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Sample records for active women aged

  1. Motor Performance of Women as a Function of Age and Physical Activity Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikli, Roberta; Busch, Sharman

    Two studies compared motor skills of women in terms of the influence of age and activity level. In the first study, simple and choice reaction time, balance, flexibility, and grip strength of older active women were compared with that of older inactive women, and active and inactive younger women. Except for grip strength, scores of older active…

  2. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  3. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  4. Web-Based Physical Activity Intervention for College-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornes, Lynne; Ransdell, Lynda B.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of a web-based physical activity intervention to two control conditions in terms of increasing walking behavior in college-aged women. Women (N=112) from a public university in the southwest were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. The 4-week intervention featured an experimental, repeated…

  5. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  6. Relationship between Family Structure and Heterosexual Activity in College Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Theresa; And Others

    College-aged women (N=95) were surveyed to determine the effects of parental divorce on their heterosexual activity and on their attitudes and feelings concerning dating. The 67 participants from divorced families were grouped according to the subject's age when her parents were divorced: 6 years and younger, 7-12 years old, and 13-18 years old.…

  7. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581), Psychological Domain (r = –0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  8. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age.

    PubMed

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Linek, Pawel; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = -0.581), Psychological Domain (r = -0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = -0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = -0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  9. Aging women with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pentland, Wendy; Miscio, Gina; Eastabrook, Shirley; Krupa, Terry

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the aging experiences of women with schizophrenia. The research focused on how participants viewed their own aging with schizophrenia, their perceived worries and concerns and how they were coping with aging with the disorder. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected using multiple in-depth interviews with six participants selected purposefully from the client list of a community mental health center. Interview transcriptions were coded and analyzed according to the study questions using QSR Nudist 4 software. Several categories and sub-categories emerged. These included the improvement in the illness over time; physical and daily living activity limitations; specific positive and negative changes that the women report have accompanied aging; the profound losses experienced by the participants when they were younger as a result of having schizophrenia; and how these losses have affected their present lives in terms of limiting available informal support, creating dependency on formal programs and services, and participants' fears of the future. Based on the study findings, implications for mental health practice and services are considered and suggestions are made to guide future research. PMID:12653450

  10. Osteoporosis knowledge, calcium intake, and weight-bearing physical activity in three age groups of women.

    PubMed

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women and compare knowledge to calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity (WBPA). In this cross-sectional study, knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA were assessed using probe interviews, a food frequency and an activity questionnaire, respectively. Seventy-five white women were separated into three groups: young (25-35 years), middle aged (36-46 years) and postmenopausal (50+ years). Concept maps were used to assess knowledge (concepts, integration and misconceptions). Calcium intakes from diet, supplements and fortified orange juice were estimated as were minutes of daily WBPA. Analysis of covariance was used to compare knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA by age group. Covariates included education, family history, physical problems making exercise difficult, and lactose intolerance. Chi square analysis was used to determine differences in these covariates across age groups. Correlations and regression analysis were used to determine relationships between knowledge and behaviors. Knowledge scores averaged 32-44 points (183 possible). Average calcium intake in all groups exceeded the Dietary Reference Intake's recommended Adequate Intake but 20-24% consumed less than 60% of the AI. Housework, walking at work, and standing at home and work accounted for 90% of WBPA. Knowledge about osteoporosis was limited and not associated with age, WBPA or calcium intake. Calcium intake and WBPA were not associated with age. Practitioners need to provide explicit information on osteoporosis and risk reducing behaviors to women of all ages. PMID:12238730

  11. Health screening - women - over age 65

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  12. Impact of a Community-Based Prevention Marketing Intervention to Promote Physical Activity among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Granner, Michelle L.; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E.; Bryant, Carol A.; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-01-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral…

  13. Health screening - women - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 to 39; Women's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  14. Health screening - women - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 to 64; Women's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  15. Impact of a community-based prevention marketing intervention to promote physical activity among middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Patricia A; Burroughs, Ericka L; Granner, Michelle L; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E; Bryant, Carol A; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-06-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral intervention and were exposed to a media campaign. They were compared to cross-sectional survey samples at pre- (n = 245) and postprogram (n = 820) from the media exposed county and a no-intervention county (n = 234 pre, n = 822 post). Women in the behavioral intervention had statistically significant positive changes on physical activity minutes, walking, park and trail use, knowledge of mapped routes and exercise partner, and negative change on exercise self-efficacy. Media exposed women had statistically significant pre- to postprogram differences on knowledge of mapped routes. No-intervention women had significant pre- to postprogram differences on physical activity minutes, walking, and knowledge of mapped routes. PMID:19875639

  16. Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross

  17. Walking or Dancing: Patterns of Physical Activity by Cross-Sectional Age Among U.S. Women

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jessie X.; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Wen, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify age differences in physical activity (PA) participation for women. Methods Data from 3,952 women 25+ from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to analyze participation patterns for 17 PA types. Results The top five leisure PAs by participation rate for all ages were walking (42%), dancing (20%), treadmill (15%), biking (11%), and yoga (10%). Participation in running, dancing, treadmill, and team sports declined around ages 35 to 44, and participation in household PA, walking, weightlifting, and hiking declined around ages 55 to 64. At age 75+ further substantial decline in most activities occurred. Nativity status was the most important moderator for age-related PA decline. Conclusions Total PA declines with age but significant decline does not occur until ages 55 to 64. Major decline in leisure PA participation starts earlier at ages 35 to 44. While age-related declining patterns differ for different activities, the top five most popular leisure activities are similar for all age groups. PMID:23867628

  18. Survival analysis of time to uptake of modern contraceptives among sexually active women of reproductive age in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Morhason-Bello, ImranOludare

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the timing of modern contraceptive uptake among married and never-married women in Nigeria. Design A retrospective cross-sectional study. Data and method We used nationally representative 2013 Demographic and Health Survey data in Nigeria. Modern contraceptive uptake time was measured as the period between first sexual intercourse and first use of a modern contraceptive. Non-users of modern contraceptives were censored on the date of the survey. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were used to determine the rate of uptake. A Cox proportional-hazards model was used to determine variables influencing the uptake at 5% significance level. Participants A total of 33 223 sexually active women of reproductive age. Outcome measure Time of uptake of a modern contraceptive after first sexual intercourse. Results The median modern contraceptive uptake time was 4 years in never-married and 14 years among ever-married women. Significant differences in modern contraceptive uptake existed in respondents’ age, location, education and wealth status. Never-married women were about three times more likely to use a modern contraceptive than ever-married women (aHR=3.24 (95% CI 2.82 to 3.65)). Women with higher education were six times more likely to use a modern contraceptive than those without education (aHR=6.18 (95% CI 5.15 to 7.42)). Conclusions The rate of modern contraceptive uptake is low, and timing of contraceptive uptake during or after first sexual intercourse differed according to marital status. Age and number of children ever born influenced modern contraceptive uptake among the never-married women, but religion and place of residence were associated with the probability of modern contraceptive uptake among ever-married women. PMID:26671948

  19. Different effects of age, adiposity and physical activity on the risk of ankle, wrist and hip fractures in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Miranda E G; Cairns, Benjamin J; Banks, Emily; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K; Beral, Valerie

    2012-06-01

    While increasing age, decreasing body mass index (BMI), and physical inactivity are known to increase hip fracture risk, whether these factors have similar effects on other common fractures is not well established. We used prospectively-collected data from a large cohort to examine the role of these factors on the risk of incident ankle, wrist and hip fractures in postmenopausal women. 1,155,304 postmenopausal participants in the Million Women Study with a mean age of 56.0 (SD 4.8) years, provided information about lifestyle, anthropometric, and reproductive factors at recruitment in 1996-2001. All participants were linked to National Health Service cause-specific hospital records for day-case or overnight admissions. During follow-up for an average of 8.3 years per woman, 6807 women had an incident ankle fracture, 9733 an incident wrist fracture, and 5267 an incident hip fracture. Adjusted absolute and relative risks (RRs) for incident ankle, wrist, and hip fractures were calculated using Cox regression models. Age-specific rates for wrist and hip fractures increased sharply with age, whereas rates for ankle fracture did not. Cumulative absolute risks from ages 50 to 84 years per 100 women were 2.5 (95%CI 2.2-2.8) for ankle fracture, 5.0 (95%CI 4.4-5.5) for wrist fracture, and 6.2 (95%CI 5.5-7.0) for hip fracture. Compared with lean women (BMI<20 kg/m(2)), obese women (BMI≥30 kg/m(2)) had a three-fold increased risk of ankle fracture (RR=3.07; 95%CI 2.53-3.74), but a substantially reduced risk of wrist fracture and especially of hip fracture (RR=0.57; 0.51-0.64 and 0.23; 0.21-0.27, respectively). Physical activity was associated with a reduced risk of hip fracture but was not associated with ankle or wrist fracture risk. Ankle, wrist and hip fractures are extremely common in postmenopausal women, but the associations with age, adiposity, and physical activity differ substantially between the three fracture sites. PMID:22465850

  20. Healthy aging for older women.

    PubMed

    Young, Heather M; Cochrane, Barbara B

    2004-03-01

    Healthy aging is a multifaceted phenomenon, incorporating biological and psychosocial developmental factors. The population of older women is diverse in health, function, social context, and age. Health promotion strategies, therefore, should be customized accordingly to optimize the health of the varied subgroups of older women, according to their health trajectory and personal preferences. Research and evaluation of approaches to promote health among these subgroups is an important next step in understanding and influencing the health of older women. PMID:15062732

  1. The Effects of Age, Adiposity, and Physical Activity on the Risk of Seven Site-Specific Fractures in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Jason; Cairns, Benjamin J; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K; Beral, Valerie; Armstrong, Miranda Eg

    2016-08-01

    Risk factors for fracture of the neck of the femur are relatively well established, but those for fracture at other sites are little studied. In this large population study we explore the role of age, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity on the risk of fracture at seven sites in postmenopausal women. As part of the Million Women Study, 1,154,821 postmenopausal UK women with a mean age of 56.0 (SD 4.8) years provided health and lifestyle data at recruitment in 1996 to 2001. All participants were linked to National Health Service (NHS) hospital records for day-case or overnight admissions with a mean follow-up of 11 years per woman. Adjusted absolute and relative risks for seven site-specific incident fractures were calculated using Cox regression models. During follow-up, 4931 women had a fracture of the humerus; 2926 of the forearm; 15,883 of the wrist; 9887 of the neck of the femur; 1166 of the femur (not neck); 3199 a lower leg fracture; and 10,092 an ankle fracture. Age-specific incidence rates increased gradually with age for fractures of forearm, lower leg, ankle, and femur (not neck), and steeply with age for fractures of neck of femur, wrist, and humerus. When compared to women with desirable BMI (20.0 to 24.9 kg/m(2) ), higher BMI was associated with a reduced risk of fracture of the neck of femur, forearm, and wrist, but an increased risk of humerus, femur (not neck), lower leg, and ankle fractures (p < 0.001 for all). Strenuous activity was significantly associated with a decreased risk of fracture of the humerus and femur (both neck and remainder of femur) (p < 0.001), but was not significantly associated with lower leg, ankle, wrist, and forearm fractures. Postmenopausal women are at a high lifetime risk of fracture. BMI and physical activity are modifiable risk factors for fracture, but their associations with fracture risk differ substantially across fracture sites. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published

  2. The Effects of Age, Adiposity, and Physical Activity on the Risk of Seven Site‐Specific Fractures in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Lacombe, Jason; Cairns, Benjamin J; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K; Beral, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Risk factors for fracture of the neck of the femur are relatively well established, but those for fracture at other sites are little studied. In this large population study we explore the role of age, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity on the risk of fracture at seven sites in postmenopausal women. As part of the Million Women Study, 1,154,821 postmenopausal UK women with a mean age of 56.0 (SD 4.8) years provided health and lifestyle data at recruitment in 1996 to 2001. All participants were linked to National Health Service (NHS) hospital records for day‐case or overnight admissions with a mean follow‐up of 11 years per woman. Adjusted absolute and relative risks for seven site‐specific incident fractures were calculated using Cox regression models. During follow‐up, 4931 women had a fracture of the humerus; 2926 of the forearm; 15,883 of the wrist; 9887 of the neck of the femur; 1166 of the femur (not neck); 3199 a lower leg fracture; and 10,092 an ankle fracture. Age‐specific incidence rates increased gradually with age for fractures of forearm, lower leg, ankle, and femur (not neck), and steeply with age for fractures of neck of femur, wrist, and humerus. When compared to women with desirable BMI (20.0 to 24.9 kg/m2), higher BMI was associated with a reduced risk of fracture of the neck of femur, forearm, and wrist, but an increased risk of humerus, femur (not neck), lower leg, and ankle fractures (p < 0.001 for all). Strenuous activity was significantly associated with a decreased risk of fracture of the humerus and femur (both neck and remainder of femur) (p < 0.001), but was not significantly associated with lower leg, ankle, wrist, and forearm fractures. Postmenopausal women are at a high lifetime risk of fracture. BMI and physical activity are modifiable risk factors for fracture, but their associations with fracture risk differ substantially across fracture sites. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral

  3. Learning and Social Process of Aging among Korean Older Married Women: The Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Hyunmin

    2010-01-01

    The aging population has rapidly increased in South Korea. From an economic perspective, older people are too often seen in negative terms. Specifically, older women, who are traditionally at greater risk of poverty, are referred to as a social problem or as passive recipients, and the quality of life of older women in an aging society is often…

  4. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    MedlinePlus

    ... percent of smokers begin before age 18. Middle-Aged Women: At menopause, a woman's heart disease risk ... risk of developing high blood pressure for women aged 55 is about 90 percent. Beginning at age ...

  5. Calibrating physical activity intensity for hip-worn accelerometry in women age 60 to 91 years: The Women's Health Initiative OPACH Calibration Study

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Wen, Fang; Herring, Amy H.; Di, Chongzhi; LaMonte, Michael J.; Tinker, Lesley Fels; Lee, I-Min; Rillamas-Sun, Eileen; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Buchner, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We conducted a laboratory-based calibration study to determine relevant cutpoints for a hip-worn accelerometer among women ≥ 60 years, considering both type and filtering of counts. Methods Two hundred women wore an ActiGraph GT3X + accelerometer on their hip while performing eight laboratory-based activities. Oxygen uptake was measured using an Oxycon portable calorimeter. Accelerometer data were analyzed in 15-second epochs for both normal and low frequency extension (LFE) filters. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were used to calculate cutpoints for sedentary, light (low and high), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) using the vertical axis and vector magnitude (VM) counts. Results Mean age was 75.5 years (standard deviation 7.7). The Spearman correlation between oxygen uptake and accelerometry ranged from 0.77 to 0.85 for the normal and LFE filters and for both the vertical axis and VM. The area under the ROC curve was generally higher for VM compared to the vertical axis, and higher for cutpoints distinguishing MVPA compared to sedentary and light low activities. The VM better discriminated sedentary from light low activities compared to the vertical axis. The area under the ROC curves were better for the LFE filter compared to the normal filter for the vertical axis counts, but no meaningful differences were found by filter type for VM counts. Conclusion The cutpoints derived for this study among women ≥ 60 years can be applied to ongoing epidemiologic studies to define a range of physical activity intensities. PMID:26527313

  6. Combined effects of body composition and ageing on joint torque, muscle activation and co-contraction in sedentary women.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, D J; Erskine, R M; Morse, C I; Winwood, K; Onambélé-Pearson, G L

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to establish the interplay between body mass, adiposity, ageing and determinants of skeletal muscle strength. One hundred and two untrained healthy women categorised by age into young (Y) (mean ± SD, 26.7 ± 9.4 years) vs. old (O) (65.1 ± 7.2 years) were assessed for body fat, lean mass, plantar flexion and dorsiflexion maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque, muscle activation capacity and antagonist muscle co-contraction. MVC torque normalised to body mass in the obese group was 35 and 29 % lower (p < 0.05) in Y and 34 and 31 % lower (p < 0.05) in O, compared with underweight and normal weight individuals, respectively. Y with ≥40 % body fat had significantly lower activation than Y with <40 % body fat (88.3 vs. 94.4 %, p < 0.05), but O did not exhibit this effect. Co-contraction was affected by ageing (16.1 % in O vs. 13.8 % in Y, p < 0.05) but not body composition. There were significant associations between markers of body composition, age, strength and activation capacity, with the strongest correlation between muscle strength and total body mass (r (2) = 0.508 in Y, p < 0.001, vs. r (2) = 0.204 in O, p < 0.01). Furthermore, the age-related loss in plantar flexion (PF) MVC torque was exacerbated in obese compared to underweight, normal weight and overweight individuals (-0.96 vs. -0.54, -0.57 and -0.57 % per year, p < 0.05). The negative impact of adiposity on muscle performance is associated with not only muscular but also neural factors. Overall, the effects of ageing and obesity on this system are somewhat cumulative. PMID:24744050

  7. Physical Activity at Mid-Life in Relation to Successful Survival in Women at Age 70 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K.; Okereke, Olivia I.; Franco, Oscar H.; Hu, Frank B.; Grodstein, Francine

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity is associated with reduced risks of chronic diseases and premature death. Whether physical activity is also associated with improved overall health among those who survive to older ages is unclear. Methods A total of 13,535 Nurses’ Health Study participants who were free of major chronic diseases at baseline in 1986 and had survived to age 70 years or older as of 1995–2001 comprised the study population. We defined successful survival as no history of 11 major chronic diseases and no cognitive impairment, physical impairment, or mental health limitations. Results After multivariate adjustment for covariates, higher physical activity levels at mid-life, as measured by metabolic equivalent tasks, were significantly associated with better odds of successful survival. Significant increases in successful survival were observed beginning at the third quintile of activity: Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) in the lowest to highest quintiles were 1.00 (reference), 0.98 (0.80, 1.20), 1.37 (1.13, 1.65), 1.34 (1.11, 1.61), and 1.99 (1.66, 2.38; P for trend < 0.0001). Increasing energy expenditure from walking was associated with a similar elevation in odds of successful survival: The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of successful survival across quintiles of walking were 1.00 (reference), 0.99 (0.80, 1.21), 1.19 (0.97, 1.45), 1.50 (1.24, 1.82), and 1.47 (1.22, 1.79; P for trend < 0.0001). Conclusion These data provide evidence that higher levels of mid-life physical activity are associated with exceptional health status among women who survive to older ages, and corroborate the potential role of physical activity in improving overall health. PMID:20101015

  8. Midlife and Beyond: Issues for Aging Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saucier, Maggi G.

    2004-01-01

    The author discusses issues confronted by aging women, particularly those related to ageism and body image, emphasizing society's role in influencing women's perceptions of their bodies. Although body image issues cause anxiety throughout most women's lives, women entering middle age become more conscious of this concern. Problems related to a…

  9. [Evolution of physical fitness and functional capacity in active elderly women over 50 years of age according to chronological age in Santos city].

    PubMed

    Penha, José Carlos Lopes; Piçarro, Ivan da Cruz; de Barros Neto, Turibio Leite

    2012-01-01

    The scope of this study was to compare the evolution of physical fitness, functional capacity and bone mineral density in active elderly women over a one-year period. The sample consisted of 78 women from 50 to 79 years of age (c:62.4 ± 7.1) participating in an aerobic program, twice a week, 50 minutes per session during 3.4 years and divided into three age groups: A: 50-59 (n:38); B: 60-69 (n:28); C: 70-79 (n:12). Results were compared using Two Way ANOVA, "post-hoc" Bonferroni and delta (D%) variations (*p<.o1). The velocity of rising from a chair and gait speed revealed a significant difference in the three groups ranging from -14.3% to -45.5%; there was a significant improvement in A and B groups in walking speed (-12.1% to -13.9%), and also in maximum gait speed (-15.4% to -18.5%), elbow flexion in all the groups (18.9% to 24.1%), vertical jump (22.5% to 43.9%) in groups B and C, and rising from a chair in 30 seconds (25.2% to 30.8%) in groups A and B, the flexibility test showed an increase in group A (16.2% to 33.3%) and stationary walking in the three groups of (16,4% 30.0%) and bone mineral density (BMD) presented a significant increase (3.1% to 10.2%). The results indicate the salutary effect of regular physical activity. PMID:22218558

  10. Lifelong physical activity in maintaining bone strength in older men and women of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility–Reykjavik Study

    PubMed Central

    Lang, T.F.; Sigurdsson, G.; Eiriksdottir, G.; Sigurdsson, S.; Garcia, M.; Pajala, S.; Koster, A.; Yu, B.; Selwyn, B.J.; Taylor, W.C.; Kapadia, A.S.; Gudnason, V.; Launer, L.J.; Harris, T.B.

    2016-01-01

    Summary We examined if lifelong physical activity is important for maintaining bone strength in the elderly. Associations of quantitative computerized tomography-acquired bone measures (vertebral and femoral) and self-reported physical activity in mid-life (mean age, 50 years), in old age (≥65 years), and throughout life (recalled during old age) were investigated in 2,110 men and 2,682 women in the AGES– Reykjavik Study. Results conclude lifelong physical activity with continuation into old age (≥65 years) best maintains better bone health later in life. Introduction Skeletal loading is thought to modulate the loss of bone in later life, and physical activity is a chief means of affecting bone strength by skeletal loading. Despite much discussion regarding lifelong versus early adulthood physical activity for preventing bone loss later in life, inconsistency still exists regarding how to maintain bone mass later in life (≥65 years). Methods We examined if lifelong physical activity is important for maintaining bone strength in the elderly. Results The associations of quantitative computerized tomography-acquired vertebral and femoral bone measures and self-reported physical activity in mid-life (mean age, 50 years), in old age (≥65 years), and throughout life (recalled during old age) were investigated in 2,110 men and 2,682 women in the AGES–Reykjavik Study. Conclusion Our findings conclude that lifelong physical activity with continuation into old age (≥65 years) best maintains better bone health in the elderly. PMID:22234811

  11. Menstrual cycle and reproductive aging alters immune reactivity, NGF expression, antioxidant enzyme activities, and intracellular signaling pathways in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy women.

    PubMed

    Priyanka, Hannah P; Sharma, Utsav; Gopinath, Srinivasan; Sharma, Varun; Hima, Lalgi; ThyagaRajan, Srinivasan

    2013-08-01

    Reproductive senescence in women is a process that begins with regular menstrual cycles and culminates in menopause followed by gradual development of diseases such as autoimmune diseases, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and hormone-dependent cancers. The age-associated impairment in the functions of neuroendocrine system and immune system results in menopause which contributes to subsequent development of diseases and cancer. The aim of this study is to characterize the alterations in immune responses, compensatory factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF) and antioxidant enzyme activities, and the molecular mechanisms of actions in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of young (follicular and luteal phases), middle-aged, and old healthy women. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from young women in follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle (n=20; 22.6±2.9 yrs), middle-aged women (n=19; 47.1±3.8 yrs; perimenopausal) and old (n=16; 63.2±4.7 yrs; post-menopausal) women and analyzed for Concanavalin (Con A)-induced proliferation of lymphocytes and cytokine (IL-2 and IFN-γ) production, expression of NGF, p-NF-κB, p-ERK, p-CREB, and p-Akt, antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST)], extent of lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide (NO) production. Serum gonadal hormones (17β-estradiol and progesterone) were also measured. A characteristic age- and menstrual cycle-related change was observed in the serum gonadal hormone secretion (estrogen and progesterone), T lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ production. Salient features include the age-related decline observed in target-derived growth factors (lymphocyte NGF expression), signaling molecules (p-ERK/ERK and p-CREB/CREB ratios) and compensatory factors such as the activities of plasma and PBMC antioxidant enzymes (SOD and catalase) and NO production. Further, an age-associated increase in p

  12. Age and Identity Issues of Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia B.; Katrin, Susan E.

    Do women go through identifiable developmental stages? Can generalizable patterns of transition be found, and if so, do these patterns differ according to the age of the respondent? What are women's most difficult and most satisfying times of life? To provide some exploratory quantitative data on these questions, a sample of 120 women completed a…

  13. Impaired Antibody Response to Influenza Vaccine in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Aging Women Is Associated with Immune Activation and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Freguja, Ricardo; Pallikkuth, Suresh; Frasca, Daniela; Fischl, Margaret A.; Pahwa, Savita

    2013-01-01

    Background Aging and HIV infection are independently associated with excessive immune activation and impaired immune responses to vaccines, but their relationships have not been examined. Methods For selecting an aging population we enrolled 28 post-menopausal women including 12 healthy volunteers and 16 HIV-infected women on antiretroviral treatment with <100 HIV RNA copies/ml. Antibody titers to trivalent influenza vaccination given during the 2011-2012 season were determined before and 4 weeks after vaccination. Results Seroprotective influenza antibody titers (≥1:40) were observed in 31% HIV+ and 58% HIV-uninfected women pre-vaccination. Following vaccination, magnitude of antibody responses and frequency of seroprotection were lower in HIV+ (75%) than in HIV– (91%) women. Plasma IL-21, the signature cytokine of T follicular helper cells (Tfh), and CD4 T cell IL-21R were upregulated with seroconversion (≥4 fold increase in antibody titer). Post-vaccine antibody responses were inversely correlated with pre-vaccination plasma TNFα levels and with activated CD4 T cells, including activated peripheral (p)Tfh. Plasma TNFα levels were correlated with activated pTfh cells (r=0.48, p=0.02), and inversely with the post-vaccination levels of plasma IL-21 (r=-0.53, p=0.02). In vitro TNFα blockade improved the ability of CD4 T cells to produce IL-21 and of B cells to secrete immunoglobulins, and addition of exogenous IL-21 to cell cultures enhanced B cell function. Higher frequencies of activated and exhausted CD8 T and B cells were noted in HIV+ women, but these markers did not show a correlation with antibody responses. Conclusions In aging HIV-infected and uninfected women, activated CD4 and pTfh cells may compromise influenza vaccine-induced antibody response, for which a mechanism of TNFα-mediated impairment of pTfh-induced IL-21 secretion is postulated. Interventions aimed at reducing chronic inflammation and immune activation in aging, HIV

  14. Physical activity and sleep among pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Borodulin, Katja; Evenson, Kelly R; Monda, Keri; Wen, Fang; Herring, Amy H; Dole, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among pregnant women and safe treatments to improve sleep are needed. Generally, physical activity improves sleep, but studies are lacking on the associations of physical activity with sleep among pregnant women. Our aim was to investigate the cross-sectional association of various modes of physical activity and activity clusters with sleep quality and duration among 1259 pregnant women. Participants were recruited into the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study from prenatal clinics at the University of North Carolina Hospitals. Women self-reported sleep quality and duration and physical activity in the past week. We used cluster analysis to create seven physical activity profiles and multivariable logistic regression analysis, with adjustments for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, parity, self-rated general health, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Women with higher levels of occupational physical activity were more likely to report either short or normal sleep duration than longer duration. Women with higher levels of indoor household physical activity were less likely to report normal sleep duration than shorter duration. Women in the recreational-indoor household activity cluster were less likely than women in the inactivity cluster to report normal sleep duration as compared with longer duration. Our data suggest weak associations of physical activity with sleep duration and quality in late pregnancy. Physical activity is recommended to pregnant women for health benefits, yet more research is needed to understand if physical activity should be recommended for improving sleep. PMID:20078829

  15. Heavy metal exposure, in combination with physical activity and aging, is related with oxidative stress in Japanese women from a rural agricultural community.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaoyi; Ohtsu, Mayumi; Mise, Nathan; Ikegami, Akihiko; Mizuno, Atsuko; Sakamoto, Takako; Ogawa, Masanori; Machida, Munehito; Kayama, Fujio

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between oxidative stress and heavy metal exposure (lead [Pb] and cadmium [Cd]), as well as co-factors such as physical activity and age, in Japanese women. This study was conducted with female subjects from a rural agricultural community in Japan. Subjects were asked to complete lifestyle-related questionnaires and undergo a group health examination. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and other demographic information were collected. Blood and urine samples were collected to measure urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels and blood and urinary Cd and Pb concentrations. Urine samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography and flameless atomic absorption spectrometry; blood samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Age, physical activity, and blood and urinary Cd and Pb concentrations were included in structural equation modeling analysis. Two latent factors for heavy metal exposure and physical activity were produced to predict the total influence of the variables. The final model was good: CMIN/DF = 0.775, CFI = 1.000, GFI = 0.975, AGFI = 0.954, RMSEA = 0.000. 8-OHdG levels were positively associated with heavy metal exposure, physical activity, and age (standard β of path analysis: 0.33, 0.38, and 0.20, respectively). Therefore, oxidative stress is associated with both, environmental and lifestyle factors, in combination with aging. PMID:27386333

  16. In the mood for love or vice versa? Exploring the relations among sexual activity, physical affection, affect, and stress in the daily lives of mid-aged women.

    PubMed

    Burleson, Mary H; Trevathan, Wenda R; Todd, Michael

    2007-06-01

    How do physical affection, sexual activity, mood, and stress influence one another in the daily lives of mid-aged women? Fifty-eight women (M age, 47.6 yrs) recorded physical affection, several different sexual behaviors, stressful events, and mood ratings every morning for 36 weeks. Using multilevel modeling, we determined that physical affection or sexual behavior with a partner on one day significantly predicted lower negative mood and stress and higher positive mood on the following day. The relation did not hold for orgasm without a partner. Additionally, positive mood on one day predicted more physical affection and sexual activity with a partner, but fewer solo orgasms the following day. Negative mood was mostly unrelated to next-day sexual activity or physical affection. Sexual orientation, living with a partner, and duration of relationship moderated some of these effects. Results support a bidirectional causal model in which dyadic sexual interaction and physical affection improve mood and reduce stress, with improved mood and reduced stress in turn increasing the likelihood of future sex and physical affection. PMID:17109236

  17. Age, Women, and Hiring: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Joanna N.

    2008-01-01

    As baby boomers reach retirement age, demographic pressures on public programs may cause policy makers to cut benefits and encourage employment at later ages. But how much demand exists for older workers? This paper reports on a field experiment to determine hiring conditions for older women in entry-level jobs in two cities. A younger worker is…

  18. Work related injury among aging women.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tracie; Legarde, Brittany; Kim, Sunhun; Walker, Janiece; Blozis, Shelley; Umberson, Debra

    2013-02-01

    This article reports the experiences of women aged 55 to 75 with mobility impairments who attributed aspects of their limitations to workplace injuries and provides insight into worker's compensation policies. The study sample includes Mexican American (MA) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) women aged 55 to 75 who participated in a 4-year ethnographic study of disablement. Ninety-two of the 122 participants in the study attributed aspects of their functional limitations to employment, and their experiences were analyzed using data from 354 meetings. Using Lipscomb and colleagues' conceptual model of work and health disparities, the women's experiences were grouped into three categories according to type of injury, assistance gained, and the consequences of a workplace injury; the results have broad implications for policies that influence aging outcomes. Workplace injuries causing permanent functional limitations compound the effects of age and gender on employment outcomes. Policies addressing health disparities should consider work related influences. PMID:23528432

  19. The effects of health perception on living health belief, living satisfaction and wellbeing-oriented activities according to swimming participation with middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo-Ae; Oh, Deuk-Ja

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of health perception on health belief, life satisfaction, and wellbeing-oriented activities according to swimming participation with middle-aged women. First, the subvariables of health perception, health interest and health concern, did exert significant effects on the subvariables of health belief, perceived benefit and perceived disability. Health interest and health concern also showed significant effects on the subvariables of life satisfaction and wellbeing-oriented activities, exercise orientation and hobby orientation, as well. Second, the subvariables of health perception, resistance and sensitivity, indicated significant effects on the subvariable of health belief, perceived disability, and they also showed significant effects on life satisfaction, too. Also, resistance-sensitivity had significant effects on the subvariables of wellbeing-oriented activities, mental health orientation and hobby orientation, too. PMID:24278888

  20. Substance Use in Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Herzberg, Jackie; Barrier, Breton; Sprague, Debra J; Vinson, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    Using anonymous exit questionnaires in a university OB/GYN clinic, of 165 pregnant women reporting on drinking prior to pregnancy, 26% screened positive for hazardous or harmful drinking. Among 153 non-pregnant women age 50 or younger, 39% screened positive. Of those, 85% had no plans to change their alcohol consumption, as most believed their drinking levels were not risky; 80% had a significant risk of becoming pregnant, but 85% believed pregnancy was unlikely. PMID:27443042

  1. Aging and reproductive potential in women.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, C.; Zimon, A. E.; Jones, E. E.

    1998-01-01

    Reproductive potential in women declines with age. Age-related changes in the ovary account for most of this loss of reproductive function. Oocytes, all of which are present at birth, decline in number and quality with age. The endocrine function of the ovary also declines with age, and the ovary becomes unable to sustain its normal function in the neuroendocrine axis. The neuroendocrine axis may be further affected by primary changes occurring in the hypothalamus and pituitary during aging, although this has not been established in humans. Aging also affects the function of the uterus as the endometrium loses its ability to support implantation and growth of an embryo. Diminished uterine function during aging may be due to changes in the uterine vasculature or to changes in the hormone-dependent development of the endometrium. Finally, aging increases a woman's risk of developing medical, gynecologic or obstetric conditions that may impair her fertility. Knowledge of these affects of aging on a woman's reproductive function is essential to advise and treat the growing number of women seeking pregnancy at advanced reproductive age. PMID:10527364

  2. [Differential mortality in women of reproductive age].

    PubMed

    Morelos, J B; Ehrenfeld, N

    1994-01-01

    "This paper begins by reviewing some conceptual frameworks for the study of female mortality and indicates some of its application problems. Next it presents results of mortality of women in reproductive-age classified by age, causes of death, and socio-demographic traits (marital status, schooling, and occupation) for ten states [in Mexico] differentiated according to level of development and well-being. The data suggests differences according to age, marital status, and schooling. Finally, testing of the mutual independence and partial independence hypotheses indicates that age, marital status, and schooling correlate to the degree of development of each state." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12291772

  3. Work Related Injury among Aging Women

    PubMed Central

    LeGarde, Brittany; Kim, SungHun; Walker, Janiece; Blozis, Shelley; Umberson, Debra

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the experiences of women age 55 to 75 with mobility impairments who attributed aspects of their limitations to workplace injuries and provides insight into worker’s compensation policies. The study sample includes Mexican American and non-Hispanic White women ages 55–75 who participated in a 4-year ethnographic study of disablement. Ninety-two of the 122 participants in the study attributed aspects of their functional limitations to employment, and their experiences were analyzed using data from 354 meetings. Using Lipscomb and colleagues’ conceptual model of work and health disparities, the women’s experiences were grouped into three categories according to type of injury, assistance gained, and the consequences of a workplace injury; the results have broad implications for policies that influence aging outcomes. Workplace injuries causing permanent functional limitations compound the effects of age and gender on employment outcomes. Policies addressing health disparities should consider work related influences. PMID:23528432

  4. Curriculum Activities on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.; Benge, Nancy

    This paper contains learning activities on aging for use with elementary, high school, and university students in health, family relationships, social studies, and art courses. The activities are intended to help youth develop a more realistic understanding of the aging process and to become aware of both the problems and benefits associated with…

  5. Oral contraception for women of middle age.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiangyan; Mueck, Alfred O

    2015-11-01

    Women at middle age have decreased fertility and their pregnancies are higher risk. Combined oral contraceptives (COC) are effective but confer increased risk of age-related diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. These risks are lower, however, with progestogen-only pills (POP). Therefore, other than the levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD), POP are usually the first choice, even though they do often lead to bleeding problems, which are already frequent in the perimenopause. However, the main risk of COC, venous thromboembolism, seems not to be relevant in (non-hospitalized) Chinese women and perhaps also other Asian women. COC may therefore be in fact a better choice than POP for these groups. In contrast to POP and IUDs, they have a variety of benefits especially important for middle-aged women, including a large decrease of the risk of ovarian, endometrial and colorectal cancer, an improvement in bleeding irregularities, a reduction of climacteric symptoms and some protection against bone loss. Further research is needed into individualized and safe contraception that takes into account ethnicity, as well as other factors. PMID:26163075

  6. Physical activity and incident diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed Central

    Folsom, A R; Kushi, L H; Hong, C P

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined whether the incidence of diabetes is reduced among physically active older women. METHODS: We assessed physical activity by mailed questionnaire and 12-year incidence of diabetes (ostensibly type 2 diabetes) in a cohort of 34257 women aged 55 to 69 years. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, education, smoking, alcohol intake, estrogen use, dietary variables, and family history of diabetes, women who reported any physical activity had a relative risk of diabetes of 0.69 (95% confidence interval = 0.63, 0.77) compared with sedentary women. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that physical activity is important for type 2 diabetes prevention among older women. PMID:10630154

  7. Women, aging, and alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Elizabeth E; Fischer-Elber, Kimberly; Al-Otaiba, Zayed

    2007-01-01

    The increase in prevalence rates of alcohol use disorders in younger versus older cohorts of female drinkers is many times higher than the corresponding increase in prevalence rates for male drinkers. Thus, the number and impact of older female drinkers is expected to increase over the next 20 years as the disparity between men's and women's drinking rates decrease. Due to differences in metabolism of alcohol, women of all ages compared to men are at higher risk for negative physical, medical, social, and psychological consequences associated with at-risk and higher levels of alcohol consumption. Aging women face new sets of antecedents related to challenges in the middle and older adult phases of life, such as menopause, retirement, "empty nest," limited mobility, and illness. As women age, they are subject to an even greater physiological susceptibility to alcohol's effect, as well as to a risk of synergistic effects of alcohol in combination with prescription drugs. On the other hand, there is mixed research indicating that older women may benefit from the buffering effect of low levels of alcohol on hormonal declines associated with menopause, perhaps serving as a protective factor against Coronary Heart Disease and osteoporosis. However, with heavier drinking, these benefits are either reversed or eclipsed. In addition, any alcohol consumption increases the risk for breast cancer in older women. The possible beneficial effects of alcohol must be weighed with the fact that the research does not typically establish causality, that low-risk drinking equates to one standard drink per day, that there is a risk of progression towards alcohol dependence, and that there are alternate methods to gain the same benefits without the associated risks. Older women also experience unique barriers to detection of and treatment for alcohol problems. Current treatment options specifically for older women are limited, though researchers are beginning to address differential

  8. Aging, Estrogens, and Episodic Memory in Women

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Victor W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review the relation in midlife and beyond between estrogen exposures and episodic memory in women. Background Episodic memory performance declines with usual aging, and impairments in episodic memory often portend the development of Alzheimer's disease. In the laboratory, estradiol influences hippocampal function and animal learning. However, it is controversial whether estrogens affect memory after a woman's reproductive years. Method Focused literature review, including a summary of a systematic search of clinical trials of estrogens in which outcomes included an objective measure of episodic memory. Results The natural menopause transition is not associated with objective changes in episodic memory. Strong clinical trial evidence indicates that initiating estrogen-containing hormone therapy after about age 60 years does not benefit episodic memory. Clinical trial findings in middle-age women before age 60 are limited by smaller sample sizes and shorter treatment durations, but these also do not indicate substantial memory effects. Limited short-term evidence, however, suggests that estrogens may improve verbal memory after surgical menopause. Although hormone therapy initiation in old age increases dementia risk, observational studies raise the question of an early critical window during which midlife estrogen therapy reduces late-life Alzheimer's disease. However, almost no data address whether midlife estrogen therapy affects episodic memory in old age. Conclusions Episodic memory is not substantially impacted by the natural menopause transition or improved by use of estrogen-containing hormone therapy after age 60. Further research is needed to determine whether outcomes differ after surgical menopause or whether episodic memory later in life is modified by midlife estrogenic exposures. PMID:19996872

  9. [Lycopene intake by different aged women groups].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Sitek, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate dietary intake of lycopene by the group of 100 women, from Central Poland, in different age <30 years, 30-50 years, >50 years (mean age 49 +/- 16 years) and main sources of lycopene. The study was carried out in the year 2006 (June-July) with the use of 4-day dietary food records. The lowest intake of lycopene was noted in the youngest group--4.17 mg/person/day, the highest intake in the oldest group--4.88 mg/person/day. The main sources of lycopene in food rations were tomato products (50.6%) and fresh tomatoes (43.5%). Tropical fruit delivered 5.2% of lycopene, other fruit and vegetable juices only 0.7%. Intakes of products, sources of lycopene, depended on age of women and were statistically significant in case of tomato, watermelon, pink grapefruit, and tomato products: ketchup, liquid tomato sauces, liquid tomato soups, tomato juice. PMID:20839464

  10. Musculoskeletal pain among women of menopausal age in Puebla, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Goode-Null, Susan K

    2005-06-01

    Worldwide, complaints of musculoskeletal pain are more frequent than complaints of hot flashes amongst women of menopausal age. The purpose of this study was to examine musculoskeletal pain among women of menopausal age in the city of Puebla, Mexico. An opportunity sample was recruited from public parks and markets, with representation from all social classes (n=755). Mean age was 50.1 years, and the majority were employed as saleswomen in small businesses. Symptom frequencies were collected by open-ended interviews and with a structured symptom list that queried symptom experience during the two weeks prior to interview. In response to open-ended questions, "dolores de huesos" (bone pain) was volunteered by 47% of respondents as a symptom associated with menopause, second only to hot flashes (53%). From the structured symptom list, 55.8% and 55.6% reported back pain and joint stiffness during the two weeks prior to interview. Women with back pain and joint stiffness were less likely to report being active during their leisure time (p<.01). The results of backwards stepwise logistic regressions indicate that women with back pain were more likely to be older, with less education, a higher BMI, and ate less meat. Women with joint pain were more likely to be post-menopausal, with less education, more children, a higher BMI, and were likely to drink milk and coffee more than once/week but less than once/day. While menopause is not necessarily a risk factor for musculoskeletal pain, it is important to recognize the pervasiveness of this complaint among women of menopausal age. PMID:16917748

  11. Correlates of Lifetime Physical Activity in Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Lorraine Silver

    2003-01-01

    This study retrospectively examined physical activity patterns across three specific age periods (childhood, teenage, and young adulthood) in a cross sectional sample of young Caucasian undergraduate women (N = 44). All women (mean age = 22.27 plus or minus 3.14 years) completed questionnaire packets assessing transtheoretical model of behavior…

  12. Aging women's journey toward wholeness: new visions and directions.

    PubMed

    Harris, Margaret T C

    2008-01-01

    Through a postmodern/feminist exploration of postmenopausal women's narratives, set against a backdrop of a discourse analysis of pivotal biomedical texts, we revealed women's menopausal and postmenopausal aging life-cycle journey as a dynamic, positive, empowering women's process. Based on my analysis of themes in women's narratives I argue that the phenomenon of menopause is limited by a reductionist model and that a wholisitic model is more appropriate for women as they negotiate this significant aging life-cycle process to postmenopausal status. Finally, directions for supporting women to develop a wholistic approach to positive adult development, and how the aging woman can be given status, are suggested. PMID:18821209

  13. [PROBLEM OF ENDOMETRIUM HYPERPLASTIC PROCESSES IN REPRODUCTIVE AGE WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Bazyuta, L Z; Polyova, S P; Tsintar, S A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the risk factors of endometrium hyperplastic processes (EHP) in reproduc- tive age women. It is shown that EHP occur in response to hormonal homeostasis violations of the target tissues. It is established that the biologically active substances, which are closely related to immune mechanisms of the reproductive system functioning take place in regulatory mechanisms of cell growth and differentiation of endometrium. PMID:27491143

  14. Aging gracefully: a comparative study of Japanese and Malaysian women aged 65-75.

    PubMed

    Kok, Jin Kuan; Yap, Yuet Ngor

    2014-12-01

    Longer lives and extended retirement have created a 'young old age' stage of life. How people spend their "young old age" has become increasingly important. This research aims to investigate the different ageing experiences of Japanese and Malaysian women and the activities they engaged in their "young old age". In-depth interviews were conducted to collect data and an adapted grounded theory approach was used for data analysis. Findings reveal many common characteristics for both groups of research participants. The emerging themes show that Japanese and Malaysian Chinese have different life missions evident in their daily activities, one passing on culture and the other passing on family values and life experience. They also differ in their choice of living arrangement (independent versus dependent/interdependent), attitudes to life (fighting versus accepting) and activities in which to engage (aesthetic pursuits versus family oriented activities). PMID:25456622

  15. Women, Work and Age: A Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Working Women, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet provides statistics on various aspects of the special concern of midlife and older women in the labor force. It looks at the number of such women in the work force, marital status, displaced homemakers, and occupational categories represented by these women. Other areas of consideration are the cost-effectiveness of hiring older…

  16. Perception of aging and ageism among women in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; D'Souza, Reshma; Al-Roomi, Khaldoon

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the perceptions of age and aging among women in Qatar. Respondents consisted of 250 women aged between 20 and 70 years, selected from those attending the health centers in Doha city, the capital of Qatar. They were interviewed using a pretested validated questionnaire, and data were collected through direct face-to-face interviews using the incidental sampling method. It was found that physical appearance and mental alertness were the most important criteria for defining aging in men and women. A statistically significant association was found between age of respondents and physical criteria for aging such as hair color (p < .000) in women and body image in men (p < .0298). As for aging characteristics, decreasing hearing ability (p < .000), performance as before (p < .004), more irritability (p < .0227), ability to travel alone (p < .0429), needs check up (p < .001), and needs a geriatric home (p < .001) were statistically associated with age of women studied. Both positive (socializing factors, independence, housework, retirement, and geriatric care) and negative stereotyping (care for self, learning capabilities, irritability, and worries) with regard to aging were evident among the Qatari women. In general, Qatari women had several positive attitudes toward aging. Such attitudes could be utilized in any health promotion for elderly people. PMID:23767841

  17. International women's movement comes of age at FWCW.

    PubMed

    O'haire, H

    1996-02-01

    This article focuses on what the women's conference achieved for women. The Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW) recognized an international women's movement. Governments agreed that women were entitled to full human rights, reproductive rights, and equality in all aspects of life. Women were to become full and equal partners in the development process. Women are likely to demand action based on the paper declarations. The success of the conference is attributed to a powerful network of women's groups. A striking feature was the heading of most national delegations by women. It was recognized that women were full but neglected partners in families and societies. Governments acknowledged that women suffered discrimination within the family and society. Wording was rejected that would have given women the guaranteed right to determine the size and spacing of their families and the information and services to do so. The activity among women's groups in working together to restore this view strengthened the bonds between women's groups and created worldwide awareness and support for women's organizations. Networks that were established at Rio de Janeiro made their presence and position on reproductive health felt at the preparatory meetings to the UN Population Conference in Cairo. It was argued that a target-driven approach had the effect of treating women as reproduction machines. Women's groups also expressed strong positions on how women were to be treated in the formation of population policy and programs. 1) It was insisted that governments and population groups must stop dictating fertility regimes to women. 2) The concept of family planning must include reproductive health. 3) Women should have the freedom to exercise choice in planning their families. 4) Women should also have equal access to education and employment. Women came thus to Beijing with a clear vision of what they wanted. At Beijing domestic violence was for the first time condemned. Beijing

  18. Risk Factors for Urinary Incontinence among Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    DANFORTH, Kim N.; TOWNSEND, Mary K.; LIFFORD, Karen; CURHAN, Gary C.; RESNICK, Neil M.; GRODSTEIN, Francine

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Identify risk factors for urinary incontinence in middle-aged women. Study Design: Cross-sectional analysis of 83,355 Nurses' Health Study II participants. Since 1989, women have provided health information on mailed questionnaires; in 2001, at age 37-54 years, information on urinary incontinence was requested. We examined adjusted odds ratios of incontinence using logistic regression. Results: 43% of women reported incontinence. After adjustment, African-American (OR=0.49, 95% CI 0.40-0.60) and Asian-American women (OR=0.57, 95% CI 0.46-0.72) were at reduced odds of severe incontinence compared to Caucasians. Increased age, body mass index, and parity were all positively associated with incontinence, as were current smoking, type 2 diabetes, and hysterectomy. Women aged 50-54 years had 1.81 times the odds of severe incontinence compared to women <40 years (95% CI 1.66-1.97); women with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 had 3.10 times the odds of severe incontinence compared to BMI 22-24 kg/m2 (95% CI 2.91-3.30). Conclusions: Urinary incontinence is highly prevalent among these middle-aged women. Potential risk factors include age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, parity, smoking, diabetes, and hysterectomy. PMID:16458626

  19. The Relationship between Pedometer-Determined and Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Composition Variables in College-Aged Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mestek, Michael L.; Plaisance, Eric; Grandjean, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Pedometer-determined physical activity (PA) is inversely related to body composition in middle-aged adults; however, researchers have not established such a relationship in college students. Objective and Participants: In this study, the authors attempted to characterize PA and examine its relationship with body composition in undergraduate…

  20. Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

  1. Differences in skeletal and muscle mass with aging in black and white women.

    PubMed

    Aloia, J F; Vaswani, A; Feuerman, M; Mikhail, M; Ma, R

    2000-06-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies using delayed gamma neutron activation analysis and whole body counting suggested that the relationship of total body calcium (TBCa) to total body potassium (TBK) (muscle mass, body cell mass) remained constant with age. This led to the hypothesis that the muscle mass and skeletal mass compartments are integrated in their response to aging. It had also been hypothesized that loss of skeletal and muscle mass was similar between races. In the current study, delayed gamma neutron activation analysis and whole body counting were performed on 90 black and 143 white women 20-69 yr of age. Black women had higher TBCa and TBK values than white women, even when the data were adjusted for age, height, and weight. TBCa was correlated with height and TBK with weight. The estimated decline of skeletal mass (TBCa) from 20 to 70 yr was 18% in black women and 19% in white women. However, the lifetime decline of TBK was only 8% for black women, compared with 22% for white women. Black women may lose TBK more slowly than TBCa with aging, compared with white women. In particular, correlation of TBCa and age was similar for blacks and whites (r = -0.44 and r = -0.54, respectively). However, for TBK these correlations were r = -0.14 and r = -0.42. These data confirm a higher musculoskeletal mass in black women and suggest that the loss of muscle mass with age may be lower in black than in white women. These ethnic differences do not support the hypothesis of an integrated musculoskeletal system, so that these two components should be considered separately. A prospective study is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:10827019

  2. Women's age at first marriage and postmarital agency in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Crandall, AliceAnn; VanderEnde, Kristin; Cheong, Yuk Fai; Dodell, Sylvie; Yount, Kathryn M

    2016-05-01

    Early - or child - marriage (before age 18) may diminish women's ability to exercise agency, or their capacity to act upon their goals. Using a propensity score adjustment approach, we analyzed data from 2394 married women ages 35-49 years who participated in the 2006 Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS). We examined whether women's first marriage at age 18 or older was associated with their post-marital agency, measured in terms of their influence in family decisions, freedom of movement in public spaces, and unfavorable views about intimate partner violence against wives. In bivariate analyses, women's age at first marriage was positively associated with their decision-making and more equitable gender attitudes. However, once we controlled for selection into age-at-first-marriage groups, there were no significant differences between the two age-at-first-marriage groups in any dimension of women's agency. We examined the sensitivity of the non-significant age-at-first-marriage effects to possible violations of the strong ignorability assumption and the results did not alter our conclusions. The assumption that women's age at first marriage is a proxy for their post-marital agency, as defined here, warrants further study. PMID:26973037

  3. Learning and Active Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie; Lovie-Kitchin, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Learning is an important aspect of aging productively. This paper describes results from 2645 respondents (aged from 50 to 74+ years) to a 165-variable postal survey in Australia. The focus is on learning and its relation to work; social, spiritual, and emotional status; health; vision; home; life events; and demographic details. Clustering…

  4. Intrapersonal, social and physical environmental determinants of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in working-age women: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of North American adult females do not meet current physical activity recommendations (150 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) per week accrued in ≥10 min bouts) ultimately placing themselves at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Working-age females face particular challenges in meeting physical activity recommendations as they have multiple demands, including occupational, family and social demands. To develop effective interventions to increase MVPA among working-age females, it is necessary to identify and understand the strongest modifiable determinants influencing these behaviours. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review is to examine the available evidence to identify intrapersonal, social and environmental determinants of MVPA among working-age females. Methods/Design Six electronic databases will be searched to identify all prospective cohort studies that report on intrapersonal, social and/or environmental determinants of MVPA in working-age females. Grey literature sources including theses, published conference abstracts and websites from relevant organizations will also be included. Articles that report on intrapersonal (e.g. health status, self-efficacy, socio-economic status (SES), stress, depression), social environmental (e.g. crime, safety, area SES, social support, climate and capital, policies), and environmental (e.g. weather, workplace, home, neighbourhood, recreation environment, active transportation) determinants of MVPA in a working-age (mean age 18–65 years) female population will be included. Risk of bias will be assessed within and across all included studies using the Tool to Assess Risk of Bias in Cohort Studies and the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Harvest plots will be used to synthesize results across all determinants, and meta-analyses will be conducted where possible among studies with sufficient homogeneity

  5. [THE CONSTITUTIONAL ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE WOMEN OF MATURE AGE].

    PubMed

    Nikitiuk, D B; Nikolenko, V N; Klochkova, S V; Minnibayev, T Sh; Timoshenko, K T

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive anthropometric and bioelectrical study of 651 women of mature age (relative norm) aged 22 to 55 years living in the Moscow region, was conducted. The somatotyping was performed according to I.B. Galant-V.P. Chtetzov-B.A. Ni kitiuk scheme. The quantitative distribution of women according to their somatotypological characteristics was obtained, the anthropometric peculiarities and the specific features of body composition in women belonging to different somatotypes were determined. It was found that among the women of mature age studied, mesoplastic (26.9%) and stenoplastici (16.7%) somatotypes were dominant. The least frequently encountered were the representatives of asthenic (1.7%) and athletic (5.2%) somatic types. Women of different somatotypes vary significantly in height and weight and other anthropometric parameters. PMID:27141592

  6. Scientist within You, Vol. 2: Women Scientists from Seven Continents--Biographies and Activities. Instructor's Guide for Use with Students Ages 10-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Rebecca Lowe; Thompson, Mary H.

    This book is intended to celebrate the global successes of women in a variety of scientific fields. These women provide life stories and career images that positively impact girls' expectations of themselves and their performance in math and science. This book features full biographies on 29 women scientists, mathematicians, and engineers spanning…

  7. Vaginal microbiome of reproductive-age women

    PubMed Central

    Ravel, Jacques; Gajer, Pawel; Abdo, Zaid; Schneider, G. Maria; Koenig, Sara S. K.; McCulle, Stacey L.; Karlebach, Shara; Gorle, Reshma; Russell, Jennifer; Tacket, Carol O.; Brotman, Rebecca M.; Davis, Catherine C.; Ault, Kevin; Peralta, Ligia; Forney, Larry J.

    2011-01-01

    The means by which vaginal microbiomes help prevent urogenital diseases in women and maintain health are poorly understood. To gain insight into this, the vaginal bacterial communities of 396 asymptomatic North American women who represented four ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Asian) were sampled and the species composition characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes. The communities clustered into five groups: four were dominated by Lactobacillus iners, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, or L. jensenii, whereas the fifth had lower proportions of lactic acid bacteria and higher proportions of strictly anaerobic organisms, indicating that a potential key ecological function, the production of lactic acid, seems to be conserved in all communities. The proportions of each community group varied among the four ethnic groups, and these differences were statistically significant [χ2(10) = 36.8, P < 0.0001]. Moreover, the vaginal pH of women in different ethnic groups also differed and was higher in Hispanic (pH 5.0 ± 0.59) and black (pH 4.7 ± 1.04) women as compared with Asian (pH 4.4 ± 0.59) and white (pH 4.2 ± 0.3) women. Phylotypes with correlated relative abundances were found in all communities, and these patterns were associated with either high or low Nugent scores, which are used as a factor for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. The inherent differences within and between women in different ethnic groups strongly argues for a more refined definition of the kinds of bacterial communities normally found in healthy women and the need to appreciate differences between individuals so they can be taken into account in risk assessment and disease diagnosis. PMID:20534435

  8. Achievement Orientation in Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troll, Lillian E.

    The suggestion is made that the flood of middle-aged women who have recently turned away from traditional approaches to achievement may have shifted their orientation to changing options, but have always had a great desire to achieve. The effect of the changing values of the women's movement is discussed, and a grid of achievement motivation…

  9. Person-Environment Interventions With Aging Depressed Women in Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Janice Wood

    The rationale for psychosocial micro and macro interventions for the prevention and treatment of depression in aging women is conceptually based upon empirical research. The investigator's person-environment incongruence model of depression, applied to a study of 50 depressed and 50 non-depressed white women for the purpose of exploring possible…

  10. Women aged 65 or older receiving SSI payments, December 1996.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, L D

    1997-01-01

    Older women who, even if they do receive Social Security benefits, are still eligible for Supplemental Security Income payments are certainly among the most vulnerable segments of our society. At the end of 1996, there were more than 1.5 million such women aged 65 or older who were receiving SSI payments. It is likely that these women have been poor for much of their lives, as they appear to become eligible for SSI before or close to their 65th birthday. These women represent 23 percent of the SSI caseload, and 8 percent of all women aged 65 or older in the country; almost one-third are aged 80 or older. In addition to the health limitations that accompany increasing age, about a third of these women appear to have been blind or severely disabled for many years, and had been receiving SSI even before they reached age 65. Their SSI payments averaged $237 per month ($137 if they also received Social Security, $394 if they did not). Sixty-three percent of the SSI population who were women aged 65 or older were also getting a Social Security benefit averaging $356 per month, but other than Social Security, they had almost no cash income. A few of these women were institutionalized, and almost 1 out of five reported owning their own home. Approximately half lived alone, and another 20 percent lived with only one other person. Of women aged 65 or older receiving SSI payments, 1 in 5 was not a U.S. citizen, and this group was even less likely to have Social Security benefits, or any other cash income. As a result, their SSI payments were higher. Data are not yet available to judge the impact of the complex series of changes made to SSI eligibility for noncitizens by legislation enacted in 1996 and 1997. PMID:9483711

  11. Explaining age differences in women's emotional well-being: The role of subjective experiences of aging.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Anne E; Toothman, Erica L

    2016-01-01

    Our study examines explanations for the "paradox" of older women's better emotional well-being compared with younger women. We consider the role of subjective experiences of aging in a society that devalues older women. Using a sample of women (n = 872) from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (1995-1996 and 2004-2006), we examine the role of five components of the subjective experience of aging in explaining older women's better emotional well-being compared with younger women: age identity, conceptions of the timing of middle age, aging attitudes, aging anxieties, and self-assessed physiological changes. We find that, compared with women 50-54 years old, those 35-39 years old report lower positive affect, and those 25-49 report higher negative affect. These patterns are partially explained by younger women's greater anxiety about declines in health and attractiveness and older women's more youthful identities. Our study underscores the value of considering the implications of our ageist and sexist society for women's emotional well-being across adulthood. PMID:27029460

  12. Age and Parenting Skill Among Black Women in Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Joseph H., Jr.; Duffield, Barbara N.

    1986-01-01

    Using a sample of 158 low-income black women and their infants, this study examined the relation between mother's age and measures of maternal behavior reflecting verbal responsivity, punitiveness, and instrumental support for intellectual development. (Author/NH)

  13. Health screening - women - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    ... for diabetes. COLON CANCER SCREENING If you are under age 50, you should be screened if you have ... bone density test (DEXA scan). If you are under age 65 and have risk factors for osteoporosis , you ...

  14. Why some women look young for their age.

    PubMed

    Gunn, David A; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Murray, Peter G; Fereday, Amelia; Catt, Sharon D; Tomlin, Cyrena C; Strongitharm, Barbara H; Perrett, Dave I; Catt, Michael; Mayes, Andrew E; Messenger, Andrew G; Green, Martin R; van der Ouderaa, Frans; Vaupel, James W; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age. PMID:19956599

  15. Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

    Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

  16. Graves' Disease Pharmacotherapy in Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Prunty, Jeremy J; Heise, Crystal D; Chaffin, David G

    2016-01-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder in which inappropriate stimulation of the thyroid gland results in unregulated secretion of thyroid hormones resulting in hyperthyroidism. Graves' disease is the most common cause of autoimmune hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. Treatment options for Graves' disease include thioamide therapy, partial or total thyroidectomy, and radioactive iodine. In this article, we review guideline recommendations for Graves' disease treatment in women of reproductive age including the recent guideline from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Controversy regarding appropriate thioamide therapy before, during, and after pregnancy is reviewed. Surgical and radioactive iodine therapy considerations in this patient population are also reviewed. In patients who may find themselves pregnant during therapy or develop Graves' disease during their pregnancy, consideration should be given to the most appropriate treatment course for the mother and fetus. Thioamide therapy should be used with either propylthiouracil or methimazole at appropriate doses that target the upper range of normal to slightly hyperthyroid to avoid creating hypothyroidism in the fetus. Consideration should also be given to the adverse effects of thioamide, such as agranulocytosis and hepatotoxicity, with appropriate patient consultation regarding signs and symptoms. Individuals who wish to breastfeed their infants while taking thioamide should receive the lowest effective dose. Surgery should be reserved for extreme cases and limited to the second trimester, if possible. Radioactive iodine therapy may be used in nonpregnant individuals, with limited harm to future fertility. Radioactive iodine therapy should be withheld in pregnant women and those who are actively breastfeeding. Clinicians should keep abreast of developments in clinical trials and evidence-based recommendations regarding Graves' disease in reproductive-age women for any changes in evidence

  17. Aging and Semantic Activation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Darlene V.

    Three studies tested the theory that long term memory consists of a semantically organized network of concept nodes interconnected by leveled associations or relations, and that when a stimulus is processed, the corresponding concept node is assumed to be temporarily activated and this activation spreads to nearby semantically related nodes. In…

  18. Sexual activity, endogenous reproductive hormones and ovulation in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ankita; Mumford, Sunni L; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Ahrens, Katherine A; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Schliep, Karen C; Perkins, Neil J; Kissell, Kerri A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2014-07-01

    We investigated whether sexual activity was associated with reproductive function in the BioCycle Study, a prospective cohort study that followed 259 regularly menstruating women aged 18 to 44years for one (n=9) or two (n=250) menstrual cycles in 2005-2007. Women were not attempting pregnancy nor using hormonal contraceptives. History of ever having been sexually active was assessed at baseline and frequency of sexual activity, defined as vaginal-penile intercourse, was self-reported daily throughout the study. Serum concentrations of estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone, and testosterone were measured up to 8times/cycle. Sporadic anovulation was identified using peak progesterone concentration. Linear mixed models were used to estimate associations between sexual activity and reproductive hormone concentrations and generalized linear models were used to estimate associations with sporadic anovulation. Models were adjusted for age, race, body mass index, perceived stress, and alcohol consumption and accounted for repeated measures within women. Elevated concentrations of estrogen (+14.6%, P<.01), luteal progesterone (+41.0%, P<.01) and mid-cycle LH (+23.4%, P<.01), but not FSH (P=.33) or testosterone (P=.37), were observed in sexually active women compared with sexually inactive women (no prior and no study-period sexual activity); sexually active women had lower odds of sporadic anovulation (adjusted odds ratio=0.34, 95% confidence interval: 0.16-0.73). Among sexually active women, frequency of sexual activity was not associated with hormones or sporadic anovulation (all P>.23). Findings from our study suggest that ever having been sexually active is associated with improved reproductive function, even after controlling for factors such as age. PMID:24954690

  19. Changes in the body posture of women occurring with age

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A current topic in the field of geriatrics still needing a great deal of study is the changes in body posture occurring with age. Symptoms of these changes can be observed starting between the ages of 40–50 years with a slow progression that increases after 60 years of age. The aims of this study were to evaluate parameters characterizing the posture of women over the age of 60 years compared with a control group and to determine the dynamics of body posture changes in the following decades. Methods The study included 260 randomly selected women. The study group consisted of 130 women between the ages of 60–90 years (Older Women). The control group (Younger Women) consisted of 130 women between the ages of 20–25 years (posture stabilization period). The photogrammetric method was used to evaluate body posture using the phenomenon of the projection chamber. The study was conducted according to generally accepted principles. Results In the analysis of parameters characterizing individual slope curves, results were varied among different age groups. The lumbar spine slope did not show significant differences between different age groups (p = 0.6952), while statistically significant differences (p = 0.0000) were found in the thoracic-lumbar spine slope (p = 0.0033) and upper thoracic spine slope. Body angle was shown to increase with age (p = 0.0000). Thoracic kyphosis depth significantly deepened with age (p = 0.0002), however, the thoracic kyphosis angle decreased with age (p = 0.0000). An increase in asymmetries was noticed, provided by a significantly higher angle of the shoulder line (p = 0.0199) and the difference in height of the lower shoulder blade angle (p = 0.0007) measurements in the group of older women. Conclusions Changes in the parameters describing body posture throughout consecutive decades were observed. Therapy for women over the age of 60 years should involve strengthening of the erector spinae

  20. A community-based, culturally relevant intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity among middle-aged African American women in rural Alabama: Findings from a group randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Scarinci, Isabel C.; Moore, Artisha; Wynn, Theresa; Cherrington, Andrea; Fouad, Mona; Li, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the efficacy of a community-based, culturally relevant intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity among African American (AA) women between the ages of 45–65 years, residing in rural Alabama. Methods We conducted a group randomized controlled trial with counties as the unit of randomization that evaluated two interventions based on health priorities identified by the community: (1) promotion of healthy eating and physical activity; and (2) promotion of breast and cervical cancer screening. A total of 6 counties with 565 participants were enrolled in the study between November 2009 and October 2011. Results The overall retention rate at 24-month follow-up was 54.7%. Higher retention rate was observed in the “healthy lifestyle” arm (63.1%) as compared to the “screening” arm (45.3%). Participants in the “healthy lifestyle” arm showed significant positive changes compared to the “screening” arm at 12-month follow-up with regard to decrease in fried food consumption and an increase in both fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity. At 24-month follow-up, these positive changes were maintained with healthy eating behaviors, but not engagement in physical activity. Conclusions A culturally relevant intervention, developed in collaboration with the target audience, can improve (and maintain) healthy eating among AA women living in rural areas. PMID:25152504

  1. Personalizing pelvic floor reconstructive surgery in aging women.

    PubMed

    Mannella, Paolo; Giannini, Andrea; Russo, Eleonora; Naldini, Gabriele; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2015-09-01

    Pelvic floor dysfunction is a growingly frequent condition in aging individuals. Urinary or rectal incontinence, constipation, pelvic organ prolapse, pelvic pain or sexual dysfunction are common problems in this age range. Such conditions carry a severe impact on quality of life, but also limit individual independence in daily activities, favor social isolation and carry health risks. Diagnosis and treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction in aging women is tricky, since multiple interfering conditions affecting muscle tone and nerve function are common in these individuals. Diabetes mellitus, sarcopenia, use of drugs that affect cognition or impact bowel or urinary function are just a few examples. These conditions need to be thoroughly taken into account during pre-operative work up for their potential impact on the success of surgery and vice versa. Functional reconstruction aimed at treating symptoms rather than anatomic defects is key to success. The recent advancements in surgical treatment of urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse allow for more options to achieve the best surgery in each patient. PMID:26142653

  2. Basal fat oxidation decreases with aging in women.

    PubMed

    Calles-Escandón, J; Arciero, P J; Gardner, A W; Bauman, C; Poehlman, E T

    1995-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that a decrease in basal fat oxidation in aging women is related to a loss of fat-free mass. Thirty-two nonsmoking women with a wide range of age (18-73 yr) were characterized for body composition (underwater weight), maximal aerobic capacity, and basal fat oxidation (indirect calorimetry). Results showed that fat oxidation was negatively correlated with age (r2 = 0.17, P = 0.017) but was positively correlated with the fat-free mass (r2 = 0.48, P < 0.0001) and with the level of aerobic fitness (maximal aerobic capacity) (r2 = 0.22, P = 0.007). Unexpectedly, fat oxidation had no relationship with fat mass (r2 = 0.07, P = 0.136). Partial correlation analysis showed that the decline in fat-free mass, and not the age or maximal O2 consumption, was the best single predictor of the decline in basal fat oxidation. These results support the theory that a decrease in fat oxidation with advancing age in healthy women is associated with a decrease in the fat-free mass and not age per se. Interventions that increase or preserve the quantity of fat-free mass (e.g., exercise training) may enhance fat oxidation and thus lessen the age-associated adiposity in women. PMID:7713822

  3. Treatment of epilepsy in women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Taly, A B; Sharda, C; Mohan, P K

    1985-05-01

    This article updates the literature on the treatment of epilepsy in women of reproductive age. Specific areas discussed include the effect of menstruation on seizure frequency, use of oral contraceptives (OCs), the effect of pregnancy on epilepsy, the effect of seizures on pregnancy and the fetus, the impact of antiepileptic drugs on the fetus, medical termination of pregnancy, breast feeding, and the risk of epilepsy in offspring. Exacerbtion of seizure activity is often seen in premenstrual and menstrual phases, and cyclic use of acetazolamide and/or progesterone (which exerts a protective effect against seizures) is recommended. OCs appear to have only a minor impact on epilepsy and the metabolism of antiepileptic drugs. On the other hand, these drugs can influence the metabolism and effectiveness of OCs. Concomitant use of OCs and antiepileptics can result in a higher incidence of acne and hirsutism, increased intermenstrual bleeding, and failure of contraception. The incidence of contraceptive failure is higher with low-dose estrogen OCs. In general, pregnancy appears to have an unfavorable effect on cerebral dysrrhythmia in epileptics. Possible causes for the increase in seizure frequency during pregnancy include psychological, hormonal, metabolic, and pharmacokinetic factors. The effect of epilepsy and antiepileptics on offspring is unclear. There appears to be an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and stillbirths in women taking antiepileptic drugs. In addition, a 3-fold increase in the incidence of congenital malformations has been noted in these women. The risks of birth defects are greater when there is a family history of birth defects, when the father is also epileptic, when a previous pregnancy resulted in a malformed child, when seizures during pregnancy are poorly controlled, and when multipel antiepileptic drugs are used in high doses. Although offspring may inherit the epileptic trait, they do not always manifest the disease. PMID:4044506

  4. Seroprevalence of rubella among Jordanian women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Jarour, Najwa; Hayajneh, Wail A; Balbeesi, Adel; Otoom, Haidar; Al-Shurman, Abdullah; Kharabsheh, Sa'ad

    2007-05-01

    This study was conducted to assess immunity (seroprevalence) to rubella among Jordanian women of childbearing age. A multistage cluster sampling was used to recruit 1125 women of childbearing age (15-49 year) from the 12 Governorates of Jordan. Anti-rubella antibody titers were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. The overall immunity rate to rubella among women in childbearing age was 90.9% (CI: 88.8-92.9). However, the immunity rate was significantly lower in younger women aged 15-19 years (83%) compared to the whole cohort (Page) to decrease circulation of the virus among susceptible young females. We also recommend yearly catch-up school vaccination of young females entering the 10th grade for the next 10 years. Strengthening of rubella and CRS surveillance programs is also recommended in parallel with pre-marriage counseling regarding rubella and CRS for young females. PMID:17280747

  5. Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

    2012-01-01

    With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice. PMID:22668843

  6. Sexual Activity and Impairment in Women with Systemic Sclerosis Compared to Women from a General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Levis, Brooke; Burri, Andrea; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Reports of low sexual activity rates and high impairment rates among women with chronic diseases have not included comparisons to general population data. The objective of this study was to compare sexual activity and impairment rates of women with systemic sclerosis (SSc) to general population data and to identify domains of sexual function driving impairment in SSc. Methods Canadian women with SSc were compared to women from a UK population sample. Sexual activity and, among sexually active women, sexual impairment were evaluated with a 9-item version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Results Among women with SSc (mean age = 57.0 years), 296 of 730 (41%) were sexually active, 181 (61%) of whom were sexually impaired, resulting in 115 of 730 (16%) who were sexually active without impairment. In the UK population sample (mean age = 55.4 years), 956 of 1,498 women (64%) were sexually active, 420 (44%) of whom were impaired, with 536 of 1,498 (36%) sexually active without impairment. Adjusting for age and marital status, women with SSc were significantly less likely to be sexually active (OR = 0.34, 95%CI = 0.28–0.42) and, among sexually active women, significantly more likely to be sexually impaired (OR = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.42–2.49) than general population women. Controlling for total FSFI scores, women with SSc had significantly worse lubrication and pain scores than general population women. Conclusions Sexual functioning is a problem for many women with scleroderma and is associated with pain and poor lubrication. Evidence-based interventions to support sexual activity and function in women with SSc are needed. PMID:23251692

  7. Ageing/Menopausal Status in Healthy Women and Ageing in Healthy Men Differently Affect Cardiometabolic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Campesi, Ilaria; Occhioni, Stefano; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Cherchi, Sara; Basili, Stefania; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gender medicine requires a global analysis of an individual's life. Menopause and ageing induce variations of some cardiometabolic parameters, but, it is unknown if this occurs in a sex-specific manner. Here, some markers of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are analysed in men younger and older than 45 years and in pre- and postmenopausal women. Methods: Serum and plasma sample were assayed for TNF-α and IL-6, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls and for methylated arginines using ELISA kits, colorimetric methods and capillary electrophoresis. Results: Before body weight correction, men overall had higher creatinine, red blood cells and haemoglobin and lower triglycerides than women. Men younger than 45 years had lower levels of TNF-α and malondialdehyde and higher levels of arginine than age-matched women, while postmenopausal women had higher IL-6 concentrations than men, and higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and IL-6 levels than younger women. Men younger than 45 years had lower total cholesterol and malondialdehyde than older men. After correction, some differences remained, others were amplified, others disappeared and some new differences emerged. Moreover, some parameters showed a correlation with age, and some of them correlated with each other as functions of ageing and ageing/menopausal status. Conclusions: Ageing/menopausal status increased many more cardiovascular risk factors in women than ageing in men, confirming that postmenopausal women had increased vascular vulnerability and indicating the need of early cardiovascular prevention in women. Sex-gender differences are also influenced by body weight, indicating as a matter of debate whether body weight should be seen as a true confounder or as part of the causal pathway. PMID:26941571

  8. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk factors.…

  9. Deaths among women of reproductive age: a forensic autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Padubidri, Jagadish Rao; Menezes, Ritesh G; Pant, Sadip; Shetty, Soumya B

    2013-08-01

    Unnatural deaths in women of reproductive age (range 12-49 years) have a serious psychological and social impact on the family and community. Deaths among women of reproductive age reported as medico-legal cases were investigated to see the trend in terms of cause and manner of death. The study group consisted of a series of 328 consecutive forensic autopsies on women in the reproductive age group, performed between 2009 and 2011 at the Government Wenlock District Hospital, Mangalore, India by qualified specialist forensic medicine experts. Unnatural deaths formed 93.6% of the cohort. The top three causes of death included burns, poisoning and hanging forming 69.5% of the cases. The manner of death was suicide in 45.4% cases, accident in 43.6% cases and homicide in 4.6% cases. The circumstances of death were related to alleged medical negligence in 2.4% cases. Death in 4% cases was natural mannered with a disease being the cause of death. Three-fourths of the victims were married. Married women formed 63.1% of the suicidal victims. Homicidal deaths were not reported among unmarried women. The preponderant method of suicide was by poisoning at 42.3% (63 cases), followed by hanging (34.9%), burns (11.4%) and drowning (9.4%). These four methods comprised 98% of the total suicidal deaths in this study cohort. Accidental deaths were predominantly caused by burns (62.2%) and road traffic accident (23.1%). Two-thirds of the homicidal deaths were due to assault caused by blunt-force trauma, ligature strangulation and sharp-force trauma. One-third of the homicidal victims died due to burns. With a clear understanding of the cause and manner of death, it may be possible to predict, and hopefully prevent, future cases of unnatural deaths in women of reproductive age who form a very important group of society. PMID:23910855

  10. Zinc and copper status in childbearing age Tunisian women: Relation to age, residential area, socioeconomic situation and physiologic characteristics.

    PubMed

    El Ati-Hellal, Myriam; Doggui, Radhouene; Hedhili, Abderrazek; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila

    2016-04-01

    Plasma zinc and copper status of 1689 non pregnant Tunisian women, aged 20-49 years old, was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A multiple regression was run to predict plasma trace element concentrations from age, BMI, marital status, menopause, education level, professional activity, economic level and area of living. The mean zinc and copper values were similar to those measured among comparable populations in earlier studies. However, a high prevalence of low plasma zinc and copper concentrations was observed assuming that women at childbearing age are at high risk of zinc and copper deficiencies and specific intervention may be considered. In univariate analysis, the mean values of plasma zinc and copper were associated with sitting areas and professional activity. For only plasma copper levels, there was an increase with BMI and parity, and a decrease with increasing schooling level and economic score. After adjustment for all variables, profession and parity showed a significant relationship between plasma levels copper. PMID:26859607

  11. Age and HIV Risk and Protective Behaviors among African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corneille, Maya A.; Zyzniewski, Linda E.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2008-01-01

    Though HIV prevention efforts have focused on young adult women, women of all ages may engage in HIV risk behaviors and experience barriers to condom use. This article examines the effect of age on sexual risk and protective attitudes and behaviors among African American women. Unmarried heterosexual African American women between the ages of 18…

  12. Evidence for the emergence of leg sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone with age in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Moore, David J.; Barlow, Matthew A.; Gonzales, Joaquin U.; McGowan, Cheri L.; Pawelczyk, James A.; Proctor, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract While muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is elevated with advancing age, correlational evidence suggests that, in contrast to men, basal MSNA is not related to resting lower limb hemodynamics in women. However, limited data exists in women that have attempted to directly assess the degree of limb sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone, and whether it is altered with age. To address this issue, we measured changes in femoral artery vascular conductance (FVC) during an acute sympatho‐inhibitory stimulus (−60 mm Hg neck suction, NS) in groups of healthy younger (n = 8, 23 ± 1 years) and older (n = 7, 66 ± 1 years) women. The percent change in FVC in response to NS was significantly augmented in the older (P = 0.006 vs. young) women. Although NS caused no significant change (3 ± 3%, P = 0.33) in FVC in the young women, there was a robust increase in FVC (21 ± 5%, P = 0.003) in the old women. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that in women, leg sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone emerges with age. PMID:25626874

  13. Evidence for the emergence of leg sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone with age in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Moore, David J; Barlow, Matthew A; Gonzales, Joaquin U; McGowan, Cheri L; Pawelczyk, James A; Proctor, David N

    2015-01-01

    While muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is elevated with advancing age, correlational evidence suggests that, in contrast to men, basal MSNA is not related to resting lower limb hemodynamics in women. However, limited data exists in women that have attempted to directly assess the degree of limb sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone, and whether it is altered with age. To address this issue, we measured changes in femoral artery vascular conductance (FVC) during an acute sympatho-inhibitory stimulus (-60 mm Hg neck suction, NS) in groups of healthy younger (n = 8, 23 ± 1 years) and older (n = 7, 66 ± 1 years) women. The percent change in FVC in response to NS was significantly augmented in the older (P = 0.006 vs. young) women. Although NS caused no significant change (3 ± 3%, P = 0.33) in FVC in the young women, there was a robust increase in FVC (21 ± 5%, P = 0.003) in the old women. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that in women, leg sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone emerges with age. PMID:25626874

  14. Understanding the Effect of Obesity on Fertility Among Reproductive-Age Women.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Allison; Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern, and obesity among women of childbearing age can have a negative impact on fertility. The mechanism of action between obesity and infertility is complex and includes hormonal factors, alterations in ovulation, and changes in the menstrual cycle. Maternal obesity has also been linked to spontaneous abortion and poorer maternal and fetal health outcomes. Many interventions exist to help childbearing women achieve a lower body mass index. These include lifestyle modifications (diet/physical activity) and surgical and pharmacologic interventions. This article reviews the pathophysiology of the relationship between obesity and infertility and discusses evidence-based interventions for improving fertility among obese childbearing women. PMID:27520601

  15. Improvements in IVF in women of advanced age.

    PubMed

    Gleicher, Norbert; Kushnir, Vitaly A; Albertini, David F; Barad, David H

    2016-07-01

    Women above age 40 years in the US now represent the most rapidly growing age group having children. Patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) are rapidly aging in parallel. Especially where egg donations are legal, donation cycles, therefore, multiply more rapidly than autologous IVF cycles. The donor oocytes, however, are hardly ever a preferred patient choice. Since with use of own eggs, live birth rates decline with advancing age but remain stable (and higher) with donor eggs, older patients always face the difficult and very personal choice between poorer chances with own and better chances with donor oocytes. Physician contribution to this decision should in our opinion be restricted to accurate outcome information for both options. Achievable pregnancy and live birth rates in older women are, however, frequently underestimated, thereby mistakenly biasing fertility providers, private insurance companies and even regulatory government agencies. Restriction on access to IVF for older women is then often the consequence. In this review, we summarize the limited published data on best treatments of 'older' ovaries, while also addressing treatment approaches that should be avoided in older women. This focused review, therefore, to a degree is subjective. Research addressing aging ovaries in IVF has been disappointingly sparse, and has in our opinion too heavily concentrated on methods of embryo selection (ES), which, especially in older women, not only fail to improve IVF outcomes, but actually, negatively affect live birth chances. We conclude that, aside from breakthroughs in gamete creation, only pharmacological interventions into early (small growing follicle stages) follicle maturation will offer new potential to positively impact oocyte and embryo quality and, therefore, IVF outcomes. Research, therefore, should be accordingly redirected. PMID:27154334

  16. State of Health and Quality of Life of Women at Advanced Age.

    PubMed

    Pinkas, Jarosław; Gujski, Mariusz; Humeniuk, Ewa; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Bejga, Przemysław; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evaluation of the state of health, quality of life, and relationship between the level of the quality of life and health status in a group of women at advanced age (90 and more years) in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was conducted in 2014 in an all-Polish sample of 870 women aged 90 and over. The research instruments were: the author's questionnaire, and standardized tests: Katz index of independence in Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) - BREF. The results of the study were statistically analyzed using significant t test for mean and regression analysis. RESULTS The majority of women at advanced age suffered from chronic pain (76%) and such major geriatric problems as hypoacusis (81%), visual disturbances (69%) and urinary incontinence (60%), the minority - fall and fainting (39%) as well as stool incontinence (17%), severe functional and cognitive impairment (24% and 10% respectively). Women at advanced age assessed positively for overall quality of life (mean 3.3 on 1-5 scale), social relationships (3.5) and environment (3.2), but negatively - general, physical and psychological health (2.7, 2.7 and 2.8 respectively). The presence of chronic pain and major geriatric problems: urinary and stool incontinences, falls and fainting, visual disturbances and hypoacusis significantly decreases overall quality of life, general, physical and psychological health, social relationships and environment of women at advanced age. Overall quality of life, general, physical and psychological health, social relationships and environment correlate to functional and cognitive impairments of women at advanced age. CONCLUSIONS Quality of life of women at advanced age decreased if chronic pain, major geriatric problems as well as functional and cognitive impairments occur. PMID:27580565

  17. Neighborhood design and active aging

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Yvonne L.; Green, Mandy K.; Farquhar, Stephanie A.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative analysis of focus groups describes how neighborhood design encourages active aging. Nine focus groups were conducted in 2002 and 2003 with residents (N = 60) aged 55 and over living in Portland, OR, USA. Content analysis revealed that local shopping and services, traffic and pedestrian infrastructure, neighborhood attractiveness, and public transportation influence activity among older adults. This information will be useful for making policy recommendations relating to land use planning and transportation, to assist in senior-friendly developments and neighborhood improvements, and to design effective senior health interventions with an emphasis on neighborhood design influences. PMID:16159710

  18. Shifting Motivations: Young Women's Reflections on Physical Activity over Time and across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Kurzer, Mindy S.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2010-01-01

    This research analyzes motivations expressed by young, healthy, sedentary women before and after an exercise intervention. Young women (aged 18-30, n = 39) participated in focus groups or interviews during a 4-month exercise intervention. Afterward, 22 of these women and 20 controls completed physical activity diaries for 6 months and were…

  19. Antiepileptic drug use in women of childbearing age

    PubMed Central

    Meador, Kimford J.; Penovich, Patricia; Baker, Gus A.; Pennell, Page B.; Bromfield, Edward; Pack, Alison; Liporace, Joyce D.; Sam, Maria; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Thurman, David J.; Moore, Eugene; Loring, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Research on antiepileptic drug (AED) teratogenesis has demonstrated an increased risk for valproate. The impact of these findings on current AED prescribing patterns for women of childbearing age with epilepsy is uncertain. The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) Study is an ongoing prospective multicenter observational investigation that enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on the most common AED monotherapies from October 1999 to February 2004 (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, valproate, and phenytoin). A 2007 survey of AED use in women of childbearing age at eight NEAD centers found a total of 932 women of childbearing age with epilepsy (6% taking no AED, 53% monotherapy, 41% polytherapy). The most common monotherapies were lamotrigine or levetiracetam. Since 2004, prescriptions of carbamazepine, phenytoin, and valproate have decreased, whereas those for levetiracetam have increased. Except for the top two AED monotherapies, there were marked differences in other monotherapies and in polytherapies between U.S. and UK centers. Future investigations are needed to examine reasons for drug choice. PMID:19410654

  20. Antiepileptic drug use in women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Meador, Kimford J; Penovich, Patricia; Baker, Gus A; Pennell, Page B; Bromfield, Edward; Pack, Alison; Liporace, Joyce D; Sam, Maria; Kalayjian, Laura A; Thurman, David J; Moore, Eugene; Loring, David W

    2009-07-01

    Research on antiepileptic drug (AED) teratogenesis has demonstrated an increased risk for valproate. The impact of these findings on current AED prescribing patterns for women of childbearing age with epilepsy is uncertain. The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) Study is an ongoing prospective multicenter observational investigation that enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on the most common AED monotherapies from October 1999 to February 2004 (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, valproate, and phenytoin). A 2007 survey of AED use in women of childbearing age at eight NEAD centers found a total of 932 women of childbearing age with epilepsy (6% taking no AED, 53% monotherapy, 41% polytherapy). The most common monotherapies were lamotrigine or levetiracetam. Since 2004, prescriptions of carbamazepine, phenytoin, and valproate have decreased, whereas those for levetiracetam have increased. Except for the top two AED monotherapies, there were marked differences in other monotherapies and in polytherapies between U.S. and UK centers. Future investigations are needed to examine reasons for drug choice. PMID:19410654

  1. Radiological ageing process in the cervical spine of Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Obisesan, K A; Obajimi, M O

    1999-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the age of commencement of ageing process in Nigerian women Four hundred (400) consecutive women requesting for cervical spine radiographs where recruited for this study. A study chart was made showing different variables like osteoarthrosis, detached osteophytes, postural ulterations and disk degenerations in a four year period from 1st January, 1993 to 31st December, 1996 the modified Kellgren and Lawrence grading system was used to assess radiographic changes. The highest rate of osteoarthrosis (31.13%) was found in the fifth decade. Incidence of postural alterations of the cervical spine rose sharply in the 5th and 6th decades of life. Grade 2 osteoarthrosis (Kellgren and Lawrence) was commonest (61.3%); Grades 3 and 4 had the lowest incidence (3.45%). Disc degeneration was commonest in the 5th; the most involved disc was C5/C6 and the least involved was C2/C3. It is concluded that the ageing process in the Nigerian women commences in the fourth decade of life, and apparently shows no difference with caucasian women. PMID:11205829

  2. Stress and Premenstrual Symptoms in Reproductive-Aged Women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yaelim; Im, Eun-Ok

    2016-06-01

    Premenstrual symptoms are often reported from reproductive-aged women worldwide. The etiologies of the symptoms are complex (e.g., biological and sociocultural factors), and require an international and multidisciplinary approach. A total of 48 studies were reviewed on how stress and premenstrual symptoms have been defined and measured, and major findings on relational patterns and other associated factors were examined. Subsequently, we discuss several trends and limitations identified from the review. Prospective studies, which use valid assessment measures and consider women's subjective and objective symptoms for several menstrual cycles, are necessary for a valid conclusion. More intervention studies and studies on various populations are needed. PMID:25988289

  3. Mother, daughter, patient, nurse: women's emotion work in aged care.

    PubMed

    Gattuso, S; Bevan, C

    2000-04-01

    This paper examines emotion work within the predominantly female environment of aged-care nursing, identifying phenomena which must be accounted for in a theory of emotional labour. These phenomena include the blurring of public and private in women's experiences and maternal models of care. Initial findings demonstrate the high levels of stress experienced by staff, related to emotional labour and to conflicts around the erosion of care standards. Sixteen women, from rural Australia, participated in the first stage of the research. The oldest was in her sixties, the youngest in her thirties. Length of aged-care experience ranged from 2 to 33 years. Although most of the women expected to still be in aged care in 5 years' time, they were negative in their attitudes to personal ageing, suggesting an ambivalence in their feelings about working in aged care. Three women nurses are the particular focus of this paper. Their narratives illustrate the intersection of private and public caring in nurses' lives and the implications of this for emotional labour. Phenomena such as dual caring, conflicts in insider-outsider roles, and transference are revealed in their narratives. We argue that the welfare of the recipient of gerontic nursing is linked to the well-being of the nurse-carer but that a cultural change is needed so as to recognize and value emotion work. However, endorsing Staden, we agree that such a change is dependent on the politicization of 'caring'. There is also need for further and broader research concerning the nature of emotional labour and the ethics of care. PMID:10759986

  4. Older women with intellectual disability and the meaning of aging.

    PubMed

    David, Niry; Duvdevani, Ilana; Doron, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Aging with intellectual disability has become an important topic in light of the significant increase in life expectancy of this population. More specifically, the combination of gender, age, and intellectual disability raises unique social issues. The aim of this research was to capture and analyze the aging experience of women with intellectual disability from their own voice and viewpoint within the Israeli experience. A phenomenological qualitative method was used in this study. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 women with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. Four key themes arose from the interviews: (a) the importance of work and reluctance to retire, (b) ageism and the fear of getting old, (c) the importance of a significant partner in old age, and (d) today's positive self-perception. A meaningful aging process can be constructed within the context of gender and disability. It was manifested in this study as a disability-neutral experience. However, ageism and negative attitudes toward old age still need to be addressed. PMID:25853785

  5. Associations of physical activity and inactivity with body tissue composition among healthy Polish women and women after mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Czerniak, U; Demuth, A; Skrzypczak, M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the relationship between physical activity and body composition among healthy women and women who have had mastectomy. This is in order to establish whether physical activity of women after breast cancer treatment improves composition and distribution of body mass components to a degree which will allow to achieve the body composition of healthy women. Research material consists of anthropometric measurements (body height, weight) of women and bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) of body composition (using Akern - BIA 101 composition analyzer). Intensity of activity was assessed using the Physical Activity International Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 76 healthy women (active 44.74%, inactive 55.26%) and 70 females after mastectomy (54.29% and 45.71%, respectively). Mean chronological age of women after mastectomy was 53.40 years, SD=7.55, and of the healthy ones 52.38 years SD=11.01). A significant difference in body composition was noted among active and inactive women after mastectomy; namely the active females had lower weight (by approximately 12 kg), body mass index (BMI), level of fat mass (by approximately 8%) and (by approximately 5%) total body water. The active healthy women had 6% less fat mass, almost 4% more body water and 6% more fat free mass. Programmed physical activity undertaken by women after mastectomy is recommended and produces good results in the form of reduction of excessive body fat tissue. Through physical activity these women are able to achieve the same level of fat mass as healthy women. PMID:25012759

  6. Facebook Use and Disordered Eating in College-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Morgan; Thornton, Laura; De Choudhury, Munmun; Teevan, Jaime; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Levinson, Cheri A.; Zerwas, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Disordered eating behavior—dieting, laxative use, fasting, binge eating—is common in college-aged women (11–20%). A documented increase in the number of young women experiencing psychopathology has been blamed on the rise of engagement with social media sites such as Facebook. We predicted that college-aged women’s Facebook intensity (e.g., the amount of time spent on Facebook, number of Facebook friends, and integration of Facebook into daily life), online physical appearance comparison (i.e., comparing one’s appearance to others’ on social media) and online “fat talk” (i.e., talking negatively about one’s body) would be positively associated with their disordered eating behavior. Methods In an online survey, 128 college-aged women (81.3% Caucasian, 6.7% Asian, 9.0% African-American, and 3.0% Other) completed items, which measured their disordered eating, Facebook intensity, online physical appearance comparison, online fat talk, body mass index, depression, anxiety, perfectionism, impulsivity, and self-efficacy. Results In regression analyses, Facebook intensity, online physical appearance comparison, and online fat talk were significantly and uniquely associated with disordered eating and explained a large percentage of the variance in disordered eating (60%) in conjunction with covariates. However, greater Facebook intensity was associated with decreased disordered eating behavior whereas both online physical appearance comparison and online fat talk were associated with greater disordered eating. Conclusions College-aged women who endorsed greater Facebook intensity were less likely to struggle with disordered eating when online physical appearance comparison was accounted for statistically. Facebook intensity may carry both risks and benefits for disordered eating. PMID:26206436

  7. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Subjective Age in Women across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borzumato-Gainey, Christine; Kennedy, Alison; McCabe, Beth; Degges-White, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    A study of 320 women, ages 21 to 69, explored the relations among relationship status, subjective age, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Women in married or partnered relationships had higher levels of life satisfaction than did single women. Women in their 30s and 40s had significantly lower levels of life satisfaction than did other age…

  8. Menstrual Profile and Early Menopause in Women with Down Syndrome Aged 26-40 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejskjaer, Kirsten; Uldbjerg, Niels; Goldstein, Henri

    2006-01-01

    Background: It is known that women with Down syndrome can be fertile, but it is not known whether all women with Down syndrome are fertile or sub-fertile. The age at menopause for women with Down syndrome is lower compared to women without Down syndrome. Method: A cross-sectional study of 11 women was undertaken, in which the participating women…

  9. Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of urban middle-aged Malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet

  10. Life Satisfaction of Single Middle-Aged Professional Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Virginia G.; Borders, L. DiAnne

    1995-01-01

    Questionnaires were administered to single professional women (n=152) in higher education institutions. Performance on life satisfaction was significantly explained by recourse to the variables of job satisfaction, internal locus of control, regrets regarding life circumstances, sexual satisfaction, and leisure-time activities. (JPS)

  11. Utility of Microbiological Profile of Symptomatic Vaginal Discharge in Rural Women of Reproductive Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jaya; Gupta, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Symptomatic vaginal discharge is the most frequent symptom in women of reproductive age group. Owing to social stigma majority of affected women hesitate to seek medical consultation. Therefore the actual incidence of vaginal discharge is much more than what is reported. The aim of the study is to determine the microbiological profile of symptomatic vaginal discharge in rural area and its utility in the management of genital tract infection. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive type of observational study, conducted in sexually active women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) attending the OPD/IPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of National Institute of Medical Sciences, Shobhanagar, Jaipur (Rajasthan), over a period of 18 months from June 2012 to December 2013. Hundred sexually active non pregnant women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) were included in the study. After taking consent general physical examination along with pelvic examination was performed. Two high vaginal swabs and blood sample were collected for various tests. Hanging drop preparation was immediately made. This was followed by gram staining and culture. Chlamydia trachomatis IgM antibody was detected by ELISA method. Results: Out of 100 women with symptomatic vaginal discharge, specific diagnosis was obtained in 89% of cases whereas no specific aetiology was found in 11% cases. Mean age was 32.60 years. Fifty-three percent patient had Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis was found in 14% cases, 16% had Chlamydia trachomatis infection while Trichomonas vaginalis infection was detected in 6% cases. Homogenous discharge was most prevalent (52%), followed by mucopurulant discharge in 23% of women. Conclusion: Patient with symptomatic vaginal discharge need to be actively managed with appropriate antimicrobial agents. Judicious management may be helpful in prevention of HIV, HPV, CIN and post infection sequelae. PMID:25954668

  12. Environmental and Lifestyle Factors Associated with Perceived Facial Age in Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Mayes, Andrew E.; Murray, Peter G.; Gunn, David A.; Tomlin, Cyrena C.; Catt, Sharon D.; Wen, Yi B.; Zhou, Li P.; Wang, Hong Q.; Catt, Michael; Granger, Stewart P.

    2010-01-01

    Perceived facial age has been proposed as a biomarker of ageing with ‘looking young for one’s age' linked to physical and cognitive functioning and to increased survival for Caucasians. We have investigated the environmental and lifestyle factors associated with perceived facial ageing in Chinese women. Facial photographs were collected from 250 Chinese women, aged 25–70 years in Shanghai, China. Perceived facial age was determined and related to chronological age for each participant. Lifestyle and health information was collected by questionnaire. Bivariate analyses (controlling for chronological age) identified and quantified lifestyle variables associated with perceived facial age. Independent predictors of perceived age were identified by multivariate modelling. Factors which significantly associated with looking younger for one's chronological age included greater years of education (p<0.001), fewer household members (p = 0.027), menopausal status (p = 0.020), frequency of visiting one's doctor (p = 0.013), working indoors (p<0.001), spending less time in the sun (p = 0.015), moderate levels of physical activity (p = 0.004), higher frequency of teeth cleaning (p<0.001) and more frequent use of facial care products: cleanser (p<0.001); moisturiser (p = 0.016) or night cream (p = 0.016). Overall, 36.5% of the variation in the difference between perceived and chronological age could be explained by a combination of chronological age and 6 independent lifestyle variables. We have thus identified and quantified a number of factors associated with younger appearance in Chinese women. Presentation of these factors in the context of facial appearance could provide significant motivation for the adoption of a range of healthy behaviours at the level of both individuals and populations. PMID:21179450

  13. Mortality in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nabukalu, Dorean; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Herbst, Kobus; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine causes of death and associated risk factors in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa. Methods Deaths and person-years of observation (pyo) were determined for females (aged 15–49 years) resident in 15,526 households in a rural South African Demographic and Health Surveillance site from 2000 to 2009. Cause of death was ascertained by verbal autopsy and ICD-10 coded; causes were categorized as HIV/TB, non-communicable, communicable/maternal/perinatal/nutrition, injuries, and undetermined (unknown). Characteristics of women were obtained from regularly updated household visits, while HIV and self-reported health status was obtained from the annual HIV surveillance. Overall and cause-specific mortality rates (MRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The Weibull regression model (HR, 95% CI) was used to determine risk factors associated with mortality. Results A total of 42,703 eligible women were included; 3,098 deaths were reported for 212,607 pyo. Overall MRwas 14.6 deaths/1,000 pyo (95% CI: 14.1–15.1), peaking in 2003 (MR 18.2/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 16.4–20.1) and declining thereafter (2009: MR 9.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 8.4–10.9). Mortality was highest for HIV/TB (MR 10.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 10.2–11.1), accounting for 73.1% of all deaths, ranging from 61.2% in 2009 to 82.7% in 2002. Adjusting for education level, marital status, age, employment status, area of residence, and migration, all-cause mortality was associated with external migration (adjusted hazard ratio, or aHR), 1.70, 95% CI: 1.41–2.05), self-reported poor health status (aHR 8.26, 95% CI: 2.94–23.15), and HIV-infection (aHR 7.84, 95% CI: 6.26–9.82); external migration and HIV infection were also associated with causes of mortality other than HIV/TB (aHR 1.62, 95% CI: 1.12–2.34 and aHR 2.59, 95% CI: 1.79–3.75). Conclusion HIV/TB was the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age, although rates declined with the rollout of HIV

  14. The contribution of osteoarthritis to disability: preliminary data from the Women's Health and Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, M C; Kasper, J; Williamson, J; Skinner, A; Fried, L P

    1995-02-01

    Our objective was to examine the relationship of a self-reported physician diagnosis of arthritis with disability in elderly community dwelling women. Data from a representative sample of 1541 women aged 65 and above were analyzed to determine the prevalence and associations of a self-reported physician diagnosis of arthritis with other chronic conditions and difficulty performing physical activities. A history of physician diagnosed arthritis was reported by 902 (58.5%) women. Women with arthritis were significantly more likely to report fair or poor perceived health, as well as a physician diagnosis of angina, myocardial infarction, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, lung disease, and hearing and vision problems. After adjustment for age, race, education, marital status, and comorbid/geriatric conditions, arthritis was significantly associated with difficulty in the following 13 activities: raising arms, lifting < or = 10 pounds, walking 2-3 blocks, bathing or showering, climbing 10 steps, grasping, getting in or out of a bed or chair, dressing, using the toilet, preparing meals, doing personal shopping, heavy and light housework. We conclude that physician diagnosed arthritis is a common problem among elderly community dwelling women and is associated with difficulties in physical activity. PMID:7752125

  15. Correlates of Sexual Activity and Satisfaction in Midlife and Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Holly N.; Hess, Rachel; Thurston, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Sexual activity is an important component of quality of life for women across their lifespan. Prior studies show a decline in sexual activity with age, but these studies often fail to consider the role of sexual satisfaction. The aim of this study is to give updated prevalence estimates of sexual activity among women and to elucidate factors associated with sexual activity and sexual satisfaction. METHODS We report a cross-sectional analysis of the second wave of a nationally representative sample of US adults aged 28 to 84 years, the Survey of Midlife Development in the United States. The survey used self-administered questionnaires to assess demographic data, self-rated physical and mental health, medical problems and medication use, relationship factors, and sexual activity and satisfaction. RESULTS Of 2,116 women who answered the questions regarding sexuality, 1,345 (61.8%) women were sexually active in the previous 6 months. The proportion of women who were sexually active decreased with advancing age. Women who were married or cohabitating had approximately 8 times higher odds of being sexually active (odds ratio = 7.91, 95% CI, 4.16–15.04; P <.001). Among women aged 60 years and older who were married or cohabitating, most (59.0%) were sexually active. Among women who were sexually active, higher relationship satisfaction (P <.001), better communication (P = .011), and higher importance of sex P = .040) were related to higher sexual satisfaction, but age was not (P = .79). CONCLUSIONS A considerable proportion of midlife and older women remain sexually active if they have a partner available. Psychosocial factors (relationship satisfaction, communication with romantic partner, and importance of sex) matter more to sexual satisfaction than aging among midlife and older women. PMID:26195678

  16. Vitamin D Status and Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Millen, Amy E.; Voland, Rick; Sondel, Sherie A.; Parekh, Niyati; Horst, Ronald L.; Wallace, Robert B.; Hageman, Gregory S.; Chappell, Rick; Blodi, Barbara A.; Klein, Michael L.; Gehrs, Karen M.; Sarto, Gloria E.; Mares, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations (nmol/L) and the prevalence of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was investigated among participants of the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study. Methods Stereoscopic fundus photographs, taken from 2001–2004, assessed AMD status. Baseline (1994–1998) serum samples were available for 25(OH)D assays in 1,313 women with complete ocular and risk factor data. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for early AMD (n=241), among 1,287 without advanced disease, were estimated with logistic regression and adjusted for age, smoking, iris pigmentation, family history of AMD, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hormone therapy use. Results In multivariate models, no significant relationship was observed between early AMD and 25(OH)D (OR for quintile 5 vs. 1=0.79, 95% CI=0.50–1.24; p for trend=0.47). A significant age interaction (p=0.0025) suggested selective mortality bias in women ≥75 years: serum 25(OH)D was associated with decreased odds of early AMD in women <75 years (n=968) and increased odds in women ≥75 years (n=319) (OR for quintile 5 vs. 1=0.52, 95% CI=0.29–0.91; p for trend=0.02 and 1.76, 95% CI=0.77–4.13; p for trend=0.05, respectively). Further adjustment for body mass index and recreational physical activity, predictors of 25(OH)D, attenuated the observed association in women <75 years. Additionally, among women <75 years, intake of vitamin D from foods and supplements was related to decreased odds of early AMD in multivariate models; no relationship was observed with self-reported time spent in direct sunlight. Conclusions High serum 25(OH)D concentrations may protect against early AMD in women <75 years. PMID:21482873

  17. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  18. The experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health promotion is critical for community and family health. Health-promoting behaviours provide solutions for maintaining and promoting health. Although several studies have addressed the frequency and different types of health-promoting behaviours in women, little information is available about their experiences. This study aimed to explore the experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours. Methods In the present study, which was conducted in Tehran, Iran, 15 females, who were selected purposefully, participated in individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results Nine main categories were derived from the analysis, including establishing an appropriate eating pattern, establishing a balanced rest/activity pattern, spirituality, stress management, personal sensitivity and responsibility, establishing an appropriate pattern of social interactions, practicing safe and healthy recreations, feeling improvement in physical-functional health, and feeling improvement in emotional and psychological health. The first 7 categories represent the nature and types of real health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age, whereas the last 2 constitute feeling and understanding of the implementation of these behaviours. Conclusion The study findings show that the women experience improvement in physical-functional, emotional, and psychological health by implementing health-promoting behaviours. It is therefore necessary to introduce strategies in the context of the community culture for improving different aspects of health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age to maintain and improve their overall health. PMID:22846587

  19. Women in American History: A Series. Book Two, Women in the Ages of Expansion and Reform 1820-1860.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Beverly

    The document, one in a series of four on women in American history, discusses women in the ages of expansion and reform (1820-1860). Designed to supplement U.S. history textbooks, the book is presented in six chapters. Chapter I describes the "true woman," an ideal cultivated by women writers, educators, and magazine editors. The four virtues were…

  20. Factors Influencing the Successful Aging of Iranian Old Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Javadi Pashaki, Nazila; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Jafaraghaee, Fateme; Mehrdad, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aging is an irreversible natural process characterized by a decline in both the physical and mental status of individuals. Because of multiple factors, this process and its consequences vary greatly between individuals. A successful aging (SA) is the target of current health policies and well-being of individuals. Knowing the factors that contribute to SA and its barriers would translate in measurements that increase the quality of life of elderly and reduce health costs. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators to Iranian elderly women’s SA. Patients and Methods: A purposive sample of 16 elderly women, aged 61 - 96 years, was recruited for this qualitative content analysis study. Study data were collected during 2012 -.2013 by conducting 16 face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews. We continued the data collection until reaching saturation. Study data were analyzed concurrently with data collection, by using the conventional qualitative content analysis approach. Results: Barriers and facilitators to Iranian elderly women’s SA fell into five main categories, including availability of support systems, state of health, personal capabilities, personality characteristics, and lifestyle. Conclusions: Availability of support systems, state of health, personal capabilities, personality characteristics, and lifestyle were the main interrelated factors affecting Iranian elderly women’s SA. Accordingly, providing elderly women with strong educational, emotional, financial, cultural, and social supports can help facilitate their SA. PMID:26421171

  1. Ageing in a foreign country: voices of Iranian women ageing in Canada.

    PubMed

    Shemirani, Farimah Shakeri; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2006-01-01

    Older Iranian women, who immigrated to Canada in later adulthood, experience unique issues as they age. In order to better understand this experience, in-depth, personal and semi-structured interviews were conducted with five immigrant/refugee Iranian women who immigrated to Canada in their later life. Analysis revealed that although each woman's story conveyed individual differences and idiosyncrasies, all the stories highlighted the critical interweaving of the aging experience and the immigration experience: neither experience could be understood in isolation of the other; each aspect gave meaning to the other experience. Two interrelated messages dominated the women's stories: first was the importance of each woman's immigration story for grounding her experience of the aging process in Canada. Second, each woman's personal story suggested that the immigration experiences were accorded priority for accounting for her experiences in Canada. Specifically, cultural identity (i.e., social class, education, religious affiliation and immigration status) offered a valuable cloak for overshadowing the force of the aging process and the aging process emerged as an elusive force that lurked in the background without ever being fully acknowledged or given power in their lives. The implications of these findings in relation to theory development on intersectionality and professional practice are discussed. PMID:16782661

  2. The effect of educational intervention on health promoting lifestyle: Focusing on middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Mahdipour, Nosaybeh; Shahnazi, Hossein; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle affects people's health and life length, however, no sufficient studies have been done on the effect of lifestyle on middle-ageing, as the transitional period from adulthood to old-ageing, this study has been conducted to study the effect of educational intervention on health promoting lifestyle of middle-aged women in Lenjan city of Isfahan Province, Iran. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 88 middle-aged women were selected through randomized sampling from two health centers in Lenjan, and then were categorized into experimental and control groups. To collect data, a researcher-made demographic and life style questionnaire was used. The educational intervention was performed in five sessions. Data were collected from both groups in two stages: Before the intervention and 3 months after the education. Data were analyzed with using SPSS-20 and P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed that educational program had a positive significant effect on increasing the mean scores in the intervention group, considering the physical activity, mental health, and interpersonal relationship, P < 0.001. However, regarding the nutrition, the mean increase was not significant (P = 0.113). Conclusion: According to the findings, it is evident that educational intervention is beneficial for various aspects of middle-aged women's lifestyle. Therefore, applying a healthy lifestyle seems essential for having a healthy aging period, and educational intervention can be effective. PMID:26430678

  3. Calculating summary statistics for population chemical biomonitoring in women of childbearing age with adjustment for age-specific natality.

    PubMed

    Axelrad, Daniel A; Cohen, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of chemical exposures during pregnancy on children's health have been an increasing focus of environmental health research in recent years, leading to greater interest in biomonitoring of chemicals in women of childbearing age in the general population. Measurements of mercury in blood from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey are frequently reported for "women of childbearing age," defined to be of ages 16-49 years. The intent is to represent prenatal chemical exposure, but blood mercury levels increase with age. Furthermore, women of different ages have different probabilities of giving birth. We evaluated options to address potential bias in biomonitoring summary statistics for women of childbearing age by accounting for age-specific probabilities of giving birth. We calculated median and 95th percentile levels of mercury, PCBs, and cotinine using these approaches: option 1: women aged 16-49 years without natality adjustment; option 2: women aged 16-39 years without natality adjustment; option 3: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age; option 4: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age and race/ethnicity. Among the three chemicals examined, the choice of option has the greatest impact on estimated levels of serum PCBs, which are strongly associated with age. Serum cotinine levels among Black non-Hispanic women of childbearing age are understated when age-specific natality is not considered. For characterizing in utero exposures, adjustment using age-specific natality provides a substantial improvement in estimation of biomonitoring summary statistics. PMID:21035114

  4. Speech Recognition and Temporal Processing in Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Helfer, Karen S.; Vargo, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to examine speech understanding ability and temporal processing in middle-aged women with normal or near-normal pure-tone thresholds. Research Design Speech understanding, temporal processing ability, and self-assessed hearing were measured in groups of younger and middle-aged females. Study Sample Participants were younger and middle-aged females (n = 12 per group) with normal hearing through 4000 Hz bilaterally. Subjects were drawn from nonclinical populations. Data Collection and Analysis Speech understanding was measured in the presence of steady-state noise and competing speech, with and without perceived spatial separation of the target speech and masker. The Gaps-In-Noise (GIN) test (Musiek et al, 2005) was used to assess temporal resolution ability. In addition, subjects completed a questionnaire with several items from the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (Gatehouse and Noble, 2004) to gauge their subjective ability to understand speech in complex listening situations. Data were analyzed via repeated-measures ANOVA and Pearson r correlations. Results Results showed that the performance of the middle-aged subjects was significantly poorer than that of the younger participants in the presence of a spatially coincident speech masker. Although performance in this listening condition was unrelated to pure-tone thresholds, it was strongly correlated with scores on the GIN test. Speech understanding performance in the presence of a steady-state masker was related to high-frequency pure-tone thresholds. Conclusions These results suggest that some middle-aged women with little or no pure-tone hearing loss experience listening difficulty in complex environments. Results also suggest a strong relationship between temporal processing and speech understanding in certain competing speech situations. PMID:19927698

  5. Women's preferences for vaginal antimicrobial contraceptives. II. Preferred characteristics according to women's age and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Hardy, E; de Pádua, K S; Jiménez, A L; Zaneveld, L J

    1998-10-01

    A study was carried out to identify characteristics that women would want for an idealized vaginal contraceptive, and the possible association of these characteristics with age and socioeconomic status. The study was done in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 635 women were selected by age and socioeconomic status, using the "social network" technique. Almost half were adolescents (15-19 years old) and the rest were adults (20-45 years old). Half were of low socioeconomic status and the rest of medium-high status. The data were analyzed with SPSS-PC and EPI-INFO 6.0. Logistic regression and chi 2 were used for the analysis. Despite some differences found between age and socioeconomic status in regard to the characteristics desired for the idealized method, most of the participants expressed the same preferences. The results indicate that women would like the idealized method to be a cream, rather than a suppository, with no odor or flavor, to be colorless, to be placed in the vagina with an applicator well before coitus, and to offer protection against sexually transmitted diseases including AIDS. PMID:9866006

  6. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years: Influence of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, J B; Magnusson, S P; Slinde, F; Svantesson, U; Hulthén, L; Aagaard, P

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P < 0.001); however, this gender difference was progressively reduced with increasing age, because men showed an ∼50% faster rate of decline in SSC power than women (P < 0.001). Velocity at peak power (VPpeak) was greater in men than in women (P < 0.001) but declined at a greater rate in men than in women (P = 0.002). Vertical ground reaction force at peak power (FPpeak) was higher in men than in women in younger adults only (P < 0.001) and the age-related decline was steeper in men than in women (P < 0.001). Men demonstrated a steeper rate of decline in Ppeak than women with progressive aging. This novel finding emerged as a result of greater age-related losses in men for both force and velocity. Consequently, maximal SSC power production was observed to converge between genders when approaching old age. PMID:23551758

  7. Social, Health, and Age Differences Associated with Depressive Disorders in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plach, Sandra K.; Napholz, Linda; Kelber, Sheryl T.

    2005-01-01

    Depression in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be related to social role experiences, physical health, and age. The purpose of this study was to examine the social and health factors contributing to depression in two age groups of women with RA. One-hundred and thirty-eight midlife and late-life women with a diagnosis of RA participated in…

  8. Medical and Obstetric Complications among Pregnant Women Aged 45 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Grotegut, Chad A.; Chisholm, Christian A.; Johnson, Lauren N. C.; Brown, Haywood L.; Heine, R. Phillips; James, Andra H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older. Methods The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM) codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35–44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes. Results Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35. Conclusion Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may

  9. Cytomegalovirus IgM Seroprevalence among Women of Reproductive Age in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengbin; Dollard, Sheila C.; Amin, Minal M.; Bialek, Stephanie R.

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM indicates recent active CMV infection. CMV IgM seroprevalence is a useful marker for prevalence of transmission. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III 1988–1994, we present estimates of CMV IgM prevalence by race/ethnicity, provide a comparison of IgM seroprevalence among all women and among CMV IgG positive women, and explore factors possibly associated with IgM seroprevalence, including socioeconomic status and exposure to young children. There was no difference in IgM seroprevalence by race/ethnicity among all women (3.1%, 2.2%, and 1.6% for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black and Mexican American, respectively; P = 0.11). CMV IgM seroprevalence decreased significantly with increasing age in non-Hispanic black women (P<0.001 for trend) and marginally among Mexican American women (P = 0.07), while no apparent trend with age was seen in non-Hispanic white women (P = 0.99). Among 4001 IgG+ women, 118 were IgM+, resulting in 4.9% IgM seroprevalence. In IgG+ women, IgM seroprevalence varied significantly by age (5.3%, 7.3%, and 3.7% for women of 12–19, 20–29, and 30–49 years; P = 0.04) and race/ethnicity (6.1%, 2.7%, and 2.0% for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American; P<0.001). The factors reported associated with IgG seroprevalence were not associated with IgM seroprevalence. The patterns of CMV IgM seroprevalence by age, race/ethnicity, and IgG serostatus may help understanding the epidemiology of congenital CMV infection as a consequence of vertical transmission and are useful for identifying target populations for intervention to reduce CMV transmission. PMID:26990759

  10. Reconceptualizing Successful Aging Among Black Women and the Relevance of the Strong Black Woman Archetype

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Tamara A.; Buchanan, NiCole T.; Mingo, Chivon A.; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S.

    2015-01-01

    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman’s ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully. PMID:25416685

  11. Reconceptualizing successful aging among black women and the relevance of the strong black woman archetype.

    PubMed

    Baker, Tamara A; Buchanan, NiCole T; Mingo, Chivon A; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S

    2015-02-01

    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman's ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully. PMID:25416685

  12. Baseline results from Hawaii's Nā Mikimiki Project: a physical activity intervention tailored to multiethnic postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Albright, Cheryl L; Steffen, Alana D; Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio R; Wilkens, Lynne R; Saiki, Kara; Yamada, Paulette; Hedemark, Brooke; Maddock, Jason E; Dunn, Andrea L; Brown, Wendy J

    2012-01-01

    During the postpartum period, ethnic minority women have higher rates of inactivity/under-activity than white women. The Nā Mikimiki ("the active ones") Project is designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity over 18 months among multiethnic women with infants 2-12 months old. The study was designed to test, via a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of a tailored telephone counseling of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity intervention compared to a print/website materials-only condition. Healthy, underactive women (mean age = 32 ± 5.6 years) with a baby (mean age = 5.7 ± 2.8 months) were enrolled from 2008-2009 (N = 278). Of the total sample, 84% were ethnic minority women, predominantly Asian-American and Native Hawaiian. Mean self-reported baseline level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 40 minutes/week with no significant differences by study condition, ethnicity, infant's age, maternal body mass index, or maternal employment. Women had high scores on perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and environmental support for exercise but low scores on social support for exercise. This multiethnic sample's demographic and psychosocial characteristics and their perceived barriers to exercise were comparable to previous physical activity studies conducted largely with white postpartum women. The Nā Mikimiki Project's innovative tailored technology-based intervention and unique population are significant contributions to the literature on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in postpartum women. PMID:22533900

  13. Baseline Results from Hawaii's Nā Mikiniiki Project: A Physical Activity Intervention Tailored to Multiethnic Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Cheryl L.; Steffen, Alana D.; Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio R.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Saiki, Kara; Yamada, Paulette; Hedemark, Brooke; Maddock, Jason E.; Dunn, Andrea L.; Brown, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    During the postpartum period, ethnic minority women have higher rates of inactivity/under-activity than white women. The Nā Mikimiki (“the active ones”) Project is designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity over 18 months among multiethnic women with infants 2–12 months old. The study was designed to test, via a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of a tailored telephone counseling of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity intervention compared to a print/website materials-only condition. Healthy, underactive women (mean age = 32 ± 5.6 years) with a baby (mean age = 5.7 ± 2.8 months) were enrolled from 2008–2009 (N = 278). Of the total sample, 84% were ethnic minority women, predominantly Asian–American and Native Hawaiian. Mean self-reported baseline level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 40 minutes/week with no significant differences by study condition, ethnicity, infant's age, maternal body mass index, or maternal employment. Women had high scores on perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and environmental support for exercise but low scores on social support for exercise. This multiethnic sample's demographic and psychosocial characteristics and their perceived barriers to exercise were comparable to previous physical activity studies conducted largely with white postpartum women. The Nā Mikimiki Project's innovative tailored technology-based intervention and unique population are significant contributions to the literature on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in postpartum women. PMID:22533900

  14. Taking up physical activity in later life and healthy ageing: the English longitudinal study of ageing

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Lavoie, Kim L; Bacon, Simon L

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity is associated with improved overall health in those people who survive to older ages, otherwise conceptualised as healthy ageing. Previous studies have examined the effects of mid-life physical activity on healthy ageing, but not the effects of taking up activity later in life. We examined the association between physical activity and healthy ageing over 8 years of follow-up. Methods Participants were 3454 initially disease-free men and women (aged 63.7±8.9 years at baseline) from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a prospective study of community dwelling older adults. Self-reported physical activity was assessed at baseline (2002–2003) and through follow-up. Healthy ageing, assessed at 8 years of follow-up (2010-2011), was defined as those participants who survived without developing major chronic disease, depressive symptoms, physical or cognitive impairment. Results At follow-up, 19.3% of the sample was defined as healthy ageing. In comparison with inactive participants, moderate (OR, 2.67, 95% CI 1.95 to 3.64), or vigorous activity (3.53, 2.54 to 4.89) at least once a week was associated with healthy ageing, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, marital status and wealth. Becoming active (multivariate adjusted, 3.37, 1.67 to 6.78) or remaining active (7.68, 4.18 to 14.09) was associated with healthy ageing in comparison with remaining inactive over follow-up. Conclusions Sustained physical activity in older age is associated with improved overall health. Significant health benefits were even seen among participants who became physically active relatively late in life. PMID:24276781

  15. Age, Stigma, Adherence and Clinical Indicators in HIV-Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Katryna; Higgins, Melinda; Zuñiga, Julie Ann; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell

    2016-01-01

    Stigma has become a gendered phenomenon that affects increasing numbers of HIV-infected women worldwide. This study examined the role of age as a possible moderator of the relationship between stigma and antiretroviral therapy adherence, CD4% and viral load among 120 HIV-infected women. A secondary analysis was conducted using data from the Keeping Healthy and Active with Risk Reduction and Medication Adherence (KHARMA) Project, an National Institutes of Health (NIH) funded randomized controlled trial to improve Antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence and reduce risky behaviors in HIV-infected women at five clinical sites in a South-eastern city from 2005 to 2008. Stigma was measured using the Perceived Personal Stigma of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) scale. Among participants <50 years old (n=90), age was significantly associated with viral load (rho=−.24, p=.02) and stigma was negatively associated with CD4% (r =−.26, p=.02). For the 30 participants >50 years old, age was not significantly associated with viral load, stigma or CD4%, and there was no significant association between stigma and CD4% (r=.07, p=.70). These findings indicate the need for further study regarding this potential moderating effect and possible interventions to address the susceptibility of younger women to the harmful effects of stigma. PMID:27200416

  16. Longitudinal Trends in Sexual Behaviors with Advancing Age and Menopause Among Women With and Without HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Weedon, Jeremy; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Karpiak, Stephen E.; Gandhi, Monica; Cohen, Mardge H.; Levine, Alexandra M.; Minkoff, Howard L.; Adedimeji, Adebola A.; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Holman, Susan; Wilson, Tracey E.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed changes in self-reported sexual activity (SA) over 13 years among HIV-infected and uninfected women. The impact of aging and menopause on SA and unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse (UAVI) was examined among women in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), stratifying by HIV status and detectable viral load among HIV-infected women. Generalized mixed linear models were fitted for each outcome, adjusted for relevant covariates. HIV-uninfected women evidenced higher levels of SA and UAVI than HIV-infected. The odds of SA declined by 62–64 % per decade of age. The odds of SA in a 6-month interval for women aged 40–57 declined by 18–22 % post-menopause (controlling for age). Among HIV+/detectable women only, the odds of any UAVI decreased by 17 % per decade of age; the odds of UAVI were unchanged pre-menopause, and then decreased by 28 % post-menopause. Elucidating the factors accounting for ongoing unprotected sex among older women should inform interventions. PMID:25245474

  17. Thyroid hormones according to gestational age in pregnant Spanish women

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Thyroid function changes during pregnancy and maternal thyroid dysfunction have been associated with adverse outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate thyroid hormones levels in pregnant women resident in Aragon, Spain. Findings Samples for 1198 pregnant women with no apparent thyroid disorders were analyzed, using paramagnetic microparticle and chemiluminescent detection technologies, in order to determine levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab), and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab). Of the women in our sample, 85.22% had normal values for TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab and 14.77% had results revealing the presence of autoimmune diseases of the thyroid. The thyroid hormone reference values obtained according to gestational age (in brackets) were as follows: for free T3, values were 3.38 ± 0.52 pg/mL (<11 weeks), 3.45 ± 0.54 pg/mL (11-20 weeks), 3.32 ± 0.43 pg/mL (21-30 weeks), 3.21 ± 0.53 pg/mL (31-36 weeks), and 3.23 ± 0.41 pg/mL (>36 weeks); for free T4, values were 1.10 ± 0.14 ng/dL (<10 weeks), 1.04 ± 0.14 ng/dL (11-20 weeks), 0.93 ± 0.12 ng/dL (21-30 weeks), 0.90 ± 0.13 ng/dL (31-36 weeks), and 0.80 ± 0.21 ng/dL (>36 weeks); and for TSH, values were (μIU/mL): 1.12 ± 0.69 (<10 weeks), 1.05 ± 0.67 (11-20 weeks), 1.19 ± 0.60 (21-30 weeks), 1.38 ± 0.76 (31-36 weeks), and 1.46 ± 0.72 (>36 weeks). Conclusion Pregnant women with normal antibody values according to gestational age had values for FT4 and TSH, but not for FT3, that differed to a statistically significant degree. The values we describe can be used as reference values for the Aragon region of Spain. PMID:19939287

  18. Gender- and age-related differences in heart rate dynamics: are women more complex than men?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, S. M.; Goldberger, A. L.; Pincus, S. M.; Mietus, J.; Lipsitz, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study aimed to quantify the complex dynamics of beat-to-beat sinus rhythm heart rate fluctuations and to determine their differences as a function of gender and age. BACKGROUND. Recently, measures of heart rate variability and the nonlinear "complexity" of heart rate dynamics have been used as indicators of cardiovascular health. Because women have lower cardiovascular risk and greater longevity than men, we postulated that there are important gender-related differences in beat-to-beat heart rate dynamics. METHODS. We analyzed heart rate dynamics during 8-min segments of continuous electrocardiographic recording in healthy young (20 to 39 years old), middle-aged (40 to 64 years old) and elderly (65 to 90 years old) men (n = 40) and women (n = 27) while they performed spontaneous and metronomic (15 breaths/min) breathing. Relatively high (0.15 to 0.40 Hz) and low (0.01 to 0.15 Hz) frequency components of heart rate variability were computed using spectral analysis. The overall "complexity" of each heart rate time series was quantified by its approximate entropy, a measure of regularity derived from nonlinear dynamics ("chaos" theory). RESULTS. Mean heart rate did not differ between the age groups or genders. High frequency heart rate power and the high/low frequency power ratio decreased with age in both men and women (p < 0.05). The high/low frequency power ratio during spontaneous and metronomic breathing was greater in women than men (p < 0.05). Heart rate approximate entropy decreased with age and was higher in women than men (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS. High frequency heart rate spectral power (associated with parasympathetic activity) and the overall complexity of heart rate dynamics are higher in women than men. These complementary findings indicate the need to account for gender-as well as age-related differences in heart rate dynamics. Whether these gender differences are related to lower cardiovascular disease risk and greater longevity in

  19. Developmental Perspectives on the Education and Economic Activities of Japanese Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Mary Jean; Osawa, Machiko

    This document explores the role played by women in the economic success of Japan in recent decades. Part 1 provides a brief history of Japan's rural legacy and describes its urbanization process. Part 2 reveals trends in the nature and extent of the economic activity of Japanese women using data on cohort age-groups at 5-year intervals beginning…

  20. A Gaggle of Raging Grannies: The Empowerment of Older Canadian Women through Social Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narushima, Miya

    2004-01-01

    This article explores a particular expression of social activism by older Canadian women to consider its implications for later life learning. 'Older women', despite their heterogeneity, have tended to be pathologized as a part of the 'problem' of ageing and languishing welfare societies--i.e. stereotyped as passive recipients of welfare and…

  1. Women Bound to be Active: one year follow-up to an innovative pilot intervention to increase physical activity and self-worth in women.

    PubMed

    Huberty, Jennifer L; Vener, Jamie; Schulte, Laura; Roberts, Sara M; Stevens, Beth; Ransdell, Lynda

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention (a women's book club; Women Bound to be Active) in promoting long-term physical activity. Thirty-five women (26-70 years; mean age 50.6 years) completed the 8-month intervention and participated in the one-year follow-up. At follow-up, physical activity returned to baseline levels; however, self-worth and body mass index significantly improved. Women were more knowledgeable about physical activity at follow-up; however, they failed to maintain physical activity after the intervention. Components of the intervention were effective in improving self-worth and lowering BMI at one-year follow-up. To enhance long-term physical activity adherence, continued research and intervention modifications are needed. PMID:20013519

  2. Social inequalities in self-rated health by age: Cross-sectional study of 22 457 middle-aged men and women

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Emily; Luben, Robert; Bingham, Sheila; Wareham, Nicholas; Kinmonth, Ann-Louise; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2008-01-01

    Background We investigate the association between occupational social class and self-rated health (SRH) at different ages in men and women. Methods Cross sectional population study of 22 457 men and women aged 39–79 years living in the general community in Norfolk, United Kingdom, recruited using general practice age-sex registers in 1993–1997. The relationship between self-rated health and social class was examined using logistic regression, with a poor or moderate rating as the outcome. Results The prevalence of poor or moderate (lower) self-rated health increased with increasing age in both men and women. There was a strong social class gradient: in manual classes, men and women under 50 years of age had a prevalence of lower self-rated health similar to that seen in men and women in non-manual social classes over 70 years old. Even after adjustment for age, educational status, and lifestyle factors (body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity and alcohol consumption) there was still strong evidence of a social gradient in self-rated health, with unskilled men and women approximately twice as likely to report lower self-rated health as professionals (ORmen = 2.44 (95%CI 1.69, 3.50); ORwomen = 1.97 (95%CI 1.45, 2.68). Conclusion There was a strong gradient of decreased SRH with age in both men and women. We found a strong cross-sectional association between SRH and social class, which was independent of education and major health related behaviors. The social class differential in SRH was similar with age. Prospective studies to confirm this association should explore social and emotional as well as physical pathways to inequalities in self reported health. PMID:18611263

  3. Active Aging Promotion: Results from the Vital Aging Program

    PubMed Central

    Caprara, Mariagiovanna; Molina, María Ángeles; Schettini, Rocío; Santacreu, Marta; Orosa, Teresa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rojas, Macarena; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative) are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants' satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished. PMID:23476644

  4. Home Accidents and Assistance in Daily Activities of Older Women in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkal, Sibel; Sahin, Hande

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the relation between incidents of at-home accidents and the assistance in daily activities of women age of 65+ living in the area of Dikmen Akpinar Health Care Unit in Ankara-Turkey. Of the women, 49.2% had experienced a home accident in the last 12 months. More than half of these accidents were caused by falling. Women over…

  5. Markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in older men and women with differing physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rowiński, Rafał; Kozakiewicz, Mariusz; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Hübner-Woźniak, Elżbieta; Kędziora, Józef

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and physical activity in older men and women. The present study included 481 participants (233 men and 248 women) in the age group 65-69 years (127 men and 125 women) and in the age group 90 years and over (106 men and 123 women). The classification of respondents by physical activity was based on answers to the question if, in the past 12 months, they engaged in any pastimes which require physical activity. The systemic oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyl concentration as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). The concentration of plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyls (CP) was lower in groups of younger men and women compared to the respective older groups. In all examined groups, physical activity resulted in decrease of these oxidative stress markers and simultaneously caused adaptive increase in the erythrocyte SOD activity. Additionally, in active younger men CAT, GPx, and GR activities were higher than in sedentary ones. In conclusion, oxidative stress increase is age-related, but physical activity can reduce oxidative stress markers and induce adaptive increase in the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, especially SOD, even in old and very old men and women. PMID:23911531

  6. Micronutrient Intakes among Women of Reproductive Age in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Nguyen, Hieu; Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Copeland, Erika; Strizich, Garrett; Lowe, Alyssa; Pham, Hoa; Truong, Truong V.; Nguyen, Son; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Background Micronutrient deficiencies are a public health concern worldwide negatively affecting maternal and child health outcomes. The primary underlying causes of micronutrient deficiencies are insufficient intake and poor bioavailability of micronutrients. However, reliable data on micronutrient intakes are sparse. The objectives of this study were to identify the key local food sources providing the majority of micronutrients and assess the adequacy and determinants of micronutrient intakes. Methods The study used data from a survey of 4,983 rural women of reproductive age (WRA) participating in a preconception micronutrient supplementation trial in Vietnam. Micronutrient intakes were assessed using a validated 107-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between socioeconomic status and micronutrient intakes. Results Starchy staples were the main source of iron and zinc (37% and 54%, respectively) with only a small proportion from meat (10% and 18%, respectively). The primary source of folate and vitamin A were vegetables; vitamin B12 came from meat and eggs. The proportion of the population with intakes below the estimated average requirement was 25% for iron, 16% for zinc, 54% for folate, 64% for vitamin B12 and 27% for vitamin A. Socioeconomic status was the main determinant of micronutrient intakes. WRA in the highest quintile consumed 26% more iron, 19% more zinc, 36% more folate, 82% more vitamin B12 and 47% more vitamin A compared to those in the lowest quintile. Women in the upper quintiles of SES were more likely to obtain nutrients from more nutritious and higher bioavailable foods than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusions Underprivileged women were at increased risk for insufficient micronutrient intakes due to poor diet quality. Targeted efforts to promote the consumption of local nutrient rich foods along with educational programs and social

  7. Age, wage, and job placement: older women's experiences entering the retail sector.

    PubMed

    Frank-Miller, Ellen G; Lambert, Susan J; Henly, Julia R

    2015-01-01

    Older women seeking employment often find opportunities limited to low-wage jobs, such as those in retail. We report findings about job placement and starting wages for hourly workers hired at a women's apparel retailer from August 2006 to December 2009. We examine competing hypotheses regarding the role of age in explaining women's job placement and starting wages. Although newly hired women age 55+ earn higher wages and are placed in higher-quality jobs than the youngest women (ages 18-22), they are less likely to be placed in better-quality jobs than their midlife counterparts. Overall, wage differences are largely explained by job quality. PMID:25607421

  8. The demographics of fat talk in adult women: Age, body size, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Engeln, Renee; Salk, Rachel H

    2016-08-01

    Fat talk, conversations in which women disparage the size/shape of their bodies, acts as both a reflection of and contributor to body dissatisfaction. We assessed the impact of age, body mass index, and ethnicity on fat talk in two large, online surveys of adult women. Body mass index showed a small, positive correlation with fat talk, but only for women who were not overweight. Fat talking was common across all ages. In contrast to the common belief that fat talk is limited to young, thin women, these studies demonstrate that women of many body sizes and ages engage in fat talk. PMID:25488938

  9. Effects of Endurance Jogging on Cardiovascular System and Body Composition in Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooshi, Ali

    This study investigated the effects of 30 minutes of endurance jogging on pulse rates at rest, during exercise, and at recovery and eight skinfold fat measures in middle-aged women. Subjects were 15 middle-aged women between 30 and 58 years of age who had not been engaged in any exercise program at least for 1 year. Eight sedentary subjects were…

  10. [Psychopathological profile of battered women according to age].

    PubMed

    Sarasua, Belén; Zubizarreta, Irene; Echeburúa, Enrique; Del Corral, Paz

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, differential psychopathological consequences in battered women according to age were analysed in a sample of 148 victims seeking psychological treatment in a Family Violence Centre. The younger victims exposed to intimate partner violence suffered more often from physical violence and were at higher risk for their lives than the older ones. The prevalence rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was higher (42%) in the younger victims than in the older ones (27%). Likewise, younger victims were affected by more depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem than the older ones. The severity of PTSD in the younger victims was related to the presence of forced sexual relationship but in the older ones, it was related to the perceived threat to their lives. Implications of this study for clinical practice and future research in this field are commented upon. PMID:17617986

  11. Breast cancer screening among women of child-bearing age.

    PubMed

    Munyaradzi, Daphne; January, James; Maradzika, Julita

    2014-01-01

    We explored behavioral factors that contributed to late presentation of breast cancer. A cross-sectional survey of 120 women of child-bearing age was employed, and data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires addressing predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors associated with breast cancer screening. A total of 53.5% knew what breast cancer screening was; breast self-exam was the most commonly known form of screening, although only 7.5% practiced it. Lack of awareness (p =.004) and the knowledge of someone who previously had breast cancer (p =.0004) were prominent predictors for breast cancer screening, leading to either delay in or early presentation of the condition, respectively. PMID:24875862

  12. Perspectives of pregnant and postpartum latino women on diabetes, physical activity, and health.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Edith C; Willis, Sharla K; Arellano, Natalia; Guzman, Ricardo

    2002-10-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes are prevalent among Latino women of childbearing age. Physical activity during and after pregnancy may contribute to weight control and improved metabolic status, but recommended activities may not be perceived as appropriate or feasible. To plan realistic and acceptable interventions, pregnant and postpartum Latino women in Detroit met in a focus group series to discuss their beliefs about diabetes and factors influencing their participation in regular physical activity during pregnancy and postpartum. Women believed that diabetes was primarily related to heredity and diet but not to physical activity. Exercise was believed to reduce stress and improve general health. Women suggested an organized group intervention, in a respected location, that offered safe physical activities within the context of a variety of activities for women and children. This strategy reduced concerns about safety and social acceptability while addressing their primary interest in social support. PMID:12238699

  13. Influence of peripheral arterial disease on daily living activities in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Franco, Fábio Gazelato de Mello; de Mattos, Luciana Diniz Nagem Janot; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Wolosker, Nelson; Nasri, Fábio; Costa, Maria Luiza Monteiro; de Carvalho, José Antônio Maluf

    2016-06-01

    Aging has been associated with decreases in physical and cognitive functions. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) has been associated with further impairments in these functions, especially in women. However, no detailed information is available indicating whether PAD leads to further impairment in these functions in elderly women. Thus, the aims of this study were 1) to compare the capacity to perform daily living activities between elderly women with and without PAD and 2) to identify the factors related with the performance in daily activities. Twenty-seven elderly women with PAD and 22 elderly non-PAD women were surveyed in a geriatric hospital. Women aged ≥65 years and with no signal of dementia were included. PAD was identified by the ankle-brachial index ≤0.90, whereas elderly non-PAD women presented ankle-brachial index >1.0. Patients were interviewed to obtain information regarding basic (Katz questionnaire) and instrumental daily living activities (Lawton-Brody scale) and performed the mini-mental state examination, handgrip strength test, and timed up and go tests. PAD and non-PAD women had similar age, clinical characteristics, handgrip strength test, and cognitive function (P > 0.05). The capacity to perform basic and instrumental daily living activities was similar between PAD and non-PAD women (P > 0.05). In PAD and non-PAD, the instrumental daily living activities were significantly correlated with cognitive function (r = 0.44, P < 0.05 and r = 0.74 and P < 0.05, respectively). PAD elderly women present similar capacity to perform basic and instrumental daily activities than non-PAD women. In addition, in both groups, the capacity to perform instrumental daily activities was related with cognitive function. PMID:27210449

  14. Breast cancer and age in Black and White women in South East England.

    PubMed

    Jack, Ruth H; Davies, Elizabeth A; Møller, Henrik

    2012-03-01

    Black women have lower age-standardized breast cancer incidence rates than White women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about such differences in risk in separate age groups. Records on female residents of South East England diagnosed with breast cancer between 1998 and 2003 were extracted from the Thames Cancer Registry database. Age-specific incidence rates were calculated for each 5-year age group using 2001 Census population data for White, Black Caribbean and Black African women. Black Caribbean and Black African breast cancer patients were younger than both the White patients and those with no ethnicity recorded. Black Caribbean and Black African women in the population also had a younger age profile than White women. The computed age-specific incidence rates in women aged under 50 were similar in the different ethnic groups, whereas in women aged 50 and over White women had higher rates. The younger age of Black Caribbean and Black African breast cancer patients in South East England reflects the younger age of these populations, rather than an increased risk of disease at younger ages. PMID:21445965

  15. Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian College-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Andrea K.; Ford, M. Allison; Jones, Tamekia L.; Nahar, Vinayak K.; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) among African-American and Caucasian college-aged women are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race. Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50) and Caucasian (n=51) females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and Body Composition Laboratory. BMD was measured using DXA technology. Race, family history of osteoporosis, BMI, current physical activity, osteoporosis knowledge, length of time on oral contraceptives, age at menarche and calcium intake were included in the multiple regression analyses with spinal and femoral BMD as dependent variables. Results: Overall, 38.6% had low spinal BMD and 7.9% had low femoral BMD. BMI (β=0.073, R2 = .148, P = .001, 95% CI [0.030, 0.116]) and current physical activity (β=0.071, R2 = .148, P = .017, 95% CI [0.013, 0.129]) were the only variables that were statistically significant in predicting spinal BMD. BMI (β=0.056, R2 = .13, P = .010, 95% CI [0.014, 0.098]) and current physical activ-ity (β=0.078, R2 = .13, P = .007, 95% CI [0.022, 0.134]) were also the only varia-bles that were statistically significant in predicting femoral BMD. Race was not a significant predictor of spinal or femoral BMD. Conclusion: It is imperative for both African-American and Caucasian women to engage in osteoporosis-preventive behaviors. PMID:26000242

  16. Active Ageing in a Greying Society: Training for All Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessel, Roger

    2008-01-01

    With the ageing of society, policy-makers are aware of the need to retain older workers in employment. Across Europe, lifelong learning is increasingly important. Adults who remain active longer need (re-)training to maintain their productivity. However, vocational training tends to decline with age. The article analyses European employment policy…

  17. Physical activity in young black and white women. The CARDIA Study.

    PubMed

    Bild, D E; Jacobs, D R; Sidney, S; Haskell, W L; Anderssen, N; Oberman, A

    1993-11-01

    Total physical activity scores, based on level of participation in 13 types of activities for 2658 black and white women aged 18 to 30 years were examined in relation to demographic, health behavior, psychosocial, and obesity data to compare levels of physical activity and determine reasons for disparities between blacks and whites. Black women had lower scores than white women--geometric mean of 178 (95% confidence interval (CI): 167, 189) versus 318 (95% CI: 305, 332). After controlling for age and education, physical activity was associated with physical activity level before high school, life events score, John Henryism, and competitiveness in both groups. In white women only, it was associated with alcohol intake and need to excel, and negatively associated with number of children, number of cigarettes smoked, and fatness. Race remained a predictor of physical activity after controlling for each variable. Relationships between physical activity and age, education, cigarette smoking, and life events differed significantly by race. Black women had lower physical activity levels than white women, which may contribute to higher rates of obesity and coronary heart disease. Racial differences in physical activity remain largely unexplained by the factors examined. PMID:7921312

  18. Relationships Between Dog Ownership and Physical Activity in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Betsy C.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Volpe, Stella Lucia; Howard, Barbara V.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Positive associations between dog ownership and physical activity in older adults have been previously reported. Purpose The objective of this study was to examine cross-sectional associations between dog ownership and physical activity measures in a well-characterized, diverse sample of postmenopausal women. Methods Analyses included 36,984 dog owners (mean age: 61.5 yrs), and 115,645 non-dog owners (mean age: 63.9 yrs) enrolled in a clinical trial or the observational study of the Women’s Health Initiative between 1993 and 1998. Logistic regression models were used to test for associations between dog ownership and physical activity, adjusted for potential confounders. Results Owning a dog was associated with a higher likelihood of walking ≥150 min/wk (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10–1.17) and a lower likelihood of being sedentary ≥8 hr/day (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.83–0.89) as compared to not owning a dog. However, dog owners were less likely to meet ≥7.5 MET-hr/wk of total physical activity as compared to non-dog owners (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00–1.07). Conclusions Dog ownership is associated with increased physical activity in older women, particularly among women living alone. Health promotion efforts aimed at older adults should highlight the benefits of regular dog walking for both dog owners and non-dog owners. PMID:25449694

  19. African American women's experiences with physical activity in their daily lives.

    PubMed

    Nies, M A; Vollman, M; Cook, T

    1999-02-01

    Sedentary behavior is a major public health problem for African American women. A qualitative study used focus groups to explore African American women's experiences with physical activity in their daily lives. Women aged 35-50 were recruited to participate in the focus groups. Transcripts from the focus groups were coded and analyzed. African American women's facilitators of physical activity were daily routine, practical and convenient activities, personal safety, child care, weight loss, stress reduction, knowledge and commitment, enjoyment, pets, family and peer support, home and work facilities, and daylight and climate conditions. Barriers to physical activity were lack of child care, no person to exercise with, competing responsibilities, lack of space in the home, inability to use exercise facilities at work, lack of motivation, fatigue, and unsafe neighborhood. This information will provide the basis for generating new strategies to increase physical activity for African American women in the community. PMID:10074819

  20. Factors associated with active commuting to work among women.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Melissa; Child, Stephanie; Campbell, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Active commuting (AC), the act of walking or biking to work, has notable health benefits though rates of AC remain low among women. This study used a social-ecological framework to examine the factors associated with AC among women. A convenience sample of employed, working women (n = 709) completed an online survey about their mode of travel to work. Individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental influences were assessed. Basic descriptive statistics and frequencies described the sample. Simple logistic regression models examined associations with the independent variables with AC participation and multiple logistic regression analysis determined the relative influence of social ecological factors on AC participation. The sample was primarily middle-aged (44.09±11.38 years) and non-Hispanic White (92%). Univariate analyses revealed several individual, interpersonal, institutional, community and environmental factors significantly associated with AC. The multivariable logistic regression analysis results indicated that significant factors associated with AC included number of children, income, perceived behavioral control, coworker AC, coworker AC normative beliefs, employer and community supports for AC, and traffic. The results of this study contribute to the limited body of knowledge on AC participation for women and may help to inform gender-tailored interventions to enhance AC behavior and improve health. PMID:24512572

  1. Induction of hyperandrogenism in lean reproductive-age women stimulates proatherogenic inflammation.

    PubMed

    González, F; Sreekumaran Nair, K; Basal, E; Bearson, D M; Schimke, J M; Blair, H E

    2015-06-01

    We determined the effect of hyperandrogenemia as observed in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on fasting and glucose-stimulated proatherogenic inflammation markers in lean healthy reproductive-age women. Sixteen lean healthy ovulatory reproductive-age women were treated with 130 mg of DHEA or placebo (n=8 each) for 5 days. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA and IL-6 release from mononuclear cells (MNC), plasma IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP), and MNC-derived (matrix metalloproteinase-2) MMP-2 protein were quantified in the fasting state and 2 h after glucose ingestion, before and after treatment. Before treatment, subjects receiving dehydroepinadrosterone (DHEA) or placebo exhibited no differences in androgens, or any proatherogenic inflammation markers while fasting and after glucose ingestion. Compared with placebo, DHEA administration raised levels of testosterone, androstenedione, and DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S), and increased the percent change from baseline in fasting IL-6 mRNA, IL-6 release, plasma IL-6, and CRP and MMP-2 protein. However, there were no differences in any of the proatherogenic inflammation markers following glucose ingestion after DHEA administration. We conclude that in lean reproductive-age women, proatherogenic inflammation in the fasting state increases after raising circulating androgens to levels observed in PCOS. However, this hyperandrogenemia-induced MNC activation does not provoke a similar response to subsequent glucose ingestion. PMID:25230323

  2. Age, Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Incidence of Orthopedic Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Effects of age, physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of orthopedic problems were examined. For men, physical fitness, BMI, and physical activity were associated with orthopedic problems; for women, physical activity was the main predictor. Age was not a factor for either gender. (JD)

  3. Changes in aerobic power of women, ages 20-64 yr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. S.; Wier, L. T.; Ayers, G. W.; Beard, E. F.; Stuteville, J. E.; Blair, S. N.

    1996-01-01

    This study quantified and compared the cross-sectional and longitudinal influence of age, self-report physical activity (SR-PA), and body composition (%fat) on the decline of maximal aerobic power (VO2peak) of women. The cross-sectional sample consisted of 409 healthy women, ages 20-64 yr. The 43 women of the longitudinal sample were from the same population and examined twice, the mean time between tests was 3.7 (+/-2.2) yr. Peak oxygen uptake was determined by indirect calorimetry during a maximal treadmill test. The zero-order correlation of -0.742 between VO2peak and %fat was significantly (P < 0.05) higher then the SR-PA (r = 0.626) and age correlations (r = -0.633). Linear regression defined the cross-sectional age-related decline in VO2peak at 0.537 ml.kg-1.min-1.yr-1. Multiple regression analysis (R = 0.851) showed that adding %fat and SR-PA and their interaction to the regression model reduced the age regression weight of -0.537, to -0.265 ml.kg-1.min-1.yr-1. Statistically controlling for time differences between tests, general linear models analysis showed that longitudinal changes in aerobic power were due to independent changes in %fat and SR-PA, confirming the cross-sectional results. These findings are consistent with men's data from the same lab showing that about 50% of the cross-sectional age-related decline in VO2peak was due to %fat and SR-PA.

  4. The Effect of Urinary Incontinence on Quality of Life of Women at Childbearing Age in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Bakarman, Marwan A; Al-Ghamdi, Sadiah Saeed

    2016-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence of urinary incontinence among women of childbearing age at Maternity and Children's Hospital (MCH), Jeddah, 2012, and to assess its impact on the quality of their life. A cross-sectional analytic approach was carried out among women of childbearing age seen at MCH, Jeddah. Systematic random sampling technique was followed. Each woman fulfilling the inclusion criteria was invited to enroled in the study, the inclusion criteria were women aged 15-50 years, agreed to participate in the study, the exclusion criteria were pregnant women and patients who are seriously ill. Self-administered questionnaire using the King's Health Questionnaire was utilized to measure Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) of patients with UI. Out of 1200 patients attending the gynecology clinic in the MCH, 412 (34.3%) were diagnosed as having UI. Their age ranged between 15 and 50 years with a mean of 34.3 ± 7.2 years. Almost 50% indicated that UI affected them badly as wife, mother, their emotions, and their physical and social activities. The most commonly occurring problems were frequent micturition (88.3%), nocturnal enuresis (87.9%). The least occurring, were kidney problems (38.6%) and dripping during sexual activities (40.8%). Increasing age and higher parity were significantly associated with limitations in different life domains. Urinary incontinence is common and often disturbing for Saudi women. It adversely impaired their quality of life. PMID:26383213

  5. The Effect of Urinary Incontinence on Quality of Life of Women at Childbearing Age in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Bakarman, Marwan A.; Al-Ghamdi, Sadiah Saeed

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of urinary incontinence among women of childbearing age at Maternity and Children’s Hospital (MCH), Jeddah, 2012, and to assess its impact on the quality of their life. A cross– sectional analytic approach was carried out among women of childbearing age seen at MCH, Jeddah. Systematic random sampling technique was followed. Each woman fulfilling the inclusion criteria was invited to enroled in the study, the inclusion criteria were women aged 15-50 years, agreed to participate in the study, the exclusion criteria were pregnant women and patients who are seriously ill. Self-administered questionnaire using the King’s Health Questionnaire was utilized to measure Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) of patients with UI. Out of 1200 patients attending the gynecology clinic in the MCH, 412 (34.3%) were diagnosed as having UI. Their age ranged between 15 and 50 years with a mean of 34.3 + 7.2 years. Almost 50% indicated that UI affected them badly as wife, mother, their emotions, and their physical and social activities. The most commonly occurring problems were frequent micturition (88.3%), nocturnal enuresis (87.9%). The least occurring, were kidney problems (38.6%) and dripping during sexual activities (40.8%). Increasing age and higher parity were significantly associated with limitations in different life domains. Urinary incontinence is common and often disturbing for Saudi women. It adversely impaired their quality of life. PMID:26383213

  6. People with Learning Disabilities and "Active Ageing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Liam; Boxall, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Background: People (with and without learning disabilities) are living longer. Demographic ageing creates challenges and the leading policy response to these challenges is "active ageing". "Active" does not just refer to the ability to be physically and economically active, but also includes ongoing social and civic engagement…

  7. The Age of Beauty Calendar for Flood Relief: Photography, Solidarity, Fundraising, and Vibrant Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Carole

    2005-01-01

    "The Age of Beauty: Women for Flood Relief 2005-2006: Celebrating the Spirit of Peterborough," is a calendar that successfully raised funds for flood victims while contributing to the reinvention of images of "powerful rebellious old women" by offering dynamic images of older women's strengths, creativity and spirit. During a time of crisis in…

  8. The Relationship of Age and Marital Status to Women's Needs for Interdependence-Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Ruth Bernstein; Woog, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    Examined the prominence of intimacy concerns, i.e., connectedness and independent needs in a sample of women in the health professions, analyzing for age and marital status. Used the Life Priorities Q-Sort. Older and single women were found to be significantly more independent than younger and married women. (Author/KS)

  9. Diabetes, physical activity and breast cancer among Hispanic women

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Maureen; Peltz, Gerson; Perez, Adriana; Johnson, Matthew; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Fadden, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We assessed the association between diabetes and breast cancer and whether physical activity modified the effect of diabetes on breast cancer in Hispanic women. Methods We used data from a case-control study of breast cancer among Hispanic women aged 30 to 79 conducted between 2003 and 2008 on the Texas-Mexico border. In-person interviews were completed with 190 incident breast cancer cases ascertained through surgeons and oncologists, and 979 controls who were designated as both high-risk (n=511) and low-risk (N=468) for breast cancer (with respective response rates of 97%, 83% and 74%). Results After adjustment for menopausal status and mammography screening, there was no effect of diabetes on breast cancer risk (high-risk control group odds ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71–1.48; low-risk control group OR 0.87, 0.58–1.30). Women who had a diabetes history and did not exercise were at no risk of breast cancer (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.63–1.48) or a slightly reduced breast cancer risk (low-risk control group OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.46–1.15) depending on the control group used, while women with diabetes who did exercise had significantly reduced breast cancer risk (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.21–0.83) regardless of the control group used (high-risk control group p-value for interaction=0.013, low-risk control group p-value for interaction 0.183). Conclusions Should other studies confirm our results, physical activity should be explored as a means of reducing breast cancer risk in diabetic women. PMID:20591760

  10. Diverging fertility among U.S. women who delay childbearing past age 30.

    PubMed

    Martin, S P

    2000-11-01

    In this paper I examine the evolving association between educational attainment and the timing of births. In the late 1970s, women with four-year college degrees had lower first birth rates before age 30 than women with less education, but rates of first births were similar for the two groups after age 30. From the 1970s to the 1990s, first birth rates decreased before age 30 for all women, but increased after age 30 only for women with four-year college degrees. Parity 2 birth rates also increased for college graduates with a first birth after age 30. These results document widening educational differences in fertility timing between 1975 and 1995, which may reflect period changes at later ages in women's work and family lives. PMID:11086577

  11. Physical Activity and Musculoskeletal Injuries in Women: The Women's Injury Study

    PubMed Central

    DeFina, Laura F.; Leonard, David; Custodio, Michelle A.; Morrow, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Increased injury rates have been associated with physical activity (PA). The differences in musculoskeletal injury (MSI) characteristics resulting from PA, versus those unrelated to PA, are unknown. We describe the pattern of PA and non-PA MSI incurred by community-dwelling women. Methods Data were extracted from the Women's Injury Study, a web-based observational study that tracked weekly PA behaviors and self-reported MSI of 909 community-dwelling women ages 20–83 years. The primary outcome was self-reported MSI that interrupted daily activities ≥2 days and/or required treatment from a health care provider. Follow-up telephone reporting of MSIs allowed further description of injuries. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to identify injury sites associated with PA, controlling for age, body mass index, previous injury, and use of alcohol. Results Incidence of PA and non-PA MSIs were comparable; some differences in injury characteristics were evident across 83,241 person-weeks of reporting. Non-PA MSIs were more likely to come on “suddenly” (54% vs. 8%) and commonly involved head/jaw/neck injuries. Reported PA-related MSIs were less likely to require health care provider treatment (60% vs. 80%) and resulted in less missed days of work/school (11%) versus non-PA MSIs (17%). Compared to non-PA related injuries, PA-related injuries were more likely to involve the lower (odds ratio [OR]=3.10, p=0.002) or upper limbs (OR=2.54, p=0.01) and less likely to involve the head/jaw/neck (OR=0.21, p=0.002). Conclusion There are some differences in mechanisms of injury, the distribution of injuries by anatomical location, and the treatment of injuries depending on aerobic activity participation, although absolute rates of MSI were comparable. PMID:24117001

  12. Active Learning in Aging Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singelis, Theodore M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the involvement of undergraduate students in research at the California State University (CSU), Chico funded through an Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA) from the National Institute on Aging (NIA). CSU, Chico is a "teaching" university and has students with a variety of motivations and abilities. The 3-year research…

  13. Predictors of feminist activism among sexual-minority and heterosexual college women.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Carly K; Ayres, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Engagement in activism is related to several aspects of social development in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Therefore, it is important to examine the correlates of different forms of activism, such as feminist collective action, among all youth. However, previous research has not investigated young sexual-minority women's engagement with feminist collective action. This study examined predictors of college-aged heterosexual and sexual-minority women's commitment to and participation in feminist activism. Sexual orientation, number of years in college, social support, experiences with discrimination, and gender identity were tested as predictors of commitment to and participation in feminist activism with a sample of 280 college-aged women (173 heterosexuals and 107 sexual minorities). Similar predictors were related to both commitment to and participation in feminist activism. However, for sexual-minority women, but not heterosexual women, the number of years in college was correlated with participation in feminist activism. Young sexual-minority women reported more participation in feminist activism than did heterosexual women, even after controlling for social support, discrimination, and gender identity. PMID:24175889

  14. Changes in Physical Activity and Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women over Time

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Stacy T.; Kubo, Jessica; Desai, Manisha; Bea, Jennifer; Beasley, Jeannette M.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Allison, Matthew; Seguin, Rebecca A.; Chen, Zhao; Michael, Yvonne L.; Sullivan, Shannon D.; Beresford, Shirley; Stefanick, Marcia L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Higher physical activity (PA) has been associated with greater attenuation of body-fat gain and preservation of lean mass across the lifespan. These analyses aimed to determine relationships of change in PA to changes in fat and lean body mass in a longitudinal prospective study of postmenopausal women. Methods Among 11,491 women enrolled at three Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) clinical centers were selected to undergo dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), 8,352 had baseline body composition measurements, with at least one repeated measure at yr 1, 3, and 6. PA data were obtained by self-report at baseline, 3 and 6 yr of follow-up. Time-varying PA impact on change in lean and fat mass during the six-yr study period for age groups (50–59y, 60–69y, 70–79y) was estimated using mixed effects linear regression. Results Baseline PA and body composition differed significantly among the three age groups. The association of change in fat mass from baseline and time-varying PA differed across the three age groups (p=0.0006). In women aged 50–59, gain in fat mass from baseline was attenuated with higher levels of physical activity. Women aged 70–79 lost fat mass at all PA levels. In contrast, change in lean mass from baseline and time-varying PA did not differ by age group (p=0.1935). Conclusions The association between PA and change in fat mass varies by age group, with younger, but not older, women benefitting from higher levels of aerobic PA. Higher levels of aerobic activity are not associated with changes in lean mass, which tends to decrease in older women regardless of activity level. Greater attention to resistance training exercises may be needed to prevent lean mass loss as women age. PMID:23439422

  15. Voices of Transformational Learning: Life Experiences of Women Aged Eighty and above in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Lorri A.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research study examined the lived experiences and stories of dynamic women over 80 years of age. Their contribution to transformational and lifelong learning may offer a blueprint for baby boomers to age successfully. The exploration disclosed common patterns of the individual lives. The interviews revealed that the women were…

  16. Changes in age at marriage of women in rural north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, M

    1992-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in age at marriage for women in a rural area of north India. Age at marriage rose from under 12 years before 1930 to about 19 years in 1988, mainly as a result of socioeconomic development and advances in education of women. PMID:1737808

  17. Health Related Concerns and Psychological Well-Being of Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruch, Grace K.

    A two-stage study of women aged 35-55 focused on issues, concerns, and gratification and their relationship to family status, work status, age, and sense of psychological well-being. The sample was composed of women who occupied jointly one of three family statuses (never married, married without children, married with children) and one of six…

  18. To Cut or Not to Cut: Cosmetic Surgery Usage and Women's Age-Related Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksen, Shelley J.

    2012-01-01

    Part of the developmental trajectory of middle and late life presumes the adjustment to physical aging, an adjustment that is complicated for women for whom the prioritization of beauty is central to their social value in Western societies. A 60-item written questionnaire was distributed to a volunteer community sample of 202 women ages 19-86.…

  19. Support for Recognition of Women and for Activities for Women in Mathematical Sciences at National Meetings

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Jennifer

    2015-07-31

    The Association for Women in Mathematics (AWM) seeks to advance the rates of participation by women in events at national mathematical sciences conference primarily in the U.S. The grant was funded from 8/1/2007 through 3/31/2015. The first component is the lecture series (Noether, Kovalevsky and Falconer Lectures) named after celebrated mathematicians, and featuring prominent women mathematicians, with the result that men, as well as women, will learn about the achievements of women in the mathematical sciences. 22 women mathematicians gave lectures at the annual JMM, SIAM Annual Meetings, and the MAA MathFest. The second component is AWM’s “Workshops for Women Graduate Students and Recent PhDs,” which select junior women to give research talks and research poster presentations at the SIAM Annual Meeting. The workshop activities allow wider recruitment of participants and increased attention to mentoring. 122 women gave mathematics research presentations. The third component is the AWM’s 40th Anniversary Research Symposium, 2011. 300 women and men attended the two-day symposium with 135 women presenting mathematics research. These activities have succeeded in increasing the number of women speakers and presenters at meetings and have brought more women attendees to the meetings.

  20. Prospective Predictors of Mental Health after the Development of Breast Cancer in Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Tracey D.; Lee, Christina

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigated the prospective predictors of mental health after breast cancer diagnosis among mid-aged Australian women (initially aged 45-50 years). Two waves of data collected 2 years apart from a longitudinal population-based survey of 12,177 women identified a group of 63 women who reported onset of BC between T1 (T1) and Time 2…

  1. [Morphology of the reproductive age women cervical epithelium under hypothyreosis].

    PubMed

    Beruchashvili, M; Gogiashvili, L; Tsagareli, Z; Topuriya, Z

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to examine the morphological manifestations of hypothyreosis in the reproductive age women cervical mucosa. With clinically verified hypothyreosis in 1524 cases, 538 patients had a different variants of endocervical pathology, accounting for two major research groups: I - (n=259) operated by colloidal goiter treated by L-thyroxin during last 3 years, II - (n=279) with similar diagnosis, without replacement therapy within last 3 years. Therapeutic and diagnostic scrapings from cervix, as well as parallel samples of the operative removal thyroid gland (TG), after staining with hematoxylin and eosin and picrofuchsin by van Gieson were studied morphologically. The different variants of the cervical mucosa reaction from simple hyperplasia in treated group to adenomyosis with stratification of epithelium, and the tendency of sclerosis and atrophy in the group not receiving L-thyroxin were revealed. In all compared cases Spearmen correlation coefficient had high level of relevance (0,00003). We believe that the cervix changes are the consequence of the decrease of sensitivity to estrogen under the low level of T3 and T4 and increase TSH in plasma. Molecular atypia of endocervical cells clearly demon-strates cross-combination of two leading hormonal systems. PMID:23388537

  2. Influence of skin ageing features on Chinese women's perception of facial age and attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Porcheron, A; Latreille, J; Jdid, R; Tschachler, E; Morizot, F

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Ageing leads to characteristic changes in the appearance of facial skin. Among these changes, we can distinguish the skin topographic cues (skin sagging and wrinkles), the dark spots and the dark circles around the eyes. Although skin changes are similar in Caucasian and Chinese faces, the age of occurrence and the severity of age-related features differ between the two populations. Little is known about how the ageing of skin influences the perception of female faces in Chinese women. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the different age-related skin features to the perception of age and attractiveness in Chinese women. Methods Facial images of Caucasian women and Chinese women in their 60s were manipulated separately to reduce the following skin features: (i) skin sagging and wrinkles, (ii) dark spots and (iii) dark circles. Finally, all signs were reduced simultaneously (iv). Female Chinese participants were asked to estimate the age difference between the modified and original images and evaluate the attractiveness of modified and original faces. Results Chinese women perceived the Chinese faces as younger after the manipulation of dark spots than after the reduction in wrinkles/sagging, whereas they perceived the Caucasian faces as the youngest after the manipulation of wrinkles/sagging. Interestingly, Chinese women evaluated faces with reduced dark spots as being the most attractive whatever the origin of the face. The manipulation of dark circles contributed to making Caucasian and Chinese faces being perceived younger and more attractive than the original faces, although the effect was less pronounced than for the two other types of manipulation. Conclusion This is the first study to have examined the influence of various age-related skin features on the facial age and attractiveness perception of Chinese women. The results highlight different contributions of dark spots, sagging/wrinkles and dark circles to their perception

  3. Prevalence of osteoporotic vertebral fracture in Spanish women over age 45.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil-Albarova, Jorge; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Artigas, José M; López-Prats, Fernando; Mesa, Manuel; Ibarz, Elena; Gracia, Luis

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this work is to study the prevalence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures in Spanish women over 45 years of age, based on the selection of a nationwide sample. An observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted during 2006, in all of Spain's regions. The sample analyzed was of 5000 individuals, representative of the female population over age 45 in Spain. A questionnaire was used to determine which factors are most often associated with vertebral fractures. We also assessed whether the Prevalent Vertebral Fracture Index, proposed by Vogt, is useful in indicating a possible osteoporotic vertebral fracture. Five hundred orthopedic surgeons, from various Spanish regions, were trained in different aspects of the study: inclusion and exclusion criteria, management of the risk factor questionnaire, and implementation of the Vogt questionnaire. The number of fracture cases was 1549 (31.79%). 528 Women (34.08%) had a single vertebral fracture, and 1021 (65.92%) had multiple vertebral fractures. The following factors were statistically significantly associated with vertebral fracture: age, late menarche, early menopause, diabetes mellitus, hyperparathyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis, height loss, daily physical activity, corticosteroid therapy, personal history of osteoporotic fracture and previous diagnosis of osteoporosis. The differences in Vogt score according to age and fracture status were statistically significant. The conclusion of the study is that vertebral osteoporotic fracture in the female Spanish population is frequent. The high prevalence in the Spanish population older than 60 years is probably related to malnutrition in the period from 1936 to 1952. PMID:25577153

  4. Math Activities for Teaching about Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Roberta E.; Pappas, Anthony A.

    By participating in these class activities, students will acquire mathematical skills and at the same time learn about aging. Topics related to aging are often quantitative, and therefore, subject to mathematical analysis and procedures. The activities, which contain teacher suggestions and all student handouts, deal with seven topics. In the…

  5. Sexual Health and Well-being Among Older Men and Women in England: Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Lee, David M; Nazroo, James; O'Connor, Daryl B; Blake, Margaret; Pendleton, Neil

    2016-01-01

    We describe levels of sexual activity, problems with sexual functioning, and concerns about sexual health among older adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), and associations with age, health, and partnership factors. Specifically, a total of 6,201 core ELSA participants (56 % women) aged 50 to >90 completed a comprehensive Sexual Relationships and Activities questionnaire (SRA-Q) included in ELSA Wave 6 (2012/13). The prevalence of reporting any sexual activity in the last year declined with age, with women less likely than men at all ages to report being sexually active. Poorer health was associated with lower levels of sexual activity and a higher prevalence of problems with sexual functioning, particularly among men. Difficulties most frequently reported by sexually active women related to becoming sexually aroused (32 %) and achieving orgasm (27 %), while for men it was erectile function (39 %). Sexual health concerns most commonly reported by women related to their level of sexual desire (11 %) and frequency of sexual activities (8 %). Among men it was level of sexual desire (15 %) and erectile difficulties (14 %). While the likelihood of reporting sexual health concerns tended to decrease with age in women, the opposite was seen in men. Poor sexual functioning and disagreements with a partner about initiating and/or feeling obligated to have sex were associated with greater concerns about and dissatisfaction with overall sex life. Levels of sexual activity decline with increasing age, although a sizable minority of men and women remain sexually active until the eighth and ninth decades of life. Problems with sexual functioning were relatively common, but overall levels of sexual health concerns were much lower. Sexually active men reported higher levels of concern with their sexual health and sexual dissatisfaction than women at all ages. Older peoples' sexual health should be managed, not just in the context of their age, gender

  6. Impact of age on the cardiovascular response to dynamic upright exercise in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Fleg, J L; O'Connor, F; Gerstenblith, G; Becker, L C; Clulow, J; Schulman, S P; Lakatta, E G

    1995-03-01

    To examine whether age differentially modifies the physiological response to exercise in men and women, we performed gated radionuclide ventriculography with measurement of left ventricular volumes at rest and during peak upright cycle exercise in 200 rigorously screened healthy sedentary volunteers (121 men and 79 women) aged 22-86 yr from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. At rest in the sitting position, age-associated declines in heart rate (HR) and increases in systolic blood pressure occurred in both sexes. Whereas resting cardiac index (CI) and total systemic vascular resistance (TSVR) in men did not vary with age, in women resting CI decreased 16% and TSVR increased 46% over the six-decade age span. Men, but not women, demonstrated an age-associated increase of approximately 20% in sitting end-diastolic volume index (EDVI), end-systolic volume index (ESVI), and stroke volume index over this age span. Peak cycle work rate declined with age approximately 40% in both sexes, but at any age it was greater in men than in women even after normalization for body weight. At peak effort, ejection fraction (EF), HR, and CI were reduced similarly with age while ESVI and TSVR were increased in both sexes; EDVI increased 35% with age and stroke work index (SWI) rose 19% in men, but neither was related to age in women; and stroke volume index did not vary with age in either sex. When hemodynamics were expressed as the change from rest to peak effort as an index of cardiovascular reserve function, both sexes demonstrated age-associated increases in EDVI and ESVI and reductions in EF, HR, and CI. However, the exercise-induced reduction in ESVI and the increases in EF, CI, and SWI from rest were greater in men than in women. Thus, age and gender each have a significant impact on the cardiac response to exhaustive upright cycle exercise. PMID:7775334

  7. Self-silencing and age as risk factors for sexually acquired HIV in midlife and older women.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Robin J; Thomlison, Barbara

    2009-02-01

    Objectives. This study explores the contribution of psychosocial factors on sex behaviors of midlife and older women. Methods. A community-based sample of ethnically diverse women (N = 572) between the ages of 50 and 93 completed standardized measures of self-silencing, self-esteem, sensation seeking behavior, HIV-related stigma behavior, sexual assertiveness, and safer sex behaviors. Results. Results from the regression analysis indicated the model significantly predicted safer sex behaviors (p < .001), with self silencing(â = -.115, p < .05) and age (â = .173, p < .001) as significant predictors.Bivariate correlation analysis indicated an inverse correlation between HIV stigma (p < .05) and safer sex behaviors. Discussion. Implications for further study and practice are discussed to include considerations for development of age- and gender-appropriate prevention interventions assisting women with interpersonal processes combined with skills for active involvement in addressing high-risk sex behaviors. PMID:19144971

  8. Sexual Behaviour of Men and Women within Age-Disparate Partnerships in South Africa: Implications for Young Women's HIV Risk

    PubMed Central

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Evans, Meredith; George, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Background Age-disparate partnerships are hypothesized to increase HIV-risk for young women. However, the evidence base remains mixed. Most studies have focused only on unprotected sex among women in the partnership. Consequently, little is known about other risky behaviours, such as transactional sex, alcohol use, and concurrency, as well as the behaviours of the men who partner with young women. We therefore examined differences in various sexual behaviours of both young women and their male partners by partnership age difference. Methods We used nationally representative data from South Africa (2012) on partnerships reported by 16–24 year old black African women (n = 818) and by black African men in partnerships with 16–24 year old women (n = 985). We compared sexual behaviours in age-disparate partnerships and age-similar partnerships, using multiple logistic regression to control for potential confounders and to assess rural/urban differences. Results Young women in age-disparate partnerships were more likely to report unprotected sex than young women in similar-aged partnerships (aOR:1.51; p = 0.014; 95%CI:1.09–2.11). Men in partnerships with young women were more likely to report unprotected sex (aOR:1.92; p<0.01; 95%CI:1.31–2.81), transactional sex (aOR:2.73; p<0.01; 95%CI:1.64–4.56), drinking alcohol before sex (aOR:1.60; p = 0.062; 95%CI:0.98–2.61), and concurrency (aOR:1.39; p = 0.097; 95%CI:0.94–2.07) when their partners were five or more years younger. The association between age-disparate partnerships and transactional sex (aOR:4.14; p<0.01; 95%CI: 2.03–8.46) and alcohol use (aOR:2.24; p<0.013; 95%CI:1.20–4.19) was only found in urban areas. Conclusions Results provide evidence that young women’s age-disparate partnerships involve greater sexual risk, particularly through the risky behaviours of their male partners, with the risk amplified for young women in urban areas. PMID:27526116

  9. The life experience and status of Chinese rural women from observation of three age groups.

    PubMed

    Dai, K

    1991-03-01

    Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome. PMID:12179888

  10. Work reinforcers and explanatory style for women aged 40 to 75 years.

    PubMed

    Phelps, L H; Waskel, S A

    1994-07-01

    We examined the relationship between explanatory style and work reinforcers, that is, specific sources in the work environment that appear to promote job satisfaction. Our subjects were 135 employed women aged 40 to 75 years who were asked to complete the Attributional Style Questionnaire (Peterson et al., 1982) and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (Weiss, Dawis, England, & Lofquist, 1967). Using Pearson's product-moment correlational analysis, weak but significant relationships were found between explanatory style and the work reinforcers of ability utilization, activity, and creativity. Individuals with a depressive explanatory style experienced less job satisfaction in areas related to these reinforcers. PMID:7932292

  11. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    “Metabolic Equivalent” (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46), women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  12. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    "Metabolic Equivalent" (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O₂/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35-41, n = 46), women 24-53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  13. Purpose and pleasure in late life: Conceptualising older women's participation in art and craft activities.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Jeannine L M; Parkinson, Lynne; Sibbritt, David W

    2013-12-01

    The fourth age, as the last stage of life, represents a final challenge to find personal meaning in the face of changing capacities, illness and disability. Participation in valued activities is important for sustaining interest in life and has been associated with enhanced health and well-being. Art and craft activities are a popular form of participation amongst women in late life with growing international interest in the potential for these types of activities to maintain health and well-being and address problems of social isolation. Drawing on open text comments from 114 women enrolled in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health and in-depth interviews with 23 women all aged in their eighties, this paper explores the nature of older women's participation in art and craft activities and conceptualises links between participation in these activities and health and well-being in late life. Participation in art and craft activities is complex and dynamic, comprising cognitive and physical processes infused with emotion and occurs in the context of social relationships, physical spaces, physical ailments and beliefs about the value of the activities. By participating in art and craft activities, older women find purpose in their lives, contributing to their subjective well-being whilst helping and being appreciated by others. They develop a self view as enabled and as such take on new art and craft challenges, continue to learn and develop as art and craft makers and remain open to new possibilities. PMID:24300053

  14. The role of physical activity in preventing obesity in midlife women

    PubMed Central

    Dąbrowska-Galas, Magdalena; Naworska, Beata; Wodarska, Magdalena; Plinta, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is one of the most common nutrition-related disorders worldwide and one of the major health problems in menopausal women, which significantly worsens the quality of life and can lead to severe diseases or even premature death. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relation between physical activity in different domains undertaken by menopausal women while performing daily activities and their body mass index (BMI). Material and methods The study was conducted on a random sample of 400 healthy Polish women aged 45-55. The questionnaire contained questions concerning the respondents’ socio-economic status, medical history and the long format of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used. Results Fifty-one percent (50.6%) of women had normal body mass, 43.75% of respondents were overweighed and 5.65% of women were obese. A moderate physical activity level was presented by most midlife women in domestic and garden domain, active transportation and leisure time. Pearson's correlation showed that such factors as age, education and physical activity level in different domains have a significant correlation with BMI. Conclusions Most respondents presented a moderate physical activity level in all domains except work, where the respondents had a high physical activity (PA) level. A high PA level especially at work (r = –0.5788) and during leisure time (r = –0.5175) strongly correlate with lower BMI. PMID:26327883

  15. Aging with a disability: A systematic review of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis among women aging with a physical disability

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Andrea L.; Wisdom, Jennifer Pelt; Horner-Johnson, Willi; McGee, Marjorie G.; Michael, Yvonne L.

    2016-01-01

    Compared to men, women live longer but experience greater morbidity as they age. However, little is known about the rapidly growing population of women aging with disability. Women aging with disabilities may encounter barriers that increase risk of morbidity, including lack of access to medical care or inadequate assistance, equipment, or services. To evaluate risks of morbidity in this group, we conducted a systematic review focused on two important and prevalent conditions: cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporosis. MEDLINE was searched for reports published between January 1, 1990 and August 6, 2010 and additional studies were identified through searches of bibliographies. 9,156 abstracts and 93 articles were reviewed to identify empirical studies of women with physical disability who were 45 years or older and that reported CVD or osteoporosis as an outcome and not a cause of the disability. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were then critically appraised to exclude poor quality studies. In seven articles that evaluated CVD outcomes, we found limited evidence to support an increased risk of prevalence of CVD or risk factors for CVD in women aging with physical disabilities compared to non-disabled control populations. The literature is limited by small sample sizes that reduced statistical power to detect true differences. No articles meeting inclusion criteria were identified to evaluate osteoporosis risk in this group. This review is limited by the narrow focus on physical disabilities and two health outcomes. Additional high quality empirical research is necessary to understand the risks to health of women aging with disabilities. PMID:21075569

  16. [An exploration of sexual desire and sexual activities of women with psychosis].

    PubMed

    Huguelet, P; Mohr, S; Boucherie, M; Yaron, M; Perroud, N; Bianchi-Demicheli, F

    2015-09-16

    Most clinicians avoid discussing sexuality with patients with severe mental disorders. Sexual disturbances can be related to medication, to psychological issues such as self-stigma and anhedonia, and to the social context. We studied desire and sexual practices in women suffering from schizophrenia, in comparison with healthy women. Contrary to previous research, women with schizophrenia featured dyadic and individual desire similar to women of comparable age. Yet, only half of women with psychosis had sexual practice, either alone or with a partner. They were less satisfied with their activity, both in terms of function and psychological issues such as sexual self-esteem. This finding underscores the stigmatization these women suffer from, which prevents the opportunity of a possible improvement in this important interpersonal domain. PMID:26591078

  17. Environmental and policy factors related to physical activity in rural white women.

    PubMed

    Eyler, Amy A; Vest, Joshua R

    2002-01-01

    Physical activity is an important aspect of health promotion and disease prevention. However, women often have lower rates of physical activity than men. The purpose of this study was to identify environmental and policy determinants to physical activity among rural white women. Six focus groups were conducted with women aged 20-50 years who were not currently regular exercisers. Women reported that the social environment had a strong impact on physical activity level. Factors of the social environment included guilt, family responsibility, and social support. Environmental and policy barriers such as lack of access to places to exercise and safety concerns were also discussed. Intervention suggestions included family exercise and work-site programs. Information gained from this study can be used to fuel further research and inform future physical activity interventions. PMID:12487144

  18. Ravishing or Ravaged: Women's Relationships with Women in the Context of Aging and Western Beauty Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselink, Carol A.; Cox, Deborah L.; McClure, Sarissa J.; De Jong, Mary L. G.

    2008-01-01

    We undertook this narrative analysis study to explore the complexities of women's relationships with other women within the sociocultural milieu of beautyism and ageism. Using an open-ended narrative framework, four focus groups of women living in different regions throughout the U.S. were conducted and analyzed to identify thematic categories…

  19. Women and stroke knowledge: influence of age, race, residence location, and marital status.

    PubMed

    Ennen, Kathleen A; Beamon, Emily R

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, stroke is the second leading cause of death and leading cause of disability. Women experience over half of all strokes, 60% of stroke-related deaths, and a death rate of 11% versus 8.4% for men. To understand the delay in stroke recognition and treatment, a convenience sample of 97 midlife women living in southeast North Carolina completed the Stroke Recognition Questionnaire. Rural women, younger women (<49 years old), and participants with incomes under $35,601 had higher stroke symptom and risk factor knowledge scores. Educational interventions should target women over the age of 50, and should distinguish between symptoms of stroke versus heart attack. PMID:22946594

  20. Solar exposure(s) and facial clinical signs of aging in Chinese women: impacts upon age perception

    PubMed Central

    Flament, Frederic; Bazin, Roland; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Laquieze, Sabine; Rubert, Virginie; Decroux, Aurelie; Simonpietri, Elisa; Piot, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    A new reference clinical atlas of facial signs dedicated to photoaging was applied to 301 Chinese women of various ages through standardized photographs. Such approach aimed at better describing the facial changes induced by both real/chronological age and sun exposure and their respective impact on two subcohorts of different behavior with regard to sun exposure. A total of 28 various facial signs were individually graded according to their severity by a panel of experts, and a perceived apparent age of each subject was assessed. Results showed that the severity of major signs significantly increased rather linearly with age, with a higher rate in sun-exposed subjects as compared with subjects who regularly avoid sun exposure. The severity of facial signs, all impacted by sun exposure, better correlated with perceived apparent age than real/chronological age. The protocol used in the present work, similar to that previously applied to two cohorts of French women, assigned a greater impact of sun exposure in the facial aging signs of Asian women – all clinical signs are influenced by extrinsic factors – as compared with Caucasian women of comparable ages, likely related to much more intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation. PMID:25709490

  1. Solar exposure(s) and facial clinical signs of aging in Chinese women: impacts upon age perception.

    PubMed

    Flament, Frederic; Bazin, Roland; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Laquieze, Sabine; Rubert, Virginie; Decroux, Aurelie; Simonpietri, Elisa; Piot, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    A new reference clinical atlas of facial signs dedicated to photoaging was applied to 301 Chinese women of various ages through standardized photographs. Such approach aimed at better describing the facial changes induced by both real/chronological age and sun exposure and their respective impact on two subcohorts of different behavior with regard to sun exposure. A total of 28 various facial signs were individually graded according to their severity by a panel of experts, and a perceived apparent age of each subject was assessed. Results showed that the severity of major signs significantly increased rather linearly with age, with a higher rate in sun-exposed subjects as compared with subjects who regularly avoid sun exposure. The severity of facial signs, all impacted by sun exposure, better correlated with perceived apparent age than real/chronological age. The protocol used in the present work, similar to that previously applied to two cohorts of French women, assigned a greater impact of sun exposure in the facial aging signs of Asian women - all clinical signs are influenced by extrinsic factors - as compared with Caucasian women of comparable ages, likely related to much more intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation. PMID:25709490

  2. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  3. Effects of Acute 60 and 80% V[o.sub.2]max Bouts of Aerobic Exercise on State Anxiety of Women of Different Age Groups across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Richard H.; Thomas, Tom R.; Hinton, Pam S.; Donahue, Owen M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on state anxiety of women while controlling for iron status (hemoglobin and serum ferritin). Participants were 24 active women, ages 18-20 years (n=12) and 35-45 years (n=12). In addition to a nonexercise control condition, participants completed one…

  4. Opioid Prescriptions Among Women of Reproductive Age Enrolled in Medicaid - New York, 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Brian K; Shin, Yejee; Roohan, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to opioids during pregnancy can lead to adverse infant outcomes, including neonatal abstinence syndrome (1) and birth defects (2). Ascertaining opioid prescriptions for women who become pregnant or have no indication of contraceptive use is important to determine the number of women who are at potential risk for adverse fetal outcomes. The New York State (NYS) Department of Health (DOH) analyzed data for women aged 15-44 years (i.e., reproductive-aged women) enrolled in Medicaid to examine opioid drug prescriptions during 2008-2013. On the basis of Medicaid drug claims for any drug with an opioid ingredient, prescriptions were identified for the enrolled population of reproductive-aged women and for three subgroups: women whose diagnosis, procedure, and drug codes indicated contraceptive use or infertility; women who were not using contraceptives and not infertile; and women who had had a live birth during the reporting year. During 2008-2013, among all women of reproductive age, 20.0% received a prescription for a drug with an opioid component; the proportion was highest (27.3%) among women with an indication of contraceptive use or infertility, intermediate (17.3%) among women who had no indication of contraceptive use, and lowest (9.5%) among women who had had a live birth. Although New York's proportion of opioid prescriptions among female Medicaid recipients who had a live birth is lower than a recent U.S. estimate (3), these results suggest nearly one in 10 women in this group may have been exposed to opioids in the prenatal period. PMID:27124815

  5. Longitudinal examination of the exercise and self-esteem model in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Elavsky, Steriani

    2010-12-01

    This 2-year prospective study examined the exercise and self-esteem model in middle-aged women (N = 143) previously enrolled in a randomized controlled exercise trial. Across the 2-year period, increases in physical activity (PA) and self-efficacy and reductions in body mass index (BMI) were associated with improved subdomain self-perceptions relative to physical condition, and reductions in BMI were associated with improved subdomain self-perceptions relative to physical condition and body attractiveness. The effects of PA, self-efficacy, and BMI on changes in physical self-worth and global self-esteem were mediated by changes in self-perceptions relative to physical condition and body attractiveness. The results of this longitudinal analysis support the hierarchical and multidimensional structure of self-esteem and indicate that middle-aged women can enhance how they perceive their condition and body attractiveness by continued participation in physical activity, increasing their self-efficacy, and maintaining healthy BMI levels. PMID:21282842

  6. PROTEASOME ACTIVITY DECLINES IN AGED MACROPHAGES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is involved in regulation of a variety of biologically important processes including antigen presentation by macrophages. Age-related decrease in proteasome activity has been reported in other tissues. However, the effect of aging on the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway ...

  7. PROTEASOME ACTIVITY DECLINES IN AGED MACROPHAGES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is involved in regulation of a variety of biologically important processes including antigen presentation by macrophages (Mf). Age-related decrease in proteasome activity has been reported in other tissues. However, the effect of aging on the ubiquitin-proteasome pat...

  8. Unsafe abortion differentials in 2008 by age and developing country region: high burden among young women.

    PubMed

    Shah, Iqbal H; Ahman, Elisabeth

    2012-06-01

    Each year, nearly 22 million women worldwide have an unsafe abortion, almost all of which occur in developing countries. This paper estimates the incidence and rates of unsafe abortion by five-year age groups among women aged 15-44 years in developing country regions in 2008. Forty-one per cent of unsafe abortions in developing regions are among young women aged 15-24 years, 15% among those aged 15-19 years and 26% among those aged 20-24 years. Among the 3.2 million unsafe abortions in young women 15-19 years old, almost 50% are in the Africa region. 22% of all unsafe abortions in Africa compared to 11% of those in Asia (excluding Eastern Asia) and 16% of those in Latin America and the Caribbean are among adolescents aged 15-19 years. The number of adolescent women globally is approaching 300 million. Adolescents suffer the most from the negative consequences of unsafe abortion. Efforts are urgently needed to provide contraceptive information and services to adolescents, who have a high unmet need for family planning, and to women of all ages, with interventions tailored by age group. Efforts to make abortion safe in developing countries are also urgently needed. PMID:22789095

  9. Partner age-disparity and HIV incidence risk for older women in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Harling, Guy; Newell, Marie-Louise; Tanser, Frank; Bärnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    While sexual partner age disparity is frequently considered as a potential risk factor for HIV amongst young women in Africa, no research has addressed this question amongst older women. Our aim was thus to determine whether sex partner age disparity was associated with subsequent HIV acquisition in women aged over 30. Methods To achieve this aim we conducted a quantitative analysis of a population-based, open cohort of women in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (n=1,737) using Cox proportional hazards models. Results As partner age rose, HIV acquisition risk fell significantly: compared to a same-aged partner, a five-year older partner was associated with a one-third reduction (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.63, 95%CI: 0.52–0.76) and a ten-year older partner with a one-half reduction (HR: 0.48, 95%CI: 0.35–0.67). This result was neither confounded nor effect-modified by women’s age or socio-demographic factors. Conclusions These findings suggest that existing HIV risk-reduction campaigns warning young women about partnering with older men may be inappropriate for older women. HIV prevention strategies interventions specifically tailored to older women are needed. PMID:25670473

  10. Sexual Activity and Satisfaction in Healthy Community-dwelling Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Trompeter, Susan E.; Bettencourt, Ricki; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Female sexual dysfunction is a focus of medical research but few studies describe the prevalence and covariates of recent sexual activity and satisfaction in older community-dwelling women. METHODS 1303 older women from the Rancho Bernardo Study were mailed a questionnaire on general health, recent sexual activity, sexual satisfaction, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). RESULTS 806 of 921 respondents (87.5%) age ≥40 years answered questions about recent sexual activity. Their median age was 67; mean years since menopause, 25; most were upper-middle class; 57% had attended at least one year of college; 90% reported good to excellent health. Half (49.8%) reported sexual activity within the past month with or without a partner, the majority of whom reported arousal (64.5%), lubrication (69%), and orgasm (67.1%) at least most of the time, although one-third reported low, very low, or no sexual desire. Although frequency of arousal, lubrication, and orgasm decrease with age, the youngest (<55 yrs) and oldest (>80 yrs) women reported a higher frequency of orgasm satisfaction. Emotional closeness during sex was associated with more frequent arousal, lubrication, and orgasm; estrogen therapy was not. Overall, two-thirds of sexually active women were moderately or very satisfied with their sex life, as were almost half of sexually inactive women. CONCLUSION Half these women were sexually active, with arousal, lubrication, and orgasm maintained into old age, despite low libido in one-third. Sexual satisfaction increased with age and did not require sexual activity. PMID:22195529

  11. Physical Activity and Cervical Cancer Testing among American Indian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla B.; Bogart, T. Andy; Duncan, Glen E.; Jacobsen, Clemma; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Studies have shown that women who engage in high levels of physical activity have higher rates of cancer screening, including Papanicalaou (Pap) tests. Because American Indian (AI) women are at high risk for cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, we examined Pap screening prevalence and assessed whether physical activity was associated…

  12. Relative Age Effects in Women's Rugby Union from Developmental Leagues to World Cup Tournaments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemez, Srdjan; MacMahon, Clare; Weir, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Annual age cohort groupings promote relative age effects (RAEs), which often, inadvertently, create participation and attainment biases between relatively older and younger players within the same age cohort. In a globally evolving sport, women's rugby team selection practices may potentially bypass qualified players as a result of maturational…

  13. Active Ageing, Active Learning: Policy and Provision in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between ageing and learning, previous literature having confirmed that participation in continued learning in old age contributes to good health, satisfaction with life, independence and self-esteem. Realizing that learning is vital to active ageing, the Hong Kong government has implemented policies and…

  14. Patient Activation and Mental Health Care Experiences Among Women Veterans.

    PubMed

    Kimerling, Rachel; Pavao, Joanne; Wong, Ava

    2016-07-01

    We utilized a nationally representative survey of women veteran primary care users to examine associations between patient activation and mental health care experiences. A dose-response relationship was observed, with odds of high quality ratings significantly greater at each successive level of patient activation. Higher activation levels were also significantly associated with preference concordant care for gender-related preferences (use of female providers, women-only settings, and women-only groups as often as desired). Results add to the growing literature documenting better health care experiences among more activated patients, and suggest that patient activation may play an important role in promoting engagement with mental health care. PMID:25917224

  15. Patient Activation and Mental Health Care Experiences Among Women Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Pavao, Joanne; Wong, Ava

    2016-01-01

    We utilized a nationally representative survey of women veteran primary care users to examine associations between patient activation and mental health care experiences. A dose–response relationship was observed, with odds of high quality ratings significantly greater at each successive level of patient activation. Higher activation levels were also significantly associated with preference concordant care for gender-related preferences (use of female providers, women-only settings, and women-only groups as often as desired). Results add to the growing literature documenting better health care experiences among more activated patients, and suggest that patient activation may play an important role in promoting engagement with mental health care. PMID:25917224

  16. A survey of Hwa-Byung in middle-age Korean women.

    PubMed

    Park, Y J; Kim, H S; Kang, H C; Kim, J W

    2001-04-01

    Hwa-Byung (HB) has been categorized as a Korean culture-bound syndrome that refers to insidious, long-standing, serious discontent that is projected into the body and is manifested by numerous symptoms such as insomnia, fatigue, panic, palpitations, dyspnea, and others. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence rate of HB in Korean women, validate the predominant symptoms of HB, and validate the related sociodemographic factors and lifestyle factors that differentiate women with HB from those without HB. A total of 2,807 women ages 41 to 65 years were recruited from seven metropolitan areas and six provinces in Korea. The prevalence rate of women who designated themselves as having experienced HB was 4.95%. The rates were higher in women of low socioeconomic status, living in rural areas, among the divorced or separated, smokers, and drinkers. A set of 31 HB symptoms differentiated the potential HB women from the non-HB women. PMID:11989228

  17. Clinicoetiological Characterization of Infectious Vaginitis amongst Women of Reproductive Age Group from Navi Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Narayankhedkar, Anuradha; Hodiwala, Anahita; Mane, Arati

    2015-01-01

    Vaginitis is one of the commonest reproductive tract infections in sexually active women. In the present study clinicoetiological characterization of infectious vaginitis amongst 380 women of reproductive age group (18–45 years) was done. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was detected by Nugent's scoring, Candida infection by culture, and trichomoniasis (TV) by wet mount. One hundred and ten (28.9%) women presented with symptoms of vaginitis. The presenting symptoms were vaginal discharge 106 (96.4%), vulval itching/irritation 19 (17.3%), malodor 5 (4.5%), pain in abdomen 3 (2.7%), and dysuria 1 (0.9%). The commonest etiology detected was Candida in 33 (30%) cases, of which 18 (54.5%) were C. albicans and 15 (45.5%) non-albicans Candida (NAC) infections. The NAC isolates were C. glabrata (n = 10), C. tropicalis (n = 3), and C. krusei (n = 2). BV and TV were observed in 19 (17.3%) and 2 (1.8%) cases, respectively. A statistically significant association between Candida infection and presence of curdy-white discharge (p = 0.001) and vulval itching/irritation (p = 0.007) was noted. To conclude, we observed the etiological predominance of Candida infection, with considerable prevalence of NAC, indicating the need for microbiological investigation up to species level in cases of Candida infections, to ensure appropriate management. PMID:26351613

  18. Effects of rhythmic exercise performed to music on the rheological properties of blood in women over 60 years of age.

    PubMed

    Marchewka, Anna; Filar-Mierzwa, Katarzyna; Dąbrowski, Zbigniew; Teległó, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of motor rehabilitation, in the form of rhythmic exercise to music, on the rheological characteristics of blood in older women. The study included 30 women (65-80 years of age), and the control group was comprised of 10 women of corresponding age. Women from the experimental group were subjected to a five-month rehabilitation program, in the form of rhythmic exercise performed to music (three 30-minute sessions per week); women from the control group were not involved in any regular physical activity. Blood samples from all the women were examined for hematological, rheological, and biochemical parameters prior to the study and five months thereafter. The rehabilitation program was reflected by a significant improvement of erythrocyte count and hematocrit. Furthermore, an improvement of erythrocyte deformability was observed by lower shear stress levels, while no significant changes were noted by the higher shear stress values. The rehabilitation resulted in a marked decrease of the aggregation amplitude while no significant changes were observed in aggregation index and total aggregation half-time. Additionally, the training regimen was reflected by a significant increase in the plasma viscosity, while no significant changes in fibrinogen levels were noted. PMID:24169095

  19. Parental Loss and Eating-Related Cognitions and Behaviors in College-Age Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Minna R.; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Mathews, Laura

    2004-01-01

    To examine the eating-related cognitions and behaviors of college-age women who had experienced parental death, parental divorce, or neither loss condition, we recruited 48 women from science and social science departments at a state university in the Southeast. All participants completed the Mizes Anorectic Cognitions Scale (MAC) and the Bulimia…

  20. Transformations and Self-Discovery: Mature-Age Women's Reflections on Returning to University Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, S.; Stone, C.

    2011-01-01

    Research has highlighted the challenges that women face as mature-age students in higher education. The challenges are particularly acute when a woman is the first in her family to go to university. Many women begin their journey as students with considerable self-doubt and lack of confidence. They may also face an ongoing struggle to find a way…

  1. Factors that influence physical activity for pregnant and postpartum women and implications for primary care.

    PubMed

    Doran, Frances; Davis, Kierrynn

    2011-01-01

    Many pregnant women and women of child-bearing age do not engage in the recommended levels of physical activity despite the well known benefits. Pregnancy and the postpartum period can be a time when inactivity actually increases. Women who experience gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during their pregnancy are often advised to become more active in order to ameliorate their increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Health professionals have an influential role in promoting physical activity, which would be enhanced with an understanding of the factors that positively and negatively influence women's participation in physical activity during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. This research sought to explore these factors with pregnant and postpartum women including those who had experienced GDM and the attention given to physical activity during pregnancy. A survey was developed after a critical review of factors identified from previous studies. Women were recruited from the antenatal clinic, community health centres and the local media. Results from 72 women are reported from a predominately well educated, Caucasian population. Overall, the results were confirmatory of factors previously identified. Lack of child care, time constraints, no time and feeling unwell during pregnancy hindered activity and factors that facilitated activity included family support, enjoyment of activity and to prevent later health problems. It was also found that non-GDM women are given minimal advice about exercise during pregnancy. A checklist has been developed for health professionals, in partnership with women, to direct attention to the factors that enable and hinder participation in physical activity during and after pregnancy. PMID:21616029

  2. Centrophenoxine activates acetylcholinesterase activity in hippocampus of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, D; Singh, R

    1995-05-01

    Age-related changes in the acetylcholinesterase activity were measured in the hippocampus, brain stem and cerebellum of rats (aged 4, 8, 16 and 24 months). The age-dependent decrease in the enzyme activity first appeared in the hippocampus; the brain stem was affected later while the cerebellum remained unaffected. Centrophenoxine, usually considered as an ageing reversal drug and also regarded as a neuroenergeticum in human therapy, increased the acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus of aged rats, the activity was also elevated in the brain stem but no in the cerebellum. The acetylcholinesterase-stimulating influence of the drug is likely to be implicated in the pharmacological reversal of the age related decline of the cholinergic system. This effect of the drug may also mediate its effects on cognitive and neuronal synaptic functions. PMID:7558197

  3. Characteristics and Use of Home Health Care by Men and Women Aged 65 and Over

    MedlinePlus

    ... April 18, 2012 Characteristics and Use of Home Health Care by Men and Women Aged 65 and Over ... and Roberto Valverde, M.P.H., Division of Health Care Statistics Abstract Objective —This report presents national estimates ...

  4. Do US Black Women Experience Stress-Related Accelerated Biological Aging?

    PubMed Central

    Hicken, Margaret T.; Pearson, Jay A.; Seashols, Sarah J.; Brown, Kelly L.; Cruz, Tracey Dawson

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesize that black women experience accelerated biological aging in response to repeated or prolonged adaptation to subjective and objective stressors. Drawing on stress physiology and ethnographic, social science, and public health literature, we lay out the rationale for this hypothesis. We also perform a first population-based test of its plausibility, focusing on telomere length, a biomeasure of aging that may be shortened by stressors. Analyzing data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), we estimate that at ages 49–55, black women are 7.5 years biologically “older” than white women. Indicators of perceived stress and poverty account for 27% of this difference. Data limitations preclude assessing objective stressors and also result in imprecise estimates, limiting our ability to draw firm inferences. Further investigation of black-white differences in telomere length using large-population-based samples of broad age range and with detailed measures of environmental stressors is merited. PMID:20436780

  5. A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Shireese Redmond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…

  6. Indian women of childbearing age do not metabolically conserve arginine as do American and Jamaican women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study in pregnant American women, we reported that arginine flux and nitric oxide synthesis increased in trimester 2. More recently, we reported that Indian women do not increase arginine flux during pregnancy as their American or Jamaican counterparts do. The purpose of this study was...

  7. [Evaluation of the cholesterol-lowering effectiveness of pantethine in women in perimenopausal age].

    PubMed

    Binaghi, P; Cellina, G; Lo Cicero, G; Bruschi, F; Porcaro, E; Penotti, M

    1990-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death also in women. Their incidence, rapidly growing in the peri-menopausal period, is related to serum levels of total cholesterol and its LDL fraction. It was also shown that the peroxidation of LDL is an additional factor in the genesis of atherosclerotic vascular disease. As long-term treatments with synthetic lipid-lowering drugs may cause undesirable side effects, while pantethine is known to be well tolerated, we treated 24 hypercholesterolemic women (total serum cholesterol greater than or equal to 240 mg/dl), in perimenopausal age (range: 45-55 years, mean +/- SD = 51.6 +/- 2.4) with 900 mg/day of pantethine. This is a precursor of coenzyme A, with an antiperoxidation effect in vivo, and our aim was to confirm its lipid lowering activity in this particular type of patients. After 16 weeks of treatment, significant reductions of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio could be observed. No remarkable changes of the main laboratory parameters (fasting blood sugar, B.U.N., creatinine, uric acid) were seen. Efficacy percentages of the treatment were about 80%. None of the patients complained of adverse reactions due to the treatment with pantethine. In conclusion, we suggest that pantethine should be considered in the long-term treatment of lipid derangements occurring in the perimenopausal age. PMID:2359503

  8. Preconception Health of Reproductive Aged Women of the Mississippi River Delta

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Sherry; Johnson, Dick; McAnally, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Optimal preconception health (PCH) may improve maternal and infant outcomes, priority issues in Mississippi (MS). Our study objective was to compare the PCH of women in the MS Delta to other regions. We analyzed Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 2005, 2007, and 2009, and limited analyses to 171,612 non-pregnant black and white women 18–44 years of age. Region was defined as 14 MS Delta counties (MS Delta), remainder of MS (MS non-Delta), Delta states (LA, AR, TN), and non-Delta US states. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) to assess associations between region and 16 indicators of optimal PCH, controlling for demographic characteristics. Healthy PCH factors such as consuming ≥5 fruits and vegetables daily and normal body mass index (18.5 kg/m2 to <25 kg/m2), respectively, were more prevalent in the MS non-Delta (aPR = 1.3; 95 % CI: 1.0,1.7 and aPR = 1.2; 95 % CI: 1.0,1.4), non-MS Delta (aPR = 1.5; 95 % CI: 1.2,2.0 and aPR = 1.3; 95 % CI: 1.1,1.5) and non-Delta states (aPR = 1.7; 95 % CI: 1.3,2.2 and aPR = 1.4; 95 % CI: 1.2,1.6) compared to the MS Delta. Physical activity levels were higher among non-Delta US states compared to the MS Delta (aPR = 1.3; 95 % CI: 1.1,1.4). Household income and race confounded the associations between region and PCH. Reproductive aged women in the MS Delta had poorer PCH, particularly for physical activity and nutrition, than women in other regions. MS Delta service providers and public health practitioners should consider implementing or enhancing lifestyle, nutrition, and physical activity interventions, with a special focus on reducing income-based and racial disparities. PMID:23099798

  9. The Middle Ages: Change in Women's Personalities and Social Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Nicola; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that the predominant focus of midlife personality development is generativity; other research has found that social roles influence both its onset and its expression. In this article, we examine women's midlife personality development and its relationship to career and family commitments. Results for a sample of 90 women…

  10. Physical activity among working age residents of Wroclaw in the light of their educational attainment

    PubMed Central

    Puciato, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This article attempts to define the relationship between physical activity and educational attainment of working-age adults from Wroclaw. [Subjects and Methods] The study surveyed 2,174 participants aged 18–64 years, 984 men and 1,190 women. To evaluate their physical activity, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used. [Results] Most of the participants performed low-intensity levels of physical activity. Men were characterized by generally higher physical activity than women, but the difference was not significant. The level of educational attainment differentiated physical activity only in women with secondary or higher education, who performed significantly more physical activities than those with primary and vocational education. [Conclusion] Further research in this subject area should be performed. It should be continuous and consider other methods and techniques. PMID:27065518

  11. Dietary protein considerations to support active aging.

    PubMed

    Wall, Benjamin T; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-11-01

    Given our rapidly aging world-wide population, the loss of skeletal muscle mass with healthy aging (sarcopenia) represents an important societal and public health concern. Maintaining or adopting an active lifestyle alleviates age-related muscle loss to a certain extent. Over time, even small losses of muscle tissue can hinder the ability to maintain an active lifestyle and, as such, contribute to the development of frailty and metabolic disease. Considerable research focus has addressed the application of dietary protein supplementation to support exercise-induced gains in muscle mass in younger individuals. In contrast, the role of dietary protein in supporting the maintenance (or gain) of skeletal muscle mass in active older persons has received less attention. Older individuals display a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to dietary protein ingestion. However, this reduced anabolic response can largely be overcome when physical activity is performed in close temporal proximity to protein consumption. Moreover, recent evidence has helped elucidate the optimal type and amount of dietary protein that should be ingested by the older adult throughout the day in order to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to physical activity. Evidence demonstrates that when these principles are adhered to, muscle maintenance or hypertrophy over prolonged periods can be further augmented in active older persons. The present review outlines the current understanding of the role that dietary protein occupies in the lifestyle of active older adults as a means to increase skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, and thus support healthier aging. PMID:25355192

  12. Ageing influence in the evolution of strength and muscle mass in women with fibromyalgia: the al-Ándalus project.

    PubMed

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Aparicio, Virginia A; Santos E Campos, María Aparecida; García-Pinillos, Felipe; Herrador-Colmenero, Manuel; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2015-07-01

    Fibromyalgia is associated with physical disabilities in daily activities. Moreover, patients with fibromyalgia present similar levels of functional capacity and physical condition than elderly people. The aim of this study was to analyse the evolution of strength and muscle mass in women with fibromyalgia along ageing. A total sample of 492 fibromyalgia patients and 279 healthy control women were included in the study. Participants in each group were further divided into four age subgroups: subgroup 1: 30-39 years old, subgroup 2: 40-49 years old, subgroup 3: 50-59 years old and subgroup 4: 60-69 years old. Standardized field-based fitness tests were used to assess muscle strength (30-s chair stand, handgrip strength and arm curl tests). Fibromyalgia patients did not show impairment on muscle mass along ageing, without values of skeletal muscle mass index below 6.76 kg/m(2) in any group. However, in all variables of muscle strength, the fibromyalgia group showed less strength than the healthy group (p < 0.05) for all age groups. As expected, handgrip strength test showed differences along ageing only in the fibromyalgia group (p < 0.001). Age was inversely associated with skeletal muscle mass (r = -0.155, p < 0.01) and handgrip strength (r = -0.230, p < 0.001) in the FM group. Women with fibromyalgia showed a reduction in muscle strength along ageing process, with significantly lower scores than healthy women for each age group, representing a risk of dynapenia. PMID:25617055

  13. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination among women of childbearing age-United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Alissa C; Lu, Peng-Jun; Williams, Walter W; Ding, Helen; Meyer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased since the 1990s. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of pregnant women provides passive protection to infants. Tdap vaccination is currently recommended for pregnant women during each pregnancy, but coverage among pregnant women and women of childbearing age has been suboptimal. Data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to determine national and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage among women of childbearing age by self-reported pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Although this study could not assess coverage of Tdap vaccination received during pregnancy because questions on whether Tdap vaccination was received during pregnancy were not asked in BRFSS and NHIS, demographic and access-to-care factors associated with Tdap vaccination coverage in this population were assessed. Tdap vaccination coverage among all women 18-44 years old was 38.4% based on the BRFSS and 23.3% based on the NHIS. Overall, coverage did not differ by pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Coverage among all women 18-44 years old varied widely by state. Age, race and ethnicity, education, number of children in the household, and access-to-care characteristics were independently associated with Tdap vaccination in both surveys. We identified associations of demographic and access-to-care characteristics with Tdap vaccination that can guide strategies to improve vaccination rates in women during pregnancy. PMID:27372388

  14. Community-based physical activity interventions among women: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Amiri Farahani, Leila; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Eesa; Parvizy, Soroor; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Taghizadeh, Ziba

    2015-01-01

    Objective Review and assess the effectiveness of community-based physical activity interventions among women aged 18–65 years. Design Systematic review Methods To find relevant articles, the researcher selected reports published in English between 1 January 2000 and 31 March 2013. Systematic search was to find controlled-trial studies that were conducted to uncover the effect of community-based interventions to promote physical activity among women 18–65 years of age, in which physical activity was reported as one of the measured outcomes. The methodological quality assessment was performed using a critical appraisal sheet. Also, the levels of evidence were assessed for the types of interventions. Results The literature search identified nine articles. Four of the studies were randomised and the others studies had high methodological quality. There was no evidence, on the basis of effectiveness, for social cognitive theory-based interventions and inconclusive evidence of effectiveness for the rest of interventions. Conclusions There is insufficient evidence to assess the effectiveness of community-based interventions for enhancing physical activity among women. There is a need for high-quality randomised clinical trials with adequate statistical power to determine whether multicomponent and community-based intervention programmes increase physical activity among women, as well as to determine what type of interventions have a more effective and sustainable impact on women's physical activity. PMID:25833668

  15. [Vascular aging, arterial hypertension and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Trucksäss, A; Weisser, B

    2011-11-01

    The present review delineates the significance of intima-media-thickness, arterial stiffness and endothelial function for vascular aging. There is profound evidence for an increase in intima-media-thickness and vascular stiffness not only during healthy aging but induced also by cardiovascular risk factors. There is a central role of arterial hypertension for this progression in both structural factors. In addition, both parameters are strongly associated with cardiovascular risk. Endothelial function measured as postischemic flow-mediated vasodilatation is a functional parameter which is decreased both in healthy aging and by cardiovascular risk factors. Physical activity modifies the influence of aging and risk factors on endothelial function. A positive influence of endurance exercise on vascular stiffness and endothelial function has been demonstrated in numerous studies. In long-term studies, regular physical activity has been shown to reduce the progression of intima-media-thickness. Thus, arterial hypertension accelerates vascular aging, while physical activity has a positive influence on a variety of vascular parameters associated with vascular aging. PMID:22068448

  16. On the dynamics of active aging.

    PubMed

    Schroots, Johannes J F

    2012-01-01

    The conceptual basis of active aging is extended with a dynamic systems model, called Janus. The Janus model accounts for the life-course dynamics of simple and more complex growth and decline functions, on the strength of three principles. The first principle of transition states that the unitary lifespan trajectory of development and aging is the product of two complementary forces, growth and senescence, which are effective from conception until death. The first principle solves the traditional problem of the age at which development ends and the process of aging starts. The second and third principles of peak capacity and peak time refer, respectively, to the impact of growth rate (peak capacity) and rate of senescence (peak time) on the life-course of dynamic systems. The validity of the Janus model is demonstrated by simulating the empirical lifespan trajectories of functional capacity, intelligence, and mortality. The Janus model contributes to the concept of active aging by underlining the dynamic limits of human nature, by stimulating effective policies for promoting active aging in the first half of life, and by emphasizing the growth potential of older people in the second half. PMID:22973306

  17. On the Dynamics of Active Aging

    PubMed Central

    Schroots, Johannes J. F.

    2012-01-01

    The conceptual basis of active aging is extended with a dynamic systems model, called Janus. The Janus model accounts for the life-course dynamics of simple and more complex growth and decline functions, on the strength of three principles. The first principle of transition states that the unitary lifespan trajectory of development and aging is the product of two complementary forces, growth and senescence, which are effective from conception until death. The first principle solves the traditional problem of the age at which development ends and the process of aging starts. The second and third principles of peak capacity and peak time refer, respectively, to the impact of growth rate (peak capacity) and rate of senescence (peak time) on the life-course of dynamic systems. The validity of the Janus model is demonstrated by simulating the empirical lifespan trajectories of functional capacity, intelligence, and mortality. The Janus model contributes to the concept of active aging by underlining the dynamic limits of human nature, by stimulating effective policies for promoting active aging in the first half of life, and by emphasizing the growth potential of older people in the second half. PMID:22973306

  18. [The influence of aging on autonomic nervous system activity and gastric myoelectric activity in humans].

    PubMed

    Thor, P J; Kolasińska-Kloch, W; Pitala, A; Janik, A; Kopp, B; Sibiga, W

    1999-01-01

    The study was performed on 84 healthy volunteers (33 women, 52 men) of age 20-71 years with no history of the circulatory or gastrointestinal system disease. The gastric myoelectrical activity (EGG) was recorded with the cutaneous electrodes--electrogastrography Synectics (Sweden). The activity of the cardiac autonomic nervous system was measured by HRV (heart rate variability) recorded with EGG and computer assisted programme Proster (Poland). Subject were divided into 5 groups according to the decade of age (20-70). Percentage of basal electrical rhythm (BER) dysrhythmias increased (1.9 +/- 0.5% vs 21.1 +/- 3.2% in fasting and 2.4 +/- 1.2% vs 24.6 +/- 5% postprandially but decrease of the EGG amplitude after the meal was observed (270 +/- 20% vs 90 +/- 7%) in youngest and oldest group respectively. With the ageing the cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic activity (LF and HF) decreased in first and last group respectively. In the forth decade in man and women the sympathetic activity system prevalence expressed by the LF/HF rate increased (1.09 +/- 0.2 vs. 2.14 +/- 0.5) (p < 0.05). The results of our study suggest the deleterious influence of the ageing on the of autonomic system activity as shown by changes in HRV and dysrhythmia of the gastric slow waves in EGG. PMID:10909474

  19. Violence Against Older Women: Activism, Social Justice, and Social Change.

    PubMed

    Mears, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The Older Women's Network (OWN) of New South Wales (NSW) is an activist organization dedicated to promoting the rights of older women, preventing gender- and aged-based violence, and working toward social justice and social change. In 2007, the OWN NSW Inc. initiated the Prevention of Violence Against Older Women Working Party to research and document current knowledge and understanding of violence against older women; focus public attention on this issue; and bring about changes in public perceptions, policy, and practice. Presented here is an overview of the major achievements of the OWN Working Party, including a meta-analysis of three research projects, with their findings, recommendations, and outcomes. In conclusion, research conducted by activist organizations such as OWN can make a significant contribution to furthering our understanding of violence against older women and to policy and practice. PMID:26430772

  20. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth. We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m2, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m2, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from a total of 4382 postmenopausal women were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with complex survey design sampling. And, the subjects were subdivided into groups according to obesity or not. Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income level, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptive uses, breast feeding experience were adjusted as the confounders. The prevalence of general obesity among Korean postmenopausal women was 37.08%. Women with general obesity and abdominal obesity were significantly younger at first childbirth compared with women with nongeneral obesity and no abdominal obesity (23.89 ± 0.1 vs. 23.22 ± 0.1, P <0.001). Age at first childbirth was inversely associated with obesity, while age at last childbirth was not associated with obesity or abdominal obesity. Women with a higher number of pregnancies were also more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity. Age at first childbirth remained significantly associated with obesity, after adjusting for confounding factors. Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with first childbirth at a young age, and higher parity. Further research is needed to clarify the association between obesity and reproductive characteristics. PMID:27175656

  1. Aging public services and the position of older women: an Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Colley, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary labor markets are characterized by both aging of the workforce and the increase in participation of women. At the intersection of these two policy agendas are older women. Governments and employers recognize the importance of attracting and retaining older workers to address skills shortages, but the aging workforce discourse remains largely gender neutral. This research considers the intersection of age and gender in the context of public services, which are large employers of both women and older workers. It focuses on the agencies in an Australian state public service. The research finds that, despite decades of equal opportunity programs, there is still evidence of subtle inequalities and cumulative disadvantage. While the case study agencies employ a large proportion of older women, these women were generally recruited at younger ages and aged within the workforce. Their advancement and development opportunities were also inferior to those of older men. Despite these lesser opportunities, older women are generally very satisfied with their employment, and the employer should explore these residual inequalities if genuinely seeking to attract and retain all older workers. PMID:24713054

  2. Fertility preservation in reproductive-age women facing gonadotoxic treatments

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J.; Ronn, R.; Tallon, N.; Holzer, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Advancements in the treatments for cancer and autoimmune and other hematologic conditions continue to improve survival and cure rates. Despite those changes, various gonadotoxic agents and other treatments can still compromise the future fertility of many women. Progress in medical and surgical reproductive technologies has helped to offset the reproductive consequences of the use of gonadotoxic therapies, and allows for future fertility and normal pregnancy. Methods A review of the literature was performed to outline the pathophysiology of gonadotoxicity from various treatments. The success of fertility preservation, fertility sparing, and cryopreservation options are reviewed. Barriers and facilitators to referral and oncofertility treatment in Canada are also outlined. Results According to the quality of the evidence, recommendations are made for fertility assessment, patient referral, cryopreservation, and other assisted reproductive technologies. Conclusions To ensure ongoing fertility in women undergoing gonadotoxic treatments, assisted reproductive technologies can be combined with a multidisciplinary approach to patient assessment and referral. PMID:26300680

  3. Attitudes toward spousal caregiving and their correlates among aging women.

    PubMed

    Kulik, L

    2001-01-01

    The study examined the attitudes of elderly Israeli women (n = 259) toward three aspects of spousal caregiving: commitment to caregiving, perceived harmful effects, and delegating responsibility to others. In addition, the study examined the contribution of several variables toward explaining these attitudes: background variables, equality in marital relations, spousal resources, and affective variables. The findings indicate that on the whole, commitment to care for the spouse was most prevalent, while perceived harmful effects and delegating responsibility to others were emphasized less. Of the independent variables examined, equality in dyadic relations explained all three aspects of caregiving. Moreover, women with high levels of emotional hardiness were less likely to delegate responsibility for caregiving. In addition, a negative relationship was found between anticipated dependence on the husband and the wife's tendency to delegate responsibility for caregiving. Finally, the affective variables (satisfaction with life and marital complaints) contributed significantly toward explaining attitudes toward spousal caregiving. PMID:11722005

  4. Women's income generation activities in Merowe Province, Northern State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Pitamber, S; Osama, S

    1994-06-01

    Merowe province in rural northern Sudan has been divided into three local government council areas: Merowe, Karima, and Ed Debba. A government program was instituted to increase the welfare of residents and food production. A baseline survey of 490 respondents was conducted in order to ascertain how illiterate women viewed development in the area and to provide useful information for program design and implementation. Women from 24 villages were administered questionnaires, observed in their daily activities, and engaged in discussion in a local meeting place. Discussions were also held with members of the local Popular Committee. Demographic information was very sketchy about age, and 48% had no formal education in writing and reading. General reading and writing skills of the remainder were very poor. There were 500 female children and 502 male children, and the sex ratio varied among the 3 council areas. 52% were married and 14% were divorced or widowed and living with relatives. The average monthly income was from Ls. 700 to Ls. 3000 based on reports from only 59.3% of respondents. Most of the women had skills in food processing and 25.7% were skilled in handicrafts. Water was obtained primarily from local wells and not decontaminated before use. Pit latrines were the standard. One bathing facility was available in the compound for the entire council area. Health units were either in each village or within 20-30 minutes walk. Child mortality was 4.3% in Merowe province. 77 children 0-5 years old died out of a total of 1002 live births. Life expectancy was 41-50 years for women and 61-70 years for men. Cleanliness and healthful eating were observed. 58% owned no land; plots were under 5 feddans and usually half a feddan. 92.1% had no bank account and 90% had no experience with loans. 70.2% were indifferent about involvement in an income generation program. 26% were interested in part-time participation. Only 3.9% desired full-time participation. 8.6% said they

  5. Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Moos, Merry-K; Carrier, Kathryn; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria

    2008-01-01

    Objective Physical activity generally declines during pregnancy, but barriers to activity during this time period are not well understood. The objective was to examine barriers to physical activity in a large cohort of pregnant women and to explore these barriers in more depth with qualitative data derived from a separate focus group study using a socioecologic framework. Method A total of 1535 pregnant women (27–30 weeks’ gestation) enrolled in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study were asked an open-ended question about their primary barrier to physical activity; responses were coded into categories according to the socioecologic framework. To further elucidate, 13 focus groups of a total of 58 pregnant women (20–37 weeks’ gestation) were conducted among Hispanic, African American, and White participants. Results Among the 1535 pregnant women participating in the survey, 85% reported an intrapersonal barrier to physical activity, of which almost two-thirds were health related. Only 2% of the women reported their main barrier to physical activity as interpersonal and 3% reported a neighborhood or environmental barrier. These results were supported by the focus group data, overall and by race/ethnicity and body mass index. Although women discussed barriers to physical activity at a variety of levels, the intrapersonal level was the most frequently cited and discussed factor in both studies. Conclusions Since pregnancy may trigger the development of obesity and since physical activity is recommended for healthy pregnant women, it is imperative to promote physical activity in a more relevant way. These quantitative and qualitative studies revealed many barriers to physical activity among pregnant women and some suggestions for interventions. PMID:18478322

  6. Aging bone in men and women: beyond changes in bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Russo, C R; Lauretani, F; Bandinelli, S; Bartali, B; Di Iorio, A; Volpato, S; Guralnik, J M; Harris, T; Ferrucci, L

    2003-07-01

    Using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) we assessed trabecular and cortical bone density, mass and geometric distribution at the tibia level in 512 men and 693 women, age range 20-102 years, randomly selected from the population living in the Chianti area, Tuscany, Italy. Total, trabecular and cortical bone density decreased linearly with age ( p<0.0001 in both sexes), and the slope of age-associated decline was steeper in women than in men. In men, the cortical bone area was similar in different age groups, while in women older than 60 years it was significantly smaller by approximately 1% per year. The total cross-sectional area of the bone became progressively wider with age, but the magnitude of the age-associated increment was significantly higher in men than in women ( p<0.001). The minimum moment of inertia, an index of mechanical resistance to bending, remained stable with age in men, while it was significantly lower in older compared with younger women (0.5% per year). The increase in bone cross-sectional area in aging men may contribute to the maintenance of adequate bone mechanical competence in the face of declining bone density. In women this compensatory mechanism appears to be less efficient and, accordingly, the bone mechanical competence declines with age. The geometric adaptation of increasing cross-sectional bone size is an important component in the assessment of bone mechanical resistance which is completely overlooked, and potentially misinterpreted, by traditional planar densitometry. PMID:12827220

  7. Cardiovascular responses to postural changes: differences with age for women and men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, M. A.; Tomaselli, C. M.; Hoffler, W. G.

    1994-01-01

    The cardiovascular responses to postural change, and how they are affected by aging, are inadequately described in women. Therefore, the authors examined the influence of age and sex on the responses of blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, and other variables to change in posture. Measurements were made after 10 minutes each in the supine, seated, and standing positions in 22 men and 25 women who ranged in age from 21 to 59 years. Several variables differed, both by sex and by age, when subjects were supine. On rising, subjects' diastolic and mean arterial pressures, heart rate, total peripheral resistance (TPR), and thoracic impedance increased; cardiac output, stroke volume, and mean stroke ejection rate decreased; and changes in all variables, except heart rate, were greater from supine to sitting than sitting to standing. The increase in heart rate was greater in the younger subjects, and increases in TPR and thoracic impedance were greater in the older subjects. Stroke volume decreased less, and TPR and thoracic impedance increased more, in the women than in the men. The increase in TPR was particularly pronounced in the older women. These studies show that the cardiovascular responses to standing differ, in some respects, between the sexes and with age. The authors suggest that the sex differences are, in part, related to greater decrease of thoracic blood volume with standing in women than in men, and that the age differences result, in part, from decreased responsiveness of the high-pressure baroreceptor system.

  8. Parity-related mortality: shape of association among middle-aged and elderly men and women.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Dena H; Neumark, Yehuda D; Eisenbach, Zvi; Manor, Orly

    2009-01-01

    Parity is associated with mortality among middle-aged women, while substantially less is known about this relationship for men and the elderly. Using the census-based Israel Longitudinal Mortality Study (ILMS) II (1995-2004) we sought to examine the parity-mortality relationship among men and women, middle-aged and elderly. In our study cohort of 71,733 married men and 62,822 married women ages 45-89 years at baseline, 19,437 deaths were reported. Mortality differentials by parity were assessed using Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusted stepwise for age, origin, education and number of rooms. Analyzes were carried out for middle-aged (45-64 years) and elderly (65-89 years) men and women separately. We observed a non-linear relationship between parity and mortality for all individuals even after adjustment for demographic and socio-economic variables. In fully adjusted models, for example, nulliparous middle-aged women experienced the highest mortality risks (hazard ratios [HR] = 1.57, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.24, 1.98) followed by those with one child (HR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.10, 1.51). These results were attenuated somewhat for nulliparous older women (HR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.11, 1.41). The detrimental effects of low and high parity on mortality among both men and women suggest a non pregnancy-related pathway that is likely mediated by biological and psychosocial factors and other lifestyle characteristics that have long-term consequences into older ages. Further research is warranted to examine the effects of parity by specific cause of death. PMID:19145406

  9. Presence and Image of Women in the Information Media Aimed at Adolescents Aged 10 to 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansereau, Stephanie; Maranda, Jeanne

    An exploratory study identified the areas of information most commonly featured in the printed and electronic media designed specifically for adolescents aged 10-16 and also identified the presence and role of women in the information targeted to this age group. A content analysis was made of both French- and English-language television programs…

  10. The Socialization Process of Women. Implications for a Theory of Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Chrysee

    1975-01-01

    Theoreticians and practitioners have assumed rather constant roles for women in developing psychosocial theories of aging. A review of recent developments challenges these assumptions and suggests that role inconstancy rather than constancy may account for feminine resilience in old age. (Author)

  11. Active Ageing and Active Citizenship in Liguria: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Liguria has the oldest age structure in Europe because of a low birth rate and long lifespans and therefore is a very interesting laboratory region in which to experiment with active ageing policies. The generations that are now approaching retirement hold a high level of personal and professional resources; so the "new" elderly people…

  12. Prevalence and Sociodemographic Determinants of Hypertension History among Women in Reproductive Age in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Samuel H.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hypertension is a global health problem. Yet, studies on hypertension rarely focus on women in Ghana. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of hypertension history among Ghanaian women in reproductive age. Methods. This study used data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were carried out to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of hypertension history among the respondents. Results. The study found that the overall prevalence of hypertension history among the respondents was 7.5%; however, there were vast variations within most of the sociodemographic categories. Age, level of education, marital status, work status, and wealth status had a significant relationship with hypertension history among the respondents. Women in advanced age groups, highly educated, married, and widowed/divorced/separated, nonworking women, and women from wealthy households were at higher risk of having hypertension history. Conclusion. Myriads of sociodemographic factors determine the hypertension history of women in Ghana. It is therefore essential to target medical and psychosocial hypertension interventions at Ghanaian women in the higher risk groups. PMID:27200184

  13. Religion, Ethnicity and Contraceptive Use among Reproductive age Women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Obasohan, Phillips Edomwonyi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Religion and Ethnicity are the two most important factors that shape the behavioral pattern especially health seeking behaviors of the people of Nigeria. This study seeks to examine the mediatory effects of the linkage between ethnicity and religion with selected socio-demographic variables on the current use of contraception (CUC) among women of reproductive age in Nigeria. Methods: Nationally representative sample of 39,948 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in the 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) was used. Chi-square was used to analyze the bivariate relationship between exposure variables and CUC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio with the 95% confidence interval. Results: The prevalence of CUC was generally low for women of reproductive age in Nigeria, highest among the Yoruba women and lowest among the Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Seriberi (HFKS) women; highest among other Christian women and lowest for Muslim women and highest for Yoruba/other religion and lowest for women of Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Seriberi/Islam. The odds ratios showed that disparity across ethno-religious boundaries is significant. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Globally, and especially in sub-Saharan African countries, maternal mortality resulting from the abortion of unintended pregnancies pose a major challenge in health delivery system. In Nigeria, a cultural and religious heterogeneous society, current use of contraceptives by women of reproductive age is found not to be a matter of independent effects of ethnicity, religiosity and other socio-demographic variables but also dependent on the effects of interactions between the ethnicity and religion.

  14. Employment status and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Bromberger, J T; Matthews, K A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study investigated the psychological effects of paid employment and nonemployment, cross-sectionally and longitudinally, in 541 middle-aged women. METHODS. Women were seen for an extensive baseline evaluation and were reevaluated in an identical manner 3 years later. They were divided into four "synthetic" cohorts, based upon employment status at these two assessments. RESULTS. At baseline, nonemployed women reported higher levels of depressive symptoms than employed women, with nonemployed women with less education, low support from family and friends, or low marital satisfaction the most symptomatic. Symptoms decreased in women who were nonemployed initially but employed at the later exam; in all other groups, symptoms increased. Unlike the cross-sectional findings, however, the longitudinal findings showed that women who were nonemployed at baseline and had low levels of education, social support, or marital satisfaction did not benefit more from subsequent employment than did their counterparts who had high levels of these factors. CONCLUSIONS. New paid work may have a positive effect on mood for middle-aged women. However, given the contradictions between our cross-sectional and longitudinal results, caution should be exercised in drawing conclusions from cross-sectional studies that likely confound employment status, symptoms, and moderating variables. PMID:8296940

  15. Patterns of 12-Year Change in Physical Activity Levels in Community-Dwelling Older Women: Can Modest Levels of Physical Activity Help Older Women Live Longer?

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Qian-Li; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Mielenz, Thelma J.; Seplaki, Christopher L.; Szanton, Sarah L.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Kalyani, Rita R.; Chaves, Paulo H. M.; Dam, Thuy-Tien L.; Ornstein, Katherine; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; Varadhan, Ravi; Yao, Wenliang; Fried, Linda P.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have addressed changes in physical activity participation over time among the elderly. The authors hypothesized that there were distinct trajectories of physical activity level over time and identifiable predictors of such trajectories, as well as that the maintenance of regular physical activity, even below recommended levels, was associated with lower mortality risk. Using longitudinal data (1994–2009) from 433 initially high-functioning older women aged 70–79 years at baseline, a joint latent class and survival mixture model identified 4 activity trajectory classes: always active (16.6%), fast declining (19.2%), stable moderate (32.3%), and always sedentary (31.9%). Obesity, coronary artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depressive symptoms, low self-efficacy, mobility disability, and low energy were associated with sedentary behavior and/or a fast decline in activity. Women in the fast declining and always sedentary classes had hazard ratios for death of 2.34 (95% confidence interval: 1.20, 4.59) and 3.34 (95% confidence interval: 1.72, 6.47), respectively, compared with the always active class; no mortality difference was found between the stable moderate and always active groups (hazard ratio = 1.24, 95% confidence interval: 0.63, 2.47). Our findings suggest that physical activity does not have to be vigorous to be beneficial and that the gain may be the greatest among women who reported the lowest levels of activity. PMID:22935515

  16. Cognitive Aging: Activity Patterns and Maintenance Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilhooly, K. J.; Gilhooly, M. L.; Phillips, L. H.; Harvey, D.; Murray, A.; Hanlon, P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships between cognitive functioning in older people and (1) levels of mental, physical and social activities, and (2) intentions regarding maintenance of cognitive functioning. Participants (N = 145) were 70-91 years of age, varied in health status and socio-economic backgrounds. Current cognitive functioning was…

  17. Increased hematuria following hypergravic exposure in middle-aged women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldwater, D. J.; Ohara, D. B.; Sandler, H.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of simulated weightlessness on orthostatic tolerance were studied in 9 women (55 to 65 years old) who underwent acceleration and lower body negative pressure before and after 10 days of horizontal bed rest. The results of this study show the first known association of microscopic hematuria with hypergravic and orthostatic stress which suggests similarities to the 'stress hematuria syndrome' previously seen with heavy exercise (Boileau et al., 1980). In addition, the sporadic occurrence of this phenomenon indicates a multifactorial etiology in predisposed individuals. Bedrest or weightlessness simulation per se does not seem to significantly alter renal function, but may decrease microscopic hematuria with an orthostatic component.

  18. Perceptions of benzodiazepine dependence among women age 65 and older.

    PubMed

    Canham, Sarah L; Gallo, Joseph; Simoni-Wastila, Linda

    2014-01-01

    A phenomenological study explored whether older women who are chronic benzodiazepine users identified themselves as dependent, how dependence was perceived, and how meanings and understandings shaped experiences of benzodiazepine use. Self-reported benzodiazepine dependence was associated with being unable to reduce use or a desire to discontinue use and reliance on benzodiazepines to remain comfortable and able to handle daily life. Themes included: (a) benzodiazepine dependence is similar to dependence to diabetes or blood pressure medications; (b) dependence is distinctive from addiction/abuse; (c) addiction/abuse is perceived as worse than dependence; and (d) concerns of addiction/abuse result in low-dose benzodiazepine use. PMID:24918963

  19. Perceptions of Benzodiazepine Dependence Among Women Age 65 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Canham, Sarah L.; Gallo, Joseph; Simoni-Wastila, Linda

    2014-01-01

    A phenomenological study explored whether older women who are chronic benzodiazepine users identified themselves as dependent, how dependence was perceived, and how meanings and understandings shaped experiences of benzodiazepine use. Self-reported benzodiazepine dependence was associated with being unable to reduce use or a desire to discontinue use and reliance on benzodiazepines to remain comfortable and able to handle daily life. Themes included: 1) benzodiazepine dependence is similar to dependence to diabetes or blood pressure medications; 2) dependence is distinctive from addiction/abuse; 3) addiction/abuse is perceived as worse than dependence; and 4) concerns of addiction/abuse result in low-dose benzodiazepine use. PMID:24918963

  20. Anthropometric measures and cognition in middle-aged HIV-infected and uninfected women. The Women's Interagency HIV Study

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Deborah R.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Tien, Phyllis C.; Valcour, Victor; Cohen, Mardge; Anastos, Kathryn; Liu, Chenglong; Pearce, Leigh; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Minkoff, Howard; Crystal, Howard A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with cognition in women with (HIV+) and without HIV (HIV-) infection. Design/Methods 1690 participants (1196 HIV+, 494 HIV-) in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) with data available on anthropometric measures comprise the analytical sample. Cross-sectional analyses using linear regression models estimated the relationship between anthropometric variables and Trails A, Trails B, Stroop interference time, Stroop word recall, Stroop color naming and reading, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) with consideration for age, HIV infection status, Wide Range Achievement Test score, CD4 count, insulin resistance, drug use, and race/ethnicity. Results Among HIV+ women, BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 was associated with poorer cognitive performance evidenced by longer Trails A and Trails B and shorter SDMT completion times. An obese BMI (30 kg/m2 or higher) was related to better performance on Trails B and worse performance on the Stroop Interference test. Among HIV- women, an obese BMI was related to worse performance on the Stroop – Color naming test. Few and inconsistent associations were observed between WC, WHR and cognition. Conclusion Among women at mid-life with chronic (at least 10 years) HIV infection, common anthropometric measures, primarily BMI, were differentially related to cognitive test performance by cognitive domain. Higher levels of BMI were associated with better cognitive function. In this era of antiretroviral therapies, restoration of health evidenced as higher BMI due to effective antiretroviral therapies, may improve cognitive function in middle-aged HIV infected women. PMID:24338243

  1. Age shock: misperceptions of the impact of age on fertility before and after IVF in women who conceived after age 40

    PubMed Central

    Mac Dougall, K.; Beyene, Y.; Nachtigall, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What do older women understand of the relationship between age and fertility prior and subsequent to delivering their first child? SUMMARY ANSWER Women who were first-time parents over the age of 40 did not accurately perceive the relationship between age and fertility prior to conceiving with IVF. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY While increases in women's age at their first birth have been most pronounced in relatively older women, the rapidity of fertility decline is not appreciated by most non-infertility specialist physicians, the general public or men and women who are delaying childbearing. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION Qualitative retrospective interviews were conducted from 2009 to 2011 with 61 self-selected women who were patients in one of two fertility clinics in the USA. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS All participants had delivered their first child following IVF when the woman was 40 years or older. The data include women's responses to the semi-structured and open-ended interview questions ‘What information did you have about fertility and age before you started trying to get pregnant?’ and ‘What did you learn once you proceeded with fertility treatment?’ MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Of the women, 30% expected their fertility to decline gradually until menopause at around 50 years and 31% reported that they expected to get pregnant without difficulty at the age of 40. Reasons for a mistaken belief in robust fertility included recollections of persistent and ongoing messaging about pregnancy prevention starting in adolescence (23%), healthy lifestyle and family history of fertility (26%), and incorrect information from friends, physicians or misleading media reports of pregnancies in older celebrity women (28%). Participants had not anticipated the possibility that they would need IVF to conceive with 44% reporting being ‘shocked’ and ‘alarmed’ to discover that their understanding of the rapidity of age

  2. To cut or not to cut: cosmetic surgery usage and women's age-related experiences.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Shelley J

    2012-01-01

    Part of the developmental trajectory of middle and late life presumes the adjustment to physical aging, an adjustment that is complicated for women for whom the prioritization of beauty is central to their social value in Western societies. A 60-item written questionnaire was distributed to a volunteer community sample of 202 women ages 19-86. From these data, this study tested whether women's cosmetic surgery usage would act as a protective factor in age-related experiences related to body image, self-esteem, and aging attitudes. Cosmetic surgery recipients evidenced less body satisfaction, and more appearance investment with age increases while only non-recipients showed improvements in self-esteem ratings with advancing age. Both recipients and non-recipients showed declines in body care with age, a greater felt discrepancy between actual and perceived age, and less aging anxiety--but non-recipients more so than recipients. Thus, despite having undertaken action to improve their appearance through surgical means at some point in their adult lives, cosmetic surgery recipients did not inevitably feel younger than their years, or better about themselves, compared to those who have not pursued surgery. Study limitations and implications are outlined, and given that cosmetic surgery may become normative practice in future cohorts of aging adults, it concludes with a call for nationally-representative studies using matched-control group research designs typical of public health inquiry more generally. PMID:22696841

  3. Association of physical activity with future mental health in older, mid-life and younger women

    PubMed Central

    Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Väänänen, Ari; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mental ill-health, particularly depression and anxiety, is a leading and increasing cause of disability worldwide, especially for women. Methods: We examined the prospective association between physical activity and symptoms of mental ill-health in younger, mid-life and older working women. Participants were 26 913 women from the ongoing cohort Finnish Public Sector Study with complete data at two phases, excluding those who screened positive for mental ill-health at baseline. Mental health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Self-reported physical activity was expressed in metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours per week. Logistic regression models were used to analyse associations between physical activity levels and subsequent mental health. Results: There was an inverse dose–response relationship between physical activity and future symptoms of mental ill-health. This association is consistent with a protective effect of physical activity and remained after adjustments for socio-demographic, work-related and lifestyle factors, health and body mass index. Furthermore, those mid-life and older women who reported increased physical activity by more than 2 MET hours per week demonstrated a reduced risk of later mental ill-health in comparison with those who did not increase physical activity. This protective effect of increased physical activity did not hold for younger women. Conclusions: This study adds to the evidence for the protective effect of physical activity for later mental health in women. It also suggests that increasing physical activity levels may be beneficial in terms of mental health among mid-life and older women. The alleviation of menopausal symptoms may partly explain age effects but further research is required. PMID:24532567

  4. Beliefs About Exercise and Physical Activity Among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Bradley, Chyrise B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to document self-reported beliefs about physical activity and exercise among pregnant women. Methods: The Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition (PIN3) Study asked 1306 pregnant women about beliefs regarding physical activity and exercise at 27-30 weeks' gestation. Results: While 78% of women agreed that most women can continue their regular exercise during pregnancy, fewer (68%) agreed that most women who never exercised could begin an exercise program during pregnancy. Most (89%) agreed that regular exercise was better than irregular exercise during pregnancy. While almost all women agreed with the benefits of light activity (98%), fewer agreed that there were benefits with moderate (73%) or vigorous exercise (13%). Differences in beliefs were most notable by educational level, race/ethnicity, and whether they participated in regular exercise during pregnancy. Conclusion: Future studies can better elucidate the reasons behind the differences in beliefs, to explore whether cultural reasons are contributing to these differences and whether tailored messages would be more effective than general educational approaches. Practice Implications: This study provides information to create more successful interventions to help women understand concepts regarding the safety and benefits of physical activity during pregnancy. PMID:19699603

  5. Relationships Between Weight, Physical Activity, and Back Pain in Young Adult Women.

    PubMed

    Brady, Sharmayne R E; Hussain, Sultana Monira; Brown, Wendy J; Heritier, Stephane; Billah, Baki; Wang, Yuanyuan; Teede, Helena; Urquhart, Donna M; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2016-05-01

    Back pain causes enormous financial and disability burden worldwide, which could potentially be reduced by understanding its determinants to develop effective prevention strategies. Our aim was to identify whether modifiable risk factors, weight and physical activity, are predictive of back pain in young adult women.Women born between 1973 and 1978 were randomly selected from the national health insurance scheme database to participate in The Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. Self-reported data on back pain in the last 12 months, weight, height, age, education status, physical activity, and depression were collected in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012. In 2000, 9688 women completed the questionnaire and 83% completed follow-up 12 years later.At baseline, median age was 24.6 years and 41% had self-reported back pain. For every 5 kg higher weight at baseline, there was a 5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4%-6%) increased risk of back pain over the next 12 years. Higher weight at each survey also predicted back pain risk 3 years later (P < 0.001). The effects of weight on back pain were most significant in those with BMI ≥25 kg/m and were observed at all levels of physical activity. Inadequate physical activity and depression were independent predictors of back pain over the following 12 years (both P < 0.001), after adjusting for age, weight, height, and education status.Back pain is common in community-based young adult women. Higher weight, inadequate levels of physical activity, and depression were all independent predictors of back pain over the following decade. Furthermore, the adverse effects of weight on back pain were not mitigated by physical activity. Our findings highlight the role of both higher weight and physical inactivity in back pain among young women and suggest potential opportunities for future prevention. PMID:27175634

  6. Relationships Between Weight, Physical Activity, and Back Pain in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Sharmayne R.E.; Hussain, Sultana Monira; Brown, Wendy J.; Heritier, Stephane; Billah, Baki; Wang, Yuanyuan; Teede, Helena; Urquhart, Donna M.; Cicuttini, Flavia M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Back pain causes enormous financial and disability burden worldwide, which could potentially be reduced by understanding its determinants to develop effective prevention strategies. Our aim was to identify whether modifiable risk factors, weight and physical activity, are predictive of back pain in young adult women. Women born between 1973 and 1978 were randomly selected from the national health insurance scheme database to participate in The Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. Self-reported data on back pain in the last 12 months, weight, height, age, education status, physical activity, and depression were collected in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012. In 2000, 9688 women completed the questionnaire and 83% completed follow-up 12 years later. At baseline, median age was 24.6 years and 41% had self-reported back pain. For every 5 kg higher weight at baseline, there was a 5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4%–6%) increased risk of back pain over the next 12 years. Higher weight at each survey also predicted back pain risk 3 years later (P < 0.001). The effects of weight on back pain were most significant in those with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and were observed at all levels of physical activity. Inadequate physical activity and depression were independent predictors of back pain over the following 12 years (both P < 0.001), after adjusting for age, weight, height, and education status. Back pain is common in community-based young adult women. Higher weight, inadequate levels of physical activity, and depression were all independent predictors of back pain over the following decade. Furthermore, the adverse effects of weight on back pain were not mitigated by physical activity. Our findings highlight the role of both higher weight and physical inactivity in back pain among young women and suggest potential opportunities for future prevention. PMID:27175634

  7. Lifestyle and Socioeconomic Determinants of Multimorbidity Patterns among Mid-Aged Women: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Caroline A.; Dobson, Annette J.; Tooth, Leigh R.; Mishra, Gita D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about patterns of associative multimorbidity and their aetiology. We aimed to identify patterns of associative multimorbidity among mid-aged women and the lifestyle and socioeconomic factors associated with their development. Methods Participants were from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. We included 4896 women born 1946–51, without multimorbidity in 1998. We identified multimorbidity patterns at survey 6 (2010) using factor analysis, and related these patterns to baseline lifestyle and socioeconomic factors using logistic regression. We dichotomised factor scores and determined odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between characteristics and odds of a high versus low factor score. Results We identified five multimorbidity patterns: psychosomatic; musculoskeletal; cardiometabolic; cancer; and respiratory. Overweight and obesity were respectively associated with increased odds of having a high score for the musculoskeletal (adjusted ORs 1.45 [95% CI 1.23, 1.70] and 2.14 [95% CI 1.75, 2.60]) and cardiometabolic (adjusted ORs 1.53 [95% CI 1.31, 1.79] and 2.46 [95% CI 2.02, 2.98]) patterns. Physical inactivity was associated with increased odds of a high score for the psychosomatic, musculoskeletal and cancer patterns (adjusted ORs 1.41 [95% CI 1.13, 1.76]; 1.39 [95% CI 1.11, 1.74]; and 1.35 [95% CI 1.08, 1.69]). Smoking was associated with increased odds of a high score for the respiratory pattern. Education and ability to manage on income were associated with increased odds of a high score for the psychosomatic pattern (adjusted ORs 1.34 [95% CI 1.03, 1.75] and 1.73 [95% CI 1.37, 1.28], respectively) and musculoskeletal pattern (adjusted ORs 1.43 [95% CI 1.10, 1.87] and 1.38 [1.09, 1.75], respectively). Conclusions Distinct multimorbidity patterns can be identified among mid-aged women. Social inequality, physical activity and BMI are risk factors common to multiple patterns and are

  8. Jump into the void? Factors related to a preferred retirement age: gender, social interests, and leisure activities.

    PubMed

    Nicolaisen, Magnhild; Thorsen, Kirsten; Eriksen, Sissel H

    2012-01-01

    Using the frameworks of the life course perspective and continuity theory, this study focuses on the association among working people between gender and specific leisure activities, social interests and individuals' preferred retirement age. The study is based on the first wave of the Norwegian Life Course, Aging and Generation (NorLAG) study, concentrating on workers 40-61 years old, thinking about retirement (n=2339). Results indicate that some leisure activities and interests are associated with preferences for early retirement, while other activities and interests are associated with preferences for later retirement. Different leisure activities and interests are related to men's and women's retirement preferences. Single women prefer to retire later than married women. Findings suggest that leisure activities and social interests have different relevance for men's and women's preferences for leaving the labor force. Women active in voluntary work prefer later retirement, while men engaged in fishing and hunting prefer early retirement. PMID:23350345

  9. The Theory and Practice of Active Aging

    PubMed Central

    Fries, James F.

    2012-01-01

    Active aging” connotes a radically nontraditional paradigm of aging which posits possible improvement in health despite increasing longevity. The new paradigm is based upon postponing functional declines more than mortality declines and compressing morbidity into a shorter period later in life. This paradigm (Compression of Morbidity) contrasts with the old, where increasing longevity inevitably leads to increasing morbidity. We have focused our research on controlled longitudinal studies of aging. The Runners and Community Controls study began at age 58 in 1984 and the Health Risk Cohorts study at age 70 in 1986. We noted that disability was postponed by 14 to 16 years in vigorous exercisers compared with controls and postponed by 10 years in low-risk cohorts compared with higher risk. Mortality was also postponed, but too few persons had died for valid comparison of mortality and morbidity. With the new data presented here, age at death at 30% mortality is postponed by 7 years in Runners and age at death at 50% (median) mortality by 3.3 years compared to controls. Postponement of disability is more than double that of mortality in both studies. These differences increase over time, occur in all subgroups, and persist after statistical adjustment. PMID:23118746

  10. Bone and heart abnormalities of subclinical hyperthyroidism in women below the age of 65 years.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate bone and cardiac abnormalities and symptoms and signs of thyroid hormone excess in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCH) aged < 65 years. Forty-eight women with SCH were evaluated. The control group consisted of 48 euthyroid volunteers. The mean symptom rating scale score was significantly higher in patients. Cardiac involvement, both morphological and affecting systolic and diastolic functions, was also observed in patients. Women with SCH showed a significant increase in serum markers of bone formation and resorption. In addition, bone mineral density (BMD) was lower in the femoral neck but not in the lumbar spine in patients before menopause, whereas a lower BMD was observed at both sites in postmenopausal patients. SCH is not completely asymptomatic in women aged < 65 years, and is associated with heart abnormalities and with increased bone turnover and reduced BMD even before menopause. PMID:19197452

  11. Community mobilization and social marketing to promote weekly iron-folic acid supplementation: a new approach toward controlling anemia among women of reproductive age in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Thanh, Hoang Thi Kim; Berger, Jacques; Hoa, Pham Thuy; Quang, Nguyen Dinh; Smitasiri, Suttilak; Cavalli-Sforza, Tommaso

    2005-12-01

    Community-based social marketing and mobilization increased knowledge and participation in preventive weekly iron-folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age in Vietnam. Rates of buying and taking the weekly supplement containing 60 mg elemental iron and 3.5 mg folic acid among non-pregnant women of reproductive age was between 55% and 92%. Free distribution to pregnant women of the weekly supplement containing 120 mg iron and 3.5 mg folic acid covered almost all pregnant women during the project. In developing countries where community women's groups and health networks are strong, preventive supplementation can be successfully promoted to encourage active participation in the prevention and control of iron-deficiency anemia. PMID:16466084

  12. Predictors of Postpartum Sexual Activity and Function in a Diverse Population of Women

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Lynn M.; Kaimal, Anjali J.; Nakagawa, Sanae; Houston, Kathryn; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of postpartum sexual activity and functioning in a diverse population of women using the Sexual Health Outcomes in Women Questionnaire (SHOW-Q). Methods This was a prospective study of 160 postpartum women assessing relationships between demographic factors, mode of birth, depression, breastfeeding, and sexual activity and function. Questionnaires were administered over the telephone 8 to 10 weeks postpartum and in person 6 to 8 months postpartum. Primary outcomes were sexual activity at 8 to 10 weeks postpartum and global and subscale SHOW-Q scores at 6 to 8 months postpartum; the primary predictor was mode of birth. Associations were assessed using multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. Results Seventy-five percent of this population (n = 140 at 8–10 weeks, n = 129 at 6–8 months) gave birth vaginally, and 60.7% resumed sexual activity by 8 to 10 weeks postpartum. Only multiparity was associated with increased odds of having resumed sexual activity by 8 to 10 weeks postpartum (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.44; P = .03), whereas older age was associated with decreased odds (aOR, 0.92; P = .02) of having resumed sexual activity. Women who were depressed (effect estimate, −13.3; P = .01), older (−1.1, P = .01), or exclusively breastfeeding (−16.5, P < .001) had significantly poorer sexual satisfaction, whereas multiparous women reported better sexual satisfaction (11.1, P = .03). A significant relationship between mode of birth and SHOW-Q scores did not emerge, although we did observe a trend toward lower SHOW-Q scores among women who underwent cesarean compared with those giving birth vaginally. Discussion Multiparity and younger age predict early resumption of sexual activity, whereas depression and breastfeeding are associated with poorer postpartum sexual functioning. The relationship between mode of birth and resumed sexual activity or postpartum sexual function remains

  13. Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, S.B.; Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T.

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further.

  14. Perinatal outcomes in women over 40 years of age compared to those of other gestations

    PubMed Central

    Canhaço, Evandro Eduardo; Bergamo, Angela Mendes; Lippi, Umberto Gazi; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To clarify if older pregnant women were more likely to have adverse perinatal outcomes when compared to women at an ideal age to have a child. Methods The groups were divided according to age groups: under 20 years, ≥20 to <40 years, and ≥40 years. Results During the period from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2008, there were 76 births from patients younger than 20 years and 91 births from patients aged 40 years or over. To form a third group with intermediate age, the data of 92 patients aged 20 to 40 years were obtained, totaling 259 patients. Patients aged 40 or older had a statistically greater number of cesarean sections and less use of forceps or normal deliveries (p<0.001). The use of spinal anesthesia was statistically higher among those aged 40 years or more (p<0.001). The frequency of male newborns was statistically higher in older patients, a group with statistically fewer first pregnancies (p<0.001). The frequency of premature newborns was statistically higher in patients aged 40 years or more (p=0.004). Conclusion It is crucial to give priority to aged women, so that prenatal care will be appropriate, minimizing maternal complications and improving perinatal outcomes in this unique group. PMID:25993070

  15. At what age should screening mammography be recommended for Asian women?

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchida, Junko; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Rashid, Omar M; Takabe, Kazuaki; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Although regular screening mammography has been suggested to be associated with improvements in the relative survival of breast cancer in recent years, the appropriate age to start screening mammography remains controversial. In November 2009, the United States Preventive Service Task Force published updated guidelines for breast cancer, which no longer support routine screening mammography for women aged 40–49 years, but instead, defer the choice of screening in that age group to the patient and physician. The age to begin screening differs between guidelines, including those from the Task Force, the American Cancer Society and the World Health Organization. It remains unclear how this discrepancy impacts patient survival, especially among certain subpopulations. Although the biological characteristics of breast cancer and peak age of incidence differ among different ethnic populations, there have been few reports that evaluate the starting age for screening mammography based on ethnicity. Here, we discuss the benefits and harm of screening mammography in the fifth decade, and re-evaluate the starting age for screening mammography taking ethnicity into account, focusing on the Asian population. Breast cancer incidence peaked in the fifth decade in Asian women, which has been thought to be due to a combination of biological and environmental factors. Previous reports suggest that Asian women in their 40s may receive more benefit and less harm from screening mammography than the age-matched non-Asian US population. Therefore, starting screening mammography at age 40 may be beneficial for women of Asian ethnicity in well-resourced countries, such as Japanese women who reside in Japan. PMID:25914223

  16. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  17. Estimated economic impact of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system on unintended pregnancy in active duty women.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Mumford, Sunni L; Hill, Micah J; Armstrong, Alicia Y

    2014-10-01

    Unintended pregnancy is reportedly higher in active duty women; therefore, we sought to estimate the potential impact of the levonorgestrel-containing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) could have on unintended pregnancy in active duty women. A decision tree model with sensitivity analysis was used to estimate the number of unintentional pregnancies in active duty women which could be prevented. A secondary cost analysis was performed to analyze the direct cost savings to the U.S. Government. The total number of Armed Services members is estimated to be over 1.3 million, with an estimated 208,146 being women. Assuming an age-standardized unintended pregnancy rate of 78 per 1,000 women, 16,235 unintended pregnancies occur each year. Using a combined LNG-IUS failure and expulsion rate of 2.2%, a decrease of 794, 1588, and 3970 unintended pregnancies was estimated to occur with 5%, 10% and 25% usage, respectively. Annual cost savings from LNG-IUS use range from $3,387,107 to $47,352,295 with 5% to 25% intrauterine device usage. One-way sensitivity analysis demonstrated LNG-IUS to be cost-effective when the cost associated with pregnancy and delivery exceeded $11,000. Use of LNG-IUS could result in significant reductions in unintended pregnancy among active duty women, resulting in substantial cost savings to the government health care system. PMID:25269131

  18. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Demerath, Ellen W.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R.; Smith, Erin N.; Chen, Christina T.L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Arnold, Alice M.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhao; Deming, Sandra L.; Elks, Cathy E.; Evans, Michelle K.; Gajdos, Zofia; Henderson, Brian E.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lu, Xiaoning; Millikan, Robert C.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nock, Nora L.; North, Kari; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F.; Rodriquez-Gil, Jorge L.; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Woods, Nancy F.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zonderman, Alan; Heiss, Gerardo; Gwen Windham, B.; Wellons, Melissa; Murray, Sarah S.; Nalls, Michael; Pastinen, Tomi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hirschhorn, Joel; Adrienne Cupples, L.; Kooperberg, Charles; Murabito, Joanne M.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 × 10−8 threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women. PMID:23599027

  19. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Demerath, Ellen W; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R; Smith, Erin N; Chen, Christina T L; Ambrosone, Christine B; Arnold, Alice M; Bandera, Elisa V; Berenson, Gerald S; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R; Carlson, Christopher S; Chanock, Stephen J; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhao; Deming, Sandra L; Elks, Cathy E; Evans, Michelle K; Gajdos, Zofia; Henderson, Brian E; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M; Kerr, Kathleen F; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Lu, Xiaoning; Millikan, Robert C; Musani, Solomon K; Nock, Nora L; North, Kari; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F; Rodriquez-Gil, Jorge L; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Schork, Nicholas J; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Woods, Nancy F; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zonderman, Alan; Heiss, Gerardo; Gwen Windham, B; Wellons, Melissa; Murray, Sarah S; Nalls, Michael; Pastinen, Tomi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hirschhorn, Joel; Adrienne Cupples, L; Kooperberg, Charles; Murabito, Joanne M; Haiman, Christopher A

    2013-08-15

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 × 10(-8) threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women. PMID:23599027

  20. Documentation of Contraception and Pregnancy When Prescribing Potentially Teratogenic Medications for Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Postlethwaite, Debbie A.; Hung, Yun-Yi; Armstrong, Mary Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Certain medications are identified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as class D or X because they increase the risk for birth defects if used during pregnancy. Objective To assess pregnancy rates and the frequency of contraceptive counseling documented with prescriptions for class D or X drugs filled by women of reproductive age. Design Description of prescriptions filled in 2001. Setting A large health maintenance organization in northern California in 2001. Patients 488 175 women age 15 to 44 years who filled a total of 1 011 658 class A, B, D, or X prescriptions. Measurements Medications dispensed, contraceptive counseling, and pregnancy testing. Results A class D or X prescription was filled by 1 of every 6 women studied. Women who filled a prescription for class D or X medications were no more likely than women who filled prescriptions for safer, class A or B medications to have received contraceptive counseling, filled a contraceptive prescription, or been sterilized (48% vs. 51% of prescriptions). There was little variation by clinical indication in rates of contraceptive counseling with class D or X prescriptions, except for isotretinoin. Women who filled a class D or X prescription were only slightly less likely to have a pregnancy documented within 3 months than women filling a class A or B prescription (1.0% vs. 1.4% of prescriptions). Limitations International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes underestimate contraceptive counseling. Documentation of a positive pregnancy test after filling a prescription may overestimate medication use in early pregnancy. Women who filled several prescriptions are overrepresented in prescription analyses. Conclusion Prescriptions for potentially teratogenic medications are frequently filled by women of childbearing age without documentation of contraceptive counseling. PMID:17876020

  1. Serum Retinol Concentrations, Race, and Socioeconomic Status in of Women of Childbearing Age in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Abresch, Chad; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient during pregnancy and throughout the lifecycle due to its role in the development of critical organ systems. Because maternal tissue is progressively depleted of vitamin A to supply fetal demands, women who become pregnant while possessing marginal vitamin A reserves are at increased risk of vitamin A inadequacy as pregnancy progresses. Few studies have assessed the relationship between socioeconomic factors and retinol status in women of childbearing age. Methods: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to assess the relationship between serum retinol concentrations and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Women 14–45 years of age (n = 3170) from NHANES cycles 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included. Serum retinol concentrations were divided into categories according to World Health Organization criteria. All statistical procedures accounted for the weighted data and complex design of the NHANES sample. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The poverty score and race were significantly associated with vitamin A status after adjustment for confounders. Odds of retinol concentrations of <1.05 µmol/L were 1.85 times higher for those of lower socioeconomic status when compared to those of higher status (95% CI: 1.12–3.03, p = 0.02), and 3.1 times higher for non-Hispanic blacks when compared to non-Hispanic whites (95% CI: 1.50–6.41, p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of retinol activity equivalents were significantly lower in groups with higher poverty scores (p = 0.004). Conclusion There appear to be disparities in serum vitamin A levels in women of childbearing age related to income and race in the United States. PMID:27548213

  2. Exploring violence against women and adverse health outcomes in middle age to promote women's health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A history of intimate partner violence (IPV) is linked to cardiovascular disorders among women. Static autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalance may result from chronic stress associated with exposure to IPV. Autonomic nervous system imbalance is associated with an excessive proinflammatory response ...

  3. Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first pregnancy in women.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Aaron D; Tamayo, Marilyne A; Beheim, Bret; Trumble, Benjamin C; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Hooper, Paul L; Martin, Melanie; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2015-11-20

    Infection with intestinal helminths results in immunological changes that influence co-infections, and might influence fecundity by inducing immunological states affecting conception and pregnancy. We investigated associations between intestinal helminths and fertility in women, using 9 years of longitudinal data from 986 Bolivian forager-horticulturalists, experiencing natural fertility and 70% helminth prevalence. We found that different species of helminth are associated with contrasting effects on fecundity. Infection with roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) is associated with earlier first births and shortened interbirth intervals, whereas infection with hookworm is associated with delayed first pregnancy and extended interbirth intervals. Thus, helminths may have important effects on human fertility that reflect physiological and immunological consequences of infection. PMID:26586763

  4. A preliminary analysis of barriers, intentions, and attitudes towards moderate physical activity in women who are overweight.

    PubMed

    Jewson, Elizabeth; Spittle, Michael; Casey, Meghan

    2008-11-01

    Physical activity is important for the health of all individuals, however, the determinants of physical activity behaviour for women who are overweight remain largely unexplored. The purpose of this investigation was to explore a range of factors that influence participation in physical activity for a group of women who are overweight. Participants were 30 women, aged 25-71 years, with a mean age of 46.8 years (+12.95) and an average BMI of 31.2kg/m(2) (+5.6). Self-reported level of physical activity, perceived barriers and facilitators of physical activity, attitudes, intentions and perceived behavioural control to physical activity were measured. Seventeen participants were generally active, with self-reported moderate physical activity of 218.53min (+/-113.82) in the last 7 days; whereas 13 participants were reportedly less active 43.46 (+/-42.98)min. Active participants were more likely to identify social reasons for participating in physical activity, while inactive participants perceived that their laziness prevented them from being physically active. There were no significant differences between active and inactive overweight women for attitude, intention or subjective norm for moderate-intensity physical activity. There was a significant difference between these women in perceived behavioural control (p=.014) for moderate-intensity physical activity, as women who felt more in control of their physical activity behaviour were more likely to engage in physical activity than inactive women. Future research should investigate interventions to increase behavioural control of moderate-intensity physical activity in women who are overweight. PMID:17884730

  5. The Clinical Trial of Women On the Move through Activity and Nutrition (WOMAN Study)

    PubMed Central

    Kuller, Lewis H.; Kriska, Andrea M.; Kinzel, Laura S.; Simkin-Silverman, Laurey R.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Johnson, B. Delia; Conroy, Molly B.

    2007-01-01

    The Women On the Move through Activity and Nutrition (WOMAN) Study is the first randomized clinical trial of nonpharmacological intervention designed to modify lipoproteins, weight loss and exercise among postmenopausal women using noninvasive measures of atherosclerosis as the primary endpoint. The trial was initially designed to test whether intervention as compared to health education would be more effective in slowing progression of subclinical atherosclerosis among women on hormone therapy (HT), estrogen or estrogen+progestin. It was designed and implemented prior to the results of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). The trial was since modified to include women who had been on HT but went off after the results of the WHI were reported. Eligible women were between the ages of 52-62, had waist circumference ≥80 cm, low density lipoprotein cholesterol between 100-160 mg% and controlled blood pressure. The intervention is low in total and saturated fat, trans fats, higher in fiber and promotes loss of 7-10% of body weight and includes at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week. The study has recruited 508 women. The primary endpoints are change in extent of carotid intima media wall thickness as measured by carotid ultrasound, pulse wave velocity as a measure of vascular stiffness and coronary artery calcium using electron beam computed tomography. Body composition is measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. PMID:17113831

  6. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women.

    PubMed

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  7. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    PubMed Central

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  8. Cooperative Learning Activities Related to Women Chemists and Physicists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reat, Kay

    This collection of activities related to women chemists and physicists is designed for use in cooperative groups of three students each. Each of eight activities consists of a written account of the career and life of an historical woman scientist and four writing activity suggestions. The writings from each group can then be organized into one…

  9. Social Provisions and Young Women's Health-Related Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Ulvick, Jocelyn D; Spink, Kevin S

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors involved in being active enough for health benefits is necessary to promote health-related physical activity. Given the documented role of social support in women's activity (Molloy et al. 2010), this study examined the relationship between Weiss's (1974) social provisions and health-related physical activity in young women. College undergraduate women (N = 136) from a kinesiology course completed a modified Social Provisions Scale (Cutrona and Russell 1987) and reported on the physical activity they engaged in with others over a 4-week period in the fall of 2011. We used average daily energy expenditure, calculated based on participants' reported activity involvement, to classify participants as either sufficiently or insufficiently active (Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Research Institute 1999). A logistic regression using sufficient/insufficient activity levels for health as the dependent variable revealed that the six provisions reliably differentiated between those who were active enough for health benefits versus not. Of the six, two provisions were significantly associated with health-related physical activity--specifically, those who held higher perceptions of reassurance of worth and social integration were more likely to be in the sufficiently-active group. These results provide an initial indication of the specific social provisions associated with young women who are active enough to achieve health benefits. PMID:26086201

  10. Physical Activity Patterns of Young Women Post-College Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

    2008-01-01

    Americans need more physical activity in their daily routines. There are numerous physical as well as psychological benefits that can be credited to regular physical activity. The purpose of this research was to examine the physical activity patterns of young women, post-college graduation. The average woman in this study exercised 22 minutes per…

  11. Challenges in Recruiting Aging Women Holocaust Survivors to a Case Control Study of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shai; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are underrepresented in medical research for many reasons, including recruitment difficulties. Recruitment of older adults for research studies is often a time-consuming process and can be more challenging when the study involves older adults with unique exposures to traumatic events and from minority groups. The current article provides a brief overview of (a) challenges encountered while recruiting aging women Holocaust survivors for a case control study and (b) strategies used for meeting those challenges. The case group comprised women Holocaust survivors who were recently diagnosed with breast cancer and the control group comprised healthy women from a Holocaust-survivor community in Israel. PMID:26020580

  12. Oral Contraceptive Use, Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity, and Systemic Hemodynamics in Young Women.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ronee E; Hart, Emma C; Charkoudian, Nisha; Curry, Timothy B; Carter, Jason R; Fu, Qi; Minson, Christopher T; Joyner, Michael J; Barnes, Jill N

    2015-09-01

    Endogenous female sex hormones influence muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), a regulator of arterial blood pressure and important factor in hypertension development. Although ≈80% of American women report using hormonal contraceptives sometime during their life, the influence of combined oral contraceptives (OCs) on MSNA and systemic hemodynamics remains equivocal. The goal of this study was to determine whether women taking OCs have altered MSNA and hemodynamics (cardiac output and total peripheral resistance) at rest during the placebo phase of OC use compared with women with natural menstrual cycles during the early follicular phase. We retrospectively analyzed data from studies in which healthy, premenopausal women (aged 18-35 years) participated. We collected MSNA values at rest and hemodynamic measurements in women taking OCs (n=53; 25±4 years) and women with natural menstrual cycles (n=74; 25±4 years). Blood pressure was higher in women taking OCs versus those with natural menstrual cycles (mean arterial pressure, 89±1 versus 85±1 mm Hg, respectively; P=0.01), although MSNA was similar in both groups (MSNA burst incidence, 16±1 versus 18±1 bursts/100 heartbeats, respectively; P=0.19). In a subset of women in which detailed hemodynamic data were available, those taking OCs (n=33) had similar cardiac output (4.9±0.2 versus 4.7±0.2 L/min, respectively; P=0.47) and total peripheral resistance (19.2±0.8 versus 20.0±0.9 U, respectively; P=0.51) as women with natural menstrual cycles (n=22). In conclusion, women taking OCs have higher resting blood pressure and similar MSNA and hemodynamics during the placebo phase of OC use when compared with naturally menstruating women in the early follicular phase. PMID:26101348

  13. Oral contraceptive use, muscle sympathetic nerve activity, and systemic hemodynamics in young women

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Ronee E.; Hart, Emma C.; Charkoudian, Nisha; Curry, Timothy B.; Carter, Jason R.; Fu, Qi; Minson, Christopher T.; Joyner, Michael J.; Barnes, Jill N.

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous female sex hormones influence muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), a regulator of arterial blood pressure and important factor in hypertension development. While nearly 80% of American women report using hormonal contraceptives sometime during their life, the influence of combined oral contraceptives (OCs) on MSNA and systemic hemodynamics remains equivocal. The goal of this study was to determine if women taking OCs have altered MSNA and hemodynamics (cardiac output and total peripheral resistance) at rest during the placebo phase of OC use compared to women with natural menstrual cycles during the early follicular phase. We retrospectively analyzed data from studies in which healthy, premenopausal women (ages 18–35 years old) participated. We collected MSNA values at rest and hemodynamic measurements in women taking OCs (n=53, 25±4 yr) and women with natural menstrual cycles (n=74, 25±4 yr). Blood pressure was higher in women taking OCs versus those with natural menstrual cycles (mean arterial pressure: 89±1 vs. 85±1 mmHg, respectively; p=0.01), although MSNA was similar in both groups (MSNA burst incidence: 16±1 vs. 18±1 bursts/100 heartbeats, respectively, p=0.19). In a subset of women in which detailed hemodynamic data were available, those taking OCs (n=33) had similar cardiac output (4.9±0.2 vs. 4.7±0.2 L/min, respectively; p=0.47) and total peripheral resistance (19.2±0.8 vs. 20.0±0.9 units, respectively; p=0.51) as women with natural menstrual cycles (n=22). In conclusion, women taking OCs have higher resting blood pressure and similar MSNA and hemodynamics during the placebo phase of OC use compared to naturally menstruating women in the early follicular phase. PMID:26101348

  14. Generativity as a Route to Active Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Andreas; Schmitt, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We elucidate the significance of active ageing from an individual as well as from a societal perspective. Taking an individual perspective, maintaining activity in later years is linked to successful ageing because of empirical relationships to positive self-perception, satisfaction with life, and development of competences, whereas from a societal perspective, active ageing implies usage of older people's life competences as a human capital of society—a societal imperative, particularly in times of demographic change but also more basically substantiated in an ethics of responsibility, intergenerational solidarity, and generation equity. We focus on the psychological construct of generativity which is interpreted as an aspect of the philosophical-anthropological category of joint responsibility. Our own research in Mexico and the Baltic States supports the notion that maintaining access to the public sphere and active engagement for others is a more basic individual concern than a life-stages specific developmental task. We report background and results of a Dialogue Forum Project Funding, a research cooperation between our institute and the Foundation Remembrance, Responsibility, and Future aimed to improve generativity in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine by implementing and supporting local initiatives offering opportunities for intergenerational dialogue. PMID:22919378

  15. Paraoxonase 1: genetics and activities during aging.

    PubMed

    Marchegiani, Francesca; Marra, Maurizio; Olivieri, Fabiola; Cardelli, Maurizio; James, Richard W; Boemi, Massimo; Franceschi, Claudio

    2008-02-01

    The increasing longevity of the population, one of the most important issues throughout the planet, is a very complex phenomenon (trait), likely resulting from a variety of environmental determinants interacting with and modulated by genetic mechanisms, mostly devoted to maintenance and repair. In fact, the genes involved in longevity impact upon basic processes such as inflammation, glucose and energy utilization, and oxidative stress. Based on the free radical theory of aging, in the past few years we have focused our attention on an enzyme that protects lipids from peroxidative damage-paraoxonase 1 (PON1). PON1 has been widely investigated, especially for its involvement in atherosclerosis and age-related diseases. In this review, we summarize data on the role played by PON1 on aging and its possible involvement in human longevity, focusing on the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and enzyme activity and its capability to counteract oxidative stress. PMID:18279029

  16. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  17. Circadian activity rhythms and risk of incident dementia and MCI in older women

    PubMed Central

    Tranah, Gregory J.; Blackwell, Terri; Stone, Katie L.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Paudel, Misti L.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Cauley, Jane A.; Redline, Susan; Hillier, Teresa A.; Cummings, Steven R; Yaffe, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Objective Previous cross-sectional studies have observed alterations in activity rhythms in dementia patients but the direction of causation is unclear. We determined whether circadian activity rhythms measured in community-dwelling older women are prospectively associated with incident dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Method Activity rhythm data were collected from 1,282 healthy community-dwelling women from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures cohort (mean age 83 years) with wrist actigraphy for a minimum of three 24-hour periods. Each participant completed a neuropsychological test battery and had clinical cognitive status (dementia, MCI, normal) adjudicated by an expert panel approximately 5 years later. All analyses were adjusted for demographics, BMI, functional status, depression, medications, alcohol, caffeine, smoking, health status, and co-morbidities. Results After 4.9 years of follow-up, 195 (15%) women had developed dementia and 302 (24%) had developed MCI. Older women with decreased activity rhythms had a higher likelihood of developing dementia or MCI when comparing those in the lowest quartiles of amplitude (Odds ratio[OR]=1.57,95% CI,1.09–2.25) or rhythm robustness (OR=1.57,95%CI,1.10–2.26) to women in the highest quartiles. An increased risk of dementia or MCI (OR=1.83,95% CI,1.29–2.61) was found for women whose timing of peak activity occurred later in the day (after 3:51PM) when compared to those with average timing (1:34PM–3:51PM). Interpretation Older, healthy women with decreased circadian activity rhythm amplitude and robustness, and delayed rhythms have increased odds of developing dementia and MCI. If confirmed, future studies should examine whether interventions (physical activity, bright light exposure) that influence activity rhythms will reduce the risk of cognitive deterioration in the elderly. PMID:22162057

  18. Activity Determinants among Mexican American Women in a Border Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mexican American women have the highest leisure-time physical inactivity prevalence of any ethnic minority group. Purpose: This study examined a sample of Mexican American females living near the U.S.-Mexico border to determine whether the variables of age, health status, educational level, marital status, and acculturation…

  19. Dietary flavonoid intake at midlife and healthy aging in women123

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K; Rimm, Eric B; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dietary flavonoids have been related to lower risks of various chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether flavonoid intake in midlife helps to maintain good health and wellbeing in aging. Objective: We examined the relation of flavonoid intake in midlife with the prevalence of healthy aging. Design: We included 13,818 women from the Nurses’ Health Study with dietary data and no major chronic diseases in 1984–1986 when they were aged in their late 50s (median age: 59 y); all women provided information on multiple aspects of aging an average of 15 y later. Intakes of 6 major flavonoid subclasses in midlife were ascertained on the basis of averaged intakes of flavonoid-rich foods from 2 food-frequency questionnaires (1984–1986). We defined healthy compared with usual aging as of age 70 y; healthy aging was based on survival to ≥70 y with maintenance of 4 health domains (no major chronic diseases or major impairments in cognitive or physical function or mental health). Results: Of women who survived until ≥70 y of age, 1517 women (11.0%) met our criteria for healthy aging. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, women in the highest quintile of intake of several flavonoid subclasses at midlife had greater odds of healthy aging. After multivariable adjustment, ORs were as follows: flavones, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.58); flavanone, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.53); anthocyanin, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50); and flavonol, 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.42) (all P-trend ≤ 0.02). Consistently, greater intakes of major sources of these flavonoids (i.e., oranges, berries, onions, and apples) were associated with increased odds of healthy aging. We showed no association with flavan-3-ol monomers (P-trend = 0.80) or polymers (P-trend = 0.63). Conclusion: Higher intake of flavonoids at midlife, specifically flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavonols, is associated with greater likelihood of health and wellbeing in individuals surviving to older ages. PMID

  20. Development of a rubella vaccination strategy: contribution of a rubella susceptibility study of women of childbearing age in Kyrgyzstan, 2001.

    PubMed

    Malakmadze, Naile; Zimmerman, Laura A; Uzicanin, Amra; Shteinke, Luidmila; Caceres, Victor M; Kasymbekova, Kaliya; Sozina, Irina; Glasser, John W; Joldubaeva, Mira; Aidyralieva, Chinara; Icenogle, Joseph P; Strebel, Peter M; Reef, Susan E

    2004-06-15

    To contribute to the development of a rubella vaccination strategy, we conducted a study to determine age-specific susceptibility among women aged 15-39 years by testing for rubella-specific IgG antibodies. Of 964 women, 13% were found to be susceptible to rubella. Significantly higher susceptibility among women >25 years old was observed. Susceptibility data are important but are not sufficient to develop a vaccination strategy. After considering all available information, we suggested vaccination of women aged <35 years and selective vaccination of older women who were planning pregnancy. PMID:15227627

  1. Physical Activity Beliefs, Barriers, and Enablers among Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Aytur, Semra A.; Borodulin, Katja

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background and Methods Physical activity during postpartum is both a recommended and an essential contributor to maternal health. Understanding the beliefs, barriers, and enablers regarding physical activity during the postpartum period can more effectively tailor physical activity interventions. The objective of this study was to document self-reported beliefs, barriers, and enablers to physical activity among a cohort of women queried at 3 and 12 months postpartum. Five questions about beliefs and two open-ended questions about their main barriers and enablers regarding physical activity and exercise were asked of 667 women at 3 months postpartum. Among the sample, 530 women answered the same questions about barriers and enablers to physical activity at 12 months postpartum. Results Agreement on all five beliefs statements was high (≥89%), indicating that women thought that exercise and physical activity were appropriate at 3 months postpartum, even if they continued to breastfeed. For the cohort, the most common barriers to physical activity at both 3 and 12 months postpartum were lack of time (47% and 51%, respectively) and issues with child care (26% and 22%, respectively). No barrier changed by more than 5% from 3 to 12 months postpartum. For the cohort, the most common enablers at 3 months postpartum were partner support (16%) and desire to feel better (14%). From 3 to 12 months postpartum, only one enabler changed by >5%; women reported baby reasons (e.g., baby older, healthier, not breastfeeding, more active) more often at 12 months than at 3 months postpartum (32% vs. 10%). Environmental/policy and organizational barriers and enablers were reported less often than intrapersonal or interpersonal barriers at both time points. Conclusions A number of barriers and enablers were identified for physical activity, most of which were consistent at 3 and 12 months postpartum. This study provides information to create more successful interventions to

  2. Recruitment strategies for an acupuncture randomized clinical trial of reproductive age women

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, Lisa M.; Dalal, Parchayi

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objectives To assess the most effective recruitment strategies for an acupuncture clinical trial of reproductive age women. Design The underlying study is an acupuncture randomized clinical trial for an ovulatory disorder that affects approximately 6.5% of reproductive age women (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome). Study participation involved 2 months of intervention and 3 months of follow-up with US$170 compensation. Success of each recruitment method used during the first 37 study months was analyzed. Setting Clinical trial in the Dept. of OB/GYN at the University of Virginia, US. The original geographic residency target was an 80 mile radius around a college town in Virginia (population 155,000), and was expanded to the state capital (population 850,000) in recruitment year 2. Main outcome measures Number of study inquiries (phone calls or emails) over time and by recruitment source. Results In the first 37 months of recruitment (Jan 2006 – Jan 2009), there were 800 study inquiries (582 by phone, 218 by email), of which 749 were screened via telephone questionnaire. The most successful recruitment methods were flyers (28% of inquiries and 26 % of participants) and direct mailing to targeted zip codes (26% and 27%, respectively). The direct mailing cost US$110/inquiry, while the flyers cost less than US$300 in total. Study inquiries were least likely in May and November. Almost all prospective participants (94%) were acupuncture-naïve. Conclusions Posters/flyers and direct mailings proved to be the most successful recruitment methods for this CAM study. Active recruitment with multiple methods was needed for continual enrollment. PMID:19632551

  3. Factors associated with cervical cancer screening amongst women of reproductive age from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Conde-Ferraez, Laura; Suarez Allen, Rosa Etelvina; Carrillo Martinez, Jorge Ramiro; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Losa, Maria Del Refugio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the participation of women of reproductive age in a cancer screening program, and survey reasons for non-screening in a region from Mexico with high cervical cancer mortality. A total of 281 obstetric patients from a previous HPV study in a social security hospital during 2008-2009 were included. Reasons for not participating in the screening were directly asked. HPV positive patients were invited to participate in an informative workshop, and they filled in a knowledge questionnaire. The women ranged in age from 14-47 years; 123 (43.8%) had never participated in screening, of which 97 (78.9%) had their first sexual intercourse 2 to 10 years ago, resulting in 25% HPV positive. Screening history was strongly associated with 2 or more gestations (OR= 10.07, p=0.00) and older age (OR=6.69 p=0.00). When 197 women were contacted and interviewed, reasons referred for non-screening were ignorance, lack of interest or time, recent sexual onset, shame and fear. More than 50% of the workshop participants showed knowledge of HPV, while 38.9% and 25% knew about Pap smear and cervical cancer. A high percentage of women of reproductive age have never had a Pap smear. Promoting the screening program in medical facilities seems to be important in this population. New approaches to inform vulnerable individuals on the benefits of screening need to be implemented, especially for young women. PMID:23167409

  4. Aortic input impedance increases with age in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Mazzaro, Luciano; Almasi, Stephen J; Shandas, Robin; Seals, Douglas R; Gates, Phillip E

    2005-06-01

    Aortic input impedance represents the hydraulic load presented by the systemic circulation to the left ventricle of the heart and is increased in patients with cardiovascular disease. Aging is a strong independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and could exert this effect partly through an increase in modulus of aortic input impedance. We used a novel noninvasive technique to determine aortic input impedance in 71 healthy men and women aged 20 to 69 years. We found that the aortic input impedance spectrum was shifted rightward with advancing age, characterized by a 37% increase in the frequency of the minimum modulus between the third and seventh decade (P<0.0001). The frequency of the minimum modulus correlated with age in all subjects (r=0.48; P<0.0001), in men (r=0.43; P<0.005), and in women (r=0.53; P=0.001). Although several physical characteristics were associated with the frequency of the minimum modulus (bivariate correlation), a regression model that included age and these physical characteristics showed that age was the only independent predictor of the frequency of the minimum modulus. We conclude that aortic input impedance increases with advancing age in healthy men and women. This increase in aortic input impedance may be an important mechanism by which age increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in humans. PMID:15867143

  5. Association of age at menarche with metabolic syndrome and its components in rural Bangladeshi women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early age at menarche is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome in both China and the West. However, little is known about the impact of age at menarche and metabolic syndrome in South Asian women, including those from low-income country, where age at menarche is also falling. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether age at menarche is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in Bangladeshi women, who are mostly poor and have limited access to and or poor health care facilities. Methods This community-based cross-sectional study was performed using 1423 women aged between 15–75 years from rural Bangladesh in 2009 and 2010. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to standard NCEP-ATP III criteria. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between age at menarche and metabolic syndrome, with adjustment of potential confounding variables, including age, education, marital status, tobacco users, use of contraceptives and number of pregnancies. Results Early onset of menarche (<12 years) as compared to late onset (>13 years) was found to be associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio=1.55; 95 % confidence interval =1.05-2.30). Age at onset of menarche was also inversely associated with prevalence of high triglycerides (P for trend <0.01) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P for trend = 0.01), but positively associated with prevalence of high fasting blood glucose (P for trend =0.02). However, no significant association was found between age at menarche, high blood pressure and elevated waist circumference. Conclusion Early onset of menarche might promote or trigger development of metabolic syndrome. Thus, knowledge of the history of age at onset of menarche may be critical in identifying women at risk of developing metabolic syndrome and those likely to benefit the most from early interventions. PMID:23140264

  6. [Celiac disease. Risk factors for women in reproductive age].

    PubMed

    Stazi, A V; Mantovani, A

    2000-05-01

    In the past coeliac disease, or intolerance to gluten, has been considered a rare disease in infancy, whose most important signs were chronic diarrhea with malabsorption and reduced growth. However, besides this classical form, there are a number of other clinical and subclinical forms which may appear even in the adult life and without any overt intestinal sign. The alterations may affect, e.g., the liver, thyroid, skin and the female and male reproductive system. The overall prevalence of the different forms of coeliac disease in Western Europe is at least 1:300. The aim of the present paper is to describe and evaluate the effects of coeliac disease on female reproduction. Such effects include delayed menarche, amenorrhea, infertility and early menopause. Epidemiological studies show that besides reduced fertility, affected women are at higher risk of reproductive problems such as pregnancy loss, low birthweight of offspring and reduced duration of breastfeeding. There are no adequate studies to evidentiate a possible increase of birth defects; nevertheless, coeliac disease induces malabsorption, with deficiencies of nutritional factors essential to prenatal development such as iron, folic acid and vitamin K. The mechanisms underlying the reproductive alterations are still awaiting clarification; however, an interaction among specific nutritional deficiencies, endocrine imbalances and immune disturbances is suspected. As for the other effects associated to the coeliac disease, the possible prevention or treatment of the reproductive effects is only the lifelong maintenance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:11048475

  7. [Caring for healthy aging: building an educational process with rural women].

    PubMed

    Portella, M R

    1999-01-01

    This study analyses a proposal of nursing assistance. The project proposed has as its goal the construction of an educational process aiming a healthy aging among rural women. It is important to emphasize that these women's cultural health practices were taken into consideration in this research. The conceptual milestones adopted were drawn from Madeleine Leninger's concept of "cultural care" and Paulo Freire's pedagogical ideas. The educational process being proposed is based on the idea of caring/educating in which the nursing professional and the group share experiences through reflective dialog, and seek cultural health practices that can contribute on a healthy aging. PMID:12138632

  8. Socioeconomic factors, immigration status, and cancer screening among Mexican American women aged 75 and older

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A.; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    2011-01-01

    To explore the association between socioeconomic factors and acculturation with cancer screening methods, we analyzed data from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly, on 1,272 women aged 75 and older residing in the United States in 2004-2005. We found that lower Pap smear or mammography uses were associated with older age, lower education, and having public health insurance compared to private. Other factors associated with mammography use were depressive symptoms, cognition and functional limitations. In sum, socioeconomic factors and health insurance coverage determine cancer screening utilization in very old Mexican American women but not acculturation. PMID:21058091

  9. Accepting "total and complete responsibility": new age neo-feminist violence against women.

    PubMed

    Sethna, C

    1992-02-01

    Barry Konikov, a hypnotherapist, of Potentials Unlimited Inc., a Michigan-based company which produces approximately 160 Subliminal Persuasion/Self Hypnosis tapes, promises his listeners miracles. The tapes on premenstrual syndrome, abortion, and sexual abuse were analyzed. The self-hypnosis message by Konikov is dangerous for women, because his antifeminism, misogyny, and patriarchism are couched insidiously within New Age neofeminism. Under therapeutic guidance the woman listener can direct her own transformation to complete mental, physical, and spiritual well-being, and her new and improved self is so empowered as to accept total and complete responsibility to overcome the hurt about menstruation, abortion, or sexual abuse. Growth therapies such as Gestalt, guided fantasies, and bioenergetics undermine women with false promises of power. If women are so powerful, then it is their fault if they got raped, or battered, or if they have not received love, money, and inner peace. While seemingly empowering women to develop a strong sense of personal agency, Konikov ignores the patriarchal structures which intersect his women listeners' experience of menstrual discomfort, abortion, and sexual abuse. Konikov's New Age, neofeminist stance contains 4 stages of healing: responsibility, absolution, forgiveness, and resolution. Accepting responsibility for the wound next leads to absolution, and particularly absolution for men. As an example of absolution, Konikov's woman client-ex-plantation slave accepted her past-life relationship to her husband, absolved him of guild, and decided upon a divorce. The issue of absolution widens into forgiveness in the healing process, whereby Konikov wants women to hypnotize themselves therapy should be to help a woman see how her own power as an individual is inextricably bound to the collective power of women as a group. There is no doubt that the New Age neofeminist stance taken by Konikov on the tapes leaves women profoundly

  10. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Narbada; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Puri, Rupendra; Shrestha, Saraswoti; Shrestha, Sheela; Thapa, Pukar; Mehata, Suresh; Thapa, Pushpa; Banjara, Megha Raj; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite anumber of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age. Methods A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis. Results National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7–28.0), last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3–20.7) and last 30 days (current drinking) 11.8% (95% CI:9.8–14.1). There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages

  11. Reference data for ultrasonic bone measurement: variation with age in 2087 Caucasian women aged 16-93 years.

    PubMed

    Truscott, J G

    1997-10-01

    Data from the measurement of broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS), using the Lunar Achilles ultrasonic densitometer, were collected for Caucasian women from five centres in the United Kingdom (Leeds, London, Nottingham, Lincoln and Sheffield). After correcting for machine variability at each site, the data were combined into a central reference database comprising 2087 women aged 16-93 years. The data are presented in 5-year bands and show a mean fall of 0.36% per year for BUA and 0.08% per year for SOS in the 60 years following the attainment of peak bone mass. This fall in BUA compares with that observed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry studies of the lumbar spine and femoral neck of 0.32% per year and 0.44% per year, respectively, for the age range 25-65 years. PMID:9404204

  12. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  13. Do Thai women of child bearing age need pre-conceptional supplementation of dietary folate?

    PubMed

    Sirikulchayanonta, Chutima; Madjupa, Kannatcha; Chongsuwat, Rewadee; Pandii, Wongdyan

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies in western countries have indicated that women with low serum folate before pregnancy have greater risk of giving birth to babies with neural tube defects, and preconceptional folate supplementation has been recommended to prevent such defects. To determine whether Thai women needed folate supplementation before pregnancy, we carried out a cross-sectional study from September 2001 to January 2002. The objectives were to determine serum folate levels among women of child-bearing age and their relationship to dietary folate intake. One hundred and sixty-five apparently healthy, volunteer women aged 15 - 45 years were recruited from the Family Planning Clinic, Mother and Child Hospital, Health Promotion Centre, Region I, Bangkok. Data on general characteristics, nutritional status and dietary folate intake were recorded while venous blood was drawn for serum folate analysis. Results showed that 65.5% of the study group had low dietary folate intake, that 18% had low serum folate, and that there was a significant correlation between dietary intake and serum level (r = 0.68, P<0.001). There were also significant correlations between serum level and body mass index, (r =0.13, P<0.001). However, there were no significant associations between serum level and age, educational level, occupation, family income, or duration vegetables were stored in the refrigerator before consumption. In conclusion, there is preliminary evidence that some pregnant Thai women may have sufficiently low serum folate levels to put their babies at risk. We recommend further study on a larger scale to confirm whether folate supplementation is needed for Thai women at child bearing age. In the interim, it may be wise for obstetricians to measure serum folate in pregnant women to determine whether folate supplementation is required. PMID:15003917

  14. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above.

    PubMed

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥ 30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ≥ CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥ CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ≥ CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ≥ 50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30-65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  15. Cytomegalovirus seroprevalence among women of childbearing age during a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Gary S; Stout, Gordon G

    2005-10-01

    The incidence of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is dependent on the rate of virus acquisition by susceptible women in temporal proximity to pregnancy. Information about serostatus may help to identify high-risk groups and target interventions. Each year from 1991 to 2000, cord blood specimens (surrogates for maternal serum) from 100 consecutive deliveries were obtained at three hospitals. The presence of CMV immunoglobulin G antibody was correlated with demographic data. Overall, 58% of 2992 women were seropositive. After stratification by socioeconomic status (SES), nonwhite race was strongly associated with seropositivity (odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5 to 3.8), and after stratification by race, lower SES also was associated (odds ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.7 to 2.3). There were no trends in seroprevalence over time in any demographic group. However, among white women 21 to 29 years of age, a significant association was found with later birth cohort. Seropositivity ranged from 40% among older, white primigravidas of upper SES to 89% among older, nonwhite, multigravid women of lower SES. These data suggest high rates of CMV transmission among nonwhite women of lower SES. Because these women tended to deliver infants at younger ages, delaying pregnancy even a few years might reduce the incidence of congenital disease. In contrast, most white, upper SES women remain susceptible to primary infection during their childbearing years. Such women born after 1975 may be more likely to reach the childbearing years with CMV immunity as compared with women born before then. PMID:16215924

  16. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. PMID:22388946

  17. Prospective Change in Health-Related Quality of Life and Subsequent Mortality Among Middle-Aged and Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Kroenke, Candyce H.; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Adler, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine prospective changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures and subsequent mortality in middle-aged and older women. Methods. We obtained data from 40 337 healthy women from the Nurses’ Health Study aged 46 to 71 years in 1992. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate associations of changes in self-assessed physical and mental component summary (PCS and MCS) scores from the Short Form 36 Health Survey between 1992 and 1996 and between 1996 and 2000, with all-cause mortality through 2004. Results. Women with low HRQoL (PCS and MCS scores) and the greatest HRQoL declines had higher mortality than did women with stable scores. Change in PCS score predicted mortality across the range of 4-year change: severe decline (relative risk [RR] = 3.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.45, 4.50), moderate decline (RR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.16, 1.79), slight decline (RR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.12, 1.63), no change (reference category), improvement (RR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.56, 0.91; continuous P < .001). MCS score results were similar. Score increases were associated with lifestyle improvements, especially increased physical activity. Conclusions. Observed associations demonstrate the predictive validity of changes in self-assessed HRQoL for subsequent mortality in healthy populations. Future research should examine determinants of patterns of change. PMID:18511734

  18. Age-related decrements in bone mineral density in women over 65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiger, P.; Cummings, S. R.; Black, D. M.; Spencer, N. E.; Genant, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    Age-related changes in bone density contribute to the risk of fractures. To describe the relationship between age and bone mass in elderly women, we studied a large cohort of women over age 65 years who were recruited from population-based lists in four cities in the United States. Bone density in g/cm2 was measured by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the distal and proximal radius, the calcaneus, the lumbar spine, and the proximal femur. Centralized data collection was used to control data quality and consistency. We found a strong inverse relationship between bone density and age for most sites. Decrements in bone density between women aged 65-69 years and women 85 years and older exceeded 16% in all regions except the spine, where the difference between the two age groups was 6%. Ward's triangle and the calcaneus exhibited the largest decrements, with 26 and 21%, respectively. The estimates of annual changes in bone mineral density by linear regression at sites other than the spine ranged from -0.82% at the femoral neck and trochanter to -1.30% at Ward's triangle. Correlations between the different regions ranged from r = 0.51 between the proximal radius and Ward's triangle to r = 0.66 between the distal radius and calcaneus. We conclude that the inverse relationship between age and bone mass measured by absorptiometry techniques in white women continues into the ninth decade of life. The relationship is strongest for bone density of Ward's triangle and the calcaneus and weakest for the spine.

  19. Management of women with Gaucher disease in the reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Hanna

    2015-02-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is a lysosomal disorder caused by inherited deficiency of glucocerebrosidase, resulting in the accumulation of glucocerebroside in macrophages, termed "Gaucher cells" (GCs), leading to multiorgan involvement, with hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, pulmonary hypertension and osseous complications. The characteristic feature of GD is the organ GCs infiltration compromising their function by inducing local inflammation, infarcts and fibrosis. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) available for over two decades improves hematological abnormalities, reverses the visceromegaly, ameliorates bone symptoms and prevents further skeletal complications. GD affects most female events during the reproductive age, particularly, fertility, pregnancy, delivery and puerperium. While pregnancy in GD may exacerbate disease manifestations, the disease may have deleterious effect on female reproductive health milestones. ERT has a beneficial effect on the pregnancy outcome in terms of the risk of spontaneous abortion and GD-related complications, particularly bleeding during delivery and postpartum. Treatment approaches and management aspects of reproductive age events are reviewed hereby, with a focus on the outcome improvement of pregnancies, deliveries and postpartum period in GD patients. PMID:25903536

  20. The complexities of female aging: Four women protagonists in Penelope Lively's novels.

    PubMed

    Oró-Piqueras, Maricel

    2016-01-01

    Penelope Lively is a well-known contemporary British author who has published a good number of novels and short stories since she started her literary career in her late thirties. In her novels, Lively looks at the lives of contemporary characters moulded by specific historical as well as cultural circumstances. Four of her novels, published from 1987 to 2004, present middle-aged and older women as their main protagonists. Through the voices and thoughts of these female characters, the reader is presented with a multiplicity of realities in which women find themselves after their mid-fifties within a contemporary context. Being a woman and entering into old age is a double-sided jeopardy which has increasingly been present in contemporary fiction. Scholars such as Simone de Beauvoir (1949) and Susan Sontag (1972) were among the first to point out a "double standard of aging" when they assured that women were punished when showing external signs of aging much sooner than men. In Lively's four novels, the aging protagonists present their own stories and, through them, as well as through the voices of those around them, the reader is invited to go beyond the aging appearance of the female protagonists while challenging the limiting conceptions attached to the old body and, by extension, to the social and cultural overtones associated with old age. PMID:26880600

  1. Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Mathew V.; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Beckfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (1959–1962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) I–III (1971–1994), and NHANES 1999–2008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 2005–2008 it had reversed and was −0.33 years lower (95% CI = −0.54, −0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend < .05), and high rates of change occurred solely among Black women (all SEP strata) and low-income White women who underwent menarche before 1960. Conclusions. Trends in US age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121

  2. The relationship between age of coital debut and HIV seroprevalence among women in Durban, South Africa: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ramjee, Gita

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the impact of early sexual debut on HIV seroprevalence and incidence rates among a cohort of women. Design Prospective study. Setting KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Participants A total of 3492 sexually active women who consented to screen a HIV prevention trial during September 2002 to September 2005; a total of 1485 of them were followed for approximately 24 months. Primary and secondary outcome measures HIV seroprevalence among those who were screened for the trial and HIV seroconversion among those who seroconverted during the study. Results Lowest quintiles of age at sexual debut, less than high school education, a higher number of lifetime sexual partners and lack of cohabitation, being diagnosed as having herpes simplex virus 2 and other sexually transmitted infections were all significantly associated with prevalent HIV infection in multivariate analysis. During follow-up, 148 (6.8 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 5.8 to 8.0) women seroconverted. Highest seroconversion rate was observed among women who had reported to have had sex 15 years or younger (12.0 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 8.0 to 18.0). Overall, impact of risk factors considered in this study was associated with considerable potential reductions in HIV prevalence and incidence rates (population attributable risk: 85%, 95% CI 84% to 87% and population attributable risk: 77%, 95% CI 72% to 82%, respectively). Conclusions The association of HIV status with younger age at sexual debut may likely due to an increased number of lifetime partners. This increase could result from longer duration of sexual life. Prevention of HIV infection should include efforts to delay age at first sex in young women. Trial registration number NCT00121459. PMID:22223838

  3. Objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity in women with fibromyalgia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Ortega, Francisco B; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Aparicio, Virginia A; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Femia, Pedro; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterise levels of objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity in women with fibromyalgia. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Local Association of Fibromyalgia (Granada, Spain). Participants The study comprised 94 women with diagnosed fibromyalgia who did not have other severe somatic or psychiatric disorders, or other diseases that prevent physical loading, able to ambulate and to communicate and capable and willing to provide informed consent. Primary outcome measures Sedentary time and physical activity were measured by accelerometry and expressed as time spent in sedentary behaviours, average physical activity intensity (counts/minute) and amount of time (minutes/day) spent in moderate intensity and in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Results The proportion of women meeting the physical activity recommendations of 30 min/day of MVPA on 5 or more days a week was 60.6%. Women spent, on average, 71% of their waking time (approximately 10 h/day) in sedentary behaviours. Both sedentary behaviour and physical activity levels were similar across age groups, waist circumference and percentage body fat categories, years since clinical diagnosis, marital status, educational level and occupational status, regardless of the severity of the disease (all p>0.1). Time spent on moderate-intensity physical activity and MVPA was, however, lower in those with greater body mass index (BMI) (−6.6 min and −7 min, respectively, per BMI category increase, <25, 25–30, >30 kg/m2; p values for trend were 0.056 and 0.051, respectively). Women spent, on average, 10 min less on MVPA (p<0.001) and 22 min less on sedentary behaviours during weekends compared with weekdays (p=0.051). Conclusions These data provide an objective measure of the amount of time spent on sedentary activities and on physical activity in women with fibromyalgia. PMID:23794573

  4. Parity and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Middle-aged and Older Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lijun; Wu, Jing; Xu, Guiqiang; Song, Lulu; Yang, Siyi; Yuan, Jing; Liang, Yuan; Wang, Youjie

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy leads to physiological changes in lipid, glucose levels, and weight, which may increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in later life. The purpose of this study was to examine whether parity is associated with CHD in middle-aged and older Chinese women. A total of 20,207 women aged 37 to 94 years from Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort who completed the questionnaire, were medically examined and provided blood samples, were included in our analysis. CHD cases were determined by self-report of physician diagnosis through face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between parity and CHD. The rate of CHD was 15.8%. Parity had a positive association with CHD without adjustment of covariates. After controlling for the potential confounders, increasing risk of coronary heart disease was observed in women who had two (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.41–1.93), three (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.44–2.16), and four or more live births (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.33–2.20) compared with women with just one live birth. High parity was significantly associated with increasing risk of CHD in Chinese women. This suggests that multiparity may be a risk factor for CHD among Chinese women. PMID:26607032

  5. A Priori Attitudes Predict Amniocentesis Uptake in Women of Advanced Maternal Age: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Grinshpun-Cohen, Julia; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Rhee-Morris, Laila; Briscoe, Barbara; Pras, Elon; Towner, Dena

    2015-01-01

    Amniocentesis is an invasive procedure performed during pregnancy to determine, among other things, whether the fetus has Down syndrome. It is often preceded by screening, which gives a probabilistic risk assessment. Thus, ample information is conveyed to women with the goal to inform their decisions. This study examined the factors that predict amniocentesis uptake among pregnant women of advanced maternal age (older than 35 years old at the time of childbirth). Participants filled out a questionnaire regarding risk estimates, demographics, and attitudes on screening and pregnancy termination before their first genetic counseling appointment and were followed up to 24 weeks of gestation. Findings show that women's decisions are not always informed by screening results or having a medical indication. Psychological factors measured at the beginning of pregnancy: amniocentesis risk tolerance, pregnancy termination tolerance, and age risk perception affected amniocentesis uptake. Although most women thought that screening for Down syndrome risk would inform their decision, they later stated other reasons for screening, such as preparing for the possibility of a child with special needs. Findings suggest that women's decisions regarding amniocentesis are driven not only by medical factors, but also by a priori attitudes. The authors believe that these should be addressed in the dialogue on women's informed use of prenatal tests. PMID:26065331

  6. Health in middle-aged and elderly women: A conceptual framework for healthy menopause.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Loes; Daan, Nadine M P; van Dijk, Gabriella M; Gazibara, Tatjana; Muka, Taulant; Wen, Ke-Xin; Meun, Cindy; Zillikens, M Carola; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Laan, Ellen; Rees, Margaret; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women constitute a large and growing proportion of the population. The peri and postmenopausal period constitutes a challenging transition time for women's health, and menopausal health is a crucial aspect in healthy and successful aging. Currently, no framework for the concept of healthy menopause exists, despite its recognized importance. Therefore, we aimed to: (i) characterize healthy menopause; (ii) identify aspects that contribute to it; and (iii) explore potential approaches to measure it. We propose healthy menopause as a dynamic state, following the permanent loss of ovarian function, which is characterized by self-perceived satisfactory physical, psychological and social functioning, incorporating disease and disability, allowing the attainment of a woman's desired ability to adapt and capacity to self-manage. The concept of healthy menopause applies to all women from the moment they enter the menopausal transition, up until they reach early and late postmenopause and includes women with spontaneous, iatrogenic, and premature menopause. This conceptualization can be considered as a further step in the maintenance and improvement of health in menopausal women from different perspectives, foremost the woman's own perspective, followed by the clinical, public health, and societal perspectives, and can be seen as a further step in delineating lines for future research. Furthermore, it could facilitate the improvement of adequate preventive and treatment strategies, guide scientific efforts, and aid education and communication to health care practitioners and the general public, allowing women the achievement of their potential and the fulfillment of their fundamental role in society. PMID:25813865

  7. Applying Transtheoretical Model to Promote Physical Activities Among Women

    PubMed Central

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Ghofranipour, Fazllolah; Feizi, Awat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is one of the most important indicators of health in communities but different studies conducted in the provinces of Iran showed that inactivity is prevalent, especially among women. Objectives: Inadequate regular physical activities among women, the importance of education in promoting the physical activities, and lack of studies on the women using transtheoretical model, persuaded us to conduct this study with the aim of determining the application of transtheoretical model in promoting the physical activities among women of Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This research was a quasi-experimental study which was conducted on 141 women residing in Isfahan, Iran. They were randomly divided into case and control groups. In addition to the demographic information, their physical activities and the constructs of the transtheoretical model (stages of change, processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy) were measured at 3 time points; preintervention, 3 months, and 6 months after intervention. Finally, the obtained data were analyzed through t test and repeated measures ANOVA test using SPSS version 16. Results: The results showed that education based on the transtheoretical model significantly increased physical activities in 2 aspects of intensive physical activities and walking, in the case group over the time. Also, a high percentage of people have shown progress during the stages of change, the mean of the constructs of processes of change, as well as pros and cons. On the whole, a significant difference was observed over the time in the case group (P < 0.01). Conclusions: This study showed that interventions based on the transtheoretical model can promote the physical activity behavior among women. PMID:26834796

  8. [Age, activity and strength of knee ligaments].

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, W J; Rosocha, S; Bosch, U; Oestern, H J; Tscherne, H

    1991-07-01

    The cruciate ligaments of older persons are thought to have diminished biomechanical properties. On the other hand, joint immobilization also leads to similar functional losses in ligaments. It can be difficult to differentiate between these factors in older and immobile persons. The anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments of six younger (average age 30 years) and six older (average age 64.7 years) donors with similar levels of activity were subjected to biomechanical testing. Each sample had to meet the following conditions: appropriate age, no chronic vascular and cardiopulmonary disease found on autopsy, no signs of osteoarthrosis and no knee injuries. The material properties of maximum stress (e.g. ACL: young/old 24/21N/mm2), elastic modulus (e.g. ACL: young/old 144/129 MPa), and strain (e.g. ACL: young/old 25/28%), did not differ significantly (p less than 0.05). This indicates that older persons who are active do not necessarily show functional losses in the cruciate ligaments. Other data found in the literature can be ascribed to immobilization influences. In this data many of the older test persons had chronic vascular insufficiency, cardiopulmonary disease or malignancies. PMID:1925614

  9. Motives of College Women for Participating in Physical Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundegren, Herberta

    One hundred and fifty-one college women, 88 non-physical education majors, and 63 physical education majors were given a 75-item Q-sort of statements on motives for participation in physical activity and a background questionnaire that elicited demographic data and information on sports activity experience. The Q-sort data for each major group…

  10. Differences in hypertension prevalence among U.S. black and white women of childbearing age.

    PubMed Central

    Geronimus, A T; Andersen, H F; Bound, J

    1991-01-01

    Hypertension and its sequelae complicate pregnancy and can result in poor perinatal outcomes. Overall, U.S. blacks are more likely to be hypertensive than whites, but the degree to which this is true among women of childbearing age (including teenagers) is unknown. Using data from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), the authors describe hypertension prevalence rates for 422 black and 2,700 white reproductive-age women. The authors present observed data and also predicted prevalence rates derived by modeling the odds of hypertension using logistic regression statistical techniques. They find that black-white differences in hypertension prevalence are negligible among teenagers, but they are pronounced in the older reproductive ages. They estimate that twice the proportion of black women relative to white are hypertensive during pregnancy. Their results suggest that differential rates of hypertension between black and white women may contribute to the persistent excess infant mortality among blacks, but conclusive results cannot be determined from these data. These data are also valuable for the design and evaluation of screening, intervention, and followup programs for hypertensive disease among young women. PMID:1908590

  11. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Health-promoting Behaviors: The Experience of Iranian Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Baheiraei, Azam; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is scant information on the facilitators and inhibitors of health-promoting behaviors among reproductive-aged Iranian women. This study aims to explore the experience of factors influencing health-promoting behaviors among Iranian women of reproductive age from a qualitative perspective. Methods: This study was performed in Tehran in 2011, over about 8 months. Qualitative methods, specifically in-depth interviews, were used to gather data on 15 women of reproductive age. Data continued to be collected until introduction of new information ceased. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by conventional content analysis. Results: The reported factors were categorized into four main groups and 12 subgroups: (1) personal barriers (lack of time, school or work duties, lack of preparation or motivation, physical disability); (2) socio-environmental barriers (family responsibilities, environmental pressures, high-costs and financial pressures); (3) personal facilitators (personal interest and motivation, experience of disease); and (4) socio-environmental facilitators (family and social support networks, encouraging and motivating environment, media, and public education). Conclusions: In these women's experience, factors influencing health-promoting behaviors were either facilitators or inhibitors; most were inhibitors. The findings of this study show that, in addition to personal factors, the pursuit of health-promoting behaviors is affected by socio-environmental factors. These results will be useful in designing interventions and plans for women's health promotion that focus on the improvement of their environment and the modification of social factors. PMID:24049620

  12. Age and fertility: can women wait until their early thirties to try for a first birth?

    PubMed

    McDonald, John W; Rosina, Alessandro; Rizzi, Ester; Colombo, Bernardo

    2011-11-01

    Postponing the start of childbearing raises the question of fertility postponed versus fertility foregone. One of the limitations of previous studies of 'How late can you wait?' is that any observed decline in the probability of conception with age could be due to a decline in fecundability with age or due to a decline in coital frequency with age or due to both factors. Using data from a multinational longitudinal study conducted to determine the daily probability of conception among healthy subjects, a discrete-time event history model with long-term survivors (sterile population) is used to study the relationship between age and fecundability for childless women, while controlling for the pattern of intercourse within a menstrual cycle. The findings suggest that women can wait until their early thirties to try for a first birth, providing that they are not already sterile, as the magnitude of the decline in fecundability is very modest and of little practical importance. PMID:21944061

  13. Application of the hypothesis of Developmental Origin of Health and Diseases (DOHaD) in epidemiological studies of women at reproductive age and pregnant women in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    situation creates risk of the occurrence of an epidemics of civilization diseases in our part of Europe of a greater intensity than in other developed countries. The author postulates that the educational actions in the area of health promotion in the control of overweight and obesity should be differentiated according to gender and age. The activities to-date in the field of overweight and obesity control in Poland has led to an increase in the number of girls and young women suffering from nutritional disorders as a result of too drastic methods of losing weight. According to the DOHaD hypothesis applied, this may have tragic results for their off spring and for future generations. PMID:22216813

  14. Depressive symptoms and longitudinal changes in cognition: Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Goveas, Joseph S.; Espeland, Mark A.; Hogan, Patricia E.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Shih, Regina A.; Kotchen, Jane M.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Barnes, Deborah E.; Resnick, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated Depressive symptoms (DS) are associated with incident mild cognitive impairment and probable dementia in postmenopausal women. We examined the association of elevated DS with domain-specific cognitive changes, and the moderating role of cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF) severity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). 2221 elderly women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging were separated into those with (N = 204) and without (N = 2017) elevated DS. DS and multi-domain cognitive outcomes were measured annually for an average follow-up of 5.04 years. Women with elevated DS showed baseline multi-domain cognitive deficits, but longitudinal declines in global cognition only. Persistent DS was related to greater global cognition, and verbal knowledge and fluency, and memory declines. Significant DS-CVD interactions were observed cross-sectionally (but not longitudinally) for figural memory and fine motor speed. Future studies should investigate the role of nonvascular mechanisms linking DS and cognitive decline. PMID:24584465

  15. Women healers of the middle ages: selected aspects of their history.

    PubMed Central

    Minkowski, W L

    1992-01-01

    The stellar role of women as healers during the Middle Ages has received some attention from medical historians but remains little known or appreciated. In the three centuries preceding the Renaissance, this role was heightened by two roughly parallel developments. The first was the evolution of European universities and their professional schools that, for the most part, systematically excluded women as students, thereby creating a legal male monopoly of the practice of medicine. Ineligible as healers, women waged a lengthy battle to maintain their right to care for the sick and injured. The 1322 case of Jacqueline Felicie, one of many healers charged with illegally practicing medicine, raises serious questions about the motives of male physicians in discrediting these women as incompetent and dangerous. The second development was the campaign--promoted by the church and supported by both clerical and civil authorities--to brand women healers as witches. Perhaps the church perceived these women, with their special, often esoteric, healing skills, as a threat to its supremacy in the lives of its parishioners. The result was the brutal persecution of unknown numbers of mostly peasant women. Images p290-a p291-a PMID:1739168

  16. Strength Training Improves Body Image and Physical Activity Behaviors Among Midlife and Older Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Eldridge, Galen; Lynch, Wesley; Paul, Lynn C.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of strength training on body image is understudied. The Strong Women Program, a 10-week, twice weekly strength-training program, was provided by Extension agents to 341 older rural women (62±12 years); changes in body image and other psychosocial variables were evaluated. Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean differences pre- to post-program. Strength training was associated with significant improvements in several dimensions of body image, health-related quality of life, and physical activity behaviors, satisfaction, and comfort among rural aging women—an often underserved population that stands to benefit considerably from similar programs. PMID:25767297

  17. Alcohol use and binge drinking among women of childbearing age - United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheryl H; Denny, Clark H; Cheal, Nancy E; Sniezek, Joseph E; Kanny, Dafna

    2015-09-25

    Excessive alcohol use is risk factor for a wide range of health and social problems including liver cirrhosis, certain cancers, depression, motor vehicle crashes, and violence. Alcohol use during pregnancy can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) and other adverse birth outcomes . Community studies estimate that as many as 2% to 5% of first grade students in the United States might have an FASD, which include physical, behavioral, or learning impairments. In 2005, the Surgeon General reissued an advisory urging women who are or might be pregnant to abstain from alcohol consumption to eliminate the risk for FASDs or other negative birth outcomes. To estimate current prevalences of any alcohol use and binge drinking (consuming four or more drinks on an occasion) among pregnant and nonpregnant women aged 18-44 years in the United States, CDC analyzed 2011-2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. Among pregnant women, the prevalences of any alcohol use and binge drinking in the past 30 days were 10.2% and 3.1%, respectively. Among nonpregnant women, the prevalences of any alcohol use and binge drinking in the past 30 days were 53.6% and 18.2%, respectively. Among binge drinkers, pregnant women reported a significantly higher frequency of binge drinking than nonpregnant women (4.6 and 3.1 episodes, respectively); the largest amount consumed during binge drinking was also higher among pregnant women than nonpregnant women (7.5 versus 6.0 drinks), although this difference was not statistically significant. Implementation of evidence-based clinical and community-level strategies would be expected to reduce binge drinking among pregnant women and women of childbearing age, and any alcohol consumption among women who are or might be pregnant. Healthcare professionals can support these efforts by implementing alcohol screening and brief interventions in their primary care practices, and informing women that there is no known safe level of

  18. Predictors of stress and depressive mood in Portuguese middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Filipa; Maroco, João; Leitão, Mafalda; Leal, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates the predictors of psychological symptoms-stress and depressive mood-in a sample of middle-aged women. A community sample of 1,003 women filled in the questionnaires and instruments, which included the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales and the Life Events Survey; sociodemographic, health, and menopause-related and lifestyle information was also collected. Structural equation modeling was used to build the model that had stress and depressive mood as dependent variables. Health status (both physical and psychological), recent life events, income and menopausal phase were significantly associated with the frequency of stress and depressive symptoms. Additionally, educational level and parity were also significant predictors of depressive mood. This study emphasizes that psychological symptoms occurrence in midlife depends not only on personal variables (such as health and menopausal status) but also on contextual ones (including recent stressful events) that can be a strong influence on how middle-aged women feel. PMID:27351694

  19. Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening among Middle-aged and Older Rural Appalachian Women

    PubMed Central

    Studts, Christina R.; Tarasenko, Yelena N.; Schoenberg, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Although cervical cancer rates in the United States have declined sharply in recent decades, certain groups of women remain at elevated risk, including middle-aged and older women in central Appalachia. Cross-sectional baseline data from a community-based randomized controlled trial were examined to identify barriers to cervical cancer screening. Questionnaires assessing barriers were administered to 345 Appalachian women aged 40-64, years when Pap testing declines and cervical cancer rates increase. Consistent with the PRECEDE/PROCEED framework, participants identified barriers included predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors. Descriptive and bivariate analyses are reported, identifying (a) the most frequently endorsed barriers to screening, and (b) significant associations of barriers with sociodemographic characteristics in the sample. Recommendations are provided to decrease these barriers and, ultimately, improve rates of Pap tests among this traditionally underserved and disproportionately affected group. PMID:23179390

  20. Competing Demands from Aging Parents and Adult Children in Two Cohorts of American Women

    PubMed Central

    Wiemers, Emily E.; Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    In late middle age, individuals may face competing demands on their time and financial resources from elderly parents and young adult children. This study uses the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine changes over time in the probability of having children and living parents for women age 45 to 64. We compare two cohorts: those born in the 1920s and 1930s and those born in the 1940s and 1950s. We find that there has been a dramatic increase in the probability of having children and living parents and that this increase has been driven mainly by changes in life expectancy of the parent generation. We further examine transfers of money and co-residence for women in the later cohort. We find that while women may not give to parents and children concurrently, approximately thirty percent of them have provided support to both parents and children at some point in the past. PMID:26594071

  1. Use of vitamins containing folic acid among women of childbearing age--United States, 2004.

    PubMed

    2004-09-17

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the spine (spina bifida) and brain (anencephaly), affecting approximately 3,000 pregnancies each year in the United States. Periconceptional consumption of the B vitamin folic acid reduces the occurrence of NTDs by 50%-70%. To prevent these defects, the U.S. Public Health Service (1992) and Institute of Medicine (1998) issued separate recommendations that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 micro g of folic acid daily, and the Food and Drug Administration mandated fortification of cereal grain products with folic acid to increase women's daily intake. Fortification of the U.S. food supply with folic acid has resulted in a 26% reduction in NTDs. However, even with fortification, not all women receive adequate levels of folic acid from their diets. Therefore, increasing the use of vitamins containing folic acid remains an important component of NTD prevention. To monitor the use of vitamins containing folic acid among women of childbearing age, the Gallup Organization has conducted a series of surveys for the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation since 1995. This report presents results from the 2004 survey, which indicated that although no substantial increase in the proportion of women who use vitamins containing folic acid daily occurred during 1995-2003, a substantial increase was observed in 2004, with 40% of women aged 18-45 years reporting daily consumption of a vitamin containing folic acid. This report also presents information about women's dieting behaviors. Regardless of dieting status, public health programs should stress the importance of women in their childbearing years consuming 400 micro g of folic acid daily through supplements, fortified foods, and a diet containing folate-rich foods. PMID:15371968

  2. Factors Affecting the Vocational Choice of Women of Different Ages Selecting Clerical and Secretarial Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willmarth, John Gary

    An attempt was made to examine the factors affecting women of different ages in their selection of clerical and secretarial occupations. The factors considered were: health, intelligence, interests, previous work experience, stated reasons for present occupational choice, knowledge of employment opportunities and job requirements, influence of…

  3. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Christina T.L.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K.; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Arnold, Alice M.; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nalls, Michael A.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G.; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S.; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M.; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Press, Michael F.; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F.; Taylor, Herman A.; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K.; Harris, Tamara B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H.; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W.; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA. PMID:24493794

  4. Keeping up with the caravan of life: Successful aging strategies for Iranian women

    PubMed Central

    Javadi-Pashaki, Nazila; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Jafaraghaee, Fateme; Mehrdad, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background Because of improving life expectancy in the world in recent times, the focus has shifted to the issue of the quality and nature of life and how to assist successful aging (SA) rather than increasing physical survival and lifespan. SA is a multidimensional, relative, and context-dependent concept with different paths and outcomes. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore older women's strategies for SA in a specific context. Methods Following a grounded theory design approach, we conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 21 women between the ages of 28 and 96 years. We analyzed the data from interviews, written narratives, and field notes using the grounded theory approach. Results We identified four categories: prevention of threats, internal self-control against threats, coping with threats, and optimizing the passage of time according to opportunity. These described the strategies for SA when encountering with age-related changes. Utilizing these strategies, the women accompanied the caravan of life in the context of threats and opportunities. Conclusions The findings suggest that SA is a continuous process in confronting changes related to age. The identified strategies can help to promote SA by familiarizing older women with the threats and opportunities of life and training them in how to use these strategies. PMID:26610117

  5. OBESITY AND RELATED METABOLIC DISORDERS ARE PREVALENT IN MOROCCAN WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is associated with hypertension and a cluster of metabolic disturbances that mediates the development and progression of chronic disease. The aim of this paper was to study the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) distribution of Moroccan women of child-bearing age and to exami...

  6. High-Frequency, Moderate-Intensity Training in Sedentary Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The effects of a five-day-a-week, moderate-intensity aerobic training program were studied in previously sedentary middle-aged women. After 10 weeks of graduated-length sessions of continuous exercise, the subjects showed a 20 percent improvement in maximal oxygen uptake but no change in body weight or composition. Results are discussed.…

  7. Women and HIV/AIDS Epidemic: The Issue of College Age Girls' Awareness in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momoh, Solomon O.; Moses, Ailemen I.; Ugiomoh, Maria M.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine women and HIV/AIDS epidemic: the issue of school age girls' awareness in Nigeria information was elicited from 1,222 randomly selected regular under-graduate female students from the 11 faculties of the university of Lagos, Nigeria, with the use of a standardized structured questionnaire. Results of the major…

  8. A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory as It Predicts Disordered Eating: Does Women's Age Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Tylka, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    When predicting disordered eating, models incorporating several of objectification theory's (B. L. Fredrickson & T. A. Roberts, 1997) core constructs (i.e., sexual objectification, self-objectification, body shame, poor interoceptive awareness) have been empirically supported with women of traditional undergraduate age who are consistent in age…

  9. Lifetime Achievement Patterns, Retirement and Life Satisfaction of Gifted Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Carole Kovalic

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the relationship of lifetime achievement patterns and retirement, to life satisfaction for gifted aging women (N=352). Results showed a significant interaction between marital status and work pattern on overall life satisfaction suggesting an additive negative effect of loss of spouse and a work history of working for income alone.…

  10. Is There a Double Standard of Aging?: Older Men and Women and Ageism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narayan, Chetna

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to determine current young adults' attitudes toward older adults and to explore, more specifically, whether they hold different attitudes towards older men and women. An additional objective was to examine the association between knowledge of aging processes and attitudes towards older adults. A total of 405 (210 males, 195…

  11. Lifestyle Patterns Are Associated with Elevated Blood Pressure among Qatari Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional National Study

    PubMed Central

    Al Thani, Mohammed; Al Thani, Al Anoud; Al-Chetachi, Walaa; Al Malki, Badria; Khalifa, Shamseldin A. H.; Bakri, Ahmad Haj; Hwalla, Nahla; Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah

    2015-01-01

    Women of childbearing age are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of elevated blood pressure (BP), with dietary and lifestyle habits being increasingly recognized as important modifiable environmental risk factors for this condition. Using data from the National STEPwise survey conducted in Qatar in year 2012, we aimed to examine lifestyle patterns and their association with elevated BP among Qatari women of childbearing age (18–45 years). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, anthropometric and BP data were used (n = 747). Principal component factor analysis was applied to identify the patterns using the frequency of consumption of 13 foods/food groups, physical activity level, and smoking status. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association of the identified lifestyle patterns with elevated BP and to examine the socio-demographic correlates of these patterns. Three lifestyle patterns were identified: a “healthy” pattern characterized by intake of fruits, natural juices, and vegetables; a “fast food & smoking” pattern characterized by fast foods, sweetened beverages, and sweets, in addition to smoking; and a “traditional sedentary” pattern which consisted of refined grains, dairy products, and meat in addition to low physical activity. The fast food & smoking and the traditional & sedentary patterns were associated with an approximately 2-fold increase in the risk of elevated BP in the study population. The findings of this study highlight the synergistic effect that diet, smoking and physical inactivity may have on the risk of elevated BP among Qatari women. PMID:26371041

  12. Lifestyle Patterns Are Associated with Elevated Blood Pressure among Qatari Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional National Study.

    PubMed

    Al Thani, Mohammed; Al Thani, Al Anoud; Al-Chetachi, Walaa; Al Malki, Badria; Khalifa, Shamseldin A H; Bakri, Ahmad Haj; Hwalla, Nahla; Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah

    2015-09-01

    Women of childbearing age are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of elevated blood pressure (BP), with dietary and lifestyle habits being increasingly recognized as important modifiable environmental risk factors for this condition. Using data from the National STEPwise survey conducted in Qatar in year 2012, we aimed to examine lifestyle patterns and their association with elevated BP among Qatari women of childbearing age (18-45 years). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, anthropometric and BP data were used (n = 747). Principal component factor analysis was applied to identify the patterns using the frequency of consumption of 13 foods/food groups, physical activity level, and smoking status. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association of the identified lifestyle patterns with elevated BP and to examine the socio-demographic correlates of these patterns. Three lifestyle patterns were identified: a "healthy" pattern characterized by intake of fruits, natural juices, and vegetables; a "fast food & smoking" pattern characterized by fast foods, sweetened beverages, and sweets, in addition to smoking; and a "traditional sedentary" pattern which consisted of refined grains, dairy products, and meat in addition to low physical activity. The fast food & smoking and the traditional & sedentary patterns were associated with an approximately 2-fold increase in the risk of elevated BP in the study population. The findings of this study highlight the synergistic effect that diet, smoking and physical inactivity may have on the risk of elevated BP among Qatari women. PMID:26371041

  13. Age at marriage is rising for Asian women and men, according to new data.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, A

    1992-09-01

    The social transformations in Asia are described: delayed age at marriage and the proportions marrying. Policy implications are ascertained. The norm for female age at marriage has risen from 15 years to 17-18 years in south Asia, and from 18 years to 24 years and older in east Asia. Men's marriage age has also risen but not as much. Concurrent changes have occurred with fertility declines and small family sizes and lower population growth, with changing roles for women, and with emergent youth subcultures and increased prevalence of premarital sexual behavior. The number of singles is rising and expected to continue to rise. Examples are given of marriage age changes for Nepal and Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, South Korea, and regional totals. Southeast Asian countries experienced less dramatic changes, and changes primarily in the 20-24 year old group (from 30% to 74% of single women). Change for men has been less regular and with less magnitude. In Southeast Asia, the rise in marriage age for men has risen only 1-2 years compared with women. East Asia patterns vary by country, i.e., South Korean increases of 6 years, Taiwanese increases of 4 years, and 2 years in Japan. Single males have been common in South and Southeast Asia, while in East Asia married male teens 25 years are rare. Marriage timing for men is not as closely associated as for women with social and cultural change. Downturns for men follow momentous, temporary disruptions such as happen during wars and periods of migration, while women's patterns are more reflective of structural change. The trend for never marrying is on the increase, particularly for men in Japan (1.1% in the 1920s to 18% in the early 1980s for men 50 years). Women not ever marrying are increasing in Thailand, Bangladesh, and Hong Kong. Never marrying is common in urban or educated populations, i.e., Singapore, Thailand, and Philippines. The implications are a longer gap between successive generations and a shorter period of

  14. Using community insight to understand physical activity adoption in overweight and obese African American and Hispanic women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mama, Scherezade K; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Evans, Alexandra E; Thompson, Deborah I; Diamond, Pamela M; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-06-01

    Ecologic models suggest that multiple levels of influencing factors are important for determining physical activity participation and include individual, social, and environmental factors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to use an ecologic framework to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying behavioral mechanisms that influence physical activity adoption among ethnic minority women. Eighteen African American and Hispanic women completed a 1-hour in-depth interview. Verbatim interview transcripts were analyzed for emergent themes using a constant comparison approach. Women were middle-aged (age M = 43.9 ± 7.3 years), obese (body mass index M = 35.0 ± 8.9 kg/m(2)), and of high socioeconomic status (88.9% completed some college or more, 41.2% reported income >$82,600/year). Participants discussed individual factors, including the need for confidence, motivation and time, and emphasized the importance of environmental factors, including their physical neighborhood environments and safety of and accessibility to physical activity resources. Women talked about caretaking for others and social support and how these influenced physical activity behavior. The findings from this study highlight the multilevel, interactive complexities that influence physical activity, emphasizing the need for a more sophisticated, ecologic approach for increasing physical activity adoption and maintenance among ethnic minority women. Community insight gleaned from this study may be used to better understand determinants of physical activity and develop multilevel solutions and programs guided by an ecologic framework to increase physical activity in ethnic minority women. PMID:25504569

  15. Using Community Insight to Understand Physical Activity Adoption in Overweight and Obese African American and Hispanic Women: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade K.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Evans, Alexandra E.; Thompson, Deborah I.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Ecologic models suggest that multiple levels of influencing factors are important for determining physical activity participation and include individual, social, and environmental factors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to use an ecologic framework to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying behavioral mechanisms that influence physical activity adoption among ethnic minority women. Eighteen African American and Hispanic women completed a 1-hour in-depth interview. Verbatim interview transcripts were analyzed for emergent themes using a constant comparison approach. Women were middle-aged (age M = 43.9 ± 7.3 years), obese (body mass index M = 35.0 ± 8.9 kg/m2), and of high socioeconomic status (88.9% completed some college or more, 41.2% reported income >$82,600/year). Participants discussed individual factors, including the need for confidence, motivation and time, and emphasized the importance of environmental factors, including their physical neighborhood environments and safety of and accessibility to physical activity resources. Women talked about caretaking for others and social support and how these influenced physical activity behavior. The findings from this study highlight the multilevel, interactive complexities that influence physical activity, emphasizing the need for a more sophisticated, ecologic approach for increasing physical activity adoption and maintenance among ethnic minority women. Community insight gleaned from this study may be used to better understand determinants of physical activity and develop multilevel solutions and programs guided by an ecologic framework to increase physical activity in ethnic minority women. PMID:25504569

  16. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  17. Activities of the Specialized Agencies to Promote the Advancement of Women. Study on UNESCO Activities of Special Interest to Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

    There are two emphases of the UNESCO program to promote the advancement of women within the reporting period 1972-1973. They are (1) to involve member states closely in UNESCO activities and (2) to focus on the equality of educational opportunity. Activities include: (1) a report on a five country research program concerning the relationship…

  18. Examining the sexual function and related attitudes among aged women: A cross- sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Safieh; Rahmanian, Afifeh; Javadpour, Shohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual function and its subsequent satisfaction are among the most important aspects of women’s life. However, this instinct could be influenced by some factors such as diseases, drug using, aging, and hormonal and physiologic changes associated with menopause, and sexual behavior. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence rates of sexual dysfunction, and related attitudes among aged women in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 746 postmenopausal women aged between 50 and 89 years old who had referred to obstetric and gynecologic clinic in Jahrom, from April to October 2014. Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire was used order to assess the sexual function. The cases were classified into three categories according to the attitude scores: negative (17-32), medium (33-38), and positive (39-48). One-way ANOVA test was used to determine the relationship between FSFI and attitude scores. Results: The participants’ mean±SD age was 60.10±6.89 years and the total mean score of FSFI was 19.31±8.5. In addition, 81.5% of the women had sexual dysfunction (FSFI< 26.55) and only 147 women (18.5%) had normal sexual function (FSFI> 26.55). Almost 62.1% the women displayed a negative attitude towards sexuality and only 18.8% women had positive attitude. Feeling of dyspareunia (p= 0.02), lubrication (p< 0.0001), orgasm (p= 0.002) and satisfaction (p= 0.002) were significantly different between three categories of attitudes regarding sexuality, respectively Conclusion: Our data showed that sexual disorders were highly prevalent among postmenopausal women. The most affected problems were arousal, dyspareunia, and lubrication. More than half of the women had negative attitude towards sexual function consequently this could affect their sexual function. So, it seems screening of sexual dysfunction for finding the causes in women should be the main sexual health program. Also, it would be important

  19. Urogenital schistosomiasis in women of reproductive age and pregnant mothers in Kwale County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kihara, J H; Kutima, H L; Ouma, J; Churcher, T S; Changoma, J M; Mwalisetso, M A; French, M D; Mwandawiro, C S

    2015-01-01

    Generally, women residing in areas endemic for urinary schistosomiasis may suffer from female genital schistosomiasis which is acquired during childhood. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence and intensity of infection of Schistosoma haematobium in women of reproductive age (16-45 years) and to investigate whether S. haematobium had any effect on kidney function. A total of 394 women of known pregnancy status (158 pregnant and 236 non-pregnant) were recruited from five villages (known for their high prevalence of infection of S. haematobium) in Kwale County. Serum samples were analysed to determine levels of urea and creatinine as proxy indicators of kidney function. Data revealed that pregnant women did not, on average, have a higher prevalence or intensity of infection of urinary schistosomiasis than non-pregnant women. During pregnancy, the level of prevalence and intensity of infection of S. haematobium was highest in the first trimester (0-13 weeks), dropped in the second trimester (14-26 weeks) and rose again in the third trimester (27-40 weeks). In addition, 24.8% of women were infected with hookworm, while none were diagnosed with malaria parasites. Of 250 samples analysed for serum urea and creatinine, none had significant levels of pathology, either in pregnant or non-pregnant women. Despite World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations that pregnant women should be treated with praziquantel after the first trimester, in practice this has not been the case in many countries, including Kenya. In view of this, healthcare providers should be informed to consider treatment of pregnant women infected with schistosomiasis during antenatal visits and whenever there is mass drug administration as recommended by the WHO. PMID:24103656

  20. Depression and anxiety among middle-aged women: A community-based study

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Priya; Chaudhary, Anurag; Soni, R. K.; Sharma, Sarit; Gupta, Vikram Kumar; Kaushal, Pushapindra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anxiety and depressive disorders constitute a substantial proportion of the global burden of disease and are projected to form the second most common cause of disability by 2020. Objective: To assess the level of depression and anxiety among middle age women and the possible factors behind it. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 women aged 40–60 years were selected by proportionate sampling technique. Age, education, marital status, socioeconomic status, age at marriage, age at menopause, weight and height were noted. Zung-self-rating scales were used for calculating levels of depression and anxiety in these women. The data were analyzed by using statistical software SPSS. Results: The level of syndromal depression and anxiety was found to be 86.7% and 88.9%, respectively. Most of the subjects had the moderate type of depression (49.5%) followed by mild (29.4%) and severe depression (7.8%). While in case of anxiety, most of the subjects (69.4%) had a mild form of anxiety and 17.8% had moderate anxiety level. A significant difference was observed in the level of depression with respect to marital status (P = 0.009) and in the level of anxiety with respect to age (P = 0.021) in the study subjects. On applying logistic regression, none of the factors studied were found to be significant variables for anxiety or depression in the study population. Conclusion: Depression and anxiety are prevalent among the middle-aged women in rural Punjab. Provision of mental health services in this group is essential. PMID:26985419

  1. Risk factors of early onset of MS in women in reproductive age period: survival analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Kazemitabaee, Maryamsadat; Etemadifar, Masoud

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) has doubled in over the last decades in women, whereas it has been almost unchanged in men. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors of early onset multiple sclerosis in women during reproductive years. A retrospective longitudinal study conducted on 200 women aged 15 to 50 years with MS, registered by the MS Society in Isfahan. Data gathering was fulfilled by standard questionnaire including variables about reproductive period, demographic characteristics, and history of diseases. Kaplan-Mayer with log-rank test and Cox regression models were used in predicting of the age of effective factors in onset of MS. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The mean age of studied women was 31.77 ± 8.13 years and the mean and median age of onset the symptoms of MS was 26.79 ± 7.77 and 26 years, respectively. Based on the cox results occurring menarche at 15 years and higher increase the risk of MS 2.8-fold than those their menarche occurred at 12 years and lower (HR: 2.81, 95 % CI; 1.58-4.98).In addition, having only one pregnancy is related to higher risk of MS than other parities and increase the risk of MS 4.5-fold comparing to without parities. Age of menarche and parity numbers was the most important reproductive factors of MS in women. Nevertheless, history of autoimmune diseases, animal bite, childhood disease, family history of MS, regional area (tropical), and living in rural area were not related to early onset of MS. PMID:26790684

  2. Dynamics of lipoprotein level in blood plasma of pregnant women as a function of gestational age according to FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolik, E. V.; Korolenko, E. A.; Tretinnikov, O. N.; Kozlyakova, O. V.; Korolik, A. K.; Kirkovskiy, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Results of an IR spectroscopic investigation of films of blood plasma taken from women of reproductive age, pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors, and Rh-immunized women were presented as a function of gestational age. It was found that the lipoprotein content in blood plasma of all groups of pregnant women increased during the early stages of pregnancy (17-23 weeks) irrespective of the Rh factor and attained its peak value by weeks 30-35. It was shown that the lipoprotein level in blood plasma as a function of gestational age was quantitatively the same for pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors. It was established for the first time that this dependence for Rh-immunized women featured a considerable increase of lipoprotein content at gestational age 30-32 weeks and declined acutely by week 36.

  3. Age and stage at diagnosis: a hospital series of 11 women with intellectual disability and breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer has been poorly studied in women with intellectual disability (ID), which makes designing a policy for screening the nearly 70 million women with ID in the world difficult. As no data is available in the literature, we evaluated breast cancer at diagnosis in women with ID. Methods Women with ID were searched retrospectively among all women treated for invasive breast cancer in a single hospital over 18 years. Age at diagnosis was compared among the whole group of women. Tumor size, lymph node involvement, SBR grade, TNM classification, and AJCC stage were compared to controls matched for age and period of diagnosis using conditional logistic regression. Results Among 484 women with invasive breast cancer, 11 had ID. The mean age at diagnosis was 55.6 years in women with ID and 62.4 years in the other women. The mean tumor size in women with ID was 3.53 cm, compared to 1.80 cm in 44 random controls from among the 473 women without ID. Lymph node involvement was observed in 9 of the 11 women with ID compared to 12 of the controls (OR = 11.53, p = 0.002), and metastases were found in 3 of the 11 women with ID compared to 1 of the 44 controls (OR = 12.00, p = 0.031). The AJCC stage was higher in women with ID compared to controls (OR = 3.19, p = 0.010). Conclusions Women with ID presented at an earlier age with tumors of a higher AJCC stage than controls despite no significant differences in tumor grade and histological type. Thus, delayed diagnosis may be responsible for the differences between disabled and non-disabled women. PMID:24593240

  4. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Baldani, Dinka Pavicic; Skrgatic, Lana; Ougouag, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events. PMID:26124830

  5. [History and poetry in women's biological twilight: menopause and old age].

    PubMed

    Cruz y Hermida, Julio

    2011-01-01

    This is a poetical and historical approach to the last biological stages of the evolutive development of women, namely menopause and old age. It starts with the passages found in Egyptian Papirii such as Ebers or Smith, dated 1500-2000 BC, which describe, among other symptoms, the sweating and hig body temperatures caused by the diminishing hormon secretion of the ovaries. Other important works on the subject, some of them written in the 20th century and some others composed before that date, are also quoted, such as the Edad Crítica (Critical Age) by Dr. Marañon. The final stage of a woman's life, old age, is presented through the famous sonet "Alfa y Omega" (Alpha and Omega) by poet Manuel Machado. Using poetical strokes, the author conveys an image of the many phisiopatological consequences of old age in women: osteoporosis, genital prolapse, urine incontinence and "wrinkles" ("old age is neither shown by white hair nor by wrinkles but by the heart"). The work finishes with the famous statement uttered by Napoleon Bona-parte: "God wanted to be a writer: Man is His prose; His poetry, Women". The same poetry that Dr. Cruz y Hermida has found through the complexities of the evolutive process of feminine biology. PMID:23350338

  6. Urogenital Schistosomiasis in Women of Reproductive Age in Tanzania's Lake Victoria Region

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Jennifer A.; Mguta, Charles; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Mitchell, Katrina B.; Bang, Heejung; Simplice, Harusha; Kalluvya, Samuel E.; Changalucha, John M.; Johnson, Warren D.; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a community-based study of 457 women aged 18–50 years living in eight rural villages in northwest Tanzania. The prevalence of female urogenital schistosomiasis (FUS) was 5% overall but ranged from 0% to 11%. FUS was associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (odds ratio [OR] = 4.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2–13.5) and younger age (OR = 5.5 and 95% CI = 1.2–26.3 for ages < 25 years and OR = 8.2 and 95% CI = 1.7–38.4 for ages 25–29 years compared with age > 35 years). Overall HIV prevalence was 5.9% but was 17% among women with FUS. We observed significant geographical clustering of schistosomiasis: northern villages near Lake Victoria had more Schistosoma mansoni infections (P < 0.0001), and southern villages farther from the lake had more S. haematobium (P = 0.002). Our data support the postulate that FUS may be a risk factor for HIV infection and may contribute to the extremely high rates of HIV among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21363971

  7. Relationships between nutritional status, depression and pleasure of eating in aging men and women.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Nathalie; Maître, Isabelle; Van Wymelbeke, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional health is an essential component of quality of life among older adults. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of nutritional status in order to identify both common and sex specific predictive pathways in an aging population. A questionnaire was administered to 464 people living at home aged 65 years and above. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about nutritional status (MNA), depression (GDS), pleasure of eating and demographic characteristics. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relationships between the variables. For both sexes, results indicate that depression and pleasure of eating are related to nutritional status. In addition, different pathways were found between men and women. In particular, while pleasure of eating is affected by depression among aging women this is not the case for men. The implications of the findings for nutrition communication are discussed. PMID:26337662

  8. Risks and predictors of mild diastolic dysfunction among middle-aged and aged women: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Yu, S Y; Wo, D; Zhao, M M; Zhang, L J; Li, J

    2016-05-01

    We sought to determine the predictors of primary episodes of mild diastolic dysfunction (DD) in a cohort of women aged >45 years, who had >2 echocardiography from 2009 to 2012. Patients were excluded if they had prior diagnosis of coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease or echocardiographic evidence of DD. Mild DD was defined as: left ventricular ejection fraction>50%, E/A ratio<0.75, and E/e'⩽8. Out of the total 758 subjects (age 64.15±7.24 years), 109 (14.3%) had developed mild DD, during a mean followup period of 3 years. Independent predictors of mild DD included: age (P<0.001), history of hypertension (P=0.022), body mass index (BMI) (P<0.001), total triglycerides (TG) (P=0.016), inter ventricular septal thickness (P=0.015) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) ⩾16 m s(-1) (P<0.001). E/A ratio was inversely associated with age (r=-0.337, P<0.001), baPWV (r=-0.359, P<0.001), BMI (r=-0.290, P<0.001) and TG (r=-0.255, P<0.001). The Area Under roc Curve for a linear combination of age, BMI, baPWV and TG was 0.738 (95% confidence interval: 0.683-0.804, P<0.001), which was superior to any of the variables taken alone. In summary, many middle-aged or elderly women may develop mild DD within a relatively short period of 3 years. Several subclinical abnormalities and cardiovascular parameters were determined to contribute to the onset of DD. PMID:26310185

  9. Bayesian Mapping of HIV Infection among Women of Reproductive Age in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Niragire, François; Achia, Thomas N. O.; Lyambabaje, Alexandre; Ntaganira, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    HIV prevalence is rising and has been consistently higher among women in Rwanda whereas a decreasing national HIV prevalence rate in the adult population has stabilised since 2005. Factors explaining the increased vulnerability of women to HIV infection are not currently well understood. A statistical mapping at smaller geographic units and the identification of key HIV risk factors are crucial for pragmatic and more efficient interventions. The data used in this study were extracted from the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey data for 6952 women. A full Bayesian geo-additive logistic regression model was fitted to data in order to assess the effect of key risk factors and map district-level spatial effects on the risk of HIV infection. The results showed that women who had STIs, concurrent sexual partners in the 12 months prior to the survey, a sex debut at earlier age than 19 years, were living in a woman-headed or high-economic status household were significantly associated with a higher risk of HIV infection. There was a protective effect of high HIV knowledge and perception. Women occupied in agriculture, and those residing in rural areas were also associated with lower risk of being infected. This study provides district-level maps of the variation of HIV infection among women of child-bearing age in Rwanda. The maps highlight areas where women are at a higher risk of infection; the aspect that proximate and distal factors alone could not uncover. There are distinctive geographic patterns, although statistically insignificant, of the risk of HIV infection suggesting potential effectiveness of district specific interventions. The results also suggest that changes in sexual behaviour can yield significant results in controlling HIV infection in Rwanda. PMID:25811462

  10. Bayesian mapping of HIV infection among women of reproductive age in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Niragire, François; Achia, Thomas N O; Lyambabaje, Alexandre; Ntaganira, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    HIV prevalence is rising and has been consistently higher among women in Rwanda whereas a decreasing national HIV prevalence rate in the adult population has stabilised since 2005. Factors explaining the increased vulnerability of women to HIV infection are not currently well understood. A statistical mapping at smaller geographic units and the identification of key HIV risk factors are crucial for pragmatic and more efficient interventions. The data used in this study were extracted from the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey data for 6952 women. A full Bayesian geo-additive logistic regression model was fitted to data in order to assess the effect of key risk factors and map district-level spatial effects on the risk of HIV infection. The results showed that women who had STIs, concurrent sexual partners in the 12 months prior to the survey, a sex debut at earlier age than 19 years, were living in a woman-headed or high-economic status household were significantly associated with a higher risk of HIV infection. There was a protective effect of high HIV knowledge and perception. Women occupied in agriculture, and those residing in rural areas were also associated with lower risk of being infected. This study provides district-level maps of the variation of HIV infection among women of child-bearing age in Rwanda. The maps highlight areas where women are at a higher risk of infection; the aspect that proximate and distal factors alone could not uncover. There are distinctive geographic patterns, although statistically insignificant, of the risk of HIV infection suggesting potential effectiveness of district specific interventions. The results also suggest that changes in sexual behaviour can yield significant results in controlling HIV infection in Rwanda. PMID:25811462

  11. Cues Resulting in Desire for Sexual Activity in Women

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Katie; Meston, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A number of questionnaires have been created to assess levels of sexual desire in women, but to our knowledge, there are currently no validated measures for assessing cues that result in sexual desire. A questionnaire of this nature could be useful for both clinicians and researchers, because it considers the contextual nature of sexual desire and it draws attention to individual differences in factors that can contribute to sexual desire. Aim The aim of the present study was to create a multidimensional assessment tool of cues for sexual desire in women that is validated in women with and without hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Methods Factor analyses conducted on both an initial sample (N = 874) and a community sample (N = 138) resulted in the Cues for Sexual Desire Scale (CSDS) which included four factors: (i) Emotional Bonding Cues; (ii) Erotic/ Explicit Cues; (iii) Visual/Proximity Cues; and (iv) Implicit/Romantic Cues. Main Outcome Measures Scale construction of cues associated with sexual desire and differences between women with and without sexual dysfunction. Results The CSDS demonstrated good reliability and validity and was able to detect significant differences between women with and without HSDD. Results from regression analyses indicated that both marital status and level of sexual functioning predicted scores on the CSDS. The CSDS provided predictive validity for the Female Sexual Function Index desire and arousal domain scores, and increased cues were related to a higher reported frequency of sexual activity in women. Conclusions The findings from the present study provide valuable information regarding both internal and external triggers that can result in sexual desire for women. We believe that the CSDS could be beneficial in therapeutic settings to help identify cues that do and do not facilitate sexual desire in women with clinically diagnosed desire difficulties. PMID:16942529

  12. [Changes in iron levels in non-anemic women 18-58 years of age].

    PubMed

    Baptista González, H A; Rosenfeld, M F; Peñuela Olaya, M A; Sorroza Martínez, M A; Tello Nielsen, J

    1999-10-01

    The objective was to describe changes in serum ferritin (SF) in women residents in Mexico City. We evaluated prospectively, three groups of non-anemic, non-pregnant women (< 20, 21-40 y 40-58 years old). Sociodemographic variables, hemoglobin (Hb) and erythrocyte index and SF values were registered. We included 252 women in the study. There were no differences in Hb values (15.0, 14.6 and 14.7 g/dL) or erythrocyte index between the three groups of women. We found significative differences (p < 0.001) in mean values of (32 and 34 micrograms/L), for group 1 and 2, with group 3 (SF 54 micrograms/L). In global sample, we observed low SF store, a normal or higher in 76 cases (30.2%), 163 (64.6%) and 13 cases (5.2%), respectively. The women with SF lower than 20 micrograms/L were in proportion 0.54, 0.32 and 0.16. Elevated values in SF were found in a proportion 0.04, 0.18 and 0.13, for groups 1, 2 and 3, with significative differences (p < 0.001). We observed that non-anemic women in Mexico City, showed increase in SF concentrations beginning at 41 years of age, without any major variation in their erythocyte indexes. The prevalence in moderate-severe iron deficiency between 18 to 40 years of years, decreasing progressively. PMID:10582393

  13. Tools for improving clinical preventive services receipt among women with disabilities of childbearing ages and beyond.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Lisa B; Taft, Kate E; Sloan, Michelle L; Stevens, Alissa C; Krahn, Gloria L

    2015-06-01

    Efforts to improve clinical preventive services (CPS) receipt among women with disabilities are poorly understood and not widely disseminated. The reported results represent a 2-year, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs partnership to develop a central resource for existing tools that are of potential use to maternal and child health practitioners who work with women with disabilities. Steps included contacting experts in the fields of disability and women's health, searching the Internet to locate examples of existing tools that may facilitate CPS receipt, convening key stakeholders from state and community-based programs to determine their potential use of the tools, and developing an online Toolbox. Nine examples of existing tools were located. The tools focused on facilitating use of the CPS guidelines, monitoring CPS receipt among women with disabilities, improving the accessibility of communities and local transportation, and training clinicians and women with disabilities. Stakeholders affirmed the relevance of these tools to their work and encouraged developing a Toolbox. The Toolbox, launched in May 2013, provides information and links to existing tools and accepts feedback and proposals for additional tools. This Toolbox offers central access to existing tools. Maternal and child health stakeholders and other service providers can better locate, adopt and implement existing tools to facilitate CPS receipt among adolescent girls with disabilities who are transitioning into adult care as well as women with disabilities of childbearing ages and beyond. PMID:25359095

  14. HIV/AIDS knowledge and stigma among women of reproductive age in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gurmu, Eshetu; Etana, Dula

    2015-01-01

    HIV/AIDS stigma is one of the major public health challenges in Ethiopia. This study examined knowledge about HIV/AIDS and factors behind stigmatisation towards people living with the virus based on demographic and health survey data collected in 2011 from women in the age group 15-49 years. The result shows that 49.3% of rural women had adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS compared with 74.7% of urban women. About three-fourths (72.1%) of the rural women had stigmatising attitudes towards PLWHA whilst the proportion in urban areas was only about a third (34.2%). The likelihood of having adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS was significantly higher among educated women but lower among those living in Afar, Somali, and Gambella regions and Dire Dawa City. Women with higher levels of education and frequent access to media had a lower tendency to stigmatise people living with the virus. Adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS was also significantly associated with lower likelihood of stigmatisation. The results generally indicate that HIV/AIDS stigma in Ethiopia is partly explained by people's knowledge about HIV/AIDS and by socio-cultural factors that shape their perception of the epidemic. Awareness-raising efforts should thus consider the socio-cultural contexts in which stigma occurs to tackle discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26285101

  15. Community level predictors of physical activity among women in the preconception period.

    PubMed

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Sun, Haichun; Flory, Sara B; DeBate, Rita; Daley, Ellen M; Thompson, Erika; Bleck, Jennifer; Merrell, Laura

    2015-07-01

    Although physical activity is a key behavior targeted during the preconception period given its significant impact on pregnancy/birth outcomes and psychological well-being, few women meet national guidelines. While intrapersonal factors influencing physical activity among this population have been studied, community factors remain unexplored. The objective of this study was to examine community level predictors of physical activity among preconception women. Data from Add Health were limited to women (Wave III; age 18-28; n = 7,596) and excluded respondents who were pregnant, physically disabled, and missing data. The outcome variable was ≥5 instances of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in 1 week. Community predictor variables included neighborhood-level structural and social determinants (e.g., socio-demographic composition; landscape diversity; urbanization; access to resources; crime; vehicle availability). Multilevel logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the odds of engaging in ≥5 instances of MVPA. Few women (26 %) reported ≥5 instances of MVPA in 1 week. Adjusted multilevel analysis revealed women in the preconception period were more likely to report high MVPA when living in communities with larger population densities (OR 1.34, 95 % CI 1.02-1.77) and median household income greater than $50,000 (OR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.06-1.66). Additionally, a significant inverse trend was found between high MVPA and proportion of the community without a high school diploma. Findings suggest that neighborhood composition may have an impact on preconception physical activity status. Implications include increased efforts targeting community conditions for facilitating physical activity; ultimately, improving health among women and subsequent offspring. PMID:25636646

  16. Age of Minority Sexual Orientation Development and Risk of Childhood Maltreatment and Suicide Attempts in Women

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.; Greenland, Sander; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    Women with minority sexual orientations (e.g., lesbian, bisexual) are more likely than heterosexual women to report histories of childhood maltreatment and attempted suicide; however, the importance of the timing of minority sexual orientation development in contributing to this increased risk is uncertain. This study investigated relationships between self-reported ages of achieving minority sexual orientation development milestones (first awareness of same-gender attractions, disclosure of a minority sexual orientation to another person, and same-gender sexual contact), and childhood maltreatment and suicide attempt experiences in a sample of 2,001 women recruited from multiple-community sources. Younger age of minority sexual orientation development milestones was positively linked to self-reported recall of childhood maltreatment experiences, and to a childhood suicide attempt. After adjusting for differences in maltreatment, the odds of suicide attempt attributable to younger age of sexual orientation development milestones was reduced by 50 to 65%, suggesting that maltreatment may account for about half of the elevated risk for childhood suicide attempts among women with early minority sexual orientation development. Implications for services, interventions, and further research to address maltreatment disparities for sexual minorities are discussed. PMID:20099942

  17. Influence of azelaic and mandelic acid peels on sebum secretion in ageing women

    PubMed Central

    Wójcik, Aneta; Kubiak, Marlena

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Azelaic acid and mandelic acid are superficial peels commonly applied in people of various age groups. As they are mild and do not cause any side effects, they are also often used in elderly people. Aim To compare the influence of azelaic and mandelic acid peels on facial sebum secretion in mature women aged 49-71 years. Material and methods The level of secreted sebum was measured in 28 women. Eleven women were treated with azelaic acid peel and 17 with mandelic acid peel. Each of the peels was applied five times with 2-week intervals. The measurements were made on the cheeks and chin with the use of Sebumeter SM 15 (Courage & Khazaka, Germany). The last measurement, i.e. the sixth one, was made 2 weeks after the treatment. Results We observed a significant increase in sebum secretion in the U-zone after the application of 20% azelaic peel and 40% mandelic peel. Neither peel significantly affected sebum secretion in the T-zone. Conclusions Peels with 20% azelaic acid and 40% mandelic acid might be considered treatments which contribute to an increase in sebum secretion in ageing women. PMID:24278065

  18. Motivation and Barriers for Leisure-Time Physical Activity in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Women

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Inês; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Teixeira, Pedro J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between motivation and barriers for physical activity, and physical activity behavior in women living in socioeconomic disadvantage. This study also examined whether weight control intentions moderate those associations. Methods Data from 1664 women aged 18–46 years was collected at baseline and three-year follow-up as part of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study. In mail-based surveys, women reported sociodemographic and neighborhood environmental characteristics, intrinsic motivation, goals and perceived family barriers to be active, weight control intentions and leisure-time physical activity (assessed through the IPAQ-L). Linear regression models assessed the association of intrinsic motivation, goals and barriers with physical activity at baseline and follow-up, adjusting for environmental characteristics and also physical activity at baseline (for longitudinal analyses), and the moderating effects of weight control intentions were examined. Results Intrinsic motivation and, to a lesser extent, appearance and relaxation goals for being physically active were consistently associated with leisure-time physical activity at baseline and follow-up. Perceived family barriers, health, fitness, weight and stress relief goals were associated with leisure-time physical activity only at baseline. Moderated regression analyses revealed that weight control intentions significantly moderated the association between weight goals and leisure-time physical activity at baseline (β = 0.538, 99% CI = 0.057, 0.990) and between intrinsic motivation and leisure-time physical activity at follow-up (β = 0.666, 99% CI = 0.188, 1.145). For women actively trying to control their weight, intrinsic motivation was significantly associated with leisure-time physical activity at follow-up (β = 0.184, 99% CI = 0.097, 0.313). Conclusions Results suggest that

  19. Menopausal Status and Physical Performance in Middle Aged Women: A Cross-Sectional Community-Based Study in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Câmara, Saionara M. A.; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Pirkle, Catherine; Moreira, Mayle A.; Maciel, Álvaro C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between menopausal status and physical performance in middle-aged women from the Northeast region of Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study of women between 40 to 65 years old living in Parnamirim. Women were recruited by advertisements in primary care neighborhood centers across the city. Physical performance was assessed by grip strength, gait speed and chair stands. Menopausal status was determined using the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop classification and women were classified in: premenopausal, perimenopausal or postmenopausal. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to model the effect of menopausal status on each physical performance measure, adjusting for covariates (age, family income, education, body mass index, parity and age at first birth). Results The premenopausal women were significantly stronger and performed better in chair stands than perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Gait speed did not vary significantly by menopausal status. In multivariate analyses, menopausal status remained statistically significant only for grip strength. In fully adjusted analyses, premenopausal women had grip strength mean of 2.226 Kgf (95% CI: 0.361 – 4.091) higher than the postmenopausal group. Conclusions This study provides further evidence for the associations between menopause and physical performance in middle-aged women, since grip strength is weaker in peri and postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal, even adjusted for age and other covariates. PMID:25822526

  20. Plasma vitamin D levels and cognitive function in aging women: the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Bartali, Benedetta; Devore, Elizabeth; Grodstein, Francine; Kang, Jae H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin D may play a role in preserving cognitive function. However, there is a paucity of prospective studies on the relationship between vitamin D and cognition with aging. The aim of this study was to examine the association between plasma levels of vitamin D and subsequent cognitive function. Methods This is a prospective study including 1,185 women aged 60–70 years from the Nurses’ Health Study, who had plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels measured in 1989–1990 and completed an initial Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status approximately 9 years later. Subsequently, three follow-up cognitive assessments were conducted at 1.5–2.0 years intervals. We used multivariable-adjusted linear regression to model initial cognitive function, and mixed linear regression to model change in cognitive function over time. Results Lower vitamin D levels were associated with significantly worse cognitive function 9 years later. For example, the mean global composite score averaging all the cognitive tests was 0.20 lower (95% Confidence Interval (CI):−0.33,−0.08; p-trend=0.009) in women in the lowest quintile (median=14.1 ng/mL) compared with women in the highest quintile of vitamin D (median=38.4 ng/mL). The observed differences were equivalent to the effect estimates we found for women who were approximately 4–6 years apart in age. However, vitamin D levels were not significantly associated with subsequent cognitive decline during 6 years of follow-up. Conclusions Higher levels of plasma vitamin D in women aged 60–70 years were associated with better cognitive function about a decade later but were not associated with cognitive decline during 6 years of follow-up. PMID:24676321

  1. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mijal, Renee S. Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  2. Problem of mortality in women of reproductive age in rural area of Haryana.

    PubMed

    Lal, S; Satpathy, S; Khanna, P; Vashisht, B M; Punia, M S; Kumar, S

    1995-01-01

    To learn the extent of mortality among women of reproductive age, data was analyzed on causes of death, as reported by anganwadi workers and heads of households, for all maternal deaths in 1992 in Haryana, India. The community was comprised of 300,907 persons and 58,961 women (19.6%) of reproductive age. 9894 live births were recorded, which is higher than the national average. 219 women died in 1992 from maternal and nonmaternal causes (3.7 per 1000 women). In the study blocks (Rohtak, Chiri, and Kathure) the range of mortality was from 3.4 to 4.1 per 1000. 78.5% (172 deaths) were considered nonmaternal deaths. Mortality was 20.9% among mothers 15-20 years old, 25.6% among mothers 20-25 years old, and 18.6% among mothers 25-30 years old. 65.1% of women died at home. 58.1% sought medical care prior to death. 1.2% of deaths were certified. 36.7% of deaths were to literate women, and the remaining 63.3% were illiterate. Causes of nonmaternal death included accidents, respiratory disorders, poisoning, and digestive disorders. Slightly over 20% of accidental deaths were due to burns and suicide. 21.46% (47 deaths) were maternal deaths (475 per 100,000 live births). Maternal mortality ranged from 46 to 488 in the 3 blocks. Rohtak had the highest maternal mortality. Maternal mortality was highest among women 30-44 years old (996 per 100,000), followed by women 15-20 years old (575 per 100,000). 21.3% died during labor and delivery, and 68% died during the postpartum period. 57.4% died at home, and 25.5% died at the Medical College Hospital. 61.7% used prenatal services. 36.2% did not seek medical care prior to their death. 55.3% of deliveries were by trained birth attendants. 25.5% died with their first births. 51.0% of women with a birth interval under 3 years died. Maternal mortality was distributed by cause as follows: postpartum hemorrhage (17.0%), puerperal sepsis (17.0%), anemia (12.8%), preeclampsia and eclampsia (14.9%), obstructed labor (6.4%), hemorrhage

  3. Employing a Participatory Research Approach to Explore Physical Activity among Older African American Women.

    PubMed

    Sebastião, Emerson; Ibe-Lamberts, Kelechi; Bobitt, Julie; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Older African American women are particularly vulnerable to unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as physical inactivity and the resultant chronic diseases and conditions. This study explored older African American women's perception of physical activity as well as facilitators of and barriers to being physically active in their local environment. Methods. Using a participatory research approach, a total of 7 women aged 65 years and over had their PA level assessed objectively through accelerometry. In addition, physical activity was discussed through the photo-elicitation procedure, which was supplemented by semistructured interviews. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to identify patterns and themes emerging from participants' interview. Results. Participants exhibited low levels of physical activity and viewed "physical activity" to be a broadly defined, nonspecific construct. Interviews revealed that many participants lack important knowledge about physical activity. A variety of personal, social, and environmental facilitators and barriers were reported by the participants. Conclusion. Efforts should be made towards clarifying information on physical activity in this population in order to help them incorporate physical activity into their routines, overcome barriers, and make use of opportunities to be active. PMID:25210628

  4. Women's Health-Enhancing Physical Activity and Eudaimonic Well Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Leah J.; Kowalski, Kent C.; Mack, Diane E.; Wilson, Philip M.; Crocker, Peter R. E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explored the role of health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA; Miilunpalo, 2001) in women's eudaimonic well being (i.e., psychological flourishing at one's maximal potential; Ryff, 1989). We used a quantitative approach (N = 349) to explore the relationship between HEPA and eudaimonic well being. While HEPA was not related to…

  5. Factors Influencing Physical Activity among Postpartum Iranian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roozbahani, Nasrin; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Eftekhar Ardabili, Hassan; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postpartum women are a population at risk for sedentary living. Physical activity (PA) prior to pregnancy may be effective in predicting similar behaviour in the postpartum period. Objective: To test a composite version of the extended transtheoretical model (TTM) by adding "past behaviour" in order to predict PA behaviour…

  6. Evaluation of About Being Active, an online lesson about physical activity shows that perception of being physically active is higher in eating competent low-income women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Eating competence (EC) has been associated with positive health outcomes such as reduced cardiovascular risk and higher diet quality. This study compared reported physical activity and EC in 512 low-income women participating in an online program that included a physical activity lesson and assessed response to this lesson. Methods Educational intervention and surveys were completed online. EC was assessed with the Satter Eating Competence Inventory for Low-Income (ecSI/LI). Results Participants were mostly white, <31 years, overweight/obese (60%), and food insecure (58%). EC was higher for those who self-reported being physically active (30.1 ± 8.3 vs. 24.9 ± 8.1; P<0.001) and were active for ≥ 30 minutes/day (29.9 ± 8.3 vs. 26.3 ± 8.6), even with age, weight satisfaction, and BMI controlled. EC of obese physically active persons was higher than normal weight, but physically inactive women. The physical activity module was well received with responses unrelated to time involved or physical activity level. Conclusions Low-income women were interested in learning about physical activity and responded positively to online delivery. Overall EC levels were low, but higher for physically active women, supporting efforts to enhance EC. Additional research is needed to determine if EC is associated with responses to physical activity education. PMID:23496893

  7. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Carolina G.; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D. C. B.; Nunes, Maria A. A.; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34–65 years (n = 13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  8. Comparing Subjective Ratings of Sexual Arousal and Desire in Partnered Sexual Activities from Women of Different Sexual Orientations.

    PubMed

    Persson, Tonje J; Ryder, Andrew G; Pfaus, James G

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about non-monosexual women's sexual arousal and desire. Typically, bisexual women have been excluded from research on sexual arousal and desire, whereas mostly heterosexual and mostly lesbian women have been placed into monosexual categories. This research (1) compared the subjective sexual arousal and desire of self-identified heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly lesbian, and lesbian women in partnered sexual activities with men and with women, and (2) compared within-group differences for subjective sexual arousal and desire with men versus women for the five groups. Participants included 388 women (M age = 24.40, SD = 6.40, 188 heterosexual, 53 mostly heterosexual, 64 bisexual, 32 mostly lesbian, 51 lesbian) who filled out the Sexual Arousal and Desire Inventory (SADI). Sexual orientation was associated with sexual arousal and desire in sexual activities with both men and with women. Bisexuals reported higher sexual arousal and desire for women than heterosexuals and lesbians, while lesbians reported lower sexual arousal and desire with men than the other groups. Heterosexuals and mostly heterosexuals scored higher on the male than on the female motivational dimension of the SADI, while the reverse was found for lesbians and mostly lesbians. Findings indicate that non-monosexuals have higher sexual arousal and desire in sexual activities with women than monosexuals. Further, bisexual women did not differentiate their sexual arousal with men versus women, while the other sexual orientation groups differentiated in terms of their motivation to engage in sexual activity. These findings may have implications for how female sexual orientation is conceptualized. PMID:25808718

  9. Physical Activity and Bone Density in Women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowley, Susan M.; Whalen, R. T.

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical model of bone density regulation as a function of the daily tissue "effective" stress has been derived. Using the model, the influence of daily activity in the form of a daily loading history has been related to bone density of the calcaneus. The theory incorporates a stress exponent m to account for differences in the importance of magnitude and number of load cycles experienced during daily activity. We have derived a parameter from the model, the "Bone Density Index" (BDI). We have developed a method of collecting daily habitual loading histories using an insole force sensor interfaced to a portable digital data logger carried in a fanny pack. Our goal for this study was to determine a stress exponent, m, relating GRFz history to Calcaneal Bone Mineral Density (CBMD).

  10. Healthy Diet and Nutrition Education Program among Women of Reproductive Age: A Necessity of Multilevel Strategies or Community Responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Dunneram, Yashvee; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reproductive years represent a major proportion of women‟s life. This review focuses on recommended nutritional considerations, physical activity pattern as well as the effect of nutrition education (NE) on behavior modification and health outcomes of women of reproductive age using either single-level, multiple-level or community-level interventions. Methods: For this narrative review, numerous searches were conducted on databases of PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar search engine using the keywords women, reproductive age, NE, interventions, community-based. Results: Even though single intervention is effective, multiple intervention programmes in addition to behavior modification components are even more successful in terms of modified behaviors and health outcomes. Moreover, community based interventions using multilevel strategies are further useful for improved health outcomes and behavior modification. Conclusion: NE programmes have been effective in positive behavior modification measured in terms of eating pattern and health quality. Thus, it is recommended that health professionals use multiple intervention strategies at community level to ensure improved outcomes. Political support is also required to create culturally sensitive methods of delivering nutritional programmes. Finally, as policy is dependent on program cost, nutritional programmes need to combine methods of cost analysis to show cost effectiveness of supplying adequate nutrition for women throughout the lifecycle. PMID:26290827

  11. Financial Well-being in Active Ageing.

    PubMed

    Rajola, Federico; Frigerio, Chiara; Parrichi, Monica

    2014-01-01

    In developed countries, economic and financial well-being is playing a crucial positive role in ageing and inclusion processes. Due to the complexity and pervasiveness of financial economy in the real life, more and more social as well as individual well-being are perceived as influenced by financial conditions. On the other hand, the demographic circumstances drive scholars as well as politicians to reflect on ageing dynamics. Bridging the two domains, the following research focuses on the role of the financial well-being as a mediating role of general well-being in elder people. The assumption is that elderly people have specific financial needs that sometimes are not covered by financial providers' offers. The motivation is mainly on the role of information asymmetries between elder consumers and financial institutions. On the dynamics of these asymmetries, the research will specifically investigate the role of financial literacy, as the ability of comprehension of elder people of their needs and of financial information. The applicative implication of this research work consists in finding the determinants of financial well-being for elders and the definition of their specific financial competencies, in order to 1) identify educational and regulatory guidelines for policy makers in charge of creating financial market transparency conditions, and to 2) support design of organizational mechanisms as well as financial product/services for this specific target of client. The following chapter presents preliminary explorative results of a survey delivered on 200 elder individuals (65-80 yrs.) leaving in Milan. Findings show that active elders consider the ability of managing personal wealth as one of the core determinant of well-being, although the economic and financial literacy is limited. Furthermore, the chapter proposes a research agenda for scholars interested in exploring the relationship between financial well-being and ageing. PMID:26630513

  12. Are baby boomer women unique? The moderating effect of birth cohort on age in substance use patterns during midlife.

    PubMed

    Sarabia, Stephanie Elias; Martin, James I

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships of age to use of alcohol, marijuana, and illicit drugs, and misuse of prescription drugs, among midlife women and whether these relationships are modified by birth cohort. Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, which included 2,035 baby boomer and silent generation cohort women, ages 30 to 55. Midlife women across cohorts reduced alcohol and marijuana use, but not illicit and prescription drug misuse, as they aged. A modifying effect of birth cohort was not supported, but findings did support differential aging effects across substances. Implications are discussed. PMID:26901493

  13. A population-based study of health-promoting behaviors and their predictors in Iranian women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Baheiraei, Azam; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Mohammadi, Easa; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2015-09-01

    Health-promoting behaviors have been recognized as major factors for maintenance and improvement of health. The objective of this study was to determine the status of health-promoting behaviors and their predicting factors in Iranian women of reproductive age. This was a population-based cross-sectional study in which 1359 Iranian women of reproductive age were selected by proportional random multistage cluster sampling in Tehran. Questionnaires including sociodemographic characteristics, Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II) and Personal Resource Questionnaire 85-Part 2 (PRQ85-Part 2) were completed by interview. The association between the dependent variables (HPLP-II and subscales) and the independent variables (social support and sociodemographic characteristics) was analyzed using the multivariable linear regression model. Among the six dimensions of health-promoting behaviors, women scored highest in interpersonal relations (3.08 ± 0.51) and lowest in physical activity (2.04 ± 0.64). The Pearson test indicated perceived social support to be significantly correlated with HPLP-II (r = 0.53; p < 0.001) and all its subscales (r = 0.12-0.60; p < 0.001). Multivariable regression analysis indicated social support to be a predictor of HPLP-II and all its subscales, except for physical activity. Social support and sociodemographic characteristics accounted for 29.8% of the variance in the HPLP-II score and 6.9-39.3 in the six subscales. The findings of the present study confirm the importance of social support and modifiable variables (sociodemographic) in the occurrence of health-promoting behaviors in women and accredit the theoretical relationships among the concepts of the health-promotion model. PMID:24395956

  14. Sexual protective strategies and condom use in middle-age African American women: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tanyka K.

    2015-01-01

    The heterosexual transmission of HIV has affected middle-age African American women at alarming rates; yet there is a paucity of research and interventions focused on this population. This study used a qualitative approach to understand middle-age urban African American women’s experiences with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and to identify the sexual protective strategies they employed to reduce their risk for HIV infection. Ten African American women, ages 45 to 56, were recruited from low-income neighborhoods in New York City. Data were collected using in-depth interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Investigator triangulation and member checking were used to ensure rigor. Five salient themes emerged that highlighted the individual, gender/relationship power factors, and the sociocultural elements that influenced sexual protection or risk-taking behavior. Findings provide new insight into the complexities of HIV sexual risk behavior and can guide future HIV prevention interventions for middle-age, African American, urban women. PMID:26194973

  15. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Risk Perceptions for Chronic Diseases in Younger and Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jada G.; Lobel, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Perceptions of disease risk play an important role in motivating people to adopt healthy behaviors. However, little is known about psychosocial factors that influence women’s perceived risk for developing disease. The present study investigated the extent to which individual traits, social influences, objective risk factors, and demographic characteristics were associated with women’s risk perceptions for cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, and lung cancer. Using structural equation modeling, we examined hypothesized associations among 452 younger (ages 18-25 years) and 167 middle-aged (ages 40-64 years) women. A greater number and variety of factors were associated with middle-aged women’s risk perceptions compared to younger women. For both groups, some objective risk factors were associated with risk perceptions; yet, associations also existed between multiple psychosocial variables (optimism, health locus of control, social exposure to disease, perceived stigma) and risk perceptions. Results suggested that women may base their risk estimates on factors beyond those considered important by healthcare providers. PMID:26110993

  16. Complex exercise rehabilitation program for women of the II period of age with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Ok; Olga, Kozyreva

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a complex exercise program integrating Eastern and Western complex exercise rehabilitation programs in order to examine the effects of it on the human body with the subjects for women of the II period of mature age with metabolic syndrome. The subjects of this study are 60 II period of mature aged women with metabolic syndrome living in G City, and the experimental group conducted Taekwon-aerobic exercise, European rehabilitation gymnastics, gym ball exercise, and elastic band exercise while the control group performed European rehabilitation gymnastics, gym ball exercise, and elastic band exercise which is the rehabilitation program being presently conducted in Russia, for 90 min per day for three weeks. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was utilized to verify pre and post-intergroup difference, and the significant level was set as P< 0.05. Whereas body weight, % fat, WHR, SBP, DBP and blood glucose were significant decreased, muscle weight and pulse wave velocity were significant increased after complex exercise rehabilitation programs Both Eastern and Western complex exercise rehabilitation programs showed positive effects on the body of the II period of mature aged women with metabolic syndrome, and if various exercise programs are conducted, it will be more effective in improving II period of mature aged women’s metabolic syndrome afterwards. PMID:24278877

  17. Mortality From Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Reproductive-Aged Women: United States, 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. I estimated the sexually transmitted disease–related mortality among US reproductive-aged women from 1999 to 2010. Methods. I estimated mortality from National Center for Health Statistics’ Multiple Cause of Death data. I defined reproductive age as 15 to 44 years. For diseases partially caused by sexual transmission, I estimated the proportion attributable to sexual transmission from the literature. To calculate mortality rates, I estimated number of deaths from each disease and Census Bureau population for reproductive-aged women for 1999 to 2010. Results. From 1999 to 2010, the cumulative sexually transmitted disease–related mortality rate decreased by 49%, from 5.3 to 2.7 deaths per 100 000. The primary contributors were HIV and human papilloma virus infections. Mortality from sexually transmitted HIV infection decreased by 62%, from 3.4 to 1.3 deaths per 100 000. Mortality from human papilloma virus–associated gynecologic cancers decreased by 19%, from 1.6 deaths per 100 000 in 1999 to 1.3 deaths per 100 000 in 2010. Conclusions. Screening and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases may reduce mortality. Research is needed to determine whether sexually transmitted disease–related morbidity among reproductive-aged women has decreased over the past decade. PMID:24922169

  18. Physical Activity Level of Post-menopausal Women with Low Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Dallanezi, Glauber; Freire, Beatriz Funayama Alvarenga; Nahás, Eliana Aguiar Petri; Nahás-Neto, Jorge; Corrente, José Eduardo; Mazeto, Gláucia Maria Ferreira da Silva

    2016-05-01

    Introduction Proper physical activity is related to the prevention and the treatment of osteoporosis. Purpose To assess the level of physical activity (PA) in post-menopausal women with low bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This cross-sectional clinical study included 123 post-menopausal women. The inclusion criteria were: age of ≥ 45 years with last menses at least 12 months prior to the initiation of the study, and bone density scan (BDS) values measured over the preceding 12 months. Women with severe osteoarthritis were excluded. Women were allocated into three groups, according to BMD measured by BDS [osteoporosis (OP; 54 women), osteopenia (35 women), and normal bone density (NBD; 35 women)], and compared for general, clinical, and anthropometric data, and for PA level. The latter was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), in metabolic equivalent of task (MET) units. Participants were classified as sedentary, active or very active. Quantitative variables were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Associations between qualitative variables were tested by Chi-square (χ2) or Fisher's exact test. In order to check for differences among groups and IPAQ domains, a generalized linear model with Gamma distribution was adjusted for values in METs. Results The OP group differed from the NBD group regarding age (61.8 ± 10.1 and 52.9 ± 5.4 years), percentage of participants with self-declared white ethnicity (43.9 and 28.0%), body mass index (BMI - 25.7 ± 5.4 and 30.9 ± 5.1 kg/m(2)), and time since menopause (15.5 ± 7.5 and 5.8 ± 4.5 years). Smoking rates were higher in the OP (55.6%) and NBD groups (33.3%) than in the osteopenia group (11.1%). Within the OP group, the rate of subjects with sedentary lifestyles was higher (42.6%), and time spent sitting was greater (344.3 ± 204.8 METs) than in the groups with osteopenia (20.0% and 300.9 ± 230.6 METs) and NBD (17.7% and 303

  19. Paraoxonase 1 activity and phenotype distribution in premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Butorac, Dražan; Ćelap, Ivana; Kačkov, Sanja; Robić, Vera; Miletić, Tomislav; Meštrić, Zlata Flegar; Hulina, Andrea; Kuna, Krunoslav; Grubišić, Tihana Žanić; Rajković, Marija Grdić

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Postmenopausal women have higher risk of cardiovascular disease. One of the contributing factors could be reduced activity of anti-atherogenic enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1). The aim of this study was to examine differences in the lipid status, paraoxonase and arylesterase PON1 activities and PON1 phenotype in women with regular menstrual cycle and in postmenopausal women. Materials and methods: The study included 51 women in reproductive age (25 in follicular and 26 in luteal phase of the menstrual cycle) and 23 women in postmenopause. Lipid parameters in sera were determined using original reagents and according to manufacturer protocol. PON1 activity in serum was assessed by spectrophotometric method with substrates: paraoxon and phenylacetate. PON1 phenotype was determined by double substrate method. Results: Compared to the women in follicular and luteal phase, postmenopausal women have significantly higher concentration of triglyceride [0.9 (0.7–1.3), 0.7 (0.6–1.0) vs. 1.5 (0.9–1.7) mmol/L; P = 0.002], cholesterol [5.10 (4.78–6.10), 5.05 (4.70–5.40) vs. 6.30 (5.73–7.23) mmol/L; P < 0.001], LDL [3.00 (2.56–3.63), 3.00 (2.70–3.70) vs. 3.90 (3.23–4.50) mmol/L; P < 0.001], and apolipoprotein B [0.88 (0.75–1.00), 0.79 (0.68–1.00) vs. 1.07 (0.90–1.24) mmol/L; P = 0.002]. PON1 basal [104 (66–260), 106 (63–250) vs. 93 (71–165) U/L; P = 0.847] and salt-stimulated paraoxonase activity [210 (131–462), 211 (120–442) vs. 180 (139–296) U/L; P = 0.857] as well as arylesterase activity [74 (63–82), 70 (54–91) vs. 70 (60–81) kU/L; P = 0.906] and PON1 phenotype (P = 0.810) were not different in the study groups. Conclusion: There are no differences in PON1 activity and PON1 phenotype between women with regular menstrual cycle and postmenopausal women. PMID:24969921

  20. [Clinical aspects of hepatitis C in women of child-bearing age].

    PubMed

    Lombay, Béla; Gasztonyi, Beáta; Szalay, Ferenc

    2008-06-01

    It is difficult to define the optimal timing of antiviral treatment in women infected with viral hepatitis C, who have child-bearing potential. Antiviral treatment is strictly contraindicated during pregnancy and the breast-feeding period. Data are conflicting about the question of treatment with modern drugs (peginterferon and ribavirin) before or after pregnancy. The risk of vertical transmission from mother to child is estimated about 5%. The mother's viraemia seems to be the main transmission factor. There is a worse prognosis in nulliparous and postmenopausal women in the natural history of viral hepatitis C. Poor outcome in gestational age, maturity and Apgar score were not associated with hepatitis C virus infection. Combined treatment has frequent gynecological and other side effects. The timing of antiviral therapy in women in child-bearing period is recommended individually. PMID:18508735

  1. A qualitative study examining women's experiences of an appearance-focussed facial-ageing sun protection intervention.

    PubMed

    Williams, Alison Leah; Grogan, Sarah; Buckley, Emily; Clark-Carter, David

    2012-06-01

    The study was designed to investigate women's experiences of an appearance-focussed, facial-ageing, morphing intervention to show the effect of UV exposure on their skin. Forty-seven women aged 18-34 took part in the intervention: 35 women in individual sessions, and 12 in four focus groups. Transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Women were shocked about the likely effect of UV exposure on their skin. All of the women stated that they were going to make changes to their UV exposure and sun protection behaviours after viewing the images of themselves which were morphed to show the effects of UV exposure. The results are discussed in relation to suggestions for interventions aimed at women aged 18-34. It is concluded that appearance-based interventions do have a role to play in healthcare and educational settings with regards to UV exposure and sun protection intentions. PMID:22627145

  2. Intimate partner violence and women's economic and non-economic activities in Minya, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Yount, Kathryn M; Zureick-Brown, Sarah; salem, Rania

    2014-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is widespread, but its implications for their economic and non-economic activities are understudied. Leveraging new data from 564 ever-married women aged 22–65 in rural Minya, Egypt, we estimated logistic regressions and zero-inflated negative binomial regressions to test spillover, compensation, and patriarchal bargaining theories about the influences of women's exposure to IPV on their engagement in and time spent on market, subsistence, domestic, and care work. Supporting compensation theory, exposures to lifetime, recent, and chronic physical or sexual IPV were associated with higher adjusted odds of performing market work in the prior month, and exposures to recent and chronic IPV were associated with higher adjusted odds of performing subsistence work in this period. Supporting compensation and patriarchal bargaining theories, exposures to recent and chronic IPV were associated with more time spent on domestic work in the prior day. Supporting spillover and patriarchal bargaining theories, exposures to lifetime IPV of all forms were associated with lower adjusted odds of performing mostly nonspousal care work in the prior day, and this association was partially mediated by women's generalized anxiety. Women in rural Minya who are exposed to IPV may escalate their housework to fulfill local norms of feminine domesticity while substituting economic activities for nonspousal care work to enhance their economic independence from violent partners. PMID:24659089

  3. Brief Communication: Adrenal Androgens and Aging: Female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Compared With Women

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, James K.; Coxworth, James E.; Herndon, James G.; Hawkes, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cycling continues to similar ages in women and chimpanzees yet our nearest living cousins become decrepit during their fertile years and rarely outlive them. Given the importance of estrogen in maintaining physiological systems aside from fertility, similar ovarian aging in humans and chimpanzees combined with somatic aging differences indicates an important role for nonovarian estrogen. Consistent with this framework, researchers have nominated the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS), which can be peripherally converted to estrogen, as a biomarker of aging in humans and other primates. Faster decline in production of this steroid with age in chimpanzees could help explain somatic aging differences. Here, we report circulating levels of DHEAS in captive female chimpanzees and compare them with published levels in women. Instead of faster, the decline is slower in chimpanzees, but from a much lower peak. Levels reported for other great apes are lower still. These results point away from slowed decline but toward increased DHEAS production as one of the mechanisms underlying the evolution of human longevity. PMID:23818143

  4. Changes in the muscle strength and functional performance of healthy women with aging

    PubMed Central

    Mousavikhatir, Roghayeh

    2012-01-01

    Background Lower limbs antigravity muscles weakness and decreased functional ability have significant role in falling. The aim of this study was to find the effects of aging on muscle strength and functional ability, determining the range of decreasing strength and functional ability and relationship between them in healthy women. Methods Across-section study was performed on 101 healthy women aged 21-80 years. The participants were divided into six age groups. The maximum isometric strength of four muscle groups was measured using a hand-held dynamometer bilaterally. The functional ability was measured with functional reach (FR), timed get up and go (TGUG), single leg stance (SLS), and stairs walking (SW) tests. Results Muscle strength changes were not significant between 21-40 years of age, but decreased significantly thereafter. Also, there was a significant relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in age groups. Conclusion Both muscle strength and functional ability is reduced as a result of aging, but the decrease in functional ability can be detected earlier. PMID:23482911

  5. Prediction error and somatosensory insula activation in women recovered from anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Guido K.W.; Collier, Shaleise; Shott, Megan E.; O’Reilly, Randall C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research in patients with anorexia nervosa showed heightened brain response during a taste reward conditioning task and heightened sensitivity to rewarding and punishing stimuli. Here we tested the hypothesis that individuals recovered from anorexia nervosa would also experience greater brain activation during this task as well as higher sensitivity to salient stimuli than controls. Methods Women recovered from restricting-type anorexia nervosa and healthy control women underwent fMRI during application of a prediction error taste reward learning paradigm. Results Twenty-four women recovered from anorexia nervosa (mean age 30.3 ± 8.1 yr) and 24 control women (mean age 27.4 ± 6.3 yr) took part in this study. The recovered anorexia nervosa group showed greater left posterior insula activation for the prediction error model analysis than the control group (family-wise error– and small volume–corrected p < 0.05). A group × condition analysis found greater posterior insula response in women recovered from anorexia nervosa than controls for unexpected stimulus omission, but not for unexpected receipt. Sensitivity to punishment was elevated in women recovered from anorexia nervosa. Limitations This was a cross-sectional study, and the sample size was modest. Conclusion Anorexia nervosa after recovery is associated with heightened prediction error–related brain response in the posterior insula as well as greater response to unexpected reward stimulus omission. This finding, together with behaviourally increased sensitivity to punishment, could indicate that individuals recovered from anorexia nervosa are particularly responsive to punishment. The posterior insula processes somatosensory stimuli, including unexpected bodily states, and greater response could indicate altered perception or integration of unexpected or maybe unwanted bodily feelings. Whether those findings develop during the ill state or whether they are biological traits requires

  6. Relationship between insomnia and headache in community-based middle-aged Hong Kong Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Wong, Chun-Yue

    2010-06-01

    Limited studies have investigated the prevalence of insomnia symptoms among individuals with different headache diagnoses and the association between insomnia and headache in subjects with comorbid anxiety and depression. A total of 310 community-dwelling Hong Kong Chinese women aged 40-60 years completed a self-administered questionnaire on headache, sleep difficulties, mood disturbances, and functional impairment. About 31% of the sample complained of recurrent headache unrelated to influenza and the common cold in the past 12 months. The percentages of women diagnosed to have migraine, tension-type headache (TTH), and headache unspecified were 8.4, 15.5 and 7.1%, respectively. The most frequent insomnia complaint was "problem waking up too early" (29.4%), followed by "difficulty staying asleep" (28.0%) and "difficulty falling asleep" (24.4%). Women with headaches were significantly more likely to report insomnia symptoms than those without headaches. There were no significant differences among women with migraine, TTH, and headache unspecified in the prevalence of insomnia symptoms. Logistic regression analysis showed that women with insomnia disorder as defined by an insomnia severity index total score >or=8 had 2.2-fold increased risk of reporting recurrent headache, 3.2-fold increased risk of migraine, and 2.3-fold increased risk of TTH, after adjusting for anxiety and depression. Individual insomnia symptoms were not independent predictors. The association between insomnia and headache was stronger in subjects with more frequent headaches. Our findings suggest that insomnia and the associated distress, but not insomnia symptoms alone, is an independent risk factor for recurrent headache in middle-aged women with mixed anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances. PMID:20186559

  7. Fish consumption and hair mercury levels in women of childbearing age, Martin County, Florida.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anil; Jordan, Melissa; Watkins, Sharon; Washam, Robert; DuClos, Chris; Jones, Serena; Palcic, Jason; Pawlowicz, Marek; Blackmore, Carina

    2014-12-01

    The health effects of mercury in humans are mostly on the developing nervous system. Pregnant women and women who are breastfeeding must be targeted in order to decrease mercury exposure to the populations at highest risk-infants, unborn fetuses, and young children. This purpose of this study is to understand the demographics of fish-consumption patterns among women of childbearing age (including pregnant women) in Martin County, Florida, and to analyze the associations of mercury levels in participants' hair with socio-demographic variables in order to better design prevention messages and campaigns. Mercury concentrations in hair samples of 408 women ages 18-49 were assessed. Data on demographic factors, pregnancy status, fish consumption, and awareness of fish advisories were collected during personal interviews. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. The geometric and arithmetic means of hair mercury concentration were 0.371 and 0.676 µg/g of hair. One-fourth of the respondents had a concentration ≥1 µg/g of hair. Consuming a higher number of fish meals per month, consumption of commercially purchased or locally caught fish higher in mercury, White race and income ≥$75,000 were positively associated with the likelihood of having higher hair mercury levels. This study confirms the existence of a higher overall mean hair mercury level and a higher percentage of women with ≥1 µg/g hair mercury level than those reported at the national level and in other regional studies. This suggests the need for region-specific fish consumption advisories to minimize mercury exposure in humans. PMID:24807406

  8. The Burden of Nocturia Among Middle-Aged and Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Amy; Nakagawa, Sanae; Walter, Louise C.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Brown, Jeanette S.; Thom, David H.; Lee, Sei J.; Huang, Alison J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence, predictors and effects of nocturia in women, and evaluate overlaps with established urinary tract disorders. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2,016 women, aged 40 years and older, recruited from Kaiser Permanente Northern California from 2008 to 2012. Nocturia and other urinary symptoms were assessed using structured interviewer-administered questionnaires. Nocturia was defined as patient-reported nocturnal voiding of two or more times per night over a typical week. Results Thirty-four percent (n=692) reported nocturia, and 40% of women with nocturia reported no other urinary tract symptom. Women with nocturia were older (mean age 58 versus 55) (OR per 5-year increase 1.21 [95% CI, 1.12-1.31]) more likely Black (45%) (OR 1.75, [95% CI, 1.30-2.35]) or Latina (37%) (OR 1.36 [95% CI, 1.02-1.83]) versus non-Latina White (30%), have worse depression (mean Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) score 3.8 versus 2.8)(OR per 1-point increase in HADS score 1.08 [95% CI, 1.04-1.12]) and worse mobility (mean Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) 11.3 versus 10 seconds) (OR per 5-second increase in TUG 1.29 [95% CI, 1.05-1.58]). Nocturia occurred more among women with hysterectomy (53% versus 33%) (OR 1.78 [95% CI, 1.08-2.94]), hot flashes (38% versus 32%) (OR 1.49 [95% CI, 1.19-1.87]), and vaginal estrogen use (42% versus 34%) (OR 1.50 [95% CI, 1.04-2.18]). Conclusion Nocturia is common in women and not necessarily attributable to other urinary tract disorders. Factors not linked to bladder function may contribute to nocturia risk, underlining the need for multi-organ prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:25560101

  9. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above

    PubMed Central

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30–65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ≥CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ≥50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30–65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  10. Centering Perspectives on Black Women, Hair Politics, and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Versey, H. Shellae

    2014-01-01

    As researchers categorize issues facing Black women’s health, obesity and physical exercise continue to be significant topics of debate. General interventions targeted toward Black women to address obesity and increase physical exercise have been largely ineffective. In this article, I situate the current public health discourse on obesity and related interventions within a sociocultural context of body appearance, with a specific focus on hair. Why do some African American women feel such strong ties to their hair that they will avoid exercise? What can be done to understand this phenomenon and address alternatives that may make both hair maintenance and regular exercise feasible? I map a theoretical argument for why hair matters for some women, and discuss how physical activity intervention strategies might be improved by considering such complexities. PMID:24625146

  11. Activities of the women in physics committee in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Soon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yim, Haein; Jung, Ranju; Chung, Ok Hee; Yang, Ho-Soon; Chun, Seung-Hyun; Oh, Wonkun; Kim, Hyunjung; Park, Youngah

    2013-03-01

    Established in 2002 as a result of the first IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, and subsequently ratified as one of the permanent committees in the Korean Physical Society (KPS), the Women in Physics Committee in Korea has been playing a central role in making society aware of improvement of women's status through a variety of efforts, such as organizing workshops, site visits, and special sessions; holding the third ICWIP in Seoul in 2008; and hosting an annual KPS physics camp for high school girls since 2002. We present some details about these activities in order to share our experiences and discuss our future goals with members of the corresponding committees from other countries.

  12. Family Planning Practice Among Rural Reproductive-Age Married Women in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Jirapongsuwan, Ann; Latt, Kyaw Thu; Siri, Sukhontha; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate family planning (FP) practices and associated factors among reproductive-age married women. Data were collected by interviewing the 300 married women living in a rural area of Myanmar. The questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from .8 to .9. Results indicated that 73.3% of women performed FP, and contraceptive injection was the most common method. Significant associations were found with age 21 to 35 years (adjusted odds ratio [adj OR] = 3.748, 95% CI = 2.179-6.445), adequacy of income (adj OR = 2.520, 95% CI = 1.477-4.290), good attitude toward FP (adj OR = 0.386, 95% CI = 0.228-0.656), good support from health care providers (adj OR = 0.129, 95% CI = 0.054-0.313), good support from family (adj OR = 0.304, 95% CI = 0.163-0.565), good support from friends (adj OR = 0.344, 95% CI = 0.193-0.613), and FP practice. It is recommended that designing FP programs with peers and family involvement could increase the practice of FP among rural Myanmar women. PMID:27122625

  13. Association of Renal Function and Menopausal Status with Bone Mineral Density in Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yueh-Hsuan; Chen, Jen-Hau; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Lee, Yue-Yuan; Tsao, Chwen-Keng; Chen, Yen-Ching

    2015-01-01

    The association between mild renal dysfunction and bone mineral density (BMD) has not been fully explored. It is also unclear how menopausal status and the use of Chinese herb affect this association. This is a cross-sectional study that included a total of 1,419 women aged 40 to 55 years old who were recruited from the MJ Health Management Institution in Taiwan between 2009 and 2010. Spinal BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Renal function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and creatinine clearance rate (CCr). The multivariable logistic regression and general linear models were employed to assess the association between renal function and BMD. Stratification analyses were performed by menopausal status and use of Chinese herbs. Low CCr levels were significantly associated with low BMD [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15–1.90]. This association was observed in premenopausal women (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.07–1.92) and in women not taking Chinese herbs (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.14–1.94). CCr is a better predictor for low BMD in middle-aged women. Menopausal status and the use of Chinese herbs also affected this association. PMID:26459876

  14. Childbearing May Increase the Risk of Nondiabetic Cataract in Chinese Women's Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Manqiong; Han, Yaofeng; Fang, Ya; Chu, Cheng-I

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. Ocular changes may arise during pregnancy and after childbirth, but very few studies have reported the association between childbearing and cataract among older adults. Methods. 14,292 individuals aged 60+ years were recruited in Xiamen, China, in 2013. Physician-diagnosed cataract and diabetes status were assessed by a self-reported questionnaire. Childbearing status was measured by number of children (NOC). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis was conducted to examine the relationships among NOC, diabetes, and cataract. Gender-specific logistic models regressing nondiabetic cataract on NOC were performed by adjusting some covariates. Results. 14,119 participants had complete data, of whom 5.01% suffered from cataract, with higher prevalence in women than men (6.41% versus 3.51%). Estimates of SEM models for women suggested that both NOC and diabetes were risk factors for cataract and that no correlation existed between NOC and diabetes. Women who had one or more children faced roughly 2–4 times higher risk of nondiabetic cataract than their childless counterparts (OR [95% CI] = 3.88 [1.24, 17.71], 3.21 [1.04, 14.52], 4.32 [1.42, 19.44], 4.41 [1.46, 19.74], and 3.98 [1.28, 18.10] for having 1, 2, 3, 4-5, and 6 or more children, resp.). Conclusions. Childbearing may increase the risk of nondiabetic cataract in Chinese women's older age. PMID:26351572

  15. [Anemia in women of reproductive age. The results of a national probability survey].

    PubMed

    Martínez, H; González-Cossío, T; Flores, M; Rivera-Dommarco, J; Lezana, M A; Sepúlveda-Amor, J

    1995-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most prevalent forms of malnutrition which is clinically known as anemia. Functional consequences of anemia include impairment of cardiovascular performance, limitation in productivity, higher incidence of low birth weight and premature delivery, and increased maternal mortality. This paper presents a descriptive analysis of anemia in women of reproductive age in Mexico. Data were collected by the Ministry of Health through a National Nutrition Survey in 1988, which draw a representative sample from four regions: North, Center, South and Federal District. Anemia was more prevalent in pregnant (18.17%) than in non-pregnant women (15.38%). Those women living in predominantly indigenous communities had higher prevalence of anemia (24.02%) than non-indigenous women (14.67%). Anemia was more prevalent in urban areas (15.54%) than in rural (13.56%). Mean +/- standard deviation values for hemoglobin were lower in pregnant women (12.5 +/- 1.6 g/dL) than in non-pregnant ones (13.7 +/- 1.6 g/dL). Consistently, the Northern and Southern regions were worse off than the Center and the Federal District. These data indicate that anemia is a public health problem in Mexico. The functional consequences of this deficiency justify interventions to treat and prevent it. PMID:7618111

  16. Tools for Improving Clinical Preventive Services Receipt Among Women with Disabilities of Childbearing Ages and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Taft, Kate E.; Sloan, Michelle L.; Stevens, Alissa C.; Krahn, Gloria L.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to improve clinical preventive services (CPS) receipt among women with disabilities are poorly understood and not widely disseminated. The reported results represent a 2-year, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs partnership to develop a central resource for existing tools that are of potential use to maternal and child health practitioners who work with women with disabilities. Steps included contacting experts in the fields of disability and women’s health, searching the Internet to locate examples of existing tools that may facilitate CPS receipt, convening key stakeholders from state and community-based programs to determine their potential use of the tools, and developing an online Toolbox. Nine examples of existing tools were located. The tools focused on facilitating use of the CPS guidelines, monitoring CPS receipt among women with disabilities, improving the accessibility of communities and local transportation, and training clinicians and women with disabilities. Stakeholders affirmed the relevance of these tools to their work and encouraged developing a Toolbox. The Toolbox, launched in May 2013, provides information and links to existing tools and accepts feedback and proposals for additional tools. This Toolbox offers central access to existing tools. Maternal and child health stakeholders and other service providers can better locate, adopt and implement existing tools to facilitate CPS receipt among adolescent girls with disabilities who are transitioning into adult care as well as women with disabilities of child-bearing ages and beyond. PMID:25359095

  17. Ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination in women aged 40 years or more.

    PubMed

    Wiser, Amir; Shalom-Paz, Einat; Reinblatt, Shauna Leigh; Son, Weon-Young; Das, Mausumi; Tulandi, Togas; Holzer, Hananel

    2012-02-01

    Fertility decreases with advancing age. This study retrospectively reviewed the results of ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination (IUI) in women 40 years old with diminished ovarian reserve or unexplained infertility who underwent treatment with ovarian stimulation/IUI with clomiphene citrate or gonadotrophin and compared them with the results of IVF and in-vitro maturation (IVM) treatments. The main outcome measures were pregnancy and live-birth rates. The profiles of the patients in ovarian stimulation, IVM and IVF groups were comparable. There were no clinical pregnancies in the clomiphene citrate and IVM groups. The clinical-pregnancy rates in the gonadotrophin and IVF groups were 2.6% and 16.9% and the live-birth rates were 2.6% and 13.7%, respectively. Compared with ovarian stimulation, IVF is most effective for women aged 40 years or more. Attempting success with ovarian stimulation or IVM will delay conception unnecessarily. PMID:22197126

  18. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  19. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  20. Trajectory of Declines in Physical Activity in Community-Dwelling Older Women: Social Cognitive Influences

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Katherine S.; Motl, Robert W.; White, Siobhan M.; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; Hu, Liang; Doerksen, Shawna E.

    2009-01-01

    Studies examining physical activity behavior suggest that activity levels decline with age. Such declines are particularly problematic among older adults in light of the research suggesting a protective effect of physical activity on numerous physical health outcomes associated with independent living. Despite a growing recognition of the importance of a physically active lifestyle, little is known about the role of demographic and psychosocial variables on this trajectory of change. In this study, the roles played by outcome expectations, self-efficacy, and functional limitations on changes in physical activity levels over a 2-year period in older women were assessed using latent growth curve modeling. Data were obtained from 249 community-dwelling older women (M age = 68.12, n = 81 Black, and n = 168 White). Demographic, health status, and psychosocial data were collected via self-report upon entry into the study. Self-reported physical activity was assessed at baseline and again at 12 and 24 months. As expected, physical activity declined over the 2-year period. Self-efficacy demonstrated an indirect association with the trajectory of decline in physical activity through functional limitations. Importantly, the pattern of relationships appears independent of demographic factors and chronic health conditions. PMID:19528360

  1. Facial rejuvenation for middle-aged women: a combined approach with minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Alberto; Wollina, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation is a significant process involved in restoring youthfulness. The introduction of less invasive procedures has increased acceptance of such procedures. Often a combination of different techniques allows individualized treatment with optimal outcomes. Furthermore, this leads to a natural look without a significant downtime. We report herein the use of such a combined approach in middle-aged women with particular emphasis on botulinum toxin type A, dermal fillers, and chemical peels. PMID:20924438

  2. Prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in European women aged over 80 years.

    PubMed

    Bruyère, Olivier; Slomian, Justine; Beaudart, Charlotte; Buckinx, Fanny; Cavalier, Etienne; Gillain, Sophie; Petermans, Jean; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate vitamin D status is associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism and increased bone turnover and bone loss, which in turn increases fracture risk. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of inadequate vitamin D status in European women aged over 80 years. Assessments of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) were performed on 8532 European women with osteoporosis or osteopenia of which 1984 were aged over 80 years. European countries included in the study were: France, Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Hungary, United Kingdom, Spain and Germany. Two cut-offs of 25(OH)D inadequacy were fixed: <75 nmol/L (30 ng/ml) and <50 nmol/L (20 ng/ml). Mean (SD) age of the patients was 83.4 (2.9) years, body mass index was 25.0 (4.0) kg/m(2) and level of 25(OH)D was 53.3 (26.7) nmol/L (21.4 [10.7] ng/ml). There was a highly significant difference of 25(OH)D level across European countries (p<0.0001). In these women aged over 80 years, the prevalence of 25(OH)D inadequacy was 80.9% and 44.5% when considering cut-offs of 75 and 50 nmol/L, respectively. In the 397 (20.0%) patients taking supplemental vitamin D with or without supplemental calcium, the mean serum 25(OH)D level was significantly higher than in the other patients (65.2 (29.2) nmol/L vs. 50.3 (25.2) nmol/L; P<0.001). This study indicates a high prevalence of vitamin D (25(OH)D) inadequacy in old European women. The prevalence could be even higher in some particular countries. PMID:24784761

  3. Prevalence of Anemia among Tribal Women of Reproductive Age in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Ramachandra; Majeed, Jazeel Abdul; Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi; Pattanshetty, Sanjay M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Anaemia is a major public health problem in India. Many studies have emphasized on prevalence of anaemia among general population. This study has focussed to address the prevalence of anaemia among the tribal population in Udupi taluk. Anaemia among women in the reproductive age group is one of the causes for maternal morbidity and mortality in India. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of anemia among tribal women (aged 15 to 49 years). Settings and Design: A Community based cross sectional study was conducted among tribal women aged 14-49 years in Udupi taluk, Udupi district, Karnataka. Methods and Material: A cross sectional study during July 2012 to August 2012 was conducted. A sample size of 170 was calculated taking into consideration a relative error of 15% and the prevalence of anemia in Karnataka as 51% (as per the NFHS-3). Statistical analysis used: Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to analyse the data using SPSS 15. Results: The study sample had a mean hemoglobin value of 11.3 g/dL with 95% CI of (11 – 11.6), with a standard deviation of 2g/dL. The study reveals that in the sample of tribal women in the age group of 15-49 years, the prevalence of anemia was 55.9%. Among the subjects, 6 (3.5%) were severely anemic, 33 (19.4%) were moderately anemic and 56 (32.9%) were mildly anemic. Conclusions: This study calls for an appropriate action and intervention in this tribal population to treat and prevent anaemia. PMID:26664839

  4. Explanatory style and its functional relationship to job satisfaction for employed women age forty and over.

    PubMed

    Phelps, L H; Waskel, S A

    1994-06-01

    An assessment of the relationship between explanatory style and perceived general job satisfaction is presented for 135 employed women age 40 and over who were asked to complete the Attributional Style Questionnaire and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Although a forced-order multiple regression analysis did not yield a significant correlation between explanatory style and perceived general job satisfaction, several interesting factors emerged. PMID:8058876

  5. "Womanhood does not reside in documentation": Queer and feminist student activism for transgender women's inclusion at women's colleges.

    PubMed

    Weber, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    This article considers queer-driven student activism at Smith College, as well as admissions policy shifts at a number of prominent U.S. women's colleges for transgender women's inclusion. The author illustrates how student attempts to dismantle the transmisogyny at Smith as a purportedly feminist "women's" space, as well as some women's colleges' shifts in admissions policy, challenge divisions between transgender and cisgender women. This paradigmatic shift reflects the campuses as comparative havens for gender and sexual exploration, the influence of postmodern gender theory in understanding identity, and the growth of "queer" as an all-encompassing signifier for sexual and gender transgression. PMID:26701768

  6. From 'the thing to do' to 'defying the ravages of age': older women reflect on the use of lipstick.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Laura Hurd; Bundon, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Using data from in-depth interviews with 36 women, aged 71 to 93, this manuscript examines older women's use of lipstick. The most ubiquitously used cosmetic by the women we interviewed, lipstick was a taken-for-granted practice in the women's performance of gender. In the women's youth, the performance of gender through lipstick usage was related to rebellion and peer acceptance. In contrast, the use of lipstick in later life was related to the maintenance of an attractive and respectable appearance. We discuss our findings in light of interpretative feminist theorizing concerning beauty work, doing gender, and the presentation of self. PMID:20183145

  7. Prospective Study of Plasma Homocysteine Level and Risk of Age-related Macular Degeneration in Women

    PubMed Central

    Christen, William G.; Cook, Nancy R.; Ridker, Paul M.; Buring, Julie E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Prospective data to examine the association of homocysteine and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are limited. We examined the prospective relation of plasma homocysteine level and AMD in a large cohort of apparently healthy women. Methods We evaluated the relationship between baseline levels of plasma homocysteine and incident AMD among 27,479 female health professionals aged 40 years or older. Main outcome measures were total AMD, defined as a self-report documented by medical record evidence of an initial diagnosis after randomization, and visually significant AMD, defined as confirmed incident AMD with visual acuity of 20/30 or worse attributable to this condition. Results During an average of 10 years of follow-up, a total of 452 cases of AMD, including 182 cases of visually-significant AMD, were documented. Women in the highest versus lowest quartile of plasma homocysteine had modestly, but statistically non-significant, increased risks of total (hazard ratio [HR], 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95–1.63; p for trend, 0.07) and visually-significant AMD (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 0.92–2.17; p for trend, 0.052) in age- and treatment-adjusted analyses. Conclusions These prospective data from a large cohort of apparently-healthy women do not support a strong role for homocysteine in AMD occurrence. PMID:25777307

  8. Inequities in Workplace Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Nonsmoking Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Lawson, Christina C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We characterized workplace secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking women of reproductive age as a proxy for workplace secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy. Methods. We included nonsmoking women aged 18 to 44 years employed during the past 12 months who participated in the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. We estimated the prevalence of workplace secondhand smoke exposure and its associations with sociodemographic and workplace characteristics. Results. Nine percent of women reported workplace secondhand smoke exposure. Prevalence decreased with increasing age, education, and earnings. Workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with chemical exposure (prevalence odds ratio [POR] = 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3, 4.7); being threatened, bullied, or harassed (POR = 3.2; 95% CI = 2.1, 5.1); vapors, gas, dust, or fume exposure (POR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.3, 4.4); and worrying about unemployment (POR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.8, 5.2), among other things. Conclusions. Comprehensive smoke-free laws covering all workers could eliminate inequities in workplace secondhand smoke exposure, including during pregnancy. PMID:25905837

  9. Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Menstrual Irregularity in Middle-Aged Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Su; Nam, Ga-Eun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Kim, Young Eun; Lee, Sung Ho; Han, Kyung Do; Park, Yong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Menstrual irregularity is a common major complaint in women of reproductive age. It is also a known marker for underlying insulin resistance. We investigated the association between menstrual irregularity and metabolic syndrome in the general population of middle-aged women in Korea. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012. A total of 2,742 subjects were included in the analysis. Participants were divided into two categories based on their menstrual cycle regularity and the relationship between metabolic syndrome and its variables was investigated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Adjusted analyses revealed significantly higher odds ratios for metabolic syndrome, high waist circumference, high triglyceride levels, and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with the presence of menstrual irregularity. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome and its components (high waist circumference, high triglyceride levels, and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels) were significantly associated with menstrual irregularity in women of reproductive age. PMID:26885320

  10. Total bone calcium in normal women: effect of age and menopause status

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, J.C.; Goldgar, D.; Moy, A.

    1987-12-01

    Bone density in different regions of the skeleton was measured in 392 normal women aged 20-80 years by dual photon absorpiometry. In premenopausal women, aged 25-50 years, multiple regression analysis of regional bone density on age, height, and weight showed a small significant decrease in total bone density (less than 0.01) but no significant change in other regions of the skeleton. In postmenopausal women there were highly significant decreases in all regions of the skeleton (p less than 0.001), and bone density in these areas decreased as a logarithmic function of years since menopause. Based on multiple regression analyses, the decrease in spine density and total bone calcium was 2.5-3.0 times greater in the 25 years after menopause than the 25 years before menopause. The largest change, however, occurred in the first five years after menopause. During this time the estimated annual change in spine density and total bone calcium was about 10 times greater than that in the premenopausal period. These results demonstrate the important effect of the menopause in determining bone mass in later life.

  11. Vitamin D deficiency in reproductive age Mongolian women: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Holick, Michael F; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Frazier, Lindsay A; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Ninjin, Boldbaatar; Janes, Craig; Hoover, Robert N; Troisi, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D production is critical not only for rickets prevention but for its role in several chronic diseases of adulthood. Maternal vitamin D status also has consequences for the developing fetus. This study assessed the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]<20ng/ml) and insufficiency [25(OH)D=20-29ng/ml] in spring, among reproductive age Mongolian women. Blood was drawn in March and April, 2009 from 420 Mongolian women, 18-44 years of age. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured, anthropometric measurements were performed and information was collected by interview on lifestyle, dietary and reproductive factors. Logarithm-transformed 25(OH)D levels were compared across risk factor categories by analysis of variance. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the independent associations of factors with vitamin D status. Cutaneous vitamin D3 synthesis was assessed between December and July using a standard 7-dehydrocholesterol ampoule model. The vast majority of women 415 (98.8%) had serum 25(OH)D<20ng/ml (50nmol/l) with an additional 4 women (<1%) in the insufficient range (20-29ng/ml); only one women (0.2%) had sufficient levels (>30ng/ml or 75nmol/l). 25(OH)D concentrations were positively and independently associated with educational status and use of vitamin D supplements, but not with other demographic, lifestyle, reproductive, or anthropometric factors. 25(OH)D levels were not associated with dietary factors in this population, as there is little access to foods containing vitamin D in Mongolia. No production of previtamin D3 was observed until March and was maximally effective in April and was sustained through July. These data suggest that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in spring among reproductive age women in Mongolia is high. Given the lack of naturally vitamin D-rich food in the diet and limited use of vitamin D supplements, food fortification and/or supplementation with vitamin D should be considered

  12. Cardiac autonomic changes in middle-aged women: identification based on principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Trevizani, Gabriela A; Nasario-Junior, Olivassé; Benchimol-Barbosa, Paulo R; Silva, Lilian P; Nadal, Jurandir

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of the principal component analysis (PCA) technique on power spectral density function (PSD) of consecutive normal RR intervals (iRR) aiming at assessing its ability to discriminate healthy women according to age groups: young group (20-25 year-old) and middle-aged group (40-60 year-old). Thirty healthy and non-smoking female volunteers were investigated (13 young [mean ± SD (median): 22·8 ± 0·9 years (23·0)] and 17 Middle-aged [51·7 ± 5·3 years (50·0)]). The iRR sequence was collected during ten minutes, breathing spontaneously, in supine position and in the morning, using a heart rate monitor. After selecting an iRR segment (5 min) with the smallest variance, an auto regressive model was used to estimate the PSD. Five principal component coefficients, extracted from PSD signals, were retained for analysis according to the Mahalanobis distance classifier. A threshold established by logistic regression allowed the separation of the groups with 100% specificity, 83·2% sensitivity and 93·3% total accuracy. The PCA appropriately classified two groups of women in relation to age (young and Middle-aged) based on PSD analysis of consecutive normal RR intervals. PMID:25532598

  13. A Scientific Assessment of Sociodemographic Factors, Physical Activity Level, and Nutritional Knowledge as Determinants of Dietary Quality among Indo-Mauritian Women

    PubMed Central

    Jeewon, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    A healthy diet is of particular concern throughout the life of women to avoid many chronic illnesses especially during their 30s to 50s. There are published data on dietary quality and its determinants among women, but there is a lack of similar data regarding women in Mauritius. This study aimed to investigate the association between age and dietary quality in relation to sociodemographic factors, physical activity level (PAL) and nutritional knowledge (NK). A survey-based study was conducted in 2012 among Indo-Mauritian women including 117 young (21.35 ± 1.98), 160 reaching middle age (34.02 ± 5.09) and 50 middle-aged (37.85 ± 8.32). Validated questionnaires were used to elicit information on the determinants. A food frequency table consisting of 18 food items was used to assess dietary quality. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the association between various factors and dietary quality. The mean dietary score of middle-aged women (18.70 ± 2.67) was closer to recommended dietary guidelines compared to young women (17.22 ± 3.40), and women reaching middle age (17.55 ± 3.29). Educational level, PAL, NK, and age were main determinants of dietary quality among Indo-Mauritian women (P < 0.05). Younger women with low educational level, PAL, and NK are at risk of poor dietary quality. PMID:23762543

  14. Age at menarche and the menstrual pattern of Igbo women of southeast Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Umeora, Ouj; Egwuatu, Ve

    2008-04-01

    This study determines the age at menarche and menstrual pattern of an Igbo population in 12 randomly selected rural communities of Ebonyi State. Information on recalled ages at menarche, menstrual flow duration and cycle length was collected using a semi structured questionnaire over three months. 1209 women of reproductive age were interviewed. The mean age at menarche was 15.0 years and this declined over the years. The mean menstrual flow duration and cycle lengths were 3.3 days and 29.7 days respectively. Only 10.2% had a menstrual cycle length of 28 days. Account should be taken of the average length of 29-30 days in the rural Igbo population when calculating the expected date of delivery and in the family planning clinics. PMID:20695160

  15. Characterizing Nearby Stars: Age and Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, David

    2001-01-01

    The funds in this grant were used to support costs for observing and data analysis over the past two years. During this time I have been obtaining low-resolution (R-2,000) spectra for about 5,000 solar-type stars (late-F and G dwarfs) that are within 60 parsecs of the Sun. The sample was defined with results from the Hipparcos mission, and the spectra were obtained at Kitt Peak National Observatory, using the Coude Feed telescope, and at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, using their 1.5 m telescopes for stars below -40 declination. Nearly all the observed spectra have been reduced and analyzed. What is determined is R-prime, an index of the chromospheric emission in the cores of the Ca II H and K lines relative to the nearby continuum, and normalized for the color of the star. Chromospheric emission arises from magnetic activity on the star, and that is turn is driven by rotation. Solar-type stars spin down as they age, and so they get weaker in their chromospheric emission as well. Thus this R-prime index can be used to estimate the ages of stars. A few stars remain to be observed at Kitt Peak, and follow-up high-resolution spectra are being obtained of the most active stars seen, but the majority of the starting sample have been completed. The spectra obtained are also being analyzed to yield an index of overall metallicity for each star, and this will be used to study Galactic evolution questions. These metallicities will form the first large dataset of high and consistent quality. Initial results from this work have been used to define targets for a SIRTF Legacy program, for stars to study for planetary transits, and for SETI efforts. Because of the large number of stars involved, most of the data will be made available on the web, although some specific papers about the results are in preparation. The web database is being constructed.

  16. Update: Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure--United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Emily E; Polen, Kara N D; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Ellington, Sascha R; Oduyebo, Titilope; Cohn, Amanda; Oster, Alexandra M; Russell, Kate; Kawwass, Jennifer F; Karwowski, Mateusz P; Powers, Ann M; Bertolli, Jeanne; Brooks, John T; Kissin, Dmitry; Villanueva, Julie; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge; Kuehnert, Matthew; Olson, Christine K; Honein, Margaret A; Rivera, Maria; Jamieson, Denise J; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2016-01-01

    CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for women of reproductive age with possible Zika virus exposure to include recommendations on counseling women and men with possible Zika virus exposure who are interested in conceiving. This guidance is based on limited available data on persistence of Zika virus RNA in blood and semen. Women who have Zika virus disease should wait at least 8 weeks after symptom onset to attempt conception, and men with Zika virus disease should wait at least 6 months after symptom onset to attempt conception. Women and men with possible exposure to Zika virus but without clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease should wait at least 8 weeks after exposure to attempt conception. Possible exposure to Zika virus is defined as travel to or residence in an area of active Zika virus transmission ( http://www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/active-countries.html), or sex (vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, or fellatio) without a condom with a man who traveled to or resided in an area of active transmission. Women and men who reside in areas of active Zika virus transmission should talk with their health care provider about attempting conception. This guidance also provides updated recommendations on testing of pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure. These recommendations will be updated when additional data become available. PMID:27031943

  17. Changes in Women's Physical Activity during the Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jennifer L.; Dinger, Mary K.; Hull, Holly R.; Randall, Nichole B.; Heesch, Kristiann C.; Fields, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined physical activity during the transition from high school to college. Purpose: To examine changes in physical activity and physical activity patterns among females during the transition from high school to college. Methods: Sixty-nine females (age 18.2 [plus or minus] 0.4 years; body mass index 21.8 [plus or…

  18. High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Marneffe, A; Miyamoto, M; Jemec, G B E; Del Marmol, V

    2015-10-01

    Several non-invasive two-dimensional techniques with different lateral resolution and measurable depth range have proved to be useful in assessing and quantifying morphological changes in skin ageing. Among these, only in vivo microscopy techniques permit histometric measurements in vivo. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related (IAR) morphological changes of epidermis, dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ), papillary dermis (PD), papillary-reticular dermis junction and reticular dermis (RD) have been performed by high-definition optical coherence tomography in real time 3-D. HD-OCT images were taken at the internal site of the right upper arm. Qualitative HD-OCT IAR descriptors were reported at skin surface, at epidermal layer, DEJ, PD and upper RD. Quantitative evaluation of age-related compaction and backscattered intensity or brightness of different skin layers was performed by using the plugin plot z-axis profile of ImageJ(®) software permitting intensity assessment of HD-OCT (DICOM) images (3-D images). Analysis was in blind from all clinical information. Sixty, fair-skinned (Fitzpatrick types I-III) healthy females were analysed retrospectively in this study. The subjects belonged to three age groups: twenty in group I aged 20-39, twenty in group II aged 40-59 and twenty in group III aged 60-79. Only intrinsic ageing in women has been studied. Significant age-related qualitative and quantitative differences could be noticed. IAR changes in dermal matrix fibers morphology/organisation and in microvasculature were observed. The brightness and compaction of the different skin layers increased significantly with intrinsic skin ageing. The depth of visibility of fibers in RD increased significantly in the older age group. In conclusion, HD-OCT allows 3-D in vivo and real time qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related morphological skin changes at high resolution from skin surface to a depth

  19. Urinary symptoms and incontinence in women: relationships between occurrence, age, and perceived impact.

    PubMed Central

    Swithinbank, L V; Donovan, J L; du Heaume, J C; Rogers, C A; James, M C; Yang, Q; Abrams, P

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of urinary symptoms that impact on quality-of-life will be important in determining resource allocation in primary care groups. AIM: To determine the prevalence of urinary symptoms and their perceived impact in a community population of women. METHOD: A postal survey using a validated self-completed questionnaire among all women aged over 18 years and registered with one general practice in a major British city. The prevalence rates and perceived impact of a wide range of urinary symptoms and their relationship with age was determined. Data were analysed using the chi-squared test and the chi-squared test for trend. Spearman's rank correlation was used to assess the relationship between symptom severity and perceived impact. RESULTS: The number of completed questionnaires returned was 2075, giving an 80% response rate. Of these, the number of women who reported some degree of incontinence in the previous month was 1414 (69%), although only 578 (30%) indicated that it had social or hygienic impact. Other lower urinary tract symptoms reported included nocturia (19%), poor stream (19%), urgency (61%), and dysuria (23%). The most troublesome symptoms were incontinence for no obvious reason, nocturnal incontinence, and nocturia, with 73%, 69%, and 63% of sufferers, respectively, finding these symptoms troublesome. CONCLUSIONS: Incontinence and other urinary symptoms are more common than previously thought. These symptoms are not always perceived as bothersome or as having a social or hygienic impact, and therefore many women who report urinary leakage do not require treatment. Nocturnal symptoms in women are commoner than might have been supposed and are extremely troublesome to sufferers. PMID:10818656

  20. Old, down and out? Appearance, body work and positive ageing among elderly South Korean women.

    PubMed

    Elfving-Hwang, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    This article offers an as yet unexplored dimension of our current understanding of the ageing body in the context of contemporary South Korea. Drawing on interviews with twenty elderly women living in the greater Seoul metropolitan area, this article explores the role of appearance, body work, and the presentation of self in the women's everyday lived experiences. Existing research on the ageing female body in South Korea has primarily focused on the so-called noin munjae ('the elderly issue') discourse, within which the ageing body is framed as passive, undesirable, or out-of-control. Contrary to this, the elderly women's own narratives of everyday beauty practices suggest that the act of sustaining well-ordered appearance in later life allows for the enforcing of positive selves in the context of personal beauty and body work. Maintaining a positive appearance was shown to play an important part of their everyday lives, and functioned as a ritual of not only presenting an appearance that signified control over the ageing body, but to continue to enjoy it. The carefully calculated engagement with various non-surgical and surgical beauty practices also emerged as an embodied practice of mediating intersubjective social encounters through which self-esteem was engendered by evidencing the self's efforts to show respect to others. The findings of this study challenge dominant discourses in the west which present body work on the ageing female body as primarily self-indulgent, or driven by anxiety about the body's inability to fit within existing youthful beauty ideals. PMID:27531448

  1. Physical Activity Over the Life Course and its Association with Cognitive Performance and Impairment in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Laura E; Barnes, Deborah E; Lui, Li-Yung; Yaffe, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine how physical activity at various ages over the life course is associated with cognitive impairment in late life. Design Cross-sectional study Setting Four US sites. Participants We administered a modified Mini-Mental State Examination (mMMSE) to 9344 women ≥65 years (mean 71.6 years) who self-reported teenage, age 30, age 50, and late life physical activity. Measurements We used logistic regressions to determine the association between physical activity status at each age and likelihood of cognitive impairment (mMMSE score >1.5SD below the mean, mMMSE≤22). Models were adjusted for age, education, marital status, diabetes, hypertension, depressive symptoms, smoking, and body mass index. Results Women who reported being physically active had lower prevalence of cognitive impairment in late life compared to women who were inactive at each time (teenage: 8.5% vs. 16.7%; adjusted Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 0.65 (0.53–0.80); age 30: 8.9% vs. 12.0%; 0.80 (0.67–0.96); age 50: 8.5% vs. 13.1%; 0.71 (0.59–0.85); old age: 8.2% vs. 15.9%; 0.74 (0.61–0.91)). When the four times were analyzed together, teenage physical activity was most strongly associated with lower odds of late-life cognitive impairment (OR=0.73 (0.58–0.92)). However, women who were physically inactive at teenage and became active in later life had lower risk than those who remained inactive. Conclusions Women who reported being physically active at any point over the life course, and especially at teenage, have lower likelihood of cognitive impairment in late life. Interventions should promote physical activity early in life and throughout the life course. PMID:20609030

  2. Precipitating circumstances of suicide among women of reproductive age in 16 U.S. States, 2003-2007.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Lavonne A G; Karch, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is the fourth leading cause of death for women between the ages of 15 and 44 years, exceeding deaths due to homicide, HIV, cerebrovascular disease (CVD), and diabetes (CDC, 2009). Furthermore, almost half of the suicide deaths in women occur in women of reproductive age, yet little is known about the determinants of suicide in young adult and middle-age women. Data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) were analyzed to describe the leading circumstances associated with suicide among women aged 15-44 years. From 2003 to 2007, there were 4203 suicide deaths among women 15-44 years of age, which represents nearly half (46%) of the suicide deaths among females. Precipitating circumstances were known in 3784 cases. The most frequently cited circumstances for these suicide decedents were current mental health problem (60%), having ever been treated for a mental health problem (54%), current depressed mood (44%), and problems with a current or former intimate partner (36%). Thirty-seven percent had a history of suicide attempts. Twenty-eight percent disclosed their intent to die by suicide to another person with enough time for someone to have intervened. To prevent suicide in women of reproductive age, multiple approaches should be taken, including but not limited to appropriate and effective mental health treatment, access to support systems, familial education in recognizing the signs of suicide, and understanding the options available to get help for someone at risk. PMID:20088651

  3. Women's health-enhancing physical activity and eudaimonic well being.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Leah J; Kowalski, Kent C; Mack, Diane E; Wilson, Philip M; Crocker, Peter R E

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we explored the role of health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA; Miilunpalo, 2001) in women's eudaimonic well being (i.e., psychological flourishing at one's maximal potential; Ryff 1989). We used a quantitative approach (N= 349) to explore the relationship between HEPA and eudaimonic well being. While HEPA was not related to eudaimonic well being, experiencing eudaimonia through HEPA contributed unique variance in eudaimonic well being beyond HEPA and experiencing hedonia through HEPA. As quality of activity was more important than quantity, a qualitative component (N = 10) provided further insight on if and how HEPA contributes to women's eudaimonic well being. Participants supported HEPA in fulfilling their potential through goal setting/striving providing bonding experiences, allowing for self-reflection, and developing a physical/able body. PMID:22978195

  4. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors in Child Bearing Age Women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    AlQuaiz, AlJohara M.; Gad Mohamed, Ashry; Khoja, Tawfik A. M.; AlSharif, Abdullah; Shaikh, Shaffi Ahamed; Al Mane, Hamad; Aldiris, Abdallah; Hammad, Durdana

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in child bearing age women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design. Cross-sectional survey was conducted using two-stage cluster sampling. 25 clusters (primary health care centers (PHCC)) were identified from all over Riyadh, and 45–50 households were randomly selected from each cluster. Eligible women were invited to PHCC for questionnaire filling, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured with Coulter Cellular Analysis System using light scatter method. Setting. PHCC. Subjects. 969 (68%) women out of 1429 women were included in the analysis. Results. Mean hemoglobin was 12.35 (±1.80) g/dL, 95% CI 12.24–12.46 with interquartile range of 1.9. Anemia (Hb <12 g/dL) was present in 40% (390) women. Mean (±SD) for MCH, MCV, MCHC, and RDW was 79.21 (±12.17) fL, 26.37 (±6.21) pg, 32.36 (±4.91) g/dL, and 14.84 (±4.65)%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that having family history of iron deficiency anemia (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.78–4.76) and infrequent intake of meat (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.15–2.05) were associated with increased risk of anemia, whereas increasing body mass index (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.97) was associated with reduced risk of anemia. Conclusion. Women should be educated about proper diet and reproductive issues in order to reduce the prevalence of anemia in Saudi Arabia. PMID:24205435

  5. [Factors associated with nutritional supplement consumption in Mexican women aged 12 to 49 years].

    PubMed

    Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Camacho-Cisneros, Martha; García-Guerra, Armando; Monterrubio-Flores, Eric; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Villalpando Hernández, Salvador

    2008-06-01

    The objectives of this analysis are to identify the types of nutritional supplements (NS) commonly used and explore the associations between NS consumption and socio-demographic characteristics, nutritional status, measured as BMI, and anemia in a nationally representative sample Mexican women aged 12 to 49 years (n = 15,936) who participated in the Mexican National Nutrition Survey in 1999. Data on NS consumption and the other characteristics of interest were collected. We calculated the probability (P) of supplement consumption using logistic regression. For the statistical analysis characteristics at the individual and household level were included in the statistical models, and adjusted for the study design. Interaction effects were also explored. Multiple mixed vitamin and mineral supplements were the most commonly consumed (36.7%) followed by vitamins only (34.3%). Married women were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely (P = 0.16; p < 0.001) to consume NS compared to unmarried women, as were those with more access to public and private health care (P = 0.18; p = 0.010), with higher education level (P = 0.20; p = 0.004) and living in the South region (P = 0.20; p = 0.003). Anemia modified the association between supplement consumption and socioeconomic status (SES) (p = 0.016), non anemic women having greater probabilities of NS consumption. These results suggest that NS use among Mexican women is associated with better living conditions. On the other hand, we also found that women living in the South region, the poorest region of the country, had higher probability of NS consumption compared to the North region. This could be related to participation in food assistance programs; however we were unable to explore this potential explanation. This information will be used to further study trends, risks and health benefits in this population of the use of nutritional supplements. PMID:18833994

  6. Evaluation of serum transferrin receptor for iron deficiency in women of child-bearing age.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Juan; Zou, Zhi-Yong; Long, Zhu; Tian, Wei

    2008-11-01

    The objective was to study the evaluation of serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) for Fe deficiency in women of child-bearing age. Primary screening was performed in 942 women ranging in child-bearing age. Serum ferritin (SF), Zn protoporphyrin (ZPP) and Hb were determined. Then the subjects were divided into four groups: normal, Fe store depletion (IDs), Fe-deficiency erythropoiesis and Fe-deficiency anaemia. sTfR was determined and sTfR/SF (sTfR/logSF and log(sTfR/SF)) was calculated. Changes of sTfR in women of different Fe status were observed. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate whether sTfR had proper diagnostic efficacy for functional Fe deficiency. The levels of sTfR increased significantly along with the aggravation of Fe deficiency. Increase of STfR/SF along with the aggravation of Fe deficiency was more significant than that of sTfR. STfR had a significant negative correlation with SF and Hb, while it had a significant positive correlation with ZPP. The ROC curve showed that the diagnostic effective rate of sTfR for Fe deficiency could reach 83 %. At this point, the sensitivity was 79 % and the specificity was 63 %. Log(sTfR/SF) could be considered to have the highest effective ratio in detecting IDs, since it reached 99 %. STfR and sTfR/SF could both reflect body Fe-deficiency status specifically. They could be used as reliable indicators for evaluating Fe status and diagnosing Fe deficiency in women of child-bearing age. PMID:18377683

  7. Accuracy of BMI to detect percent fat obesity in men and women, ages 17 to 39: The TIGER Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A BMI of 30 kg/m2 is used to define obesity of men and women of all ages. Using variable samples, investigators have shown that age and gender account for percent fat (%Fat) variance independent of BMI. This age and gender bias can be traced to the inability of BMI to distinguish between the body's ...

  8. Nonexercise Physical Activity and Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Markers in Women

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sheng Hui; Shu, Xiao Ou; Chow, Wong-Ho; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zhang, Xianglan; Li, Hong-Lan; Cai, Qiuyin; Milne, Ginger; Ji, Bu-Tian; Cai, Hui; Rothman, Nathaniel; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Leisure time exercise has been linked to lower circulating levels of inflammatory markers. Few studies have examined the association of nonexercise physical activity with markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis included 1005 Chinese women aged 40–70 years. Usual physical activity was assessed through in-person interviews using a validated physical activity questionnaire. Plasma proinflammatory cytokines and urinary F2-isoprostanes were measured. Multivariable linear models were used to evaluate the association of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers with nonexercise physical activity and its major components. Results: Nonexercise physical activity accounted for 93.8% of overall physical activity energy expenditure. Levels of nonexercise physical activity were inversely associated with circulating concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 (Ptrend=0.004), IL-1β (Ptrend=0.03) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (Ptrend=0.01). Multivariable-adjusted concentrations of these cytokines were 28.2% for IL-6, 22.1% for IL-1β, and 15.9% for TNF-α lower in the highest quartile of nonexercise physical activity compared with the lowest quartile. Similar inverse associations were found for two major components of nonexercise physical activity, walking and biking for transportation, and household activity. No significant associations were observed between nonexercise physical activity and oxidative stress markers. Conclusion: Daily nonexercise physical activity is associated with lower levels of systemic inflammation. This finding may have important public health implications because this type of activity is the main contributor to overall physical activity among middle-aged and elderly women. PMID:24168102

  9. Keeping women active: an examination of the impacts of self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, and leadership on women's persistence in physical activity.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Kathleen M; Little, Donna E

    2010-10-01

    Physical inactivity in women is a worldwide problem that has not only been well-documented but has provoked much government concern and policy activity. However, an even more important issue is encouraging women's persistence in physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the links between women's experiences of participation in a government-funded physical activity festival, their intentions to continue participation, and their participation behavior six months after the festival. Results from semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 20 women revealed that enhanced self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, and supportive leadership had motivated the women's future intentions to participate. Follow-up surveys showed their levels of interest and participation in physical activity had been maintained. These results enhance our understanding of the relationship between key outcomes of women's physical activity participation and their persistence in physical activity. PMID:21104568

  10. Multiple measures of physical activity, dietary habits and weight status in African American and Hispanic or Latina women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rebecca E; Mama, Scherezade K; Medina, Ashley V; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; Banda, Jorge A; Layne, Charles S; Baxter, Meggin; O'Connor, Daniel P; McNeill, Lorna; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2011-12-01

    Compared measures of physical activity and dietary habits used in the Health Is Power (HIP) study, and described the associations of physical activity and dietary habits among African American and Hispanic or Latino women, adjusted for weight status. Cross-sectional baseline data were compared for community dwelling, healthy African American (N = 262) and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 148) who participated in HIP. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long form, the Check And Line Questionnaire (CALQ) log and accelerometry. Dietary habits were measured using NCI 24-h recall screeners, vegetable and fruit (VF) logs and the NCI Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Differences in physical activity and dietary habits were assessed using simultaneous 2 (ethnicity) × 3 (weight status) ANCOVAs adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women (M age = 44.4 ± 10.9 years) were obese (M = 34.0 ± 9.7 kg/m(2)), did not meet physical activity guidelines as measured by accelerometry (M = 19.4 ± 19.1 min MVPA/day) and ate few VF (M = 2.8 ± 2.7 servings/day). DHQ variables differed by weight status. IPAQ was associated with CALQ, and CALQ with accelerometry (P < .05). IPAQ was not associated with accelerometry. Regardless of ethnicity, normal weight women did more physical activity, reported more VF consumption, and consumed more fat calories than overweight and obese women (Ps < .05). African American women did more MVPA than Hispanic or Latino women (P < .001). Relationships between behaviors and weight status suggest accelerometry and DHQ are preferable, regardless of ethnicity; and studies may capture different domains of physical activity and dietary habits depending on measure used. PMID:21519867

  11. Multiple Measures of Physical Activity, Dietary Habits and Weight Status in African American and Hispanic or Latina Women

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade K.; Medina, Ashley V.; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y.; Banda, Jorge A.; Layne, Charles S.; Baxter, Meggin; O’Connor, Daniel P.; McNeill, Lorna; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Compared measures of physical activity and dietary habits used in the Health Is Power (HIP) study, and described the associations of physical activity and dietary habits among African American and Hispanic or Latino women, adjusted for weight status. Cross-sectional baseline data were compared for community dwelling, healthy African American (N = 262) and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 148) who participated in HIP. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long form, the Check And Line Questionnaire (CALQ) log and accelerometry. Dietary habits were measured using NCI 24-h recall screeners, vegetable and fruit (VF) logs and the NCI Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Differences in physical activity and dietary habits were assessed using simultaneous 2 (ethnicity) × 3 (weight status) ANCOVAs adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women (M age = 44.4 ± 10.9 years) were obese (M = 34.0 ± 9.7 kg/m2), did not meet physical activity guidelines as measured by accelerometry (M = 19.4 ± 19.1 min MVPA/day) and ate few VF (M = 2.8 ± 2.7 servings/day). DHQ variables differed by weight status. IPAQ was associated with CALQ, and CALQ with accelerometry (P < .05). IPAQ was not associated with accelerometry. Regardless of ethnicity, normal weight women did more physical activity, reported more VF consumption, and consumed more fat calories than overweight and obese women (Ps < .05). African American women did more MVPA than Hispanic or Latino women (P < .001). Relationships between behaviors and weight status suggest accelerometry and DHQ are preferable, regardless of ethnicity; and studies may capture different domains of physical activity and dietary habits depending on measure used. PMID:21519867

  12. Association Between Age at Menarche and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Early menarche is strongly associated with adulthood obesity; however, the relationship between age at menarche and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Korean women remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the association between early menarche and risk factors for developing CVD during adulthood using a nationwide population database. In total, 12,336 women (weighted n = 17,483,406; weighted age, 45.7 years) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2013 were included in this study. Participants were scored using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for metabolic syndrome. Risk of CVD was estimated using the 10-year Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk Point Scale (10-year FRS). Early menarche (≤11 years) was reported in 5.2% (weighted n = 917,493) of subjects. The weighted prevalences of metabolic syndrome and ≥20% 10-year FRS were 23.6% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 22.7–24.6] and 7.7% (7.1–8.3), respectively. Women with early menarche reported a significantly higher body mass index and waist circumference, along with a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome than those with later menarche (≥13 years). Furthermore, the prevalence of women with a ≥10% or ≥20% 10-year FRS was higher in those with early menarche than in other groups after adjusting for age, smoking, education level, and menstruation. Logistic regression analyses controlling for these and other confounding factors revealed odds ratios of 2.29 (95% CI = 1.25–4.19) and 1.78 (0.96–3.30) for ≥10% and ≥20% 10-year FRS in women with early menarche, respectively, compared with those in the latest menarche group (≥17 years). Taken together, this nationwide study revealed that women with early menarche are at increased risks of metabolic syndrome and CVD. Early menarche may therefore represent an important marker for early preventive

  13. The prevalence of using iodine-containing supplements is low among reproductive-age women, NHANES 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    Gahche, Jaime J; Bailey, Regan L; Mirel, Lisa B; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2013-06-01

    During pregnancy, the iodine requirement rises to meet demands for neurological development and fetal growth. If these requirements are not met, irreversible pathological cognitive and behavioral changes to the fetus may ensue. This study estimated the prevalence of iodine-containing dietary supplement (DS) use and intakes of iodine from DSs among pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-39 y) who were interviewed and examined in NHANES 1999-2006 (n = 6404). Although 77.5% of pregnant women reported taking one or more DSs in the past 30 d, only 22.3% consumed an iodine-containing supplement. Most pregnant women reported using one DS and reported taking this product daily. The vast majority of iodine-containing DSs reported by pregnant women claimed an iodine content of 150 μg iodine/serving on the label. Pregnant women using at least one DS containing iodine had a mean daily iodine intake of 122 μg/d from supplements; the median value was 144 μg/d. Median urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) were similar for pregnant and nonpregnant women in the population aged 15-39 y. The median UIC was 148 μg/L for pregnant women and 133 μg/L for nonpregnant women. The WHO has established a cutoff for insufficient iodine intake at <150 μg/L for pregnant women and <100 mg/L for those who are not pregnant. This suggests that as a population, we may not be meeting adequate intakes of iodine for pregnant women. More research is needed on the iodine intakes of pregnant women and women of reproductive age on their total iodine intake from all sources, not just DSs. PMID:23616501

  14. Physical Activity and Reduced Intra-abdominal Fat in Midlife African-American and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Sheila A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Karavolos, Kelly; Avery, Elizabeth F.; Wesley, Deidre E.; Powell, Lynda H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine whether self-reported physical activity (PA), including recreational, household, and exercise activities, is associated with intra-abdominal fat (IAF) in community-dwelling white and black midlife women. We performed a cross-sectional study of 369 women from the Chicago site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) ancillary study, the SWAN Fat Patterning Study. PA level was the independent variable, and IAF, assessed by computerized tomography (CT) scan, was the dependent variable. Measures were obtained at SWAN Fat Patterning Baseline visit between August 2002 and December 2005. Linear regression models explored the association between PA and IAF. The first model included IAF as the outcome and total score PA as the main predictor, adjusting for total percent fat mass, age, and ethnicity. The second model included education, parity, sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) level, and depressive symptoms, measured by Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. Each 1-point higher total PA score was associated with a 4.0 cm2 lower amount of IAF (P = 0.004), independent of total percent fat mass, age, ethnicity, SHBG level, educational level, CES-D, and parity. Associations did not differ between white and black women. This study demonstrates a significant negative association between PA and IAF independent of multiple covariates in midlife women. Our findings suggest that motivating white and black women to increase PA during midlife may lessen IAF, which may have a positive impact on subsequent development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19876007

  15. In the Margins: The Impact of Sexualised Images on the Mental Health of Ageing Women.

    PubMed

    Hine, Rochelle

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes key findings of a study exploring how a cohort of 16 rural Australian women aged over 60 years think, feel and respond to the prevalence of sexualised imagery in the media. The qualitative research framework was informed by Feminist Standpoint Theory. Participants in three focus groups responded to semi-structured questions and prompts, interspersed with viewing examples of sexualised images. Five strong thematic categories emerged: concern for the harmful impacts of sexualised images on the vulnerable, the media's portrayal of sexual content with a focus on physical appearance and youth, descriptions of the impact of viewing sexualised images, moderators of the impact of sexualised images on well-being, and marginalisation of women in the media. Findings from this research indicate that sexualised images in the media do have an impact on older women's self image and mental health in numerous ways and in a range of situations. Emotional impacts included sadness, anger, concern, envy, desensitisation, marginalisation, and discomfort that their appearance was being judged by others. A strong sense of self apart from appearance, feeling valued by family and community, ignoring or overlooking media content, and being aware that media images are not real and attainable helped buffer the link between sexualised images and well-being. Another important finding is that the impact is variable: women may experience different responses to similar sexualised content depending on a range of social, health and lifestyle factors affecting them at any given time. PMID:22003264

  16. The effect of age on pressure flow parameters in women with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    PubMed

    Basu, M; Postlethwaite, C; Cheema, K; Duckett, J

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in voiding with age in women with different urodynamic diagnoses. Correlation was used to analyse the association between age and voiding parameters (maximum flow rate, voided volume, flow rate centile and maximum detrusor pressure - PdetMax) in 896 datasets. Multivariate analysis was used to analyse the data further by age group and diagnosis - urodynamic stress incontinence (USI); detrusor overactivity (DO); mixed USI and DO; no urodynamic abnormality. Results showed that diagnosis accounts for a significant amount of variation in all four of the dependent variables Age group shows a significant effect on voiding volume but does not show significant effects on any other variable studied. There is no significant interaction term in any of the analyses, meaning that age and diagnosis do not appear to function together, e.g. age does not relate to flow rate centile, maximum flow rate or PdetQMax. It was concluded that the data suggest that there is no significant change in voiding function related to age. In the elderly, the main alteration in voiding is due to a higher prevalence of DO. PMID:24219733

  17. Interest in a Twitter-delivered weight loss program among women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Simas, Tiffany A Moore; Xiao, Rui S; Whited, Matthew C; Busch, Andrew M; Evans, Martinus M; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2016-06-01

    Weight management through the childbearing years is important, yet few women have access to efficacious weight loss programs. Online social network-delivered programs may increase reach and thus impact. The aim of this study was to gauge interest in a Twitter-based weight loss intervention among women of childbearing age and the feasibility of recruitment via Twitter. We recruited English-speaking women aged 18-45 years (N = 63) from Twitter to complete an anonymous online survey including open-ended questions about program advantages and concerns. Forty percent of participants were obese and 83 % were trying to lose weight. Eighty-one percent were interested in a Twitter-delivered weight loss program. Interest was high in all subgroups (62-100 %). Participants (59 %) cited program advantages, including convenience, support/accountability, and privacy. Concerns (59 %) included questions about privacy, support/accountability, engagement, efficacy, and technology barriers. Research is needed to develop and evaluate social media-delivered interventions, and to develop methods for recruiting participants directly from Twitter. PMID:27356998

  18. Characteristics of middle-aged women in inpatient treatment for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Forman, Maryelizabeth; Davis, William N

    2005-01-01

    The current study examined descriptive characteristics of women 35 years and older seeking inpatient treatment for an eating disorder. A second purpose was to compare characteristics and treatment experiences of midlife patients to young adult patients. Participants were 193 women admitted for treatment to a residential eating disorders facility. All of the women received the standard inpatient treatment package offered by the treatment facility. Participants completed measures of eating attitudes, depression, anxiety, body image, and media influence at admission and discharge and a program assessment measure at discharge. Results revealed comparable scores on measures of eating attitudes, anxiety, and depression at admission, although younger patients scored significantly higher on measures of body image and media influence at admission. With regard to treatment experience, midlife patients experienced greater change with regard to depression and body image dissatisfaction and described family therapy and grief and loss group therapy as being significantly more helpful than young adult patients. There appears to be a number of similarities across age cohorts in terms of clinical presentation, but underlying causal factors may differ between age groups. In general, midlife patients and young patients describe the standard treatment package as equally helpful, although midlife patients might also benefit from groups addressing grief and loss. PMID:16864530

  19. Lessons on aging: Hopes and concerns of Japanese women at midlife.

    PubMed

    Melby, Melissa K

    2016-01-01

    Japan is leading the global trend of decreasing birth rates and the graying of society. In this study we examine women's changing gender and intergenerational relationships and how these affect their concerns and hopes for their futures. Many of the 121 midlife women (aged 45-55) interviewed viewed themselves as sandwiched between their mothers-in-law and actual or potential daughters-in-law, at the nadir of intergenerational status within their families, in large part due to changing social patterns in marriage and birth rates. Doubts about the marriageability of their sons arising from role expectations for brides to care for parents-in-law cause concern for many and highlight the gendered and intergenerational nature of aging concerns. Yet, midlife in the 21st century, with changing gender and intergenerational roles, appears to create opportunities for many Japanese women to reflect on the meaning of the next stage of their lives. Changing gender and intergenerational relationships may contribute to their hopes to live a life of self-actualization and to be true to one's self (jibun rashiku ikiru). PMID:26697746

  20. Monitoring mercury exposure in reproductive aged women inhabiting the Tapajós river basin, Amazon.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Corvelo, Tereza Cristina; Oliveira, Érika Abdon Fiquene; de Parijós, Amanda Magno; de Oliveira, Claudia Simone Baltazar; do Socorro Pompeu de Loiola, Rosane; de Araújo, Amélia A; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Lima Silveira, Luiz Carlos; da Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Among Amazonian communities, exposure to methylmercury is associated mainly with fish consumption that may affect fetal development in pregnant women. Therefore a temporal assessment was performed to assess the exposure of reproductive aged women to mercury who reside in the riparian communities of São Luís do Tapajós and Barreiras located in the Tapajós basin of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. The total mercury concentration in the 519 hair samples was assessed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Data analysis showed that the average total mercury concentration decreased from 1.066 to 0.743 μg/g in those years. In 1999 the proportion of volunteers with mercury levels ≥ 10 μg/g was approximately 68 %. In general, exposure to mercury decreased among women of reproductive age, but the potential risks to reproduction and human health is still an issue as 22 % of the woman continued showing high mercury levels (≥ 10 μg/g) in 2012. PMID:24789525

  1. "Mommy Wants to Learn the Computer": How Middle-Aged and Elderly Women in Taiwan Learn ICT through Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Cecilia I. C.; Tang, Wen-hui; Kuo, Feng-Yang

    2012-01-01

    The group of middle-aged and elderly women represents the lowest usage rate of information and communication technology (ICT) in Taiwan. This article reports how a social intervention program, the Taiwan Women Up (TWU) program, has helped such group to successfully learn ICT skills with the support of members of nonprofit organizations. The study…

  2. Young Women's Adolescent Experiences of Oral Sex: Relation of Age of Initiation to Sexual Motivation, Sexual Coercion, and Psychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fava, Nicole M.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

    2012-01-01

    Research examining oral sex during adolescence tends to investigate only potential negative consequences without considering its place in sexual development or distinctions between cunnilingus and fellatio. Using retrospective reports from 418 undergraduate women, we examined the relations among young women's ages of initiation of both cunnilingus…

  3. USING A COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORY TO IDENTIFY A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using a commercial telephone directory to identify a population-based sample of women of reproductive age
    *DT Lobdell, GM Buck, JM Weiner, P Mendola (United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)

    In the United States, sampling women o...

  4. Normative Scores and Factor Structure of the Profile of Mood States for Women Seeking Prenatal Diagnosis for Advanced Maternal Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)

  5. Orange juice improved lipid profile and blood lactate of overweight middle-aged women subjected to aerobic training

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the influence of regular consumption of orange juice associated with aerobic exercise on the lipid profile of middle aged women, previously sedentary. Twenty-six women, 30 to 55 years old, volunteered to consume orange juice daily for 3 months and participate in an aerobic train...

  6. A Comparison of Different Aspects of Self-Concept for Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdwins, Carol J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Women in four age groups did not differ significantly in overall level of self-esteem, but could be discriminated on the more specific aspects of self-concept. The 40- to 55-year-olds reported more positive feelings about themselves in their family relations and morality. Women over 60 showed more defensiveness. (Author)

  7. [Active aging from the perspective of aged individuals who are functionally independent].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Olivia Galvão Lucena; Maciel, Silvana Carneiro; Silva, Antonia Oliveira; dos Santos, Walberto Silva; Moreira, Maria Adelaide Silva P

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the social representations of the elderly regarding active aging. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 100 functionally independent aged individuals from João Pessoa, Paraiba, Brazil. The data was organized and analyzed using Alceste software. Results showed that the aged individuals' statements about active aging are permeated with positive contents. However, when aging is not associated with the word active, it is still represented as losses and disabilities. Despite the existence of losses during the process, active aging should be encouraged among the elderly, as it means living a quality, plentiful life. Maintaining the elderly functionally independent is the first step to achieving active aging and thus improving their quality of life. PMID:21337791

  8. The three phases of Eve: exploring the common and unique findings in oral and systemic health of differently aging women.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Roseann

    2002-10-01

    Given that, collectively, women are the longer-lived of the human species, it is fitting that we examine the impact and correlations of aging on systemic and oral health with women as the paradigm. Aging, however, is not a homogeneous process. Its influences are as diverse as the subgroups of people affected. To exemplify the differing manifestations and progressiveness of aging, this article highlights the profiles of three differently aging women: an independent dweller in the community, a participant in an assisted living program, and a resident of a skilled nursing home. How aging has affected their lives commonly and uniquely is addressed, as are medical and oral health issues that transcend functional capability, and evolving research in preventive strategies focusing on successful aging. PMID:12790015

  9. Gender, aging, poverty and health: Survival strategies of older men and women in Nairobi slums

    PubMed Central

    Mudege, Netsayi N.; Ezeh, Alex C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on data from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews carried out in two slum areas, Korogocho and Viwandani in Nairobi, Kenya. It discusses how the division between domestic sphere and public sphere impacts on survival during, and adaptation to old age. Although this paper adopts some of the tenets of the life course approach, it posits that women's participation in the domestic sphere may sometimes give them a ‘gender advantage’ over men in terms of health and adaptation to old age. The paper also discusses the impact of gender roles on the cultivation of social networks and how these networks in turn impact on health and social adjustment as people grow older. It investigates how older people are adjusting and coping with the new challenges they face as a result of high morbidity and mortality among adults in the reproductive age groups. PMID:19907648

  10. Individual, social and environmental correlates of physical activity among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Verity; Ball, Kylie; Hume, Clare; Timperio, Anna; King, Abby C; Crawford, David

    2010-06-01

    Women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods are at heightened risk for physical inactivity, but little is known about the correlates of physical activity among this group. Using a social-ecological framework, this study aimed to determine the individual, social and neighbourhood environmental correlates of physical activity amongst women living in such neighbourhoods. During 2007-2008 women (n = 4108) aged 18-45 years randomly selected from urban and rural neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status in Victoria, Australia completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long). They reported on individual (self-efficacy, enjoyment, intentions, outcome expectancies, skills), social (childcare, social support from family and friends/colleagues, dog ownership) and neighbourhood environmental (neighbourhood cohesion, aesthetics, personal safety, 'walking environment') factors. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the odds of increasing categories of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and transport-related physical activity (TRPA) for each individual, social and environmental factor. In partially adjusted analyses, all individual, social and environmental variables were positively associated with LTPA, while all individual factors, family and friend support and the walking environment were positively associated with TRPA. In fully adjusted multivariable models, all individual and social factors remained significantly associated with LTPA, while self-efficacy, enjoyment, intentions, social support, and neighbourhood 'walking environment' variables remained significantly associated with TRPA. In conclusion, individual and social factors were most important for LTPA, while individual, social and neighbourhood environmental factors were all associated with TRPA. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design, the findings highlight the importance of different levels of potential influence on physical activity in different domains

  11. Sex on the brain! Associations between sexual activity and cognitive function in older age

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Hayley; Jenks, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: the relationship between cognition and sexual activity in healthy older adults is under-researched. A limited amount of research in this area has shown that sexual activity is associated with better cognition in older men. The current study explores the possible mediating factors in this association in men and women, and attempts to provide an explanation in terms of physiological influences on cognitive function. Methods: using newly available data from Wave 6 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, the current study explored associations between sexual activity and cognition in adults aged 50–89 (n = 6,833). Two different tests of cognitive function were analysed: number sequencing, which broadly relates to executive function, and word recall, which broadly relates to memory. Results: after adjusting for age, education, wealth, physical activity, depression, cohabiting, self-rated health, loneliness and quality of life, there were significant associations between sexual activity and number sequencing and recall in men. However, in women there was a significant association between sexual activity and recall, but not number sequencing. Conclusions: possible mediators of these associations (e.g. neurotransmitters) are discussed. The cross-sectional nature of the analysis is limiting, but provides a promising avenue for future explorations and longitudinal studies. The findings have implications for the promotion of sexual counselling in healthcare settings, where maintaining a healthy sex life in older age could be instrumental in improving cognitive function and well-being. PMID:26826237

  12. The conceptual structure of hwa-byung in middle-aged Korean women.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Joo; Kim, Hesook Suzie; Schwartz-Barcott, Donna; Kim, Jong-Woo

    2002-06-01

    The term hwa-byung (HB) as a culture-bound syndrome of Koreans has been used to refer to certain types of symptom complexes. However, there is an ambiguity in relation to what sorts of experiences and personal attributes can be identified for describing HB. Our study was designed to reexamine the conceptual structure of HB through a qualitative analysis of interview data with six middle-aged women experiencing HB. The emerging common themes of HB were identified in three dimensions: (a) those related to personal attributes or life situations such as quick-temperedness, strong commitment to traditional values, a hard or unhappy life, and conflicted marital relationship; (b) those related to experiential accounts such as deep sorrow (hahn in Korean), a feeling of victimization, anger, and enduring; and (c) HB symptoms. "Enduring" as one of the core concepts of HB viewed as the only way of life for these women needs further examination. PMID:12148916

  13. Hereditary angioedema: special consideration in children, women of childbearing age, and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kuhlen, James L; Banerji, Aleena

    2015-01-01

    This review on hereditary angioedema (HAE) focused on special topics regarding HAE in children, women of childbearing age, and the elderly. HAE is a rare autosomal dominant bradykinin-mediated disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of subcutaneous or submucosal swelling that usually affects the face, upper airway, extremities, gastrointestinal tract, or genitalia. These recurrent attacks cause significant morbidity and can be life threatening, especially when the swelling affects the airway. Our objective was to summarize the published data available on the disease epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, on demand and prophylactic therapy, and focus on management considerations for these special patient populations. Unique aspects of HAE in women with regard to contraception, hormone replacement therapy, pregnancy, lactation, and menopause were also reviewed. PMID:26534748

  14. Cultural and Socio-Economic Factors on Changes in Aging among Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the cultural and socio-economic factors that influence changes in aging among Iranian women. This qualitative study was part of a more extensive study designed according to grounded theory method. A purposeful, snowball and theoretical sampling technique was used. Data collection instruments were interviews and field notes. Duration of interviews differed and ranged from 38 to 110 minutes. Data collection process, coding and analysis were performed simultaneously. Collected data were analyzed using the recommended method by Corbin and Straus (1998 and 2008). The factors were formed from 6 subcategories: cultural and socio-economic status in the past, urban/rural life, companionship status, beliefs and attitudes, higher responsibilities of women and women’s financial capability. This study explained the various aspects of cultural and socio-economic changes in the elderly participants based on their real experiences. PMID:24762357

  15. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Xiong, Dong-Hai; Wang, Wei; Shen, Hui; Xiao, Peng; Yang, Fang; Recker, Robert R; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2006-10-01

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values=0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value=0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women. PMID:16919600

  16. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Feng; Xiong Donghai; Wang Wei; Shen Hui; Xiao Peng; Yang Fang; Recker, Robert R.; Deng Hongwen . E-mail: dengh@umkc.edu

    2006-10-06

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women.

  17. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Xiong, Dong-Hai; Wang, Wei; Shen, Hui; Xiao, Peng; Yang, Fang; Recker, Robert R.; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women. PMID:16919600

  18. In vitro antimicrobial profile of Ureaplasma urealyticum from genital tract of childbearing-aged women in Northern and Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pignanelli, Salvatore; Pulcrano, Giovanna; Iula, Vita Dora; Zaccherini, Patrizia; Testa, Antonio; Catania, Maria Rosaria

    2014-06-01

    Ureaplasma urealyticum is an opportunistic pathogen during pregnancy and in newborns. Other clinical problems related to U. urealyticum infections are: no susceptibility to cell wall-active drugs, limits of antibiotic treatment in pregnancy, and spread of antimicrobial resistance. In addition, the results of antimicrobial susceptibility against U. urealyticum from various countries are few and controversial. The antimicrobial susceptibility of U. urealyticum, isolated from cervical swabs and collected from outpatient childbearing-aged women in Italy from 2009 to 2012, was performed against fluoroquinolones, macrolides, streptogramin and tetracyclines, using an available biochemical commercial kit and a specific solid culture medium, to improve the therapeutic management of these pathogenic agents. Ureaplasma urealyticum was detected in 49.4% of samples, but significant bacterial load was revealed in 29.8%. In vitro tetracyclines showed the best activity against U. urealyticum, followed by streptogramin, macrolides, and fluoroquinolones. PMID:24106832

  19. The association of obesity with hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years.

    PubMed

    Üçler, Rıfkı; Turan, Mahfuz; Garça, Fatih; Acar, İsmail; Atmaca, Murat; Çankaya, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    An elevation in hearing thresholds and decrease in hearing sensitivity in adults, particularly due to aging, are quite common. Recent studies have shown that, apart from aging, various other factors also play a role in auditory changes. Studies on the association of hearing loss (HL) with obesity are limited in advanced age cases and present contradictions. In this study, the association between obesity and hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years has been assessed. Forty women diagnosed with obesity (mean age, 31.8 years) and 40 healthy non-obese female controls (mean age, 30.5 years) were included in this prospective study. Each subject was tested with low (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz) and high (4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz) frequency audiometry. In the case and control groups, the average hearing thresholds at low frequencies were 16.03 ± 4.72 and 16.15 ± 2.72 (p = 0.885) for the right ear, respectively, and 16.15 ± 5.92 and 14.71 ± 3.18 (p = 0.180) for the left ear, respectively. The average hearing threshold levels at high frequencies were 20.70 ± 10.23 and 15.33 ± 3.87 (p = 0.003), respectively, for the right ear, and 22.91 ± 15.54 and 15.87 ± 4.35 (p = 0.007), respectively, for the left ear with statistical significance. This is the first report on the association of obesity with hearing threshold in women aged 18-40 years. We have demonstrated that obesity may affect hearing function, particularly that related to high frequencies. Hearing loss can be prevented by avoidance or control of obesity and its risk factors. Moreover, an auditory screening of obese cases at an early stage may provide early diagnosis of HL and may also contribute to their awareness in the fight against obesity. PMID:26429780

  20. Dietary and blood folate status of Malaysian women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Khor, Geok Lin; Duraisamy, G; Loh, Su Peng; Green, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    The protective role of folic acid taken during the periconceptual period in reducing the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTD) has been well documented by epidemiological evidence, randomized controlled trials and intervention studies. Much of the evidence is derived from western populations while similar data on Asian subjects is relatively nascent. Baseline data on folate status of Malaysian women is lacking, while NTD prevalence is estimated as 10 per 10,000 births. This study was conducted with the objective of determining the dietary and blood folate status of Malaysian women of childbearing age. A total of 399 women comprising 140 Malay, 131 Chinese and 128 Indian subjects were recruited from universities and worksites in the suburbs of Kuala Lumpur. Inclusion criteria were that the subjects were not pregnant or breastfeeding, not taking folic acid supplements, not habitual drinkers or smokers. Based on a 24-hour recall, the median intake level for folate was 66 microg (15.7-207.8 microg), which amounts to 16.5% of the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes level. The median (5-95th percentiles) values for plasma and red cell folate (RBC) concentrations were 11 (4-33) nmol/L and 633 (303-1209) nmol/L respectively. Overall, nearly 15.1% showed plasma folate deficiency (< 6.8 nmol/L), with Indian subjects having the highest prevalence (21.5%). Overall prevalence of RBC folate deficiency (<363 nmol/L) was 9.3%, and an almost similar level prevailed for each ethnic group. Only 15.2% had RBC concentration exceeding 906 nmol/L, which is associated with a very low risk of NTD. The result of this study point to the need for intervention strategies to improve the blood folate status of women of childbearing age, so that they have adequate protection against the occurrence of NTD at birth. PMID:16837426

  1. Unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Bhattathiry, Malini M.; Ethirajan, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Context: Unmet need for family planning (FP), which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades. Objectives: The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of “unmet need for FP” and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded. Results: The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limitin