodontal ligament cell (hPDLCs) cementogenic differentiation in vitro and cementum repair in a rat periodontal defect model. Canonical Wnt signaling was induced by (1) local injection of lithium chloride; (2) local injection of sclerostin antibody; and (3) local injection of a lentiviral construct overexpressing β-catenin. The results showed that the local activation of canonical Wnt signaling resulted in significant new cellular cementum deposition and the formation of well-organized periodontal ligament fibers, which was absent in the control group. In vitro experiments using hPDLCs showed that the Wnt signaling pathway activators significantly increased mineralization, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and gene and protein expression of the bone and cementum markers osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN), cementum protein 1 (CEMP1), and cementum attachment protein (CAP). Our results show that the activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway can induce in vivo cementum regeneration and in vitro cementogenic differentiation of hPDLCs. PMID:25556853

  4. Molecular hydrogen suppresses activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yingni; Ohkawara, Bisei; Ito, Mikako; Misawa, Nobuaki; Miyamoto, Kentaro; Takegami, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Akio; Toyokuni, Shinya; Ohno, Kinji

    2016-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) is effective for many diseases. However, molecular bases of H2 have not been fully elucidated. Cumulative evidence indicates that H2 acts as a gaseous signal modulator. We found that H2 suppresses activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling by promoting phosphorylation and degradation οf β-catenin. Either complete inhibition of GSK3 or mutations at CK1- and GSK3-phosphorylation sites of β-catenin abolished the suppressive effect of H2. H2 did not increase GSK3-mediated phosphorylation of glycogen synthase, indicating that H2 has no direct effect on GSK3 itself. Knock-down of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) or Axin1, which form the β-catenin degradation complex, minimized the suppressive effect of H2 on β-catenin accumulation. Accordingly, the effect of H2 requires CK1/GSK3-phosphorylation sites of β-catenin, as well as the β-catenin degradation complex comprised of CK1, GSK3, APC, and Axin1. We additionally found that H2 reduces the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes. Oral intake of H2 water tended to ameliorate cartilage degradation in a surgery-induced rat osteoarthritis model through attenuating β-catenin accumulation. We first demonstrate that H2 suppresses abnormally activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which accounts for the protective roles of H2 in a fraction of diseases. PMID:27558955

  5. Molecular hydrogen suppresses activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yingni; Ohkawara, Bisei; Ito, Mikako; Misawa, Nobuaki; Miyamoto, Kentaro; Takegami, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Akio; Toyokuni, Shinya; Ohno, Kinji

    2016-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) is effective for many diseases. However, molecular bases of H2 have not been fully elucidated. Cumulative evidence indicates that H2 acts as a gaseous signal modulator. We found that H2 suppresses activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling by promoting phosphorylation and degradation οf β-catenin. Either complete inhibition of GSK3 or mutations at CK1- and GSK3-phosphorylation sites of β-catenin abolished the suppressive effect of H2. H2 did not increase GSK3-mediated phosphorylation of glycogen synthase, indicating that H2 has no direct effect on GSK3 itself. Knock-down of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) or Axin1, which form the β-catenin degradation complex, minimized the suppressive effect of H2 on β-catenin accumulation. Accordingly, the effect of H2 requires CK1/GSK3-phosphorylation sites of β-catenin, as well as the β-catenin degradation complex comprised of CK1, GSK3, APC, and Axin1. We additionally found that H2 reduces the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes. Oral intake of H2 water tended to ameliorate cartilage degradation in a surgery-induced rat osteoarthritis model through attenuating β-catenin accumulation. We first demonstrate that H2 suppresses abnormally activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which accounts for the protective roles of H2 in a fraction of diseases. PMID:27558955

  6. Wnt signaling in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Carol H; Ji, Tao; Chen, Cheng-Fong; Hoang, Bang H

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone malignancy diagnosed in children and adolescents with a high propensity for local invasion and distant metastasis. Despite current multidisciplinary treatments, there has not been a drastic change in overall prognosis within the last two decades. With current treatments, 60-70 % of patients with localized disease survive. Given a propensity of Wnt signaling to control multiple cellular processes, including proliferation, cell fate determination, and differentiation, it is a critical pathway in OS disease progression. At the same time, this pathway is extremely complex with vast arrays of cross-talk. Even though decades of research have linked the role of Wnt to tumorigenesis, there are still outstanding areas that remain poorly understood and even controversial. The canonical Wnt pathway functions to regulate the levels of the transcriptional co-activator β-catenin, which ultimately controls key developmental gene expressions. Given the central role of this mediator, inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been investigated as a potential strategy for cancer control. In OS, several secreted protein families modulate the Wnt/β-catenin signaling, including secreted Frizzled-related proteins (sFRPs), Wnt inhibitory protein (WIF), Dickkopf proteins (DKK-1,2,3), sclerostin, and small molecules. This chapter focuses on our current understanding of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in OS, based on recent in vitro and in vivo data. Wnt activates noncanonical signaling pathways as well that are independent of β-catenin which will be discussed. In addition, stem cells and their association with Wnt/β-catenin are important factors to consider. Ultimately, the multiple canonical and noncanonical Wnt/β-catenin agonists and antagonists need to be further explored for potential targeted therapies. PMID:24924167

  7. Canonical Wnt Signaling Activity in Early Stages of Chick Lung Development

    PubMed Central

    daMota, Paulo; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Wnt signaling pathway is an essential player during vertebrate embryonic development which has been associated with several developmental processes such as gastrulation, body axis formation and morphogenesis of numerous organs, namely the lung. Wnt proteins act through specific transmembrane receptors, which activate intracellular pathways that regulate cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation and death. Morphogenesis of the fetal lung depends on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that are governed by several growth and transcription factors that regulate cell proliferation, fate, migration and differentiation. This process is controlled by different signaling pathways such as FGF, Shh and Wnt among others. Wnt signaling is recognized as a key molecular player in mammalian pulmonary development but little is known about its function in avian lung development. The present work characterizes, for the first time, the expression pattern of several Wnt signaling members, such as wnt-1, wnt-2b, wnt-3a, wnt-5a, wnt-7b, wnt-8b, wnt-9a, lrp5, lrp6, sfrp1, dkk1, β-catenin and axin2 at early stages of chick lung development. In general, their expression is similar to their mammalian counterparts. By assessing protein expression levels of active/total β-catenin and phospho-LRP6/LRP6 it is revealed that canonical Wnt signaling is active in this embryonic tissue. In vitro inhibition studies were performed in order to evaluate the function of Wnt signaling pathway in lung branching. Lung explants treated with canonical Wnt signaling inhibitors (FH535 and PK115-584) presented an impairment of secondary branch formation after 48 h of culture along with a decrease in axin2 expression levels. Branching analysis confirmed this inhibition. Wnt-FGF crosstalk assessment revealed that this interaction is preserved in the chick lung. This study demonstrates that Wnt signaling is crucial for precise chick lung branching and further supports the avian lung as a good

  8. Characterizing the Activation of the Wnt Signaling Pathway in Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma Using a Tissue Microarray Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, W.; Huang, L.; Liang, J.; Cai, J.; Lei, Y.; Lai, J.; Liang, L.; Zhang, K.

    2016-01-01

    Hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA) is an invasive hepatic malignancy that is difficult to biopsy; therefore, novel markers of HCCA prognosis are needed. Here, the level of canonical Wnt activation in patients with HCCA, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC), and congenital choledochal cysts (CCC) was compared to understand the role of Wnt signaling in HCCA. Pathology specimens from HCCA (n=129), IHCC (n=31), and CCC (n=45) patients were used to construct tissue microarrays. Wnt2, Wnt3, β-catenin, TCF4, c-Myc, and cyclin D1 were detected by immunohistochemistry. Parallel correlation analysis was used to analyze differences in protein levels between the HCCA, IHCC, and CCC groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine independent predictors of successful resection and prognosis in the HCCA group. The protein levels of Wnt2, β-catenin, TCF4, c-Myc, and cyclin D1 were significantly higher in HCCA compared to IHHC or CCC. Wnt signaling activation (Wnt2+, Wnt3+, nuclear β-catenin+, nuclear TCF4+) was significantly greater in HCCA tissues than CCC tissues. Univariable analyses indicated that expression of cyclin D1 as well as Wnt signaling activation, and partial Wnt activation (Wnt2+ or Wnt3+ and nuclear β-catenin+ or nuclear TCF4+) predicted successful resection, but only cyclin D1 expression remained significant in multivariable analyses. Only partial Wnt activation was an independent predictor of survival time. Proteins in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway were present at higher levels in HCCA and correlated with tumor resecility and patient prognosis. These results suggest that Wnt pathway analysis may be a useful marker for clinical outcome in HCCA. PMID:26972709

  9. Wnt5a can both activate and repress Wnt/β-catenin signaling during mouse embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    van Amerongen, Renée; Fuerer, Christophe; Mizutani, Makiko; Nusse, Roel

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic development is controlled by a small set of signal transduction pathways, with vastly different phenotypic outcomes depending on the time and place of their recruitment. How the same molecular machinery can elicit such specific and distinct responses, remains one of the outstanding questions in developmental biology. Part of the answer may lie in the high inherent genetic complexity of these signaling cascades, as observed for the Wnt-pathway. The mammalian genome encodes multiple Wnt proteins and receptors, each of which show dynamic and tightly controlled expression patterns in the embryo. Yet how these components interact in the context of the whole organism remains unknown. Here we report the generation of a novel, inducible transgenic mouse model that allows spatiotemporal control over the expression of Wnt5a, a protein implicated in many developmental processes and multiple Wnt-signaling responses. We show that ectopic Wnt5a expression from E10.5 onwards results in a variety of developmental defects, including loss of hair follicles and reduced bone formation in the skull. Moreover, we find that Wnt5a can have dual signaling activities during mouse embryonic development. Specifically, Wnt5a is capable of both inducing and repressing β-catenin/TCF signaling in vivo, depending on the time and site of expression and the receptors expressed by receiving cells. These experiments show for the first time that a single mammalian Wnt protein can have multiple signaling activities in vivo, thereby furthering our understanding of how signaling specificity is achieved in a complex developmental context. PMID:22771246

  10. Msx2 promotes cardiovascular calcification by activating paracrine Wnt signals.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jian-Su; Cheng, Su-Li; Pingsterhaus, Joyce M; Charlton-Kachigian, Nichole; Loewy, Arleen P; Towler, Dwight A

    2005-05-01

    In diabetic LDLR-/- mice, an ectopic BMP2-Msx2 gene regulatory program is upregulated in association with vascular calcification. We verified the procalcific actions of aortic Msx2 expression in vivo. CMV-Msx2 transgenic (CMV-Msx2Tg(+)) mice expressed 3-fold higher levels of aortic Msx2 than nontransgenic littermates. On high-fat diets, CMV-Msx2Tg(+) mice exhibited marked cardiovascular calcification involving aortic and coronary tunica media. This corresponded to regions of Msx2 immunoreactivity in adjacent adventitial myofibroblasts, suggesting a potential paracrine osteogenic signal. To better understand Msx2-regulated calcification, we studied actions in 10T1/2 cells. We found that conditioned media from Msx2-transduced 10T1/2 cells (Msx2-CM) is both pro-osteogenic and adipostatic; these features are characteristic of Wnt signaling. Msx2-CM stimulated Wnt-dependent TCF/LEF transcription, and Msx2-transduced cells exhibited increased nuclear beta-catenin localization with concomitant alkaline phosphatase induction. Msx2 upregulated Wnt3a and Wnt7a but downregulated expression of the canonical inhibitor Dkk1. Dkk1 treatment reversed osteogenic and adipostatic actions of Msx2. Teriparatide, a PTH1R agonist that inhibits murine vascular calcification, suppressed vascular BMP2-Msx2-Wnt signaling. Analyses of CMV-Msx2Tg(+) mice confirmed that Msx2 suppresses aortic Dkk1 and upregulates vascular Wnts; moreover, TOPGAL(+) (Wnt reporter); CMV-Msx2Tg(+) mice exhibited augmented aortic LacZ expression. Thus, Msx2-expressing cells elaborated an osteogenic milieu that promotes vascular calcification in part via paracrine Wnt signals. PMID:15841209

  11. Structural Insights into the Inhibition of Wnt Signaling by Cancer Antigen 5T4/Wnt-Activated Inhibitory Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuguang; Malinauskas, Tomas; Harlos, Karl; Jones, E. Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Summary The tumor antigen 5T4/WAIF1 (Wnt-activated inhibitory factor 1; also known as Trophoblast glycoprotein TPBG) is a cell surface protein targeted in multiple cancer immunotherapy clinical trials. Recently, it has been shown that 5T4/WAIF1 inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling, a signaling system central to many developmental and pathological processes. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is controlled by multiple inhibitors and activators. Here, we report crystal structures for the extracellular domain of 5T4/WAIF1 at 1.8 Å resolution. They reveal a highly glycosylated, rigid core, comprising eight leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), which serves as a platform to present evolutionarily conserved surface residues in the N-terminal LRR1. Structural and cell-based analyses, coupled with previously reported in vivo data, suggest that Tyr325 plus the LRR1 surface centered on a second exposed aromatic residue, Phe97, are essential for inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. These results provide a structural basis for the development of 5T4/WAIF1-targeted therapies that preserve or block 5T4/WAIF1-mediated inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:24582434

  12. Boehmenan, a lignan from Hibiscus ficulneus, showed Wnt signal inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Shono, Takumi; Ishikawa, Naoki; Toume, Kazufumi; Arai, Midori A; Ahmed, Firoj; Sadhu, Samir K; Ishibashi, Masami

    2015-07-15

    The Wnt signal pathway modulates numerous biological processes, and its aberrant activation is related to various diseases. Therefore, inhibition of the Wnt signal may provide an effective (or efficient) strategy for these diseases. Cell-based luciferase assay targeting the Wnt signal (TOP assay) revealed that Hibiscus ficulneus extract inhibited the Wnt signal. The activity-guided isolation of the MeOH extract of H. ficulneus stems yielded four known (1-4) lignans along with myriceric acid (5). Compounds 1-4 potently inhibited the Wnt signal with TOPflash IC50 values of 1.0, 4.5, 6.3, and 1.9 μM, respectively. Compound 1 exhibited cytotoxicity against both Wnt-dependent (HCT116) and Wnt-independent (RKO) cells. Western blot analysis showed that 1 decreased the expression of full, cytosolic and nuclear β-catenin along with c-myc in STF/293 cells. Our results suggested that 1 may have inhibited the Wnt signal by decreasing β-catenin levels. PMID:26026364

  13. TLR4 Activation Promotes Bone Marrow MSC Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation via Wnt3a and Wnt5a Signaling

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaoqing; Wang, Hai; Jin, Tao; Xu, Yongqing; Mei, Liangbin; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from adult bone marrow maintain their self-renewal ability and the ability to differentiate into osteoblast. Thus, adult bone marrow MSCs play a key role in the regeneration of bone tissue. Previous studies indicated that TLR4 is expressed in MSCs and is critical in regulating the fate decision of MSCs. However, the exact functional role and underlying mechanisms of how TLR4 regulate bone marrow MSC proliferation and differentiation are unclear. Here, we found that activated TLR4 by its ligand LPS promoted the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. TLR4 activation by LPS also increased cytokine IL-6 and IL-1β production in MSCs. In addition, LPS treatment has no effect on inducing cell death of MSCs. Deletion of TLR4 expression in MSCs completely eliminated the effects of LPS on MSC proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and cytokine production. We also found that the mRNA and protein expression of Wnt3a and Wnt5a, two important factors in regulating MSC fate decision, was upregulated in a TLR4-dependent manner. Silencing Wnt3a with specific siRNA remarkably inhibited TLR4-induced MSC proliferation, while Wnt5a specific siRNA treatment significantly antagonized TLR4-induced MSC osteogenic differentiation. These results together suggested that TLR4 regulates bone marrow MSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation through Wnt3a and Wnt5a signaling. These finding provide new data to understand the role and the molecular mechanisms of TLR4 in regulating bone marrow MSC functions. These data also provide new insight in developing new therapy in bone regeneration using MSCs by modulating TLR4 and Wnt signaling activity. PMID:26930594

  14. Activation of Wnt3a signaling promotes myogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in mdx mice

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yan-chang; Wang, Shu-hui; Xiong, Fu; Peng, Fu-ning; Liu, Zhen-shan; Geng, Jia; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked genetic muscular disorder with no effective treatment at present. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has been used to treat DMD, but the efficiency is low. Our previous studies show that activation of Wnt3a signaling promotes myogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. Here we report an effective MSC transplantation therapy in mdx mice by activation of Wnt3a signaling. Methods: MSCs were isolated from mouse bone marrow, and pretreated with Wnt3a-conditioned medium (Wnt3a-CM), then transplanted into mdx mice. The recipient mice were euthanized at 4, 8, 12, 16 weeks after the transplantation, and muscle pathological changes were examined. The expression of dystrophin in muscle was detected using immunofluorescence staining, RT-PCR and Western blotting. Results: Sixteen weeks later, transplantation of Wnt3a-pretreated MSCs in mdx mice improved the characteristics of dystrophic muscles evidenced by significant reductions in centrally nucleated myofibers, the variability range of cross-sectional area (CSA) and the connective tissue area of myofibers. Furthermore, transplantation of Wnt3a-pretreated MSCs in mdx mice gradually and markedly increased the expression of dystrophin in muscle, and improved the efficiency of myogenic differentiation. Conclusion: Transplantation of Wnt3a-pretreated MSCs in mdx mice results in long-term amelioration of the dystrophic phenotype and restores dystrophin expression in muscle. The results suggest that Wnt3a may be a promising candidate for the treatment of DMD. PMID:27133298

  15. Opposing activities of Notch and Wnt signaling regulate intestinal stem cells and gut homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hua; Biehs, Brian; Chiu, Cecilia; Siebel, Christian W; Wu, Yan; Costa, Mike; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D

    2015-04-01

    Proper organ homeostasis requires tight control of adult stem cells and differentiation through the integration of multiple inputs. In the mouse small intestine, Notch and Wnt signaling are required both for stem cell maintenance and for a proper balance of differentiation between secretory and absorptive cell lineages. In the absence of Notch signaling, stem cells preferentially generate secretory cells at the expense of absorptive cells. Here, we use function-blocking antibodies against Notch receptors to demonstrate that Notch blockade perturbs intestinal stem cell function by causing a derepression of the Wnt signaling pathway, leading to misexpression of prosecretory genes. Importantly, attenuation of the Wnt pathway rescued the phenotype associated with Notch blockade. These studies bring to light a negative regulatory mechanism that maintains stem cell activity and balanced differentiation, and we propose that the interaction between Wnt and Notch signaling described here represents a common theme in adult stem cell biology. PMID:25818302

  16. Wnt Signaling in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Takuo; Michigami, Toshimi; Ozono, Keiichi

    2010-01-01

    Wnt signaling is involved not only in embryonic development but also in maintenance of homeostasis in postnatal tissues. Multiple lines of evidence have increased understanding of the roles of Wnt signaling in bone since mutations in the LRP5 gene were identified in human bone diseases. Canonical Wnt signaling promotes mesenchymal progenitor cells to differentiate into osteoblasts. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway possibly through Lrp6, a co-receptor for Wnts as well as Lrp5, in osteoblasts regulates bone resorption by increasing the OPG/RANKL ratio. However, endogenous inhibitors of Wnt signaling including sclerostin block bone formation. Regulation of sclerostin appears to be one of the mechanisms of PTH anabolic actions on bone. Since sclerostin is almost exclusively expressed in osteocytes, inhibition of sclerostin is the most promising design. Surprisingly, Lrp5 controls bone formation by inhibiting serotonin synthesis in the duodenum, but not by directly promoting bone formation. Pharmacological intervention may be considered in many components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, although adverse effects and tumorigenicity to other tissues are important. More studies will be needed to fully understand how the Wnt signaling pathway actually influences bone metabolism and to assure the safety of new interventions. PMID:23926379

  17. Dishevelled attenuates the repelling activity of Wnt signaling during neurite outgrowth in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chaogu; Diaz-Cuadros, Margarete; Chalfie, Martin

    2015-10-27

    Wnt proteins regulate axonal outgrowth along the anterior-posterior axis, but the intracellular mechanisms that modulate the strength of Wnt signaling in axon guidance are largely unknown. Using the Caenorhabditis elegans mechanosensory PLM neurons, we found that posteriorly enriched LIN-44/Wnt acts as a repellent to promote anteriorly directed neurite outgrowth through the LIN-17/Frizzled receptor, instead of controlling neuronal polarity as previously thought. Dishevelled (Dsh) proteins DSH-1 and MIG-5 redundantly mediate the repulsive activity of the Wnt signals to induce anterior outgrowth, whereas DSH-1 also provides feedback inhibition to attenuate the signaling to allow posterior outgrowth against the Wnt gradient. This inhibitory function of DSH-1, which requires its dishevelled, Egl-10, and pleckstrin (DEP) domain, acts by promoting LIN-17 phosphorylation and is antagonized by planar cell polarity signaling components Van Gogh (VANG-1) and Prickle (PRKL-1). Our results suggest that Dsh proteins both respond to Wnt signals to shape neuronal projections and moderate its activity to fine-tune neuronal morphology. PMID:26460008

  18. Dishevelled attenuates the repelling activity of Wnt signaling during neurite outgrowth in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chaogu; Diaz-Cuadros, Margarete; Chalfie, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Wnt proteins regulate axonal outgrowth along the anterior–posterior axis, but the intracellular mechanisms that modulate the strength of Wnt signaling in axon guidance are largely unknown. Using the Caenorhabditis elegans mechanosensory PLM neurons, we found that posteriorly enriched LIN-44/Wnt acts as a repellent to promote anteriorly directed neurite outgrowth through the LIN-17/Frizzled receptor, instead of controlling neuronal polarity as previously thought. Dishevelled (Dsh) proteins DSH-1 and MIG-5 redundantly mediate the repulsive activity of the Wnt signals to induce anterior outgrowth, whereas DSH-1 also provides feedback inhibition to attenuate the signaling to allow posterior outgrowth against the Wnt gradient. This inhibitory function of DSH-1, which requires its dishevelled, Egl-10, and pleckstrin (DEP) domain, acts by promoting LIN-17 phosphorylation and is antagonized by planar cell polarity signaling components Van Gogh (VANG-1) and Prickle (PRKL-1). Our results suggest that Dsh proteins both respond to Wnt signals to shape neuronal projections and moderate its activity to fine-tune neuronal morphology. PMID:26460008

  19. Wnt Signaling Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation by Activating Canonical and Noncanonical cAMP/PKA Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Weivoda, Megan M; Ruan, Ming; Hachfeld, Christine M; Pederson, Larry; Howe, Alan; Davey, Rachel A; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Williams, Bart O; Westendorf, Jennifer J; Khosla, Sundeep; Oursler, Merry Jo

    2016-01-01

    Although there has been extensive characterization of the Wnt signaling pathway in the osteoblast lineage, the effects of Wnt proteins on the osteoclast lineage are less well studied. We found that osteoclast lineage cells express canonical Wnt receptors. Wnt3a reduced osteoclast formation when applied to early bone-marrow macrophage (BMM) osteoclast differentiation cultures, whereas late addition did not suppress osteoclast formation. Early Wnt3a treatment inactivated the crucial transcription factor NFATc1 in osteoclast progenitors. Wnt3a led to the accumulation of nuclear β-catenin, confirming activation of canonical Wnt signaling. Reducing low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins (Lrp) 5 and Lrp6 protein expression prevented Wnt3a-induced inactivation of NFATc1; however, deletion of β-catenin did not block Wnt3a inactivation of NFATc1, suggesting that this effect was mediated by a noncanonical pathway. Wnt3a rapidly activated the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway and pharmacological stimulation of cAMP/PKA signaling suppressed osteoclast differentiation; Wnt3a-induced NFATc1 phosphorylation was blocked by inhibiting interactions between PKA and A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). These data indicate that Wnt3a directly suppresses osteoclast differentiation through both canonical (β-catenin) and noncanonical (cAMP/PKA) pathways in osteoclast precursors. In vivo reduction of Lrp5 and Lrp6 expressions in the early osteoclast lineage via Rank promoter Cre recombination reduced trabecular bone mass, whereas disruption of Lrp5/6 expression in late osteoclast precursors via cathepsin K (Ctsk) promoter Cre recombination did not alter the skeletal phenotype. Surprisingly, reduction of Lrp5/6 in the early osteoclast lineage decreased osteoclast numbers, as well as osteoblast numbers. Published studies have previously noted that β-catenin signaling is required for osteoclast progenitor proliferation. Our in vivo data

  20. Secreted and transmembrane wnt inhibitors and activators.

    PubMed

    Cruciat, Cristina-Maria; Niehrs, Christof

    2013-03-01

    Signaling by the Wnt family of secreted glycoproteins plays important roles in embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Wnt signaling is modulated by a number of evolutionarily conserved inhibitors and activators. Wnt inhibitors belong to small protein families, including sFRP, Dkk, WIF, Wise/SOST, Cerberus, IGFBP, Shisa, Waif1, APCDD1, and Tiki1. Their common feature is to antagonize Wnt signaling by preventing ligand-receptor interactions or Wnt receptor maturation. Conversely, the Wnt activators, R-spondin and Norrin, promote Wnt signaling by binding to Wnt receptors or releasing a Wnt-inhibitory step. With few exceptions, these antagonists and agonists are not pure Wnt modulators, but also affect additional signaling pathways, such as TGF-β and FGF signaling. Here we discuss their interactions with Wnt ligands and Wnt receptors, their role in developmental processes, as well as their implication in disease. PMID:23085770

  1. Wnt Signaling in Cancer Stem Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa e Melo, Felipe; Vermeulen, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant regulation of Wnt signaling is a common theme seen across many tumor types. Decades of research have unraveled the epigenetic and genetic alterations that result in elevated Wnt pathway activity. More recently, it has become apparent that Wnt signaling levels identify stem-like tumor cells that are responsible for fueling tumor growth. As therapeutic targeting of these tumor stem cells is an intense area of investigation, a concise understanding on how Wnt activity relates to cancer stem cell traits is needed. This review attempts at summarizing the intricacies between Wnt signaling and cancer stem cell biology with a special emphasis on colorectal cancer. PMID:27355964

  2. Activation of the wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in Polymyositis, Dermatomyositis and Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fuchen; Liang, Zonglai; Xu, Jingwen; Li, Wei; Zhao, Dandan; Zhao, Yuying

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a critical role in embryonic development and adult-tissue homeostasis. Recent investigations implicate the importance of wnt/β-catenin signaling in normal wound healing and its sustained activation being associated with fibrogenesis. We investigated the immunolocalization and activation of wnt/β-catenin in polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods Immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis of β-catenin were performed in muscle specimens from 6 PM, 8 DM, and 6 DMD subjects. The β-catenin/Tcf4 DNA-binding activity in muscle was studied using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and serum wnt/β-catenin/Tcf transcriptional activity was measured using a luciferase reporter gene assay. Results Immunoreactivity for β-catenin was found in the cytoplasm and nuclei of muscle fibers in PM, DM, and DMD. The protein level of β-catenin was elevated, and EMSA analysis confirmed the activation of wnt/β-catenin signaling. The transcriptional activities of β-catenin/Tcf in the circulation were increased in patients with PM, DM, and DMD, especially in those with interstitial lung disease, and these transcriptional activities decreased when PM or DM patients exhibited obvious clinical improvements. Conclusions Our findings indicate that wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated in PM, DM, and DMD. Its activation in muscle tissue and the circulation may play a role in modulating muscle regeneration and be at least partly involved in the process of muscle and pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:27165423

  3. WNT signaling in glioblastoma and therapeutic opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeri; Lee, Jin-Ku; Ahn, Sun Hee; Lee, Jeongwu; Nam, Do-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    WNTs and their downstream effectors regulate proliferation, death, and migration and cell fate decision. Deregulation of WNT signaling is associated with various cancers including GBM, which is the most malignant primary brain cancer. In this review, we will summarize the experimental evidence supporting oncogenic roles of WNT signaling in GBM and discuss current progress in the targeting of WNT signaling as an anti-cancer approach. In particular, we will focus on (1) genetic and epigenetic alterations that lead to aberrant WNT pathway activation in GBM, (2) WNT-mediated control of GBM stem cell maintenance and invasion, and (3) cross-talk between WNT and other signaling pathways in GBM. We will then review the discovery of agents that can inhibit WNT signaling in preclinical models and the current status of human clinical trials. PMID:26641068

  4. Wnt5a Signaling in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Asem, Marwa S; Buechler, Steven; Wates, Rebecca Burkhalter; Miller, Daniel L; Stack, M Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Wnt5a is involved in activating several non-canonical WNT signaling pathways, through binding to different members of the Frizzled- and Ror-family receptors. Wnt5a signaling is critical for regulating normal developmental processes, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, adhesion and polarity. However, the aberrant activation or inhibition of Wnt5a signaling is emerging as an important event in cancer progression, exerting both oncogenic and tumor suppressive effects. Recent studies show the involvement of Wnt5a in regulating cancer cell invasion, metastasis, metabolism and inflammation. In this article, we review findings regarding the molecular mechanisms and roles of Wnt5a signaling in various cancer types, and highlight Wnt5a in ovarian cancer. PMID:27571105

  5. Extracellular activation of Wnt signaling through epigenetic dysregulation of Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (Wif-1) is associated with pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumor.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Yozo; Yasumoto, Hiroaki; Nagami, Taichi; Hiraki, Miho; Arichi, Naoko; Ishikawa, Noriyoshi; Araki, Asuka; Maruyama, Riruke; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Dahiya, Rajvir; Shiina, Hiroaki

    2014-04-30

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling is considered to be an essential regulator of adrenocortical oncogenesis. Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (Wif-1), an extracellular regulator of Wnt signaling, is frequently down-regulated by hypermethylation of the promoter CpG. We investigated epigenetic regulation of Wif-1 and its association with adrenocortical (AC) tumor pathogenesis in light of Wnt activation. The AC tumors showed a high prevalence of Wif-1 promoter methylation and low prevalence of Wif-1 mRNA transcription as compared to the normal adrenal (NA) samples. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between Wif-1 promoter methylation and mRNA transcription in the tumors. Either intracellular β-catenin accumulation or β-catenin mRNA transcription was significantly elevated in the AC tumors, which also showed an inverse correlation with Wif-1 mRNA transcription. Cyclin D1, a target gene of Wnt signaling, was also up-regulated in the AC tumors as compared with the NA samples. In addition, down-regulation of Wif-1 was correlated with increased cyclin D1 at both mRNA and protein levels. However, despite the proposed activation of Wnt signaling in AC tumors, only 2 of 20 with intracellular β-catenin accumulation showed β-catenin mutations. Thus, genetic alterations of β-catenin and epigenetics-related Wif-1 promoter hypermethylation may be important mechanisms underlying AC tumor formation though aberrant canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling activation. PMID:24755523

  6. The activation of Wnt signaling by a STAT6-dependent macrophage phenotype promotes mucosal repair in murine IBD.

    PubMed

    Cosín-Roger, J; Ortiz-Masiá, D; Calatayud, S; Hernández, C; Esplugues, J V; Barrachina, M D

    2016-07-01

    The complete repair of the mucosa constitutes a key goal in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treatment. The Wnt signaling pathway mediates mucosal repair and M2 macrophages that coordinate efficient healing have been related to Wnt ligand expression. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) mediates M2 polarization in vitro and we hypothesize that a STAT6-dependent macrophage phenotype mediates mucosal repair in acute murine colitis by activating the Wnt signaling pathway. Our results reveal an impaired mucosal expression of M2 macrophage-associated genes and delayed wound healing in STAT6(-/-) mice treated with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). These mice also exhibited decreased mucosal expression of Wnt2b, Wnt7b, and Wnt10a, diminished protein levels of nuclear β-catenin that is mainly located in crypts adjacent to damage, and reduced mRNA expression of two Wnt/β-catenin target molecules Lgr5 and c-Myc when compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Murine peritoneal macrophages treated with interleukin-4 (IL-4) and polarized toward an M2a phenotype overexpressed Wnt2b, Wnt7b, and Wnt10a in a STAT6-dependent manner. Administration of a Wnt agonist as well as transfer of properly polarized M2a macrophages to STAT6(-/-) mice activated the Wnt signaling pathway in the damaged mucosa and accelerated wound healing. Our results demonstrate that a STAT6-dependent macrophage phenotype promotes mucosal repair in TNBS-treated mice through activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. PMID:26601901

  7. Epigenetic Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in NAFLD-Associated Hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuan; Mok, Myth T S; Yang, Pengyuan; Cheng, Alfred S L

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by fat accumulation in liver, is closely associated with central obesity, over-nutrition and other features of metabolic syndrome, which elevate the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a significant role in the physiology and pathology of liver. Up to half of HCC patients have activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. However, the mutation frequencies of CTNNB1 (encoding β-catenin protein) or other antagonists targeting Wnt/β-catenin signaling are low in HCC patients, suggesting that genetic mutations are not the major factor driving abnormal β-catenin activities in HCC. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that obesity-induced metabolic pathways can deregulate chromatin modifiers such as histone deacetylase 8 to trigger undesired global epigenetic changes, thereby modifying gene expression program which contributes to oncogenic signaling. This review focuses on the aberrant epigenetic activation of Wnt/β-catenin in the development of NAFLD-associated HCC. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying such deregulation may shed light on the identification of novel druggable epigenetic targets for the prevention and/or treatment of HCC in obese and diabetic patients. PMID:27556491

  8. Epigenetic Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in NAFLD-Associated Hepatocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuan; Mok, Myth T.S.; Yang, Pengyuan; Cheng, Alfred S.L.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by fat accumulation in liver, is closely associated with central obesity, over-nutrition and other features of metabolic syndrome, which elevate the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a significant role in the physiology and pathology of liver. Up to half of HCC patients have activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. However, the mutation frequencies of CTNNB1 (encoding β-catenin protein) or other antagonists targeting Wnt/β-catenin signaling are low in HCC patients, suggesting that genetic mutations are not the major factor driving abnormal β-catenin activities in HCC. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that obesity-induced metabolic pathways can deregulate chromatin modifiers such as histone deacetylase 8 to trigger undesired global epigenetic changes, thereby modifying gene expression program which contributes to oncogenic signaling. This review focuses on the aberrant epigenetic activation of Wnt/β-catenin in the development of NAFLD-associated HCC. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying such deregulation may shed light on the identification of novel druggable epigenetic targets for the prevention and/or treatment of HCC in obese and diabetic patients. PMID:27556491

  9. Activated Wnt signaling induces myofibroblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, contributing to pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhaorui; Wang, Cong; Shi, Chaowen; Sun, Fangfang; Xu, Xiaomeng; Qian, Weiping; Nie, Shinan; Han, Xiaodong

    2014-05-01

    Acute lung injury may lead to fibrogenesis. However, no treatment is currently available. This study was conducted to determine the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in a model of HCl-induced acute lung injury in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 and its receptor CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)4 have been shown to participate in mobilizing MSCs. Adenovirus carrying the CXCR4 gene was used to transfect MSCs in order to increase the engraftment numbers of MSCs at injured sites. Histological examination data demonstrated that the engraftment of MSCs did not attenuate lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis. The results showed that engraftment of MSCs almost differentiated into myofibroblasts, but rarely differentiated into lung epithelial cells. Additionally, it was demonstrated that activated canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling in injured lung tissue regulated the myofibroblast differentiation of MSCs in vivo. The in vitro study results demonstrated that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling stimulated MSCs to express myofibroblast markers; however, this process was attenuated by Wnt antagonist DKK1. Therefore, the results demonstrated that the aberrant activation of Wnt signaling induces the myofibroblast differentiation of engrafted MSCs, thus contributing to pulmonary fibrosis following lung injury. PMID:24573542

  10. Wnt signaling and the activation of myogenesis in mammals.

    PubMed

    Cossu, G; Borello, U

    1999-12-15

    In the amniote embryos, specification of skeletal myoblasts occurs in the paraxial mesoderm in response to a number of signaling molecules produced by neighboring tissues such as neural tube, notochord and dorsal ectoderm. Candidate molecules for this complex signaling activity include Sonic hedgehog, Wnts and Noggin as positive activators and BMP4 as a possible inhibitor. Recently, the receptors and the post-receptor pathways for Sonic hedgehog and Wnts have been characterized, and this has opened up the possibility of linking these signaling events to the activation of myogenic regulatory factor genes such as Myf5 and MyoD and functionally related genes such as Pax3. Here we focus on the role of Wnts, their putative receptors Frizzled and the soluble antagonist Frzb1 in regulating mammalian myogenesis. Although it is becoming evident that the signaling downstream of Frizzled receptors is much more complex than anticipated, it is conceivable that it may lead to transcriptional activation of Myf5 and MyoD and to initiation of myogenesis. However, the fact that both Wnts and Sonic hedgehog have a strong effect on cell proliferation and survival suggests that they may contribute to the overall process of myogenesis by a combination of these different biological activities. PMID:10601008

  11. Wnt signaling and the activation of myogenesis in mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Cossu, G; Borello, U

    1999-01-01

    In the amniote embryos, specification of skeletal myoblasts occurs in the paraxial mesoderm in response to a number of signaling molecules produced by neighboring tissues such as neural tube, notochord and dorsal ectoderm. Candidate molecules for this complex signaling activity include Sonic hedgehog, Wnts and Noggin as positive activators and BMP4 as a possible inhibitor. Recently, the receptors and the post-receptor pathways for Sonic hedgehog and Wnts have been characterized, and this has opened up the possibility of linking these signaling events to the activation of myogenic regulatory factor genes such as Myf5 and MyoD and functionally related genes such as Pax3. Here we focus on the role of Wnts, their putative receptors Frizzled and the soluble antagonist Frzb1 in regulating mammalian myogenesis. Although it is becoming evident that the signaling downstream of Frizzled receptors is much more complex than anticipated, it is conceivable that it may lead to transcriptional activation of Myf5 and MyoD and to initiation of myogenesis. However, the fact that both Wnts and Sonic hedgehog have a strong effect on cell proliferation and survival suggests that they may contribute to the overall process of myogenesis by a combination of these different biological activities. PMID:10601008

  12. Hyperactivated Wnt signaling induces synthetic lethal interaction with Rb inactivation by elevating TORC1 activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianyi; Liao, Yang; Hsu, Fu-Ning; Zhang, Robin; Searle, Jennifer S; Pei, Xun; Li, Xuan; Ryoo, Hyung Don; Ji, Jun-Yuan; Du, Wei

    2014-05-01

    Inactivation of the Rb tumor suppressor can lead to increased cell proliferation or cell death depending on specific cellular context. Therefore, identification of the interacting pathways that modulate the effect of Rb loss will provide novel insights into the roles of Rb in cancer development and promote new therapeutic strategies. Here, we identify a novel synthetic lethal interaction between Rb inactivation and deregulated Wg/Wnt signaling through unbiased genetic screens. We show that a weak allele of axin, which deregulates Wg signaling and increases cell proliferation without obvious effects on cell fate specification, significantly alters metabolic gene expression, causes hypersensitivity to metabolic stress induced by fasting, and induces synergistic apoptosis with mutation of fly Rb ortholog, rbf. Furthermore, hyperactivation of Wg signaling by other components of the Wg pathway also induces synergistic apoptosis with rbf. We show that hyperactivated Wg signaling significantly increases TORC1 activity and induces excessive energy stress with rbf mutation. Inhibition of TORC1 activity significantly suppressed synergistic cell death induced by hyperactivated Wg signaling and rbf inactivation, which is correlated with decreased energy stress and decreased induction of apoptotic regulator expression. Finally the synthetic lethality between Rb and deregulated Wnt signaling is conserved in mammalian cells and that inactivation of Rb and APC induces synergistic cell death through a similar mechanism. These results suggest that elevated TORC1 activity and metabolic stress underpin the evolutionarily conserved synthetic lethal interaction between hyperactivated Wnt signaling and inactivated Rb tumor suppressor. PMID:24809668

  13. Extracellular modulators of Wnt signalling.

    PubMed

    Malinauskas, Tomas; Jones, E Yvonne

    2014-12-01

    Wnt morphogens are secreted signalling proteins that play leading roles in embryogenesis and tissue homeostasis throughout life. Wnt signalling is controlled by multiple mechanisms, including posttranslational modification of Wnts, antagonist binding (to Wnts or their receptors), and regulation of the availability of Wnt receptors. Recent crystallographic, structure-guided biophysical and cell-based studies have advanced our understanding of how Wnt signalling is regulated at the cell surface. Structures include Wnt in complex with the cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of Frizzled, extracellular fragments of Wnt co-receptor LRP6, LRP6-binding antagonists Dickkopf and Sclerostin, antagonists 5T4/WAIF1 and Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF-1), as well as Frizzled-ubiquitin ligases ZNRF3/RNF43 (in isolation and in complexes with Wnt signalling promoters R-spondins and LGR5). We review recent discoveries and remaining questions. PMID:25460271

  14. R26-WntVis reporter mice showing graded response to Wnt signal levels.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Tatsuya; Abe, Takaya; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Nakao, Kazuki; Furuta, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Hitomi; Takada, Shinji; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Kondoh, Hisato

    2016-06-01

    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway plays a major role in the regulation of embryogenesis and organogenesis, where signal strength-dependent cellular responses are of particular importance. To assess Wnt signal levels in individual cells, and to circumvent the integration site-dependent bias shown in previous Wnt reporter lines, we constructed a new Wnt signal reporter mouse line R26-WntVis. Heptameric TCF/LEF1 binding sequences were combined with a viral minimal promoter to confer a graded response to the reporter depending on Wnt signal strengths. The histone H2B-EGFP fusion protein was chosen as the fluorescent reporter to facilitate single-cell resolution analyses. This WntVis reporter gene was then inserted into the ROSA26 locus in an orientation opposite to that of the endogenous gene. The R26-WntVis allele was introduced into Wnt3a(-/-) and Wnt3a(vt/-) mutant mouse embryos and compared with wild-type embryos to assess its performance. The R26-WntVis reporter was activated in known Wnt-dependent tissues and responded in a graded fashion to signal intensity. This analysis also indicated that the major Wnt activity early in embryogenesis switched from Wnt3 to Wnt3a around E7.5. The R26-WntVis mouse line will be widely useful for the study of Wnt signal-dependent processes. PMID:27030109

  15. Ras-activated Dsor1 promotes Wnt signaling in Drosophila development.

    PubMed

    Hall, Eric T; Verheyen, Esther M

    2015-12-15

    Wnt/Wingless (Wg) and Ras-MAPK signaling both play fundamental roles in growth and cell fate determination, and when dysregulated, can lead to tumorigenesis. Several conflicting modes of interaction between Ras-MAPK and Wnt signaling have been identified in specific cellular contexts, causing synergistic or antagonistic effects on target genes. We find novel evidence that the Drosophila homolog of the dual specificity kinases MEK1/2 (also known as MAP2K1/2), Downstream of Raf1 (Dsor1), is required for Wnt signaling. Knockdown of Dsor1 results in loss of Wg target gene expression, as well as reductions in stabilized Armadillo (Arm; Drosophila β-catenin). We identify a close physical interaction between Dsor1 and Arm, and find that catalytically inactive Dsor1 causes a reduction in active Arm. These results suggest that Dsor1 normally counteracts the Axin-mediated destruction of Arm. We find that Ras-Dsor1 activity is independent of upstream activation by EGFR, and instead it appears to be activated by the insulin-like growth factor receptor to promote Wg signaling. Taken together, our results suggest that there is a new crosstalk pathway between insulin and Wg signaling that is mediated by Dsor1. PMID:26542023

  16. Daple is a novel non-receptor GEF required for trimeric G protein activation in Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Aznar, Nicolas; Midde, Krishna K; Dunkel, Ying; Lopez-Sanchez, Inmaculada; Pavlova, Yelena; Marivin, Arthur; Barbazán, Jorge; Murray, Fiona; Nitsche, Ulrich; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Willert, Karl; Goel, Ajay; Abal, Miguel; Garcia-Marcos, Mikel; Ghosh, Pradipta

    2015-01-01

    Wnt signaling is essential for tissue homeostasis and its dysregulation causes cancer. Wnt ligands trigger signaling by activating Frizzled receptors (FZDRs), which belong to the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. However, the mechanisms of G protein activation in Wnt signaling remain controversial. In this study, we demonstrate that FZDRs activate G proteins and trigger non-canonical Wnt signaling via the Dishevelled-binding protein, Daple. Daple contains a Gα-binding and activating (GBA) motif, which activates Gαi proteins and an adjacent domain that directly binds FZDRs, thereby linking Wnt stimulation to G protein activation. This triggers non-canonical Wnt responses, that is, suppresses the β-catenin/TCF/LEF pathway and tumorigenesis, but enhances PI3K-Akt and Rac1 signals and tumor cell invasiveness. In colorectal cancers, Daple is suppressed during adenoma-to-carcinoma transformation and expressed later in metastasized tumor cells. Thus, Daple activates Gαi and enhances non-canonical Wnt signaling by FZDRs, and its dysregulation can impact both tumor initiation and progression to metastasis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07091.001 PMID:26126266

  17. Daple is a novel non-receptor GEF required for trimeric G protein activation in Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Nicolas; Midde, Krishna K; Dunkel, Ying; Lopez-Sanchez, Inmaculada; Pavlova, Yelena; Marivin, Arthur; Barbazán, Jorge; Murray, Fiona; Nitsche, Ulrich; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Willert, Karl; Goel, Ajay; Abal, Miguel; Garcia-Marcos, Mikel; Ghosh, Pradipta

    2015-01-01

    Wnt signaling is essential for tissue homeostasis and its dysregulation causes cancer. Wnt ligands trigger signaling by activating Frizzled receptors (FZDRs), which belong to the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. However, the mechanisms of G protein activation in Wnt signaling remain controversial. In this study, we demonstrate that FZDRs activate G proteins and trigger non-canonical Wnt signaling via the Dishevelled-binding protein, Daple. Daple contains a Gα-binding and activating (GBA) motif, which activates Gαi proteins and an adjacent domain that directly binds FZDRs, thereby linking Wnt stimulation to G protein activation. This triggers non-canonical Wnt responses, that is, suppresses the β-catenin/TCF/LEF pathway and tumorigenesis, but enhances PI3K-Akt and Rac1 signals and tumor cell invasiveness. In colorectal cancers, Daple is suppressed during adenoma-to-carcinoma transformation and expressed later in metastasized tumor cells. Thus, Daple activates Gαi and enhances non-canonical Wnt signaling by FZDRs, and its dysregulation can impact both tumor initiation and progression to metastasis. PMID:26126266

  18. Continuous tooth generation in mouse is induced by activated epithelial Wnt/β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Elina; Salazar-Ciudad, Isaac; Birchmeier, Walter; Taketo, Makoto M.; Jernvall, Jukka; Thesleff, Irma

    2006-01-01

    The single replacement from milk teeth to permanent teeth makes mammalian teeth different from teeth of most nonmammalian vertebrates and other epithelial organs such as hair and feathers, whose continuous replacement has been linked to Wnt signaling. Here we show that mouse tooth buds expressing stabilized β-catenin in epithelium give rise to dozens of teeth. The molar crowns, however, are typically simplified unicusped cones. We demonstrate that the supernumerary teeth develop by a renewal process where new signaling centers, the enamel knots, bud off from the existing dental epithelium. The basic aspects of the unlocked tooth renewal can be reproduced with a computer model on tooth development by increasing the intrinsic level of activator production, supporting the role of β-catenin pathway as an upstream activator of enamel knot formation. These results may implicate Wnt signaling in tooth renewal, a capacity that was all but lost when mammals evolved progressively more complicated tooth shapes. PMID:17121988

  19. Continuous tooth generation in mouse is induced by activated epithelial Wnt/beta-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, Elina; Salazar-Ciudad, Isaac; Birchmeier, Walter; Taketo, Makoto M; Jernvall, Jukka; Thesleff, Irma

    2006-12-01

    The single replacement from milk teeth to permanent teeth makes mammalian teeth different from teeth of most nonmammalian vertebrates and other epithelial organs such as hair and feathers, whose continuous replacement has been linked to Wnt signaling. Here we show that mouse tooth buds expressing stabilized beta-catenin in epithelium give rise to dozens of teeth. The molar crowns, however, are typically simplified unicusped cones. We demonstrate that the supernumerary teeth develop by a renewal process where new signaling centers, the enamel knots, bud off from the existing dental epithelium. The basic aspects of the unlocked tooth renewal can be reproduced with a computer model on tooth development by increasing the intrinsic level of activator production, supporting the role of beta-catenin pathway as an upstream activator of enamel knot formation. These results may implicate Wnt signaling in tooth renewal, a capacity that was all but lost when mammals evolved progressively more complicated tooth shapes. PMID:17121988

  20. Wnt signaling activation in adipose progenitors promotes insulin-independent muscle glucose uptake

    PubMed Central

    Zeve, Daniel; Seo, Jin; Suh, Jae Myoung; Stenesen, Drew; Tang, Wei; Berglund, Eric D.; Wan, Yihong; Williams, Linda J.; Lim, Ajin; Martinez, Myrna J.; McKay, Renée M.; Millay, Douglas P.; Olson, Eric N.; Graff, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Adipose tissues provide circulating nutrients and hormones. We present in vivo mouse studies highlighting roles for Wnt signals in both aspects of metabolism. β-catenin activation in PPARγ–expressing fat progenitors (PBCA) decreased fat mass and induced fibrotic replacement of subcutaneous fat specifically. In spite of lipodystrophy, PBCA mice did not develop the expected diabetes and hepatosteatosis, but rather exhibited improved glucose metabolism and normal insulin sensitivity. Glucose uptake was increased in muscle independently of insulin, associated with cell surface translocation of glucose transporters and AMPK activation. Ex vivo assays showed these effects were likely secondary to blood-borne signals since PBCA sera or conditioned media from PBCA fat progenitors enhanced glucose uptake and activated AMPK in muscle cultures. Thus, adipose progenitor Wnt activation dissociates lipodystrophy from dysfunctional metabolism and highlights a fat-muscle endocrine axis, which may represent a potential therapy to lower blood glucose and improve metabolism. PMID:22482731

  1. Signal transduction by the Wnt family of ligands.

    PubMed Central

    Dale, T C

    1998-01-01

    The Wnt genes encode a large family of secreted polypeptides that mediate cell-cell communication in diverse developmental processes. The loss or inappropriate activation of Wnt expression has been shown to alter cell fate, morphogenesis and mitogenesis. Recent progress has identified Wnt receptors and components of an intracellular signalling pathway that mediate Wnt-dependent transcription. This review will highlight this 'core' Wnt signal-transduction pathway, but also aims to reveal the potential diversity of Wnt signalling targets. Particular attention will be paid to the overlap between developmental biology and oncogenesis, since recent progress shows Wnt signalling forms a paradigm for an interdisciplinary approach. PMID:9425102

  2. Notch and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway play important roles in activating liver cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ronghua; Sun, Qian; Wang, Peng; Liu, Man; Xiong, Si; Luo, Jing; Huang, Hai; Du, Qiang; Geller, David A; Cheng, Bin

    2016-02-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is driven and maintained by liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) that display stem cell properties. These LCSCs are promoted by the intersecting of Notch and Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathways. In this study, we demonstrate that LCSCs with markers CD90, CD24, CD13, and CD133 possess stem properties of self-renewal and tumorigenicity in NOD/SCID mice. The increased expression of these markers was correlated with advanced disease stage, larger tumors, and worse overall survival in 61 HCC cases. We also found that both Notch and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways played important roles in increasing the stem-ness characteristics of LCSCs. Our data suggested that Notch1 was downstream of Wnt/β-catenin. The active form of Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD) expression depended on Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation. Moreover, Notch1 negatively contributed to Wnt/β-catenin signaling modulation. Knock down of Notch1 with lentivirus N1ShRNA up-regulated the active form of β-catenin. Ectopic expression of NICD with LV-Notch1 in LCSCs attenuated β-catenin/TCF dependent luciferase activity significantly. In addition, there was a non-proteasome mediated feedback loop between Notch1 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in LCSCs. The central role of Notch and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in LCSCs may provide an attractive therapeutic strategy against HCC. PMID:26735577

  3. Protective LRRK2 R1398H Variant Enhances GTPase and Wnt Signaling Activity

    PubMed Central

    Nixon-Abell, Jonathon; Berwick, Daniel C.; Grannó, Simone; Spain, Victoria A.; Blackstone, Craig; Harvey, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in LRRK2 are a common cause of familial and idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD). Recently, the LRRK2 GTPase domain R1398H variant was suggested in genetic studies to confer protection against PD but mechanistic data supporting this is lacking. Here, we present evidence that R1398H affects GTPase function, axon outgrowth, and Wnt signaling in a manner opposite to pathogenic LRRK2 mutations. LRRK2 R1398H GTPase domain dimerization and GTP hydrolysis were increased whereas GTP binding was reduced, leading to a decrease in active GTP-bound LRRK2. This protective variant also increased axon length of primary cortical neurones in comparison to wild-type LRRK2, whereas the R1441G LRRK2 pathogenic mutant decreased axon outgrowth. Importantly, R1398H enhanced the stimulatory effect of LRRK2 on canonical Wnt signaling whereas the G2385R risk variant, in accordance with all previously tested pathogenic LRRK2 mutants, had the opposite effect. Molecular modeling placed R1398H in close proximity to PD-causing mutations suggesting that this protective LRRK2 variant, like familial mutations, affects intramolecular RocCOR domain interactions. Thus, our data suggest that R1398H LRRK2 is a bona fide protective variant. The opposite effects of protective versus PD associated LRRK2 variants on GTPase function and canonical Wnt signaling activity also suggests that regulation of these two basic signaling mechanisms is important for neuronal function. We conclude that LRRK2 mediated Wnt signaling and GTPase function are fundamental in conferring disease susceptibility and have clear implications for therapeutic target identification. PMID:27013965

  4. The Novel Secreted Adipokine WNT1-inducible Signaling Pathway Protein 2 (WISP2) Is a Mesenchymal Cell Activator of Canonical WNT*

    PubMed Central

    Grünberg, John R.; Hammarstedt, Ann; Hedjazifar, Shahram; Smith, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 2 (WISP2) is primarily expressed in mesenchymal stem cells, fibroblasts, and adipogenic precursor cells. It is both a secreted and cytosolic protein, the latter regulating precursor cell adipogenic commitment and PPARγ induction by BMP4. To examine the effect of the secreted protein, we expressed a full-length and a truncated, non-secreted WISP2 in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Secreted, but not truncated WISP2 activated the canonical WNT pathway with increased β-catenin levels, its nuclear targeting phosphorylation, and LRP5/6 phosphorylation. It also inhibited Pparg activation and the effect of secreted WISP2 was reversed by the WNT antagonist DICKKOPF-1. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipose cells were also target cells where extracellular WISP2 activated the canonical WNT pathway, inhibited Pparg and associated adipose genes and, similar to WNT3a, promoted partial dedifferentiation of the cells and the induction of a myofibroblast phenotype with activation of markers of fibrosis. Thus, WISP2 exerts dual actions in mesenchymal precursor cells; secreted WISP2 activates canonical WNT and maintains the cells in an undifferentiated state, whereas cytosolic WISP2 regulates adipogenic commitment. PMID:24451367

  5. Matrix Rigidity Activates Wnt Signaling through Down-regulation of Dickkopf-1 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Barbolina, Maria V.; Liu, Yiuying; Gurler, Hilal; Kim, Mijung; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre A.; Rooper, Lisa; Shepard, Jaclyn; Weiss, Michael; Shea, Lonnie D.; Penzes, Peter; Ravosa, Matthew J.; Stack, M. Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Cells respond to changes in the physical properties of the extracellular matrix with altered behavior and gene expression, highlighting the important role of the microenvironment in the regulation of cell function. In the current study, culture of epithelial ovarian cancer cells on three-dimensional collagen I gels led to a dramatic down-regulation of the Wnt signaling inhibitor dickkopf-1 with a concomitant increase in nuclear β-catenin and enhanced β-catenin/Tcf/Lef transcriptional activity. Increased three-dimensional collagen gel invasion was accompanied by transcriptional up-regulation of the membrane-tethered collagenase membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase, and an inverse relationship between dickkopf-1 and membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase was observed in human epithelial ovarian cancer specimens. Similar results were obtained in other tissue-invasive cells such as vascular endothelial cells, suggesting a novel mechanism for functional coupling of matrix adhesion with Wnt signaling. PMID:23152495

  6. Activated WNT signaling in postnatal SOX2-positive dental stem cells can drive odontoma formation

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Guilherme M.; Patist, Amanda L.; Healy, Chris; Pagrut, Ankita; Carreno, Gabriela; Sharpe, Paul T.; Pedro Martinez-Barbera, Juan; Thavaraj, Selvam; Cobourne, Martyn T.; Andoniadou, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    In common with most mammals, humans form only two dentitions during their lifetime. Occasionally, supernumerary teeth develop in addition to the normal complement. Odontoma represent a small group of malformations containing calcified dental tissues of both epithelial and mesenchymal origin, with varying levels of organization, including tooth-like structures. The specific cell type responsible for the induction of odontoma, which retains the capacity to re-initiate de novo tooth development in postnatal tissues, is not known. Here we demonstrate that aberrant activation of WNT signaling by expression of a non-degradable form of β-catenin specifically in SOX2-positive postnatal dental epithelial stem cells is sufficient to generate odontoma containing multiple tooth-like structures complete with all dental tissue layers. Genetic lineage-tracing confirms that odontoma form in a similar manner to normal teeth, derived from both the mutation-sustaining epithelial stem cells and adjacent mesenchymal tissues. Activation of the WNT pathway in embryonic SOX2-positive progenitors results in ectopic expression of secreted signals that promote odontogenesis throughout the oral cavity. Significantly, the inductive potential of epithelial dental stem cells is retained in postnatal tissues, and up-regulation of WNT signaling specifically in these cells is sufficient to promote generation and growth of ectopic malformations faithfully resembling human odontoma. PMID:26411543

  7. Activated WNT signaling in postnatal SOX2-positive dental stem cells can drive odontoma formation.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Guilherme M; Patist, Amanda L; Healy, Chris; Pagrut, Ankita; Carreno, Gabriela; Sharpe, Paul T; Martinez-Barbera, Juan Pedro; Thavaraj, Selvam; Cobourne, Martyn T; Andoniadou, Cynthia L

    2015-01-01

    In common with most mammals, humans form only two dentitions during their lifetime. Occasionally, supernumerary teeth develop in addition to the normal complement. Odontoma represent a small group of malformations containing calcified dental tissues of both epithelial and mesenchymal origin, with varying levels of organization, including tooth-like structures. The specific cell type responsible for the induction of odontoma, which retains the capacity to re-initiate de novo tooth development in postnatal tissues, is not known. Here we demonstrate that aberrant activation of WNT signaling by expression of a non-degradable form of β-catenin specifically in SOX2-positive postnatal dental epithelial stem cells is sufficient to generate odontoma containing multiple tooth-like structures complete with all dental tissue layers. Genetic lineage-tracing confirms that odontoma form in a similar manner to normal teeth, derived from both the mutation-sustaining epithelial stem cells and adjacent mesenchymal tissues. Activation of the WNT pathway in embryonic SOX2-positive progenitors results in ectopic expression of secreted signals that promote odontogenesis throughout the oral cavity. Significantly, the inductive potential of epithelial dental stem cells is retained in postnatal tissues, and up-regulation of WNT signaling specifically in these cells is sufficient to promote generation and growth of ectopic malformations faithfully resembling human odontoma. PMID:26411543

  8. Wnt Signaling Activates Shh Signaling in Early Postnatal Intervertebral Discs, and Re-Activates Shh Signaling in Old Discs in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Sinner, Debora; Wylie, Christopher C.; Dahia, Chitra Lekha

    2014-01-01

    Intervertebral discs (IVDs) are strong fibrocartilaginous joints that connect adjacent vertebrae of the spine. As discs age they become prone to failure, with neurological consequences that are often severe. Surgical repair of discs treats the result of the disease, which affects as many as one in seven people, rather than its cause. An ideal solution would be to repair degenerating discs using the mechanisms of their normal differentiation. However, these mechanisms are poorly understood. Using the mouse as a model, we previously showed that Shh signaling produced by nucleus pulposus cells activates the expression of differentiation markers, and cell proliferation, in the postnatal IVD. In the present study, we show that canonical Wnt signaling is required for the expression of Shh signaling targets in the IVD. We also show that Shh and canonical Wnt signaling pathways are down-regulated in adult IVDs. Furthermore, this down-regulation is reversible, since re-activation of the Wnt or Shh pathways in older discs can re-activate molecular markers of the IVD that are lost with age. These data suggest that biological treatments targeting Wnt and Shh signaling pathways may be feasible as a therapeutic for degenerative disc disease. PMID:24892825

  9. Aberrant Wnt Signaling in Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Staal, Frank J T; Famili, Farbod; Garcia Perez, Laura; Pike-Overzet, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is essential in the development and homeostasis of blood and immune cells, but its exact role is still controversial and is the subject of intense research. The malignant counterpart of normal hematopoietic cells, leukemic (stem) cells, have hijacked the Wnt pathway for their self-renewal and proliferation. Here we review the multiple ways dysregulated Wnt signaling can contribute to leukemogenesis, both cell autonomously as well as by changes in the microenvironment. PMID:27571104

  10. Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway contributes to the sequential progression of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Vidya Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi; Senthil Murugan, Ramalingam; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2012-01-01

    Wnt signaling pathway mediated via interactions between β-catenin and members of the TCF/LEF-1 family of transcription factors plays a central role in the regulation of epithelial cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, adhesion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and invasion. Aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway with overexpression of Wnt and Fz, mutations of APC, β-catenin, and axin 1, and cytoplasmic accumulation of β-catenin have been frequently reported in a broad spectrum of human malignancies including oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). However, changes in the components of the Wnt signaling pathway have not been documented during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis, a paradigm for oral oncogenesis and chemointervention. In this study, we evaluated the role of β-catenin accumulation and Wnt ligands, Wnt signaling members (Fz, Dvl, APC, GSK-3β, axin, and WIF) and the downstream targets of Wnt (cyclin D1, MMP-2, and MMP-9) during the sequential progression of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analyses. Our data reveal a correlation between β-catenin accumulation and activation of Wnt signaling, and its downstream effector molecules during the sequential development of HBP carcinomas from hyperplasia to invasive carcinoma through dysplasia. Our data also support a pivotal role for β-catenin in the malignant transition of the HBP. Aberrant Wnt signaling may be a hallmark of progression to malignancy during DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis and could be a potential preventive and therapeutic target for suppression of OSCC. PMID:21924667

  11. Fezf2 promotes neuronal differentiation through localised activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling during forebrain development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Siwei; Li, Jingjing; Lea, Robert; Vleminckx, Kris; Amaya, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Brain regionalisation, neuronal subtype diversification and circuit connectivity are crucial events in the establishment of higher cognitive functions. Here we report the requirement for the transcriptional repressor Fezf2 for proper differentiation of neural progenitor cells during the development of the Xenopus forebrain. Depletion of Fezf2 induces apoptosis in postmitotic neural progenitors, with concomitant reduction in forebrain size and neuronal differentiation. Mechanistically, we found that Fezf2 stimulates neuronal differentiation by promoting Wnt/β-catenin signalling in the developing forebrain. In addition, we show that Fezf2 promotes activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling by repressing the expression of two negative regulators of Wnt signalling, namely lhx2 and lhx9. Our findings suggest that Fezf2 plays an essential role in controlling when and where neuronal differentiation occurs within the developing forebrain and that it does so by promoting local Wnt/β-catenin signalling via a double-repressor model. PMID:25468942

  12. Wnt signalling pathway parameters for mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chin Wee; Gardiner, Bruce S; Hirokawa, Yumiko; Layton, Meredith J; Smith, David W; Burgess, Antony W

    2012-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signalling regulates cell fate, survival, proliferation and differentiation at many stages of mammalian development and pathology. Mutations of two key proteins in the pathway, APC and β-catenin, have been implicated in a range of cancers, including colorectal cancer. Activation of Wnt signalling has been associated with the stabilization and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and consequential up-regulation of β-catenin/TCF gene transcription. In 2003, Lee et al. constructed a computational model of Wnt signalling supported by experimental data from analysis of time-dependent concentration of Wnt signalling proteins in Xenopus egg extracts. Subsequent studies have used the Xenopus quantitative data to infer Wnt pathway dynamics in other systems. As a basis for understanding Wnt signalling in mammalian cells, a confocal live cell imaging measurement technique is developed to measure the cell and nuclear volumes of MDCK, HEK293T cells and 3 human colorectal cancer cell lines and the concentrations of Wnt signalling proteins β-catenin, Axin, APC, GSK3β and E-cadherin. These parameters provide the basis for formulating Wnt signalling models for kidney/intestinal epithelial mammalian cells. There are significant differences in concentrations of key proteins between Xenopus extracts and mammalian whole cell lysates. Higher concentrations of Axin and lower concentrations of APC are present in mammalian cells. Axin concentrations are greater than APC in kidney epithelial cells, whereas in intestinal epithelial cells the APC concentration is higher than Axin. Computational simulations based on Lee's model, with this new data, suggest a need for a recalibration of the model.A quantitative understanding of Wnt signalling in mammalian cells, in particular human colorectal cancers requires a detailed understanding of the concentrations of key protein complexes over time. Simulations of Wnt signalling in mammalian cells can be initiated with the parameters

  13. Glucose induced activation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma is regulated by DKK4.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, Surbhi; Singh, Snahlata; Athavale, Dipti; Ramteke, Pranay; Pandey, Vimal; Joseph, Jomon; Mohan, Rajashekar; Shetty, Praveen Kumar; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Elevated glycemic index, an important feature of diabetes is implicated in an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this association are relatively less explored. Present study investigates the effect of hyperglycemia over HCC proliferation. We observed that high glucose culture condition (HG) specifically activates canonical Wnt signaling in HCC cells, which is mediated by suppression of DKK4 (a Wnt antagonist) expression and enhanced β-catenin level. Functional assays demonstrated that a normoglycemic culture condition (NG) maintains constitutive expression of DKK4, which controls HCC proliferation rate by suppressing canonical Wnt signaling pathway. HG diminishes DKK4 expression leading to loss of check at G0/G1/S phases of the cell cycle thereby enhancing HCC proliferation, in a β-catenin dependent manner. Interestingly, in NOD/SCID mice supplemented with high glucose, HepG2 xenografted tumors grew rapidly in which elevated levels of β-catenin, c-Myc and decreased levels of DKK4 were detected. Knockdown of DKK4 by shRNA promotes proliferation of HCC cells in NG, which is suppressed by treating cells exogenously with recombinant DKK4 protein. Our in vitro and in vivo results indicate an important functional role of DKK4 in glucose facilitated HCC proliferation. PMID:27272409

  14. Glucose induced activation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma is regulated by DKK4

    PubMed Central

    Chouhan, Surbhi; Singh, Snahlata; Athavale, Dipti; Ramteke, Pranay; Pandey, Vimal; Joseph, Jomon; Mohan, Rajashekar; Shetty, Praveen Kumar; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Elevated glycemic index, an important feature of diabetes is implicated in an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this association are relatively less explored. Present study investigates the effect of hyperglycemia over HCC proliferation. We observed that high glucose culture condition (HG) specifically activates canonical Wnt signaling in HCC cells, which is mediated by suppression of DKK4 (a Wnt antagonist) expression and enhanced β-catenin level. Functional assays demonstrated that a normoglycemic culture condition (NG) maintains constitutive expression of DKK4, which controls HCC proliferation rate by suppressing canonical Wnt signaling pathway. HG diminishes DKK4 expression leading to loss of check at G0/G1/S phases of the cell cycle thereby enhancing HCC proliferation, in a β-catenin dependent manner. Interestingly, in NOD/SCID mice supplemented with high glucose, HepG2 xenografted tumors grew rapidly in which elevated levels of β-catenin, c-Myc and decreased levels of DKK4 were detected. Knockdown of DKK4 by shRNA promotes proliferation of HCC cells in NG, which is suppressed by treating cells exogenously with recombinant DKK4 protein. Our in vitro and in vivo results indicate an important functional role of DKK4 in glucose facilitated HCC proliferation. PMID:27272409

  15. Wnt/Axin1/β-Catenin Signaling Regulates Asymmetric Nodal Activation, Elaboration, and Concordance of CNS Asymmetries

    PubMed Central

    Carl, Matthias; Bianco, Isaac H.; Bajoghli, Baubak; Aghaallaei, Narges; Czerny, Thomas; Wilson, Stephen W.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Nodal activity in the left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) is required to activate left-sided Nodal signaling in the epithalamic region of the zebrafish forebrain. Epithalamic Nodal signaling subsequently determines the laterality of neuroanatomical asymmetries. We show that overactivation of Wnt/Axin1/β-catenin signaling during late gastrulation leads to bilateral epithalamic expression of Nodal pathway genes independently of LPM Nodal signaling. This is consistent with a model whereby epithalamic Nodal signaling is normally bilaterally repressed, with Nodal signaling from the LPM unilaterally alleviating repression. We suggest that Wnt signaling regulates the establishment of the bilateral repression. We identify a second role for the Wnt pathway in the left/right regulation of LPM Nodal pathway gene expression, and finally, we show that at later stages Axin1 is required for the elaboration of concordant neuroanatomical asymmetries. PMID:17678853

  16. Competitive balance of intrabulge BMP/Wnt signaling reveals a robust gene network ruling stem cell homeostasis and cyclic activation

    PubMed Central

    Kandyba, Eve; Leung, Yvonne; Chen, Yi-Bu; Widelitz, Randall; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Kobielak, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Hair follicles facilitate the study of stem cell behavior because stem cells in progressive activation stages, ordered within the follicle architecture, are capable of cyclic regeneration. To study the gene network governing the homeostasis of hair bulge stem cells, we developed a Keratin 15-driven genetic model to directly perturb molecular signaling in the stem cells. We visualize the behavior of these modified stem cells, evaluating their hair-regenerating ability and profile their molecular expression. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-inactivated stem cells exhibit molecular profiles resembling those of hair germs, yet still possess multipotentiality in vivo. These cells also exhibit up-regulation of Wnt7a, Wnt7b, and Wnt16 ligands and Frizzled (Fzd) 10 receptor. We demonstrate direct transcriptional modulation of the Wnt7a promoter. These results highlight a previously unknown intra-stem cell antagonistic competition, between BMP and Wnt signaling, to balance stem cell activity. Reduced BMP signaling and increased Wnt signaling tilts each stem cell toward a hair germ fate and, vice versa, based on a continuous scale dependent on the ratio of BMP/Wnt activity. This work reveals one more hierarchical layer regulating stem cell homeostasis beneath the stem cell–dermal papilla-based epithelial–mesenchymal interaction layer and the hair follicle–intradermal adipocyte-based tissue interaction layer. Although hierarchical layers are all based on BMP/Wnt signaling, the multilayered control ensures that all information is taken into consideration and allows hair stem cells to sum up the total activators/inhibitors involved in making the decision of activation. PMID:23292934

  17. MiR-328 promotes glioma cell invasion via SFRP1-dependent Wnt-signaling activation.

    PubMed

    Delic, Sabit; Lottmann, Nadine; Stelzl, Anja; Liesenberg, Franziska; Wolter, Marietta; Götze, Silke; Zapatka, Marc; Shiio, Yuzuru; Sabel, Michael C; Felsberg, Jörg; Reifenberger, Guido; Riemenschneider, Markus J

    2014-01-01

    Background Diffusely infiltrative growth of human astrocytic gliomas is one of the major obstacles to successful tumor therapy. Thorough insights into the molecules and pathways signaling glioma cell invasion thus appear of major relevance for the development of targeted and individualized therapies. By miRNA expression profiling of microdissected human tumor biopsy specimens we identified miR-328 as one of the main miRNAs upregulated in invading glioma cells in vivo and further investigated its role in glioma pathogenesis. Methods We employed miRNA mimics and inhibitors to functionally characterize miR-328, 3' untranslated region luciferase assays, and T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor reporter assays to pinpoint miR-328 targets and signaling pathways, and analyzed miR-328 expression in a large panel of gliomas. Results First, we corroborated the invasion-promoting role of miR-328 in A172 and TP365MG glioma cells. Secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1), an inhibitor of Wnt signaling, was then pinpointed as a direct miR-328 target. SFRP1 expression is of prognostic relevance in gliomas with reduced expression, being associated with significantly lower overall patient survival in both the Repository of Molecular Brain Neoplasia Data (REMBRANDT) and The Cancer Genome Atlas. Of note, miR-328 regulated both SFRP1 protein expression levels and Wnt signaling pathway activity. Finally, in human glioma tissues miR-328 appeared to account for the downregulation of SFRP1 preferentially in lower-grade astrocytic gliomas and was inversely related to SFRP1 promoter hypermethylation. Conclusion Taken together, we report on a novel molecular miR-328-dependent mechanism that via SFRP1 inhibition and Wnt activation contributes to the infiltrative glioma phenotype at already early stages of glioma progression, with unfavorable prognostic implications for the final outcome of the disease. PMID:24305703

  18. Activation and Inhibition of The Wnt3A Signaling Pathway in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryonic Stem Cells: Effects of WNT3A, Bio and Dkk1

    PubMed Central

    Zandi, Mohammad; Shah, Syed Mohamad; Muzaffar, Musharifa; Kumar Singh, Manoj; Palta, Prabhat; Kumar Singla, Suresh; Sham Manik, Radhey; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background This research studies the effects of activation and inhibition of Wnt3A signaling pathway in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem (ES) cell-like cells. Materials and Methods To carry on this experimental study, the effects of activation and inhibition of Wnt3A signaling in buffalo ES cell-like cells were examined using Bio (0.5 mM) combined with WNT3A (200 ng/ml), as an activator, and Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1, 250 ng/ml), as an inhibitor, of the pathway. ES cells were cultured up to three weeks in ES cell medium without fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), but in the presence of Bio, WNT3A, Bio+WNT3A and Dkk1. The effects of these supplements were measured on the mean area of ES cell colonies and on the expression levels of a number of important genes related to pluripotency (Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and c-Myc) and the Wnt pathway (β-catenin). ES cell colonies cultured in ES cell medium that contained optimized quantities of LIF and FGF-2 were used as the control. Data were collected for week-1 and week-3 treated cultures. In addition, WNT3A-transfected ES cells were compared with the respective mock-transfected colonies, either alone or in combination with Dkk1 for expression of β-catenin and the pluripotency-related genes. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, and statistical significance was accepted at P<0.05. Results Among various examined concentrations of Bio (0.5-5 mM), the optimum effect was observed at the 0.5 mM dose as indicated by colony area and expressions of pluripotency-related genes at both weeks-1 and -3 culture periods. At this concentration,the expressions of Nanog, Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc and β-catenin genes were nonsignificantly higher compared to the controls. Expressions of these genes were highest in the Bio+WNT3A treated group, followed by the WNT3A and Bio-supplemented groups, and lowest in the Dkk1-treated group. The WNT-transfected colonies showed higher expressions compared to both mock and Dkk1-treated mock

  19. Wnt/β-catenin signaling via Axin2 is required for myogenesis and, together with YAP/Taz and Tead1, active in IIa/IIx muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Huraskin, Danyil; Eiber, Nane; Reichel, Martin; Zidek, Laura M; Kravic, Bojana; Bernkopf, Dominic; von Maltzahn, Julia; Behrens, Jürgen; Hashemolhosseini, Said

    2016-09-01

    Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays an important role in myogenic differentiation, but its physiological role in muscle fibers remains elusive. Here, we studied activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in adult muscle fibers and muscle stem cells in an Axin2 reporter mouse. Axin2 is a negative regulator and a target of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In adult muscle fibers, Wnt/β-catenin signaling is only detectable in a subset of fast fibers that have a significantly smaller diameter than other fast fibers. In the same fibers, immunofluorescence staining for YAP/Taz and Tead1 was detected. Wnt/β-catenin signaling was absent in quiescent and activated satellite cells. Upon injury, Wnt/β-catenin signaling was detected in muscle fibers with centrally located nuclei. During differentiation of myoblasts expression of Axin2, but not of Axin1, increased together with Tead1 target gene expression. Furthermore, absence of Axin1 and Axin2 interfered with myoblast proliferation and myotube formation, respectively. Treatment with the canonical Wnt3a ligand also inhibited myotube formation. Wnt3a activated TOPflash and Tead1 reporter activity, whereas neither reporter was activated in the presence of Dkk1, an inhibitor of canonical Wnt signaling. We propose that Axin2-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling is involved in myotube formation and, together with YAP/Taz/Tead1, associated with reduced muscle fiber diameter of a subset of fast fibers. PMID:27578179

  20. Histone Chaperone SSRP1 is Essential for Wnt Signaling Pathway Activity During Osteoblast Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hossan, Tareq; Nagarajan, Sankari; Baumgart, Simon J; Xie, Wanhua; Magallanes, Roberto Tirado; Hernandez, Céline; Chiaroni, Pierre-Marie; Indenbirken, Daniela; Spitzner, Melanie; Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Grade, Marian; Thieffry, Denis; Grundhoff, Adam; Wegwitz, Florian; Johnsen, Steven A

    2016-05-01

    Cellular differentiation is accompanied by dramatic changes in chromatin structure which direct the activation of lineage-specific transcriptional programs. Structure-specific recognition protein-1 (SSRP1) is a histone chaperone which is important for chromatin-associated processes such as transcription, DNA replication and repair. Since the function of SSRP1 during cell differentiation remains unclear, we investigated its potential role in controlling lineage determination. Depletion of SSRP1 in human mesenchymal stem cells elicited lineage-specific effects by increasing expression of adipocyte-specific genes and decreasing the expression of osteoblast-specific genes. Consistent with a role in controlling lineage specification, transcriptome-wide RNA-sequencing following SSRP1 depletion and the induction of osteoblast differentiation revealed a specific decrease in the expression of genes involved in biological processes related to osteoblast differentiation. Importantly, we observed a specific downregulation of target genes of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, which was accompanied by decreased nuclear localization of active β-catenin. Together our data uncover a previously unknown role for SSRP1 in promoting the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway activity during cellular differentiation. Stem Cells 2016;34:1369-1376. PMID:27146025

  1. Wnt/β-catenin signaling: components, mechanisms, and diseases

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Bryan T.; Tamai, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    Signaling by the Wnt family of secreted glycolipoproteins via the transcription co-activator β-catenin controls embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Here we review recent progresses in this so-called canonical Wnt signaling pathway. We discuss Wnt ligands, agonists and antagonists and their interactions with Wnt receptors. We also dissect critical events that regulate β-catenin stability from Wnt receptors to the cytoplasmic β-catenin destruction complex, and nuclear machinery that mediates β-catenin-dependent transcription. Finally we highlight some key aspects of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in human diseases including congenital malformations, cancer and osteoporosis and potential therapeutic implications. PMID:19619488

  2. Dact2 Represses PITX2 Transcriptional Activation and Cell Proliferation through Wnt/beta-Catenin Signaling during Odontogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Florez, Sergio; Wang, Jianbo; Cao, Huojun; Amendt, Brad A.

    2013-01-01

    Dact proteins belong to the Dapper/Frodo protein family and function as cytoplasmic attenuators in Wnt and TGFβ signaling. Previous studies show that Dact1 is a potent Wnt signaling inhibitor by promoting degradation of β-catenin. We report a new mechanism for Dact2 function as an inhibitor of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway by interacting with PITX2. PITX2 is a downstream transcription factor in Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and PITX2 synergizes with Lef-1 to activate downstream genes. Immunohistochemistry verified the expression of Dact2 in the tooth epithelium, which correlated with Pitx2 epithelial expression. Dact2 loss of function and PITX2 gain of function studies reveal a feedback mechanism for controlling Dact2 expression. Pitx2 endogenously activates Dact2 expression and Dact2 feeds back to repress Pitx2 transcriptional activity. A Topflash reporter system was employed showing PITX2 activation of Wnt signaling, which is attenuated by Dact2. Transient transfections demonstrate the inhibitory effect of Dact2 on critical dental epithelial differentiation factors during tooth development. Dact2 significantly inhibits PITX2 activation of the Dlx2 and amelogenin promoters. Multiple lines of evidence conclude the inhibition is achieved by the physical interaction between Dact2 and Pitx2 proteins. The loss of function of Dact2 also reveals increased cell proliferation due to up-regulated Wnt downstream genes, cyclinD1 and cyclinD2. In summary, we have identified a novel role for Dact2 as an inhibitor of the canonical Wnt pathway in embryonic tooth development through its regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. PMID:23349981

  3. Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Increases Apoptosis in Melanoma Cells Treated with Trail

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Zachary F.; Kulikauskas, Rima M.; Bomsztyk, Karol; Moon, Randall T.; Chien, Andy J.

    2013-01-01

    While the TRAIL pathway represents a promising therapeutic target in melanoma, resistance to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis remains a barrier to its successful adoption. Since the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been implicated in facilitating melanoma cell apoptosis, we investigated the effect of Wnt/β-catenin signaling on regulating the responses of melanoma cells to TRAIL. Co-treatment of melanoma cell lines with WNT3A-conditioned media and recombinant TRAIL significantly enhanced apoptosis compared to treatment with TRAIL alone. This apoptosis correlates with increased abundance of the pro-apoptotic proteins BCL2L11 and BBC3, and with decreased abundance of the anti-apoptotic regulator Mcl1. We then confirmed the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by demonstrating that siRNA-mediated knockdown of an intracellular β-catenin antagonist, AXIN1, or treating cells with an inhibitor of GSK-3 also enhanced melanoma cell sensitivity to TRAIL. These studies describe a novel regulation of TRAIL sensitivity in melanoma by Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and suggest that strategies to enhance Wnt/β-catenin signaling in combination with TRAIL agonists warrant further investigation. PMID:23869245

  4. Noncanonical Wnt5a enhances Wnt/β-catenin signaling during osteoblastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Masanori; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Uehara, Shunsuke; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Yamashita, Teruhito; Nakamichi, Yuko; Kato, Hiroyuki; Saito, Naoto; Minami, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Wnt regulates bone formation through β-catenin-dependent canonical and -independent noncanonical signaling pathways. However, the cooperation that exists between the two signaling pathways during osteoblastogenesis remains to be elucidated. Here, we showed that the lack of Wnt5a in osteoblast-lineage cells impaired Wnt/β-catenin signaling due to the reduced expression of Lrp5 and Lrp6. Pretreatment of ST2 cells, a stromal cell line, with Wnt5a enhanced canonical Wnt ligand-induced Tcf/Lef transcription activity. Short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of Wnt5a, but not treatment with Dkk1, an antagonist of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, reduced the expression of Lrp5 and Lrp6 in osteoblast-lineage cells under osteogenic culture conditions. Osteoblast-lineage cells from Wnt5a-deficient mice exhibited reduced Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which impaired osteoblast differentiation and enhanced adipocyte differentiation. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of Lrp5 into Wnt5a-deficient osteoblast-lineage cells rescued their phenotypic features. Therefore, Wnt5a-induced noncanonical signaling cooperates with Wnt/β-catenin signaling to achieve proper bone formation. PMID:24670389

  5. Mutations in LRP5 cause primary osteoporosis without features of OI by reducing Wnt signaling activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary osteoporosis is a rare childhood-onset skeletal condition whose pathogenesis has been largely unknown. We have previously shown that primary osteoporosis can be caused by heterozygous missense mutations in the Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene, and the role of LRP5 is further investigated here. Methods LRP5 was analyzed in 18 otherwise healthy children and adolescents who had evidence of osteoporosis (manifested as reduced bone mineral density i.e. BMD, recurrent peripheral fractures and/or vertebral compression fractures) but who lacked the clinical features of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) or other known syndromes linked to low BMD. Also 51 controls were analyzed. Methods used in the genetic analyses included direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). In vitro studies were performed using luciferase assay and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to examine the effect of two novel and three previously identified mutations on the activity of canonical Wnt signaling and on expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-Htr1b). Results Two novel LRP5 mutations (c.3446 T > A; p.L1149Q and c.3553 G > A; p.G1185R) were identified in two patients and their affected family members. In vitro analyses showed that one of these novel mutations together with two previously reported mutations (p.C913fs, p.R1036Q) significantly reduced the activity of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Such reductions may lead to decreased bone formation, and could explain the bone phenotype. Gut-derived Lrp5 has been shown to regulate serotonin synthesis by controlling the production of serotonin rate-limiting enzyme, Tph1. LRP5 mutations did not affect Tph1 expression, and only one mutant (p.L1149Q) reduced expression of serotonin receptor 5-Htr1b (p < 0.002). Conclusions Our results provide additional information on the role of LRP5 mutations and their effects on

  6. METABOLISM Wnt Signaling Regulates Hepatic Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjun; Fergusson, Maria M.; Wu, J. Julie; Rovira, Ilsa I.; Liu, Jie; Gavrilova, Oksana; Lu, Teng; Bao, Jianjun; Han, Donghe; Sack, Michael N.; Finkel, Toren

    2011-01-01

    The contribution of the Wnt pathway has been extensively characterized in embryogenesis, differentiation, and stem cell biology but not in mammalian metabolism. Here, using in vivo gain- and loss-of-function models, we demonstrate an important role for Wnt signaling in hepatic metabolism. In particular, β-Catenin, the downstream mediator of canonical Wnt signaling, altered serum glucose concentrations and regulated hepatic glucose production. β-catenin also modulated hepatic insulin signaling. Furthermore, β-catenin interacted with the transcription factor FoxO1 in livers from mice under starved conditions. The interaction of FoxO1 with β-catenin regulated the transcriptional activation of the genes encoding glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), the two rate-limiting enzymes in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Moreover, starvation induced the hepatic expression of mRNAs encoding different Wnt isoforms. In addition, nutrient deprivation appeared to favor the association of β-catenin with FoxO family members, rather than with members of the T cell factor of transcriptional activators. Notably, in a model of diet-induced obesity, hepatic deletion of β-catenin improved overall metabolic homeostasis. These observations implicate Wnt signaling in the modulation of hepatic metabolism and raise the possibility that Wnt signaling may play a similar role in the metabolic regulation of other tissues. PMID:21285411

  7. PLD1 regulates Xenopus convergent extension movements by mediating Frizzled7 endocytosis for Wnt/PCP signal activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoon; Lee, Seung Joon; Kim, Gun-Hwa; Yeo, Inchul; Han, Jin-Kwan

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in the regulation of receptor-associated signaling, cell movement, cell adhesion and endocytosis. However, its physiological role in vertebrate development remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that PLD1 is required for the convergent extension (CE) movements during Xenopus gastrulation by activating Wnt/PCP signaling. Xenopus PLD1 protein is specifically enriched in the dorsal region of Xenopus gastrula embryo and loss or gain-of-function of PLD1 induce defects in gastrulation and CE movements. These defective phenotypes are due to impaired regulation of Wnt/PCP signaling pathway. Biochemical and imaging analysis using Xenopus tissues reveal that PLD1 is required for Fz7 receptor endocytosis upon Wnt11 stimulation. Moreover, we show that Fz7 endocytosis depends on dynamin and regulation of GAP activity of dynamin by PLD1 via its PX domain is crucial for this process. Taken together, our results suggest that PLD1 acts as a new positive mediator of Wnt/PCP signaling by promoting Wnt11-induced Fz7 endocytosis for precise regulation of Xenopus CE movements. PMID:26806705

  8. SNF2H promotes hepatocellular carcinoma proliferation by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanan; Qin, Juanxiu; Liu, Qian; Hong, Xufen; Li, Tianming; Zhu, Yuanjun; He, Lei; Zheng, Bing; Li, Min

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and has an extremely poor prognosis. Surgical resection is always inapplicable to HCC patients diagnosed at an advanced tumor stage. The mechanisms underlying HCC cell proliferation remain obscure. In the present study, SWItch/sucrose nonfermentable catalytic subunit SNF2 (SNF2H) expression was tested in HCC tissues and Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation upon overexpression of SNF2H or knockdown of SNF2H expression was investigated in cultured HCC cells. It was demonstrated that SNF2H is a vital factor for HCC growth. The SNF2H expression level is increased in HCC tissues compared with paratumoral liver tissues. SNF2H promotes HCC cell proliferation and colony formation ability in vitro. SNF2H may increase the protein level of β-catenin and enhance its nuclear accumulation in HCC cells, thereby leading to the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present results indicate that SNF2H plays a vital role in HCC cell growth, suggesting that SNF2H may be a promising therapeutic target for HCC treatment. PMID:27446433

  9. TGIF function in oncogenic Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Razzaque, Mohammed S; Atfi, Azeddine

    2016-04-01

    Transforming growth-interacting factor (TGIF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many types of human cancer, but the underlying mechanisms remained mostly enigmatic. Our recent study has revealed that TGIF functions as a mediator of oncogenic Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We found that TGIF can interact with and sequesters Axin1 and Axin2 into the nucleus, thereby culminating in disassembly of the β-catenin-destruction complex and attendant accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus, where it activates expression of Wnt target genes, including TGIF itself. We have provided proof-of-concept evidences that high levels of TGIF expression correlate with poor prognosis in patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), and that TGIF empowers Wnt-driven mammary tumorigenesis in vivo. Here, we will briefly summarize how TGIF influences Wnt signaling to promote tumorigenesis. PMID:26522669

  10. Insulin Receptor-Overexpressing β-Cells Ameliorate Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Rats through Wnt Signaling Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of β-cells with insulin receptor (IR) overexpression on diabetes mellitus (DM), rat insulinoma (INS-1) cells were engineered to stably express human insulin receptor (INS-IR cells), and subsequently transplanted into streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats. Compared with INS-1 cells, INS-IR cells showed improved β-cell function, including the increase in glucose utilization, calcium mobilization, and insulin secretion, and exhibited a higher rate of cell proliferation, and maintained lower levels of blood glucose in diabetic rats. These results were attributed to the increase of β-catenin/PPARγ complex bindings to peroxisome proliferator response elements in rat glucokinase (GK) promoter and the prolongation of S-phase of cell cycle by cyclin D1. These events resulted from more rapid and higher phosphorylation levels of insulin-signaling intermediates, including insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1/IRS-2/phosphotylinositol 3 kinase/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) 1, and the consequent enhancement of β-catenin nuclear translocation and Wnt responsive genes including GK and cyclin D1. Indeed, the higher functionality and proliferation shown in INS-IR cells were offset by β-catenin, cyclin D1, GK, AKT1, and IRS-2 gene depletion. In addition, the promotion of cell proliferation and insulin secretion by Wnt signaling activation was shown by 100 nM insulin treatment, and to a similar degree, was shown in INS-IR cells. In this regard, this study suggests that transferring INS-IR cells into diabetic animals is an effective and feasible DM treatment. Accordingly, the method might be a promising alternative strategy for treatment of DM given the adverse effects of insulin among patients, including the increased risk of modest weight gain and hypoglycemia. Additionally, this study demonstrates that the novel mechanism of cross-talk between insulin and Wnt signaling plays a primary role in the higher

  11. The HMG-box transcription factor SoxNeuro acts with Tcf to control Wg/Wnt signaling activity.

    PubMed

    Chao, Anna T; Jones, Whitney M; Bejsovec, Amy

    2007-03-01

    Wnt signaling specifies cell fates in many tissues during vertebrate and invertebrate embryogenesis. To understand better how Wnt signaling is regulated during development, we have performed genetic screens to isolate mutations that suppress or enhance mutations in the fly Wnt homolog, wingless (wg). We find that loss-of-function mutations in the neural determinant SoxNeuro (also known as Sox-neuro, SoxN) partially suppress wg mutant pattern defects. SoxN encodes a HMG-box-containing protein related to the vertebrate Sox1, Sox2 and Sox3 proteins, which have been implicated in patterning events in the early mouse embryo. In Drosophila, SoxN has previously been shown to specify neural progenitors in the embryonic central nervous system. Here, we show that SoxN negatively regulates Wg pathway activity in the embryonic epidermis. Loss of SoxN function hyperactivates the Wg pathway, whereas its overexpression represses pathway activity. Epistasis analysis with other components of the Wg pathway places SoxN at the level of the transcription factor Pan (also known as Lef, Tcf) in regulating target gene expression. In human cell culture assays, SoxN represses Tcf-responsive reporter expression, indicating that the fly gene product can interact with mammalian Wnt pathway components. In both flies and in human cells, SoxN repression is potentiated by adding ectopic Tcf, suggesting that SoxN interacts with the repressor form of Tcf to influence Wg/Wnt target gene transcription. PMID:17267442

  12. Kirenol inhibits adipogenesis through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Mi-Bo; Song, Youngwoo; Kim, Changhee; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Kirenol inhibits the adipogenic transcription factors and lipogenic enzymes. • Kirenol stimulates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway components. • Kirenol inhibits adipogenesis through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. - Abstract: Kirenol, a natural diterpenoid compound, has been reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-arthritic activities; however, its anti-adipogenic effect remains to be studied. The present study evaluated the effect of kirenol on anti-adipogenesis through the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Kirenol prevented intracellular lipid accumulation by down-regulating key adipogenesis transcription factors [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c)] and lipid biosynthesis-related enzymes [fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)], as well as adipocytokines (adiponectin and leptin). Kirenol effectively activated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, in which kirenol up-regulated the expression of low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 6 (LRP6), disheveled 2 (DVL2), β-catenin, and cyclin D1 (CCND1), while it inactivated glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) by increasing its phosphorylation. Kirenol down-regulated the expression levels of PPARγ and C/EBPα, which were up-regulated by siRNA knockdown of β-catenin. Overall, kirenol is capable of inhibiting the differentiation and lipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, suggesting its potential as natural anti-obesity agent.

  13. Malignant gliomas induce and exploit astrocytic mesenchymal-like transition by activating canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Wang, Yajing; Liu, Xiuting; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Kequan; Wang, Qing; Hu, Rong

    2016-07-01

    The complex microenvironment of malignant gliomas plays a dynamic and usually cancer-promoting role in glioma progression. Astrocytes, the major stromal cells in the brain, can be activated by glioma microenvironment, resulting in a layer of reactive astrocytes surrounding the gliomas. Reactive astrocytes are universally characterized with the upregulation of glial fibrillary protein and glycoprotein podoplanin. In this work, we investigated the role of reactive astrocytes on malignant glioma microenvironment and the potential mechanism by which glioma cells activated the tumor-associated astrocytes (TAAs). The reactive astrocytes were observed around gliomas in the intracranial syngeneic implantation of rat C6 and mouse GL261 glioma cells in vivo, as well as primary astrocytes cultured with glioma cells condition medium in vitro. Besides, reactive astrocytes exhibited distinct epithelial-to-mesenchymal (-like) transition and enhanced migration and invasion activity, with the decrease of E-cadherin and concomitant increase of vimentin and matrix metalloproteinases. Furthermore, canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling was activated in TAAs. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor XAV939 and β-catenin plasmid were used to verify the regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling on TAAs and their invasion ability. Taken together, our findings established that glioma cells remarkably activated astrocytes via upregulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling, with obviously mesenchymal-like transition and increased migration and invasion ability, indicating that glioma cells may stimulate adjacent astrocytes to degrade extracellular matrix and thereby promoting tumor invasiveness. PMID:27236327

  14. USP6 oncogene promotes Wnt signaling by deubiquitylating Frizzleds.

    PubMed

    Madan, Babita; Walker, Matthew P; Young, Robert; Quick, Laura; Orgel, Kelly A; Ryan, Meagan; Gupta, Priti; Henrich, Ian C; Ferrer, Marc; Marine, Shane; Roberts, Brian S; Arthur, William T; Berndt, Jason D; Oliveira, Andre M; Moon, Randall T; Virshup, David M; Chou, Margaret M; Major, Michael B

    2016-05-24

    The Wnt signaling pathways play pivotal roles in carcinogenesis. Modulation of the cell-surface abundance of Wnt receptors is emerging as an important mechanism for regulating sensitivity to Wnt ligands. Endocytosis and degradation of the Wnt receptors Frizzled (Fzd) and lipoprotein-related protein 6 (LRP6) are regulated by the E3 ubiquitin ligases zinc and ring finger 3 (ZNRF3) and ring finger protein 43 (RNF43), which are disrupted in cancer. In a genome-wide small interfering RNA screen, we identified the deubiquitylase ubiquitin-specific protease 6 (USP6) as a potent activator of Wnt signaling. USP6 enhances Wnt signaling by deubiquitylating Fzds, thereby increasing their cell-surface abundance. Chromosomal translocations in nodular fasciitis result in USP6 overexpression, leading to transcriptional activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Inhibition of Wnt signaling using Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) or a Porcupine (PORCN) inhibitor significantly decreased the growth of USP6-driven xenograft tumors, indicating that Wnt signaling is a key target of USP6 during tumorigenesis. Our study defines an additional route to ectopic Wnt pathway activation in human disease, and identifies a potential approach to modulate Wnt signaling for therapeutic benefit. PMID:27162353

  15. Canonical Wnt signaling in the oligodendroglial lineage--puzzles remain.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fuzheng; Lang, Jordan; Sohn, Jiho; Hammond, Elizabeth; Chang, Marcello; Pleasure, David

    2015-10-01

    The straightforward concept that accentuated Wnt signaling via the Wnt-receptor-β-catenin-TCF/LEF cascade (also termed canonical Wnt signaling or Wnt/β-catenin signaling) delays or blocks oligodendrocyte differentiation is very appealing. According to this concept, canonical Wnt signaling is responsible for remyelination failure in multiple sclerosis and for persistent hypomyelination in periventricular leukomalacia. This has given rise to the hope that pharmacologically inhibiting this signaling will be of therapeutic potential in these disabling neurological disorders. But current studies suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays distinct roles in oligodendrogenesis, oligodendrocyte differentiation, and myelination in a context-dependent manner (central nervous system regions, developmental stages), and that Wnt/β-catenin signaling interplays with, and is subjected to regulation by, other central nervous system factors and signaling pathways. On this basis, we propose the more nuanced concept that endogenous Wnt/β-catenin activity is delicately and temporally regulated to ensure the seamless development of oligodendroglial lineage cells in different contexts. In this review, we discuss the role Wnt/β-catenin signaling in oligodendrocyte development, focusing on the interpretation of disparate results, and highlighting areas where important questions remain to be answered about oligodendroglial lineage Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:25782433

  16. Regeneration-associated WNT Signaling Is Activated in Long-term Reconstituting AC133bright Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells12

    PubMed Central

    Beghini, Alessandro; Corlazzoli, Francesca; Del Giacco, Luca; Re, Matteo; Lazzaroni, Francesca; Brioschi, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio; Ferrazzi, Fulvia; Ghilardi, Anna; Righi, Marco; Turrini, Mauro; Mignardi, Marco; Cesana, Clara; Bronte, Vincenzo; Nilsson, Mats; Morra, Enrica; Cairoli, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a genetically heterogeneous clonal disorder characterized by two molecularly distinct self-renewing leukemic stem cell (LSC) populations most closely related to normal progenitors and organized as a hierarchy. A requirement for WNT/β-catenin signaling in the pathogenesis of AML has recently been suggested by a mouse model. However, its relationship to a specific molecular function promoting retention of self-renewing leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) in human remains elusive. To identify transcriptional programs involved in the maintenance of a self-renewing state in LICs, we performed the expression profiling in normal (n = 10) and leukemic (n = 33) human long-term reconstituting AC133+ cells, which represent an expanded cell population in most AML patients. This study reveals the ligand-dependent WNT pathway activation in AC133bright AML cells and shows a diffuse expression and release of WNT10B, a hematopoietic stem cell regenerative-associated molecule. The establishment of a primary AC133+ AML cell culture (A46) demonstrated that leukemia cells synthesize and secrete WNT ligands, increasing the levels of dephosphorylated β-catenin in vivo. We tested the LSC functional activity in AC133+ cells and found significant levels of engraftment upon transplantation of A46 cells into irradiated Rag2-/-γc-/- mice. Owing to the link between hematopoietic regeneration and developmental signaling, we transplanted A46 cells into developing zebrafish. This system revealed the formation of ectopic structures by activating dorsal organizer markers that act downstream of the WNT pathway. In conclusion, our findings suggest that AC133bright LSCs are promoted by misappropriating homeostatic WNT programs that control hematopoietic regeneration. PMID:23308055

  17. Wnt signaling and the control of human stem cell fate.

    PubMed

    Van Camp, J K; Beckers, S; Zegers, D; Van Hul, W

    2014-04-01

    Wnt signaling determines major developmental processes in the embryonic state and regulates maintenance, self-renewal and differentiation of adult mammalian tissue stem cells. Both β-catenin dependent and independent Wnt pathways exist, and both affect stem cell fate in developing and adult tissues. In this review, we debate the response to Wnt signal activation in embryonic stem cells and human, adult stem cells of mesenchymal, hematopoetic, intestinal, gastric, epidermal, mammary and neural lineages, and discuss the need for Wnt signaling in these cell types. Due to the vital actions of Wnt signaling in developmental and maintenance processes, deregulation of the pathway can culminate into a broad spectrum of developmental and genetic diseases, including cancer. The way in which Wnt signals can feed tumors and maintain cancer stem stells is discussed as well. Manipulation of Wnt signals both in vivo and in vitro thus carries potential for therapeutic approaches such as tissue engineering for regenerative medicine and anti-cancer treatment. Although many questions remain regarding the complete Wnt signal cell-type specific response and interplay of Wnt signaling with pathways such as BMP, Hedgehog and Notch, we hereby provide an overview of current knowledge on Wnt signaling and its control over human stem cell fate. PMID:24323281

  18. Wnt7a interaction with Fzd5 and detection of signaling activation using a split eGFP

    SciTech Connect

    Carmon, Kendra S.; Loose, David S.

    2008-04-04

    Wnts are secreted glycoproteins that regulate important cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and cell fate. In the {beta}-catenin/canonical pathway, Wnt interacts with Fzd receptors to inhibit degradation of {beta}-catenin and promote its translocation into the nucleus where it regulates transcription of a number of genes. Dysregulation of this pathway has been attributed to a host of diseases including cancer. As a result, components of the {beta}-catenin/canonical pathway have been gaining recognition as promising targets for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents. Here, we show, using an ELISA-based protein-protein binding assay that purified Wnt7a binds to the extracellular cysteine-rich domain of Fzd5 in the nanomolar range. We have developed a novel split eGFP complementation assay to visually detect Wnt7a-Fzd5 interactions and subsequent pathway activation in cells. These biological tools could help lead to a better understanding of Wnt-Fzd interactions and the identification of new modulators of Wnt signaling.

  19. Renal Hypodysplasia Associates with a Wnt4 Variant that Causes Aberrant Canonical Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Vivante, Asaf; Mark-Danieli, Michal; Davidovits, Miriam; Harari-Steinberg, Orit; Omer, Dorit; Gnatek, Yehudit; Cleper, Roxana; Landau, Daniel; Kovalski, Yael; Weissman, Irit; Eisenstein, Israel; Soudack, Michalle; Wolf, Haike Reznik; Issler, Naomi; Lotan, Danny; Anikster, Yair

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal differentiation of the renal stem/progenitor pool into kidney tissue can lead to renal hypodysplasia (RHD), but the underlying causes of RHD are not well understood. In this multicenter study, we identified 20 Israeli pedigrees with isolated familial, nonsyndromic RHD and screened for mutations in candidate genes involved in kidney development, including PAX2, HNF1B, EYA1, SIX1, SIX2, SALL1, GDNF, WNT4, and WT1. In addition to previously reported RHD-causing genes, we found that two affected brothers were heterozygous for a missense variant in the WNT4 gene. Functional analysis of this variant revealed both antagonistic and agonistic canonical WNT stimuli, dependent on cell type. In HEK293 cells, WNT4 inhibited WNT3A induced canonical activation, and the WNT4 variant significantly enhanced this inhibition of the canonical WNT pathway. In contrast, in primary cultures of human fetal kidney cells, which maintain WNT activation and more closely represent WNT signaling in renal progenitors during nephrogenesis, this mutation caused significant loss of function, resulting in diminished canonical WNT/β-catenin signaling. In conclusion, heterozygous WNT4 variants are likely to play a causative role in renal hypodysplasia. PMID:23520208

  20. Wnt3a suppresses Wnt/β-catenin signaling and cancer cell proliferation following serum deprivation.

    PubMed

    He, Qingqing; Yan, Hongwei; Wo, Da; Liu, Junjun; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Jiankang; Li, Limei; Zhou, Bin; Ge, Jin; Li, Huashun; Liu, Shangfeng; Zhu, Weidong

    2016-02-01

    Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling is often aberrantly activated in tumor cells and required for tumor growth. The internalization of Wnt co-receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) induced by Wnt ligands is commonly thought to be critical for Wnt/β-catenin signaling activation. However, in contrast to theses previous studies, we here show that persistent excessive stimulation with a canonical Wnt ligand Wnt3a could induce a long-term decreased expression level of membrane LRP6, which prevented nuclear β-catenin accumulation and tumor cell;proliferation. Importantly, Wnt3a was robustly upregulated following serum deprivation. The upregulated Wnt3a under serum deprivation was responsible for LRP6 internalization, decreased accumulation of nuclear β-catenin, and further inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. It has well been known that insufficient blood supply during tumor development occurs frequently, causing a worsening environment for tumor growth. Therefore, these results reveal a novel inhibitory role of Wnt3a on canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling and cancer cell proliferation when there is an insufficient blood supply during tumor development, which might be a potential mechanism for tumor evasion within a worsening environment. PMID:26643293

  1. Wnt signaling: the β-cat(enin)'s meow.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Matthieu; Willert, Karl

    2012-01-15

    In a study in the December 15, 2011, issue of Genes & Development, Valenta and colleagues (pp. 2631-2643) constructed a series of β-catenin mutants that allowed them to separate β-catenin's activity as a mediator of Wnt signaling from its activity as cell adhesion component. In doing so, they uncovered some surprising properties of Wnt signaling. PMID:22279043

  2. Canonical Wnt activity regulates trunk neural crest delamination linking BMP/noggin signaling with G1/S transition.

    PubMed

    Burstyn-Cohen, Tal; Stanleigh, Jonathan; Sela-Donenfeld, Dalit; Kalcheim, Chaya

    2004-11-01

    Delamination of premigratory neural crest cells depends on a balance between BMP/noggin and on successful G1/S transition. Here, we report that BMP regulates G1/S transition and consequent crest delamination through canonical Wnt signaling. Noggin overexpression inhibits G1/S transition and blocking G1/S abrogates BMP-induced delamination; moreover, transcription of Wnt1 is stimulated by BMP and by the developing somites, which concomitantly inhibit noggin production. Interfering with beta-catenin and LEF/TCF inhibits G1/S transition, neural crest delamination and transcription of various BMP-dependent genes, which include Cad6B, Pax3 and Msx1, but not that of Slug, Sox9 or FoxD3. Hence, we propose that developing somites inhibit noggin transcription in the dorsal tube, resulting in activation of BMP and consequent Wnt1 production. Canonical Wnt signaling in turn stimulates G1/S transition and generation of neural crest cell motility independently of its proposed role in earlier neural crest specification. PMID:15456730

  3. Blocking Wnt signaling by SFRP-like molecules inhibits in vivo cell proliferation and tumor growth in cells carrying active β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Lavergne, Elise; Hendaoui, Ismaïl; Coulouarn, Cédric; Ribault, Catherine; Leseur, Julie; Eliat, Pierre-Antoine; Mebarki, Sihem; Corlu, Anne; Clément, Bruno; Musso, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    Constitutive activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cancer results from mutations in pathway components, which frequently coexist with autocrine Wnt signaling or epigenetic silencing of extracellular Wnt antagonists. Among the extracellular Wnt inhibitors, the secreted frizzled-related proteins (SFRPs) are decoy receptors that contain soluble Wnt-binding frizzled domains. In addition to SFRPs, other endogenous molecules harboring frizzled motifs bind to and inhibit Wnt signaling. One of such molecules is V3Nter, a soluble SFRP-like frizzled polypeptide that binds to Wnt3a and inhibits Wnt signaling and expression of the β-catenin target genes cyclin D1 and c-myc. V3Nter is derived from the cell surface extracellular matrix component collagen XVIII. Here, we used HCT116 human colon cancer cells carrying the ΔS45 activating mutation in one of the alleles of β-catenin to show that V3Nter and SFRP-1 decrease baseline and Wnt3a-induced β-catenin stabilization. Consequently, V3Nter reduces the growth of human colorectal cancer xenografts by specifically controlling cell proliferation and cell cycle progression, without affecting angiogenesis or apoptosis, as shown by decreased [3H] thymidine (in vitro) or BrdU (in vivo) incorporation, clonogenesis assays, cell cycle analysis and magnetic resonance imaging in living mice. Additionally, V3Nter switches off the β-catenin target gene expression signature in vivo. Moreover, experiments with β-catenin allele-targeted cells showed that the ΔS45 β-catenin allele hampers, but does not abrogate inhibition of Wnt signaling by SFRP-1 or by the SFRP-like frizzled domain. Finally, neither SFRP-1 nor V3Nter affect β-catenin signaling in SW480 cells carrying non functional APC. Thus, SFRP-1 and the SFRP-like molecule V3Nter can inhibit tumor growth of β-catenin-activated tumor cells in vivo. PMID:20856206

  4. Blocking Wnt signaling by SFRP-like molecules inhibits in vivo cell proliferation and tumor growth in cells carrying active β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Lavergne, E; Hendaoui, I; Coulouarn, C; Ribault, C; Leseur, J; Eliat, P-A; Mebarki, S; Corlu, A; Clément, B; Musso, O

    2011-01-27

    Constitutive activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cancer results from mutations in pathway components, which frequently coexist with autocrine Wnt signaling or epigenetic silencing of extracellular Wnt antagonists. Among the extracellular Wnt inhibitors, the secreted frizzled-related proteins (SFRPs) are decoy receptors that contain soluble Wnt-binding frizzled domains. In addition to SFRPs, other endogenous molecules harboring frizzled motifs bind to and inhibit Wnt signaling. One of such molecules is V3Nter, a soluble SFRP-like frizzled polypeptide that binds to Wnt3a and inhibits Wnt signaling and expression of the β-catenin target genes cyclin D1 and c-myc. V3Nter is derived from the cell surface extracellular matrix component collagen XVIII. Here, we used HCT116 human colon cancer cells carrying the ΔS45 activating mutation in one of the alleles of β-catenin to show that V3Nter and SFRP-1 decrease baseline and Wnt3a-induced β-catenin stabilization. Consequently, V3Nter reduces the growth of human colorectal cancer xenografts by specifically controlling cell proliferation and cell cycle progression, without affecting angiogenesis or apoptosis, as shown by decreased [(3)H]-thymidine (in vitro) or BrdU (in vivo) incorporation, clonogenesis assays, cell cycle analysis and magnetic resonance imaging in living mice. Additionally, V3Nter switches off the β-catenin target gene expression signature in vivo. Moreover, experiments with β-catenin allele-targeted cells showed that the ΔS45 β-catenin allele hampers, but does not abrogate, inhibition of Wnt signaling by SFRP-1 or by the SFRP-like frizzled domain. Finally, neither SFRP-1 nor V3Nter affect β-catenin signaling in SW480 cells carrying nonfunctional Adenomatous polyposis coli. Thus, SFRP-1 and the SFRP-like molecule V3Nter can inhibit tumor growth of β-catenin-activated tumor cells in vivo. PMID:20856206

  5. Wnt-Signaling-Mediated Antiosteoporotic Activity of Porcine Placenta Hydrolysates in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Suna; Lee, Na Ra; Ryuk, Jin Ah; Park, Sunmin

    2012-01-01

    Anti-osteoporotic effects of two types of porcine placenta hydrolysates (PPH) were evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX) rats orally administered PPH without (WPPH) or with (NPPH) ovarian hormones (1 g/kg bw/day). PPH groups were compared with OVX rats with estrogen replacement (0.1 mg/kg bw conjugated estrogen; EST), or dextrose (placebo; OVX-control) All rats received high-fat/calcium-deficient diets for 12 weeks. NPPH contained less estrogen and progesterone, but more essential amino acids, whereas the opposite was true for WPPH. NPPH decreased body weight and peri-uterine fat pads, and maintained uterus weight. NPPH rats had higher femur and lumbar spine bone mass density compared to controls; but less than those of EST rats. Serum phosphorus and urinary calcium and phosphorus levels were reduced in NPPH rats compared to OVX-controls. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone turnover marker levels were reduced NPPH rats compared to OVX-controls. WPPH produced results similar to those of NPPH, but less significant. Both NPPH and estrogen upregulated low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 and β-catenin in OVX rats, while the expression of dickkopf-related protein 1 was suppressed. In conclusion, NPPH exerted anti-osteoporotic effects by activating osteogenesis and stimulating Wnt signaling, possibly mediated by the various amino acids and not ovarian hormones. PMID:23258987

  6. WNT/PCP signaling pathway and human cancer (review).

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masaru

    2005-12-01

    WNT/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway controls tissue polarity and cell movement through the activation of RHOA, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nemo-like kinase (NLK) signaling cascades. PCP is induced in Drosophila by the asymmetrical localization of Frizzled-Dishevelled-Diego-Starry night (Flamingo) complex and Van Gogh (Strabismus)-Prickle complex. Here, WNT/PCP signaling pathway implicated in human carcinogenesis is reviewed. Human WNT5A, WNT5B, and WNT11 are representative non-canonical WNTs transducing PCP signals through FZD3 or FZD6 receptors, and ROR1, ROR2 or PTK7 co-receptors. Human VANGL1, VANGL2 (Van Gogh homologs), CELSR1, CELSR2, CELSR3 (Starry night homologs), DVL1, DVL2, DVL3 (Dishevelled homologs), PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2 (Prickle homologs), and ANKRD6 (Diego homolog) are core PCP signaling molecules. MAGI3 assembles FZD, VANGL, PTEN, and adhesion molecules. Dishevelled-dependent WNT/PCP signals are transduced to the RHOA signaling cascade through Formin homology proteins DAAM1 and DAAM2, and to the JNK signaling cascade through MAPKKKs and MAPKK4/7. Dishevelled-independent WNT/ PCP signals are transduced to the NLK signaling cascade through MAP3K7 (TAK1). ANKRD6, NKD1 and NKD2 induce class switch from the WNT/GSK3beta signaling pathway to the WNT/PCP signaling pathway. WNT5A is up-regulated in various types of human cancer, such as gastric cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma. FZD3/FZD6 receptor and ROR2 co-receptor transduce WNT5A signal in gastric cancer. Aberrant activation of WNT/PCP signaling pathway in human cancer leads to more malignant phenotypes, such as abnormal tissue polarity, invasion, and metastasis. cDNA-PCR, microarray or ELISA reflecting aberrant activation of WNT/PCP signaling pathway could be developed as novel cancer prognostics. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number polymorphism (CNP) of WNT/PCP signaling molecules mentioned above are suitable for use in screening of cancer predisposition, especially

  7. Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Activation beyond Robust Nuclear β-Catenin Accumulation in Nondysplastic Barrett’s Esophagus: Regulation via Dickkopf-112

    PubMed Central

    Lyros, Orestis; Rafiee, Parvaneh; Nie, Linghui; Medda, Rituparna; Jovanovic, Nebojsa; Otterson, Mary F.; Behmaram, Behnaz; Gockel, Ιnes; Mackinnon, Alexander; Shaker, Reza

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Wnt/β-catenin signaling activation has been reported only during the late steps of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) neoplastic progression, but not in BE metaplasia, based on the absence of nuclear β-catenin. However, β-catenin transcriptional activity has been recorded in absence of robust nuclear accumulation. Thus, we aimed to investigate the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in nondysplastic BE. METHODS: Esophageal tissues from healthy and BE patients without dysplasia were analyzed for Wnt target gene expression by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Esophageal squamous (EPC1-& EPC2-hTERT), BE metaplastic (CP-A), and adenocarcinoma (OE33) cell lines were characterized for Wnt activation by qRT-PCR, Western blot, and luciferase assay. Wnt activity regulation was examined by using recombinant Wnt3a and Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) as well as Dkk1 short interfering RNA. RESULTS: Wnt target genes (AXIN2, c-MYC, Cyclin D1, Dkk1) and Wnt3a were significantly upregulated in nondysplastic BE compared with squamous mucosa. Elevated levels of dephosphorylated β-catenin were detected in nondysplastic BE. Nuclear active β-catenin and TOPflash activity were increased in CP-A and OE33 cells compared with squamous cells. Wnt3a-mediated β-catenin signaling activation was abolished by Dkk1 in CP-A cells. TOPFlash activity was elevated following Dkk1 silencing in CP-A but not in OE33 cells. Dysplastic and esophageal adenocarcinoma tissues demonstrated further Dkk1 and AXIN2 overexpression. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the absence of robust nuclear accumulation, β-catenin is transcriptionally active in nondysplastic BE. Dkk1 overexpression regulates β-catenin signaling in BE metaplastic but not in adenocarcinoma cells, suggesting that early perturbation of Dkk1-mediated signaling suppression may contribute to BE malignant transformation. PMID:26297437

  8. Liposomal packaging generates Wnt protein with in vivo biological activity.

    PubMed

    Morrell, Nathan T; Leucht, Philipp; Zhao, Ludan; Kim, Jae-Beom; ten Berge, Derk; Ponnusamy, Karthik; Carre, A Lyonel; Dudek, Henryk; Zachlederova, Marie; McElhaney, Michael; Brunton, Shirley; Gunzner, Janet; Callow, Marinella; Polakis, Paul; Costa, Mike; Zhang, Xiaoyan M; Helms, Jill A; Nusse, Roel

    2008-01-01

    Wnt signals exercise strong cell-biological and regenerative effects of considerable therapeutic value. There are, however, no specific Wnt agonists and no method for in vivo delivery of purified Wnt proteins. Wnts contain lipid adducts that are required for activity and we exploited this lipophilicity by packaging purified Wnt3a protein into lipid vesicles. Rather than being encapsulated, Wnts are tethered to the liposomal surface, where they enhance and sustain Wnt signaling in vitro. Molecules that effectively antagonize soluble Wnt3a protein but are ineffective against the Wnt3a signal presented by a cell in a paracrine or autocrine manner are also unable to block liposomal Wnt3a activity, suggesting that liposomal packaging mimics the biological state of active Wnts. When delivered subcutaneously, Wnt3a liposomes induce hair follicle neogenesis, demonstrating their robust biological activity in a regenerative context. PMID:18698373

  9. Wnt signaling in skin organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Widelitz, Randall B

    2008-04-01

    While serving as the interface between an organism and its environment, the skin also can elaborate a wide range of skin appendages to service specific purposes in a region-specific fashion. As in other organs, Wnt signaling plays a key role in regulating the proliferation, differentiation and motility of skin cells during their morphogenesis. Here I will review some of the recent work that has been done on skin organogenesis. I will cover dermis formation, the development of skin appendages, cycling of appendages in the adult, stem cell regulation, patterning, orientation, regional specificity and modulation by sex hormone nuclear receptors. I will also cover their roles in wound healing, hair regeneration and skin related diseases. It appears that Wnt signaling plays essential but distinct roles in different hierarchical levels of morphogenesis and organogenesis. Many of these areas have not yet been fully explored but are certainly promising areas of future research. PMID:19279724

  10. Wnt signaling in skin organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    While serving as the interface between an organism and its environment, the skin also can elaborate a wide range of skin appendages to service specific purposes in a region-specific fashion. As in other organs, Wnt signaling plays a key role in regulating the proliferation, differentiation and motility of skin cells during their morphogenesis. Here I will review some of the recent work that has been done on skin organogenesis. I will cover dermis formation, the development of skin appendages, cycling of appendages in the adult, stem cell regulation, patterning, orientation, regional specificity and modulation by sex hormone nuclear receptors. I will also cover their roles in wound healing, hair regeneration and skin related diseases. It appears that Wnt signaling plays essential but distinct roles in different hierarchical levels of morphogenesis and organogenesis. Many of these areas have not yet been fully explored but are certainly promising areas of future research. PMID:19279724

  11. Organized emergence of multiple-generations of teeth in snakes is dysregulated by activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling.

    PubMed

    Gaete, Marcia; Tucker, Abigail S

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to mammals, most reptiles constantly regenerate their teeth. In the snake, the epithelial dental lamina ends in a successional lamina, which proliferates and elongates forming multiple tooth generations, all linked by a permanent dental lamina. To investigate the mechanisms used to control the initiation of new tooth germs in an ordered sequential pattern we utilized the polyphodont (multiple-generation) corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus). We observed that the dental lamina expressed the transcription factor Sox2, a multipotent stem cell marker, whereas the successional lamina cells expressed the transcription factor Lef1, a Wnt/β-catenin pathway target gene. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in culture increased the number of developing tooth germs, in comparison to control untreated cultures. These additional tooth germs budded off from ectopic positions along the dental lamina, rather than in an ordered sequence from the successional lamina. Wnt/β-catenin activation enhanced cell proliferation, particularly in normally non-odontogenic regions of the dental lamina, which widely expressed Lef1, restricting the Sox2 domain. This suggests an expansion of the successional lamina at the expense of the dental lamina. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in cultured snake dental organs, therefore, led to changes in proliferation and to the molecular pattern of the dental lamina, resulting in loss of the organised emergence of tooth germs. These results suggest that epithelial compartments are critical for the arrangement of organs that develop in sequence, and highlight the role of Wnt/β-catenin signalling in such processes. PMID:24019968

  12. Organized Emergence of Multiple-Generations of Teeth in Snakes Is Dysregulated by Activation of Wnt/Beta-Catenin Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Gaete, Marcia; Tucker, Abigail S.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to mammals, most reptiles constantly regenerate their teeth. In the snake, the epithelial dental lamina ends in a successional lamina, which proliferates and elongates forming multiple tooth generations, all linked by a permanent dental lamina. To investigate the mechanisms used to control the initiation of new tooth germs in an ordered sequential pattern we utilized the polyphodont (multiple-generation) corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus). We observed that the dental lamina expressed the transcription factor Sox2, a multipotent stem cell marker, whereas the successional lamina cells expressed the transcription factor Lef1, a Wnt/β-catenin pathway target gene. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in culture increased the number of developing tooth germs, in comparison to control untreated cultures. These additional tooth germs budded off from ectopic positions along the dental lamina, rather than in an ordered sequence from the successional lamina. Wnt/β-catenin activation enhanced cell proliferation, particularly in normally non-odontogenic regions of the dental lamina, which widely expressed Lef1, restricting the Sox2 domain. This suggests an expansion of the successional lamina at the expense of the dental lamina. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in cultured snake dental organs, therefore, led to changes in proliferation and to the molecular pattern of the dental lamina, resulting in loss of the organised emergence of tooth germs. These results suggest that epithelial compartments are critical for the arrangement of organs that develop in sequence, and highlight the role of Wnt/β-catenin signalling in such processes. PMID:24019968

  13. Nucleoporin 62-Like Protein Activates Canonical Wnt Signaling through Facilitating the Nuclear Import of β-Catenin in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaojie; Gu, Qilin; Lin, Li; Li, Shaoyang; Zhong, Shan

    2015-01-01

    Nucleoporin p62 (Nup62) localizes in the central channel of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and regulates nuclear pore permeability and nucleocytoplasmic transport. However, the developmental roles of Nup62 in vertebrates remain largely unclear. Zebrafish Nup62-like protein (Nup62l) is a homolog of mammalian Nup62. The nup62l gene is maternally expressed, but its transcripts are ubiquitously distributed during early embryogenesis and enriched in the head, pharynx, and intestine of developing embryos. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway positively modulates nup62l transcription, while Bmp signaling acts downstream of Wnt/β-catenin signaling to negatively regulate nup62l expression. Overexpression of nup62l dorsalized embryos and enhanced gastrula convergence and extension (CE) movements. In contrast, knockdown of Nup62l led to ventralized embryos, an impediment to CE movements, and defects in specification of midline organ progenitors. Mechanistically, Nup62l acts as an activator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling through interaction with and facilitation of nuclear import of β-catenin-1/2 in zebrafish. Thus, Nup62l regulates dorsoventral patterning, gastrula CE movements, and proper specification of midline organ precursors through mediating the nuclear import of β-catenins in zebrafish. PMID:25605329

  14. Tanshinone IIA Pretreatment Renders Free Flaps against Hypoxic Injury through Activating Wnt Signaling and Upregulating Stem Cell-Related Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zihan; Zhang, Zhenxin; Wu, Lijun; Sun, Yaowen; Guo, Yadong; Qin, Gaoping; Mu, Shengzhi; Fan, Ronghui; Wang, Benfeng; Gao, Wenjie

    2014-01-01

    Partial or total flap necrosis after flap transplantation is sometimes clinically encountered in reconstructive surgery, often as a result of a period of hypoxia that exceeds the tolerance of the flap tissue. In this study, we determine whether tanshinone IIA (TSA) pretreatment can protect flap tissue against hypoxic injury and improve its viability. Primary epithelial cells isolated from the dorsal skin of mice were pretreated with TSA for two weeks. Cell counting kit-8 and Trypan Blue assays were carried out to examine the proliferation of TSA-pretreated cells after exposure to cobalt chloride. Then, Polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were used to determine the expression of β-catenin, GSK-3β, SOX2, and OCT4 in TSA-treated cells. In vivo, after mice were pretreated with TSA for two weeks, a reproducible ischemic flap model was implemented, and the area of surviving tissue in the transplanted flaps was measured. Immunohistochemistry was also conducted to examine the related biomarkers mentioned above. Results show that epidermal cells, pretreated with TSA, showed enhanced resistance to hypoxia. Activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in TSA-pretreated cells was characterized by the upregulation of β-catenin and the downregulation of GSK-3β. The expression of SOX2 and OCT4 controlled by Wnt signaling were also found higher in TSA pretreated epithelial cells. In the reproducible ischaemic flap model, pretreatment with TSA enhanced resistance to hypoxia and increased the area of surviving tissue in transplanted flaps. The expression of Wnt signaling pathway components, stem-cell related biomarkers, and CD34, which are involved in the regeneration of blood vessels, was also upregulated in TSA-pretreated flap tissue. The results show that TSA pretreatment protects free flaps against hypoxic injury and increases the area of surviving tissue by activating Wnt signaling and upregulating stem cell-related biomarkers. PMID:25302618

  15. Wnt activation promotes neuronal differentiation of Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Rampazzo, E; Persano, L; Pistollato, F; Moro, E; Frasson, C; Porazzi, P; Della Puppa, A; Bresolin, S; Battilana, G; Indraccolo, S; Te Kronnie, G; Argenton, F; Tiso, N; Basso, G

    2013-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in tumour research is the possibility to reprogram cancer cells towards less aggressive phenotypes. In this study, we reprogrammed primary Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)-derived cells towards a more differentiated and less oncogenic phenotype by activating the Wnt pathway in a hypoxic microenvironment. Hypoxia usually correlates with malignant behaviours in cancer cells, but it has been recently involved, together with Wnt signalling, in the differentiation of embryonic and neural stem cells. Here, we demonstrate that treatment with Wnt ligands, or overexpression of β-catenin, mediate neuronal differentiation and halt proliferation in primary GBM cells. An hypoxic environment cooperates with Wnt-induced differentiation, in line with our finding that hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is instrumental and required to sustain the expression of β-catenin transcriptional partners TCF-1 and LEF-1. In addition, we also found that Wnt-induced GBM cell differentiation inhibits Notch signalling, and thus gain of Wnt and loss of Notch cooperate in the activation of a pro-neuronal differentiation program. Intriguingly, the GBM sub-population enriched of cancer stem cells (CD133+ fraction) is the primary target of the pro-differentiating effects mediated by the crosstalk between HIF-1α, Wnt, and Notch signalling. By using zebrafish transgenics and mutants as model systems to visualize and manipulate in vivo the Wnt pathway, we confirm that Wnt pathway activation is able to promote neuronal differentiation and inhibit Notch signalling of primary human GBM cells also in this in vivo set-up. In conclusion, these findings shed light on an unsuspected crosstalk between hypoxia, Wnt and Notch signalling in GBM, and suggest the potential to manipulate these microenvironmental signals to blunt GBM malignancy. PMID:23429286

  16. Chromomycins A2 and A3 from marine actinomycetes with TRAIL resistance-overcoming and Wnt signal inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Toume, Kazufumi; Tsukahara, Kentaro; Ito, Hanako; Arai, Midori A; Ishibashi, Masami

    2014-06-01

    A biological screening study of an actinomycetes strain assembly was conducted using a cell-based cytotoxicity assay. The CKK1019 strain was isolated from a sea sand sample. Cytotoxicity-guided fractionation of the CKK1019 strain culture broth, which exhibited cytotoxicity, led to the isolation of chromomycins A2 (1) and A3 (2). 1 and 2 showed potent cytotoxicity against the human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cell line (IC50 1; 1.7 and 2; 22.1 nM), as well as strong inhibitory effects against TCF/β-catenin transcription (IC50 1; 1.8 and 2; 15.9 nM). 2 showed the ability to overcome tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) resistance. To the best of our knowledge, the effects of chromomycins A2 (1) and A3 (2) on TRAIL resistance-overcoming activity, and on the Wnt signaling pathway, have not been reported previously. Thus, 1 and 2 warrant potential drug lead studies in relation to TRAIL-resistant and Wnt signal-related diseases and offer potentially useful chemical probes for investigating TRAIL resistance and the Wnt signaling pathway. PMID:24905484

  17. Prostate tumour overexpressed-1 promotes tumourigenicity in human breast cancer via activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanmei; Ma, Weifeng; Lei, Fangyong; Li, Qingyuan; Su, Yanhong; Lin, Xi; Lin, Chuyong; Zhang, Xin; Ye, Liping; Wu, Shu; Li, Jun; Yuan, Zhongyu; Song, Libing

    2016-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in females. The presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is the main cause of local and distant tumour recurrence and is associated with poor outcome in breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the maintenance of CSCs remain largely unknown. This study demonstrates that prostate tumour overexpressed-1 (PTOV1) enhances the CSC population and augments the tumourigenicity of breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, PTOV1 suppresses transcription of Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) by recruiting histone deacetylases and subsequently reducing DKK1 promoter histone acetylation, followed by activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling. Restoration of DKK1 expression in PTOV1-overexpressing cells counteracts the effects of PTOV1 on Wnt/β-catenin activation and the CSC population. Collectively, these results suggest that PTOV1 positively regulates the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway and enhances tumourigenicity in breast cancer; this novel mechanism may represent a therapeutic target for breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27060981

  18. Tissue factor induces VEGF expression via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in ARPE-19 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Sang, Aimin; Zhu, Manhui; Zhang, Guowei; Guan, Huaijin; Ji, Min

    2016-01-01

    , indicating the importance of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the process of TF-induced VEGF expression and angiogenesis. Conclusions Involvement of the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is an important mediator for TF-induced VEGF production during the process of angiogenesis. Thus, our findings may ascertain the molecular regulation of TF in neovessel formation and show significant therapeutic implications. PMID:27499609

  19. A novel Wnt5a-Frizzled4 signaling pathway mediates activity-independent dendrite morphogenesis via the distal PDZ motif of Frizzled 4.

    PubMed

    Bian, Wen-Jie; Miao, Wan-Ying; He, Shun-Ji; Wan, Zong-Fang; Luo, Zhen-Ge; Yu, Xiang

    2015-08-01

    The morphology of the dendritic tree is critical to neuronal function and neural circuit wiring. Several Wnt family members have been demonstrated to play important roles in dendrite development. However, the Wnt receptors responsible for mediating this process remain largely elusive. Using primary hippocampal neuronal cultures as a model system, we report that Frizzled4 (Fzd4), a member of the Fzd family of Wnt receptors, specifically signals downstream of Wnt5a to promote dendrite branching and growth. Interestingly, the less conserved distal PDZ binding motif of Fzd4, and not its conserved proximal Dvl-interacting PDZ motif, is required for mediating this effect. We further showed that Dvl signaled parallel to and independent of Fzd4 in promoting dendrite growth. Unlike most previously described pathways, Wnt5a/Fzd4 signaling promoted dendrite development in an activity-independent and autocrine fashion. Together, these results provide the first identification of a Wnt receptor for regulating dendrite development in the mammalian system, and demonstrate a novel function of the distal PDZ motif of Fzd4 in dendrite morphogenesis, thereby expanding our knowledge of the complex roles of Wnt signaling in neural development. PMID:25424568

  20. Methylation of DACT2 accelerates esophageal cancer development by activating Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meiying; Linghu, Enqiang; Zhan, Qimin; He, Tao; Cao, Baoping; Brock, Malcolm V.; Herman, James G.; Xiang, Rong; Guo, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. DACT2 is frequently methylated in human lung, hepatic, gastric and thyroid cancers. The methylation status and function of DACT2 remain to be elucidated in human esophageal cancer. Ten esophageal cancer cell lines, 42 cases of dysplasia and 126 cases of primary esophageal cancer samples were analyzed in this study. The expression of DACT2 was detected in YES2 cells, while reduced DACT2 expression levels were found in TE8 and KYSE70 cells, and complete loss of DACT2 expression was found in KYSE30, KYSE140, KYSE150, KYSE410, KYSE450, TE3 and TE7 cells. Loss of expression or reduced expression of DACT2 correlated with promoter region hypermethylation in esophageal cancer cells. Restoration of DACT2 expression was induced by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. In human primary esophageal squamous carcinoma, 69% (87/126) of samples were methylated. Methylation of DACT2 was significantly associated with tumor stage and metastasis (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). DACT2 suppressed colony formation, cell migration and invasion in esophageal cancer cells, and it also suppressed esophageal cancer cell xenograft growth. DACT2 inhibited Wnt signaling in human esophageal cancer cells. In conclusion, DACT2 is frequently methylated in human esophageal cancer and its expression is regulated by promoter region methylation. DACT2 suppresses esophageal cancer growth by inhibiting Wnt signaling. PMID:26919254

  1. Wnt/β-catenin signaling in bone marrow niche.

    PubMed

    Ahmadzadeh, Ahmad; Norozi, Fatemeh; Shahrabi, Saeid; Shahjahani, Mohammad; Saki, Najmaldin

    2016-02-01

    The bone marrow (BM) niche is a specific physiological environment for hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Several signaling pathways (including Wnt/β-catenin) regulate various aspects of stem cell growth, function and death in the BM niche. In addition, the canonical Wnt pathway is crucial for directing self-renewal and differentiation as important mechanisms in many types of stem cells. We review the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the BM niche and its importance in stem cells. Relevant literature was identified by a PubMed search (1997-2014) of English-language literature by using the following keywords: BM niche, Wnt/β-catenin signaling, osteoblast, osteoclast and bone disease. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway regulates the stability of the β-catenin proto-oncogene. The stabilized β-catenin then translocates to the nucleus, forming a β-catenin-TCF/LEF complex regulating the transcription of specific target genes. Stem cells require β-catenin to mediate their response to Wnt signaling for maintenance and transition from the pluripotent state during embryogenesis. In adult stem cells, Wnt signaling functions at various hierarchical levels to contribute to the specification of the diverse tissues. Aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signaling and its downstream transcriptional regulators are observed in several malignant stem cells and human cancers. Because Wnt signaling can maintain stem cells and cancer cells, the ability to modulate the Wnt pathway either positively or negatively may be of therapeutic relevance. The controlled activation of Wnt signaling might allow us to enhance stem and progenitor cell activity when regeneration is needed. PMID:26475718

  2. Functional Wnt Signaling Is Increased in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Königshoff, Melanie; Balsara, Nisha; Pfaff, Eva-Maria; Kramer, Monika; Chrobak, Izabella; Seeger, Werner; Eickelberg, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease, characterized by distorted lung architecture and loss of respiratory function. Alveolar epithelial cell injury and hyperplasia, enhanced extracellular matrix deposition, and (myo)fibroblast activation are features of IPF. Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been shown to determine epithelial cell fate during development. As aberrant reactivation of developmental signaling pathways has been suggested to contribute to IPF pathogenesis, we hypothesized that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated in epithelial cells in IPF. Thus, we quantified and localized the expression and activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in IPF. Methodology/Principal Findings The expression of Wnt1, 3a, 7b, and 10b, the Wnt receptors Fzd1-4, Lrp5-6, as well as the intracellular signal transducers Gsk-3β, β-catenin, Tcf1, 3, 4, and Lef1 was analyzed in IPF and transplant donor lungs by quantitative real-time (q)RT-PCR. Wnt1, 7b and 10b, Fzd2 and 3, β-catenin, and Lef1 expression was significantly increased in IPF. Immunohistochemical analysis localized Wnt1, Wnt3a, β-catenin, and Gsk-3β expression largely to alveolar and bronchial epithelium. This was confirmed by qRT-PCR of primary alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells, demonstrating a significant increase of Wnt signaling in ATII cells derived from IPF patients. In addition, Western blot analysis of phospho-Gsk-3β, phospho-Lrp6, and β-catenin, and qRT-PCR of the Wnt target genes cyclin D1, Mmp 7, or Fibronectin 1 demonstrated increased functional Wnt/β-catenin signaling in IPF compared with controls. Functional in vitro studies further revealed that Wnt ligands induced lung epithelial cell proliferation and (myo)fibroblast activation and collagen synthesis. Conclusions/Significance Our study demonstrates that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is expressed and operative in adult lung epithelium. Increased Wnt/β-catenin signaling may be involved in epithelial cell injury and

  3. Wnt signaling in heart valve development and osteogenic gene induction

    PubMed Central

    Alfieri, Christina M.; Cheek, Jonathan; Chakraborty, Santanu; Yutzey, Katherine E.

    2009-01-01

    Wnt signaling mediated by beta-catenin has been implicated in early endocardial cushion development, but its roles in later stages of heart valve maturation and homeostasis have not been identified. Multiple Wnt ligands and pathway genes are differentially expressed during heart valve development. At E12.5, Wnt2 is expressed in cushion mesenchyme, whereas Wnt4 and Wnt9b are predominant in overlying endothelial cells. At E17.5, both Wnt3a and Wnt7b are expressed in the remodeling atrioventricular (AV) and semilunar valves. In addition, the TOPGAL Wnt reporter transgene is active throughout the developing AV and semilunar valves at E16.5, with more localized expression in the stratified valve leaflets after birth. In chicken embryo aortic valves, genes characteristic of osteogenic cell lineages including periostin, osteonectin, and Id2 are expressed specifically in the collagen-rich fibrosa layer at E14. Treatment of E14 aortic valve interstitial cells (VIC) in culture with osteogenic media results in increased expression of multiple genes associated with bone formation. Treatment of VIC with Wnt3a leads to nuclear localization of beta-catenin and induction of periostin and matrix gla-protein, but does not induce genes associated with later stages of osteogenesis. Together, these studies provide evidence for Wnt signaling as a regulator of endocardial cushion maturation as well as valve leaflet stratification, homeostasis and pathogenesis. PMID:19961844

  4. Integration of Shh and Wnt Signaling Pathways Regulating Hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhigang; Wan, Liping; Wang, Chun; Zhou, Kun

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the spatial and temporal programmed expression of Shh and Wnt members during key stages of definitive hematopoiesis and the possible mechanism of Shh and Wnt signaling pathways regulating the proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Spatial and temporal programmed gene expression of Shh and Wnt signaling during hematopoiesis corresponded with c-kit(+)lin(-) HPCs proliferation. C-kit(+)Lin(-) populations derived from aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) of Balb/c mice at E10.5 with increased expression of Shh and Wnt3a demonstrated a greater potential for proliferation. Additionally, supplementation with soluble Shh N-terminal peptide promoted the proliferation of c-kit(+)Lin(-) populations by activating the Wnt signaling pathway, an effect which was inhibited by blocking Shh signaling. A specific inhibitor of wnt signaling was capable of inhibiting Shh-induced proliferation in a similar manner to shh inhibitor. Our results provide valuable information on Shh and Wnt signaling involved in hematopoiesis and highlight the importance of interaction of Shh and Wnt signaling in regulating HPCs proliferation. PMID:26378473

  5. Wnt pathway activation by ADP-ribosylation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eungi; Tacchelly-Benites, Ofelia; Wang, Zhenghan; Randall, Michael P.; Tian, Ai; Benchabane, Hassina; Freemantle, Sarah; Pikielny, Claudio; Tolwinski, Nicholas S.; Lee, Ethan; Ahmed, Yashi

    2016-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signalling directs fundamental processes during metazoan development and can be aberrantly activated in cancer. Wnt stimulation induces the recruitment of the scaffold protein Axin from an inhibitory destruction complex to a stimulatory signalosome. Here we analyse the early effects of Wnt on Axin and find that the ADP-ribose polymerase Tankyrase (Tnks)—known to target Axin for proteolysis—regulates Axin's rapid transition following Wnt stimulation. We demonstrate that the pool of ADP-ribosylated Axin, which is degraded under basal conditions, increases immediately following Wnt stimulation in both Drosophila and human cells. ADP-ribosylation of Axin enhances its interaction with the Wnt co-receptor LRP6, an essential step in signalosome assembly. We suggest that in addition to controlling Axin levels, Tnks-dependent ADP-ribosylation promotes the reprogramming of Axin following Wnt stimulation; and propose that Tnks inhibition blocks Wnt signalling not only by increasing destruction complex activity, but also by impeding signalosome assembly. PMID:27138857

  6. Wnt pathway activation by ADP-ribosylation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eungi; Tacchelly-Benites, Ofelia; Wang, Zhenghan; Randall, Michael P; Tian, Ai; Benchabane, Hassina; Freemantle, Sarah; Pikielny, Claudio; Tolwinski, Nicholas S; Lee, Ethan; Ahmed, Yashi

    2016-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signalling directs fundamental processes during metazoan development and can be aberrantly activated in cancer. Wnt stimulation induces the recruitment of the scaffold protein Axin from an inhibitory destruction complex to a stimulatory signalosome. Here we analyse the early effects of Wnt on Axin and find that the ADP-ribose polymerase Tankyrase (Tnks)--known to target Axin for proteolysis-regulates Axin's rapid transition following Wnt stimulation. We demonstrate that the pool of ADP-ribosylated Axin, which is degraded under basal conditions, increases immediately following Wnt stimulation in both Drosophila and human cells. ADP-ribosylation of Axin enhances its interaction with the Wnt co-receptor LRP6, an essential step in signalosome assembly. We suggest that in addition to controlling Axin levels, Tnks-dependent ADP-ribosylation promotes the reprogramming of Axin following Wnt stimulation; and propose that Tnks inhibition blocks Wnt signalling not only by increasing destruction complex activity, but also by impeding signalosome assembly. PMID:27138857

  7. Role of Wnt signaling in fracture healing

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huiyun; Duan, Jing; Ning, Dandan; Li, Jingbao; Liu, Ruofei; Yang, Ruixin; Jiang, Jean X.; Shang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is well known to play major roles in skeletal development and homeostasis. In certain aspects, fracture repair mimics the process of bone embryonic development. Thus, the importance of Wnt signaling in fracture healing has become more apparent in recent years. Here, we summarize recent research progress in the area, which may be conducive to the development of Wnt-based therapeutic strategies for bone repair. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(12): 666-672] PMID:25301020

  8. Frat is dispensable for canonical Wnt signaling in mammals

    PubMed Central

    van Amerongen, Renée; Nawijn, Martijn; Franca-Koh, Jonathan; Zevenhoven, John; van der Gulden, Hanneke; Jonkers, Jos; Berns, Anton

    2005-01-01

    Wnt-signal transduction through β-catenin is thought to require the inhibition of GSK3 by Frat/GBP. To investigate the role of Frat in mammalian development, we have generated mice with targeted mutations in all three murine Frat homologs. We show that Frat is normally expressed at sites of active Wnt signaling. Surprisingly, Frat-deficient mice do not display gross abnormalities. Moreover, canonical Wnt signaling in primary cells is unaffected by the loss of Frat. These studies show that Frat is not an essential component of the canonical Wnt pathway in higher organisms, despite the strict requirement of Frat/GBP for maternal Wnt signaling in Xenopus. PMID:15681612

  9. Notch signaling represses hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-induced activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts under cobalt-mimicked hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    LI, CHEN-TIAN; LIU, JIAN-XIU; YU, BO; LIU, RUI; DONG, CHAO; LI, SONG-JIAN

    2016-01-01

    The modification of Wnt and Notch signaling pathways by hypoxia, and its association with osteoblast proliferation and apoptosis remain to be fully elucidated. To investigate Wnt-Notch crosstalk, and its role in hypoxia-induced osteoblast proliferation and apoptosis regulation, the present study investigated the effects of cobalt-mimicked hypoxia on the mouse pre-osteoblast-like cell line, MC3T3-E1, when the Notch signals were repressed using a γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT. The data showed that the cobalt-mimicked hypoxia suppressed cell proliferation under normal conditions, but increased cell proliferation under conditions of Notch repression, in a concentration-dependent manner. The results of western blot and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that the cobalt treatment increased the levels of activated β-catenin protein and the expression levels of the target genes, axis inhibition protein 2 and myelocytomatosis oncogene, under DAPT-induced Notch repression. However, no significant changes were found in the expression levels of the Notch intracellular domain protein or the Notch target gene, hes1. In a β-catenin gene-knockdown experiment, the proliferation of the MC3T3-E1 cells under hypoxia were decreased by DAPT treatment, and knockdown of the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) suppressed the cobalt-induced increase in Wnt target gene levels. No significant difference in cell proliferation rate was found following DAPT treatment when the expression of HIF-1α was knocked down. The results of the present study showed the opposing effects of Wnt and Notch signaling under cobalt-mimicked hypoxia, which were partially regulated by HIF-1α, The results also showed that osteoblast proliferation was dependent on Wnt-Notch signal crosstalk. PMID:27220406

  10. Loss of tumor suppressor Merlin results in aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Erhong; Menezes, Mitchell E.; Bailey, Sarah K.; Metge, Brandon J.; Buchsbaum, Donald J.; Samant, Rajeev S.; Shevde, Lalita A.

    2016-01-01

    The expression of the tumor suppressor Merlin is compromised in nervous system malignancies due to genomic aberrations. We demonstrated for the first time, that in breast cancer, Merlin protein expression is lost due to proteasome-mediated elimination. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissues from patients with metastatic breast cancer revealed characteristically reduced Merlin expression. Importantly, we identified a functional role for Merlin in impeding breast tumor xenograft growth and reducing invasive characteristics. We sought to determine a possible mechanism by which Merlin accomplishes this reduction in malignant activity. We observed that breast and pancreatic cancer cells with loss of Merlin show an aberrant increase in the activity of β-catenin concomitant with nuclear localization of β-catenin. We discovered that Merlin physically interacts with β-catenin, alters the sub-cellular localization of β-catenin, and significantly reduces the protein levels of β-catenin by targeting it for degradation through the upregulation of Axin1. Consequently, restoration of Merlin inhibited β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity in breast and pancreatic cancer cells. We also present evidence that loss of Merlin sensitizes tumor cells to inhibition by compounds that target β-catenin-mediated activity. Thus, this study provides compelling evidence that Merlin reduces the malignant activity of pancreatic and breast cancer, in part by suppressing the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Given the potent role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in breast and pancreatic cancer and the flurry of activity to test β-catenin inhibitors in the clinic, our findings are opportune and provide evidence for Merlin in restraining aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:26908451

  11. Medicarpin, a Natural Pterocarpan, Heals Cortical Bone Defect by Activation of Notch and Wnt Canonical Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Chandra Prakash; Kureel, Jyoti; Mansoori, Mohd Nizam; Shukla, Priyanka; John, Aijaz A.; Singh, Kavita; Purohit, Dipak; Awasthi, Pallavi; Singh, Divya; Goel, Atul

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the bone regeneration and healing effect of Medicarpin (med) in cortical bone defect model that heals by intramembranous ossification. For the study, female Sprague–Dawley rats were ovariectomized and rendered osteopenic. A drill hole injury was generated in mid femoral bones of all the animals. Med treatment was commenced the day after and continued for 15 days. PTH was taken as a reference standard. Fifteen days post-treatment, animals were sacrificed. Bones were collected for histomorphometry studies at the injury site by micro-computed tomography (μCT) and confocal microscopy. RNA and protein was harvested from newly generated bone. For immunohistochemistry, 5μm sections of decalcified femur bone adjoining the drill hole site were cut. By μCT analysis and calcein labeling of newly generated bone it was found that med promotes bone healing and new bone formation at the injury site and was comparable to PTH in many aspects. Med treatment led to increase in the Runx-2 and osteocalcin signals indicating expansion of osteoprogenitors at the injury site as evaluated by qPCR and immunohistochemical localization. It was observed that med promoted bone regeneration by activating canonical Wnt and notch signaling pathway. This was evident by increased transcript and protein levels of Wnt and notch signaling components in the defect region. Finally, we confirmed that med treatment leads to elevated bone healing in pre-osteoblasts by co localization of beta catenin with osteoblast marker alkaline phosphatase. In conclusion, med treatment promotes new bone regeneration and healing at the injury site by activating Wnt/canonical and notch signaling pathways. This study also forms a strong case for evaluation of med in delayed union and non-union fracture cases. PMID:26657206

  12. The Chlamydia pneumoniae Inclusion Membrane Protein Cpn1027 Interacts with Host Cell Wnt Signaling Pathway Regulator Cytoplasmic Activation/Proliferation-Associated Protein 2 (Caprin2).

    PubMed

    Flores, Rhonda; Zhong, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified hypothetical protein Cpn1027 as a novel inclusion membrane protein that is unique to Chlamydia pneumoniae. In the current study, using a yeast-two hybrid screen assay, we identified host cell cytoplasmic activation/proliferation-associated protein 2 (Caprin2) as an interacting partner of Cpn1027. The interaction was confirmed and mapped to the C-termini of both Cpn1027 and Caprin2 using co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. A RFP-Caprin2 fusion protein was recruited to the chlamydial inclusion and so was the endogenous GSK3β, a critical component of the β-catenin destruction complex in the Wnt signaling pathway. Cpn1027 also co-precipitated GSK3β. Caprin2 is a key regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway by promoting the recruitment of the β-catenin destruction complex to the cytoplasmic membrane in the presence of Wnt signaling while GSK3β is required for priming β-catenin for degradation in the absence of Wnt signaling. The Cpn1027 interactions with Caprin2 and GSK3β may allow C. pneumoniae to actively sequester the β-catenin destruction complex so that β-catenin is maintained even in the absence of extracellular Wnt activation signals. The maintained β-catenin can trans-activate Wnt target genes including Bcl-2, which may contribute to the chlamydial antiapoptotic activity. We found that the C. pneumoniae-infected cells were more resistant to apoptosis induction and the anti-apoptotic activity was dependent on β-catenin. Thus, the current study suggests that the chlamydial inclusion protein Cpn1027 may be able to manipulate host Wnt signaling pathway for enhancing the chlamydial anti-apoptotic activity. PMID:25996495

  13. Orchestrating Wnt signalling for metabolic liver zonation.

    PubMed

    Birchmeier, Walter

    2016-04-27

    Wnt/β-catenin signalling is an important regulator of liver development, zonation and regeneration. The cell surface complex RSPO-LGR4/5-ZNF3/RNF43 is now shown to direct Wnt/β-catenin signalling in orchestrating the division of the liver into functionally distinct metabolic zones, providing insights into the mechanisms that influence organ development and regeneration. PMID:27117330

  14. Advanced bone formation in mice with a dominant-negative mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor β gene due to activation of Wnt/β-catenin protein signaling.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Patrick J; Kim, Dong Wook; Logan, John G; Davis, Sean; Walker, Robert L; Meltzer, Paul S; Cheng, Sheue-yann; Williams, Graham R

    2012-05-18

    Thyroid hormone (T(3)) acts in chondrocytes and bone-forming osteoblasts to control bone development and maintenance, but the signaling pathways mediating these effects are poorly understood. Thrb(PV/PV) mice have a severely impaired pituitary-thyroid axis and elevated thyroid hormone levels due to a dominant-negative mutant T(3) receptor (TRβ(PV)) that cannot bind T(3) and interferes with the actions of wild-type TR. Thrb(PV/PV) mice have accelerated skeletal development due to unknown mechanisms. We performed microarray studies in primary osteoblasts from wild-type mice and Thrb(PV/PV) mice. Activation of the canonical Wnt signaling in Thrb(PV/PV) mice was confirmed by in situ hybridization analysis of Wnt target gene expression in bone during postnatal growth. By contrast, T(3) treatment inhibited Wnt signaling in osteoblastic cells, suggesting that T(3) inhibits the Wnt pathway by facilitating proteasomal degradation of β-catenin and preventing its accumulation in the nucleus. Activation of the Wnt pathway in Thrb(PV/PV) mice, however, results from a gain of function for TRβ(PV) that stabilizes β-catenin despite the presence of increased thyroid hormone levels. These studies demonstrate novel interactions between T(3) and Wnt signaling pathways in the regulation of skeletal development and bone formation. PMID:22442145

  15. Role of TAZ as mediator of Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Azzolin, Luca; Zanconato, Francesca; Bresolin, Silvia; Forcato, Mattia; Basso, Giuseppe; Bicciato, Silvio; Cordenonsi, Michelangelo; Piccolo, Stefano

    2012-12-21

    Wnt growth factors are fundamental regulators of cell fate, but how the Wnt signal is translated into biological responses is incompletely understood. Here, we report that TAZ, a biologically potent transcriptional coactivator, serves as a downstream element of the Wnt/β-catenin cascade. This function of TAZ is independent from its well-established role as mediator of Hippo signaling. In the absence of Wnt activity, the components of the β-catenin destruction complex--APC, Axin, and GSK3--are also required to keep TAZ at low levels. TAZ degradation depends on phosphorylated β-catenin that bridges TAZ to its ubiquitin ligase β-TrCP. Upon Wnt signaling, escape of β-catenin from the destruction complex impairs TAZ degradation and leads to concomitant accumulation of β-catenin and TAZ. At the genome-wide level, a substantial portion of Wnt transcriptional responses is mediated by TAZ. TAZ activation is a general feature of Wnt signaling and is functionally relevant to mediate Wnt biological effects. PMID:23245942

  16. Thyroid hormone activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling involved in adult epithelial development during intestinal remodeling in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Hasebe, Takashi; Fujimoto, Kenta; Kajita, Mitsuko; Ishizuya-Oka, Atsuko

    2016-08-01

    During amphibian intestinal remodeling, thyroid hormone (TH) induces some larval epithelial cells to dedifferentiate into adult stem cells, which newly generate the absorptive epithelium analogous to the mammalian epithelium. To clarify molecular mechanisms underlying adult epithelial development, we here focus on TH response genes that are associated with the canonical Wnt pathway. Our quantitative reverse transcription plus polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analyses indicate that all of the genes examined, including β-catenin, c-Myc and secreted frizzle-related protein 2 (SFRP2), are up-regulated in Xenopus laevis intestine during both natural and TH-induced metamorphosis. Moreover, immunoreactivity for nuclear β-catenin becomes detectable in adult stem cells from the start of their appearance and then increases in intensity in adult epithelial primordia derived from the stem cells, which actively proliferate and coexpress Wnt target genes c-Myc and LGR5. These expression profiles strongly suggest the involvement of the canonical Wnt pathway in the maintenance and/or proliferation of adult stem/progenitor cells. More importantly, by using organ cultures of the tadpole intestine, we have experimentally shown that the addition of exogenous SFRP2 protein to the culture medium promotes cell proliferation of the adult epithelial primordia, whereas inhibition of endogenous SFRP2 by its antibody suppresses their proliferation. The inhibition of SFRP2 suppresses larval epithelial changes in shape from simple columnar to stem-cell-like roundish cells, resulting in the failure of epithelial dedifferentiation. Thus, TH-up-regulated SFRP2 in the postembryonic intestine promotes adult stem cell development, possibly by acting as an agonist of both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling. PMID:27068920

  17. Ricinine: a pyridone alkaloid from Ricinus communis that activates the Wnt signaling pathway through casein kinase 1α.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Kensuke; Toume, Kazufumi; Arai, Midori A; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Mizoguchi, Takamasa; Itoh, Motoyuki; Ishibashi, Masami

    2014-09-01

    Wnt signaling plays important roles in proliferation, differentiation, development of cells, and various diseases. Activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of the Ricinus communis stem led to the isolation of four compounds (1-4). The TCF/β-catenin transcription activities of 1 and 3 were 2.2 and 2.5 fold higher at 20 and 30μM, respectively. Cells treated with ricinine (1) had higher β-catenin and lower of p-β-catenin (ser 33, 37, 45, Thr 41) protein levels, whereas glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and casein kinase 1α (CK1α) protein levels remained unchanged. Cells treated with pyrvinium, an activator of CK1α, had lower β-catenin levels. However, the combined treatment of pyrvinium and 1 led to higher β-catenin levels than those in cells treated with pyrvinium alone, which suggested that 1 inhibited CK1α activity. Furthermore, 1 increased β-catenin protein levels in zebrafish embryos. These results indicated that 1 activated the Wnt signaling pathway by inhibiting CK1α. PMID:25124862

  18. Wnt Signaling in Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Krause, Mirja; Samoylenko, Anatoly; Vainio, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 90% of all kidney cancers. Due to poor diagnosis, high resistance to the systemic therapies and the fact that most RCC cases occur sporadically, current research switched its focus on studying the molecular mechanisms underlying RCC. The aim is the discovery of new effective and less toxic anti-cancer drugs and novel diagnostic markers. Besides the PI3K/Akt/mTOR, HGF/Met and VHL/hypoxia cellular signaling pathways, the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in RCC is commonly studied. Wnt signaling and its targeted genes are known to actively participate in different biological processes during embryonic development and renal cancer. Recently, studies have shown that targeting this pathway by alternating/inhibiting its intracellular signal transduction can reduce cancer cells viability and inhibit their growth. The targets and drugs identified show promising potential to serve as novel RCC therapeutics and prognostic markers. This review aims to summarize the current status quo regarding recent research on RCC focusing on the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and how its understanding could facilitate the identification of potential therapeutic targets, new drugs and diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:27322325

  19. Wnt Signaling in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi; Krause, Mirja; Samoylenko, Anatoly; Vainio, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 90% of all kidney cancers. Due to poor diagnosis, high resistance to the systemic therapies and the fact that most RCC cases occur sporadically, current research switched its focus on studying the molecular mechanisms underlying RCC. The aim is the discovery of new effective and less toxic anti-cancer drugs and novel diagnostic markers. Besides the PI3K/Akt/mTOR, HGF/Met and VHL/hypoxia cellular signaling pathways, the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in RCC is commonly studied. Wnt signaling and its targeted genes are known to actively participate in different biological processes during embryonic development and renal cancer. Recently, studies have shown that targeting this pathway by alternating/inhibiting its intracellular signal transduction can reduce cancer cells viability and inhibit their growth. The targets and drugs identified show promising potential to serve as novel RCC therapeutics and prognostic markers. This review aims to summarize the current status quo regarding recent research on RCC focusing on the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and how its understanding could facilitate the identification of potential therapeutic targets, new drugs and diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:27322325

  20. Canonical Wnt Signaling Regulates Atrioventricular Junction Programming and Electrophysiological Properties

    PubMed Central

    Gillers, Benjamin S; Chiplunkar, Aditi; Aly, Haytham; Valenta, Tomas; Basler, Konrad; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Efimov, Igor R; Boukens, Bastiaan J; Rentschler, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Proper patterning of the atrioventricular canal (AVC) is essential for delay of electrical impulses between atria and ventricles, and defects in AVC maturation can result in congenital heart disease. Objective To determine the role of canonical Wnt signaling in the myocardium during AVC development. Methods and Results We utilized a novel allele of β-catenin that preserves β-catenin’s cell adhesive functions but disrupts canonical Wnt signaling, allowing us to probe the effects of Wnt loss of function independently. We show that loss of canonical Wnt signaling in the myocardium results in tricuspid atresia with hypoplastic right ventricle associated with loss of AVC myocardium. In contrast, ectopic activation of Wnt signaling was sufficient to induce formation of ectopic AV junction-like tissue as assessed by morphology, gene expression, and electrophysiologic criteria. Aberrant AVC development can lead to ventricular preexcitation, a characteristic feature of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. We demonstrate that postnatal activation of Notch signaling downregulates canonical Wnt targets within the AV junction. Stabilization of β-catenin protein levels can rescue Notch-mediated ventricular preexcitation and dysregulated ion channel gene expression. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that myocardial canonical Wnt signaling is an important regulator of AVC maturation and electrical programming upstream of Tbx3. Our data further suggests that ventricular preexcitation may require both morphologic patterning defects, as well as myocardial lineage reprogramming, to allow robust conduction across accessory pathway tissue. PMID:25599332

  1. Dysregulation of Wnt/β-catenin Signaling in Gastrointestinal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    White, Bryan D.; Chien, Andy J.; Dawson, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signaling is widely implicated in numerous malignancies, including cancers of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Dysregulation of signaling is traditionally attributed to mutations in Axin, APC (adenomatous polyposis coli), and β-catenin that lead to constitutive hyperactivation of the pathway. However, Wnt/β-catenin signaling is also modulated through various other mechanisms in cancer, including crosstalk with other altered signaling pathways. A more complex view of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and its role in GI cancers is now emerging as divergent phenotypic outcomes are found to be dictated by temporospatial context and relative levels of pathway activation. This review summarizes the dysregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in colorectal carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, with particular emphasis on the latter two. We conclude by addressing some of the major challenges faced in attempting to target the pathway in the clinic. PMID:22155636

  2. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by hydrogen peroxide transcriptionally inhibits NaV1.5 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Huo, Rong; Cai, Benzhi; Lu, Yan; Ye, Bo; Li, Xiang; Li, Faqian; Xu, Haodong

    2016-07-01

    Oxidants and canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling have been shown to decrease cardiac Na(+) channel activity by suppressing NaV1.5 expression. Our aims are to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), one oxidant of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling and promotes β-catenin nuclear activity, leading to suppression of NaV1.5 expression and if this suppression requires the interaction of β-catenin with its nuclear partner, TCF4 (also called TCF7L2) to decrease SCN5a promoter activity. The results demonstrated that H2O2 increased β-catenin, but not TCF4 nuclear localization determined by immunofluorescence without affecting total β-catenin protein level. Furthermore, H2O2 exerted a dose- and time-dependent suppressive effect on NaV1.5 expression. RT-PCR and/or Western blot analyses revealed that overexpressing active form of β-catenin or stabilizing β-catenin by GSK-3β inhibitors, LiCl and Bio, suppressed NaV1.5 expression in HL-1 cells. In contrast, destabilization of β-catenin by a constitutively active GSK-3β mutant (S9A) upregulated NaV1.5 expression. Whole-cell recording showed that LiCl significantly inhibited Na(+) channel activity in these cells. Using immunoprecipitation (IP), we showed that β-catenin interacted with TCF4 indicating that β-catenin as a co-transfactor, regulates NaV1.5 expression through TCF4. Analyses of the SCN5a promoter sequences among different species by using VISTA tools indicated that SCN5a promoter harbors TCF4 binding sites. Chromatin IP assays demonstrated that both β-catenin and TCF4 were recruited in the SCN5a promoter, and regulated its activity. Luciferase promoter assays exhibited that β-catenin inhibited the SCN5a promoter activity at a dose-dependent manner and this inhibition required TCF4. Small interfering (Si) RNA targeting β-catenin significantly increased SCN5a promoter activity, leading to enhanced NaV1.5 expression. As expected, β-catenin SiRNA prevents H2O2 suppressive effects

  3. Neuroprotective Role of Novel Triazine Derivatives by Activating Wnt/β Catenin Signaling Pathway in Rodent Models of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Anshuman; Tamboli, Riyaj S; Seth, Brashket; Kanhed, Ashish M; Tiwari, Shashi Kant; Agarwal, Swati; Nair, Saumya; Giridhar, Rajani; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2015-08-01

    It has been reported in the literature that cholinesterase inhibitors provide protection in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent reports have implicated triazine derivatives as cholinesterase inhibitors. These findings led us to investigate anti-cholinestrase property of some novel triazine derivatives synthesized in this laboratory. In vitro cholinesterase inhibition assay was performed using Ellman method. The potent compounds screened out from in vitro assay were further evaluated using scopolamine-induced amnesic mice model. Further, in vitro reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and anti-apoptotic property of the potent compounds were demonstrated against Aβ1-42-induced neurotoxicity in rat hippocampal cells. Their neuroprotective role was assessed using Aβ1-42-induced Alzheimer's-like phenotype in rats. Further, the role of compounds on the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway was studied. The results showed that the chosen compounds are having protective effect in Alzheimer's-like condition; the ex vivo results advocated their anti-cholinestrase and anti-oxidant activities. Treatment with TRZ-15 and TRZ-20 showed neuroprotective ability of the compounds as evidenced from the improved cognitive ability in the animals, and decrease in Aβ1-42 burden and cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3 levels in the brain. This study also demonstrates positive involvement of the novel triazine derivatives in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence data suggested that ratio of pGSK3/GSK3 and β-catenin got dramatically improved after treatment with TRZ-15 and TRZ-20. TRZ-15 and TRZ-20 showed neuroprotection in scopolamine-induced amnesic mice and Aβ1-42-induced Alzheimer's rat model and also activate the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. These findings conclude that TRZ-15 and TRZ-20 could be a therapeutic approach to treat AD. PMID:25257697

  4. Aberrantly expressed miR-582-3p maintains lung cancer stem cell-like traits by activating Wnt/β-catenin signalling

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lishan; Cai, Junchao; Chen, Baixue; Wu, Shanshan; Li, Rong; Xu, Xiaonan; Yang, Yi; Guan, Hongyu; Zhu, Xun; Zhang, Le; Yuan, Jie; Wu, Jueheng; Li, Mengfeng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are involved in tumorigenesis, tumour recurrence and therapy resistance and Wnt signalling is essential for the development of the biological traits of CSCs. In non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), unlike in colon cancer, mutations in β-catenin and APC genes are uncommon; thus, the mechanism underlying the constitutive activation of Wnt signalling in NSCLC remains unclear. Here we report that miR-582-3p expression correlates with the overall- and recurrence-free-survival of NSCLC patients, and miR-582-3p has an activating effect on Wnt/β-catenin signalling. miR-582-3p overexpression simultaneously targets multiple negative regulators of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, namely, AXIN2, DKK3 and SFRP1. Consequently, miR-582-3p promotes CSC traits of NSCLC cells in vitro and tumorigenesis and tumour recurrence in vivo. Antagonizing miR-582-3p potently inhibits tumour initiation and progression in xenografted animal models. These findings suggest that miR-582-3p mediates the constitutive activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling, likely serving as a potential therapeutic target for NSCLC. PMID:26468775

  5. Aberrantly expressed miR-582-3p maintains lung cancer stem cell-like traits by activating Wnt/β-catenin signalling.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lishan; Cai, Junchao; Chen, Baixue; Wu, Shanshan; Li, Rong; Xu, Xiaonan; Yang, Yi; Guan, Hongyu; Zhu, Xun; Zhang, Le; Yuan, Jie; Wu, Jueheng; Li, Mengfeng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are involved in tumorigenesis, tumour recurrence and therapy resistance and Wnt signalling is essential for the development of the biological traits of CSCs. In non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), unlike in colon cancer, mutations in β-catenin and APC genes are uncommon; thus, the mechanism underlying the constitutive activation of Wnt signalling in NSCLC remains unclear. Here we report that miR-582-3p expression correlates with the overall- and recurrence-free-survival of NSCLC patients, and miR-582-3p has an activating effect on Wnt/β-catenin signalling. miR-582-3p overexpression simultaneously targets multiple negative regulators of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, namely, AXIN2, DKK3 and SFRP1. Consequently, miR-582-3p promotes CSC traits of NSCLC cells in vitro and tumorigenesis and tumour recurrence in vivo. Antagonizing miR-582-3p potently inhibits tumour initiation and progression in xenografted animal models. These findings suggest that miR-582-3p mediates the constitutive activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling, likely serving as a potential therapeutic target for NSCLC. PMID:26468775

  6. Wnt signaling induces epithelial differentiation during cutaneous wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Houschyar, Khosrow S; Momeni, Arash; Pyles, Malcolm N; Maan, Zeshaan N; Whittam, Alexander J; Siemers, Frank

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cutaneous wound repair in adult mammals typically does not regenerate original dermal architecture. Skin that has undergone repair following injury is not identical to intact uninjured skin. This disparity may be caused by differences in the mechanisms that regulate postnatal cutaneous wound repair compared to embryonic skin development and thus we seek a deeper understanding of the role that Wnt signaling plays in the mechanisms of skin repair in both fetal and adult wounds. The influence of secreted Wnt signaling proteins in tissue homeostasis has galvanized efforts to identify small molecules that target Wnt-mediated cellular responses. Wnt signaling is activated by wounding and participates in every subsequent stage of the healing process from the control of inflammation and programmed cell death, to the mobilization of stem cell reservoirs within the wound site. Endogenous Wnt signaling augmentation represents an attractive option to aid in the restoration of cutaneous wounds, as the complex mechanisms of the Wnt pathway have been increasingly investigated over the years. In this review, we summarize recent data elucidating the roles that Wnt signaling plays in cutaneous wound healing process. PMID:26309090

  7. Therapeutic potential of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells with Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway pre-activated for the treatment of diabetic wounds.

    PubMed

    Sun, T-J; Tao, R; Han, Y-Q; Xu, G; Liu, J; Han, Y-F

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus wounds is complicate, and there lacks effective treatment strategies. Mesenchymal stem cells can promote wound healing. Compared with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells have obvious advantages in biological property. Wnts are potent regulatory molecules for stem cell turnover and skin regeneration, while Wnt signaling is not well activated in diabetic wounds. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells with Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway pre-activated have some potential in the treatment of diabetic wounds. In this paper, we review the research status as well as problems in this field. PMID:25268090

  8. Lithium chloride promotes the odontoblast differentiation of hair follicle neural crest cells by activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Shan, Tengfei; Zhou, Cheng; Yang, Rong; Yan, Fei; Zhang, Ping; Fu, Yu; Jiang, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway contributes to the maintenance of pluripotency and partial reprogramming of stem cells. Postnatal neural crest cells (NCCs) can differentiate into odontoblast-like cells due to their multi-potential property, but further endeavors need to be made to promote odontogenic differentiation of hair follicle neural crest cells (hfNCCs). This study investigated whether the Wnt pathway activator lithium chloride (LiCl) promotes odontoblast differentiation of hfNCCs. Change of proliferation, β-catenin and pluripotency markers of hfNCCs were examined after treatment with LiCl. An in vitro odontoblast differentiation model of hfNCCs was built using dental cell conditioned media (DC-CM). The effects of LiCl on odontoblast differentiation of hfNCCs showed that proliferation and expression of β-catenin in the cytosolic and nuclear compartments were increased in the LiCl-treated hfNCCs, and the pluripotency marks, Oct4, Klf4, Sox2 and Nanog, were more highly expressed in the LiCl-treated group than in the control group. The odontoblast markers such as DSP, DMP1 and Runx2, could be detected in hfNCCs induced by DC-CM, but in LiCl -treated group all three markers had stronger expression. Expression of β-catenin in the nuclear of LiCl-treated hfNCCs induced by DC-CM was higher than in the other groups. The data indicate that the Wnt pathway activator LiCl can promote proliferation and odontoblast differentiation of hfNCCs, and chemical approaches are of benefit in obtaining more desirable seed cell types for cell-based therapies. PMID:25044369

  9. Modulation of canonical Wnt signaling by the extracellular matrix component biglycan

    PubMed Central

    Berendsen, Agnes D.; Fisher, Larry W.; Kilts, Tina M.; Owens, Rick T.; Robey, Pamela G.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Young, Marian F.

    2011-01-01

    Although extracellular control of canonical Wnt signaling is crucial for tissue homeostasis, the role of the extracellular microenvironment in modulating this signaling pathway is largely unknown. In the present study, we show that a member of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan family, biglycan, enhances canonical Wnt signaling by mediating Wnt function via its core protein. Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that biglycan interacts with both the canonical Wnt ligand Wnt3a and the Wnt coreceptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), possibly via the formation of a trimeric complex. Biglycan-deficient cells treated with exogenous Wnt3a had less Wnt3a retained in cell layers compared with WT cells. Furthermore, the Wnt-induced levels of LRP6 phosphorylation and expression of several Wnt target genes were blunted in biglycan-deficient cells. Both recombinant biglycan proteoglycan and biglycan core protein increased Wnt-induced β-catenin/T cell-specific factor–mediated transcriptional activity, and this activity was completely inhibited by Dickkopf 1. Interestingly, recombinant biglycan was able to rescue impaired Wnt signaling caused by a previously described missense mutation in the extracellular domain of human LRP6 (R611C). Furthermore, biglycan's modulation of canonical Wnt signaling affected the functional activities of osteoprogenitor cells, including the RUNX2-mediated transcriptional activity and calcium deposition. Use of a transplant system and a fracture healing model revealed that expression of Wnt-induced secreted protein 1 was decreased in bone formed by biglycan-deficient cells, further suggesting reduced Wnt signaling in vivo. We propose that biglycan may serve as a reservoir for Wnt in the pericellular space and modulate Wnt availability for activation of the canonical Wnt pathway. PMID:21969569

  10. GSK-3 and Wnt Signaling in Neurogenesis and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Valvezan, Alexander J.; Klein, Peter S.

    2012-01-01

    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is critical for development of the mammalian central nervous system and regulates diverse processes throughout adulthood, including adult neurogenesis. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) antagonizes the canonical Wnt pathway and therefore also plays a central role in neural development and adult neurogenesis. Lithium, the first line of therapy for bipolar disorder, inhibits GSK-3, activates Wnt signaling and stimulates adult neurogenesis, which may be important for its therapeutic effects. GSK-3 also regulates other critical signaling pathways which may contribute to the therapeutic effects of lithium, including growth factor/neurotrophin signaling downstream of Akt. Here we will review the roles of GSK-3 in CNS development and adult neurogenesis, with a focus on the canonical Wnt pathway. We will also discuss the validation of GSK-3 as the relevant target of lithium and the mechanisms downstream of GSK-3 that influence mammalian behavior. PMID:22319467

  11. Activation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway is associated with glial proliferation in the adult spinal cord of ALS transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yanchun; Guan, Yingjun; Liu, Huancai; Wu, Xin; Yu, Li; Wang, Shanshan; Zhao, Chunyan; Du, Hongmei; Wang, Xin

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt3a and Cyclin D1 were upregulated in the spinal cord of the ALS mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-catenin translocated from the cell membrane to the nucleus in the ALS mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt3a, {beta}-catenin and Cyclin D1 co-localized for astrocytes were all increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BrdU/Cyclin D1 double-positive cells were increased in the spinal cord of ALS mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BrdU/Cyclin D1/GFAP triple-positive cells were detected in the ALS mice. -- Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive and fatal loss of motor neurons. In ALS, there is a significant cell proliferation in response to neurodegeneration; however, the exact molecular mechanisms of cell proliferation and differentiation are unclear. The Wnt signaling pathway has been shown to be involved in neurodegenerative processes. Wnt3a, {beta}-catenin, and Cyclin D1 are three key signaling molecules of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway. We determined the expression of Wnt3a, {beta}-catenin, and Cyclin D1 in the adult spinal cord of SOD1{sup G93A} ALS transgenic mice at different stages by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence labeling techniques. We found that the mRNA and protein of Wnt3a and Cyclin D1 in the spinal cord of the ALS mice were upregulated compared to those in wild-type mice. In addition, {beta}-catenin translocated from the cell membrane to the nucleus and subsequently activated transcription of the target gene, Cyclin D1. BrdU and Cyclin D1 double-positive cells were increased in the spinal cord of these mice. Moreover, Wnt3a, {beta}-catenin, and Cyclin D1 were also expressed in both neurons and astrocytes. The expression of Wnt3a, {beta}-catenin or Cyclin D1 in mature GFAP{sup +} astrocytes increased. Moreover, BrdU/Cyclin D1/GFAP triple-positive cells were detected in the ALS mice. Our findings suggest that

  12. CTHRC1 Acts as a Prognostic Factor and Promotes Invasiveness of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors by Activating Wnt/PCP-Rho Signaling1

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ming-Ze; Zhuang, Chun; Yang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Zi-Zhen; Ma, Hong; Zhang, Wen-Ming; You, Haiyan; Qin, Wenxin; Gu, Jianren; Yang, Shengli; Cao, Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the major gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors with a variable malignancy ranging from a curable disorder to highly malignant sarcomas. Metastasis and recurrence are the main causes of death in GIST patients. To further explore the mechanism of metastasis and to more accurately estimate the recurrence risk of GISTs after surgery, the clinical significance and functional role of collagen triple helix repeat containing-1 (CTHRC1) in GIST were investigated. We found that CTHRC1 expression was gradually elevated as the risk grade of NIH classification increased, and was closely correlated with disease-free survival and overall survival in 412 GIST patients. In vitro experiments showed that recombinant CTHRC1 protein promoted the migration and invasion capacities of primary GIST cells. A luciferase reporter assay and pull down assay demonstrated that recombinant CTHRC1 protein activated noncanonical Wnt/PCP-Rho signaling but inhibited canonical Wnt signaling. The pro-motility effect of CTHRC1 on GIST cells was reversed by using a Wnt5a neutralizing antibody and inhibitors of Rac1 or ROCK. Taken together, these data indicate that CTHRC1 may serve as a new predictor of recurrence risk and prognosis in post-operative GIST patients and may play an important role in facilitating GIST progression. Furthermore, CTHRC1 promotes GIST cell migration and invasion by activating Wnt/PCP-Rho signaling, suggesting that the CTHRC1-Wnt/PCP-Rho axis may be a new therapeutic target for interventions against GIST invasion and metastasis. PMID:24726140

  13. Calcitonin gene-related peptide promotes the expression of osteoblastic genes and activates the WNT signal transduction pathway in bone marrow stromal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, RI; YUAN, ZHI; LIU, JIERONG; LIU, JIAN

    2016-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is known to induce osteoblastic differentiation and alkaline phosphatase activity in bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs). However, it has remained elusive whether this effect is mediated by CGRP receptors directly or whether other signaling pathways are involved. The present study assessed the possible involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the activation of CGRP signaling during the differentiation of BMSCs. First, the differentiation of BMSCs was induced in vitro and the expression of CGRP receptors was examined by western blot analysis. The effects of exogenous CGRP and LiCl, a stimulator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, on the osteoblastic differentiation of BMSCs were assessed; furthermore, the expression of mRNA and proteins involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was assessed using quantitative PCR and western blot analyses. The results revealed that CGRP receptors were expressed throughout the differentiation of BMSCs, at days 7 and 14. Incubation with CGRP and LiCl led to the upregulation of the expression of osteoblastic genes associated with the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, including the mRNA of c-myc, cyclin D1, Lef1, Tcf7 and β-catenin as well as β-catenin protein. However, the upregulation of these genes and β-catenin protein was inhibited by CGRP receptor antagonist or secreted frizzled-related protein, an antagonist of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The results of the present study therefore suggested that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway may be involved in CGRP- and LiCl-promoted osteoblastic differentiation of BMSCs. PMID:27082317

  14. Calcitonin gene-related peptide promotes the expression of osteoblastic genes and activates the WNT signal transduction pathway in bone marrow stromal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ri; Yuan, Zhi; Liu, Jierong; Liu, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is known to induce osteoblastic differentiation and alkaline phosphatase activity in bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs). However, it has remained elusive whether this effect is mediated by CGRP receptors directly or whether other signaling pathways are involved. The present study assessed the possible involvement of the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway in the activation of CGRP signaling during the differentiation of BMSCs. First, the differentiation of BMSCs was induced in vitro and the expression of CGRP receptors was examined by western blot analysis. The effects of exogenous CGRP and LiCl, a stimulator of the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway, on the osteoblastic differentiation of BMSCs were assessed; furthermore, the expression of mRNA and proteins involved in the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway was assessed using quantitative PCR and western blot analyses. The results revealed that CGRP receptors were expressed throughout the differentiation of BMSCs, at days 7 and 14. Incubation with CGRP and LiCl led to the upregulation of the expression of osteoblastic genes associated with the Wnt/β‑catenin pathway, including the mRNA of c‑myc, cyclin D1, Lef1, Tcf7 and β‑catenin as well as β‑catenin protein. However, the upregulation of these genes and β‑catenin protein was inhibited by CGRP receptor antagonist or secreted frizzled‑related protein, an antagonist of the Wnt/β‑catenin pathway. The results of the present study therefore suggested that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway may be involved in CGRP‑ and LiCl-promoted osteoblastic differentiation of BMSCs. PMID:27082317

  15. ΔNp63 promotes stem cell activity in mammary gland development and basal-like breast cancer by enhancing Fzd7 expression and Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Rumela; Wei, Yong; Hwang, Julie; Hang, Xiang; Blanco, Mario Andres; Choudhury, Abrar; Tiede, Benjamin; Romano, Rose-Anne; DeCoste, Christina; Mercatali, Laura; Ibrahim, Toni; Amadori, Dino; Kannan, Nagarajan; Eaves, Connie J; Sinha, Satrajit; Kang, Yibin

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that cancer is populated and maintained by tumor initiating cells (TICs) with stem-like properties similar to that of adult tissue stem cells. Despite recent advances, the molecular regulatory mechanisms that may be shared between normal and malignant stem cells remain poorly understood. Here we show that the ΔNp63 isoform of the Trp63 transcription factor promotes normal mammary stem cell (MaSC) activity by increasing the expression of the Wnt receptor Fzd7, thereby enhancing Wnt signaling. Importantly, Fzd7-dependent enhancement of Wnt signaling by ΔNp63 also governs tumor initiating activity of the basal subtype of breast cancer. These findings establish ΔNp63 as a key regulator of stem cells in both normal and malignant mammary tissues and provide direct evidence that breast cancer TICs and normal MaSCs share common regulatory mechanisms. PMID:25241036

  16. Transiently Active Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Is Not Required but Must Be Silenced for Stem Cell Function during Muscle Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Malea M.; Keefe, Alexandra C.; Lawson, Jennifer A.; Flygare, Steven D.; Yandell, Mark; Kardon, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Summary Adult muscle’s exceptional capacity for regeneration is mediated by muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells. As with many stem cells, Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been proposed to be critical in satellite cells during regeneration. Using new genetic reagents, we explicitly test in vivo whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling is necessary and sufficient within satellite cells and their derivatives for regeneration. We find that signaling is transiently active in transit-amplifying myoblasts, but is not required for regeneration or satellite cell self-renewal. Instead, downregulation of transiently activated β-catenin is important to limit the regenerative response, as continuous regeneration is deleterious. Wnt/β-catenin activation in adult satellite cells may simply be a vestige of their developmental lineage, in which β-catenin signaling is critical for fetal myogenesis. In the adult, surprisingly, we show that it is not activation but rather silencing of Wnt/β-catenin signaling that is important for muscle regeneration. PMID:25241745

  17. A novel function for Wnt signaling modulating neuronal firing activity and the temporal structure of spontaneous oscillation in the entorhinal-hippocampal circuit.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Carolina A; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-07-01

    During early and late postnatal developments, the establishment of functional neuronal connectivity depends on molecules like Wnt that help the recently formed synapses to establish and consolidate their new cellular interactions. However, unlike other molecules, whether Wnt can modulate the firing properties of cells is unknown. Here, for the first time we explore the physiological effect of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways on a circuit that is currently generating oscillatory activity, the entorhinal cortex-hippocampal circuit. Our results indicate that Wnt pathways have strong influence in the circuital and cellular properties depending on the Wnt protein isoforms, concentration, and type of neuronal circuit. Antibodies against canonical and non-canonical ligands, as well as WASP-1 and sFRP-2, demonstrate that constitutive release of Wnts contributes to the maintenance of the network and intrinsic properties of the circuit. Furthermore, we found that the excess of Wnt3a or the permanent intracellular activation of the pathway with BIO-6 accelerates the period of the oscillation by disrupting the oscillatory units (Up states) in short units, presumably by affecting the synaptic mechanisms that couples neurons into the oscillatory cycle, but without affecting the spike generation. Instead, low doses of Wnt5a increase the period of the oscillation in EC by incorporating new cells into the network activity, probably modifying firing activity in other places of the circuit. Moreover, we found that Wnt signaling operates under different principles in the hippocampus. Using pyrvinium pamoate, a Wnt/β-catenin dependent pathway inhibitor, we demonstrated that this pathway is essential to keep the firing activity in the circuit CA3, and in less degree of CA1 circuit. However, CA1 circuit possesses homeostatic mechanisms to up-regulate the firing activity when it has been suppressed in CA3, and to down-modulate the cellular excitability when exacerbated

  18. LIG4 mediates Wnt signalling-induced radioresistance.

    PubMed

    Jun, Sohee; Jung, Youn-Sang; Suh, Han Na; Wang, Wenqi; Kim, Moon Jong; Oh, Young Sun; Lien, Esther M; Shen, Xi; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; McCrea, Pierre D; Li, Lei; Chen, Junjie; Park, Jae-Il

    2016-01-01

    Despite the implication of Wnt signalling in radioresistance, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we find that high Wnt signalling is associated with radioresistance in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and intestinal stem cells (ISCs). We find that LIG4, a DNA ligase in DNA double-strand break repair, is a direct target of β-catenin. Wnt signalling enhances non-homologous end-joining repair in CRC, which is mediated by LIG4 transactivated by β-catenin. During radiation-induced intestinal regeneration, LIG4 mainly expressed in the crypts is conditionally upregulated in ISCs, accompanied by Wnt/β-catenin signalling activation. Importantly, among the DNA repair genes, LIG4 is highly upregulated in human CRC cells, in correlation with β-catenin hyperactivation. Furthermore, blocking LIG4 sensitizes CRC cells to radiation. Our results reveal the molecular mechanism of Wnt signalling-induced radioresistance in CRC and ISCs, and further unveils the unexpected convergence between Wnt signalling and DNA repair pathways in tumorigenesis and tissue regeneration. PMID:27009971

  19. LIG4 mediates Wnt signalling-induced radioresistance

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Sohee; Jung, Youn-Sang; Suh, Han Na; Wang, Wenqi; Kim, Moon Jong; Oh, Young Sun; Lien, Esther M.; Shen, Xi; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; McCrea, Pierre D.; Li, Lei; Chen, Junjie; Park, Jae-Il

    2016-01-01

    Despite the implication of Wnt signalling in radioresistance, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we find that high Wnt signalling is associated with radioresistance in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and intestinal stem cells (ISCs). We find that LIG4, a DNA ligase in DNA double-strand break repair, is a direct target of β-catenin. Wnt signalling enhances non-homologous end-joining repair in CRC, which is mediated by LIG4 transactivated by β-catenin. During radiation-induced intestinal regeneration, LIG4 mainly expressed in the crypts is conditionally upregulated in ISCs, accompanied by Wnt/β-catenin signalling activation. Importantly, among the DNA repair genes, LIG4 is highly upregulated in human CRC cells, in correlation with β-catenin hyperactivation. Furthermore, blocking LIG4 sensitizes CRC cells to radiation. Our results reveal the molecular mechanism of Wnt signalling-induced radioresistance in CRC and ISCs, and further unveils the unexpected convergence between Wnt signalling and DNA repair pathways in tumorigenesis and tissue regeneration. PMID:27009971

  20. The regulation of stem cell aging by Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Fujimaki, Shin; Wakabayashi, Tamami; Takemasa, Tohru; Asashima, Makoto; Kuwabara, Tomoko

    2015-12-01

    Aging is an inevitable physiological process that leads to the dysfunction of various tissues, and these changes may contribute to certain diseases, and ultimately death. Recent research has discovered biological pathways that promote aging. This review focuses on Wnt signaling, Wnt is a highly conserved secreted signaling molecule that plays an essential role in the development and function of various tissues, and is a notable factor that regulates aging. Although Wnt signaling influences aging in various tissues, its effects are particularly prominent in neuronal tissue and skeletal muscle. In neuronal tissue, neurogenesis is attenuated by the downregulation of Wnt signaling with aging. Skeletal muscle can also become weaker with aging, in a process known as sarcopenia. A notable cause of sarcopenia is the myogenic-to-fibrogenic trans-differentiation of satellite cells by excessive upregulation of Wnt signaling with aging, resulting in the impaired regenerative capacity of aged skeletal muscle. However, exercise is very useful for preventing the age-related alterations in neuronal tissue and skeletal muscle. Upregulation of Wnt signaling is implicated in the positive effects of exercise, resulting in the activation of neurogenesis in adult neuronal tissue and myogenesis in mature skeletal muscle. Although more investigations are required to thoroughly understand age-related changes and their biological mechanisms in a variety of tissues, this review proposes exercise as a useful therapy for the elderly, to prevent the negative effects of aging and maintain their quality of life. PMID:26322973

  1. WNT signaling and cartilage: of mice and men.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bin; Landman, Ellie B M; Miclea, Razvan L; Wit, Jan M; Robanus-Maandag, Els C; Post, Janine N; Karperien, Marcel

    2013-05-01

    In adult articular cartilage, the extracellular matrix is maintained by a balance between the degradation and the synthesis of matrix components. Chondrocytes that sparsely reside in the matrix and rarely proliferate are the key cellular mediators for cartilage homeostasis. There are indications for the involvement of the WNT signaling pathway in maintaining articular cartilage. Various WNTs are involved in the subsequent stages of chondrocyte differentiation during development, and deregulation of WNT signaling was observed in cartilage degeneration. Even though gene expression and protein synthesis can be activated upon injury, articular cartilage has a limited ability of self-repair and efforts to regenerate articular cartilage have so far not been successful. Because WNT signaling was found to be involved in the development and maintenance of cartilage as well as in the degeneration of cartilage, interfering with this pathway might contribute to improving cartilage regeneration. However, most of the studies on elucidating the role of WNT signaling in these processes were conducted using in vitro or in vivo animal models. Discrepancies have been found in the role of WNT signaling between chondrocytes of mouse and human origin, and extrapolation of results from mouse models to the human situation remains a challenge. Elucidation of detailed WNT signaling functions will provide knowledge to improve cartilage regeneration. PMID:23212543

  2. Monitoring Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Skin.

    PubMed

    Ku, Amy T; Miao, Qi; Nguyen, Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Wnt signaling through β-catenin plays a crucial role in skin development and homeostasis. Disruption or hyperactivation of this pathway results in skin defects and diseases (Lim and Nusse, Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 5(2), 2013). Monitoring Wnt signaling in skin under normal and abnormal conditions is therefore critical to understand the role of this pathway in development and homeostasis.In this chapter, we provide methods to detect Wnt/β-catenin (canonical) signaling in the skin. We present a comprehensive list of Wnt reporter mice and detail the processing of skin tissue to detect reporter genes. From this list, we focus on the three most recent lines that, according to reports, are the most sensitive in skin. Additionally, we describe a protocol to detect nuclear β-catenin, a hallmark of active Wnt signaling, although this technique should be used with caution due to its limited sensitivity. The techniques outlined below will be useful for detecting active Wnt signaling in skin. PMID:27590159

  3. Citrobacter Infection and Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    Gut flora generally contributes to a healthy environment while both commensal and pathogenic bacteria that influence the innate and adaptive immune responses, can cause acute and/or chronic mucosal inflammation. Citrobacter rodentium (C. rodentium) is a member of the family of enteropathogens that provide an excellent in vivo model to investigate the host-pathogen interactions in real-time. It is the etiologic agent for transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia (TMCH) while inflammation following C. rodentium infection is dependent upon the genetic background. Ongoing and completed studies in this model have so far established that Wnt/β-catenin, Notch and PI3K pathways regulate colonic crypt hyperplasia while epithelial-stromal cross-talk, mediated by MEK/ERK/NF-κB signaling, regulates inflammation and/or colitis in susceptible strains. The C. rodentium-induced hyperplastic state also increases the susceptibility to either mutagenic insult or in mice heterozygous for Apc gene. The ability to modulate the host response to C. rodentium infection therefore provides an opportunity to delineate the mechanisms that determine mucosal hyperplasia, intestinal inflammation, and/or neoplasia as disease outcomes. PMID:24358033

  4. Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR)-mediated Regulation of WNT/β-Catenin Signaling Is Enhanced in Irradiated Medulloblastoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Gondi, Christopher S.; Nalla, Arun Kumar; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Gorantla, Bharathi; Rao, Jasti S.

    2012-01-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is known to promote invasion, migration, and metastasis in cancer cells. In this report, we showed that ionizing radiation (IR)-induced uPAR has a role in WNT-β-catenin signaling and mediates induction of cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties in medulloblastoma cell lines UW228 and D283. We observed that IR induced the expression of uPAR and CSC markers, such as Musashi-1 and CD44, and activated WNT-7a-β-catenin signaling molecules. Overexpression of uPAR alone or with IR treatment led to increased WNT-7a-β-catenin-TCF/LEF-mediated transactivation, thereby promoting cancer stemness. In contrast, treatment with shRNA specific for uPAR (pU) suppressed WNT-7a-β-catenin-TCF/LEF-mediated transactivation both in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin, a potent WNT/β-catenin inhibitor, suppressed uPAR and uPAR-mediated WNT/β-catenin activation, and furthermore, addition of recombinant human WNT-7a protein induced uPAR, indicating the existence of a mutual regulatory relationship between uPAR and WNT/β-catenin signaling. We showed that uPAR was physically associated with the WNT effector molecule β-catenin on the membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus of IR-treated cells and CSC. Most interestingly, we demonstrated for the first time that localization of uPAR in the nucleus was associated with transcription factors (TF) and their specific response elements. We observed from uPAR-ChIP, TF protein, and protein/DNA array analyses that uPAR associates with activating enhancer-binding protein 2α (AP2a) and mediates β-catenin gene transcription. Moreover, association of uPAR with the β-catenin·TCF/LEF complex and various other TF involved during embryonic development and cancer indicates that uPAR is a potent activator of stemness, and targeting of uPAR in combination with radiation has significant therapeutic implications. PMID:22511755

  5. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR)-mediated regulation of WNT/β-catenin signaling is enhanced in irradiated medulloblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Gondi, Christopher S; Nalla, Arun Kumar; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Gorantla, Bharathi; Rao, Jasti S

    2012-06-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is known to promote invasion, migration, and metastasis in cancer cells. In this report, we showed that ionizing radiation (IR)-induced uPAR has a role in WNT-β-catenin signaling and mediates induction of cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties in medulloblastoma cell lines UW228 and D283. We observed that IR induced the expression of uPAR and CSC markers, such as Musashi-1 and CD44, and activated WNT-7a-β-catenin signaling molecules. Overexpression of uPAR alone or with IR treatment led to increased WNT-7a-β-catenin-TCF/LEF-mediated transactivation, thereby promoting cancer stemness. In contrast, treatment with shRNA specific for uPAR (pU) suppressed WNT-7a-β-catenin-TCF/LEF-mediated transactivation both in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin, a potent WNT/β-catenin inhibitor, suppressed uPAR and uPAR-mediated WNT/β-catenin activation, and furthermore, addition of recombinant human WNT-7a protein induced uPAR, indicating the existence of a mutual regulatory relationship between uPAR and WNT/β-catenin signaling. We showed that uPAR was physically associated with the WNT effector molecule β-catenin on the membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus of IR-treated cells and CSC. Most interestingly, we demonstrated for the first time that localization of uPAR in the nucleus was associated with transcription factors (TF) and their specific response elements. We observed from uPAR-ChIP, TF protein, and protein/DNA array analyses that uPAR associates with activating enhancer-binding protein 2α (AP2a) and mediates β-catenin gene transcription. Moreover, association of uPAR with the β-catenin·TCF/LEF complex and various other TF involved during embryonic development and cancer indicates that uPAR is a potent activator of stemness, and targeting of uPAR in combination with radiation has significant therapeutic implications. PMID:22511755

  6. Wnt Signaling and Its Contribution to Craniofacial Tissue Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Yin, X; Li, J; Salmon, B; Huang, L; Lim, W H; Liu, B; Hunter, D J; Ransom, R C; Singh, G; Gillette, M; Zou, S; Helms, J A

    2015-11-01

    A new field of dental medicine seeks to exploit nature's solution for repairing damaged tissues, through the process of regeneration. Most adult mammalian tissues have limited regenerative capacities, but in lower vertebrates, the molecular machinery for regeneration is an elemental part of their genetic makeup. Accumulating data suggest that the molecular pathways responsible for the regenerative capacity of teleosts, amphibians, and reptiles have fallen into disuse in mammals but that they can be "jumpstarted" by the selective activation of key molecules. The Wnt family of secreted proteins constitutes one such critical pathway: Wnt proteins rank among the most potent and ubiquitous stem cell self-renewing factors, with tremendous potential for promoting human tissue regeneration. Wnt reporter and lineage-tracing strains of mice have been employed to create molecular maps of Wnt responsiveness in the craniofacial tissues, and these patterns of Wnt signaling colocalize with stem/progenitor populations in the rodent incisor apex, the dental pulp, the alveolar bone, the periodontal ligament, the cementum, and oral mucosa. The importance of Wnt signaling in both the maintenance and healing of these craniofacial tissues is summarized, and the therapeutic potential of Wnt-based strategies to accelerate healing through activation of endogenous stem cells is highlighted. PMID:26285808

  7. Wnt/β-Catenin and noncanonical Wnt signaling interact in tissue evagination in the simple eumetazoan Hydra

    PubMed Central

    Philipp, Isabelle; Aufschnaiter, Roland; Özbek, Suat; Pontasch, Stefanie; Jenewein, Marcell; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Rentzsch, Fabian; Holstein, Thomas W.; Hobmayer, Bert

    2009-01-01

    In and evaginations of 2D cell sheets are major shape generating processes in animal development. They result from directed movement and intercalation of polarized cells associated with cell shape changes. Work on several bilaterian model organisms has emphasized the role of noncanonical Wnt signaling in cell polarization and movement. However, the molecular processes responsible for generating tissue and body shape in ancestral, prebilaterian animals are unknown. We show that noncanonical Wnt signaling acts in mass tissue movements during bud and tentacle evagination and regeneration in the cnidarian polyp Hydra. The wnt5, wnt8, frizzled2 (fz2), and dishevelled-expressing cell clusters define the positions, where bud and tentacle evaginations are initiated; wnt8, fz2, and dishevelled remain up-regulated in those epithelial cells, undergoing cell shape changes during the entire evagination process. Downstream of wnt and dsh expression, JNK activity is required for the evagination process. Multiple ectopic wnt5, wnt8, fz2, and dishevelled-expressing centers and the subsequent evagination of ectopic tentacles are induced throughout the body column by activation of Wnt/β-Catenin signaling. Our results indicate that integration of axial patterning and tissue morphogenesis by the coordinated action of canonical and noncanonical Wnt pathways was crucial for the evolution of eumetazoan body plans. PMID:19237582

  8. Targeted Overexpression of TGF-α in the Corneal Epithelium of Adult Transgenic Mice Induces Changes in Anterior Segment Morphology and Activates Noncanonical Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yong; Yeh, Lung-Kun; Liu, Hongshan; Yamanaka, Osamu; Hardie, William D.; Kao, Winston W.-Y.; Liu, Chia-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α) transduces its signal through the epidermal growth factor receptor and is essential for corneal epithelial homeostasis. Previous studies have demonstrated that overexpression of TGF-α in the developing eye leads to anterior segment dysgenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we examined the effects of TGF-α overexpression on adult ocular surface homeostasis. Methods. Binary Tet-On transgenic Krt12rtTA/tet-O-TGF-α mice were subjected to doxycycline (Dox) induction to overexpress TGF-α in the corneal epithelium. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured by noninvasive tonometry. The enucleated eyes of the experimental mice were subjected to histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and biochemistry examination. Results. Histologic and immunofluorescent examination showed that double-transgenic mice overexpressing TGF-α manifested peripheral anterior synechiae. Elevation of IOP, activation of glial cells, and loss of retinal ganglion cells were also observed. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the expressions of genes (RXRα, PITX2, and FOXC1) related to anterior segment dysgenesis were downregulated. Canonical Wnt signaling was suppressed, whereas noncanonical Wnt ligands (Wnt4 and Wnt5a) were upregulated. Increased myosin light chain phosphorylation suggested that noncanonical Wnt signaling is activated in affected eyes. Conclusions. Overexpression of TGF-α in the corneal epithelium induces changes in anterior segment morphology. Corneal endothelial abnormalities are associated with the activation of the noncanonical Wnt and RhoA/ROCK signaling axis, indicating a potential application of RhoA/ROCK inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy for certain types of secondary angle-closure glaucoma. PMID:23412089

  9. Diet-induced obesity elevates colonic TNF-alpha in mice and is accompanied by an activation of Wnt signaling: a mechanism for obesity-associated colorectal cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inflammation associated with obesity may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated whether the Wnt pathway, an intracellular signaling cascade that plays a critical role in colorectal carcinogenesis, is activated by obesity-induce...

  10. Non-canonical Wnt signaling through Wnt5a/b and a novel Wnt11 gene, Wnt11b, regulates cell migration during avian gastrulation

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Katharine M.; Garriock, Robert J.; Yatskievych, Tatiana A.; D’Agostino, Susan L.; Antin, Parker B.; Krieg, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms regulating cell ingression, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and migration movements during amniote gastrulation is steadily improving. In the frog and fish embryo, Wnt5 and Wnt11 ligands are expressed around the blastopore and play an important role in regulating cell movements associated with gastrulation. In the chicken embryo, although Wnt5a and Wnt5b are expressed in the primitive streak, the known Wnt11 gene is expressed in paraxial and intermediate mesoderm and in differentiated myocardial cells. Here, we identify a previously uncharacterized chicken Wnt11 gene, Wnt11b, that is orthologous to the frog Wnt11 and zebrafish Wnt11 (silberblick) genes. Chicken Wnt11b is expressed in the primitive streak in a pattern similar to chicken Wnt5a and Wnt5b. When non-canonical Wnt signaling is blocked using a Dishevelled dominant negative protein, gastrulation movements are inhibited and cells accumulate in the primitive streak. Furthermore, disruption of non-canonical Wnt signaling by overexpression of full length or dominant negative Wnt11b or Wnt5a constructions abrogates normal cell migration through the primitive streak. We conclude that non-canonical Wnt signaling, mediated in part by Wnt11b, is important for regulation of gastrulation cell movements in the avian embryo. PMID:18602094

  11. Wnt Acts as a Prosurvival Signal to Enhance Dentin Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Daniel J; Bardet, Claire; Mouraret, Sylvain; Liu, Bo; Singh, Gurpreet; Sadoine, Jérémy; Dhamdhere, Girija; Smith, Andrew; Tran, Xuan Vinh; Joy, Adrienne; Rooker, Scott; Suzuki, Shigeki; Vuorinen, Annukka; Miettinen, Susanna; Chaussain, Catherine; Helms, Jill A

    2015-07-01

    Wnt proteins are lipid-modified, short-range signals that control stem cell self-renewal and tissue regeneration. We identified a population of Wnt responsive cells in the pulp cavity, characterized their function, and then created a pulp injury. The repair response was evaluated over time using molecular, cellular, and quantitative assays. We tested how healing was impacted by wound environments in which Wnt signaling was amplified. We found that a Wnt-amplified environment was associated with superior pulp healing. Although cell death was still rampant, the number of cells undergoing apoptosis was significantly reduced. This resulted in significantly better survival of injured pulp cells, and resulted in the formation of more tertiary dentin. We engineered a liposome-reconstituted form of WNT3A then tested whether this biomimetic compound could activate cells in the injured tooth pulp and stimulate dentin regeneration. Pulp cells responded to the elevated Wnt stimulus by differentiating into secretory odontoblasts. Thus, transiently amplifying the body's natural Wnt response resulted in improved pulp vitality. These data have direct clinical implications for treating dental caries, the most prevalent disease affecting mankind. PMID:25556760

  12. Noncanonical WNT-5B signaling induces inflammatory responses in human lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Eline M; Menzen, Mark H; Spanjer, Anita I R; Middag, Laurens D C; Brandsma, Corry-Anke A; Gosens, Reinoud

    2016-06-01

    COPD is a progressive chronic lung disease characterized by pulmonary inflammation. Several recent studies indicate aberrant expression of WNT ligands and Frizzled receptors in the disease. For example, WNT-5A/B ligand expression was recently found to be increased in lung fibroblasts of COPD patients. However, possible effects of WNT-5A and WNT-5B on inflammation have not been investigated yet. In this study, we assessed the regulation of inflammatory cytokine release in response to WNT-5A/B signaling in human lung fibroblasts. Primary human fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5), and primary lung fibroblasts from COPD patients and non-COPD controls were treated with recombinant WNT-5A or WNT-5B to assess IL-6 and CXCL8 cytokine secretion and gene expression levels. Following WNT-5B, and to a lesser extent WNT-5A stimulation, fibroblasts showed increased IL-6 and CXCL8 cytokine secretion and mRNA expression. WNT-5B-mediated IL-6 and CXCL8 release was higher in fibroblasts from COPD patients than in non-COPD controls. In MRC-5 fibroblasts, WNT-5B-induced CXCL8 release was mediated primarily via the Frizzled-2 receptor and TAK1 signaling, whereas canonical β-catenin signaling was not involved. In further support of noncanonical signaling, we showed activation of JNK, p38, and p65 NF-κB by WNT-5B. Furthermore, inhibition of JNK and p38 prevented WNT-5B-induced IL-6 and CXCL8 secretion, whereas IKK inhibition prevented CXCL8 secretion only, indicating distinct pathways for WNT-5B-induced IL-6 and CXCL8 release. WNT-5B induces IL-6 and CXCL8 secretion in pulmonary fibroblasts. In summary, WNT-5B mediates this via Frizzled-2 and TAK1. As WNT-5 signaling is increased in COPD, this WNT-5-induced inflammatory response could represent a therapeutic target. PMID:27036869

  13. The Use of Chick Embryos to Study Wnt Activity Gradients.

    PubMed

    Galli, Lisa M; Barnes, Tiffany; Burrus, Laura W

    2016-01-01

    The chick spinal cord provides a valuable model for assessing Wnt signaling activity. Loss or gain of function constructs that are transfected by electroporation can be directed to a single side of the spinal cord, thus leaving the contralateral side as an internal control. Here, we describe a method for measuring Wnt signaling via the use of BAT-Gal, a β-catenin dependent Wnt reporter. PMID:27590153

  14. Modulating effects of acyl-CoA synthetase 5-derived mitochondrial Wnt2B palmitoylation on intestinal Wnt activity

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Christina; Schneider, Ursula; Hedberg, Christian; Schütz, Anke K; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Waldmann, Herbert; Gassler, Nikolaus; Kaemmerer, Elke

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of acyl-CoA synthetase 5 (ACSL5) activity in Wnt signaling in intestinal surface epithelia. METHODS: Several cell lines were used to investigate the ACSL5-dependent expression and synthesis of Wnt2B, a mitochondrially expressed protein of the Wnt signaling family. Wnt activity was functionally assessed with a luciferase reporter assay. ACSL5-related biochemical Wnt2B modifications were investigated with a modified acyl-exchange assay. The findings from the cell culture models were verified using an Apcmin/+ mouse model as well as normal and neoplastic diseased human intestinal tissues. RESULTS: In the presence of ACSL5, Wnt2B was unable to translocate into the nucleus and was enriched in mitochondria, which was paralleled by a significant decrease in Wnt activity. ACSL5-dependent S-palmitoylation of Wnt2B was identified as a molecular reason for mitochondrial Wnt2B accumulation. In cell culture systems, a strong relation of ACSL5 expression, Wnt2B palmitoylation, and degree of malignancy were found. Using normal mucosa, the association of ACSL5 and Wnt2B was seen, but in intestinal neoplasias the mechanism was only rudimentarily observed. CONCLUSION: ACSL5 mediates antiproliferative activities via Wnt2B palmitoylation with diminished Wnt activity. The molecular pathway is probably relevant for intestinal homeostasis, overwhelmed by other pathways in carcinogenesis. PMID:25356045

  15. Activated Thyroid Hormone Promotes Differentiation and Chemotherapeutic Sensitization of Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells by Regulating Wnt and BMP4 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Veronica; Dentice, Monica; Ambrosio, Raffaele; Luongo, Cristina; Carollo, Rosachiara; Benfante, Antonina; Todaro, Matilde; Stassi, Giorgio; Salvatore, Domenico

    2016-03-01

    Thyroid hormone is a pleiotropic factor that controls many cellular processes in multiple cell types such as cancer stem cells (CSC). Thyroid hormone concentrations in the blood are stable, but the action of the deiodinases (D2-D3) provides cell-specific regulation of thyroid hormone activity. Deregulation of deiodinase function and thyroid hormone status has been implicated in tumorigenesis. Therefore, we investigated the role of thyroid hormone metabolism and signaling in colorectal CSCs (CR-CSC), where deiodinases control cell division and chemosensitivity. We found that increased intracellular thyroid hormone concentration through D3 depletion induced cell differentiation and sharply mitigated tumor formation. Upregulated BMP4 expression and concomitantly attenuated Wnt signaling accompanied these effects. Furthermore, we demonstrate that BMP4 is a direct thyroid hormone target and is involved in a positive autoregulatory feedback loop that modulates thyroid hormone signaling. Collectively, our findings highlight a cell-autonomous metabolic mechanism by which CR-CSCs exploit thyroid hormone signaling to facilitate their self-renewal potential and suggest that drug-induced cell differentiation may represent a promising therapy for preventing CSC expansion and tumor progression. PMID:26676745

  16. Canonical wnt signaling is required for commissural axon guidance

    PubMed Central

    Avilés, Evelyn C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Morphogens have been identified as guidance cues for postcrossing commissural axons in the spinal cord. Shh has a dual effect on postcrossing commissural axons: a direct repellent effect mediated by Hhip as a receptor, and an indirect effect by shaping a Wnt activity gradient. Wnts were shown to be attractants for postcrossing commissural axons in both chicken and mouse embryos. In mouse, the effects of Wnts on axon guidance were concluded to depend on the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Canonical Wnt signaling was excluded based on the absence of axon guidance defects in mice lacking Lrp6 which is an obligatory coreceptor for Fzd in canonical Wnt signaling. In the loss‐of‐function studies reported here, we confirmed a role for the PCP pathway in postcrossing commissural axon guidance also in the chicken embryo. However, taking advantage of the precise temporal control of gene silencing provided by in ovo RNAi, we demonstrate that canonical Wnt signaling is also required for proper guidance of postcrossing commissural axons in the developing spinal cord. Thus, axon guidance does not seem to depend on any one of the classical Wnt signaling pathways but rather involve a network of Wnt receptors and downstream components. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 190–208, 2016 PMID:26014644

  17. TGIF Governs a Feed-Forward Network That Empowers Wnt Signaling to Drive Mammary Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming-Zhu; Ferrigno, Olivier; Wang, Zhe; Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Prunier, Céline; Levy, Laurence; Razzaque, Mohammed; Horne, Williams C.; Romero, Damian; Tzivion, Guri; Colland, Frédéric; Baron, Roland; Atfi, Azeddine

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Many types of human cancers having hyperactivated Wnt signaling display no causative alterations in known effectors of this pathway. Here, we report a function of TGIF in Wnt signaling. TGIF associates with and diverts Axin1 and Axin2 from the β-Catenin destruction complex therefore allowing β-Catenin accrual. Intriguingly, activation of Wnt signaling induces the expression of TGIF, which unveils a feed-forward loop that ensures effective integration of Wnt signaling. In triple negative breast cancers (TNBC), elevated levels of TGIF correlate with high Wnt signaling and poor survival of patients. Moreover, genetic experiments revealed that Tgif1 ablation impeded mammary tumor development in MMTV-Wnt1 mice, further underscoring a requirement of TGIF for oncogenic Wnt signaling. PMID:25873176

  18. Mechanotransduction activates canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling to promote lymphatic vascular patterning and the development of lymphatic and lymphovenous valves

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Boksik; Geng, Xin; Mahamud, Md. Riaj; Fu, Jianxin; Mukherjee, Anish; Kim, Yeunhee; Jho, Eek-hoon; Kim, Tae Hoon; Kahn, Mark L.; Xia, Lijun; Dixon, J. Brandon; Chen, Hong; Srinivasan, R. Sathish

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic vasculature regulates fluid homeostasis by returning interstitial fluid to blood circulation. Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are the building blocks of the entire lymphatic vasculature. LECs originate as a homogeneous population of cells predominantly from the embryonic veins and undergo stepwise morphogenesis to become the lymphatic capillaries, collecting vessels or valves. The molecular mechanisms underlying the morphogenesis of the lymphatic vasculature remain to be fully understood. Here we show that canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling is necessary for lymphatic vascular morphogenesis. Lymphatic vascular-specific ablation of β-catenin in mice prevents the formation of lymphatic and lymphovenous valves. Additionally, lymphatic vessel patterning is defective in these mice, with abnormal recruitment of mural cells. We found that oscillatory shear stress (OSS), which promotes lymphatic vessel maturation, triggers Wnt/β-catenin signaling in LECs. In turn, Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls the expression of several molecules, including the lymphedema-associated transcription factor FOXC2. Importantly, FOXC2 completely rescues the lymphatic vessel patterning defects in mice lacking β-catenin. Thus, our work reveals that mechanical stimulation is a critical regulator of lymphatic vascular development via activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and, in turn, FOXC2. PMID:27313318

  19. Different Wnt signals act through the Frizzled and RYK receptors during Drosophila salivary gland migration.

    PubMed

    Harris, Katherine E; Beckendorf, Steven K

    2007-06-01

    Guided cell migration is necessary for the proper function and development of many tissues, one of which is the Drosophila embryonic salivary gland. Here we show that two distinct Wnt signaling pathways regulate salivary gland migration. Early in migration, the salivary gland responds to a WNT4-Frizzled signal for proper positioning within the embryo. Disruption of this signal, through mutations in Wnt4, frizzled or frizzled 2, results in misguided salivary glands that curve ventrally. Furthermore, disruption of downstream components of the canonical Wnt pathway, such as dishevelled or Tcf, also results in ventrally curved salivary glands. Analysis of a second Wnt signal, which acts through the atypical Wnt receptor Derailed, indicates a requirement for Wnt5 signaling late in salivary gland migration. WNT5 is expressed in the central nervous system and acts as a repulsive signal, needed to keep the migrating salivary gland on course. The receptor for WNT5, Derailed, is expressed in the actively migrating tip of the salivary glands. In embryos mutant for derailed or Wnt5, salivary gland migration is disrupted; the tip of the gland migrates abnormally toward the central nervous system. Our results suggest that both the Wnt4-frizzled pathway and a separate Wnt5-derailed pathway are needed for proper salivary gland migration. PMID:17507403

  20. WNT signaling drives cholangiocarcinoma growth and can be pharmacologically inhibited

    PubMed Central

    Boulter, Luke; Guest, Rachel V.; Kendall, Timothy J.; Wilson, David H.; Wojtacha, Davina; Robson, Andrew J.; Ridgway, Rachel A.; Samuel, Kay; Van Rooijen, Nico; Barry, Simon T.; Wigmore, Stephen J.; Sansom, Owen J.; Forbes, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is typically diagnosed at an advanced stage and is refractory to surgical intervention and chemotherapy. Despite a global increase in the incidence of CC, little progress has been made toward the development of treatments for this cancer. Here we utilized human tissue; CC cell xenografts; a p53-deficient transgenic mouse model; and a non-transgenic, chemically induced rat model of CC that accurately reflects both the inflammatory and regenerative background associated with human CC pathology. Using these systems, we determined that the WNT pathway is highly activated in CCs and that inflammatory macrophages are required to establish this WNT-high state in vivo. Moreover, depletion of macrophages or inhibition of WNT signaling with one of two small molecule WNT inhibitors in mouse and rat CC models markedly reduced CC proliferation and increased apoptosis, resulting in tumor regression. Together, these results demonstrate that enhanced WNT signaling is a characteristic of CC and suggest that targeting WNT signaling pathways has potential as a therapeutic strategy for CC. PMID:25689248

  1. Wnt signaling in adult intestinal stem cells and cancer.

    PubMed

    Krausova, Michaela; Korinek, Vladimir

    2014-03-01

    Signaling initiated by secreted glycoproteins of the Wnt family regulates many aspects of embryonic development and it is involved in homeostasis of adult tissues. In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract the Wnt pathway maintains the self-renewal capacity of epithelial stem cells. The stem cell attributes are conferred by mutual interactions of the stem cell with its local microenvironment, the stem cell niche. The niche ensures that the threshold of Wnt signaling in the stem cell is kept in physiological range. In addition, the Wnt pathway involves various feedback loops that balance the opposing processes of cell proliferation and differentiation. Today, we have compelling evidence that mutations causing aberrant activation of the Wnt pathway promote expansion of undifferentiated progenitors and lead to cancer. The review summarizes recent advances in characterization of adult epithelial stem cells in the gut. We mainly focus on discoveries related to molecular mechanisms regulating the output of the Wnt pathway. Moreover, we present novel experimental approaches utilized to investigate the epithelial cell signaling circuitry in vivo and in vitro. Pivotal aspects of tissue homeostasis are often deduced from studies of tumor cells; therefore, we also discuss some latest results gleaned from the deep genome sequencing studies of human carcinomas of the colon and rectum. PMID:24308963

  2. Stearoyl CoA desaturase is required to produce active, lipid-modified Wnt proteins.

    PubMed

    Rios-Esteves, Jessica; Resh, Marilyn D

    2013-09-26

    Wnt proteins contain palmitoleic acid, an unusual lipid modification. Production of an active Wnt signal requires the acyltransferase Porcupine and depends on the attachment of palmitoleic acid to Wnt. The source of this monounsaturated fatty acid has not been identified, and it is not known how Porcupine recognizes its substrate and whether desaturation occurs before or after fatty acid transfer to Wnt. Here, we show that stearoyl desaturase (SCD) generates a monounsaturated fatty acid substrate that is then transferred by Porcupine to Wnt. Treatment of cells with SCD inhibitors blocked incorporation of palmitate analogs into Wnt3a and Wnt5a and reduced Wnt secretion as well as autocrine and paracrine Wnt signaling. The SCD inhibitor effects were rescued by exogenous addition of monounsaturated fatty acids. We propose that SCD is a key molecular player responsible for Wnt biogenesis and processing and that SCD inhibition provides an alternative mechanism for blocking Wnt pathway activation. PMID:24055053

  3. Stearoyl CoA desaturase is required to produce active, lipid-modified Wnt proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rios-Esteves, Jessica; Resh, Marilyn D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Wnt proteins contain an unusual lipid modification, palmitoleic acid. Production of an active Wnt signal requires the acyltransferase Porcupine and depends on attachment of palmitoleic acid to Wnt. The source of this monounsaturated fatty acid has not been identified, and it is not known how Porcupine recognizes its substrate and whether desaturation occurs before or after fatty acid transfer to Wnt. Here we show that stearoyl desaturase (SCD) generates a monounsaturated fatty acid substrate which is then transferred by Porcupine to Wnt. Treatment of cells with SCD inhibitors blocked incorporation of palmitate analogs into Wnt3a and Wnt5a, and reduced Wnt secretion as well as autocrine and paracrine Wnt signaling. The SCD inhibitor effects were rescued by exogenous addition of monounsaturated fatty acids. We propose that SCD is a key molecular player responsible for Wnt biogenesis and processing and that SCD inhibition provides an alternative mechanism for blocking Wnt pathway activation. PMID:24055053

  4. Cilia, Wnt signaling, and the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    May-Simera, Helen L; Kelley, Matthew W

    2012-01-01

    Primary cilia have recently been highlighted as key regulators in development and disease. This review focuses on current work demonstrating the broad role of cilia-related proteins in developmental signaling systems. Of particular consideration is the importance of the basal body region, located at the base of the cilium, in its role as a focal point for many signaling pathways and as a microtubule organizing center. As the cilium is effectively a microtubular extension of the cytoskeleton, investigating connections between the cilium and the cytoskeleton provides greater insight into signaling and cell function. Of the many signaling pathways associated with primary cilia, the most extensively studied in association with the cytoskeleton and cytoskeletal rearrangements are both canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways. One of the key concepts currently emerging is a possible additional role for the traditionally 'cilia-related' proteins in other aspects of cellular processes. In many cases, disruption of such processes manifests at the level of the cilium. While the involvement of cilia and cilia-related proteins in signaling pathways is currently being unraveled, there is a growing body of evidence to support the notion that ciliary proteins are required not only for regulation of Wnt signaling, but also as downstream effectors of Wnt signaling. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the involvement of cilia and basal body proteins in Wnt signaling pathways. PMID:23351924

  5. Characterization of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Annavarapu, Srinivas R; Cialfi, Samantha; Dominici, Carlo; Kokai, George K; Uccini, Stefania; Ceccarelli, Simona; McDowell, Heather P; Helliwell, Timothy R

    2013-10-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children and accounts for about 5% of all malignant paediatric tumours. β-Catenin, a multifunctional nuclear transcription factor in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, is active in myogenesis and embryonal somite patterning. Dysregulation of Wnt signaling facilitates tumour invasion and metastasis. This study characterizes Wnt/β-catenin signaling and functional activity in paediatric embryonal and alveolar RMS. Immunohistochemical assessment of paraffin-embedded tissues from 44 RMS showed β-catenin expression in 26 cases with cytoplasmic/membranous expression in 9/14 cases of alveolar RMS, and 15/30 cases of embryonal RMS, whereas nuclear expression was only seen in 2 cases of embryonal RMS. The potential functional significance of β-catenin expression was tested in four RMS cell lines, two derived from embryonal (RD and RD18) RMS and two from alveolar (Rh4 and Rh30) RMS. Western blot analysis demonstrated the expression of Wnt-associated proteins including β-catenin, glycogen synthase kinase-3β, disheveled, axin-1, naked, LRP-6 and cadherins in all cell lines. Cell fractionation and immunofluorescence studies of the cell lines (after stimulation by human recombinant Wnt3a) showed reduced phosphorylation of β-catenin, stabilization of the active cytosolic form and nuclear translocation of β-catenin. Reporter gene assay demonstrated a T-cell factor/lymphoid-enhancing factor-mediated transactivation in these cells. In response to human recombinant Wnt3a, the alveolar RMS cells showed a significant decrease in proliferation rate and induction of myogenic differentiation (myogenin, MyoD1 and myf5). These data indicate that the central regulatory components of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling are expressed and that this pathway is functionally active in a significant subset of RMS tumours and might represent a novel therapeutic target. PMID:23999248

  6. Differential Regulation of Disheveled in a Novel Vegetal Cortical Domain in Sea Urchin Eggs and Embryos: Implications for the Localized Activation of Canonical Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Peng, ChiehFu Jeff; Wikramanayake, Athula H.

    2013-01-01

    Pattern formation along the animal-vegetal (AV) axis in sea urchin embryos is initiated when canonical Wnt (cWnt) signaling is activated in vegetal blastomeres. The mechanisms that restrict cWnt signaling to vegetal blastomeres are not well understood, but there is increasing evidence that the egg’s vegetal cortex plays a critical role in this process by mediating localized “activation” of Disheveled (Dsh). To investigate how Dsh activity is regulated along the AV axis, sea urchin-specific Dsh antibodies were used to examine expression, subcellular localization, and post-translational modification of Dsh during development. Dsh is broadly expressed during early sea urchin development, but immunolocalization studies revealed that this protein is enriched in a punctate pattern in a novel vegetal cortical domain (VCD) in the egg. Vegetal blastomeres inherit this VCD during embryogenesis, and at the 60-cell stage Dsh puncta are seen in all cells that display nuclear β-catenin. Analysis of Dsh post-translational modification using two-dimensional Western blot analysis revealed that compared to Dsh pools in the bulk cytoplasm, this protein is differentially modified in the VCD and in the 16-cell stage micromeres that partially inherit this domain. Dsh localization to the VCD is not directly affected by disruption of microfilaments and microtubules, but unexpectedly, microfilament disruption led to degradation of all the Dsh pools in unfertilized eggs over a period of incubation suggesting that microfilament integrity is required for maintaining Dsh stability. These results demonstrate that a pool of differentially modified Dsh in the VCD is selectively inherited by the vegetal blastomeres that activate cWnt signaling in early embryos, and suggests that this domain functions as a scaffold for localized Dsh activation. Localized cWnt activation regulates AV axis patterning in many metazoan embryos. Hence, it is possible that the VCD is an evolutionarily conserved

  7. GNAS mutation as an alternative mechanism of activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in gastric adenocarcinoma of the fundic gland type.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Ryosuke; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Mitomi, Hiroyuki; Hidaka, Yasuhiro; Lee, Se-yong; Watanabe, Sumio; Yao, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma of the fundic gland type (GAFG) is a rare variant of gastric tumor. We have recently reported the frequent accumulation of β-catenin in GAFGs and showed that approximately half of the cases studied harbored at least 1 mutation in CTNNB1/AXINs/APC, leading to the constitutive activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. However, the mechanisms of Wnt signaling activation in the remaining cases are unknown. Accumulating evidence showed that the activating mutation in GNAS promotes tumorigenesis via the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway or the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway. Therefore, we analyzed the mutations in GNAS (exons 8 and 9) and in KRAS (exon 2) in 26 GAFGs. Immunohistochemistry revealed nuclear β-catenin expression in 22 of 26 GAFGs, and 10 (38.5%) of 26 cases harbored at least 1 mutation in CTNNB1/AXINs/APC. Activating mutations in GNAS were found in 5 (19.2%) of 26 GAFGs, all of which harbored R201C mutations. Activating mutations in KRAS were found in 2 (7.7%) of 26 GAFGs, and both of these also contained GNAS activating mutations. Four of 5 cases with GNAS mutation showed nuclear β-catenin expression, and presence of GNAS mutation was associated with β-catenin nuclear expression (P = .01). Furthermore, 3 of these 4 cases did not harbor mutations in CTNNB1, APC, or AXINs, suggesting that mutations in the Wnt component genes and those in GNAS occur almost exclusively. These results suggest that GNAS mutation might occur in a small subset of GAFG as an alternative mechanism of activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:25288233

  8. WNT5A-NFAT Signaling Mediates Resistance to Apoptosis in Pancreatic Cancer1 2

    PubMed Central

    Griesmann, Heidi; Ripka, Stefanie; Pralle, Moritz; Ellenrieder, Volker; Baumgart, Sandra; Buchholz, Malte; Pilarsky, Christian; Aust, Daniela; Gress, Thomas M; Michl, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Introduction WNT5A belongs to the Wnt family of secreted signaling molecules. Using transcriptional profiling, we previously identified WNT5A as target of the antiapoptotic transcription factor CUX1 and demonstrated high expression levels in pancreatic cancer. However, the impact of WNT5A on drug resistance and the signaling pathways employed by WNT5A remain to be elucidated. Objectives This project aims to decipher the impact of WNT5A on resistance to apoptosis and the signaling pathways employed by WNT5A in pancreatic cancer. Methods The impact of WNT5A and its downstream effectors on tumor growth and drug resistance was studied in vitro and in xenograft models in vivo. Tissue microarrays of pancreatic cancer specimens were employed for immunohistochemical studies. Results Knockdown of WNT5A results in a significant increase in drug-induced apoptosis. In contrast, overexpression of WNT5A or addition of recombinant WNT5A mediates resistance to apoptosis in vitro. In our attempt to identify downstream effectors of WNT5A, we identified the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells c2 (NFATc2) as transcriptional target of WNT5A signaling. NFATc2 confers a strong antiapoptotic phenotype mediating at least in part the effects of WNT5A on drug resistance and tumor cell survival. In vivo, WNT5A expression leads to resistance to gemcitabine-induced apoptosis in a xenograft model, which is paralleled by up-regulation of NFATc2. Both WNT5A and NFATc2 proteins are highly expressed in human pancreatic cancer tissues and their expression levels correlated significantly. Conclusion We identified the WNT5A-NFATc2 axis as important mediator of drug resistance in pancreatic cancer. PMID:23359789

  9. miR-942 promotes cancer stem cell-like traits in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma through activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhimin; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Ruilei; Zhang, Zhiwei; Li, Zhen; Dong, Suwei; Wang, Ying; Xue, Yuanbo; Yang, Jinyan; Tan, Qinghua; Wang, Ziping; Song, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway is known to play a vital role in the maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are reported to be the origine of malignant cancers, and result in poor prognosis of multiple kinds of cancer. Therefore, it is of great importance to illuminate the mechanism by which the Wnt/β-catenin pathway regulates the cancer stem cell-like traits in cancers. Here, we report that miR-942 is significantly upregulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and miR-942 levels are associated with poor prognosis in ESCC patients. Overexpression of miR-942 promotes, whereas inhibition of miR-942 decreases, the tumor sphere formation, the CD90+ subpopulation cells and the expression of pluripotency associated markers. Moreover, in vivo assay shows that miR-942 overexpressing cells form larger tumors and display higher tumourigenesis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-942 upregulates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity via directly targeting sFRP4, GSK3β and TLE1, which are multiple level negative regulators of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade. In addition, our results indicate that c-myc directly binds to the miR-942 promoter and promotes its expression. Taken together, our findings establish an oncogenic role of miR-942 in ESCC and indicate that miR-942 might be an effective therapeutic target for ESCC. PMID:25844602

  10. miR-942 promotes cancer stem cell-like traits in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma through activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chunlei; Wu, Shikai; Wang, Weiwei; Liu, Zhimin; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Ruilei; Zhang, Zhiwei; Li, Zhen; Dong, Suwei; Wang, Ying; Xue, Yuanbo; Yang, Jinyan; Tan, Qinghua; Wang, Ziping; Song, Xin

    2015-05-10

    The Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway is known to play a vital role in the maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are reported to be the origin of malignant cancers, and result in poor prognosis of multiple kinds of cancer. Therefore, it is of great importance to illuminate the mechanism by which the Wnt/β-catenin pathway regulates the cancer stem cell-like traits in cancers. Here, we report that miR-942 is significantly upregulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and miR-942 levels are associated with poor prognosis in ESCC patients. Overexpression of miR-942 promotes, whereas inhibition of miR-942 decreases, the tumor sphere formation, the CD90+ subpopulation cells and the expression of pluripotency associated markers. Moreover, in vivo assay shows that miR-942 overexpressing cells form larger tumors and display higher tumourigenesis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-942 upregulates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity via directly targeting sFRP4, GSK3β and TLE1, which are multiple level negative regulators of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade. In addition, our results indicate that c-myc directly binds to the miR-942 promoter and promotes its expression. Taken together, our findings establish an oncogenic role of miR-942 in ESCC and indicate that miR-942 might be an effective therapeutic target for ESCC. PMID:25844602

  11. Wnt signaling regulates multipolar-to-bipolar transition of migrating neurons in the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Boitard, Michael; Bocchi, Riccardo; Egervari, Kristof; Petrenko, Volodymyr; Viale, Beatrice; Gremaud, Stéphane; Zgraggen, Eloisa; Salmon, Patrick; Kiss, Jozsef Z

    2015-03-01

    The precise timing of pyramidal cell migration from the ventricular germinal zone to the cortical plate is essential for establishing cortical layers, and migration errors can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders underlying psychiatric and neurological diseases. Here, we report that Wnt canonical as well as non-canonical signaling is active in pyramidal precursors during radial migration. We demonstrate using constitutive and conditional genetic strategies that transient downregulation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling during the multipolar stage plays a critical role in polarizing and orienting cells for radial migration. In addition, we show that reduced canonical Wnt signaling is triggered cell autonomously by time-dependent expression of Wnt5A and activation of non-canonical signaling. We identify ephrin-B1 as a canonical Wnt-signaling-regulated target in control of the multipolar-to-bipolar switch. These findings highlight the critical role of Wnt signaling activity in neuronal positioning during cortical development. PMID:25732825

  12. Wnt/beta-Catenin Signaling and Small Molecule Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Voronkov, Andrey; Krauss, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a branch of a functional network that dates back to the first metazoans and it is involved in a broad range of biological systems including stem cells, embryonic development and adult organs. Deregulation of components involved in Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in a wide spectrum of diseases including a number of cancers and degenerative diseases. The key mediator of Wnt signaling, β-catenin, serves several cellular functions. It functions in a dynamic mode at multiple cellular locations, including the plasma membrane, where β-catenin contributes to the stabilization of intercellular adhesive complexes, the cytoplasm where β-catenin levels are regulated and the nucleus where β-catenin is involved in transcriptional regulation and chromatin interactions. Central effectors of β-catenin levels are a family of cysteine-rich secreted glycoproteins, known as Wnt morphogens. Through the LRP5/6-Frizzled receptor complex, Wnts regulate the location and activity of the destruction complex and consequently intracellular β- catenin levels. However, β-catenin levels and their effects on transcriptional programs are also influenced by multiple other factors including hypoxia, inflammation, hepatocyte growth factor-mediated signaling, and the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin. The broad implications of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in development, in the adult body and in disease render the pathway a prime target for pharmacological research and development. The intricate regulation of β-catenin at its various locations provides alternative points for therapeutic interventions. PMID:23016862

  13. Anti-cancer drug 3,3′-diindolylmethane activates Wnt4 signaling to enhance gastric cancer cell stemness and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Aihua; Fu, Hailong; Zhang, Xu; Shi, Hui; Sun, Yaoxiang; Wu, Lijun; Pan, Zhaoji; Mao, Fei; Zhu, Wei; Qian, Hui; Xu, Wenrong

    2016-01-01

    As a natural health supplement, 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) is proposed as a preventive and chemotherapeutic agent for cancer by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis. However, we found that in contrary to high level of DIM (30 μM), low level of DIM (1 μM and 10 μM) obviously promoted gastric cancer cell growth and migration. In addition, we found that low level of DIM increased the expression of stemness factors and enhanced the pluripotency of gastric cancer cells. Low level of DIM promoted gastric cancer progression by inducing the PORCN-dependent secretion of Wnt4 and the activation of β-catenin signaling. Wnt4 knockdown reversed the effects of low level of DIM on gastric cancer cells. The results of in vivo studies showed that gastric cancer cells treated with low level of DIM (1 μM) grew faster and expressed higher level of Wnt4 than control cells. Taken together, our findings indicate that low level of DIM activates autocrine Wnt4 signaling to enhance the progression of gastric cancer, which may suggest an adverse aspect of DIM in cancer therapy. Our findings will provide a new aspect for the safety of DIM in its clinical application. PMID:26918831

  14. Wnt Signaling in Neuromuscular Junction Development

    PubMed Central

    Koles, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Wnt proteins are best known for their profound roles in cell patterning, because they are required for the embryonic development of all animal species studied to date. Besides regulating cell fate, Wnt proteins are gaining increasing recognition for their roles in nervous system development and function. New studies indicate that multiple positive and negative Wnt signaling pathways take place simultaneously during the formation of vertebrate and invertebrate neuromuscular junctions. Although some Wnts are essential for the formation of NMJs, others appear to play a more modulatory role as part of multiple signaling pathways. Here we review the most recent findings regarding the function of Wnts at the NMJ from both vertebrate and invertebrate model systems. PMID:22510459

  15. Hippocampal Wnt Signaling: Memory Regulation and Hormone Interactions.

    PubMed

    Fortress, Ashley M; Frick, Karyn M

    2016-06-01

    Wnt signaling has emerged in recent years as a major player in both nervous system development and adult synaptic plasticity. Of particular relevance to researchers studying learning and memory, Wnt signaling is critical for normal functioning of the hippocampus, a brain region that is essential for many types of memory formation and whose dysfunction is implicated in numerous neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions. Impaired hippocampal Wnt signaling is implicated in several of these conditions, however, little is known about how Wnt signaling mediates hippocampal memory formation. This review will provide a general overview of Wnt signaling and discuss evidence demonstrating a key role for Wnt signaling in hippocampal memory formation in both normal and disease states. The regulation of Wnt signaling by ovarian sex steroid hormones will also be highlighted, given that the neuroprotection afforded by Wnt-hormone interactions may have significant implications for cognitive function in aging, neurodegenerative disease, and ischemic injury. PMID:25717070

  16. A rare human syndrome provides genetic evidence that WNT signaling is required for reprogramming of fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Jason; Busch, Julia; Mintz, Ellen; Ng, Damian; Stanley, Alexandra; Brafman, David; Sutton, V. Reid; Van den Veyver, Ignatia; Willert, Karl

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY WNT signaling promotes the reprogramming of somatic cells to an induced pluripotent state. We provide genetic evidence that WNT signaling is a requisite step during the induction of pluripotency. Fibroblasts from individuals with Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (FDH), a rare genetic syndrome caused by mutations in the essential WNT processing enzyme PORCN, fail to reprogram using standard methods. This blockade in reprogramming is overcome by ectopic WNT signaling and by PORCN overexpression, thus demonstrating that WNT signaling is essential for reprogramming. The rescue of reprogramming is critically dependent on the level of WNT signaling: steady baseline activation of the WNT pathway yields karyotypically normal iPS cells, whereas daily stimulation with Wnt3a produces FDH-iPS cells with severely abnormal karyotypes. Therefore, although WNT signaling is required for cellular reprogramming, inappropriate activation of WNT signaling induces chromosomal instability, highlighting the precarious nature of ectopic WNT activation, and its tight relationship with oncogenic transformation. PMID:25464842

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} is expressed in hippocampal neurons and its activation prevents {beta}-amyloid neurodegeneration: role of Wnt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Inestrosa, Nibaldo C. . E-mail: ninestr@genes.bio.puc.cl; Godoy, Juan A.; Quintanilla, Rodrigo A.; Koenig, Cecilia S.; Bronfman, Miguel

    2005-03-10

    The molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves the participation of the amyloid-{beta}-peptide (A{beta}), which plays a critical role in the neurodegeneration that triggers the disease. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors, which are members of the nuclear receptor family. We report here that (1) PPAR{gamma} is present in rat hippocampal neurons in culture. (2) Activation of PPAR{gamma} by troglitazone and rosiglitazone protects rat hippocampal neurons against A{beta}-induced neurodegeneration, as shown by the 3-[4,5 -2yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay, immunofluorescence using an anti-heavy neurofilament antibody, and quantitative electron microscopy. (3) Hippocampal neurons treated with several PPAR{gamma} agonists, including troglitazone, rosiglitazone, and ciglitazone, prevent the excitotoxic A{beta}-induced rise in bulk-free Ca{sup 2+}. (4) PPAR{gamma} activation results in the modulation of Wnt signaling components, including the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) and an increase of the cytoplasmic and nuclear {beta}-catenin levels. We conclude that the activation of PPAR{gamma} prevents A{beta}-induced neurodegeneration by a mechanism that may involve a cross talk between neuronal PPAR{gamma} and the Wnt signaling pathway. More important, the fact that the activation of PPAR{gamma} attenuated A{beta}-dependent neurodegeneration opens the possibility to fight AD from a new therapeutic perspective.

  18. Sulf1 has ligand-dependent effects on canonical and non-canonical Wnt signalling

    PubMed Central

    Fellgett, Simon W.; Maguire, Richard J.; Pownall, Mary Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Wnt signalling plays essential roles during embryonic development and is known to be mis-regulated in human disease. There are many molecular mechanisms that ensure tight regulation of Wnt activity. One such regulator is the heparan-sulfate-specific 6-O-endosulfatase Sulf1. Sulf1 acts extracellularly to modify the structure of heparan sulfate chains to affect the bio-availability of Wnt ligands. Sulf1 could, therefore, influence the formation of Wnt signalling complexes to modulate the activation of both canonical and non-canonical pathways. In this study, we use well-established assays in Xenopus to investigate the ability of Sulf1 to modify canonical and non-canonical Wnt signalling. In addition, we model the ability of Sulf1 to influence morphogen gradients using fluorescently tagged Wnt ligands in ectodermal explants. We show that Sulf1 overexpression has ligand-specific effects on Wnt signalling: it affects membrane accumulation and extracellular levels of tagged Wnt8a and Wnt11b ligands differently, and inhibits the activity of canonical Wnt8a but enhances the activity of non-canonical Wnt11b. PMID:25681501

  19. Parallel states of pathological Wnt signaling in neonatal brain injury and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Fancy, Stephen P J; Harrington, Emily P; Baranzini, Sergio E; Silbereis, John C; Shiow, Lawrence R; Yuen, Tracy J; Huang, Eric J; Lomvardas, Stavros; Rowitch, David H

    2014-04-01

    In colon cancer, mutation of the Wnt repressor APC (encoding adenomatous polyposis coli) leads to a state of aberrant and unrestricted high-activity signaling. However, the relevance of high Wnt tone in non-genetic human disease is unknown. Here we demonstrate that distinct functional states of Wnt activity determine oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) differentiation and myelination. Mouse OPCs with genetic Wnt dysregulation (high tone) express multiple genes in common with colon cancer, including Lef1, Sp5, Ets2, Rnf43 and Dusp4. Surprisingly, we found that OPCs in lesions of hypoxic human neonatal white matter injury upregulated markers of high Wnt activity and lacked expression of APC. We also found that lack of Wnt repressor tone promoted permanent white matter injury after mild hypoxic insult. These findings suggest a state of pathological high-activity Wnt signaling in human disease tissues that lack predisposing genetic mutation. PMID:24609463

  20. Determination of the catalytic activity of LEOPARD syndrome-associated SHP2 mutants toward parafibromin, a bona fide SHP2 substrate involved in Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Noda, Saori; Takahashi, Atsushi; Hayashi, Takeru; Tanuma, Sei-ichi; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2016-01-22

    SHP2, encoded by the PTPN11 gene, is a protein tyrosine phosphatase that plays a key role in the proliferation of cells via RAS-ERK activation. SHP2 also promotes Wnt signaling by dephosphorylating parafibromin. Germline missense mutations of PTPN11 are found in more than half of patients with Noonan syndrome (NS) and LEOPARD syndrome (LS), both of which are congenital developmental disorders with multiple common symptoms. However, whereas NS-associated PTPN11 mutations give rise to gain-of-function SHP2 mutants, LS-associated SHP2 mutants are reportedly loss-of-function mutants. To determine the phosphatase activity of LS-associated SHP2 more appropriately, we performed an in vitro phosphatase assay using tyrosine-phosphorylated parafibromin, a biologically relevant substrate of SHP2 and the positive regulator of Wnt signaling that is activated through SHP2-mediated dephosphorylation. We found that LS-associated SHP2 mutants (Y279C, T468M, Q506P, and Q510E) exhibited a substantially reduced phosphatase activity toward parafibromin when compared with wild-type SHP2. Furthermore, each of the LS-associated mutants displayed a differential degree of decrease in phosphatase activity. Deviation of the SHP2 catalytic activity from a certain range, either too strong or too weak, may therefore lead to similar clinical outcomes in NS and LS, possibly through an imbalanced Wnt signal caused by inadequate dephosphorylation of parafibromin. PMID:26742426

  1. Glucocorticoid suppresses the canonical Wnt signal in cultured human osteoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnaka, Keizo . E-mail: oonaka@geriat.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Tanabe, Mizuho; Kawate, Hisaya; Nawata, Hajime; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2005-04-01

    To explore the mechanism of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, we investigated the effect of glucocorticoid on canonical Wnt signaling that emerged as a novel key pathway for promoting bone formation. Wnt3a increased the T-cell factor (Tcf)/lymphoid enhancer factor (Lef)-dependent transcriptional activity in primary cultured human osteoblasts. Dexamethasone suppressed this transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner, while 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 increased this transcriptional activity. LiCl, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta}, also enhanced the Tcf/Lef-dependent transcriptional activity, which was, however, not inhibited by dexamethasone. The addition of anti-dickkopf-1 antibody partially restored the transcriptional activity suppressed by dexamethasone. Dexamethasone decreased the cytosolic amount of {beta}-catenin accumulated by Wnt3a and also inhibited the nuclear translocation of {beta}-catenin induced by Wnt3a. These data suggest that glucocorticoid suppresses the canonical Wnt signal in cultured human osteoblasts, partially through the enhancement of the dickkopf-1 production.

  2. Stimulation of Wnt/beta-Catenin Signaling Pathway with Wnt Agonist Reduces Organ Injury after Hemorrhagic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Kuncewitch, Michael; Yang, Weng-Lang; Jacob, Asha; Khader, Adam; Giangola, Matthew; Nicastro, Jeffrey; Coppa, Gene F.; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic shock is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in surgery and trauma patients. Despite a large number of preclinical trials conducted to develop therapeutic strategies against hemorrhagic shock, there is still an unmet need exist for effective therapy for hemorrhage victims. Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls developmental processes and cellular regeneration owing to its central role in cell survival and proliferation. We therefore hypothesized that the activation of Wnt signaling reduces systemic injury caused by hemorrhagic shock. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent hemorrhagic shock by controlled bleeding of the femoral artery to maintain a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 30 mmHg for 90 min, followed by resuscitation with crystalloid equal to two times the shed blood volume. After resuscitation, animals were infused with Wnt agonist (5 mg/kg) or Vehicle (20% DMSO in saline). Blood and tissue samples were collected 6 h after resuscitation for analysis. Results Hemorrhagic shock increased serum levels of AST, lactate, and LDH. Treatment with Wnt agonist significantly reduced these levels by 40%, 36%, and 77%, respectively. Wnt agonist also decreased BUN and creatinine by 34% and 56%, respectively. Treatment reduced lung myeloperoxidase activity and IL-6 mRNA by 55% and 68% respectively and, significantly improved lung histology. Wnt agonist treatment increased Bcl-2 protein to Sham values and decreased cleaved caspase-3 by 46% indicating attenuation of hemorrhage-induced apoptosis in the lungs. Hemorrhage resulted in significant reductions of β-catenin protein levels in the lungs as well as down-regulation of a Wnt target gene, Cyclin-D1, while Wnt agonist treatment preserved these levels. Conclusions The administration of Wnt agonist attenuated hemorrhage-induced organ injury, inflammation and apoptosis. This was correlated with preservation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Thus, Wnt/β-catenin activation could be protective

  3. Molecular Role of RNF43 in Canonical and Noncanonical Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tsukiyama, Tadasuke; Fukui, Akimasa; Terai, Sayuri; Fujioka, Yoichiro; Shinada, Keisuke; Takahashi, Hidehisa; Yamaguchi, Terry P.; Ohba, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    Wnt signaling pathways are tightly regulated by ubiquitination, and dysregulation of these pathways promotes tumorigenesis. It has been reported that the ubiquitin ligase RNF43 plays an important role in frizzled-dependent regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Here, we show that RNF43 suppresses both Wnt/β-catenin signaling and noncanonical Wnt signaling by distinct mechanisms. The suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling requires interaction between the extracellular protease-associated (PA) domain and the cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of frizzled and the intracellular RING finger domain of RNF43. In contrast, these N-terminal domains of RNF43 are not required for inhibition of noncanonical Wnt signaling, but interaction between the C-terminal cytoplasmic region of RNF43 and the PDZ domain of dishevelled is essential for this suppression. We further show the mechanism by which missense mutations in the extracellular portion of RNF43 identified in patients with tumors activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Missense mutations of RNF43 change their localization from the endosome to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), resulting in the failure of frizzled-dependent suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. However, these mutants retain the ability to suppress noncanonical Wnt signaling, probably due to interaction with dishevelled. RNF43 is also one of the potential target genes of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Our results reveal the molecular role of RNF43 and provide an insight into tumorigenesis. PMID:25825523

  4. Endodermal Wnt signaling is required for tracheal cartilage formation

    PubMed Central

    Snowball, John; Ambalavanan, Manoj; Whitsett, Jeffrey; Sinner, Debora

    2015-01-01

    Tracheobronchomalacia is a common congenital defect in which the walls of the trachea and bronchi lack of adequate cartilage required for support of the airways. Deletion of Wls, a cargo receptor mediating Wnt ligand secretion, in the embryonic endoderm using ShhCre mice inhibited formation of tracheal-bronchial cartilaginous rings. The normal dorsal-ventral patterning of tracheal mesenchyme was lost. Smooth muscle cells, identified by Acta2 staining, were aberrantly located in ventral mesenchyme of the trachea, normally the region of Sox9 expression in cartilage progenitors. Wnt/β-catenin activity, indicated by Axin2 LacZ reporter, was decreased in tracheal mesenchyme of Wlsf/f;ShhCre/+ embryos. Proliferation of chondroblasts was decreased and reciprocally, proliferation of smooth muscle cells was increased in Wlsf/f;ShhCre/+ tracheal tissue. Expression of Tbx4, Tbx5, Msx1 and Msx2, known to mediate cartilage and muscle patterning, were decreased in tracheal mesenchyme of Wlsf/f;ShhCre/+ embryos. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that Wnt7b and Wnt5a, expressed by the epithelium of developing trachea, and active Wnt/β-catenin signaling are required for tracheal chondrogenesis before formation of mesenchymal condensations. In conclusion, Wnt ligands produced by the tracheal epithelium pattern the tracheal mesenchyme via modulation of gene expression and cell proliferation required for proper tracheal cartilage and smooth muscle differentiation. PMID:26093309

  5. Wnt and the Wnt signaling pathway in bone development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiping; Li, Yi-Ping; Paulson, Christie; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Zhang, Xiaoling; Wu, Mengrui; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Wnt signaling affects both bone modeling, which occurs during development, and bone remodeling, which is a lifelong process involving tissue renewal. Wnt signals are especially known to affect the differentiation of osteoblasts. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of Wnt signaling, which is divided into two major branches: the canonical pathway and the noncanonical pathway. The canonical pathway is also called the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. There are two major noncanonical pathways: the Wnt-planar cell polarity pathway (Wnt-PCP pathway) and the Wnt-calcium pathway (Wnt-Ca2+ pathway). This review also discusses how Wnt ligands, receptors, intracellular effectors, transcription factors, and antagonists affect both the bone modeling and bone remodeling processes. We also review the role of Wnt ligands, receptors, intracellular effectors, transcription factors, and antagonists in bone as demonstrated in mouse models. Disrupted Wnt signaling is linked to several bone diseases, including osteoporosis, van Buchem disease, and sclerosteosis. Studying the mechanism of Wnt signaling and its interactions with other signaling pathways in bone will provide potential therapeutic targets to treat these bone diseases. PMID:24389191

  6. PKA inhibits WNT signalling in adrenal cortex zonation and prevents malignant tumour development.

    PubMed

    Drelon, Coralie; Berthon, Annabel; Sahut-Barnola, Isabelle; Mathieu, Mickaël; Dumontet, Typhanie; Rodriguez, Stéphanie; Batisse-Lignier, Marie; Tabbal, Houda; Tauveron, Igor; Lefrançois-Martinez, Anne-Marie; Pointud, Jean-Christophe; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E; Vainio, Seppo; Shan, Jingdong; Sacco, Sonia; Schedl, Andreas; Stratakis, Constantine A; Martinez, Antoine; Val, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal cortex physiology relies on functional zonation, essential for production of aldosterone by outer zona glomerulosa (ZG) and glucocorticoids by inner zona fasciculata (ZF). The cortex undergoes constant cell renewal, involving recruitment of subcapsular progenitors to ZG fate and subsequent lineage conversion to ZF identity. Here we show that WNT4 is an important driver of WNT pathway activation and subsequent ZG differentiation and demonstrate that PKA activation prevents ZG differentiation through WNT4 repression and WNT pathway inhibition. This suggests that PKA activation in ZF is a key driver of WNT inhibition and lineage conversion. Furthermore, we provide evidence that constitutive PKA activation inhibits, whereas partial inactivation of PKA catalytic activity stimulates β-catenin-induced tumorigenesis. Together, both lower PKA activity and higher WNT pathway activity lead to poorer prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) patients. These observations suggest that PKA acts as a tumour suppressor in the adrenal cortex, through repression of WNT signalling. PMID:27624192

  7. Canonical Wnt signaling transiently stimulates proliferation and enhances neurogenesis in neonatal neural progenitor cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, Cordula; Campano, Louise M.; Woehrle, Simon; Hecht, Andreas . E-mail: andreas.hecht@mol-med.uni-freiburg.de

    2007-02-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling triggers the formation of heterodimeric transcription factor complexes consisting of {beta}-catenin and T cell factors, and thereby controls the execution of specific genetic programs. During the expansion and neurogenic phases of embryonic neural development canonical Wnt signaling initially controls proliferation of neural progenitor cells, and later neuronal differentiation. Whether Wnt growth factors affect neural progenitor cells postnatally is not known. Therefore, we have analyzed the impact of Wnt signaling on neural progenitors isolated from cerebral cortices of newborn mice. Expression profiling of pathway components revealed that these cells are fully equipped to respond to Wnt signals. However, Wnt pathway activation affected only a subset of neonatal progenitors and elicited a limited increase in proliferation and neuronal differentiation in distinct subsets of cells. Moreover, Wnt pathway activation only transiently stimulated S-phase entry but did not support long-term proliferation of progenitor cultures. The dampened nature of the Wnt response correlates with the predominant expression of inhibitory pathway components and the rapid actuation of negative feedback mechanisms. Interestingly, in differentiating cell cultures activation of canonical Wnt signaling reduced Hes1 and Hes5 expression suggesting that during postnatal neural development, Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling enhances neurogenesis from progenitor cells by interfering with Notch pathway activity.

  8. Newly Constructed Network Models of Different WNT Signaling Cascades Applied to Breast Cancer Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Frank; Pukrop, Tobias; Beißbarth, Tim; Bleckmann, Annalen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction WNT signaling is a complex process comprising multiple pathways: the canonical β-catenin-dependent pathway and several alternative non-canonical pathways that act in a β-catenin-independent manner. Representing these intricate signaling mechanisms through bioinformatic approaches is challenging. Nevertheless, a simplified but reliable bioinformatic WNT pathway model is needed, which can be further utilized to decipher specific WNT activation states within e.g. high-throughput data. Results In order to build such a model, we collected, parsed, and curated available WNT signaling knowledge from different pathway databases. The data were assembled to construct computationally suitable models of different WNT signaling cascades in the form of directed signaling graphs. This resulted in four networks representing canonical WNT signaling, non-canonical WNT signaling, the inhibition of canonical WNT signaling and the regulation of WNT signaling pathways, respectively. Furthermore, these networks were integrated with microarray and RNA sequencing data to gain deeper insight into the underlying biology of gene expression differences between MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines, representing weakly and highly invasive breast carcinomas, respectively. Differential genes up-regulated in the MDA-MB-231 compared to the MCF-7 cell line were found to display enrichment in the gene set originating from the non-canonical network. Moreover, we identified and validated differentially regulated modules representing canonical and non-canonical WNT pathway components specific for the aggressive basal-like breast cancer subtype. Conclusions In conclusion, we demonstrated that these newly constructed WNT networks reliably reflect distinct WNT signaling processes. Using transcriptomic data, we shaped these networks into comprehensive modules of the genes implicated in the aggressive basal-like breast cancer subtype and demonstrated that non-canonical WNT signaling is

  9. Canonical WNT signaling pathway and human AREG.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2006-06-01

    AREG (Amphiregulin), BTC (beta-cellulin), EGF, EPGN (Epigen), EREG (Epiregulin), HBEGF, NRG1, NRG2, NRG3, NRG4 and TGFA (TGFalpha) constitute EGF family ligands for ERBB family receptors. Cetuximab (Erbitux), Pertuzumab (Omnitarg) and Trastuzumab (Herceptin) are anti-cancer drugs targeted to EGF family ligands, while Gefitinib (Iressa), Erlotinib (Tarceva) and Lapatinib (GW572016) are anti-cancer drugs targeted to ERBB family receptors. AREG and TGFA are biomarkers for Gefitinib non-responders. The TCF/LEF binding sites within the promoter region of human EGF family members were searched for by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint). Because three TCF/LEF-binding sites were identified within the 5'-promoter region of human AREG gene, comparative genomics analyses on AREG orthologs were further performed. The EPGN-EREG-AREG-BTC cluster at human chromosome 4q13.3 was linked to the PPBP-CXCL segmental duplicons. AREG was the paralog of HBEGF at human chromosome 5q31.2. Chimpanzee AREG gene, consisting of six exons, was located within NW_105918.1 genome sequence. Chimpanzee AREG was a type I transmembrane protein showing 98.0% and 71.4% total amino-acid identity with human AREG and mouse Areg, respectively. Three TCF/LEF-binding sites within human AREG promoter were conserved in chimpanzee AREG promoter, but not in rodent Areg promoters. Primate AREG promoters were significantly divergent from rodent Areg promoters. AREG mRNA was expressed in a variety of human tumors, such as colorectal cancer, liver cancer, gastric cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, esophageal cancer and myeloma. Because human AREG was characterized as potent target gene of WNT/beta-catenin signaling pathway, WNT signaling activation could lead to Gefitinib resistance through AREG upregulation. AREG is a target of systems medicine in the field of oncology. PMID:16685431

  10. A molecular mechanism that links Hippo signalling to the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signalling

    PubMed Central

    Imajo, Masamichi; Miyatake, Koichi; Iimura, Akira; Miyamoto, Atsumu; Nishida, Eisuke

    2012-01-01

    The Hippo signalling pathway has emerged as a key regulator of organ size, tissue homeostasis, and patterning. Recent studies have shown that two effectors in this pathway, YAP/TAZ, modulate Wnt/β-catenin signalling through their interaction with β-catenin or Dishevelled, depending on biological contexts. Here, we identify a novel mechanism through which Hippo signalling inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signalling. We show that YAP and TAZ, the transcriptional co-activators in the Hippo pathway, suppress Wnt signalling without suppressing the stability of β-catenin but through preventing its nuclear translocation. Our results show that YAP/TAZ binds to β-catenin, thereby suppressing Wnt-target gene expression, and that the Hippo pathway-stimulated phosphorylation of YAP, which induces cytoplasmic translocation of YAP, is required for the YAP-mediated inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signalling. We also find that downregulation of Hippo signalling correlates with upregulation of β-catenin signalling in colorectal cancers. Remarkably, our analysis demonstrates that phosphorylated YAP suppresses nuclear translocation of β-catenin by directly binding to it in the cytoplasm. These results provide a novel mechanism, in which Hippo signalling antagonizes Wnt signalling by regulating nuclear translocation of β-catenin. PMID:22234184

  11. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) cross-talks with canonical Wnt signaling via phosphorylation of {beta}-catenin at Ser 552

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Junxing; Yue, Wanfu; Zhu, Mei J.; Sreejayan, Nair; Du, Min

    2010-04-23

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of energy metabolism; its activity is regulated by a plethora of physiological conditions, exercises and many anti-diabetic drugs. Recent studies show that AMPK involves in cell differentiation but the underlying mechanism remains undefined. Wingless Int-1 (Wnt)/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway regulates the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells through enhancing {beta}-catenin/T-cell transcription factor 1 (TCF) mediated transcription. The objective of this study was to determine whether AMPK cross-talks with Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling through phosphorylation of {beta}-catenin. C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal cells were used. Chemical inhibition of AMPK and the expression of a dominant negative AMPK decreased phosphorylation of {beta}-catenin at Ser 552. The {beta}-catenin/TCF mediated transcription was correlated with AMPK activity. In vitro, pure AMPK phosphorylated {beta}-catenin at Ser 552 and the mutation of Ser 552 to Ala prevented such phosphorylation, which was further confirmed using [{gamma}-{sup 32}P]ATP autoradiography. In conclusion, AMPK phosphorylates {beta}-catenin at Ser 552, which stabilizes {beta}-catenin, enhances {beta}-catenin/TCF mediated transcription, expanding AMPK from regulation of energy metabolism to cell differentiation and development via cross-talking with the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway.

  12. Downregulation of adenomatous polyposis coli by microRNA-663 promotes odontogenic differentiation through activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae-Sung; Park, Min-Gyeong; Lee, Seul Ah; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Heung-Joong; Yu, Sun-Kyoung; Kim, Chun Sung; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek; Kim, Jin-Soo; Seo, Yo-Seob; Chun, Hong Sung; Park, Joo-Cheol; Kim, Do Kyung

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • miR-663 is significantly up-regulated during MDPC-23 odontoblastic cell differentiation. • miR-663 accelerates mineralization in MDPC-23 odontoblastic cells without cell proliferation. • miR-663 promotes odontoblastic cell differentiation by targeting APC and activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling in MDPC-23 cells. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell differentiation by inhibiting mRNA translation or by inducing its degradation. However, the role of miRNAs in odontogenic differentiation is largely unknown. In this present study, we observed that the expression of miR-663 increased significantly during differentiation of MDPC-23 cells to odontoblasts. Furthermore, up-regulation of miR-663 expression promoted odontogenic differentiation and accelerated mineralization without proliferation in MDPC-23 cells. In addition, target gene prediction for miR-663 revealed that the mRNA of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, which is associated with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, has a miR-663 binding site in its 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR). Furthermore, APC expressional was suppressed significantly by miR-663, and this down-regulation of APC expression triggered activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling through accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-663 promotes differentiation of MDPC-23 cells to odontoblasts by targeting APC-mediated activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Therefore, miR-663 can be considered a critical regulator of odontoblast differentiation and can be utilized for developing miRNA-based therapeutic agents.

  13. The polycystin complex mediates Wnt/Ca(2+) signalling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seokho; Nie, Hongguang; Nesin, Vasyl; Tran, Uyen; Outeda, Patricia; Bai, Chang-Xi; Keeling, Jacob; Maskey, Dipak; Watnick, Terry; Wessely, Oliver; Tsiokas, Leonidas

    2016-07-01

    WNT ligands induce Ca(2+) signalling on target cells. PKD1 (polycystin 1) is considered an orphan, atypical G-protein-coupled receptor complexed with TRPP2 (polycystin 2 or PKD2), a Ca(2+)-permeable ion channel. Inactivating mutations in their genes cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), one of the most common genetic diseases. Here, we show that WNTs bind to the extracellular domain of PKD1 and induce whole-cell currents and Ca(2+) influx dependent on TRPP2. Pathogenic PKD1 or PKD2 mutations that abrogate complex formation, compromise cell surface expression of PKD1, or reduce TRPP2 channel activity suppress activation by WNTs. Pkd2(-/-) fibroblasts lack WNT-induced Ca(2+) currents and are unable to polarize during directed cell migration. In Xenopus embryos, pkd1, Dishevelled 2 (dvl2) and wnt9a act within the same pathway to preserve normal tubulogenesis. These data define PKD1 as a WNT (co)receptor and implicate defective WNT/Ca(2+) signalling as one of the causes of ADPKD. PMID:27214281

  14. C-mannosylation of R-spondin3 regulates its secretion and activity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cells.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Miho; Kato, Shintaro; Niwa, Yuki; Suzuki, Takehiro; Tsuchiya, Miyu; Sasazawa, Yukiko; Dohmae, Naoshi; Simizu, Siro

    2016-08-01

    R-spondin3 (Rspo3) is a secreted protein, which acts as an agonist of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling that plays an important role in embryonic development and homeostasis. In this study, we focused on C-mannosylation, a unique type of glycosylation, of human Rspo3. Rspo3 has two putative C-mannosylation sites at Trp(153) and Trp(156) ; however, it had been unclear whether these sites are C-mannosylated or not. We demonstrated that Rspo3 was C-mannosylated at both Trp(153) and Trp(156) by mass spectrometry. Using C-mannosylation-defective Rspo3 mutant-overexpressing cell lines, we found that C-mannosylation of Rspo3 promotes its secretion and activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:27350215

  15. Frizzleds and WNT/β-catenin signaling--The black box of ligand-receptor selectivity, complex stoichiometry and activation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Gunnar

    2015-09-15

    The lipoglycoproteins of the mammalian WNT family induce β-catenin-dependent signaling through interaction with members of the Class Frizzled receptors and LDL receptor-related protein 5/6 (LRP5/6) albeit with unknown selectivity. The 10 mammalian Frizzleds (FZDs) are seven transmembrane (7TM) spanning receptors and have recently been classified as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This review summarizes the current knowledge about WNT/FZD selectivity and functional selectivity, the role of co-receptors for signal specification, the formation of receptor complexes as well as the kinetics and mechanisms of signal initiation with focus on WNT/β-catenin signaling. In order to exploit the true therapeutic potential of WNT/FZD signaling to treat human disease, it is clear that substantial progress in the understanding of receptor complex formation and signal specification has to precede a mechanism-based drug design targeting WNT receptors. PMID:26003275

  16. Genomic insights into WNT/β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbluh, Joseph; Wang, Xiaoxing; Hahn, William C.

    2014-01-01

    The canonical WNT pathway regulates the stability of the proto-oncogene β-catenin and is aberrantly activated in many cancer types. Studies in a wide range of experimental models confirm that β-catenin activity is required for tumor initiation in cancers where this pathway is deregulated. However, to date this pathway has proven to be challenging to target therapeutically. Moreover, several lines of evidence suggest that other components and regulators of β-catenin exist. Here we will describe recent structural and functional studies describing genomic alterations and new regulators of β-catenin that lead to aberrant activation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway. These findings provide new insights into the biology of WNT/β-catenin signaling and suggest potential therapeutic opportunities. PMID:24365576

  17. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling drives human schwann cell transformation, progression, and tumor maintenance.

    PubMed

    Watson, Adrienne L; Rahrmann, Eric P; Moriarity, Branden S; Choi, Kwangmin; Conboy, Caitlin B; Greeley, Andrew D; Halfond, Amanda L; Anderson, Leah K; Wahl, Brian R; Keng, Vincent W; Rizzardi, Anthony E; Forster, Colleen L; Collins, Margaret H; Sarver, Aaron L; Wallace, Margaret R; Schmechel, Stephen C; Ratner, Nancy; Largaespada, David A

    2013-06-01

    Genetic changes required for the formation and progression of human Schwann cell tumors remain elusive. Using a Sleeping Beauty forward genetic screen, we identified several genes involved in canonical Wnt signaling as potential drivers of benign neurofibromas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). In human neurofibromas and MPNSTs, activation of Wnt signaling increased with tumor grade and was associated with downregulation of β-catenin destruction complex members or overexpression of a ligand that potentiates Wnt signaling, R-spondin 2 (RSPO2). Induction of Wnt signaling was sufficient to induce transformed properties in immortalized human Schwann cells, and downregulation of this pathway was sufficient to reduce the tumorigenic phenotype of human MPNST cell lines. Small-molecule inhibition of Wnt signaling effectively reduced the viability of MPNST cell lines and synergistically induced apoptosis when combined with an mTOR inhibitor, RAD-001, suggesting that Wnt inhibition represents a novel target for therapeutic intervention in Schwann cell tumors. PMID:23535903

  18. Identification, mechanism of action, and antitumor activity of a small molecule inhibitor of hippo, TGF-β, and Wnt signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Basu, Dipanjan; Lettan, Robert; Damodaran, Krishnan; Strellec, Susan; Reyes-Mugica, Miguel; Rebbaa, Abdelhadi

    2014-06-01

    Embryonic signaling pathways, in particular those mediated by Wnt and TGF-β, are known to play key roles in tumor progression through the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Their simultaneous targeting could therefore represent a desirable anticancer strategy. On the basis of recent findings that both Wnt and TGF-β-associated pathways are regulated by Hippo signaling in mammalian cells, we reasoned that targeting the latter would be more effective in inhibiting EMT. In a search for such inhibitors, we identified a small molecule (C19) with remarkable inhibitory activity not only against Hippo, but also against Wnt and TGF-β pathways. C19 inhibited cancer cell migration, proliferation, and resistance to doxorubicin in vitro, and exerted strong antitumor activity in a mouse tumor model. Mechanistically, C19 induced GSK3-β-mediated degradation of the Hippo transducer TAZ, through activation of the Hippo kinases Mst/Lats and the tumor suppressor kinase AMPK upstream of the degradation complex. Overall, this study identified C19 as a multi-EMT pathway inhibitor with a unique mechanism of action. The findings that both AMPK and Mst/Lats mediate the antitumor activity of C19 shed light on a potential cross-talk between metabolic and organ size control pathways in regulating cancer progression. By simultaneously targeting these two pathways, C19 may represent a new type of agents to suppress cancer progression and/or its recurrence. PMID:24694946

  19. Controlled levels of canonical Wnt signaling are required for neural crest migration.

    PubMed

    Maj, Ewa; Künneke, Lutz; Loresch, Elisabeth; Grund, Anita; Melchert, Juliane; Pieler, Tomas; Aspelmeier, Timo; Borchers, Annette

    2016-09-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling plays a dominant role in the development of the neural crest (NC), a highly migratory cell population that generates a vast array of cell types. Canonical Wnt signaling is required for NC induction as well as differentiation, however its role in NC migration remains largely unknown. Analyzing nuclear localization of β-catenin as readout for canonical Wnt activity, we detect nuclear β-catenin in premigratory but not migratory Xenopus NC cells suggesting that canonical Wnt activity has to decrease to basal levels to enable NC migration. To define a possible function of canonical Wnt signaling in Xenopus NC migration, canonical Wnt signaling was modulated at different time points after NC induction. This was accomplished using either chemical modulators affecting β-catenin stability or inducible glucocorticoid fusion constructs of Lef/Tcf transcription factors. In vivo analysis of NC migration by whole mount in situ hybridization demonstrates that ectopic activation of canonical Wnt signaling inhibits cranial NC migration. Further, NC transplantation experiments confirm that this effect is tissue-autonomous. In addition, live-cell imaging in combination with biophysical data analysis of explanted NC cells confirms the in vivo findings and demonstrates that modulation of canonical Wnt signaling affects the ability of NC cells to perform single cell migration. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that canonical Wnt signaling needs to be tightly controlled to enable migration of NC cells. PMID:27341758

  20. FHL2 mediates dexamethasone-induced mesenchymal cell differentiation into osteoblasts by activating Wnt/beta-catenin signaling-dependent Runx2 expression.

    PubMed

    Hamidouche, Zahia; Haÿ, Eric; Vaudin, Pascal; Charbord, Pierre; Schüle, Roland; Marie, Pierre J; Fromigué, Olivia

    2008-11-01

    The differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into osteoblasts is a crucial step in bone formation. However, the mechanisms involved in the early stages of osteogenic differentiation are not well understood. In this study, we identified FHL2, a member of the LIM-only subclass of the LIM protein superfamily, that is up-regulated during early osteoblast differentiation induced by dexamethasone in murine and human MSCs. Gain-of-function studies showed that FHL2 promotes the expression of the osteoblast transcription factor Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen, as well as in vitro extracellular matrix mineralization in murine and human mesenchymal cells. Knocking down FHL2 using sh-RNA reduces basal and dexamethasone-induced osteoblast marker gene expression in MSCs. We demonstrate that FHL2 interacts with beta-catenin, a key player involved in bone formation induced by Wnt signaling. FHL2-beta-catenin interaction potentiates beta-catenin nuclear translocation and TCF/LEF transcription, resulting in increased Runx2 and alkaline phosphatase expression, which was inhibited by the Wnt inhibitor DKK1. Reduction of Runx2 transcriptional activity using a mutant Runx2 results in inhibition of FHL2-induced alkaline phosphatase expression in MSCs. These findings reveal that FHL2 acts as an endogenous activator of mesenchymal cell differentiation into osteoblasts and mediates osteogenic differentiation induced by dexamethasone in MSCs through activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling- dependent Runx2 expression. PMID:18653765

  1. Presenilin Deficiency or Lysosomal Inhibition Enhance Wnt Signaling Through Relocalization of GSK3 to the Late Endosomal Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Dobrowolski, Radek; Vick, Philipp; Ploper, Diego; Gumper, Iwona; Snitkin, Harriet; Sabatini, David D.; De Robertis, Edward M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Sustained canonical Wnt signaling requires inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3) activity through its sequestration inside multivesicular endosomes (MVEs). Here we show that Wnt signaling is increased by the lysosomal inhibitor Chloroquine, which causes accumulation of MVEs. A similar MVE expansion and increased Wnt responsiveness was found in cells deficient in Presenilin, a protein associated with Alzheimer's disease. The Wnt-enhancing effects were entirely dependent on functional endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT), which are needed for formation of intraluminal vesicles in MVEs. We suggest that accumulation of late endosomal structures leads to enhanced canonical Wnt signaling through increased Wnt-receptor/GSK3 sequestration. The decrease in GSK3 cytosolic activity stabilized cytoplasmic GSK3 substrates such as β-Catenin, the microtubule associated protein Tau and other proteins. These results underscore the importance of the endosomal pathway in canonical Wnt signaling and reveal a new mechanism for regulation of Wnt signaling by Presenilin deficiency. PMID:23122960

  2. Substance P Activates the Wnt Signal Transduction Pathway and Enhances the Differentiation of Mouse Preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Gang; Zou, Zhenlv; Fu, Su; Xia, Liheng; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Yongtao; Tuo, Yonghua; Wang, Zhao; Jin, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Recent experiments have explored the impact of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and Substance P (SP) on the regulation of osteogenesis. However, the molecular regulatory mechanisms of SP on the formation of osteoblasts is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the impact of SP on the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. The osteogenic effect of SP was observed at different SP concentrations (ranging from 10−10 to 10−8 M). To unravel the underlying mechanism, the MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with SP after the pretreatment by neurokinin-1 (NK1) antagonists and Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and gene expression levels of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway components, as well as osteoblast differentiation markers (collagen type I, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and Runx2), were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Furthermore, protein levels of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were detected using Western blotting and the effects of SP, NK1 antagonist, and DKK1 on β-catenin activation were investigated by immunofluorescence staining. Our data indicated that SP (10−9 to 10−8 M) significantly up-regulated the expressions of osteoblastic genes. SP (10−8 M) also elevated the mRNA level of c-myc, cyclin D1, and lymphocyte enhancer factor-1 (Lef1), as well as c-myc and β-catenin protein levels, but decreased the expression of Tcf7 mRNA. Moreover, SP (10−8 M) promoted the transfer of β-catenin into nucleus. The effects of SP treatment were inhibited by the NK1 antagonist and DKK1. These findings suggest that SP may enhance differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells via regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:24733069

  3. N-glycosylation of R-spondin1 at Asn137 negatively regulates its secretion and Wnt/β-catenin signaling-enhancing activity

    PubMed Central

    TSUCHIYA, MIYU; NIWA, YUKI; SIMIZU, SIRO

    2016-01-01

    N-glycosylation is a post-translational protein modification with a wide variety of functions. It has been predicted that R-spondin1 (RSPO1) is N-glycosylated, although this remains unknown. The present study identified that RSPO1 was N-glycosylated at Asn137, and that N-glycosylation of RSPO1 negatively influenced its secretion and enhancing effect on Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In vitro treatment with peptide-N-glycosidase F increased the electrophoretic mobility of RSPO1. Furthermore, treatment of wild-type (wt) RSPO1-overexpressing HT1080 cells with tunicamycin (TM), which inhibits N-glycosylation, resulted in a significant reduction in the molecular weight of RSPO1. However, TM treatment had no effect in the RSPO1 mutant whereby the Asn137 residue was replaced by Gln (N137Q). These results demonstrated for the first time that RSPO1 is N-glycosylated at Asn137. RSPO1 is a secreted protein that has Wnt/β-catenin signaling-enhancing activity and is expected to have therapeutic applications. The role of N-glycosylation in RSPO1 was evaluated by conducting comparative experiments with wt and N137Q RSPO1, which revealed that the N137Q mutant increased the secretion and Wnt/β-catenin signaling-enhancing effect of RSPO1, compared with wt RSPO1. These results suggest that N-glycosylation of RSPO1 has a negative influence on its secretion and Wnt/β-catenin signaling-enhancing effect. PMID:27123103

  4. FOXOs attenuate bone formation by suppressing Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Srividhya; Ambrogini, Elena; Bartell, Shoshana M; Han, Li; Roberson, Paula K; de Cabo, Rafael; Jilka, Robert L; Weinstein, Robert S; O'Brien, Charles A; Manolagas, Stavros C; Almeida, Maria

    2013-08-01

    Wnt/β-catenin/TCF signaling stimulates bone formation and suppresses adipogenesis. The hallmarks of skeletal involution with age, on the other hand, are decreased bone formation and increased bone marrow adiposity. These changes are associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased growth factor production, which activate members of the FOXO family of transcription factors. FOXOs in turn attenuate Wnt/β-catenin signaling by diverting β-catenin from TCF- to FOXO-mediated transcription. We show herein that mice lacking Foxo1, -3, and -4 in bipotential progenitors of osteoblast and adipocytes (expressing Osterix1) exhibited increased osteoblast number and high bone mass that was maintained in old age as well as decreased adiposity in the aged bone marrow. The increased bone mass in the Foxo-deficient mice was accounted for by increased proliferation of osteoprogenitor cells and bone formation resulting from upregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and cyclin D1 expression, but not changes in redox balance. Consistent with this mechanism, β-catenin deletion in Foxo null cells abrogated both the increased cyclin D1 expression and proliferation. The elucidation of a restraining effect of FOXOs on Wnt signaling in bipotential progenitors suggests that FOXO activation by accumulation of age-associated cellular stressors may be a seminal pathogenetic mechanism in the development of involutional osteoporosis. PMID:23867625

  5. Wnt-/-β-catenin pathway signaling in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Waisberg, Jaques; Saba, Gabriela Tognini

    2015-01-01

    The molecular basis of the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been adequately clarified, which negatively impacts the development of targeted therapy protocols for this overwhelming neoplasia. The aberrant activation of signaling in the HCC is primarily due to the deregulated expression of the components of the Wnt-/-β-catenin. This leads to the activation of β-catenin/T-cell factor-dependent target genes that control cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and cell motility. The deregulation of the Wnt pathway is an early event in hepatocarcinogenesis. An aggressive phenotype was associated with HCC, since this pathway is implicated in the proliferation, migration, and invasiveness of cancer cells, regarding the cell’s own survival. The disruption of the signaling cascade Wnt-/-β-catenin has shown anticancer properties in HCC’s clinical evaluations of therapeutic molecules targeted for blocking the Wnt signaling pathway for the treatment of HCC, and it represents a promising perspective. The key to bringing this strategy in to clinical practice is to identify new molecules that would be effective only in tumor cells with aberrant signaling β-catenin. PMID:26609340

  6. Wnt-/-β-catenin pathway signaling in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Waisberg, Jaques; Saba, Gabriela Tognini

    2015-11-18

    The molecular basis of the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been adequately clarified, which negatively impacts the development of targeted therapy protocols for this overwhelming neoplasia. The aberrant activation of signaling in the HCC is primarily due to the deregulated expression of the components of the Wnt-/-β-catenin. This leads to the activation of β-catenin/T-cell factor-dependent target genes that control cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and cell motility. The deregulation of the Wnt pathway is an early event in hepatocarcinogenesis. An aggressive phenotype was associated with HCC, since this pathway is implicated in the proliferation, migration, and invasiveness of cancer cells, regarding the cell's own survival. The disruption of the signaling cascade Wnt-/-β-catenin has shown anticancer properties in HCC's clinical evaluations of therapeutic molecules targeted for blocking the Wnt signaling pathway for the treatment of HCC, and it represents a promising perspective. The key to bringing this strategy in to clinical practice is to identify new molecules that would be effective only in tumor cells with aberrant signaling β-catenin. PMID:26609340

  7. The Role of Wnt Signaling in the Development of Alzheimer's Disease: A Potential Therapeutic Target?

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Shijin; Kalionis, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supports a key role for Wnt signaling in the development of the central nervous system (CNS) during embryonic development and in the regulation of the structure and function of the adult brain. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of senile dementia, which is characterized by β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in specific brain regions. However, the molecular mechanism underlying AD pathology remains elusive. Dysfunctional Wnt signaling is associated with several diseases such as epilepsy, cancer, metabolic disease, and AD. Increasing evidence suggests that downregulation of Wnt signaling, induced by Aβ, is associated with disease progression of AD. More importantly, persistent activation of Wnt signaling through Wnt ligands, or inhibition of negative regulators of Wnt signaling, such as Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) that are hyperactive in the disease state, is able to protect against Aβ toxicity and ameliorate cognitive performance in AD. Together, these data suggest that Wnt signaling might be a potential therapeutic target of AD. Here, we review recent studies related to the progression of AD where Wnt signaling might be relevant and participate in the development of the disease. Then, we focus on the potential relevance of manipulating the Wnt signaling pathway for the treatment of AD. PMID:24883305

  8. Hipk proteins dually regulate Wnt/Wingless signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, Esther M; Swarup, Sharan; Lee, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    The Wnt/Wingless (Wg) pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signaling system that is used reiteratively, both spatially and temporally, to control the development of multicellular animals. The stability of cytoplasmic β-catenin/Armadillo, the transcriptional effector of the pathway, is controlled by sequential N-terminal phosphorylation and ubiquitination that targets it for proteasome-mediated degradation. Orthologous members of the Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase family from Drosophila to vertebrates have been implicated in the regulation of Wnt/Wingless signaling. In Drosophila, as a consequence of Hipk activity, cells accumulate stabilized Armadillo that directs the expression of Wg-specific target genes. Hipk promotes the stabilization of Armadillo by inhibiting its ubiquitination (and hence subsequent degradation) by the SCF(Slimb) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Vertebrate Hipk2 impedes β-catenin ubiquitination to promote its stability and the Wnt signal in a mechanism that is functionally conserved. Moreover, we describe here that Hipk proteins have a role independent of their effect on β-catenin/Armadillo stability to enhance Wnt/Wingless signaling. PMID:22634475

  9. Inhibitory mechanisms of two Uncaria tomentosa extracts affecting the Wnt-signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gurrola-Díaz, Carmen Magdalena; García-López, Pedro Macedonio; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Pilarski, Radoslaw; Dihlmann, Susanne

    2011-06-15

    Uncaria tomentosa ("uña de gato"; "cat's claw"), a woody vine native to the Amazon rainforest, is commonly used in South American traditional medicine to treat a broad spectrum of diseases. Although recent studies have reported anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties of different alkaloids extracted from this plant, the underlying molecular mechanisms of these effects have not been elucidated yet. Our study investigates the inhibitory mechanisms of Uncaria tomentosa extracts on the Wnt-signaling pathway, a central regulator of development and tissue homoeostasis. A modified cell-based luciferase assay for screening inhibitors of the Wnt-pathway was used for analysis. Three cancer cell lines displaying different levels of aberrant Wnt-signaling activity were transfected with Wnt-signaling responsive Tcf-reporter plasmids and treated with increasing concentrations of two Uncaria tomentosa bark extracts. Wnt-signaling activity was assessed by luciferase activity and by expression of Wnt-responsive target genes. We show that both, an aqueous and an alkaloid-enriched extract specifically inhibit Wnt-signaling activity in HeLa, HCT116 and SW480 cancer cells resulting in reduced expression of the Wnt-target gene: c-Myc. The alkaloid-enriched extract (B/S(rt)) was found to be more effective than the aqueous extract (B/W(37)). The strongest effect was observed in SW480 cells, displaying the highest endogenous Wnt-signaling activity. Downregulation of Wnt-signaling by a dominant negative-TCF-4 variant in non-cancer cells rendered the cells insensitive towards treatment with B/S(rt). B/Srt was less toxic in non-cancer cells than in cancer cells. Our data suggest that the broad spectrum of pharmacological action of Uncaria tomentosa involves inhibition of the Wnt-signaling pathway, downstream of beta-Catenin activity. PMID:21156346

  10. Andrographolide activates the canonical Wnt signalling pathway by a mechanism that implicates the non-ATP competitive inhibition of GSK-3β: autoregulation of GSK-3β in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Schüller, Andreas; Lindsay, Carolina B; Ureta, Roxana C; Mejías-Reyes, Cristóbal; Hancke, Juan; Melo, Francisco; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-03-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signalling is an important pathway that regulates multiple biological processes, including cell adhesion and determination of cell fate during animal development; in the adult nervous system it regulates the structure and function of synapses. Wnt-signalling dysfunction is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The use of natural compounds is an interesting strategy in the search for drugs with the therapeutic potential to activate this signalling pathway. In the present study, we report that andrographolide (ANDRO), a component of Andrographis paniculata, is a potent activator of Wnt signalling. Our results indicate that ANDRO activates this pathway, inducing the transcription of Wnt target genes by a mechanism that bypasses Wnt ligand binding to its receptor. In vitro kinase assays demonstrate that ANDRO inhibits glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β by a non-ATP-competitive, substrate-competitive mode of action. In silico analyses suggest that ANDRO interacts with the substrate-binding site of GSK-3β. Finally, we demonstrated that the increase seen in the levels of GSK-3β phosphorylated at Ser⁹ is the result of an autoregulatory mechanism of the kinase in vivo, although not through activation of protein phosphatase type 1. Our results suggest that ANDRO could be used as a potential therapeutic drug for disorders caused by Wnt-signalling dysfunction such as neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25423492

  11. Icariin attenuates titanium-particle inhibition of bone formation by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junhua; Tao, Yunxia; Ping, Zichuan; Zhang, Wen; Hu, Xuanyang; Wang, Yijun; Wang, Liangliang; Shi, Jiawei; Wu, Xiexing; Yang, Huilin; Xu, Yaozeng; Geng, Dechun

    2016-01-01

    Wear-debris-induced periprosthetic osteolysis (PIO) is a common clinical condition following total joint arthroplasty, which can cause implant instability and failure. The host response to wear debris promotes bone resorption and impairs bone formation. We previously demonstrated that icariin suppressed wear-debris-induced osteoclastogenesis and attenuated particle-induced osteolysis in vivo. Whether icariin promotes bone formation in a wear-debris-induced osteolytic site remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that icariin significantly attenuated titanium-particle inhibition of osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Additionally, icariin increased bone mass and decreased bone loss in titanium-particle-induced osteolytic sites. Mechanistically, icariin inhibited decreased β-catenin stability induced by titanium particles in vivo and in vitro. To confirm icariin mediated its bone-protective effects via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, we demonstrated that ICG-001, a selective Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor, attenuated the effects of icariin on MSC mineralization in vitro and bone formation in vivo. Therefore, icariin could induce osteogenic differentiation of MSCs and promote new bone formation at a titanium-particle-induced osteolytic site via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. These results further support the protective effects of icariin on particle-induced bone loss and provide novel mechanistic insights into the recognized bone-anabolic effects of icariin and an evidence-based rationale for its use in PIO treatment. PMID:27029606

  12. Icariin attenuates titanium-particle inhibition of bone formation by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junhua; Tao, Yunxia; Ping, Zichuan; Zhang, Wen; Hu, Xuanyang; Wang, Yijun; Wang, Liangliang; Shi, Jiawei; Wu, Xiexing; Yang, Huilin; Xu, Yaozeng; Geng, Dechun

    2016-01-01

    Wear-debris-induced periprosthetic osteolysis (PIO) is a common clinical condition following total joint arthroplasty, which can cause implant instability and failure. The host response to wear debris promotes bone resorption and impairs bone formation. We previously demonstrated that icariin suppressed wear-debris-induced osteoclastogenesis and attenuated particle-induced osteolysis in vivo. Whether icariin promotes bone formation in a wear-debris-induced osteolytic site remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that icariin significantly attenuated titanium-particle inhibition of osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Additionally, icariin increased bone mass and decreased bone loss in titanium-particle-induced osteolytic sites. Mechanistically, icariin inhibited decreased β-catenin stability induced by titanium particles in vivo and in vitro. To confirm icariin mediated its bone-protective effects via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, we demonstrated that ICG-001, a selective Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor, attenuated the effects of icariin on MSC mineralization in vitro and bone formation in vivo. Therefore, icariin could induce osteogenic differentiation of MSCs and promote new bone formation at a titanium-particle-induced osteolytic site via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. These results further support the protective effects of icariin on particle-induced bone loss and provide novel mechanistic insights into the recognized bone-anabolic effects of icariin and an evidence-based rationale for its use in PIO treatment. PMID:27029606

  13. Beta-catenin versus the other armadillo catenins: assessing our current view of canonical Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Miller, Rachel K; Hong, Ji Yeon; Muñoz, William A; McCrea, Pierre D

    2013-01-01

    The prevailing view of canonical Wnt signaling emphasizes the role of beta-catenin acting downstream of Wnt activation to regulate transcriptional activity. However, emerging evidence indicates that other armadillo catenins in vertebrates, such as members of the p120 subfamily, convey parallel signals to the nucleus downstream of canonical Wnt pathway activation. Their study is thus needed to appreciate the networked mechanisms of canonical Wnt pathway transduction, especially as they may assist in generating the diversity of Wnt effects observed in development and disease. In this chapter, we outline evidence of direct canonical Wnt effects on p120 subfamily members in vertebrates and speculate upon these catenins' roles in conjunction with or aside from beta-catenin. PMID:23481204

  14. Beta-catenin versus the other catenins: assessing our current view of canonical Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Rachel K.; Hong, Ji Yeon; Muñoz, William A.; McCrea, Pierre D.

    2013-01-01

    The prevailing view of canonical Wnt signaling emphasizes the role of beta-catenin acting downstream of Wnt activation to regulate transcriptional activity. However, emerging evidence indicates that other catenins in vertebrates, such as members of the p120 subfamily, convey parallel signals to the nucleus downstream of canonical Wnt pathway activation. Their study is thus needed to appreciate the networked mechanisms of canonical Wnt pathway transduction, especially as they may assist in generating the diversity of Wnt effects observed in development and disease. In this chapter, we outline evidence of direct canonical Wnt effects on p120-subfamily members in vertebrates, and speculate upon these catenins’ roles in conjunction with or aside from beta-catenin. PMID:23481204

  15. Three-dimensional culture of sebaceous gland cells revealing the role of prostaglandin E{sub 2}-induced activation of canonical Wnt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Go J. Saya, Hideyuki

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Three-dimensional culture generates “semi-vivo” sebaceous glands. •Xenograft model failed to mimic the biology of sebaceous glands in vivo. •Proinflammatory cytokine PGE{sub 2} enhances Wnt signal activity in the organoids. •PGE{sub 2} influences on the mitochondrial and lipid metabolism in the organoids. •Considering 3R agenda, “semi-vivo” sebaceous glands are useful for research. -- Abstract: Background: Prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) is a proinflammatory mediator and activates the canonical Wnt–β-catenin signaling pathway in hematopoietic stem cells. The SZ95 cell line was established from human sebaceous gland cells and is studied as a model system for these cells. Given that 2D culture of SZ95 cells does not recapitulate the organization of sebaceous glands in situ, we developed a 3D culture system for these cells and examined the effects of PGE{sub 2} on cell morphology and function. Results: SZ95 cells maintained in 3D culture formed organoids that mimicked the organization of sebaceous glands in situ, including the establishment of a basement membrane. Organoids exposed to PGE{sub 2} were larger and adopted a more complex organization compared with control organoids. PGE{sub 2} activated the canonical Wnt signaling pathway as well as increased cell viability and proliferation, mitochondrial metabolism, and lipid synthesis in the organoids. Conclusions: Culture of SZ95 cells in 3D culture system recapitulates the structure and susceptibility to PGE{sub 2} of sebaceous glands in situ and should prove useful for studies of the response of these glands to inflammation and other environmental stressors. Our results also implicate PGE{sub 2}-induced activation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway in regulation of the morphology,proliferation, and function of “semi-vivo” sebaceous glands.

  16. Wnt signaling pathway in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Stewart, David J

    2014-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin alterations are prominent in human malignancies. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), β-catenin and APC mutations are uncommon, but Wnt signaling is important in NSCLC cell lines, and Wnt inhibition reduces proliferation. Overexpression of Wnt-1, -2, -3, and -5a and of Wnt-pathway components Frizzled-8, Dishevelled, Porcupine, and TCF-4 is common in resected NSCLC and is associated with poor prognosis. Conversely, noncanonical Wnt-7a suppresses NSCLC development and is often downregulated. Although β-catenin is often expressed in NSCLCs, it was paradoxically associated with improved prognosis in some series, possibly because of E-cadherin interactions. Downregulation of Wnt inhibitors (eg, by hypermethylation) is common in NSCLC tumor cell lines and resected samples; may be associated with high stage, dedifferentiation, and poor prognosis; and has been reported for AXIN, sFRPs 1-5, WIF-1, Dkk-1, Dkk-3, HDPR1, RUNX3, APC, CDX2, DACT2, TMEM88, Chibby, NKD1, EMX2, ING4, and miR-487b. AXIN is also destabilized by tankyrases, and GSK3β may be inactivated through phosphorylation by EGFR. Preclinically, restoration of Wnt inhibitor function is associated with reduced Wnt signaling, decreased cell proliferation, and increased apoptosis. Wnt signaling may also augment resistance to cisplatin, docetaxel, and radiotherapy, and Wnt inhibitors may restore sensitivity. Overall, available data indicate that Wnt signaling substantially impacts NSCLC tumorigenesis, prognosis, and resistance to therapy, with loss of Wnt signaling inhibitors by promoter hypermethylation or other mechanisms appearing to be particularly important. Wnt pathway antagonists warrant exploration clinically in NSCLC. Agents blocking selected specific β-catenin interactions and approaches to increase expression of downregulated Wnt inhibitors may be of particular interest. PMID:24309006

  17. Secreted Frizzled-related protein-2 (sFRP2) augments canonical Wnt3a-induced signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Marschall, Zofia von; Fisher, Larry W.

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} sFRP2 enhances the Wnt3a-induced {beta}-catenin stabilization and its nuclear translocation. {yields} sFRP2 enhances LRP6 phosphorylation and Wnt3a/{beta}-catenin transcriptional reporter activity. {yields} Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) fully antagonizes both Wnt3a/sFRP2-induced LRP6 phosphorylation and transcriptional activity. {yields} sFRP2 enhances expression of genes known to be regulated by Wnt3a signaling. -- Abstract: Secreted Frizzled-related proteins (sFRP) are involved in embryonic development as well as pathological conditions including bone and myocardial disorders and cancer. Because of their sequence homology with the Wnt-binding domain of Frizzled, they have generally been considered antagonists of canonical Wnt signaling. However, additional activities of various sFRPs including both synergism and mimicry of Wnt signaling as well as functions other than modulation of Wnt signaling have been reported. Using human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293A), we found that sFRP2 enhanced Wnt3a-dependent phosphorylation of LRP6 as well as both cytosolic {beta}-catenin levels and its nuclear translocation. While addition of recombinant sFRP2 had no activity by itself, Top/Fop luciferase reporter assays showed a dose-dependent increase of Wnt3a-mediated transcriptional activity. sFRP2 enhancement of Wnt3a signaling was abolished by treatment with the Wnt antagonist, Dickkopf-1 (DKK1). Wnt-signaling pathway qPCR arrays showed that sFRP2 enhanced the Wnt3a-mediated transcriptional up-regulation of several genes regulated by Wnt3a including its antagonists, DKK1, and Naked cuticle-1 homolog (NKD1). These results support sFRP2's role as an enhancer of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling, a result with biological impact for both normal development and diverse pathologies such as tumorigenesis.

  18. Noncanonical Wnt signaling promotes osteoclast differentiation and is facilitated by the human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir

    SciTech Connect

    Santiago, Francisco; Oguma, Junya; Brown, Anthony M.C.; Laurence, Jeffrey

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First demonstration of direct role for noncanonical Wnt in osteoclast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstration of Ryk as a Wnt5a/b receptor in inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modulation of noncanonical Wnt signaling by a clinically important drug, ritonavir. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Establishes a mechanism for an important clinical problem: HIV-associated bone loss. -- Abstract: Wnt proteins that signal via the canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway directly regulate osteoblast differentiation. In contrast, most studies of Wnt-related effects on osteoclasts involve indirect changes. While investigating bone mineral density loss in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its treatment with the protease inhibitor ritonavir (RTV), we observed that RTV decreased nuclear localization of {beta}-catenin, critical to canonical Wnt signaling, in primary human and murine osteoclast precursors. This occurred in parallel with upregulation of Wnt5a and Wnt5b transcripts. These Wnts typically stimulate noncanonical Wnt signaling, and this can antagonize the canonical Wnt pathway in many cell types, dependent upon Wnt receptor usage. We now document RTV-mediated upregulation of Wnt5a/b protein in osteoclast precursors. Recombinant Wnt5b and retrovirus-mediated expression of Wnt5a enhanced osteoclast differentiation from human and murine monocytic precursors, processes facilitated by RTV. In contrast, canonical Wnt signaling mediated by Wnt3a suppressed osteoclastogenesis. Both RTV and Wnt5b inhibited canonical, {beta}-catenin/T cell factor-based Wnt reporter activation in osteoclast precursors. RTV- and Wnt5-induced osteoclast differentiation were dependent upon the receptor-like tyrosine kinase Ryk, suggesting that Ryk may act as a Wnt5a/b receptor in this context. This is the first demonstration of a direct role for Wnt signaling pathways and Ryk in

  19. IGF-1R inhibition in mammary epithelia promotes canonical Wnt signaling and Wnt1-driven tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rota, Lauren M.; Albanito, Lidia; Shin, Marcus E.; Goyeneche, Corey L.; Shushanov, Sain; Gallagher, Emily J.; LeRoith, Derek; Lazzarino, Deborah A.; Wood, Teresa L.

    2014-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are an aggressive disease subtype which unlike other subtypes lack an effective targeted therapy. Inhibitors of the insullin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) have been considered for use in treating TNBC. Here we provide genetic evidence that IGF-1R inhibition promotes development of Wnt1-mediated murine mammary tumors that offer a model of TNBC. We found that in a double transgenic mouse model carrying activated Wnt-1 and mutant IGF-1R, a reduction in IGF-1R signaling reduced tumor latency and promoted more aggressive phenotypes. These tumors displayed a squamal cell phenotype with increased expression of keratins 5/6 and β-catenin. Notably, cell lineage analyses revealed an increase in basal (CD29hi/CD24+) and luminal (CD24+/CD61+/CD29lo) progenitor cell populations, along with increased Nanog expression and decreased Elf5 expression. In these doubly transgenic mice, lung metastases developed with characteristics of the primary tumors, unlike MMTV-Wnt1 mice. Mechanistic investigations showed that pharmacological inhibition of the IGF-1R in vitro was sufficient to increase the tumorsphere-forming efficiency of MMTV-Wnt1 tumor cells. Tumors from doubly transgenic mice also exhibited an increase in the expression ratio of the IGF-II-sensitive, A isoform of the insulin receptor vs the IR-B isoform, which in vitro resulted in enhanced expression of β-catenin. Overall, our results revealed that in Wnt-driven tumors an attenuation of IGF-1R signaling accelerates tumorigenesis and promotes more aggressive phenotypes, with potential implications for understanding TNBC pathobiology and treatment. PMID:25092896

  20. Wnt signaling during tooth replacement in zebrafish (Danio rerio): pitfalls and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Huysseune, Ann; Soenens, Mieke; Elderweirdt, Fien

    2014-01-01

    The canonical (β-catenin dependent) Wnt signaling pathway has emerged as a likely candidate for regulating tooth replacement in continuously renewing dentitions. So far, the involvement of canonical Wnt signaling has been experimentally demonstrated predominantly in amniotes. These studies tend to show stimulation of tooth formation by activation of the Wnt pathway, and inhibition of tooth formation when blocking the pathway. Here, we report a strong and dynamic expression of the soluble Wnt inhibitor dickkopf1 (dkk1) in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) tooth germs, suggesting an active repression of Wnt signaling during morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation of a tooth, and derepression of Wnt signaling during start of replacement tooth formation. To further analyse the role of Wnt signaling, we used different gain-of-function approaches. These yielded disjunct results, yet none of them indicating enhanced tooth replacement. Thus, masterblind (mbl) mutants, defective in axin1, mimic overexpression of Wnt, but display a normally patterned dentition in which teeth are replaced at the appropriate times and positions. Activating the pathway with LiCl had variable outcomes, either resulting in the absence, or the delayed formation, of first-generation teeth, or yielding a regular dentition with normal replacement, but no supernumerary teeth or accelerated tooth replacement. The failure so far to influence tooth replacement in the zebrafish by perturbing Wnt signaling is discussed in the light of (i) potential technical pitfalls related to dose- or time-dependency, (ii) the complexity of the canonical Wnt pathway, and (iii) species-specific differences in the nature and activity of pathway components. Finally, we emphasize the importance of in-depth knowledge of the wild-type pattern for reliable interpretations. It is hoped that our analysis can be inspiring to critically assess and elucidate the role of Wnt signaling in tooth development in polyphyodonts. PMID

  1. Wnt signaling during tooth replacement in zebrafish (Danio rerio): pitfalls and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Huysseune, Ann; Soenens, Mieke; Elderweirdt, Fien

    2014-01-01

    The canonical (β-catenin dependent) Wnt signaling pathway has emerged as a likely candidate for regulating tooth replacement in continuously renewing dentitions. So far, the involvement of canonical Wnt signaling has been experimentally demonstrated predominantly in amniotes. These studies tend to show stimulation of tooth formation by activation of the Wnt pathway, and inhibition of tooth formation when blocking the pathway. Here, we report a strong and dynamic expression of the soluble Wnt inhibitor dickkopf1 (dkk1) in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) tooth germs, suggesting an active repression of Wnt signaling during morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation of a tooth, and derepression of Wnt signaling during start of replacement tooth formation. To further analyse the role of Wnt signaling, we used different gain-of-function approaches. These yielded disjunct results, yet none of them indicating enhanced tooth replacement. Thus, masterblind (mbl) mutants, defective in axin1, mimic overexpression of Wnt, but display a normally patterned dentition in which teeth are replaced at the appropriate times and positions. Activating the pathway with LiCl had variable outcomes, either resulting in the absence, or the delayed formation, of first-generation teeth, or yielding a regular dentition with normal replacement, but no supernumerary teeth or accelerated tooth replacement. The failure so far to influence tooth replacement in the zebrafish by perturbing Wnt signaling is discussed in the light of (i) potential technical pitfalls related to dose- or time-dependency, (ii) the complexity of the canonical Wnt pathway, and (iii) species-specific differences in the nature and activity of pathway components. Finally, we emphasize the importance of in-depth knowledge of the wild-type pattern for reliable interpretations. It is hoped that our analysis can be inspiring to critically assess and elucidate the role of Wnt signaling in tooth development in polyphyodonts. PMID

  2. CD44 regulates Wnt signaling at the level of LRP6

    PubMed Central

    Orian-Rousseau, Véronique; Schmitt, Mark

    2015-01-01

    CD44 was recently identified as a positive feedback regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. This regulation occurs at the level of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 phosphorylation and membrane targeting. These findings broaden our understanding of the Wnt pathway activation process and open new perspectives for anti-CD44 therapies in diseases associated with Wnt induction, including colorectal cancer. PMID:27308483

  3. Proinflammatory Cytokines Regulate Cementogenic Differentiation of Periodontal Ligament Cells by Wnt/Ca(2+) Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Han, Pingping; Lloyd, Tain; Chen, Zetao; Xiao, Yin

    2016-05-01

    Periodontal inflammation can inhibit cell differentiation of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs), resulting in decreased bone/cementum regeneration ability. The Wnt signaling pathway, including canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling and noncanonical Wnt/Ca(2+) signaling, plays essential roles in cell proliferation and differentiation during tooth development. However, little is still known whether noncanonical Wnt/Ca(2+) signaling cascade could regulate cementogenic/osteogenic differentiation capability of PDLCs within an inflammatory environment. Therefore, in this study, human PDLCs (hPDLCs) and their cementogenic differentiation potential were investigated in the presence of cytokines. The data demonstrated that both cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibited cell proliferation, relative alkaline phosphatase activity, bone/cementum-related gene/protein expression, and canonical Wnt pathway-related gene/protein expression in hPDLCs. Interestingly, both cytokines upregulated the noncanonical Wnt/Ca(2+) signaling-related gene and protein expression in hPDLCs. When the Wnt/Ca(2+) pathway was blocked by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor KN93, even in the presence of IL-6 and TNF-α, cementogenesis could be stimulated in hPDLCs. Our data indicate that the Wnt/Ca(2+) pathway plays an inhibitory role on PDLC cementogenic differentiation in inflammatory microenvironments. Therefore, targeting the Wnt/Ca(2+) pathway may provide a novel therapeutic approach to improve periodontal regeneration for periodontal diseases. PMID:27074616

  4. Bach1 Represses Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junxu; Wang, Xinhong; Niu, Cong; Kang, Xueling; Xu, Jie; Zhou, Zhongwei; Sun, Shaoyang; Wang, Xu; Zheng, Xiaojun; Duan, Shengzhong; Yao, Kang; Qian, Ruizhe; Sun, Ning; Chen, Alex; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Jianyi; Chen, Sifeng; Meng, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Wnt/β-catenin signaling has an important role in the angiogenic activity of endothelial cells (ECs). Bach1 is a transcription factor and is expressed in ECs, but whether Bach1 regulates angiogenesis is unknown. Objective This study evaluated the role of Bach1 in angiogenesis and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Methods and Results Hind-limb ischemia was surgically induced in Bach1−/− mice and their wild-type littermates and in C57BL/6J mice treated with adenoviruses coding for Bach1 or GFP. Lack of Bach1 expression was associated with significant increases in perfusion and vascular density and in the expression of proangiogenic cytokines in the ischemic hindlimb of mice, with enhancement of the angiogenic activity of ECs (eg, tube formation, migration, and proliferation). Bach1 overexpression impaired angiogenesis in mice with hind-limb ischemia and inhibited Wnt3a-stimulated angiogenic response and the expression of Wnt/β-catenin target genes, such as interleukin-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor, in human umbilical vein ECs. Interleukin-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor were responsible for the antiangiogenic response of Bach1. Immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assessments indicated that Bach1 binds directly to TCF4 and reduces the interaction of β-catenin with TCF4. Bach1 overexpression reduces the interaction between p300/CBP and β-catenin, as well as β-catenin acetylation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that Bach1 occupies the TCF4-binding site of the interleukin-8 promoter and recruits histone deacetylase 1 to the interleukin-8 promoter in human umbilical vein ECs. Conclusions Bach1 suppresses angiogenesis after ischemic injury and impairs Wnt/β-catenin signaling by disrupting the interaction between β-catenin and TCF4 and by recruiting histone deacetylase 1 to the promoter of TCF4-targeted genes. PMID:26123998

  5. MicroRNA-142-3p Negatively Regulates Canonical Wnt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Tanyu; Phiwpan, Krung; Guo, Jitao; Zhang, Wei; Guo, Jie; Zhang, Zhongmei; Zou, Mangge; Zhang, Xuejie; Zhang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays essential roles in mammalian development and tissue homeostasis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of regulators involved in modulating this pathway. In this study, we screened miRNAs regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling by using a TopFlash based luciferase reporter. Surprisingly, we found that miR-142 inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which was inconsistent with a recent study showing that miR-142-3p targeted Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) to upregulate Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Due to the discordance, we elaborated experiments by using extensive mutagenesis, which demonstrated that the stem-loop structure was important for miR-142 to efficiently suppress Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of miR-142 relies on miR-142-3p rather than miR-142-5p. Further, we found that miR-142-3p directly modulated translation of Ctnnb1 mRNA (encoding β-catenin) through binding to its 3’ untranslated region (3’ UTR). Finally, miR-142 was able to repress cell cycle progression by inhibiting active Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Thus, our findings highlight the inhibitory role of miR-142-3p in Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which help to understand the complex regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:27348426

  6. WIKI4, a Novel Inhibitor of Tankyrase and Wnt/ß-Catenin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Biechele, Travis L.; Robin, Nicholas C.; Taylor, Russell J.; Major, Michael B.; Camp, Nathan D.; Fowler, Kerry; Martins, Timothy J.; Moon, Randall T.

    2012-01-01

    The Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway controls important cellular events during development and often contributes to disease when dysregulated. Using high throughput screening we have identified a new small molecule inhibitor of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, WIKI4. WIKI4 inhibits expression of ß-catenin target genes and cellular responses to Wnt/ß-catenin signaling in cancer cell lines as well as in human embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that WIKI4 mediates its effects on Wnt/ß-catenin signaling by inhibiting the enzymatic activity of TNKS2, a regulator of AXIN ubiquitylation and degradation. While TNKS has previously been shown to be the target of small molecule inhibitors of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, WIKI4 is structurally distinct from previously identified TNKS inhibitors. PMID:23227175

  7. Wnt inhibitory factor-1 functions as a tumor suppressor through modulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiao; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Yinghua; Chen, Keling; Bao, Pingqian; Wang, Yi; Wang, Jiaxiang; Zhou, Zongguang; Sun, Xiaofeng; Li, Yuan

    2014-06-28

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood and is associated with serious morbidity and mortality. The effective treatment of neuroblastoma remains one of the major challenges in pediatric oncology. The Wnt signaling pathway has been shown to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of adult and pediatric tumors. WIF-1 has been identified as an important Wnt antagonist which inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling by directly binding to Wnt proteins. However, the expression and function of WIF-1 in neuroblastoma remains unknown. The present study showed that WIF-1 was downregulated with high level promoter methylation in neuroblastoma cells, and was significantly upregulated after exposure to demethylating agent. This finding suggests that downregulation of WIF-1 was associated with its promoter methylation in neuroblastoma. To further study the potential function of WIF-1 in neuroblastoma, we constructed a plasmid that over-expressed WIF-1 and transfected the plasmid into one neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH. We found that restoration of WIF-1 inhibited the growth and proliferation of neuroblastoma cells in vitro. Moreover, Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity and target genes expression were reduced by WIF-1 restoration. These results provide support that WIF-1 is downregulated and functions as a tumor suppressor by antagonizing Wnt/β-catenin signaling in neuroblastoma, suggesting a potential role as a therapeutic target in neuroblastoma. PMID:24561119

  8. Construction and Experimental Validation of a Petri Net Model of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Heijmans, Nika; Verkaar, Folkert; Smit, Martine J.; Heringa, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is important for multiple developmental processes and tissue maintenance in adults. Consequently, deregulated signaling is involved in a range of human diseases including cancer and developmental defects. A better understanding of the intricate regulatory mechanism and effect of physiological (active) and pathophysiological (hyperactive) WNT signaling is important for predicting treatment response and developing novel therapies. The constitutively expressed CTNNB1 (commonly and hereafter referred to as β-catenin) is degraded by a destruction complex, composed of amongst others AXIN1 and GSK3. The destruction complex is inhibited during active WNT signaling, leading to β-catenin stabilization and induction of β-catenin/TCF target genes. In this study we investigated the mechanism and effect of β-catenin stabilization during active and hyperactive WNT signaling in a combined in silico and in vitro approach. We constructed a Petri net model of Wnt/β-catenin signaling including main players from the plasma membrane (WNT ligands and receptors), cytoplasmic effectors and the downstream negative feedback target gene AXIN2. We validated that our model can be used to simulate both active (WNT stimulation) and hyperactive (GSK3 inhibition) signaling by comparing our simulation and experimental data. We used this experimentally validated model to get further insights into the effect of the negative feedback regulator AXIN2 upon WNT stimulation and observed an attenuated β-catenin stabilization. We furthermore simulated the effect of APC inactivating mutations, yielding a stabilization of β-catenin levels comparable to the Wnt-pathway activities observed in colorectal and breast cancer. Our model can be used for further investigation and viable predictions of the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in oncogenesis and development. PMID:27218469

  9. Construction and Experimental Validation of a Petri Net Model of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Annika; Heijmans, Nika; Verkaar, Folkert; Smit, Martine J; Heringa, Jaap; van Amerongen, Renée; Feenstra, K Anton

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is important for multiple developmental processes and tissue maintenance in adults. Consequently, deregulated signaling is involved in a range of human diseases including cancer and developmental defects. A better understanding of the intricate regulatory mechanism and effect of physiological (active) and pathophysiological (hyperactive) WNT signaling is important for predicting treatment response and developing novel therapies. The constitutively expressed CTNNB1 (commonly and hereafter referred to as β-catenin) is degraded by a destruction complex, composed of amongst others AXIN1 and GSK3. The destruction complex is inhibited during active WNT signaling, leading to β-catenin stabilization and induction of β-catenin/TCF target genes. In this study we investigated the mechanism and effect of β-catenin stabilization during active and hyperactive WNT signaling in a combined in silico and in vitro approach. We constructed a Petri net model of Wnt/β-catenin signaling including main players from the plasma membrane (WNT ligands and receptors), cytoplasmic effectors and the downstream negative feedback target gene AXIN2. We validated that our model can be used to simulate both active (WNT stimulation) and hyperactive (GSK3 inhibition) signaling by comparing our simulation and experimental data. We used this experimentally validated model to get further insights into the effect of the negative feedback regulator AXIN2 upon WNT stimulation and observed an attenuated β-catenin stabilization. We furthermore simulated the effect of APC inactivating mutations, yielding a stabilization of β-catenin levels comparable to the Wnt-pathway activities observed in colorectal and breast cancer. Our model can be used for further investigation and viable predictions of the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in oncogenesis and development. PMID:27218469

  10. TCDD Inhibition of Canonical Wnt Signaling Disrupts Prostatic Bud Formation in Mouse Urogenital Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    In mice, in utero exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p- dioxin (TCDD) reduces the number of dorsolateral prostatic buds resulting in a smaller dorsolateral prostate and prevents formation of ventral buds culminating in ventral prostate agenesis. The genes and signaling pathways affected by TCDD that are responsible for disrupting prostate development are largely unknown. Here we show that treatment of urogenital sinus (UGS) organ cultures with known inhibitors of canonical Wnt signaling also inhibits prostatic bud formation. In support of the hypothesis that TCDD decreases canonical Wnt signaling, we identify inhibitory effects of TCDD on multiple components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in the UGS that temporally coincide with the inhibitory effect of TCDD on prostatic bud formation: (1) expression of R-spondins (Rspo2 and Rspo3) that promote canonical Wnt signaling is reduced; (2) expression of Lef1, Tcf1, and Wif1, established canonical Wnt target genes, is decreased; (3) expression of Lgr5, a RSPO receptor that activates canonical Wnt signaling, is reduced; and (4) expression of Dickkopfs (Dkks), inhibitors of canonical Wnt signaling, is not increased by TCDD. Thus, the TCDD-induced reduction in canonical Wnt signaling is associated with a decrease in activators (Rspo2 and Rspo3) rather than an increase in inhibitors (Dkk1 and Dkk2) of the pathway. This study focuses on determining whether treatment of TCDD-exposed UGS organ cultures with RSPO2 and/or RSPO3 is capable of rescuing the inhibitory effects of TCDD on canonical Wnt signaling and prostatic bud formation. We discovered that each RSPO alone or in combination partially rescues TCDD inhibition of both canonical Wnt signaling and prostatic bud formation. PMID:23429912

  11. HPV16 E6 and E6AP differentially cooperate to stimulate or augment Wnt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Sominsky, Sophia; Kuslansky, Yael; Shapiro, Beny; Jackman, Anna; Haupt, Ygal; Rosin-Arbesfeld, Rina; Sherman, Levana

    2014-11-15

    The present study investigated the roles of E6 and E6AP in the Wnt pathway. We showed that E6 levels are markedly reduced in cells in which Wnt signaling is activated. Coexpression of wild-type or mutant E6AP (C820A) in Wnt-activated cells stabilized E6 and enhanced Wnt/β-catenin/TCF transcription. Expression of E6AP alone in nonstimulated cells elevated β-catenin level, promoted its nuclear accumulation, and activated β-catenin/TCF transcription. A knockdown of E6AP lowered β-catenin levels. Coexpression with E6 intensified the activities of E6AP. Further experiments proved that E6AP/E6 stabilize β-catenin by protecting it from proteasomal degradation. This function was dependent on the catalytic activity of E6AP, the kinase activity of GSK3β and the susceptibility of β-catenin to GSK3β phosphorylation. Thus, this study identified E6AP as a novel regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, capable of cooperating with E6 in stimulating or augmenting Wnt/β-catenin signaling, thereby possibly contributing to HPV carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • The roles of E6 and E6AP in the Wnt pathway were investigated. • E6AP stabilizes E6 and enhances E6 activity in augmentation of Wnt signaling. • E6AP cooperates with E6 to stabilize β-catenin and stimulate Wnt/β-catenin signaling. • E6AP and E6 act through different mechanisms to augment or stimulate Wnt signaling.

  12. How targets select activation or repression in response to Wnt.

    PubMed

    Murgan, Sabrina; Bertrand, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    In metazoans, the Wnt signaling pathway plays a key role in the regulation of binary decisions during development. During this process different sets of target genes are activated in cells where the Wnt pathway is active (classic target genes) versus cells where the pathway is inactive (opposite target genes). While the mechanism of transcriptional activation is well understood for classic target genes, how opposite target genes are activated in the absence of Wnt remains poorly characterized. Here we discuss how the key transcriptional mediator of the Wnt pathway, the TCF family member POP-1, regulates opposite target genes during C. elegans development. We examine recent findings suggesting that the direction of the transcriptional output (activation or repression) can be determined by the way TCF is recruited and physically interacts with its target gene. PMID:27123368

  13. Chronic chemotherapeutic stress promotes evolution of stemness and WNT/beta-catenin signaling in colorectal cancer cells: implications for clinical use of WNT-signaling inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ayadi, Meriam; Bouygues, Anaïs; Ouaret, Djamila; Ferrand, Nathalie; Chouaib, Salem; Thiery, Jean-Paul; Muchardt, Christian; Sabbah, Michèle; Larsen, Annette K

    2015-01-01

    Most solid tumors contain a subfraction of cells with stem/progenitor cell features. Stem cells are naturally chemoresistant suggesting that chronic chemotherapeutic stress may select for cells with increased “stemness”. We carried out a comprehensive molecular and functional analysis of six independently selected colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines with acquired resistance to three different chemotherapeutic agents derived from two distinct parental cell lines. Chronic drug exposure resulted in complex alterations of stem cell markers that could be classified into three categories: 1) one cell line, HT-29/5-FU, showed increased “stemness” and WNT-signaling, 2) three cell lines showed decreased expression of stem cell markers, decreased aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, attenuated WNT-signaling and lost the capacity to form colonospheres and 3) two cell lines displayed prominent expression of ABC transporters with a heterogeneous response for stem cell markers. While WNT-signaling could be attenuated in the HT-29/5-FU cells by the WNT-signaling inhibitors ICG-001 and PKF-118, this was not accompanied by any selective growth inhibitory effect suggesting that the cytotoxic activity of these compounds is not directly linked to WNT-signaling inhibition. We conclude that classical WNT-signaling inhibitors have toxic off-target activities that need to be addressed for clinical development. PMID:26041882

  14. Chronic chemotherapeutic stress promotes evolution of stemness and WNT/beta-catenin signaling in colorectal cancer cells: implications for clinical use of WNT-signaling inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ayadi, Meriam; Bouygues, Anaïs; Ouaret, Djamila; Ferrand, Nathalie; Chouaib, Salem; Thiery, Jean-Paul; Muchardt, Christian; Sabbah, Michèle; Larsen, Annette K

    2015-07-30

    Most solid tumors contain a subfraction of cells with stem/progenitor cell features. Stem cells are naturally chemoresistant suggesting that chronic chemotherapeutic stress may select for cells with increased "stemness". We carried out a comprehensive molecular and functional analysis of six independently selected colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines with acquired resistance to three different chemotherapeutic agents derived from two distinct parental cell lines. Chronic drug exposure resulted in complex alterations of stem cell markers that could be classified into three categories: 1) one cell line, HT-29/5-FU, showed increased "stemness" and WNT-signaling, 2) three cell lines showed decreased expression of stem cell markers, decreased aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, attenuated WNT-signaling and lost the capacity to form colonospheres and 3) two cell lines displayed prominent expression of ABC transporters with a heterogeneous response for stem cell markers. While WNT-signaling could be attenuated in the HT-29/5-FU cells by the WNT-signaling inhibitors ICG-001 and PKF-118, this was not accompanied by any selective growth inhibitory effect suggesting that the cytotoxic activity of these compounds is not directly linked to WNT-signaling inhibition. We conclude that classical WNT-signaling inhibitors have toxic off-target activities that need to be addressed for clinical development. PMID:26041882

  15. RHOA inactivation enhances Wnt signaling and promotes colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Paulo; Macaya, Irati; Bazzocco, Sarah; Mazzolini, Rocco; Andretta, Elena; Dopeso, Higinio; Mateo-Lozano, Silvia; Bilić, Josipa; Cartón-García, Fernando; Nieto, Rocio; Suárez-López, Lucia; Afonso, Elsa; Landolfi, Stefania; Hernandez-Losa, Javier; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Cajal, Santiago Ramón y; Tabernero, Josep; Tebbutt, Niall C.; Mariadason, John M.; Schwartz, Simo; Arango, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the small GTPase RHOA has strong oncogenic effects in many tumor types, although its role in colorectal cancer remains unclear. Here we show that RHOA inactivation contributes to colorectal cancer progression/metastasis, largely through the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. RhoA inactivation in the murine intestine accelerates the tumorigenic process and in human colon cancer cells leads to the redistribution of β-catenin from the membrane to the nucleus and enhanced Wnt/β-catenin signaling, resulting in increased proliferation, invasion and de-differentiation. In mice, RHOA inactivation contributes to colon cancer metastasis and reduced RHOA levels were observed at metastatic sites compared to primary human colon tumors. Therefore, we have identified a new mechanism of activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and characterized the role of RHOA as a novel tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer. These results constitute a shift from the current paradigm and demonstrate that RHO GTPases can suppress tumor progression and metastasis. PMID:25413277

  16. Fluorescence-based gene reporter plasmid to track canonical Wnt signaling in ENS inflammation.

    PubMed

    Di Liddo, Rosa; Bertalot, Thomas; Schuster, Anne; Schrenk, Sandra; Müller, Oliver; Apfel, Johanna; Reischmann, Patricia; Rajendran, Senthilkumar; Sfriso, Riccardo; Gasparella, Marco; Parnigotto, Pier Paolo; Conconi, Maria Teresa; Schäfer, Karl Herbert

    2016-03-15

    In several gut inflammatory or cancer diseases, cell-cell interactions are compromised, and an increased cytoplasmic expression of β-catenin is observed. Over the last decade, numerous studies provided compelling experimental evidence that the loss of cadherin-mediated cell adhesion can promote β-catenin release and signaling without any specific activation of the canonical Wnt pathway. In the present work, we took advantage of the ability of lipofectamine-like reagent to cause a synchronous dissociation of adherent junctions in cells isolated from the rat enteric nervous system (ENS) for obtaining an in vitro model of deregulated β-catenin signaling. Under these experimental conditions, a green fluorescent protein Wnt reporter plasmid called ΔTop_EGFP3a was successfully tested to screen β-catenin stabilization at resting and primed conditions with exogenous Wnt3a or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ΔTop_EGFP3a provided a reliable and strong fluorescent signal that was easily measurable and at the same time highly sensitive to modulations of Wnt signaling following Wnt3a and LPS stimulation. The reporter gene was useful to demonstrate that Wnt3a exerts a protective activity in the ENS from overstimulated Wnt signaling by promoting a downregulation of the total β-catenin level. Based on this evidence, the use of ΔTop_EGFP3a reporter plasmid could represent a more reliable tool for the investigation of Wnt and cross-talking pathways in ENS inflammation. PMID:26767983

  17. Synergistic effects of Pten loss and WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway activation in ovarian granulosa cell tumor development and progression

    PubMed Central

    Laguë, Marie-Noëlle; Paquet, Marilène; Fan, Heng-Yu; Kaartinen, M. Johanna; Chu, Simon; Jamin, Soazik P.; Behringer, Richard R.; Fuller, Peter J.; Mitchell, Andrew; Doré, Monique; Huneault, Louis M.; Richards, JoAnne S.; Boerboom, Derek

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms of granulosa cell tumor (GCT) development may involve the dysregulation of signaling pathways downstream of follicle-stimulating hormone, including the phosphoinosite-3 kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. To test this hypothesis, a genetically engineered mouse model was created to derepress the PI3K/AKT pathway in granulosa cells by conditional targeting of the PI3K antagonist gene Pten (Ptenflox/flox;Amhr2cre/+). The majority of Ptenflox/flox;Amhr2cre/+ mice featured no ovarian anomalies, but occasionally (∼7%) developed aggressive, anaplastic GCT with pulmonary metastases. The expression of the PI3K/AKT downstream effector FOXO1 was abrogated in Ptenflox/flox;Amhr2cre/+ GCT, indicating a mechanism by which GCT cells may increase proliferation and evade apoptosis. To relate these findings to spontaneously occurring GCT, analyses of PTEN and phospho-AKT expression were performed on human and equine tumors. Although PTEN loss was not detected, many GCT (2/5 human, 7/17 equine) featured abnormal nuclear or perinuclear localization of phospho-AKT, suggestive of altered PI3K/AKT activity. As inappropriate activation of WNT/CTNNB1 signaling causes late-onset GCT development and cross talk between the PI3K/AKT and WNT/CTNNB1 pathways has been reported, we tested whether these pathways could synergize in GCT. Activation of both the PI3K/AKT and WNT/CTNNB1 pathways in the granulosa cells of a mouse model (Ptenflox/flox;Ctnnb1flox(ex3)/+;Amhr2cre/+) resulted in the development of GCT similar to those observed in Ptenflox/flox;Amhr2cre/+ mice, but with 100% penetrance, perinatal onset, extremely rapid growth and the ability to spread by seeding into the abdominal cavity. These data indicate a synergistic effect of dysregulated PI3K/AKT and WNT/CTNNB1 signaling in the development and progression of GCT and provide the first animal models for metastatic GCT. PMID:18687666

  18. Reciprocal requirements for Eda/Edar/NF-κB and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways in hair follicle induction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuhang; Tomann, Philip; Andl, Thomas; Gallant, Natalie M.; Huelsken, Joerg; Jerchow, Boris; Birchmeier, Walter; Paus, Ralf; Piccolo, Stefano; Mikkola, Marja L.; Morrisey, Edward E.; Overbeek, Paul A.; Scheidereit, Claus; Millar, Sarah E.; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Wnt/β-catenin and NF-κB signaling mechanisms provide central controls in development and disease, but how these pathways intersect is unclear. Using hair follicle induction as a model system, we show that patterning of dermal Wnt/β-catenin signaling requires epithelial β-catenin activity. We find that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is absolutely required for NF-κB activation, and that Edar is a direct Wnt target gene. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is initially activated independently of Eda/Edar/NF-κB activity in primary hair follicle primordia. However, Eda/Edar/NF-κB signaling is required to refine the pattern of Wnt/β-catenin activity, and to maintain this activity at later stages of placode development. We show that maintenance of localized expression of Wnt10b and Wnt10a requires NF-κB signaling, providing a molecular explanation for the latter observation, and identify Wnt10b as a direct NF-κB target. These data reveal a complex interplay and inter-dependence of Wnt/β-catenin and Eda/Edar/NF-κB signaling pathways in initiation and maintenance of primary hair follicle placodes. PMID:19619491

  19. Wnt signaling and colon tumorigenesis - A view from the periphery

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Antony W.; Faux, Maree C.; Layton, Meredith J.; Ramsay, Robert G.

    2011-11-15

    In this brief overview we discuss the association between Wnt signaling and colon cell biology and tumorigenesis. Our current understanding of the role of Apc in the {beta}-catenin destruction complex is compared with potential roles for Apc in cell adhesion and migration. The requirement for phosphorylation in the proteasomal-mediated degradation of {beta}-catenin is contrasted with roles for phospho-{beta}-catenin in the activation of transcription, cell adhesion and migration. The synergy between Myb and {beta}-catenin regulation of transcription in crypt stem cells during Wnt signaling is discussed. Finally, potential effects of growth factor regulatory systems, Apc or truncated-Apc on crypt morphogenesis, stem cell localization and crypt fission are considered.

  20. Wnt some lose some: transcriptional governance of stem cells by Wnt/β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Wen-Hui; Fuchs, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, Wnt/β-catenin signaling features prominently in stem cells and cancers, but how and for what purposes have been matters of much debate. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and its downstream transcriptional regulators in normal and malignant stem cells. We centered this review largely on three types of stem cells—embryonic stem cells, hair follicle stem cells, and intestinal epithelial stem cells—in which the roles of Wnt/β-catenin have been extensively studied. Using these models, we unravel how many controversial issues surrounding Wnt signaling have been resolved by dissecting the diversity of its downstream circuitry and effectors, often leading to opposite outcomes of Wnt/β-catenin-mediated regulation and differences rooted in stage- and context-dependent effects. PMID:25030692

  1. The canonical Wnt signaling activator, R-spondin2, regulates craniofacial patterning and morphogenesis within the branchial arch through ectodermal-mesenchymal interaction

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yong-Ri; Turcotte, Taryn J.; Crocker, Alison L.; Han, Xiang Hua; Yoon, Jeong Kyo

    2011-01-01

    R-spondins are a recently characterized family of secreted proteins that activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Herein, we determine R-spondin2 (Rspo2) function in craniofacial development in mice. Mice lacking a functional Rspo2 gene exhibit craniofacial abnormalities such as mandibular hypoplasia, maxillary and mandibular skeletal deformation, and cleft palate. We found that loss of the mouse Rspo2 gene significantly disrupted Wnt/β-catenin signaling and gene expression within the first branchial arch (BA1). Rspo2, which is normally expressed in BA1 mesenchymal cells, regulates gene expression through a unique ectoderm-mesenchyme interaction loop. The Rspo2 protein, potentially in combination with ectoderm-derived Wnt ligands, up-regulates Msx1 and Msx2 expression within mesenchymal cells. In contrast, Rspo2 regulates expression of the Dlx5, Dlx6, and Hand2 genes in mesenchymal cells via inducing expression of their upstream activator, Endothelin1 (Edn1), within ectodermal cells. Loss of Rspo2 also causes increased cell apoptosis, especially within the aboral (or caudal) domain of the BA1, resulting in hypoplasia of the BA1. Severely reduced expression of Fgf8, a survival factor for mesenchymal cells, in the ectoderm of Rspo2−/− embryos is likely responsible for increased cell apoptosis. Additionally, we found that cleft palate in Rspo2−/− mice is not associated with defects intrinsic to the palatal shelves. A possible cause of cleft palate is a delay of proper palatal shelf elevation that may result from the small mandible and a failure of lowering the tongue. Thus, our study identifies Rspo2 as a mesenchyme-derived factor that plays critical roles in regulating BA1 patterning and morphogenesis through ectodermal-mesenchymal interaction and a novel genetic factor for cleft palate. PMID:21237142

  2. Experimental myocardial infarction triggers canonical Wnt signaling and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Aisagbonhi, Omonigho; Rai, Meena; Ryzhov, Sergey; Atria, Nick; Feoktistov, Igor; Hatzopoulos, Antonis K.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite available therapies, myocardial infarction (MI) remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate cardiac repair should help to improve the clinical outcome of MI patients. Using the reporter mouse line TOPGAL, we show that canonical (β-catenin-dependent) Wnt signaling is induced 4 days after experimental MI in subepicardial endothelial cells and perivascular smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive (SMA+) cells. At 1 week after ischemic injury, a large number of canonical-Wnt-positive cells accumulated in the infarct area during granulation tissue formation. Coincidently with canonical Wnt activation, endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) was also triggered after MI. Using cell lineage tracing, we show that a significant portion of the canonical-Wnt-marked SMA+ mesenchymal cells is derived from endothelial cells. Canonical Wnt signaling induces mesenchymal characteristics in cultured endothelial cells, suggesting a direct role in EndMT. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that canonical Wnt activation and EndMT are molecular and cellular responses to MI and that canonical Wnt signaling activity is a characteristic property of EndMT-derived mesenchymal cells that take part in cardiac tissue repair after MI. These findings could lead to new strategies to improve the course of cardiac repair by temporal and cell-type-specific manipulation of canonical Wnt signaling. PMID:21324930

  3. Synaptic Wnt/GSK3β Signaling Hub in Autism.

    PubMed

    Caracci, Mario O; Ávila, Miguel E; De Ferrari, Giancarlo V

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of genes have been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and the interaction of weak and de novo variants derive from distinct autistic phenotypes thus making up the "spectrum." The convergence of these variants in networks of genes associated with synaptic function warrants the study of cell signaling pathways involved in the regulation of the synapse. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a central role in the development and regulation of the central nervous system and several genes belonging to the cascade have been genetically associated with ASDs. In the present paper, we review basic information regarding the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in excitatory/inhibitory balance (E/I balance) through the regulation of pre- and postsynaptic compartments. Furthermore, we integrate information supporting the role of the glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) in the onset/development of ASDs through direct modulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Finally, given GSK3β activity as key modulator of synaptic plasticity, we explore the potential of this kinase as a therapeutic target for ASD. PMID:26881141

  4. Synaptic Wnt/GSK3β Signaling Hub in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Caracci, Mario O.; Ávila, Miguel E.; De Ferrari, Giancarlo V.

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of genes have been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and the interaction of weak and de novo variants derive from distinct autistic phenotypes thus making up the “spectrum.” The convergence of these variants in networks of genes associated with synaptic function warrants the study of cell signaling pathways involved in the regulation of the synapse. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a central role in the development and regulation of the central nervous system and several genes belonging to the cascade have been genetically associated with ASDs. In the present paper, we review basic information regarding the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in excitatory/inhibitory balance (E/I balance) through the regulation of pre- and postsynaptic compartments. Furthermore, we integrate information supporting the role of the glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) in the onset/development of ASDs through direct modulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Finally, given GSK3β activity as key modulator of synaptic plasticity, we explore the potential of this kinase as a therapeutic target for ASD. PMID:26881141

  5. Emerging Role and Therapeutic Implication of Wnt Signaling Pathways in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Juan; Chi, Shuhong; Xue, Jing; Yang, Jiali; Li, Feng; Liu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway plays a key role in many biological aspects, such as cellular proliferation, tissue regeneration, embryonic development, and other systemic effects. Under a physiological condition, it is tightly controlled at different layers and arrays, and a dysregulated activation of this signaling has been implicated into the pathogenesis of various human disorders, including autoimmune diseases. Despite the fact that therapeutic interventions are available for ameliorating disease manifestations, there is no curative therapy currently available for autoimmune disorders. Increasing lines of evidence have suggested a crucial role of Wnt signaling during the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases; in addition, some of microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small, noncoding RNA molecules capable of transcriptionally regulating gene expression, have also recently been demonstrated to possess both physiological and pathological roles in autoimmune diseases by regulating the Wnt signaling pathway. This review summarizes currently our understanding of the pathogenic roles of Wnt signaling in several major autoimmune disorders and miRNAs, those targeting Wnt signaling in autoimmune diseases, with a focus on the implication of the Wnt signaling as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in immune diseases, as well as miRNA-mediated regulation of Wnt signaling activation in the development of autoimmune diseases. PMID:27110577

  6. Wnt Signaling in Cartilage Development and Diseases: Lessons from Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Usami, Yu; Gunawardena, Aruni T.; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    Cartilage not only plays essential roles in skeletal development and growth during pre-and post-natal stages but also serves to provide smooth movement of skeletons throughout life. Thus dysfunction of cartilage causes a variety of skeletal disorders. Results from animal studies reveal that β-catenin-dependent canonical and independent non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways have multiple roles in regulation of cartilage development, growth and maintenance. β-catenin-dependent signaling is required for progression of endochondral ossification and growth of axial and appendicular skeletons while excessive activation of this signaling can cause severe inhibition of initial cartilage formation and growth plate organization and function in mice. In contrast, non-canonical Wnt signaling is important in columnar organization of growth plate chondrocytes. Manipulation of Wnt signaling causes or ameliorates articular cartilage degeneration in rodent osteoarthritis models. Human genetic studies indicate that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a risk factor for osteoarthritis. Accumulative findings from analysis of expression of Wnt signaling molecules and in vivo and in vitro functional experiments suggest that Wnt signaling is a therapeutic target for osteoarthritis. The target tissues of Wnt signaling may be not only articular cartilage but also synovium and subchondral bone. PMID:26641070

  7. Early Stages of Zebrafish Eye Formation Require the Coordinated Activity of Wnt11, Fz5, and the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cavodeassi, Florencia; Carreira-Barbosa, Filipa; Young, Rodrigo M.; Concha, Miguel L.; Allende, Miguel L.; Houart, Corinne; Tada, Masazumi; Wilson, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    Summary During regional patterning of the anterior neural plate, a medially positioned domain of cells is specified to adopt retinal identity. These eye field cells remain coherent as they undergo morphogenetic events distinct from other prospective forebrain domains. We show that two branches of the Wnt signaling pathway coordinate cell fate determination with cell behavior during eye field formation. Wnt/β-catenin signaling antagonizes eye specification through the activity of Wnt8b and Fz8a. In contrast, Wnt11 and Fz5 promote eye field development, at least in part, through local antagonism of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Additionally, Wnt11 regulates the behavior of eye field cells, promoting their cohesion. Together, these results allow us to postulate a model in which Wnt11 and Fz5 signaling promotes early eye development through the coordinated antagonism of signals that suppress retinal identity and promotion of coherence of eye field cells. PMID:15996547

  8. Silica Nanoparticles Target a Wnt Signal Transducer for Degradation and Impair Embryonic Development in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hongyang; Wang, Zhuyao; Li, Xiaojiao; Yin, Min; Wang, Lihua; Aldalbahi, Ali; El-Sayed, Nahed Nasser; Wang, Hui; Chen, Nan; Fan, Chunhai; Song, Haiyun

    2016-01-01

    Many types of biocompatible nanomaterials have proven of low cytotoxicity and hold great promise for various applications in nanomedicine. Whereas they generally do not cause apparent organ toxicity or tissue damage in adult animals, it is yet to determine their biological consequences in more general contexts. In this study, we investigate how silica nanoparticles (NPs) affect cellular activities and functions under several physiological or pathological conditions. Although silica NPs are generally regarded as "inert" nanocarriers and widely employed in biomedical studies, we find that they actively affect Wnt signaling in various types of cell lines, diminishing its anti-adipogenic effect in preadipocytes and pro-invasive effect in breast cancer cells, and more significantly, impair Wnt-regulated embryonic development in Zebrafish. We further demonstrate that intracellular silica NPs block Wnt signal transduction in a way resembling signaling molecules. Specifically, silica NPs target the Dvl protein, a key component of Wnt signaling cascade, for lysosomal degradation. As Wnt signaling play significant roles in embryonic development and adipogenesis, the observed physiological effects beyond toxicity imply potential risk of obesity, or developmental defects in somitogenesis and osteogenesis upon exposure to silica NPs. In addition, given the clinical implications of Wnt signaling in tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis, our work also establishes for the first time a molecular link between nanomaterials and the Wnt signaling pathway, which opens new door for novel applications of unmodified silica NPs in targeted therapy for cancers and other critical illness. PMID:27570552

  9. Silica Nanoparticles Target a Wnt Signal Transducer for Degradation and Impair Embryonic Development in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hongyang; Wang, Zhuyao; Li, Xiaojiao; Yin, Min; Wang, Lihua; Aldalbahi, Ali; El-Sayed, Nahed Nasser; Wang, Hui; Chen, Nan; Fan, Chunhai; Song, Haiyun

    2016-01-01

    Many types of biocompatible nanomaterials have proven of low cytotoxicity and hold great promise for various applications in nanomedicine. Whereas they generally do not cause apparent organ toxicity or tissue damage in adult animals, it is yet to determine their biological consequences in more general contexts. In this study, we investigate how silica nanoparticles (NPs) affect cellular activities and functions under several physiological or pathological conditions. Although silica NPs are generally regarded as “inert” nanocarriers and widely employed in biomedical studies, we find that they actively affect Wnt signaling in various types of cell lines, diminishing its anti-adipogenic effect in preadipocytes and pro-invasive effect in breast cancer cells, and more significantly, impair Wnt-regulated embryonic development in Zebrafish. We further demonstrate that intracellular silica NPs block Wnt signal transduction in a way resembling signaling molecules. Specifically, silica NPs target the Dvl protein, a key component of Wnt signaling cascade, for lysosomal degradation. As Wnt signaling play significant roles in embryonic development and adipogenesis, the observed physiological effects beyond toxicity imply potential risk of obesity, or developmental defects in somitogenesis and osteogenesis upon exposure to silica NPs. In addition, given the clinical implications of Wnt signaling in tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis, our work also establishes for the first time a molecular link between nanomaterials and the Wnt signaling pathway, which opens new door for novel applications of unmodified silica NPs in targeted therapy for cancers and other critical illness. PMID:27570552

  10. Cdo suppresses canonical Wnt signalling via interaction with Lrp6 thereby promoting neuronal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Myong-Ho; Ho, Seok-Man; Vuong, Tuan Anh; Jo, Shin-Bum; Liu, Guizhong; Aaronson, Stuart A.; Leem, Young-Eun; Kang, Jong-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Canonical Wnt signalling regulates expansion of neural progenitors and functions as a dorsalizing signal in the developing forebrain. In contrast, the multifunctional co-receptor Cdo promotes neuronal differentiation and is important for the function of the ventralizing signal, Shh. Here we show that Cdo negatively regulates Wnt signalling during neurogenesis. Wnt signalling is enhanced in Cdo-deficient cells, leading to impaired neuronal differentiation. The ectodomains of Cdo and Lrp6 interact via the Ig2 repeat of Cdo and the LDLR repeats of Lrp6, and the Cdo Ig2 repeat is necessary for Cdo-dependent Wnt inhibition. Furthermore, the Cdo-deficient dorsal forebrain displays stronger Wnt signalling activity, increased cell proliferation and enhanced expression of the dorsal markers and Wnt targets, Pax6, Gli3, Axin2. Therefore, in addition to promoting ventral central nervous system cell fates with Shh, Cdo promotes neuronal differentiation by suppression of Wnt signalling and provides a direct link between two major dorsoventral morphogenetic signalling pathways. PMID:25406935

  11. Monitoring Wnt Signaling in Zebrafish Using Fluorescent Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Facchinello, Nicola; Schiavone, Marco; Vettori, Andrea; Argenton, Francesco; Tiso, Natascia

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we are presenting methods to monitor and quantify in vivo canonical Wnt signaling activities at single-cell resolution in zebrafish. Our technology is based on artificial enhancers, obtained by polymerization of TCF binding elements, cloned upstream to ubiquitous or tissue-specific promoters. The different promoter/enhancer combinations are used to drive fluorescent protein reporter constructs integrated in the zebrafish germline by microinjection of fertilized zebrafish eggs. Fish with a single integration site are selected by Mendelian analysis of fluorescent carriers, and heterozygous offspring are used to monitor and quantify canonical Wnt activities. Open source public domain software such as ImageJ/Fiji is used to calculate the integrated densities in the region of interest and compare the effect of experimental conditions on control and treated animals. PMID:27590154

  12. Interleukin 6/Wnt interactions in rheumatoid arthritis: interleukin 6 inhibits Wnt signaling in synovial fibroblasts and osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Malysheva, Khrystyna; de Rooij, Karien; Löwik, Clemens W. G. M.; Baeten, Dominique L.; Rose-John, Stefan; Stoika, Rostyslav; Korchynskyi, Olexandr

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the impact of previously unrecognized negative interaction between the Wnt and interleukin (IL) 6 signaling pathways in skeletal tissues as a possible major mechanism leading to age- and inflammation-related destruction of bone and joints. Methods Luciferase reporter assays were performed to monitor Wnt pathway activation upon IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) treatment. Functional contribution of IL-6 and TNFα interaction to inhibition of bone formation was evaluated in vitro using small hairpin RNAs (shRNA) in mouse mesenchymal precursor cells (MPC) of C2C12 and KS483 lines induced to differentiate into osteoblasts by bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP). Results IL-6 inhibited the activation of Wnt signaling in primary human synoviocytes, and, together with TNFα and Dickkopf-1, inhibited the activation of Wnt response. ShRNA-mediated knockdown of IL-6 mRNA significantly increased early BMP2/7-induced osteogenesis and rescued it from the negative effect of TNFα in C2C12 cells, as well as intensified bone matrix mineralization in KS483 cells. Conclusion IL-6 is an important mediator in the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by TNFα, and knockdown of IL-6 partially rescues osteogenesis from the negative control of inflammation. The anti-osteoblastic effects of IL-6 are most likely mediated by its negative interaction with Wnt signaling pathway. PMID:27106351

  13. Retrograde signalling at the synapse: a role for Wnt proteins.

    PubMed

    Salinas, P C

    2005-12-01

    The formation of functional synapses requires a proper dialogue between incoming axons and their future synaptic targets. As axons approach their target, they are instructed to slow down and remodel to form proper presynaptic terminals. Although significant progress has been made in the identification of the mechanisms that control axon guidance, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate the conversion of actively growing axon into a presynaptic terminal. We found that Wnt secreted proteins are retrograde signals that regulate the terminal arborization of axons and synaptic differentiation. Wnts released from postsynaptic neurons induce extensive remodelling on incoming axons. This remodelling is manifested by a decrease in axon extension with a concomitant increase in growth-cone size. This morphological change is correlated with changes in the dynamics and organization of microtubules. Studies of a vertebrate synapse and the Drosophila neuromuscular junction suggest that a conserved Wnt signalling pathway modulates presynaptic microtubules as axons remodel during synapse formation. In this paper I discuss the role of the Wnt-Dvl (Dishevelled protein)-GSK-3beta (glycogen synthase kinase-3beta) signalling pathway in axon remodelling during synapse formation in the central nervous system. PMID:16246102

  14. Epidermal Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulates adipocyte differentiation via secretion of adipogenic factors

    PubMed Central

    Donati, Giacomo; Proserpio, Valentina; Lichtenberger, Beate Maria; Natsuga, Ken; Sinclair, Rodney; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Watt, Fiona M.

    2014-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the hair follicle growth cycle and oscillation in the thickness of the underlying adipocyte layer are synchronized. Although factors secreted by adipocytes are known to regulate the hair growth cycle, it is unclear whether the epidermis can regulate adipogenesis. We show that inhibition of epidermal Wnt/β-catenin signaling reduced adipocyte differentiation in developing and adult mouse dermis. Conversely, ectopic activation of epidermal Wnt signaling promoted adipocyte differentiation and hair growth. When the Wnt pathway was activated in the embryonic epidermis, there was a dramatic and premature increase in adipocytes in the absence of hair follicle formation, demonstrating that Wnt activation, rather than mature hair follicles, is required for adipocyte generation. Epidermal and dermal gene expression profiling identified keratinocyte-derived adipogenic factors that are induced by β-catenin activation. Wnt/β-catenin signaling-dependent secreted factors from keratinocytes promoted adipocyte differentiation in vitro, and we identified ligands for the bone morphogenetic protein and insulin pathways as proadipogenic factors. Our results indicate epidermal Wnt/β-catenin as a critical initiator of a signaling cascade that induces adipogenesis and highlight the role of epidermal Wnt signaling in synchronizing adipocyte differentiation with the hair growth cycle. PMID:24706781

  15. The SxxSS motif of T-cell factor-4 isoforms modulates Wnt/β-catenin signal activation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tomimaru, Yoshito; Koga, Hironori; Shin, Tai Ho; Xu, Chelsea Q; Wands, Jack R; Kim, Miran

    2013-08-19

    T-cell factor (TCF) proteins represent key transcription factors in Wnt signaling. We show that the SxxSS motif in TCF-4 regulates transcriptional activity in HCC cells. TCF-4K mutants increased transcriptional activity compared to TCF-4K (bearing the SxxSS); the binding pattern of co-factors in TCF-4K mutants was similar to that in TCF-4J (lacking the SxxSS). TCF activity in TCF-4K cells was suppressed by homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2), but not in TCF-4J cells. Together, our data indicates that the SxxSS motif in TCF-4K regulates transcriptional activity by modifying co-factors in the β-catenin/TCF-4 transcriptional complex and these events may be mediated through HIPK2. PMID:23562475

  16. Human urine-derived stem cells can be induced into osteogenic lineage by silicate bioceramics via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Guan, Junjie; Zhang, Jieyuan; Guo, Shangchun; Zhu, Hongyi; Zhu, Zhenzhong; Li, Haiyan; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Changqing; Chang, Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Human urine-derived stem cells (USCs) have great application potential for cytotherapy as they can be obtained by non-invasive and simple methods. Silicate bioceramics, including calcium silicate (CS), can stimulate osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. However, the effects of silicate bioceramics on osteogenic differentiation of USCs have not been reported. In this study, at first, we investigated the effects of CS ion extracts on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of USCs, as well as the related mechanism. CS particles were incorporated into poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) to obtain PLGA/CS composite scaffolds. USCs were then seeded onto these scaffolds, which were subsequently transplanted into nude mice to analyze the osteogenic differentiation of USCs and mineralization of extracellular matrix formed by USCs in vivo. The results showed that CS ion extracts significantly enhanced cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and expression of certain osteoblast-related genes and proteins. In addition, cardamonin, a Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibitor, reduced the stimulatory effects of CS ion extracts on osteogenic differentiation of USCs, indicating that the observed osteogenic differentiation of USCs induced by CS ion extracts involves Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Furthermore, histological analysis showed that PLGA/CS composite scaffolds significantly enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of USCs in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest the therapeutic potential of combining USCs and PLGA/CS scaffolds in bone tissue regeneration. PMID:25934447

  17. Surface topography regulates wnt signaling through control of primary cilia structure in mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurray, R. J.; Wann, A. K. T.; Thompson, C. L.; Connelly, J. T.; Knight, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    The primary cilium regulates cellular signalling including influencing wnt sensitivity by sequestering β-catenin within the ciliary compartment. Topographic regulation of intracellular actin-myosin tension can control stem cell fate of which wnt is an important mediator. We hypothesized that topography influences mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) wnt signaling through the regulation of primary cilia structure and function. MSCs cultured on grooves expressed elongated primary cilia, through reduced actin organization. siRNA inhibition of anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT88) reduced cilia length and increased active nuclear β-catenin. Conversely, increased primary cilia assembly in MSCs cultured on the grooves was associated with decreased levels of nuclear active β-catenin, axin-2 induction and proliferation, in response to wnt3a. This negative regulation, on grooved topography, was reversed by siRNA to IFT88. This indicates that subtle regulation of IFT and associated cilia structure, tunes the wnt response controlling stem cell differentiation.

  18. Self-association of the APC tumor suppressor is required for the assembly, stability, and activity of the Wnt signaling destruction complex.

    PubMed

    Kunttas-Tatli, Ezgi; Roberts, David M; McCartney, Brooke M

    2014-11-01

    The tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is an essential negative regulator of Wnt signaling through its activity in the destruction complex with Axin, GSK3β, and CK1 that targets β-catenin/Armadillo (β-cat/Arm) for proteosomal degradation. The destruction complex forms macromolecular particles we termed the destructosome. Whereas APC functions in the complex through its ability to bind both β-cat and Axin, we hypothesize that APC proteins play an additional role in destructosome assembly through self-association. Here we show that a novel N-terminal coil, the APC self-association domain (ASAD), found in vertebrate and invertebrate APCs, directly mediates self-association of Drosophila APC2 and plays an essential role in the assembly and stability of the destructosome that regulates β-cat degradation in Drosophila and human cells. Consistent with this, removal of the ASAD from the Drosophila embryo results in β-cat/Arm accumulation and aberrant Wnt pathway activation. These results suggest that APC proteins are required not only for the activity of the destructosome, but also for the assembly and stability of this macromolecular machine. PMID:25208568

  19. Wnt5a Suppresses β-catenin Signaling during Hair Follicle Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yizhan; Ma, Xiaogen; Guo, Haiying; Deng, Fang; Yang, Jin; Li, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicles display periodic growth. Wnt signaling is a critical regulator for hair follicle regeneration. Previously, we reported that Wnt5a inhibits the telogen-to-anagen transition of hair follicles, but the mechanism by which this process occurs has not yet been reported. Here, we determined the expression patterns of Wnt signaling pathway molecules by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunohistochemistry and found that β-catenin signaling was suppressed by Wnt5a. We then compared the phenotypes and expression patterns following β-catenin knockdown and Wnt5a overexpression during hair follicle regeneration induced by hair depilation and observed similar patterns. In addition, we performed a rescue experiment in the JB6 cell line and found that the inhibitory effect of Wnt5a on cell proliferation could be rescued by the addition of Wnt3a. Our data reveal that Wnt5a suppresses the activation of β-catenin signaling during hair follicle regeneration. PMID:27499692

  20. beta-Galactosidase enzyme fragment complementation for the measurement of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Verkaar, Folkert; Blankesteijn, W Matthijs; Smits, Jos F M; Zaman, Guido J R

    2010-04-01

    Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is an important regulator of cell polarity, proliferation, and stem cell maintenance during development and adulthood. Wnt proteins induce the nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin, which regulates the expression of Wnt-responsive genes through association with TCF/LEF transcription factors. Aberrant Wnt/beta-catenin signaling has been implicated in a plethora of pathologies and, most notably, underlies initiation and expansion of several cancers. Here, we apply enzyme fragment complementation to measure the nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin. beta-Catenin was tagged with a peptide fragment of beta-galactosidase and transfected into cells expressing a corresponding deletion mutant of the enzyme exclusively in the nucleus. Stimulation of the cells with recombinant Wnt-3a restored beta-galactosidase activity in a dose-dependent manner with nanomolar potency. Using the assay, we confirmed that Wnt-5a represses beta-catenin-driven reporter gene activity downstream of nuclear entry of beta-catenin. In addition, we tested a library of >2000 synthetic chemical compounds for their ability to induce beta-catenin nuclear accumulation. The immunosuppressive protein kinase C inhibitor sotrastaurin (AEB-071) was identified as an activator of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling at micromolar concentrations. It was confirmed that the compound stabilizes endogenous beta-catenin protein and can induce TCF/LEF-dependent gene transcription. Subsequent biochemical profiling of >200 kinases revealed both isoforms of glycogen synthase kinase 3, as previously unappreciated targets of sotrastaurin. We show that the beta-catenin nuclear accumulation assay contributes to our knowledge of molecular interactions within the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and can be used to find new therapeutics targeting Wnt/beta-catenin signaling.-Verkaar, F., Blankesteijn, W. M., Smits, J. F. M., Zaman, G. J. R. beta-Galactosidase enzyme fragment complementation for the measurement of Wnt

  1. Role of Wnt and Notch signaling in regulating hair cell regeneration in the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Muhammad; Zhang, Shasha; He, Zuhong; Tang, Mingliang; Chai, Renjie

    2016-09-01

    Sensory hair cells in the inner ear are responsible for sound recognition. Damage to hair cells in adult mammals causes permanent hearing impairment because these cells cannot regenerate. By contrast, newborn mammals possess limited regenerative capacity because of the active participation of various signaling pathways, including Wnt and Notch signaling. The Wnt and Notch pathways are highly sophisticated and conserved signaling pathways that control multiple cellular events necessary for the formation of sensory hair cells. Both signaling pathways allow resident supporting cells to regenerate hair cells in the neonatal cochlea. In this regard, Wnt and Notch signaling has gained increased research attention in hair cell regeneration. This review presents the current understanding of the Wnt and Notch signaling pathways in the auditory portion of the inner ear and discusses the possibilities of controlling these pathways with the hair cell fate determiner Atoh1 to regulate hair cell regeneration in the mammalian cochlea. PMID:27527363

  2. Curcumin Rescues Diabetic Renal Fibrosis by Targeting Superoxide-Mediated Wnt Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Ho, Cheng; Hsu, Yung-Chien; Lei, Chen-Chou; Mau, Shu-Ching; Shih, Ya-Hsueh; Lin, Chun-Liang

    2016-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate whether curcumin can weaken diabetic nephropathy by modulating both oxidative stress and renal injury from Wnt signaling mediation. Wnt5a/β-catenin depression and induction of superoxide synthesis are associated with high glucose (HG) induced transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and fibronectin expression in mesangial cells. Curcumin resumes HG depression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and alleviates HG induction of superoxide, TGF-β1 and fibronectin expression in renal mesangial cell. Exogenous curcumin alleviated urinary total proteinuria and serum superoxide level in diabetic rats. Based on laser-captured microdissection for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, it was found that diabetes significantly increased TGF-β1 and fibronectin expression in line with depressed Wnt5a expression. Curcumin treatment reduced the TGF-β1 and fibronectin activation and the inhibiting effect of diabetes on Wnt5a/β-catenin expression in renal glomeruli. Immunohistochemistry showed that curcumin treatment significantly reduced 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, TGF-β1 and fibronectin, and was in line with the restoration of the suppressed Wnt5a expression immunoreactivities in glomeruli of diabetic rats. Curcumin alleviated extracellular matrix accumulation in diabetic nephropathy by not only preventing the diabetes-mediated superoxide synthesis but also resuming downregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. These findings suggest that regulation of Wnt activity by curcumin is a feasible alternative strategy to rescue diabetic renal injury. PMID:26992258

  3. Wnt signaling induces gene expression of factors associated with bone destruction in lung and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rachelle W; Merkel, Alyssa R; Page, Jonathan M; Ruppender, Nazanin S; Guelcher, Scott A; Sterling, Julie A

    2014-12-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is an important regulator of bone destruction in bone metastatic tumors. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) stimulates PTHrP production in part through the transcription factor Gli2, which is regulated independent of the Hedgehog signaling pathway in osteolytic cancer cells. However, inhibition of TGF-β in vivo does not fully inhibit tumor growth in bone or tumor-induced bone destruction, suggesting other pathways are involved. While Wnt signaling regulates Gli2 in development, the role of Wnt signaling in bone metastasis is unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether Wnt signaling regulates Gli2 expression in tumor cells that induce bone destruction. We report here that Wnt activation by β-catenin/T cell factor 4 (TCF4) over-expression or lithium chloride (LiCl) treatment increased Gli2 and PTHrP expression in osteolytic cancer cells. This was mediated through the TCF and Smad binding sites within the Gli2 promoter as determined by promoter mutation studies, suggesting cross-talk between TGF-β and Wnt signaling. Culture of tumor cells on substrates with bone-like rigidity increased Gli2 and PTHrP production, enhanced autocrine Wnt activity and led to an increase in the TCF/Wnt signaling reporter (TOPFlash), enriched β-catenin nuclear accumulation, and elevated Wnt-related genes by PCR-array. Stromal cells serve as an additional paracrine source of Wnt ligands and enhanced Gli2 and PTHrP mRNA levels in MDA-MB-231 and RWGT2 cells in vitro and promoted tumor-induced bone destruction in vivo in a β-catenin/Wnt3a-dependent mechanism. These data indicate that a combination of matrix rigidity and stromal-secreted factors stimulate Gli2 and PTHrP through Wnt signaling in osteolytic breast cancer cells, and there is significant cross-talk between the Wnt and TGF-β signaling pathways. This suggests that the Wnt signaling pathway may be a potential therapeutic target for inhibiting tumor cell response to the bone

  4. Wnt signaling induces gene expression of factors associated with bone destruction in lung and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Rachelle W.; Merkel, Alyssa R.; Page, Jonathan M.; Ruppender, Nazanin S.; Guelcher, Scott A.; Sterling, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is an important regulator of bone destruction in bone metastatic tumors. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) stimulates PTHrP production in part through the transcription factor Gli2, which is regulated independent of the Hedgehog signaling pathway in osteolytic cancer cells. However, inhibition of TGF-β in vivo does not fully inhibit tumor growth in bone or tumor-induced bone destruction, suggesting other pathways are involved. While Wnt signaling regulates Gli2 in development, the role of Wnt signaling in bone metastasis is unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether Wnt signaling regulates Gli2 expression in tumor cells that induce bone destruction. We report here that Wnt activation by β-catenin/T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) over-expression or lithium chloride (LiCl) treatment increased Gli2 and PTHrP expression in osteolytic cancer cells. This was mediated through the TCF and Smad binding sites within the Gli2 promoter as determined by promoter mutation studies, suggesting cross-talk between TGF-β and Wnt signaling. Culture of tumor cells on substrates with bone-like rigidity increased Gli2 and PTHrP production, enhanced autocrine Wnt activity and led to an increase in the TCF/Wnt signaling reporter (TOPFlash), enriched β-catenin nuclear accumulation, and elevated Wnt-related genes by PCR-array. Stromal cells serve as an additional paracrine source of Wnt ligands and enhanced Gli2 and PTHrP mRNA levels in MDA-MB-231 and RWGT2 cells in vitro and promoted tumor-induced bone destruction in vivo in a β-catenin/Wnt3a-dependent mechanism. These data indicate that a combination of matrix rigidity and stromal-secreted factors stimulate Gli2 and PTHrP through Wnt signaling in osteolytic breast cancer cells, and there is significant cross-talk between the Wnt and TGF-β signaling pathways. This suggests that the Wnt signaling pathway may be a potential therapeutic target for inhibiting tumor cell response to the bone

  5. The Wnt pathway limits BMP signaling outside of the germline stem cell niche in Drosophila ovaries.

    PubMed

    Mottier-Pavie, Violaine I; Palacios, Victor; Eliazer, Susan; Scoggin, Shane; Buszczak, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The mechanisms that modulate and limit the signaling output of adult stem cell niches remain poorly understood. To gain further insights into how these microenvironments are regulated in vivo, we performed a candidate gene screen designed to identify factors that restrict BMP signal production to the cap cells that comprise the germline stem cell (GSC) niche of Drosophila ovaries. Through these efforts, we found that disruption of Wnt4 and components of the canonical Wnt pathway results in a complex germ cell phenotype marked by an expansion of GSC-like cells, pre-cystoblasts and cystoblasts in young females. This phenotype correlates with an increase of decapentaplegic (dpp) mRNA levels within escort cells and varying levels of BMP responsiveness in the germline. Further genetic experiments show that Wnt4, which exhibits graded expression in somatic cells of germaria, activates the Wnt pathway in posteriorly positioned escort cells. The activation of the Wnt pathway appears to be limited by the BMP pathway itself, as loss of Mad in escort cells results in the expansion of Wnt pathway activation. Wnt pathway activity changes within germaria during the course of aging, coincident with changes in dpp production. These data suggest that mutual antagonism between the BMP and Wnt pathways in somatic cells helps to regulate germ cell differentiation. PMID:27364467

  6. Wnt signalling induces accumulation of phosphorylated β-catenin in two distinct cytosolic complexes.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Jan P; Emmink, Benjamin L; Nojima, Hisashi; Kranenburg, Onno; Maurice, Madelon M

    2014-11-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signalling controls development and adult tissue homeostasis and causes cancer when inappropriately activated. In unstimulated cells, an Axin1-centred multi-protein complex phosphorylates the transcriptional co-activator β-catenin, marking it for degradation. Wnt signalling antagonizes β-catenin proteolysis, leading to its accumulation and target gene expression. How Wnt stimulation alters the size distribution, composition and activity of endogenous Axin1 complexes remains poorly understood. Here, we employed two-dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE to analyse endogenous Axin1 and β-catenin complexes during Wnt signalling. We show that the size range of Axin1 complexes is conserved between species and remains largely unaffected by Wnt stimulation. We detect a striking Wnt-dependent, cytosolic accumulation of both non-phosphorylated and phosphorylated β-catenin within a 450 kDa Axin1-based complex and in a distinct, Axin1-free complex of 200 kDa. These results argue that during Wnt stimulation, phosphorylated β-catenin is released from the Axin1 complex but fails to undergo immediate degradation. Importantly, in APC-mutant cancer cells, the distribution of Axin1 and β-catenin complexes strongly resembles that of Wnt-stimulated cells. Our findings argue that Wnt signals and APC mutations interfere with the turnover of phosphorylated β-catenin. Furthermore, our results suggest that the accumulation of small-sized β-catenin complexes may serve as an indicator of Wnt pathway activity in primary cancer cells. PMID:25392450

  7. Wnt pathway in Dupuytren disease: connecting profibrotic signals.

    PubMed

    van Beuge, Marike M; Ten Dam, Evert-Jan P M; Werker, Paul M N; Bank, Ruud A

    2015-12-01

    A role of Wnt signaling in Dupuytren disease, a fibroproliferative disease of the hand and fingers, has not been fully elucidated. We examined a large set of Wnt pathway components and signaling targets and found significant dysregulation of 41 Wnt-related genes in tissue from the Dupuytren nodules compared with patient-matched control tissue. A large proportion of genes coding for Wnt proteins themselves was downregulated. However, both canonical Wnt targets and components of the noncanonical signaling pathway were upregulated. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that protein expression of Wnt1-inducible secreted protein 1 (WISP1), a known Wnt target, was increased in nodules compared with control tissue, but knockdown of WISP1 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in the Dupuytren myofibroblasts did not confirm a functional role. The protein expression of noncanonical pathway components Wnt5A and VANGL2 as well as noncanonical coreceptors Ror2 and Ryk was increased in nodules. On the contrary, the strongest downregulated genes in this study were 4 antagonists of Wnt signaling (DKK1, FRZB, SFRP1, and WIF1). Downregulation of these genes in the Dupuytren tissue was mimicked in vitro by treating normal fibroblasts with transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), suggesting cross talk between different profibrotic pathways. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of these antagonists in normal fibroblasts led to increased nuclear translocation of Wnt target β-catenin in response to TGF-β1 treatment. In conclusion, we have shown extensive dysregulation of Wnt signaling in affected tissue from Dupuytren disease patients. Components of both the canonical and the noncanonical pathways are upregulated, whereas endogenous antagonists are downregulated, possibly via interaction with other profibrotic pathways. PMID:26470681

  8. TGF-β-induced profibrotic signaling is regulated in part by the WNT receptor Frizzled-8.

    PubMed

    Spanjer, Anita I R; Baarsma, Hoeke A; Oostenbrink, Lisette M; Jansen, Sepp R; Kuipers, Christine C; Lindner, Michael; Postma, Dirkje S; Meurs, Herman; Heijink, Irene H; Gosens, Reinoud; Königshoff, Melanie

    2016-05-01

    TGF-β is important in lung injury and remodeling processes. TGF-β and Wingless/integrase-1 (WNT) signaling are interconnected; however, the WNT ligand-receptor complexes involved are unknown. Thus, we aimed to identify Frizzled (FZD) receptors that mediate TGF-β-induced profibrotic signaling. MRC-5 and primary human lung fibroblasts were stimulated with TGF-β1, WNT-5A, or WNT-5B in the presence and absence of specific pathway inhibitors. Specific small interfering RNA was used to knock down FZD8. In vivo studies using bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis were performed in wild-type and FZD8-deficient mice. TGF-β1 induced FZD8 specifically via Smad3-dependent signaling in MRC-5 and primary human lung fibroblasts. It is noteworthy that FZD8 knockdown reduced TGF-β1-induced collagen Iα1, fibronectin, versican, α-smooth muscle (sm)-actin, and connective tissue growth factor. Moreover, bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis was attenuated in FZD8-deficient mice in vivo Although inhibition of canonical WNT signaling did not affect TGF-β1-induced gene expression in vitro, noncanonical WNT-5B mimicked TGF-β1-induced fibroblast activation. FZD8 knockdown reduced both WNT-5B-induced gene expression of fibronectin and α-sm-actin, as well as WNT-5B-induced changes in cellular impedance. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a role for FZD8 in TGF-β-induced profibrotic signaling and imply that WNT-5B may be the ligand for FZD8 in these responses.-Spanjer, A. I. R., Baarsma, H. A., Oostenbrink, L. M., Jansen, S. R., Kuipers, C. C., Lindner, M., Postma, D. S., Meurs, H., Heijink, I. H., Gosens, R., Königshoff, M. TGF-β-induced profibrotic signaling is regulated in part by the WNT receptor Frizzled-8. PMID:26849959

  9. Ehrlichia chaffeensis Exploits Canonical and Noncanonical Host Wnt Signaling Pathways To Stimulate Phagocytosis and Promote Intracellular Survival

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Tian; Dunphy, Paige S.; Lina, Taslima T.

    2015-01-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis invades and survives in phagocytes by modulating host cell processes and evading innate defenses, but the mechanisms are not fully defined. Recently we have determined that E. chaffeensis tandem repeat proteins (TRPs) are type 1 secreted effectors involved in functionally diverse interactions with host targets, including components of the evolutionarily conserved Wnt signaling pathways. In this study, we demonstrated that induction of host canonical and noncanonical Wnt pathways by E. chaffeensis TRP effectors stimulates phagocytosis and promotes intracellular survival. After E. chaffeensis infection, canonical and noncanonical Wnt signalings were significantly stimulated during early stages of infection (1 to 3 h) which coincided with dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of β-catenin, a major canonical Wnt signal transducer, and NFATC1, a noncanonical Wnt transcription factor. In total, the expression of ∼44% of Wnt signaling target genes was altered during infection. Knockdown of TRP120-interacting Wnt pathway components/regulators and other critical components, such as Wnt5a ligand, Frizzled 5 receptor, β-catenin, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and major signaling molecules, resulted in significant reductions in the ehrlichial load. Moreover, small-molecule inhibitors specific for components of canonical and noncanonical (Ca2+ and planar cell polarity [PCP]) Wnt pathways, including IWP-2, which blocks Wnt secretion, significantly decreased ehrlichial infection. TRPs directly activated Wnt signaling, as TRP-coated microspheres triggered phagocytosis which was blocked by Wnt pathway inhibitors, demonstrating a key role of TRP activation of Wnt pathways to induce ehrlichial phagocytosis. These novel findings reveal that E. chaffeensis exploits canonical and noncanonical Wnt pathways through TRP effectors to facilitate host cell entry and promote intracellular survival. PMID:26712203

  10. Ehrlichia chaffeensis Exploits Canonical and Noncanonical Host Wnt Signaling Pathways To Stimulate Phagocytosis and Promote Intracellular Survival.

    PubMed

    Luo, Tian; Dunphy, Paige S; Lina, Taslima T; McBride, Jere W

    2016-03-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis invades and survives in phagocytes by modulating host cell processes and evading innate defenses, but the mechanisms are not fully defined. Recently we have determined that E. chaffeensis tandem repeat proteins (TRPs) are type 1 secreted effectors involved in functionally diverse interactions with host targets, including components of the evolutionarily conserved Wnt signaling pathways. In this study, we demonstrated that induction of host canonical and noncanonical Wnt pathways by E. chaffeensis TRP effectors stimulates phagocytosis and promotes intracellular survival. After E. chaffeensis infection, canonical and noncanonical Wnt signalings were significantly stimulated during early stages of infection (1 to 3 h) which coincided with dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of β-catenin, a major canonical Wnt signal transducer, and NFATC1, a noncanonical Wnt transcription factor. In total, the expression of ∼44% of Wnt signaling target genes was altered during infection. Knockdown of TRP120-interacting Wnt pathway components/regulators and other critical components, such as Wnt5a ligand, Frizzled 5 receptor, β-catenin, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and major signaling molecules, resulted in significant reductions in the ehrlichial load. Moreover, small-molecule inhibitors specific for components of canonical and noncanonical (Ca(2+) and planar cell polarity [PCP]) Wnt pathways, including IWP-2, which blocks Wnt secretion, significantly decreased ehrlichial infection. TRPs directly activated Wnt signaling, as TRP-coated microspheres triggered phagocytosis which was blocked by Wnt pathway inhibitors, demonstrating a key role of TRP activation of Wnt pathways to induce ehrlichial phagocytosis. These novel findings reveal that E. chaffeensis exploits canonical and noncanonical Wnt pathways through TRP effectors to facilitate host cell entry and promote intracellular survival. PMID:26712203

  11. Human placental trophoblast invasion and differentiation: a particular focus on Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Knöfler, Martin; Pollheimer, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Wingless ligands, a family of secreted proteins, are critically involved in organ development and tissue homeostasis by ensuring balanced rates of stem cell proliferation, cell death and differentiation. Wnt signaling components also play crucial roles in murine placental development controlling trophoblast lineage determination, chorioallantoic fusion and placental branching morphogenesis. However, the role of the pathway in human placentation, trophoblast development and differentiation is only partly understood. Here, we summarize our present knowledge about Wnt signaling in the human placenta and discuss its potential role in physiological and aberrant trophoblast invasion, gestational diseases and choriocarcinoma formation. Differentiation of proliferative first trimester cytotrophoblasts into invasive extravillous trophoblasts is associated with nuclear recruitment of β -catenin and induction of Wnt-dependent T-cell factor 4 suggesting that canonical Wnt signaling could be important for the formation and function of extravillous trophoblasts. Indeed, activation of the pathway was shown to promote trophoblast invasion in different in vitro trophoblast model systems as well as trophoblast cell fusion. Methylation-mediated silencing of inhibitors of Wnt signaling provided evidence for epigenetic activation of the pathway in placental tissues and choriocarcinoma cells. Similarly, abundant nuclear expression of β -catenin in invasive trophoblasts of complete hydatidiform moles suggested a role for hyper-activated Wnt signaling. In contrast, upregulation of Wnt inhibitors was noticed in placentae of women with preeclampsia, a disease characterized by shallow trophoblast invasion and incomplete spiral artery remodeling. Moreover, changes in Wnt signaling have been observed upon cytomegalovirus infection and in recurrent abortions. In summary, the current literature suggests a critical role of Wnt signaling in physiological and abnormal trophoblast function. PMID

  12. Postsynaptic Assembly: A Role for Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Stamatakou, Eleanna; Salinas, Patricia C

    2014-01-01

    Synapse formation requires the coordinated formation of the presynaptic terminal, containing the machinery for neurotransmitter release, and the postsynaptic side that possesses the machinery for neurotransmitter reception. For coordinated pre- and postsynaptic assembly signals across the synapse are required. Wnt secreted proteins are well-known synaptogenic factors that promote the recruitment of presynaptic components in diverse organisms. However, recent studies demonstrate that Wnts act directly onto the postsynaptic side at both central and peripheral synapses to promote postsynaptic development and synaptic strength. This review focuses on the role of Wnts in postsynaptic development at central synapses and the neuromuscular junction. © 2013 The Authors. Developmental Neurobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 74: 818–827, 2014 PMID:24105999

  13. Wnt signaling-mediated redox regulation maintains the germ line stem cell differentiation niche

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Su; Gao, Yuan; Song, Xiaoqing; Ma, Xing; Zhu, Xiujuan; Mao, Ying; Yang, Zhihao; Ni, Jianquan; Li, Hua; Malanowski, Kathryn E; Anoja, Perera; Park, Jungeun; Haug, Jeff; Xie, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Adult stem cells continuously undergo self-renewal and generate differentiated cells. In the Drosophila ovary, two separate niches control germ line stem cell (GSC) self-renewal and differentiation processes. Compared to the self-renewing niche, relatively little is known about the maintenance and function of the differentiation niche. In this study, we show that the cellular redox state regulated by Wnt signaling is critical for the maintenance and function of the differentiation niche to promote GSC progeny differentiation. Defective Wnt signaling causes the loss of the differentiation niche and the upregulated BMP signaling in differentiated GSC progeny, thereby disrupting germ cell differentiation. Mechanistically, Wnt signaling controls the expression of multiple glutathione-S-transferase family genes and the cellular redox state. Finally, Wnt2 and Wnt4 function redundantly to maintain active Wnt signaling in the differentiation niche. Therefore, this study has revealed a novel strategy for Wnt signaling in regulating the cellular redox state and maintaining the differentiation niche. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08174.001 PMID:26452202

  14. Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling changes C2C12 myoblast proliferation and differentiation by inducing Id3 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Long; Shi, Songting; Zhang, Juan; Zhou, Fangfang; Dijke, Peter ten

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of Id3 but not Id1 is induced by Wnt3a stimulation in C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt3a induces Id3 expression via canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt3a-induced Id3 expression does not depend on BMP signaling activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Induction of Id3 expression is critical determinant in Wnt3a-induced cell proliferation and differentiation. -- Abstract: Canonical Wnt signaling plays important roles in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we report that inhibitor of differentiation (Id)3 is a Wnt-inducible gene in mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Wnt3a induced Id3 expression in a {beta}-catenin-dependent manner. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) also potently induced Id3 expression. However, Wnt-induced Id3 expression occurred independent of the BMP/Smad pathway. Functional studies showed that Id3 depletion in C2C12 cells impaired Wnt3a-induced cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity, an early marker of osteoblast cells. Id3 depletion elevated myogenin induction during myogenic differentiation and partially impaired Wnt3a suppressed myogenin expression in C2C12 cells. These results suggest that Id3 is an important Wnt/{beta}-catenin induced gene in myoblast cell fate determination.

  15. NUMB is a break of WNT-Notch signaling cycle.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masuko; Katoh, Masaru

    2006-09-01

    Notch, FGF and WNT signaling pathways cross-talk during embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and carcinogenesis. Notch-ligand binding to Notch receptors leads to the cleavage of Notch receptors and the following nuclear translocation of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) to induce transcriptional activation of Notch target genes. Notch signaling inhibitors, NUMB and NUMB-like (NUMBL), are docking proteins with PTB domain. We searched for the TCF/LEF-binding site within the promoter region of NUMB and NUMBL genes. Because two TCF/LEF-binding sites were identified within human NUMB promoter based on bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint), comparative integromics analyses on NUMB orthologs were further performed. Chimpanzee NUBM gene, consisting of 13 exons, was identified within NW_115880.1 genome sequence. XM_510045.1 was not the correct coding sequence for chimpanzee NUMB. Chimpanzee NUMB gene was found to encode a 651-amino-acid protein showing 99.5, 93.9 and 82.6% total-amino-acid identity with human NUMB, mouse Numb and chicken numb, respectively. Human NUMB mRNA was expressed in placenta, ES cells, neural tissues, trachea, testis, uterus, thymus, coronary artery as well as in a variety of tumors, such as cervical cancer, tong tumor, brain tumor, colorectal and breast cancer. Although distal TCF/LEF-binding site within human NUMB promoter was conserved only among primate NUMB orthologs, proximal TCF/LEF-binding site was conserved among primate and rodent NUMB orthologs. NUMB, JAG1, FGF18, FGF20 and SPRY4 are potent targets of the canonical WNT signaling pathway in progenitor cells. NUMB inhibits Notch signaling in progenitor cells to induce differentiation, while JAG1 activates Notch signaling in stem cells to maintain self-renewal potential. Because Notch signaling inhibitor NUMB was identified as the safe apparatus for the WNT - Notch signaling cycle, epigenetic silencing, deletion and loss-of-function mutation of NUMB gene could lead to carcinogenesis

  16. Requirement of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in pronephric kidney development.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Jon P; Miller, Rachel K; Zhou, Xiaolan; Weidinger, Gilbert; Deroo, Tom; Denayer, Tinneke; Park, Jae-Il; Ji, Hong; Hong, Ji Yeon; Li, Annette; Moon, Randall T; Jones, Elizabeth A; Vleminckx, Kris; Vize, Peter D; McCrea, Pierre D

    2009-01-01

    The pronephric kidney controls water and electrolyte balance during early fish and amphibian embryogenesis. Many Wnt signaling components have been implicated in kidney development. Specifically, in Xenopus pronephric development as well as the murine metanephroi, the secreted glycoprotein Wnt-4 has been shown to be essential for renal tubule formation. Despite the importance of Wnt signals in kidney organogenesis, little is known of the definitive downstream signaling pathway(s) that mediate their effects. Here we report that inhibition of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling within the pronephric field of Xenopus results in significant losses to kidney epithelial tubulogenesis with little or no effect on adjoining axis or somite development. We find that the requirement for Wnt/beta-catenin signaling extends throughout the pronephric primordium and is essential for the development of proximal and distal tubules of the pronephros as well as for the development of the duct and glomus. Although less pronounced than effects upon later pronephric tubule differentiation, inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway decreased expression of early pronephric mesenchymal markers indicating it is also needed in early pronephric patterning. We find that upstream inhibition of Wnt/beta-catenin signals in zebrafish likewise reduces pronephric epithelial tubulogenesis. We also find that exogenous activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling within the Xenopus pronephric field results in significant tubulogenic losses. Together, we propose Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is required for pronephric tubule, duct and glomus formation in Xenopus laevis, and this requirement is conserved in zebrafish pronephric tubule formation. PMID:19100832

  17. Ilexonin A Promotes Neuronal Proliferation and Regeneration via Activation of the Canonical Wnt Signaling Pathway after Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bi-Qin; Zheng, Guan-Yi; Han, Yu; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Jiang, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Ilexonin A (IA), a component of the Chinese medicine Ilex pubescens, has been shown to be neuroprotective during ischemic injury. However, the specific mechanism underlying this neuroprotective effect remains unclear. Methods. In this study, we employed a combination of immunofluorescence staining, western blotting, RT-PCR, and behavioral tests, to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in IA regulation of neuronal proliferation and regeneration after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rodents. Results. Increases in β-catenin protein and LEF1 mRNA and decreases in GSK3β protein and Axin mRNA observed in IA-treated compared to control rodents implicated the canonical Wnt pathway as a key signaling mechanism activated by IA treatment. Furthermore, rodents in the IA treatment group showed less neurologic impairment and a corresponding increase in the number of Brdu/nestin and Brdu/NeuN double positive neurons in the parenchymal ischemia tissue following middle cerebral artery occlusion compared to matched controls. Conclusion. Altogether, our data indicate that IA can significantly diminish neurological deficits associated with cerebral ischemia reperfusion in rats as a result of increased neuronal survival via modulation of the canonical Wnt pathway. PMID:27057202

  18. Oncogenic Activation of the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in Signet Ring Stromal Cell Tumor of the Ovary.

    PubMed

    Kopczynski, Janusz; Kowalik, Artur; Chłopek, Małgorzata; Wang, Zeng-Feng; Góźdź, Stanisław; Lasota, Jerzy; Miettinen, Markku

    2016-01-01

    Signet ring stromal cell tumor (SRSCT) of the ovary is a very rare benign ovarian neoplasm. To date, no underlying genetic mechanism has been identified. In this study, 50 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes were evaluated for mutations in a typical SRSCT using the next-generation DNA sequencing approach. An in-frame deletion of 30 nucleotides in the glycogen serine kinase-3 beta phosphorylation region of the β-catenin gene (CTNNB1) was identified, and the finding was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This deletion (c.68_97del) at the protein level would lead to a p.Ser23_Ser33delinsThr oncogenic-type mutation. Subsequent immunohistochemistry showed prominent nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and cyclin D1 in tumor cells. Thus, mutational activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway could be a crucial event in the molecular pathogenesis of SRSCT of the ovary. These findings may also assist in the diagnosis of this rare tumor. PMID:26509912

  19. Chronic hypoxia induces the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis in wild-type and APPswe-PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Rojas-Abalos, Macarena; Abbott, Ana C.; Moya, Esteban A.; Iturriaga, Rodrigo; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia modulates proliferation and differentiation of cultured embryonic and adult stem cells, an effect that includes β-catenin, a key component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Here we studied the effect of mild hypoxia on the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the hippocampus of adult mice in vivo. The hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α) was analyzed as a molecular control of the physiological hypoxic response. Exposure to chronic hypoxia (10% oxygen for 6–72 h) stimulated the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Because the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a positive modulator of adult neurogenesis, we evaluated whether chronic hypoxia was able to stimulate neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Results indicate that hypoxia increased cell proliferation and neurogenesis in adult wild-type mice as determined by Ki67 staining, Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and double labeling with doublecortin (DCX). Chronic hypoxia also induced neurogenesis in a double transgenic APPswe-PS1ΔE9 mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which shows decreased levels of neurogenesis in the SGZ. Our results show for the first time that exposure to hypoxia in vivo can induce the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade in the hippocampus, suggesting that mild hypoxia may have a therapeutic value in neurodegenerative disorders associated with altered Wnt signaling in the brain and also in pathological conditions in which hippocampal neurogenesis is impaired. PMID:24574965

  20. Wnt/β-catenin-signaling and the formation of Müller glia-derived progenitors in the chick retina.

    PubMed

    Gallina, Donika; Palazzo, Isabella; Steffenson, Lillia; Todd, Levi; Fischer, Andy J

    2016-09-01

    Müller glia can be stimulated to de-differentiate, proliferate, and form Müller glia-derived progenitor cells (MGPCs) that are capable of producing retinal neurons. The signaling pathways that influence the de-differentiation of mature Müller glia and proliferation of MGPCs may include the Wnt-pathway. The purpose of this study was to investigate how Wnt-signaling influences the formation of MGPCs in the chick retina in vivo. In NMDA-damaged retinas where MGPCs are known to form, we find dynamic changes in retinal levels of potential readouts of Wnt-signaling, including dkk1, dkk3, axin2, c-myc, tcf-1, and cd44. We find accumulations of nuclear β-catenin in MGPCs that peaks at 3 days and rapidly declines by 5 days after NMDA-treatment. Inhibition of Wnt-signaling with XAV939 in damaged retinas suppressed the formation of MGPCs, increased expression of ascl1a and decreased hes5, but had no effect upon the differentiation of progeny produced by MGPCs. Activation of Wnt-signaling, with GSK3β-inhibitors, in the absence of retinal damage, failed to stimulate the formation of MGPCs, whereas activation of Wnt-signaling in damaged retinas stimulated the formation of MGPCs. In the absence of retinal damage, FGF2/MAPK-signaling stimulated the formation of MGPCs by activating a signaling network that includes Wnt/β-catenin. In FGF2-treated retinas, inhibition of Wnt-signaling reduced numbers of proliferating MGPCs, whereas activation of Wnt-signaling failed to influence the formation of proliferating MGPCs. Our findings indicate that Wnt-signaling is part of a network initiated by FGF2/MAPK or retinal damage, and activation of canonical Wnt-signaling is required for the formation of proliferating MGPCs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 983-1002, 2016. PMID:26663639

  1. Update on Wnt signaling in bone cell biology and bone disease

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, David G.; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Oursler, Merry Jo; Westendorf, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a decade, Wnt signaling pathways have been the focus of intense research activity in bone biology laboratories because of their importance in skeletal development, bone mass maintenance, and therapeutic potential for regenerative medicine. It is evident that even subtle alterations in the intensity, amplitude, location, and duration of Wnt signaling pathways affects skeletal development, as well as bone remodeling, regeneration, and repair during a lifespan. Here we review recent advances and discrepancies in how Wnt/Lrp5 signaling regulates osteoblasts and osteocytes, introduce new players in Wnt signaling pathways that have important roles in bone development, discuss emerging areas such as the role of Wnt signaling in osteoclastogenesis, and summarize progress made in translating basic studies to clinical therapeutics and diagnostics centered around inhibiting Wnt pathway antagonists, such as sclerostin, Dkk1 and Sfrp1. Emphasis is placed on the plethora of genetic studies in mouse models and genome wide association studies that reveal the requirement for and crucial roles of Wnt pathway components during skeletal development and disease. PMID:22079544

  2. MITF drives endolysosomal biogenesis and potentiates Wnt signaling in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ploper, Diego; Taelman, Vincent F.; Robert, Lidia; Perez, Brian S.; Titz, Björn; Chen, Hsiao-Wang; Graeber, Thomas G.; von Euw, Erika; Ribas, Antoni; De Robertis, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling plays an important role in development and disease, regulating transcription of target genes and stabilizing many proteins phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). We observed that the MiT family of transcription factors, which includes the melanoma oncogene MITF (micropthalmia-associated transcription factor) and the lysosomal master regulator TFEB, had the highest phylogenetic conservation of three consecutive putative GSK3 phosphorylation sites in animal proteomes. This finding prompted us to examine the relationship between MITF, endolysosomal biogenesis, and Wnt signaling. Here we report that MITF expression levels correlated with the expression of a large subset of lysosomal genes in melanoma cell lines. MITF expression in the tetracycline-inducible C32 melanoma model caused a marked increase in vesicular structures, and increased expression of late endosomal proteins, such as Rab7, LAMP1, and CD63. These late endosomes were not functional lysosomes as they were less active in proteolysis, yet were able to concentrate Axin1, phospho-LRP6, phospho-β-catenin, and GSK3 in the presence of Wnt ligands. This relocalization significantly enhanced Wnt signaling by increasing the number of multivesicular bodies into which the Wnt signalosome/destruction complex becomes localized upon Wnt signaling. We also show that the MITF protein was stabilized by Wnt signaling, through the novel C-terminal GSK3 phosphorylations identified here. MITF stabilization caused an increase in multivesicular body biosynthesis, which in turn increased Wnt signaling, generating a positive-feedback loop that may function during the proliferative stages of melanoma. The results underscore the importance of misregulated endolysosomal biogenesis in Wnt signaling and cancer. PMID:25605940

  3. MITF drives endolysosomal biogenesis and potentiates Wnt signaling in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ploper, Diego; Taelman, Vincent F; Robert, Lidia; Perez, Brian S; Titz, Björn; Chen, Hsiao-Wang; Graeber, Thomas G; von Euw, Erika; Ribas, Antoni; De Robertis, Edward M

    2015-02-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling plays an important role in development and disease, regulating transcription of target genes and stabilizing many proteins phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). We observed that the MiT family of transcription factors, which includes the melanoma oncogene MITF (micropthalmia-associated transcription factor) and the lysosomal master regulator TFEB, had the highest phylogenetic conservation of three consecutive putative GSK3 phosphorylation sites in animal proteomes. This finding prompted us to examine the relationship between MITF, endolysosomal biogenesis, and Wnt signaling. Here we report that MITF expression levels correlated with the expression of a large subset of lysosomal genes in melanoma cell lines. MITF expression in the tetracycline-inducible C32 melanoma model caused a marked increase in vesicular structures, and increased expression of late endosomal proteins, such as Rab7, LAMP1, and CD63. These late endosomes were not functional lysosomes as they were less active in proteolysis, yet were able to concentrate Axin1, phospho-LRP6, phospho-β-catenin, and GSK3 in the presence of Wnt ligands. This relocalization significantly enhanced Wnt signaling by increasing the number of multivesicular bodies into which the Wnt signalosome/destruction complex becomes localized upon Wnt signaling. We also show that the MITF protein was stabilized by Wnt signaling, through the novel C-terminal GSK3 phosphorylations identified here. MITF stabilization caused an increase in multivesicular body biosynthesis, which in turn increased Wnt signaling, generating a positive-feedback loop that may function during the proliferative stages of melanoma. The results underscore the importance of misregulated endolysosomal biogenesis in Wnt signaling and cancer. PMID:25605940

  4. CYP1B1 Enhances Cell Proliferation and Metastasis through Induction of EMT and Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling via Sp1 Upregulation.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yeo-Jung; Baek, Hyoung-Seok; Ye, Dong-Jin; Shin, Sangyun; Kim, Donghak; Chun, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is a major E2 hydroxylase involved in the metabolism of potential carcinogens. CYP1B1 expression has been reported to be higher in tumors compared to normal tissues, especially in hormone-related cancers including breast, ovary, and prostate tumors. To explore the role of CYP1B1 in cancer progression, we investigated the action of CYP1B1 in cells with increased CYP1B1 via the inducer 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene (DMBA) or an overexpression vector, in addition to decreased CYP1B1 via the inhibitor tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) or siRNA knockdown. We observed that CYP1B1 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells. To understand its molecular mechanism, we measured key oncogenic proteins including β-catenin, c-Myc, ZEB2, and matrix metalloproteinases following CYP1B1 modulation. CYP1B1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling via upregulation of CTNNB1, ZEB2, SNAI1, and TWIST1. Sp1, a transcription factor involved in cell growth and metastasis, was positively regulated by CYP1B1, and suppression of Sp1 expression by siRNA or DNA binding activity using mithramycin A blocked oncogenic transformation by CYP1B1. Therefore, we suggest that Sp1 acts as a key mediator for CYP1B1 action. Treatment with 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2), a major metabolite generated by CYP1B1, showed similar effects as CYP1B1 overexpression, indicating that CYP1B1 activity mediated various oncogenic events in cells. In conclusion, our data suggests that CYP1B1 promotes cell proliferation and metastasis by inducing EMT and Wnt/β-catenin signaling via Sp1 induction. PMID:26981862

  5. CYP1B1 Enhances Cell Proliferation and Metastasis through Induction of EMT and Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling via Sp1 Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yeo-Jung; Baek, Hyoung-Seok; Ye, Dong-Jin; Shin, Sangyun; Kim, Donghak; Chun, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is a major E2 hydroxylase involved in the metabolism of potential carcinogens. CYP1B1 expression has been reported to be higher in tumors compared to normal tissues, especially in hormone-related cancers including breast, ovary, and prostate tumors. To explore the role of CYP1B1 in cancer progression, we investigated the action of CYP1B1 in cells with increased CYP1B1 via the inducer 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene (DMBA) or an overexpression vector, in addition to decreased CYP1B1 via the inhibitor tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) or siRNA knockdown. We observed that CYP1B1 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells. To understand its molecular mechanism, we measured key oncogenic proteins including β-catenin, c-Myc, ZEB2, and matrix metalloproteinases following CYP1B1 modulation. CYP1B1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling via upregulation of CTNNB1, ZEB2, SNAI1, and TWIST1. Sp1, a transcription factor involved in cell growth and metastasis, was positively regulated by CYP1B1, and suppression of Sp1 expression by siRNA or DNA binding activity using mithramycin A blocked oncogenic transformation by CYP1B1. Therefore, we suggest that Sp1 acts as a key mediator for CYP1B1 action. Treatment with 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2), a major metabolite generated by CYP1B1, showed similar effects as CYP1B1 overexpression, indicating that CYP1B1 activity mediated various oncogenic events in cells. In conclusion, our data suggests that CYP1B1 promotes cell proliferation and metastasis by inducing EMT and Wnt/β-catenin signaling via Sp1 induction. PMID:26981862

  6. Wnt5a signaling is a substantial constituent in bone morphogenetic protein-2-mediated osteoblastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nemoto, Eiji; Ebe, Yukari; Kanaya, Sousuke; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Tamura, Masato; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt5a is identified in osteoblasts in tibial growth plate and bone marrow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteoblastic differentiation is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a/Ror2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling is important for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt5a/Ror2 operates independently of BMP-Smad pathway. -- Abstract: Wnts are secreted glycoproteins that mediate developmental and post-developmental physiology by regulating cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through {beta}-catenin-dependent canonical and {beta}-catenin-independent noncanonical pathway. It has been reported that Wnt5a activates noncanonical Wnt signaling through receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2). Although it appears that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling supports normal bone physiology, the biological significance of noncanonical Wnts in osteogenesis is essentially unknown. In this study, we identified expression of Wnt5a in osteoblasts in the ossification zone of the tibial growth plate as well as bone marrow of the rat tibia as assessed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we show that osteoblastic differentiation mediated by BMP-2 is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 using cultured pre-osteoblasts, MC3T3-E1 cells. Silencing gene expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 in MC3T3-E1 cells results in suppression of BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation, suggesting that Wnt5a and Ror2 signaling are of substantial importance for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. BMP-2 stimulation induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in a similar fashion in both siWnt5a-treated cells and control cells, suggesting that Wnt5a was dispensable for the phosphorylation of Smads by BMP-2. Taken together, our results suggest that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling appears to be involved in BMP-2-mediated osteoblast differentiation in a Smad independent

  7. Wnt/Catenin Signaling in Adult Stem Cell Physiology and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ring, Alexander; Kim, Yong-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays an important role in development and disease. In this review we focus on the role of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in somatic stem cell biology and its critical role in tissue homeostasis. We present current knowledge how Wnt/β-catenin signaling affects tissue stem cell behavior in various organ systems, including the gut, mammary gland, the hematopoietic and nervous system. We discuss evidence that canonical Wnt signaling can both maintain potency and an undifferentiated state as well as cause differentiation in somatic stem cells, depending on the cellular and environmental context. Based on studies by our lab and others, we will attempt to explain the dichotomous behavior of this signaling pathway in determining cell fate decisions and put special emphasis on the interaction of β-catenin with two highly homologous co-activator proteins, CBP and p300, to shed light on the their differential role in the outcome of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Furthermore, we review current knowledge regarding the aberrant regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cancer biology, particularly its pivotal role in the context of cancer stem cells. Finally, we discuss data demonstrating that small molecule modulators of the β-catenin/co-activator interaction can be used to shift the balance between undifferentiated proliferation and differentiation, which potentially presents a promising therapeutic approach to stem cell based disease mechanisms. PMID:24825509

  8. Integration of Bmp and Wnt signaling by Hopx specifies commitment of cardiomyoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rajan; Li, Deqiang; Gupta, Mudit; Manderfield, Lauren J.; Ifkovits, Jamie L.; Wang, Qiaohong; Liu, Feiyan; Liu, Ying; Poleshko, Andrey; Padmanabhan, Arun; Raum, Jeffrey C.; Li, Li; Morrisey, Edward E.; Lu, Min Min; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Epstein, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac progenitor cells are multipotent and give rise to cardiac endothelium, smooth muscle, and cardiomyocytes. Here, we define and characterize the cardiomyoblast intermediate that is committed to the cardiomyocyte fate, and we characterize the niche signals that regulate commitment. Cardiomyoblasts express Hopx, which functions to coordinate local Bmp signals to inhibit the Wnt pathway, thus promoting cardiomyogenesis. Hopx integrates Bmp and Wnt signaling by physically interacting with activated Smads and repressing Wnt genes. The identification of the committed cardiomyoblast that retains proliferative potential will inform cardiac regenerative therapeutics. In addition, Bmp signals characterize adult stem cell niches in other tissues where Hopx-mediated inhibition of Wnt is likely to contribute to stem cell quiescence and to explain the role of Hopx as a tumor suppressor. PMID:26113728

  9. HEART DEVELOPMENT. Integration of Bmp and Wnt signaling by Hopx specifies commitment of cardiomyoblasts.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rajan; Li, Deqiang; Gupta, Mudit; Manderfield, Lauren J; Ifkovits, Jamie L; Wang, Qiaohong; Liu, Feiyan; Liu, Ying; Poleshko, Andrey; Padmanabhan, Arun; Raum, Jeffrey C; Li, Li; Morrisey, Edward E; Lu, Min Min; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Epstein, Jonathan A

    2015-06-26

    Cardiac progenitor cells are multipotent and give rise to cardiac endothelium, smooth muscle, and cardiomyocytes. Here, we define and characterize the cardiomyoblast intermediate that is committed to the cardiomyocyte fate, and we characterize the niche signals that regulate commitment. Cardiomyoblasts express Hopx, which functions to coordinate local Bmp signals to inhibit the Wnt pathway, thus promoting cardiomyogenesis. Hopx integrates Bmp and Wnt signaling by physically interacting with activated Smads and repressing Wnt genes. The identification of the committed cardiomyoblast that retains proliferative potential will inform cardiac regenerative therapeutics. In addition, Bmp signals characterize adult stem cell niches in other tissues where Hopx-mediated inhibition of Wnt is likely to contribute to stem cell quiescence and to explain the role of Hopx as a tumor suppressor. PMID:26113728

  10. Wnt/β-catenin pathway regulates MGMT gene expression in cancer and inhibition of Wnt signalling prevents chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Wickström, Malin; Dyberg, Cecilia; Milosevic, Jelena; Einvik, Christer; Calero, Raul; Sveinbjörnsson, Baldur; Sandén, Emma; Darabi, Anna; Siesjö, Peter; Kool, Marcel; Kogner, Per; Baryawno, Ninib; Johnsen, John Inge

    2015-01-01

    The DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is commonly overexpressed in cancers and is implicated in the development of chemoresistance. The use of drugs inhibiting MGMT has been hindered by their haematologic toxicity and inefficiency. As a different strategy to inhibit MGMT we investigated cellular regulators of MGMT expression in multiple cancers. Here we show a significant correlation between Wnt signalling and MGMT expression in cancers with different origin and confirm the findings by bioinformatic analysis and immunofluorescence. We demonstrate Wnt-dependent MGMT gene expression and cellular co-localization between active β-catenin and MGMT. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of Wnt activity downregulates MGMT expression and restores chemosensitivity of DNA-alkylating drugs in mouse models. These findings have potential therapeutic implications for chemoresistant cancers, especially of brain tumours where the use of temozolomide is frequently used in treatment. PMID:26603103

  11. Wnt/β-catenin pathway regulates MGMT gene expression in cancer and inhibition of Wnt signalling prevents chemoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Wickström, Malin; Dyberg, Cecilia; Milosevic, Jelena; Einvik, Christer; Calero, Raul; Sveinbjörnsson, Baldur; Sandén, Emma; Darabi, Anna; Siesjö, Peter; Kool, Marcel; Kogner, Per; Baryawno, Ninib; Johnsen, John Inge

    2015-01-01

    The DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is commonly overexpressed in cancers and is implicated in the development of chemoresistance. The use of drugs inhibiting MGMT has been hindered by their haematologic toxicity and inefficiency. As a different strategy to inhibit MGMT we investigated cellular regulators of MGMT expression in multiple cancers. Here we show a significant correlation between Wnt signalling and MGMT expression in cancers with different origin and confirm the findings by bioinformatic analysis and immunofluorescence. We demonstrate Wnt-dependent MGMT gene expression and cellular co-localization between active β-catenin and MGMT. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of Wnt activity downregulates MGMT expression and restores chemosensitivity of DNA-alkylating drugs in mouse models. These findings have potential therapeutic implications for chemoresistant cancers, especially of brain tumours where the use of temozolomide is frequently used in treatment. PMID:26603103

  12. Wnt-pathway activation in two molecular classes of hepatocellular carcinoma and experimental modulation by sorafenib

    PubMed Central

    Lachenmayer, Anja; Alsinet, Clara; Savic, Radoslav; Cabellos, Laia; Toffanin, Sara; Hoshida, Yujin; Villanueva, Augusto; Minguez, Beatriz; Newell, Philippa; Tsai, Hung-Wen; Barretina, Jordi; Thung, Swan; Ward, Stephen C.; Bruix, Jordi; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Schwartz, Myron; Friedman, Scott L.; Llovet, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a heterogeneous cancer with active Wnt-signaling. Underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear and no drug targeting this pathway has been approved to date. We aimed to characterize Wnt-pathway aberrations in HCC patients, and to investigate sorafenib as a potential Wnt modulator in experimental models of liver cancer. Experimental Design The Wnt-pathway was assessed using mRNA (642 HCCs and 21 liver cancer cell lines) and miRNA expression data (89 HCCs), immunohistochemistry (108 HCCs) and CTNNB1-mutation data (91 HCCs). Effects of sorafenib on Wnt-signaling were evaluated in four liver cancer cell lines with active Wnt signaling and a tumor xenograft model. Results Evidence for Wnt activation was observed for 315 (49.1%) cases, and was further classified as CTNNB1-class [138 cases (21.5%)] or Wnt-TGFβ-class [177 cases (27.6%)]. CTNNB1-class was characterized by up-regulation of liver-specific Wnt-targets, nuclear β-catenin and glutamine-synthetase immunostaining, and enrichment of CTNNB1-mutation-signature, while Wnt-TGFβ-class was characterized by dysregulation of classical Wnt-targets and the absence of nuclear β-catenin. Sorafenib decreased Wnt-signaling and β-catenin protein in HepG2 (CTNNB1-class), SNU387 (Wnt-TGFβ-class), SNU398 (CTNNB1-mutation) and Huh7 (Lithium-chloride-pathway activation) cell lines. Additionally, sorafenib attenuated expression of liver-related Wnt-targets GLUL, LGR5, and TBX3. The suppressive effect on CTNNB1-class-specific Wnt-pathway activation was validated in vivo using HepG2 xenografts in nude mice, accompanied by decreased tumor volume and increased survival of treated animals. Conclusions Distinct dysregulation of Wnt-pathway constituents characterize two different Wnt-related molecular classes (CTNNB1 and Wnt-TGFβ), accounting for half of all HCC patients. Sorafenib modulates β-catenin/Wnt-signaling in experimental models that harbor the CTNNB1-class-signature. PMID:22811581

  13. AP1- and NF-kappaB-binding sites conserved among mammalian WNT10B orthologs elucidate the TNFalpha-WNT10B signaling loop implicated in carcinogenesis and adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masuko; Katoh, Masaru

    2007-04-01

    WNT signals are context-dependently transduced to canonical and non-canonical signaling cascades. We cloned and characterized wild-type human WNT10B, while another group cloned aberrant human WNT10B with Gly60Asp amino-acid substitution. Proto-oncogene WNT10B is expressed in gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, esophageal cancer, and cervical cancer. Because WNT10B blocks adipocyte differentiation, coding SNP of WNT10B gene is associated with familial obesity. In 2001, we reported WNT10B upregulation by TNFalpha. Here, comparative integromics analyses on WNT10B orthologs were performed to elucidate the transcriptional mechanism of WNT10B. Chimpanzee WNT10B and cow Wnt10b genes were identified within NW_001223159.1 and AC150975.2 genome sequences, respectively, by using bioinformatics (Techint) and human intelligence (Humint). Chimpanzee WNT10B and cow Wnt10b showed 98.7% and 95.1% total-amino-acid identity with human WNT10B, respectively. N-terminal signal peptide, 24 Cys residues, two Asn-linked glycosylation sites, and Gly60 of human WNT10B were conserved among mammalian WNT10B orthologs. Transcription start site of human WNT10B gene was 106-bp upstream of NM_003394.2 RefSeq 5'-end. Number of GC di-nucleotide repeats just down-stream of WNT10B transcription start site varied among primates and human population. Comparative genomics analyses revealed that double AP1-binding sites in the 5'-flanking promoter region and NF-kappaB-binding site in intron 3 were conserved among human, chimpanzee, cow, mouse, and rat WNT10B orthologs. Because TNFalpha signaling through TNFR1 and TRADD/RIP/TRAF2 complex activates JUN kinase (JNK) and IkappaB kinase (IKK) signaling cascades, conserved AP1- and NF-kappaB-binding sites explain the mechanism of TNFalpha-induced WNT10B upregulation. TNFalpha-WNT10B signaling loop is the negative feedback mechanism of adipogenesis to prevent obesity and metabolic syndrome. On the other hand, TNFalpha-WNT10B signaling loop is

  14. Connective-tissue growth factor modulates WNT signalling and interacts with the WNT receptor complex.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Sara; Latinkic, Branko; Itasaki, Nobue; Krumlauf, Robb; Smith, J C

    2004-05-01

    Connective-tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a member of the CCN family of secreted proteins. CCN family members contain four characteristic domains and exhibit multiple activities: they associate with the extracellular matrix, they can mediate cell adhesion, cell migration and chemotaxis, and they can modulate the activities of peptide growth factors. Many of the effects of CTGF are thought to be mediated by binding to integrins, whereas others may be because of its recently identified ability to interact with BMP4 and TGF beta. We demonstrate, using Xenopus embryos, that CTGF also regulates signalling through the Wnt pathway, in accord with its ability to bind to the Wnt co-receptor LDL receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6). This interaction is likely to occur through the C-terminal (CT) domain of CTGF, which is distinct from the BMP- and TGF beta-interacting domain. Our results define new activities of CTGF and add to the variety of routes through which cells regulate growth factor activity in development, disease and tissue homeostasis. PMID:15105373

  15. Increased glutamine catabolism mediates bone anabolism in response to WNT signaling.

    PubMed

    Karner, Courtney M; Esen, Emel; Okunade, Adewole L; Patterson, Bruce W; Long, Fanxin

    2015-02-01

    WNT signaling stimulates bone formation by increasing both the number of osteoblasts and their protein-synthesis activity. It is not clear how WNT augments the capacity of osteoblast progenitors to meet the increased energetic and synthetic needs associated with mature osteoblasts. Here, in cultured osteoblast progenitors, we determined that WNT stimulates glutamine catabolism through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and consequently lowers intracellular glutamine levels. The WNT-induced reduction of glutamine concentration triggered a general control nonderepressible 2-mediated (GCN2-mediated) integrated stress response (ISR) that stimulated expression of genes responsible for amino acid supply, transfer RNA (tRNA) aminoacylation, and protein folding. WNT-induced glutamine catabolism and ISR were β-catenin independent, but required mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation. In a hyperactive WNT signaling mouse model of human osteosclerosis, inhibition of glutamine catabolism or Gcn2 deletion suppressed excessive bone formation. Together, our data indicate that glutamine is both an energy source and a protein-translation rheostat that is responsive to WNT and suggest that manipulation of the glutamine/GCN2 signaling axis may provide a valuable approach for normalizing deranged protein anabolism associated with human diseases. PMID:25562323

  16. WNT signaling increases proliferation and impairs differentiation of stem cells in the developing cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Yanxin; Brun, Sonja N.; Markant, Shirley L.; Lento, William; Gibson, Paul; Taketo, Makoto M.; Giovannini, Marco; Gilbertson, Richard J.; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The WNT pathway plays multiple roles in neural development and is crucial for establishment of the embryonic cerebellum. In addition, WNT pathway mutations are associated with medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor in children. However, the cell types within the cerebellum that are responsive to WNT signaling remain unknown. Here we investigate the effects of canonical WNT signaling on two important classes of progenitors in the developing cerebellum: multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) and granule neuron precursors (GNPs). We show that WNT pathway activation in vitro promotes proliferation of NSCs but not GNPs. Moreover, mice that express activated β-catenin in the cerebellar ventricular zone exhibit increased proliferation of NSCs in that region, whereas expression of the same protein in GNPs impairs proliferation. Although β-catenin-expressing NSCs proliferate they do not undergo prolonged expansion or neoplastic growth; rather, WNT signaling markedly interferes with their capacity for self-renewal and differentiation. At a molecular level, mutant NSCs exhibit increased expression of c-Myc, which might account for their transient proliferation, but also express high levels of bone morphogenetic proteins and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, which might contribute to their altered self-renewal and differentiation. These studies suggest that the WNT pathway is a potent regulator of cerebellar stem cell growth and differentiation. PMID:22461560

  17. Increased glutamine catabolism mediates bone anabolism in response to WNT signaling

    PubMed Central

    Karner, Courtney M.; Esen, Emel; Okunade, Adewole L.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Long, Fanxin

    2014-01-01

    WNT signaling stimulates bone formation by increasing both the number of osteoblasts and their protein-synthesis activity. It is not clear how WNT augments the capacity of osteoblast progenitors to meet the increased energetic and synthetic needs associated with mature osteoblasts. Here, in cultured osteoblast progenitors, we determined that WNT stimulates glutamine catabolism through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and consequently lowers intracellular glutamine levels. The WNT-induced reduction of glutamine concentration triggered a general control nonderepressible 2–mediated (GCN2-mediated) integrated stress response (ISR) that stimulated expression of genes responsible for amino acid supply, transfer RNA (tRNA) aminoacylation, and protein folding. WNT-induced glutamine catabolism and ISR were β-catenin independent, but required mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation. In a hyperactive WNT signaling mouse model of human osteosclerosis, inhibition of glutamine catabolism or Gcn2 deletion suppressed excessive bone formation. Together, our data indicate that glutamine is both an energy source and a protein-translation rheostat that is responsive to WNT and suggest that manipulation of the glutamine/GCN2 signaling axis may provide a valuable approach for normalizing deranged protein anabolism associated with human diseases. PMID:25562323

  18. Distinctive microRNA signature associated of neoplasms with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xu; He, Yong; Huang, Cheng; Ma, Tao-Tao; Li, Jun

    2013-12-01

    As the crucial biological regulators, microRNAs that act by suppressing their target genes are involved in a variety of pathophysiological processes. It is generally accepted that microRNAs are often dysregulated in many types of neoplasm and other human diseases. In neoplasm, microRNAs may function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. As constitutive activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a common feature of neoplasm and contributes to its development, progression and metastasis in various cancers, numerous studies have revealed that microRNA-mediated gene regulation are interconnected with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, forming a Wnt/β-catenin-microRNA regulatory network, which is critical to successful targeting of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway for oncotherapy. In this review, we aim to accumulate recent advances on microRNAs that work in tandem with Wnt/β-catenin signaling in tumorigenesis, with particular focus on how microRNAs affect Wnt/β-catenin activity as well as how microRNAs are regulated through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. PMID:24041653

  19. Resveratrol augments the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in promoting osteoblastic differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Haibin; Shang, Linshan; Li, Xi; Zhang, Xiyu; Gao, Guimin; Guo, Chenhong; Chen, Bingxi; Liu, Qiji; Gong, Yaoqin; Shao, Changshun

    2009-10-15

    Resveratrol has been shown to possess many health-benefiting effects, including the promotion of bone formation. In this report we investigated the mechanism by which resveratrol promotes osteoblastic differentiation from pluripotent mesenchymal cells. Since Wnt signaling is well documented to induce osteoblastogenesis and bone formation, we characterized the factors involved in Wnt signaling in response to resveratrol treatment. Resveratrol treatment of mesenchymal cells led to an increase in stabilization and nuclear accumulation of {beta}-catenin dose-dependently and time-dependently. As a consequence of the increased nuclear accumulation of {beta}-catenin, the ability to activate transcription of {beta}-catenin-TCF/LEF target genes that are required for osteoblastic differentiation was upregulated. However, resveratrol did not affect the initial step of the Wnt signaling pathway, as resveratrol was as effective in upregulating the activity of {beta}-catenin in cells in which Lrp5 was knocked down as in control cells. In addition, while conditioned medium enriched in Wnt signaling antagonist Dkk1 was able to inhibit Wnt3a-induced {beta}-catenin upregulation, this inhibitory effect can be abolished in resveratrol-treated cells. Furthermore, we showed that the level of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}), which phosphorylates and destabilizes {beta}-catenin, was reduced in response to resveratrol treatment. The phosphorylation of GSK-3{beta} requires extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. Together, our data indicate that resveratrol promotes osteoblastogenesis and bone formation by augmenting Wnt signaling.

  20. Retinoic Acid Ameliorates Pancreatic Fibrosis and Inhibits the Activation of Pancreatic Stellate Cells in Mice with Experimental Chronic Pancreatitis via Suppressing the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Guojian; Fan, Yuting; Wu, Deqing; Qiu, Lei; Yu, Ge; Xing, Miao; Hu, Guoyong; Wang, Xingpeng; Wan, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic fibrosis, a prominent feature of chronic pancreatitis (CP), induces persistent and permanent damage in the pancreas. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) provide a major source of extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition during pancreatic injury, and persistent activation of PSCs plays a vital role in the progression of pancreatic fibrosis. Retinoic acid (RA), a retinoid, has a broad range of biological functions, including regulation of cell differentiation and proliferation, attenuating progressive fibrosis of multiple organs. In the present study, we investigated the effects of RA on fibrosis in experimental CP and cultured PSCs. CP was induced in mice by repetitive cerulein injection in vivo, and mouse PSCs were isolated and activated in vitro. Suppression of pancreatic fibrosis upon administration of RA was confirmed based on reduction of histological damage, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression and mRNA levels of β-catenin, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-Rβ transforming growth factor (TGF)-βRII and collagen 1α1 in vivo. Wnt 2 and β-catenin protein levels were markedly down-regulated, while Axin 2 expression level was up-regulated in the presence of RA, both in vivo and in vitro. Nuclear translation of β-catenin was significantly decreased following RA treatment, compared with cerulein-induced CP in mice and activated PSCs. Furthermore, RA induced significant PSC apoptosis, inhibited proliferation, suppressed TCF/LEF-dependent transcriptional activity and ECM production of PSC via down-regulation of TGFβRII, PDGFRβ and collagen 1α1 in vitro. These results indicate a critical role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in RA-induced effects on CP and PSC regulation and support the potential of RA as a suppressor of pancreatic fibrosis in mice. PMID:26556479

  1. Over-expression of TRIM37 promotes cell migration and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma by activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Jianxin; Yu, Chao; Chen, Meiyuan; Tian, She; Sun, Chengyi

    2015-09-04

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common cancer in the world especially in East Asia and Africa. Advanced stage, metastasis and frequent relapse are responsible for the poor prognosis of HCC. However, the precise mechanisms underlying HCC remained unclear. So it is urgent to identify the pathological processes and relevant molecules of HCC. TRIM37 is an E3 ligase and has been observed deregulated expression in various tumors. Recent studies of TRIM37 have implicated that TRIM37 played critical roles in cell proliferation and other processes. In the present study, we demonstrated that TRIM37 expression was notably up-regulated in HCC samples and was associated with advanced stage and tumor volume, which all indicating the poor outcomes. We also found that TRIM37 could serve as an independent prognostic factor of HCC. During the course of in vitro and in vivo work, we showed that TRIM37 promoted HCC cells migration and metastasis by inducing EMT. Furthermore, we revealed that the effect of TRIM37 mediated EMT in HCC cells was achieved by the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. These finding may provide insight into the understanding of TRIM37 as a novel critical factor of HCC and a candidate target for HCC treatment. - Highlights: • Highly expression of TRIM37 is found in HCC samples compared with nontumorous samples. • TRIM37 expression is correlated with advanced HCC stages and could be an independent prognostic factor. • TRIM37 promotes cell proliferation and metastasis. • We report an E3 ligase TRIM37 affects Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  2. Wnt-5a/Frizzled9 Receptor Signaling through the Gαo-Gβγ Complex Regulates Dendritic Spine Formation.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Valerie T; Ramos-Fernández, Eva; Henríquez, Juan Pablo; Lorenzo, Alfredo; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-09-01

    Wnt ligands play crucial roles in the development and regulation of synapse structure and function. Specifically, Wnt-5a acts as a secreted growth factor that regulates dendritic spine formation in rodent hippocampal neurons, resulting in postsynaptic development that promotes the clustering of the PSD-95 (postsynaptic density protein 95). Here, we focused on the early events occurring after the interaction between Wnt-5a and its Frizzled receptor at the neuronal cell surface. Additionally, we studied the role of heterotrimeric G proteins in Wnt-5a-dependent synaptic development. We report that FZD9 (Frizzled9), a Wnt receptor related to Williams syndrome, is localized in the postsynaptic region, where it interacts with Wnt-5a. Functionally, FZD9 is required for the Wnt-5a-mediated increase in dendritic spine density. FZD9 forms a precoupled complex with Gαo under basal conditions that dissociates after Wnt-5a stimulation. Accordingly, we found that G protein inhibition abrogates the Wnt-5a-dependent pathway in hippocampal neurons. In particular, the activation of Gαo appears to be a key factor controlling the Wnt-5a-induced dendritic spine density. In addition, we found that Gβγ is required for the Wnt-5a-mediated increase in cytosolic calcium levels and spinogenesis. Our findings reveal that FZD9 and heterotrimeric G proteins regulate Wnt-5a signaling and dendritic spines in cultured hippocampal neurons. PMID:27402827

  3. Role of Wnt Signaling in Central Nervous System Injury.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Catherine; Cisternas, Pedro; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-05-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is highly sensitive to external mechanical damage, presenting a limited capacity for regeneration explained in part by its inability to restore either damaged neurons or the synaptic network. The CNS may suffer different types of external injuries affecting its function and/or structure, including stroke, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury. These pathologies critically affect the quality of life of a large number of patients worldwide and are often fatal because available therapeutics are ineffective and produce limited results. Common effects of the mentioned pathologies involves the triggering of several cellular and metabolic responses against injury, including infiltration of blood cells, inflammation, glial activation, and neuronal death. Although some of the underlying molecular mechanisms of those responses have been elucidated, the mechanisms driving these processes are poorly understood in the context of CNS injury. In the last few years, it has been suggested that the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway could be important in the regenerative response after CNS injury, activating diverse protective mechanisms including the stimulation of neurogenesis, blood brain structure consolidation and the recovery of cognitive brain functions. Because Wnt signaling is involved in several physiological processes, the putative positive role of its activation after injury could be the basis for novel therapeutic approaches to CNS injury. PMID:25976365

  4. Chromatin-Remodeling-Factor ARID1B Represses Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Vasileiou, Georgia; Ekici, Arif B; Uebe, Steffen; Zweier, Christiane; Hoyer, Juliane; Engels, Hartmut; Behrens, Jürgen; Reis, André; Hadjihannas, Michel V

    2015-09-01

    The link of chromatin remodeling to both neurodevelopment and cancer has recently been highlighted by the identification of mutations affecting BAF chromatin-remodeling components, such as ARID1B, in individuals with intellectual disability and cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) remains unknown. Here, we show that ARID1B is a repressor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Through whole-transcriptome analysis, we find that in individuals with intellectual disability and ARID1B loss-of-function mutations, Wnt/β-catenin target genes are upregulated. Using cellular models of low and high Wnt/β-catenin activity, we demonstrate that knockdown of ARID1B activates Wnt/β-catenin target genes and Wnt/β-catenin-dependent transcriptional reporters in a β-catenin-dependent manner. Reciprocally, forced expression of ARID1B inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling downstream of the β-catenin destruction complex. Both endogenous and exogenous ARID1B associate with β-catenin and repress Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcription through the BAF core subunit BRG1. Accordingly, mutations in ARID1B leading to partial or complete deletion of its BRG1-binding domain, as is often observed in intellectual disability and cancers, compromise association with β-catenin, and the resultant ARID1B mutant proteins fail to suppress Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Finally, knockdown of ARID1B in mouse neuroblastoma cells leads to neurite outgrowth through β-catenin. The data suggest that aberrations in chromatin-remodeling factors, such as ARID1B, might contribute to neurodevelopmental abnormalities and cancer through deregulation of developmental and oncogenic pathways, such as the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26340334

  5. Chromatin-Remodeling-Factor ARID1B Represses Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Vasileiou, Georgia; Ekici, Arif B.; Uebe, Steffen; Zweier, Christiane; Hoyer, Juliane; Engels, Hartmut; Behrens, Jürgen; Reis, André; Hadjihannas, Michel V.

    2015-01-01

    The link of chromatin remodeling to both neurodevelopment and cancer has recently been highlighted by the identification of mutations affecting BAF chromatin-remodeling components, such as ARID1B, in individuals with intellectual disability and cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) remains unknown. Here, we show that ARID1B is a repressor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Through whole-transcriptome analysis, we find that in individuals with intellectual disability and ARID1B loss-of-function mutations, Wnt/β-catenin target genes are upregulated. Using cellular models of low and high Wnt/β-catenin activity, we demonstrate that knockdown of ARID1B activates Wnt/β-catenin target genes and Wnt/β-catenin-dependent transcriptional reporters in a β-catenin-dependent manner. Reciprocally, forced expression of ARID1B inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling downstream of the β-catenin destruction complex. Both endogenous and exogenous ARID1B associate with β-catenin and repress Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcription through the BAF core subunit BRG1. Accordingly, mutations in ARID1B leading to partial or complete deletion of its BRG1-binding domain, as is often observed in intellectual disability and cancers, compromise association with β-catenin, and the resultant ARID1B mutant proteins fail to suppress Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Finally, knockdown of ARID1B in mouse neuroblastoma cells leads to neurite outgrowth through β-catenin. The data suggest that aberrations in chromatin-remodeling factors, such as ARID1B, might contribute to neurodevelopmental abnormalities and cancer through deregulation of developmental and oncogenic pathways, such as the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26340334

  6. JNK signalling is necessary for a Wnt- and stem cell-dependent regeneration programme

    PubMed Central

    Tejada-Romero, Belen; Carter, Jean-Michel; Mihaylova, Yuliana; Neumann, Bjoern; Aboobaker, A. Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration involves the integration of new and old tissues in the context of an adult life history. It is clear that the core conserved signalling pathways that orchestrate development also play central roles in regeneration, and further study of conserved signalling pathways is required. Here we have studied the role of the conserved JNK signalling cascade during planarian regeneration. Abrogation of JNK signalling by RNAi or pharmacological inhibition blocks posterior regeneration and animals fail to express posterior markers. While the early injury-induced expression of polarity markers is unaffected, the later stem cell-dependent phase of posterior Wnt expression is not established. This defect can be rescued by overactivation of the Hh or Wnt signalling pathway to promote posterior Wnt activity. Together, our data suggest that JNK signalling is required to establish stem cell-dependent Wnt expression after posterior injury. Given that Jun is known to be required in vertebrates for the expression of Wnt and Wnt target genes, we propose that this interaction may be conserved and is an instructive part of planarian posterior regeneration. PMID:26062938

  7. JNK signalling is necessary for a Wnt- and stem cell-dependent regeneration programme.

    PubMed

    Tejada-Romero, Belen; Carter, Jean-Michel; Mihaylova, Yuliana; Neumann, Bjoern; Aboobaker, A Aziz

    2015-07-15

    Regeneration involves the integration of new and old tissues in the context of an adult life history. It is clear that the core conserved signalling pathways that orchestrate development also play central roles in regeneration, and further study of conserved signalling pathways is required. Here we have studied the role of the conserved JNK signalling cascade during planarian regeneration. Abrogation of JNK signalling by RNAi or pharmacological inhibition blocks posterior regeneration and animals fail to express posterior markers. While the early injury-induced expression of polarity markers is unaffected, the later stem cell-dependent phase of posterior Wnt expression is not established. This defect can be rescued by overactivation of the Hh or Wnt signalling pathway to promote posterior Wnt activity. Together, our data suggest that JNK signalling is required to establish stem cell-dependent Wnt expression after posterior injury. Given that Jun is known to be required in vertebrates for the expression of Wnt and Wnt target genes, we propose that this interaction may be conserved and is an instructive part of planarian posterior regeneration. PMID:26062938

  8. Silibinin inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling by suppressing Wnt co-receptor LRP6 expression in human prostate and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenyan; Lin, Cuihong; King, Taj D; Chen, Honghong; Reynolds, Robert C; Li, Yonghe

    2012-12-01

    Silibinin is a natural compound isolated from milk thistle seed extracts, and has traditionally been used as a hepatoprotectant. A number of studies have also established the cancer therapeutic and chemopreventive role of silibinin in both in vitro and in vivo models. The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-6 (LRP6) is an essential Wnt co-receptor for the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and represents a promising target for cancer prevention and therapy. In the present study, we found that silibinin was able to repress endogenous LRP6 expression and block Wnt3A-induced LRP6 phosphorylation and Wnt/β-catenin signaling activation in HEK293 cells. Importantly, silibinin was also able to suppress endogenous LRP6 expression and phosphorylation and block Wnt/β-catenin signaling in prostate cancer PC-3 and DU-145 cells and breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and T-47D cells. Mechanistically, silibinin inhibited LRP6 promoter activity and decreased LRP6 mRNA levels in prostate and breast cancer cells. Finally, we demonstrated that silibinin displayed anticancer activity with IC(50) values comparable to those shown to suppress LRP6 expression and Wnt/β-catenin signaling activities in prostate and breast cancer cells. Our data indicate that silibinin is a novel small molecule Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibitor by suppressing Wnt co-receptor LRP6 expression at the transcription level, and that the anti-cancer activity of silibinin is associated with its inhibitory effect on Wnt/LRP6 signaling. PMID:22820499

  9. Long-term in vitro analysis of limb cartilage development: involvement of Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Daumer, Kathleen M; Tufan, A Cevik; Tuan, Rocky S

    2004-10-15

    Endochondral skeletal development involves the condensation of mesenchymal cells, their differentiation into chondrocytes, followed by chondrocyte maturation, hypertrophy, and matrix mineralization, and replacement by osteoblasts. The Wnt family of secreted proteins have been shown to play important roles in vertebrate limb formation. To examine the role(s) of Wnt members and their transmembrane-spanning receptor(s), Frizzled (fz), we retrovirally misexpressed Wnt-5a, Wnt-7a, chicken frizzled-1 (Chfz-1), and frizzled-7 (Chfz-7) in long-term (21 day) high density, micromass cultures of stage 23/24 chick embryonic limb mesenchyme. This culture system recapitulates in vitro the entire differentiation (days 1-10), growth (days 5-12), and maturation and hypertrophy (from day 12 on) program of cartilage development. Wnt-7a misexpression severely inhibited chondrogenesis from day 7 onward. Wnt-5a misexpression resulted in a poor hypertrophic phenotype by day 14. Chfz-7 misexpression caused a slight delay of chondrocyte maturation based on histology, whereas Chfz-1 misexpression did not affect the chondrogenic phenotype. Misexpression of all Wnt members decreased collagen type X expression and alkaline phosphatase activity at day 21. Our findings implicate functional role(s) for Wnt signaling throughout embryonic cartilage development, and show the utility of the long-term in vitro limb mesenchyme culture system for such studies. PMID:15372624

  10. EdnrB Governs Regenerative Response of Melanocyte Stem Cells by Crosstalk with Wnt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Takeo, Makoto; Lee, Wendy; Rabbani, Piul; Sun, Qi; Hu, Hai; Lim, Chae Ho; Manga, Prashiela; Ito, Mayumi

    2016-05-10

    Delineating the crosstalk between distinct signaling pathways is key to understanding the diverse and dynamic responses of adult stem cells during tissue regeneration. Here, we demonstrate that the Edn/EdnrB signaling pathway can interact with other signaling pathways to elicit distinct stem cell functions during tissue regeneration. EdnrB signaling promotes proliferation and differentiation of melanocyte stem cells (McSCs), dramatically enhancing the regeneration of hair and epidermal melanocytes. This effect is dependent upon active Wnt signaling that is initiated by Wnt ligand secretion from the hair follicle epithelial niche. Further, this Wnt-dependent EdnrB signaling can rescue the defects in melanocyte regeneration caused by Mc1R loss. This suggests that targeting Edn/EdnrB signaling in McSCs can be a therapeutic approach to promote photoprotective-melanocyte regeneration, which may be useful for those with increased risk of skin cancers due to Mc1R variants. PMID:27134165

  11. FGF signaling inhibitor, SPRY4, is evolutionarily conserved target of WNT signaling pathway in progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2006-03-01

    WNT, FGF and Hedgehog signaling pathways network together during embryogenesis, tissue regeneration, and carcinogenesis. FGF16, FGF18, and FGF20 genes are targets of WNT-mediated TCF/LEF-beta-catenin-BCL9/BCL9L-PYGO transcriptional complex. SPROUTY (SPRY) and SPRED family genes encode inhibitors for receptor tyrosine kinase signaling cascades, such as those of FGF receptor family members and EGF receptor family members. Here, transcriptional regulation of SPRY1, SPRY2, SPRY3, SPRY4, SPRED1, SPRED2, and SPRED3 genes by WNT/beta-catenin signaling cascade was investigated by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (humint). Because double TCF/LEF-binding sites were identified within the 5'-promoter region of human SPRY4 gene, comparative genomics analyses on SPRY4 orthologs were further performed. SPRY4-FGF1 locus at human chromosome 5q31.3 and FGF2-NUDT6-SPATA5-SPRY1 locus at human chromosome 4q27-q28.1 were paralogous regions within the human genome. Chimpanzee SPRY4 gene was identified within NW_107083.1 genome sequence. Human, chimpanzee, rat and mouse SPRY4 orthologs, consisting of three exons, were well conserved. SPRY4 gene was identified as the evolutionarily conserved target of WNT/beta-catenin signaling pathway based on the conservation of double TCF/LEF-binding sites within 5'-promoter region of mammalian SPRY4 orthologs. Human SPRY4 mRNA was expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells, brain, pancreatic islet, colon cancer, head and neck tumor, melanoma, and pancreatic cancer. WNT signaling activation in progenitor cells leads to the growth regulation of progenitor cells themselves through SPRY4 induction, and also to the growth stimulation of proliferating cells through FGF secretion. Epigenetic silencing and loss-of-function mutations of SPRY4 gene in progenitor cells could lead to carcinogenesis. SPRY4 is the pharmacogenomics target in the fields of oncology and regenerative medicine. PMID:16465403

  12. SUMO-1 modification of the C-terminal KVEKVD of Axin is required for JNK activation but has no effect on Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Rui, Hong-Liang; Fan, Ernest; Zhou, Hai-Meng; Xu, Zhen; Zhang, Yi; Lin, Sheng-Cai

    2002-11-01

    Axin is a multifunctional protein, regulating Wnt signaling and the c-Jun N-terminal/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) pathway as well as tumorigenesis. In the present study, we found that Axin interacts with three SUMO-1 (small ubiquitin-related modifier) conjugating enzymes 3 (E3), PIAS1, PIASxbeta, and PIASy. The extreme C-terminal six amino acid residues of Axin are critical for the Axin/E3 interaction as deletion of the six residues (AxinDeltaC6) completely abolished the ability of Axin to interact with E3 enzymes. AxinDeltaC6 also failed to activate JNK, although it was intact in both its interaction with MEKK1 and homodimerization. Consistent with the presence of a doublet of the KV(E/D) sumoylation consensus motif at the C-terminal end (KVEKVD), we found that Axin is heavily sumoylated. Deletion of the C-terminal six amino acids drastically reduced sumoylation, indicating that the C-terminal six amino acids stretch is the main sumoylation site for Axin. Sumoylation-defective mutants failed to activate JNK but effectively destabilized beta-catenin and attenuated LEF1 transcriptional activity. In addition, we show that dominant negative Axin mutants blocked PIAS-mediated JNK activation, in accordance with the requirement of sumoylation for Axin-mediated JNK activation. Taken together, we demonstrate that sumoylation plays a role for Axin to function in the JNK pathway. PMID:12223491

  13. Maintaining embryonic stem cell pluripotency with Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Sokol, Sergei Y

    2011-10-01

    Wnt signaling pathways control lineage specification in vertebrate embryos and regulate pluripotency in embryonic stem (ES) cells, but how the balance between progenitor self-renewal and differentiation is achieved during axis specification and tissue patterning remains highly controversial. The context- and stage-specific effects of the different Wnt pathways produce complex and sometimes opposite outcomes that help to generate embryonic cell diversity. Although the results of recent studies of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in ES cells appear to be surprising and controversial, they converge on the same conserved mechanism that leads to the inactivation of TCF3-mediated repression. PMID:21903672

  14. Indirubin-3'-oxime, an activator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, enhances osteogenic commitment of ST2 cells and restores bone loss in high-fat diet-induced obese male mice.

    PubMed

    Zahoor, Muhammad; Cha, Pu-Hyeon; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2014-08-01

    Obesity is a growing issue of the modern world, and its negative impact on bones in obese male patients has been recently reported. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway has an established role in the regulation of body fat content and bone density. We investigated the effects of indirubin-3'-oxime (I3O), the GSK3β inhibitor that activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling, on trabecular bone in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese male mice. I3O reverses the downregulating effect of fatty acid (FA) on Wnt/β-catenin signaling and enhances the osteogenic commitment of the bone marrow-derived stromal cell line ST2. FA induces the adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in vitro. In a male mouse model of HFD-induced obesity, trabecular bone loss was observed in the femora, with a gross increase in abdominal fat; however, the HFD effects were rescued with the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by I3O treatment. I3O administration also reversed the increase in the number of HFD-induced adipocytes in the femur bone marrow in trabecular bone. Overall, our results indicate that I3O could be a potential therapeutic agent for obese male patients through downregulation of abdominal fat and net increment in trabecular bone density. PMID:24815917

  15. Distinct Patterns of Wnt3a and Wnt5a Signaling Pathway in the Lung from Rats with Endotoxic Shock.

    PubMed

    Hii, Hiong-Ping; Liao, Mei-Hui; Chen, Shiu-Jen; Wu, Chin-Chen; Shih, Chih-Chin

    2015-01-01

    Septic shock is a syndrome with severe hypotension and multiple organ dysfunction caused by an imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory response. The most common risk factor of acute lung injury is severe sepsis. Patients with sepsis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome have higher mortality. Recent studies reveal regulatory roles of Wnt3a and Wnt5a signaling in inflammatory processes. Wnt3a signaling has been implicated in anti-inflammatory effects, whereas Wnt5a signaling has been postulated to have pro-inflammatory properties. However, the balance between Wnt3a and Wnt5a signaling pathway in the lung of rats with endotoxic shock has not been determined. Thus, we investigated the major components of Wnt3a and Wnt5a signaling pathway in the lung of endotoxemic rats. Male Wistar rats were intravenously infused with saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 mg/kg). The changes of hemodynamics, biochemical variables, and arterial blood gas were examined during the experimental period. At 6 h after saline or LPS, animals were sacrificed, and lungs were obtained for analyzing superoxide production, water accumulation, histologic assessment, and protein expressions of Wnt3a and Wnt5a signaling pathway. Animals that received LPS showed circulatory failure, multiple organ dysfunction, metabolic acidosis, hyperventilation, lung edema, and high mortality. The lung from rats with endotoxic shock exhibited significant decreases in the levels of Wnt3a, Fzd1, Dsh1, phosphorylated GSK-3β at Ser9, and β-catenin. In contrast, the expressions of Wnt5a, Fzd5, and CaMKII were up-regulated in the lung of endotoxemic rats. These findings indicate the major components of Wnt3a and Wnt5a signaling in the lung are disturbed under endotoxic insult. PMID:26218875

  16. Wnt isoform-specific interactions with coreceptor specify inhibition or potentiation of signaling by LRP6 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yan; Bourhis, Eric; Chiu, Cecilia; Stawicki, Scott; DeAlmeida, Venita I; Liu, Bob Y; Phamluong, Khanhky; Cao, Tim C; Carano, Richard A D; Ernst, James A; Solloway, Mark; Rubinfeld, Bonnee; Hannoush, Rami N; Wu, Yan; Polakis, Paul; Costa, Mike

    2010-01-01

    β-Catenin-dependent Wnt signaling is initiated as Wnt binds to both the receptor FZD and coreceptor LRP5/6, which then assembles a multimeric complex at the cytoplasmic membrane face to recruit and inactivate the kinase GSK3. The large number and sequence diversity of Wnt isoforms suggest the possibility of domain-specific ligand-coreceptor interactions, and distinct binding sites on LRP6 for Wnt3a and Wnt9b have recently been identified in vitro. Whether mechanistically different interactions between Wnts and coreceptors might mediate signaling remains to be determined. It is also not clear whether coreceptor homodimerization induced extracellularly can activate Wnt signaling, as is the case for receptor tyrosine kinases. We generated monoclonal antibodies against LRP6 with the unexpected ability to inhibit signaling by some Wnt isoforms and potentiate signaling by other isoforms. In cell culture, two antibodies characterized further show reciprocal activities on most Wnts, with one antibody antagonizing and the other potentiating. We demonstrate that these antibodies bind to different regions of LRP6 protein, and inhibition of signaling results from blocking Wnt binding. Antibody-mediated dimerization of LRP6 can potentiate signaling only when a Wnt isoform is also able to bind the complex, presumably recruiting FZD. Endogenous autocrine Wnt signaling in different tumor cell lines can be either antagonized or enhanced by the LRP6 antibodies, indicating expression of different Wnt isoforms. As anticipated from the roles of Wnt signaling in cancer and bone development, antibody activities can also be observed in mice for inhibition of tumor growth and in organ culture for enhancement of bone mineral density. Collectively, our results indicate that separate binding sites for different subsets of Wnt isoforms determine the inhibition or potentiation of signaling conferred by LRP6 antibodies. This complexity of coreceptor-ligand interactions may allow for

  17. Notch1 counteracts WNT/β-catenin signaling through chromatin modification in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-A; Koo, Bon-Kyoung; Cho, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Yoon-Young; Seong, Jinwoo; Chang, Hee Jin; Oh, Young Min; Stange, Daniel E.; Park, Jae-Gahb; Hwang, Daehee; Kong, Young-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Crosstalk between the Notch and wingless-type MMTV integration site (WNT) signaling pathways has been investigated for many developmental processes. However, this negative correlation between Notch and WNT/β-catenin signaling activity has been studied primarily in normal developmental and physiological processes in which negative feedback loops for both signaling pathways are intact. We found that Notch1 signaling retained the capability of suppressing the expression of WNT target genes in colorectal cancers even when β-catenin destruction by the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) complex was disabled. Activation of Notch1 converted high-grade adenoma into low-grade adenoma in an Apcmin mouse colon cancer model and suppressed the expression of WNT target genes in human colorectal cancer cells through epigenetic modification recruiting histone methyltransferase SET domain bifurcated 1 (SETDB1). Extensive microarray analysis of human colorectal cancers also showed a negative correlation between the Notch1 target gene, Notch-regulated ankyrin repeat protein 1 (NRARP), and WNT target genes. Notch is known to be a strong promoter of tumor initiation, but here we uncovered an unexpected suppressive role of Notch1 on WNT/β-catenin target genes involved in colorectal cancer. PMID:22863622

  18. Wnt5a-mediated non-canonical Wnt signalling regulates human endothelial cell proliferation and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng Chingwen Yeh Juching; Fan Taiping; Smith, Stephen K.; Charnock-Jones, D. Stephen

    2008-01-11

    Cell to cell interaction is one of the key processes effecting angiogenesis and endothelial cell function. Wnt signalling is mediated through cell-cell interaction and is involved in many developmental processes and cellular functions. In this study, we investigated the possible function of Wnt5a and the non-canonical Wnt pathway in human endothelial cells. We found that Wnt5a-mediated non-canonical Wnt signalling regulated endothelial cell proliferation. Blocking this pathway using antibody, siRNA or a down-stream inhibitor led to suppression of endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and monolayer wound closure. We also found that the mRNA level of Wnt5a is up-regulated when endothelial cells are treated with a cocktail of inflammatory cytokines. Our findings suggest non-canonical Wnt signalling plays a role in regulating endothelial cell growth and possibly in angiogenesis.

  19. Identification and characterization of a small-molecule inhibitor of Wnt signaling in glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    De Robertis, Alessandra; Valensin, Silvia; Rossi, Marco; Tunici, Patrizia; Verani, Margherita; De Rosa, Antonella; Giordano, Cinzia; Varrone, Maurizio; Nencini, Arianna; Pratelli, Carmela; Benicchi, Tiziana; Bakker, Annette; Hill, Jeffrey; Sangthongpitag, Kanda; Pendharkar, Vishal; Liu, Boping; Ng, Fui Mee; Then, Siew Wen; Jing Tai, Shi; Cheong, Seong-Moon; He, Xi; Caricasole, Andrea; Salerno, Massimiliano

    2013-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and prognostically unfavorable form of brain tumor. The aggressive and highly invasive phenotype of these tumors makes them among the most anatomically damaging human cancers with a median survival of less than 1 year. Although canonical Wnt pathway activation in cancers has been historically linked to the presence of mutations involving key components of the pathway (APC, β-catenin, or Axin proteins), an increasing number of studies suggest that elevated Wnt signaling in GBM is initiated by several alternative mechanisms that are involved in different steps of the disease. Therefore, inhibition of Wnt signaling may represent a therapeutically relevant approach for GBM treatment. After the selection of a GBM cell model responsive to Wnt inhibition, we set out to develop a screening approach for the identification of compounds capable of modulating canonical Wnt signaling and associated proliferative responses in GBM cells. Here, we show that the small molecule SEN461 inhibits the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in GBM cells, with relevant effects at both molecular and phenotypic levels in vitro and in vivo. These include SEN461-induced Axin stabilization, increased β-catenin phosphorylation/degradation, and inhibition of anchorage-independent growth of human GBM cell lines and patient-derived primary tumor cells in vitro. Moreover, in vivo administration of SEN461 antagonized Wnt signaling in Xenopus embryos and reduced tumor growth in a GBM xenograft model. These data represent the first demonstration that small-molecule-mediated inhibition of Wnt signaling may be a potential approach for GBM therapeutics. PMID:23619303

  20. Identification and characterization of a small molecule inhibitor of WNT signaling in glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    De Robertis, Alessandra; Valensin, Silvia; Rossi, Marco; Tunici, Patrizia; Verani, Margherita; De Rosa, Antonella; Giordano, Cinzia; Varrone, Maurizio; Nencini, Arianna; Pratelli, Carmela; Benicchi, Tiziana; Bakker, Annette; Hill, Jeffrey; Sangthongpitag, Kanda; Pendharkar, Vishal; Boping, Liu; Mee, Ng Fui; Wen, Then Siew; Jing, Tai Shi; Cheong, Seong-Moon; He, Xi; Caricasole, Andrea; Salerno, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and prognostically unfavorable form of brain tumor. The aggressive and highly invasive phenotype of these tumors makes them among the most anatomically damaging human cancers with a median survival of less than one year. Although canonical WNT pathway activation in cancers has been historically linked to the presence of mutations involving key components of the pathway (APC, β-CATENIN or AXIN proteins), an increasing number of studies suggest that elevated WNT signaling in GBM is initiated by several alternative mechanisms that are involved in different steps of the disease. Therefore, inhibition of WNT signaling may represent a therapeutically relevant approach for GBM treatment. After the selection of a GBM cell model responsive to WNT inhibition, we set out to develop a screening approach for the identification of compounds capable of modulating canonical WNT signaling and associated proliferative responses in GBM cells. Here we show that the small molecule SEN461 inhibits the canonical WNT signaling pathway in GBM cells, with relevant effects at both molecular and phenotypic levels in vitro and in vivo. These include SEN461-induced AXIN stabilization, increased β-CATENIN phosphorylation/degradation, and inhibition of anchorage-independent growth of human GBM cell lines and patient-derived primary tumor cells in vitro. Moreover, in vivo administration of SEN461 antagonized WNT signaling in Xenopus embryos and reduced tumor growth in a GBM xenograft model. These data represent the first demonstration that small molecule-mediated inhibition of WNT signaling may be a potential approach for GBM therapeutics. PMID:23619303

  1. Modular mechanism of Wnt signaling inhibition by Wnt inhibitory factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Malinauskas, Tomas; Aricescu, A. Radu; Lu, Weixian; Siebold, Christian; Jones, E. Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    Wnt morphogens control embryonic development and homeostasis in adult tissues. In vertebrates the N-terminal WIF domain (WIF-1WD) of Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF-1) binds Wnt ligands. Our crystal structure of WIF-1WD reveals a previously unidentified binding site for phospholipid; two acyl chains extend deep into the domain, and the head group is exposed to the surface. Biophysical and cellular assays indicate that there is a WIF-1WD Wnt-binding surface proximal to the lipid head group but also implicate the five epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains (EGFs I–V) in Wnt binding. The six-domain WIF-1 crystal structure shows that EGFs I–V are wrapped back, interfacing with WIF-1WD at EGF III. EGFs II–V contain a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG)-binding site, consistent with conserved positively charged residues on EGF IV. This combination of HSPG- and Wnt-binding properties suggests a modular model for the localization of WIF-1 and for signal inhibition within morphogen gradients. PMID:21743455

  2. Crosstalk between TGFβ and Wnt signaling pathways in the human trabecular meshwork.

    PubMed

    Webber, Hannah C; Bermudez, Jaclyn Y; Sethi, Anirudh; Clark, Abbot F; Mao, Weiming

    2016-07-01

    Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) is an irreversible, vision-threatening disease that affects millions worldwide. The principal risk factor of POAG is increased intraocular pressure (IOP) due to pathological changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM). The TGFβ signaling pathway activator TGFβ2 and the Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP1) are elevated in the POAG TM. In this study, we determined whether there is a crosstalk between the TGFβ/Smad pathway and the canonical Wnt pathway using luciferase reporter assays. Lentiviral luciferase reporter vectors for studying the TGFβ/Smad pathway or the canonical Wnt pathway were transduced into primary human non-glaucomatous TM (NTM) cells. Cells were treated with or without a combination of 5 μg/ml TGFβ2 and/or 100 ng/ml Wnt3a recombinant proteins, and luciferase levels were measured using a plate reader. We found that TGFβ2 inhibited Wnt3a-induced canonical Wnt pathway activation, while Wnt3a inhibited TGFβ2-induced TGFβ/Smad pathway activation (n = 6, p < 0.05) in 3 NTM cell strains. We also found that knocking down of Smad4 or β-catenin using siRNA in HTM5 cells transfected with similar luciferase reporter plasmids abolished the inhibitory effect of TGFβ2 and/or Wnt3a on the other pathway (n = 6). Our results suggest the existence of a cross-inhibition between the TGFβ/Smad and canonical Wnt pathways in the TM, and this cross-inhibition may be mediated by Smad4 and β-catenin. PMID:27091054

  3. Protein Kinase PKN1 Represses Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Human Melanoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    James, Richard G.; Bosch, Katherine A.; Kulikauskas, Rima M.; Yang, Peitzu T.; Robin, Nick C.; Toroni, Rachel A.; Biechele, Travis L.; Berndt, Jason D.; von Haller, Priska D.; Eng, Jimmy K.; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Chien, Andy J.; Moon, Randall T.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in phosphoproteomics have made it possible to monitor changes in protein phosphorylation that occur at different steps in signal transduction and have aided the identification of new pathway components. In the present study, we applied this technology to advance our understanding of the responses of melanoma cells to signaling initiated by the secreted ligand WNT3A. We started by comparing the phosphopeptide patterns of cells treated with WNT3A for different periods of time. Next, we integrated these data sets with the results from a siRNA screen that targeted protein kinases. This integration of siRNA screening and proteomics enabled us to identify four kinases that exhibit altered phosphorylation in response to WNT3A and that regulate a luciferase reporter of β-catenin-responsive transcription (β-catenin-activated reporter). We focused on one of these kinases, an atypical PKC kinase, protein kinase N1 (PKN1). Reducing the levels of PKN1 with siRNAs significantly enhances activation of β-catenin-activated reporter and increases apoptosis in melanoma cell lines. Using affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry, we then found that PKN1 is present in a protein complex with a WNT3A receptor, Frizzled 7, as well as with proteins that co-purify with Frizzled 7. These data establish that the protein kinase PKN1 inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling and sensitizes melanoma cells to cell death stimulated by WNT3A. PMID:24114839

  4. EGF-reduced Wnt5a transcription induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition via Arf6-ERK signaling in gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yujie; Du, Jun; Zheng, Jianchao; Liu, Jiaojing; Xu, Rui; Shen, Tian; Zhu, Yichao; Chang, Jun; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Zhihong; Meng, Fanqing; Wang, Yan; Chen, Yongchang; Xu, Yong; Gu, Luo

    2015-01-01

    Wnt5a, a ligand for activating the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway, is commonly associated with Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cell metastasis. Here, we show that downregulation of Wnt5a mRNA and protein by EGF is necessary for EGF-induced EMT in gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. To further explore the mechanisms, we investigated the effect of EGF signaling on Wnt5a expression. EGF increased Arf6 and ERK activity, while blockade of Arf6 activation repressed ERK activity, up-regulated Wnt5a expression and repressed EMT in response to EGF. We also demonstrate that EGF inactivated Wnt5a transcription by direct recruitment of ERK to the Wnt5a promoter. On the other hand, inhibition of ERK phosphorylation resulted in decreased movement of ERK from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, following rescued Wnt5a mRNA and protein expression and favored an epithelial phenotype of SGC-7901 cells. In addition, we notice that kinase-dead, nuclear-localised ERK has inhibitory effect on Wnt5a transcription. Analysis of gastric cancer specimens revealed an inverse correlation between P-ERK and Wnt5a protein levels and an association between Wnt5a expression and better prognosis. These findings indicate that Wnt5a is a potential suppressor of EMT and identify a novel Arf6/ERK signaling pathway for EGF-regulated Wnt5a expression at transcriptional level of gastric cancer cells. PMID:25779663

  5. Caught in a Wnt storm: Complexities of Wnt signaling in hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Staal, Frank J T; Chhatta, Amiet; Mikkers, Harald

    2016-06-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is an evolutionary conserved pathway that is involved in the development of almost every organ system in the body and provides self-renewal signals for most, if not all, adult stem cell systems. In recent years, this pathway has been studied by various research groups working on hematopoietic stem cells, resulting in contradicting conclusions. Here, we discuss and interpret the results of these studies and propose that Wnt dosage, the source of hematopoietic stem cells, and interactions with other pathways explain these disparate results. PMID:27016274

  6. Mechanism of Wnt signaling induced down regulation of mrhl long non-coding RNA in mouse spermatogonial cells

    PubMed Central

    Akhade, Vijay Suresh; Dighe, Shrinivas Nivrutti; Kataruka, Shubhangini; Rao, Manchanahalli R. Satyanarayana

    2016-01-01

    Long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of various biological processes. LncRNAs also behave as response elements or targets of signaling pathway(s) mediating cellular function. Wnt signaling is important in regulating mammalian spermatogenesis. Mrhl RNA negatively regulates canonical Wnt pathway and gets down regulated upon Wnt signaling activation in mouse spermatogonial cells. Also, mrhl RNA regulates expression of genes pertaining to Wnt pathway and spermatogenesis by binding to chromatin. In the present study, we delineate the detailed molecular mechanism of Wnt signaling induced mrhl RNA down regulation in mouse spermatogonial cells. Mrhl RNA has an independent transcription unit and our various experiments like Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (in cell line as well as mouse testis) and shRNA mediated down regulation convincingly show that β-catenin and TCF4, which are the key effector proteins of the Wnt signaling pathway are required for down regulation of mrhl RNA. We have identified Ctbp1 as the co-repressor and its occupancy on mrhl RNA promoter depends on both β-catenin and TCF4. Upon Wnt signaling activation, Ctbp1 mediated histone repression marks increase at the mrhl RNA promoter. We also demonstrate that Wnt signaling induced mrhl RNA down regulation results in an up regulation of various meiotic differentiation marker genes. PMID:26446991

  7. Mechanism of Wnt signaling induced down regulation of mrhl long non-coding RNA in mouse spermatogonial cells.

    PubMed

    Akhade, Vijay Suresh; Dighe, Shrinivas Nivrutti; Kataruka, Shubhangini; Rao, Manchanahalli R Satyanarayana

    2016-01-01

    Long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of various biological processes. LncRNAs also behave as response elements or targets of signaling pathway(s) mediating cellular function. Wnt signaling is important in regulating mammalian spermatogenesis. Mrhl RNA negatively regulates canonical Wnt pathway and gets down regulated upon Wnt signaling activation in mouse spermatogonial cells. Also, mrhl RNA regulates expression of genes pertaining to Wnt pathway and spermatogenesis by binding to chromatin. In the present study, we delineate the detailed molecular mechanism of Wnt signaling induced mrhl RNA down regulation in mouse spermatogonial cells. Mrhl RNA has an independent transcription unit and our various experiments like Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (in cell line as well as mouse testis) and shRNA mediated down regulation convincingly show that β-catenin and TCF4, which are the key effector proteins of the Wnt signaling pathway are required for down regulation of mrhl RNA. We have identified Ctbp1 as the co-repressor and its occupancy on mrhl RNA promoter depends on both β-catenin and TCF4. Upon Wnt signaling activation, Ctbp1 mediated histone repression marks increase at the mrhl RNA promoter. We also demonstrate that Wnt signaling induced mrhl RNA down regulation results in an up regulation of various meiotic differentiation marker genes. PMID:26446991

  8. Effect of Wnt-1 inducible signaling pathway protein-2 (WISP-2/CCN5), a downstream protein of Wnt signaling, on adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Inadera, Hidekuni Shimomura, Akiko; Tachibana, Shinjiro

    2009-02-20

    Wnt signaling negatively regulates adipocyte differentiation, and ectopic expression of Wnt-1 in 3T3-L1 cells induces several downstream molecules of Wnt signaling, including Wnt-1 inducible signaling pathway protein (WISP)-2. In this study, we examined the role of WISP-2 in the process of adipocyte differentiation using an in vitro cell culture system. In the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, WISP-2 expression was observed in growing cells and declined thereafter. In the mitotic clonal expansion phase of adipocyte differentiation, WISP-2 expression was transiently down-regulated concurrently with up-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein {delta} expression. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells in the differentiation medium with lithium, an activator of Wnt signaling, inhibited the differentiation process with concomitant induction of WISP-2. Treatment of differentiated cells with lithium induced de-differentiation as evidenced by profound reduction of peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor {gamma} expression and concomitant induction of WISP-2. However, de-differentiation of differentiated cells induced by tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} did not induce WISP-2 expression. To directly examine the effect of WISP-2 on adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were infected with a retrovirus carrying WISP-2. Although forced expression of WISP-2 inhibited preadipocyte proliferation, it had no effect on adipocyte differentiation. Thus, although WISP-2 is a downstream protein of Wnt signaling, the role of WISP-2 on adipocyte differentiation may be marginal, at least in this in vitro culture model.

  9. Ptk7 and Mcc, Unfancied Components in Non-Canonical Wnt Signaling and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Norris Ray; Tolwinski, Nicholas S

    2016-01-01

    Human development uses a remarkably small number of signal transduction pathways to organize vastly complicated tissues. These pathways are commonly associated with disease in adults if activated inappropriately. One such signaling pathway, Wnt, solves the too few pathways conundrum by having many alternate pathways within the Wnt network. The main or "canonical" Wnt pathway has been studied in great detail, and among its numerous downstream components, several have been identified as drug targets that have led to cancer treatments currently in clinical trials. In contrast, the non-canonical Wnt pathways are less well characterized, and few if any possible drug targets exist to tackle cancers caused by dysregulation of these Wnt offshoots. In this review, we focus on two molecules-Protein Tyrosine Kinase 7 (Ptk7) and Mutated in Colorectal Cancer (Mcc)-that do not fit perfectly into the non-canonical pathways described to date and whose roles in cancer are ill defined. We will summarize work from our laboratories as well as many others revealing unexpected links between these two proteins and Wnt signaling both in cancer progression and during vertebrate and invertebrate embryonic development. We propose that future studies focused on delineating the signaling machinery downstream of Ptk7 and Mcc will provide new, hitherto unanticipated drug targets to combat cancer metastasis. PMID:27438854

  10. Wnt5a Signals through DVL1 to Repress Ribosomal DNA Transcription by RNA Polymerase I.

    PubMed

    Dass, Randall A; Sarshad, Aishe A; Carson, Brittany B; Feenstra, Jennifer M; Kaur, Amanpreet; Obrdlik, Ales; Parks, Matthew M; Prakash, Varsha; Love, Damon K; Pietras, Kristian; Serra, Rosa; Blanchard, Scott C; Percipalle, Piergiorgio; Brown, Anthony M C; Vincent, C Theresa

    2016-08-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is essential for cell growth and proliferation and is commonly elevated in cancer. Accordingly, numerous oncogene and tumor suppressor signaling pathways target rRNA synthesis. In breast cancer, non-canonical Wnt signaling by Wnt5a has been reported to antagonize tumor growth. Here, we show that Wnt5a rapidly represses rDNA gene transcription in breast cancer cells and generates a chromatin state with reduced transcription of rDNA by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). These effects were specifically dependent on Dishevelled1 (DVL1), which accumulates in nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and binds to rDNA regions of the chromosome. Upon DVL1 binding, the Pol I transcription activator and deacetylase Sirtuin 7 (SIRT7) releases from rDNA loci, concomitant with disassembly of Pol I transcription machinery at the rDNA promoter. These findings reveal that Wnt5a signals through DVL1 to suppress rRNA transcription. This provides a novel mechanism for how Wnt5a exerts tumor suppressive effects and why disruption of Wnt5a signaling enhances mammary tumor growth in vivo. PMID:27500936

  11. Wnt5a Signals through DVL1 to Repress Ribosomal DNA Transcription by RNA Polymerase I

    PubMed Central

    Dass, Randall A.; Sarshad, Aishe A.; Feenstra, Jennifer M.; Kaur, Amanpreet; Pietras, Kristian; Serra, Rosa; Blanchard, Scott C.; Percipalle, Piergiorgio; Brown, Anthony M. C.; Vincent, C. Theresa

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is essential for cell growth and proliferation and is commonly elevated in cancer. Accordingly, numerous oncogene and tumor suppressor signaling pathways target rRNA synthesis. In breast cancer, non-canonical Wnt signaling by Wnt5a has been reported to antagonize tumor growth. Here, we show that Wnt5a rapidly represses rDNA gene transcription in breast cancer cells and generates a chromatin state with reduced transcription of rDNA by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). These effects were specifically dependent on Dishevelled1 (DVL1), which accumulates in nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and binds to rDNA regions of the chromosome. Upon DVL1 binding, the Pol I transcription activator and deacetylase Sirtuin 7 (SIRT7) releases from rDNA loci, concomitant with disassembly of Pol I transcription machinery at the rDNA promoter. These findings reveal that Wnt5a signals through DVL1 to suppress rRNA transcription. This provides a novel mechanism for how Wnt5a exerts tumor suppressive effects and why disruption of Wnt5a signaling enhances mammary tumor growth in vivo. PMID:27500936

  12. Ptk7 and Mcc, Unfancied Components in Non-Canonical Wnt Signaling and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Norris Ray; Tolwinski, Nicholas S.

    2016-01-01

    Human development uses a remarkably small number of signal transduction pathways to organize vastly complicated tissues. These pathways are commonly associated with disease in adults if activated inappropriately. One such signaling pathway, Wnt, solves the too few pathways conundrum by having many alternate pathways within the Wnt network. The main or “canonical” Wnt pathway has been studied in great detail, and among its numerous downstream components, several have been identified as drug targets that have led to cancer treatments currently in clinical trials. In contrast, the non-canonical Wnt pathways are less well characterized, and few if any possible drug targets exist to tackle cancers caused by dysregulation of these Wnt offshoots. In this review, we focus on two molecules—Protein Tyrosine Kinase 7 (Ptk7) and Mutated in Colorectal Cancer (Mcc)—that do not fit perfectly into the non-canonical pathways described to date and whose roles in cancer are ill defined. We will summarize work from our laboratories as well as many others revealing unexpected links between these two proteins and Wnt signaling both in cancer progression and during vertebrate and invertebrate embryonic development. We propose that future studies focused on delineating the signaling machinery downstream of Ptk7 and Mcc will provide new, hitherto unanticipated drug targets to combat cancer metastasis. PMID:27438854

  13. Regulation of CXCL12 expression by canonical Wnt signaling in bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Masato; Sato, Mari M; Nashimoto, Masayuki

    2011-05-01

    CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor-1, SDF-1), produced by stromal and endothelial cells including cells of the bone marrow, binds to its receptor CXCR4 and this axis regulates hematopoietic cell trafficking. Recently, osteoclast precursor cells were found to express CXCR4 and a potential role for the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis during osteoclast precursor cell recruitment/retention and development was proposed as a regulator of bone resorption. We examined the role of canonical Wnt signaling in regulating the expression of CXCL12 in bone marrow stromal cells. In mouse stromal ST2 cells, CXCL12 mRNA was expressed, while its expression was reduced in Wnt3a over-expressing ST2 (Wnt3a-ST2) cells or by treatment with lithium chloride (LiCl). Wnt3a decreased CXCL12 levels in culture supernatants from mouse bone marrow stromal cells. The culture supernatant from Wnt3a-ST2 cells also reduced migratory activity of bone marrow-derived cells in a Transwell migration assay. Silencing of glycogen synthase kinase-3β decreased CXCL12 expression, suggesting that the canonical Wnt signaling pathway regulates CXCL12 expression. In a transfection assay, LiCl down-regulated the activity of a reporter gene, a 1.8kb fragment of the 5'-flanking region of the CXCL12 gene. These results show that canonical Wnt signaling regulates CXCL12 gene expression at the transcriptional level, and this is the first study linking chemokine expression to canonical Wnt signaling. PMID:21296678

  14. Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays an ever-expanding role in stem cell self-renewal, tumorigenesis and cancer chemoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Maryam K.; Shao, Connie; Wang, Jing; Wei, Qiang; Wang, Xin; Collier, Zachary; Tang, Shengli; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Fugui; Huang, Jiayi; Guo, Dan; Lu, Minpeng; Liu, Feng; Liu, Jianxiang; Ma, Chao; Shi, Lewis L.; Athiviraham, Aravind; He, Tong-Chuan; Lee, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Wnt signaling transduces evolutionarily conserved pathways which play important roles in initiating and regulating a diverse range of cellular activities, including cell proliferation, calcium homeostasis, and cell polarity. The role of Wnt signaling in control of cell proliferation and stem cell self-renewal is primarily carried out through the canonical pathway, which is the best characterized among the multiple Wnt signaling branches. The past 10 years has seen a rapid expansion in our understanding of the complexity of this pathway, as many new components of Wnt signaling have been identified and linked to signaling regulation, stem cell functions, and adult tissue homeostasis. Additionally, a substantial body of evidence links Wnt signaling to tumorigenesis of many cancer types and implicates it in the development of cancer drug resistance. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanisms by which dysregulation of Wnt signaling precedes the development and progression of human cancer may hasten the development of pathway inhibitors to augment current therapy. This review summarizes and synthesizes our current knowledge of the canonical Wnt pathway in development and disease. We begin with an overview of the components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and delve into the role this pathway has been shown to play in stemness, tumorigenesis, and cancer drug resistance. Ultimately, we hope to present an organized collection of evidence implicating Wnt signaling in tumorigenesis and chemoresistance to facilitate the pursuit of Wnt pathway modulators that may improve outcomes of cancers in which Wnt signaling contributes to aggressive disease and/or treatment resistance. PMID:27077077

  15. Wnt Signaling in Cell Motility and Invasion: Drawing Parallels between Development and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sedgwick, Alanna E; D'Souza-Schorey, Crislyn

    2016-01-01

    The importance of canonical and non-canonical Wnt signal transduction cascades in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis is well recognized. The aberrant activation of these pathways in the adult leads to abnormal cellular behaviors, and tumor progression is frequently a consequence. Here we discuss recent findings and analogies between Wnt signaling in developmental processes and tumor progression, with a particular focus on cell motility and matrix invasion and highlight the roles of the ARF (ADP-Ribosylation Factor) and Rho-family small GTP-binding proteins. Wnt-regulated signal transduction from cell surface receptors, signaling endosomes and/or extracellular vesicles has the potential to profoundly influence cell movement, matrix degradation and paracrine signaling in both development and disease. PMID:27589803

  16. Wnt-signalling pathways and microRNAs network in carcinogenesis: experimental and bioinformatics approaches.

    PubMed

    Onyido, Emenike K; Sweeney, Eloise; Nateri, Abdolrahman Shams

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have not only emerged as integral regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level but also respond to signalling molecules to affect cell function(s). miRNAs crosstalk with a variety of the key cellular signalling networks such as Wnt, transforming growth factor-β and Notch, control stem cell activity in maintaining tissue homeostasis, while if dysregulated contributes to the initiation and progression of cancer. Herein, we overview the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the crosstalk between Wnt-signalling components (canonical and non-canonical) and miRNAs, as well as changes in the miRNA/Wnt-signalling components observed in the different forms of cancer. Furthermore, the fundamental understanding of miRNA-mediated regulation of Wnt-signalling pathway and vice versa has been significantly improved by high-throughput genomics and bioinformatics technologies. Whilst, these approaches have identified a number of specific miRNA(s) that function as oncogenes or tumour suppressors, additional analyses will be necessary to fully unravel the links among conserved cellular signalling pathways and miRNAs and their potential associated components in cancer, thereby creating therapeutic avenues against tumours. Hence, we also discuss the current challenges associated with Wnt-signalling/miRNAs complex and the analysis using the biomedical experimental and bioinformatics approaches. PMID:27590724

  17. Wnt signalling tunes neurotransmitter release by directly targeting Synaptotagmin-1

    PubMed Central

    Ciani, Lorenza; Marzo, Aude; Boyle, Kieran; Stamatakou, Eleanna; Lopes, Douglas M.; Anane, Derek; McLeod, Faye; Rosso, Silvana B.; Gibb, Alasdair; Salinas, Patricia C.

    2015-01-01

    The functional assembly of the synaptic release machinery is well understood; however, how signalling factors modulate this process remains unknown. Recent studies suggest that Wnts play a role in presynaptic function. To examine the mechanisms involved, we investigated the interaction of release machinery proteins with Dishevelled-1 (Dvl1), a scaffold protein that determines the cellular locale of Wnt action. Here we show that Dvl1 directly interacts with Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt-1) and indirectly with the SNARE proteins SNAP25 and Syntaxin (Stx-1). Importantly, the interaction of Dvl1 with Syt-1, which is regulated by Wnts, modulates neurotransmitter release. Moreover, presynaptic terminals from Wnt signalling-deficient mice exhibit reduced release probability and are unable to sustain high-frequency release. Consistently, the readily releasable pool size and formation of SNARE complexes are reduced. Our studies demonstrate that Wnt signalling tunes neurotransmitter release and identify Syt-1 as a target for modulation by secreted signalling proteins. PMID:26400647

  18. Wnt5a promotes migration of human osteosarcoma cells by triggering a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt signals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Wnt5a is classified as a non-transforming Wnt family member and plays complicated roles in oncogenesis and cancer metastasis. However, Wnt5a signaling in osteosarcoma progression remains poorly defined. In this study, we found that Wnt5a stimulated the migration of human osteosarcoma cells (MG-63), with the maximal effect at 100 ng/ml, via enhancing phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt. PI3K and Akt showed visible signs of basal phosphorylation and elevated phosphorylation at 15 min after stimulation with Wnt5a. Pharmaceutical inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 significantly blocked the Wnt5a-induced activation of Akt (p-Ser473) and decreased Wnt5a-induced cell migration. Akt siRNA remarkably inhibited Wnt5a-induced cell migration. Additionally, Wnt5a does not alter the total expression and phosphorylation of β-catenin in MG-63 cells. Taken together, we demonstrated for the first time that Wnt5a promoted osteosarcoma cell migration via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. These findings could provide a rationale for designing new therapy targeting osteosarcoma metastasis. PMID:24524196

  19. Specific functions of the Wnt signaling system in gene regulatory networks throughout the early sea urchin embryo

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Miao; Siriwon, Natnaree; Li, Enhu; Davidson, Eric H.; Peter, Isabelle S.

    2014-01-01

    Wnt signaling affects cell-fate specification processes throughout embryonic development. Here we take advantage of the well-studied gene regulatory networks (GRNs) that control pregastrular sea urchin embryogenesis to reveal the gene regulatory functions of the entire Wnt-signaling system. Five wnt genes, three frizzled genes, two secreted frizzled-related protein 1 genes, and two Dickkopf genes are expressed in dynamic spatial patterns in the pregastrular embryo of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We present a comprehensive analysis of these genes in each embryonic domain. Total functions of the Wnt-signaling system in regulatory gene expression throughout the embryo were studied by use of the Porcupine inhibitor C59, which interferes with zygotic Wnt ligand secretion. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of each expressed Wnt ligand demonstrated that individual Wnt ligands are functionally distinct, despite their partially overlapping spatial expression. They target specific embryonic domains and affect particular regulatory genes. The sum of the effects of blocking expression of individual wnt genes is shown to equal C59 effects. Remarkably, zygotic Wnt-signaling inputs are required for only three general aspects of embryonic specification: the broad activation of endodermal GRNs, the regional specification of the immediately adjacent stripe of ectoderm, and the restriction of the apical neurogenic domain. All Wnt signaling in this pregastrular embryo is short range (and/or autocrine). Furthermore, we show that the transcriptional drivers of wnt genes execute important specification functions in the embryonic domains targeted by the ligands, thus connecting the expression and function of wnt genes by encoded cross-regulatory interactions within the specific regional GRNs. PMID:25385617

  20. Wnt Signalling Promotes Actin Dynamics during Axon Remodelling through the Actin-Binding Protein Eps8

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Patricia C.

    2015-01-01

    Upon arrival at their synaptic targets, axons slow down their growth and extensively remodel before the assembly of presynaptic boutons. Wnt proteins are target-derived secreted factors that promote axonal remodelling and synaptic assembly. In the developing spinal cord, Wnts secreted by motor neurons promote axonal remodelling of NT-3 responsive dorsal root ganglia neurons. Axon remodelling induced by Wnts is characterised by growth cone pausing and enlargement, processes that depend on the re-organisation of microtubules. However, the contribution of the actin cytoskeleton has remained unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that Wnt3a regulates the actin cytoskeleton by rapidly inducing F-actin accumulation in growth cones from rodent DRG neurons through the scaffold protein Dishevelled-1 (Dvl1) and the serine-threonine kinase Gsk3β. Importantly, these changes in actin cytoskeleton occurs before enlargement of the growth cones is evident. Time-lapse imaging shows that Wnt3a increases lamellar protrusion and filopodia velocity. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of actin assembly demonstrates that Wnt3a increases actin dynamics. Through a yeast-two hybrid screen, we identified the actin-binding protein Eps8 as a direct interactor of Dvl1, a scaffold protein crucial for the Wnt signalling pathway. Gain of function of Eps8 mimics Wnt-mediated axon remodelling, whereas Eps8 silencing blocks the axon remodelling activity of Wnt3a. Importantly, blockade of the Dvl1-Eps8 interaction completely abolishes Wnt3a-mediated axonal remodelling. These findings demonstrate a novel role for Wnt-Dvl1 signalling through Eps8 in the regulation of axonal remodeling. PMID:26252776

  1. WNT5A-mediated β-catenin-independent signalling is a novel regulator of cancer cell metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Chaurasiya, Shivendra Kumar; Ekström, Elin J.; Guilmain, William; Andersson, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    WNT5A has been identified as an important ligand in the malignant progression of a number of tumours. Although WNT5A signalling is often altered in cancer, the ligand’s role as either a tumour suppressor or oncogene varies between tumour types and is a contemporary issue for investigators of β-catenin-independent WNT signalling in oncology. Here, we report that one of the initial effects of active WNT5A signalling in malignant melanoma cells is an alteration in cellular energy metabolism and specifically an increase in aerobic glycolysis. This was found to be at least in part due to an increase in active Akt signalling and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. The clinical relevance of these findings was strengthened by a strong correlation (P < 0.001) between the expression of WNT5A and LDH isoform V in a cohort of melanocytic neoplasms. We also found effects of WNT5A on energy metabolism in breast cancer cells, but rather than promoting aerobic glycolysis as it does in melanoma, WNT5A signalling increased oxidative phosphorylation rates in breast cancer cells. These findings support a new role for WNT5A in the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells that is a context- dependent event. PMID:24293407

  2. Norcantharidin inhibits Wnt signal pathway via promoter demethylation of WIF-1 in human non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Xie, Junran; Zhang, Yaping; Hu, Xuming; Lv, Ran; Xiao, Dongju; Jiang, Li; Bao, Qi

    2015-05-01

    Wingless-type (Wnt) family of secreted glycoproteins is a group of signal molecules implicated in oncogenesis. Abnormal activation of Wnt signal pathway is associated with a variety of human cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Wnt antagonists, such as the secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP) family, Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1) and cerberus, inhibit Wnt signal pathway by directly binding to Wnt molecules. Norcantharidin (NCTD) is known to possess anticancer activity but less nephrotoxicity than cantharidin. In this study, we found that NCTD inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, arrested cell cycle and suppressed cell invasion/migration in vitro. Additionally, Wnt signal pathway transcription was also suppressed. NCTD treatment blocked cytoplasmic translocation of beta-catenin into the nucleus. Alterations of apoptosis-related proteins, such as Bax, cleaved caspase-3 (pro-apoptotic) and Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic), had been detected. Furthermore, the expression levels of WIF-1 and SFRP1 were significantly increased in NCTD-treated groups compared with negative control (NC) groups. Abnormal methylation was observed in NC groups, while NCTD treatment promoted WIF-1 demethylation. The present study revealed that NCTD activated WIF-1 via promoter demethylation, inhibiting the canonical Wnt signal pathway in NSCLC, which may present a new therapeutic target in vivo. PMID:25814287

  3. Interactions between SOX factors and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in development and disease.

    PubMed

    Kormish, Jay D; Sinner, Débora; Zorn, Aaron M

    2010-01-01

    The SOX family of transcription factors have emerged as modulators of canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in diverse development and disease contexts. There are over 20 SOX proteins encoded in the vertebrate genome and recent evidence suggests that many of these can physically interact with beta-catenin and modulate the transcription of Wnt-target genes. The precise mechanisms by which SOX proteins regulate beta-catenin/TCF activity are still being resolved and there is evidence to support a number of models including: protein-protein interactions, the binding of SOX factors to Wnt-target gene promoters, the recruitment of co-repressors or co-activators, modulation of protein stability, and nuclear translocation. In some contexts, Wnt signaling also regulates SOX expression resulting in feedback regulatory loops that fine-tune cellular responses to beta-catenin/TCF activity. In this review, we summarize the examples of Sox-Wnt interactions and examine the underlying mechanisms of this potentially widespread and underappreciated mode of Wnt-regulation. PMID:19655378

  4. Canonical Wnt signaling maintains the quiescent stage of hepatic stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kordes, Claus Sawitza, Iris; Haeussinger, Dieter

    2008-02-29

    It is well known that hepatic stellate cells (HSC) develop into cells, which are thought to contribute to liver fibrogenesis. Recent data suggest that HSC are progenitor cells with the capacity to differentiate into cells of endothelial and hepatocyte lineages. The present study shows that {beta}-catenin-dependent canonical Wnt signaling is active in freshly isolated HSC of rats. Mimicking of the canonical Wnt pathway in cultured HSC by TWS119, an inhibitor of the glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta}, led to reduced {beta}-catenin phosphorylation, induced nuclear translocation of {beta}-catenin, elevated glutamine synthetase production, impeded synthesis of {alpha}-smooth muscle actin and Wnt5a, but promoted the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, Wnt10b, and paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2c. In addition, canonical Wnt signaling lowered DNA synthesis and hindered HSC from entering the cell cycle. The findings demonstrate that {beta}-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling maintains the quiescent state of HSC and, similar to stem and progenitor cells, influences their developmental fate.

  5. Wnt signaling through inhibition of β-catenin degradation in an intact Axin1 complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Vivian S W; Ng, Ser Sue; Boersema, Paul J; Low, Teck Y; Karthaus, Wouter R; Gerlach, Jan P; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J R; Maurice, Madelon M; Mahmoudi, Tokameh; Clevers, Hans

    2012-06-01

    Degradation of cytosolic β-catenin by the APC/Axin1 destruction complex represents the key regulated step of the Wnt pathway. It is incompletely understood how the Axin1 complex exerts its Wnt-regulated function. Here, we examine the mechanism of Wnt signaling under endogenous levels of the Axin1 complex. Our results demonstrate that β-catenin is not only phosphorylated inside the Axin1 complex, but also ubiquinated and degraded via the proteasome, all within an intact Axin1 complex. In disagreement with current views, we find neither a disassembly of the complex nor an inhibition of phosphorylation of Axin1-bound β-catenin upon Wnt signaling. Similar observations are made in primary intestinal epithelium and in colorectal cancer cell lines carrying activating Wnt pathway mutations. Wnt signaling suppresses β-catenin ubiquitination normally occurring within the complex, leading to complex saturation by accumulated phospho-β-catenin. Subsequently, newly synthesized β-catenin can accumulate in a free cytosolic form and engage nuclear TCF transcription factors. PMID:22682247

  6. Wnt-5a signaling restores tamoxifen sensitivity in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Caroline E.; Ekström, Elin J.; Andersson, Tommy

    2009-01-01

    One third of all breast cancers are estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) negative, carry a poor overall prognosis, and do not respond well to currently available endocrine therapies. New treatment strategies are therefore required. Loss of Wnt-5a has previously been correlated with loss of ERα in clinical breast cancer samples, and we sought to investigate this association further. Three breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and 4T1) lacking expression of ERα and Wnt-5a, and one breast cancer cell line (T47D) expressing both proteins were used in this study. Wnt-5a signaling was generated in ERα-negative cell lines via stimulation with either recombinant Wnt-5a protein or a Wnt-5a-derived hexapeptide (Foxy-5) possessing Wnt-5a signaling properties. ERα expression was restored at both mRNA and protein level, after treatment with recombinant Wnt-5a or Foxy-5. This restoration of expression occurred in parallel with a reduction in methylation of the ERα promoter. Up-regulated ERα could be activated, initiate transcription of progesterone receptor and pS2, and activate an estrogen response element reporter construct. Significantly, breast cancer cells re-expressing ERα responded to treatment with the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen, as measured by induction of apoptosis and cell growth inhibition. Finally, Foxy-5 also increased ERα expression in an in vivo model of ERα-negative breast cancer. This represents the first evidence that Wnt-5a signaling acts to re-establish ERα expression in ERα-negative breast cancer cells. Our data suggest that combinatorial therapy with Foxy-5 and tamoxifen should be considered as a future treatment possibility for ERα-negative breast cancer patients. PMID:19237581

  7. Cell cycle control of Wnt/β-catenin signalling by conductin/axin2 through CDC20

    PubMed Central

    Hadjihannas, Michel V; Bernkopf, Dominic B; Brückner, Martina; Behrens, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signalling regulates cell proliferation by modulating the cell cycle and is negatively regulated by conductin/axin2/axil. We show that conductin levels peak at G2/M followed by a rapid decline during return to G1. In line with this, Wnt/β-catenin target genes are low at G2/M and high at G1/S, and β-catenin phosphorylation oscillates during the cell cycle in a conductin-dependent manner. Conductin is degraded by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome cofactor CDC20. Knockdown of CDC20 blocks Wnt signalling through conductin. CDC20-resistant conductin inhibits Wnt signalling and attenuates colony formation of colorectal cancer cells. We propose that CDC20-mediated degradation of conductin regulates Wnt/β-catenin signalling for maximal activity during G1/S. PMID:22322943

  8. GATA2 regulates Wnt signaling to promote primitive red blood cell fate.

    PubMed

    Mimoto, Mizuho S; Kwon, Sunjong; Green, Yangsook Song; Goldman, Devorah; Christian, Jan L

    2015-11-01

    Primitive erythropoiesis is regulated in a non cell-autonomous fashion across evolution from frogs to mammals. In Xenopus laevis, signals from the overlying ectoderm are required to induce the mesoderm to adopt an erythroid fate. Previous studies in our lab identified the transcription factor GATA2 as a key regulator of this ectodermal signal. To identify GATA2 target genes in the ectoderm required for red blood cell formation in the mesoderm, we used microarray analysis to compare gene expression in ectoderm from GATA2 depleted and wild type embryos. Our analysis identified components of the non-canonical and canonical Wnt pathways as being reciprocally up- and down-regulated downstream of GATA2 in both mesoderm and ectoderm. We show that up-regulation of canonical Wnt signaling during gastrulation blocks commitment to a hematopoietic fate while down-regulation of non-canonical Wnt signaling impairs erythroid differentiation. Our results are consistent with a model in which GATA2 contributes to inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling, thereby permitting progenitors to exit the cell cycle and commit to a hematopoietic fate. Subsequently, activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling plays a later role in enabling these progenitors to differentiate as mature red blood cells. PMID:26365900

  9. Inhibition of oncogenic Wnt signaling through direct targeting of β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Tom N.; Yeh, Johannes T.-H.; Bowman, Brian R.; Chu, Qian; Moellering, Raymond E.; Verdine, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant activation of signaling by the Wnt pathway is strongly implicated in the onset and progression of numerous types of cancer. Owing to the persistent dependence of these tumors on Wnt signaling for growth and survival, inhibition of this pathway is considered an attractive mechanism-based therapeutic approach. Oncogenic activation of Wnt signaling can ensue from a variety of distinct aberrations in the signaling pathway, but most share the common feature of causing increased cellular levels of β-catenin by interfering with its constitutive degradation. β-Catenin serves as a central hub in Wnt signaling by engaging in crucial protein–protein interactions with both negative and positive effectors of the pathway. Direct interference with these protein–protein interactions is a biologically compelling approach toward suppression of β-catenin hyperactivity, but such interactions have proven intransigent with respect to small-molecule targeting. Hence β-catenin remains an elusive target for translational cancer therapy. Here we report the discovery of a hydrocarbon-stapled peptide that directly targets β-catenin and interferes with its ability to serve as a transcriptional coactivator for T-cell factor (TCF) proteins, the downstream transcriptional regulators of the Wnt pathway. PMID:23071338

  10. Control of Wnt Receptor Turnover by R-spondin-ZNRF3/RNF43 Signaling Module and Its Dysregulation in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Huai-Xiang; Jiang, Xiaomo; Cong, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is frequently found in various cancers, often through mutations of downstream components. Inhibiting β-catenin signaling in tumors with downstream pathway mutations remains challenging, due to a lack of favorable targets. On the other hand, targeting upstream components of the Wnt pathway is rather straightforward. However, it is difficult to identify tumors addicted to autocrine or paracrine Wnt signaling. Discovery of the R-spondin-ZNRF3/RNF43 signaling module and its genetic alterations in cancers represents a breakthrough in this area. Membrane E3 ligase ZNRF3 and RNF43 are critical negative feedback regulators of the Wnt pathway, which function through promoting ubiquitination and degradation of Wnt receptors. R-spondin proteins (RSPO1-4) serve as natural antagonists of ZNRF3/RNF43. To maintain strong and sustained Wnt/β-catenin signaling, cancers need to overcome ZNRF3/RNF43-mediated feedback inhibition. Indeed, mutations of RNF43/ZNRF3 and recurrent translocations of RSPO2/RSPO3 have recently been identified in various cancers. Significantly, genetic alterations in RNF43/ZNRF3/RSPO2/RSPO3 have shown promise as predictive biomarkers in pre-clinical models for the efficacy of upstream Wnt inhibitors. In this review, we will discuss the biology of the R-spondin-ZNRF3/RNF43 signaling module, cancer-associated alterations of this signaling module, and their value as biomarkers to identify Wnt-addicted tumors. PMID:27338477

  11. A divergent canonical WNT-signaling pathway regulates microtubule dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ciani, Lorenza; Krylova, Olga; Smalley, Matthew J.; Dale, Trevor C.; Salinas, Patricia C.

    2004-01-01

    Dishevelled (DVL) is associated with axonal microtubules and regulates microtubule stability through the inhibition of the serine/threonine kinase, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β). In the canonical WNT pathway, the negative regulator Axin forms a complex with β-catenin and GSK-3β, resulting in β-catenin degradation. Inhibition of GSK-3β by DVL increases β-catenin stability and TCF transcriptional activation. Here, we show that Axin associates with microtubules and unexpectedly stabilizes microtubules through DVL. In turn, DVL stabilizes microtubules by inhibiting GSK-3β through a transcription- and β-catenin–independent pathway. More importantly, axonal microtubules are stabilized after DVL localizes to axons. Increased microtubule stability is correlated with a decrease in GSK-3β–mediated phosphorylation of MAP-1B. We propose a model in which Axin, through DVL, stabilizes microtubules by inhibiting a pool of GSK-3β, resulting in local changes in the phosphorylation of cellular targets. Our data indicate a bifurcation in the so-called canonical WNT-signaling pathway to regulate microtubule stability. PMID:14734535

  12. Wingless/Wnt signaling in Drosophila: the pattern and the pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bejsovec, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Summary Wnt signaling generates pattern in all embryos, from flies and worms to humans, and promotes the undifferentiated, proliferative state critical for stem cells in adult tissues. Inappropriate Wnt pathway activation is the major cause of colorectal cancers, a leading cause of cancer death. Although this pathway has been studied extensively for years, large gaps remain in our understanding of how it switches on and off, and how its activation changes cellular behaviors. Much of what is known about the pathway comes from genetic studies in Drosophila, where a single Wnt molecule, encoded by wingless (wg), directs an array of cell fate decisions similar to those made by the combined activities of all 19 Wnt family members in vertebrates. Although Wg specifies fate in many tissues, including the brain, limbs and major organs, the fly embryonic epidermis has proven to be a very powerful system for dissecting pathway activity. It is a simple, accessible tissue, with a pattern that is highly sensitive to small changes in Wg pathway activity. This review discusses what we have learned about Wnt signaling from studying mutations that disrupt epidermal pattern in the fly embryo, highlights recent advances and controversies in the field, and sets these issues in the context of questions that remain about how this essential signaling pathway functions. PMID:24038436

  13. Emerging roles of microRNAs in the Wnt signaling network.

    PubMed

    Schepeler, Troels

    2013-01-01

    The Wnt signaling network is known to regulate many cellular processes and is of crucial importance during development and in pathological conditions, including cancer. Small noncoding RNAs from the microRNA family (miRNAs) are important elements in the post-transcriptional control of gene expression. In this work, I review the cross talk between miRNAs and the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in various biological processes with particular emphasis on carcinogenesis. Because alterations of miRNA activity and aberrant Wnt signaling are each intimately linked to tumor biology, deciphering the complex interplay between these two regulatory modules is essential to advance our understanding of the integrated functions of miRNAs in signal transduction cascades and develop rational treatment regimens against cancer. PMID:23614621

  14. Concurrent Transient Activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin Pathway Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands

    SciTech Connect

    Hai Bo; Yang Zhenhua; Shangguan Lei; Zhao Yanqiu; Boyer, Arthur; Liu, Fei

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Many head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explored the potential of transient activation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials: Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single-dose radiation in the head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary glands. Transient Wnt1 overexpression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before together with, after, or without local radiation, and then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity, and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of the Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects, mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis, likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene PUMA while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion: These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction.

  15. Wnt signalling: the case of the 'missing' G-protein.

    PubMed

    Malbon, Craig C

    2011-02-01

    Wnt signalling remains a hot topic for cell signalling sleuthhounds. The trail of signalling downstream of the seven-transmembrane segment Frizzleds, which bind Wnt ligands, is replete of clues [e.g. LPR5/6 (lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5/6), G-proteins or Dishevelled] and yet remains the 'final problem'. Although the heptahelical nature of Frizzleds places them well within a populous family of G-protein-coupled receptors, resistance to this theme has waxed and waned amid increasing demands for 'proof'. The Wnt Homepage (http://www.stanford.edu/group/nusselab/cgi-bin/wnt/) has acted as a dynamic real-time arbiter of the controversy, highlighted by the appearance and later the disappearance of the G-protein from its central diagramming and tabulations. A recent publication in this issue of the Biochemical Journal offers a solution to the 'final problem', demonstrating under native conditions that Frizzleds expressed in mammalian brain preparations act functionally to catalyse guanine-nucleotide exchange in response to stimulation with Wnt3a. Lensed from the fictional character of Sherlock Holmes, The Case of the Missing G-Protein is investigated. PMID:21235522

  16. β-Catenin, a Transcription Factor Activated by Canonical Wnt Signaling, Is Expressed in Sensory Neurons of Calves Latently Infected with Bovine Herpesvirus 1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yilin; Hancock, Morgan; Workman, Aspen; Doster, Alan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Like many Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily members, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) expresses an abundant transcript in latently infected sensory neurons, the latency-related (LR)-RNA. LR-RNA encodes a protein (ORF2) that inhibits apoptosis, interacts with Notch family members, interferes with Notch-mediated transcription, and stimulates neurite formation in cells expressing Notch. An LR mutant virus containing stop codons at the amino terminus of ORF2 does not reactivate from latency or replicate efficiently in certain tissues, indicating that LR gene products are important. In this study, β-catenin, a transcription factor activated by the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, was frequently detected in ORF2-positive trigeminal ganglionic neurons of latently infected, but not mock-infected, calves. Conversely, the lytic cycle regulatory protein (BoHV-1 infected cell protein 0, or bICP0) was not frequently detected in β-catenin-positive neurons in latently infected calves. During dexamethasone-induced reactivation from latency, mRNA expression levels of two Wnt antagonists, Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) and secreted Frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2), were induced in bovine trigeminal ganglia (TG), which correlated with reduced β-catenin protein expression in TG neurons 6 h after dexamethasone treatment. ORF2 and a coactivator of β-catenin, mastermind-like protein 1 (MAML1), stabilized β-catenin protein levels and stimulated β-catenin-dependent transcription in mouse neuroblastoma cells more effectively than MAML1 or ORF2 alone. Neuroblastoma cells expressing ORF2, MAML1, and β-catenin were highly resistant to cell death following serum withdrawal, whereas most cells transfected with only one of these genes died. The Wnt signaling pathway interferes with neurodegeneration but promotes neuronal differentiation, suggesting that stabilization of β-catenin expression by ORF2 promotes neuronal survival and differentiation. IMPORTANCE Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is an

  17. CACN-1/Cactin Plays a Role in Wnt Signaling in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    LaBonty, Melissa; Szmygiel, Cleo; Byrnes, Lauren E.; Hughes, Samantha; Woollard, Alison; Cram, Erin J.

    2014-01-01

    Wnt signaling is tightly regulated during animal development and controls cell proliferation and differentiation. In C. elegans, activation of Wnt signaling alters the activity of the TCF/LEF transcription factor, POP-1, through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin or Wnt/β-catenin asymmetry pathways. In this study, we have identified CACN-1 as a potential regulator of POP-1 in C. elegans larval development. CACN-1/Cactin is a well-conserved protein of unknown molecular function previously implicated in the regulation of several developmental signaling pathways. Here we have used activation of POPTOP, a POP-1-responsive reporter construct, as a proxy for Wnt signaling. POPTOP requires POP-1 and SYS-1/β-catenin for activation in L4 uterine cells. RNAi depletion experiments show that CACN-1 is needed to prevent excessive activation of POPTOP and for proper levels and/or localization of POP-1. Surprisingly, high POPTOP expression correlates with increased levels of POP-1 in uterine nuclei, suggesting POPTOP may not mirror endogenous gene expression in all respects. Genetic interaction studies suggest that CACN-1 may act partially through LIT-1/NLK to alter POP-1 localization and POPTOP activation. Additionally, CACN-1 is required for proper proliferation of larval seam cells. Depletion of CACN-1 results in a loss of POP-1 asymmetry and reduction of terminal seam cell number, suggesting an adoption of the anterior, differentiated fate by the posterior daughter cells. These findings suggest CACN-1/Cactin modulates Wnt signaling during larval development. PMID:24999833

  18. Skeletal metastasis: treatments, mouse models, and the Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Valkenburg, Kenneth C.; Steensma, Matthew R.; Williams, Bart O.; Zhong, Zhendong

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal metastases result in significant morbidity and mortality. This is particularly true of cancers with a strong predilection for the bone, such as breast, prostate, and lung cancers. There is currently no reliable cure for skeletal metastasis, and palliative therapy options are limited. The Wnt signaling pathway has been found to play an integral role in the process of skeletal metastasis and may be an important clinical target. Several experimental models of skeletal metastasis have been used to find new biomarkers and test new treatments. In this review, we discuss pathologic process of bone metastasis, the roles of the Wnt signaling, and the available experimental models and treatments. PMID:23327798

  19. Cerasoidine, a Bis-aporphine Alkaloid Isolated from Polyalthia cerasoides during Screening for Wnt Signal Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shono, Takumi; Ishikawa, Naoki; Toume, Kazufumi; Arai, Midori A; Masu, Hyuma; Koyano, Takashi; Kowithayakorn, Thaworn; Ishibashi, Masami

    2016-08-26

    A new bis-aporphine alkaloid, cerasoidine (1), was isolated from the root extract of Polyalthia cerasoides together with the known bis-aporphine bidebiline E (2) during screening for compounds with Wnt signal inhibitory activities. The structure of cerasoidine (1) was established by X-ray analysis and shown by chiral HPLC analyses and electronic circular dichroism to be a 57:43 mixture of R(-)- and S(+)-atropisomers. Bidebiline E (2) exhibited inhibition of transcriptional activity of TCF/β-catenin with an IC50 value of 20.2 μM and was also found to inhibit Wnt signaling by decreasing nuclear β-catenin. PMID:27490091

  20. Methylation-mediated loss of SFRP2 enhances melanoma cell invasion via Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaoji; Wei, Bin; Chen, Aijun; Zhao, Hengguang; Huang, Kun; Chen, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays an essential role in the initiation and progression of melanoma tumors. The Secreted Frizzled Related Proteins (SFRPs) are a family of proteins that suppress Wnt signaling. The methylation of SFRPs reduces their activity, and hence augments Wnt signaling. However, whether the methylation of SFRP2, a member of SFRPs, may be involved in the pathogenesis of melanoma is not known. Here we investigated the expression levels of SFRP2 in melanoma specimens. We found that SFRP2 mRNA wassignificantly decreased and methylation of SFRP2 gene was significantly increased in malignant melanoma tumors ascompared to the paired adjacent non-tumor tissue. Moreover, SFRP2 expression was significantly decreased in the malignant melanoma celllines, HTB63, A2058 and A375, but not in the non-transformed melanocyte cell line, Hermes 3A. The demethylation of SFRP2 gene by 5'-aza-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dCyd) in melanoma cell lines restored SFRP2 expression, at both mRNA and protein levels, and suppressed cell invasion. Furthermore, the demethylation of SFRP2 geneappeared to inhibit nuclear retention of a key Wnt signaling factor, β-catenin, in melanoma cell lines. Together, these data suggest that SFRP2may function as a melanoma invasion suppressor byinterfering with Wnt signaling, and the methylation of SFRP2 gene may promote pathogenesis of melanoma. PMID:27186276

  1. Methylation-mediated loss of SFRP2 enhances melanoma cell invasion via Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaoji; Wei, Bin; Chen, Aijun; Zhao, Hengguang; Huang, Kun; Chen, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays an essential role in the initiation and progression of melanoma tumors. The Secreted Frizzled Related Proteins (SFRPs) are a family of proteins that suppress Wnt signaling. The methylation of SFRPs reduces their activity, and hence augments Wnt signaling. However, whether the methylation of SFRP2, a member of SFRPs, may be involved in the pathogenesis of melanoma is not known. Here we investigated the expression levels of SFRP2 in melanoma specimens. We found that SFRP2 mRNA wassignificantly decreased and methylation of SFRP2 gene was significantly increased in malignant melanoma tumors ascompared to the paired adjacent non-tumor tissue. Moreover, SFRP2 expression was significantly decreased in the malignant melanoma celllines, HTB63, A2058 and A375, but not in the non-transformed melanocyte cell line, Hermes 3A. The demethylation of SFRP2 gene by 5’-aza-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dCyd) in melanoma cell lines restored SFRP2 expression, at both mRNA and protein levels, and suppressed cell invasion. Furthermore, the demethylation of SFRP2 geneappeared to inhibit nuclear retention of a key Wnt signaling factor, β-catenin, in melanoma cell lines. Together, these data suggest that SFRP2may function as a melanoma invasion suppressor byinterfering with Wnt signaling, and the methylation of SFRP2 gene may promote pathogenesis of melanoma. PMID:27186276

  2. Potent and Selective CK2 Kinase Inhibitors with Effects on Wnt Pathway Signaling in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Dowling, James E; Alimzhanov, Marat; Bao, Larry; Chuaqui, Claudio; Denz, Christopher R; Jenkins, Emma; Larsen, Nicholas A; Lyne, Paul D; Pontz, Timothy; Ye, Qing; Holdgate, Geoff A; Snow, Lindsay; O'Connell, Nichole; Ferguson, Andrew D

    2016-03-10

    The Wnt pathway is an evolutionarily conserved and tightly regulated signaling network with important roles in embryonic development and adult tissue regeneration. Impaired Wnt pathway regulation, arising from mutations in Wnt signaling components, such as Axin, APC, and β-catenin, results in uncontrolled cell growth and triggers oncogenesis. To explore the reported link between CK2 kinase activity and Wnt pathway signaling, we sought to identify a potent, selective inhibitor of CK2 suitable for proof of concept studies in vivo. Starting from a pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine lead (2), we identified compound 7h, a potent CK2 inhibitor with picomolar affinity that is highly selectivity against other kinase family enzymes and inhibits Wnt pathway signaling (IC50 = 50 nM) in DLD-1 cells. In addition, compound 7h has physicochemical properties that are suitable for formulation as an intravenous solution, has demonstrated good pharmacokinetics in preclinical species, and exhibits a high level of activity as a monotherapy in HCT-116 and SW-620 xenografts. PMID:26985319

  3. Membrane-anchored Plakoglobins Have Multiple Mechanisms of Action in Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Klymkowsky, Michael W.; Williams, Bart O.; Barish, Grant D.; Varmus, Harold E.; Vourgourakis, Yanni E.

    1999-01-01

    In Wnt signaling, β-catenin and plakoglobin transduce signals to the nucleus through interactions with TCF-type transcription factors. However, when plakoglobin is artificially engineered to restrict it to the cytoplasm by fusion with the transmembrane domain of connexin (cnxPg), it efficiently induces a Wnt-like axis duplication phenotype in Xenopus. In Xenopus embryos, maternal XTCF3 normally represses ventral expression of the dorsalizing gene Siamois. Two models have been proposed to explain the Wnt-like activity of cnxPg: 1) that cnxPg inhibits the machinery involved in the turnover of cytosolic β-catenin, which then accumulates and inhibits maternal XTCF3, and 2) that cnxPg directly acts to inhibit XTCF3 activity. To distinguish between these models, we created a series of N-terminal deletion mutations of cnxPg and examined their ability to induce an ectopic axis in Xenopus, activate a TCF-responsive reporter (OT), stabilize β-catenin, and colocalize with components of the Wnt signaling pathway. cnxPg does not colocalize with the Wnt pathway component Dishevelled, but it does lead to the redistribution of APC and Axin, two proteins involved in the regulation of β-catenin turnover. Expression of cnxPg increases levels of cytosolic β-catenin; however, this effect does not completely explain its signaling activity. Although cnxPg and Wnt-1 stabilize β-catenin to similar extents, cnxPg activates OT to 10- to 20-fold higher levels than Wnt-1. Moreover, although LEF1 and TCF4 synergize with β-catenin and plakoglobin to activate OT, both suppress the signaling activity of cnxPg. In contrast, XTCF3 suppresses the signaling activity of both β-catenin and cnxPg. Both exogenous XLEF1 and XTCF3 are sequestered in the cytoplasm of Xenopus cells by cnxPg. Based on these data, we conclude that, in addition to its effects on β-catenin, cnxPg interacts with other components of the Wnt pathway, perhaps TCFs, and that these interactions contribute to its signaling

  4. How the Wnt signaling pathway protects from neurodegeneration: the mitochondrial scenario.

    PubMed

    Arrázola, Macarena S; Silva-Alvarez, Carmen; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. One of the hallmarks of AD is the overproduction of amyloid-beta aggregates that range from the toxic soluble oligomer (Aβo) form to extracellular accumulations in the brain. Growing evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature of neurodegenerative diseases and is observed at an early stage in the pathogenesis of AD. Reports indicate that mitochondrial structure and function are affected by Aβo and can trigger neuronal cell death. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles, and the balance between their fusion and fission processes is essential for neuronal function. Interestingly, in AD, the process known as "mitochondrial dynamics" is also impaired by Aβo. On the other hand, the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway has an essential role in synaptic maintenance and neuronal functions, and its deregulation has also been implicated in AD. We have demonstrated that canonical Wnt signaling, through the Wnt3a ligand, prevents the permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes through the inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), induced by Aβo. In addition, we showed that non-canonical Wnt signaling, through the Wnt5a ligand, protects mitochondria from fission-fusion alterations in AD. These results suggest new approaches by which different Wnt signaling pathways protect neurons in AD, and support the idea that mitochondria have become potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Here we discuss the neuroprotective role of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways in AD and their differential modulation of mitochondrial processes, associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration. PMID:25999816

  5. How the Wnt signaling pathway protects from neurodegeneration: the mitochondrial scenario

    PubMed Central

    Arrázola, Macarena S.; Silva-Alvarez, Carmen; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. One of the hallmarks of AD is the overproduction of amyloid-beta aggregates that range from the toxic soluble oligomer (Aβo) form to extracellular accumulations in the brain. Growing evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature of neurodegenerative diseases and is observed at an early stage in the pathogenesis of AD. Reports indicate that mitochondrial structure and function are affected by Aβo and can trigger neuronal cell death. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles, and the balance between their fusion and fission processes is essential for neuronal function. Interestingly, in AD, the process known as “mitochondrial dynamics” is also impaired by Aβo. On the other hand, the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway has an essential role in synaptic maintenance and neuronal functions, and its deregulation has also been implicated in AD. We have demonstrated that canonical Wnt signaling, through the Wnt3a ligand, prevents the permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes through the inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), induced by Aβo. In addition, we showed that non-canonical Wnt signaling, through the Wnt5a ligand, protects mitochondria from fission-fusion alterations in AD. These results suggest new approaches by which different Wnt signaling pathways protect neurons in AD, and support the idea that mitochondria have become potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Here we discuss the neuroprotective role of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways in AD and their differential modulation of mitochondrial processes, associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration. PMID:25999816

  6. ALCAR Exerts Neuroprotective and Pro-Neurogenic Effects by Inhibition of Glial Activation and Oxidative Stress via Activation of the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Parkinsonian Rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sonu; Mishra, Akanksha; Shukla, Shubha

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are known causative factors in progressive degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Neural stem cells (NSCs) contribute in maintaining brain plasticity; therefore, survival of NSCs and neuroblasts during neurodegenerative process becomes important in replenishing the pool of mature neuronal population. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), present in almost all body cells, increases endogenous antioxidants and regulates bioenergetics. Currently, no information is available about the putative mechanism and neuroprotective effects of ALCAR in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced rat model of PD-like phenotypes. Herein, we investigated the effect of ALCAR on death/survival of DAergic neurons, neuroblasts and NSCs and associates mechanism of neuroprotection in 6-OHDA-induced rat model of PD-like phenotypes. ALCAR (100 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal (i.p.)) treatment started 3 days prior to 6-OHDA lesioning and continued for another 14 day post-lesioning. We found that ALCAR pretreatment in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats increased expression of neurogenic and the Wnt pathway genes in the striatum and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) region. It suppressed the glial cell activation, improved antioxidant status, increased NSC/neuroblast population and rescued the DAergic neurons in nigrostriatal pathway. ALCAR pretreatment in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats decreased GSK-3β activation and increased nuclear translocation of β-catenin. Functional deficits were restored following ALCAR pretreatment in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats as demonstrated by improved motor coordination and rotational behaviour, confirming protection of DAergic innervations in lesioned striatum. These results indicate that ALCAR exerts neuroprotective effects through the activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, suggesting its therapeutic use to treat neurodegenerative diseases by enhancing regenerative capacity. PMID:26223802

  7. Biphasic modulation of Wnt signaling supports efficient foregut endoderm formation from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hoepfner, Jeannine; Kleinsorge, Mandy; Papp, Oliver; Ackermann, Mania; Alfken, Susanne; Rinas, Ursula; Solodenko, Wladimir; Kirschning, Andreas; Sgodda, Malte; Cantz, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells) are of great promise in regenerative medicine, including molecular studies of disease mechanisms, if the affected cell type can be authentically generated during in vitro differentiation. Most existing protocols aim to mimic embryonic development steps by the supplementation of specific cytokines and small molecules, but the involved signaling pathways need further exploration. In this study, we investigated enhanced initial activation of Wnt signaling for definitive endoderm formation and subsequent rapid shutdown of Wnt signaling for proper foregut endoderm specification using 3 μM CHIR99021 and 0.5 μg/mL of secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (sFRP-5) for biphasic modulation of the Wnt pathway. The definitive endoderm and foregut endoderm differentiation capabilities of Wnt pathway-modulated cells were determined based on the expression levels of the endodermal transcription factors SOX17 and FOXA2 and those of the transcription activator GATA4 and the α-fetoprotein (AFP) gene, respectively. Furthermore, the resulting biphasic Wnt pathway modulation was investigated at the protein level by analyzing phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) and β-catenin. Finally, Wnt target gene expression was determined using an improved lentiviral reporter construct that enabled robust T-cell transcription factor 4 (TCF4)/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1)-mediated luciferase expression in differentiating pluripotent stem cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated robust, homogeneous, and efficient derivation of foregut endodermal cells by inducing a biphasic modulation of the Wnt signaling pathway. PMID:26861571

  8. Mesenchymal Wnt Signaling Promotes Formation of Sternum and Thoracic Body Wall

    PubMed Central

    Snowball, John; Ambalavanan, Manoj; Cornett, Bridget; Lang, Richard; Whitsett, Jeff; Sinner, Debora

    2015-01-01

    Midline defects account for approximately 5% of congenital abnormalities observed at birth. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of the ventral body wall are not well understood. Recent studies linked mutations in Porcupine—an O-acetyl transferase mediating Wnt ligand acylation—with defects in the thoracic body wall. We hypothesized that anomalous Wnt signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of defective closure of the thoracic body wall. We generated a mouse model wherein Wntless (Wls), which encodes a cargo receptor mediating secretion of Wnt ligands, was conditionally deleted from the developing mesenchyme using Dermo1Cre mice. Wlsf/f;Dermo1Cre/+ embryos died during mid-gestation. At E13.5, skeletal defects were observed in the forelimbs, jaw, and rib cage. At E14.5, midline defects in the thoracic body wall began to emerge: the sternum failed to fuse and the heart protruded through the body wall at the midline (ectopia cordis). To determine the molecular mechanism underlying the phenotype observed in Wlsf/f;Dermo1Cre/+ embryos, we tested whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling was operative in developing the embryonic ventral body wall using Axin2LacZ and BatGal reporter mice. While Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity was observed at the midline of the ventral body wall before sternal fusion, this pattern of activity was altered and scattered throughout the body wall after mesenchymal deletion of Wls. Mesenchymal cell migration was disrupted in Wlsf/f;Dermo1Cre/+ thoracic body wall partially due to anomalous non-canonical Wnt signaling as determined by in vitro assays. Deletion of Lrp5 and Lrp6 receptors, which mediate Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the mesenchyme, partially recapitulated the phenotype observed in the chest midline of Wlsf/f;Dermo1Cre/+ embryos supporting a role for Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity in the normal formation of the ventral body wall mesenchyme. We conclude that Wls-mediated secretion of Wnt ligands from the

  9. The MITF family of transcription factors: Role in endolysosomal biogenesis, Wnt signaling, and oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ploper, Diego; De Robertis, Edward M

    2015-09-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling influences cellular fate and proliferation through inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK3) and the subsequent stabilization of its many substrates, most notably β-Catenin, a transcriptional co-activator. MITF, a melanoma oncogene member of the microphthalmia family of transcription factors (MiT), was recently found to contain novel GSK3 phosphorylation sites and to be stabilized by Wnt. Other MiT members, TFEB and TFE3, are known to play important roles in cellular clearance pathways by transcriptionally regulating the biogenesis of lysosomes and autophagosomes via activation of CLEAR elements in gene promoters of target genes. Recent studies suggest that MITF can also upregulate many lysosomal genes. MiT family members are dysregulated in cancer and are considered oncogenes, but the underlying oncogenic mechanisms remain unclear. Here we review the role of MiT members, including MITF, in lysosomal biogenesis, and how cancers overexpressing MITF, TFEB or TFE3 could rewire the lysosomal pathway, inhibit cellular senescence, and activate Wnt signaling by increasing sequestration of negative regulators of Wnt signaling in multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Microarray studies suggest that MITF expression inhibits macroautophagy. In melanoma the MITF-driven increase in MVBs generates a positive feedback loop between MITF, Wnt, and MVBs. PMID:26003288

  10. Identification of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in dermal papilla cells of human scalp hair follicles: TCF4 regulates the proliferation and secretory activity of dermal papilla cell.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ya; Liu, Yi; Song, Zhiqiang; Hao, Fei; Yang, Xichuan

    2014-01-01

    It is clear that the dermal papilla cell (DPC), which is located at the bottom of the hair follicle, is a special mesenchymal component, and it plays a leading role in regulating hair follicle development and periodic regeneration. Recent studies showed that the Wnt signaling pathway through β-catenin (canonical Wnt signaling pathway) is an essential component in maintaining the hair-inducing activity of the dermal papilla and growth of hair papilla cells. However, the intrinsic pathways and regulating mechanism are largely unknown. In the previous work, we constructed a cDNA subtractive library of DPC and first found that the TCF4 gene, as a key factor of Wnt signaling pathway, was expressed as the upregulated gene of the hair follicle in low-passage DPC. This study was to explore the role of TCF4 in regulating the proliferation and secretory activity of DPC. We constructed a pcDNA3.0-TCF4 expression vector and transfected it into DPC to achieve stable expression by bangosome 2000. Furthermore, we used the method of chemosynthesis to synthesize three pairs of TCF4 siRNA and transfected them into DPC. Meanwhile, we compared the transfection group and non-transfection group. We first proposed that there was expression difference in TCF4 in DPC under different biological condition. This study may have a high impact on the molecular mechanism of follicular lesions and provide a new vision for the treatment of clinic diseases. PMID:24354472

  11. Systemic chromosome instability in Shugoshin-1 mice resulted in compromised glutathione pathway, activation of Wnt signaling and defects in immune system in the lung.

    PubMed

    Yamada, H Y; Kumar, G; Zhang, Y; Rubin, E; Lightfoot, S; Dai, W; Rao, C V

    2016-01-01

    Mitotic error-mediated chromosome instability (CIN) can lead to aneuploidy, chromothripsis, DNA damage and/or whole chromosome gain/loss. CIN may prompt rapid accumulation of mutations and genomic alterations. Thus, CIN can promote carcinogenesis. This CIN process results from a mutation in certain genes or environmental challenge such as smoking, and is highly prevalent in various cancers, including lung cancer. A better understanding of the effects of CIN on carcinogenesis will lead to novel methods for cancer prevention and treatment. Previously Shugoshin-1 (Sgo1(-/+)) mice, a transgenic mouse model of CIN, showed mild proneness to spontaneous lung and liver cancers. In this study, adoptive (T/B-cell based) immunity-deficient RAG1(-/-) Sgo1(-/+) double mutant mice developed lung adenocarcinomas more aggressively than did Sgo1(-/+) or RAG1(-/-) mice, suggesting immune system involvement in CIN-mediated lung carcinogenesis. To identify molecular causes of the lung adenocarcinoma, we used systems biology approach, comparative RNAseq, to RAG1(-/-) and RAG1(-/-) Sgo1(-/+). The comparative RNAseq data and follow-up analyses in the lungs of naive Sgo1(-/+) mice demonstrate that, (i) glutathione is depleted, making the tissue vulnerable to oxidative stress, (ii) spontaneous DNA damage is increased, (iii) oncogenic Wnt signaling is activated, (iv) both major branches of the immune system are weakened through misregulations in signal mediators such as CD80 and calreticulin and (v) the actin cytoskeleton is misregulated. Overall, the results show multi-faceted roles of CIN in lung carcinoma development in Sgo1(-/+) mice. Our model presents various effects of CIN and will help to identify potential targets to prevent CIN-driven carcinogenesis in the lung. PMID:27526110

  12. Systemic chromosome instability in Shugoshin-1 mice resulted in compromised glutathione pathway, activation of Wnt signaling and defects in immune system in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, H Y; Kumar, G; Zhang, Y; Rubin, E; Lightfoot, S; Dai, W; Rao, C V

    2016-01-01

    Mitotic error-mediated chromosome instability (CIN) can lead to aneuploidy, chromothripsis, DNA damage and/or whole chromosome gain/loss. CIN may prompt rapid accumulation of mutations and genomic alterations. Thus, CIN can promote carcinogenesis. This CIN process results from a mutation in certain genes or environmental challenge such as smoking, and is highly prevalent in various cancers, including lung cancer. A better understanding of the effects of CIN on carcinogenesis will lead to novel methods for cancer prevention and treatment. Previously Shugoshin-1 (Sgo1−/+) mice, a transgenic mouse model of CIN, showed mild proneness to spontaneous lung and liver cancers. In this study, adoptive (T/B-cell based) immunity-deficient RAG1−/− Sgo1−/+ double mutant mice developed lung adenocarcinomas more aggressively than did Sgo1−/+ or RAG1−/− mice, suggesting immune system involvement in CIN-mediated lung carcinogenesis. To identify molecular causes of the lung adenocarcinoma, we used systems biology approach, comparative RNAseq, to RAG1−/− and RAG1−/− Sgo1−/+. The comparative RNAseq data and follow-up analyses in the lungs of naive Sgo1−/+ mice demonstrate that, (i) glutathione is depleted, making the tissue vulnerable to oxidative stress, (ii) spontaneous DNA damage is increased, (iii) oncogenic Wnt signaling is activated, (iv) both major branches of the immune system are weakened through misregulations in signal mediators such as CD80 and calreticulin and (v) the actin cytoskeleton is misregulated. Overall, the results show multi-faceted roles of CIN in lung carcinoma development in Sgo1−/+ mice. Our model presents various effects of CIN and will help to identify potential targets to prevent CIN-driven carcinogenesis in the lung. PMID:27526110

  13. The endothelial transcription factor ERG promotes vascular stability and growth through Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Birdsey, Graeme M; Shah, Aarti V; Dufton, Neil; Reynolds, Louise E; Osuna Almagro, Lourdes; Yang, Youwen; Aspalter, Irene M; Khan, Samia T; Mason, Justin C; Dejana, Elisabetta; Göttgens, Berthold; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan; Gerhardt, Holger; Adams, Ralf H; Randi, Anna M

    2015-01-12

    Blood vessel stability is essential for embryonic development; in the adult, many diseases are associated with loss of vascular integrity. The ETS transcription factor ERG drives expression of VE-cadherin and controls junctional integrity. We show that constitutive endothelial deletion of ERG (Erg(cEC-KO)) in mice causes embryonic lethality with vascular defects. Inducible endothelial deletion of ERG (Erg(iEC-KO)) results in defective physiological and pathological angiogenesis in the postnatal retina and tumors, with decreased vascular stability. ERG controls the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by promoting β-catenin stability, through signals mediated by VE-cadherin and the Wnt receptor Frizzled-4. Wnt signaling is decreased in ERG-deficient endothelial cells; activation of Wnt signaling with lithium chloride, which stabilizes β-catenin levels, corrects vascular defects in Erg(cEC-KO) embryos. Finally, overexpression of ERG in vivo reduces permeability and increases stability of VEGF-induced blood vessels. These data demonstrate that ERG is an essential regulator of angiogenesis and vascular stability through Wnt signaling. PMID:25584796

  14. Downregulated MicroRNA-200a in Meningiomas Promotes Tumor Growth by Reducing E-Cadherin and Activating the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway▿

    PubMed Central

    Saydam, Okay; Shen, Yiping; Würdinger, Thomas; Senol, Ozlem; Boke, Elvan; James, Marianne F.; Tannous, Bakhos A.; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O.; Yi, Ming; Stephens, Robert M.; Fraefel, Cornel; Gusella, James F.; Krichevsky, Anna M.; Breakefield, Xandra O.

    2009-01-01

    Meningiomas, one of the most common human brain tumors, are derived from arachnoidal cells associated with brain meninges, are usually benign, and are frequently associated with neurofibromatosis type 2. Here, we define a typical human meningioma microRNA (miRNA) profile and characterize the effects of one downregulated miRNA, miR-200a, on tumor growth. Elevated levels of miR-200a inhibited meningioma cell growth in culture and in a tumor model in vivo. Upregulation of miR-200a decreased the expression of transcription factors ZEB1 and SIP1, with consequent increased expression of E-cadherin, an adhesion protein associated with cell differentiation. Downregulation of miR-200a in meningiomas and arachnoidal cells resulted in increased expression of β-catenin and cyclin D1 involved in cell proliferation. miR-200a was found to directly target β-catenin mRNA, thereby inhibiting its translation and blocking Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which is frequently involved in cancer. A direct correlation was found between the downregulation of miR-200a and the upregulation of β-catenin in human meningioma samples. Thus, miR-200a appears to act as a multifunctional tumor suppressor miRNA in meningiomas through effects on the E-cadherin and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. This reveals a previously unrecognized signaling cascade involved in meningioma tumor development and highlights a novel molecular interaction between miR-200a and Wnt signaling, thereby providing insights into novel therapies for meningiomas. PMID:19703993

  15. Wnt/ß-catenin signalling and the dynamics of fate decisions in early mouse embryos and embryonic stem (ES) cells.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Descalzo, Silvia; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Arias, Alfonso Martinez

    2015-12-01

    Wnt/ß-catenin signalling is a widespread cell signalling pathway with multiple roles during vertebrate development. In mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells, there is a dual role for ß-catenin: it promotes differentiation when activated as part of the Wnt/ß-catenin signalling pathway, and promotes stable pluripotency independently of signalling. Although mES cells resemble the preimplantation epiblast progenitors, the first requirement for Wnt/ß-catenin signalling during mouse development has been reported at implantation [1,2]. The relationship between ß-catenin and pluripotency and that of mES cells with epiblast progenitors suggests that ß-catenin might have a functional role during preimplantation development. Here we summarize the expression and function of Wnt/ß-catenin signalling elements during the early stages of mouse development and consider the reasons why the requirement in ES cells do not reflect the embryo. PMID:26321498

  16. Wnt/β-catenin signalling and the dynamics of fate decisions in early mouse embryos and embryonic stem (ES) cells

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Descalzo, Silvia; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Arias, Alfonso Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signalling is a widespread cell signalling pathway with multiple roles during vertebrate development. In mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells, there is a dual role for β-catenin: it promotes differentiation when activated as part of the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway, and promotes stable pluripotency independently of signalling. Although mES cells resemble the preimplantation epiblast progenitors, the first requirement for Wnt/β-catenin signalling during mouse development has been reported at implantation [1,2]. The relationship between β-catenin and pluripotency and that of mES cells with epiblast progenitors suggests that β-catenin might have a functional role during preimplantation development. Here we summarize the expression and function of Wnt/β-catenin signalling elements during the early stages of mouse development and consider the reasons why the requirement in ES cells do not reflect the embryo. PMID:26321498

  17. Wnt/β-catenin signalling and podocyte dysfunction in proteinuric kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lili; Liu, Youhua

    2016-01-01

    Podocytes are unique, highly specialized, terminally differentiated cells that are integral components of the kidney glomerular filtration barrier. Podocytes are vulnerable to a variety of injuries and in response they undergo a series of changes ranging from hypertrophy, autophagy, dedifferentiation, mesenchymal transition and detachment to apoptosis, depending on the nature and extent of the insult. Emerging evidence indicates that Wnt/β-catenin signalling has a central role in mediating podocyte dysfunction and proteinuria. Wnts are induced and β-catenin is activated in podocytes in various proteinuric kidney diseases. Genetic or pharmacologic activation of β-catenin is sufficient to impair podocyte integrity and causes proteinuria in healthy mice, whereas podocyte-specific ablation of β-catenin protects against proteinuria after kidney injury. Mechanistically, Wnt/β-catenin controls the expression of several key mediators implicated in podocytopathies, including Snail1, the renin–angiotensin system and matrix metalloproteinase 7. Wnt/β-catenin also negatively regulates Wilms tumour protein, a crucial transcription factor that safeguards podocyte integrity. Targeted inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signalling preserves podocyte integrity and ameliorates proteinuria in animal models. This Review highlights advances in our understanding of the pathomechanisms of Wnt/β-catenin signalling in mediating podocyte injury, and describes the therapeutic potential of targeting this pathway for the treatment of proteinuric kidney disease. PMID:26055352

  18. Wnt Protein Signaling Reduces Nuclear Acetyl-CoA Levels to Suppress Gene Expression during Osteoblast Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Karner, Courtney M; Esen, Emel; Chen, Jiakun; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Turk, John; Long, Fanxin

    2016-06-17

    Developmental signals in metazoans play critical roles in inducing cell differentiation from multipotent progenitors. The existing paradigm posits that the signals operate directly through their downstream transcription factors to activate expression of cell type-specific genes, which are the hallmark of cell identity. We have investigated the mechanism through which Wnt signaling induces osteoblast differentiation in an osteoblast-adipocyte bipotent progenitor cell line. Unexpectedly, Wnt3a acutely suppresses the expression of a large number of genes while inducing osteoblast differentiation. The suppressed genes include Pparg and Cebpa, which encode adipocyte-specifying transcription factors and suppression of which is sufficient to induce osteoblast differentiation. The large scale gene suppression induced by Wnt3a corresponds to a global decrease in histone acetylation, an epigenetic modification that is associated with gene activation. Mechanistically, Wnt3a does not alter histone acetyltransferase or deacetylase activities but, rather, decreases the level of acetyl-CoA in the nucleus. The Wnt-induced decrease in histone acetylation is independent of β-catenin signaling but, rather, correlates with suppression of glucose metabolism in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Functionally, preventing histone deacetylation by increasing nucleocytoplasmic acetyl-CoA levels impairs Wnt3a-induced osteoblast differentiation. Thus, Wnt signaling induces osteoblast differentiation in part through histone deacetylation and epigenetic suppression of an alternative cell fate. PMID:27129247

  19. Primary Cilia Integrate Hedgehog and Wnt Signaling during Tooth Development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, B.; Chen, S.; Cheng, D.; Jing, W.; Helms, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Many ciliopathies have clinical features that include tooth malformations but how these defects come about is not clear. Here we show that genetic deletion of the motor protein Kif3a in dental mesenchyme results in an arrest in odontogenesis. Incisors are completely missing, and molars are enlarged in Wnt1Cre+Kif3afl/fl embryos. Although amelogenesis and dentinogenesis initiate in the molar tooth bud, both processes terminate prematurely. We demonstrate that loss of Kif3a in dental mesenchyme results in loss of Hedgehog signaling and gain of Wnt signaling in this same tissue. The defective dental mesenchyme then aberrantly signals to the dental epithelia, which prompts an up-regulation in the Hedgehog and Wnt responses in the epithelia and leads to multiple attempts at invagination and an expanded enamel organ. Thus, the primary cilium integrates Hedgehog and Wnt signaling between dental epithelia and mesenchyme, and this cilia-dependent integration is required for proper tooth development. PMID:24659776

  20. Mutational analysis of sclerostin shows importance of the flexible loop and the cystine-knot for Wnt-signaling inhibition.

    PubMed

    Boschert, Verena; van Dinther, Maarten; Weidauer, Stella; van Pee, Katharina; Muth, Eva-Maria; Ten Dijke, Peter; Mueller, Thomas D

    2013-01-01

    The cystine-knot containing protein Sclerostin is an important negative regulator of bone growth and therefore represents a promising therapeutic target. It exerts its biological task by inhibiting the Wnt (wingless and int1) signaling pathway, which participates in bone formation by promoting the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts. The core structure of Sclerostin consists of three loops with the first and third loop (Finger 1 and Finger 2) forming a structured β-sheet and the second loop being unstructured and highly flexible. Biochemical data showed that the flexible loop is important for binding of Sclerostin to Wnt co-receptors of the low-density lipoprotein related-protein family (LRP), by interacting with the Wnt co-receptors LRP5 or -6 it inhibits Wnt signaling. To further examine the structural requirements for Wnt inhibition, we performed an extensive mutational study within all three loops of the Sclerostin core domain involving single and multiple mutations as well as truncation of important regions. By this approach we could confirm the importance of the second loop and especially of amino acids Asn92 and Ile94 for binding to LRP6. Based on a Sclerostin variant found in a Turkish family suffering from Sclerosteosis we generated a Sclerostin mutant with cysteines 84 and 142 exchanged thereby removing the third disulfide bond of the cystine-knot. This mutant binds to LRP6 with reduced binding affinity and also exhibits a strongly reduced inhibitory activity against Wnt1 thereby showing that also elements outside the flexible loop are important for inhibition of Wnt by Sclerostin. Additionally, we examined the effect of the mutations on the inhibition of two different Wnt proteins, Wnt3a and Wnt1. We could detect clear differences in the inhibition of these proteins, suggesting that the mechanism by which Sclerostin antagonizes Wnt1 and Wnt3a is fundamentally different. PMID:24312339

  1. Overexpression of HSPA1A enhances the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Xue, Deting; Yin, Houfa; Wang, Shengdong; Li, Chao; Chen, Erman; Hu, Dongcai; Tao, Yiqing; Yu, Jiawei; Zheng, Qiang; Gao, Xiang; Pan, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    HSPA1A, which encodes cognate heat shock protein 70, plays important roles in various cellular metabolic pathways. To investigate its effects on osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), its expression level was compared between undifferentiated and differentiated BMSCs. Rat HSPA1A overexpression in BMSCs increased osteoblast-specific gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineral deposition in vitro. Moreover, it upregulated β-catenin and downregulated DKK1 and SOST. The enhanced osteogenesis due to HSPA1A overexpression was partly rescued by a Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor. Additionally, using a rat tibial fracture model, a sheet of HSPA1A-overexpressing BMSCs improved bone fracture healing, as determined by imaging and histological analysis. Taken together, these findings suggest that HSPA1A overexpression enhances osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, partly through Wnt/β-catenin. PMID:27279016

  2. ERβ induces the differentiation of cultured osteoblasts by both Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Xinhua; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Hu, Xiongke; Chen, Yong; Zeng, Kefeng; Zhang, Hongqi

    2015-07-01

    Although 17β-estradial (E2) is known to stimulate bone formation, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Recent studies have implicated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a major signaling cascade in bone biology. The interactions between Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathways have been reported in many tissues. In this study, E2 significantly increased the expression of β-catenin by inducing phosphorylations of GSK3β at serine 9. ERβ siRNAs were transfected into MC3T3-E1 cells and revealed that ERβ involved E2-induced osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The osteoblast differentiation genes (BGP, ALP and OPN) and proliferation related gene (cyclin D1) expression were significantly induced by E2-mediated ERβ. Furthermore immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that E2 induced the accumulation of β-catenin protein in the nucleus which leads to interaction with T-cell-specific transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factors. Taken together, these findings suggest that E2 promotes osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation by inducing proliferation-related and differentiation-related gene expression via ERβ/GSK-3β-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of E2 in osteoblastogenesis. - Highlights: • 17β-estradial (E2) promotes GSK3-β phosphorylation. • E2 activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. • The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway interacts with estrogen signaling pathways. • E2-mediated ER induced osteoblast differentiation and proliferation related genes expression.

  3. Novel TCF-binding sites specify transcriptional repression by Wnt signalling.

    PubMed

    Blauwkamp, Timothy A; Chang, Mikyung V; Cadigan, Ken M

    2008-05-21

    Both transcriptional activation and repression have essential functions in maintaining proper spatial and temporal control of gene expression. Although Wnt signalling is often associated with gene activation, we have identified several directly repressed targets of Wnt signalling in Drosophila. Here, we explore how individual Wnt target genes are specified for signal-induced activation or repression. Similar to activation, repression required binding of Armadillo (Arm) to the N terminus of TCF. However, TCF/Arm mediated repression by binding to DNA motifs that are markedly different from typical TCF-binding sites. Conversion of the novel motifs to standard TCF-binding sites reversed the mode of regulation, resulting in Wnt-mediated activation instead of repression. A mutant form of Arm defective in activation was still functional for repression, indicating that distinct domains of the protein are required for each activity. This study suggests that the sequence of TCF-binding sites allosterically regulates the TCF/Arm complex to effect either transcriptional activation or repression. PMID:18418383

  4. Wnt-11 signaling leads to down-regulation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin, JNK/AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B pathways and promotes viability in the CHO-K1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Railo, Antti; Nagy, Irina I.; Kilpelaeinen, Pekka Vainio, Seppo

    2008-08-01

    The Wnt family of glycoprotein growth factors controls a number of central cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and ageing. All the Wnt proteins analyzed so far either activate or inhibit the canonical {beta}-catenin signaling pathway that regulates transcription of the target genes. In addition, some of them activate noncanonical signaling pathways that involve components such as the JNK, heterotrimeric G proteins, protein kinase C, and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, although the precise signaling mechanisms are only just beginning to be revealed. We demonstrate here that Wnt-11 signaling is sufficient to inhibit not only the canonical {beta}-catenin mediated Wnt signaling but also JNK/AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B signaling in the CHO cells, thus serving as a noncanonical Wnt ligand in this system. Inhibition of the JNK/AP-1 pathway is mediated in part by the MAPK kinase MKK4 and Akt. Moreover, protein kinase C is involved in the regulation of JNK/AP-1 by Wnt-11, but not of the NF-{kappa}B pathway. Consistent with the central role of Akt, JNK and NF-{kappa}B in cell survival and stress responses, Wnt-11 signaling promotes cell viability. Hence Wnt-11 is involved in coordination of key signaling pathways.

  5. Overexpression of Wnt-1 in thyrocytes enhances cellular growth but suppresses transcription of the thyroperoxidase gene via different signaling mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Bae; Lewis, Christopher J; McCall, Kelly D; Malgor, Ramiro; Kohn, Aimee D; Moon, Randall T; Kohn, Leonard D

    2007-04-01

    Wnt binding to cell surface receptors can activate a 'canonical' pathway that increases cellular beta-catenin or a 'noncanonical' Ca(++) pathway which can increase protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Although components of both Wnt/beta-catenin-signaling pathways exist in thyrocytes, their biological role is largely unknown. In evaluating the biological role of Wnt signaling in differentiated FRTL-5 thyroid cells, we showed that TSH increased canonical Wnt-1 but, surprisingly, decreased the active form of beta-catenin. Transient overexpression of Wnt-1 or beta-catenin in FRTL-5 cells increased active beta-catenin (ABC), decreased thyroperoxidase (TPO) mRNA, and suppressed TPO-promoter activity. The target of beta-catenin suppressive action was a consensus T cell factor/lymphoid enhancing factor (TCF/LEF)-binding site 5'-A/T A/T CAAAG-3', -137 to -129 bp on the rat TPO promoter. beta-Catenin overexpression significantly increased complex formation between beta-catenin/TCF-1 and an oligonucleotide containing the TCF/LEF sequence, suggesting that the beta-catenin/TCF-1 complex acts as a transcriptional repressor of the TPO gene. Stable over-expression of Wnt-1 in FRTL-5 cells significantly increased the growth rate without increasing beta-catenin levels. Increased growth was blunted by a PKC inhibitor, staurosporin. Wnt-1 overexpression increased serine phosphorylation, without affecting tyrosine phosphorylation, of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein. In addition, these final results suggest that TSH-induced increase in Wnt-1 levels in thyrocytes contributes to enhanced cellular growth via a PKC pathway that increases STAT3 serine phosphorylation and activation, whereas TSH-induced decrease in activation of beta-catenin simultaneously relieves transcriptional suppression of TPO. We hypothesize that Wnt signaling contributes to the ability of TSH to simultaneously increase cell growth and functional, thyroid-specific, gene expression

  6. Axitinib blocks Wnt/β-catenin signaling and directs asymmetric cell division in cancer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yi; Gharbi, Naouel; Yuan, Xing; Olsen, Jan Roger; Blicher, Pernille; Dalhus, Bjørn; Brokstad, Karl A; Lin, Biaoyang; Øyan, Anne Margrete; Zhang, Weidong; Kalland, Karl-Henning; Ke, Xisong

    2016-08-16

    Oncogenic mutations of the Wnt (wingless)/β-catenin pathway are frequently observed in major cancer types. Thus far, however, no therapeutic agent targeting Wnt/β-catenin signaling is available for clinical use. Here we demonstrate that axitinib, a clinically approved drug, strikingly blocks Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cancer cells, zebrafish, and Apc(min/+) mice. Notably, axitinib dramatically induces Wnt asymmetry and nonrandom DNA segregation in cancer cells by promoting nuclear β-catenin degradation independent of the GSK3β (glycogen synthase kinase3β)/APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) complex. Using a DARTS (drug affinity-responsive target stability) assay coupled to 2D-DIGE (2D difference in gel electrophoresis) and mass spectrometry, we have identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase SHPRH (SNF2, histone-linker, PHD and RING finger domain-containing helicase) as the direct target of axitinib in blocking Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Treatment with axitinib stabilizes SHPRH and thereby increases the ubiquitination and degradation of β-catenin. Our findings suggest a previously unreported mechanism of nuclear β-catenin regulation and indicate that axitinib, a clinically approved drug, would provide therapeutic benefits for cancer patients with aberrant nuclear β-catenin activation. PMID:27482107

  7. Maternal Wnt/STOP signaling promotes cell division during early Xenopus embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Lin; Anvarian, Zeinab; Döderlein, Gabriele; Acebron, Sergio P.; Niehrs, Christof

    2015-01-01

    During Xenopus development, Wnt signaling is thought to function first after midblastula transition to regulate axial patterning via β-catenin–mediated transcription. Here, we report that Wnt/glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) signaling functions posttranscriptionally already in mature oocytes via Wnt/stabilization of proteins (STOP) signaling. Wnt signaling is induced in oocytes after their entry into meiotic metaphase II and declines again upon exit into interphase. Wnt signaling inhibits Gsk3 and thereby protects proteins from polyubiquitination and degradation in mature oocytes. In a protein array screen, we identify a cluster of mitotic effector proteins that are polyubiquitinated in a Gsk3-dependent manner in Xenopus. Consequently inhibition of maternal Wnt/STOP signaling, but not β-catenin signaling, leads to early cleavage arrest after fertilization. The results support a novel role for Wnt signaling in cell cycle progression independent of β-catenin. PMID:25901317

  8. Sox2 contributes to tooth development via Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Jung; Kim, Eun-Jung; Otsu, Keishi; Harada, Hidemitsu; Jung, Han-Sung

    2016-07-01

    The transcription factor Sox2 is a stem cell marker that dictates cell lineage. It has been shown to mark the epithelial stem cells of the continuously growing mouse incisors. Sox2 also interferes with Wnt signaling by binding to β-catenin, a central mediator of the Wnt pathway. We show that these functions of Sox2 are essential for mouse molar development. Sox2 has previously been shown to play a role in the formation of new teeth from the existing dental epithelium. To assess Sox2 function related to cell migration within a tooth, we monitored cell movement by using a DiI system and observed that DiI moves from molar 1 to molar 2 during tooth development. However, upon temporal knockdown of Sox2, DiI remains in the molar 1 region. This study also provides novel insights into the role of Sox2 and the important validation of Sox2 as a potent target in Wnt signaling during tooth development. Our data reveal that the degradation of Wnt signaling caused by the knockdown of Sox2 results in a lack of cell migration during tooth development. PMID:26846112

  9. Hipk2 and PP1c cooperate to maintain Dvl protein levels required for Wnt signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Ishitani, Shizuka; Sato, Atsushi; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Ishitani, Tohru

    2014-09-11

    The phosphoprotein Dishevelled (Dvl) is a common essential component of Wnt/β-catenin and Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathways. However, the regulation and significance of Dvl phosphorylation are not fully understood. Here, we show that homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (Hipk2) facilitates protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit (PP1c)-mediated dephosphorylation of Dvl via its C-terminal domain and that this dephosphorylation blocks ubiquitination and consequent degradation mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch, which targets the phosphorylated form of Dvl proteins. Inhibition of Hipk2 or PP1c function reduces Dvl protein levels and suppresses Wnt/β-catenin and Wnt/PCP pathway-dependent events in mammalian cells and zebrafish embryos, suggesting that Hipk2 and PP1c are essential for maintaining Dvl protein levels that are sufficient to activate Wnt signaling. We also show that Wnt-3a, a Wnt/β-catenin ligand, induces dissociation of the Dvl-Hipk2-PP1c complex and Dvl degradation under high-cell-density conditions. This regulation may be a negative feedback mechanism that fine-tunes Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:25159144

  10. Fibroblast growth factor and canonical WNT/β-catenin signaling cooperate in suppression of chondrocyte differentiation in experimental models of FGFR signaling in cartilage.

    PubMed

    Buchtova, Marcela; Oralova, Veronika; Aklian, Anie; Masek, Jan; Vesela, Iva; Ouyang, Zhufeng; Obadalova, Tereza; Konecna, Zaneta; Spoustova, Tereza; Pospisilova, Tereza; Matula, Petr; Varecha, Miroslav; Balek, Lukas; Gudernova, Iva; Jelinkova, Iva; Duran, Ivan; Cervenkova, Iveta; Murakami, Shunichi; Kozubik, Alois; Dvorak, Petr; Bryja, Vitezslav; Krejci, Pavel

    2015-05-01

    Aberrant fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling disturbs chondrocyte differentiation in skeletal dysplasia, but the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Recently, FGF was found to activate canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway in chondrocytes via Erk MAP kinase-mediated phosphorylation of WNT co-receptor Lrp6. Here, we explore the cellular consequences of such a signaling interaction. WNT enhanced the FGF-mediated suppression of chondrocyte differentiation in mouse limb bud micromass and limb organ cultures, leading to inhibition of cartilage nodule formation in micromass cultures, and suppression of growth in cultured limbs. Simultaneous activation of the FGF and WNT/β-catenin pathways resulted in loss of chondrocyte extracellular matrix, expression of genes typical for mineralized tissues and alteration of cellular shape. WNT enhanced the FGF-mediated downregulation of chondrocyte proteoglycan and collagen extracellular matrix via inhibition of matrix synthesis and induction of proteinases involved in matrix degradation. Expression of genes regulating RhoA GTPase pathway was induced by FGF in cooperation with WNT, and inhibition of the RhoA signaling rescued the FGF/WNT-mediated changes in chondrocyte cellular shape. Our results suggest that aberrant FGF signaling cooperates with WNT/β-catenin in suppression of chondrocyte differentiation. PMID:25558817

  11. A Wnt5a signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 gp120-induced pain

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Su-Bo; Ji, Guangchen; Li, Bei; Andersson, Tommy; Neugebauer, Volker; Tang, Shao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Pathological pain is one of the most common neurological complications in HIV-1/AIDS patients. However, the pathogenic process is unclear. Our recent studies show that Wnt5a is up-regulated in the spinal cord dorsal horn of the HIV patients who develop pain and that HIV-1 gp120, a potential causal factor of the HIV-associated pain, rapidly up-regulates Wnt5a in the mouse SDH. Using a mouse model, we show here that a specific Wnt5a antagonist, Box-5, attenuated gp120-induced mechanical allodynia. Conversely, a Wnt5a agonist, Foxy5, facilitated the allodynia. To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which Wnt5a regulates gp120-induced allodynia, we tested the role of the JNK/TNF-α pathway. We observed that the JNK-specific inhibitor SP600125 blocked either gp120- or Foxy5-induced allodynia. Similarly, the TNF-α-specific antagonist Enbrel also reversed either gp120- or Foxy5-induced allodynia. These data suggest that JNK and TNF-α mediate the biological effects of Wnt5a in regulating gp120-induced allodynia. To investigate the cellular mechanism, we performed extracellular single-unit recording from SDH neurons in anesthetized mice. Both Box5 and SP600125 negated gp120-induced potentiation of SDH neuron spiking evoked by mechanical stimulation of the hindpaw. Furthermore, while Foxy5 potentiated spike frequency of SDH neurons, either SP600125 or Enbrel blocked the potentiation. The data indicate that Wnt5a potentiates the activity of SDH neurons via the JNK-TNF-α pathway. Collectively, our findings suggest that Wnt5a regulates the pathogenesis of gp120-induced pain, likely by sensitizing pain-processing SDH neurons via JNK/TNF-α signaling. PMID:25840108

  12. Triptonide Effectively Inhibits Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling via C-terminal Transactivation Domain of β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Chinison, Jessica; Aguilar, Jose S; Avalos, Alan; Huang, Ying; Wang, Zhijun; Cameron, D Joshua; Hao, Jijun

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling is implicated in many diseases including cancer. As a result, therapeutic agents that disrupt this signaling pathway have been highly sought after. Triptonide is a key bioactive small molecule identified in a traditional Chinese medicine named Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F., and it has a broad spectrum of biological functions. Here we show that triptonide can effectively inhibit canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling by targeting the downstream C-terminal transcription domain of β-catenin or a nuclear component associated with β-catenin. In addition, triptonide treatment robustly rescued the zebrafish "eyeless" phenotype induced by GSK-3β antagonist 6-bromoindirubin-30-oxime (BIO) for Wnt signaling activation during embryonic gastrulation. Finally, triptonide effectively induced apoptosis of Wnt-dependent cancer cells, supporting the therapeutic potential of triptonide. PMID:27596363

  13. Triptonide Effectively Inhibits Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling via C-terminal Transactivation Domain of β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Chinison, Jessica; Aguilar, Jose S.; Avalos, Alan; Huang, Ying; Wang, Zhijun; Cameron, D. Joshua; Hao, Jijun

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling is implicated in many diseases including cancer. As a result, therapeutic agents that disrupt this signaling pathway have been highly sought after. Triptonide is a key bioactive small molecule identified in a traditional Chinese medicine named Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F., and it has a broad spectrum of biological functions. Here we show that triptonide can effectively inhibit canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling by targeting the downstream C-terminal transcription domain of β-catenin or a nuclear component associated with β-catenin. In addition, triptonide treatment robustly rescued the zebrafish “eyeless” phenotype induced by GSK-3β antagonist 6-bromoindirubin-30-oxime (BIO) for Wnt signaling activation during embryonic gastrulation. Finally, triptonide effectively induced apoptosis of Wnt-dependent cancer cells, supporting the therapeutic potential of triptonide. PMID:27596363

  14. Identifying domains of EFHC1 involved in ciliary localization, ciliogenesis, and the regulation of Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Shi, Jianli; Winey, Mark; Klymkowsky, Michael W

    2016-03-15

    EFHC1 encodes a ciliary protein that has been linked to Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy. In ectodermal explants, derived from Xenopus laevis embryos, the morpholino-mediated down-regulation of EFHC1b inhibited multiciliated cell formation. In those ciliated cells that did form, axoneme but not basal body formation was inhibited. EFHC1b morphant embryos displayed defects in central nervous system (CNS) and neural crest patterning that were rescued by a EFHC1b-GFP chimera. EFHC1b-GFP localized to ciliary axonemes in epidermal, gastrocoele roof plate, and neural tube cells. In X. laevis there is a link between Wnt signaling and multiciliated cell formation. While down-regulation of EFHC1b led to a ~2-fold increase in the activity of the β-catenin/Wnt-responsive TOPFLASH reporter, EFHC1b-GFP did not inhibit β-catenin activation of TOPFLASH. Wnt8a RNA levels were increased in EFHC1b morphant ectodermal explants and intact embryos, analyzed prior to the on-set of ciliogenesis. Rescue of the EFHC1b MO's ciliary axonemal phenotypes required the entire protein; in contrast, the EFHC1b morpholino's Wnt8a, CNS, and neural crest phenotypes were rescued by a truncated form of EFHC1b. The EFHC1b morpholino's Wnt8a phenotype was also rescued by the injection of RNAs encoding secreted Wnt inhibitors, suggesting that these phenotypes are due to effects on Wnt signaling, rather than the loss of cilia, an observation of potential relevance to understanding EFHC1's role in human neural development. PMID:26783883

  15. Wnt signaling pathway improves central inhibitory synaptic transmission in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Fuenzalida, Marco; Espinoza, Claudia; Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Cuitino, Loreto; Brandan, Enrique; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-02-01

    The dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC) that connects the cytoskeleton, plasma membrane and the extracellular matrix has been related to the maintenance and stabilization of channels and synaptic receptors, which are both essential for synaptogenesis and synaptic transmission. The dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) exhibits a significant reduction in hippocampal GABA efficacy, which may underlie the altered synaptic function and abnormal hippocampal long-term plasticity exhibited by mdx mice. Emerging studies have implicated Wnt signaling in the modulation of synaptic efficacy, neuronal plasticity and cognitive function. We report here that the activation of the non-canonical Wnt-5a pathway and Andrographolide, improves hippocampal mdx GABAergic efficacy by increasing the number of inhibitory synapses and GABA(A) receptors or GABA release. These results indicate that Wnt signaling modulates GABA synaptic efficacy and could be a promising novel target for DMD cognitive therapy. PMID:26626079

  16. HOXA5 Counteracts Stem Cell Traits by Inhibiting Wnt Signaling in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez-Morán, Paloma; Dafflon, Caroline; Imajo, Masamichi; Nishida, Eisuke; Huelsken, Joerg

    2015-12-14

    Hierarchical organization of tissues relies on stem cells, which either self-renew or produce committed progenitors predestined for lineage differentiation. Here we identify HOXA5 as an important repressor of intestinal stem cell fate in vivo and identify a reciprocal feedback between HOXA5 and Wnt signaling. HOXA5 is suppressed by the Wnt pathway to maintain stemness and becomes active only outside the intestinal crypt where it inhibits Wnt signaling to enforce differentiation. In colon cancer, HOXA5 is downregulated, and its re-expression induces loss of the cancer stem cell phenotype, preventing tumor progression and metastasis. Tumor regression by HOXA5 induction can be triggered by retinoids, which represent tangible means to treat colon cancer by eliminating cancer stem cells. PMID:26678341

  17. Thymine DNA Glycosylase Is a Positive Regulator of Wnt Signaling in Colorectal Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuehe; Yu, Tianxin; Shi, Jiandang; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Wen; Lin, Ting; Liu, Zhihong; Wang, Yadong; Zeng, Zheng; Wang, Chi; Li, Mingsong; Liu, Chunming

    2014-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC). Although the mechanisms of β-catenin degradation have been well studied, the mechanism by which β-catenin activates transcription is still not fully understood. While screening a panel of DNA demethylases, we found that thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) up-regulated Wnt signaling. TDG interacts with the transcription factor TCF4 and coactivator CREB-binding protein/p300 in the Wnt pathway. Knocking down TDG by shRNAs inhibited the proliferation of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. In CRC patients, TDG levels were significantly higher in tumor tissues than in the adjacent normal tissues. These results suggest that TDG warrants consideration as a potential biomarker for CRC and as a target for CRC treatment. PMID:24532795

  18. Inhibition of tankyrases induces Axin stabilization and blocks Wnt signalling in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bao, Renyue; Christova, Tania; Song, Siyuan; Angers, Stephane; Yan, Xiaojun; Attisano, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    Constitutive Wnt signalling is characterized by excessive levels of β-catenin protein and is a frequent occurrence in cancer. APC and Axin are key components of the β-catenin destruction complex that acts to promote β-catenin degradation. The levels of Axin are in turn controlled by tankyrases, members of the PARP-family of poly-ADP-ribosylation enzymes. In colorectal cancer cells, which typically harbor APC mutations, inhibition of tankyrase activity promotes Axin stabilization and attenuates Wnt signalling. Here, we examined the effect of inhibiting tankyrases in breast cancer cells with normal APC. We show that application of the small molecule tankyrase inhibitor, XAV939 or siRNA-mediated abrogation of tankyrase expression increases Axin1 and Axin2 protein levels and attenuates Wnt-induced transcriptional responses in several breast cancer lines. In MDA-MB-231 cells, inhibiton of tankyrase activity also attenuate Wnt3a induced cell migration. Moreover, in both MDA-MB-231 and colorectal cancer cells, XAV939 inhibits cell growth under conditions of serum-deprivation. However, the presence of serum prevents this growth inhibitory effect, although inhibition of Wnt-induced transcriptional and migratory responses was maintained. These results indicate that stabilization of Axin by inhibition of tankyrases alone, may not be an effective means to block tumor cell growth and that combinatorial therapeutic approaches should be considered. PMID:23144924

  19. Quantitative and kinetic profile of Wnt/β-catenin signaling components during human neural progenitor cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Mazemondet, Orianne; Hubner, Rayk; Frahm, Jana; Koczan, Dirk; Bader, Benjamin M; Weiss, Dieter G; Uhrmacher, Adelinde M; Frech, Moritz J; Rolfs, Arndt; Luo, Jiankai

    2011-12-01

    ReNcell VM is an immortalized human neural progenitor cell line with the ability to differentiate in vitro into astrocytes and neurons, in which the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is known to be involved. However, little is known about kinetic changes of this pathway in human neural progenitor cell differentiation. In the present study, we provide a quantitative profile of Wnt/β-catenin pathway dynamics showing its spatio-temporal regulation during ReNcell VM cell differentiation. We show first that T-cell factor dependent transcription can be activated by stabilized β-catenin. Furthermore, endogenous Wnt ligands, pathway receptors and signaling molecules are temporally controlled, demonstrating changes related to differentiation stages. During the first three hours of differentiation the signaling molecules LRP6, Dvl2 and β-catenin are spatio-temporally regulated between distinct cellular compartments. From 24 h onward, components of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway are strongly activated and regulated as shown by mRNA up-regulation of Wnt ligands (Wnt5a and Wnt7a), receptors including Frizzled-2, -3, -6, -7, and -9, and co-receptors, and target genes including Axin2. This detailed temporal profile of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a first step to understand, control and to orientate, in vitro, human neural progenitor cell differentiation. PMID:21805133

  20. WNT3 Inhibits Cerebellar Granule Neuron Progenitor Proliferation and Medulloblastoma Formation via MAPK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ayrault, Olivier; Kim, Jee Hae; Zhu, Xiaodong; Murphy, David A.; Van Aelst, Linda; Roussel, Martine F.; Hatten, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    During normal cerebellar development, the remarkable expansion of granule cell progenitors (GCPs) generates a population of granule neurons that outnumbers the total neuronal population of the cerebral cortex, and provides a model for identifying signaling pathways that may be defective in medulloblastoma. While many studies focus on identifying pathways that promote growth of GCPs, a critical unanswered question concerns the identification of signaling pathways that block mitogenic stimulation and induce early steps in differentiation. Here we identify WNT3 as a novel suppressor of GCP proliferation during cerebellar development and an inhibitor of medulloblastoma growth in mice. WNT3, produced in early postnatal cerebellum, inhibits GCP proliferation by down-regulating pro-proliferative target genes of the mitogen Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and the bHLH transcription factor Atoh1. WNT3 suppresses GCP growth through a non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway, activating prototypic mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the Ras-dependent extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and ERK5, instead of the classical β-catenin pathway. Inhibition of MAPK activity using a MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor reversed the inhibitory effect of WNT3 on GCP proliferation. Importantly, WNT3 inhibits proliferation of medulloblastoma tumor growth in mouse models by a similar mechanism. Thus, the present study suggests a novel role for WNT3 as a regulator of neurogenesis and repressor of neural tumors. PMID:24303070

  1. Wnt signaling and tbx16 form a bistable switch to commit bipotential progenitors to mesoderm

    PubMed Central

    Bouldin, Cortney M.; Manning, Alyssa J.; Peng, Yu-Hsuan; Farr, Gist H.; Hung, King L.; Dong, Alice; Kimelman, David

    2015-01-01

    Anterior to posterior growth of the vertebrate body is fueled by a posteriorly located population of bipotential neuro-mesodermal progenitor cells. These progenitors have a limited rate of proliferation and their maintenance is crucial for completion of the anterior-posterior axis. How they leave the progenitor state and commit to differentiation is largely unknown, in part because widespread modulation of factors essential for this process causes organism-wide effects. Using a novel assay, we show that zebrafish Tbx16 (Spadetail) is capable of advancing mesodermal differentiation cell-autonomously. Tbx16 locks cells into the mesodermal state by not only activating downstream mesodermal genes, but also by repressing bipotential progenitor genes, in part through a direct repression of sox2. We demonstrate that tbx16 is activated as cells move from an intermediate Wnt environment to a high Wnt environment, and show that Wnt signaling activates the tbx16 promoter. Importantly, high-level Wnt signaling is able to accelerate mesodermal differentiation cell-autonomously, just as we observe with Tbx16. Finally, because our assay for mesodermal commitment is quantitative we are able to show that the acceleration of mesodermal differentiation is surprisingly incomplete, implicating a potential separation of cell movement and differentiation during this process. Together, our data suggest a model in which high levels of Wnt signaling induce a transition to mesoderm by directly activating tbx16, which in turn acts to irreversibly flip a bistable switch, leading to maintenance of the mesodermal fate and repression of the bipotential progenitor state, even as cells leave the initial high-Wnt environment. PMID:26062939

  2. Bisleuconothine A, a bisindole alkaloid, inhibits colorectal cancer cell in vitro and in vivo targeting Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ling-Mei; Feng, Tao; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Xing-Yao; Ye, Zhen-Nan; An, Tao; Qing, Chen; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Wnt signaling pathway is aberrantly activated in a variety of cancers, especially in colorectal cancer and small molecule antagonists of Wnt/β-catenin signaling are attractive candidates for developing effective therapeutics. In the present study, we identified Bisleuconothine A, a bisindole alkaloid with an eburnane-aspidosperma type skeleton, as a novel and selective Wnt signaling inhibitor by using a cell-based luciferase assay system. Our study found that Bisleuconothine A down-regulated the endogenous Wnt target gene expression through promoting phosphorylation of β-catenin and the subsequent inhibition of its nuclear translocation in HCT116 and SW480 colorectal cancer cells. In vitro, Bisleuconothine A inhibited cell proliferation through induction of apoptosis by increasing the cleavage of caspases in HCT116 and SW480 colorectal cancer cells. Moreover, in vivo, Bisleuconothine A dramatically suppressed tumor growth in HCT116 Xenograft. And further analysis showed that Bisleuconothine A suppressed the Wnt target gene expression in HCT116 Xenograft, which was associated with up-regulation of β-catenin phosphorylation and subsequent Wnt signaling inhibition. Taken together, our study indicated that bisindole alkaloids could be included as a new chemotype of small-molecule Wnt signaling inhibitors, and have great potential to be further developed for anti-tumor agents. PMID:26862734

  3. Wnt3a regulates proliferation and migration of HUVEC via canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Samarzija, Ivana; Sini, Patrizia; Schlange, Thomas; MacDonald, Gwen; Hynes, Nancy E.

    2009-08-28

    Untangling the signaling pathways involved in endothelial cell biology is of central interest for the development of antiangiogenesis based therapies. Here we report that Wnt3a induces the proliferation and migration of HUVECs, but does not affect their survival. Wnt3a-induced proliferation was VEGFR signaling independent, but reduced upon CamKII inhibition. In a search for the downstream mediators of Wnt3a's effects on HUVEC biology, we found that Wnt3a treatment leads to phosphorylation of DVL3 and stabilization of {beta}-catenin. Moreover, under the same conditions we observed an upregulation in c-MYC, TIE-2 and GJA1 mRNA transcripts. Although treatment of HUVECs with Wnt5a induced DVL3 phosphorylation, we did not observe any of the other effects seen upon Wnt3a stimulation. Taken together, our data indicate that Wnt3a induces canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling in HUVECs, and stimulates their proliferation and migration.

  4. High dose of TNF-α suppressed osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhenjie; Fang, Zhixiu; Zhao, Lei; Chen, Jing; Li, Yuanteng; Liu, Guangyun

    2015-10-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were a clonogenic, highly proliferative cells capable of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation including chondrocytes, adipocytes, neural cells and osteoblasts, which make it an attractive choice for bone regeneration and repair of craniofacial defects. Recent studies showed that tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) may affect osteoclastogenesis and bone formation. However, the effect and mechanism of TNF-α on DPSCs is not clear. In this study, we found that low dose TNF-α promoted mineralization and high dose TNF-α suppressed osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Levels of ALP, Osteopontin, Osteocalcin, Osterix and Runx2 were up-regulated in DPSCs treated with TNF-α at low concentration, while down-regulated in DPSCs treated with TNF-α at high concentration. Blockade of Wnt/β-catenin signaling reversed the inhibitory effect observed on osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs treated with TNF-α at high concentration. In addition, we did not detect any proliferative effect of TNF-α on DPSCs by cell cycle and cell counts analysis. In summary, our data suggested that high concentration TNF-α suppressed mineralization and mineralization-related gene expressions through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in DPSCs. Our findings may provide a foundation for autologous transplantation of DPSCs. PMID:26115593

  5. Wnt signaling in cancer stem cells and colon cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ze'ev, Avri

    2016-01-01

    Overactivation of Wnt signaling is a hallmark of colorectal cancer (CRC). The Wnt pathway is a key regulator of both the early and the later, more invasive, stages of CRC development. In the normal intestine and colon, Wnt signaling controls the homeostasis of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) that fuel, via proliferation, upward movement of progeny cells from the crypt bottom toward the villus and differentiation into all cell types that constitute the intestine. Studies in recent years suggested that cancer stem cells (CSCs), similar to ISCs of the crypts, consist of a small subpopulation of the tumor and are responsible for the initiation and progression of the disease. Although various ISC signature genes were also identified as CRC markers and some of these genes were even demonstrated to have a direct functional role in CRC development, the origin of CSCs and their contribution to cancer progression is still debated. Here, we describe studies supporting a relationship between Wnt-regulated CSCs and the progression of CRC. PMID:27134739

  6. Functional inhibition of β-catenin-mediatedWnt signaling by intracellular VHHantibodies

    PubMed Central

    Newnham, Laura E; Wright, Michael J; Holdsworth, Gill; Kostarelos, Kostas; Robinson, Martyn K; Rabbitts, Terence H; Lawson, Alastair D

    2015-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is of central importance in embryogenesis, development and adult tissue homeostasis, and dysregulation of this pathway is associated with cancer and other diseases. Despite the developmental and potential therapeutic significance of this pathway, many aspects of Wnt signaling, including the control of the master transcriptional co-activator β-catenin, remain poorly understood. In order to explore this aspect, a diverse immune llama VHH phagemid library was constructed and panned against β-catenin. VHH antibody fragments from the library were expressed intracellularly, and a number of antibodies were shown to possess function-modifying intracellular activity in a luciferase-based Wnt signaling HEK293 reporter bioassay. Further characterization of one such VHH (named LL3) confirmed that it bound endogenous β-catenin, and that it inhibited the Wnt signaling pathway downstream of the destruction complex, while production of a control Ala-substituted complementarity-determining region (CDR)3 mutant demonstrated that the inhibition of β-catenin activity by the parent intracellular antibody was dependent on the specific CDR sequence of the antibody. PMID:25524068

  7. WNT antagonist, DKK2, is a Notch signaling target in intestinal stem cells: augmentation of a negative regulation system for canonical WNT signaling pathway by the Notch-DKK2 signaling loop in primates.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masuko; Katoh, Masaru

    2007-01-01

    Notch and WNT signaling pathways are key components of the stem cell signaling network. Canonical WNT signaling to intestinal progenitor cells leads to transcriptional activation of the JAG1 gene, encoding Serrate-type Notch ligand. JAG1 then binds to the Notch receptor on adjacent stem cells to induce Notch receptor proteolyses for the release of Notch intracellular domain (NICD). NICD is associated with CSL/RBPSUH and Mastermind (MAML1, MAML2, or MAML3) to activate Notch target genes, such as HES1 and HES5. Although WNT-dependent Notch signaling activation in intestinal stem cells is clarified, the effects of Notch signaling activation on WNT signaling in progenitor cells remain unclear. We searched for Notch-response element (NRE) in the promoter region of genes encoding secreted WNT signaling inhibitors, including DKK1, DKK2, DKK3, DKK4, SFRP1, SFRP2, SFRP3, SFRP4, SFRP5 and WIF1. Double NREs were identified within human DKK2 promoter by bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint). The human DKK2 gene was characterized as Notch signaling target in intestinal stem cells. Because DKK2 is a key player in the stem cell signaling network, the DKK2 gene at human chromosome 4q25 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene inactivated due to epigenetic silencing and/or deletion. The chimpanzee DKK2 gene was identified within the NW_105990.1 genome sequence, while the cow Dkk2 gene was identified within the AC156664.2 and AC158038.2 genome sequences. Chimpanzee DKK2 and cow Dkk2 showed 98.5% and 95.8% total-amino-acid identity with human DKK2, respectively. Double NREs in human DKK2 promoter were conserved in chimpanzee DKK2 promoter, partially in rat Dkk2 promoter, but not in cow and mouse Dkk2 promoters. The Notch-DKK2 signaling loop, created or potentiated in primates, was complementary to WNT-DKK1 and BMP-IHH-SFRP1 signaling loops for negative regulation of canonical WNT signaling pathway. Together, these facts indicate that DKK2 promoter evolution resulted in the

  8. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 in Wnt signaling pathway and cancer.

    PubMed

    Tejeda-Muñoz, Nydia; Robles-Flores, Martha

    2015-12-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) was first discovered in 1980 as one of the key enzymes of glycogen metabolism. Since then, GSK-3 has been revealed as one of the master regulators of a diverse range of signaling pathways, including those activated by Wnts, participating in the regulation of numerous cellular functions, suggesting that its activity is tightly regulated. Numerous studies have pointed to an association of GSK-3 dysregulation with the onset and progression of human diseases, including diabetes mellitus, obesity, inflammation, neurological illnesses, and cancer. Therefore, GSK-3 is recognized as an attractive therapeutic target in multiple disorders. However, the great number of substrates that are phosphorylated by GSK-3 has raised the question of whether this limits its feasibility as a therapeutic target because of the potential disruption of many cellular processes and also by the fear that inhibition of GSK-3 may stimulate or aid in malignant transformation, as GSK-3 can phosphorylate pro-oncogenic factors. This mini review focuses on the role played by GSK-3 in Wnt signaling pathway and cancer using as model colon cancer. PMID:26600003

  9. LRP6 exerts non-canonical effects on Wnt signaling during neural tube closure.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jason D; Kholmanskikh, Stanislav; Castaldo, Bozena S; Hansler, Alex; Chung, Heekyung; Klotz, Brian; Singh, Shawn; Brown, Anthony M C; Ross, M Elizabeth

    2013-11-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 6 (Lrp6) mutational effects on neurulation were examined using gain (Crooked tail, Lrp6(Cd)) and loss (Lrp6(-)) of function mouse lines. Two features often associated with canonical Wnt signaling, dorsal-ventral patterning and proliferation, were no different from wild-type (WT) in the Lrp6(Cd/Cd) neural tube. Lrp6(-/-) embryos showed reduced proliferation and subtle patterning changes in the neural folds. Cell polarity defects in both Lrp6(Cd/Cd) and Lrp6(-/-) cranial folds were indicated by cell shape, centrosome displacement and failure of F-actin and GTP-RhoA accumulation at the apical surface. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from Lrp6(Cd/Cd) or Lrp6(-/-) embryos exhibited elevated and decreased RhoA basal activity levels, respectively. While ligand-independent activation of canonical Wnt signaling, bypassing Lrp-Frizzled receptors, did not activate RhoA, non-canonical Wnt5a stimulation of RhoA activity was impaired in Lrp6(-/-) MEFs. RhoA inhibition exacerbated NTDs in cultured Lrp6 knockout embryos compared with WT littermates. In contrast, a ROCK inhibitor rescued Lrp6(Cd/Cd) embryos from NTDs. Lrp6 co-immunoprecipitated with Disheveled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (DAAM1), a formin promoting GEF activity in Wnt signaling. Biochemical and cell biological data revealed intracellular accumulation of Lrp6(Cd) protein where interaction with DAAM1 could account for observed elevated RhoA activity. Conversely, null mutation that eliminates Lrp6 interaction with DAAM1 led to lower basal RhoA activity in Lrp6(-/-) embryos. These results indicate that Lrp6 mediates not only canonical Wnt signaling, but can also modulate non-canonical pathways involving RhoA-dependent mechanisms to impact neurulation, possibly through intracellular complexes with DAAM1. PMID:23773994

  10. Wnt Signaling Translocates Lys48-Linked Polyubiquitinated Proteins to the Lysosomal Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunjoon; Vick, Philipp; Hedtke, Joshua; Ploper, Diego; De Robertis, Edward M

    2015-05-26

    Cellular proteins are degraded in either proteasomes or lysosomes depending on the types of ubiquitin chains that covalently modify them. It is not known whether the choice between these two pathways is physiologically regulated. The Lys48-polyubiquitin chain is the major signal directing proteins for degradation in proteasomes. Here, we report the unexpected finding that canonical Wnt signaling translocates some K48-linked polyubiquitinated proteins to the endolysosomal pathway. Proteasomal target proteins, such as b-catenin, Smad1, and Smad4, were targeted into endolysosomes in a process dependent on GSK3 activity. Relocalization was also dependent on Axin1 and the multivesicular body (MVB) proteins HRS/Vps27 and Vps4. The Wnt-induced accumulation of K48-linked polyubiquitinated proteins in endolysosomal organelles was accompanied by a transient decrease in cellular levels of free mono-ubiquitin, which may contribute to Wnt-regulated stabilization of proteins (Wnt/ STOP). We conclude that Wnt redirects Lys48-polyubiquitinated proteins that are normally degraded in proteasomes to endolysosomes. PMID:26004177

  11. Dissecting Wnt/beta-catenin signaling during gastrulation using RNA interference in mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Lickert, Heiko; Cox, Brian; Wehrle, Christian; Taketo, Makoto M; Kemler, Rolf; Rossant, Janet

    2005-06-01

    Differential gene regulation integrated in time and space drives developmental programs during embryogenesis. To understand how the program of gastrulation is regulated by Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, we have used genome-wide expression profiling of conditional beta-catenin mutant embryos. Known Wnt/beta-catenin target genes, known components of other signaling pathways, as well as a number of uncharacterized genes were downregulated in these mutants. To further narrow down the set of differentially expressed genes, we used whole-mount in situ screening to associate gene expression with putative domains of Wnt activity. Several potential novel target genes were identified by this means and two, Grsf1 and Fragilis2, were functionally analyzed by RNA interference (RNAi) in completely embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived embryos. We show that the gene encoding the RNA-binding factor Grsf1 is important for axial elongation, mid/hindbrain development and axial mesoderm specification, and that Fragilis2, encoding a transmembrane protein, regulates epithelialization of the somites and paraxial mesoderm formation. Intriguingly, the knock-down phenotypes recapitulate several aspects of Wnt pathway mutants, suggesting that these genes are components of the downstream Wnt response. This functional genomic approach allows the rapid identification of functionally important components of embryonic development from large datasets of putative targets. PMID:15857914

  12. Roles of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in epithelial differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yajing; Sun, Zhaorui; Qiu, Xuefeng; Li, Yan; Qin, Jizheng; Han, Xiaodong

    2009-12-25

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to be able to differentiate into epithelial lineage, but the precise mechanisms controlling this process are unclear. Our aim is to explore the roles of Wnt/{beta}-catenin in the epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Using indirect co-culture of rat MSCs with rat airway epithelial cells (RTE), MSCs expressed several airway epithelial markers (cytokeratin 18, tight junction protein occudin, cystic fibrosis transmembrance regulator). The protein levels of some important members in Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling were determined, suggested down-regulation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin with epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Furthermore, Wnt3{alpha} can inhibit the epithelial differentiation of MSCs. A loss of {beta}-catenin induced by Dickkopf-1 can enhance MSCs differentiation into epithelial cells. Lithium chloride transiently activated {beta}-catenin expression and subsequently decreased {beta}-catenin level and at last inhibited MSCs to differentiate into airway epithelium. Taken together, our study indicated that RTE cells can trigger epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Blocking Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling may promote MSCs to differentiate towards airway epithelial cells.

  13. Downregulation of sFRP-2 by epigenetic silencing activates the β-catenin/Wnt signaling pathway in esophageal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tsuyoshi; Mitomi, Hiroyuki; Imamhasan, Abdukadir; Hayashi, Takuo; Mitani, Keiko; Takahashi, Michiko; Kajiyama, Yoshiaki; Yao, Takashi

    2014-02-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) of the esophagus is a rare variant of typical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) associated with poor survival. A characteristic feature is nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, without a mutation of the gene. We studied the methylation status of Wnt antagonist genes, such as secreted frizzled-related protein (sFRP) gene family members, Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1), Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1), and human Dapper protein-1 (HDPR-1), and alterations of the APC, Axin1, and Axin2 genes in 30 cases of esophageal BSCC. β-catenin and sFRP (sFRP-1, sFRP-2, sFRP-4, sFRP-5) protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry. APC, Axin1, and Axin2 gene mutations were detected in 3, 2, and 2 cases, respectively, and 6 cases (20 %) harbored at least 1 alteration in these genes. Methylation of the sFRP-2 promoter region was observed in all cases, and methylation was frequent in sFRP-1 and sFRP-5, but infrequent in Dkk-1, WIF-1, sFRP-4, and HDPR-1. sFRP-2 expression was almost completely absent in 25 cases (83 %), consistent with the methylation status. Nuclear accumulation of β-catenin was observed in all cases. sFRP-5 expression was associated with a low nuclear β-catenin labeling index. These results show that sFRP-2 is a target gene of hypermethylation in esophageal BSCC and suggest that sFRP-2 might contribute to BSCC tumorigenesis through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:24464051

  14. Genome-wide network analysis of Wnt signaling in three pediatric cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Ju; Lee, Ho-Jin; Zheng, Jie J.

    2013-10-01

    Genomic structural alteration is common in pediatric cancers, and analysis of data generated by the Pediatric Cancer Genome Project reveals such tumor-related alterations in many Wnt signaling-associated genes. Most pediatric cancers are thought to arise within developing tissues that undergo substantial expansion during early organ formation, growth and maturation, and Wnt signaling plays an important role in this development. We examined three pediatric tumors--medullobastoma, early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and retinoblastoma--that show multiple genomic structural variations within Wnt signaling pathways. We mathematically modeled this pathway to investigate the effects of cancer-related structural variations on Wnt signaling. Surprisingly, we found that an outcome measure of canonical Wnt signaling was consistently similar in matched cancer cells and normal cells, even in the context of different cancers, different mutations, and different Wnt-related genes. Our results suggest that the cancer cells maintain a normal level of Wnt signaling by developing multiple mutations.

  15. The evolving roles of canonical WNT signaling in stem cells and tumorigenesis: Implications in targeted cancer therapies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ke; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Zhongliang; Nan, Guoxin; Li, Yasha; Zhang, Fugui; Mohammed, Maryam K.; Haydon, Rex C.; Luu, Hue H.; Bi, Yang; He, Tong-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    The canonical WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway governs a myriad of biological processes underlying development and maintenance of adult tissue homeostasis, including regulation of stem cell self-renewal, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. WNTs are secreted lipid-modified glycoproteins that act as short-range ligands to activate receptor-mediated signaling pathways. The hallmark of the canonical pathway is the activation of β-catenin mediated transcriptional activity. Canonical WNTs control the β-catenin dynamics as the cytoplasmic level of β-catenin is tightly regulated via phosphorylation by the ‘destruction complex’, consisting of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), casein kinase 1α (CK1α), the scaffold protein AXIN, and the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Aberrant regulation of this signaling cascade is associated with varieties of human diseases, especially cancers. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of canonical WNT signaling. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of WNT signaling at the extracellular, cytoplasmic membrane, and intracellular/nuclear levels, including the emerging knowledge of crosstalk with other pathways. Recent progresses in developing novel WNT pathway-targeted therapies will also be reviewed. Thus, this review is intended to serve as a refresher of the current understanding about the physiologic and pathogenic roles of WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, and to outline potential therapeutic opportunities by targeting the canonical WNT pathway. PMID:26618721

  16. The evolving roles of canonical WNT signaling in stem cells and tumorigenesis: implications in targeted cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Zhongliang; Nan, Guoxin; Li, Yasha; Zhang, Fugui; Mohammed, Maryam K; Haydon, Rex C; Luu, Hue H; Bi, Yang; He, Tong-Chuan

    2016-02-01

    The canonical WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway governs a myriad of biological processes underlying the development and maintenance of adult tissue homeostasis, including regulation of stem cell self-renewal, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. WNTs are secreted lipid-modified glycoproteins that act as short-range ligands to activate receptor-mediated signaling pathways. The hallmark of the canonical pathway is the activation of β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity. Canonical WNTs control the β-catenin dynamics as the cytoplasmic level of β-catenin is tightly regulated via phosphorylation by the 'destruction complex', consisting of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), casein kinase 1α (CK1α), the scaffold protein AXIN, and the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Aberrant regulation of this signaling cascade is associated with varieties of human diseases, especially cancers. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of canonical WNT signaling. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of WNT signaling at the extracellular, cytoplasmic membrane, and intracellular/nuclear levels, including the emerging knowledge of cross-talk with other pathways. Recent progresses in developing novel WNT pathway-targeted therapies will also be reviewed. Thus, this review is intended to serve as a refresher of the current understanding about the physiologic and pathogenic roles of WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, and to outline potential therapeutic opportunities by targeting the canonical WNT pathway. PMID:26618721

  17. Lycopene synergistically enhances quinacrine action to inhibit Wnt-TCF signaling in breast cancer cells through APC.

    PubMed

    Preet, Ranjan; Mohapatra, Purusottam; Das, Dipon; Satapathy, Shakti R; Choudhuri, Tathagata; Wyatt, Michael D; Kundu, Chanakya N

    2013-02-01

    We previously reported that quinacrine (QC) has anticancer activity against breast cancer cells. Here, we examine the mechanism of action of QC and its ability to inhibit Wnt-TCF signaling in two independent breast cancer cell lines. QC altered Wnt-TCF signaling components by increasing the levels of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), DAB2, GSK-3β and axin and decreasing the levels of β-catenin, p-GSK3β (ser 9) and CK1. QC also reduced the activity of the Wnt transcription factor TCF/LEF and its downstream targets cyclin D1 and c-MYC. Using a luciferase-based Wnt-TCF transcription factor assay, it was shown that APC levels were inversely associated with TCF/LEF activity. Induction of apoptosis and DNA damage was observed after treatment with QC, which was associated with increased expression of APC. The effects induced by QC depend on APC because the inhibition of Wnt-TCF signaling by QC is lost in APC-knockdown cells, and consequently, the extent of apoptosis and DNA damage caused by QC is reduced compared with parental cells. Because we previously showed that QC inhibits topoisomerase, we examined the effect of another topoisomerase inhibitor, etoposide, on Wnt signaling. Interestingly, etoposide treatment also reduced TCF/LEF activity, β-catenin and cyclin D1 levels commensurate with induction of DNA damage and apoptosis. Lycopene, a plant-derived antioxidant, synergistically increased QC activity and inhibited Wnt-TCF signaling in cancer cells without affecting the MCF-10A normal breast cell line. Collectively, the data suggest that QC-mediated Wnt-TCF signal inhibition depends on APC and that the addition of lycopene synergistically increases QC anticancer activity. PMID:23129580

  18. Epidermal Wnt controls hair follicle induction by orchestrating dynamic signaling crosstalk between the epidermis and dermis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiang; Hsu, Wei

    2013-04-01

    A signal first arising in the dermis to initiate the development of hair follicles has been described for many decades. Wnt is the earliest signal known to be intimately involved in hair follicle induction. However, it is not clear whether the inductive signal of Wnt arises intradermally or intraepidermally. Whether Wnt acts as the first dermal signal to initiate hair follicle development also remains unclear. Here we report that Wnt production mediated by Gpr177, the mouse Wls ortholog, is essential for hair follicle induction. Gpr177, encoding a multipass transmembrane protein, regulates Wnt sorting and secretion. Cell type-specific abrogation of the signal reveals that only epidermal, but not dermal, production of Wnt is required. An intraepidermal Wnt signal is necessary and sufficient for hair follicle initiation. However, the subsequent development depends on reciprocal signaling crosstalk of epidermal and dermal cells. Wnt signals within the epidermis and dermis and crossing between the epidermis and dermis have distinct roles and specific functions in skin development. This study not only defines the cell type responsible for Wnt production, but also reveals a highly dynamic regulation of Wnt signaling at different steps of hair follicle morphogenesis. Our findings uncover a mechanism underlying hair follicle development orchestrated by the Wnt pathway. PMID:23190887

  19. IL-1β-induced, matrix metalloproteinase-3-regulated proliferation of embryonic stem cell-derived odontoblastic cells is mediated by the Wnt5 signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ozeki, Nobuaki; Hase, Naoko; Hiyama, Taiki; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Kawai, Rie; Kondo, Ayami; Nakata, Kazuhiko; Mogi, Makio

    2014-10-15

    We previously established a method for differentiating induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem (ES) cells into α2 integrin-positive odontoblast-like cells. We also reported that interleukin (IL)-1β induces matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3-regulated cell proliferation and suppresses apoptosis in these cells, suggesting that MMP-3 plays a potentially unique physiological role in the regeneration of odontoblast-like cells. Here, we examined whether up-regulation of MMP-3 activity by IL-1β was mediated by Wnt signaling and led to increased proliferation of odontoblast-like cells. IL-1β increased mRNA and protein levels of Wnt5a, Wnt5b and the Wnt receptor Lrp5. Exogenous Wnt5a and Wnt5b were found to increase MMP-3 mRNA, protein and activity, and interestingly the rate of proliferation in these cells. Treatment with siRNAs against Wnt5a, Wnt5b and Lrp5 suppressed the IL-1β-induced increase in MMP-3 expression and suppressed cell proliferation, an effect rescued by application of exogenous Wnt5. These results demonstrate the sequential involvement of Wnt5, Lrp5 and MMP-3 in effecting IL-1β-induced proliferation of ES cell-derived odontoblast-like cells. - Highlights: • IL-1β induces Wnt5, Lrp5/Fzd9 and MMP-3 in ES cell-derived odontoblast-like cells. • IL-1β-induced Wnt5 expression results in increased cell proliferation. • Exogenous Wnt5 increases MMP-3 activity and cell proliferation. • Exogenous Wnt5 rescues IL-1β-driven proliferation with anti-Wnt5 siRNA suppression. • IL-1β-induced cell proliferation involves Wnt5, Lrp5, and MMP-3 sequentially.

  20. HEF1, a Novel Target of Wnt Signaling, Promotes Colonic Cell Migration and Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingchun; Bavarva, Jasmin H.; Wang, Zemin; Guo, Jianhui; Qian, Chiping; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Golemis, Erica A.; Liu, Wanguo

    2011-01-01

    Misregulation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway and aberrant activation of Wnt signaling target genes are common in colorectal cancer and contribute to cancer progression. Altered expression of HEF1 (Human Enhancer of Filamentation 1, also known as NEDD9 or Cas-L) has been implicated in progression of melanoma, breast, and colorectal cancer. However, the regulation of HEF1 and the role of HEF1 in colorectal cancer tumorigenesis are not fully understood. We here identify HEF1 as a novel Wnt signaling target. The expression of HEF1 was up-regulated by Wnt3a, β-catenin, and Dvl2 in a dose-dependent fashion, and was suppressed following β-catenin down-regulation by shRNA. In addition, elevated HEF1 mRNA and protein levels were observed in colorectal cancer cell lines and primary tumor tissues, as well as in the colon and adenoma polyps of Apcmin/+ mice. Moreover, HEF1 levels in human colorectal tumor tissues increased with the tumor grade. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and HEF1 promoter analyses revealed three functional TCF-binding sites in the promoter of HEF1 respons