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Sample records for active x-ray mirror

  1. Active X-ray mirror development at UCL: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Carolyn; Doel, Peter; Yao, Jun; Brooks, David; Thompson, Samantha; Willingale, Richard; Feldman, Charlotte; Button, Tim; Zhang, Dou; James, Ady

    2007-12-01

    The Smart X-ray Optics project is a UK based consortium consisting of several institutions to investigate the application of active/adaptive optics upon both small and large scale grazing incidence x-ray optics. The work done at University College London (UCL) focuses on the application of piezoelectric materials to large scale optics in order to actively deform the mirror's surface. These optics are geared towards the next generation of x-ray telescopes and it is hoped that the project will be able to achieve a resolution greater than that currently available by Chandra (0.5"). One of the aims of the consortium is to produce a working prototype. The initial design is based on a thin nickel ellipsoid segment with an x-ray reflective coating, on the back of which will be bonded a series of piezoelectric actuators. Investigation into the specification of the design of an active x-ray optic prototype and suitable support test structure has been undertaken. The dimensions and constraints upon the prototype, and the manufacturing process to produce a nickel shell are discussed. Finite element analysis (FEA) of the physical characteristics of piezoelectric materials has shown the ability to deform the nickel surface to correct for errors of several microns. FEA has also been utilised in the specification of the prototype's support structure to ensure that gravitational sag upon the optic is kept to a minimum. Laboratory experiments have tested a series of materials, different actuators and bonding methods, which could then be applied to the prototype.

  2. Elliptically Bent X-ray Mirrors with Active Temperature Stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Sheng; Church, Matthew; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Celestre, Rich; McKinney, Wayne R.; Kirschman, Jonathan; Morrison, Greg; Noll, Tino; Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard A.

    2010-01-31

    We present details of design of elliptically bent Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors developed and successfully used at the Advanced Light Source for submicron focusing. A distinctive feature of the mirror design is an active temperature stabilization based on a Peltier element attached directly to the mirror body. The design and materials have been carefully optimized to provide high heat conductance between the mirror body and substrate. We describe the experimental procedures used when assembling and precisely shaping the mirrors, with special attention paid to laboratory testing of the mirror-temperature stabilization. For this purpose, the temperature dependence of the surface slope profile of a specially fabricated test mirror placed inside a temperature-controlled container was measured. We demonstrate that with active mirror-temperature stabilization, a change of the surrounding temperature by more than 3K does not noticeably affect the mirror figure. Without temperature stabilization, the surface slope changes by approximately 1.5 ?mu rad rms (primarily defocus) under the same conditions.

  3. Manufacturing an active X-ray mirror prototype in thin glass.

    PubMed

    Spiga, D; Barbera, M; Collura, A; Basso, S; Candia, R; Civitani, M; Di Bella, M S; Di Cicca, G; Lo Cicero, U; Lullo, G; Pelliciari, C; Riva, M; Salmaso, B; Sciortino, L; Varisco, S

    2016-01-01

    Adjustable mirrors equipped with piezo actuators are commonly used at synchrotron and free-electron laser (FEL) beamlines, in order to optimize their focusing properties and sometimes to shape the intensity distribution of the focal spot with the desired profile. Unlike them, X-ray mirrors for astronomy are much thinner in order to enable nesting and reduce the areal mass, and the application of piezo actuators acting normally to the surface appears much more difficult. There remains the possibility to correct the deformations using thin patches that exert a tangential strain on the rear side of the mirror: some research groups are already at work on this approach. The technique reported here relies on actively integrating thin glass foils with commercial piezoceramic patches, fed by voltages driven by the feedback provided by X-rays, while the tension signals are carried by electrodes on the back of the mirror, obtained by photolithography. Finally, the shape detection and the consequent voltage signal to be provided to the piezoelectric array will be determined by X-ray illumination in an intra-focal setup at the XACT facility. In this work, the manufacturing steps for obtaining a first active mirror prototype are described. PMID:26698046

  4. Large thin adaptive x-ray mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doel, Peter; Atkins, Carolyn; Thompson, Samantha; Brooks, David; Yao, Jun; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Button, Tim; Zhang, Dou; James, Ady

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes the progress made in a proof of concept study and recent results of a research program into large active x-ray mirrors that is part of the UK Smart X-ray Optics project. The ultimate aim is to apply the techniques of active/adaptive optics to the next generation of nested shell astronomical X-ray space telescopes. A variety of deformable mirror technologies are currently available, the most promising of which for active X-ray mirrors are probably unimorph and bimorph piezoelectric mirrors. In this type of mirror one or more sheets of piezoelectric material are bonded to or coated with a passive reflective layer. On the back or between the piezoceramic layer/layers are series of electrodes. Application of an electric field causes the piezoelectric material to undergo local deformation thus changing the mirror shape. Starting in 2005 a proof of concept active mirror research program has been undertaken. This work included modelling and development of actively controlled thin shell mirrors. Finite element models of piezo-electric actuated mirrors have been developed and verified against experimental test systems. This has included the modelling and test of piezo-electric hexagonal unimorph segments. Various actuator types and low shrinkage conductive bonding methods have been investigated and laboratory tests of the use of piezo-electric actuators to adjust the form of an XMM-Newton space telescope engineering model mirror shell have been conducted and show that movement of the optics at the required level is achievable. Promising technological approaches have been identified including moulded piezo-ceramics and piezo-electrics fibre bundles.

  5. Thin Shell, Segmented X-Ray Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Thin foil mirrors were introduced as a means of achieving high throughput in an X-ray astronomical imaging system in applications for which high angular resolution were not necessary. Since their introduction, their high filling factor, modest mass, relative ease of construction, and modest cost have led to their use in numerous X-ray observatories, including the Broad Band X-ray Telescope, ASCA, and Suzaku. The introduction of key innovations, including epoxy replicated surfaces, multilayer coatings, and glass mirror substrates, has led to performance improvements, and in their becoming widely used for X-ray astronomical imaging at energies above 10 keV. The use of glass substrates has also led to substantial improvement in angular resolution, and thus their incorporation into the NASA concept for the International X-ray Observatory with a planned 3 in diameter aperture. This paper traces the development of foil mirrors from their inception in the 1970's through their current and anticipated future applications.

  6. Toward active x-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2011-09-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution (< 1") optics with very-large-aperture (> 25 m2) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kg/m2 or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve active (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, active optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States (US). This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  7. Size Optimization for Mirror Segments for X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biskach, Michael P.; McClelland, Ryan S.; Saha, Timo; Zhang, William W.

    2011-01-01

    The flight mirror assemblies (FMA) for X-ray telescopes similar to that of the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) concept consist of several thousands of individual mirror segments. The size, shape, and location of these mirrors affect many characteristics of the telescope design. Mission requirements among other factors in turn restrict mirror segment parameters such as thickness, axial- length, azimuthal span, and mass density. This paper provides an overview of the critical relationships relating to mirror segment size and configuration throughout the design and analysis of an X-ray mirror assembly. A computational analysis is presented in the form of ray tracing pairs of thin X-ray mirror segments of varying sizes aligned in gravity and supported using kinematic constraints with corresponding self weight distortions calculated using finite element analysis (FEA). The work in this paper may be used as a starting point for determining mirror segment sizes for X-ray missions like that of IXO and beyond.

  8. Design and development of grazing incidence x-ray mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Fuchang; Mei, Zhiwu; Ma, Tao; Deng, Loulou; Shi, Yongqiang; Li, Liansheng

    2016-01-01

    X-ray pulsar navigation has attracted extensive attentions from academy and engineering domains. The navigation accuracy is can be enhanced through design of X-ray mirrors to focus X-rays to a small detector. The Wolter-I optics, originally proposed based on a paraboloid mirror and a hyperboloid mirror for X-ray imaging, has long been widely developed and employed in X-ray observatory. Some differences, however, remain in the requirements on optics between astronomical X-ray observation and pulsar navigation. The simplified Wolter-I optics, providing single reflection by a paraboloid mirror, is more suitable for pulsar navigation. In this paper, therefore, the grazing incidence X-ray mirror was designed further based on our previous work, with focus on the reflectivity, effective area, angular resolution and baffles. To evaluate the performance of the manufactured mirror, the surface roughness and reflectivity were tested. The test results show that the grazing incidence mirror meets the design specifications. On the basis of this, the reflectivity of the mirror in the working bandwidth was extrapolated to evaluate the focusing ability of the mirror when it works together with the detector. The purpose of our current work to design and develop a prototype mirror was realized. It can lay a foundation and provide guidance for the development of multilayer nested X-ray mirror with larger effective area.

  9. Spherical mirror grazing incidence x-ray optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, Jr., Webster C. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An optical system for x-rays combines at least two spherical or near spherical mirrors for each dimension in grazing incidence orientation to provide the functions of a lens in the x-ray region. To focus x-ray radiation in both the X and the Y dimensions, one of the mirrors focusses the X dimension, a second mirror focusses the Y direction, a third mirror corrects the X dimension by removing comatic aberration and a fourth mirror corrects the Y dimension. Spherical aberration may also be removed for an even better focus. The order of the mirrors is unimportant.

  10. Normal incidence x-ray mirror for chemical microanalysis

    DOEpatents

    Carr, M.J.; Romig, A.D. Jr.

    1987-08-05

    An x-ray mirror for both electron column instruments and micro x-ray fluorescence instruments for making chemical, microanalysis comprises a non-planar mirror having, for example, a spherical reflecting surface for x-rays comprised of a predetermined number of alternating layers of high atomic number material and low atomic number material contiguously formed on a substrate and whose layers have a thickness which is a multiple of the wavelength being reflected. For electron column instruments, the wavelengths of interest lie above 1.5nm, while for x-ray fluorescence instruments, the range of interest is below 0.2nm. 4 figs.

  11. Toward Active X-ray Telescopes II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Aldroft, Thomas L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Lillie, Charles F.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Sanmartin, Daniel Rodriguez; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Ulmer, Melville P.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2012-01-01

    In the half century since the initial discovery of an astronomical (non-solar) x-ray source, the sensitivity for detection of cosmic x-ray sources has improved by ten orders of magnitude. Largely responsible for this dramatic progress has been the refinement of the (grazing-incidence) focusing x-ray telescope. The future of x-ray astronomy relies upon the development of x-ray telescopes with larger aperture areas (greater than 1 m2) and finer angular resolution (less than 1.). Combined with the special requirements of grazing-incidence optics, the mass and envelope constraints of space-borne telescopes render such advances technologically challenging.requiring precision fabrication, alignment, and assembly of large areas (greater than 100 m2) of lightweight (approximately 1 kg m2 areal density) mirrors. Achieving precise and stable alignment and figure control may entail active (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. This paper discusses relevant programmatic and technological issues and summarizes progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  12. Chandra X-Ray Observatory High Resolution Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph shows the mirrors of the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), being assembled in the Eastman Kodak Company in Rochester, New York. The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. The HRMA, the heart of the telescope system, is contained in the cylindrical 'telescope' portion of the observatory. Since high-energy x-rays would penetrate a normal mirror, special cylindrical mirrors were created. The two sets of four nested mirrors resemble tubes within tubes. Incoming x-rays graze off the highly polished mirror surface and are furneled to the instrument section for detection and study. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for its project management. The Observatory was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, STS-93 mission.

  13. Development of microperiodic mirrors for hard x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Stutman, Dan; Finkenthal, Michael; Moldovan, Nicolae

    2010-09-01

    Differential phase-contrast imaging with hard x rays can have important applications in medicine, material sciences, and energy research. Phase-contrast methods based on microperiodic optics, such as shearing interferometry, are particularly attractive because they allow the use of conventional x-ray tubes. To enable shearing interferometry with x rays up to 100 keV, we propose using grazing-incidence microperiodic mirrors. In addition, a simple lithographic method is proposed for the production of the microperiodic x-ray mirrors, based on the difference in grazing-incidence reflectivity between a low-Z substrate and a high-Z film. Using this method, we produced prototype mirrors with 5-100 {mu}m periods and 90 mm active length. Experimental tests with x rays up to 60 keV indicate good microperiodic mirror reflectivity and high-contrast fringe patterns, encouraging further development of the proposed imaging concept.

  14. Null Lens Assembly for X-Ray Mirror Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David W.

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses a null lens assembly that allows laser interferometry of 60 deg. slumped glass mirror segments used in x-ray mirrors. The assembly consists of four lenses in precise alignment to each other, with incorporated piezoelectric nanometer stepping actuators to position the lenses in six degrees of freedom for positioning relative to each other.

  15. Normal incidence X-ray mirror for chemical microanalysis

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Martin J.; Romig, Jr., Alton D.

    1990-01-01

    A non-planar, focusing mirror, to be utilized in both electron column instruments and micro-x-ray fluorescence instruments for performing chemical microanalysis on a sample, comprises a concave, generally spherical base substrate and a predetermined number of alternating layers of high atomic number material and low atomic number material contiguously formed on the base substrate. The thickness of each layer is an integral multiple of the wavelength being reflected and may vary non-uniformly according to a predetermined design. The chemical analytical instruments in which the mirror is used also include a predetermined energy source for directing energy onto the sample and a detector for receiving and detecting the x-rays emitted from the sample; the non-planar mirror is located between the sample and detector and collects the x-rays emitted from the sample at a large solid angle and focuses the collected x-rays to the sample. For electron column instruments, the wavelengths of interest lie above 1.5 nm, while for x-ray fluorescence instruments, the range of interest is below 0.2 nm. Also, x-ray fluorescence instruments include an additional non-planar focusing mirror, formed in the same manner as the previously described m The invention described herein was made in the performance of work under contract with the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP00789, and the United States Government has rights in the invention pursuant to this contract.

  16. Elliptical x-ray microprobe mirrors by differential deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ice, Gene E.; Chung, Jin-Seok; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Lunt, Andrew; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2000-07-01

    A differential coating method is described for fabricating high-performance x-ray microfocusing mirrors. With this method, the figure of ultrasmooth spherical mirrors can be modified to produce elliptical surfaces with low roughness and low figure errors. Submicron focusing is demonstrated with prototype mirrors. The differential deposition method creates stiff monolithic mirrors which are compact, robust, and easy to cool and align. Prototype mirrors have demonstrated gains of more than 10{sup 4} in beam intensity while maintaining submilliradian divergence on the sample. This method of producing elliptical mirrors is well matched to the requirements of an x-ray microdiffraction Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing system. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  17. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Camera Integrated With Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows the High Resolution Camera (HRC) for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), being integrated with the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) in Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) 24-foot Vacuum Chamber at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most poweful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. The HRC is one of the two instruments used at the focus of CXO, where it will detect x-rays reflected from an assembly of eight mirrors. The unique capabilities of the HRC stem from the close match of its imaging capability to the focusing of the mirrors. When used with CXO mirrors, the HRC makes images that reveal detail as small as one-half an arc second. This is equivalent to the ability to read a newspaper at a distance of 1 kilometer. MSFC's XRCF is the world's largest, most advanced laboratory for simulating x-ray emissions from distant celestial objects. It produces a space-like environment in which components relatedto x-ray telescope imaging are tested and the quality of their performances in space is predicted. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's MSFC was responsible for its project management. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the CXO for NASA from Cambridge, Massachusetts. The CXO was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-93).

  18. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Camera Integrated With Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows the High Resolution Camera (HRC) for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), being integrated with the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) in Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) 24-foot Vacuum Chamber at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. The HRC is one of the two instruments used at the focus of CXO, where it will detect x-rays reflected from an assembly of eight mirrors. The unique capabilities of the HRC stem from the close match of its imaging capability to the focusing of the mirrors. When used with CXO mirrors, the HRC makes images that reveal detail as small as one-half an arc second. This is equivalent to the ability to read a newspaper at a distance of 1 kilometer. MSFC's XRCF is the world's largest, most advanced laboratory for simulating x-ray emissions from distant celestial objects. It produces a space-like environment in which components related to x-ray telescope imaging are tested and the quality of their performances in space is predicted. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's MSFC was responsible for its project management. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the CXO for NASA from Cambridge, Massachusetts. The CXO was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-93).

  19. Background-reducing X-ray multilayer mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bloch, Jeffrey J.; Roussel-Dupre', Diane; Smith, Barham W.

    1992-01-01

    Background-reducing x-ray multilayer mirror. A multiple-layer "wavetrap" deposited over the surface of a layered, synthetic-microstructure soft x-ray mirror optimized for reflectivity at chosen wavelengths is disclosed for reducing the reflectivity of undesired, longer wavelength incident radiation incident thereon. In three separate mirror designs employing an alternating molybdenum and silicon layered, mirrored structure overlaid by two layers of a molybdenum/silicon pair anti-reflection coating, reflectivities of near normal incidence 133, 171, and 186 .ANG. wavelengths have been optimized, while that at 304 .ANG. has been minimized. The optimization process involves the choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs as well as the number thereof, and the distance therebetween for the mirror, and the simultaneous choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs, and their number and distance for the "wavetrap."

  20. Background-reducing x-ray multilayer mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, J.J.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B.W.

    1990-08-03

    This invention is comprised of a background-reducing x-ray multilayer mirror. A multiple-layer ``wavetrap`` deposited over the surface of a layered synthetic microstructure soft x-ray mirror optimized for reflectivity at chosen wavelengths is disclosed for reducing the reflectivity of undesired, longer wavelength incident radiation incident thereon. In three separate mirror designs employing an alternating molybdenum and silicon layered mirrored structure overlaid by two layers of a molybdenum/silicon pair anti-reflection coating, reflectivities of near normal incidence 133, 171, and 186 {Angstrom} wavelengths have been optimized, while that at 304 {Angstrom} has been minimized. The optimization process involves the choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs as well as the number thereof, and the distance therebetween for the mirror, and the simultaneous choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs, their number and distance for the ``wavetrap.``

  1. Advanced X-Ray Telescope Mirrors Provide Sharpest Focus Ever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-03-01

    Performing beyond expectations, the high- resolution mirrors for NASA's most powerful orbiting X-ray telescope have successfully completed initial testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Calibration Facility, Huntsville, AL. "We have the first ground test images ever generated by the telescope's mirror assembly, and they are as good as -- or better than -- expected," said Dr. Martin Weisskopf, Marshall's chief scientist for NASA's Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). The mirror assembly, four pairs of precisely shaped and aligned cylindrical mirrors, will form the heart of NASA's third great observatory. The X-ray telescope produces an image by directing incoming X-rays to detectors at a focal point some 30 feet beyond the telescope's mirrors. The greater the percentage of X-rays brought to focus and the smaller the size of the focal spot, the sharper the image. Tests show that on orbit, the mirror assembly of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility will be able to focus approximately 70 percent of X-rays from a source to a spot less than one-half arc second in radius. The telescope's resolution is equivalent to being able to read the text of a newspaper from half a mile away. "The telescope's focus is very clear, very sharp," said Weisskopf. "It will be able to show us details of very distant sources that we know are out there, but haven't been able to see clearly." In comparison, previous X-ray telescopes -- Einstein and Rosat -- were only capable of focusing X- rays to five arc seconds. The Advanced X-ray Telescope's resolving power is ten times greater. "Images from the new telescope will allow us to make major advances toward understanding how exploding stars create and disperse many of the elements necessary for new solar systems and for life itself," said Dr. Harvey Tananbaum, director of the Advanced X- ray Astrophysics Facility Science Center at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, in Cambridge, MA -- responsible for the telescope

  2. Development of full shell foil x-ray mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsamo, Erin; Gendreau, Keith C.; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Jalota, Lalit; Kenyon, Steven J.; Fickau, David; Spartana, Nicholas; Hahne, Devin; Koenecke, Richard; Soong, Yang; Serlemitsos, Peter; Okajima, Takashi; Campion, Robert; Detweiler, Louis

    2012-09-01

    NICER will use full shell aluminum foil X-ray mirrors, similar to those that are currently being developed for the optics to be used for the XACT sounding rocket mission. Similar X-ray optics have been produced at Goddard Space Flight Center since the late 1970's. The mirror geometry used in the past and on some present missions consists of concentric quadrant shell mirrors with a conical approximation to the Wolter 1 geometry. For XACT, we are developing the next generation of these optics. Two innovations introduced in the mirrors are complete shells with a curve is in the reflectors' profile to produce a sharper focus than a conical approximation. X-ray imagers, such as those of Suzaku, ASCA, GEMS, and Astro-H require two reflections. Since XACT and NICER are using the optics as X-ray concentrators rather than full imaging optics, only one set of reflections is necessary. The largest shell in the NICER concentrator is 10cm diameter. Small diameter optics benefit from the rigidity of the full shell design. Also, the simplified support hardware reduced mass, which increases the effective area per unit mass. With 56 optics on NICER, each consisting of 24 full shell mirrors, an effective production process is needed for efficient manufacture of these mirrors. This production process is based on heritage techniques but modified for these new mirrors. This paper presents the production process of the innovative full shell optics and also results of optical and X-ray tests of the integrated optics.

  3. Stitching interferometry for ellipsoidal x-ray mirrors.

    PubMed

    Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Koyama, Takahisa; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Ohashi, Haruhiko

    2016-05-01

    Ellipsoidal mirrors, which can efficiently produce a two-dimensional focusing beam with a single mirror, are superior x-ray focusing optics, especially when compared to elliptical-cylinder mirrors in the Kirkpatrick-Baez geometry. However, nano-focusing ellipsoidal mirrors are not commonly used for x-ray optics because achieving the accuracy required for the surface metrology of nano-focusing ellipsoidal mirrors is difficult due to their small radius of curvature along the short ellipsoidal axis. Here, we developed a surface metrology system for nano-focusing ellipsoidal mirrors using stitching interferometric techniques. The developed system simultaneously measures sub-aperture shapes with a microscopic interferometer and the tilt angles of the sub-aperture shapes with a large Fizeau interferometer. After correcting the systematic errors included in the sub-aperture shapes, the entire mirror shape is calculated by stitching the sub-aperture shapes based on the obtained relative angles between partially overlapped sub-apertures. In this study, we developed correction methods for systematic errors in sub-aperture shapes that originated from off-axis aberrations produced in the optics of the microscopic interferometer. The systematic errors on an ellipsoidal mirror were estimated by measuring a series of tilted plane substrates and the ellipsoidal substrate. From measurements of an ellipsoidal mirror with a 3.6-mm radius of curvature at the mirror center, we obtained a measurement repeatability of 0.51 nm (root-mean-square) in an assessment area of 0.5 mm × 99.18 mm. This value satisfies the requirements for surface metrology of nano-focusing x-ray mirrors. Thus, the developed metrology system should be applicable for fabricating nano-focusing ellipsoidal mirrors. PMID:27250377

  4. M-ARIANE (Mirror-assisted Active Readout In A Neutron Environment): an x-ray imaging system for implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility at ignition neutron yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Ayers, J.; Bell, P. M.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Cerjan, C.; Emig, J.; Felker, B.; Glenn, S. M.; Hagmann, C.; Holder, J.; Izumi, N.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Koch, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; Moody, J.; Piston, K.; Simanovskaia, N.; Walton, C.

    2013-09-01

    X-ray imaging diagnostics instruments will operate in a harsh ionizing radiation background environment during ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This background consists of mostly neutrons and gamma rays produced by inelastic scattering of neutrons. An imaging system, M-ARIANE (Mirror-assisted Active Readout In A Neutron Environment), based on an x-ray framing camera with film, has been designed to operate in such a harsh neutron-induced background environment. Multilayer x-ray mirrors and a shielding enclosure are the key components of this imaging system which is designed to operate at ignition neutron yields of ~1e18 on NIF. Modeling of the neutronand gamma-induced backgrounds along with the signal and noise of the x-ray imaging system is presented that display the effectiveness of this design.

  5. Deformable mirrors for x-ray astronomy and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, M. P.; Graham, M. E.; Vaynman, S.; Cao, J.; Takacs, P. Z.

    2011-05-01

    We discuss a technique of shape modification that can be applied to thin walled (~; 100-400 micron thickness) electroformed replicated optics or slumped glass optics to improve the near net shape of the mirror as well as the mid-frequency ripple. The process involves sputter deposition of a magnetic smart material (MSM) film onto a permanently magnetic material. The MSM material exhibits strains about 400 times stronger than ordinary ferromagnetic materials. The deformation process involves a magnetic write head which traverses the surface, and under the guidance of active metrology feedback,locally magnetizes the surface to impart strain where needed. Designs and basic concepts as applied to space borne X-ray optics will be described.

  6. Ray tracing homogenizing mirrors for synchrotron x-ray lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homer, Michael; Rosser, Roy J.; Speer, R. J.

    1991-12-01

    Saddle toroid array mirrors (STAMs) are novel grazing-incidence mirrors. They have been proposed as the optical component that most efficiently matches synchrotron orbital radiation (SOR) to the needs of proximity x-ray lithography. However, STAMs have yet to be accepted by the synchrotron lithography community because of the lack of detailed data on their expected performance, due primarily to the difficulty of raytracing such mirrors using existing optical raytrace programs. A raytracing package written especially to study the design and optimization of these unusually shaped mirrors and the very encouraging results obtained with the package to date are described. The optimum STAM designs turn out to be the most effective way of homogeneously illuminating a rectangular proximity x-ray lithography mask, improving on existing scanning mirror systems by at least a factor of four. They have the added advantage of being stationary, which should lead to greater reliability--a quality of considerable value in the production environment these mirrors are intended for, namely the ultra-high vacuum of a synchrotron beamline. Based on the results of the raytracing, a prototype STAM has been constructed, and preparations are being made for an x-ray test of the device.

  7. Forming Mandrels for X-Ray Mirror Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Peter N.; Saha. To,p; Zhang, Will; O'Dell, Stephen; Kester, Thomas; Jones, William

    2011-01-01

    Precision forming mandrels are one element in X-ray mirror development at NASA. Current mandrel fabrication process is capable of meeting the allocated precision requirements for a 5 arcsec telescope. A manufacturing plan is outlined for a large IXO-scale program.

  8. Thermal Model Development for an X-Ray Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonafede, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Space-based x-ray optics require stringent thermal environmental control to achieve the desired image quality. Future x-ray telescopes will employ hundreds of nearly cylindrical, thin mirror shells to maximize effective area, with each shell built from small azimuthal segment pairs for manufacturability. Thermal issues with these thin optics are inevitable because the mirrors must have a near unobstructed view of space while maintaining near uniform 20 C temperature to avoid thermal deformations. NASA Goddard has been investigating the thermal characteristics of a future x-ray telescope with an image requirement of 5 arc-seconds and only 1 arc-second focusing error allocated for thermal distortion. The telescope employs 135 effective mirror shells formed from 7320 individual mirror segments mounted in three rings of 18, 30, and 36 modules each. Thermal requirements demand a complex thermal control system and detailed thermal modeling to verify performance. This presentation introduces innovative modeling efforts used for the conceptual design of the mirror assembly and presents results demonstrating potential feasibility of the thermal requirements.

  9. Experiments with diamond-turned metal X-ray mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garmire, G. P.

    1979-01-01

    It is noted that the primary advantages of diamond turning technology for the fabrication of X-ray telescope mirrors is in the smoothness of the finished surface and the control of the position of the cutter afforded by the precision slides and computer-assisted positioners which form the surface. The paper summarizes the Caltech work in attempting to make Wolter Type I telescope mirrors using the diamond turning facilities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 laboratory. Attention is given to such factors as the use of aluminum with copper plating and electroless nickel coating. It is found that although the diamond turning capability of the Y-12 lab is capable of making good X-ray mirror contours, there are problems in the process which have limited the accuracy achieved by this technique.

  10. Test results for an AOA-Xinetics grazing incidence x-ray deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, Charles; Egan, Richard; Landers, Franklin; Cavaco, Jeffrey; Ezzo, Kevin; Khounsary, Ali

    2014-09-01

    X-ray telescopes use grazing incidence mirrors to focus X-ray photons from celestial objects. To achieve the large collecting areas required to image faint sources, thousands of thin, doubly curved mirrors are arranged in nested cylindrical shells to approximate a filled aperture. These mirrors require extremely smooth surfaces with precise figures to provide well-focused beams and small image spot sizes. The Generation-X telescope proposed by SAO would have a 12-meter aperture, a 50 m2 collecting area and 0.1 arc-second spatial resolution. This resolution would be obtained by actively controlling the mirror figure with piezoelectric actuators deposited on the back of each 0.4 mm thick mirror segment. To support SAO's Generation-X study, Northrop Grumman used internal funds to look at the feasibility of using Xinetics deformable mirror technologies to meet the Generation-X requirements. We designed and fabricated two 10 x 30 cm Platinum-coated silicon mirrors with 108 surface-parallel electrostrictive Lead Magnesium Niobate (PMN) actuators bonded to the mirror substrates. These mirrors were tested at optical wavelengths by Xinetics to assess the actuator's performance, but no funds were available for X-ray tests. In 2013, after receiving an invitation to evaluate the mirror's performance at Argonne National Laboratory, the mirrors were taken out of storage, refurbished, retested at Xinetics and transported to ANL for metrology measurements with a Long Trace Profilometer, a Fizeau laser interferometer, and X-ray tests. This paper describes the development and testing of the adaptive x-ray mirrors at AOAXinetics. Marathe, et al, will present the results of the tests at Argonne.

  11. Electroform replication used for multiple X-ray mirror production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, M. P.; Ulmer, M. P.; Purcell, W. R., Jr.; Loughlin, J. E. A.

    1984-01-01

    The electroforming technique for producing X-ray mirrors is described, and results of X-ray tests performed on copies made from a simple conical mandrel are reported. The design of the mandrel is depicted and the total reflectivity as well as the full-wave half modulation resolution are shown as a function of energy. The reported work has improved on previous studies by providing smaller grazing angles, making measurements at higher energies, producing about four times as many replicas from one mandrel, and obtaining better angular resolution.

  12. Development of a speckle-based portable device for in situ metrology of synchrotron X-ray mirrors.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Yogesh; Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-09-01

    A portable device for in situ metrology of synchrotron X-ray mirrors based on the near-field speckle scanning technique has been developed. Ultra-high angular sensitivity is achieved by scanning a piece of abrasive paper or filter membrane in the X-ray beam. In addition to the compact setup and ease of implementation, a user-friendly graphical user interface has been developed to ensure that optimizing active X-ray mirrors is simple and fast. The functionality and feasibility of this device have been demonstrated by characterizing and optimizing X-ray mirrors. PMID:27577767

  13. Development of a speckle-based portable device for in situ metrology of synchrotron X-ray mirrors

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Yogesh; Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-01-01

    A portable device for in situ metrology of synchrotron X-ray mirrors based on the near-field speckle scanning technique has been developed. Ultra-high angular sensitivity is achieved by scanning a piece of abrasive paper or filter membrane in the X-ray beam. In addition to the compact setup and ease of implementation, a user-friendly graphical user interface has been developed to ensure that optimizing active X-ray mirrors is simple and fast. The functionality and feasibility of this device have been demonstrated by characterizing and optimizing X-ray mirrors. PMID:27577767

  14. Fluence thresholds for grazing incidence hard x-ray mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Aquila, A.; Ozkan, C.; Sinn, H.; Tschentscher, T.; Mancuso, A. P.; Gaudin, J.; Sobierajski, R.; Klepka, M. T.; Dłużewski, P.; Morawiec, K.; Störmer, M.; Bajt, S.; Ohashi, H.; Koyama, T.; Tono, K.; Inubushi, Y. [RIKEN and others

    2015-06-15

    X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs) have the potential to contribute to many fields of science and to enable many new avenues of research, in large part due to their orders of magnitude higher peak brilliance than existing and future synchrotrons. To best exploit this peak brilliance, these XFEL beams need to be focused to appropriate spot sizes. However, the survivability of X-ray optical components in these intense, femtosecond radiation conditions is not guaranteed. As mirror optics are routinely used at XFEL facilities, a physical understanding of the interaction between intense X-ray pulses and grazing incidence X-ray optics is desirable. We conducted single shot damage threshold fluence measurements on grazing incidence X-ray optics, with coatings of ruthenium and boron carbide, at the SPring-8 Angstrom compact free electron laser facility using 7 and 12 keV photon energies. The damage threshold dose limits were found to be orders of magnitude higher than would naively be expected. The incorporation of energy transport and dissipation via keV level energetic photoelectrons accounts for the observed damage threshold.

  15. X-ray metrology and performance of a 45-cm long x-ray deformable mirror.

    PubMed

    Poyneer, Lisa A; Brejnholt, Nicolai F; Hill, Randall; Jackson, Jessie; Hagler, Lisle; Celestre, Richard; Feng, Jun

    2016-05-01

    We describe experiments with a 45-cm long x-ray deformable mirror (XDM) that have been conducted in End Station 2, Beamline 5.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source. A detailed description of the hardware implementation is provided. We explain our one-dimensional Fresnel propagation code that correctly handles grazing incidence and includes a model of the XDM. This code is used to simulate and verify experimental results. Initial long trace profiler metrology of the XDM at 7.5 keV is presented. The ability to measure a large (150-nm amplitude) height change on the XDM is demonstrated. The results agree well with the simulated experiment at an error level of 1 μrad RMS. Direct imaging of the x-ray beam also shows the expected change in intensity profile at the detector. PMID:27250383

  16. X-ray metrology and performance of a 45-cm long x-ray deformable mirror

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Poyneer, Lisa A.; Brejnholt, Nicolai F.; Hill, Randall; Jackson, Jessie; Hagler, Lisle; Celestre, Richard; Feng, Jun

    2016-05-20

    We describe experiments with a 45-cm long x-ray deformable mirror (XDM) that have been conducted in End Station 2, Beamline 5.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source. A detailed description of the hardware implementation is provided. We explain our one-dimensional Fresnel propagation code that correctly handles grazing incidence and includes a model of the XDM. This code is used to simulate and verify experimental results. Initial long trace profiler metrology of the XDM at 7.5 keV is presented. The ability to measure a large (150-nm amplitude) height change on the XDM is demonstrated. The results agree well with the simulated experimentmore » at an error level of 1 μrad RMS. Lastly, direct imaging of the x-ray beam also shows the expected change in intensity profile at the detector.« less

  17. The Astro-H Soft X-Ray Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David; Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, Peter; Soong, Yang

    2012-01-01

    The Astro-H is led by the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) in collaboration with many other institutions including the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Goddard's contributions include two soft X-ray telescopes (SXTs). The telescopes have an effective area of 562 square cm at 1 keV and 425 square cm at 6 keV with an image quality requirement of 1.7 arc-minutes half power diameter (HPD). The engineering model has demonstrated 1.1 arc-minutes HPD error. The design of the SXT is based on the successful Suzaku mission mirrors with some enhancements to improve the image quality. Two major enhancements are bonding the X-ray mirror foils to alignment bars instead of allowing the mirrors to float, and fabricating alignment bars with grooves within 5 microns of accuracy. An engineering model SXT was recently built and subjected to several tests including vibration, thermal, and X-ray performance in a beamline. Several lessons were learned during this testing that will be incorporated in the flight design. Test results and optical performance are discussed, along with a description of the design of the SXT.

  18. Conical foil x-ray mirrors: performance and projections.

    PubMed

    Serlemitsos, P J

    1988-04-15

    For the past decade, we have been developing at Goddard conical grazing incidence mirrors in an effort to increase the sensitivity and resolution of astronomical observations in the iron K spectral band around 7 keV. Tightly packed conical foils give us the option of trading some imaging capability for light weight, large throughput, and low cost, all crucial requirements at the higher energies where grazing angles become very small. Nearing the completion of the broad band x-ray telescope for NASA's SHEAL II mission, we have decided important design and fabrication issues including reflector substrate material and supports and most techniques for reflector preparation, mirror assembly, and alignment. We will review the design, fabrication, status, and performance of our present mirrors. Future applications along with prospects for improved spatial resolution for these mirrors will be discussed. PMID:20531595

  19. High Precision Assembly of Thin Mirror X-ray Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schattenburg, Mark

    Lightweight high resolution x-ray telescope optics are one of the key technologies under development for next-generation x-ray telescopes. The ultimate goal of this effort is to realize optics with spatial resolution rivaling Chandra (<1 arc-sec) but with collecting areas that are larger by orders of magnitude. In the USA several institutions, including GSFC, MSFC, Harvard-SAO, MIT and Northwest University are working on a variety of approaches to this problem. An excellent example is the NuSTAR x-ray telescope, which teamed Cal Tech, GSFC, Columbia University and LLNL to produce a superb set of hard x-ray optics. The telescope was composed of thousands of 0.2 mm-thick glass mirrors which were epoxied into place around a spindle structure. While very light weight, this process resulted in ~1 arc min resolution. We want to achieve ~100 times better with similar mass. A group at NASA GSFC has recently demonstrated an alternative thin-glass assembly procedure that has achieved ~7 arc sec resolution with x-ray tests. Further progress towards 1 arc-sec will require mirrors with improved figure, lower stress coatings, improved alignment, better metrology, and low stress bonding. Many of the difficulties with current mirror assembly practice stem from the use of epoxy as a bonding agent. Epoxy has many disadvantages, including high shrinkage, large CTE and creep, resin aging effects, water absorption, outgassing, low tensile strength, exothermicity, and requiring large amounts of time and/or heat to cure. These effects can cause errors that become â€oefrozen in― to the bond with no possibility of correction. We propose to investigate replacing epoxy with low temperature, low shrinkage solder alloys. We use these solders in conjunction with high power, millisec-long pulses from a fiber IR laser to deliver controlled amounts of heat into the bond area. We have demonstrated that laser pulses can be used to actuate carefully designed bonds by permanently compressing

  20. X-ray mirror metrology using SCOTS/deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Run; Su, Peng; Burge, James H.; Idir, Mourad

    2013-09-01

    SCOTS is a high precision slope measurement technology based on deflectometry. Light pattern on a LCD display illuminates the test surface and its reflected image is used to calculate the surface slope. SCOTS provides a high dynamic range full field measurement of the optics without null optics required. We report SCOTS tests on X-ray mirrors to nm and even sub nm level with precise calibration of the test system. A LCD screen with dots/check board pattern was aligned into the system at the test mirror position to calibrate camera imaging distortion in-situ. System errors were further eliminated by testing and subtracting a reference flat which was also aligned at the same position as the test mirror. A virtual reference based on the ideal shape of the test surface was calculated and subtracted from the test raw data. This makes the test a `virtual null' test. Two X-ray mirrors were tested with SCOTS. 0.1μrad (rms) slope precision and sub nm (rms) surface accuracy were achieved.

  1. Comets: mechanisms of x-ray activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibadov, Subhon

    2016-07-01

    Basic mechanisms of X-ray activity of comets are considered, including D-D mechanism corresponding to generation of X-rays due to production of hot short-living plasma clumps at high-velocity collisions between cometary and interplanetary dust particles as well as M-M one corresponding to production of X-rays due to recombination of multicharge ions of solar wind plasma via charge exchange process at their collisions with molecules/atoms of the cometary atmospheres. Peculiarities of the variation of the comet X-ray spectrum and X-ray luminosity with variation of its heliocentric distance are revealed.

  2. Speckle-based at-wavelength metrology of X-ray mirrors with super accuracy.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Yogesh; Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-05-01

    X-ray active mirrors, such as bimorph and mechanically bendable mirrors, are increasingly being used on beamlines at modern synchrotron source facilities to generate either focused or "tophat" beams. As well as optical tests in the metrology lab, it is becoming increasingly important to optimise and characterise active optics under actual beamline operating conditions. Recently developed X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique has shown great potential. The technique has been established and further developed at the Diamond Light Source and is increasingly being used to optimise active mirrors. Details of the X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique and an example of its applicability in characterising and optimising a micro-focusing bimorph X-ray mirror are presented. Importantly, an unprecedented angular sensitivity in the range of two nanoradians for measuring the slope error of an optical surface has been demonstrated. Such a super precision metrology technique will be beneficial to the manufacturers of polished mirrors and also in optimization of beam shaping during experiments. PMID:27250381

  3. Surface Slope Metrology on Deformable Soft X-ray Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Sheng; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Celestre, Rich; Church, Matthew; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Greg; Warwick, Tony

    2010-01-31

    We report on the current state of surface slope metrology on deformable mirrors for soft x-rays at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). While we are developing techniques for in situ at-wavelength tuning, we are refining methods of ex situ visible-light optical metrology to achieve sub-100-nrad accuracy. This paper reports on laboratory studies, measurements and tuning of a deformable test-KB mirror prior to its use. The test mirror was bent to a much different optical configuration than its original design, achieving a 0.38 micro-radian residual slope error. Modeling shows that in some cases, by including the image conjugate distance as an additional free parameter in the alignment, along with the two force couples, fourth-order tangential shape errors (the so-called bird shape) can be reduced or eliminated.

  4. Surface Slope Metrology on Deformable Soft X-ray Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, S.; Yashchuk, V.V.; Goldberg, K.A.; Celestre, R.; Church, M.; McKinney, W.R.; Morrison, G.; Warwick, T.

    2009-09-18

    We report on the current state of surface slope metrology on deformable mirrors for soft x-rays at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). While we are developing techniques for in situ at-wavelength tuning, we are refining methods of ex situvisible-light optical metrology to achieve sub-100-nrad accuracy. This paper reports on laboratory studies, measurements and tuning of a deformable test-KB mirror prior to its use. The test mirror was bent to a much different optical configuration than its original design, achieving a 0.38 micro-radian residual slope error. Modeling shows that in some cases, by including the image conjugate distance as an additional free parameter in the alignment, along with the two force couples, fourth-order tangential shape errors (the so-called bird shape) can be reduced or eliminated.

  5. Profile etching for prefiguring X-ray mirrors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chian; Qian, Jun; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2015-03-01

    A method to pre-shape mirror substrates through etching with a broad-beam ion source and a contoured mask is presented. A 100 mm-long elliptical cylinder substrate was obtained from a super-polished flat Si substrate with a 48 nm root-mean-square (r.m.s.) figure error and a 1.5 Å r.m.s. roughness after one profile-etching process at a beam voltage of 600 V without iteration. A follow-up profile coating can be used to achieve a final mirror. Profile etching and profile coating combined provide an economic way to make X-ray optics, such as nested Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors. PMID:25723948

  6. The study of X-ray scattering to determine surface topography of smooth surfaces. [X-ray telescope mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, A. C.

    1982-01-01

    The scattering of X-rays from state-of-the-art polished mirrors is discussed with reference to the requirements of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility telescope. An experimental set-up is described which allows information to be obtained with subarcsecond resolution. A sample of the data obtained is presented along with a possible theoretical model for its interpretation.

  7. X-ray mirror assessment with optical light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunieda, Hideyo; Serlemitsos, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The imaging capability of a thin foil X-ray mirror has been examined with optical light, using a laser beam and a wide optical parallel beam. These measurements reveal that: (1) image broadening due to millimeter scale waviness (orange peel) of the aluminum substrate, partly intrinsic to the foil and partly caused during the foil treatment, is 1.2-min of arc half-power diameter (HPD) in two reflections; (2) slope errors due to foil shaping and misalignment cause broadening of 1.6-2.0-min of arc HPD; and (3) total broadening is about 3-min of arc HPD, which is consistent with the broadening of 2.6-min of arc HPD measured with X rays.

  8. On-Line Mirror Surfacing Monitored by X-ray Shearing Interferometry and X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, E.; Peverini, L.; Kozhevnikov, I. V.; Weitkamp, T.; David, C.

    2007-01-19

    We propose a novel fabrication scheme combining a mirror surfacing tool and an on-line metrology instrument, the latter capable of controlling both figure and finish of an X-ray mirror with an accuracy matching the challenging specifications of nanofocusing reflective optics for synchrotron and FEL X-ray beams. This approach will be complementary to the present technologies. The paper reviews some recent achievements and presents pertinent examples of on-line diagnostics performed at the ESRF BM05 beamline for which X-rays prove to be a unique probe.

  9. Coating Thin Mirror Segments for Lightweight X-ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Sharpe, Marton V.; Zhang, William; Kolosc, Linette; Hong, Melinda; McClelland, Ryan; Hohl, Bruce R.; Saha, Timo; Mazzarellam, James

    2013-01-01

    Next generations lightweight, high resolution, high throughput optics for x-ray astronomy requires integration of very thin mirror segments into a lightweight telescope housing without distortion. Thin glass substrates with linear dimension of 200 mm and thickness as small as 0.4 mm can now be fabricated to a precision of a few arc-seconds for grazing incidence optics. Subsequent implementation requires a distortion-free deposition of metals such as iridium or platinum. These depositions, however, generally have high coating stresses that cause mirror distortion. In this paper, we discuss the coating stress on these thin glass mirrors and the effort to eliminate their induced distortion. It is shown that balancing the coating distortion either by coating films with tensile and compressive stresses, or on both sides of the mirrors is not sufficient. Heating the mirror in a moderately high temperature turns out to relax the coated films reasonably well to a precision of about a second of arc and therefore provide a practical solution to the coating problem.

  10. Focusing mirror for x-ray free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Mimura, Hidekazu; Kimura, Takashi; Yamakawa, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Morita, Shinya; Uehara, Yoshihiro; Ohmori, Hitoshi; Lin, Weimin; Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Ohashi, Haruhiko

    2008-08-15

    We present the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a large total-reflection mirror for focusing x-ray free-electron laser beams to nanometer dimensions. We used an elliptical focusing mirror made of silicon that was 400 mm long and had a focal length of 550 mm. Electrolytic in-process dressing grinding was used for initial-step figuring and elastic emission machining was employed for final figuring and surface smoothing. A figure accuracy with a peak-to-valley height of 2 nm was achieved across the entire area. Characterization of the focused beam was performed at BL29XUL of SPring-8. The focused beam size was 75 nm at 15 keV, which is almost equal to the theoretical size.

  11. Mirror Technology Development for The International X-Ray Observatory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Will

    2010-01-01

    Presentation slides include: International X-ray Observatory (IXO), Lightweight and High Resolution X-ray Optics is Needed; Modular Design of Mirror Assembly, IXO Mirror Technology Development Objectives, Focus of Technology Development, Slumping - Status, Mirror Fabrication Progress, Temporary Bonding - Status, Alignment - Status, Permanent Bonding - Status, Mirror Housing Simulator (MHS) - TRL-4, Mini-Module (TRL-5), Flight-Like Module (TRL-6), Mirror Technology Development Team, Outlook, and Small Technology Firms that Have Made Direct Contributions to IXO Mirror Technology Development.

  12. Replicate Wolter-I x-ray mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhaupt, D. E.; Rood, R.; Fawcett, S.; Griffith, C.; Khanijow, R.

    1994-01-01

    Cylindrical (hyperbolic - parabolic Wolter I) mirrors have been electroformed from nickel over an electroless nickel-phosphorous (NiP) plated aluminum mandrel in support of the NASA AXAF-S x-ray spectrometer program. The electroless nickel was diamond turned and polished to achieve a surface finish of 10 angstroms rms or better. Gold was then plated on the nickel alloy after an electrochemical passivation step. Next a heavy layer of pure nickel was plated one millimeter thick with controlled stress at zero using a commercial PID program to form the actual mirror. This shell was removed from the NiP alloy coated mandrel by cryogenic cooling and contraction of the aluminum to release the mirror. It is required that the gold not adhere well to the NiP but all other plated coatings must exhibit good adherence. Four mirrors were fabricated from two mandrels prepared by this method. The area of each part is 0.7 square meters (7.5 square feet).

  13. A mirror for lab-based quasi-monochromatic parallel x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Thanhhai; Lu, Xun; Lee, Chang Jun; Jeon, Insu; Jung, Jin-Ho; Jin, Gye-Hwan; Kim, Sung Youb

    2014-09-15

    A multilayered parabolic mirror with six W/Al bilayers was designed and fabricated to generate monochromatic parallel x-rays using a lab-based x-ray source. Using this mirror, curved bright bands were obtained in x-ray images as reflected x-rays. The parallelism of the reflected x-rays was investigated using the shape of the bands. The intensity and monochromatic characteristics of the reflected x-rays were evaluated through measurements of the x-ray spectra in the band. High intensity, nearly monochromatic, and parallel x-rays, which can be used for high resolution x-ray microscopes and local radiation therapy systems, were obtained.

  14. A mirror for lab-based quasi-monochromatic parallel x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thanhhai; Lu, Xun; Lee, Chang Jun; Jung, Jin-Ho; Jin, Gye-Hwan; Kim, Sung Youb; Jeon, Insu

    2014-09-01

    A multilayered parabolic mirror with six W/Al bilayers was designed and fabricated to generate monochromatic parallel x-rays using a lab-based x-ray source. Using this mirror, curved bright bands were obtained in x-ray images as reflected x-rays. The parallelism of the reflected x-rays was investigated using the shape of the bands. The intensity and monochromatic characteristics of the reflected x-rays were evaluated through measurements of the x-ray spectra in the band. High intensity, nearly monochromatic, and parallel x-rays, which can be used for high resolution x-ray microscopes and local radiation therapy systems, were obtained.

  15. Generation-X mirror technology development plan and the development of adjustable x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Paul B.; Davis, William; O'Dell, Stephen; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Tolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Zhang, William

    2009-08-01

    Generation-X is being studied as an extremely high resolution, very large area grazing incidence x-ray telescope. Under a NASA Advanced Mission Concepts Study, we have developed a technology plan designed to lead to the 0.1 arcsec (HPD) resolution adjustable optics with 50 square meters of effective area necessary to meet Generation-X requirements. We describe our plan in detail. In addition, we report on our development activities of adjustable grazing incidence optics via the fabrication of bimorph mirrors. We have successfully deposited thin-film piezo-electric material on the back surface of thin glass mirrors. We report on the electrical and mechanical properties of the bimorph mirrors. We also report on initial finite element modeling of adjustable grazing incidence mirrors; in particular, we examine the impact of how the mirrors are supported - the boundary conditions - on the deformations which can be achieved.

  16. Development of Coherent X-ray Diffraction Apparatus with Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirror Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Y.; Tsutsumi, R.; Mimura, H.; Matsuyama, S.; Nishino, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Yamauchi, K.

    2011-09-09

    To realize coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy with higher spatial resolution, it is necessary to increase the density of x-ray photons illuminated onto the sample. In this study, we developed a coherent x-ray diffraction apparatus with Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror optics. By using mirrors fabricated by elastic emission machining, a high-density coherent x-ray beam was produced. In a demonstration experiment using a silver nanocube as a sample, a high-contrast coherent x-ray diffraction pattern was observed over a wide-q range. This proves that both the density and the degree of coherence of the focused beam were high.

  17. Status of the eROSITA Telescope testing and calibrating the x-ray mirror assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burwitz, Vadim; Predehl, Peter; Bräuninger, Heinrich; Burkert, Wolfgang; Dennerl, Konrad; Eder, Josef; Friedrich, Peter; Fürmetz, Maria; Grisoni, Gabriele; Hartner, Gisela; Marioni, Fabio; Menz, Benedikt; Pfeffermann, Elmar; Valsecchi, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    The eROSITA X-ray observatory that will be launched on board the Russian Spectrum-RG mission comprises seven X-ray telescopes, each with its own mirror assembly (mirror module + X-ray baffle), electron deflector, filter wheel, and CCD camera with its control electronics. The completed flight mirror modules are undergoing many thorough X-ray tests at the PANTHER X-ray test facility after delivery, after being mated with the X-ray baffle, and again after both the vibration and thermal-vacuum tests. A description of the work done with mirror modules/assemblies and the test results obtained will be reported here. We report also on the environmental tests that have been performed on the eROSITA telescope qualification model.

  18. Understanding the performance of x-ray mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.

    1989-01-01

    The manufacture of x-ray mirrors is a rather specialized branch of the optical fabrication industry. As those who have had to deal with the procurement of these components well know, there are only a handful of optical companies who supply most of the grazing incidence optics in use at the synchrotron light source facilities in this country. There is relatively little information available of practical use to guide the user through any of the above steps. We have been ''forced'' to develop our own foundation for assessing the performance of various vendors and determining the quality of the components produced by them. Our approach has been to concentrate on the area of metrology of grazing incidence optics and to develop instruments and techniques that can be used to improve the quality of components delivered to us. The major problem hindering the production of grazing incidence optics is the lack of specialized metrology instrumentation that can be used by the small manufacturing shop to assess the quality of the component under production. We have been engaged over the past several years in developing the theoretical framework and practical measurement techniques to link the metrology to actual performance, providing much-needed feedback to the manufacture and also educating users and manufacturers in the proper understanding of the language of surface figure and finish metrology.

  19. Development of ellipsoidal focusing mirror for soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimura, Hidekazu; Takei, Yoshinori; Saito, Takahiro; Kume, Takehiro; Motoyama, Hiroto; Egawa, Satoru; Takeo, Yoko; Higashi, Takahiro

    2015-08-01

    Mirrors are key devices for creating various systems in optics. Focusing X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light requires mirror surfaces with an extremely high accuracy. The figure of an ellipsoidal mirror is obtained by rotating an elliptical profile, and using such a mirror, soft X-ray and EUV light can be focused to dimensions on the order of nanometers without chromatic aberration. Although the theoretical performance of ellipsoidal mirrors is extremely high, the fabrication of an ideal ellipsoidal mirror remains problematic. Based on this background, we have been working to develop a fabrication system for ellipsoidal mirrors. In this proceeding, we briefly introduce the fabrication process and the soft X-ray focusing performance of the ellipsoidal mirror fabricated using the proposed process.

  20. Preface: The 5th International Workshop on X-ray Mirror Design, Fabrication, and Metrology.

    PubMed

    Assoufid, Lahsen; Goldberg, Kenneth; Yashchuk, Valeriy V

    2016-05-01

    Recent developments in synchrotron storage rings and free-electron laser-based x-ray sources with ever-increasing brightness and coherent flux have pushed x-ray optics requirements to new frontiers. This Special Topic gathers a set of articles derived from a subset of the key presentations of the International Workshop on X-ray Mirrors Fabrication (IWXM-2015) and Metrology held at Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA, July 14-16, 2015. The workshop objective was to report on recent progress in x-ray synchrotron radiation mirrors fabrication as well as on new developments in related metrology tools and methods. PMID:27250367

  1. The challenge of developing thin mirror shells for future x-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döhring, Thorsten; Stollenwerk, Manfred; Gong, Qingqing; Proserpio, Laura; Winter, Anita; Friedrich, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Previously used mirror technologies are not able to fulfil the requirements of future X-ray telescopes due to challenging requests from the scientific community. Consequently new technical approaches for X-ray mirror production are under development. In Europe the technical baseline for the planned X-ray observatory ATHENA is the radical new approach of silicon pore optics. NASÁs recently launched NuSTAR mission uses segmented mirrors shells made from thin bended glasses, successfully demonstrating the feasibility of the glass forming technology for X-ray mirrors. For risk mitigation also in Europe the hot slumping of thin glasses is being developed as an alternative technology for lightweight X-ray telescopes. The high precision mirror manufacturing requires challenging technical developments; several design trades and trend-setting decisions need to be made and are discussed within this paper. Some new technical and economic aspects of the intended glass mirror serial production are also studied within the recently started interdisciplinary project INTRAAST, an acronym for "industry transfer of astronomical mirror technologies". The goal of the project, embedded in a cooperation of the Max-Planck-Institute for extraterrestrial Physics and the University of Applied Sciences Aschaffenburg, is to master the challenge of producing thin mirror shells for future X-ray telescopes. As a first project task the development of low stress coatings for thin glass mirror substrates have been started, the corresponding technical approach and first results are presented.

  2. Fabrication of nested elliptical KB mirrors using profile coating for synchrotron radiation X-ray focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chian; Ice, Gene E; Liu, Wenjun; Assoufid, Lahsen; Qian, J; Shi, B.; Khachatryan, Ruben; Wieczorek, M.; Zschack, P.; Tischler, Jonathan Zachary

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes fabrication methods used to demonstrate the advantages of nested or Montel optics for micro/nanofocusing of synchrotron X-ray beams. A standard Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror system uses two separated elliptical mirrors at glancing angles to the X-ray beam and sequentially arranged at 90{sup o} to each other to focus X-rays successively in the vertical and horizontal directions. A nested KB mirror system has the two mirrors positioned perpendicular and side-by-side to each other. Compared to a standard KB mirror system, Montel optics can focus a larger divergence and the mirrors can have a shorter focal length. As a result, nested mirrors can be fabricated with improved demagnification factor and ultimately smaller focal spot, than with a standard KB arrangement. The nested system is also more compact with an increased working distance, and is more stable, with reduced complexity of mirror stages. However, although Montel optics is commercially available for laboratory X-ray sources, due to technical difficulties they have not been used to microfocus synchrotron radiation X-rays, where ultra-precise mirror surfaces are essential. The main challenge in adapting nested optics for synchrotron microfocusing is to fabricate mirrors with a precise elliptical surface profile at the very edge where the two mirrors meet and where X-rays scatter. For example, in our application to achieve a sub-micron focus with high efficiency, a surface figure root-mean-square (rms) error on the order of 1 nm is required in the useable area along the X-ray footprint with a {approx} 0.1 mm-diameter cross section. In this paper we describe promising ways to fabricate precise nested KB mirrors using our profile coating technique and inexpensive flat Si substrates.

  3. Study of X-ray optics. [testing polished Kanigen coated beryllium mirror in X ray telescope on Skylark

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froechtenigt, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The testing is reported of a polished Kanigen coated beryllium mirror in a soft X-ray telescope to be flown on a Skylark sounding rocket. This test involved inserting the telescope in a 220 foot long vacuum line and taking photographs of an X-ray resolution source. These photographs were then used to evaluate the performance of the telescope mirror as a function of distance from the focal plane and the angular distance off the telescope axis. A second test was made in which a point source was used to study the imaging characteristics by means of a pinhole and proportional counter placed in the telescope focal plane. A third test was conducted using a position sensitive detector. The efficiency and resolution was increased by polishing.

  4. Electro-Formed Mirrors for Both X-Ray and Visible Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritter, J.; Smith, W. Scott; Rose, M. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is involved in the development of nickel and nickel alloy electroformed mirrors for rapid production of space-based optical systems. The current state of the process is discussed- for both cylindrical x-ray mirrors and normal incidence mirrors for visible and infrared applications.

  5. Single-shot calibration of soft x-ray mirrors using a sinusoidal transmission grating.

    PubMed

    Shpilman, Z; Ehrlich, Y; Maman, S; Levy, I; Shussman, T; Oren, G; Zakosky Nueberger, I; Hurvitz, G

    2014-11-01

    Calibration of soft x-ray diagnostics is a challenge due to the lack of laboratory-size calibrated sources. An in situ calibration method for newly developed x-ray mirrors, is presented. The x-ray source is produced by laser-matter interaction, and twin transmission gratings which create two identical dispersion lines. The gratings have a sinusoidal transmission function, which produces a highly precise high-orders free spectrum. An x-ray mirror interacts with one of the dispersion lines, and the mirror efficiency curve as a function of wavelength is extracted. Mirror efficiency shows good agreement with the literature, and evidence of water layer may justify the need of in situ calibration. PMID:25430374

  6. Single-shot calibration of soft x-ray mirrors using a sinusoidal transmission grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpilman, Z.; Ehrlich, Y.; Maman, S.; Levy, I.; Shussman, T.; Oren, G.; Zakosky Nueberger, I.; Hurvitz, G.

    2014-11-01

    Calibration of soft x-ray diagnostics is a challenge due to the lack of laboratory-size calibrated sources. An in situ calibration method for newly developed x-ray mirrors, is presented. The x-ray source is produced by laser-matter interaction, and twin transmission gratings which create two identical dispersion lines. The gratings have a sinusoidal transmission function, which produces a highly precise high-orders free spectrum. An x-ray mirror interacts with one of the dispersion lines, and the mirror efficiency curve as a function of wavelength is extracted. Mirror efficiency shows good agreement with the literature, and evidence of water layer may justify the need of in situ calibration.

  7. Development of precision Wolter mirrors for future solar x-ray observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakao, Taro; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Kime, Ayumi; Goto, Takumi; Nishihara, Akihiko; Nakamori, Hiroki; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Miyake, Akira; Hashizume, Hirokazu; Maezawa, Tadakazu; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Narukage, Noriyuki

    2015-09-01

    High resolution imagery of the solar X-ray corona provides a crucial key to understand dynamics and heating processes of plasma particles there. However, X-ray imagery of the Sun with sub-arcsecond resolution has yet to be conducted due to severe technical difficulty in fabricating precision Wolter mirrors. For future X-ray observations of the Sun's corona, we are attempting to realize precision Wolter mirrors with sub-arcsecond resolution by adopting advanced surface polish and metrology methods based on nano-technology to sector mirrors which consist of a portion of an entire annulus. Following fabrication of the first engineering mirror and subsequent evaluation on the X-ray focusing performance in 2013, the second engineering mirror was made with improvements in both precision polish and metrology introduced. Measurement of focusing performance on the second mirror at SPring-8 synchrotron facility with 8 keV X-rays has demonstrated that the FWHM size of the PSF core reached down to 0.2" while its HPD (Half Power Diameter) size remained at ~3" due to the presence of small-angle scatter just outside of the core. Also, there was notable difference in the focal length between sagittal and meridional focusing which could have been caused by an error in the sag in the meridional direction of <10 nm in the mirror area. Further improvements to overcome these issues have been planned for the next engineering mirror.

  8. Fabrication of single crystal silicon mirror substrates for X-ray astronomical missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveros, Raul E.; Bly, Vincent T.; Kolos, Linette D.; McKeon, Kevin P.; Mazzarella, James R.; Miller, Timothy M.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-07-01

    The advancement of X-ray astronomy largely depends on technological advances in the manufacturing of X-ray optics. Future X-ray astronomy missions will require thousands of nearly perfect mirror segments to produce an X-ray optical assembly with < 5 arcsecond resolving capability. Present-day optical manufacturing technologies are not capable of producing thousands of such mirrors within typical mission time and budget allotments. Therefore, efforts towards the establishment of a process capable of producing sufficiently precise X-ray mirrors in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner are needed. Single-crystal silicon is preferred as a mirror substrate material over glass since it is stronger and free of internal stress, allowing it to retain its precision when cut into very thin mirror substrates. This paper details our early pursuits of suitable fabrication technologies for the mass production of sub-arcsecond angular resolution single-crystal silicon mirror substrates for X-ray telescopes.

  9. Damage threshold of coating materials on x-ray mirror for x-ray free electron laser.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Takahisa; Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Miura, Takanori; Tono, Kensuke; Togashi, Tadashi; Inubushi, Yuichi; Katayama, Tetsuo; Kim, Jangwoo; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yabashi, Makina; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Ohashi, Haruhiko

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the damage threshold of coating materials such as Mo, Ru, Rh, W, and Pt on Si substrates, and that of uncoated Si substrate, for mirror optics of X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). Focused 1 μm (full width at half maximum) XFEL pulses with the energies of 5.5 and 10 keV, generated by the SPring-8 angstrom compact free electron laser (SACLA), were irradiated under the grazing incidence condition. The damage thresholds were evaluated by in situ measurements of X-ray reflectivity degradation during irradiation by multiple pulses. The measured damage fluences below the critical angles were sufficiently high compared with the unfocused SACLA beam fluence. Rh coating was adopted for two mirror systems of SACLA. One system was a beamline transport mirror system that was partially coated with Rh for optional utilization of a pink beam in the photon energy range of more than 20 keV. The other was an improved version of the 1 μm focusing mirror system, and no damage was observed after one year of operation. PMID:27250368

  10. Fabrication of high resolution and lightweight monocrystalline silicon x-ray mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveros, Raul E.; Kolos, Linette D.; Mazzarella, James R.; McKeon, Kevin P.; Zhang, William W.

    2015-09-01

    Monocrystalline silicon as an x-ray mirror substrate material promises significant improvements over the x- ray mirror technologies used to date, since it is mechanically stiff, stress-free, highly thermally conductive, and widely commercially available. Producing highly accurate and lightweight x-ray mirrors from monocrystalline silicon requires a unique and specialized manufacturing process capable of producing mirrors quickly and cost effectively. The identification, development, and testing of this process is the focus of the work described in this proceeding. Monocrystalline silicon blocks were obtained, and a variety of processes (wire electro-discharge machining, etching, polishing) were applied to generate an accurate and stress-free cylindrical or Wolter-I mirror surface. The mirror surface is then sliced off at a thickness of <1 mm and further processed to yield a mirror segment with <1 arcsecond RMS slope errors. Furthermore, our experiments suggest that this mirror production process requires ~2 days to produce a mirror segment and is easily integrated into a cost-reducing parallel processing scheme. Presently, there is strong evidence that the mirror production process described in this paper will meet the stringent requirements of future x-ray missions.

  11. Measurements of reflectivity of x-ray mirror for Suzaku satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Keisuke; Ogasaka, Yasushi; Naitou, Masataka; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Ebara, Masatoshi; Itoh, Akiharu; Iizuka, Ryo; Yokoyama, Yushi

    2006-06-01

    Detailed measurements of reflectivity of gold, which is used for X-ray mirror for X-ray telescope onboard "Suzaku" satellite was performed in the synchrotron radiation facility SPring-8 BL15XU. We measured reflectivity of the mirror, which uses total reflection of gold thin layer. Grazing incidence angle is 0.5 degree and incident X-ray monochromatized in the energy range from 2.2 keV to 3.5 keV, where M-edge structure of gold appears. We used double crystal monochrometer using Si(111) crystal, (ΔE/E ~ 10 -4) to monochromatize the incident X-ray. Energy calibration was performed using L-edge of molybdenum (2530.2 eV) and K-edge of argon (3205.9 eV). From the results, that the energy of M-V and M-IV edge of gold is different from optical constant table, and almost same as the value reported by Graessle et al.(1992).1 It is important to study the optical constants of gold or other mirror material for X-ray astronomy. This results will be feed back to the response function of the X-ray telescope of Suzaku satellite. It is very important for X-ray spectroscopy in X-ray astronomy.

  12. Thermal management of next-generation contact-cooled synchrotron x-ray mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Khounsary, A.

    1999-10-29

    In the past decade, several third-generation synchrotrons x-ray sources have been constructed and commissioned around the world. Many of the major problems in the development and design of the optical components capable of handling the extremely high heat loads of the generated x-ray beams have been resolved. It is expected, however, that in the next few years even more powerful x-ray beams will be produced at these facilities, for example, by increasing the particle beam current. In this paper, the design of a next generation of synchrotron x-ray mirrors is discussed. The author shows that the design of contact-cooled mirrors capable of handing x-ray beam heat fluxes in excess of 500 W/mm{sup 2} - or more than three times the present level - is well within reach, and the limiting factor is the thermal stress rather then thermally induced slope error.

  13. Development of achromatic full-field hard x-ray microscopy with two monolithic imaging mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, S.; Kino, H.; Yasuda, S.; Kohmura, Y.; Okada, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Yamauchi, K.

    2015-09-01

    Advanced Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror optics using two monolithic imaging mirrors was developed to realize an achromatic, high-resolution, and a high-stability full-field X-ray microscope. The mirror consists of an elliptical section and a hyperbolic section on a quartz glass substrate, in which the geometry follows the Wolter (type I) optics rules. A preliminary test was performed at SPring-8 using X-rays monochromatized to 9.881 keV. A 100-nm feature on a Siemens star chart could be clearly observed.

  14. Three mirror glancing incidence system for X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, R. B. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A telescope suitable for soft X-ray astronomical observations consists of a paraboloid section for receiving rays at a grazing angle and a hyperboloid section which receives reflections from the paraboloid at a grazing angle and directs them to a predetermined point of focus. A second hyperboloid section is centrally located from the other two surfaces and positioned to reflect from its outer surface radiation which was not first reflected by the paraboloid. A shutter is included to assist in calibration.

  15. Aligning, Bonding, and Testing Mirrors for Lightweight X-ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Zhang, William W.; Saha, Timo T.; McClelland, Ryan S.; Biskach, Michael P.; Niemeyer, Jason; Schofield, Mark J.; Mazzarella, James R.; Kolos, Linette D.; Hong, Melinda M.; Numata, Ai; Sharpe, Marton V.; Solly, Peter M.; Riveros, Raul E.; Allgood, Kim D.; McKeon, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution, high throughput optics for x-ray astronomy entails fabrication of well-formed mirror segments and their integration with arc-second precision. In this paper, we address issues of aligning and bonding thin glass mirrors with negligible additional distortion. Stability of the bonded mirrors and the curing of epoxy used in bonding them were tested extensively. We present results from tests of bonding mirrors onto experimental modules, and on the stability of the bonded mirrors tested in x-ray. These results demonstrate the fundamental validity of the methods used in integrating mirrors into telescope module, and reveal the areas for further investigation. The alignment and integration methods are applicable to the astronomical mission concept such as STAR-X, the Survey and Time-domain Astronomical Research Explorer.

  16. The use of laterally graded multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Herman L.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Windt, David L.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Craft, Marshall; Blake, Eric; Ross, Connor

    2015-09-01

    We present continued development of laterally graded multilayer mirrors (LGMLs) for a telescope design capable of measuring linear X-ray polarization over a broad spectral band. The multilayer-coated mirrors are used as Bragg reflectors at the Brewster angle. By matching to the dispersion of a spectrometer, one may take advantage of high multilayer reflectivities and achieve modulation factors near 100%. In Phase II of the polarimetry beam- line development, we demonstrated that the system provides 100% polarized X-rays at 0.525 keV (Marshall et al. 2013). In Phase III of the polarimetry beam-line development, we installed an LGML in the source to polarize a wide range of energies between 0.15 and 0.70 keV (Marshall et al. 2014). Here, we present results from continued development of the LGMLs to improve reflectivity in the band of interest, a blazed reflection grating that is suitable for a small flight instrument, and a new detector with a directly deposited optical blocking filter. We also present updated plans for a suborbital rocket experiment designed to detect a polarization level of better than 10% for an active galactic nucleus.

  17. Payload study activities on the International X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D.; Rando, N.; Lumb, D.; Verhoeve, P.; Oosterbroek, T.; Puig, L.; Saavedra, G.; Bavdaz, M.; Gondoin, P.

    2010-07-01

    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) is an L class mission candidate within the science programme Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 of the European Space Agency, with a planned launch by 2020. IXO is an international cooperative project, pursued by ESA, JAXA and NASA. By allowing astrophysical observations between 100 eV and 40 keV using a very large effective collecting area mirror and state-of-the art instruments, IXO would represent the new generation X-ray observatory, following the XMM-Newton, Astro-H and Chandra heritage. The IXO mission concept is based on a single aperture telescope with an external diameter of about 3.5 m and a focal length of 20 m. The focal plane consists of a fixed and a moveable instrument platform (FIP and MIP respectively). The model payload consists of a suite of five instruments which can each be located at the telescope's focus by the MIP, these are: 1. a wide field imager (WFI) based on a silicon DEPFET array; 2. a Hard-X-ray Imager (HXI), which will be integrated together with the WFI; 3. an X-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer (XMS); 4. an X-ray Polarimeter camera (X-POL) based on a gas cell with integrated anode array; 5. a High-Time Resolution Spectrometer (HTRS) based on a silicon drift detector array. In addition, the FIP will carry a grating spectrometer (XGS) mounted in a fixed position and which will allow simultaneous observations with the on-axis instrument. This paper provides a summary of the preliminary results achieved during the assessment activities presently ongoing at ESA. Whereas we will provide a brief overview on the overall spacecraft design, we will focus on the payload description, characteristics, the technology used and the accommodation on the instrument platform.

  18. X-ray induced damage observations in ZERODUR mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Furenlid, K.; Furenlid, L.

    1997-07-01

    Catastrophic damage has been observed in some ZERODUR mirrors used as first mirrors in two beam lines at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Despite the high reflectivity of the coatings used on these mirrors, a significant flux of high energy photons penetrates below the coating and is absorbed in the substrate. Although model calculations indicate that the local temperature does not increase significantly, the authors suspect that over long time periods the absorbed flux produces structural changes in the material, leading to a build-up of surface stress, gross figure changes, and growth of fractures. These changes are probably related to the nature of the two-phase glass-ceramic composition of the ZERODUR material. Metal mirrors and single-phase materials do not exhibit such catastrophic damage under similar exposure conditions.

  19. First demonstration of X-ray mirrors using focused ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numazawa, Masaki; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Ishikawa, Kumi; Ogawa, Tomohiro; Sato, Mayu; Nakamura, Kasumi; Takeuchi, Kazuma; Terada, Masaru; Ohashi, Takaya; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Kelley, Ron; Murata, Kaoru

    2016-06-01

    We report on novel X-ray mirrors fabricated with a focused ion beam for future astronomical missions. We fabricated a test sample from a silicon wafer by forming six slits whose sidewalls were used as X-ray reflection surfaces. The six slits were designed with a size of 25 × 300 × 170 µm3 and with different inclination angles of 0 and ±1°. We examined X-ray reflection using three slits with different inclination angles at Al Kα 1.49 keV. Consequently, we demonstrated X-ray reflection from all the three slits. All the sidewalls have multiangular components with a microroughness of ∼1 nm rms. ∼30–45% of the total surface area is effective for X-ray reflection. We confirmed that the inclination angles are consistent with the designed values.

  20. MILO, a mirror reflectivity code for low-energy x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Kissel, L.

    1982-09-01

    MILO (MIrror reflectivity code, LOw energy) is an interactive fault-tolerant user-oriented code which calculates low-energy x-ray mirror reflectivity. The code combines user input with previously calculated, complex, atomic scattering factors to produce the unpolarized mirror reflectivity at various values of mirror angle and photon energy. The code can calculate the reflectivity of mirrors composed of pure elements and of homogeneous mixtures of elements. MILO is written in standard, high-machine-independent, FORTRAN 77 (ANSI X3.9-1978).

  1. Multispectral X-Ray Imaging With A Pinhole Array And A Flat Bragg Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J A; Barbee, Jr., T W; Izumi, N; Tommasini, R; Welser, L A; Mancini, R C; Marshall, F J

    2005-03-17

    We describe a multiple monochromatic x-ray imager designed for implosion experiments. This instrument uses an array of pinholes in front of a flat multilayered Bragg mirror to provide many individual quasi-monochromatic x-ray pinhole images spread over a wide spectral range. We discuss design constraints and optimizations, and we discuss the specific details of the instrument we have used to obtain temperature and density maps of implosion plasmas.

  2. Foil x-ray mirrors for astronomical observations: still an evolving technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Soong, Yang; Okajima, Takashi; Hahne, Devin J.

    2010-07-01

    Foil X-ray mirrors, introduced by the Goddard X-ray Group in the late 1970s, were envisioned as an interim and complementary approach toward increased sensitivity for small inexpensive astronomical instruments. The extreme light weight nature of these mirrors dovetailed beautifully with Japan's small payload missions, leading to several collaborative, earth orbiting observatories, designed primarily for spectroscopy, of which SUZAKU is still in earth orbit. ASTRO-H is the latest joint instrument with Japan, presently in the implementation phase. At Goddard, some 30 years after we introduced them, we are involved with four separate flight instruments utilizing foil X-ray mirrors, a good indication that this technology is here to stay. Nevertheless, an improved spatial resolution will be the most welcomed development by all. The task of preparing upwards of 1000 reflectors, then assembling them into a single mirror with arcmin resolution remains a formidable one. Many, performance limiting approximations become necessary when converting commercial aluminum sheets into 8 quadrant segments, each with ~200 nested conical, ~4Å surface reflectors, which are then assembled into a single mirror. In this paper we will dscribe the mirror we are presently involved with, slated for the Goddard high resolution imaging X-ray spectrometer (SXS) onboard ASTRO-H. Improved spatial resolution will be an important enhancement to the science objectives from this instrument. We are accordingly pursuing and will briefly describe in this paper several design and reflector assembly modifications, aimed toward that goal.

  3. Foil X-Ray Mirrors for Astronomical Observations: Still an Evolving Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Soong, Yang; Okajima, Takashi; Hahne, Devin J.

    2011-01-01

    Foil X-ray mirrors, introduced by the Goddard X-ray Group in the late 1970s, were envisioned as an interim and complementary approach toward increased sensitivity for small inexpensive astronomical instruments. The extreme light weight nature of these mirrors dovetailed beautifully with Japan's small payload missions, leading to several collaborative, earth orbiting observatories, designed primarily for spectroscopy, of which SUZAKU is still in earth orbit. ASTRO-H is the latest joint instrument with Japan, presently in the implementation phase. At Goddard, some 30 years after we introduced them, we are involved with four separate flight instruments utilizing foil X-ray mirrors, a good indication that this technology is here to stay. Nevertheless, an improved spatial resolution will be the most welcomed development by all. The task of preparing upwards of 1000 reflectors, then assembling them into a single mirror with arcmin resolution remains a formidable one. Many, performance limiting approximations become necessary when converting commercial aluminum sheets into 8 quadrant segments, each with approximately 200 nested conical, approximately 4Angstrom surface reflectors, which are then assembled into a single mirror. In this paper we will describe the mirror we are presently involved with, slated for the Goddard high resolution imaging X-ray spectrometer (SXS) onboard ASTRO-H. Improved spatial resolution will be an important enhancement to the science objectives from this instrument. We are accordingly pursuing and will briefly describe in this paper several design and reflector assembly modifications, aimed toward that goal.

  4. Metrology for x-ray telescope mirrors in a vertical configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Haizhang; Li, Xiaodan; Grindel, M.W.

    1995-09-01

    Mirrors used in x-ray telescope systems for observations outside of the earth`s atmosphere are usually made of several thin nested shells, each formed by a pair of paraboloidal and hyperboloidal surfaces. The thin shells are very susceptible to self-weight deflection caused by gravity and are nearly impossible to test by conventional interferometric techniques. The metrology requirements for these mirrors are extremely challenging. This paper presents a prototype of a Vertical Scanning Long Trace Profiler (VSLTP) which is optimized to measure the surface figure of x-ray telescope mirrors in a vertical orientation. The optical system of the VSLTP is described. Experimental results from measurements on an x-ray telescope mandrel and tests of the accuracy and repeatability of the prototype VSLTP are presented. The prototype instrument has achieved a height measurement accuracy of about 50 nanometers with a repeatability of better than 20 nanometers, and a slope measurement accuracy of about 1 microradian.

  5. K-edge and mirror filtered X-ray grating interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutman, Dan; Finkenthal, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Talbot-Lau interferometers having good angular resolution and fringe contrast are needed for refraction imaging of biomedical objects with conventional X-ray tubes. To maximize angular resolution the interferometers must work in high Talbot orders, which in turn narrows the spectral region of good fringe contrast. To select this narrow region from the broad tube spectrum we study spectral filtering with K-edge absorbers or with grazing incidence X-ray mirrors. For instance, using a total reflection Au mirror at 2.7 mrad incidence in conjunction with a Mo tube at 50 kVp we obtain up to 30% contrast in the fifth Talbot order. The improved angular sensitivity and contrast achieved with quasi-monochromatic filtering enable single-exposure refraction imaging of soft tissues. The mirror filtering offers also a path for increasing the interferometer contrast at high X-ray energy.

  6. Kirkpatrick-Baez type x-ray focusing mirror fabricated by the bent-polishing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio; Takano, Hidekazu; Terada, Yasuko

    2005-09-01

    Microfocusing optics with total reflection mirrors has been constructed, and a performance test in the hard x-ray region has been carried out. The material of the mirror is fused quartz, and parabolic surface figures are fabricated by the bent-polishing method. The reflective surface is coated with platinum. By configuring two parabolic mirrors in the Kirkpatrick-Baez optics, a focused beam size of 150nm in the vertical direction ×110nm in the horizontal direction has been achieved at an x-ray energy of 12keV. A focused beam size of smaller than 300nm is obtained within an x-ray energy range of 8-28keV. In a performance test of the scanning microscope, fine periodic structures with a line pitch of 140nm are clearly resolved. Diffraction limit and modulation transfer function of these focusing optics are discussed.

  7. Short focal length Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors for a hard x-ray nanoprobe

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wenjun; Ice, Gene E.; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Khounsary, Ali; Liu, Chian; Assoufid, Lahsen; Macrander, Albert T.

    2005-11-15

    We describe progress in the fabrication of short-focal-length total-external-reflection Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray mirrors with ultralow figure errors. The short focal length optics produce nanoscale beams (<100 nm) on conventional ({approx}64 m long) beamlines at third generation synchrotron sources. The total-external reflection optics are inherently achromatic and efficiently focus a white (polychromatic) or a tunable monochromatic spectrum of x rays. The ability to focus independent of wavelength allows novel new experimental capabilities. Mirrors have been fabricated both by computer assisted profiling (differential polishing) and by profile coating (coating through a mask onto ultra-smooth surfaces). A doubly focused 85x95 nm{sup 2} hard x-ray nanobeam has been obtained on the UNICAT beamline 34-ID at the Advanced Photon Source. The performance of the mirrors, techniques for characterizing the spot size, and factors limiting focusing performance are discussed.

  8. Short Focal Length Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirrors for a Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenjun; Ice, Gene E; Tischler, Jonathan Zachary; Khounsary, Ali; Liu, Chian; Assoufid, Lahsen; Macrander, Albert T.

    2005-01-01

    We describe progress in the fabrication of short-focal-length total-external-reflection Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray mirrors with ultralow figure errors. The short focal length optics produce nanoscale beams (<100 nm) on conventional ({approx} 64 m long) beamlines at third generation synchrotron sources. The total-external reflection optics are inherently achromatic and efficiently focus a white (polychromatic) or a tunable monochromatic spectrum of x rays. The ability to focus independent of wavelength allows novel new experimental capabilities. Mirrors have been fabricated both by computer assisted profiling (differential polishing) and by profile coating (coating through a mask onto ultra-smooth surfaces). A doubly focused 85 x 95 nm{sup 2} hard x-ray nanobeam has been obtained on the UNICAT beamline 34-ID at the Advanced Photon Source. The performance of the mirrors, techniques for characterizing the spot size, and factors limiting focusing performance are discussed.

  9. Kirkpatrick-Baez type x-ray focusing mirror fabricated by the bent-polishing method

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio; Takano, Hidekazu; Terada, Yasuko

    2005-09-15

    Microfocusing optics with total reflection mirrors has been constructed, and a performance test in the hard x-ray region has been carried out. The material of the mirror is fused quartz, and parabolic surface figures are fabricated by the bent-polishing method. The reflective surface is coated with platinum. By configuring two parabolic mirrors in the Kirkpatrick-Baez optics, a focused beam size of 150 nm in the vertical direction x110 nm in the horizontal direction has been achieved at an x-ray energy of 12 keV. A focused beam size of smaller than 300 nm is obtained within an x-ray energy range of 8-28 keV. In a performance test of the scanning microscope, fine periodic structures with a line pitch of 140 nm are clearly resolved. Diffraction limit and modulation transfer function of these focusing optics are discussed.

  10. Fabrication of Glass Mirror Segments for the International X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, William W.

    2010-01-01

    As the next major X-ray astronomical mission of NASA, ESA, and JAXA, the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) requires a mirror assembly that has an unprecedented effective area and an angular resolution better than all past missions except Chandra. This mirror assembly consists of approximately 15,000 mirror segments, which need to be fabricated, measured, aligned and integrated. In this talk we will present the latest results from our effort of developing an efficient and fast process of making these mirror segments by slumping commercially available glass sheets. We will report on our progress both in terms of perfecting the slumping process as well as the metrology process. In particular, we will discuss what additional work needs to be done to fully facilitate the manufacture of these mirror segments, meeting both budgetary and schedule requirements.

  11. Hard X-ray nanofocusing using adaptive focusing optics based on piezoelectric deformable mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Takumi; Nakamori, Hiroki; Sano, Yasuhisa; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Kimura, Takashi; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Tamasaku, Kenji; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2015-04-15

    An adaptive Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror focusing optics based on piezoelectric deformable mirrors was constructed at SPring-8 and its focusing performance characteristics were demonstrated. By adjusting the voltages applied to the deformable mirrors, the shape errors (compared to a target elliptical shape) were finely corrected on the basis of the mirror shape determined using the pencil-beam method, which is a type of at-wavelength figure metrology in the X-ray region. The mirror shapes were controlled with a peak-to-valley height accuracy of 2.5 nm. A focused beam with an intensity profile having a full width at half maximum of 110 × 65 nm (V × H) was achieved at an X-ray energy of 10 keV.

  12. Hard X-ray nanofocusing using adaptive focusing optics based on piezoelectric deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Takumi; Nakamori, Hiroki; Kimura, Takashi; Sano, Yasuhisa; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Tamasaku, Kenji; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Matsuyama, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    An adaptive Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror focusing optics based on piezoelectric deformable mirrors was constructed at SPring-8 and its focusing performance characteristics were demonstrated. By adjusting the voltages applied to the deformable mirrors, the shape errors (compared to a target elliptical shape) were finely corrected on the basis of the mirror shape determined using the pencil-beam method, which is a type of at-wavelength figure metrology in the X-ray region. The mirror shapes were controlled with a peak-to-valley height accuracy of 2.5 nm. A focused beam with an intensity profile having a full width at half maximum of 110 × 65 nm (V × H) was achieved at an X-ray energy of 10 keV.

  13. Testing multilayer-coated polarizing mirrors for the LAMP soft X-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, D.; Salmaso, B.; She, R.; Tayabaly, K.; Wen, M.; Banham, R.; Costa, E.; Feng, H.; Giglia, A.; Huang, Q.; Muleri, F.; Pareschi, G.; Soffitta, P.; Tagliaferri, G.; Valsecchi, G.; Wang, Z.

    2015-09-01

    The LAMP (Lightweight Asymmetry and Magnetism Probe) X-ray telescope is a mission concept to measure the polarization of X-ray astronomical sources at 250 eV via imaging mirrors that reflect at incidence angles near the polarization angle, i.e., 45 deg. Hence, it will require the adoption of multilayer coatings with a few nanometers dspacing in order to enhance the reflectivity. The nickel electroforming technology has already been successfully used to fabricate the high angular resolution imaging mirrors of the X-ray telescopes SAX, XMM-Newton, and Swift/XRT. We are investigating this consolidated technology as a possible technique to manufacture focusing mirrors for LAMP. Although the very good reflectivity performances of this kind of mirrors were already demonstrated in grazing incidence, the reflectivity and the scattering properties have not been tested directly at the unusually large angle of 45 deg. Other possible substrates are represented by thin glass foils or silicon wafers. In this paper we present the results of the X-ray reflectivity campaign performed at the BEAR beamline of Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste on multilayer coatings of various composition (Cr/C, Co/C), deposited with different sputtering parameters on nickel, silicon, and glass substrates, using polarized X-rays in the spectral range 240 - 290 eV.

  14. Iridium/Iridium Silicide as an Oxidation Resistant Capping Layer for Soft X-ray Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Prisbrey, S; Vernon, S

    2004-04-05

    Rust on a sword, tarnish on the silverware, and a loss in reflectivity for soft x-ray mirrors are all caused by oxidation that changes the desired characteristics of a material. Methods to prevent the oxidation have varied over the centuries with the default method of a protective coating being the most common. The protective coating for x-ray mirrors is usually a self-limiting oxidized layer on the surface of the material that stops further oxidation of the material by limiting the diffusion of oxygen to the material underneath.

  15. Achromatic nested Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror optics for hard X-ray nanofocusing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenjun; Ice, Gene E.; Assoufid, Lahsen; Liu, Chian; Shi, Bing; Khachatryan, Ruben; Qian, Jun; Zschack, Paul; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Choi, J.-Y.

    2011-01-01

    The first test of nanoscale-focusing Kirkpatrick–Baez (KB) mirrors in the nested (or Montel) configuration used at a hard X-ray synchrotron beamline is reported. The two mirrors are both 40 mm long and coated with Pt to produce a focal length of 60 mm at 3 mrad incident angle, and collect up to a 120 µm by 120 µm incident X-ray beam with maximum angular acceptance of 2 mrad and a broad bandwidth of energies up to 30 keV. In an initial test a focal spot of about 150 nm in both horizontal and vertical directions was achieved with either polychromatic or monochromatic beam. The nested mirror geometry, with two mirrors mounted side-by-side and perpendicular to each other, is significantly more compact and provides higher demagnification than the traditional sequential KB mirror arrangement. Ultimately, nested mirrors can focus larger divergence to improve the diffraction limit of achromatic optics. A major challenge with the fabrication of the required mirrors is the need for near-perfect mirror surfaces near the edge of at least one of the mirrors. Special polishing procedures and surface profile coating were used to preserve the mirror surface quality at the reflecting edge. Further developments aimed at achieving diffraction-limited focusing below 50 nm are underway. PMID:21685674

  16. Achromatic nested Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror optics for hard x-ray nanofocusing.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.; Ice, G. E.; Assoufid, L.; Liu, C.; Shi, B.; Khachatryan, R.; Qian, J.; Zschack, P.; Tischler, J. Z.; Choi, J.-Y.

    2011-07-01

    The first test of nanoscale-focusing Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors in the nested (or Montel) configuration used at a hard X-ray synchrotron beamline is reported. The two mirrors are both 40 mm long and coated with Pt to produce a focal length of 60 mm at 3 mrad incident angle, and collect up to a 120 {micro}m by 120 {micro}m incident X-ray beam with maximum angular acceptance of 2 mrad and a broad bandwidth of energies up to 30 keV. In an initial test a focal spot of about 150 nm in both horizontal and vertical directions was achieved with either polychromatic or monochromatic beam. The nested mirror geometry, with two mirrors mounted side-by-side and perpendicular to each other, is significantly more compact and provides higher demagnification than the traditional sequential KB mirror arrangement. Ultimately, nested mirrors can focus larger divergence to improve the diffraction limit of achromatic optics. A major challenge with the fabrication of the required mirrors is the need for near-perfect mirror surfaces near the edge of at least one of the mirrors. Special polishing procedures and surface profile coating were used to preserve the mirror surface quality at the reflecting edge. Further developments aimed at achieving diffraction-limited focusing below 50 nm are underway.

  17. Achromatic nested Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror optics for hard X-ray nanofocusing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjun; Ice, Gene E; Assoufid, Lahsen; Liu, Chian; Shi, Bing; Khachatryan, Ruben; Qian, Jun; Zschack, Paul; Tischler, Jonathan Z; Choi, J Y

    2011-07-01

    The first test of nanoscale-focusing Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors in the nested (or Montel) configuration used at a hard X-ray synchrotron beamline is reported. The two mirrors are both 40 mm long and coated with Pt to produce a focal length of 60 mm at 3 mrad incident angle, and collect up to a 120 µm by 120 µm incident X-ray beam with maximum angular acceptance of 2 mrad and a broad bandwidth of energies up to 30 keV. In an initial test a focal spot of about 150 nm in both horizontal and vertical directions was achieved with either polychromatic or monochromatic beam. The nested mirror geometry, with two mirrors mounted side-by-side and perpendicular to each other, is significantly more compact and provides higher demagnification than the traditional sequential KB mirror arrangement. Ultimately, nested mirrors can focus larger divergence to improve the diffraction limit of achromatic optics. A major challenge with the fabrication of the required mirrors is the need for near-perfect mirror surfaces near the edge of at least one of the mirrors. Special polishing procedures and surface profile coating were used to preserve the mirror surface quality at the reflecting edge. Further developments aimed at achieving diffraction-limited focusing below 50 nm are underway. PMID:21685674

  18. Achromatic Nested Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirror Optics for Hard X-ray Nanofocusing

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenjun; Ice, Gene E; Assoufid, Lahsen; Liu, Chian; Shi, B.; Khachatryan, Ruben; Qian, J; Zshack, Dr Paul; Tischler, Jonathan Zachary; Choi, Jae-Young

    2011-01-01

    The first test of nanoscale-focusing Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors in the nested (or Montel) configuration used at a hard X-ray synchrotron beamline is reported. The two mirrors are both 40 mm long and coated with Pt to produce a focal length of 60 mm at 3 mrad incident angle, and collect up to a 120 {micro}m by 120 {micro}m incident X-ray beam with maximum angular acceptance of 2 mrad and a broad bandwidth of energies up to 30 keV. In an initial test a focal spot of about 150 nm in both horizontal and vertical directions was achieved with either polychromatic or monochromatic beam. The nested mirror geometry, with two mirrors mounted side-by-side and perpendicular to each other, is significantly more compact and provides higher demagnification than the traditional sequential KB mirror arrangement. Ultimately, nested mirrors can focus larger divergence to improve the diffraction limit of achromatic optics. A major challenge with the fabrication of the required mirrors is the need for near-perfect mirror surfaces near the edge of at least one of the mirrors. Special polishing procedures and surface profile coating were used to preserve the mirror surface quality at the reflecting edge. Further developments aimed at achieving diffraction-limited focusing below 50 nm are underway.

  19. Some Considerations for Precision Metrology of Thin X-Ray Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehan, J. P.; Saha, T.; Zhang, W. W.; Rohrbach, S.; Chan, K.-W.; Hadjimichael, T.; Hong, M.; Davis, W.

    2008-01-01

    Determination of the shape of very thin x-ray mirrors employed in spaced-based telescopes continues to be challenging. The mirrors shapes are not readily deduced to the required accuracy because the mount induced distortions are often larger than the uncertainty tolerable for the mission metrology. In addition to static deformations, dynamic and thermal considerations are exacerbated for this class of mirrors. We report on the performance of one temporary mounting scheme for the thin glass mirrors for the Constellation-X mission and prospects for deducing their undistorted shapes.

  20. Bonding Thin Mirror Segments Without Distortion for the International X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Tyler C.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Saha, Timo T.

    2011-01-01

    The International X-Ray Observatory (IXO) uses thin glass optics to maximize large effective area and precise low angular resolution. The thin glass mirror segments must be transferred from their fabricated state to a permanent structure without imparting distortion. IXO will incorporate about fourteen thousand thin mirror segments to achieve the mission goal of 3.0 square meters of effective area at 1.25 keV with an angular resolution of five arcseconds. To preserve figure and alignment, the mirror segment must be bonded with sub-micron movement at each corner. Recent advances in technology development have produced significant x-ray test results of a bonded pair of mirrors. Three specific bonding cycles will be described highlighting the improvements in procedure, temperature control, and precision bonding. This paper will highlight the recent advances in alignment and permanent bonding as well as the results they have produced.

  1. Evaluation of surface figure error profile of ellipsoidal mirror for soft x-ray focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeo, Yoko; Saito, Takahiro; Mimura, Hidekazu

    2015-08-01

    It is possible to achieve soft X-ray nanofocusing with a high efficiency and no chromatic aberration by using an ultraprecise ellipsoidal mirror. Surface figure metrology is key in the improvement of surface figure accuracy. In this study, we propose a ptychographic phase retrieval method using a visible light laser to measure the surface figure error profile of an ellipsoidal mirror. We introduce a simple experimental system for ptychographic phase retrieval and demonstrate the basic performance of the proposed system. Obtainable wavefront information provides both the figure error and the alignment of the ellipsoidal mirror that yield the best focusing. This developed method is required for offline adjustments when an ellipsoidal mirror is installed in the beamline of synchrotron radiation or X-ray free-electron laser light sources.

  2. Tracing X-rays through an L-shaped laterally graded multilayer mirror: a synchrotron application.

    PubMed

    Honnicke, Marcelo Goncalves; Huang, Xianrong; Keister, Jeffrey W; Kodituwakku, Chaminda Nalaka; Cai, Yong Q

    2010-05-01

    A theoretical model to trace X-rays through an L-shaped (nested or Montel Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors) laterally graded multilayer mirror to be used in a synchrotron application is presented. The model includes source parameters (size and divergence), mirror figure (parabolic and elliptic), multilayer parameters (reflectivity, which depends on layer material, thickness and number of layers) and figure errors (slope error, roughness, layer thickness fluctuation Deltad/d and imperfection in the corners). The model was implemented through MATLAB/OCTAVE scripts, and was employed to study the performance of a multilayer mirror designed for the analyzer system of an ultrahigh-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometer at National Synchrotron Light Source II. The results are presented and discussed. PMID:20400833

  3. Image analysis of the AXAF VETA-I x ray mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Mark D.; Hughes, John P; Vanspeybroeck, L.; Weisskopf, M.; Bilbro, J.

    1992-01-01

    Initial core scan data of the VETA-I x-ray mirror proved disappointing, showing considerable unpredicted image structure and poor measured FWHM. 2-D core scans were performed, providing important insight into the nature of the distortion. Image deconvolutions using a ray traced model PSF was performed successfully to reinforce our conclusion regarding the origin of the astigmatism. A mechanical correction was made to the optical structure, and the mirror was tested successfully (FWHM 0.22 arcsec) as a result.

  4. Design and analysis of x-ray microscope of four mirrors working at grazing incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiasheng; Zhao, Lingling; Li, Xiang

    2006-01-01

    In the latest 20 years, x-ray imaging technology has developed fast in order to meet the need of x-ray photo-etching, spatial exploration technology, high-energy physics, procedure diagnosis of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) etc. But, Since refractive index of materials in the x-ray region is lower than 1, and x-ray is strongly absorbed by the materials, it is very difficult to image objects in the x ray region. Conventional imaging methods are hardly suitable to x-ray range. Generally, grazing reflective imaging and coding aperture imaging methods have been adopted more and more. In this paper, non-coaxial grazing reflective imaging KB and KBA microscope systems are discussed in detail, and an x-ray microscope consisting of four mirrors working at grazing incidence is designed. It is an anastigmatic system, and the oblique angle of the image is evidently decreased. The resolution of 5-7 can be obtained within 2 field of view. And finally we also make analysis of the key problems that are met in the processing of manufacturing this system are analyzed.

  5. X-raying the Winds of Luminous Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, W. N.; Chartas, G.; Gallagher, S. C.; Gibson, R. R.; Miller, B. P.

    2009-12-01

    We briefly describe some recent observational results, mainly at X-ray wavelengths, on the winds of luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These winds likely play a significant role in galaxy feedback. Topics covered include (1) Relations between X-ray and UV absorption in Broad Absorption Line (BAL) and mini-BAL quasars; (2) X-ray absorption in radio-loud BAL quasars; and (3) Evidence for relativistic iron K BALs in the X-ray spectra of a few bright quasars. We also mention some key outstanding problems and prospects for future advances; e.g., with the International X-ray Observatory (IXO).

  6. Mirror Technology for the International X-Ray Observatory (iXO) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Will

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology that is being used to fabricate, measure align and bond the segments for the mirror that is to be used for the International X-Ray Observatory. There are views of the manufacturing and testing equipment. Also the milestones for the development are discussed.

  7. Simulating wavefront correction via deformable mirrors at x-ray beamlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardini, Tommaso; Poyneer, Lisa A.; Plinta, Audrey; Cavaco, Jeffrey L.; Pivovaroff, Michael J.

    2012-10-01

    Deformable mirrors (DMs) have been successfully used in astronomical adaptive optics at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, greatly reducing atmospheric-induced aberrations. Building upon the extensive techniques and methods developed for these applications, we propose to extend this capability to the soft and hard x-ray regime in order to take full advantage of the beam quality characteristic of new facilities such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS-II), and the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Achieving this goal challenges both current mirror manufacturing techniques and wavefront propagation modeling. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in collaboration with Northrop Grumman AOA Xinetics Inc., is currently developing an x-ray deformable mirror to correct for wave-front aberrations introduced along the beam path of a typical x-ray beamline. To model the expected performance of such a mirror, we have developed a simulation based on the wavefront propagation code PROPER. We will present the current implementation of the software, which models actuation of a deformable mirror and evaluates its effect on wavefront correction.

  8. Compensation of X-ray mirror shape-errors using refractive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawhney, Kawal; Laundy, David; Dhamgaye, Vishal; Pape, Ian

    2016-08-01

    Focusing of X-rays to nanometre scale focal spots requires high precision X-ray optics. For nano-focusing mirrors, height errors in the mirror surface retard or advance the X-ray wavefront and after propagation to the focal plane, this distortion of the wavefront causes blurring of the focus resulting in a limit on the spatial resolution. We describe here the implementation of a method for correcting the wavefront that is applied before a focusing mirror using custom-designed refracting structures which locally cancel out the wavefront distortion from the mirror. We demonstrate in measurements on a synchrotron radiation beamline a reduction in the size of the focal spot of a characterized test mirror by a factor of greater than 10 times. This technique could be used to correct existing synchrotron beamline focusing and nanofocusing optics providing a highly stable wavefront with low distortion for obtaining smaller focus sizes. This method could also correct multilayer or focusing crystal optics allowing larger numerical apertures to be used in order to reduce the diffraction limited focal spot size.

  9. Two-dimensional in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors using the speckle scanning technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Laundy, David; Sawhney, Kawal

    2015-07-01

    In situ metrology overcomes many of the limitations of existing metrology techniques and is capable of exceeding the performance of present-day optics. A novel technique for precisely characterizing an X-ray bimorph mirror and deducing its two-dimensional (2D) slope error map is presented. This technique has also been used to perform fast optimization of a bimorph mirror using the derived 2D piezo response functions. The measured focused beam size was significantly reduced after the optimization, and the slope error map was then verified by using geometrical optics to simulate the focused beam profile. This proposed technique is expected to be valuable for in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors at synchrotron radiation facilities and in astronomical telescopes. PMID:26134795

  10. Nano-metrology: The art of measuring X-ray mirrors with slope errors <100 nrad.

    PubMed

    Alcock, Simon G; Nistea, Ioana; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-05-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of the systematic and random errors of the nano-metrology instruments used to characterize synchrotron X-ray optics at Diamond Light Source. With experimental skill and careful analysis, we show that these instruments used in combination are capable of measuring state-of-the-art X-ray mirrors. Examples are provided of how Diamond metrology data have helped to achieve slope errors of <100 nrad for optical systems installed on synchrotron beamlines, including: iterative correction of substrates using ion beam figuring and optimal clamping of monochromator grating blanks in their holders. Simulations demonstrate how random noise from the Diamond-NOM's autocollimator adds into the overall measured value of the mirror's slope error, and thus predict how many averaged scans are required to accurately characterize different grades of mirror. PMID:27250374

  11. Production and performance of multilayer-coated conical x-ray mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, Melville P.; Altkorn, Robert; Graham, Michael E.; Madan, Anita; Chu, Yong S.

    2003-12-01

    A method of fabricating replica figured x-ray optics with integral multilayer coatings is presented. With the intact electroforming multilayer process (IEMP) technique, we sputter multilayers onto a reusable superpolished mandrel, electroform nickel over the multilayers, and remove the multilayer-coated nickel shell intact from the mandrel. This approach offers advantages over more traditional, original, and segmented-replica fabrication techniques, including low cost; compatibility with a wide range of mirror designs, diameters, and focal lengths; simple integration with multilayer sputtering processes; and the ability to produce complete shells of revolution. The fabrication of W/Si multilayer-coated 10-cm-diameter conical x-ray mirrors is described, as are reflectivity measurements at 10 and 30 keV. The measured reflectivity of the IEMP multilayers at the 10-keV primary Bragg peak was 17%. Measurements of multiple points on the cone showed multilayer uniformity to within a few percent around the mirror.

  12. Very high resolution UV and X-ray spectroscopy and imagery of solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, M.; Brown, W. A.; Haisch, B. M.

    1987-01-01

    A scientific investigation of the physics of the solar atmosphere, which uses the techniques of high resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy and high resolution UV imagery, is described. The experiments were conducted during a series of three sounding rocket flights. All three flights yielded excellent images in the UV range, showing unprecedented spatial resolution. The second flight recorded the X-ray spectrum of a solar flare, and the third that of an active region. A normal incidence multi-layer mirror was used during the third flight to make the first astronomical X-ray observations using this new technique.

  13. Compact tunable Compton x-ray source from laser wakefield accelerator and plasma mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hai-En; Wang, Xiaoming; Shaw, Joseph; Li, Zhengyan; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Arefiev, Alex; Downer, Mike; InstituteFusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin Team

    2014-10-01

    Compton backscatter (CBS) x-rays have been generated from laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) electron beams by retro-reflecting the LWFA drive pulse with a plasma mirror (PM) and by backscattering a secondary pulse split from the driver pulse. However, tunable quasi-monoenergetic CBS x-rays have been produced only by the latter method, which requires challenging alignment. Here we demonstrate quasi-monoenergetic (~50% FWHM), bright (5 × 106 photon per shot) CBS x-rays with central energy tunability from 75 KeV to 200 KeV by combining a PM with a tunable LWFA. 30 TW, 30-fs (FWHM), laser pulses from the UT3 laser system were focused (f/12) to spot diameter 11 micron, intensity ~6 × 1018 W/cm2 (a = 1.5) at a 1-mm long Helium gas jet, yielding quasi-monoenergetic relativistic electrons. A thin plastic film near the gas jet exit efficiently retro-reflected the LWFA driving pulse into oncoming electrons to produce CBS x-rays without detecting bremsstrahlung background. By changing gas jet backing pressure, electron energy was tuned from 60 to 90 MeV, thereby tuning the CBS x-ray energy, which was determined by measuring transmission through a metal filter pack. The x-ray beam profiles recorded on an image plate had 5-10-mrad divergence.

  14. Design, Construction, and Testing of Lightweight X-ray Mirror Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClelland, Ryan S.; Biskach, Michael P.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Espina, Rebecca A.; Hohl, Bruce R.; Matson, Elizabeth A.; Saha, Timo C.; Zhang, William W.

    2013-01-01

    Lightweight and high resolution optics are needed for future space-based X-ray telescopes to achieve advances in high-energy astrophysics. The Next Generation X-ray Optics (NGXO) team at NASA GSFC is nearing mission readiness for a 10 arc-second Half Power Diameter (HPD) slumped glass mirror technology while laying the groundwork for a future 1-2 arc-second technology based on polished silicon mirrors. Technology Development Modules (TDMs) have been designed, fabricated, integrated with mirrors segments, and extensively tested to demonstrate technology readiness. Tests include X-ray performance, thermal vacuum, acoustic load, and random vibration. The thermal vacuum and acoustic load environments have proven relatively benign, while the random vibration environment has proven challenging due to large input amplification at frequencies above 500 Hz. Epoxy selection, surface preparation, and larger bond area have increased bond strength while vibration isolation has decreased vibration amplification allowing for space launch requirements to be met in the near term. The next generation of TDMs, which demonstrates a lightweight structure supporting more mirror segments, is currently being fabricated. Analysis predicts superior performance characteristics due to the use of E-60 Beryllium-Oxide Metal Matrix Composite material, with only a modest cost increase. These TDMs will be larger, lighter, stiffer, and stronger than the current generation. Preliminary steps are being taken to enable mounting and testing of 1-2 arc-second mirror segments expected to be available in the future. A Vertical X-ray Test Facility (VXTF) will minimize module gravity distortion and allow for less constrained mirror mounts, such as fully kinematic mounts. Permanent kinematic mounting into a modified TDM has been demonstrated to achieve 2 arc-second level distortion free alignment.

  15. The X-ray Mirrors for the Astro-E2 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Soong, Yang; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The X-Ray telescopes (XRT) for the US/Japan collaborative mission Astro-E2 will be of the same basic design as those built for the original Astro-E mission which failed to reach orbit in Feb. 2000. The NASA/GSFC X-ray Astrophysics Branch will again provide the five lightweight, broad-band mirrors for the mission. X-ray calibrations of the mirrors delivered for the original Astro-E instrument showed spatial resolutions characterized by Half-Power Diameters (HPD) in the range of 1.8 - 2.2 minutes of arc, essentially independent of photon energy in the soft X-ray band. For the mission Astro-E2, both funding constraints and management decisions drastically limit any design modifications, so reflector fabrication and assembly procedures have remained largely unchanged. Nevertheless, in view of the importance in scientific return of attaining even a modest improvement in the spatial resolution of these mirrors, we have carefully considered the various sources of spatial error and, whenever possible, incorporated promising modifications. In this paper, we discuss our current understanding of the various error components as well as the small changes we have been able to implement.

  16. Aplanatic Three-Mirror Objective for High-Magnification Soft X-Ray Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Toyoda, M.; Jinno, T.; Yanagihara, M.

    2011-09-09

    An innovative solution for high-magnification microscopy, based on attaching afocal optics for focal length reduction, is proposed. The solution, consisting of three spherical mirrors, allows one to enhance a magnification of a laboratory based soft x-ray microscope over 1000x, where movies with diffraction-limited resolution can be observed with an x-ray CCD. The design example, having a numerical aperture of 0.25, was successfully demonstrated both a high magnification and a large field of view.

  17. LCLS X-ray mirror measurements using a large aperture visible light interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    McCarville, T; Soufli, R; Pivovaroff, M

    2011-03-02

    Synchrotron or FEL X-ray mirrors are required to deliver an X-ray beam from its source to an experiment location, without contributing significantly to wave front distortion. Accurate mirror figure measurements are required prior to installation to meet this intent. This paper describes how a 300 mm aperture phasing interferometer was calibrated to <1 nm absolute accuracy and used to mount and measure 450 mm long flats for the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Measuring focus mirrors with an interferometer requires additional calibration, because high fringe density introduces systematic errors from the interferometer's imaging optics. This paper describes how these errors can be measured and corrected. The calibration approaches described here apply equally well to interferometers larger than 300 mm aperture, which are becoming more common in optics laboratories. The objective of this effort was to install LCLS flats with < 10 nm of spherical curvature, and < 2 nm rms a-sphere. The objective was met by measuring the mirrors after fabrication, coating and mounting, using a 300 mm aperture phasing interferometer calibrated to an accuracy < 1 nm. The key to calibrating the interferometer accurately was to sample the error using independent geometries that are available. The results of those measurements helped identify and reduce calibration error sources. The approach used to measure flats applies equally well to focus mirrors, provided an additional calibration is performed to measure the error introduced by fringe density. This calibration has been performed on the 300 mm aperture interferometer, and the measurement correction was evaluated for a typical focus mirror. The 300 mm aperture limitation requires stitching figure measurements together for many X-ray mirrors of interest, introducing another possible error source. Stitching is eliminated by applying the calibrations described above to larger aperture instruments

  18. Preliminary design of the International X-ray Observatory flight mirror assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClelland, Ryan S.; Carnahan, Timoth M.; Choi, Michael K.; Robinson, David W.; Saha, Timo T.

    2009-08-01

    The Flight Mirror Assembly (FMA) preliminary mechanical design for NASA's next major X-ray telescope mission, the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO), has been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The design addresses some unique engineering challenges presented by the unprecedented combination of high angular resolution and large effective area required to achieve the desired scientific objectives. To meet these requirements, the Wolter-I Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) optical design consists of about 14,000 0.4 mm thick glass mirror segments densely packed into a 3.4 m diameter FMA and supported with micron level accuracy and stability. Key engineering challenges addressed include ensuring positive stress margins for the glass segments with a high Factor of Safety, keeping the structure light enough to launch, providing a large effective area, and preventing unacceptable thermal distortion. Standard mechanical design techniques such as FEM modeling and optimization, integrated optomechanical analysis, and development testing were applied to this unique problem. The thin mirror segments are mounted into 60 intermediate wedge shaped structures called modules. Modules are kinematically mounted to the FMA primary structure which is optimized for minimum mass and obscuration of the clear aperture. The preliminary design demonstrates the feasibility of building and launching a large space-based SXT using slumped glass mirrors which meets the IXO effective area, mass, structural, and thermal requirements.

  19. Design and development of the eROSITA x-ray mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, P.; Bräuninger, H.; Budau, B.; Burkert, W.; Eder, J.; Freyberg, M. J.; Hartner, G.; Mühlegger, M.; Predehl, P.; Erhard, M.; Gutruf, S.; Jugler, D.; Kampf, D.; Borghi, G.; Citterio, O.; Rossi, M.; Valsecchi, G.; Vernani, D.; Zimmermann, M.

    2008-07-01

    MPE will provide the X-ray Survey Telescope eROSITA [5] for the Russian Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma Mission [4] to be launched in 2011. The design of the X-ray mirror system is based on that of ABRIXAS: The bundle of 7 mirror modules with the short focal length of 1600 mm makes it still a compact instrument while, however, its sensitivity in terms of effective area, field-of-view, and angular resolution shall be largely enhanced with respect to ABRIXAS. The number of nested mirror shells increases from 27 to 54 compared to ABRIXAS thus enhancing the effective area in the soft band by a factor of six. The angular resolution is targeted to be 15 arc seconds half-energy width (HEW) on-axis resulting in an average HEW of 26 arc seconds over the 61 arc minutes field-of-view (FoV). The instrument's high grasp of about 1000 cm2deg2 in the soft spectral range and still 10 cm2deg2 at 10 keV combined with a survey duration of 4 years will generate a new rich database of X-ray sources over the whole sky. As the 7 mirror modules are co-aligned eROSITA is also able to perform pointed observations.

  20. Process of constructing a lightweight x-ray flight mirror assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClelland, Ryan S.; Biskach, Michael P.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Espina, Rebecca A.; Hohl, Bruce R.; Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-07-01

    Lightweight and high resolution optics are needed for future space-based x-ray telescopes to achieve advances in highenergy astrophysics. NASA's Next Generation X-ray Optics (NGXO) project has made significant progress towards building such optics, both in terms of maturing the technology for spaceflight readiness and improving the angular resolution. Technology Development Modules (TDMs) holding three pairs of mirrors have been regularly and repeatedly integrated and tested both for optical performance and mechanical strength. X-ray test results have been improved over the past year from 10.3 arc-seconds Half Power Diameter (HPD) to 8.3 arc-seconds HPD. A vibration test has been completed to NASA standard verification levels showing the optics can survive launch and pointing towards improvements in strengthening the modules through redundant bonds. A Finite Element Analysis (FEA) study was completed which shows the mirror distortion caused by bonding is insensitive to the number of bonds. Next generation TDMs, which will demonstrate a lightweight structure and mount additional pairs of mirrors, have been designed and fabricated. The light weight of the module structure is achieved through the use of E-60 Beryllium Oxide metal matrix composite material. As the angular resolution of the development modules has improved, gravity distortion during horizontal x-ray testing has become a limiting factor. To address this issue, a facility capable of testing in the vertical orientation has been designed and planned. Test boring at the construction site suggest standard caisson construction methods can be utilized to install a subterranean vertical vacuum pipe. This facility will also allow for the testing of kinematically mounted mirror segments, which greatly reduces the effect of bonding displacements. A development platform demonstrating the feasibility of kinematically mounting mirror segments has been designed, fabricated, and successfully tested.

  1. Figure and Dimension Metrology of Extremely Lightweight X-Ray Mirrors for Space Astronomy Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, William W.

    2010-01-01

    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) is the next major space X-ray observatory, performing both imaging and spectroscopic studies of all kinds of objects in the Universe. It is a collaborative mission of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States, the European Space Agency, and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. It is to be launched into a Sun-Earth L2 orbit in 2021. One of the most challenging aspects of the mission is the construction of a flight mirror assembly capable focusing X-rays in the band of 0.1 to 40 keY with an angular resolution of better than 5 arc-seconds and with an effective collection area of more than 3 sq m. The mirror assembly will consist of approximately 15,000 parabolic and hyperbolic mirror segments, each of which is approximately 200mm by 300mm with a thickness of 0.4mm. The manufacture and qualification of these mirror segments and their integration into the giant mirror assembly have been the objectives of a vigorous technology development program at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Each of these mirror segments needs to be measured and qualified for both optical figure and mechanical dimensions. In this talk, I will describe the technology program with a particular emphasis on a measurement system we are developing to meet those requirements, including the use of coordinate measuring machines, Fizeau interferometers, and custom-designed, and -built null lens. This system is capable of measuring highly off-axis aspherical or cylindrical mirrors with repeatability, accuracy, and speed.

  2. Experimental and simulation study of undesirable short-period deformation in piezoelectric deformable x-ray mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamori, Hiroki; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Imai, Shota; Kimura, Takashi; Sano, Yasuhisa; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Tamasaku, Kenji; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2012-05-01

    To construct adaptive x-ray focusing optics whose optical parameters can be varied while performing wavefront correction, ultraprecise piezoelectric deformable mirrors have been developed. We computationally and experimentally investigated undesirable short-period deformation caused by piezoelectric actuators adhered to the substrate during mirror deformation. Based on the results of finite element method analysis, shape measurements, and the observation of x-ray reflection images, a guideline is developed for designing deformable mirrors that do not have short-period deformation errors.

  3. Stress manipulated coating for fabricating lightweight X-ray telescope mirrors.

    PubMed

    Yao, Youwei; Wang, Xiaoli; Cao, Jian; Ulmer, Melville

    2015-11-01

    In this paper wepresent a method to correct the surface profile of an X-ray mirror by using a stress manipulated coating on the back side of mirror shells. The ability to fabricate a thin walled mirror by some replication process is required if future affordable X-ray space missions are to have ~30 times the effective area of the current best X-ray observatory, i.e., the Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO). Thus, some process is necessary for using replicated X-ray optics to make the next generation X-ray observatory. However, although the surface roughness of sub-100 μm length scales can be replicated, no known replication technique can make 1 arc-second or better CXO-like optics. Yet, because the images produced by the CXO are so exquisite, many X-ray astronomers are not willing to settle for less in the future. Therefore, a post replication technique must be developed to make future major X-ray astronomy missions possible. In this paper, we describe a technique based on DC magnetron sputtering. For figure correction, we apply a controlled bias voltage on the surface during the sputtering. We show that we can produce, in 1-D, shape changes large enough (1 μm over 10 mm) to correct the typical figure errors in replicated optics. We demonstrate reproducibility on an order of 0.6%, and stability over weeks on a scale of less than 1 μm over 10 mm. For these tests, we used 200 μm thick pieces of D263 Schott glass, about 5 mm x 20 mm. In addition to the basic concept of controlling the stress with the coating, we describe a new optimization software design to calculate the stress distribution for a desired surface profile. We show that the combination of the stress optimization software coupled with the coating process, can reduce the slope error of a 5 mm x 20 mm glass sample by a factor of ten. PMID:26561130

  4. X-ray emission from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R.

    1985-01-01

    It is often held that the X-ray emission from active galactic nuclei (AGN) arises from a region close to the central energy source. Thus X-ray observations may provide the best constraints on the central engine. In particular, the shape of the X-ray continuum gives information about the mechanism for photon generation, X-ray time variability data can constrain the size and mass of the continuum source, and X-ray occultation data give constraints on the relative sizes of the continuum source and the intervening absorbing material (often assumed to be the broad line clouds). In addition, since a fair fraction of the total energy of an AGN is emitted at X-ray wavelengths, direct measurement of the amount and spectral form of this radiation is important for modeling of the optically emitting clouds.

  5. [High-Performance Active Pixel X-Ray Sensors for X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautz, Mark; Suntharalingam, Vyshnavi

    2005-01-01

    The subject grants support development of High-Performance Active Pixel Sensors for X-ray Astronomy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Center for Space Research and at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory. This memo reports our progress in the second year of the project, from April, 2004 through the present.

  6. Recent Developments of Multilayer Mirror Optics for Laboratory X-ray Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelsen, Carsten; Wiesmann, Jörg; Hoffmann, C.; Wulf, K.; Brugemann, Lutz; Storm, A.

    2002-12-01

    In this paper we review various improvements that we made in the development of multilayer mirror optics for home-lab x-ray analytical equipment in recent years. For the detection of light elements using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, we developed a number of new multilayers with improved detection limits. In detail, we found that La/B4C multilayers improve the detection limit of boron by 29 % compared to the previous Mo/B4C multilayers. For the detection of carbon, TiO2/C multilayers improve the detection limit also by 29 % compared to the V/C multilayers previously used. For the detection of aluminum, WSi2/Si or Ta/Si multilayers can lead to detection limit improvements over the current W/Si multilayers of up to 60 % for samples on silicon wafers. For the use as beam-conditioning elements in x-ray diffractometry, curved optics coated with laterally d-spacing graded multilayers give rise to major improvements concerning usable x-ray intensity and beam quality. Recent developments lead to a high quality of these multilayer optics concerning beam intensity, divergence, beam uniformity and spectral purity. For example, x-ray reflectometry instruments equipped with such multilayer optics have dynamic ranges previously only available at synchrotron sources. Two-dimensional focusing multilayer optics are shown to become essential optical elements in protein crystallography and structural proteomics.

  7. Progress toward submicron hard x-ray imaging using elliptically bent mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDowell, Alastair A.; Celestre, Richard S.; Chang, Chang-Hasnain C.; Franck, Keith D.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Locklin, Scott C.; Padmore, Howard A.; Patel, J. R.; Sandler, Reuben

    1997-11-01

    Of the many methods used to focus x-rays, the se of mirrors with an elliptical curvature shows the most promise of providing a sub-micron white light focus. Our group has been developing he techniques of controlled bending of mirror substrates in order to produce the desired elliptical shape. We have been successful in producing surfaces with the required microradian slope error tolerances. Details of the bending techniques used, results from laboratory slope error measurements using a Long Trace Profiler and data from the measurement of focus shape using knife edge and imaging methods using x-rays in the 5 - 12 KeV energy range are presented. The development of a white light focusing opens many possibilities in diffraction and spectroscopic studies.

  8. Progress towards sub-micron hard x-ray imaging using elliptically bent mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    MacDowell, A.A.; Celestre, R.; Chang, C.H.; Frank, K.

    1997-07-01

    Of the many methods used to focus x-rays, the use of mirrors with an elliptical curvature shows the most promise of providing a sub-micron white light focus. Our group has been developing the techniques of controlled bending of mirror substrates in order to produce the desired elliptical shape. We have been successful in producing surfaces with the required microradian slope error tolerances. Details of the bending techniques used, results from laboratory slope error measurements using a Long Trace Profiler (LTP) and data from the measurement of focus shape using knife edge and imaging methods using x-rays in the 5-12 KeV energy range are presented. The development of a white light focusing opens many possibilities in diffraction and spectroscopic studies.

  9. Alignment System for Full-Shell Replicated X-Ray Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Arnold, William; Ramsey, Brian

    2009-01-01

    We are developing grazing-incidence x-ray optics for high-energy astrophysical applications using the electroformnickel replication process. For space-based applications these optics must be light-weight yet stable, which dictates the use of very-thin-walled full-shell mirrors. Such shells have been fabricated with resolution as good as 11 arcsec for hard x-rays, and technology enhancements under development at MSFC are aimed at producing mirrors with resolution better than 10 arcsec. The challenge, however, is to preserve this resolution during mounting and assembly. We present here a status report on a mounting and alignment system currently under development at Marshall Space Flight Center designed to meet this challenge.

  10. All dielectric hard x-ray mirror by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Szeghalmi, Adriana; Senz, Stephan; Goesele, Ulrich; Knez, Mato; Bretschneider, Mario

    2009-03-30

    Mirrors consisting of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} ({approx}2 nm film thickness) nanolaminates for hard x-ray wavelengths were produced by atomic layer deposition and characterized. Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) proved extremely smooth surfaces of the mirrors, which are critical for highest reflectance. TEM images showed sharp interfaces between the oxides. The experimental x-ray reflectivity data were theoretically modeled and indicated minimal random thickness variations in the individual layers. Additionally, a depth graded sample with a total thickness of {approx}4 {mu}m for focusing applications in transmission (Laue) geometry and capillaries was coated.

  11. Image analysis of the AXAF VETA-1 X-ray mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, M.; Hughes, J.; Van Speybroeck, L.; Bilbro, J.; Weisskopf, M.

    1993-01-01

    Initial core scan data of the VETA-1 X-ray mirror proved disappointing, showing considerable unpredicted image structure and poor measured FWHM. 2-D core scans were performed, providing important insight into the nature of the distortion. Image deconvolutions using a raytraced model PSF was performed successfully to reinforce our conclusion regarding the origin of the astigmatism. A mechanical correction was made to the optical structure, and the minor was tested successfully (FWHM 0.22 arcsec) as a result.

  12. Calibration of the ART-XC/SRG X-ray Mirror Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Zavlin, V.; Swartz, D.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Elsner, R.; Pavlinsky, M.; Tkachenko, A.; Lapshov, I.

    2014-01-01

    Seven x-ray mirror modules are being fabricated at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) instrument to be launched on board of the Spektrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) Mission. As they are completed, the modules are tested and calibrated at the MSFC's 104-m Stray Flight Facility. The results of these calibration measurements and comparisons with theoretical models will be presented.

  13. Non-null full field X-ray mirror metrology using SCOTS: a reflection deflectometry approach.

    PubMed

    Su, Peng; Wang, Yuhao; Burge, James H; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Idir, Mourad

    2012-05-21

    In a previous paper, the University of Arizona (UA) has developed a measurement technique called: Software Configurable Optical Test System (SCOTS) based on the principle of reflection deflectometry. In this paper, we present results of this very efficient optical metrology method applied to the metrology of X-ray mirrors. We used this technique to measure surface slope errors with precision and accuracy better than 100 nrad (rms) and ~200 nrad (rms), respectively, with a lateral resolution of few mm or less. We present results of the calibration of the metrology systems, discuss their accuracy and address the precision in measuring a spherical mirror. PMID:22714226

  14. Non-null full field X-ray mirror metrology using SCOTS: a reflection deflectometry approach

    SciTech Connect

    Su P.; Kaznatcheev K.; Wang, Y.; Burge, J.H.; Idir, M.

    2012-05-16

    In a previous paper, the University of Arizona (UA) has developed a measurement technique called: Software Configurable Optical Test System (SCOTS) based on the principle of reflection deflectometry. In this paper, we present results of this very efficient optical metrology method applied to the metrology of X-ray mirrors. We used this technique to measure surface slope errors with precision and accuracy better than 100 nrad (rms) and {approx}200 nrad (rms), respectively, with a lateral resolution of few mm or less. We present results of the calibration of the metrology systems, discuss their accuracy and address the precision in measuring a spherical mirror.

  15. Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Ohsuka, Shinji; Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro; Nakano, Tomoyasu; Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao

    2014-09-15

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen Kα x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-μm scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

  16. Characterization of an X-ray mirror mechanical bender for the European XFEL.

    PubMed

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Freijo Martín, Idoia; Sinn, Harald

    2016-07-01

    One of the classical devices used to tune a mirror on an X-ray optical setup is a mechanical bender. This is often designed in such a way that the mirror is held with clamps on both ends; a motor is then used to put a torque on the clamps, inducing a cylindrical shape of the mirror surface. A mechanical bender with this design was recently characterized, to bend a 950 mm-long mirror up to a radius of curvature of 10 km. The characterization was performed using a large-aperture Fizeau interferometer with an angled incidence setup. Some particular and critical effects were investigated, such as calibration, hysteresis, twisting and long-term stability. PMID:27359132

  17. Comparison of two methods for simulation of hard X-ray nanofocusing by elliptical mirrors.

    SciTech Connect

    Kewish, C. M.; Macrander, A. T.; Assoufid, L.; Qian, J.; X-Ray Science Division

    2007-11-11

    Wave-optical calculations are essential for predicting the X-ray focusing performance of precisely figured elliptical mirrors. The complex wavefield in the vicinity of the focal plane of a mirror with RMS height error in the nanometer range compared to the best-fit ellipse has been calculated using two methods. A pupil function method that treats the surface topography of a mirror as an aberration to a perfect ellipse was used to obtain the reflected amplitude and phase around the focal point downstream. The results were compared with direct propagation of waves from a point source, and it was found that both methods were in good agreement. Each approach provides advantages that are useful in designing mirrors to achieve diffraction limited focusing.

  18. Calibration and optimization of an x-ray bendable mirror using displacement-measuring sensors.

    PubMed

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Martín, Idoia Freijo; Music, Valerija; Sinn, Harald

    2016-07-25

    We propose a method to control and to adjust in a closed-loop a bendable x-ray mirror using displacement-measuring devices. For this purpose, the usage of capacitive and interferometric sensors is investigated and compared. We installed the sensors in a bender setup and used them to continuously measure the position and shape of the mirror in the lab. The sensors are vacuum-compatible such that the same concept can also be applied in final conditions. The measurement is used to keep the calibration of the system and to create a closed-loop control compensating for external influences: in a demonstration measurement, using a 950 mm long bendable mirror, the mirror sagitta is kept stable inside a range of 10 nm Peak-To-Valley (P-V). PMID:27464178

  19. Soft x-ray intensity profile measurements of electron cyclotron heated plasmas using semiconductor detector arrays in GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Minami, R. Imai, T.; Kariya, T.; Numakura, T.; Eguchi, T.; Kawarasaki, R.; Nakazawa, K.; Kato, T.; Sato, F.; Nanzai, H.; Uehara, M.; Endo, Y.; Ichimura, M.

    2014-11-15

    Temporally and spatially resolved soft x-ray analyses of electron cyclotron heated plasmas are carried out by using semiconductor detector arrays in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. The detector array has 16-channel for the measurements of plasma x-ray profiles so as to make x-ray tomographic reconstructions. The characteristics of the detector array make it possible to obtain spatially resolved plasma electron temperatures down to a few tens eV and investigate various magnetohydrodynamic activities. High power electron cyclotron heating experiment for the central-cell region in GAMMA 10 has been started in order to reduce the electron drag by increasing the electron temperature.

  20. Design and Analysis of an X-Ray Mirror Assembly Using the Meta-Shell Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClelland, Ryan S.; Bonafede, Joseph; Saha, Timo T.; Solly, Peter M.; Zhang, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight and high resolution optics are needed for future space-based x-ray telescopes to achieve advances in high-energy astrophysics. Past missions such as Chandra and XMM-Newton have achieved excellent angular resolution using a full shell mirror approach. Other missions such as Suzaku and NuSTAR have achieved lightweight mirrors using a segmented approach. This paper describes a new approach, called meta-shells, which combines the fabrication advantages of segmented optics with the alignment advantages of full shell optics. Meta-shells are built by layering overlapping mirror segments onto a central structural shell. The resulting optic has the stiffness and rotational symmetry of a full shell, but with an order of magnitude greater collecting area. Several meta-shells so constructed can be integrated into a large x-ray mirror assembly by proven methods used for Chandra and XMM-Newton. The mirror segments are mounted to the meta-shell using a novel four point semi-kinematic mount. The four point mount deterministically locates the segment in its most performance sensitive degrees of freedom. Extensive analysis has been performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the four point mount and meta-shell approach. A mathematical model of a meta-shell constructed with mirror segments bonded at four points and subject to launch loads has been developed to determine the optimal design parameters, namely bond size, mirror segment span, and number of layers per meta-shell. The parameters of an example 1.3 m diameter mirror assembly are given including the predicted effective area. To verify the mathematical model and support opto-mechanical analysis, a detailed finite element model of a meta-shell was created. Finite element analysis predicts low gravity distortion and low sensitivity to thermal gradients.

  1. Optimizing X-ray mirror thermal performance using matched profile cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lin; Cocco, Daniele; Kelez, Nicholas; Morton, Daniel S.; Srinivasan, Venkat; Stefan, Peter M.

    2015-08-07

    To cover a large photon energy range, the length of an X-ray mirror is often longer than the beam footprint length for much of the applicable energy range. To limit thermal deformation of such a water-cooled X-ray mirror, a technique using side cooling with a cooled length shorter than the beam footprint length is proposed. This cooling length can be optimized by using finite-element analysis. For the Kirkpatrick–Baez (KB) mirrors at LCLS-II, the thermal deformation can be reduced by a factor of up to 30, compared with full-length cooling. Furthermore, a second, alternative technique, based on a similar principle is presented: using a long, single-length cooling block on each side of the mirror and adding electric heaters between the cooling blocks and the mirror substrate. The electric heaters consist of a number of cells, located along the mirror length. The total effective length of the electric heater can then be adjusted by choosing which cells to energize, using electric power supplies. The residual height error can be minimized to 0.02 nm RMS by using optimal heater parameters (length and power density). Compared with a case without heaters, this residual height error is reduced by a factor of up to 45. The residual height error in the LCLS-II KB mirrors, due to free-electron laser beam heat load, can be reduced by a factor of ~11belowthe requirement. The proposed techniques are also effective in reducing thermal slope errors and are, therefore, applicable to white beam mirrors in synchrotron radiation beamlines.

  2. Optimizing X-ray mirror thermal performance using matched profile cooling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Cocco, Daniele; Kelez, Nicholas; Morton, Daniel S; Srinivasan, Venkat; Stefan, Peter M

    2015-09-01

    To cover a large photon energy range, the length of an X-ray mirror is often longer than the beam footprint length for much of the applicable energy range. To limit thermal deformation of such a water-cooled X-ray mirror, a technique using side cooling with a cooled length shorter than the beam footprint length is proposed. This cooling length can be optimized by using finite-element analysis. For the Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors at LCLS-II, the thermal deformation can be reduced by a factor of up to 30, compared with full-length cooling. Furthermore, a second, alternative technique, based on a similar principle is presented: using a long, single-length cooling block on each side of the mirror and adding electric heaters between the cooling blocks and the mirror substrate. The electric heaters consist of a number of cells, located along the mirror length. The total effective length of the electric heater can then be adjusted by choosing which cells to energize, using electric power supplies. The residual height error can be minimized to 0.02 nm RMS by using optimal heater parameters (length and power density). Compared with a case without heaters, this residual height error is reduced by a factor of up to 45. The residual height error in the LCLS-II KB mirrors, due to free-electron laser beam heat load, can be reduced by a factor of ∼11 below the requirement. The proposed techniques are also effective in reducing thermal slope errors and are, therefore, applicable to white beam mirrors in synchrotron radiation beamlines. PMID:26289268

  3. X-ray imaging studies of electron cyclotron microwave-heated plasmas in the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Failor, B.H.

    1986-02-01

    An x-ray pinhole camera designed to efficiently detect photons with energies between 5 and 250 keV was built to image bremsstrahlung emission from a microwave-heated hot electron plasma. This plasma is formed at one of the thermal barrier locations in the Tandem Experiment-Upgrade at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The instrument consists of a lead aperture, an x-ray converter in the form of a sodium-activated cesium iodide scintillator, light intensifier electronics, and a recording medium that may either be high speed film or a CCD array. The nominal spatial and temporal resolutions are one part in 40 and 17 msec, respectively. The component requirements for optimum performance were determined both analytically and by computer simulation, and were verified experimentally. The details of these results are presented. The instrument has been used to measure x-ray emission from the TMX-U west end cell. Data acquired with the x-ray camera has allowed us to infer the temporal evolution of the mirror-trapped electron radial profile.

  4. Thin Mirror Shaping Technology for High-Throughput X-ray Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schattenburg, Mark

    This proposal is submitted to the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences program (ROSES-2012) in response to NASA Research Announcement NNH12ZDA001N- APRA. It is targeted to the Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Analysis (APRA) program element under the Supporting Technology category. Powerful x-ray telescope mirrors are critical components of a raft of small-to-large mission concepts under consideration by NASA. The science questions addressed by these missions have certainly never been more compelling and the need to fulfill NASA s core missions of exploring the universe and strengthening our nation s technology base has never been greater. Unfortunately, budgetary constraints are driving NASA to consider the cost/benefit and risk factors of new missions more carefully than ever. New technology for producing x-ray telescopes with increased resolution and collecting area, while holding down cost, are key to meeting these goals and sustaining a thriving high-energy astrophysics enterprise in the US. We propose to develop advanced technology which will lead to thin-shell x-ray telescope mirrors rivaling the Chandra x-ray telescope in spatial resolution but with 10-100X larger area all at significantly reduced weight, risk and cost. The proposed effort builds on previous research at MIT and complements NASA-supported research at other institutions. We are currently pursuing two thin-mirror technology development tracks which we propose to extend and accelerate with NASA support. The first research track utilizes rapidly-maturing thermal glass slumping technology which uses porous ceramic air-bearing mandrels to shape glass mirrors without touching, thus avoiding surface-induced mid-range spatial frequency ripples. A second research track seeks to remove any remaining mid- to long-range errors in mirrors by using scanning ion-beam implant to impart small, highly deterministic and very stable amounts of stress into thin glass, utilizing local

  5. Upgrade of surface profiler for x-ray mirror at SPring-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senba, Y.; Kishimoto, H.; Miura, T.; Ohashi, H.

    2014-09-01

    In beamlines at third-generation synchrotron radiation and X-ray free-electron-laser (XFEL) facilities, various mirrors are used as deflection, focusing, and collimating optics. The required specifications for the mirrors depend on their purpose. In recent years, high-precision aspheric mirrors and flat mirrors, with a figure error less than 10 nm are used as diffraction-limited focusing optics and deflection optics, respectively. The origins of the figure error are fabrication error, gravitational deformation, and clamping deformation. In the case of the bend mirror, figure error is also induced by the bender mechanism. The fabrication error is measured by a long trace profiler (LTP) [1] or by relative-angle determinable stitching interferometry (RADSI) [2] with special high frequency of 0.1-1/mm. Deformation caused by gravity, clamping, and bending should be measured under actual operating conditions because these deformations depend on the direction of the mirror surface and the direction of clamping and bending, respectively. In recent years, in-situ and atwavelength metrology techniques such as the Hartmann sensor, pencil beam, grating base and the speckle-effect-based technique, have been reported [3-6]. These methods are able to investigate the profile of the mirror under real conditions, including the effects of thermal bump; however, these techniques require X-rays and a long optical length to the detector. We attempted to upgrade the LTP at SPring-8 using autocollimators for the precise measurement of height profiles under conditions of both upward and horizontal reflection geometries. A portable Fizeau interferometer was installed for onsite measurement.

  6. Arc-Second Alignment of International X-Ray Observatory Mirror Segments in a Fixed Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Tyler, C.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Saha, Timo T.

    2010-01-01

    The optics for the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO) require alignment and integration of about fourteen thousand thin mirror segments to achieve the mission goal of 3.0 square meters of effective area at 1.25 keV with an angular resolution of five arc-seconds. These mirror segments are 0.4 mm thick, and 200 to 400 mm in size, which makes it hard to meet the strict angular resolution requirement of 5 arc-seconds for the telescope. This paper outlines the precise alignment, verification testing, and permanent bonding techniques developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). These techniques are used to overcome the challenge of transferring thin mirror segments from a temporary mount to a fixed structure with arc-second alignment and minimal figure distortion. Recent advances in technology development in addition to the automation of several processes have produced significant results. Recent advances in the mirror fixture process known as the suspension mount has allowed for a mirror to be mounted to a fixture with minimal distortion. Once on the fixture, mirror segments have been aligned to around 5 arc-seconds which is halfway to the goal of 2.5 arc-seconds per mirror segment. This paper will highlight the recent advances in alignment, testing, and permanent bonding techniques as well as the results they have produced.

  7. Characterising x-ray mirror deformations with a phase measuring deflectometry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, E.; Friedrich, P.; Proserpio, L.; Winter, A.

    2014-07-01

    MPE is developing modular x-ray mirrors for the next generation of high-energy astronomy missions. The mirror segments are based on thermally formed (a.k.a. slumped) glass sheets, with a typical thickness of 400µm. One of the major challenges is the alignment and integration of the mirror segments and the associated metrology. The optical performance of the mirror can be significantly compromised by adhesive shrinkage, gravity sag or residual stresses influenced by the properties of the mirror mounting and the integration procedure. In parallel with classic coordinate measurement techniques we utilize a deflectometry based metrology system to characterization shape errors of the mirror surfaces. A typical deflectometry setup uses a TFT display to project a sinusoidal pattern onto a specular test surface (SUT) and a camera that observes the reflected image. This reflected image contains slope information of the SUT in the form of distortions of the original displayed pattern. A phase shifting technique can be used to recover this slope information with only very few exposures and reasonable computational effort. The deflectometry system enables us to characterize bonding interfaces of slumped glass mirrors, as well as influence of temporary mounting points, handling and thermal distortions. It is also well suited to measure transient effects.

  8. Compact tunable Compton x-ray source from laser-plasma accelerator and plasma mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hai-En; Wang, Xiaoming; Shaw, Joseph M.; Li, Zhengyan; Arefiev, Alexey V.; Zhang, Xi; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Henderson, Watson; Khudik, V.; Shvets, G.; Downer, M. C.

    2015-02-01

    We present an in-depth experimental-computational study of the parameters necessary to optimize a tunable, quasi-monoenergetic, efficient, low-background Compton backscattering (CBS) x-ray source that is based on the self-aligned combination of a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA) and a plasma mirror (PM). The main findings are (1) an LPA driven in the blowout regime by 30 TW, 30 fs laser pulses produce not only a high-quality, tunable, quasi-monoenergetic electron beam, but also a high-quality, relativistically intense (a0 ˜ 1) spent drive pulse that remains stable in profile and intensity over the LPA tuning range. (2) A thin plastic film near the gas jet exit retro-reflects the spent drive pulse efficiently into oncoming electrons to produce CBS x-rays without detectable bremsstrahlung background. Meanwhile, anomalous far-field divergence of the retro-reflected light demonstrates relativistic "denting" of the PM. Exploiting these optimized LPA and PM conditions, we demonstrate quasi-monoenergetic (50% FWHM energy spread), tunable (75-200 KeV) CBS x-rays, characteristics previously achieved only on more powerful laser systems by CBS of a split-off, counter-propagating pulse. Moreover, laser-to-x-ray photon conversion efficiency (˜6 × 10-12) exceeds that of any previous LPA-based quasi-monoenergetic Compton source. Particle-in-cell simulations agree well with the measurements.

  9. Hard X-ray multilayer coated astronomical mirrors by e-beam deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, Daniele; Pareschi, Giovanni; Grisoni, Gabriele; Valsecchi, Giuseppe

    2004-10-01

    A number of X-ray astronomical missions of near future (Constellation-X, XEUS, Simbol-X) will make use of hard X-rays (10-100 keV) optics with broad-band multilayer coatings. A possible technique under development is based on an extension of the already tested replication of a coated mandrel by e-beam deposition and nickel electroforming already successfully used for the soft (0.1 - 10 keV) X-ray mirrors of the Beppo-SAX, XMM, JET-X/Swift missions. In this case graded multilayers are deposited and replicated from the mandrel replicated instead of a single layer. The roughness reduction in order to improve the coating reflectivity could be achieved by an ion assistance during the e-beam deposition. The e-beam deposition with ion assistance is a technique that allows to reach comparable (if not better) smoothness levels with respect to other methods (e.g. ion sputtering), taking the advantage of a stress mitigation between the layers and of a further improvement in reflectivity due to the low density of the e-beam evaporated Carbon, which is used as bilayer spacer. In this paper we discuss the adopted deposition technique and its implementation: we present topographic (AFM) tests and X-ray reflectivity tests performed on preliminary samples.

  10. Design and Analysis of the International X-Ray Observatory Mirror Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClelland, Ryan S.; Carnahan, Timothy M.; Robinson, David W.; Saha, Timo T.

    2009-01-01

    The Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) modules are the fundamental focusing assemblies on NASA's next major X-ray telescope mission, the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO). The preliminary design and analysis of these assemblies has been completed, addressing the major engineering challenges and leading to an understanding of the factors effecting module performance. Each of the 60 modules in the Flight Mirror Assembly (FMA) supports 200-300 densely packed 0.4 mm thick glass mirror segments in order to meet the unprecedented effective area required to achieve the scientific objectives of the mission. Detailed Finite Element Analysis (FEA), materials testing, and environmental testing have been completed to ensure the modules can be successfully launched. Resulting stress margins are positive based on detailed FEA, a large factor of safety, and a design strength determined by robust characterization of the glass properties. FEA correlates well with the results of the successful modal, vibration, and acoustic environmental tests. Deformation of the module due to on-orbit thermal conditions is also a major design driver. A preliminary thermal control system has been designed and the sensitivity of module optical performance to various thermal loads has been determined using optomechanical analysis methods developed for this unique assembly. This design and analysis furthers the goal of building a module that demonstrates the ability to meet IXO requirements, which is the current focus of the IXO FMA technology development team.

  11. Design and analysis of the International X-Ray Observatory mirror modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClelland, Ryan S.; Carnahan, Timothy M.; Robinson, David W.; Saha, Timo T.

    2010-07-01

    The Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) modules are the fundamental focusing assemblies on NASA's next major X-ray telescope mission, the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO). The preliminary design and analysis of these assemblies has been completed, addressing the major engineering challenges and leading to an understanding of the factors effecting module performance. Each of the 60 modules in the Flight Mirror Assembly (FMA) supports 200-300 densely packed 0.4 mm thick glass mirror segments in order to meet the unprecedented effective area required to achieve the scientific objectives of the mission. Detailed Finite Element Analysis (FEA), materials testing, and environmental testing have been completed to ensure the modules can be successfully launched. Resulting stress margins are positive based on detailed FEA, a large factor of safety, and a design strength determined by robust characterization of the glass properties. FEA correlates well with the results of the successful modal, vibration, and acoustic environmental tests. Deformation of the module due to on-orbit thermal conditions is also a major design driver. A preliminary thermal control system has been designed and the sensitivity of module optical performance to various thermal loads has been determined using optomechanical analysis methods developed for this unique assembly. This design and analysis furthers the goal of building a module that demonstrates the ability to meet IXO requirements, which is the current focus of the IXO FMA technology development team.

  12. Reflection grating spectrometer onboard the ESA x-ray multi-mirror (XMM) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Herder, Jan-Willem; Aarts, Henry J.; van den Berg, Marcel L.; Bixler, Jay V.; den Boggende, Antonius J.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Brinkman, Albert C.; Decker, Todd A.; Dubbeldam, Luc; Hailey, Charles J.; Jansen, Fred A.; Kahn, Steven M.; de Korte, Piet A.; Mauche, C. W.; Montesanti, Richard C.; Paerels, Frits B.; Spruijt, Hugo; Thomsen, K.; Verhoeve, P.; Zehnder, A.

    1994-09-01

    The Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) onboard the ESA satellite XMM (X-ray Multi Mirror mission) combines a high resolving power (approximately 400 at 0.5 keV) with a large effective area (approximately 200 cm(superscript 2)). The spectral range selected for RGS (5 - 35 angstroms) contains the K shell transitions of N, O, Ne, Mg, Al, Si and S as well as the important L shell transitions of FE. The resolving power allows the study of a wide variety of challenging scientific questions. Detailed temperature diagnostics are feasible as the ionization balance is a unique function of the distribution of the electron temperature. Density diagnostics are provided by studying He-like triplets where the ratio of the forbidden to intercombination lines varies with density. Other fields of interest include the determination of elemental abundances, the study of optical depth effects, velocity diagnostics by measuring Doppler shifts and the estimate of magnetic fields through the observation of Zeeman splitting. The resolving power is obtained by an array of 240 gratings placed behind the mirrors of the telescope, dispersing about half of the X-rays in two spectroscopic orders. The X-rays are recorded by an array of 9 large format CCDs. These CCDs are operated in the frame transfer mode. They are back illuminated as the quantum efficiency of front illuminated devices is poor at low energies because of their poly-silicon gate structure. To suppress dark current the CCDs are passively cooled. In order to obtain the effective area of about 200 cm(superscript 2), grating arrays and CCD cameras are placed behind two of the three XMM telescopes. A model of RGS was tested last autumn ('93) at the Panter long beam X-ray facility in Munich. The model consisted of a subset of four mirrors, eight representative gratings covering a small section of the inner mirror shells and a CCD camera containing three CCDs. The purpose of these tests was to verify the resolution and sensitivity of

  13. 3-D surface profile measurements of large x-ray synchrotron radiation mirrors using stitching interferometry.

    SciTech Connect

    Assoufid, L.; Bray, M.; Qian, J.; Shu, D.

    2002-09-12

    Stitching interferometry, using small-aperture, high-resolution, phase-measuring interferometry, has been proposed for quite some time now as a metrology technique to obtain 3-dimensional profiles of surfaces of oversized optical components and substrates. The aim of this work is to apply this method to the specific case of long grazing-incidence x-ray mirrors, such as those used in beamlines at synchrotron radiation facilities around the world. Both fabrication and characterization of these mirrors would greatly benefit from this technique because it offers the potential for providing measurements with accuracy and resolution better than those obtained using existing noncontact laser profilers, such as the long trace profiler (LTP). Measurement data can be used as feedback for computer-controlled fabrication processes to correct for possible topography errors. The data can also be used for simulating and predicting mirror performance under realistic conditions. A semiautomated stitching system was built and tested at the X-ray Optics Metrology Laboratory of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. The initial objective was to achieve a measurement sensitivity on the order of 1 {micro}rad rms. Preliminary tests on a 1 m-long x-ray mirror showed system repeatability of less than 0.6 {micro}rad rms. This value is comparable to that of a conventional LTP. The measurement accuracy was mostly affected by environmental perturbations and system calibration effects. With a fully automated and improved system (to be built in the near future), we expect to achieve measurement sensitivity on the order of 0.0 {micro}rad rms or better. In this paper, after a brief review of basic principles and general technical difficulties and challenges of the stitching technique, a detailed description of the measurement setup is given and preliminary results obtained with it are analyzed and discussed.

  14. Metrology of a mirror at the Advanced Photon Source : comparison between optical and x-ray measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Assoufid, L.

    1998-10-14

    This paper describes metrology of a vertically focusing mirror on the bending magnet beamline in sector-1 of the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. The mirror was evaluated using measurements from both an optical long trace profiler and x-rays. Slope error profiles obtained with the two methods were compared and were found to be in a good agreement. Further comparisons were made between x-ray measurements and results from the SHADOW ray-tracing code.

  15. New X-ray microprobe system for trace heavy element analysis using ultraprecise X-ray mirror optics of long working distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Yasuko; Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Uruga, Tomoya

    2010-05-01

    A new X-ray microprobe system for trace heavy element analysis using ultraprecise X-ray mirror optics of 300 mm long working distance has been developed at beamline 37XU of SPring-8. A focusing test has been performed in the X-ray energy range 20-37.7 keV. A focused beam size of 1.3 μm ( V)×1.5 μm ( H) has been achieved at an X-ray energy of 30 keV, and a total photon flux of the focused beam was about 2.7×10 10 photons/s. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) analysis of eggplant roots has been carried out using the developed microprobe. It is clearly observed in the XRF images that cadmium is highly accumulated in the endodermis, exodermis and epidermis of roots. This study demonstrates the potential of scanning microscopy for heavy elements analysis in the high-energy X-ray region.

  16. Absolute reflectivity measurements at 44.79 A of sputter deposited multilayer x-ray mirrors.

    PubMed

    Arbaoui, M; Barchewitz, R; Sella, C; Youn, K B

    1990-02-01

    Multilayer x-ray mirrors have been deposited using a dc triode sputtering system, which incorporates an accurate method of thickness monitoring based on the dependence of the deposition rate on the target current. Thickness can be controlled with an accuracy of better than 0.1 A. High efficiency W-C and Ni-C multilayer mirrors have been synthesized and tested at 1.54-A (CuKoalpha) and 44.79-A (CKalpha). Absolute reflectivity measurements at lambda = 44.79-A (CKalpha) have been carried out. In this case the incident beam is previously polarized by a premonochromator equipped with a pair of parallel-plane multilayer mirrors fixed at an angle close to the Brewster (theta ? 45 degrees ). Thus the measured reflectivities are not affected by a progressive variation of the P-component. PMID:20556133

  17. Generation of intense coherent attosecond X-ray pulses using relativistic electron mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulagin, V. V.; Kornienko, V. N.; Cherepenin, Vladimir A.; Suk, Hyyong

    2013-05-01

    We analyse the steepening of the leading edge of femtosecond petawatt pulses with the use of plasma layers and show that, at an electron density several times higher than the critical one, an asymmetric (in time domain) pulse can be produced with an amplitude of the first half-wave differing little from the maximum pulse amplitude. Using numerical simulation, we have studied the interaction of such pulses with nanometre-thick films, including the generation of relativistic electron mirrors and the reflection of a counterpropagating probe pulse from such mirrors. The resulting coherent X-ray pulses have a duration of ~120 as and a power of ~600 GW at a wavelength of ~13 nm. Our results demonstrate that the reflectivity of a relativistic electron mirror situated in the accelerating pulse field is independent of the probe pulse amplitude when it increases up to the accelerating pulse amplitude.

  18. Studies of print-through and reflectivity of x-ray mirrors using thin carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, Satoshi; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Yoshioka, Kenya; Ogi, Keiji; Kunieda, Hideyo; Matsumoto, Hironori; Miyazawa, Takuya; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Iwase, Toshihiro; Saji, Shigetaka; Tachibana, Sasagu; Maejima, Masato; Yoshikawa, Shun; Shima, Naoki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Hamada, Takayoshi; Ishida, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiromichi; Kishimoto, Kazuaki; Utsunomiya, Shin; Kamiya, Tomohiro; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    We fabricated x-ray mirrors from carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic with a tightly nested design for x-ray satellites, using a replication method for the surfaces. We studied the effects of print-through on the mirror surface as a function of curing temperature. With room temperature curing, the root-mean-square value of the surface error was 0.8 nm. The reflectivity was measured using 8-keV x-rays, and the roughness was calculated as 0.5 nm by model fitting-comparable to that of the ASTRO-H/HXT mirror. We verified the long-term stability of the mirror surface over 6 months. We fabricated Wolter type-I quadrant-shell mirrors with a diameter of 200 mm and performed x-ray measurements at BL20B2 in the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. We obtained reflection images of the mirrors using a 20-keV x-ray spot beam with a slit size of 10×1 mm in the radial and circumferential directions, respectively. The averaged half-power diameter (HPD) of the images in one mirror was 1.2 arc min in the circumferential center of the mirror and 3.0 arc min at the edge. In the spot images with a smaller slit size of 10×0.2 mm, we achieved an HPD of 0.38 arc min in the best case.

  19. Design considerations for adjustable-curvature, high-power, X-ray mirrors based on elastic bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howells, Malcolm R.; Lunt, David

    1993-08-01

    The use of elastic bending to form the shapes of high-power X-ray mirrors for synchrotron radiation beamlines is considered. An approach in which the bending mechanism and the mirror are cut from the same monolithic block by electric-discharge-machining techniques is especially advocated. A discussion of the theory and practical design philosophies is given that includes circular and elliptical cylinder mirrors. The influence of gravity on the mirror shape is studied with emphasis on the optimum positions for the mirror supports that, for a uniform mirror, turn out to be at a spacing equal to the mirror length divided by root three.

  20. The X-ray spectroscopy of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R.

    1985-01-01

    The scientific goals of X-ray spectroscopy of active galactic nuclei are discussed. The underlying energy source, the regions responsible for the optical emission lines, the different types of active galaxies, and cosmology are considered. The requirements for an X-ray mission of broad band width, large collecting area, modest spatial resolution and good spectral resolution are outlined. It is concluded that the ESA XMM mission meets these requirements.

  1. Testing of the Mirrors for the Constellation-X Spectroscopy X-ray Telescope with a Refractive Null

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehan, John; Hadimichael, T.; Skocik, C.

    2007-01-01

    We present an introduction to the use of a refractive null lens for testing grazing incidence x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission. The singular role of mirror mounting in glass shell mirror metrology is also touched upon. We compare results achieved to date with mission requirements along with some of the unique properties of the null lens. Additionally, uses beyond mirror metrology are briefly discussed.

  2. Development of mirrors made of chemically tempered glass foils for future X-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmaso, Bianca; Civitani, Marta; Brizzolari, Claudia; Basso, Stefano; Ghigo, Mauro; Pareschi, Giovanni; Spiga, Daniele; Proserpio, Laura; Suppiger, Yves

    2015-10-01

    Thin slumped glass foils are considered good candidates for the realization of future X-ray telescopes with large effective area and high spatial resolution. However, the hot slumping process affects the glass strength, and this can be an issue during the launch of the satellite because of the high kinematical and static loads occurring during that phase. In the present work we have investigated the possible use of Gorilla® glass (produced by Corning®), a chemical tempered glass that, thanks to its strength characteristics, would be ideal. The un-tempered glass foils were curved by means of an innovative hot slumping technique and subsequently chemically tempered. In this paper we show that the chemical tempering process applied to Gorilla® glass foils does not affect the surface micro-roughness of the mirrors. On the other end, the stress introduced by the tempering process causes a reduction in the amplitude of the longitudinal profile errors with a lateral size close to the mirror length. The effect of the overall shape changes in the final resolution performance of the glass mirrors was studied by simulating the glass foils integration with our innovative approach based on glass reinforcing ribs. The preliminary tests performed so far suggest that this approach has the potential to be applied to the X-ray telescopes of the next generation.

  3. Nanofocusing of hard x-rays with profile coated elliptical mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macrander, Albert

    2007-03-01

    The ability to focus hard x-rays by means of mirrors has progressed recently to the achievement of focus sizes well below 100 nm.[1] At the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory elliptical mirrors have been made by means of profile coating. [2] In this technology a highly precise elliptically shaped surface is achieved by magnetron sputtering of Au onto a flat silicon substrate. Results will be presented to detail the rapid progress being made in this technology. Also, results for wave optical simulations will be summarized. [3]. X-ray mirrors are achromatic focusing optics, and a nanofocused beam is expected to have many uses for experiments in condensed matter physics. [1] W. Liu, G. Ice, J. Tischler, A. Khounsary, C. Liu, L. Assoufid, A. Macrander, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113701(2005). [2] C. Liu, L. Assoufid, R. Conley, A. Macrander, G. Ice, J. Tischler, Opt. Eng. 42, 3622 (2003). [3] C. Kewish, L. Assoufid, A. Macrander, j. Qian, Appl. Opt. , in press .

  4. Surface Roughness of Stainless Steel Bender Mirrors for FocusingSoft X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Irick, Steve C.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Salmassi,Farhad; Warwick, Tony; Metz, James P.; Tonnessen, Thomas W.

    2005-10-11

    We have used polished stainless steel as a mirror substrate to provide focusing of soft x-rays in grazing incidence reflection. The substrate is bent to an elliptical shape with large curvature and high stresses in the substrate require a strong elastic material. Conventional material choices of silicon or of glass will not withstand the stress required. The use of steel allows the substrates to be polished and installed flat, using screws in tapped holes. The ultra-high-vacuum bender mechanism is motorized and computer controlled. These mirrors are used to deliver focused beams of soft x-rays onto the surface of a sample for experiments at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). They provide an illumination field that can be as small as the mirror demagnification allows, for localized study, and can be enlarged, under computer control,for survey measurements over areas of the surface up to several millimeters. The critical issue of the quality of the steel surface, polished and coated with gold, which limits the minimum achievable focused spot size is discussed in detail. Comparison is made to a polished, gold coated, electroless nickel surface, which provides a smoother finish. Surface measurements are presented as power spectral densities, as a function of spatial frequency. The surface height distributions measured with an interferometric microscope, and complemented by atomic force microscope measurements, are used to compute power spectral densities and then to evaluate the surface roughness. The effects of roughness in reducing the specular reflectivity are verified by soft x-ray measurements.

  5. Grazing Optical Polishing: a Fast and Efficient Technique for Making Lightweight Sub- Arc-Second X-ray Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, William

    Future x-ray telescopes, including the proposed WFXT, Generation-X, and SMART-X missions, measured in terms of angular resolution, energy resolution, and photon collection areas, must be significantly more powerful than the four currently in operation: Chandra, XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and NuSTAR. Given constraints imposed by existing launch vehicles and budgets likely to be austere, future missions can only be realized if a new technique is developed that can fabricate high angular resolution (sub-arc-second) and lightweight x-ray mirrors (areal density less than 1 kg/m2) at low cost (less than $105 per square meter of mirror area). Existing x-ray mirror fabrication technologies can be broadly classified into two categories: polishing and replication. Polishing is expensive and slow, producing high angular resolution mirrors that are heavy, like those in the Chandra telescope. Replication is inexpensive and fast, producing mirrors that are lightweight but have low angular resolution, like those in the Suzaku telescopes. The future of x-ray astronomy calls for a mirror fabrication process that can simultaneously achieve high angular resolution, light weight, and low cost. We propose a new mirror fabrication process, called grazing optical polishing (GOP), designed to polish grazing incidence optics using shear or grazing force. It is based on polishing and therefore can achieve sub-arc-second angular resolution. It takes advantage of the nearly conical nature of x-ray mirrors to achieve a high polishing rate, minimizing fabrication cost and time. Combined with the use of single crystal silicon as the mirror material, this process can achieve unprecedentedly lightweight and accurate mirrors. (See Table 4 for a succinct description of the entire fabrication process.) At the end of this three-year effort, we expect to be able to make high resolution and lightweight x-ray mirrors that, when properly integrated into mirror modules, are capable of forming sub-arc-second x-ray

  6. DABAM: an open-source database of X-ray mirrors metrology.

    PubMed

    Sanchez Del Rio, Manuel; Bianchi, Davide; Cocco, Daniele; Glass, Mark; Idir, Mourad; Metz, Jim; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Rebuffi, Luca; Reininger, Ruben; Shi, Xianbo; Siewert, Frank; Spielmann-Jaeggi, Sibylle; Takacs, Peter; Tomasset, Muriel; Tonnessen, Tom; Vivo, Amparo; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2016-05-01

    An open-source database containing metrology data for X-ray mirrors is presented. It makes available metrology data (mirror heights and slopes profiles) that can be used with simulation tools for calculating the effects of optical surface errors in the performances of an optical instrument, such as a synchrotron beamline. A typical case is the degradation of the intensity profile at the focal position in a beamline due to mirror surface errors. This database for metrology (DABAM) aims to provide to the users of simulation tools the data of real mirrors. The data included in the database are described in this paper, with details of how the mirror parameters are stored. An accompanying software is provided to allow simple access and processing of these data, calculate the most usual statistical parameters, and also include the option of creating input files for most used simulation codes. Some optics simulations are presented and discussed to illustrate the real use of the profiles from the database. PMID:27140145

  7. DABAM: An open-source database of X-ray mirrors metrology

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sanchez del Rio, Manuel; Bianchi, Davide; Cocco, Daniele; Glass, Mark; Idir, Mourad; Metz, Jim; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Rebuffi, Luca; Reininger, Ruben; Shi, Xianbo; et al

    2016-01-01

    An open-source database containing metrology data for X-ray mirrors is presented. It makes available metrology data (mirror heights and slopes profiles) that can be used with simulation tools for calculating the effects of optical surface errors in the performances of an optical instrument, such as a synchrotron beamline. A typical case is the degradation of the intensity profile at the focal position in a beamline due to mirror surface errors. This database for metrology (DABAM) aims to provide to the users of simulation tools the data of real mirrors. The data included in the database are described in this paper,more » with details of how the mirror parameters are stored. An accompanying software is provided to allow simple access and processing of these data, calculate the most usual statistical parameters, and also include the option of creating input files for most used simulation codes. In conclusion, some optics simulations are presented and discussed to illustrate the real use of the profiles from the database.« less

  8. DABAM: an open-source database of X-ray mirrors metrology

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez del Rio, Manuel; Bianchi, Davide; Cocco, Daniele; Glass, Mark; Idir, Mourad; Metz, Jim; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Rebuffi, Luca; Reininger, Ruben; Shi, Xianbo; Siewert, Frank; Spielmann-Jaeggi, Sibylle; Takacs, Peter; Tomasset, Muriel; Tonnessen, Tom; Vivo, Amparo; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2016-01-01

    An open-source database containing metrology data for X-ray mirrors is presented. It makes available metrology data (mirror heights and slopes profiles) that can be used with simulation tools for calculating the effects of optical surface errors in the performances of an optical instrument, such as a synchrotron beamline. A typical case is the degradation of the intensity profile at the focal position in a beamline due to mirror surface errors. This database for metrology (DABAM) aims to provide to the users of simulation tools the data of real mirrors. The data included in the database are described in this paper, with details of how the mirror parameters are stored. An accompanying software is provided to allow simple access and processing of these data, calculate the most usual statistical parameters, and also include the option of creating input files for most used simulation codes. Some optics simulations are presented and discussed to illustrate the real use of the profiles from the database. PMID:27140145

  9. Vibration properties of mirror foils for hard x-ray telescope onboard satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Takahiro; Kosaka, Tatsuro; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Ogi, Keiji; Ishida, Manabu; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Miyazawa, Takuya; Yamane, Nobuyuki; Kato, Hiroyoshi; Kunieda, Hideyo

    2012-09-01

    ASTRO-H is a next version of Japanese X=ray astronomy satellite for lunch in 2014. The hard X-rray telescope (HXT) on board the satellite has a cylindrical mirror housing which contains reflection circular mirror foils. In the present paper, vibration properties of the mirror foils installed in the HXT on-board a satellite were investigated. Vibration tests and FEM analysis of mirror foils installed in the part model of HXT were conducted. From the experimental results, it appeared that the mirror had resonant frequenxcies at 64, 73 and 118Hz. The modal shapes of 64 and 73Hz peaks shhoed that the maximum amplitude appeared at edges of the foil. On the other hand, vibration amplitude became maximum at the center in the modal shape of 118 Hz peak. In addition, it appeared that the first peak of the edge mode decreased with increasing acceleration while the second peak had weak dependency on acceleration. These vibration behaviours are thought to be governed degree of constraint of the connections between the foil and alignment bars.

  10. DABAM: An open-source database of X-ray mirrors metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez del Rio, Manuel; Bianchi, Davide; Cocco, Daniele; Glass, Mark; Idir, Mourad; Metz, Jim; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Rebuffi, Luca; Reininger, Ruben; Shi, Xianbo; Siewert, Frank; Spielmann-Jaeggi, Sibylle; Takacs, Peter; Tomasset, Muriel; Tonnessen, Tom; Vivo, Amparo; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2016-01-01

    An open-source database containing metrology data for X-ray mirrors is presented. It makes available metrology data (mirror heights and slopes profiles) that can be used with simulation tools for calculating the effects of optical surface errors in the performances of an optical instrument, such as a synchrotron beamline. A typical case is the degradation of the intensity profile at the focal position in a beamline due to mirror surface errors. This database for metrology (DABAM) aims to provide to the users of simulation tools the data of real mirrors. The data included in the database are described in this paper, with details of how the mirror parameters are stored. An accompanying software is provided to allow simple access and processing of these data, calculate the most usual statistical parameters, and also include the option of creating input files for most used simulation codes. In conclusion, some optics simulations are presented and discussed to illustrate the real use of the profiles from the database.

  11. Renewed X-ray activity in GX 339-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. M.; Heindl, W. A.; Swank, J. H.; Wilms, J.; Pottschmidt, K.

    2004-02-01

    Recent monitoring of GX 339-4 in the 2-30 keV X-ray band by the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) shows that the newly reported activity in the optical and radio (ATEL #230) is accompanied by faint X-ray emission. On February 1 at 04:00 UT, the X-ray count rate was 1 count/second/Proportional Counter Unit (PCU). On February 9 at 05:40 UT, the rate was about 6 times higher, yielding sufficient statistics for a spectral fit, which shows the source to be in the hard state (photon power law index 1.55).

  12. Design Study of an X-ray Crystal Spectrometer for the HANBIT Mirror Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. G.; Hwang, S. M.; Bitter, M. L.

    1997-11-01

    X-ray crystal spectroscopy is expected to play a major role for the diagnostics of the reactor-like plasmas produced in future large tokamaks, such as KSTAR and ITER. However, it is also desirable to extend the observable spectral range to longer wavelengths (7-15 dotA), which is of interest for the diagnostics of plasmas with much lower electron densities (10^11-10^12 cm-3) and electron temperatures (100 - 200 eV) in other magnetic-confinement experiments, such as the HANBIT mirror machine. The construction of crystal spectrometers for this wavelength range and these plasma conditions is challenging because of the low X-ray emissivity and the fact that the low-energy X-rays are strongly attenuated by even very thin foils or windows. New types of detectors other than the presently used multi-wire proportional counters are therefore needed to obtain a high detection efficiency. In this paper, we present a design study for a vacuum spectrometer with a CCD array detector and detailed estimates of the instrument performance for the observation of spectra from O, Ne and Al ions.

  13. A Stainless-Steel Mandrel for Slumping Glass X-Ray Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODell, Stephen L.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Jones, William D.; Kester, Thomas J.; Griffith, Charles W.; Zhang, William W.; Saha, Timo T.; Chan, Kai-Wing

    2008-01-01

    We have fabricated a precision full -cylinder stainless-steel mandrel at Marshall Space Flight Center. The mandrel is figured for a 30-cm-diameter primary (paraboloid) mirror of an 840-cm focal-lengthWolter-1 telescope. We have developed this mandrel for experiments in slumping.thermal forming at about 600 C-of glass mirror segments at Goddard Space Flight Center, in support of NASA fs participation in the International X -ray Observatory (IXO). Precision turning of stainless ]steel mandrels may offer a lowcost alternative to conventional figuring of fused -silica or other glassy forming mandrels. We report on the fabrication, metrology, and performance of this first mandrel; then we discuss plans and goals for stainless-steel mandrel technology.

  14. A Stainless-Steel Mandrel for Slumping Glass X-ray Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail V.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Jones, William D.; Kester, Thomas J.; Griffith, Charles W.; Zhang, William W.; Saha, Timo T.; Chan, Kai-Wing

    2009-01-01

    We have fabricated a precision full-cylinder stainless-steel mandrel at Marshall Space Flight Center. The mandrel is figured for a 30-cm diameter primary (paraboloid) mirror of an 840-cm focal-length Wolter-1 telescope. We have developed this mandrel for experiments in slumping.thermal forming at about 600 C.of glass mirror segments at Goddard Space Flight Center, in support of NASA's participation in the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). Precision turning of stainless-steel mandrels may offer a low-cost alternative to conventional figuring of fused-silica or other glassy forming mandrels. We report on the fabrication, metrology, and performance of this first mandrel; then we discuss plans and goals for stainless-steel mandrel technology.

  15. Design and analysis of a fast, two-mirror soft-x-ray microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, D. L.; Wang, C.; Jiang, W.; Jin, L.; Hoover, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    During the past several years, a number of investigators have addressed the design, analysis, fabrication, and testing of spherical Schwarzschild microscopes for soft-x-ray applications using multilayer coatings. Some of these systems have demonstrated diffraction limited resolution for small numerical apertures. Rigorously aplanatic, two-aspherical mirror Head microscopes can provide near diffraction limited resolution for very large numerical apertures. The relationships between the numerical aperture, mirror radii and diameters, magnifications, and total system length for Schwarzschild microscope configurations are summarized. Also, an analysis of the characteristics of the Head-Schwarzschild surfaces will be reported. The numerical surface data predicted by the Head equations were fit by a variety of functions and analyzed by conventional optical design codes. Efforts have been made to determine whether current optical substrate and multilayer coating technologies will permit construction of a very fast Head microscope which can provide resolution approaching that of the wavelength of the incident radiation.

  16. High-aspect-ratio line focus for an x-ray laser by a deformable mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, G.; Jitsuno, T.; Kato, Y.; Nakatsuka, M.

    1997-02-01

    A high-aspect-ratio line focus is required on a plane target in x-ray laser experiments for obtaining a high gain-length product. Inherent wave-front aberrations in line-focusing optics, which consist of a cylindrical lens and a spherical lens, are discussed with respect to beam diameter. The nonuniformity of the linewidth that is due to the aberrations is also calculated by the ABCD matrix method. A deformable mirror of a continuous plate type with a diameter of 185 mm provides an adequate wave-front distribution for compensating for the wave-front aberration. The wave-front control by the deformable mirror realizes a fine linewidth of 25 {mu}m and 18.2 mm long, corresponding to the aspect ratio of 728. The linewidth is three times the diffraction limit. The intensity distribution along the line focus is also improved. {copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America

  17. High-aspect-ratio line focus for an x-ray laser by a deformable mirror.

    PubMed

    Yoon, G Y; Jitsuno, T; Kato, Y; Nakatsuka, M

    1997-02-01

    A high-aspect-ratio line focus is required on a plane target in x-ray laser experiments for obtaining a high gain-length product. Inherent wave-front aberrations in line-focusing optics, which consist of a cylindrical lens and a spherical lens, are discussed with respect to beam diameter. The nonuniformity of the linewidth that is due to the aberrations is also calculated by the ABCD matrix method. A deformable mirror of a continuous plate type with a diameter of 185 mm provides an adequate wave-front distribution for compensating for the wave-front aberration. The wave-front control by the deformable mirror realizes a fine linewidth of 25 microm and 18.2 mm long, corresponding to the aspect ratio of 728. The linewidth is three times the diffraction limit. The intensity distribution along the line focus is also improved. PMID:18250748

  18. What obscures low-X-ray-scattering active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hönig, S. F.; Gandhi, P.; Asmus, D.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Antonucci, R.; Ueda, Y.; Ichikawa, K.

    2014-02-01

    X-ray surveys have revealed a new class of active galactic nuclei (AGN) with a very low observed fraction of scattered soft X-rays, fscat <0.5 per cent. Based on X-ray modelling, these `X-ray new-type', or low observed X-ray-scattering (hereafter, `low-scattering') sources have been interpreted as deeply buried AGN with a high covering factor of gas. In this paper, we address the questions whether the host galaxies of low-scattering AGN may contribute to the observed X-ray properties, and whether we can find any direct evidence for high covering factors from the infrared (IR) emission. We find that X-ray low-scattering AGN are preferentially hosted by highly inclined galaxies or merger systems as compared to other Seyfert galaxies, increasing the likelihood that the line of sight towards the AGN intersects with high columns of host-galactic gas and dust. Moreover, while a detailed analysis of the IR emission of low-scattering AGN ESO 103-G35 remains inconclusive, we do not find any indication of systematically higher dust covering factors in a sample of low-scattering AGN based on their IR emission. For ESO 103-G35, we constrained the temperature, mass and location of the IR emitting dust which is consistent with expectations for the dusty torus. However, a deep silicate absorption feature probably from much cooler dust suggests an additional screen absorber on larger scales within the host galaxy. Taking these findings together, we propose that the low fscat observed in low-scattering AGN is not necessarily the result of circumnuclear dust but could originate from interference of host-galactic gas with a column density of the order of 1022 cm-2 with the line of sight. We discuss implications of this hypothesis for X-ray models, high-ionization emission lines and observed star formation activity in these objects.

  19. Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Soufli, R; Baker, S L; Robinson, J C; Gullikson, E M; McCarville, T J; Pivovaroff, M J; Stefan, P; Hau-Riege, S P; Bionta, R

    2009-04-23

    The development and properties of reflective coatings for the x-ray offset mirror systems of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free-electron laser (FEL) are discussed in this manuscript. The uniquely high instantaneous dose of the LCLS FEL beam translates to strict limits in terms of materials choice, thus leading to an x-ray mirror design consisting of a reflective coating deposited on a silicon substrate. Coherent wavefront preservation requirements for these mirrors result in stringent surface figure and finish specifications. DC-magnetron sputtered B{sub 4}C and SiC thin film coatings with optimized stress, roughness and figure properties for the LCLS x-ray mirrors are presented. The evolution of microstructure, morphology, and stress of these thin films versus deposition conditions is discussed. Experimental results on the performance of these coatings with respect to FEL damage are also presented.

  20. Liquid metal actuators: correctable mounting and assembly of thin-shell x-ray telescope mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruccoleri, Alexander R.; Klingensmith, Martin; Chalifoux, Brandon; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2015-09-01

    An ideal bonding agent for thin-shell x-ray mirrors could be quickly applied to joints and set with deterministic and stable properties. Unfortunately, mirror assembly methods have typically utilized various epoxy formulations which are messy, slow to apply and cure, and far from deterministic or stable. Problems include shrinkage, creep and high thermal and humidity sensitivity. Once the bond is set errors are frozen in and cannot be corrected. We are developing a new method for bonding thin-foil mirrors that has the potential to solve these problems. Our process to bond mirrors to housing reference points is achieved via small beads of a low-melting-point bonding agent (such as solder or thermoset). The mirror is bonded to small contact surface points under real-time metrology. If the position of the mirror needs to be adjusted after bonding, a small force is applied normal or parallel to the contact surface and a pulsed fiber laser is used to melt an ultrathin layer of the solder for a very short time. The joint is then compressed, stretched or sheared while molten before refreezing in a new position, enabling repeatable and stable mirror position adjustments along the direction of the force in nm-level steps with minimal heat input. We present results from our prototype apparatus demonstrating proof of principle. The initial experiment includes developing a technique to bond D263 glass to Kovar, designing and building a one-dimensional stage to precisely apply force, and using an infrared laser pulse to heat the joint while measuring position and force.

  1. Compact tunable Compton x-ray source from laser-plasma accelerator and plasma mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Hai-En; Wang, Xiaoming; Shaw, Joseph M.; Li, Zhengyan; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Henderson, Watson; Downer, M. C.; Arefiev, Alexey V.; Zhang, Xi; Khudik, V.; Shvets, G.

    2015-02-15

    We present an in-depth experimental-computational study of the parameters necessary to optimize a tunable, quasi-monoenergetic, efficient, low-background Compton backscattering (CBS) x-ray source that is based on the self-aligned combination of a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA) and a plasma mirror (PM). The main findings are (1) an LPA driven in the blowout regime by 30 TW, 30 fs laser pulses produce not only a high-quality, tunable, quasi-monoenergetic electron beam, but also a high-quality, relativistically intense (a{sub 0} ∼ 1) spent drive pulse that remains stable in profile and intensity over the LPA tuning range. (2) A thin plastic film near the gas jet exit retro-reflects the spent drive pulse efficiently into oncoming electrons to produce CBS x-rays without detectable bremsstrahlung background. Meanwhile, anomalous far-field divergence of the retro-reflected light demonstrates relativistic “denting” of the PM. Exploiting these optimized LPA and PM conditions, we demonstrate quasi-monoenergetic (50% FWHM energy spread), tunable (75–200 KeV) CBS x-rays, characteristics previously achieved only on more powerful laser systems by CBS of a split-off, counter-propagating pulse. Moreover, laser-to-x-ray photon conversion efficiency (∼6 × 10{sup −12}) exceeds that of any previous LPA-based quasi-monoenergetic Compton source. Particle-in-cell simulations agree well with the measurements.

  2. Basic studies on x-ray fluorescence analysis for active x-ray spectrometer on SELENE-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusano, Hiroki; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Kodama, Takuro; Oyama, Yuki; Tanaka, Reiko; Amano, Yoshiharu; Kim, Kyeong J.; Matias Lopes, Josè A.

    2013-09-01

    An active X-ray spectrometer (AXS) is now being developed as a payload candidate for the rover on SELENE-2, the next Japanese lunar exploration mission. The AXS will determine the chemical compositions of lunar rocks and regolith around the landing site. The surface of lunar rock samples will be ground using a rock abrasion tool. Thus, fundamental studies on the X-ray fluorescence analysis for lunar rocks and regolith are required to design and develop the AXS. In this study, we have investigated the X-ray fluorescence analysis in order to evaluate the effects of surface roughness of samples and the angle of incident and emergent X-rays. It was found that the fluorescent X-ray yield for low energy X-rays, i.e. the light elements, decreases at rough surface samples. This effect of surface roughness becomes small for smooth surface samples. It was also found that the fluorescent X-ray yield depends on the incident angle, which is attributed to the fact that the X-ray fluorescence occurs closer to the sample surface at larger incident angles. Since the emergent X-rays are affected by the detection geometry and surface roughness, the incident angle effect also depends on the above conditions.

  3. Soft X-ray Mirrors for the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Pivovaroff, M J; Bionta, R M; Mccarville, T J; Soufli, R; Stefan, P M

    2007-08-13

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a 0.15-1.5 nm wavelength free-electron laser (FEL) being constructed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) by a multi-institution consortium, including Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). One of LLNL's responsibilities involves the design and construction of two grazing-incidence mirror systems whose primary intent is to reduce radiation levels in the experimental halls by separating the FEL beam from unwanted high-energy photons. This paper discusses one of these systems, the Soft X-ray Offset Mirror System (SOMS) that will operate in the wavelength range 0.62-1.5 nm (0.827-2.00 keV). The unusual properties of the FEL beam translate to stringent specifications in terms of stability, material choice and mirror properties. It also precludes using approaches previously developed for synchrotron light sources. This situation has led us to a unique mirror design, consisting of a reflective boron carbide layer deposited on a silicon substrate. In the first part of this paper, we discuss the basic system requirements for the SOMS and motivate the need for these novel reflective elements. In the second part of this paper, we discuss the development work we have performed, including simulation and experimental verification of the boron carbide coating properties, and the expected performance of the final system.

  4. Wave-optical simulation of hard-x-ray nanofocusing by precisely figured elliptical mirrors.

    PubMed

    Kewish, Cameron M; Assoufid, Lahsen; Macrander, Albert T; Qian, Jun

    2007-04-10

    Computer simulations of nanofocusing by elliptical mirrors are presented wherein the diffraction and propagation of coherent hard x rays are predicted using wave-optical calculations. Surface height data acquired via microstitching interferometry were used to calculate the complex pupil function of a mirror, taking into account the Fresnel reflectivity and treating the surface topography as an aberration to a perfect elliptical mirror. The reflected wave-field amplitude and phase downstream of the mirror were obtained by numerically evaluating the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction integral. Simulated intensity profiles and contours (isophotes) around the focal plane are presented for coherent illumination by a 15 keV point source, which indicate nearly diffraction-limited focusing at the 40 nm level. The effect of high spatial frequency microroughness on nanofocusing was investigated by low-pass filtering the Fourier spectrum of the residual height profile. Simulations using the filtered metrology data confirmed that roughness length scales shorter than 0.1 mm have a minor effect on the focal spot size and intensity. PMID:17384715

  5. Wave-optical simulation of hard-x-ray nanofocusing by precisely figured elliptical mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Kewish, Cameron M.; Assoufid, Lahsen; Macrander, Albert T.; Qian Jun

    2007-04-10

    Computer simulations of nanofocusing by elliptical mirrors are presented wherein the diffraction and propagation of coherent hard x rays are predicted using wave-optical calculations. Surface height data acquired via microstitching interferometry were used to calculate the complex pupil function of a mirror, taking into account the Fresnel reflectivity and treating the surface topography as an aberration to a perfect elliptical mirror. The reflected wave-field amplitude and phase downstream of the mirror were obtained by numerically evaluating the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction integral. Simulated intensity profiles and contours (isophotes) around the focal plane are presented for coherent illumination by a15 keV point source, which indicate nearly diffraction-limited focusing at the40 nm level. The effect of high spatial frequency microroughness on nanofocusing was investigated by low-pass filtering the Fourier spectrum of the residual height profile. Simulations using the filtered metrology data confirmed that roughness length scales shorter than0.1 mm have a minor effect on the focal spot size and intensity.

  6. X-Ray Reprocessing in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2004-01-01

    This is the final report for research entitled "X-ray reprocessing in active galactic nuclei," into X-ray absorption and emission in various classes of active galaxy via X-ray spectral signatures. The fundamental goal of the research was to use these signatures as probes of the central engine structure and circumnuclear environment of active galactic nuclei. The most important accomplishment supported by this grant involved the detailed analysis and interpretation of the XMM data for the bright Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG-6-30-15. This work was performed by Drs. Christopher Reynolds and Mitchell Begelman in collaboration with Dr. Jorn Wilms (University of Tubingen, Germany; PI of the XMM observation) and other European scientists. With XMM we obtained medium resolution X-ray spectra of unprecedented quality for this Seyfert galaxy. Modeling the X-ray spectrum within the framework of accretion disk reflection models produced the first evidence for energy extraction from the spin of a black hole. Specifically, we found that the extreme gravitational redshifts required to explain the X-ray spectrum suggests that the bulk of the energy dissipation is concentrated very close to the black hole, in contrast with the expectations of any pure accretion disk model. In a second paper we addressed the low- energy spectral complexity and used RXTE specta to pin down the high-energy spectral index, thus firming up our initial interpretation. Additionally, we carried out detailed spectral and variability analyses of a number of Seyfert and radio galaxies (e.g., NGC 5548 and 3C 111) and developed general techniques that will be useful in performing X-ray reverberation mapping of accretion disks in AGN, once adequate data becomes available. A list of papers supported by this research is included.

  7. Optical constants of materials in the EUV/soft x-ray region for multilayer mirror applications

    SciTech Connect

    Soufli, R

    1997-12-01

    The response of a given material to an incident electromagnetic wave is described by the energy dependent complex index of refraction n = 1 {minus} {delta} + i{beta}. In the extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/soft x-ray spectral region, the need for accurate determination of n is driven by activity in areas such as synchrotron based research, EUV/x-ray lithography, x-ray astronomy and plasma applications. Knowledge of the refractive index is essential for the design of the optical components of instruments used in experiments and applications. Moreover, measured values of n may be used to evaluate solid state models for the optical behavior of materials. The refractive index n of Si, Mo and Be is investigated in the EUV/soft x-ray region. In the case of Si, angle dependent reflectance measurements are performed in the energy range 50--180 eV. The optical constants {delta}, {beta} are both determined by fitting to the Fresnel equations. The results of this method are compared to the values in the 1993 atomic tables. Photoabsorption measurements for the optical constants of Mo are performed on C/Mo/C foils, in the energy range 60--930 eV. Photoabsorption measurements on Be thin films supported on silicon nitride membranes are performed, and the results are applied in the determination of the absorption coefficient of Be in the energy region 111.5--250 eV. The new results for Si and Mo are applied to the calculation of normal incidence reflectivities of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer mirrors. These calculations show the importance of accurate knowledge of {delta} and {beta} in the prediction and modeling of the performance of multilayer optics.

  8. Mathematical Formalism for Designing Wide-Field X-Ray Telescopes: Mirror Nodal Positions and Detector Tilts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; O'Dell, S. L.; Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    We provide a mathematical formalism for optimizing the mirror nodal positions along the optical axis and the tilt of a commonly employed detector configuration at the focus of a x-ray telescope consisting of nested mirror shells with known mirror surface prescriptions. We adopt the spatial resolution averaged over the field-of-view as the figure of merit M. A more complete description appears in our paper in these proceedings.

  9. Progress towards sub-micron hard x-ray imaging using elliptically bent mirrors and its applications

    SciTech Connect

    MacDowell, A.A.; Lamble, G.M.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.; Chang, C.H.; Patel, J.R. |

    1998-06-01

    The authors have developed an x-ray micro-probe facility utilizing mirror bending techniques that allow white light x-rays (4--12keV) from the Advanced light Source Synchrotron to be focused down to spot sizes of micron spatial dimensions. They have installed a 4 crystal monochromator prior to the micro-focusing mirrors. The monochromator is designed such that it can move out of the way of the input beam, and allows the same micron sized sample to be illuminated with either white or monochromatic radiation. Illumination of the sample with white light allows for elemental mapping and Laue x-ray diffraction, while illumination of the sample with monochromatic light allows for elemental mapping (with reduced background), micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro-diffraction. The performance of the system will be described as will some of the initial experiments that cover the various disciplines of Earth, Material and Life Sciences.

  10. Method of and means for testing a glancing-incidence mirror system of an X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dailey, C. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus was designed for measuring the resolution and efficiency of a glancing-incidence mirror system having an even number of coaxial and confocal reflecting surfaces for use in an X-ray telescope. A collimated beam of X-rays is generated by an X-ray laser and directed along the axis of the system so that the beam is incident on the reflecting surfaces and illuminates a predetermined area. An X-ray detector, such as a photographic film, is located at the common focus of the surfaces so that the image produced by the X-rays may be compared with a test pattern interposed between the laser and the system.

  11. Large aperture Fizeau interferometer commissioning and preliminary measurements of a long x-ray mirror at European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannoni, M.; Freijo Martín, I.

    2016-05-01

    The European XFEL (X-ray Free Electron Laser) is a large facility under construction in Hamburg, Germany. It will provide a transversally fully coherent x-ray radiation with outstanding characteristics: high repetition rate (up to 2700 pulses with a 0.6 ms long pulse train at 10 Hz), short wavelength (down to 0.05 nm), short pulse (in the femtoseconds scale), and high average brilliance (1.6 ṡ 1025 (photons s-1 mm-2 mrad-2)/0.1% bandwidth). The beam has very high pulse energy; therefore, it has to be spread out on a relatively long mirror (about 1 m). Due to the very short wavelength, the mirrors need to have a high quality surface on their entire length, and this is considered very challenging even with the most advanced polishing methods. In order to measure the mirrors and to characterize their interaction with the mechanical mount, we equipped a metrology laboratory with a large aperture Fizeau interferometer. The system is a classical 100 mm diameter commercial Fizeau, with an additional expander providing a 300 mm diameter beam. Despite the commercial nature of the system, special care has been taken in the polishing of the reference flats and in the expander quality. We report the first commissioning of the instrument, its calibration, and performance characterization, together with some preliminary results with the measurement of a 950 mm silicon substrate. The intended application is to characterize the final XFEL mirrors with nanometer accuracy.

  12. Active membranes studied by X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Giahi, A; El Alaoui Faris, M; Bassereau, P; Salditt, T

    2007-08-01

    In view of recent theories of "active" membranes, we have studied multilamellar phospholipid membrane stacks with reconstituted transmembrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (BR) under different illumination conditions by X-ray scattering. The light-active protein is considered as an active constituent which drives the system out of equilibrium and is predicted to change the collective fluctuation properties of the membranes. Using X-ray reflectivity, X-ray non-specular (diffuse) scattering, and grazing incidence scattering, we find no detectable change in the scattering curves when changing the illumination condition. In particular the intermembrane spacing d remains constant, after eliminating hydration-related artifacts by design of a suitable sample environment. The absence of any observable non-equilibrium effects in the experimental window is discussed in view of the relevant parameters and recent theories. PMID:17712523

  13. Characteristics of a cylindrical collector mirror for laser-produced xenon plasma soft X-rays and improvement of mirror lifetime by buffer gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Tomoaki; Mochizuki, Takayasu; Miyamoto, Shuji; Masuda, Kazuya; Amano, Sho; Kanda, Kazuhiro

    2012-12-01

    The focusing characteristics of a ruthenium-coated cylindrical mirror were investigated on the basis of its ability to collect and focus broadband 5-17-nm soft X-rays emitted from a laser-produced plasma. Based on the plasmas spectral intensity distribution and the reflectivity function of the mirror, we defined the optimum position of the integrated cylindrical mirror at which the X-ray energy flux transported and focused through the mirror was maximum. A minimum spot diameter of 22 mm at a distance of approximately 200 mm from a soft X-ray source was confirmed. The maximum intensity of the collected soft X-rays was 1.3 mJ/cm2 at the center of the irradiation zone. Thus, the irradiation intensity was improved by approximately 27 times when compared to that of 47 μJ/cm2 without the mirror. The debris sputtering rate on the reflection surface of the mirror can be reduced to 1/110 by argon gas at 11 Pa, while the attenuation rate of the soft X-rays due to absorption by the buffer gas can be suppressed to less than 10% at the focal point. The focusing property of the mirror is expected to be maintained for 3000 h or longer without significant degradation for a 100 W/320 pps laser shot if the ruthenium layer is thicker than 10 μm. These results suggest that a stand-alone broadband soft X-ray processing system can be realized by using laser-produced plasma soft X-rays.

  14. Characteristics of a cylindrical collector mirror for laser-produced xenon plasma soft X-rays and improvement of mirror lifetime by buffer gas

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Tomoaki; Mochizuki, Takayasu; Miyamoto, Shuji; Masuda, Kazuya; Amano, Sho; Kanda, Kazuhiro

    2012-12-15

    The focusing characteristics of a ruthenium-coated cylindrical mirror were investigated on the basis of its ability to collect and focus broadband 5-17-nm soft X-rays emitted from a laser-produced plasma. Based on the plasmas spectral intensity distribution and the reflectivity function of the mirror, we defined the optimum position of the integrated cylindrical mirror at which the X-ray energy flux transported and focused through the mirror was maximum. A minimum spot diameter of 22 mm at a distance of approximately 200 mm from a soft X-ray source was confirmed. The maximum intensity of the collected soft X-rays was 1.3 mJ/cm{sup 2} at the center of the irradiation zone. Thus, the irradiation intensity was improved by approximately 27 times when compared to that of 47 {mu}J/cm{sup 2} without the mirror. The debris sputtering rate on the reflection surface of the mirror can be reduced to 1/110 by argon gas at 11 Pa, while the attenuation rate of the soft X-rays due to absorption by the buffer gas can be suppressed to less than 10% at the focal point. The focusing property of the mirror is expected to be maintained for 3000 h or longer without significant degradation for a 100 W/320 pps laser shot if the ruthenium layer is thicker than 10 {mu}m. These results suggest that a stand-alone broadband soft X-ray processing system can be realized by using laser-produced plasma soft X-rays.

  15. The x-ray/EUV telescope for the Solar-C mission: science and development activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakao, Taro; Narukage, Noriyuki; Imada, Shinsuke; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Shimojo, Masumi; Tsuneta, Saku; DeLuca, Edward E.; Watanabe, Kyoko; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke

    2012-09-01

    We report science and development activities of the X-ray/EUV telescope for the Japanese Solar-C mission whose projected launch around 2019. The telescope consists of a package of (a) a normal-incidence (NI) EUV telescope and (b) a grazing-incidence (GI) soft X-ray telescope. The NI telescope chiefly provides images of low corona (whose temperature 1 MK or even lower) with ultra-high angular resolution (0.2-0.3"/pixel) in 3 wavelength bands (304, 171, and 94 angstroms). On the other hand, the GI telescope provides images of the corona with a wide temperature coverage (1 MK to beyond 10 MK) with the highest-ever angular resolution (~0.5"/pixel) as a soft X-ray coronal imager. The set of NI and GI telescopes should provide crucial information for establishing magnetic and gas-dynamic connection between the corona and the lower atmosphere of the Sun which is essential for understanding heating of, and plasma activities in, the corona. Moreover, we attempt to implement photon-counting capability for the GI telescope with which imaging-spectroscopy of the X-ray corona will be performed for the first time, in the energy range from ~0.5 keV up to 10 keV. The imaging-spectroscopic observations will provide totally-new information on mechanism(s) for the generation of hot coronal plasmas (heated beyond a few MK), those for magnetic reconnection, and even generation of supra-thermal electrons associated with flares. An overview of instrument outline and science for the X-ray photoncounting telescope are presented, together with ongoing development activities in Japan towards soft X-ray photoncounting observations, focusing on high-speed X-ray CMOS detector and sub-arcsecond-resolution GI mirror.

  16. A microstitching interferometer for evaluating the surface profile of precisely figured hard x-ray K-B mirrors.

    SciTech Connect

    Assoufid, L.; Qian, J.; Kewish, C. M.; Liu, C.; Conley, R.; Macrander, A. T.; Lindley, D.; Saxer, C.; X-Ray Science Division; KLA-Tencor

    2007-01-01

    Fabrication and evaluation of elliptical X-ray mirrors, such as Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) mirrors produced by the profile-coating technique, requires accurate surface figure measurements over a wide range of spatial frequencies. Microstitching interferometry has proven to fulfill this requirement for length scales from a few {micro}m up to the full mirror length. At the Advanced Photon Source, a state-of-the-art microroughness microscope interferometer that incorporates advanced microstitching capability has been used to obtain measurements of profile-coated elliptical K-B mirrors. The stitched surface height data provide previously unattainable resolution and reproducibility, which has facilitated the fabrication of ultrasmooth (< 1 nm rms residual height) profile-coated mirrors, whose hard X-ray focusing performance is expected to approach the diffraction limit. This paper describes the system capabilities and limitations. Results of measurements obtained with it will be discussed and compared with those obtained with the Long Trace Profiler.

  17. Ultra-precise characterization of LCLS hard X-ray focusing mirrors by high resolution slope measuring deflectometry.

    PubMed

    Siewert, Frank; Buchheim, Jana; Boutet, Sébastien; Williams, Garth J; Montanez, Paul A; Krzywinski, Jacek; Signorato, Riccardo

    2012-02-13

    We present recent results on the inspection of a first diffraction-limited hard X-ray Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror pair for the Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The full KB system - mirrors and holders - was under inspection by use of high resolution slope measuring deflectometry. The tests confirmed that KB mirrors of 350mm aperture length characterized by an outstanding residual figure error of <1 nm rms has been realized. This corresponds to the residual figure slope error of about 0.05µrad rms, unprecedented on such long elliptical mirrors. Additional measurements show the clamping of the mirrors to be a critical step for the final - shape preserving installation of such outstanding optics. PMID:22418212

  18. Arc-Second Alignment of International X-Ray Observatory Mirror Segments in a Fixed Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Tyler C.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Saha, Timo T.

    2010-01-01

    The optics for the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO) require alignment and integration of about fourteen thousand thin mirror segments to achieve the mission goal of 3.0 square meters of effective area at 1.25 keV with an angular resolution of five arc-seconds. These mirror segments are 0.4 mm thick, and 200 to 400 mm in size, which makes it hard not to impart distortion at the subare- second level. This paper outlines the precise alignment, verification testing, and permanent bonding techniques developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). These techniques are used to overcome the challenge of transferring thin mirror segments from a temporary mount to a fixed structure with arc-second alignment and minimal figure distortion. Recent advances in technology development in addition to the automation of several processes have produced significant results. This paper will highlight the recent advances in alignment, testing, and permanent bonding techniques as well as the results they have produced.

  19. Arc Second Alignment of International X-Ray Observatory Mirror Segments in a Fixed Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Tyler C.; Chan, Kai-Wing

    2009-01-01

    The optics for the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO) require alignment and integration of about fourteen thousand thin mirror segments to achieve the mission goal of 3.0 square meters of effective area at 1.25 keV with an angular resolution of five arc seconds. These mirror segments are 0.4mm thick, and 200 to 400mm in size, which makes it hard not to impart distortion at the subarc second level. This paper outlines the precise alignment, verification testing, and permanent bonding techniques developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). These techniques are used to overcome the challenge of transferring thin mirror segments from a temporary mount to a fixed structure with arc second alignment and minimal figure distortion. Recent advances in technology development in addition to the automation of several processes have produced significant results. This paper will highlight the recent advances in alignment, testing, and permanent bonding techniques as well as the results they have produced.

  20. A one-dimensional ion beam figuring system for x-ray mirror fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Idir, Mourad; Huang, Lei; Bouet, Nathalie; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Vescovi, Matthew; Lauer, Ken; Conley, Ray; Rennie, Kent; Kahn, Jim; Nethery, Richard; Zhou, Lin

    2015-10-01

    We report on the development of a one-dimensional Ion Beam Figuring (IBF) system for x-ray mirror polishing. Ion beam figuring provides a highly deterministic method for the final precision figuring of optical components with advantages over conventional methods. The system is based on a state of the art sputtering deposition system outfitted with a gridded radio frequency inductive coupled plasma ion beam source equipped with ion optics and dedicated slit developed specifically for this application. The production of an IBF system able to produce an elongated removal function rather than circular is presented in this paper, where we describe in detail the technical aspect and present the first obtained results. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  1. A one-dimensional ion beam figuring system for x-ray mirror fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Idir, Mourad Huang, Lei; Bouet, Nathalie; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Vescovi, Matthew; Lauer, Ken; Conley, Ray; Rennie, Kent; Kahn, Jim; Nethery, Richard; Zhou, Lin

    2015-10-15

    We report on the development of a one-dimensional Ion Beam Figuring (IBF) system for x-ray mirror polishing. Ion beam figuring provides a highly deterministic method for the final precision figuring of optical components with advantages over conventional methods. The system is based on a state of the art sputtering deposition system outfitted with a gridded radio frequency inductive coupled plasma ion beam source equipped with ion optics and dedicated slit developed specifically for this application. The production of an IBF system able to produce an elongated removal function rather than circular is presented in this paper, where we describe in detail the technical aspect and present the first obtained results.

  2. A one-dimensional ion beam figuring system for x-ray mirror fabrication.

    PubMed

    Idir, Mourad; Huang, Lei; Bouet, Nathalie; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Vescovi, Matthew; Lauer, Ken; Conley, Ray; Rennie, Kent; Kahn, Jim; Nethery, Richard; Zhou, Lin

    2015-10-01

    We report on the development of a one-dimensional Ion Beam Figuring (IBF) system for x-ray mirror polishing. Ion beam figuring provides a highly deterministic method for the final precision figuring of optical components with advantages over conventional methods. The system is based on a state of the art sputtering deposition system outfitted with a gridded radio frequency inductive coupled plasma ion beam source equipped with ion optics and dedicated slit developed specifically for this application. The production of an IBF system able to produce an elongated removal function rather than circular is presented in this paper, where we describe in detail the technical aspect and present the first obtained results. PMID:26520997

  3. Shrink tape technique for heat-forming aluminum substrates for thin foil x-ray mirrors and the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer x-ray concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsamo, Erin; Gendreau, Keith; Okajima, Takashi; Soong, Yang; Serlemitsos, Peter; Jalota, Lalit; Kenyon, Steven; Spartana, Nicholas; Fickau, David; Koenecke, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Consistent improvements in the design and fabrication of thin-foil, epoxy-replicated x-ray mirrors for astronomical telescopes have yielded increasingly higher quality and more precise astrophysical data. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) x-ray timing mission optics continues this tradition and introduces design elements that promise even more accurate measurements and precise astrophysical parameters. The singly reflecting concentrators have a curved axial profile to improve photon concentration and a sturdy full shell structure for enhanced module stability. These design elements introduced the challenge of reliably forming mirror substrates at an acceptable production rate. By developing a technique using heat shrink tape to compress and conform thin aluminum mirror substrates to shaping mandrels, production rate improved with successful fabrication. The technique's efficiency was analyzed by measuring hundreds of substrate profiles postforming, performance testing completely assembled concentrators composed of every size substrate, and comparing the results to simulated fabrication scenarios. On average, the profiles were copied within 4.6±3.7%. These measurements and the overall success of NICER's optics, via ground calibration, have shown that the heat-shrink tape method is reliable, repeatable, and could be used in future missions to increase production rate and improve performance.

  4. Reflection grating spectrometer for the x-ray multi-mirror (XMM) space observatory: design and calculated performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hettrick, M.C.; Kahn, S.M.

    1985-10-01

    A spectrometer design candidate is presented for the X-ray Multi-Mirror (XMM) observatory, being planned by the European Space Agency (ESA) as a long-lived large-area of telescopes. The science requirement of moderate resolution (E/..delta..E approx.100) spectroscopy in a two octave region (0.5 to 2 keV) with extremely high throughput (effective area > 500 cm/sup 2/) results in the use of grazing incidence reflection gratings. Due to the low image quality of the telescopes (approx. 1 minute of arc), the grating dispersion must be maximized by use of the classical grating mount in which the spectrum is dispersed within the plane of incident radiation. Due to the small field of view by the x-ray telescopes, the gratings must be situated in the converging beam at the exit of the telescope. A spectrometer module consists of a thin-foil conical mirror telescope, a stack of plane varied-space reflection gratings and an imaging proportional counter. This system is analyzed on the basis of dispersion, geometric aberrations and efficiency. At a spectral resolution of 0.15 A, a twenty module XMM would attain an average effective area of approx.900 cm/sup 2/, reaching twice this value at the peak wavelength (15 A). Similar throughput is obtained in second order centered at 7.5 A, the two spectral orders separated by the non-dispersive energy resolution of the proportional counter. Continuous spectra are obtained in the 6-25 A band (0.5 to 2 keV), and can be extended to 45 A if desired by tuning of the grating. The instrument sensitivity is sufficient to allow the first spectral detection of soft x-ray features in external galaxies, with access to an estimated population of several hundred active galactic nuclei. Such observations will expand vastly the roles feasible for spectroscopy in x-ray astrophysics, marking the beginning of a new era in space astronomy.

  5. OCCUPATION OF X-RAY-SELECTED GALAXY GROUPS BY X-RAY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Allevato, V.; Finoguenov, A.; Hasinger, G.; Cappelluti, N.; Miyaji, T.; Salvato, M.; Brusa, M.; Zamorani, G.; Gilli, R.; George, M. R.; Tanaka, M.; Silverman, J.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Shankar, F.

    2012-10-10

    We present the first direct measurement of the mean halo occupation distribution (HOD) of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the COSMOS field at z {<=} 1, based on the association of 41 XMM and 17 C-COSMOS AGNs with member galaxies of 189 X-ray-detected galaxy groups from XMM-Newton and Chandra data. We model the mean AGN occupation in the halo mass range log M{sub 200} [M{sub Sun }] = 13-14.5 with a rolling-off power law with the best-fit index {alpha} = 0.06(- 0.22; 0.36) and normalization parameter f{sub a} 0.05(0.04; 0.06). We find the mean HOD of AGNs among central galaxies to be modeled by a softened step function at log M{sub h} > log M{sub min} = 12.75(12.10, 12.95) M{sub Sun} while for the satellite AGN HOD we find a preference for an increasing AGN fraction with M{sub h} , suggesting that the average number of AGNs in satellite galaxies grows slower ({alpha}{sub s} < 0.6) than the linear proportion ({alpha}{sub s} = 1) observed for the satellite HOD of samples of galaxies. We present an estimate of the projected autocorrelation function (ACF) of galaxy groups over the range of r{sub p} = 0.1-40 h {sup -1} Mpc at (z) = 0.5. We use the large-scale clustering signal to verify the agreement between the group bias estimated by using the observed galaxy groups ACF and the value derived from the group mass estimates. We perform a measurement of the projected AGN-galaxy-group cross-correlation function, excluding from the analysis AGNs that are within galaxy groups and we model the two-halo term of the clustering signal with the mean AGN HOD based on our results.

  6. X-rays From Quasars and Active Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightman, Alan P.

    1981-01-01

    Features of quasars and active galactic nuclei are discussed and include: the nature of the power source, the radiation processes, and the mechanism for the formation and collimation of long-lived jets of matter observed to emanate from the center of these of these objects. The phenomena that produce X-rays are highlighted.

  7. Simbol-X Hard X-ray Focusing Mirrors: Results Obtained During the Phase A Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliaferri, G.; Basso, S.; Borghi, G.; Burkert, W.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Conconi, P.; Cotroneo, V.; Freyberg, M.; Garoli, D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hartner, G.; Mattarello, V.; Orlandi, A.; Pareschi, G.; Romaine, S.; Spiga, D.; Valsecchi, G.; Vernani, D.

    2009-05-01

    Simbol-X will push grazing incidence imaging up to 80 keV, providing a strong improvement both in sensitivity and angular resolution compared to all instruments that have operated so far above 10 keV. The superb hard X-ray imaging capability will be guaranteed by a mirror module of 100 electroformed Nickel shells with a multilayer reflecting coating. Here we will describe the technogical development and solutions adopted for the fabrication of the mirror module, that must guarantee an Half Energy Width (HEW) better than 20 arcsec from 0.5 up to 30 keV and a goal of 40 arcsec at 60 keV. During the phase A, terminated at the end of 2008, we have developed three engineering models with two, two and three shells, respectively. The most critical aspects in the development of the Simbol-X mirrors are i) the production of the 100 mandrels with very good surface quality within the timeline of the mission, ii) the replication of shells that must be very thin (a factor of 2 thinner than those of XMM-Newton) and still have very good image quality up to 80 keV, iii) the development of an integration process that allows us to integrate these very thin mirrors maintaining their intrinsic good image quality. The Phase A study has shown that we can fabricate the mandrels with the needed quality and that we have developed a valid integration process. The shells that we have produced so far have a quite good image quality, e.g. HEW <~30 arcsec at 30 keV, and effective area. However, we still need to make some improvements to reach the requirements. We will briefly present these results and discuss the possible improvements that we will investigate during phase B.

  8. Streaked spectrometry using multilayer x-ray-interference mirrors to investigate energy transport in laser-plasma applications

    SciTech Connect

    Stradling, G.L.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Henke, B.L.; Campbell, E.M.; Mead, W.C.

    1981-08-01

    Transport of energy in laser-produced plasmas is scrutinized by devising spectrally and temporally identifiable characteristics in the x-ray emission history which identify the heat-front position at various times in the heating process. Measurements of the relative turn-on times of these characteristics show the rate of energy transport between various points. These measurements can in turn constrain models of energy transport phenomena. We are time-resolving spectrally distinguishable subkilovolt x-ray emissions from different layers of a disk target to examine the transport rate of energy into the target. A similar technique is used to measure the lateral expansion rate of the plasma spot. A soft x-ray streak camera with 15-psec temporal resolution is used to make the temporal measurements. Spectral discrimination of the incident signal is provided by multilayer x-ray interference mirrors.

  9. Analytical Designing of Two-Aspherical-Mirror Anastigmats Permitting Practical Misalignments in a Soft-X-Ray Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Mitsunori; Yamamoto, Masaki

    2006-05-01

    A new analytical method of designing two-aspherical-mirror anastigmats was developed and applied to searching solution groups of soft X-ray microscopes of a large misalignment tolerance. The two-mirror anastigmat configurations were expressed by a practical variable related to pupil obstruction limiting the system throughput. Axial coma and other aberrations caused by a slight decenter of the system were then formulated to represent sensitivity to misalignment. These formulations enabled a global survey of solution groups as demonstrated by a designing example of soft X-ray microscopes with a magnification m = -1/50, which resulted in four solutions more insensitive to misalignment than a standard Schwarzschild optics in the soft X-ray region. Some solutions were also found to have much larger fields of view suitable for high resolution imaging as confirmed by computer ray tracing.

  10. Mirrors for X-ray telescopes: Fresnel diffraction-based computation of point spread functions from metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimondi, L.; Spiga, D.

    2015-01-01

    Context. The imaging sharpness of an X-ray telescope is chiefly determined by the optical quality of its focusing optics, which in turn mostly depends on the shape accuracy and the surface finishing of the grazing-incidence X-ray mirrors that compose the optical modules. To ensure the imaging performance during the mirror manufacturing, a fundamental step is predicting the mirror point spread function (PSF) from the metrology of its surface. Traditionally, the PSF computation in X-rays is assumed to be different depending on whether the surface defects are classified as figure errors or roughness. This classical approach, however, requires setting a boundary between these two asymptotic regimes, which is not known a priori. Aims: The aim of this work is to overcome this limit by providing analytical formulae that are valid at any light wavelength, for computing the PSF of an X-ray mirror shell from the measured longitudinal profiles and the roughness power spectral density, without distinguishing spectral ranges with different treatments. Methods: The method we adopted is based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle for computing the diffracted intensity from measured or modeled profiles. In particular, we have simplified the computation of the surface integral to only one dimension, owing to the grazing incidence that reduces the influence of the azimuthal errors by orders of magnitude. The method can be extended to optical systems with an arbitrary number of reflections - in particular the Wolter-I, which is frequently used in X-ray astronomy - and can be used in both near- and far-field approximation. Finally, it accounts simultaneously for profile, roughness, and aperture diffraction. Results: We describe the formalism with which one can self-consistently compute the PSF of grazing-incidence mirrors, and we show some PSF simulations including the UV band, where the aperture diffraction dominates the PSF, and hard X-rays where the X-ray scattering has a major impact

  11. Toward a Complete Metrological Solution for the Mirrors for the Constellation-X Spectroscopy X-ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehan, John; Owens, S.; Hadjimichael, T.; Hong, M.; Chan, K.-W.; Saha, T. T.; Reid, P.; Zhang, W. W.

    2007-01-01

    We present an overview update of the metrological approach to be employed for the segmented mirror fabrication for Constellation-X spectroscopy x-ray telescope. We compare results achieved to date with mission requirements. This is discussed in terms of inherent capability versus in-practice capability.

  12. Focusing X-rays to a 1-{mu}m spot using elastically bent, graded multilayer coated mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, J.H.; Thompson, A.C.; Kortright, J.B.

    1997-04-01

    In the x-ray fluorescent microprobe at beamline 10.3.1, the ALS bending magnet source is demagnified by a factor of several hundred using a pair of mirrors arranged in the Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) configuration. These are coated with multilayers to increase reflectivity and limit the pass band of the x-rays striking the sample. The x-rays excite characteristic fluorescent x-rays of elements in the sample, which are analyzed by an energy dispersive Si-Li detector, for a sensitive assay of the elemental content. By scanning the focal spot the spatial distribution of the elements is determined; the spatial resolution depends on the size of this spot. When spherical mirrors are used, the spatial resolution is limited by aberrations to 5 or 10 {mu}m. This has been improved to 1 {mu}m through the use of an elliptical mirror formed by elastically bending a plane mirror of uniform width and thickness with the optimum combination of end couples.

  13. Long-Working-Distance Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirrors for Hard X-ray Beamlines at SPring-8

    SciTech Connect

    Yumoto, H.; Koyama, T.

    2011-09-09

    We designed and installed two types of long-working-distance Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors and mirror manipulators, which were customized into each experiment for hard x-ray undulator beamlines at SPring-8. For the BL32XU RIKEN Targeted Proteins beamline, 400-mm-long KB focusing mirrors for a beam size of 1 {mu}m with a 730-mm-long working distance were designed for carrying out the structural analysis of protein microcrystals. We realized a focusing beam size of 0.9x0.9 {mu}m{sup 2}(FWHM) and a focusing intensity of 6x10{sup 10} (photons/s) at an x-ray energy of 12.4 keV. For the BL19LXU RIKEN SR Physics beamline, we developed KB mirrors for 100-nm focusing with a 100-mm-working distance for the purpose of nano-focus x-ray diffraction. A focusing beam size of 100x100 nm{sup 2}(FWHM) and a high focusing intensity of 3.7x10{sup 10} (photons/s) at an x-ray energy of 12.4 keV were realized.

  14. Unwrapping the X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, C. S.

    2016-05-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are complex phenomena. At the heart of an AGN is a relativistic accretion disk around a spinning supermassive black hole (SMBH) with an X-ray emitting corona and, sometimes, a relativistic jet. On larger scales, the outer accretion disk and molecular torus act as the reservoirs of gas for the continuing AGN activity. And on all scales from the black hole outwards, powerful winds are seen that probably affect the evolution of the host galaxy as well as regulate the feeding of the AGN itself. In this review article, we discuss how X-ray spectroscopy can be used to study each of these components. We highlight how recent measurements of the high-energy cutoff in the X-ray continuum by NuSTAR are pushing us to conclude that X-ray coronae are radiatively-compact and have electron temperatures regulated by electron-positron pair production. We show that the predominance of rapidly-rotating objects in current surveys of SMBH spin is entirely unsurprising once one accounts for the observational selection bias resulting from the spin-dependence of the radiative efficiency. We review recent progress in our understanding of fast (v˜ (0.1-0.3)c, highly-ionized (mainly visible in Fe XXV and Fe XXVI lines), high-column density winds that may dominate quasar-mode galactic feedback. Finally, we end with a brief look forward to the promise of Astro-H and future X-ray spectropolarimeters.

  15. The fabrication and characterisation of piezoelectric actuators for active x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dou; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Button, Tim W.; Meggs, Carl; Atkins, Carolyn; Doel, Peter; Brooks, David; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Michette, Alan; Pfauntsch, Slawka; Sahraei, Shahin; James, Ady; Dunare, Camelia; Stevenson, Tom; Parkes, William; Smith, Andrew; Wang, Hongchang

    2009-08-01

    Piezoelectric actuators are widely employed in adaptive optics to enable an actively controlled mirror surface and improve the optical resolution and sensitivity. Currently two new prototype adaptive X-ray optical systems are under development through the Smart X-ray Optics project in a UK based consortium. One proposed technology is micro-structured optical arrays (MOAs) which uses aligned micro-channels structures obtained by deep silicon etching using both dry and wet techniques and bonded piezoelectric actuators to produce a micro-focused X-ray source for biological applications. The other technology is large scale optics which uses a thin shell mirror segment with 20-40 bonded piezo-actuators for the next generation of X-ray telescopes with an aim to achieve a resolution greater than that currently available by Chandra (0.5"). The Functional Materials Group of Birmingham University has the capability of fabricating a wide range of piezo-actuators including, for example, unimorph, bimorph and active fibre composites (AFC) by using a viscous plastic processing technique. This offers flexibility in customising the shapes (from planar to 3-D helix) and feature sizes (>20 μm) of the actuators, as well as achieving good piezoelectric properties. PZT unimorph actuators are being developed in this programme according to the design and implementation of the proposed mirror and array structures. Precise controls on the dimension, thickness, surface finishing and the curvature have been achieved for delivering satisfactory actuators. Results are presented regarding the fabrication and characterisation of such piezo-actuators, as well as the progress on the large optic and MOAs prototypes employing the piezo-actuators.

  16. Frequency tunable x-ray/γ-ray source via Thomson backscattering on flying mirror from laser foil interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Meng; Jin, Luling; Lu, Yuanrong; Chen, Jiaer; Yan, Xueqing

    2012-07-01

    A scheme to generate a frequency tunable x-ray/γ-ray source via Thomson backscattering is proposed. In this model, a few-cycle drive pulse with relativistic intensity interacts with a target (combined with a thin and a thick foil) to produce a flying mirror, and a counter propagating probe pulse is applied to generate a high frequency pulse on it. By adjusting the separation between these two foils, the frequency of the Thomson backscattering light generated from the flying mirror can be tuned in a range from ωL to >106ωL, i.e., x-ray or γ-ray with tunable frequency is obtained. The energy dispersion of the flying mirror, as well as the spectrum width of the Thomson backscattering are studied.

  17. Mathematical Design Optimization of Wide-Field X-ray Telescopes: Mirror Nodal Positions and Detector Tilts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, Ronald; O'Dell, Stephen; Ramsey, Brian; Weisskopf, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We describe a mathematical formalism for determining the mirror shell nodal positions and detector tilts that optimize the spatial resolution averaged over a field-of-view for a nested x-ray telescope, assuming known mirror segment surface prescriptions and known detector focal surface. The results are expressed in terms of ensemble averages over variable combinations of the ray positions and wavevectors in the flat focal plane intersecting the optical axis at the nominal on-axis focus, which can be determined by Monte-Carlo ray traces of the individual mirror shells. This work is part of our continuing efforts to provide analytical tools to aid in the design process for wide-field survey x-ray astronomy missions.

  18. Mathematical Design Optimization of Wide-Field X-ray Telescopes: Mirror Nodal Positions and Detector Tilts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; O'Dell, S. L.; Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a mathematical formalism for determining the mirror shell nodal positions and detector tilts that optimize the spatial resolution averaged over a field-of-view for a nested x-ray telescope, assuming known mirror segment surface prescriptions and known detector focal surface. The results are expressed in terms of ensemble averages over variable combinations of the ray positions and wave vectors in the flat focal plane intersecting the optical axis at the nominal on-axis focus, which can be determined by Monte-Carlo ray traces of the individual mirror shells. This work is part of our continuing efforts to provide analytical tools to aid in the design process for wide-field survey x-ray astronomy missions.

  19. Activity in X-ray-selected late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takalo, Leo O.; Nousek, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    A spectroscopic study has been conducted of nine X-ray bright late-type stars selected from two Einstein X-ray surveys: the Columbia Astrophysical Laboratory Survey (five stars) and the CFA Medium Sensitivity Survey (MSS; four stars). Spectral classes were determined and radial and V sin(i) velocities were measured for the stars. Four of the Columbia Survey stars were found to be new RS CVn-type binaries. The fifth Columbia survey star was found to be an active G dwarf star without evidence for binarity. None of the four MSS stars were found to be either binaries or optically active stars. Activity in these stars was assessed by measuring the excess emission in H-alpha and the Ca II IRT (8498, 8542) lines in comparison with inactive stars of similar spectral types. A correlation was found between X-ray luminosity and V sin(i) and H-alpha line excess. The measured excess line emission in H-alpha was also correlated with V sin(i) but not with the IRT line excess.

  20. Analytical computation of stray light in nested mirror modules for x-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, Daniele

    2015-09-01

    Stray light in X-ray telescopes are a well-known issue. Unlike rays focused via a double reflection by usual grazing-incidence geometries such as the Wolter-I, stray rays coming from off-axis sources are reflected only once by either the parabolic or the hyperbolic segment. Although not focused, stray light may represent a major source of background and ghost images especially when observing a field of faint sources in the vicinities of another, more intense, just outside the field of view of the telescope. The stray light problem is faced by mounting a pre-collimator in front of the mirror module, in order to shade a part of the reflective surfaces that may give rise to singly-reflected rays. Studying the expected stray light impact, and consequently designing a pre-collimator, is a typical ray-tracing problem, usually time and computation consuming, especially if we consider that rays propagate throughout a densely nested structure. This in turn requires one to pay attention to all the possible obstructions, increasing the complexity of the simulation. In contrast, approaching the problems of stray light calculation from an analytical viewpoint largely simplifies the problem, and may also ease the task of designing an effective pre-collimator. In this work we expose an analytical formalism that can be used to compute the stray light in a nested optical module in a fast and effective way, accounting for obstruction effects.

  1. Investigation of x ray variability in highly active cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Ginga x ray observations of highly active cool star coronae were obtained and analyzed in an effort to better understand the nature of their time variability. The possible types of variability studied included x ray occultations via eclipses in a binary system, rotational modulation of x ray emission, flares, and a search for microflaring. Observation of both sigma(sup 2) CrB and Algol were performed successfully by Ginga. The sigma(sup 2) CrB observations occurred on 27 to 30 June 1988, and the Algol observations on 12 to 14 January 1989. In the sigma(sup 2) CrB observation, simultaneous IUE and Very Large Array (VLA) observations were obtained during part of the Ginga observation. Flaring activity was detected on sigma(sup 2) CrB in the Ginga 1.7 to 11 KeV band and in the IUE microwave region. A large flare on Algol which lasted well over 12 hours was detected, began with a maximum temperature of 65 MK which gradually decayed to 36 MK, and evidence was shown of highly ionized Fe line emission.

  2. Experimental study and analytical model of deformation of magnetostrictive films as applied to mirrors for x-ray space telescopes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Knapp, Peter; Vaynman, S; Graham, M E; Cao, Jian; Ulmer, M P

    2014-09-20

    The desire for continuously gaining new knowledge in astronomy has pushed the frontier of engineering methods to deliver lighter, thinner, higher quality mirrors at an affordable cost for use in an x-ray observatory. To address these needs, we have been investigating the application of magnetic smart materials (MSMs) deposited as a thin film on mirror substrates. MSMs have some interesting properties that make the application of MSMs to mirror substrates a promising solution for making the next generation of x-ray telescopes. Due to the ability to hold a shape with an impressed permanent magnetic field, MSMs have the potential to be the method used to make light weight, affordable x-ray telescope mirrors. This paper presents the experimental setup for measuring the deformation of the magnetostrictive bimorph specimens under an applied magnetic field, and the analytical and numerical analysis of the deformation. As a first step in the development of tools to predict deflections, we deposited Terfenol-D on the glass substrates. We then made measurements that were compared with the results from the analytical and numerical analysis. The surface profiles of thin-film specimens were measured under an external magnetic field with white light interferometry (WLI). The analytical model provides good predictions of film deformation behavior under various magnetic field strengths. This work establishes a solid foundation for further research to analyze the full three-dimensional deformation behavior of magnetostrictive thin films. PMID:25322105

  3. Collimating Montel mirror as part of a multi-crystal analyzer system for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungho; Shi, Xianbo; Casa, Diego; Qian, Jun; Huang, XianRong; Gog, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Advances in resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) have come in lockstep with improvements in energy resolution. Currently, the best energy resolution at the Ir L3-edge stands at ∼25 meV, which is achieved using a diced Si(844) spherical crystal analyzer. However, spherical analyzers are limited by their intrinsic reflection width. A novel analyzer system using multiple flat crystals provides a promising way to overcome this limitation. For the present design, an energy resolution at or below 10 meV was selected. Recognizing that the angular acceptance of flat crystals is severely limited, a collimating element is essential to achieve the necessary solid-angle acceptance. For this purpose, a laterally graded, parabolic, multilayer Montel mirror was designed for use at the Ir L3-absorption edge. It provides an acceptance larger than 10 mrad, collimating the reflected X-ray beam to smaller than 100 µrad, in both vertical and horizontal directions. The performance of this mirror was studied at beamline 27-ID at the Advanced Photon Source. X-rays from a diamond (111) monochromator illuminated a scattering source of diameter 5 µm, generating an incident beam on the mirror with a well determined divergence of 40 mrad. A flat Si(111) crystal after the mirror served as the divergence analyzer. From X-ray measurements, ray-tracing simulations and optical metrology results, it was established that the Montel mirror satisfied the specifications of angular acceptance and collimation quality necessary for a high-resolution RIXS multi-crystal analyzer system. PMID:27359136

  4. X-Ray Psoralen Activated Cancer Therapy (X-PACT).

    PubMed

    Oldham, Mark; Yoon, Paul; Fathi, Zak; Beyer, Wayne F; Adamson, Justus; Liu, Leihua; Alcorta, David; Xia, Wenle; Osada, Takuya; Liu, Congxiao; Yang, Xiao Y; Dodd, Rebecca D; Herndon, James E; Meng, Boyu; Kirsch, David G; Lyerly, H Kim; Dewhirst, Mark W; Fecci, Peter; Walder, Harold; Spector, Neil L

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates X-PACT (X-ray Psoralen Activated Cancer Therapy): a new approach for the treatment of solid cancer. X-PACT utilizes psoralen, a potent anti-cancer therapeutic with current application to proliferative disease and extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) of cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma. An immunogenic role for light-activated psoralen has been reported, contributing to long-term clinical responses. Psoralen therapies have to-date been limited to superficial or extracorporeal scenarios due to the requirement for psoralen activation by UVA light, which has limited penetration in tissue. X-PACT solves this challenge by activating psoralen with UV light emitted from novel non-tethered phosphors (co-incubated with psoralen) that absorb x-rays and re-radiate (phosphoresce) at UV wavelengths. The efficacy of X-PACT was evaluated in both in-vitro and in-vivo settings. In-vitro studies utilized breast (4T1), glioma (CT2A) and sarcoma (KP-B) cell lines. Cells were exposed to X-PACT treatments where the concentrations of drug (psoralen and phosphor) and radiation parameters (energy, dose, and dose rate) were varied. Efficacy was evaluated primarily using flow cell cytometry in combination with complimentary assays, and the in-vivo mouse study. In an in-vitro study, we show that X-PACT induces significant tumor cell apoptosis and cytotoxicity, unlike psoralen or phosphor alone (p<0.0001). We also show that apoptosis increases as doses of phosphor, psoralen, or radiation increase. Finally, in an in-vivo pilot study of BALBc mice with syngeneic 4T1 tumors, we show that the rate of tumor growth is slower with X-PACT than with saline or AMT + X-ray (p<0.0001). Overall these studies demonstrate a potential therapeutic effect for X-PACT, and provide a foundation and rationale for future studies. In summary, X-PACT represents a novel treatment approach in which well-tolerated low doses of x-ray radiation are delivered to a specific tumor site to generate UVA light which

  5. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  6. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  7. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  8. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  9. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  10. Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process for Large X-Ray Mirror Mandrels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Gufran S.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We are developing high-energy grazing incidence shell optics for hard-x-ray telescopes. The resolution of a mirror shells depends on the quality of cylindrical mandrel from which they are being replicated. Mid-spatial-frequency axial figure error is a dominant contributor in the error budget of the mandrel. This paper presents our efforts to develop a deterministic cylindrical polishing process in order to keep the mid-spatial-frequency axial figure errors to a minimum. Simulation software is developed to model the residual surface figure errors of a mandrel due to the polishing process parameters and the tools used, as well as to compute the optical performance of the optics. The study carried out using the developed software was focused on establishing a relationship between the polishing process parameters and the mid-spatial-frequency error generation. The process parameters modeled are the speeds of the lap and the mandrel, the tool s influence function, the contour path (dwell) of the tools, their shape and the distribution of the tools on the polishing lap. Using the inputs from the mathematical model, a mandrel having conical approximated Wolter-1 geometry, has been polished on a newly developed computer-controlled cylindrical polishing machine. The preliminary results of a series of polishing experiments demonstrate a qualitative agreement with the developed model. We report our first experimental results and discuss plans for further improvements in the polishing process. The ability to simulate the polishing process is critical to optimize the polishing process, improve the mandrel quality and significantly reduce the cost of mandrel production

  11. Second metrology round-robin of APS, ESRF and SPring-8 laboratories of elliptical and spherical hard-x-ray mirrors.

    SciTech Connect

    Rommeveaux, A.; Assoufid, L.; Ohashi, H.; Mimura, H.; Yamauchi, K.; Qian, J.; Ishikawa, T.; Morawe, C.; Macrander, A.T.; Khounsary, A.; Goto, S.; X-Ray Science Division; ESRF; JASRI SPring-8; Osaka Univ.; Riken SPring-8 Center

    2007-01-01

    The first series of metrology round-robin measurements carried out in 2005 at the APS, ESRF and SPring-8 metrology laboratories involving two flat x-ray mirrors and a cylindrical x-ray mirror has shown excellent agreement among the three facilities Long Trace Profilers (LTP) despite their architectural differences. Because of the growing interest in diffraction-limited hard x-ray K-B focusing mirrors, it was decided to extend the round robin measurements to spherical and aspheric x-ray mirrors. The strong surface slope variation of these mirrors presents a real challenge to LTP. As a result, new LTP measurement protocol has to be developed and implemented to ensure measurement accuracy and consistency. In this paper, different measurement techniques and procedures will be described, the results will be discussed, and comparison will be extended to micro-stitching interferometry measurements performed at Osaka University, Japan.

  12. Area-selected Ion Milling for Reflection Wavefront Error Correction of Soft X-ray Multilayer Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuru, Toshihide; Sakai, Yu; Hatano, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Masaki

    2010-06-23

    For accurate reflection wavefront error correction of imaging soft X-ray multilayer mirrors, a period-by-period ion milling system was developed. A stable and homogenized radial distribution of ion beam was realized for an ion milling over a whole area of 100 mm-wide multilayer. To demonstrate the wavefront error correction principle, a dielectric multilayer mirror for visible light was locally milled by our system. Wavefront as measured by a phase shifting interferometer showed the reflection phase of local milling multilayer advanced. Area-selected ion millings with mask templates made of Mo and Si, and by photoresist contact masks were carried out. Although striped patterns generated by the difference of spectroscopic reflectance between Mo and Si were observed at peripherals of milling area when templates were used, a clear and sharp edge pattern was obtained with contact mask. Soft X-ray reflectance of a Mo/Si multilayer milled with photoresist contact mask showed good feasibility of precise wavefront error correction of multilayers. These results proved our phase correction method is promising and practical for the 0.1 nm-period correction of soft X-ray multilayer mirror.

  13. INTEGRAL finds renewed X-ray activity of the Neutron star X-ray transient SAX J1750.8-2900

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Fernandez, Celia; Chenevez, Jerome; Kuulkers, Erik; Bazzano, Angela; Beckmann, Volker; Bird, Tony; Bodaghee, Arash; Del Santo, Melania; Domingo, Albert; Jonker, Peter; Kretschmar, Peter; Markwardt, Craig; Paizis, Ada; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wijnands, Rudy

    2015-09-01

    INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring observations (ATel #438) on UT 13 September 2015 18:50-22:32 reveal renewed X-ray activity from the low-mass X-ray binary transient and Type I X-ray burster SAX J1750.8-2900 (IAU Circ. #6597). The last outburst from this source was reported in 2011 (ATels #3170, 3181).

  14. Development of a Linear Stitching Interferometric System for Evaluation of Very Large X-ray Synchrotron Radiation Substrates and Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Assoufid, Lahsen; Shu Deming; Bray, Michael

    2004-05-12

    Stitching interferometry, using small-aperture, high-resolution, phase-measuring interferometric systems has been investigated for quite some time now as a metrology technique to obtain surface profiles of oversized optical components and substrates. The technique offers the potential for providing 3D measurements of mirror surfaces with nanometer resolution. The aim of this work is to apply this technique to the specific case of large, flat, grazing-incidence x-ray mirrors, such as those used in beamlines at synchrotron radiation facilities around the world. In the case of x-ray mirrors, obtaining a 3D surface profile can be particularly useful in many instances, for example, in selecting the best reflecting stripe on a mirror surface to be used for undulator beams. The measurement data can be used for simulating and predicting mirror performance under realistic conditions, etc. A fully automated stitching system is currently being developed at the metrology laboratory of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Preliminary tests performed on a 460-mm-long flat float-glass substrate and on a 300-mm-long superpolished silicon substrate, were encouraging. The stitched profiles showed no obvious overlap errors, and the results agree well with those obtained using other techniques.

  15. Optical studies of X-ray peculiar chromosphereically active stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, J. C.

    2006-02-01

    A multiwavelength study of the late-type active stars, selected on the basis of their X-ray and radio luminosities is presented in this thesis. For FR Cnc, a photometric period 0.8267 +/- 0.0004 d has been established. The strong variation in the phase and amplitude of the FR Cnc light curves when folded on this period implies the presence of evolving and migrating spots or spot groups on its surface. A photometric period of 18.802 +/- 0.074 has been discovered in the star HD 81032. The shape and amplitude of the photometric light curves of FR Cnc, HD 81032, HD 95559 and LO Peg are observed to be changing from one epoch to another. The change in the amplitude is mainly due to a change in the minimum of the light curve, and this May be due to a change in the spot coverage. This indicates that photometric variability is due to the presence of dark spots on the surface of active star. Two groups of spots are identified for FR Cnc and LO Peg. The spots are found to migrate, and migration periods of 0.97 year and 0.93 year are determined from the 4 years of data. A migration period of 1.12 years for one group of spots in LO Peg is also determined. Formation of a new group of spots in the star HD 95559 was also seen during our observations. A single large group of spots is found to migrate, and a migration period of 7.32 +/- 0.04 years is determined for HD 81032. The stars FR Cnc, HD 81032, HD 160934 and LO Peg are seen to be redder at the light minimum and we interpret this is due to the relatively cooler temperature of the darker regions present in the visible hemisphere. We find the lack of color-brightness correlation in the star HD 95559 and this May be due to the presence of bright faculae and plages like regions accompanied by dark spots in any one component of the this binary system. The optical spectroscopy of FR Cnc and HD 81032 carried out during 2002-2003, reveals the presence of strong and variable Ca II H and K, Halpha and Hbeta emission features indicative

  16. Finite element analyses of thin film active grazing incidence x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, William N.; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Daniel A.

    2010-09-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory, with its sub-arc second resolution, has revolutionized X-ray astronomy by revealing an extremely complex X-ray sky and demonstrating the power of the X-ray window in exploring fundamental astrophysical problems. Larger area telescopes of still higher angular resolution promise further advances. We are engaged in the development of a mission concept, Generation-X, a 0.1 arc second resolution x-ray telescope with tens of square meters of collecting area, 500 times that of Chandra. To achieve these two requirements of imaging and area, we are developing a grazing incidence telescope comprised of many mirror segments. Each segment is an adjustable mirror that is a section of a paraboloid or hyperboloid, aligned and figure corrected in situ on-orbit. To that end, finite element analyses of thin glass mirrors are performed to determine influence functions for each actuator on the mirrors, in order to develop algorithms for correction of mirror deformations. The effects of several mirror mounting schemes are also studied. The finite element analysis results, combined with measurements made on prototype mirrors, will be used to further refine the correction algorithms.

  17. Rapid X-Ray Variability of Active Galaxies. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennant, A. F., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei are luminous sources of X-rays. The thesis that the X-rays are generated within 10 gravitational radii from the central object is tested. A very sensitive search for rapid ( 1 day) X-ray variability from active galaxies was made.

  18. X-ray diffraction of actively shortening muscle.

    PubMed

    Podolsky, R J; St Onge, H; Yu, L; Lymn, R W

    1976-03-01

    Low angle x-ray diffraction patterns were obtained from resting and activated frog sartorius muscles by means of a position-sensitive detector. Although the intensity ratio I10/I11 decreased many-fold upon activation, it was nearly the same during isometric and isotonic contraction. Thus, motion has a much smaller effect on the low order equatorial pattern than the transition from rest to activity. Analysis of the 10 and 11 reflections separately showed that I10 and I11 change reciprocally upon activation, and that they both increase by a small amount in the transition from isometric to isotonic contraction. If the intensity ratio can be taken as a measure of cross-bridge number, the results provide evidence that the drop in force in an actively shortening muscle is due primarily to the influence of motion on the configuration, rather than the number, of cross-bridges. PMID:1062793

  19. SPECTRAL SURVEY OF X-RAY BRIGHT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM THE ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, Elizabeth; Markowitz, Alex; Rothschild, Richard

    2011-03-15

    Using long-term monitoring data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), we have selected 23 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with sufficient brightness and overall observation time to derive broadband X-ray spectra from 3 to {approx}>100 keV. Our sample includes mainly radio-quiet Seyferts, as well as seven radio-loud sources. Given the longevity of the RXTE mission, the greater part of our data is spread out over more than a decade, providing truly long-term average spectra and eliminating inconsistencies arising from variability. We present long-term average values of absorption, Fe line parameters, Compton reflection strengths, and photon indices, as well as fluxes and luminosities for the hard and very hard energy bands, 2-10 keV and 20-100 keV, respectively. We find tentative evidence for high-energy rollovers in three of our objects. We improve upon previous surveys of the very hard X-ray energy band in terms of accuracy and sensitivity, particularly with respect to confirming and quantifying the Compton reflection component. This survey is meant to provide a baseline for future analysis with respect to the long-term averages for these sources and to cement the legacy of RXTE, and especially its High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment, as a contributor to AGN spectral science.

  20. X-ray position detector and implementation in a mirror pointing servo system

    DOEpatents

    Rabedeau, Thomas A.; Van Campen, Douglas G.; Stefan, Peter M.

    2016-04-05

    An X-ray beam position and stability detector is provided having a first metal blade collinear with a second metal blade, where an edge of the first metal blade is opposite an edge of the second metal blade, where the first metal blade edge and the second metal blade edge are disposed along a centerline with respect to each other, where the metal blades are capable of photoelectron emission when exposed to an x-ray beam, a metal coating on the metal blades that is capable of enhancing the photoelectron emission, or suppressing energy-resonant contaminants, or enhancing the photoelectron emission and suppressing energy-resonant contaminants, a background shielding element having an electrode capable of suppressing photoelectron emission from spurious x-rays not contained in an x-ray beam of interest, and a photoelectron emission detector having an amplifier capable of detecting the photoelectron emission as a current signal.

  1. With mirrors and finesse, labs domesticate the x-ray laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hellemans, A.

    1996-07-05

    Space beam weapons and unlimited energy from fusion may have been pipe dreams of the 1980s. But today these dreams are giving birth to practical laboratory tools: tabletop x-ray lasers that may open up whole new areas of chemistry and biology. The first x-ray lasers were energized by nuclear explosions or jolts of light from giant glass lasers built for fusion experiments-hardly bench-top equipment. Now, says Joseph Nilsen, a physicist at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), {open_quotes}several small university-size places are actually making a lot of progress toward tabletop lasers people can use every day.{close_quotes} This article highlight progress towards cheap ubiquitous X-ray lasers as described at the 5th International Conference on X-ray Lasers.

  2. Development of Accurate Structure for Mounting and Aligning Thin-Foil X-Ray Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heilmann, Ralf K.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this work was to improve the assembly accuracy for foil x-ray optics as produced by the high-energy astrophysics group at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Two main design choices lead to an alignment concept that was shown to improve accuracy well within the requirements currently pursued by the Constellation-X Spectroscopy X-Ray Telescope (SXT).

  3. Reconstruction of an astigmatic hard X-ray beam and alignment of K-B mirrors from ptychographic coherent diffraction data.

    PubMed

    Kewish, Cameron M; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Liu, Chian; Qian, Jun; Shi, Bing; Benson, Christa; Khounsary, Ali M; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Bunk, Oliver; Fienup, James R; Macrander, Albert T; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2010-10-25

    We have used coherent X-ray diffraction experiments to characterize both the 1-D and 2-D foci produced by nanofocusing Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) mirrors, and we find agreement. Algorithms related to ptychography were used to obtain a 3-D reconstruction of a focused hard X-ray beam waist, using data measured when the mirrors were not optimally aligned. Considerable astigmatism was evident in the reconstructed complex wavefield. Comparing the reconstructed wavefield for a single mirror with a geometrical projection of the wavefront errors expected from optical metrology data allowed us to diagnose a 40 μrad misalignment in the incident angle of the first mirror, which had occurred during the experiment. Good agreement between the reconstructed wavefront obtained from the X-ray data and off-line metrology data obtained with visible light demonstrates the usefulness of the technique as a metrology and alignment tool for nanofocusing X-ray optics. PMID:21164684

  4. X-ray monochromator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An x-ray monochromator is described, wherin a housing supports a plurality of mirrors forming a plurality of opposed mirror faces in parallel with each other and having thereon multilayer coatings, with each of said pairs of mirror faces being provided with identical coatings which are different from the coatings on the other pairs of mirror faces such that each pair of mirror faces has a peak x-ray reflection at a different wavelength regime. The housing is moveable to bring into a polychromatic x-ray beam that pair of mirror faces having the best x-ray reflection for the desired wavelength, with the mirrors being pivotable to move the mirror faces to that angle of incidence at which the peak reflectivity of the desired wavelength x-rays occurs.

  5. Studies of the moisture absorption of thin carbon fiber reinforced plastic substrates for x-ray mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, Satoshi; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Kurihara, Daichi; Yoshioka, Kenya; Nomura, Mizuki; Ogi, Keiji; Tomita, Yuuki; Mita, Tomoki; Kunieda, Hideyo; Matsumoto, Hironori; Miyazawa, Takuya; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Iwase, Toshihiro; Maejima, Masato; Shima, Naoki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Hamada, Takayoshi; Ishida, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiromichi; Kishimoto, Kazuaki; Utsunomiya, Shin; Kamiya, Tomohiro

    2015-07-01

    We study a lightweight x-ray mirror with a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) substrate for next-generation x-ray satellites. For tightly nested x-ray mirrors, such as those on the Suzaku and ASTRO-H telescopes, CFRP is the suitable substrate material because it has a higher strength-to-weight ratio and forming flexibility than those of metals. In flat CFRP substrate fabrication, the surface waviness has a root mean square (RMS) of ˜1 μm in the best products. The RMS approximately reaches a value consistent with the RMS of the mold used for the forming. We study the effect of moisture absorption using accelerated aging tests in three environments. The diffusivity of the CFRP substrate at 60°C and at relative humidity of 100% is ˜9.7×10-4 mm2.h-1, and the acceleration rate to the laboratory environment was 180 times higher. We also develop co-curing functional sheets with low water-vapor transmissivity on the CFRP substrate. Co-curing the sheets successfully reduced the moisture absorption rate by 440 times compared to the un-co-cured substrate. Details of the CFRP substrate fabrication and moisture absorption tests are also reported.

  6. Surface finish quality of the outer AXAF mirror pair based on X-ray measurements of the VETA-I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, John P.; Schwartz, Daniel; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Van Speybroeck, Leon; Zhao, Ping

    1993-01-01

    We employ the X-ray measurements of the VETA-I taken at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to extract information about the surface finish quality of the outermost pair of AXAF mirrors. The particular measurements we consider are 1D scans of the core of the point response function (PRF) (FWHM scans), the encircled energy as a function of radius, and 1D scans of the wings of the PRF. We discuss briefly our raytrace model which incorporates the numerous effects present in the VETA-I test, such as the finite source distance, the size and shape of the X-ray source, the residual gravitational distortions of the optic, the despace of the VETA-I, and particulate contamination. We show how the data constrain the amplitude of mirror surface deviations for spatial frequencies greater than about 0.1/mm. Constraints on the average amplitude of circumferential slope errors are derived as well.

  7. Surface finish quality of the outer AXAF mirror pair based on x ray measurements of the VETA-I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, John P.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Vanspeybroeck, Leon; Zhao, Ping

    1992-01-01

    We employ the X-ray measurements of the VETA-I taken at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to extract information about the surface finish quality of the outermost pair of AXAF mirrors. The particular measurements we consider are one dimensional scans of the core of the point response function (PRF) (full width half maximum (FWHM) scans), the encircled energy as a function of radius, and one dimensional scans of the wings of the PRF. We discuss briefly our ray trace model which incorporates the numerous effects present in the VETA-I test, such as the finite source distance, the size and shape of the X-ray source, the residual gravitational distortions of the optic, the despace of the VETA-I, and particulate contamination. We show how the data constrain the amplitude of mirror surface deviations for spatial frequencies greater than about 0.1 mm(exp -1). Constraints on the average amplitude of circumferential slope errors are derived as well.

  8. Development of High Resolution Mirrors and Cd-Zn-Te Detectors for Hard X-ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian D.; Speegle, Chet O.; Gaskin, Jessica; Sharma, Dharma; Engelhaupt, Darell; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe the fabrication and implementation of a high-resolution conical, grazing- incidence, hard X-ray (20-70 keV) telescope. When flown aboard stratospheric balloons, these mirrors are used to image cosmic sources such as supernovae, neutron stars, and quasars. The fabrication process involves generating super-polished mandrels, mirror shell electroforming, and mirror testing. The cylindrical mandrels consist of two conical segments; each segment is approximately 305 mm long. These mandrels are first, precision ground to within approx. 1.0 micron straightness along each conical segment and then lapped and polished to less than 0.5 micron straightness. Each mandrel segment is the super-polished to an average surface roughness of approx. 3.25 angstrom rms. By mirror shell replication, this combination of good figure and low surface roughness has enabled us to achieve 15 arcsec, confirmed by X-ray measurements in the Marshall Space Flight Center 102 meter test facility. To image the focused X-rays requires a focal plane detector with appropriate spatial resolution. For 15 arcsec optics of 6 meter focal length, this resolution must be around 200 microns. In addition, the detector must have a high efficiency, relatively high energy resolution, and low background. We are currently developing Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride fine-pixel detectors for this purpose. The detectors under study consist of a 16x16 pixel array with a pixel pitch of 300 microns and are 1 mm and 2 mm thick. At 60 keV, the measured energy resolution is around 2%.

  9. X-ray Crystal Structure of Divalent Metal-Activated β-xylosidase, RS223BX.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Douglas B; Braker, Jay D; Wagschal, Kurt; Lee, Charles C; Chan, Victor J; Dubrovska, Ievgeniia; Anderson, Spencer; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw

    2015-10-01

    We report the X-ray crystal structure of a glycoside hydrolase family 43 β-xylosidase, RS223BX, which is strongly activated by the addition of divalent metal cations. The 2.69 Å structure reveals that the Ca(2+) cation is located at the back of the active-site pocket. The Ca(2+) is held in the active site by the carboxylate of D85, an "extra" acid residue in comparison to other GH43 active sites. The Ca(2+) is in close contact with a histidine imidazole, which in turn is in contact with the catalytic base (D15) thus providing a mechanism for stabilizing the carboxylate anion of the base and achieve metal activation. The active-site pocket is mirrored by an "inactive-site" pocket of unknown function that resides on the opposite side of the monomer. PMID:26201482

  10. Trace Element Mapping of a Biological Specimen by a Full-Field X-ray Fluorescence Imaging Microscope with a Wolter Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, Masato; Yamada, Norimitsu; Ishino, Toyoaki; Namiki, Takashi; Watanabe, Norio; Aoki, Sadao

    2007-01-19

    A full-field X-ray fluorescence imaging microscope with a Wolter mirror was applied to the element mapping of alfalfa seeds. The X-ray fluorescence microscope was built at the Photon Factory BL3C2 (KEK). X-ray fluorescence images of several growing stages of the alfalfa seeds were obtained. X-ray fluorescence energy spectra were measured with either a solid state detector or a CCD photon counting method. The element distributions of iron and zinc which were included in the seeds were obtained using a photon counting method.

  11. Cr/B4C multilayer mirrors: Study of interfaces and X-ray reflectance

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Burcklen, C.; Soufli, R.; Gullikson, E.; Meltchakov, E.; Dennetiere, D.; Polack, F.; Capitanio, B.; Thomasset, M.; Jerome, A.; de Rossi, S.; et al

    2016-03-24

    Here, we present an experimental study of the effect of layer interfaces on the x-ray reflectance in Cr/B4C multilayer interference coatings with layer thicknesses ranging from 0.7 nm to 5.4 nm. The multilayers were deposited by magnetron sputtering and by ion beam sputtering. Grazing incidence x-ray reflectometry, soft x-ray reflectometry, and transmission electron microscopy reveal asymmetric multilayer structures with a larger B4C-on-Cr interface, which we modeled with a 1–1.5 nm thick interfacial layer. Reflectance measurements in the vicinity of the Cr L2,3 absorption edge demonstrate fine structure that is not predicted by simulations using the currently tabulated refractive index (opticalmore » constants) values for Cr.« less

  12. Cr/B4C multilayer mirrors: Study of interfaces and X-ray reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burcklen, C.; Soufli, R.; Dennetiere, D.; Polack, F.; Capitanio, B.; Gullikson, E.; Meltchakov, E.; Thomasset, M.; Jérome, A.; de Rossi, S.; Delmotte, F.

    2016-03-01

    We present an experimental study of the effect of layer interfaces on the x-ray reflectance in Cr/B4C multilayer interference coatings with layer thicknesses ranging from 0.7 nm to 5.4 nm. The multilayers were deposited by magnetron sputtering and by ion beam sputtering. Grazing incidence x-ray reflectometry, soft x-ray reflectometry, and transmission electron microscopy reveal asymmetric multilayer structures with a larger B4C-on-Cr interface, which we modeled with a 1-1.5 nm thick interfacial layer. Reflectance measurements in the vicinity of the Cr L2,3 absorption edge demonstrate fine structure that is not predicted by simulations using the currently tabulated refractive index (optical constants) values for Cr.

  13. Multimodal hard x-ray nanoprobe facility by nested Montel mirrors aimed for 40nm resolution at Taiwan Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Gung-Chian; Chang, Shi-Hung; Chen, Bo-Yi; Chen, Huang-Yeh; Lin, Bi-Hsuan; Tseng, Shao-Chin; Lee, Chian-Yao; Wu, Shao-Yun; Tang, Mau-Tsu

    2016-01-01

    The hard X-ray nanoprobe facility at Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) provides multimodal X-ray detections, including XRF, XAS, XEOL, projection microscope, CDI, etc. Resulting from the large numerical aperture obtained by utilizing nested Montel mirrors, the beamline with a moderate length 75 meters can conduct similar performance with those beamlines longer than 100 meters. The mirrors are symmetrically placed with a 45 degrees cut. The beamline optics is thus designed to take the advantage of the symmetry of mirrors such that a round focal spot is accomplished. The size and the divergence of the focus spot are simulated around 40 nm and 6.29 mrad, respectively. The whole facility including the beamline and the stations will be operated under vacuum to preserve the photon coherence as well as to prevent the system from unnecessary environmental interference. A SEM in close cooperation with laser interferometers is equipped to precisely locate the position of the sample. This endstation is scheduled to be commissioned in the fall of 2016.

  14. High-accuracy Aspheric X-ray Mirror Metrology Using Software Configurable Optical Test System/deflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Run; Su, Peng; Burge, James H.; Huang, Lei; Idir, Mourad

    2015-08-05

    The Software Configurable Optical Test System (SCOTS) uses deflectometry to measure surface slopes of general optical shapes without the need for additional null optics. Careful alignment of test geometry and calibration of inherent system error improve the accuracy of SCOTS to a level where it competes with interferometry. We report a SCOTS surface measurement of an off-axis superpolished elliptical x-ray mirror that achieves <1 nm<1 nm root-mean-square accuracy for the surface measurement with low-order term included.

  15. Development of a numerically controlled elastic emission machining system for fabricating mandrels of ellipsoidal focusing mirrors used in soft x-ray microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Yoshinori; Kume, Takehiro; Motoyama, Hiroto; Hiraguri, Kentaro; Hashizume, Hirokazu; Mimura, Hidekazu

    2013-09-01

    Ellipsoidal mirrors are one of the most promising types of X-ray mirror, because the mirror can focus X-rays to nanometer size with a large aperture and no chromatic aberration. However, so far ideal ellipsoidal mirrors cannot be realized by any manufacturing methods. One of the reasons is there is no fabrication method to process their inside surface with a diameter of several millimeters with nanometer-level accuracy. We propose and develop a manufacturing process of the ellipsoidal mirror. First, a master which has the reversed shape is prepared using grinding, polishing and Elastic Emission Machining (EEM). EEM can finish the surface shape to within 2nm (RMS). Then, the ellipsoidal mirror is produced by replicating the surface using an electroforming deposition method. By conducting the process without any stress at room temperature, replicating the surface roughness and shape with nanometer order accuracy is possible. In this paper, we report the current status of manufacturing of the ellipsoidal mirror.

  16. Enhancement of soft X-ray reflectivity and interface stability in nitridated Pd/Y multilayer mirrors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dechao; Huang, Qiushi; Wang, Yiwen; Li, Pin; Wen, Mingwu; Jonnard, Philippe; Giglia, Angelo; Kozhevnikov, Igor V; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Zhong; Wang, Zhanshan

    2015-12-28

    Pd/Y multilayer mirrors operating in the soft X-ray region are characterized by a high theoretical reflectance, reaching 65% at normal incidence in the 8-12 nm wavelength range. However, a severe intermixing of neighboring Pd and Y layers results in an almost total disappearance of the interfaces inside the multilayer structures fabricated by direct current magnetron sputtering and thus a dramatic reflectivity decrease. Based on grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the stability of the interfaces in Pd/Y multilayer structures can be essentially improved by adding a small amount of nitrogen (4-8%) to the working gas (Ar). High resolution transmission electron microscopy shows that the interlayer width is only 0.9 nm and 0.6 nm for Y(N)-on-Pd(N) and Pd(N)-on-Y(N) interfaces, respectively. A well-defined crystalline texture of YN (200) is observed on the electron diffraction pattern. As a result, the measured reflectance of the Pd(N)/Y(N) multilayer achieves 30% at λ = 9.3 nm. The peak reflectivity value is limited by the remaining interlayers and the formation of the YN compound inside the yttrium layers, resulting in an increased absorption. PMID:26831970

  17. Reconstruction of quasimonochromatic images for multispectral x-ray imaging with a pinhole array and a flat Bragg mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, N.; Barbee, T. W.; Koch, J. A.; Mancini, R. C.; Welser, L. A.

    2006-08-15

    We have developed a software package for reconstruction of quasimonochromatic images from a multiple monochromatic x-ray imager for inertial confinement fusion implosions. The instrument consists of a pinhole array, a multilayer Bragg mirror, and an image detector. The pinhole array projects hundreds of images onto the detector after reflection off the multilayer Bragg mirror, which introduces spectral dispersion along the reflection axis. The quasimonochromatic images of line emissions and continuum emissions can be used for measurement of temperature and density maps of implosion plasmas. In this article, we describe a computer-aided processing technique for systematic reconstruction of quasimonochromatic images from raw data. This technique provides flexible spectral bandwidth selection and allows systematic subtraction of continuum emission from line emission images.

  18. GSFC Contributions to the NATO X-ray Astronomy Institute, Erice, July 1979. [X-ray spectra of supernova remants, galactic X-ray sources, active galactic nuclei, and clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of X-ray astronomical spectroscopy in general is presented and results obtained by HEAO 1 and 2 as well as earlier spacecraft are examined. Particular emphasis is given to the spectra of supernova remnants; galactic binary X-ray sources, cataclysmic variables, bulges, pulsars, and stars; the active nuclei of Seyfert 1 galaxy, BL Lac, and quasars; the diffuse X-ray background; and galactic clusters.

  19. The effects of epoxy shrinkage on the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility Technology Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    A method is shown analytically which reduces the effects of epoxy shrinkage for an ultra-high precision X-ray telescope to within the system error budget. The three-dimensional shrinkage effects are discussed with reference to this telescope. The results of the analysis point to the use of an interrupted rather than continuous bond line as the best solution. Discussion of the finite element modelling techniques is included.

  20. Activation of oncogenes by radon progeny and x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The overall goal of this proposal is to study the carcinogenic effect of both high and low LET radiation at the molecular level, utilizing techniques developed in molecular biology, cancer cell biology and radiation biology. The underlying assumption is that malignant transformation of normal cells is a multistep process requiring two or more molecular events in the genomic DNA. We hypothesize that radiation may induce such events in one or more steps of the multistep process. We will use in vitro models of transformation that reproduce the stepwise progression of normal cells toward the transformed phenotype and ask whether radiation can provide the necessary activating function at discrete steps along this path. Our strategy involves transfecting into normal primary cells a variety of cloned oncogenes that are known to supply only some of the functions necessary for full transformation. These partially transformed'' cells will be the targets for irradiation by x-rays and alpha particles. The results will provide the basis for assessing the ability of ionizing radiation to activate oncogenic functions that complement'' the oncogene already present in the transfected cells and produce the fully transformed phenotype. Progress is described. 121 refs.

  1. A combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer lens for sub-10 nm x-ray focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhlandt, A.; Krueger, S. P.; Osterhoff, M.; Giewekemeyer, K.; Salditt, T.; Liese, T.; Radisch, V.; Krebs, H. U.

    2012-03-15

    We have used a combined optical system of a high gain elliptic Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror system (KB) and a multilayer Laue lens (MLL) positioned in the focal plane of the KB for hard x-rays nano-focusing. The two-step focusing scheme is based on a high acceptance and high gain elliptical mirror with moderate focal length and a MLL with ultra-short focal length. Importantly, fabrication constraints, i.e. in mirror polishing and bending, as well as MLL deposition can be significantly relaxed, since (a) the mirror focus in the range of 200-500 nm is sufficient, and (b) the number of layers of the MLL can be correspondingly small. First demonstrations of this setup at the coherence beamline of the PETRA III storage ring yield a highly divergent far-field diffraction pattern, from which the autocorrelation function of the near-field intensity distribution was obtained. The results show that the approach is well suited to reach smallest spot sizes in the sub-10nm range at high flux.

  2. Very low luminosity active galaxies and the X-ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, M.; Soltan, A.; Keel, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    The properties of very low luminosity active galactic nuclei are not well studied, and, in particular, their possible contribution to the diffuse X-ray background is not known. In the present investigation, an X-ray luminosity function for the range from 10 to the 39th to 10 to the 42.5th ergs/s is constructed. The obtained X-ray luminosity function is integrated to estimate the contribution of these very low luminosity active galaxies to the diffuse X-ray background. The construction of the X-ray luminosity function is based on data obtained by Keel (1983) and some simple assumptions about optical and X-ray properties.

  3. High-Sensitivity X-ray Polarimetry with Amorphous Silicon Active-Matrix Pixel Proportional Counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. K.; Deines-Jones, P.; Jahoda, K.; Ready, S. E.; Street, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    Photoelectric X-ray polarimeters based on pixel micropattern gas detectors (MPGDs) offer order-of-magnitude improvement in sensitivity over more traditional techniques based on X-ray scattering. This new technique places some of the most interesting astronomical observations within reach of even a small, dedicated mission. The most sensitive instrument would be a photoelectric polarimeter at the focus of 2 a very large mirror, such as the planned XEUS. Our efforts are focused on a smaller pathfinder mission, which would achieve its greatest sensitivity with large-area, low-background, collimated polarimeters. We have recently demonstrated a MPGD polarimeter using amorphous silicon thin-film transistor (TFT) readout suitable for the focal plane of an X-ray telescope. All the technologies used in the demonstration polarimeter are scalable to the areas required for a high-sensitivity collimated polarimeter. Leywords: X-ray polarimetry, particle tracking, proportional counter, GEM, pixel readout

  4. Progress report on air bearing slumping of thin glass mirrors for x-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schattenburg, Mark L.; Chalifoux, Brandon; DeTienne, Michael D.; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Zuo, Heng

    2015-09-01

    The successful NuSTAR telescope was fabricated with thin glass mirrors formed into conic shapes by thermal slumping of thin glass sheets onto high precision mandrels. While mirrors generated by this process have very good figure, the best mirrors to date have a resolution limited to ~7 arc sec, due primarily to mid-range scale spatial frequency errors. These mid-range errors are believed to be due to clumping and particulates in the anti-stick coatings used to prevent sticking between mandrel and mirrors. We have developed a new slumping process which avoids sticking and surface-induced mid-range error by floating hot glass substrates between a pair of porous air bearing mandrels through which compressed nitrogen is forced. We report on the design and testing of an improved air bearing slumping tool and show results of short and long slumping cycles.

  5. Influence of surface roughness on the efficiency of X-ray mirrors with whispering gallery modes

    SciTech Connect

    Kozhevnikov, I. V.

    2009-03-15

    The influence of roughness on the propagation of an X-ray beam along a concave surface in the whispering gallery mode has been investigated. The transfer equation of beam intensity is derived and the conditions of concave surface smoothness necessary for effective beam rotation are obtained. It is shown that the influence of roughness on the beam rotation efficiency is not very strong: the roughness height should not exceed several nanometers. The point is that the scattered radiation is not lost but rotated by a concave surface and makes a significant contribution to the intensity of the output beam.

  6. The cosmological evolution and luminosity function of X-ray selected active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccacaro, T.; Gioia, I. M.; Avni, Y.; Giommi, P.; Griffiths, R. E.; Liebert, J.; Stocke, J.; Danziger, J.

    1983-01-01

    The cosmological evolution and the X-ray luminosity function of X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are derived and discussed. The sample used consists of 31 AGNs extracted from a fully identified sample of X-ray sources from the Einstein Observatory Medium Sensitivity Survey and is therefore exclusively defined by its X-ray properties. The distribution in space is found to be strongly nonuniform. The amount of cosmological evolution required by the X-ray data is derived in the framework of pure luminosity evolution and is found to be smaller than the amount determined from optically selected samples. The X-ray luminosity function is derived. It can be satisfactorily represented by a single power law only over a limited range of absolute luminosities. Evidence that the luminosity function flattens at low luminosity or steepens at high luminosity, or both, is presented and discussed.

  7. Multilayer X-ray mirrors - Interfacial roughness, scattering, and image quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiller, Eberhard; Stearns, Daniel; Krumrey, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Scattering of the multilayer coatings used for our normal incidence soft X-ray telescope at a wavelength of 63.5 A has been measured at 1.54 A and grazing angles of incidence and at soft X-rays near normal incidence. Furthermore, the edge of the moon is used as a known test target to estimate the amount of scattering in the arcsec range from images obtained on the date of the solar eclipse on July 11, 1991. The internal surfaces of the coating are inspected by high-resolution electron microscopy. A theoretical model describing the evolution and replication of roughness from layer to layer throughout the structure, which is in agreement with all experimental data, is presented. We find that practically all roughness caused by the growth of the multilayer structure occurs at spatial frequencies which are too high to produce scattering. The substrate roughness is replicated at lower spatial frequencies which might produce scattering within the field of view of an instrument. However, roughness in this range is below the 0.5 A level, again resulting in insignificant amounts of scatter.

  8. Radio observations of a hard X-ray selected sample of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unger, S. W.; Lawrence, A.; Wilson, A. S.; Elvis, M.; Wright, A. E.

    1987-01-01

    Radio observations of a hard X-ray selected sample of active galaxies obtained with the VLA and Parkes radio telescopes are discussed, and the ratio of the radio to X-ray flux density is used to determine the degree of radio-loudness of the galaxies. A continuous distribution of the degree of radio loudness is found amongst the sample galaxies, and no evidence for distinct radio-quiet and radio-loud populations is noted. The X-ray and radio luminosity is shown to be nonlinearly correlated, with the radio-loud objects all having high X-ray luminosity.

  9. Combined X-Ray and mm-Wave Observations of Radio Quiet Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behar, E.

    2016-06-01

    A connection between the X-ray and radio sources in radio quiet active galaxies (AGNs) will be demonstrated. High radio frequency, i.e., mm-wave observations are promising probes of the X-ray emitting inner regions of the accretion disks in radio quiet AGNs. An argument for simultaneous observations in X-rays and in mm waves will be made, in order to promote these as one of the future science goals of X-ray and AGN astronomy in the next decade. Preliminary results from an exploratory campaign with several space and ground based telescopes will be presented.

  10. The MEL-X project at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: a mirror-based delay line for x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardini, Tom; Hill, Randy; Decker, Todd; Alameda, Jennifer; Soufli, Regina; Aquila, Andy; Guillet, Serge; Boutet, Sébastien; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.

    2015-09-01

    At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in collaboration with the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) we are developing a mirror-based delay line for x-rays (MEL-X) to enable x-ray pump/x-ray probe experiments at Free Electron Lasers (XFELs). The goal of this project is the development and deployment of a proof-of-principle delay line featuring coated x-ray optics. The four-mirror design of the MEL-X is motivated by the need for ease of alignment and use. In order to simplify the overlap of the pump and the probe beam after each delay time change, a scheme involving super-polished rails and mirror-to-motor decoupling has been adopted. The MEL-X, used in combination with a bright pulsed source like LCLS, features a capability for a high intensity pump beam. Its Iridium coating allows it to work at hard x-ray energies all the way up to 9 keV, with a probe beam transmission of 35% up to 8keV, and 14% at 9keV. The delay time can be tailored to each particular experiment, with a nominal range of 70 - 350 fs for this prototype. The MEL-X, combined with established techniques such as x-ray diffraction, absorption or emission, could provide new insights on ultra-fast transitions in highly excited states of matter.

  11. Nearly diffraction-limited X-ray focusing with variable-numerical-aperture focusing optical system based on four deformable mirrors

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Satoshi; Nakamori, Hiroki; Goto, Takumi; Kimura, Takashi; Khakurel, Krishna P.; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Sano, Yasuhisa; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Nishino, Yoshinori; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the electrostatic and electromagnetic lenses used in electron microscopy, most X-ray focusing optical systems have fixed optical parameters with constant numerical apertures (NAs). This lack of adaptability has significantly limited application targets. In the research described herein, we developed a variable-NA X-ray focusing system based on four deformable mirrors, two sets of Kirkpatrick–Baez-type focusing mirrors, in order to control the focusing size while keeping the position of the focus unchanged. We applied a mirror deformation procedure using optical/X-ray metrology for offline/online adjustments. We performed a focusing test at a SPring-8 beamline and confirmed that the beam size varied from 108 nm to 560 nm (165 nm to 1434 nm) in the horizontal (vertical) direction by controlling the NA while maintaining diffraction-limited conditions. PMID:27097853

  12. Nearly diffraction-limited X-ray focusing with variable-numerical-aperture focusing optical system based on four deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Satoshi; Nakamori, Hiroki; Goto, Takumi; Kimura, Takashi; Khakurel, Krishna P.; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Sano, Yasuhisa; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Nishino, Yoshinori; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2016-04-01

    Unlike the electrostatic and electromagnetic lenses used in electron microscopy, most X-ray focusing optical systems have fixed optical parameters with constant numerical apertures (NAs). This lack of adaptability has significantly limited application targets. In the research described herein, we developed a variable-NA X-ray focusing system based on four deformable mirrors, two sets of Kirkpatrick–Baez-type focusing mirrors, in order to control the focusing size while keeping the position of the focus unchanged. We applied a mirror deformation procedure using optical/X-ray metrology for offline/online adjustments. We performed a focusing test at a SPring-8 beamline and confirmed that the beam size varied from 108 nm to 560 nm (165 nm to 1434 nm) in the horizontal (vertical) direction by controlling the NA while maintaining diffraction-limited conditions.

  13. Nearly diffraction-limited X-ray focusing with variable-numerical-aperture focusing optical system based on four deformable mirrors.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Satoshi; Nakamori, Hiroki; Goto, Takumi; Kimura, Takashi; Khakurel, Krishna P; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Sano, Yasuhisa; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Nishino, Yoshinori; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the electrostatic and electromagnetic lenses used in electron microscopy, most X-ray focusing optical systems have fixed optical parameters with constant numerical apertures (NAs). This lack of adaptability has significantly limited application targets. In the research described herein, we developed a variable-NA X-ray focusing system based on four deformable mirrors, two sets of Kirkpatrick-Baez-type focusing mirrors, in order to control the focusing size while keeping the position of the focus unchanged. We applied a mirror deformation procedure using optical/X-ray metrology for offline/online adjustments. We performed a focusing test at a SPring-8 beamline and confirmed that the beam size varied from 108 nm to 560 nm (165 nm to 1434 nm) in the horizontal (vertical) direction by controlling the NA while maintaining diffraction-limited conditions. PMID:27097853

  14. X-Ray Activity in the Open Cluster IC 4665

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giamapapa, Mark S.; Prosser, Charles F.; Fleming, Thomas A.

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of a joint ROSAT High Resolution Imager (HRI) and optical investigation of the open cluster IC 4665. The ROSAT data contains detections for 28 stellar sources in the field, including 22 cluster members and candidate members spanning the color range -0.18 less than or equal to (B - V(sub o)) less than or equal to +1.63 (approx. B3 - M3). Upper limits are given for the remaining members (or candidate members) in the HRI field. Keck HIRES spectra have been obtained that yield radial and rotational velocity measures, respectively, for faint, low mass candidate members located within the field of the ROSAT HRI observation. In addition, photometry of possible optical counterparts to previously uncatalogued X-ray sources in the HRI field is presented. The trends in X-ray properties with (B - V) color in IC 4665 are found to be quite similar to that for other, more nearby young clusters such as the Pleiades and alpha Persei. In particular, a maximum in normalized X-ray luminosity of log (L(sub x)/L(sub bol)) approx. equal 3 is observed, beginning in the color range of (B - V)(sub o) = 0.7 - 0.8. This is similar to the corresponding color range among Pleiades members, in agreement with the earlier estimate, that the age of IC 4665 is similar to the age of the Pleiades. The correlation of rotation and X-ray emission levels is consistent with that in other young clusters. Among the high mass stars in IC 4665, five B stars are detected as X-ray sources. Of these, one is a spectroscopic binary while the remaining objects are apparently single staxs. The level of intrinsic X-ray emission observed in the rapidly rotating (v sini greater than 200 km/ s), single B stars is consistent with an origin due to shock heating of the ambient medium by radiatively driven, rotationally enhanced winds. On the basis of these observations and the results for other clusters, we argue that observed levels of X-ray emission in high mass stars of log (L(sub x)/L(sub bol

  15. Outflowing X-ray corona in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junxian; Liu, Teng; Yang, Huan; Zhu, Feifan; Zhou, Youyuan

    2015-08-01

    Hard X-ray emission in radio-quiet AGNs is believed to be produced via inverse Compton scattering by hot and compact corona near the super massive black hole. However the origin and physical properties of the coronae, including geometry, kinematics and dynamics, yet remain poorly known. Taking [OIV] 25.89um emission line as an isotropic indicator of AGN's intrinsic luminosity, we compare the intrinsic corona X-ray emission between Seyfert 1 and Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies, which are viewed at different inclinations according to the unification scheme. We find that Seyfert 1 galaxies are brighter in "absorption-corrected" 2-10 keV emission by a factor of ~2.8, comparing with Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies. The Seyfert 1 and Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies follow a statistically identical correlation between the absorption-corrected 2-10 keV luminosity and the SWIFT BAT 14-195 keV luminosity, indicating that our absorption correction to the 2-10 keV flux is sufficient. The difference between the two populations thus can not be attributed to X-ray absorption, and instead implies an intrinsic anisotropy in the corona X-ray emission. This striking anisotropy of X-ray emission can be explained by a bipolar outflowing corona with a bulk velocity of ~0.3-0.5c. This would provide a natural link between the so-called coronae and weak jets in these systems. We also show that how this study would affect our understanding to the nature of mid-infrared emission in AGNs and the properties of dusty torus. Furthermore, such anisotropy implies that, contrary to previous understanding based on the assumption of isotropic corona emission, hard X-ray AGN surveys are biased against type 2 AGNs even after absorption-correction, and careful correction for this effect is required to measure the obscured fraction from X-ray surveys. Other interesting consequences of this discovery will also be discussed.

  16. Slumping technique for the manufacturing of a representative x-ray grazing incidence mirror module for future space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghigo, Mauro; Proserpio, Laura; Basso, Stefano; Citterio, Oberto; Civitani, Marta M.; Pareschi, Giovanni; Salmaso, Bianca; Sironi, Giorgia; Spiga, Daniele; Tagliaferri, Giampiero; Vecchi, Gabriele; Zambra, Alberto; Parodi, Giancarlo; Martelli, Francesco; Gallieni, Daniele; Tintori, Matteo; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Ferrario, Ivan; Burwitz, Vadim

    2013-09-01

    The Astronomical Observatory of Brera (INAF-OAB, Italy), with the financing support of the European Space Agency (ESA), has concluded a study regarding a glass shaping technology for the production of grazing incidence segmented x-ray optics. This technique uses a hot slumping phase, in which pressure is actively applied on thin glass foils being shaped, to form a cylindrical approximation of Wolter I x-ray segments, and a subsequent cold slumping phase, in which the final Wolter I profile is then freeze into the glass segments during their integration in elemental X-ray Optical Units. The final goal of this study was the manufacturing of a prototype containing a number of slumped pair plates (meaning parabola and hyperbola couples) having representative dimensions to be tested both in UV light and in x-rays at the Panter facility (Germany). In this paper, the INAF-OAB slumping technique, comprising a shaping step and an integration step is described, together with the results obtained on the manufactured prototype modules: the first prototype was aimed to test the ad-hoc designed and built semi-automatic Integration MAchine (IMA) and debug its control software. The most complete module comprises 40 slumped segments of Schott D263 glass type of dimension 200 mm x 200 mm and thickness of 0.4 mm, slumped on Zerodur K20 mould and stacked together through glued BK7 glass structural ribs to form the first entire x-ray optical module ever built totally composed by glass. A last prototype was aimed at demonstrate the use of Schott glass AF32 type instead of D263. In particular, a new hot slumping experimental set-up is described whose advantage is to permit a better contact between mould and glass during the shaping process. The integration procedure of the slumped segments into the elemental module is also reviewed.

  17. Mirrors for High Resolution X-Ray Optics---Figure Preserving IR/PT Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Olsen, Lawrence; Sharpe, Marton; Numata, Ai; McClelland, Ryan; Saha, Timo; Zhang, Will

    2016-01-01

    Coating stress of 10 - 20 nm of Ir is sufficiently high to distort the figure of arc-second thin lightweight mirrors. For iridium: --Stress sigma 4 GPa for 15 nm film implies 60 Nm integrated stress-- Need less than 3 N/m (or stress less than 200 MPa) for sub-arcsecond optics. Basic Approaches for Mitigation. A. Annealing the film-- Glass can be heat up to 400 C without distortion. Silicon is even more resistant.-- It was found that recovery is limited by residual thermal stress from taking the mirror down from high T. B. Coating bi-layer films with compressive stress with tensile stress. C. Front-and-back coating with magnetron sputtering or atomic layer deposition-- Sputtering involve spanning of substrates. Geometric difference in setup (convexness/concaveness of curved mirrors) does not permit precise front-and-back matching-- Atomic layer deposition can provide a uniform deposition front and back simultaneously.

  18. Design and fabrication of a high precision x-ray deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Audrey; Wirth, Allan; Lintz, Eric; Cavaco, Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    AOA-Xinetics has been developing techniques for shaping grazing incidence optics with surface-normal and surface-parallel electrostrictive Lead magnesium niobate (PMN) actuators bonded to mirror substrates for several years. These actuators are highly reliable; exhibit little to no hysteresis, aging or creep; and can be closely spaced to correct low and mid-spatial frequency errors in a compact package. In this paper we discuss the design and fabrication of a 45cm grazing incidence mirror fitted with 45 PMN actuators and integral strain gauges and temperature sensors that allow sub-nanometer control of the surface figure.

  19. Blazed high-efficiency x-ray diffraction via transmission through arrays of nanometer-scale mirrors.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Ralf K; Ahn, Minseung; Gullikson, Eric M; Schattenburg, Mark L

    2008-06-01

    Diffraction gratings are ubiquitous wavelength dispersive elements for photons as well as for subatomic particles, atoms, and large molecules. They serve as enabling devices for spectroscopy, microscopy, and interferometry in numerous applications across the physical sciences. Transmission gratings are required in applications that demand high alignment and figure error tolerances, low weight and size, or a straight-through zero-order beam. However, photons or particles are often strongly absorbed upon transmission, e.g., in the increasingly important extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray band, leading to low diffraction efficiency. We demonstrate the performance of a critical-angle transmission (CAT) grating in the EUV and soft x-ray band that for the first time combines the advantages of transmission gratings with the superior broadband efficiency of blazed reflection gratings via reflection from nanofabricated periodic arrays of atomically smooth nanometer-thin silicon mirrors at angles below the critical angle for total external reflection. The efficiency of the CAT grating design is not limited to photons, but also opens the door to new, sensitive, and compact experiments and applications in atom and neutron optics, as well as for the efficient diffraction of electrons, ions, or molecules. PMID:18545579

  20. 3-D x-ray mirror metrology with a vertical scanning long trace profiler

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Li, H.; Li, X.; Grindel, M.W.

    1996-09-01

    The long trace profiler (LTP) was originally developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory for the specific purpose of measuring the surface figure of large cylindrical mirrors used at grazing incidence in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. In its original configuration, it could measure only along one line down the center of the cylinder. A single linear profile is often sufficient to gauge the quality of the optical surface on these kinds of mirrors. For some applications it is necessary to measure the topography of the entire surface, not just along one line but over a grid that covers the entire surface area. We have modified a standard LTP to enable measurement of the complete surface of Wolter telescope optics in a vertical configuration. The vertical scanning LTP (VSLTP) is capable of producing a complete 3-D map of the surface topography errors relative to the ideal desired surface on complete segments of paraboloids and hyperboloids. The instrument uses a penta prism assembly to scan the probe beam in the longitudinal direction parallel to the mirror symmetry axis and uses a precision rotary stage to provide scans in the azimuthal direction. A Risley prism pair and a dove prism are used to orient the probe beam in the proper direction for the azimuthal scans. The repeatability of the prototype instrument is better than 20 nm over trace lengths of 35 mm with a slope measurement accuracy of about 1 microradian. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Development of X-Ray Mirror Shaped by Mechanical Bending at NSRL

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Xiaohao; Feng Liangjie; Kang Le; Fan Rong; Pan Guoqiang; Xu Chaoyin; Zhao Dianming

    2007-01-19

    A toroidally bent cylindrical mirror system has been developed for the 4.1-12.4 keV region at NSRL. The design of the bending mechanism of a quasi four-bar bender with compensation of gravity by a method of balance is described in detail as well as its support architecture which is desirable that all degrees of freedom are independently adjustable with a minimum of cross-coupling between adjustments. Simulation on the performance of bending by FEM (Finite Element Method) and measurement results by LTP (Long Trace Profiler) are presented. The thermal effects on optical surface and some ongoing improvement of this system are also discussed briefly.

  2. Normal incidence X-ray telescope power spectra of X-ray emission from solar active regions. I - Observations. II - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Daniel O.; Martens, Petrus C. H.; Golub, Leon

    1993-01-01

    Fourier analysis is applied to very high resolution image of coronal active regions obtained by the Normal Incidence X-Ray Telescope is used to find a broad isotropic power-law spectrum of the spatial distribution of soft X-ray intensities. Magnetic structures of all sizes are present down to the resolution limit of the instrument. Power spectra for the X-ray intensities of a sample of topologically different active regions are found which fall off with increasing wavenumber as 1/k-cubed. A model is presented that relates the basic features of coronal magnetic fluctuations to the subphotospheric hydrodynamic turbulence that generates them. The model is used to find a theoretical power spectrum for the X-ray intensity which falls off with increasing wavenumber as 1/k-cubed. The implications of a turbulent regime in active regions are discussed.

  3. Progress report on using magneto-strictive sputtered thin films to modify the shape of a x-ray telescope mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, Melville P.; Wang, Xiaoli; Cao, Jian; Savoie, Julia; Bellavia, Bridget; Graham, Michael E.; Vaynman, Semyon

    2012-10-01

    There is a basic need both in X-ray astronomy and in synchrotron X-ray and neutron beam optics to be able to modify the shape of an optic via an external source of actuation. We describe a technique of shape modification that can be applied to thin walled (˜ 100-400 micron thickness) electroformed replicated optics or glass optics to improve the near net shape of the mirror as well as the mid-frequency (˜ 2-10 mm length scales) ripple. The process involves sputter deposition of a magnetic smart material (MSM) film onto a magnetically hard material (i.e., one that retains a magnetic field, e.g. the material in hard disk drives). The MSM material exhibits strains about 400 times stronger than ordinary ferromagnetic materials. The deformation process involves a magnetic write head which traverses the surface, and under the guidance of active metrology feedback, locally magnetizes the surface to impart strain where needed. We describe the results of our current progress toward our ultimate goal of improving the angular resolution of grazing incidence optics.

  4. Progress report on using magneto-strictive sputtered thin films to modify the shape of a x-ray telescope mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, Melville P.; Wang, Xiaoli; Cao, Jian; Savoie, Julia; Bellavia, Bridget; Graham, Michael E.; Vaynman, Semyon

    2012-09-01

    There is a basic need both in X-ray astronomy and in synchrotron X-ray optics to be able to modify the shape of an optic via an external source of actuation. We describe a technique of shape modification that can be applied to thin walled (~ 100-400 micron thickness) electroformed replicated optics or glass optics to improve the near net shape of the mirror as well as the mid-frequency (~ 2-10 mm length scales) ripple. The process involves sputter deposition of a magnetic smart material (MSM) film onto a magnetically hard material (i.e., one that retains a magnetic field, e.g. the material in hard disk drives). The MSM material exhibits strains about 400 times stronger than ordinary ferromagnetic materials. The deformation process involves a magnetic write head which traverses the surface, and under the guidance of active metrology feedback, locally magnetizes the surface to impart strain where needed. We describe the results of our current progress toward our ultimate goal of improving the angular resolution of grazing incidence optics.

  5. Preparation and characterization of x-ray mirrors with three single layers of a-C, B4C, and Ni onto two 820-mm long Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Störmer, Michael; Siewert, Frank; Buchheim, Jana; Pilz, Alexander; Kuhlmann, Marion; Ploenjes, Elke; Tiedtke, Kai

    2014-09-01

    Advanced research light sources, such as free-electron lasers, require ultra-precise and long x-ray mirrors that provide high reflectivity, high flux and a wide wavelength range. An X-ray mirror is a combination of a substrate and a coating. The demand for large mirrors has increased during the last few years, since surface finishing technology is able to process longer substrate lengths on the rms-level of a few nanometers. A state-of-the-art X-ray mirror could be coated with more than one single layer to allow a selection of thin-film materials suitable for the large wavelength range of a free-electron laser. Presented here is an X-ray mirror fabrication method to achieve low variation in thickness of less than 1 nm (peak-to-valley) over the whole mirror length of about 1 m. Low figure errors and low roughness are essential for a wave front preserving transport of photons and a high reflectance of a mirror surface. At FLASH II, the new extension of the Free-electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH) at DESY, Germany, the wavelength range will be 4-80 nm. It is further expected that the photon beam will possess average single pulse energy of 1-500 μJ, pulse duration of 10-300 fs (FWHM), and peak power of 1-5 GW. At the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, an in-house designed magnetronsputtering facility enabled us to deposit single layers and multilayers on up to 1.5 m long substrates. Earlier results confirmed the excellent uniformity of X-ray optical coating properties in the tangential and sagittal direction of the mirrors. Moreover, the deposition facility provided the simultaneous fabrication of two mirrors to achieve identical properties. Thin films of amorphous carbon (a-C), boron carbide (B4C) and nickel (Ni) are deposited by means of magnetron sputtering. The thin-film properties were investigated and analyzed by means of X-ray reflectometry (XRR), atomic force (AFM), and interference microscopy. The experimental results were analysed using simulations for the

  6. Deep Extragalactic X-Ray Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, W. N.; Hasinger, G.

    2005-09-01

    Deep surveys of the cosmic X-ray background are reviewed in the context of observational progress enabled by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory and the X-Ray Multi-Mirror Mission-Newton. The sources found by deep surveys are described along with their redshift and luminosity distributions, and the effectiveness of such surveys at selecting active galactic nuclei (AGN) is assessed. Some key results from deep surveys are highlighted, including (a) measurements of AGN evolution and the growth of supermassive black holes, (b) constraints on the demography and physics of high-redshift AGN, (c) the X-ray AGN content of infrared and submillimeter galaxies, and (d) X-ray emission from distant starburst and normal galaxies. We also describe some outstanding problems and future prospects for deep extragalactic X-ray surveys.

  7. Early evolution of an X-ray emitting solar active region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfson, C. J.; Acton, L. W.; Leibacher, J. W.; Roethig, D. T.

    1977-01-01

    The birth and early evolution of a solar active region has been investigated using X-ray observations from the mapping X-ray heliometer on board the OSO-8 spacecraft. X-ray emission is observed within three hours of the first detection of H-alpha plage. At that time, a plasma temperature of four million K in a region having a density on the order of 10 to the 10th power per cu cm is inferred. During the fifty hours following birth almost continuous flares or flare-like X-ray bursts are superimposed on a monotonically increasing base level of X-ray emission produced by the plasma. If the X-rays are assumed to result from heating due to dissipation of current systems or magnetic field reconnection, it may be concluded that flare-like X-ray emission soon after active region birth implies that the magnetic field probably emerges in a stressed or complex configuration.

  8. Design of axisymmetric multi-mirror grazing incidence system to increase the numerical aperture of neutron and X-ray microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Sadao; Watanabe, Norio; Asami, Hiroshi; Shimada, Akihiro

    2016-04-01

    An axisymmetric multi-mirror system for neutron and X-ray microscopes is proposed to increase their numerical aperture and collection efficiency. A Wolter type-I mirror is used as the basis of the multi-mirror system at grazing incidence. The addition of an even number of hyperboloid mirrors to the Wolter type-I mirror can satisfy both an equal optical path length and Abbe's sine condition. The numerical aperture increases in proportion to the number of mirrors. The optical parameters of the system with four tandem mirrors are calculated for neutrons and X-rays with a wavelength of 0.4 nm by assuming that the average grazing angle of incidence is 5.4 mrad and the magnification is 10. The inner diameters of the mirrors are limited to <10 mm considering the total length of the optical system. Tolerance of off-axis distance was calculated using a ray-tracing computer simulation. Ray tracing shows that a blur size <14 nm will be possible at an off-axis displacement of 10 μm.

  9. Vertical scanning long trace profiler: A tool for metrology of X-ray mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Haizhang; Takacs, P.Z.; Oversluizen, T.

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a prototype instrument of the Vertical Scanning Long Trace Profiler (VSLTP) under a SBIR Phase II grant from NASA. The instrument is capable of scanning shell mirrors with a diameter as small as 100mm for a travel distance of 700mm in vertical configuration. Main components of the optical system are described. It has a beam separation set, a beam splitting set, a Fourier transform lens system, a penta prism pair, a Risley prism pair and a cylinder lens. The main hardware and software for implementation of the prototype instrument are also presented. They include the major mechanical structure, 9-axis motion control system and the data acquisition and analysis software. The design of the optical and mechanical systems makes the VSLTP very tolerable to the deformation of the slide deformation, laser pattern shift and fluctuation due to temperature change. Results obtained from the Phase I show that VSLTP instrument is capable of a measurement accuracy of 50 nm for the height and 1 microradian for the slope.

  10. X-ray cycles and magnetic activity of solar-like stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robrade, J.

    2016-06-01

    Since the beginning of its operation XMM-Newton carries out a monitoring program to study coronal cyclic behavior in stars similar to our Sun. I present highlights and recent results from the X-ray monitoring campaign, that observes neighboring stellar systems like Alpha Centauri and 61 Cygni. Cyclic activity phenomena and coronal properties are discussed and put into context of X-ray emission from the Sun and solar-type stars. As an outlook, future perspectives of stellar X-ray studies with a focus on the eROSITA all-sky survey are presented.

  11. X-ray refelection from photoionized media in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zycki, Piotr T.; Krolik, Julian H.; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Kallman, Timothy R.

    1994-01-01

    We calculate the spectrum of X-ray radiation and reprocessed by a partly ionized optically thick medium in an active galactic nucleus. We self-consistently calculate the ionization balance and thermal balance in the medium along with the distribution of X-ray intensity with optical depth. In addition to absorption or scattering of the incident X-rays, we also compute the spectrum of X-rays emitted by the material, including lines, edges, and bremsstrahlung. The albedo of the medium depends primarily on the X-ray ionization parameter (ratio of incident flux to gas density, zeta(sub Chi), and secondarily on the UV flux generated by dissipation inside the disk; we locate the critical range of zeta(sub Chi) over which the albedo increases from small to nearly unity. While the continuum reflection is very weak below 10 keV when zeta(sub Chi) is small, significnat fluxes are emitted in atomic lines and edges in this energy range. In the limit of large zeta(sub Chi), the albedo below 10 keV increases, but reflection in this band is never gray: some photoelectric absorption remains up to rather large values of zeta(sub Chi), while at still higher values, inverse Compton scattering amplifies the soft X-ray flux. These features are sufficiently sharp that current and near-future X-ray experiments should permit diagnostic measures of zeta(sub Chi).

  12. Magnetic Dynamos and X-ray Activity in Ultracool Dwarfs (UCDs): Constraining the Role of Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin A.; Williams, P. K.; Berger, E.

    2014-01-01

    Although many fully-convective stars are magnetically active, the mechanisms by which they generate, sustain, and dissipate their magnetic fields are not well-understood. Observations suggest that empirical relations between X-ray activity, rotation, and radio emission evolve dramatically between the solar and ultracool dwarf (UCD; spectral types later than ~M6) regimes. The limited number of X-ray detections has prevented the drawing of firm conclusions, however. We combine new Chandra observations of seven late-M dwarfs with three previously-unpublished measurements from the Chandra archive and data from the literature to construct a database of 38 ultracool dwarfs with both X-ray and rotation measurements, the largest such catalog yet presented. We identify a substantial number of rapidly-rotating UCDs with X-ray activity as far as two orders of magnitude below the standard "saturation" level and find a significant anticorrelation between rotation and X-ray activity. We discuss several proposed "supersaturation" mechanisms that suggest a direct connection between faster rotation and suppression of X-ray activity and find many of them to be inconsistent with the data. We instead suggest the observed effect may be indirectly driven by a separate parameter correlated with both X-ray activity and rotation. The strength and topology of large-scale stellar magnetic fields have been found to vary widely within UCDs of similar stellar parameters. We speculate varying field topologies could explain the observed trends. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution. We also acknowledge support from the NSF through Grant AST-1008361 and from NASA through Chandra Award Number G02-13007A issued by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and NASA under contract NAS8-03060.

  13. Experimental evaluation of the ring focus test for X-ray telescopes using AXAF's technology mirror assembly, MSFC CDDF Project No. H20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zissa, D. E.; Korsch, D.

    1986-01-01

    A test method particularly suited for X-ray telescopes was evaluated experimentally. The method makes use of a focused ring formed by an annular aperture when using a point source at a finite distance. This would supplement measurements of the best focus image which is blurred when the test source is at a finite distance. The telescope used was the Technology Mirror Assembly of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysis Facility (AXAF) program. Observed ring image defects could be related to the azimuthal location of their sources in the telescope even though in this case the predicted sharp ring was obscured by scattering, finite source size, and residual figure errors.

  14. Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors to focus hard X-rays in two dimensions as fabricated, tested and installed at the Advanced Photon Source.

    PubMed

    Kujala, Naresh; Marathe, Shashidhara; Shu, Deming; Shi, Bing; Qian, Jun; Maxey, Evan; Finney, Lydia; Macrander, Albert; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2014-07-01

    The micro-focusing performance for hard X-rays of a fixed-geometry elliptical Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) mirrors assembly fabricated, tested and finally implemented at the micro-probe beamline 8-BM of the Advanced Photon Source is reported. Testing of the K-B mirror system was performed at the optics and detector test beamline 1-BM. K-B mirrors of length 80 mm and 60 mm were fabricated by profile coating with Pt metal to produce focal lengths of 250 mm and 155 mm for 3 mrad incident angle. For the critical angle of Pt, a broad bandwidth of energies up to 20 keV applies. The classical K-B sequential mirror geometry was used, and mirrors were mounted on micro-translation stages. The beam intensity profiles were measured by differentiating the curves of intensity data measured using a wire-scanning method. A beam size of 1.3 µm (V) and 1.2 µm (H) was measured with monochromatic X-rays of 18 keV at 1-BM. After installation at 8-BM the measured focus met the design requirements. In this paper the fabrication and metrology of the K-B mirrors are reported, as well as the focusing performances of the full mirrors-plus-mount set-up at both beamlines. PMID:24971959

  15. Ultra-precision fabrication of 500 mm long and laterally graded Ru/C multilayer mirrors for X-ray light sources.

    PubMed

    Störmer, M; Gabrisch, H; Horstmann, C; Heidorn, U; Hertlein, F; Wiesmann, J; Siewert, F; Rack, A

    2016-05-01

    X-ray mirrors are needed for beam shaping and monochromatization at advanced research light sources, for instance, free-electron lasers and synchrotron sources. Such mirrors consist of a substrate and a coating. The shape accuracy of the substrate and the layer precision of the coating are the crucial parameters that determine the beam properties required for various applications. In principal, the selection of the layer materials determines the mirror reflectivity. A single layer mirror offers high reflectivity in the range of total external reflection, whereas the reflectivity is reduced considerably above the critical angle. A periodic multilayer can enhance the reflectivity at higher angles due to Bragg reflection. Here, the selection of a suitable combination of layer materials is essential to achieve a high flux at distinct photon energies, which is often required for applications such as microtomography, diffraction, or protein crystallography. This contribution presents the current development of a Ru/C multilayer mirror prepared by magnetron sputtering with a sputtering facility that was designed in-house at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht. The deposition conditions were optimized in order to achieve ultra-high precision and high flux in future mirrors. Input for the improved deposition parameters came from investigations by transmission electron microscopy. The X-ray optical properties were investigated by means of X-ray reflectometry using Cu- and Mo-radiation. The change of the multilayer d-spacing over the mirror dimensions and the variation of the Bragg angles were determined. The results demonstrate the ability to precisely control the variation in thickness over the whole mirror length of 500 mm thus achieving picometer-precision in the meter-range. PMID:27250371

  16. The SPARX Project: R & D Activity Towards X-Rays FEL Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Alesini, D.; Bellaveglia, M.; Bertolucci, S.; Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Castellano, M.; Clozza, A.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Esposito, A.; Ferrario, M.; Filippetto, D.; Fusco, V.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Incurvati, M.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Migliorati, M.; /Frascati /ENEA, Frascati /INFN, Milan /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome2 /Milan Polytechnic /UCLA /SLAC

    2005-08-05

    SPARX is an evolutionary project proposed by a collaboration among ENEA-INFN-CNR-Universita di Roma Tor Vergata aiming at the construction of a FELSASE X-ray source in the Tor Vergata Campus. The first phase of the SPARX project, funded by Government Agencies, will be focused on R&D activity on critical components and techniques for future X-ray facilities as described in this paper.

  17. X-ray detection system development for tandem mirror experiment upgrade (TMX-U): hardware and software

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.M.; Failor, B.H.; Coutts, G.W.

    1984-12-01

    This x-ray detection system measures the electron Bremsstrahlung spectrum from the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U). From this spectrum, we can calculate the electron temperature. The low energy portion of the spectrum (0.5 to 40 keV) is measured by a liquid-nitrogen-cooled, lithium-drifted silicon detector. The higher energy spectrometer uses an intrinsic germanium detector to accommodate the 100 to 200 keV spectra. The system proceeds as follows. The preamplified detector signals are digitized by a high-speed A-to-D converter located in a Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) crate. The data is then stored in a histogramming memory via a data router. The CAMAC crate interfaces with a local desktop computer or the main data acquisition computer that stores the data. The software sets up the modules, acquires the energy spectra (with sample times as short as 2 ms) and plots it. Up to 40 time-resolved spectra are available during one plasma cycle. The actual module configuration, CAMAC interfacing and software that runs the system are the subjects of this paper.

  18. Production of thin glass mirrors by hot slumping for x-ray telescopes: present process and ongoing development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmaso, B.; Basso, S.; Brizzolari, C.; Civitani, M.; Ghigo, M.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vecchi, G.

    2014-07-01

    Thin glass foils are considered good candidates to build a segmented X-ray telescope with effective area as large as 2 m2 and angular resolution better than 5 arcsec. In order to produce thin glass mirror segments, we developed a direct hot slumping technique assisted by pressure, in which the shape of a mould is replicated onto the optical surface of the glass. In this paper we present the result obtained with AF32 (by Schott) and EAGLE XG (by Corning) glass types. The selected mould material is Zerodur K20, as it does not require any anti-sticking layer and has a good matching, in terms of Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, with both glass types. Our group already produced a few prototypes, reaching angular resolution near 20 arcsec. In this work, relevant steps forward aimed at attaining a 5 arcsec angular resolution are described, along with the tuning of few key parameters in the slumping process. The results obtained on a newly procured cylindrical Zerodur K20 mould are presented.

  19. An active M star with X-ray double flares disguised as an ultra-luminous X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jin-Cheng; Liu, Ji-Feng; Wang, Song; Wu, Yue; Qin, Yu-Xiang

    2016-02-01

    Here we present research on an ultra-luminous X-ray source (ULX) candidate 2XMM J140229.91+542118.8. The X-ray light curves of this ULX candidate in M101 exhibit features of a flare star. More importantly, the Chandra light curve displays unusual X-ray double flares, which is comprised of two close peaks. The X-ray (0.3-11.0 keV) flux of the first peak was derived from the two-temperature APEC model as ˜ 1.1 ± 0.1 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1. The observed flux at its first peak increased by about two orders of magnitude in X-ray as compared to quiescence. The slope of the second fast decay phase is steeper than the slope of the first fast decay phase, indicating that the appearance of a second flare accelerated the cooling of the first flare in a way we do not understand yet. We also observed its optical counterpart using a 2.16 m telescope administered by National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. By optical spectral fitting, it is confirmed to be a late type dMe2.5 star. According to the spectral type and apparent magnitude of its optical counterpart, we estimate the photometric distance to be ˜ 133.4 ± 14.2 pc. According to the X-ray spectral fitting, a possible explanation is provided. However, more similar close double flares are needed to confirm whether this accelerated cooling event is a unique coincidence or a common physical process during double flaring.

  20. X-ray spectroscopy of AGN with the AXAF 'Microcalorimeter'. [Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Stephen S.

    1987-01-01

    A novel technique for X-ray spectroscopy has been configured as part of the definition payload of the AXAF Observatory. It is basically a calorimeter which, operating at 0.1 K, senses the total conversion of single photoelectrically absorbed X-rays via the differential temperature rise of the absorber. The technique promises to achieve less than 10 eV FWHM with near-unit efficiency simultaneously over the entire AXAF bandpass. This combination of high resolution and high efficiency allows for the possibility of investigating thermal, fluorescent and absorption X-ray line features in many types of X-ray source, including a large sample of active galactic nuclei.

  1. Intense X-ray flares from active stellar systems - EV Lacertae and HD 8357

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambruster, C.; Snyder, W. A.; Wood, K. S.

    1984-01-01

    The HEAO A-1 Sky Survey Experiment included X-ray data used to define light curves for the flare star EV Lac and for X-ray flares observed in the binary system HD 8357. The data were taken during flare events and were detailed enough to calculate the flare rates and flaring luminosities. The peak luminosities during flares were several times the luminosities in normal X-ray flares emitted by the objects. Peak luminosities reached 30-50 times the normal variations and were associated with an order of magnitude increase in energy output. EV Lac was sufficiently active to be recommended for inclusion in future X-ray monitoring programs.

  2. Development and calibration of mirrors and gratings for the Soft X-ray materials science beamline at the Linac Coherent Light Source free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Soufli, Regina; Fernandez-Perea, Monica; Baker, Sherry L.; Robinson, Jeff C.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Heimann, Philip; Yashchuk, Valerie V.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Schlotter, William F.; Rowen, Michael

    2012-04-18

    This article discusses the development and calibration of the x-ray reflective and diffractive elements for the Soft X-ray Materials Science (SXR) beamline of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free-electron laser (FEL), designed for operation in the 500 – 2000 eV region. The surface topography of three Si mirror substrates and two Si diffraction grating substrates was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical profilometry. The figure of the mirror substrates was also verified via surface slope measurements with a long trace profiler. A boron carbide (B4C) coating especially optimized for the LCLS FEL conditions was deposited on all SXR mirrors and gratings. Coating thickness uniformity of 0.14 nm root mean square (rms) across clear apertures extending to 205 mm length was demonstrated for all elements, as required to preserve the coherent wavefront of the LCLS source. The reflective performance of the mirrors and the diffraction efficiency of the gratings were calibrated at beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron. To verify the integrity of the nanometer-scale grating structure, the grating topography was examined by AFM before and after coating. This is to our knowledge the first time B4C-coated diffraction gratings are demonstrated for operation in the soft x-ray region.

  3. Development and calibration of mirrors and gratings for the soft x-ray materials science beamline at the Linac Coherent Light Source free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Soufli, Regina; Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Baker, Sherry L; Robinson, Jeff C; Gullikson, Eric M; Heimann, Philip; Yashchuk, Valeriy V; McKinney, Wayne R; Schlotter, William F; Rowen, Michael

    2012-04-20

    This work discusses the development and calibration of the x-ray reflective and diffractive elements for the Soft X-ray Materials Science (SXR) beamline of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free-electron laser (FEL), designed for operation in the 500 to 2000 eV region. The surface topography of three Si mirror substrates and two Si diffraction grating substrates was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical profilometry. The figure of the mirror substrates was also verified via surface slope measurements with a long trace profiler. A boron carbide (B4C) coating especially optimized for the LCLS FEL conditions was deposited on all SXR mirrors and gratings. Coating thickness uniformity of 0.14 nm root mean square (rms) across clear apertures extending to 205 mm length was demonstrated for all elements, as required to preserve the coherent wavefront of the LCLS source. The reflective performance of the mirrors and the diffraction efficiency of the gratings were calibrated at beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron. To verify the integrity of the nanometer-scale grating structure, the grating topography was examined by AFM before and after coating. This is to our knowledge the first time B4C-coated diffraction gratings are demonstrated for operation in the soft x-ray region. PMID:22534924

  4. Development and calibration of mirrors and gratings for the Soft X-ray materials science beamline at the Linac Coherent Light Source free-electron laser

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Soufli, Regina; Fernandez-Perea, Monica; Baker, Sherry L.; Robinson, Jeff C.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Heimann, Philip; Yashchuk, Valerie V.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Schlotter, William F.; Rowen, Michael

    2012-04-18

    This article discusses the development and calibration of the x-ray reflective and diffractive elements for the Soft X-ray Materials Science (SXR) beamline of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free-electron laser (FEL), designed for operation in the 500 – 2000 eV region. The surface topography of three Si mirror substrates and two Si diffraction grating substrates was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical profilometry. The figure of the mirror substrates was also verified via surface slope measurements with a long trace profiler. A boron carbide (B4C) coating especially optimized for the LCLS FEL conditions was deposited on allmore » SXR mirrors and gratings. Coating thickness uniformity of 0.14 nm root mean square (rms) across clear apertures extending to 205 mm length was demonstrated for all elements, as required to preserve the coherent wavefront of the LCLS source. The reflective performance of the mirrors and the diffraction efficiency of the gratings were calibrated at beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron. To verify the integrity of the nanometer-scale grating structure, the grating topography was examined by AFM before and after coating. This is to our knowledge the first time B4C-coated diffraction gratings are demonstrated for operation in the soft x-ray region.« less

  5. Performance optimization of a bendable parabolic cylinder collimating X-ray mirror for the ALS micro-XAS beamline 10.3.2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Domning, Edward E.; Merthe, Daniel J.; Salmassi, Farhad; Smith, Brian V.

    2015-04-08

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) beamline (BL) 10.3.2 is an apparatus for X-ray microprobe spectroscopy and diffraction experiments, operating in the energy range 2.4–17 keV. The performance of the beamline, namely the spatial and energy resolutions of the measurements, depends significantly on the collimation quality of light incident on the monochromator. In the BL 10.3.2 end-station, the synchrotron source is imaged 1:1 onto a set of roll slits which form a virtual source. The light from this source is collimated in the vertical direction by a bendable parabolic cylinder mirror. Details are presented of the mirror design, which allows formore » precision assembly, alignment and shaping of the mirror, as well as for extending of the mirror operating lifetime by a factor of ~10. Assembly, mirror optimal shaping and preliminary alignment were performed ex situ in the ALS X-ray Optics Laboratory (XROL). Using an original method for optimal ex situ characterization and setting of bendable X-ray optics developed at the XROL, a root-mean-square (RMS) residual surface slope error of 0.31 µrad with respect to the desired parabola, and an RMS residual height error of less than 3 nm were achieved. Once in place at the beamline, deviations from the designed optical geometry (e.g. due to the tolerances for setting the distance to the virtual source, the grazing incidence angle, the transverse position) and/or mirror shape (e.g. due to a heat load deformation) may appear. Due to the errors, on installation the energy spread from the monochromator is typically a few electron-volts. Here, a new technique developed and successfully implemented for at-wavelength (in situ) fine optimal tuning of the mirror, enabling us to reduce the collimation-induced energy spread to ~0.05 eV, is described.« less

  6. Performance optimization of a bendable parabolic cylinder collimating X-ray mirror for the ALS micro-XAS beamline 10.3.2

    PubMed Central

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Domning, Edward E.; Merthe, Daniel J.; Salmassi, Farhad; Smith, Brian V.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) beamline (BL) 10.3.2 is an apparatus for X-ray microprobe spectroscopy and diffraction experiments, operating in the energy range 2.4–17 keV. The performance of the beamline, namely the spatial and energy resolutions of the measurements, depends significantly on the collimation quality of light incident on the monochromator. In the BL 10.3.2 end-station, the synchrotron source is imaged 1:1 onto a set of roll slits which form a virtual source. The light from this source is collimated in the vertical direction by a bendable parabolic cylinder mirror. Details are presented of the mirror design, which allows for precision assembly, alignment and shaping of the mirror, as well as for extending of the mirror operating lifetime by a factor of ∼10. Assembly, mirror optimal shaping and preliminary alignment were performed ex situ in the ALS X-ray Optics Laboratory (XROL). Using an original method for optimal ex situ characterization and setting of bendable X-ray optics developed at the XROL, a root-mean-square (RMS) residual surface slope error of 0.31 µrad with respect to the desired parabola, and an RMS residual height error of less than 3 nm were achieved. Once in place at the beamline, deviations from the designed optical geometry (e.g. due to the tolerances for setting the distance to the virtual source, the grazing incidence angle, the transverse position) and/or mirror shape (e.g. due to a heat load deformation) may appear. Due to the errors, on installation the energy spread from the monochromator is typically a few electron-volts. Here, a new technique developed and successfully implemented for at-wavelength (in situ) fine optimal tuning of the mirror, enabling us to reduce the collimation-induced energy spread to ∼0.05 eV, is described. PMID:25931083

  7. Performance optimization of a bendable parabolic cylinder collimating X-ray mirror for the ALS micro-XAS beamline 10.3.2.

    PubMed

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; Morrison, Gregory Y; Marcus, Matthew A; Domning, Edward E; Merthe, Daniel J; Salmassi, Farhad; Smith, Brian V

    2015-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) beamline (BL) 10.3.2 is an apparatus for X-ray microprobe spectroscopy and diffraction experiments, operating in the energy range 2.4-17 keV. The performance of the beamline, namely the spatial and energy resolutions of the measurements, depends significantly on the collimation quality of light incident on the monochromator. In the BL 10.3.2 end-station, the synchrotron source is imaged 1:1 onto a set of roll slits which form a virtual source. The light from this source is collimated in the vertical direction by a bendable parabolic cylinder mirror. Details are presented of the mirror design, which allows for precision assembly, alignment and shaping of the mirror, as well as for extending of the mirror operating lifetime by a factor of ∼10. Assembly, mirror optimal shaping and preliminary alignment were performed ex situ in the ALS X-ray Optics Laboratory (XROL). Using an original method for optimal ex situ characterization and setting of bendable X-ray optics developed at the XROL, a root-mean-square (RMS) residual surface slope error of 0.31 µrad with respect to the desired parabola, and an RMS residual height error of less than 3 nm were achieved. Once in place at the beamline, deviations from the designed optical geometry (e.g. due to the tolerances for setting the distance to the virtual source, the grazing incidence angle, the transverse position) and/or mirror shape (e.g. due to a heat load deformation) may appear. Due to the errors, on installation the energy spread from the monochromator is typically a few electron-volts. Here, a new technique developed and successfully implemented for at-wavelength (in situ) fine optimal tuning of the mirror, enabling us to reduce the collimation-induced energy spread to ∼0.05 eV, is described. PMID:25931083

  8. Disentangling AGN and starburst activities in NGC 6240 from an X-ray perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junfeng

    2016-02-01

    The circum-nuclear region in an active galaxy is often complex with presence of high excitation gas, collimated radio outflow, and star formation activities, besides the actively accreting supermassive black hole. The unique spatial resolving power of Chandra X-ray imaging spectroscopy enables more investigations to disentangle the active galactic nuclei and starburst activities. For galaxies in the throes of a violent merging event such as NGC6240, we were able to resolve the high temperature gas surrounding its binary active black holes and discovered a large scale soft X-ray halo.

  9. LUMINOUS X-RAY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Koulouridis, E.; Plionis, M.

    2010-05-10

    We present a study of X-ray active galactic nucleus (AGN) overdensities in 16 Abell clusters, within the redshift range 0.073 < z < 0.279, in order to investigate the effect of the hot inter-cluster environment on the triggering of the AGN phenomenon. The X-ray AGN overdensities, with respect to the field expectations, were estimated for sources with L{sub x} {>=} 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} (at the redshift of the clusters) and within an area of 1 h {sup -1} {sub 72} Mpc radius (excluding the core). To investigate the presence or absence of a true enhancement of luminous X-ray AGNs in the cluster area, we also derived the corresponding optical galaxy overdensities, using a suitable range of r-band magnitudes. We always find the latter to be significantly higher (and only in two cases roughly equal) with respect to the corresponding X-ray overdensities. Over the whole cluster sample, the mean X-ray point-source overdensity is a factor of {approx}4 less than that corresponding to bright optical galaxies, a difference which is significant at a >0.995 level, as indicated by an appropriate student's t-test. We conclude that the triggering of luminous X-ray AGNs in rich clusters is strongly suppressed. Furthermore, searching for optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey counterparts of all the X-ray sources, associated with our clusters, we found that about half appear to be background QSOs, while others are background and foreground AGNs or stars. The true overdensity of X-ray point sources, associated with the clusters, is therefore even smaller than what our statistical approach revealed.

  10. Analysis of nearly simultaneous X-ray and optical observations of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, James Raymond

    Rosemary Hill optical and EINSTEIN X-ray observations of a sample of 36 active galactic nuclei (AGN) were reduced and analyzed. Seventy-two X-ray observations of these sources were reduced, nineteen of which yielded spectral information. Of these spectral observations, significant hydrogen column densities above the galactic value were required for nine of the eleven sources which were observed more than once by EINSTEIN. Correlations between the X-ray and optical luminosities were investigated using the Jefferys method of least squares. This method allows for errors in both variables. The results indicate a strong correlation between the X-ray and optical luminosities for the entire sample. Division of the sample into groups with similar optical variability characteristics show that the less violently violent variable AGN are more highly correlated than the violently variable blazars. Infrared and radio observations were combined with the X-ray and optical observations of six AGN. These sources were modelled in terms of the synchrotron-self-Compton model. The turnover frequency falls between the infrared and radio data and reliable estimates of this parameter are difficult to estimate. Therefore the results were found as a function of the turnover frequency. Four sources required relativistic bulk motion or beaming. Multifrequency spectra made at different times for one individual source, 0235+164, required different amounts of beaming to satisfy the X-ray observations. Sizes of the emitting regions for the sources modelled ranged from 0.5 parsec to 1.0 parsec.

  11. Two mirror X-ray pulse split and delay instrument for femtosecond time resolved investigations at the LCLS free electron laser facility.

    PubMed

    Berrah, Nora; Fang, Li; Murphy, Brendan F; Kukk, Edwin; Osipov, Timur Y; Coffee, Ryan; Ferguson, Ken R; Xiong, Hui; Castagna, Jean-Charles; Petrovic, Vlad S; Montero, Sebastian Carron; Bozek, John D

    2016-05-30

    We built a two-mirror based X-ray split and delay (XRSD) device for soft X-rays at the Linac Coherent Light Source free electron laser facility. The instrument is based on an edge-polished mirror design covering an energy range of 250 eV-1800 eV and producing a delay between the two split pulses variable up to 400 femtoseconds with a sub-100 attosecond resolution. We present experimental and simulation results regarding molecular dissociation dynamics in CH3I and CO probed by the XRSD device. We observed ion kinetic energy and branching ratio dependence on the delay times which were reliably produced by the XRSD instrument. PMID:27410102

  12. Selective photo-activation analysis with laser-driven x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sudeep; Golovin, Grigory; Powers, Nathan; Liu, Cheng; Chen, Shouyuan; Petersen, Chad; Zhang, Jun; Ghebregziabher, Isaac; Zhao, Baozhen; Brown, Kevin; Mills, Jared; Umstadter, Donald; Haden, Dan; Silano, Jack; Karwowski, Hugon

    2013-04-01

    We discuss a technique for the identification of nuclear isotopes by selective photo-activation analysis. A narrow divergence beam of high-energy photons is produced when a laser driven electron beam Compton backscatters off a counter-propagating high-intensity laser pulse. The x-rays from this compact laser-driven synchrotron light source are MeV energy, narrow-bandwidth, tunable, polarized, and bright (10^8 photons s-1). Such characteristics make these x-rays well-suited for nuclear interrogation by means of triggering (γ,f) and (γ,xn) reactions. The narrow bandwidth of the x-ray light can be exploited to selectively activate nuclei with isotopic sensitivity, without causing unwanted background from collateral activation. Additionally, the polarized nature of the x-rays can be used to study anisotropy of neutron emission, for precise identification of isotopes. Activation by laser-driven synchrotron x-rays will be compared with activation by bremsstrahlung.

  13. Minimalist coupled evolution model for stellar X-ray activity, rotation, mass loss, and magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Eric G.; Owen, James E.

    2016-05-01

    Late-type main-sequence stars exhibit an X-ray to bolometric flux ratio that depends on {tilde{R}o}, the ratio of rotation period to convective turnover time, as {tilde{R}o}^{-ζ } with 2 ≤ ζ ≤ 3 for {tilde{R}o} > 0.13, but saturates with |ζ| < 0.2 for {tilde{R}o} < 0.13. Saturated stars are younger than unsaturated stars and show a broader spread of rotation rates and X-ray activity. The unsaturated stars have magnetic fields and rotation speeds that scale roughly with the square root of their age, though possibly flattening for stars older than the Sun. The connection between faster rotators, stronger fields, and higher activity has been established observationally, but a theory for the unified time-evolution of X-ray luminosity, rotation, magnetic field and mass loss that captures the above trends has been lacking. Here we derive a minimalist holistic framework for the time evolution of these quantities built from combining a Parker wind with new ingredients: (1) explicit sourcing of both the thermal energy launching the wind and the X-ray luminosity via dynamo produced magnetic fields; (2) explicit coupling of X-ray activity and mass-loss saturation to dynamo saturation (via magnetic helicity build-up and convection eddy shredding); (3) use of coronal equilibrium to determine how magnetic energy is divided into wind and X-ray contributions. For solar-type stars younger than the Sun, we infer conduction to be a subdominant power loss compared to X-rays and wind. For older stars, conduction is more important, possibly quenching the wind and reducing angular momentum loss. We focus on the time evolution for stars younger than the Sun, highlighting what is possible for further generalizations. Overall, the approach shows promise towards a unified explanation of all of the aforementioned observational trends.

  14. Solar x ray astronomy rocket program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The dynamics were studied of the solar corona through the imaging of large scale coronal structures with AS&E High Resolution Soft X ray Imaging Solar Sounding Rocket Payload. The proposal for this program outlined a plan of research based on the construction of a high sensitivity X ray telescope from the optical and electronic components of the previous flight of this payload (36.038CS). Specifically, the X ray sensitive CCD camera was to be placed in the prime focus of the grazing incidence X ray mirror. The improved quantum efficiency of the CCD detector (over the film which had previously been used) allows quantitative measurements of temperature and emission measure in regions of low x ray emission such as helmet streamers beyond 1.2 solar radii or coronal holes. Furthermore, the improved sensitivity of the CCD allows short exposures of bright objects to study unexplored temporal regimes of active region loop evolution.

  15. Installation and testing of a focusing mirror at beamline X28C for high flux x-ray radiolysis of biological macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Michael R.; Rekhi, Sandeep; Bohon, Jen; Gupta, Sayan; Abel, Donald; Toomey, John; Chance, Mark R.

    2008-02-15

    The NSLS X28C white-light beamline has been upgraded with a focusing mirror in order to provide increased x-ray density and a wide selection of beam shapes at the sample position. The cylindrical single crystal silicon mirror uses an Indalloy 51 liquid support bath as both a mechanism for heat transfer and a buoyant support to counter the effects of gravity and correct for minor parabolic slope errors. Calorimetric measurements were performed to verify that the calculated more than 200-fold increase in flux density is delivered by the mirror at the smallest beam spot. The properties of the focused beam relevant to radiolytic footprinting, namely, the physical dimensions of the beam, the effective hydroxyl radical dose delivered to the sample, and sample heating upon irradiation, have been studied at several mirror angles.

  16. Skylab ATM/S-056 X-ray event analyzer observations versus solar flare activity: An event compilation. [tables (data)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    An event compilation is presented which correlates ATM/S-056 X-ray event analyzer solar observations with solar flare activity. Approximately 1,070 h of pulse height analyzed X-ray proportional counter data were obtained with the X-ray event analyzer during Skylab. During its operation, 449 flares (including 343 flare peaks) were observed. Seventy events of peak X-ray emission or = Cl were simultaneously observed by ground based telescopes, SOLRAD 9 and/or Vela, and the X-ray event analyzer. These events were observed from preflare through flare rise to peak and through flare decline.

  17. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF THE X-RAY TIME-DELAY TRANSFER FUNCTION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, E.; Miller, L.; Turner, T. J.; Giustini, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Kraemer, S. B.

    2012-11-20

    The origin of the observed time lags, in nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs), between hard and soft X-ray photons is investigated using new XMM-Newton data for the narrow-line Seyfert I galaxy Ark 564 and existing data for 1H 0707-495 and NGC 4051. These AGNs have highly variable X-ray light curves that contain frequent, high peaks of emission. The averaged light curve of the peaks is directly measured from the time series, and it is shown that (1) peaks occur at the same time, within the measurement uncertainties, at all X-ray energies, and (2) there exists a substantial tail of excess emission at hard X-ray energies, which is delayed with respect to the time of the main peak, and is particularly prominent in Ark 564. Observation (1) rules out that the observed lags are caused by Comptonization time delays and disfavors a simple model of propagating fluctuations on the accretion disk. Observation (2) is consistent with time lags caused by Compton-scattering reverberation from material a few thousand light-seconds from the primary X-ray source. The power spectral density and the frequency-dependent phase lags of the peak light curves are consistent with those of the full time series. There is evidence for non-stationarity in the Ark 564 time series in both the Fourier and peaks analyses. A sharp 'negative' lag (variations at hard photon energies lead soft photon energies) observed in Ark 564 appears to be generated by the shape of the hard-band transfer function and does not arise from soft-band reflection of X-rays. These results reinforce the evidence for the existence of X-ray reverberation in type I AGN, which requires that these AGNs are significantly affected by scattering from circumnuclear material a few tens or hundreds of gravitational radii in extent.

  18. Analysis of nearly simultaneous x-ray and optical observations of active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Rosemary Hill optical and EINSTEIN X-ray observations of a sample of 36 galactic nuclei (AGN) were reduced and analyzed. Seventy-two x-ray observations of these sources were reduced, nineteen of which yielded spectral information. Of these spectra observations, significant hydrogen column densities above the galactic value were required for nine of the active galactic nuclei. X-ray variability was detected in eight of the eleven sources which were observed more than once by EINSTEIN. Correlations between the x-ray and optical luminosities were investigated using the Jefferys method of least squares. This method allows for errors in both variables. The results indicate a strong correlation between the x-ray and optical luminosities for the entire sample. Division of the sample into groups with similar optical variability characteristics show that the less violently violent variable AGN are more highly correlated than the violently variable blazars. Infrared and radio observations were combined with the x-ray and optical observations of six AGN. These sources were modelled in terms of the synchrotron-self-Compton model. The turnover frequency falls between the infrared and radio data and reliable estimates of this parameter are difficult to estimate. Therefore the results were found as a function of the turnover frequency. Four sources required relativistic bulk motion or beaming. Multifrequency spectra made at different times for one individual source, 0235+164, required different amounts of beaming to satisfy the x-ray observations. Sizes of the emitting regions for the sources modelled ranged from 0.5 parsec to 1.0 parsec.

  19. Water maser emission from X-ray-heated circumnuclear gas in active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Maloney, Philip R.; Conger, Sarah

    1994-01-01

    We have modeled the physical and chemical conditions present within dense circumnuclear gas that is irradiated by X-rays from an active galactic nucleus. Over a wide range of X-ray fluxes and gas pressures, the effects of X-ray heating give rise to a molecular layer at temperatures of 400-1000 K within which the water abundance is large. The physical conditions within this molecular layer naturally give rise to collisionally pumped maser emission in the 6(sub 16) - 5(sub 23) 22 GHz transition of ortho-water, with predicted maser luminosities of 10(exp 2 +/- 0.5) solar luminosity per sq. pc of illuminated area. Given plausible assumptions about the geometry of the source and about the degree to which the maser emission is anisotropic, such surface luminosities are sufficient to explain the large apparent luminosities observed in water maser sources that are associated with active galactic nuclei.

  20. X-ray crystal structure of divalent metal-activated ß-xyloisdase, RS223BX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the first X-ray structure of a glycoside hydrolase family 43 ß-xylosidase, RS223BX, which is strongly activated by the addition of divalent metal cations. The 2.69 Å structure reveals that the Ca2+ cation is located at the back of the active site pocket. The Ca2+ coordinates to H274 to sta...

  1. X-ray induced stellar mass loss near active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voit, G. Mark; Shull, J. Michael

    1988-01-01

    The effects of UV and X-ray radiation on stars in active galactic nuclei (AGN) are critically evaluated. Mass loss rates in X-ray-induced winds are evaluated for realistic red giant models, and the effects of the ablation of stellar envelopes by radiation pressure are considered. The importance of X-ray-induced mass loss in the standard quasar model is evaluated and whether it can provide a source of accretion fuel or emission-line clouds is discussed. It is concluded that thermal winds driven by X-ray heating are a minor total supply of mass to AGN, but that thermal plus line-driven winds and stellar ablation may increase the mass loss and improve the chances for supplying a fraction of the necessary mass supply to the central object. It is speculated that when steady winds are inefficient, complex time-dependent processes due to X-ray energy injection deep into a stellar atmosphere could still release significant mass from stars.

  2. A NEW COSMOLOGICAL DISTANCE MEASURE USING ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS X-RAY VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Franca, Fabio La; Bianchi, Stefano; Branchini, Enzo; Matt, Giorgio; Ponti, Gabriele

    2014-05-20

    We report the discovery of a luminosity distance estimator using active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We combine the correlation between the X-ray variability amplitude and the black hole (BH) mass with the single-epoch spectra BH mass estimates which depend on the AGN luminosity and the line width emitted by the broad-line region. We demonstrate that significant correlations do exist that allow one to predict the AGN (optical or X-ray) luminosity as a function of the AGN X-ray variability and either the Hβ or the Paβ line widths. In the best case, when the Paβ is used, the relationship has an intrinsic dispersion of ∼0.6 dex. Although intrinsically more disperse than supernovae Ia, this relation constitutes an alternative distance indicator potentially able to probe, in an independent way, the expansion history of the universe. With respect to this, we show that the new mission concept Athena should be able to measure the X-ray variability of hundreds of AGNs and then constrain the distance modulus with uncertainties of 0.1 mag up to z ∼ 0.6. We also discuss how our estimator has the prospect of becoming a cosmological probe even more sensitive than the current supernovae Ia samples by using a new dedicated wide-field X-ray telescope able to measure the variability of thousands of AGNs.

  3. Swift Observations of the Recent X-ray Activity of Eta Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalil Liburd, Jamar; Corcoran, Michael F.; Morris, David C.; Theodore Gull, Kenji Hamaguchi, Thomas Madura, Mairan Teodoro, Nick Durofchalk, Caleb Gimar.

    2015-01-01

    The extremely massive Luminous Blue Variable binary star, Eta Carinae, lies 7,500 light years away, deep within the Homunculus nebula where vigorous Wind-Wind collisions between the primary star and the companion star generate high-energy gases that produce X-rays. Complex X-ray variations occur near periastron, the point of least stellar separation between the two stars. Understanding the variability in Eta Carinae's high-energy spectrum during this period gives us a better understanding of the system's physical and stellar properties. We present the processing techniques and background estimation methods used to process and analyze weekly observations done with Swift's X-ray Telescope during Eta Carinae's most recent periastron passage in 2014. We present analysis of Eta Carinae's current column density and compare it to that of previous cycles. The exact nature of Eta Carinae's X-ray minimum activity, which occurs every 5.54 years, is still unclear. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms of the X-ray deep minimum stage and the associated differences in column density in each cycle will contribute to a clearer understanding of the wind-driven mass-loss from this unique system.

  4. Solar activity: The Sun as an X-ray star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.

    1981-01-01

    The existence and constant activity of the Sun's outer atmosphere are thought to be due to the continual emergence of magnetic fields from the Solar interior and the stressing of these fields at or near the surface layers of the Sun. The structure and activity of the corona are thus symptomatic of the underlying magnetic dynamo and the existence of an outer turbulent convective zone on the Sun. A sufficient condition for the existence of coronal activity on other stars would be the existence of a magnetic dynamo and an outer convective zone. The theoretical relationship between magnetic fields and coronal activity can be tested by Solar observations, for which the individual loop structures can be resolved. A number of parameters however, which enter into the alternative theoretical formulations remain fixed in all Solar observations. To determine whether these are truly parameters of the theory observations need to be extended to nearby stars on which suitable conditions may occur.

  5. The optical emission lines of type 1 X-ray bright Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Mura, G.; Berton, M.; Ciroi, S.; Cracco, V.; Di Mille, F.; Rafanelli, P.

    2014-10-01

    A strong X-ray emission is one of the defining signatures of nuclear activity in galaxies. According to the Unified Model for Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), both the X-ray radiation and the prominent broad emission lines, characterizing the optical and UV spectra of Type 1 AGNs, are originated in the innermost regions of the sources, close to the Super Massive Black Holes (SMBH), which power the central engine. Since the emission is concentrated in a very compact region (with typical size r⩽0.1 pc) and it is not possible to obtain resolved images of the source, spectroscopic studies of this radiation represent the only valuable key to constrain the physical properties of matter and its structure in the center of active galaxies. Based on previous studies on the physics of the Broad Line Region (BLR) and on the X-ray spectra of broad (FWHMHβ ⩾ 2000 km s-1) and narrow line (1000 km s-1 ⩽FWHMHβ ⩽ 2000 km s-1) emitting objects, it has been observed that the kinematic and ionization properties of matter close to the SMBHs are related together, and, in particular, that ionization is higher in narrow line sources. Here we report on the study of the optical and X-ray spectra of a sample of Type 1 AGNs, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database, within an upper redshift limit of z=0.35, and detected at X-ray energies. We present analysis of the broad emission line fluxes and profiles, as well as the properties of the X-ray continuum and Fe Kα emission and we use these parameters to assess the consistency of our current AGN understanding.

  6. Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. II - Soft X-ray/EUV reflectivity of the multilayer mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Weed, J. W.; Hoover, Richard B.; Allen, Maxwell J.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Deforest, Craig E.; Paris, Elizabeth S.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The Multispectral Solar Telescope Array is a rocket-borne observatory which encompasses seven compact soft X-ray/EUV, multilayer-coated, and two compact far-UV, interference film-coated, Cassegrain and Ritchey-Chretien telescopes. Extensive measurements are presented on the efficiency and spectral bandpass of the X-ray/EUV telescopes. Attention is given to systematic errors and measurement errors.

  7. THE EFFECTS OF X-RAY FEEDBACK FROM ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI ON HOST GALAXY EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hambrick, D. Clay; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Naab, Thorsten; Johansson, Peter H.

    2011-09-01

    Hydrodynamic simulations of galaxies with active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have typically employed feedback that is purely local, i.e., an injection of energy to the immediate neighborhood of the black hole (BH). We perform GADGET-2 simulations of massive elliptical galaxies with an additional feedback component: an observationally calibrated X-ray radiation field which emanates from the BH and heats gas out to large radii from the galaxy center. We find that including the heating and radiation pressure associated with this X-ray flux in our simulations enhances the effects which are commonly reported from AGN feedback. This new feedback model is twice as effective as traditional feedback at suppressing star formation, produces three times less star formation in the last 6 Gyr, and modestly lowers the final BH mass (30%). It is also significantly more effective than an X-ray background in reducing the number of satellite galaxies.

  8. Survey of Ti-, B-, and Y-based soft x-ray -extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors for the 2- to 12-nm wavelength region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montcalm, Claude; Kearney, Patrick A.; Slaughter, J. M.; Sullivan, Brian T.; Chaker, M.; Pépin, Henri; Falco, Charles M.

    1996-09-01

    We have performed an experimental investigation of Ti-, B4C-, B-, and Y-based multilayer mirrors for the soft x-ray-extreme ultraviolet (XUV) wavelength region between 2.0 and 12.0 nm. Eleven different material pairs were >C/Pd, B/Mo, Y/Pd, Y/Ag, Y/Mo, Y/Nb, and Y/C. The multilayers were sputter deposited and were characterized with a number of techniques, including low-angle x-ray diffraction and normal incidence XUV reflectometry. Among the Ti-based multilayers the best results were obtained with Ti/W, with peak reflectances up to 5.2% at 2.79 nm at 61 degrees from normal incidence. The B4C/Pd and B/Mo multilayer mirrors had near-normal incidence (5 degrees) peak reflectances of 11.5% at 8.46 nm and 9.4% at 6.67 nm, respectively, whereas a Y/Mo multilayer mirror had a maximum peak reflectance of 25.6% at 11.30 nm at the same angle. The factors limiting the peak reflectance of these different multilayer mirrors are discussed.

  9. Global analysis of active longitudes of solar X-ray flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Mursula, K.; Usoskin, I.; Wang, H.

    2011-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that various manifestations of solar activity are non-axisymmetric and mainly occur in two preferred longitude ranges, so called active longitudes. We have earlier analyzed the longitudinal occurrence of solar X-ray flares observed by GOES satellites using a specially developed dynamic, differentially rotating coordinate system. In this frame, the longitude distribution shows two persistent preferred longitudes separated by about 180 degrees whose strength alternates in time according to the so called flip-flop phenomenon. Here we make the first global statistical analysis to find the best fitting values for parameters describing the differential rotation of active longitudes of X-ray flares. We find that the new analysis greatly improves the earlier values for the rotation parameters, making them consistent between the three different classes of X-ray flares. The improved parameters also yield a systematically higher level of non-axisymmetry for the longitudinal distribution, thus increasing the statistical significance of the existence of active longitudes. Accordingly, a significant amount of X-ray flares of different classes are produced by the same two active longitudes. We also find a significant difference between the rotation rates in the two solar hemispheres, with active longitudes rotating faster than the Carrington rate in the northern hemisphere and slower than the Carrington rate in the southern hemisphere.

  10. X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANTS METHOD DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jurgensen, A; David Missimer, D; Ronny Rutherford, R

    2007-08-08

    The x-ray fluorescence laboratory (XRF) in the Analytical Development Directorate (ADD) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop an x-ray fluorescence spectrometry method for elemental characterization of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pretreated low activity waste (LAW) stream to the LAW Vitrification Plant. The WTP is evaluating the potential for using XRF as a rapid turnaround technique to support LAW product compliance and glass former batching. The overall objective of this task was to develop an XRF analytical method that provides rapid turnaround time (<8 hours), while providing sufficient accuracy and precision to determine variations in waste.

  11. On the origin of power-law X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlosman, I.; Shaham, J.; Shaviv, G.

    1984-01-01

    In the present analytical model for a power law X-ray continuum production in active galactic nuclei, the dissipation of turbulent energy flux above the accretion disk forms an optically thin transition layer with an inverted temperature gradient. The emitted thermal radiation has a power law spectrum in the 0.1-100 keV range, with a photon energy spectral index gamma of about 0.4-1.0. Thermal X-ray contribution from the layer is 5-10 percent of the total disk luminosity. The gamma value of 0.75 is suggested as a 'natural' power law index for Seyfert galaxies and QSOs.

  12. X-ray Spectroscopy of Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei with XMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiMatteo, Tiziana; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The measurement of black hole masses in nearby galaxies has transformed our understanding of these systems, allowing us to quantify the relevant scales of power, length and time and explore how the activity of black holes is linked to their environments and to the evolution of their host galaxies. In this project, Dr. Tiziana Di Matteo has the primary responsibility for developing and investigating theoretical models for the origin of the X-ray emission observed in low-luminosity AGN. Dr. Di Matteo has been involved in interpreting X-ray data and assessing accretion models throughout the project.

  13. Novel applications of diagnostic x-rays in activating photo-agents through x-ray induced visible luminescence from rare-earth particles: an in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abliz, Erkinay; Collins, Joshua E.; Friedberg, Joseph S.; Kumar, Ajith; Bell, Howard; Waynant, Ronald W.; Tata, Darrell B.

    2010-02-01

    Photodynamic agents such as Photofrin II (Photo II) utilized in photodynamic therapy (PDT) possess a remarkable property to become preferentially retained within the tumor's micro-environment. Upon the photo-agent's activation through visible light photon absorption, the agents exert their cellular cytotoxicity through type II and type I mechanistic pathways through extensive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS): singlet oxygen 1O2, superoxide anion O2 -, and hydrogen peroxide H2O2, within the intratumoral environment. Unfortunately, due to shallow visible light penetration depth (~2mm to 5mm) in tissues, the PDT strategy currently has largely been restricted to the treatments of surface tumors, such as the melanomas. Additional invasive strategies through optical fibers are currently utilized in getting the visible light into the intended deep seated targets within the body for PDT. In this communication, we report on a novel strategy in utilizing "soft" energy diagnostic X-rays to indirectly activate Photo II through X-ray induced luminescence from Gadolinium oxysulfide (20 micron dimension) particles doped with Terbium: Gd2O2S:Tb. X-ray induced visible luminescence from Gd2O2S:Tb particles was spectroscopically characterized and the ROS production levels from clinically relevant concentration (10 μg/ml) of Photo II was quantified through changes in the Vitamin C absorbance. ROS kinetics through X-ray induced luminescence was found to be similar to the ROS kinetics from red He-Ne laser exposures used in the clinics. Taken together, in-vitro findings herein provide the basis for future studies in determining the safety and efficacy of this non-invasive X-ray induced luminescence strategy in activating photo-agent in deep seated tumors.

  14. EUV and X-ray Spectroscopy of the Active Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raftery, Claire L.

    2012-10-01

    This thesis strives to improve our understanding of solar activity, specifically the behaviour of solar flares and coronal mass ejections. An investigation into the hydrodynamic evolution of a confined solar flare was carried out using RHESSI, CDS, GOES and TRACE. Evidence for pre-flare heating, explosive and gentle chromospheric evaporation and loop draining were observed in the data. The observations were compared to a 0-D hydrodynamic model, EBTEL, to aid interpretation. This led to the conclusion that the flare was not heated purely by non-thermal beam heating as previously believed, but also required direct heating of the plasma. An observational investigation in to the initiation mechanism of a coronal mass ejection and eruptive flare was then carried out, again utilising observations from a wide range of spacecraft: MESSENGER/SAX, RHESSI, EUVI, Cor1 and Cor2. Observations provided evidence of CME triggering by internal tether-cutting and not by breakout reconnection. A comparison of the confined and eruptive flares suggests that while they have different characteristics, timescales and topologies, these two phenomena are the result of the same fundamental processes. Finally, an investigation into the sensitivity of EUV imaging telescopes was carried out. This study established a new technique for calculating the sensitivity of EUV imagers to plasmas of different temperatures for four different types of plasma: coronal hole, quiet sun, active region and solar flare. This was carried out for six instruments: Proba-2/SWAP, TRACE, SOHO/EIT, STEREO A/EUVI, STEREO B/EUVI and SDO/AIA. The importance of considering the multi-thermal nature of these instruments was then put into the context of investigating explosive solar activity.

  15. ZnO thin film transistors and electronic connections for adjustable x-ray mirrors: SMART-X telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson-Wilke, R. L.; Wilke, R. H. T.; Wallace, M.; Ramirez, J. I.; Prieskorn, Z.; Nikoleyczik, J.; Cotroneo, V.; Allured, R.; Schwartz, D. A.; McMuldroch, S.; Reid, P. B.; Burrows, D. N.; Jackson, T. N.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.

    2014-09-01

    The proposed SMART-X telescope consists of a pixelated array of a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film deposited on flexible glass substrates. These cells or pixels are used to actively control the overall shape of the mirror surface. It is anticipated that the telescope will consist of 8,000 mirror panels with 400-800 cells on each panel. This creates an enormous number (6.4 million) of traces and contacts needed to address the PZT. In order to simplify the design, a row/column addressing scheme using ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs) is proposed. In addition, connection of the gate and drain lines on the mirror segment to an external supply via a flexible cable was investigated through use of an anisotropic conductive film (ACF). This paper outlines the design of the ZnO TFTs, use of ACF for bonding, and describes a specially designed electronics box with associated software to address the desired cells.

  16. The nuclear X-ray source in NGC 3628: A strange active galactic nucleus or the most luminous high-mass X-ray binary known?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlem, Michael; Heckman, Timothy M.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina

    1995-01-01

    After 12 years, during which its unabsorbed soft X-ray flux in the 0.1-2.0 keV band was almost constant at about f(sub x) approximately 10(exp -12) ergs/s/sq cm, the compact nuclear source in NGC 3628 was not detected in one of our ROSAT observations, with a limiting sensitivity of f(sub x) approximately 5 x 10(exp -14) ergs/s/sq cm. Our data can be explained in two ways. The source is either the most massive X-ray binary known so far, with a greater than and approximately equal to 75 solar mass black hole, or an unusual low-luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). The X-ray spectrum is typical of a high-mass X-ray binary, while the luminosity of the source of L(sub x) is approximately equal to 10(exp 40) ergs/s is more similar to those of low-luminosity AGNs. If it is an AGN, variable obscuration might explain the observed light curve.

  17. Variable magnification glancing incidence x ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A multispectral glancing incidence x ray telescope is disclosed, which capable of broadband, high resolution imaging of solar and stellar x ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation sources includes a primary optical system which focuses the incoming radiation to a primary focus. Two or more ellipsoidal mirrors are positioned behind the primary focus at an inclination to the optical axis, each mirror having a concave surface coated with a multilayer synthetic microstructure coating to reflect a desired wavelength. The ellipsoidal mirrors are segments of respective ellipsoids having a common first focus coincident with the primary focus. A detector such as an x ray sensitive photographic film is positioned at the second focus of each of the ellipsoids so that each of the ellipsoidal mirrors may reflect the image at the first focus to the detector. In one embodiment the mirrors are inclined at different angles and has its respective second focus at a different location, separate detectors being located at the respective second focus. The mirrors are arranged so that the magnification and field of view differ, and a solenoid activated arm may withdraw at least one mirror from the beam to select the mirror upon which the beam is to impinge so that selected magnifications and fields of view may be detected.

  18. Stripe pattern in the intensity profile of collimated soft x-ray beams caused by surface corrugation of the refocusing mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, D.; Siewert, F.; Zeschke, T.

    2015-02-01

    The effect of progress in surface finishing of optical components on the collimated-beam properties of soft x-ray beamlines at synchrotron radiation facilities is demonstrated: a stripe pattern, experimentally observed in the 2D intensity profile of beamlines with optical components manufactured 10-15 years ago, would be strongly attenuated if the existing refocusing mirror was replaced by an ultra-precise mirror manufactured with state-of-the-art of today surface finishing techniques. The observed stripe pattern is not caused by diffraction because its period length did not change with photon energy. Instead it can be explained with geometrical optics and is due to the height profile of the refocusing mirror which has been independently measured with a long trace profiler and used as an input in our raytracing simulations.

  19. The Discovery of X-ray Emission from Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Back in 1974 the UHURU catalog (3U) had been published with many UHGLS - unidentified high galactic latitude sources. Identifications were hampered by the square degree sized error boxes (positional uncertainties). Could these explain the cosmic X-ray background? Could UHGLS be "X-ray galaxies"? Only three active galaxies (AGNs) had been found as X-ray sources: 3C273, Cen A and NGC 4151, while others had upper limits. What was the difference between X-ray and non-X-ray AGNs? It turned out that the slightly better positioning capability and slightly deeper sensitivity of the Ariel V Sky Survey Instrument (SSI), launched in October 1974, were just enough to show that the UHGLS were Seyfert galaxies. And I was lucky enough that I'd joined the Leicester X-ray group and had taken on the UHGLS for my PhD thesis, with Ken Pounds as my supervisor. With the SSI we made a catalog of high latitude sources, the "2A" catalog, including about a dozen known Seyfert galaxies (lowish luminosity nearby AGNs) and, with Mike Penston and Martin Ward, we went on to identify many of them with both newly discovered normal broad emission line AGNs and a few new "narrow emission line galaxies", or NELGs, as we called them. We are now convinced that it is summation of many obscured NELGs that produce the flat spectrum of the X-ray background, and we are still searching for them in Chandra deep surveys and at higher energies with NuSTAR. There was an obvious connection between the X-ray obscuration and the optical reddening, which must lie outside the region emitting the broad optical spectral lines. Andy Lawrence and I, following a clue from Bill Keel, put this together into what we now call the Unified Scheme for AGN structure. This idea of a flattened torus obscuring the inner regions of the AGN was so dramatically confirmed a few years later -- by Ski Antonucci and Joe Miller's discovery of polarized broad emission lines in NGC1068 -- that the precursor papers became irrelevant. But Ariel

  20. Development of W/C soft x-ray multilayer mirror by ion beam sputtering (IBS) system for below 50A wavelength

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, A.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2012-06-25

    A home-made Ion Beam Sputtering (IBS) system has been developed in our laboratory. Using the IBS system single layer W and single layer C film has been deposited at 1000eV Ar ion energy and 10mA ion current. The W-film has been characterized by grazing Incidence X-ray reflectrometry (GIXR) technique and Atomic Force Microscope technique. The single layer C-film has been characterized by Spectroscopic Ellipsometric technique. At the same deposition condition 25-layer W/C multilayer film has been deposited which has been designed for using as mirror at 30 Degree-Sign grazing incidence angle around 50A wavelength. The multilayer sample has been characterized by measuring reflectivity of CuK{alpha} radiation and soft x-ray radiation around 50A wavelength.

  1. Performance optimization of a bendable parabolic cylinder collimating X-ray mirror for the ALS micro-XAS beamline 10.3.2

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Domning, Edward E.; Merthe, Daniel J.; Salmassi, Farhad; Smith, Brian V.

    2015-04-08

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) beamline (BL) 10.3.2 is an apparatus for X-ray microprobe spectroscopy and diffraction experiments, operating in the energy range 2.4–17 keV. The performance of the beamline, namely the spatial and energy resolutions of the measurements, depends significantly on the collimation quality of light incident on the monochromator. In the BL 10.3.2 end-station, the synchrotron source is imaged 1:1 onto a set of roll slits which form a virtual source. The light from this source is collimated in the vertical direction by a bendable parabolic cylinder mirror. Details are presented of the mirror design, which allows for precision assembly, alignment and shaping of the mirror, as well as for extending of the mirror operating lifetime by a factor of ~10. Assembly, mirror optimal shaping and preliminary alignment were performed ex situ in the ALS X-ray Optics Laboratory (XROL). Using an original method for optimal ex situ characterization and setting of bendable X-ray optics developed at the XROL, a root-mean-square (RMS) residual surface slope error of 0.31 µrad with respect to the desired parabola, and an RMS residual height error of less than 3 nm were achieved. Once in place at the beamline, deviations from the designed optical geometry (e.g. due to the tolerances for setting the distance to the virtual source, the grazing incidence angle, the transverse position) and/or mirror shape (e.g. due to a heat load deformation) may appear. Due to the errors, on installation the energy spread from the monochromator is typically a few electron-volts. Here, a new technique developed and successfully implemented for at-wavelength (in situ) fine optimal tuning of the mirror, enabling us to reduce the collimation-induced energy spread to ~0.05 eV, is described.

  2. The impact of stellar activity on X-ray and UV transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llama, Joe; Shkolnik, Evgenya

    2015-12-01

    X-ray and UV observations of transiting exoplanets have revealed the presence of extended atmospheres around a number of systems. At high energies, stellar radiation is absorbed high up in the planetary atmosphere, making X-ray and UV observations a potential tool for investigating the upper atmospheres of exoplanets. However, at these high energies, stellar activity can dramatically impact the observations. At short wavelengths the star appears limb-brightened, and active regions appear as bright features on the stellar disk. These will impact both the transit depth and shape, affecting our ability to measure the true planet-to-star radius ratio.I will show results of simulate exoplanet transit light curves using Solar data obtained in the soft X-ray and UV by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory to investigate the impact of stellar activity at these wavelengths. By using a limb-brightened transit model coupled with disk resolved Solar images in the X-ray, extreme- and far-UV I will show how both occulted and unocculted active regions can mimic an inflated planetary atmosphere by changing the depth and shape of the transit profile. I will also show how the disk integrated Lyman-alpha Solar irradiance varies on both short and long timescales and how this variability can impact our ability to recover the true radius ratio of a transiting exoplanet.Finally, I will present techniques on how to overcome these effects to determine the true planet-to-star radius in X-ray and UV observations.

  3. Empirical electro-optical and x-ray performance evaluation of CMOS active pixels sensor for low dose, high resolution x-ray medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Arvanitis, C D; Bohndiek, S E; Royle, G; Blue, A; Liang, H X; Clark, A; Prydderch, M; Turchetta, R; Speller, R

    2007-12-01

    Monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors with high performance have gained attention in the last few years in many scientific and space applications. In order to evaluate the increasing capabilities of this technology, in particular where low dose high resolution x-ray medical imaging is required, critical electro-optical and physical x-ray performance evaluation was determined. The electro-optical performance includes read noise, full well capacity, interacting quantum efficiency, and pixels cross talk. The x-ray performance, including x-ray sensitivity, modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detection quantum efficiency, has been evaluated in the mammographic energy range. The sensor is a 525 x 525 standard three transistor CMOS active pixel sensor array with more than 75% fill factor and 25 x 25 microm pixel pitch. Reading at 10 f/s, it is found that the sensor has 114 electrons total additive noise, 10(5) electrons full well capacity with shot noise limited operation, and 34% interacting quantum efficiency at 530 nm. Two different structured CsI:Tl phosphors with thickness 95 and 115 microm, respectively, have been optically coupled via a fiber optic plate to the array resulting in two different system configurations. The sensitivity of the two different system configurations was 43 and 47 electrons per x-ray incident on the sensor. The MTF at 10% of the two different system configurations was 9.5 and 9 cycles/mm with detective quantum efficiency of 0.45 and 0.48, respectively, close to zero frequency at approximately 0.44 microC/kg (1.72 mR) detector entrance exposure. The detector was quantum limited at low spatial frequencies and its performance was comparable with high resolution a: Si and charge coupled device based x-ray imagers. The detector also demonstrates almost an order of magnitude lower noise than active matrix flat panel imagers. The results suggest that CMOS active pixel sensors when coupled

  4. Empirical electro-optical and x-ray performance evaluation of CMOS active pixels sensor for low dose, high resolution x-ray medical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Arvanitis, C. D.; Bohndiek, S. E.; Royle, G.; Blue, A.; Liang, H. X.; Clark, A.; Prydderch, M.; Turchetta, R.; Speller, R.

    2007-12-15

    Monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors with high performance have gained attention in the last few years in many scientific and space applications. In order to evaluate the increasing capabilities of this technology, in particular where low dose high resolution x-ray medical imaging is required, critical electro-optical and physical x-ray performance evaluation was determined. The electro-optical performance includes read noise, full well capacity, interacting quantum efficiency, and pixels cross talk. The x-ray performance, including x-ray sensitivity, modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detection quantum efficiency, has been evaluated in the mammographic energy range. The sensor is a 525x525 standard three transistor CMOS active pixel sensor array with more than 75% fill factor and 25x25 {mu}m pixel pitch. Reading at 10 f/s, it is found that the sensor has 114 electrons total additive noise, 10{sup 5} electrons full well capacity with shot noise limited operation, and 34% interacting quantum efficiency at 530 nm. Two different structured CsI:Tl phosphors with thickness 95 and 115 {mu}m, respectively, have been optically coupled via a fiber optic plate to the array resulting in two different system configurations. The sensitivity of the two different system configurations was 43 and 47 electrons per x-ray incident on the sensor. The MTF at 10% of the two different system configurations was 9.5 and 9 cycles/mm with detective quantum efficiency of 0.45 and 0.48, respectively, close to zero frequency at {approx}0.44 {mu}C/kg (1.72 mR) detector entrance exposure. The detector was quantum limited at low spatial frequencies and its performance was comparable with high resolution a:Si and charge coupled device based x-ray imagers. The detector also demonstrates almost an order of magnitude lower noise than active matrix flat panel imagers. The results suggest that CMOS active pixel sensors when coupled to

  5. The effects of X-rays from active galactic nuclei on the interstellar medium of the surrounding galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of an active nucleus on the large-scale properties of the host galaxy are examined, focusing on the effects of X-ray heating on the host galaxy's interstellar medium. The basic properties of AGNs and several questions concerning AGNs are reviewed. The relationship between X-ray heated winds and coronae is outlined. The case of X-ray heated winds in type 2 Seyfert galaxies is discussed.

  6. Soft X-ray variability over the present minimum of solar activity as observed by SphinX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Kepa, A.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Bakala, J.; Podgorski, P.; Kordylewski, Z.; Plocieniak, S.; Sylwester, B.; Trzebinski, W.; Kuzin, S.

    2011-04-01

    Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX) is an instrument designed to observe the Sun in X-rays in the energy range 0.85-15.00 keV. SphinX is incorporated within the Russian TESIS X and EUV telescope complex aboard the CORONAS-Photon satellite which was launched on January 30, 2009 at 13:30 UT from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, northern Russia. Since February, 2009 SphinX has been measuring solar X-ray radiation nearly continuously. The principle of SphinX operation and the content of the instrument data archives is studied. Issues related to dissemination of SphinX calibration, data, repository mirrors locations, types of data and metadata are discussed. Variability of soft X-ray solar flux is studied using data collected by SphinX over entire mission duration.

  7. Comparison of slope and height profiles for flat synchrotron x-ray mirrors measured with a long trace profiler and a Fizeau interferometer.

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, J.; Assoufid, L.; Macrander, A.; X-Ray Science Division

    2007-01-01

    Long trace profilers (LTPS) have been used at many synchrotron radiation laboratories worldwide for over a decade to measure surface slope profiles of long grazing incidence x-ray mirrors. Phase measuring interferometers (PMIs) of the Fizeau type, on the other hand, are being used by most mirror manufacturers to accomplish the same task. However, large mirrors whose dimensions exceed the aperture of the Fizeau interferometer require measurements to be carried out at grazing incidence, and aspheric optics require the use of a null lens. While an LTP provides a direct measurement of ID slope profiles, PMIs measure area height profiles from which the slope can be obtained by a differentiation algorithm. Measurements of the two types of instruments have been found by us to be in good agreement, but to our knowledge there is no published work directly comparing the two instruments. This paper documents that comparison. We measured two different nominally flat mirrors with both the LTP in operation at the Advanced Photon Source (a type-II LTP) and a Fizeau-type PMI interferometer (Wyko model 6000). One mirror was 500 mm long and made of Zerodur, and the other mirror was 350 mm long and made of silicon. Slope error results with these instruments agree within nearly 100% (3.11 {+-} 0.15 {micro}rad for the LTP, and 3.11 {+-} 0.02 {micro}rad for the Fizeau PMI interferometer) for the medium quality Zerodur mirror with 3 {micro}rad rms nominal slope error. A significant difference was observed with the much higher quality silicon mirror. For the Si mirror, slope error data is 0.39 {+-} 0.08 {micro}rad from LTP measurements but it is 0.35 {+-} 0.01 {micro}rad from PMI interferometer measurements. The standard deviations show that the Fizeau PMI interferometer has much better measurement repeatability.

  8. New active galactic nuclei among the INTEGRAL and SWIFT X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burenin, R. A.; Mescheryakov, A. V.; Revnivtsev, M. G.; Sazonov, S. Yu.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Pavlinsky, M. N.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    2008-06-01

    We present the results of our optical identifications of a set of X-ray sources from the INTEGRAL and SWIFT all-sky surveys. The optical data have been obtained with the 1.5-m Russian-Turkish Telescope (RTT-150). Nine X-ray sources have been identified with active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Two of them are located in the nearby spiral galaxies MCG-01-05-047 and NGC 973 seen almost edge-on. One source, IGR J16562-3301, is probably a BL Lac object (blazar). The remaining AGNs are observed as the starlike nuclei of spiral galaxies whose spectra exhibit broad emission lines. The relation between the hard X-ray (17-60 keV) luminosity and the [O III] 5007 line luminosity, log L x/ L [O III] ≈ 2.1, holds good for most of the AGNs detected in hard X rays. However, the luminosities of some AGNs deviate from this relation. The fraction of such objects can reach ˜20%. In particular, the [O III] line flux is lower for two nearby edge-on spiral galaxies. This can be explained by the effect of absorption in the galactic disks.

  9. Accretion disk winds in active galactic nuclei: X-ray observations, models, and feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombesi, F.

    2016-05-01

    Powerful winds driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are often invoked to play a fundamental role in the evolution of both supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies, quenching star formation and explaining the tight SMBH-galaxy relations. A strong support of this ``quasar mode'' feedback came from the recent X-ray observation of a mildly relativistic accretion disk wind in a ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) and its connection with a large-scale molecular outflow, providing a direct link between the SMBH and the gas out of which stars form. Spectroscopic observations, especially in the X-ray band, show that such accretion disk winds may be common in local AGN and quasars. However, their origin and characteristics are still not fully understood. Detailed theoretical models and simulations focused on radiation, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) or a combination of these two processes to investigate the possible acceleration mechanisms and the dynamics of these winds. Some of these models have been directly compared to X-ray spectra, providing important insights into the wind physics. However, fundamental improvements on these studies will come only from the unprecedented energy resolution and sensitivity of the upcoming X-ray observatories, namely ASTRO-H (launch date early 2016) and Athena (2028).

  10. In situ x-ray, electrochemical, and modeling investigation of the oxygen electrode activation.

    SciTech Connect

    Yildiz, B.; Chang, K.-C.; Meyers, D.; Carter, J. D.; You, H.

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen electrodes of solid oxide electrochemical cells have been shown to improve under strong cathodic and anodic polarization. Our study investigates the mechanism causing such improvement, using in situ x-ray and electrochemical characterization and electrochemical impedance modeling of the oxygen electrodes. Several porous and dense thin-film model electrodes of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSM) and La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LCM) on single crystal yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes have been analyzed in situ at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) using x-ray reflectivity and x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) at the Mn K-edge and La LII-edge. In situ x-ray reflectivity analysis show that no clear correlation between the polarization of the electrode and any further changes in the roughness of the LSM/YSZ interface exist. XANES measurements illustrate that the cathodic or anodic dc polarization at high temperature induces no detectable changes in Mn chemical state either in the bulk or at the surface of the LCM and LSM electrodes on YSZ, while the La chemical state changes reversibly at the electrode surface. This field-induced chemical change of La at the surface of electrodes is assumed to be a cause of the electrochemical activation through enhanced surface exchange of oxygen on the doped lanthanum manganite electrodes.

  11. Future lunar mission Active X-ray Spectrometer development: Surface roughness and geometry studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, M.; Hasebe, N.; Kusano, H.; Nagaoka, H.; Kuwako, M.; Oyama, Y.; Shibamura, E.; Amano, Y.; Ohta, T.; Kim, K. J.; Lopes, J. A. M.

    2015-07-01

    The Active X-ray Spectrometer (AXS) is considered as one of the scientific payload candidates for a future Japanese mission, SELENE-2. The AXS consists of pyroelectric X-ray generators and a Silicon Drift Detector to conduct X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) on the Moon to measure major elements: Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe; minor elements: Na, K, P, S, Cr and Mn; and the trace element Ni depending on their concentration. Some factors such as roughness, grain size and porosity of sample, and the geometry of X-ray incidence, emission and energy will affect the XRF measurements precision. Basic studies on the XRF are required to develop the AXS. In this study, fused samples were used to make homogeneous samples free from the effect of grain size and porosity. Experimental and numerical studies on the XRF were conducted to evaluate the effects from incidence and emission angles and surface roughness. Angle geometry and surface roughness will be optimized for the design of the AXS on future missions from the results of the experiment and the numerical simulation.

  12. Magnetic Dynamos and X-Ray Activity in Ultracool Dwarfs (UCDs): Surprises in the Radio Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Peter K.; Cook, B. A.; Berger, E.

    2014-01-01

    Radio observations established early on that some brown dwarfs host kilogauss magnetic fields, despite their low temperatures and the absence of the shearing tachocline that is believed to be key to the solar dynamo. The observed radio emission is often surprisingly bright, exceeding the standard magnetic radio/X-ray (Güdel-Benz) relation by as much as five orders of magnitude. This effect is still not satisfactorily explained. In an attempt to improve matters, we have constructed and analyzed a comprehensive database of ultracool dwarfs with both radio and X-ray data, including new observations of seven targets with Chandra and the upgraded VLA. While all of the newly-observed objects were detected in the X-ray, only one was detected in the radio. These new targets are thus consistent with the standard relation, in striking contrast with some previous data. Some pairs of dwarfs with outwardly similar characteristics (spectral type, v sin i) have dramatically different emission properties, with radio/X-ray ratios that differ by two orders of magnitude. These results suggest that there is dramatic variance in ultracool magnetic activity. As we also discuss in a companion poster examining the relation between rotation and activity, variation in the topology of the magnetic field may explain the data. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution. We also acknowledge support from the NSF through Grant AST-1008361 and from NASA through Chandra Award Number G02-13007A issued by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and NASA under contract NAS8-03060.

  13. Skylab observations of X-ray loops connecting separate active regions. [solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, R. C.; Krieger, A. S.; Svestka, Z.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1976-01-01

    One hundred loops interconnecting 94 separate active solar regions detectable in soft X-rays were identified during the Skylab mission. While close active regions are commonly interconnected with loops, the number of such interconnections decreases steeply for longer distances; the longest interconnecting loop observed in the Skylab data connected regions separated by 37 deg. Several arguments are presented which support the point of view that this is the actual limit of the size of magnetic interconnections between active regions. No sympathetic flares could be found in the interconnected regions. These results cast doubt on the hypothesis that accelerated particles can be guided in interconnecting loops from one active region to another over distances of 100 deg or more and eventually produce sympathetic flares in them.

  14. The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. II - Soft X-ray/EUV reflectivity of the multilayer mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Weed, J. W.; Hoover, Richard B. C., Jr.; Allen, Max J.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Deforest, Craig E.; Paris, Elizabeth S.; Walker, Arthur B. C.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed seven compact soft X-ray/EUV (XUV) multilayer coated and two compact FUV interference film coated Cassegrain and Ritchey-Chretien telescopes for a rocket borne observatory, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. We report here on extensive measurements of the efficiency and spectral bandpass of the XUV telescopes carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory.

  15. Ionized Absorbers in Active Galactic Nuclei and Very Steap Soft X-Ray Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiore, Fabrizio; White, Nicholas (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Steep soft X-ray (0.1-2 keV) quasars share several unusual properties: narrow Balmer lines, strong Fe II emission, large and fast X-ray variability, and a rather steep 2-10 keV spectrum. These intriguing objects have been suggested to be the analogues of Galactic black hole candidates in the high, soft state. We present here results from ASCA observations for two of these quasars: NAB 0205 + 024 and PG 1244 + 026. Both objects show similar variations (factor of approximately 2 in 10 ks), despite a factor of approximately 10 difference in the 0.5-10 keV luminosity (7.3 x 10(exp 43) erg/s for PG 1244 + 026 and 6.4 x 10(exp 44) erg/s for NAB 0205 + 024, assuming isotropic emission, H(sub 0) = 50.0 and q(sub 0) = 0.0). The X-ray continuum of the two quasars flattens by 0.5-1 going from the 0.1-2 keV band towards higher energies, strengthening recent results on another half-dozen steep soft X-ray active galactic nuclei. PG 1244 + 026 shows a significant feature in the '1-keV' region, which can be described either as a broad emission line centered at 0.95 keV (quasar frame) or as edge or line absorption at 1.17 (1.22) keV. The line emission could be a result of reflection from a highly ionized accretion disc, in line with the view that steep soft X-ray quasars are emitting close to the Eddington luminosity. Photoelectric edge absorption or resonant line absorption could be produced by gas outflowing at a large velocity (0.3-0.6 c).

  16. Accretion and Nuclear Activity of Quiescent Supermassive Black Holes. I. X-Ray Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, R.; Fabbiano, G.; Graham, Alister W.; Baldi, A.; Elvis, M.; Jerjen, H.; Pellegrini, S.; Siemiginowska, A.

    2006-03-01

    We have studied the nuclear activity in a sample of six quiescent early-type galaxies, with new Chandra data and archival HST optical images. Their nuclear sources have X-ray luminosities ~1038-1039 ergs s-1 (LX/LEdd~10-8 to 10-7) and colors or spectra consistent with accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs), except for the nucleus of NGC 4486B, which is softer than typical AGN spectra. In a few cases, the X-ray morphology of the nuclear sources shows hints of marginally extended structures, in addition to the surrounding diffuse thermal emission from hot gas, which is detectable on scales >~1 kpc. In one case (NGC 5845), a dusty disk may partially obstruct our direct view of the SMBH. We have estimated the temperature and density of the hot interstellar medium, which is one major source of fuel for the accreting SMBH; typical central densities are ne~(0.02+/-0.01) cm-3. Assuming that the hot gas is captured by the SMBH at the Bondi rate, we show that the observed X-ray luminosities are too faint to be consistent with standard disk accretion, but brighter than predicted by radiatively inefficient solutions (e.g., advection-dominated accretion flows [ADAFs]). In total, there are ~20 galaxies for which SMBH mass, hot gas density, and nuclear X-ray luminosity are simultaneously known. In some cases, the nuclear sources are brighter than predicted by the ADAF model; in other cases, they are consistent or fainter. We discuss the apparent lack of correlations between Bondi rate and X-ray luminosity and suggest that, in order to understand the observed distribution, we need to know two additional parameters: the amount of gas supplied by the stellar population inside the accretion radius, and the fraction (possibly <<1) of the total gas available that is accreted by the SMBH. We leave a detailed study of these issues to a subsequent paper.

  17. ACTIVE GALAXY UNIFICATION IN THE ERA OF X-RAY POLARIMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Dorodnitsyn, A.; Kallman, T.

    2010-03-10

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs), Seyfert galaxies, and quasars are powered by luminous accretion and often accompanied by winds that are powerful enough to affect the AGN mass budget, and whose observational appearance bears an imprint of processes that are happening within the central parsec around the black hole (BH). One example of such a wind is the partially ionized gas responsible for X-ray and UV absorption (warm absorbers). Here, we show that such gas will have a distinct signature when viewed in polarized X-rays. Observations of such polarization can test models for the geometry of the flow and the gas responsible for launching and collimating it. We present calculations that show that the polarization depends on the hydrodynamics of the flow, the quantum mechanics of resonance-line scattering, and the transfer of polarized X-ray light in the highly ionized moving gas. The results emphasize the three-dimensional nature of the wind for modeling spectra. We show that the polarization in the 0.1-10 keV energy range is dominated by the effects of resonance lines. We predict a 5%-25% X-ray polarization signature of type-2 objects in this energy range. These results are generalized to flows that originate from a cold torus-like structure, located {approx}1 pc from the BH, which wraps the BH and is ultimately responsible for the apparent dichotomy between type 1 and type 2 AGNs. Such signals will be detectable by future dedicated X-ray polarimetry space missions, such as the NASA Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer.

  18. A CANDIDATE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS WITH A PURE SOFT THERMAL X-RAY SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Terashima, Yuichi; Kamizasa, Naoya; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Kubota, Aya; Ueda, Yoshihiro

    2012-06-20

    We report the discovery of a candidate active galactic nucleus (AGN), 2XMM J123103.2+110648 at z = 0.13, with an X-ray spectrum represented purely by soft thermal emission reminiscent of Galactic black hole (BH) binaries in the disk-dominated state. This object was found in the second XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalog as a highly variable X-ray source. In three separate observations, its X-ray spectrum can be represented either by a multicolor disk blackbody model with an inner temperature of kT{sub in} Almost-Equal-To 0.16-0.21 keV or a Wien spectrum Comptonized by an optically thick plasma with kT Almost-Equal-To 0.14-0.18 keV. The soft X-ray luminosity in the 0.5-2 keV band is estimated to be (1.6-3.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. Hard emission above {approx}2 keV is not detected. The ratio of the soft to hard emission is the strongest among AGNs observed thus far. Spectra selected in high/low-flux time intervals are examined in order to study spectral variability. In the second observation with the highest signal-to-noise ratio, the low-energy (below 0.7 keV) spectral regime flattens when the flux is high, while the shape of the high-energy part (1-1.7 keV) remains unchanged. This behavior is qualitatively consistent with being caused by strong Comptonization. Both the strong soft excess and spectral change consistent with Comptonization in the X-ray spectrum imply that the Eddington ratio is large, which requires a small BH mass (smaller than {approx}10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }).

  19. Ensemble X-ray variability of active galactic nuclei from serendipitous source catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagnetti, F.; Turriziani, S.; Trevese, D.

    2011-12-01

    Context. The X-ray variability of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) has been most often investigated with studies of individual, nearby sources, and only a few ensemble analyses have been applied to large samples in wide ranges of luminosity and redshift. Aims: We aim to determine the ensemble variability properties of two serendipitously selected AGN samples extracted from the catalogues of XMM-Newton and Swift, with redshift between ~0.2 and ~4.5, and X-ray luminosities, in the 0.5-4.5 keV band, between ~1043 erg/s and ~1046 erg/s. Methods: We used the structure function (SF), which operates in the time domain, and allows for an ensemble analysis even when only a few observations are available for individual sources and the power spectral density (PSD) cannot be derived. The SF is also more appropriate than fractional variability and excess variance, because these parameters are biased by the duration of the monitoring time interval in the rest-frame, and therefore by cosmological time dilation. Results: We find statistically consistent results for the two samples, with the SF described by a power law of the time lag, approximately as SF ∝ τ0.1. We do not find evidence of the break in the SF, at variance with the case of lower luminosity AGNs. We confirm a strong anti-correlation of the variability with X-ray luminosity, accompanied by a change of the slope of the SF. We find evidence in support of a weak, intrinsic, average increase of X-ray variability with redshift. Conclusions: The change of amplitude and slope of the SF with X-ray luminosity provides new constraints on both single oscillator models and multiple subunit models of variability. Tables 1 and 2 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. X-ray imaging of chemically active valence electrons during a pericyclic reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredtmann, Timm; Ivanov, Misha; Dixit, Gopal

    2014-11-01

    Time-resolved imaging of chemically active valence electron densities is a long-sought goal, as these electrons dictate the course of chemical reactions. However, X-ray scattering is always dominated by the core and inert valence electrons, making time-resolved X-ray imaging of chemically active valence electron densities extremely challenging. Here we demonstrate an effective and robust method, which emphasizes the information encoded in weakly scattered photons, to image chemically active valence electron densities. The degenerate Cope rearrangement of semibullvalene, a pericyclic reaction, is used as an example to visually illustrate our approach. Our work also provides experimental access to the long-standing problem of synchronous versus asynchronous bond formation and breaking during pericyclic reactions.

  1. ROSAT x ray survey observations of active chromospheric binary systems and other selected sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    1993-01-01

    The connection between processes that produce optical chromospheric activity indicators and those that produce x-rays in RS CVn binary systems by taking advantage of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) results and our unique ground-based data set was investigated. In RS CVn systems, excess emission in the Ca 2 resonance (K & H) and infrared triplet (IRT) lines and in the Balmer lines of hydrogen is generally cited as evidence for chromospheric activity, which is usually modeled as scaled up solar-type activity. X-ray emission in RS CVn systems is believed to arise from coronal loop structures. Results from spectra data obtained from RASS observations are discussed and presented.

  2. X-ray imaging of chemically active valence electrons during a pericyclic reaction

    PubMed Central

    Bredtmann, Timm; Ivanov, Misha; Dixit, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Time-resolved imaging of chemically active valence electron densities is a long-sought goal, as these electrons dictate the course of chemical reactions. However, X-ray scattering is always dominated by the core and inert valence electrons, making time-resolved X-ray imaging of chemically active valence electron densities extremely challenging. Here we demonstrate an effective and robust method, which emphasizes the information encoded in weakly scattered photons, to image chemically active valence electron densities. The degenerate Cope rearrangement of semibullvalene, a pericyclic reaction, is used as an example to visually illustrate our approach. Our work also provides experimental access to the long-standing problem of synchronous versus asynchronous bond formation and breaking during pericyclic reactions. PMID:25424639

  3. Results of x-ray mirror round-robin metrology measurements at the APS, ESRF, and SPring-8 optical metrology laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Assoufid, L.; Rommeveaux, A.; Ohashi, H.; Yamauchi, K.; Mimura, H.; Qian, J.; Hignette, O.; Ishikawa, T.; Morawe, C.; Macrander, A.T.; Khounsary, A.; Goto, S.; Experimental Facilities Division; ESRF; SPring-8; Osaka Univ.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the first series of round-robin metrology measurements of x-ray mirrors organized at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) in the USA, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in France, and the Super Photon Ring (SPring-8) (in a collaboration with Osaka University, ) in Japan. This work is part of the three institutions' three-way agreement to promote a direct exchange of research information and experience amongst their specialists. The purpose of the metrology round robin is to compare the performance and limitations of the instrumentation used at the optical metrology laboratories of these facilities and to set the basis for establishing guidelines and procedures to accurately perform the measurements. The optics used in the measurements were selected to reflect typical, as well as state of the art, in mirror fabrication. The first series of the round robin measurements focuses on flat and cylindrical mirrors with varying sizes and quality. Three mirrors (two flats and one cylinder) were successively measured using long trace profilers. Although the three facilities' LTPs are of different design, the measurements were found to be in excellent agreement. The maximum discrepancy of the rms slope error values is 0.1 {micro}rad, that of the rms shape error was 3 nm, and they all relate to the measurement of the cylindrical mirror. The next round-robin measurements will deal with elliptical and spherical optics.

  4. Reconstruction of Quasi-Monochromatic Images for Multispectral X-ray Imaging with a Pinhole Array and a Flat Bragg Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, N; Barbee, T W; Koch, J A; Mancini, R C; Welser, L A

    2005-08-04

    We have developed a software package for reconstruction of quasi-monochromatic images from a multiple monochromatic x-ray imager for inertial confinement fusion implosions. The instrument consists of a pinhole array, a multi-layer Bragg mirror, and a image detector. The pinhole array projects hundreds of images onto the detector after reflection off the multi-layer Bragg mirror, which introduces spectral dispersion along the reflection axis. The quasi-monochromatic images of line emissions and continuum emissions can be used for measurement of temperature and density maps of implosion plasmas. In this paper, we describe a computer-aided processing technique for systematic reconstruction of quasi-monochromatic images from raw data. This technique provides flexible spectral bandwidth selection, and allows systematic subtraction of continuum emission from line emission images.

  5. A simple way of characterizing x-ray downwards-deflecting mirror-bender assemblies using the long trace profiler

    SciTech Connect

    Assoufid, L.; Her, P.

    1999-11-22

    A simple device composed of a modular double-pentaprism system that enables the long trace profiler (LTP) to measure mirrors in nonconventional ways, i.e., in the vertical-downward and sideways positions, has been devised and implemented in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) long trace profiler (LTP II). The systems is very useful in calibrating mirror-bender assemblies. This paper describes the system and gives results of measurements performed with it on a mirror used at the APS.

  6. Status of MBI activities: Will a transient collisional x-ray laser with high repetition rate come soon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickles, Peter V.; Janulewicz, Karol A.; Priebe, Gerd; Lucianetti, Antonio; Kroemer, Robert K.; Gerlitzke, Anne-Kathrin; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2003-12-01

    Some prospects for development of collisional X-ray lasers with a high repetition rate based on the output characteristics of a transient Ni-like Ag soft X-ray laser pumped by a single picosecond laser pulse are analysed. Such problems as target technology, new driver development and the active medium parameters are discussed.

  7. X-ray color analysis of the spectra of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Netzer, Hagai; Turner, T. J.; George, Ian M.

    1994-01-01

    The identification and detection of X-ray absorption and emission features depends on the resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the observation, the understanding of the instrument response, and the Galactic line-of-sight absorption. Since many of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) data sets are limited in their S/N and full modeling of the physical conditions is rather complicated, we suggest a new analysis method based on 'X-ray colors.' The two sets of X-ray colors, defined for low (ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC)) and medium (Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT)) and ASCA Solid-State Imaging Spectrometers (SIS) resolution experiments, are used to separate regions of different physical conditions in a two-dimensional color-color plane. They are similar but superior to previous methods using the X-ray 'hardness ratio' in being able to reveal more of the physical properties of the source. We illustrate the use of such diagrams by studying a number of AGNs suspected of showing absorption features. A sample of 14 AGNs observed by the ROSAT PSPC is presented which includes several objects with suspected 'warm absorbers' along the line-of-sight to the nucleus, several others exhibiting intrinsic continuum variations, and a number of control objects thought to be featureless. Our new observations show, for the first time, the color variation as a function of time for three of the Seyfert 1 sources: NGC 4051, Mrk 335, and Mrk 766. The variations suggest that in two sources we are witnessing real changes in continuum shape, while one (NGC 4051) is consistent with having a warm absorber. Four of the objects observed by BBXRT are reanalyzed using our X-ray colors. Out of these, we discuss in detail the case of NGC 4151 and show that the color-color analysis agrees very well with previous, detailed spectral fitting methods. In particular, we confirm that the observed BBXRT observation of this source is not consistent with the warm absorber

  8. Investigation of Water-Soluble X-ray Luminescence Nanoparticles for Photodynamic Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuanfang; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shaopeng; Joly, Alan G.

    2008-01-28

    In this letter, we report the synthesis of LaF3:Tb3+-MTCP (meso-Tetra(4-carboxyphenyl) porphine) nanoparticle conjugates and investigate the energy transfer as well as singlet oxygen generation following X-ray irradiation. Our observations indicate that LaF3:Tb3+-MTCP nanoparticle conjugates are efficient photodynamic agents that can be initiated by X-rays at a reasonably low dose. The addition of folic acid to facilitate targeting to folate receptors on tumor cells has no effect on the quantum yield of singlet oxygen in the nanoparticle-MTCP conjugates. Our pilot studies indicate that water-soluble scintillation nanoparticles can be potentially used to activate photodynamic therapy as a promising deep cancer treatment.

  9. HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES OF THE SWIFT BAT ULTRA HARD X-RAY SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Gehrels, Neil; Valencic, Lynne

    2011-10-01

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) active galactic nucleus (AGN) with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (z < 0.05), moderate luminosity AGNs from the Swift BAT sample. The BAT AGN host galaxies have intermediate optical colors (u - r and g - r) that are bluer than a comparison sample of inactive galaxies and optically selected AGNs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are chosen to have the same stellar mass. Based on morphological classifications from the RC3 and the Galaxy Zoo, the bluer colors of BAT AGNs are mainly due to a higher fraction of mergers and massive spirals than in the comparison samples. BAT AGNs in massive galaxies (log M{sub *} >10.5) have a 5-10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGNs or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-infrared emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGNs are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGNs have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] {lambda}5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGNs in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as a whole. In agreement with the unified model of AGNs, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGNs suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.

  10. Variable X-Ray and UV emission from AGB stars: Accretion activity associated with binarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Sanz-Forcada, Jorge; Sánchez Contreras, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    Almost all of our current understanding of the late evolutionary stages of (1 — 8) Mʘ stars is based on single-star models. However, binarity can drastically affect late stellar evolution, producing dramatic changes in the history and geometry of mass loss that occurs in stars as they evolve off the AGB to become planetary nebulae (PNe). A variety of binary models have been proposed, which can lead to the generation of accretion disks and magnetic fields, which in turn produce the highly collimated jets that have been proposed as the primary agents for the formation of bipolar and multipolar PNe. However, observational evidence of binarity in AGB stars is sorely lacking simply these stars are very luminous and variable, invalidating standard techniques for binary detection. Using an innovative technique of searching for UV emission from AGB stars with GALEX, we have identified a class of AGB stars with far- ultraviolet excesses (fuvAGB stars), that are likely candidates for active accretion associated with a binary companion. We have carried out a pilot survey for X-ray emission from fuvAGB stars. The X-ray fluxes are found to vary in a stochastic or quasi-periodic manner on roughly hour-long times-scales, and simultaneous UV observations show similar variations in the UV fluxes. We discuss several models for the X-ray emission and its variability and find that the most likely scenario for the origin of the X-ray (and FUV) emission involves accretion activity around a main-sequence companion star, with confinement by strong magnetic fields associated with the companion and/or an accretion disk around it.

  11. Analysis of Active Figure Control Effects on Mounting Strategy for X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey J.; Roche, Jacqueline M.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Elsner, Ryan F.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    As part of ongoing development efforts at MSFC, we have begun to investigate mounting strategies for highly nested x-ray optics in both full-shell and segmented configurations. The analytical infrastructure for this effort also lends itself to investigation of active strategies. We expect that a consequence of active figure control on relatively thin substrates is that errors are propagated to the edges, where they might affect the effective precision of the mounting points. Based upon modeling, we describe parametrically, the conditions under which active mounts are preferred over fixed ones, and the effect of active figure corrections on the required number, locations, and kinematic characteristics of mounting points.

  12. X-ray spectra and time variability of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    The X-ray spectra of broad line active galactic nuclei (AGN) of all types (Seyfert I's, NELG's, broadline radio galaxies) are well fit by a power law in the .5 to 100 keV band of man energy slope alpha = .68 + or - .15. There is, as yet, no strong evidence for time variability of this slope in a given object. The constraints that this places on simple models of the central energy source are discussed. BL Lac objects have quite different X-ray spectral properties and show pronounced X-ray spectral variability. On time scales longer than 12 hours most radio quiet AGN do not show strong, delta I/I .5, variability. The probability of variability of these AGN seems to be inversely related to their luminosity. However characteristics timescales for variability have not been measured for many objects. This general lack of variability may imply that most AGN are well below the Eddington limit. Radio bright AGN tend to be more variable than radio quiet AGN on long, tau approx 6 month, timescales.

  13. X-ray/microwave relation of different types of active stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guedel, Manuel; Benz, Arnold O.

    1993-01-01

    Coronal active stars of seven classes between spectral types F and M, single and double, are compared in their quiescent radio and X-ray luminosities L(R) and L(X). We find, largely independent of stellar class, log L(X) is less than about log L(R) + 15.5. This general relation points to an intimate connection between the nonthermal, energetic electrons causing the radio emission and the bulk plasma of the corona responsible for thermal X-rays. The relation, observed over six orders of magnitude, suggests that the heating mechanism necessarily involves particle acceleration. We derive requirements for simple models based on optically thin gyrosynchrotron emission of mildly relativistic electrons and thermal X-rays from the bulk plasma. We discuss the possibility that a portion of the accelerated particles heats the ambient plasma by collisions. More likely, plasma heating and particle acceleration may occur in parallel and in the same process, but at a fixed ratio.

  14. Spectral evolution of active galactic nuclei: A unified description of the X-ray and gamma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiter, D.; Boldt, E.

    1982-01-01

    A model for spectral evolution is presented whereby active galactic nuclei (AGN) of the type observed individually emerge from an earlier stage at z approx = 4 in which they are the thermal X-ray sources responsible for most of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB). The conjecture is pursued that these precursor objects are initially supermassive Schwarzschild black holes with accretion disks radiating near the Eddington luminosity limit. It is noted that after approx. 10 to the 8th power years these central black holes are spun-up to a canonical Kerr equilibrium state (A/M = 0.998; Thorne 1974) and shown how they then can lead to spectral evolution involving non-thermal emission extending to gamma rays, at the expense of reduced thermal disk radiation. That major portion of the CXB remaining after the contribution of usual AGN are considered, while a superposition of AGN sources at z 1 can account for the gamma ray background. Extensive X-ray measurements carried out with the HEAO 1 and 2 missions as well as gamma ray and optical data are shown to compare favorably with principal features of this model.

  15. Ion-heated thermal Comptonization models and x-ray spectral correlations in active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Dermer, C.D.

    1989-11-01

    Recent Ginga observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxies NGC 4051 and MCG 6-30-15 show a positive correlation between the 2-10 keV luminosity and photon spectral index {alpha}. Similar behavior has also been reported in Exosat and Einstein observations of other active galactic nuclei, and is suggested in hard x-ray low-state data of the galactic black-hole candidate Cygnus X-1. A two-temperature thermal Comptonization model with internal soft-photon production provides a simple explanation for this correlation. The electron temperature, determined by a balance between ion heating and radiative cooling, decreases in response to an enhancement of the soft photon flux, resulting in a softening of the spectrum and an increase in the soft x-ray luminosity. The bulk of the soft photons are produced through pion production in collisions between the hot ions. Pivoting of the spectrum at photon energies {var epsilon} > 50 keV is a consequence of variations in the ion temperature. An important test of the model would be time correlations between soft and hard x-ray bands. 17 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Clumpy tori around type II active galactic nuclei as revealed by X-ray fluorescent lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiren; Liu, Yuan; Li, Xiaobo; Xu, Weiwei; Gou, Lijun; Cheng, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    The reflection spectrum of a torus around an active galactic nucleus (AGN) is characterized by X-ray fluorescent lines, which are most prominent for type II AGNs. A clumpy torus allows photons reflected from the back-side of the torus to leak through the front regions that are free of obscuration. The observed X-ray fluorescent lines are therefore sensitive to the clumpiness of the torus. We analysed a sample of type II AGNs observed with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS), and measured the fluxes for the Si Kα and Fe Kα lines. The measured Fe Kα/Si Kα ratios, spanning a range between 5 and 60, are far smaller than the ratios predicted from simulations of smooth tori, indicating that the tori of the studied sources have clumpy distributions rather than smooth ones. We compared the measured Fe Kα/Si Kα ratios with simulation results of clumpy tori. The Circinus galaxy has a Fe Kα/Si Kα ratio of ˜60, which is close to the simulation results for N = 5, where N is the average number of clumps along the line of sight. The Fe Kα/Si Kα ratios of the other sources are all below the simulation results for N = 2. Overall, this shows that the non-Fe fluorescent lines in the soft X-ray band are a potentially powerful probe of the clumpiness of tori around AGNs.

  17. FAME: Freeform Active Mirrors Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugot, Emmanuel; Agocs, Tibor; Challita, Zalpha; Jasko, Attila; Kroes, Gabby; Banyai, Evelin; Miller, Chris; Taylor, William; Schnetler, Hermine; Venema, Lars

    2014-07-01

    This paper discusses the development of a demonstrator freeform active mirror for future astronomical instruments both on Earth and in space. It consists of a system overview and progress in various areas of technology in the building blocks of the mirror: an extreme freeform thin face sheet, an active array, design tools and the metrology and control of the system. The demonstrator aims to investigate the applicability of the technique in high end astronomical systems, also for space and cryogenically.

  18. [X-ray microanalysis of the activity of immobilized urease on chitosan membrane].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-li; Yao, Zi-hua

    2005-03-01

    The localization of the activity of immobilized urease on chitosan membrane was studied by X-ray microanalysis. BaCl2 and urea were selected as the capture and substrate respectively. The substrate was hydrolyzed by immobilized urease to produce NH3 and CO2 in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.0), and the latter was captured by BaCl2 to form precipitate. The precipite was deposited on the active site of immobilized urease. It is shown that the method is practicable and reliable. The optimum condition for the localization of activity of immobilized urease was studied. PMID:16013332

  19. X-Ray Properties Expected from Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Silvia; Ciotti, Luca; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed hydrodynamic simulations of active galactic nucleus feedback have been performed including the effects of radiative and mechanical momentum and energy input on the interstellar medium (ISM) of typical elliptical galaxies. We focus on the observational properties of the models in the soft and hard X-ray bands: nuclear X-ray luminosity; global X-ray luminosity and temperature of the hot ISM; and temperature and X-ray brightness profiles before, during, and after outbursts. After ~10 Gyr, the bolometric nuclear emission L BH is very sub-Eddington (l = L BH/L Edd ~ 10-4), and within the range observed, though larger than typical values. Outbursts last for ≈107 yr, and the duty cycle of nuclear activity is a few × (10-3 to 10-2), over the last 6 Gyr. The ISM thermal luminosity L X oscillates in phase with the nuclear luminosity, with broader peaks. This behavior helps statistically reproduce the observed large L X variation. The average gas temperature is within the observed range, in the upper half of those observed. In quiescence, the temperature profile has a negative gradient; thanks to past outbursts, the brightness profile lacks the steep shape of cooling flow models. After outbursts, disturbances are predicted in the temperature and brightness profiles (analyzed by unsharp masking). Most significantly, during major accretion episodes, a hot bubble of shocked gas is inflated at the galaxy center (within ≈100 pc) the bubble would be conical in shape in real galaxies and would be radio-loud. Its detection in X-rays is within current capabilities, though it would likely remain unresolved. The ISM resumes its smooth appearance on a timescale of ≈200 Myr the duty cycle of perturbations in the ISM is of the order of 5%-10%. While showing general agreement between the models and real galaxies, this analysis indicates that additional physical input may still be required including moving to two-dimensional or three-dimensional simulations, input of

  20. Barbiturate bearing aroylhydrazine derivatives: Synthesis, NMR investigations, single crystal X-ray studies and biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giziroglu, Emrah; Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Aygün, Muhittin; Basbulbul, Gamze; Soyleyici, H. Can; Firinci, Erkan; Kirkan, Bulent; Alkis, Ayse; Saylica, Tayfur; Biyik, Halil

    2016-03-01

    A series of barbituric acid aroylhydrazine derivatives have been prepared from their corresponding 1,3-dimethyl-5-acetyl barbituric acid and aroylhydrazines. All compounds have been fully characterized by using FT-IR, multinuclear NMR (1H, 13C) and Mass (MS) spectrometry. We also describe the X-ray crystal structure of 3a, which crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/n space group. The crystal structure is stabilized with infinite linear chains of dimeric units. Furthermore, all compounds were investigated for their tyrosinase inhibition, antioxidative and antimicrobial activies. The results from biological activity assays have shown that all of compounds have excellent antioxidant, significant tyrosinase inhibition and moderate antimicrobial activity.

  1. Active galactic nucleus X-ray variability in the XMM-COSMOS survey

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzuisi, G.; Ponti, G.; Salvato, M.; Brusa, M.; Nandra, P. K.; Merloni, A.; Rosario, D.; Hasinger, G.; Sanders, D.; Cappelluti, N.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Bongiorno, A.; Lusso, E.; Steinhardt, C.; Silverman, J.; Schramm, M.; Trump, J.; and others

    2014-02-01

    We used the observations carried out by XMM in the COSMOS field over 3.5 yr to study the long term variability of a large sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) (638 sources) in a wide range of redshifts (0.1 < z < 3.5) and X-ray luminosities (10{sup 41} < L {sub 0.5-10} <10{sup 45.5}). Both a simple statistical method to assess the significance of variability and the Normalized Excess Variance (σ{sub rms}{sup 2}) parameter were used to obtain a quantitative measurement of the variability. Variability is found to be prevalent in most AGNs, whenever we have good statistics to measure it, and no significant differences between type 1 and type 2 AGNs were found. A flat (slope –0.23 ± 0.03) anti-correlation between σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and X-ray luminosity is found when all significantly variable sources are considered together. When divided into three redshift bins, the anti-correlation becomes stronger and evolving with z, with higher redshift AGNs being more variable. We prove, however, that this effect is due to the pre-selection of variable sources: when considering all of the sources with an available σ{sub rms}{sup 2} measurement, the evolution in redshift disappears. For the first time, we were also able to study long term X-ray variability as a function of M {sub BH} and Eddington ratio for a large sample of AGNs spanning a wide range of redshifts. An anti-correlation between σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and M {sub BH} is found, with the same slope of anti-correlation between σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and X-ray luminosity, suggesting that the latter may be a by-product of the former. No clear correlation is found between σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and the Eddington ratio in our sample. Finally, no correlation is found between the X-ray σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and optical variability.

  2. Renewed Activity from the X-Ray Transient SAXJ 1810.8-2609 with Integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiocchi, M.; Natalucci, L.; Chenevez, J.; Bazzano, A.; Tarana, A.; Ubertini, P.; Brandt, S.; Beckmann, V.; Federici, M.; Galis, R.; Hudec, R.

    2009-03-01

    We report on the results of International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) observations of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary SAX J1810.8-2609 during its latest active phase in 2007 August. The current outburst is the first one since 1998 and the derived luminosity is 1.1-2.6 ×1036 erg s-1 in the 20-100 keV energy range. This low outburst luminosity and the long-term time-average accretion rate of ~5 × 10-12 M sun yr-1 suggest that SAX J1810.8-2609 is a faint soft X-ray transient. During the flux increase, spectra are consistent with a thermal Comptonization model with a temperature plasma of kT e~ 23-30 keV and an optical depth of τ~ 1.2-1.5, independent of the luminosity of the system. This is a typical low hard spectral state for which the X-ray emission is attributed to the upscattering of soft seed photons by a hot, optically thin electron plasma. During the decay, spectra have a different shape, the high energy tail being compatible with a single power law. This confirm similar behavior observed by BeppoSAX during the previous outburst, with the absence of visible cutoff in the hard X-ray spectrum. INTEGRAL/JEM-X instrument observed four X-ray bursts in Fall 2007. The first one has the highest peak flux (≈3.5 crab in 3-25 keV) giving an upper limit to the distance of the source of about 5.7 kpc, for a L Edd ≈ 3.8 × 1038 erg s-1. The observed recurrence time of ~ 1.2 days and the ratio of the total energy emitted in the persistent flux to that emitted in the bursts (α~ 73) allow us to conclude that the burst fuel was composed by mixed hydrogen and helium with X >= 0.4. INTEGRAL is an ESA project with Instruments and Science Data Center funded by ESA member states, especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain; Czech Republic and Poland; and with the participation of Russia and USA.

  3. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC ACCRETION DISK WINDS AS X-RAY ABSORBERS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumura, Keigo; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Behar, Ehud

    2010-05-20

    We present the two-dimensional ionization structure of self-similar magnetohydrodynamic winds off accretion disks around and irradiated by a central X-ray point source. On the basis of earlier observational clues and theoretical arguments, we focus our attention on a subset of these winds, namely those with radial density dependence n(r) {proportional_to} 1/r (r is the spherical radial coordinate). We employ the photoionization code XSTAR to compute the ionic abundances of a large number of ions of different elements and then compile their line-of-sight (LOS) absorption columns. We focus our attention on the distribution of the column density of the various ions as a function of the ionization parameter {xi} (or equivalently r) and the angle {theta}. Particular attention is paid to the absorption measure distribution (AMD), namely their hydrogen-equivalent column per logarithmic {xi} interval, dN{sub H}/dlog {xi}, which provides a measure of the winds' radial density profiles. For the chosen density profile n(r) {proportional_to} 1/r, the AMD is found to be independent of {xi}, in good agreement with its behavior inferred from the X-ray spectra of several active galactic nuclei (AGNs). For the specific wind structure and X-ray spectrum, we also compute detailed absorption line profiles for a number of ions to obtain their LOS velocities, v {approx} 100-300 km s{sup -1} (at log {xi} {approx} 2-3) for Fe XVII and v {approx} 1000-4000 km s{sup -1} (at log {xi} {approx} 4-5) for Fe XXV, in good agreement with the observation. Our models describe the X-ray absorption properties of these winds with only two parameters, namely the mass-accretion rate m-dot and the LOS angle {theta}. The probability of obscuration of the X-ray ionizing source in these winds decreases with increasing m-dot and increases steeply with the LOS inclination angle {theta}. As such, we concur with previous authors that these wind configurations, viewed globally, incorporate all the requisite

  4. A recent strong X-ray flaring activity of 1ES 1959+650 with possibly less efficient stochastic acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapanadze, B.; Dorner, D.; Vercellone, S.; Romano, P.; Kapanadze, S.; Mdzinarishvili, T.

    2016-09-01

    We present an X-ray flaring activity of 1ES 1959+650 in 2015 August-2016 January, which was the most powerful and prolonged during the 10.75 yr period since the start of its monitoring with X-ray Telescope onboard Swift. A new highest historical 0.3-10 keV count rate was recorded three times that makes this object the third BL Lacertae source exceeding the level of 20 counts s-1. Along with the overall variability by a factor of 5.7, this epoch was characterized by fast X-ray flares by a factor of 2.0-3.1, accompanied with an extreme spectral variability. The source also shows a simultaneous flaring activity in the optical - UV and 0.3-100 GeV bands, although a fast γ-ray flare without significant optical - X-ray counterparts is also found. In contrast to the X-ray flares in the previous years, the stochastic acceleration seems be less important for the electrons responsible for producing X-ray emission during this flare that challenges the earlier suggestion that the electrons in the jets of TeV-detected BL Lacertae objects should undergo an efficient stochastic acceleration resulting in a lower X-ray spectral curvature.

  5. A recent strong X-ray flaring activity of 1ES 1959+650 with possibly less efficient stochastic acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapanadze, B.; Dorner, D.; Vercellone, S.; Romano, P.; Kapanadze, S.; Mdzinarishvili, T.

    2016-03-01

    We present an X-ray flaring activity of 1ES 1959+650 in 2015 August - 2016 January, which was the most powerful and prolonged during the 10.75 yr period since the start of its monitoring with X-ray Telescope onboard Swift. A new highest historical 0.3 - 10 keV count rate was recorded three times that makes this object the third BL Lacertae source exceeding the level of 20 cts s-1. Along with the overall variability by a factor of 5.7, this epoch was characterized by fast X-ray flares by a factor of 2.0 - 3.1, accompanied with an extreme spectral variability. The source also shows a simultaneous flaring activity in the optical - UV and 0.3 - 100 GeV bands, although a fast γ-ray flare without significant optical - X-ray counterparts is also found. In contrast to the X-ray flares in the previous years, the stochastic acceleration seems be less important for the electrons responsible for producing X-ray emission during this flare that challenges the earlier suggestion that the electrons in the jets of TeV-detected BL Lacertae objects should undergo an efficient stochastic acceleration resulting in a lower X-ray spectral curvature.

  6. An X-Ray Spectral Survey of Radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei with ASCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambruna, Rita M.; Eracleous, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    1999-11-01

    We present a uniform and systematic analysis of the 0.6-10 keV X-ray spectra of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed by ASCA. The sample, which is not statistically complete, includes 10 broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs), five radio-loud quasars (QSRs), nine narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRGs), and 10 radio galaxies (RGs) of mixed FR I and FR II types. For several sources the ASCA data are presented here for the first time. The exposure times of the observations and the fluxes of the objects vary over a wide range; as a result, so does the signal-to-noise ratio of the individual X-ray spectra. At soft X-rays, about 50% of NLRGs and 100% of RGs exhibit thermal plasma emission components, with bimodal distributions of temperatures and luminosities. This indicates that the emission in such an object arises in hot gas either in a surrounding cluster or loose group or in a hot corona, consistent with previous ROSAT and optical results. At energies above 2 keV, a hard power-law component (photon index Γ~1.7-1.8) is detected in 90% of cases. The power-law photon indices and luminosities in BLRGs, QSRs, and NLRGs are similar. This is consistent with simple orientation-based unification schemes for lobe-dominated radio-loud sources in which BLRGs, QSRs, and NLRGs harbor the same type of central engine. Moreover, excess cold absorption in the range 1021-1024 cm-2 is detected in most (but not all) NLRGs, consistent with absorption by obscuring tori, as postulated by unification scenarios. The ASCA data provide initial evidence that the immediate gaseous environment of the X-ray source of BLRGs may be different than in Seyfert 1 galaxies: absorption edges of ionized oxygen, common in the latter, are detected in only one BLRG. Instead we detect large columns of cold gas in a fraction (~44%-60%) of BLRGs and QSRs, comparable to the columns detected in NLRGs, which is puzzling. This difference hints at different physical and/or geometrical properties of the medium

  7. Determination of carrier yields for neutron activation analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.G.; Wandless, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    A new method is described for determining carrier yield in the radiochemical neutron activation analysis of rare-earth elements in silicate rocks by group separation. The method involves the determination of the rare-earth elements present in the carrier by means of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis, eliminating the need to re-irradiate samples in a nuclear reactor after the gamma ray analysis is complete. Results from the analysis of USGS standards AGV-1 and BCR-1 compare favorably with those obtained using the conventional method. ?? 1984 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  8. Swift/XRT detection of another active X-ray transient close to Sgr A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenaar, N.; Reynolds, M. T.; Wijnands, R.; Miller, J. M.; Kennea, J. A.; Ponti, G.; Haggard, D.; Gehrels, N.

    2016-06-01

    Daily monitoring observations of the Galactic center performed with the Swift/XRT (Degenaar et al. 2015) have revealed activity of a new X-ray transient located ~10" South of Sgr A*. This object is clearly detected during three consecutive ~0.9 ks PC mode observations performed on 2016 May 28 and 30, and June 1. The 0.3-10 keV count rate has risen from ~2E-2 to ~0.1 counts/s between those observations.

  9. Synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence activities at Indus-2: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, M. K.

    2014-04-24

    X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry is a powerful non-destructive technique for elemental analysis of materials at bulk and trace concentration levels. Taking into consideration several advantages of the synchrotron based XRF technique and to fulfill the requirements of Indian universities users we have setup a microfocus XRF beamline (BL-16) on Indus-2 synchrotron light source. The beamline offers a wide range of usages – both from research laboratories and industries; and for researchers working in diverse fields. A brief overview of the measured performance of the beamline, design specifications including various attractive features and recent research activities carried out on the BL-16 beamline are presented.

  10. Coordinated Observations of X-ray and High-resolution EUV Active Region Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    The recently-launched High-resolution Coronal imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket provided the highest resolution images of coronal loops and other small-scale structures in the 193 Angstrom passband to date. With just 5 minutes of observations, the instrument recorded a variety of dynamic coronal events -- including even a small B-class flare. We will present our results comparing these extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations with X-ray imaging from Hinode/XRT as well as EUV AIA data to identify sources of hot plasma rooted in the photosphere and track their affect on the overall topology and dynamics of the active region.

  11. Coordinated Observations of X-ray and High-Resolution EUV Active Region Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Sabrina; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    The recently-launched High-resolution Coronal imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket provided the highest resolution images of coronal loops and other small-scale structures in the 193 Angstrom passband to date. With just 5 minutes of observations, the instrument recorded a variety of dynamic coronal events -- including even a small B-class flare. We will present our results comparing these extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations with X-ray imaging from Hinode/XRT as well as EUV AIA data to identify sources of hot plasma rooted in the photosphere and track their affect on the overall topology and dynamics of the active region.

  12. X-ray imaging with amorphous silicon active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Mohri, Youcef; Antonuk, Larry E.; Jee, Kyung-Wook; Maolinbay, Manat; Rong, Xiujiang; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Verma, Manav; Zhao, Qihua

    1997-07-01

    Recent advances in thin-film electronics technology have opened the way for the use of flat-panel imagers in a number of medical imaging applications. These novel imagers offer real time digital readout capabilities (˜30 frames per second), radiation hardness (>106cGy), large area (30×40 cm2) and compactness (˜1 cm). Such qualities make them strong candidates for the replacement of conventional x-ray imaging technologies such as film-screen and image intensifier systems. In this report, qualities and potential of amorphous silicon based active matrix flat-panel imagers are outlined for various applications such as radiation therapy, radiography, fluoroscopy and mammography.

  13. Focusing X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen; Brissenden, Roger; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terrance; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhall; Jerlus, Diab; Juda, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Murray, Stephen; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William; Ramsey, Brian; Reid, Paul; Saha, Timo; Wolk, Scott; Troller-McKinstry, Susan; Weisskopf, Martin; Wilke, Rudeger; Zhang, William

    2010-01-01

    During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, focusing x-ray telescopes, through increased effective area and finer angular resolution, have improved sensitivity by 8 orders of magnitude. Here, we review previous and current x-ray-telescope missions. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility, the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility, Generation X. Its scientific objectives will require very large areas (about 10,000 sq m) of highly-nested, lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors, with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsec) resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure.

  14. Energetic electrons, hard x-ray emission and MHD activity studies in the IR-T1 tokamak.

    PubMed

    Agah, K Mikaili; Ghoranneviss, M; Elahi, A Salar

    2015-01-01

    Determinations of plasma parameters as well as the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) activity, energetic electrons energy and energy confinement time are essential for future fusion reactors experiments and optimized operation. Also some of the plasma information can be deduced from these parameters, such as plasma equilibrium, stability, and MHD instabilities. In this contribution we investigated the relation between energetic electrons, hard x-ray emission and MHD activity in the IR-T1 Tokamak. For this purpose we used the magnetic diagnostics and a hard x-ray spectroscopy in IR-T1 tokamak. A hard x-ray emission is produced by collision of the runaway electrons with the plasma particles or limiters. The mean energy was calculated from the slope of the energy spectrum of hard x-ray photons. PMID:25882736

  15. Planetary X-ray studies: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella

    2016-07-01

    Our solar system is a fascinating physics laboratory and X-ray observations are now firmly established as a powerful diagnostic tool of the multiple processes taking place in it. The science that X-rays reveal encompasses solar, space plasma and planetary physics, and the response of bodies in the solar system to the impact of the Sun's activity. This talk will review what we know from past observations and what we expect to learn in the short, medium and long term. Observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton have demonstrated that the origin of Jupiter's bright soft X-ray aurorae lies in the Charge eXchange (CX) process, likely to involve the interaction with atmospheric neutrals of local magnetospheric ions, as well as those carried in the solar wind. At higher energies electron bremsstrahlung is thought to be the X-ray emitting mechanism, while the whole planetary disk acts as a mirror for the solar X-ray flux via Thomson and fluorescent scattering. This 'X-ray mirror' phenomenon is all that is observed from Saturn's disk, which otherwise lacks X-ray auroral features. The Earth's X-ray aurora is bright and variable and mostly due to electron bremsstrahlung and line emission from atmospheric species. Un-magnetised planets, Venus and Mars, do not show X-ray aurorae but display the interesting combination of mirroring the solar X-ray flux and producing X-rays by Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX) in their exospheres. These processes respond to different solar stimulation (photons and solar wind plasma respectively) hence their relative contributions are seen to vary according to the Sun's output. Present and future of planetary X-ray studies are very bright. We are preparing for the arrival of the Juno mission at Jupiter this summer and for coordinated observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton on the approach and later during Juno's orbital phase. These will allow direct correlation of the local plasma conditions with the X-ray emissions and the establishment of the

  16. X-ray irradiation activates K+ channels via H2O2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Gibhardt, Christine S; Roth, Bastian; Schroeder, Indra; Fuck, Sebastian; Becker, Patrick; Jakob, Burkhard; Fournier, Claudia; Moroni, Anna; Thiel, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a universal tool in tumor therapy but may also cause secondary cancers or cell invasiveness. These negative side effects could be causally related to the human-intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated-K+-channel (hIK), which is activated by X-ray irradiation and affects cell proliferation and migration. To analyze the signaling cascade downstream of ionizing radiation we use genetically encoded reporters for H2O2 (HyPer) and for the dominant redox-buffer glutathione (Grx1-roGFP2) to monitor with high spatial and temporal resolution, radiation-triggered excursions of H2O2 in A549 and HEK293 cells. The data show that challenging cells with ≥1 Gy X-rays or with UV-A laser micro-irradiation causes a rapid rise of H2O2 in the nucleus and in the cytosol. This rise, which is determined by the rate of H2O2 production and glutathione-buffering, is sufficient for triggering a signaling cascade that involves an elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ and eventually an activation of hIK channels. PMID:26350345

  17. X-ray irradiation activates K+ channels via H2O2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Gibhardt, Christine S.; Roth, Bastian; Schroeder, Indra; Fuck, Sebastian; Becker, Patrick; Jakob, Burkhard; Fournier, Claudia; Moroni, Anna; Thiel, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a universal tool in tumor therapy but may also cause secondary cancers or cell invasiveness. These negative side effects could be causally related to the human-intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated-K+-channel (hIK), which is activated by X-ray irradiation and affects cell proliferation and migration. To analyze the signaling cascade downstream of ionizing radiation we use genetically encoded reporters for H2O2 (HyPer) and for the dominant redox-buffer glutathione (Grx1-roGFP2) to monitor with high spatial and temporal resolution, radiation-triggered excursions of H2O2 in A549 and HEK293 cells. The data show that challenging cells with ≥1 Gy X-rays or with UV-A laser micro-irradiation causes a rapid rise of H2O2 in the nucleus and in the cytosol. This rise, which is determined by the rate of H2O2 production and glutathione-buffering, is sufficient for triggering a signaling cascade that involves an elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ and eventually an activation of hIK channels. PMID:26350345

  18. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of four active galaxies - Probing the intercloud medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Kenneth S. K.; Canizares, Claude R.; Markert, Thomas H.; Arnaud, Keith A.

    1990-01-01

    The focal plane crystal spectrometer (FPCS) on the Einstein Observatory has been used to perform a high-resolution spectroscopic search for oxygen X-ray line emission from four active galaxies: Fairall 9, Mrk 421, Mrk 501, and PKS 0548 - 322. Specifically, O VIII Ly-alpha and Ly-beta, whose unredshifted energies are 653 and 775 eV, respectively, were sought. No narrow-line emission was detected within the energy bands searched. Upper limits are calculated on the line flux from these sources of 30 eV equivalent width and use a photoionization model to place corresponding upper limits on the densities of diffuse gas surrounding the active nuclei. The upper limits on gas density range from about 0.02-50/cu cm and probe various radial distances from the central source. This is the first time high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy has been used to place constraints on the intercloud medium in active galaxies.

  19. X-ray generator

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, John M.

    1976-01-01

    Apparatus and method for producing coherent secondary x-rays that are controlled as to direction by illuminating a mixture of high z and low z gases with an intense burst of primary x-rays. The primary x-rays are produced with a laser activated plasma, and these x-rays strip off the electrons of the high z atoms in the lasing medium, while the low z atoms retain their electrons. The neutral atoms transfer electrons to highly excited states of the highly striped high z ions giving an inverted population which produces the desired coherent x-rays. In one embodiment, a laser, light beam provides a laser spark that produces the intense burst of coherent x-rays that illuminates the mixture of high z and low z gases, whereby the high z atoms are stripped while the low z ones are not, giving the desired mixture of highly ionized and neutral atoms. To this end, the laser spark is produced by injecting a laser light beam, or a plurality of beams, into a first gas in a cylindrical container having an adjacent second gas layer co-axial therewith, the laser producing a plasma and the intense primary x-rays in the first gas, and the second gas containing the high and low atomic number elements for receiving the primary x-rays, whereupon the secondary x-rays are produced therein by stripping desired ions in a neutral gas and transfer of electrons to highly excited states of the stripped ions from the unionized atoms. Means for magnetically confining and stabilizing the plasma are disclosed for controlling the direction of the x-rays.

  20. An X-ray spectral model for clumpy tori in active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuan; Li, Xiaobo E-mail: lixb@ihep.ac.cn

    2014-05-20

    We construct an X-ray spectral model for the clumpy torus in an active galactic nucleus (AGN) using Geant4, which includes the physical processes of the photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, Rayleigh scattering, γ conversion, fluorescence line, and Auger process. Since the electrons in the torus are expected to be bounded instead of free, the deviation of the scattering cross section from the Klein-Nishina cross section has also been included, which changes the X-ray spectra by up to 25% below 10 keV. We have investigated the effect of the clumpiness parameters on the reflection spectra and the strength of the fluorescent line Fe Kα. The volume filling factor of the clouds in the clumpy torus only slightly influences the reflection spectra, however, the total column density and the number of clouds along the line of sight significantly change the shapes and amplitudes of the reflection spectra. The effect of column density is similar to the case of a smooth torus, while a small number of clouds along the line of sight will smooth out the anisotropy of the reflection spectra and the fluorescent line Fe Kα. The smoothing effect is mild in the low column density case (N {sub H} = 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}), whereas it is much more evident in the high column density case (N {sub H} = 10{sup 25} cm{sup –2}). Our model provides a quantitative tool for the spectral analysis of the clumpy torus. We suggest that the joint fits of the broad band spectral energy distributions of AGNs (from X-ray to infrared) should better constrain the structure of the torus.

  1. Soft X-Ray Excess from Shocked Accreting Plasma in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumura, Keigo; Hendry, Douglas; Clark, Peter; Tombesi, Francesco; Takahashi, Masaaki

    2016-08-01

    We propose a novel theoretical model to describe the physical identity of the soft X-ray excess that is ubiquitously detected in many Seyfert galaxies, by considering a steady-state, axisymmetric plasma accretion within the innermost stable circular orbit around a black hole (BH) accretion disk. We extend our earlier theoretical investigations on general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic accretion, which implied that the accreting plasma can develop into a standing shock under suitable physical conditions, causing the downstream flow to be sufficiently hot due to shock compression. We perform numerical calculations to examine, for sets of fiducial plasma parameters, the physical nature of fast magnetohydrodynamic shocks under strong gravity for different BH spins. We show that thermal seed photons from the standard accretion disk can be effectively Compton up-scattered by the energized sub-relativistic electrons in the hot downstream plasma to produce the soft excess feature in X-rays. As a case study, we construct a three-parameter Comptonization model of inclination angle θ obs, disk photon temperature kT in, and downstream electron energy kT e to calculate the predicted spectra in comparison with a 60 ks XMM-Newton/EPIC-pn spectrum of a typical radio-quiet Seyfert 1 active galactic nucleus, Ark 120. Our χ 2-analyses demonstrate that the model is plausible for successfully describing data for both non-spinning and spinning BHs with derived ranges of 61.3 keV ≲ kT e ≲ 144.3 keV, 21.6 eV ≲ kT in ≲ 34.0 eV, and 17.°5 ≲ θ obs ≲ 42.°6, indicating a compact Comptonizing region of three to four gravitational radii that resembles the putative X-ray coronae.

  2. X-RAY ACTIVE MATRIX PIXEL SENSORS BASEDON J-FET TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPED FOR THE LINAC COHERENT LIGHT SOURCE.

    SciTech Connect

    CARINI,G.A.; CHEN, W.; LI, Z.; REHAK, P.; SIDDONS, D.P.

    2007-10-29

    An X-ray Active Matrix Pixel Sensor (XAMPS) is being developed for recording data for the X-ray Pump Probe experiment at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Special attention has to be paid to some technological challenges that this design presents. New processes were developed and refined to address problems encountered during previous productions of XAMPS. The development of these critical steps and corresponding tests results are reported here.

  3. The subarcsecond mid-infrared view of local active galactic nuclei - II. The mid-infrared-X-ray correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, D.; Gandhi, P.; Hönig, S. F.; Smette, A.; Duschl, W. J.

    2015-11-01

    We present an updated mid-infrared (MIR) versus X-ray correlation for the local active galactic nuclei (AGN) population based on the high angular resolution 12 and 18μm continuum fluxes from the AGN subarcsecond MIR atlas and 2-10 keV and 14-195 keV data collected from the literature. We isolate a sample of 152 objects with reliable AGN nature and multi-epoch X-ray data and minimal MIR contribution from star formation. Although the sample is not homogeneous or complete, we show that our results are unlikely to be affected by significant biases. The MIR-X-ray correlation is nearly linear and within a factor of 2 independent of the AGN type and the wavebands used. The observed scatter is <0.4 dex. A possible flattening of the correlation slope at the highest luminosities probed (˜1045 erg s-1) towards low MIR luminosities for a given X-ray luminosity is indicated but not significant. Unobscured objects have, on average, an MIR-X-ray ratio that is only ≤0.15 dex higher than that of obscured objects. Objects with intermediate X-ray column densities (22 < log NH < 23) actually show the highest MIR-X-ray ratio on average. Radio-loud objects show a higher mean MIR-X-ray ratio at low luminosities while the ratio is lower than average at high luminosities. This may be explained by synchrotron emission from the jet contributing to the MIR at low luminosities and additional X-ray emission at high luminosities. True Seyfert 2 candidates do not show any deviation from the general behaviour suggesting that they possess a dusty obscurer as in other AGN. Double AGN also do not deviate. Finally, we show that the MIR-X-ray correlation can be used to investigate the AGN nature of uncertain objects. Specifically, we give equations that allow us to determine the intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosities and column densities for objects with complex X-ray properties to within 0.34 dex. These techniques are applied to the uncertain objects of the remaining AGN MIR atlas, demonstrating the

  4. Elemental abundances and temperatures of quiescent solar active region cores from X-ray observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Zanna, G.; Mason, H. E.

    2014-05-01

    A brief review of studies of elemental abundances and emission measures in quiescent solar active region cores is presented. Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) observations of strong iron spectral lines have shown sharply peaked distributions around 3 MK. EIS observations of lines emitted by a range of elements have allowed good estimates of abundances relative to iron. However, X-ray observations are required to measure the plasma emission above 3 MK and the abundances of oxygen and neon. We revisit, using up-to-date atomic data, older X-ray observations obtained by a sounding rocket and by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Flat Crystal Spectrometer (FCS). We find that the Fe/O and Fe/Ne ratios are normally increased by a factor of 3.2, compared to the photospheric values. Similar results are obtained from FCS observations of six quiescent active region cores. The FCS observations also indicate that the emission measure above 3 MK has a very steep negative slope, with very little plasma observed at 5 MK or above. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Progress on the development of active micro-structured optical arrays for x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Zhang, Dou; Button, Tim; Atkins, Carolyn; Doel, Peter; Wang, Hongchang; Brooks, David; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Michette, Alan; Pfauntsch, Slawka; Sahraei, Shahin; Shand, Matthew; James, Ady; Dunare, Camelia; Stevenson, Tom; Parkes, William; Smith, Andy

    2009-08-01

    The Smart X-Ray Optics (SXO) project comprises a U.K.-based consortium developing active/adaptive micro-structured optical arrays (MOAs). These devices are designed to focus X-rays using grazing incidence reflection through consecutive aligned arrays of microscopic channels etched in silicon. The silicon channels have been produced both by dry and wet etching, the latter providing smoother channel walls. Adaptability is achieved using piezoelectric actuators, which bend the device and therefore change its focal distance. We aim to achieve a 5 cm radius of curvature which can provide a suitable focal length using a tandem pair MOA configuration. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) modelling has been carried out for the optimization of the MOA device design, consider different types of actuators (unimorph, bimorph and active fibre composites), and different Si/piezoelectric absolute and relative thicknesses. Prototype devices have been manufactured using a Viscous Plastic Processing Process for the piezoelectric actuators and dry etched silicon channels, bonded together using a low shrinkage adhesive. Characterisation techniques have been developed in order to evaluate the device performance in terms of the bending of the MOA channels produced by the actuators. This paper evaluates the progress to date on the actuation of the MOAs, comparing FEA modelling with the results obtained for different prototype structures.

  6. Intrinsic disc emission and the soft X-ray excess in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Done, Chris; Davis, S. W.; Jin, C.; Blaes, O.; Ward, M.

    2012-03-01

    Narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies have low-mass black holes and mass accretion rates close to (or exceeding) Eddington, so a standard blackbody accretion disc should peak in the extreme ultraviolet. However, the lack of true absorption opacity in the disc means that the emission is better approximated by a colour temperature corrected blackbody, and this colour temperature correction is large enough (˜2.4) that the bare disc emission from a zero spin black hole can extend into the soft X-ray bandpass. Part of the soft X-ray excess seen in these objects must be intrinsic emission from the disc unless the vertical structure is very different to that predicted. None the less, this is not the whole story even for the extreme NLS1 as the shape of the soft excess is much broader than predicted by a bare disc spectrum, indicating some Compton upscattering by warm, optically thick material. We associate this with the disc itself, so it must ultimately be powered by mass accretion. We build an energetically self-consistent model assuming that the emission thermalizes to a (colour temperature corrected) blackbody only at large radii. At smaller radii the gravitational energy is split between powering optically thick Comptonized disc emission (forming the soft X-ray excess) and an optically thin corona above the disc (forming the tail to higher energies). We show examples of this model fit to the extreme NLS1 RE J1034+396, and to the much lower Eddington fraction broad-line Seyfert 1 PG 1048+231. We use these to guide our fits and interpretations of three template spectra made from co-adding multiple sources to track out a sequence of active galactic nucleus (AGN) spectra as a function of L/LEdd. Both the individual objects and template spectra show the surprising result that the Compton upscattered soft X-ray excess decreases in importance with increasing L/LEdd. The strongest soft excesses are associated with low mass accretion rate AGN rather than being tied to some

  7. X-ray crystallography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  8. The corona of HD 189733 and its X-ray activity

    SciTech Connect

    Pillitteri, I.; Wolk, S. J.; Günther, H. M.; Cohen, O.; Kashyap, V.; Drake, J. J.; Lopez-Santiago, J.; Sciortino, S.

    2014-04-20

    Testing whether close-in massive exoplanets (hot Jupiters) can enhance the stellar activity in their host primary is crucial for the models of stellar and planetary evolution. Among systems with hot Jupiters, HD 189733 is one of the best studied because of its proximity, strong activity, and the presence of a transiting planet, which allows transmission spectroscopy and a measure of the planetary radius and its density. Here we report on the X-ray activity of the primary star, HD 189733 A, using a new XMM-Newton observation and a comparison with the previous X-ray observations. The spectrum in the quiescent intervals is described by two temperatures at 0.2 keV and 0.7 keV, while during the flares a third component at 0.9 keV is detected. With the analysis of the summed Reflection Grating Spectrometer spectra, we obtain estimates of the electron density in the range n{sub e} = (1.6-13) × 10{sup 10} cm{sup –3}, and thus the corona of HD 189733 A appears denser than the solar one. For the third time, we observe a large flare that occurred just after the eclipse of the planet. Together with the flares observed in 2009 and 2011, the events are restricted to a small planetary phase range of φ = 0.55-0.65. Although we do not find conclusive evidence of a significant excess of flares after the secondary transits, we suggest that the planet might trigger such flares when it passes close to the locally high magnetic field of the underlying star at particular combinations of stellar rotational phases and orbital planetary phases. For the most recent flares, a wavelet analysis of the light curve suggests a loop of length of four stellar radii at the location of the bright flare, and a local magnetic field of the order of 40-100 G, in agreement with the global field measured in other studies. The loop size suggests an interaction of magnetic nature between planet and star, separated by only ∼8R {sub *}. The X-ray variability of HD 189733 A is larger than the variability

  9. MAXI/GSC detection of an X-ray flare-like activity probably from the high mass X-ray binary EXO 1722-363

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negoro, H.; Nakajima, M.; Serino, M.; Mihara, T.; Nakahira, S.; Ueno, S.; Tomida, H.; Ishikawa, M.; Sugawara, Y.; Sugizaki, M.; Iwakiri, W.; Shidatsu, M.; Sugimoto, J.; Takagi, T.; Matsuoka, M.; Kawai, N.; Isobe, N.; Sugita, S.; Yoshii, T.; Tachibana, Y.; Ono, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Harita, S.; Muraki, Y.; Yoshida, A.; Sakamoto, T.; Kawakubo, Y.; Kitaoka, Y.; Tsunemi, H.; Shomura, R.; Tanaka, K.; Masumitsu, T.; Kawase, T.; Ueda, Y.; Kawamuro, T.; Hori, T.; Tanimoto, A.; Tsuboi, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Sasaki, R.; Yamauchi, M.; Furuya, K.; Yamaoka, K.; Nakagawa, Y. E.

    2016-08-01

    At 05:06 UT on 2016 August 23, the MAXI/GSC nova-alert system triggered faint X-ray enhancement from the region positionally consistent with the super-giant high mass X-ray binary pulsar EXO 1722-363 (a.k.a., X 1722-36, IGR J17252-3616).

  10. Using MountainsMap (Digital Surf) surface analysis software as an analysis tool for x-ray mirror optical metrology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Alan; Yates, Brian; Takacs, Peter

    2012-09-01

    The Optical Metrology Facility at the Canadian Light Source (CLS) has recently purchased MountainsMap surface analysis software from Digital Surf and we report here our experiences with this package and its usefulness as a tool for examining metrology data of synchrotron x-ray mirrors. The package has a number of operators that are useful for determining surface roughness and slope error including compliance with ISO standards (viz. ISO 4287 and ISO 25178). The software is extensible with MATLAB scripts either by loading an m-file or by a user written script. This makes it possible to apply a custom operator to measurement data sets. Using this feature we have applied the simple six-line MATLAB code for the direct least square fitting of ellipses developed by Fitzgibbon et. al. to investigate the residual slope error of elliptical mirrors upon the removal of the best-fit-ellipse. The software includes support for many instruments (e.g. Zygo, MicroMap, etc...) and can import ASCII data (e.g. LTP data). The stitching module allows the user to assemble overlapping images and we report on our experiences with this feature applied to MicroMap surface roughness data. The power spectral density function was determined for the stitched and unstitched data and compared.

  11. Chest x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... Images Aortic rupture, chest x-ray Lung cancer, frontal chest x-ray Adenocarcinoma - chest x-ray Coal ... cancer - chest x-ray Lung nodule, right middle lobe - chest x-ray Lung mass, right upper lung - ...

  12. Using the EXIST Active Shields for Earth Occultation Observations of X-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Colleen A.; Fishman, Gerald; Hong, Jae-Sub; Gridlay, Jonathan; Krawczynski, Henric

    2005-01-01

    The EXIST active shields, now being planned for the main detectors of the coded aperture telescope, will have approximately 15 times the area of the BATSE detectors; and they will have a good geometry on the spacecraft for viewing both the leading and training Earth's limb for occultation observations. These occultation observations will complement the imaging observations of EXIST and can extend them to higher energies. Earth occultatio observations of the hard X-ray sky with BATSE on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory developed and demonstrated the capabilities of large, flat, uncollimated detectors for this method. With BATSE, a catalog of 179 X-ray sources was monitored twice every spacecraft orbit for 9 years at energies above about 25 keV, resulting in 83 definite detections and 36 possible detections with 5-sigma detection sensitivities of 3.5-20 mcrab (20-430 keV) depending on the sky location. This catalog included four transients discovered with this technique and many variable objects (galactic and extragalactic). This poster will describe the Earth occultation technique, summarize the BATSE occultation observations, and compare the basic observational parameters of the occultation detector elements of BATSE and EXIST.

  13. X-ray spectral parameters for a sample of 95 active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasylenko, A. A.; Zhdanov, V. I.; Fedorova, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    We present a broadband X-ray analysis of a new homogeneous sample of 95 active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the 22-month Swift/BAT all-sky survey. For this sample we treated jointly the X-ray spectra observed by XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL missions for the total spectral range of 0.5-250 keV. Photon index \\varGamma, relative reflection R, equivalent width of Fe K_{α} line EW_{FeK}, hydrogen column density NH, exponential cut-off energy Ec and intrinsic luminosity L_{corr} are determined for all objects of the sample. We investigated correlations \\varGamma-R, EW_{FeK}-L_{corr}, \\varGamma-Ec, EW_{FeK}-NH. Dependence "\\varGamma-R" for Seyfert 1/2 galaxies has been investigated separately. We found that the relative reflection parameter at low power-law indexes for Seyfert 2 galaxies is systematically higher than for Seyfert 1 ones. This can be related to an increasing contribution of the reflected radiation from the gas-dust torus. Our data show that there exists some anticorrelation between EW_{FeK} and L_{corr}, but it is not strong. We have not found statistically significant deviations from the AGN Unified Model.

  14. X-ray and DFT Study of Glaucocalyxin A Compound with Cytotoxic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fu-dong; Wang, Tao; Wu, An-an; Ding, Lan; Wang, Han-qing

    2009-06-01

    The title compound glaucocalyxin A (1) (7α, 14β-dihydroxy-ent-kaur-16-en-3,15-dione) isolated from the leaves of isodon excisoides was characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and EIMS, and its crystal structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The X-ray crystal structure revealed that the molecular backbone of the chosen crystal is a tetracyclic system, including three six-membered rings and a five-membered ring, and the three six-membered rings are in a chair-like conformation. The five-membered ring adopts a twisted envelope-like conformation, and its geometrical parameters were compared with theoretical calculations at the B3LYP and HF level of theory. The molecules form extensive networks through the intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The experimental NMR data were interpreted with the aid of magnetic shielding constant calculations, by means of the GIAO (gauge-lncluding atomic orbitals) method. Calculated and experimental results were compared with a satisfactory level of agreement. Molecular electrostatic potential map was used in an attempt to identify key features of the diterpenoid glaucocalyxin A that is necessary for its activity. Calculations of molecular electrostatic potential and stabilization energies suggest that the protonation of glaucocalyxin A will be able to occur on carbonyl oxygen atoms.

  15. THE FIRST HARD X-RAY POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY FUNCTIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, T. Taro; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2013-06-10

    We present results of our power spectral density (PSD) analysis of 30 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using the 58 month light curves from Swift's Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) in the 14-150 keV band. PSDs were fit using a Monte Carlo based algorithm to take into account windowing effects and measurement error. All but one source were found to be fit very well using an unbroken power law with a slope of {approx} - 1, consistent at low frequencies with previous studies in the 2-10 keV band, with no evidence of a break in the PSD. For five of the highest signal-to-noise ratio sources, we tested the energy dependence of the PSD and found no significant difference in the PSD at different energies. Unlike previous studies of X-ray variability in AGNs, we do not find any significant correlations between the hard X-ray variability and different properties of the AGN including luminosity and black hole mass. The lack of break frequencies and correlations seem to indicate that AGNs are similar to the high state of Galactic black holes.

  16. Detailed Shape and Evolutionary Behavior of the X-Ray Luminosity Function of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyaji, T.; Hasinger, G.; Salvato, M.; Brusa, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Civano, F.; Puccetti, S.; Elvis, M.; Brunner, H.; Fotopoulou, S.; Ueda, Y.; Griffiths, R. E.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Akiyama, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Lanzuisi, G.; Merloni, A.; Vignali, C.

    2015-05-01

    We construct the rest-frame 2-10 keV intrinsic X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from a combination of X-ray surveys from the all-sky Swift BAT survey to the Chandra Deep Field South. We use ˜3200 AGNs in our analysis, which covers six orders of magnitude in flux. The inclusion of XMM and Chandra COSMOS data has allowed us to investigate the detailed behavior of the XLF and evolution. In deriving our XLF, we take into account realistic AGN spectrum templates, absorption corrections, and probability density distributions in photometric redshift. We present an analytical expression for the overall behavior of the XLF in terms of the luminosity-dependent density evolution, smoothed two-power-law expressions in 11 redshift shells, three-segment power-law expression of the number density evolution in four luminosity classes, and binned XLF. We observe a sudden flattening of the low luminosity end slope of the XLF slope at z ≳0.6. Detailed structures of the AGN downsizing have also been revealed, where the number density curves have two clear breaks at all luminosity classes above log {{L}X}\\gt 43. The two-break structure is suggestive of two-phase AGN evolution, consisting of major merger triggering and secular processes.

  17. In vivo monitoring of toxic metals: assessment of neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    To date, cadmium, lead, aluminum, and mercury have been measured in vivo in humans. The possibilities of monitoring other toxic metals have also been demonstrated, but no human studies have been performed. Neutron activation analysis appears to be most suitable for Cd and Al measurements, while x-ray fluorescence is ideally suited for measurement of lead in superficial bone. Filtered neutron beams and polarized x-ray sources are being developed which will improve in vivo detection limits. Even so, several of the current facilities are already suitable for use in epidemiological studies of selected populations with suspected long-term low-level ''environmental'' exposures. Evaluation and diagnosis of patients presenting with general clinical symptoms attributable to possible toxic metal exposure may be assisted by in vivo examination. Continued in vivo monitoring of industrial workers, especially follow-up measurements, will provide the first direct assessment of changes in body burden and a direct measure of the biological life-times of these metals in humans. 50 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Modeling active region transient brightenings observed with X-ray telescope as multi-stranded loops

    SciTech Connect

    Kobelski, Adam R.; McKenzie, David E.; Donachie, Martin

    2014-05-10

    Strong evidence exists that coronal loops as observed in extreme ultraviolet and soft X-rays may not be monolithic isotropic structures, but can often be more accurately modeled as bundles of independent strands. Modeling the observed active region transient brightenings (ARTBs) within this framework allows for the exploration of the energetic ramifications and characteristics of these stratified structures. Here we present a simple method of detecting and modeling ARTBs observed with the Hinode X-Ray Telescope (XRT) as groups of zero-dimensional strands, which allows us to probe parameter space to better understand the spatial and temporal dependence of strand heating in impulsively heated loops. This partially automated method can be used to analyze a large number of observations to gain a statistical insight into the parameters of coronal structures, including the number of heating events required in a given model to fit the observations. In this article, we present the methodology and demonstrate its use in detecting and modeling ARTBs in a sample data set from Hinode/XRT. These initial results show that, in general, multiple heating events are necessary to reproduce observed ARTBs, but the spatial dependence of these heating events cannot yet be established.

  19. Low-mass Active Galactic Nuclei with Rapid X-Ray Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Luis C.; Kim, Minjin

    2016-04-01

    We present a detailed study of the optical spectroscopic properties of 12 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with candidate low-mass black holes (BHs) selected by Kamizasa et al. through rapid X-ray variability. The high-quality, echellette Magellan spectra reveal broad Hα emission in all the sources, allowing us to estimate robust virial BH masses and Eddington ratios for this unique sample. We confirm that the sample contains low-mass BHs accreting at high rates: the median MBH = 1.2 × 106 M⊙ and median Lbol/LEdd = 0.44. The sample follows the MBH–σ* relation, within the considerable scatter typical of pseudobulges, the probable hosts of these low-mass AGNs. Various lines of evidence suggest that ongoing star formation is prevalent in these systems. We propose a new strategy to estimate star formation rates in AGNs hosted by low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies, based on modification of an existing method using the strength of [O ii] λ3727, [O iii] λ5007, and X-rays.

  20. Hard x-ray imaging system for XEUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunieda, Hideyo; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Kokubun, Motohide; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Ogasaka, Yasushi

    2008-07-01

    One of the major sciences of XEUS is the evolution of massive black holes from early to current Universe. As is well known, considerable fraction of massive black holes harbored in active galactic nuclei are embedded in thick absorbing material. In order to observe black holes without any bias of absorption, we propose a hard X-ray imaging system to XEUS. The hard X-ray imaging system is consisted of super mirror X-ray telescopes with multilayer coating and of the position sensitive hard X-ray imaging CdTe detector. Under the current boundary conditions, the design parameters will be optimized for the telescope and the multilayers. Current achievements of hard X-ray imaging detectors are also presented.

  1. An active interlock system for the NSLS x-ray ring insertion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocky, R.J.; Biscardi, R.; Dabrowski, J.; Flannigan, J.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Rothman, J.; Smith, J.; So, I.; Thomas, M. ); Decker, G. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of an active interlock system which has been installed in the NSLS X-ray electron storage ing to protect the vacuum chamber from thermal damage by mis-steered high power photon beams from insertion devices (IDs). the system employs active beam position detectors to monitor beam motion in the ID straight sections and solid state logic circuitry to dump'' the stored beam in the event of a fault condition by interrupting the rf. To ensure a high degree of reliability, redundancy and continuous automatic checking has been incorporated into the design. Overall system integrity is checked periodically with beam at safe levels of beam current. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  2. An X-ray survey of ultra-active planet hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Jurgen

    2013-10-01

    We propose to obtain snapshot observations of a sample of ultra-active planet hosts. The sample is complete in that it comprises all known transiting systems (not observed/proposed) within 250 pc, orbital periods below 10 days and strong activity as photometric variations in excess of 1% and/or Ca II emission; the sample does include all suitable objects detected by Kepler. The sensitivity of the proposed XMM-Newton observations allows the detection of stars with X-ray luminosities in excess of 10^29 erg/sec. Because of the proximity to their hosts these planets are the prime candidates for the process of planetary atmospheric evaporation through hydrodynamic blow-off. With our study we establish the hosts' high-energy properties and pave the way for meaningful follow-up studies.

  3. Crystallization and Preliminary X-Ray Crystallographic Analysis of Human Plasma Platelet Activating Factor Acetylhydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, U.; Wilder, C; Bahnson, B

    2009-01-01

    The plasma form of the human enzyme platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) has been crystallized, and X-ray diffraction data were collected at a synchrotron source to a resolution of 1.47 {angstrom}. The crystals belong to space group C2, with unit cell parameters of a = 116.18, b = 83.06, c = 96.71 {angstrom}, and {beta} = 115.09 and two molecules in the asymmetric unit. PAF-AH functions as a general anti-inflammatory scavenger by reducing the levels of the signaling molecule PAF. Additionally, the LDL bound enzyme has been linked to atherosclerosis due to its hydrolytic activities of pro-inflammatory agents, such as sn-2 oxidatively fragmented phospholipids.

  4. Update to an application using magnetic smart materials to modify the shape of an x-ray telescope mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, Melville P.; Wang, Xiaoli; Cao, Jian; Graham, Michael E.; Vaynman, Semyon

    2013-09-01

    We describe a technique of shape modification that can be applied to thin walled (˜100-400 μm thickness) electroformed replicated optics or glass optics to improve the near net shape of the mirror as well as the midfrequency (˜2-10 mm length scales) ripple. The process involves sputter deposition of a magnetic smart material (MSM) film onto a magnetically hard material (i.e., one that retains a magnetic field, e.g., the material in hard disk drives). Since the previous report, we have made extensive measurements of the deflection versus magnetic field strength and direction. Here we report those results along with detailed finite element analysis modeling.

  5. Two-dimensional differential deposition: figure correction of thin-shell mirror substrates for x-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windt, David L.; Conley, Ray

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a new variation of the differential deposition/differential erosion technique for mid-frequency surface-height error correction. In our approach, the technique is extended to two dimensions in order to correct surfaceheight errors in thin-shell cylindrical mirror segments with high throughput. We describe the new infrastructure currently being developed to realize this technique, including an LTP system for surface metrology of mid-frequency surfaceheight errors, a new UHV linear stage for precise substrate motion during deposition or erosion, and most crucially, the development of electronically-actuated aperture arrays that are mounted in front of a rectangular magnetron cathode, or a rectangular ion source, in order to modulate the deposition/erosion rate of material in two dimensions, in real-time.

  6. Manufacturing and testing a thin glass mirror shell with piezoelectric active control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, D.; Barbera, M.; Collura, A.; Basso, S.; Candia, R.; Civitani, M.; Di Bella, M.; Di Cicca, G.; Lo Cicero, U.; Lullo, G.; Pelliciari, C.; Riva, M.; Salmaso, B.; Sciortino, L.; Varisco, S.

    2015-09-01

    Optics for future X-ray telescopes will be characterized by very large aperture and focal length, and will be made of lightweight materials like glass or silicon in order to keep the total mass within acceptable limits. Optical modules based on thin slumped glass foils are being developed at various institutes, aiming at improving the angular resolution to a few arcsec HEW. Thin mirrors are prone to deform, so they require a careful integration to avoid deformations and even correct forming errors. On the other hand, this offers the opportunity to actively correct the residual deformation: a viable possibility to improve the mirror figure is the application of piezoelectric actuators onto the non-optical side of the mirrors, and several groups are already at work on this approach. The concept we are developing consists of actively integrating thin glass foils with piezoelectric patches, fed by voltages driven by the feedback provided by X-rays. The actuators are commercial components, while the tension signals are carried by a printed circuit obtained by photolithography, and the driving electronic is a multi-channel low power consumption voltage supply developed inhouse. Finally, the shape detection and the consequent voltage signal to be provided to the piezoelectric array are determined in X-rays, in intra-focal setup at the XACT facility at INAF/OAPA. In this work, we describe the manufacturing steps to obtain a first active mirror prototype and the very first test performed in X-rays.

  7. Silicon X-ray line emission from solar flares and active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, J. H.; Wolff, R. S.; Kestenbaum, H. L.; Ku, W. H.-M.; Lemen, J. R.; Long, K. S.; Novick, R.; Suozzo, R. J.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    1978-01-01

    New observations of solar flare and active region X-ray spectra obtained with the Columbia University instrument on OSO-8 are presented and discussed. The high sensitivity of the graphite crystal panel has allowed both line and continuum spectra to be served with moderate spectral resolution. Observations with higher spectral resolution have been made with a panel of pentaerythritol crystals. Twenty-nine lines between 1.5 and 7.0 A have been resolved and identified, including several dielectronic recombination satellite lines to Si XIV and Si XIII lines which have been observed for the first time. It has been found that thermal continuum models specified by single values of temperature and emission measure have fitted the data adequately, there being good agreement with the values of these parameters derived from line intensity ratios.

  8. On the X-Ray Low- and High-Velocity Outflows in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, J. M.; Tombesi, F.

    2012-01-01

    An exploration of the relationship between bolometric luminosity and outflow velocity for two classes of X-ray outflows in a large sample of active galactic nuclei has been performed. We find that line radiation pressure could be one physical mechanism that might accelerate the gas we observe in warm absorber, v approx. 100-1000 km/s, and on comparable but less stringent grounds the ultrafast outflows, v approx. 0.03-0.3c. If comparable with the escape velocity of the system, the first is naturally located at distances of the dusty torus, '" I pc, and the second at subparsec scales, approx.0.01 pc, in accordance with large set of observational evidence existing in the literature. The presentation of this relationship might give us key clues for our understanding of the different physical mechanisms acting in the centre of galaxies, the feedback process and its impact on the evolution of the host galaxy.

  9. X-RAY ACTIVITY PHASED WITH PLANET MOTION IN HD 189733?

    SciTech Connect

    Pillitteri, I.; Guenther, H. M.; Wolk, S. J.; Kashyap, V. L.; Cohen, O.

    2011-11-01

    We report on the follow-up XMM-Newton observation of the planet-hosting star HD 189733 we obtained in 2011 April. We observe a flare just after the secondary transit of the hot Jupiter. This event shares the same phase and many of the characteristics of the flare we observed in 2009. We suggest that a systematic interaction between planet and stellar magnetic fields when the planet passes close to active regions on the star can lead to periodic variability phased with planetary motion. By means of high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer on board XMM-Newton, we determine that the corona of this star is unusually dense.

  10. A Search for Hard X-ray Emission from Active Stars Using CGRO/BATSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, S. M.; Harmon, B. A.; Lim, J.; Kundu, M. R.

    We report the results of a search for > 20 keV photons from active stars using CGRO/BATSE Earth-occultation observations. Twelve of the "usual suspects" together with 12 "placebo" locations have been analyzed using the BATSE software for occultation analysis developed at NASA/MSFC. There are four detections at the nominal 5sigma level, and eight at the 3sigma level. However the strongest detection (that of AB Dor) shows clear evidence for contamination from the nearby strong source LMC X-4. 18 of the 24 fields yield positive fluxes, indicating a clear bias in the results, and possibly indicating the presence of weak background hard X-ray sources detectable by BATSE in long-term studies.

  11. X-ray variability in active galaxy nuclei and quasars in less than one day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, M.; Feigelson, E.; Griffiths, R. E.; Henry, J. P.; Tananbaum, H.

    1980-01-01

    Data obtained from the Einstein Observatory demonstrating variations in X-ray emission from the nuclei of active galaxies and quasars on time scales of hours rather than previously observed days or years is presented. Light curves obtained from the Einstein imaging proportional counter for the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 6814 and from the High Resolution Imager for the quasars OX 169 and 3C 273 are illustrated, and variations by factors greater than two on time scales less than 20,000 sec for the first two objects and by a factor of 10% on a time scale over 50,000 sec for 3C 273 are pointed out. The measurements are also used to determine that thermal bremsstrahlung cannot be the cause of the intensity decay in OX 169, and that, in the absence of relativistic effects, the efficiency for energy release in the matter involved in the emission of 3C 273 is at least 0.1.

  12. Unique Properties of Thermally Tailored Copper: Magnetically Active Regions and Anomalous X-ray Fluorescence Emissions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    When high-purity copper (≥99.98%wt) is melted, held in its liquid state for a few hours with iterative thermal cycling, then allowed to resolidify, the ingot surface is found to have many small regions that are magnetically active. X-ray fluorescence analysis of these regions exhibit remarkably intense lines from “sensitized elements” (SE), including in part or fully the contiguous series V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Co. The XRF emissions from SE are far more intense than expected from known impurity levels. Comparison with blanks and standards show that the thermal “tailoring” also introduces strongly enhanced SE emissions in samples taken from the interior of the copper ingots. For some magnetic regions, the location as well as the SE emissions, although persistent, vary irregularly with time. Also, for some regions extraordinarily intense “sensitized iron” (SFe) emissions occur, accompanied by drastic attenuation of Cu emissions. PMID:20037657

  13. Ionized absorbers, ionized emitters, and the X-ray spectrum of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Netzer, Hagai

    1993-01-01

    Broad absorption features are common in the X-ray spectrum of low-luminosity AGNs. The features have been modeled by leaky neutral absorbers or by highly ionized gas that completely occult the continuum source. Such models are incomplete since they do not take into account all the physical processes in the gas. In particular, no previous model included the X-ray emission by the ionized absorbing gas and the reflection of the continuum source radiation. The present work discusses the emission, absorption, and reflection properties of photoionized gases with emphasis on conditions thought to prevail in AGNs. It shows that such gas is likely to produce intense X-ray line and continuum radiation and to reflect a sizable fraction of the nonstellar continuum at all energies. If such gas is indeed responsible for the observed X-ray absorption, then absorption edges are much weaker than commonly assumed, and some residual X-ray continuum is likely to be observed even if the line of sight is completely blocked. Moreover, X-ray emission features may show up in sources not showing X-ray absorption. This has immense consequences for medium-resolution X-ray missions, such as BBXRT and Astro-D, and for the planned high-resolution experiments on board XMM and AXAF.

  14. Ultraviolet and X-ray Activity and Flaring on Low-Mass Exoplanet Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Kevin; Parke Loyd, R. O.; Brown, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    The spectral and temporal behavior of exoplanet host stars is a critical input to models of the chemistry and evolution of planetary atmospheres. High-energy photons (X-ray to NUV) from these stars regulate the atmospheric temperature profiles and photochemistry on orbiting planets, influencing the production of potential “biomarker” gases. We present results from the MUSCLES Treasury Survey, an ongoing study of time-resolved UV and X-ray spectroscopy of nearby M and K dwarf exoplanet host stars. This program uses contemporaneous Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra (or XMM) observations to characterize the time variability of the energetic radiation field incident on the habitable zones planetary systems at d < 15 pc. We find that all exoplanet host stars observed to date exhibit significant levels of chromospheric and transition region UV emission. M dwarf exoplanet host stars display 30 - 2000% UV emission line amplitude variations on timescales of minutes-to-hours. The relative flare/quiescent UV flux amplitudes on old (age > 1 Gyr) planet-hosting M dwarfs are comparable to active flare stars (e.g., AD Leo), despite their lack of flare activity at visible wavelengths. We also detect similar UV flare behavior on a subset of our K dwarf exoplanet host stars. We conclude that strong flares and stochastic variability are common, even on “optically inactive” M dwarfs hosting planetary systems. These results argue that the traditional assumption of weak UV fields and low flare rates on older low-mass stars needs to be revised.

  15. Soft X-ray Polarimetry Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Herman; Schulz, Norbert S.; Heine, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    We present continued development of a telescope for measuring linear X-ray polarization over the 0.2-0.8 keV band. We employ multilayer-coated mirrors as Bragg reflectors at the Brewster angle. By matching to the dispersion of a spectrometer, one may take advantage of high multilayer reflectivities and achieve polarization modulation factors over 95%. We have constructed a source of polarized X-rays that operates at a wide range of energies with a selectable polarization angle. We will present results from measurements of new laterally graded multilayer mirrors and new gratings essential to the design. Finally, we will present a design for a small telescope for suborbital or orbital missions. A suborbital mission could measure the polarization of a blazar such as Mk 421 to 5-10 percent while an orbital version could measure the polarizations of neutron stars, active galactic nuclei, and blazars.

  16. Closed bore XMR (CBXMR) systems for aortic valve replacement: active magnetic shielding of x-ray tubes.

    PubMed

    Bracken, John A; DeCrescenzo, Giovanni; Komljenovic, Philip; Lillaney, Prasheel V; Fahrig, Rebecca; Rowlands, J A

    2009-05-01

    Hybrid closed bore x-ray/MRI systems are being developed to improve the safety and efficacy of percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures by harnessing the complementary strengths of the x-ray and MRI modalities in a single interventional suite without requiring patient transfer between two rooms. These systems are composed of an x-ray C-arm in close proximity (approximately 1 m) to an MRI scanner. The MRI magnetic fringe field can cause the electron beam in the x-ray tube to deflect. The deflection causes the x-ray field of view to shift position on the detector receptacle. This could result in unnecessary radiation exposure to the patient and the staff in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Therefore, the electron beam deflection must be corrected. The authors developed an active magnetic shielding system that can correct for electron beam deflection to within an accuracy of 5% without truncating the field of view or increasing exposure to the patient. This system was able to automatically adjust to different field strengths as the external magnetic field acting on the x-ray tube was changed. Although a small torque was observed on the shielding coils of the active shielding system when they were placed in a magnetic field, this torque will not impact their performance if they are securely mounted on the x-ray tube and the C-arm. The heating of the coils of the shielding system for use in the clinic caused by electric current was found to be slow enough not to require a dedicated cooling system for one percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedure. However, a cooling system will be required if multiple procedures are performed in one session. PMID:19544789

  17. X-Ray Imaging of MHD Activity in the Text Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Brackin Allen

    Soft x-ray emission from a tokamak plasma may he used to obtain information about the electron temperature, density and impurity content of the plasma. Since the plasma is optically thin to x-rays, any measurement of x-ray emission is the sum of x-rays emitted all along the line of sight of the detector. It is useful to find a way to unfold the local values of x-ray emission from such a set of chord-integrated measurements. In this work, we implement a tomographic technique to invert the signals from two arrays of x-ray detectors that yields a two dimensional picture of x-ray emission from a poloidal slice of the plasma. This imaging method is applied to studies of magnetohydrodynamic motion in two separate discharges. One type of discharge is prepared so that a large amplitude m = 2 island persists throughout the discharge without causing a disruption. X -ray imaging is used to directly determine the location and width of the island. In another type of discharge, impurity pellet injection occasionally results in the suppression of sawteeth and the formation of a persistent m = 1 mode with the absence of sawteeth. X-ray imaging is used to determine the size of the m = 1 perturbation. The x-ray emissivity profiles are found to peak in the center, in the absence of sawteeth, implying accumulation of impurities. The m = 1 may be described as an internal kink-tearing mode which grows and saturates, but sawteeth do not occur because increased impurity radiation keeps the central thermal energy lower than necessary to trigger a sawtooth crash.

  18. Mildly obscured active galaxies and the cosmic X-ray background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, V.; Walter, R.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The diffuse cosmic X-ray background (CXB) is the sum of the emission of discrete sources, mostly massive black-holes accreting matter in active galactic nuclei (AGN). The CXB spectrum differs from the integration of the spectra of individual sources, calling for a large population, undetected so far, of strongly obscured Compton-thick AGN. Such objects are predicted by unified models, which attribute most of the AGN diversity to their inclination on the line of sight, and play an important role for the understanding of the growth of black holes in the early Universe. Aims: The percentage of strongly obscured Compton-thick AGN at low redshift can be derived from the observed CXB spectrum, if we assume AGN spectral templates and luminosity functions. Methods: We show that high signal-to-noise stacked hard X-ray spectra, derived from more than a billion seconds of effective exposure time with the Swift/BAT instrument, imply that mildly obscured Compton-thin AGN feature a strong reflection and contribute massively to the CXB. Results: A population of Compton-thick AGN larger than that which is effectively detected is not required to reproduce the CXB spectrum, since no more than 6% of the CXB flux can be attributed to them. The stronger reflection observed in mildly obscured AGN suggests that the covering factor of the gas and dust surrounding their central engines is a key factor in shaping their appearance. These mildly obscured AGN are easier to study at high redshift than Compton-thick sources are.

  19. X-ray variability and the inner region in active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, P.; Mangalam, A. E-mail: mangalam@iiap.res.in

    2014-08-20

    We present theoretical models of X-ray variability attributable to orbital signatures from an accretion disk including emission region size, quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs), and its quality factor Q, and the emergence of a break frequency in the power spectral density shape. We find a fractional variability amplitude of F{sub var}∝M{sub ∙}{sup −0.4}. We conduct a time series analysis on X-ray light curves (0.3-10 keV) of a sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). A statistically significant bend frequency is inferred in 9 of 58 light curves (16%) from 3 AGNs for which the break timescale is consistent with the reported BH spin but not with the reported BH mass. Upper limits of 2.85 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} in NGC 4051, 8.02 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} in MRK 766, and 4.68 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} in MCG-6-30-15 are inferred for maximally spinning BHs. For REJ 1034+396 where a QPO at 3733 s was reported, we obtain an emission region size of (6-6.5) M and a BH spin of a ≲ 0.08. The relativistic inner region of a thin disk, dominated by radiation pressure and electron scattering, is likely to host the orbital features as the simulated Q ranges from 6.3 × 10{sup –2} to 4.25 × 10{sup 6}, containing the observed Q. The derived value of Q ∼ 32 for REJ 1034+396 therefore suggests that the AGN hosts a thin disk.

  20. Determination of the geometric and electronic structure of activated bleomycin using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Westre, T.E.; Loeb, K.E.; Zaleski, J.M.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O.; Solomon, E.I. )

    1995-02-01

    Activated Bleomycin (BLM) is the first mononuclear non-heme iron oxygen intermediate stable enough for detailed spectroscopic study. DNA degradation by activated BLM involves C-H bond cleavage at the C4[prime] position of deoxyribose moieties and results in the production of base propenals. It has been postulated that activated BLM is an oxo-ferryl intermediate on the basis of its reactivity and analogy with cytochrome P-450 chemistry. Alternatively, spectroscopic and model studies have indicated activated BLM to have an iron(III)-peroxide site. In this study, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to directly probe the oxidation and spin states of the iron in activated BLM and to determine if a short iron-oxo bond is present, which would be characteristic of the oxo-ferryl species of heme iron. Both the pre-edge and edge regions of the Fe K-edge spectra indicate that activated BLM is a low spin ferric complex. The pre-edge intensity of activated BLM is also similar to that of low spin ferric BLM and does not show the intensity enhancement which would be present if there were a short Fe-O bond. Furthermore, bond distances obtained from EXAFS are similar to those in low spin Fe[sup III]BLM and show no evidence for a short iron-oxo bond. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The active galactic nucleus population in X-ray-selected galaxy groups at 0.5 < Z < 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Semyeong; Woo, Jong-Hak; Matsuoka, Kenta; Mulchaey, John S.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Tanaka, Masayuki; Cooper, Michael C.; Ziparo, Felicia; Bauer, Franz E.

    2014-07-20

    We use Chandra data to study the incidence and properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in 16 intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 1.1) X-ray-selected galaxy groups in the Chandra Deep Field-South. We measure an AGN fraction of f(L{sub X,H}>10{sup 42};M{sub R}<−20)=8.0{sub −2.3}{sup +3.0}% at z-bar ∼0.74, approximately a factor of two higher than the AGN fraction found for rich clusters at comparable redshift. This extends the trend found at low redshift for groups to have higher AGN fractions than clusters. Our estimate of the AGN fraction is also more than a factor of three higher than that of low redshift X-ray-selected groups. Using optical spectra from various surveys, we also constrain the properties of emission-line selected AGNs in these groups. In contrast to the large population of X-ray AGNs (N(L{sub X,{sub H}} > 10{sup 41} erg s{sup –1}) = 25), we find only four emission-line AGNs, three of which are also X-ray bright. Furthermore, most of the X-ray AGNs in our groups are optically dull (i.e., lack strong emission-lines), similar to those found in low redshift X-ray groups and clusters of galaxies. This contrasts with the AGN population found in low redshift optically selected groups which are dominated by emission-line AGNs. The differences between the optically and X-ray-selected AGNs populations in groups are consistent with a scenario where most AGNs in the densest environments are currently in a low accretion state.

  2. A CMOS active pixel sensor system for laboratory- based x-ray diffraction studies of biological tissue.

    PubMed

    Bohndiek, Sarah E; Cook, Emily J; Arvanitis, Costas D; Olivo, Alessandro; Royle, Gary J; Clark, Andy T; Prydderch, Mark L; Turchetta, Renato; Speller, Robert D

    2008-02-01

    X-ray diffraction studies give material-specific information about biological tissue. Ideally, a large area, low noise, wide dynamic range digital x-ray detector is required for laboratory-based x-ray diffraction studies. The goal of this work is to introduce a novel imaging technology, the CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) that has the potential to fulfil all these requirements, and demonstrate its feasibility for coherent scatter imaging. A prototype CMOS APS has been included in an x-ray diffraction demonstration system. An industrial x-ray source with appropriate beam filtration is used to perform angle dispersive x-ray diffraction (ADXRD). Optimization of the experimental set-up is detailed including collimator options and detector operating parameters. Scatter signatures are measured for 11 different materials, covering three medical applications: breast cancer diagnosis, kidney stone identification and bone mineral density calculations. Scatter signatures are also recorded for three mixed samples of known composition. Results are verified using two independent models for predicting the APS scatter signature: (1) a linear systems model of the APS and (2) a linear superposition integral combining known monochromatic scatter signatures with the input polychromatic spectrum used in this case. Cross validation of experimental, modelled and literature results proves that APS are able to record biologically relevant scatter signatures. Coherent scatter signatures are sensitive to multiple materials present in a sample and provide a means to quantify composition. In the future, production of a bespoke APS imager for x-ray diffraction studies could enable simultaneous collection of the transmitted beam and scattered radiation in a laboratory-based coherent scatter system, making clinical transfer of the technique attainable. PMID:18199908

  3. The Active Galactic Nucleus Population in X-Ray-selected Galaxy Groups at 0.5 < z < 1.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Semyeong; Mulchaey, John S.; Woo, Jong-Hak; Finoguenov, Alexis; Tanaka, Masayuki; Cooper, Michael C.; Ziparo, Felicia; Bauer, Franz E.; Matsuoka, Kenta

    2014-07-01

    We use Chandra data to study the incidence and properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in 16 intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 1.1) X-ray-selected galaxy groups in the Chandra Deep Field-South. We measure an AGN fraction of f(LX,H \\gt 1042;MR < {-20}) = 8.0-2.3+3.0% at \\bar{z} ˜ 0.74, approximately a factor of two higher than the AGN fraction found for rich clusters at comparable redshift. This extends the trend found at low redshift for groups to have higher AGN fractions than clusters. Our estimate of the AGN fraction is also more than a factor of three higher than that of low redshift X-ray-selected groups. Using optical spectra from various surveys, we also constrain the properties of emission-line selected AGNs in these groups. In contrast to the large population of X-ray AGNs (N(L X, H > 1041 erg s-1) = 25), we find only four emission-line AGNs, three of which are also X-ray bright. Furthermore, most of the X-ray AGNs in our groups are optically dull (i.e., lack strong emission-lines), similar to those found in low redshift X-ray groups and clusters of galaxies. This contrasts with the AGN population found in low redshift optically selected groups which are dominated by emission-line AGNs. The differences between the optically and X-ray-selected AGNs populations in groups are consistent with a scenario where most AGNs in the densest environments are currently in a low accretion state.

  4. Probing the Structures of Seyfert Galaxies which Exhibit Jets and Maser Activity Using X-ray Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotter, J. T.; Hess, C. J.

    1997-12-01

    We studied three Seyfert galaxies with unusual morphologies through X-ray spectroscopy and plasma modeling, in order to determine the temperatures, elemental abundances, and spatial distributions of the X-ray emitting gas contained therein. NGC 4258 is known to have maser activity in the region surrounding its warped accretion disk, and it also emits jets. NGC 1097 and NGC 1068 exhibit these observational traits, jets and maser activity, respectively. Their unusual geometries and the significant reprocessing of the continuum and jets by the accretion disks make these three galaxies excellent candidates for modeling and spectroscopic interpretation which accounts for thermal instability.

  5. Small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering reveal conformational changes in rhodopsin activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Utsab R.; Bhowmik, Debsindhu; Perera, Suchitrhanga M. C. D.; Chawla, Udeep; Struts, Andrey V.; Graziono, Vito; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Heller, William T.; Qian, Shuo; Brown, Michael F.; Chu, Xiang-Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Understanding G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation plays a crucial role in the development of novel improved molecular drugs. During photo-activation, the retinal chromophore of the visual GPCR rhodopsin isomerizes from 11-cis to all-trans conformation, yielding an equilibrium between inactive Meta-I and active Meta-II states. The principal goals of this work are to address whether the activation of rhodopsin leads to a single state or a conformational ensemble, and how protein organizational structure changes with detergent environment in solution. We use both small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques to answer the above questions. For the first time we observe the change in protein conformational ensemble upon photo-activation by SANS with contrast variation, which enables the separate study of the protein structure within the detergent assembly. In addition, SAXS study of protein structure within detergent assembly suggests that the detergent molecules form a belt of monolayer (micelle) around protein with different geometrical shapes to keep the protein in folded state.

  6. X-ray structure and activities of an essential Mononegavirales L-protein domain.

    PubMed

    Paesen, Guido C; Collet, Axelle; Sallamand, Corinne; Debart, Françoise; Vasseur, Jean-Jacques; Canard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne; Grimes, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    The L protein of mononegaviruses harbours all catalytic activities for genome replication and transcription. It contains six conserved domains (CR-I to -VI; Fig. 1a). CR-III has been linked to polymerase and polyadenylation activity, CR-V to mRNA capping and CR-VI to cap methylation. However, how these activities are choreographed is poorly understood. Here we present the 2.2-Å X-ray structure and activities of CR-VI+, a portion of human Metapneumovirus L consisting of CR-VI and the poorly conserved region at its C terminus, the +domain. The CR-VI domain has a methyltransferase fold, which besides the typical S-adenosylmethionine-binding site ((SAM)P) also contains a novel pocket ((NS)P) that can accommodate a nucleoside. CR-VI lacks an obvious cap-binding site, and the (SAM)P-adjoining site holding the nucleotides undergoing methylation ((SUB)P) is unusually narrow because of the overhanging +domain. CR-VI+ sequentially methylates caps at their 2'O and N7 positions, and also displays nucleotide triphosphatase activity. PMID:26549102

  7. X-ray structure and activities of an essential Mononegavirales L-protein domain

    PubMed Central

    Paesen, Guido C.; Collet, Axelle; Sallamand, Corinne; Debart, Françoise; Vasseur, Jean-Jacques; Canard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne; Grimes, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    The L protein of mononegaviruses harbours all catalytic activities for genome replication and transcription. It contains six conserved domains (CR-I to -VI; Fig. 1a). CR-III has been linked to polymerase and polyadenylation activity, CR-V to mRNA capping and CR-VI to cap methylation. However, how these activities are choreographed is poorly understood. Here we present the 2.2-Å X-ray structure and activities of CR-VI+, a portion of human Metapneumovirus L consisting of CR-VI and the poorly conserved region at its C terminus, the +domain. The CR-VI domain has a methyltransferase fold, which besides the typical S-adenosylmethionine-binding site (SAMP) also contains a novel pocket (NSP) that can accommodate a nucleoside. CR-VI lacks an obvious cap-binding site, and the SAMP-adjoining site holding the nucleotides undergoing methylation (SUBP) is unusually narrow because of the overhanging +domain. CR-VI+ sequentially methylates caps at their 2′O and N7 positions, and also displays nucleotide triphosphatase activity. PMID:26549102

  8. New mode for divalent metal activation of glycoside hydrolases: X-ray structure of ß-xyloisdase-Ca2+

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the first X-ray structure of a glycoside hydrolase family 43 ß-xylosidase, RS223BX, which is strongly activated by the addition of divalent metal cations. The 2.69 Å structure reveals that the Ca2+ cation is located at the back of the active site pocket. The Ca2+ coordinates to H274 to sta...

  9. The X-ray luminosity function of active galactic nuclei in the redshift interval z=3-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakis, A.; Aird, J.; Buchner, J.; Salvato, M.; Menzel, M.-L.; Brandt, W. N.; McGreer, I. D.; Dwelly, T.; Mountrichas, G.; Koki, C.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Hsu, L.-T.; Merloni, A.; Liu, Z.; Nandra, K.; Ross, N. P.

    2015-10-01

    We combine deep X-ray survey data from the Chandra observatory and the wide-area/shallow XMM-XXL field to estimate the active galactic nuclei (AGN) X-ray luminosity function in the redshift range z = 3-5. The sample consists of nearly 340 sources with either photometric (212) or spectroscopic (128) redshift in the above range. The combination of deep and shallow survey fields also provides a luminosity baseline of three orders of magnitude, LX(2-10 keV) ≈ 1043-1046 erg s- 1 at z > 3. We follow a Bayesian approach to determine the binned AGN space density and explore their evolution in a model-independent way. Our methodology properly accounts for Poisson errors in the determination of X-ray fluxes and uncertainties in photometric redshift estimates. We demonstrate that the latter is essential for unbiased measurement of space densities. We find that the AGN X-ray luminosity function evolves strongly between the redshift intervals z = 3-4 and z = 4-5. There is also suggestive evidence that the amplitude of this evolution is luminosity dependent. The space density of AGN with LX(2-10 keV) < 1045 erg s- 1 drops by a factor of 5 between the redshift intervals above, while the evolution of brighter AGN appears to be milder. Comparison of our X-ray luminosity function with that of ultraviolet (UV)/optical selected quasi-stellar objects at similar redshifts shows broad agreement at bright luminosities, LX(2-10 keV) > 1045 erg s- 1. At fainter luminosities X-ray surveys measure higher AGN space densities. The faint-end slope of UV/optical luminosity functions, however, is steeper than for X-ray selected AGN. This implies that the Type I AGN fraction increases with decreasing luminosity at z > 3, opposite to trends established at lower redshift. We also assess the significance of AGN in keeping the hydrogen ionized at high redshift. Our X-ray luminosity function yields ionizing photon rate densities that are insufficient to keep the Universe ionized at redshift z > 4. A

  10. Closed bore XMR (CBXMR) systems for aortic valve replacement: Active magnetic shielding of x-ray tubes

    PubMed Central

    Bracken, John A.; DeCrescenzo, Giovanni; Komljenovic, Philip; Lillaney, Prasheel V.; Fahrig, Rebecca; Rowlands, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid closed bore x-ray∕MRI systems are being developed to improve the safety and efficacy of percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures by harnessing the complementary strengths of the x-ray and MRI modalities in a single interventional suite without requiring patient transfer between two rooms. These systems are composed of an x-ray C-arm in close proximity (≈1 m) to an MRI scanner. The MRI magnetic fringe field can cause the electron beam in the x-ray tube to deflect. The deflection causes the x-ray field of view to shift position on the detector receptacle. This could result in unnecessary radiation exposure to the patient and the staff in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Therefore, the electron beam deflection must be corrected. The authors developed an active magnetic shielding system that can correct for electron beam deflection to within an accuracy of 5% without truncating the field of view or increasing exposure to the patient. This system was able to automatically adjust to different field strengths as the external magnetic field acting on the x-ray tube was changed. Although a small torque was observed on the shielding coils of the active shielding system when they were placed in a magnetic field, this torque will not impact their performance if they are securely mounted on the x-ray tube and the C-arm. The heating of the coils of the shielding system for use in the clinic caused by electric current was found to be slow enough not to require a dedicated cooling system for one percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedure. However, a cooling system will be required if multiple procedures are performed in one session. PMID:19544789

  11. MAXI/GSC detection of renewed X-ray activity of the neutron star X-ray binary XTE J1709-267

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahira, S.; Matsuoka, T. Mihara M.; Negoro, H.; Ueno, S.; Tomida, H.; Ishikawa, M.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; Sugawara, Y.; Sugizaki, M.; Serino, M.; Iwakiri, W.; Shidatsu, M.; Sugimoto, J.; Takagi, T.; Kawai, N.; Isobe, N.; Sugita, S.; Yoshii, T.; Tachibana, Y.; Ono, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Yoshida, A.; Sakamoto, T.; Kawakubo, Y.; Kitaoka, Y.; Tsunemi, H.; Shomura, R.; Nakajima, M.; Tanaka, K.; Masumitsu, T.; Kawase, T.; Ueda, Y.; Kawamuro, T.; Hori, T.; Tanimoto, A.; Tsuboi, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Sasaki, R.; Yamauchi, M.; Furuya, K.; Yamaoka, K.

    2016-06-01

    We report on a detection of X-ray outburst from XTE J1709-267 triggered by the MAXI/GSC nova alert system at 12:25 on 2016 May 31. The MAXI/GSC 2-6 keV X-ray flux on May 31 is 210 mCrab, which is brighter than the peak flux of the previous outburst in July 2012 (160 mCrab in 2-6 keV; Atel #5319, Asai, K. et al, PASJ 67, 92, 2015).

  12. X-ray structures of AMPA receptor-cone snail toxin complexes illuminate activation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Dürr, Katharina L; Gouaux, Eric

    2014-08-29

    AMPA-sensitive glutamate receptors are crucial to the structural and dynamic properties of the brain, to the development and function of the central nervous system, and to the treatment of neurological conditions from depression to cognitive impairment. However, the molecular principles underlying AMPA receptor activation have remained elusive. We determined multiple x-ray crystal structures of the GluA2 AMPA receptor in complex with a Conus striatus cone snail toxin, a positive allosteric modulator, and orthosteric agonists, at 3.8 to 4.1 angstrom resolution. We show how the toxin acts like a straightjacket on the ligand-binding domain (LBD) "gating ring," restraining the domains via both intra- and interdimer cross-links such that agonist-induced closure of the LBD "clamshells" is transduced into an irislike expansion of the gating ring. By structural analysis of activation-enhancing mutants, we show how the expansion of the LBD gating ring results in pulling forces on the M3 helices that, in turn, are coupled to ion channel gating. PMID:25103405

  13. X-ray microtomography shows pore structure and tortuosity in alkali-activated binders

    SciTech Connect

    Provis, John L.; Myers, Rupert J.; White, Claire E.; Rose, Volker; Deventer, Jannie S.J. van

    2012-06-15

    Durability of alkali-activated binders is of vital importance in their commercial application, and depends strongly on microstructure and pore network characteristics. X-ray microtomography ({mu}CT) offers, for the first time, direct insight into microstructural and pore structure characteristics in three dimensions. Here, {mu}CT is performed on a set of sodium metasilicate-activated fly ash/slag blends, using a synchrotron beamline instrument. Segmentation of the samples into pore and solid regions is then conducted, and pore tortuosity is calculated by a random walker method. Segmented porosity and diffusion tortuosity are correlated, and vary as a function of slag content (slag addition reduces porosity and increases tortuosity), and sample age (extended curing gives lower porosity and higher tortuosity). This is particularly notable for samples with {>=} 50% slag content, where a space-filling calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate gel provides porosity reductions which are not observed for the sodium aluminosilicate ('geopolymer') gels which do not chemically bind water of hydration.

  14. Toward Large-Area Sub-Arcsecond X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Allured, Ryan; Atkins, Carolyn; Burrows, David N.; Cao, Jian; Chalifoux, Brandon D.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Elsner, Ronald F.; Graham, Michael E.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey J.; McMuldroch, Stuart; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Riveros, Raul E.; Roche, Jacqueline M.; Saha, Timo T.; Schattenburg, Mark L.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Ulmer, Melville P.; Vaynman, Semyon; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Wang, Xiaoli; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    The future of x-ray astronomy depends upon development of x-ray telescopes with larger aperture areas (>1 sq m) and finer angular resolution(<1).Combined with the special requirements of nested grazing incidence optics, the mass and envelope constraints of spaceborne telescopes render such advances technologically challenging. Achieving this goal will require precision fabrication, alignment, mounting, and assembly of large areas (>100 sq m) of lightweight (1 kg/sq m areal density) high quality mirrors-possibly entailing active (in-space adjustable) alignment and figure correction. This paper discusses relevant programmatic and technological issues and summarizes progress toward large area sub-arcsecond x-ray telescopes. Key words: X-ray telescopes, x-ray optics, active optics, electroactive devices, silicon mirrors, differential deposition, ion implantation.

  15. THE HALO OCCUPATION DISTRIBUTION OF X-RAY-BRIGHT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: A COMPARISON WITH LUMINOUS QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Jonathan; Chatterjee, Suchetana; Myers, Adam D.; Zheng Zheng; Hickox, Ryan E-mail: schatte1@uwyo.edu

    2013-09-10

    We perform halo occupation distribution (HOD) modeling of the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of high-redshift (z {approx} 1.2) X-ray-bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the XMM-COSMOS field measured by Allevato et al. The HOD parameterization is based on low-luminosity AGNs in cosmological simulations. At the median redshift of z {approx} 1.2, we derive a median mass of 1.02{sub -0.23}{sup +0.21} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} h{sup -1} M{sub sun} for halos hosting central AGNs and an upper limit of {approx}10% on the AGN satellite fraction. Our modeling results indicate (at the 2.5{sigma} level) that X-ray AGNs reside in more massive halos compared to more bolometrically luminous, optically selected quasars at similar redshift. The modeling also yields constraints on the duty cycle of the X-ray AGN, and we find that at z {approx} 1.2 the average duration of the X-ray AGN phase is two orders of magnitude longer than that of the quasar phase. Our inferred mean occupation function of X-ray AGNs is similar to recent empirical measurements with a group catalog and suggests that AGN halo occupancy increases with increasing halo mass. We project the XMM-COSMOS 2PCF measurements to forecast the required survey parameters needed in future AGN clustering studies to enable higher precision HOD constraints and determinations of key physical parameters like the satellite fraction and duty cycle. We find that N {sup 2}/A {approx} 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} deg{sup -2} (with N the number of AGNs in a survey area of A deg{sup 2}) is sufficient to constrain the HOD parameters at the 10% level, which is easily achievable by upcoming and proposed X-ray surveys.

  16. MAXI/GSC detection of a recent low-level X-ray activity and a bright hard X-ray flare from V404 Cyg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, J.; Negoro, H.; Kawai, N.; Tomida, H.; Nakahira, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; Mihara, T.; Sugizaki, M.; Serino, M.; Shidatsu, M.; Takagi, T.; Matsuoka, M.; Arimoto, M.; Yoshii, T.; Tachibana, Y.; Ono, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Yoshida, A.; Sakamoto, T.; Kawakubo, Y.; Ohtsuki, H.; Tsunemi, H.; Imatani, R.; Nakajima, M.; Tanaka, K.; Masumitsu, T.; Ueda, Y.; Kawamuro, T.; Hori, T.; Tanimoto, A.; Tsuboi, Y.; Kanetou, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Sasaki, R.; Yamauchi, M.; Itoh, D.; Furuya, K.; Yamaoka, K.; Morii, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2015 December 23, a series of hard X-rays detections of the Galactic black hole candidate V404 Cyg (GS 2023+338) were reported with Swift-BAT (Barthelmy et al 2015 GCN #18716; ATel #8455), Fermi-GBM (Jenke at al 2015, GCN #18719; ATel #8457), and INTEGRAL-IBIS/ISGRI (Malyshev et al. ATel #8458).

  17. An investigation of coronal active region loop structures using AS&E rocket X-ray images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, D. F.

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous high spatial resolution observations at 6 cm in soft X-rays, in photospheric magnetograms, and in optical filtergrams were used to compare the most intense sources of centimetric emission in two active regions to coronal loops, sunspots, chromospheric structures, and photospheric magnetic fields. Results show that the majority of the bright microwave components are not associated with sunspots or X-ray emission. A nonthermal mechanism appears necessary to explain the brightest microwave components, discrete regions of continuous particle acceleration may be common in active regions. Studies of the plasma parameters of selected loops imply that the radio emission is consistent with gyro-resonance absorption at the third and fourth harmonic, at least from part of each loop. Results are presented for: (1) X-ray and microwave observations of active regions; (2) comparison of coronal holes observed in soft X-rays and Hel 10830 A spectrosheliograms; and (3) the reappearance of polar coronal holes and the evolution of the solar magnetic field.

  18. FULL SPECTRAL SURVEY OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER ARCHIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, Elizabeth; Markowitz, Alex; Rothschild, Richard

    2013-08-01

    We have analyzed spectra for all active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer archive. We present long-term average values of absorption, Fe line equivalent width (EW), Compton reflection, and photon index, and calculate fluxes and luminosities in the 2-10 keV band for 100 AGN with sufficient brightness and overall observation time to yield high-quality spectral results. We compare these parameters across the different classifications of Seyferts and blazars. Our distributions of photon indices for Seyfert 1s and 2s are consistent with the idea that Seyferts share a common central engine; however, our distributions of Compton reflection hump strengths do not support the classical picture of absorption by a torus and reflection off a Compton-thick disk with type depending only on inclination angle. We conclude that a more complex reflecting geometry such as a combined disk and torus or clumpy torus is likely a more accurate picture of the Compton-thick material. We find that Compton reflection is present in {approx}85% of Seyferts and by comparing Fe line EW's to Compton reflection hump strengths we have found that on average 40% of the Fe line arises in Compton thick material; however, this ratio was not consistent from object to object and did not seem to be dependent on optical classification.

  19. Hard-X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei in the INTEGRAL complete sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, M.; Bassani, L.; Malizia, A.; Stephen, J. B.; Bird, A. J.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we present the hard-X-ray spectral analysis of a complete sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by INTEGRAL/IBIS. In conjunction with IBIS spectra, we make use of Swift/BAT data, with the aim of cross-calibrating the two instruments, studying source variability and constraining some important spectral parameters. We find that flux variability is present in at least 14 per cent of the sample, while spectral variability is found only in one object. There is general good agreement between BAT and IBIS spectra, despite a systematic mismatch of about 22 per cent in normalization. When fitted with a simple power-law model, type 1 and type 2 sources appear to have very similar average photon indices, suggesting that they are powered by the same mechanism. As expected, we also find that a simple power law does not always describe the data sufficiently well, thus indicating a certain degree of spectral complexity, which can be ascribed to features like a high energy cut-off and/or a reflection component. Fixing the reflection to be 0, 1 or 2, we find that our sample covers quite a large range in photon indices as well as cut-off energies; however, the spread is due only to a small number of objects, while the majority of the AGNs lie within well-defined boundaries of photon index (1 ≤ Γ ≤ 2) and cut-off energy (30 ≤ Ecut ≤ 300 keV).

  20. THE GLOBAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE HARD X-RAY EXCESS IN TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Tatum, M. M.; Turner, T. J.; Reeves, J. N.; Miller, L.

    2013-01-10

    Recent evidence for a strong 'hard excess' of flux at energies {approx}> 20 keV in some Suzaku observations of type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has motivated an exploratory study of the phenomenon in the local type 1 AGN population. We have selected all type 1 AGNs in the Swift Burst Alert Telescope 58 month catalog and cross-correlated them with the holdings of the Suzaku public archive. We find the hard excess phenomenon to be a ubiquitous property of type 1 AGNs. Taken together, the spectral hardness and equivalent width of Fe K{alpha} emission are consistent with reprocessing by an ensemble of Compton-thick clouds that partially cover the continuum source. In the context of such a model, {approx}80% of the sample has a hardness ratio consistent with >50% covering of the continuum by low-ionization, Compton-thick gas. A more detailed study of the three hardest X-ray spectra in our sample reveal a sharp Fe K absorption edge at {approx}7 keV in each of them, indicating that blurred reflection is not responsible for the very hard spectral forms. Simple considerations place the distribution of Compton-thick clouds at or within the optical broad-line region.

  1. Active Creation of Instrinsically Localized Vibrations in Uranium Using X-Ray and Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, M; Alatas, A; Trouw, F; Hults, W; Leu, B; Lynn, J; Chen, Y

    2007-08-23

    In real materials, nonlinear forces cause the frequencies of vibrating atoms to depend on amplitude. As a consequence, a large-amplitude fluctuation on the scale of the atom spacing can develop a frequency that does not resonate with the normal modes, causing energy to become trapped in an intrinsically localized mode (ILM)--also called 'discrete breather' or 'lattice soliton'. As temperature is increased, entropy is expected to stabilize increased concentrations of these random hotspots. This mechanism, which spontaneously concentrates energy, has been observed in analogous systems on a larger scale, but direct sightings at the atomic scale have proved difficult. Two challenges have hampered progress: (1) the need to separate ILMs from modes associated with crystal imperfections, and (2) complications that arise at high temperatures, including feature broadening and multiphonon processes. Here we solve both of these problems by actively creating ILMs at low temperatures in {alpha}-uranium using high-energy inelastic x-ray and neutron scattering. The ILM creation excitation occurs at energies ten times higher than conventional lattice excitations, cleanly separating it from modes associated with crystal imperfections. The discovery of this excitation not only proves the existence of ILMs in uranium but also opens up a new route for finding ILMs in other materials and, in the process, a new area for spectroscopy.

  2. Host galaxy colour gradients and accretion disc obscuration in AEGIS z ~ 1 X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, C. M.; Lotz, J. M.; Salim, S.; Laird, E. S.; Coil, A. L.; Bundy, K.; Willmer, C. N. A.; Rosario, D. J. V.; Primack, J. R.; Faber, S. M.

    2010-10-01

    We describe the effect of active galactic nucleus (AGN) light on host galaxy optical and UV-optical colours, as determined from X-ray-selected AGN host galaxies at z ~ 1, and compare the AGN host galaxy colours to those of a control sample matched to the AGN sample in both redshift and stellar mass. We identify as X-ray-selected AGNs 8.7+4-3 per cent of the red-sequence control galaxies, 9.8 +/- 3 per cent of the blue-cloud control galaxies and 14.7+4-3 per cent of the green-valley control galaxies. The nuclear colours of AGN hosts are generally bluer than their outer colours, while the control galaxies exhibit redder nuclei. AGNs in blue-cloud host galaxies experience less X-ray obscuration, while AGNs in red-sequence hosts have more, which is the reverse of what is expected from general considerations of the interstellar medium. Outer and integrated colours of AGN hosts generally agree with the control galaxies, regardless of X-ray obscuration, but the nuclear colours of unobscured AGNs are typically much bluer, especially for X-ray luminous objects. Visible point sources are seen in many of these, indicating that the nuclear colours have been contaminated by AGN light and that obscuration of the X-ray radiation and visible light are therefore highly correlated. Red AGN hosts are typically slightly bluer than red-sequence control galaxies, which suggests that their stellar populations are slightly younger. We compare these colour data to current models of AGN formation. The unexpected trend of less X-ray obscuration in blue-cloud galaxies and more in red-sequence galaxies is problematic for all AGN feedback models, in which gas and dust is thought to be removed as star formation shuts down. A second class of models involving radiative instabilities in hot gas is more promising for red-sequence AGNs but predicts a larger number of point sources in red-sequence AGNs than is observed. Regardless, it appears that multiple AGN models are necessary to explain the

  3. Multilayer Monochromator For Hard X Rays And Gamma Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    Compact monochromator for hard x rays and gamma rays provides high spectral resolution with high throughput. Resembles instruments in "Compact X-Ray and Extreme-Ultraviolet Monochromator" (MFS-28499), "Scanning X-Ray or Extreme-Ultraviolet Monochromator" (MFS-28492), "Ultra-High-Spectral-Resolution X-Ray/EUV Monochromator" (MFS-28500), and "Four-Mirror X-Ray and Extreme-Ultraviolet Monochromator" (MFS-28498). Operates on principle of multilayer Bragg reflector. Used in nuclear, astronomical, and biomedical research, x-ray crystallography, research on processing materials, research in x-ray lasers, and x-ray lithography.

  4. Development of X-Ray Optics for the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, William W.; Bolognese, J.; Byron, G.; Caldwell, D.; Chan, K.; Content, D. A.; Gubarev, M.; Davis, W.; Freeman, M.; Hadjimichael, T. J.; He, C.; Hong, M.; Kolos, L.; Jones, W. D.; Lehan, . P.; Lozipone, L.; Mazzarella, J.; McClelland, R.; Nguyen, D. T.; Olsen, L.; Petre, R.; Podgorski, W.; Robinson, D.; Russell, R.; Romaine, S.

    2009-01-01

    The International X-ray Observatory requires mirror assemblies with unprecedented characteristics that cannot be provided by existing optical technologies. In the past several years, the project has supported a vigorous mirror technology development program. This program includes the fabrication of lightweight mirror segments by slumping commercially available thin glass sheets, the support and mounting of these thin mirror segments for accurate metrology, the mounting and attachment of these mirror segments for the purpose of X-ray tests, and development of methods for aligning and integrating these mirror segments into mirror assemblies. This paper describes our efforts and developments in these areas.

  5. Reflection Grating Array Associated with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer Developed by the Space Research Organization of the Netherlands for the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Steven M.

    2001-01-01

    The University of California, Berkeley (UCB) served as the Principal Investigator institution for the United States participation in the development of the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) which included the design, development, fabrication, and testing of the Reflection Grating Assembly (RGA). UCB was assisted in this role by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Columbia University who provided the primary facilities, materials, services and personnel necessary to complete the development. UC Berkeley's Dr. Steven Kahn provided the technical and scientific oversight for the design. development and testing of the RGA units by monitoring the performance of the units at various stages in their development. Dr. Kahn was also the primary contact with the Space Research Organization of the Netherlands (SRON) and represented the RGA development at all SRON and European Space Agency (ESA) reviews of the RGA status. In accordance with the contract, the team designed and developed novel optical technology to meet the unique requirements of the RGS. The ESA XMM-Newton Mission carries two identical Reflection Grating Spectrometers (RGS) behind two of its three nested sets of Wolter I type mirrors. The instrument allows high-resolution measurements in the soft X-ray range (6 to 38 angstroms or 2.1 to 0.3 keV) with a maximum effective area of about 140 sq cm at 15 angstroms. Its design is optimized for the detection of the K-shell transitions of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, magnesium, and silicon. as well as the L shell transitions of iron. The RGA itself consists of two units. A structure for each unit was designed to hold up to 220 gratings. In its final configuration, one unit holds 182 gratings and the second hold 181 gratings.

  6. Determination of chest x-ray cost using activity based costing approach at Penang General Hospital, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Atif, Muhammad; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Saleem, Fahad; Ahmad, Nafees

    2012-01-01

    Background Activity based costing (ABC) is an approach to get insight of true costs and to solve accounting problems. It provides more accurate information on product cost than conventional accounting system. The purpose of this study was to identify detailed resource consumption for chest x-ray procedure. Methods Human resource cost was calculated by multiplying the mean time spent by employees doing specific activity to their per-minute salaries. The costs of consumables and clinical equipments were obtained from the procurement section of the Radiology Department. The cost of the building was calculated by multiplying the area of space used by the chest X-ray facility with the unit cost of public building department. Moreover, straight-line deprecation with a discount rate of 3% was assumed for calculation of equivalent annual costs for building and machines. Cost of electricity was calculated by multiplying number of kilo watts used by electrical appliance in the year 2010 with electricity tariff for Malaysian commercial consumers (MYR 0.31 per kWh). Results Five activities were identified which were required to develop one chest X-ray film. Human resource, capital, consumable and electricity cost was MYR 1.48, MYR 1.98, MYR 2.15 and MYR 0.04, respectively. Total cost of single chest X-ray was MYR 5.65 (USD 1.75). Conclusion By applying ABC approach, we can have more detailed and precise estimate of cost for specific activity or service. Choice of repeating a chest X-ray can be based on our findings, when cost is a limiting factor. PMID:22891098

  7. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of the active sites of nickel- and copper-containing metalloproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, G.O.

    1993-06-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a useful tool for obtaining structural and chemical information about the active sites of metalloproteins and metalloenzymes. Information may be obtained from both the edge region and the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) or post-edge region of the K-edge X-ray absorption spectrum of a metal center in a compound. The edge contains information about the valence electronic structure of the atom that absorbs the X-rays. It is possible in some systems to infer the redox state of the metal atom in question, as well as the geometry and nature of ligands connected to it, from the features in the edge in a straightforward manner. The EXAFS modulations, being produced by the backscattering of the ejected photoelectron from the atoms surrounding the metal atom, provide, when analyzed, information about the number and type of neighbouring atoms, and the distances at which they occur. In this thesis, analysis of both the edge and EXAFS regions has been used to gain information about the active sites of various metalloproteins. The metalloproteins studied were plastocyanin (Pc), laccase and nickel carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (Ni CODH). Studies of Cu(I)-imidazole compounds, related to the protein hemocyanin, are also reported here.

  8. Dating the Stars Next Door: Ages and Coronal X-Ray Activities of Local K-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katynski, Marcus; Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.

    2016-01-01

    Age is one of the most difficult (but important) basic stellar physical property to determine. One possible means to estimate stellar age is from rotational period; it is known that as cool stars age, they lose angular momentum from magnetic braking and slow-down. Thus, good Rotation-Age relationships exist, which are calibrated with stars possessing reliable ages from: evolutionary tracks and/or memberships in clusters/moving groups or binary star systems. Further, ages of older stars can be estimated from (low) metal abundances and kinematics (high space motions). More recently, age determinations from asteroseismology are also becoming more reliable. Except for the many G, K, M stars in the Kepler/K2 fields, rotational periods are difficult to measure photometrically for older, less active stars since star spots and active regions are smaller & less prominent. Thus measuring the coronal X-ray activity of a star is an appealing alternative. Coronal X-ray emission is generated by the stellar dynamo, and so is directly related to the stars' rotation (and age). Measurement of X-ray fluxes (or upper limits) have been made for most of the nearby stars (within ~20 pc) with data available in the HEASARC archives. During the 1990's the ROSAT X-Ray Satellite carried out an all-sky survey of thousands of X-ray sources, including hundreds of nearby stars, producing a large archival database. Using these and other available X-ray data from XMM-Newton & Chandra, we explore the relation between coronal X-ray activity and stellar age of all stars within 10 pc (32.6 LY), with special emphasis on dK and early dM stars that make up ~85% of the sample. Here we report the progress made in determination the ages these nearby stars. We focused on nearby dK-stars, due to their long lifetimes (>20 Gyr) and habitable zones that lie ~0.5 -1.5 AU from their host stars. They appear to be ideal candidates for hosting potentially habitable planets, making them interesting targets. We present

  9. Estimation of observation possibility of the x-ray interferometer with an x-ray beam-splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamoto, S.; Ogawa, S.; Komatsu, T.; Umezu, R.; Sugimoto, J.; Suzuki, H.; Nambu, D.; Tsumura, H.; Seta, H.; Hoshino, A.; Aikawa, Sae; Niizuma, Yutaro

    2014-07-01

    We report our recent activities for a development of a new X-ray interferometer with a beam splitter and discuss a possible observation of some celestial objects. The X-ray interferometer consists of two flat mirrors and one flat beam splitter. Samples of the beam splitter and the mirrors have been designed and fabricated. We measured the reflectivity of the mirrors and the reflectivity and transmission of the beam splitters with a synchrotron source at KEK-PF. Obtained results of the mirrors are roughly consistent with the design values, but the reflectivity of the beam splitter is roughly half of the design value. Using these measured values, we estimated required area and observation-time to obtain fringe signals of celestial objects. We concluded that a broad-band interferometer using non-dispersive high spectral resolution detector, such as the micro-calorimeter array, is essential for the future development.

  10. The X-ray Surveyor Mission: a concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Tananbaum, Harvey D.; Bandler, Simon R.; Bautz, Marshall W.; Burrows, David N.; Falcone, Abraham D.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Heinz, Sebastian; Hopkins, Randall C.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Kraft, Ralph P.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Natarajan, Priyamvada; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Petre, Robert; Prieskorn, Zachary R.; Ptak, Andrew F.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Schnell, Andrew R.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Townsley, Leisa K.

    2015-08-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory continues to provide an unparalleled means for exploring the high-energy universe. With its half-arcsecond angular resolution, Chandra studies have deepened our understanding of galaxy clusters, active galactic nuclei, galaxies, supernova remnants, neutron stars, black holes, and solar system objects. As we look beyond Chandra, it is clear that comparable or even better angular resolution with greatly increased photon throughput is essential to address ever more demanding science questions—such as the formation and growth of black hole seeds at very high redshifts; the emergence of the first galaxy groups; and details of feedback over a large range of scales from galaxies to galaxy clusters. Recently, we initiated a concept study for such a mission, dubbed X-ray Surveyor. The X-ray Surveyor strawman payload is comprised of a high-resolution mirror assembly and an instrument set, which may include an X-ray microcalorimeter, a high-definition imager, and a dispersive grating spectrometer and its readout. The mirror assembly will consist of highly nested, thin, grazing-incidence mirrors, for which a number of technical approaches are currently under development—including adjustable X-ray optics, differential deposition, and new polishing techniques applied to a variety of substrates. This study benefits from previous studies of large missions carried out over the past two decades and, in most areas, points to mission requirements no more stringent than those of Chandra.

  11. The X-Ray Surveyor Mission: A Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Tananbaum, Harvey D.; Bandler, Simon R.; Bautz, Marshall W.; Burrows, David N.; Falcone, Abraham D.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Heinz, Sebastian; Hopkins, Randall C.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Kraft, Ralph P.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Natarajan, Priyamvada; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Petre, Robert; Prieskorn, Zachary R.; Ptak, Andrew F.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Schnell, Andrew R.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Townsley, Leisa K.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory continues to provide an unparalleled means for exploring the high-energy universe. With its half-arcsecond angular resolution, Chandra studies have deepened our understanding of galaxy clusters, active galactic nuclei, galaxies, supernova remnants, neutron stars, black holes, and solar system objects. As we look beyond Chandra, it is clear that comparable or even better angular resolution with greatly increased photon throughput is essential to address ever more demanding science questions-such as the formation and growth of black hole seeds at very high redshifts; the emergence of the first galaxy groups; and details of feedback over a large range of scales from galaxies to galaxy clusters. Recently, we initiated a concept study for such a mission, dubbed X-ray Surveyor. The X-ray Surveyor strawman payload is comprised of a high-resolution mirror assembly and an instrument set, which may include an X-ray microcalorimeter, a high-definition imager, and a dispersive grating spectrometer and its readout. The mirror assembly will consist of highly nested, thin, grazing-incidence mirrors, for which a number of technical approaches are currently under development-including adjustable X-ray optics, differential deposition, and new polishing techniques applied to a variety of substrates. This study benefits from previous studies of large missions carried out over the past two decades and, in most areas, points to mission requirements no more stringent than those of Chandra.

  12. The young hard active Sun: soft X-ray irradiation of tryptophan in water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciaravella, A.; Bongiorno, D.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C.; Testa, M. L.; Indelicato, S.; Barbera, M.; Collura, A.; La Barbera, A.; Mingoia, F.

    2011-01-01

    The X-ray emission of the young Sun was much harder and intense than today and might have played a significant role in the evolution of complex organics in protoplanetary environments. We investigate the effects of soft X-rays on tryptophan molecules in aqueous solutions at room temperature. As results of the irradiation experiments we detect several light species indicative of fragmentation, together with large molecular structures such as tryptophan dipeptide and tripeptide. Complexification is more evident in H2O solution than in D2O, probably due to isotopic effects. The abundances of peptides depend on the irradiation dose and decrease with increasing energy deposition. Radicals such as D, OD, H and OH, induced by the X-ray interaction with solvents, play a major role in determining the final products.

  13. High Resolution X-ray Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, Webster

    2002-01-01

    NAG5-5020 covered a period of 7.5 years during which a great deal of progress was made in x-ray optical techniques under this grant. We survived peer review numerous times during the effort to keep the grant going. In 1994, when the grant started we were actively pursuing the application of spherical mirrors to improving x-ray telescopes. We had found that x-ray detectors were becoming rapidly more sophisticated and affordable, but that x-ray telescopes were only being improved through the intense application of money within the AXAF program. Clearly new techniques for the future were needed. We were successful in developing and testing at the HELSTF facility in New Mexico a four reflection coma-corrected telescope made from spheres. We were able to demonstrate 0.3 arcsecond resolution, almost to the diffraction limit of the system. The community as a whole was, at that time, not particularly interested in looking past AXAF (Chandra) and the effort needed to evolve. Since we had reached the diffraction limit using non-Wolter optics we then decided to see if we could build an x-ray interferometer in the laboratory. In the lab the potential for improved resolution was substantial. If synthetic aperture telescopes could be built in space, then orders of magnitude improvement would become feasible. In 1998 NASA, under the direction of Dr. Nick White of Goddard, started a study to assess the potential and feasibility of x-ray interferometry in space. My work became of central interest to the committee because it indicated that such was possible. In early 1999 we had the breakthrough that allowed us build a practical interferometer. By using flats and hooking up with the Marshall Space Flight Center facilities we were able to demonstrate fringes at 1.25keV on a one millimeter baseline. This actual laboratory demonstration provided the solid proof of concept that NASA needed.

  14. INSIGHT INTO ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS AND HOST GALAXY CO-EVOLUTION FROM HARD X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Zhou, X. L.; Wei, J. Y.

    2013-05-10

    We study the issue of active galactic nucleus (AGN) and host co-evolution by focusing on the correlation between the hard X-ray emission from central AGNs and the stellar populations of the host galaxies. Focusing on galaxies with strong H{alpha} line emission (EW(H{alpha}) > 5 A), both X-ray and optical spectral analyses are performed on 67 (partially) obscured AGNs that are selected from the XMM-Newton 2XMMi/SDSS-DR7 catalog originally cross-matched by Pineau et al. The sample allows us to study central AGN activity and host galaxy activity directly and simultaneously in individual objects. Combining the spectral analysis in both bands reveals that the older the stellar population of the host galaxy, the harder the X-ray emission will be, which was missed in our previous study where ROSAT hardness ratios were used. By excluding the contamination from host galaxies and from jet beaming emission, the correlation indicates that Compton cooling in the accretion disk corona decreases with the mean age of the stellar population. We argue that this correlation is related to the correlation of L/L{sub Edd} with the host stellar population. In addition, the [O I]/H{alpha} and [S II]/H{alpha} narrow-line ratios are identified to correlate with the spectral slope in hard X-rays, which can be inferred from the currently proposed evolution of the X-ray emission because of the confirmed tight correlations between the two line ratios and stellar population age.

  15. Analysis of X-ray and EUV spectra of solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, K. T.; Acton, L. W.

    1979-01-01

    Data acquired by two flights of an array of six Bragg crystal spectrometers on an Aerobee rocket to obtain high spatial and spectral resolution observations of various coronal features at soft X-ray wavelengths (9-23A) were analyzed. The various aspects of the analysis of the X-ray data are described. These observations were coordinated with observations from the experiments on the Apollo Telescope Mount and the various data sets were related to one another. The Appendices contain the published results, abstracts of papers, computer code descriptions and preprints of papers, all produced as a result of this research project.

  16. Rapid, low-level X-ray variability in active late-type dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambruster, Carol W.; Sciortino, Salvatore; Golub, L.

    1987-01-01

    A sensitive new statistical analysis method was used to establish certain properties of quiescent X-ray variability in a sample of 19 late-type dwarfs. Sixteen stars proved to be significantly variable. The typical amplitude of the fluctuations was about 30 percent. Variability time scales ranged from about 150 s for 40 Eri C to lower limits as large as 2000 s. Neither the amplitudes nor the time scales of the X-ray variability appeared to depend on position along the main sequence.

  17. The Relationship Between Solar Coronal X-Ray Brightness and Active Region Magnetic Fields: A Study Using High-Resolution Hinode Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Soumitra; Nandy, Dibyendu; Ravindra, B.

    2015-03-01

    By using high-resolution observations of nearly co-temporal and co-spatial Solar Optical Telescope spectropolarimeter and X-Ray Telescope coronal X-ray data onboard Hinode, we revisit the problematic relationship between global magnetic quantities and coronal X-ray brightness. Co-aligned vector magnetogram and X-ray data were used for this study. The total X-ray brightness over active regions is well correlated with integrated magnetic quantities such as the total unsigned magnetic flux, the total unsigned vertical current, and the area-integrated square of the vertical and horizontal magnetic fields. On accounting for the inter-dependence of the magnetic quantities, we inferred that the total magnetic flux is the primary determinant of the observed integrated X-ray brightness. Our observations indicate that a stronger coronal X-ray flux is not related to a higher non-potentiality of active-region magnetic fields. The data even suggest a slightly negative correlation between X-ray brightness and a proxy of active-region non-potentiality. Although there are small numerical differences in the established correlations, the main conclusions are qualitatively consistent over two different X-ray filters, the Al-poly and Ti-poly filters, which confirms the strength of our conclusions and validate and extend earlier studies that used low-resolution data. We discuss the implications of our results and the constraints they set on theories of solar coronal heating.

  18. Nonthermal electron-positron pair production and the 'universal' X-ray spectrum of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, A. A.; Lightman, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    A nonthermal model for power-law X-ray and gamma-ray sources is considered. An initial, primary distribution of relativistic electrons is injected and cooled via Compton scattering of soft photons (produced either externally or by the synchrotron mechanism). The scattered photons, constituting a primary gamma-ray source, produce electron-positron pairs that act as a secondary electron injection, which in turn produce a secondary photon spectrum. Pairs formed by a part of the photon spectrum optically thin to pair production are taken into account. The distribution of particles and photons is obtained, and numerical results as well as analytical solutions to certain special cases are presented. For the case of a delta-function primary electron injection it is found that the photon spectrum in the X-ray region is well approximated by a power law, with the energy spectral index alpha(X) lying in the relatively narrow range 0.5-0.9 as the compactness parameter L(x)/R (where L(x) is the X-ray luminosity and R is the source radius) varies over many orders of magnitude. This is proposed as a possible mechanism to explain the universal X-ray spectra observed from active galactic nuclei.

  19. Radiation pressure acceleration by X-rays in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelouche, Doron; Netzer, Hagai

    2001-09-01

    We present calculations of the dynamics of highly ionized gas (HIG) clouds that are confined by external pressure, and are photoionized by AGN continuum. We focus on the gas that is seen, in absorption, in the X-ray spectrum of many AGN and show that such gas can reach hydrostatic equilibrium under various conditions. The principal conclusion is that the clouds can be accelerated to high velocities by the central X-ray source. The dynamical problem can be reduced to the calculation of a single parameter, the average force multiplier, . The typical value of is ~10 suggesting that radiation pressure acceleration by X-rays is efficient for L/LEdd>~0.1. The terminal velocity scales with the escape velocity at the base of the flow and can exceed it by a large factor. The typical velocity for a HIG flow that originates at R=1017cm in a source with Lx=1044ergs-1 is ~1000kms-1, i.e. similar to the velocities observed in several X-ray and UV absorption systems. Highly ionized AGN clouds are driven mainly by bound-free absorption, and bound-bound processes are less important unless the lines are significantly broadened or the column density is very small. Pressure laws that result in constant or outward decreasing ionization parameters are most effective in accelerating the flow.

  20. NO CLEAR SUBMILLIMETER SIGNATURE OF SUPPRESSED STAR FORMATION AMONG X-RAY LUMINOUS ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, C. M.; Alexander, D. M.; Mullaney, J. R.; Del Moro, A.; Rovilos, E.; Altieri, B.; Coia, D.; Charmandaris, V.; Daddi, E.; Le Floc'h, E.; Leiton, R.; Dasyra, K.; Dickinson, M.; Kartaltepe, J.; Hickox, R. C.; Ivison, R. J.; Magnelli, B.; Popesso, P.; Rosario, D.; and others

    2012-11-20

    Many theoretical models require powerful active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to suppress star formation in distant galaxies and reproduce the observed properties of today's massive galaxies. A recent study based on Herschel-SPIRE submillimeter observations claimed to provide direct support for this picture, reporting a significant decrease in the mean star formation rates (SFRs) of the most luminous AGNs (L{sub X} >10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) at z Almost-Equal-To 1-3 in the Chandra Deep Field-North (CDF-N). In this Letter, we extend these results using Herschel-SPIRE 250 {mu}m data in the COSMOS and Chandra Deep Field-South fields to achieve an order-of-magnitude improvement in the number of sources at L{sub X} >10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}. On the basis of our analysis, we find no strong evidence for suppressed star formation in L{sub X} >10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} AGNs at z Almost-Equal-To 1-3. The mean SFRs of the AGNs are constant over the broad X-ray luminosity range of L{sub X} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 43}-10{sup 45} erg s{sup -1} (with mean SFRs consistent with typical star-forming galaxies at z Almost-Equal-To 2; (SFRs) Almost-Equal-To 100-200 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}). We suggest that the previous CDF-N results were likely due to low number statistics. We discuss our results in the context of current theoretical models.

  1. MEASURING X-RAY VARIABILITY IN FAINT/SPARSELY SAMPLED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Allevato, V.; Paolillo, M.; Papadakis, I.; Pinto, C.

    2013-07-01

    We study the statistical properties of the normalized excess variance of variability process characterized by a ''red-noise'' power spectral density (PSD), as in the case of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We perform Monte Carlo simulations of light curves, assuming both a continuous and a sparse sampling pattern and various signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns). We show that the normalized excess variance is a biased estimate of the variance even in the case of continuously sampled light curves. The bias depends on the PSD slope and on the sampling pattern, but not on the S/N. We provide a simple formula to account for the bias, which yields unbiased estimates with an accuracy better than 15%. We show that the normalized excess variance estimates based on single light curves (especially for sparse sampling and S/N < 3) are highly uncertain (even if corrected for bias) and we propose instead the use of an ''ensemble estimate'', based on multiple light curves of the same object, or on the use of light curves of many objects. These estimates have symmetric distributions, known errors, and can also be corrected for biases. We use our results to estimate the ability to measure the intrinsic source variability in current data, and show that they could also be useful in the planning of the observing strategy of future surveys such as those provided by X-ray missions studying distant and/or faint AGN populations and, more in general, in the estimation of the variability amplitude of sources that will result from future surveys such as Pan-STARRS and LSST.

  2. Synthesis, X-ray crystal structures and catecholase activity investigation of new chalcone ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thabti, Salima; Djedouani, Amel; Rahmouni, Samra; Touzani, Rachid; Bendaas, Abderrahmen; Mousser, Hénia; Mousser, Abdelhamid

    2015-12-01

    The reaction of dehydroacetic acid DHA carboxaldehyde and RCHO derivatives (R = quinoleine-8-; indole-3-; pyrrol-2- and 4-(dimethylamino)phenyl - afforded four new chalcone ligands (4-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-[(2E)-3-quinolin-8-ylprop-2-enoyl]-2H-pyran-2-one) L1, (4-hydroxy-3-[(2E)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)prop-2-enoyl]-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one) L2, (4-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-[(2E)-3-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)prop-2-enoyl]-2H-pyran-2-one) L3, and (3-{(2E)-3-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]prop-2-enoyl}-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one) L4. L3 and L4 were characterized by X-ray crystallography. Molecules crystallize with four and two molecules in the asymmetric unit, respectively and adopt an E conformation about the Cdbnd C bond. Both structures are stabilized by an extended network O-H … O. Furthermore, N-H … O and C-H … O hydrogen bonds are observed in L3 and L4 structures, respectively. The in situ generated copper (II) complexes of the four compounds L1, L2, L3 and L4 were examined for their catalytic activities and were found to catalyze the oxidation reaction of catechol to o-quinone under atmospheric dioxygen. The rates of this oxidation depend on three parameters: ligand, ion salts and solvent nature and the combination L2[Cu (CH3COO)2] leads to the faster catalytic process.

  3. X-ray Observations of the Black Hole Transient 4U 1630-47 During 2 Years of X-ray Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Corbel, Stephane; Goldwurm, Andrea; Kaaret, Philip

    2005-01-01

    The black hole candidate (BHC) X-ray transient 4U 1630-47 continuously produced strong X-ray emission for more than 2 years during its 2002-2004 outburst, which is one of the brightest and longest outbursts ever seen from this source. We use more than 300 observations made with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RM E) to study the source throughout the outburst, along with hard X-ray images from the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), which are critical for interpreting the RXTE data in this crowded field. The source exhibits extreme behaviors, which can be interpreted as an indication that the system luminosity approaches the Eddington limit. For 15 observations, fitting the spectral continuum with a disk-blackbody plus power-law model results in measured inner disk temperatures between 2.7 and 3.8 key and such temperatures are only rivaled by the brightest BHC systems, such as GRS 1915+105 and XTE 51550-564. If the high temperatures are caused by the dominance of electron scattering opacity in the inner regions of the accretion disk, it is theoretically required that the source luminosity be considerably higher than 20% of the Eddington limit. We detect a variety of high-amplitude variability, including hard 10-100 s flares, which peak at levels as much as 2-3 times higher than nonflare levels. This flaring occurs at the highest disk luminosities in a regime in which the source deviates from the L(sub disk) infinity T(sup 4)(sub in) relationship that is seen at lower luminosities, possibly suggesting that we are seeing transitions between a Shakura & Sunyaev disk and a "slim" disk, which is predicted to occur at very high mass accretion rates. The X-ray properties in 2002-2004 are significantly different from those seen during the 1998 outburst, which is the only outburst with detected radio jet emission. Our results support the "jet line" concept recently advanced by Fender and coworkers. Our study allows for a test of the quantitative Mc

  4. X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE BLACK HOLE TRANSIENT 4U 1630-47 DURING 2 YEARS OF X-RAY ACTIVITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Corbel, Stephane; Goldwurm, Andrea; Kaaret, Philip

    2005-01-01

    The black hole candidate (BHC) X-ray transient 4U 1630-47 continuously produced strong X-ray emission for more than 2 years during its 2002-2004 outburst, which is one of the brightest and longest outbursts ever seen from this source. We use more than 300 observations made with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) to study the source throughout the outburst, along with hard X-ray images from the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), which are critical for interpreting the RXTE data in this crowded field. The source exhibits extreme behaviors, which can be interpreted as an indication that the system luminosity approaches the Eddington limit. For 15 observations, fitting the spectral continuum with a disk-blackbody plus power-law model results in measured inner disk temperatures between 2.7 and 3.8 keV, and such temperatures are only rivaled by the brightest BHC systems, such as GRS 1915+105 and XTE J1550-564. If the high temperatures are caused by the dominance of electron scattering opacity in the inner regions of the accretion disk, it is theoretically required that the source luminosity be considerably higher than 20% of the Eddington limit. We detect a variety of high-amplitude variability, including hard 10-100 s flares, which peak at levels as much as 2-3 times higher than nonflare levels. The X-ray properties in 2002-2004 are significantly different from those seen during the 1998 outburst, which is the only outburst with detected radio jet emission. Our results support the "jet line" concept recently advanced by Fender and coworkers. Our study allows for a test of the quantitative McClintock & Remillard spectral state definitions, and we find that these definitions alone do not provide a complete description of the outburst. Finally, for several of the observations, the high-energy emission is dominated by the nearby sources IGR J16320-4751 and IGR J16358-4726, and we provide information on when these sources were bright and on the

  5. X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jurgensen, A; David Missimer, D; Ronny Rutherford, R

    2006-05-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop an x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry method for elemental characterization of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pretreated low activity waste (LAW) stream to the LAW Vitrification Plant. The WTP is evaluating the potential for using XRF as a rapid turnaround technique to support LAW product compliance and glass former batching. The overall objective of this task was to develop XRF analytical methods that provide the rapid turnaround time (<8 hours) requested by the WTP, while providing sufficient accuracy and precision to determine waste composition variations. For Phase 1a, SRNL (1) evaluated, selected, and procured an XRF instrument for WTP installation, (2) investigated three XRF sample methods for preparing the LAW sub-sample for XRF analysis, and (3) initiated scoping studies on AN-105 (Envelope A) simulant to determine the instrument's capability, limitations, and optimum operating parameters. After preliminary method development on simulants and the completion of Phase 1a activities, SRNL received approval from WTP to begin Phase 1b activities with the objective of optimizing the XRF methodology. Three XRF sample methods used for preparing the LAW sub-sample for XRF analysis were studied: direct liquid analysis, dried spot, and fused glass. The direct liquid method was selected because its major advantage is that the LAW can be analyzed directly without any sample alteration that could bias the method accuracy. It also is the fastest preparation technique--a typical XRF measurement could be completed in < 1hr after sample delivery. Except for sodium, the method detection limits (MDLs) for the most important analytes in solution, the hold point elements, were achieved by this method. The XRF detection limits are generally adequate for glass former batching and product composition reporting, but may be inadequate for some species (Hg, Cd, and Ba) important to

  6. MHD seismology as a tool to diagnose the coronae of X-ray active sun-like flaring stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Lalitha, Sairam

    It is now well accepted that the detection of impulsively generated multiple MHD modes are potentially used in diagnosing the local plasma conditions of the solar corona. Analogously, such analyses can also be significantly used in diagnosing the coronae of X-ray active Sun-like stars. In the present paper, we briefly review the detection of MHD modes in coronae of some X-ray active Sun-like stars, e.g. Proxima Centauri, ξ-Boo etc using XMM-Newton observations, and discuss the implications in deriving physical information about their localized magnetic atmosphere. We conclude that the refinement in the MHD seismology of solar corona is also providing the best analogy to develop the stellar seismology of magnetically active and flaring Sun-like stars to deduce the local physical conditions of their coronae.

  7. An investigation of catalytic active phase-support interactions by IR, NMR and x-ray absorption spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, G.L.

    1992-09-01

    Active catalytic phases (metal, mixed metals, oxide or mixed oxides) interacting with oxide support on which the active phase is dispersed can affect the percentage exposed, the morphology of supported particles, the degree of reducibility of cations, etc., in a variety of ways. Our objective is to characterize the physical chemistry of the active phase-oxide support interaction by spectroscopic methods and to correlate this structure with catalytic function. Two catalytic systems and their associated techniques (x-ray absorption and NMR) are discussed in this progress report. Firstly, the interaction of Pt-Ni supported on silica and L-zeolite are characterized and compared by x-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS). Secondly, we present both experimental and calculational developments of NMR for the investigation of amorphous silica-alumina catalysts and/or supports.

  8. Gimeracil, a component of S-1, may enhance the antitumor activity of X-ray irradiation in human cancer xenograft models in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Masakazu; Sakamoto, Kazuki; Sakata, Minoru; Nakagawa, Fumio; Saito, Hitoshi; Sakata, Yu

    2010-11-01

    Chemoradiotherapy is a useful treatment strategy in patients with locally advanced cancers. In particular, combination of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with X-ray irradiation is effective for the treatment of some types of gastrointestinal cancers. We investigated the antitumor effects of combination treatment with X-ray and S-1, a unique formulation of 5-FU, on human cancer xenografts in nude mice and compared the efficacy of this treatment to that of radiotherapy combined with cisplatin, UFT, another oral 5-FU prodrug, and intravenous 5-FU. Tumors implanted into the left hind legs of mice were treated with a dose of 2 or 5 Gy X-ray irradiation on days 1 and 8, and S-1, UFT and 5-FU were administered for 14 days. The efficacy of combined treatment with 8.3 mg/kg S-1 and 2 Gy X-ray irradiation in treating non-small cell lung cancer xenografts (Lu-99 and LC-11) was significantly higher than that of treatment with S-1 alone or 2 Gy X-ray irradiation alone, and the antitumor activity of combined treatment was similar to that of 5 Gy X-ray irradiation alone. Although 8.3 mg/kg S-1 and 17.5 mg/kg UFT had equivalent antitumor activity; the antitumor efficacy of combination treatment with S-1 and 2 Gy X-ray irradiation on LC-11 tumors was significantly higher than that of combination treatment with UFT and 2 Gy X-ray irradiation. Combination treatment with S-1 and X-ray irradiation was also more effective against pancreatic tumors than combination treatment with intravenous 5-FU and X-ray irradiation. To elucidate the reason for the increased antitumor efficacy of combination treatment with S-1 and X-ray irradiation, the antitumor effect of gimeracil, one of the components of S-1, was tested in combination with 2 Gy X-ray irradiation. These experiments demonstrated that gimeracil enhanced the efficacy of X-ray irradiation against lung as well as head and neck cancer xenografts in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we observed decreased expression of γ-H2AX protein, a marker

  9. X ray imaging microscope for cancer research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Shealy, David L.; Brinkley, B. R.; Baker, Phillip C.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA technology employed during the Stanford MSFC LLNL Rocket X Ray Spectroheliograph flight established that doubly reflecting, normal incidence multilayer optics can be designed, fabricated, and used for high resolution x ray imaging of the Sun. Technology developed as part of the MSFC X Ray Microscope program, showed that high quality, high resolution multilayer x ray imaging microscopes are feasible. Using technology developed at Stanford University and at the DOE Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Troy W. Barbee, Jr. has fabricated multilayer coatings with near theoretical reflectivities and perfect bandpass matching for a new rocket borne solar observatory, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA). Advanced Flow Polishing has provided multilayer mirror substrates with sub-angstrom (rms) smoothnesss for the astronomical x ray telescopes and x ray microscopes. The combination of these important technological advancements has paved the way for the development of a Water Window Imaging X Ray Microscope for cancer research.

  10. Hard X-Ray And Wide Focusing Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, Paul; Johnson, William B. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The development of a hard X-ray telescope requires new technology for both substrates and coatings. Our activities in these two areas were carried out virtually in parallel during most of the past few years. They are converging on the production of our first integral conical, substrate electroformed mirror that will be coated with a graded d-spacing multilayer. Its imaging properties and effective area will be measured in hard X-ray beams. We discuss each of these activities separately in the following two sections.

  11. X-Rays

    MedlinePlus

    X-rays are a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves. X-ray imaging creates pictures of the inside of ... different amounts of radiation. Calcium in bones absorbs x-rays the most, so bones look white. Fat ...

  12. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1990-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics is presented. Topics studied include: the soft x ray background, proportional counter and filter calibrations, the new sounding rocket payload: X Ray Calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  13. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1991-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics for the period 1 Jan. to 31 Dec. 1990 is presented. Topics studied include: soft x ray background, new sounding rocket payload: x ray calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  14. Joint x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

  15. The X-ray view of radio-loud active galactic nuclei: The central engine and its environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donato, Davide

    The non-thermal emission from many Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) is obscured by optically thick circumnuclear matter, particularly at optical and ultraviolet wavelengths. In radio-loud (RL) sources, the AGN activity is coupled with the presence of a bipolar jet that emit radio through g-ray light which is relativistically beamed along the jet axes. The combination of absorption and beaming produces highly anisotropic radiation. The understanding of the origin and magnitude of this radiation allows astronomers to unify different classes of AGN; that is, to identify each single, underlying AGN type that gives rise to different classes through different orientations with respect to the jet axis. This is the fundamental notion behind what are called "unification models" of AGN. Although this general idea is well accepted, many aspects remain matter of debate. In fact, the explanation of the wide and complex variety of AGN phenomena must be searched in a combination of apparent differences (like orientation) and real differences in a number of physical parameters (like gas/dust content and distribution, luminosity, etc.). The goal of this thesis is to address some of the RL unification open questions using X-ray data. The improved sensitivity and angular resolution of a new generation of satellites, combined with the fact that X-rays provide useful information on a variety of AGN phenomena, will allow me to: (1) Study the broadband X-ray continua of BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) and Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs); (2) Probe the emission from the very inner region of an AGN; (3) Determine the presence and characteristic of extended X-ray emission from the AGN environment. The results obtained from theses studies will provide me insights into (1) the X-ray average spectral properties of BL Lacs and FSRQs and the physical processes responsible of the emission; (2) the presence of the obscuring torus and the amount of absorption, (3) the nature of X-ray emission, and (4

  16. Trends in ultracool dwarf magnetism. II. The inverse correlation between X-ray activity and rotation as evidence for a bimodal dynamo

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, B. A.; Williams, P. K. G.; Berger, E.

    2014-04-10

    Observations of magnetic activity indicators in solar-type stars exhibit a relationship with rotation with an increase until a 'saturation' level and a moderate decrease in activity in the very fastest rotators ('supersaturation'). While X-ray data have suggested that this relationship is strongly violated in ultracool dwarfs (UCDs; spectral type ≳M7), the limited number of X-ray detections has prevented firm conclusions. In this paper, we analyze the X-ray activity-rotation relation in 38 UCDs. Our sample represents the largest catalog of X-ray active UCDs to date, including seven new and four previously unpublished Chandra observations presented in a companion paper. We identify a substantial number of rapidly rotating UCDs with X-ray activity extending two orders of magnitude below the expected saturation level and measure a 'supersaturation'-type anticorrelation between rotation and X-ray activity. The scatter in UCD X-ray activity at a fixed rotation is ∼3 times larger than that in earlier-type stars. We discuss several mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the data, including centrifugal stripping of the corona, and find them to be inconsistent with the observed trends. Instead, we suggest that an additional parameter correlated with both X-ray activity and rotation is responsible for the observed effects. Building on the results of Zeeman-Doppler imaging of UCD magnetic fields and our companion study of radio/X-ray flux ratios, we argue that this parameter is the magnetic field topology, and that the large scatter in UCD X-ray fluxes reflects the presence of two dynamo modes that produce distinct topologies.

  17. Trends in Ultracool Dwarf Magnetism. II. The Inverse Correlation Between X-Ray Activity and Rotation as Evidence for a Bimodal Dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, B. A.; Williams, P. K. G.; Berger, E.

    2014-04-01

    Observations of magnetic activity indicators in solar-type stars exhibit a relationship with rotation with an increase until a "saturation" level and a moderate decrease in activity in the very fastest rotators ("supersaturation"). While X-ray data have suggested that this relationship is strongly violated in ultracool dwarfs (UCDs; spectral type gsimM7), the limited number of X-ray detections has prevented firm conclusions. In this paper, we analyze the X-ray activity-rotation relation in 38 UCDs. Our sample represents the largest catalog of X-ray active UCDs to date, including seven new and four previously unpublished Chandra observations presented in a companion paper. We identify a substantial number of rapidly rotating UCDs with X-ray activity extending two orders of magnitude below the expected saturation level and measure a "supersaturation"-type anticorrelation between rotation and X-ray activity. The scatter in UCD X-ray activity at a fixed rotation is ~3 times larger than that in earlier-type stars. We discuss several mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the data, including centrifugal stripping of the corona, and find them to be inconsistent with the observed trends. Instead, we suggest that an additional parameter correlated with both X-ray activity and rotation is responsible for the observed effects. Building on the results of Zeeman-Doppler imaging of UCD magnetic fields and our companion study of radio/X-ray flux ratios, we argue that this parameter is the magnetic field topology, and that the large scatter in UCD X-ray fluxes reflects the presence of two dynamo modes that produce distinct topologies.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of phage Mu activator protein C in a complex with promoter DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmuganatham, Karthik K.; Ravichandran, Manimekalai; Howe, Martha M.; Park, Hee-Won

    2007-07-01

    The isolation and preliminary X-ray analysis of crystals of phage Mu activator protein C bound to promoter DNA are reported. Bacteriophage Mu C protein is an activator of the four Mu late promoters that drive the expression of genes encoding DNA-modification as well as phage head and tail morphogenesis proteins. This report describes the purification and cocrystallization of wild-type and selenomethionine-substituted C protein with a synthetic late promoter P{sub sym}, together with preliminary X-ray diffraction data analysis using SAD phasing. The selenomethionine peak data set was collected from a single crystal which diffracted to 3.1 Å resolution and belonged to space group P4{sub 1} or P4{sub 3}, with unit-cell parameters a = 68.9, c = 187.6 Å and two complexes per asymmetric unit. The structure will reveal the amino acid–DNA interactions and any conformational changes associated with DNA binding.

  19. An X-ray Study of The Red Dwarf Next Door: The Long-Term Activity of Proxima Cen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward

    2010-09-01

    As the nearest star & outlying member of the alpha Cen system, Proxima Cen has well determined physical properties & an age ~5-6 Gyr. From its mass and late spectral type (M5.5 V), Proxima is expected to be fully convective & have a different dynamo from the Sun. Analysis of years of photometry reveals: P-rot = 83.7-d & an activity cycle of ~7.6 yrs. Also X-ray data from ROSAT, XMM and Chandra show a corresponding coronal X-ray cycle with an expected minimum during 2010/11. We propose an LETGS observation to extend (& better define) its coronal activity cycle. These data will be used to carry out a detailed physical analysis of the changes in its coronal properties over its cycle. We also will search for flares & analyze separately. Supporting photometry and spectroscopy also will be made.

  20. Ground-based verification and data processing of Yutu rover Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Dong-Ya; Wang, Huan-Yu; Peng, Wen-Xi; Cui, Xing-Zhu; Zhang, Cheng-Mo; Liu, Ya-Qing; Liang, Xiao-Hua; Dong, Yi-Fan; Wang, Jin-Zhou; Gao, Min; Yang, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Li, Chun-Lai; Zou, Yong-Liao; Zhang, Guang-Liang; Zhang, Li-Yan; Fu, Xiao-Hui

    2015-07-01

    The Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is one of the payloads on board the Yutu rover of the Chang'E-3 mission. In order to assess the instrumental performance of APXS, a ground verification test was performed for two unknown samples (basaltic rock, mixed powder sample). In this paper, the details of the experiment configurations and data analysis method are presented. The results show that the elemental abundance of major elements can be well determined by the APXS with relative deviations <15 wt.% (detection distance=30 mm, acquisition time=30 min). The derived detection limit of each major element is inversely proportional to acquisition time and directly proportional to detection distance, suggesting that the appropriate distance should be <50 mm. Supported by National Science and Technology Major Project (Chang'E-3 Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer)