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Sample records for active x-ray optics

  1. Optical studies of X-ray peculiar chromosphereically active stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, J. C.

    2006-02-01

    A multiwavelength study of the late-type active stars, selected on the basis of their X-ray and radio luminosities is presented in this thesis. For FR Cnc, a photometric period 0.8267 +/- 0.0004 d has been established. The strong variation in the phase and amplitude of the FR Cnc light curves when folded on this period implies the presence of evolving and migrating spots or spot groups on its surface. A photometric period of 18.802 +/- 0.074 has been discovered in the star HD 81032. The shape and amplitude of the photometric light curves of FR Cnc, HD 81032, HD 95559 and LO Peg are observed to be changing from one epoch to another. The change in the amplitude is mainly due to a change in the minimum of the light curve, and this May be due to a change in the spot coverage. This indicates that photometric variability is due to the presence of dark spots on the surface of active star. Two groups of spots are identified for FR Cnc and LO Peg. The spots are found to migrate, and migration periods of 0.97 year and 0.93 year are determined from the 4 years of data. A migration period of 1.12 years for one group of spots in LO Peg is also determined. Formation of a new group of spots in the star HD 95559 was also seen during our observations. A single large group of spots is found to migrate, and a migration period of 7.32 +/- 0.04 years is determined for HD 81032. The stars FR Cnc, HD 81032, HD 160934 and LO Peg are seen to be redder at the light minimum and we interpret this is due to the relatively cooler temperature of the darker regions present in the visible hemisphere. We find the lack of color-brightness correlation in the star HD 95559 and this May be due to the presence of bright faculae and plages like regions accompanied by dark spots in any one component of the this binary system. The optical spectroscopy of FR Cnc and HD 81032 carried out during 2002-2003, reveals the presence of strong and variable Ca II H and K, Halpha and Hbeta emission features indicative

  2. Analysis of nearly simultaneous X-ray and optical observations of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, James Raymond

    Rosemary Hill optical and EINSTEIN X-ray observations of a sample of 36 active galactic nuclei (AGN) were reduced and analyzed. Seventy-two X-ray observations of these sources were reduced, nineteen of which yielded spectral information. Of these spectral observations, significant hydrogen column densities above the galactic value were required for nine of the eleven sources which were observed more than once by EINSTEIN. Correlations between the X-ray and optical luminosities were investigated using the Jefferys method of least squares. This method allows for errors in both variables. The results indicate a strong correlation between the X-ray and optical luminosities for the entire sample. Division of the sample into groups with similar optical variability characteristics show that the less violently violent variable AGN are more highly correlated than the violently variable blazars. Infrared and radio observations were combined with the X-ray and optical observations of six AGN. These sources were modelled in terms of the synchrotron-self-Compton model. The turnover frequency falls between the infrared and radio data and reliable estimates of this parameter are difficult to estimate. Therefore the results were found as a function of the turnover frequency. Four sources required relativistic bulk motion or beaming. Multifrequency spectra made at different times for one individual source, 0235+164, required different amounts of beaming to satisfy the X-ray observations. Sizes of the emitting regions for the sources modelled ranged from 0.5 parsec to 1.0 parsec.

  3. Analysis of nearly simultaneous x-ray and optical observations of active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Rosemary Hill optical and EINSTEIN X-ray observations of a sample of 36 galactic nuclei (AGN) were reduced and analyzed. Seventy-two x-ray observations of these sources were reduced, nineteen of which yielded spectral information. Of these spectra observations, significant hydrogen column densities above the galactic value were required for nine of the active galactic nuclei. X-ray variability was detected in eight of the eleven sources which were observed more than once by EINSTEIN. Correlations between the x-ray and optical luminosities were investigated using the Jefferys method of least squares. This method allows for errors in both variables. The results indicate a strong correlation between the x-ray and optical luminosities for the entire sample. Division of the sample into groups with similar optical variability characteristics show that the less violently violent variable AGN are more highly correlated than the violently variable blazars. Infrared and radio observations were combined with the x-ray and optical observations of six AGN. These sources were modelled in terms of the synchrotron-self-Compton model. The turnover frequency falls between the infrared and radio data and reliable estimates of this parameter are difficult to estimate. Therefore the results were found as a function of the turnover frequency. Four sources required relativistic bulk motion or beaming. Multifrequency spectra made at different times for one individual source, 0235+164, required different amounts of beaming to satisfy the x-ray observations. Sizes of the emitting regions for the sources modelled ranged from 0.5 parsec to 1.0 parsec.

  4. Progress on the development of active micro-structured optical arrays for x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Zhang, Dou; Button, Tim; Atkins, Carolyn; Doel, Peter; Wang, Hongchang; Brooks, David; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Michette, Alan; Pfauntsch, Slawka; Sahraei, Shahin; Shand, Matthew; James, Ady; Dunare, Camelia; Stevenson, Tom; Parkes, William; Smith, Andy

    2009-08-01

    The Smart X-Ray Optics (SXO) project comprises a U.K.-based consortium developing active/adaptive micro-structured optical arrays (MOAs). These devices are designed to focus X-rays using grazing incidence reflection through consecutive aligned arrays of microscopic channels etched in silicon. The silicon channels have been produced both by dry and wet etching, the latter providing smoother channel walls. Adaptability is achieved using piezoelectric actuators, which bend the device and therefore change its focal distance. We aim to achieve a 5 cm radius of curvature which can provide a suitable focal length using a tandem pair MOA configuration. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) modelling has been carried out for the optimization of the MOA device design, consider different types of actuators (unimorph, bimorph and active fibre composites), and different Si/piezoelectric absolute and relative thicknesses. Prototype devices have been manufactured using a Viscous Plastic Processing Process for the piezoelectric actuators and dry etched silicon channels, bonded together using a low shrinkage adhesive. Characterisation techniques have been developed in order to evaluate the device performance in terms of the bending of the MOA channels produced by the actuators. This paper evaluates the progress to date on the actuation of the MOAs, comparing FEA modelling with the results obtained for different prototype structures.

  5. The optical emission lines of type 1 X-ray bright Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Mura, G.; Berton, M.; Ciroi, S.; Cracco, V.; Di Mille, F.; Rafanelli, P.

    2014-10-01

    A strong X-ray emission is one of the defining signatures of nuclear activity in galaxies. According to the Unified Model for Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), both the X-ray radiation and the prominent broad emission lines, characterizing the optical and UV spectra of Type 1 AGNs, are originated in the innermost regions of the sources, close to the Super Massive Black Holes (SMBH), which power the central engine. Since the emission is concentrated in a very compact region (with typical size r⩽0.1 pc) and it is not possible to obtain resolved images of the source, spectroscopic studies of this radiation represent the only valuable key to constrain the physical properties of matter and its structure in the center of active galaxies. Based on previous studies on the physics of the Broad Line Region (BLR) and on the X-ray spectra of broad (FWHMHβ ⩾ 2000 km s-1) and narrow line (1000 km s-1 ⩽FWHMHβ ⩽ 2000 km s-1) emitting objects, it has been observed that the kinematic and ionization properties of matter close to the SMBHs are related together, and, in particular, that ionization is higher in narrow line sources. Here we report on the study of the optical and X-ray spectra of a sample of Type 1 AGNs, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database, within an upper redshift limit of z=0.35, and detected at X-ray energies. We present analysis of the broad emission line fluxes and profiles, as well as the properties of the X-ray continuum and Fe Kα emission and we use these parameters to assess the consistency of our current AGN understanding.

  6. The fabrication and characterisation of piezoelectric actuators for active x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dou; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Button, Tim W.; Meggs, Carl; Atkins, Carolyn; Doel, Peter; Brooks, David; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Michette, Alan; Pfauntsch, Slawka; Sahraei, Shahin; James, Ady; Dunare, Camelia; Stevenson, Tom; Parkes, William; Smith, Andrew; Wang, Hongchang

    2009-08-01

    Piezoelectric actuators are widely employed in adaptive optics to enable an actively controlled mirror surface and improve the optical resolution and sensitivity. Currently two new prototype adaptive X-ray optical systems are under development through the Smart X-ray Optics project in a UK based consortium. One proposed technology is micro-structured optical arrays (MOAs) which uses aligned micro-channels structures obtained by deep silicon etching using both dry and wet techniques and bonded piezoelectric actuators to produce a micro-focused X-ray source for biological applications. The other technology is large scale optics which uses a thin shell mirror segment with 20-40 bonded piezo-actuators for the next generation of X-ray telescopes with an aim to achieve a resolution greater than that currently available by Chandra (0.5"). The Functional Materials Group of Birmingham University has the capability of fabricating a wide range of piezo-actuators including, for example, unimorph, bimorph and active fibre composites (AFC) by using a viscous plastic processing technique. This offers flexibility in customising the shapes (from planar to 3-D helix) and feature sizes (>20 μm) of the actuators, as well as achieving good piezoelectric properties. PZT unimorph actuators are being developed in this programme according to the design and implementation of the proposed mirror and array structures. Precise controls on the dimension, thickness, surface finishing and the curvature have been achieved for delivering satisfactory actuators. Results are presented regarding the fabrication and characterisation of such piezo-actuators, as well as the progress on the large optic and MOAs prototypes employing the piezo-actuators.

  7. Analysis of Active Figure Control Effects on Mounting Strategy for X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey J.; Roche, Jacqueline M.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Elsner, Ryan F.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    As part of ongoing development efforts at MSFC, we have begun to investigate mounting strategies for highly nested x-ray optics in both full-shell and segmented configurations. The analytical infrastructure for this effort also lends itself to investigation of active strategies. We expect that a consequence of active figure control on relatively thin substrates is that errors are propagated to the edges, where they might affect the effective precision of the mounting points. Based upon modeling, we describe parametrically, the conditions under which active mounts are preferred over fixed ones, and the effect of active figure corrections on the required number, locations, and kinematic characteristics of mounting points.

  8. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors.

  9. Empirical electro-optical and x-ray performance evaluation of CMOS active pixels sensor for low dose, high resolution x-ray medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Arvanitis, C D; Bohndiek, S E; Royle, G; Blue, A; Liang, H X; Clark, A; Prydderch, M; Turchetta, R; Speller, R

    2007-12-01

    Monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors with high performance have gained attention in the last few years in many scientific and space applications. In order to evaluate the increasing capabilities of this technology, in particular where low dose high resolution x-ray medical imaging is required, critical electro-optical and physical x-ray performance evaluation was determined. The electro-optical performance includes read noise, full well capacity, interacting quantum efficiency, and pixels cross talk. The x-ray performance, including x-ray sensitivity, modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detection quantum efficiency, has been evaluated in the mammographic energy range. The sensor is a 525 x 525 standard three transistor CMOS active pixel sensor array with more than 75% fill factor and 25 x 25 microm pixel pitch. Reading at 10 f/s, it is found that the sensor has 114 electrons total additive noise, 10(5) electrons full well capacity with shot noise limited operation, and 34% interacting quantum efficiency at 530 nm. Two different structured CsI:Tl phosphors with thickness 95 and 115 microm, respectively, have been optically coupled via a fiber optic plate to the array resulting in two different system configurations. The sensitivity of the two different system configurations was 43 and 47 electrons per x-ray incident on the sensor. The MTF at 10% of the two different system configurations was 9.5 and 9 cycles/mm with detective quantum efficiency of 0.45 and 0.48, respectively, close to zero frequency at approximately 0.44 microC/kg (1.72 mR) detector entrance exposure. The detector was quantum limited at low spatial frequencies and its performance was comparable with high resolution a: Si and charge coupled device based x-ray imagers. The detector also demonstrates almost an order of magnitude lower noise than active matrix flat panel imagers. The results suggest that CMOS active pixel sensors when coupled

  10. Empirical electro-optical and x-ray performance evaluation of CMOS active pixels sensor for low dose, high resolution x-ray medical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Arvanitis, C. D.; Bohndiek, S. E.; Royle, G.; Blue, A.; Liang, H. X.; Clark, A.; Prydderch, M.; Turchetta, R.; Speller, R.

    2007-12-15

    Monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors with high performance have gained attention in the last few years in many scientific and space applications. In order to evaluate the increasing capabilities of this technology, in particular where low dose high resolution x-ray medical imaging is required, critical electro-optical and physical x-ray performance evaluation was determined. The electro-optical performance includes read noise, full well capacity, interacting quantum efficiency, and pixels cross talk. The x-ray performance, including x-ray sensitivity, modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detection quantum efficiency, has been evaluated in the mammographic energy range. The sensor is a 525x525 standard three transistor CMOS active pixel sensor array with more than 75% fill factor and 25x25 {mu}m pixel pitch. Reading at 10 f/s, it is found that the sensor has 114 electrons total additive noise, 10{sup 5} electrons full well capacity with shot noise limited operation, and 34% interacting quantum efficiency at 530 nm. Two different structured CsI:Tl phosphors with thickness 95 and 115 {mu}m, respectively, have been optically coupled via a fiber optic plate to the array resulting in two different system configurations. The sensitivity of the two different system configurations was 43 and 47 electrons per x-ray incident on the sensor. The MTF at 10% of the two different system configurations was 9.5 and 9 cycles/mm with detective quantum efficiency of 0.45 and 0.48, respectively, close to zero frequency at {approx}0.44 {mu}C/kg (1.72 mR) detector entrance exposure. The detector was quantum limited at low spatial frequencies and its performance was comparable with high resolution a:Si and charge coupled device based x-ray imagers. The detector also demonstrates almost an order of magnitude lower noise than active matrix flat panel imagers. The results suggest that CMOS active pixel sensors when coupled to

  11. X-Ray Diffractive Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian; Li, Mary; Skinner, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    X-ray optics were fabricated with the capability of imaging solar x-ray sources with better than 0.1 arcsecond angular resolution, over an order of magnitude finer than is currently possible. Such images would provide a new window into the little-understood energy release and particle acceleration regions in solar flares. They constitute one of the most promising ways to probe these regions in the solar atmosphere with the sensitivity and angular resolution needed to better understand the physical processes involved. A circular slit structure with widths as fine as 0.85 micron etched in a silicon wafer 8 microns thick forms a phase zone plate version of a Fresnel lens capable of focusing approx. =.6 keV x-rays. The focal length of the 3-cm diameter lenses is 100 microns, and the angular resolution capability is better than 0.1 arcsecond. Such phase zone plates were fabricated in Goddard fs Detector Development Lab. (DDL) and tested at the Goddard 600-microns x-ray test facility. The test data verified that the desired angular resolution and throughput efficiency were achieved.

  12. Toward active x-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2011-09-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution (< 1") optics with very-large-aperture (> 25 m2) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kg/m2 or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve active (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, active optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States (US). This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  13. Center for X-ray Optics, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This report briefly reviews the following topics: soft-x-ray imaging; reflective optics for hard x-rays; coherent XUV sources; spectroscopy with x-rays; detectors for coronary artery imaging; synchrotron-radiation optics; and support for the advanced light source.

  14. Optical observations of X-ray systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudets, R.

    The significance of optical observations of X-ray sources is discussed. A short review of X-ray and optical observations of X-ray stars in socialist countries, carried out by the Intercosmos program and by multilateral cooperation of the Academies of Sciences of Socialist Countries is given. Some examples and results of observations are presented.

  15. Advances in transmission x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect

    Ceglio, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recent developments in x-ray optics are reviewed. Specific advances in coded aperture imaging, zone plate lens fabrication, time and space resolved spectroscopy, and CCD x-ray detection are discussed.

  16. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    The Center for X-Ray Optics has made substantial progress during the past year on the development of very high resolution x-ray technologies, the generation of coherent radiation at x-ray wavelengths, and, based on these new developments, had embarked on several scientific investigations that would not otherwise have been possible. The investigations covered in this report are topics on x-ray sources, x-ray imaging and applications, soft x-ray spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation, advanced light source and magnet structures for undulators and wigglers. (LSP)

  17. Toward Active X-ray Telescopes II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Aldroft, Thomas L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Lillie, Charles F.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Sanmartin, Daniel Rodriguez; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Ulmer, Melville P.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2012-01-01

    In the half century since the initial discovery of an astronomical (non-solar) x-ray source, the sensitivity for detection of cosmic x-ray sources has improved by ten orders of magnitude. Largely responsible for this dramatic progress has been the refinement of the (grazing-incidence) focusing x-ray telescope. The future of x-ray astronomy relies upon the development of x-ray telescopes with larger aperture areas (greater than 1 m2) and finer angular resolution (less than 1.). Combined with the special requirements of grazing-incidence optics, the mass and envelope constraints of space-borne telescopes render such advances technologically challenging.requiring precision fabrication, alignment, and assembly of large areas (greater than 100 m2) of lightweight (approximately 1 kg m2 areal density) mirrors. Achieving precise and stable alignment and figure control may entail active (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. This paper discusses relevant programmatic and technological issues and summarizes progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  18. X-ray microlaminography with polycapillary optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dąbrowski, K. M.; Dul, D. T.; Wróbel, A.; Korecki, P.

    2013-06-01

    We demonstrate layer-by-layer x-ray microimaging using polycapillary optics. The depth resolution is achieved without sample or source rotation and in a way similar to classical tomography or laminography. The method takes advantage from large angular apertures of polycapillary optics and from their specific microstructure, which is treated as a coded aperture. The imaging geometry is compatible with polychromatic x-ray sources and with scanning and confocal x-ray fluorescence setups.

  19. Capillary Optics generate stronger X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA scientist, in the Space Sciences lab at Marshall, works with capillary optics that generate more intense X-rays than conventional sources. This capability is useful in studying the structure of important proteins.

  20. The Future of X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    The most important next step is the development of X-ray optics comparable to (or better than) Chandra in angular resolution that far exceed Chandra s effective area. Use the long delay to establish an adequately funded, competitive technology program along the lines I have recommended. Don't be diverted from this objective, except for Explorer-class missions. Progress in X-ray optics, with emphasis on the angular resolution, is central to the paradigm-shifting discoveries and the contributions of X-ray astronomy to multiwavelength astrophysics over the past 51 years.

  1. White beam x-ray waveguide optics

    SciTech Connect

    Jarre, A.; Salditt, T.; Panzner, T.; Pietsch, U.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2004-07-12

    We report a white beam x-ray waveguide (WG) experiment. A resonant beam coupler x-ray waveguide (RBC) is used simultaneously as a broad bandpass (or multibandpass) monochromator and as a beam compressor. We show that, depending on the geometrical properties of the WG, the exiting beam consists of a defined number of wavelengths which can be shifted by changing the angle of incidence of the white x-ray synchrotron beam. The characteristic far-field pattern is recorded as a function of exit angle and energy. This x-ray optical setup may be used to enhance the intensity of coherent x-ray WG beams since the full energetic acceptance of the WG mode is transmitted.

  2. Exploring the active galactic nuclei population with extreme X-ray-to-optical flux ratios (fx/fo > 50)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Ceca, R.; Carrera, F. J.; Caccianiga, A.; Severgnini, P.; Ballo, L.; Braito, V.; Corral, A.; Del Moro, A.; Mateos, S.; Ruiz, A.; Watson, M. G.

    2015-03-01

    The cosmic history of the growth of supermassive black holes in galactic centres parallels that of star formation in the Universe. However, an important fraction of this growth occurs inconspicuously in obscured objects, where ultraviolet/optical/near-infrared emission is heavily obscured by dust. Since the X-ray flux is less attenuated, a high X-ray-to-optical flux ratio (fx/fo) is expected to be an efficient tool to find out these obscured accreting sources. We explore here via optical spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and infrared photometry the most extreme cases of this population (those with fx/fo > 50, EXO50 sources hereafter), using a well-defined sample of seven X-ray sources extracted from the 2XMM catalogue. Five EXO50 sources (˜70 per cent of the sample) in the bright flux regime explored by our survey (f(2-10 keV) ≥ 1.5 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1) are associated with obscured AGN (NH > 1022 cm-2), spanning a redshift range between 0.75 and 1 and characterized by 2-10 keV intrinsic luminosities in the QSO regime (e.g. well in excess to 1044 erg s-1). We did not find compelling evidence of Compton thick active galacic nuclei (AGN). Overall, the EXO50 type 2 QSOs do not seem to be different from standard X-ray-selected type 2 QSOs in terms of nuclear absorption; a very high AGN/host galaxy ratio seems to play a major role in explaining their extreme properties. Interestingly, three out of five EXO50 type 2 QSO objects can be classified as extreme dust-obscured galaxies (EDOGs, f24 μm/fR ≥ 2000), suggesting that a very high AGN/host ratios (along with the large amount of dust absorption) could be the natural explanation also for a part of the EDOG population. The remaining two EXO50 sources are classified as BL Lac objects, having rather extreme properties, and which are good candidates for TeV emission.

  3. X-ray Interferometer Using Prism Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Yoshio

    2004-05-12

    Two-beam X-ray interferometer using refractive optics has been developed. A prism made of acrylic resin is used as the beam deflector for hard X-ray wavefront dividing interferometer. This configuration is the same as that of the Fresnel's bi-prism interferometer or the Leith-Upatnieks type two-beam holography in visible light region. Therefore, quantitative analysis of the degree of transversal coherence can be performed by measuring the visibility of interference fringes. It is also possible to realize two-beam holographic imaging in hard X-ray regions.

  4. Optics Developments for X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian

    2014-01-01

    X-ray optics has revolutionized x-ray astronomy. The degree of background suppression that these afford, have led to a tremendous increase in sensitivity. The current Chandra observatory has the same collecting area (approx. 10(exp 3)sq cm) as the non-imaging UHURU observatory, the first x-ray observatory which launched in 1970, but has 5 orders of magnitude more sensitivity due to its focusing optics. In addition, its 0.5 arcsec angular resolution has revealed a wealth of structure in many cosmic x-ray sources. The Chandra observatory achieved its resolution by using relatively thick pieces of Zerodur glass, which were meticulously figured and polished to form the four-shell nested array. The resulting optical assembly weighed around 1600 kg, and cost approximately $0.5B. The challenge for future x-ray astronomy missions is to greatly increase the collecting area (by one or more orders of magnitude) while maintaining high angular resolution, and all within realistic mass and budget constraints. A review of the current status of US optics for x-ray astronomy will be provided along with the challenges for future developments.

  5. Finite element analyses of thin film active grazing incidence x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, William N.; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Daniel A.

    2010-09-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory, with its sub-arc second resolution, has revolutionized X-ray astronomy by revealing an extremely complex X-ray sky and demonstrating the power of the X-ray window in exploring fundamental astrophysical problems. Larger area telescopes of still higher angular resolution promise further advances. We are engaged in the development of a mission concept, Generation-X, a 0.1 arc second resolution x-ray telescope with tens of square meters of collecting area, 500 times that of Chandra. To achieve these two requirements of imaging and area, we are developing a grazing incidence telescope comprised of many mirror segments. Each segment is an adjustable mirror that is a section of a paraboloid or hyperboloid, aligned and figure corrected in situ on-orbit. To that end, finite element analyses of thin glass mirrors are performed to determine influence functions for each actuator on the mirrors, in order to develop algorithms for correction of mirror deformations. The effects of several mirror mounting schemes are also studied. The finite element analysis results, combined with measurements made on prototype mirrors, will be used to further refine the correction algorithms.

  6. OPTICAL SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF SWIFT BURST ALERT TELESCOPE HARD X-RAY-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, Lisa M.; Keeney, Brian; Lewis, Karen T.; Koss, Michael; Veilleux, Sylvain; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2010-02-10

    The Swift Burst Alert Telescope survey of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is providing an unprecedented view of local AGNs ((z) {approx} 0.03) and their host galaxy properties. In this paper, we present an analysis of the optical spectra of a sample of 64 AGNs from the nine month survey, detected solely based on their 14-195 keV flux. Our analysis includes both archived spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and our own observations from the 2.1 m Kitt Peak National Observatory telescope. Among our results, we include line ratio classifications utilizing standard emission line diagnostic plots, [O III] 5007 A luminosities, and Hbeta-derived black hole masses. As in our X-ray study, we find the type 2 sources to be less luminous (in [O III] 5007 A and 14-195 keV luminosities) with lower accretion rates than the type 1 sources. We find that the optically classified low-ionization narrow emission line regions, H II/composite galaxies, and ambiguous sources have the lowest luminosities, while both broad-line and narrow-line Seyferts have similar luminosities. From a comparison of the hard X-ray (14-195 keV) and [O III] luminosities, we find that both the observed and extinction-corrected [O III] luminosities are weakly correlated with X-ray luminosity. In a study of the host galaxy properties from both continuum fits and measurements of the stellar absorption indices, we find that the hosts of the narrow-line sources have properties consistent with late-type galaxies.

  7. Optics for coherent X-ray applications

    PubMed Central

    Yabashi, Makina; Tono, Kensuke; Mimura, Hidekazu; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Tanaka, Takashi; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Tamasaku, Kenji; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Goto, Shunji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Developments of X-ray optics for full utilization of diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs) are presented. The expected performance of DLSRs is introduced using the design parameters of SPring-8 II. To develop optical elements applicable to manipulation of coherent X-rays, advanced technologies on precise processing and metrology were invented. With propagation-based coherent X-rays at the 1 km beamline of SPring-8, a beryllium window fabricated with the physical-vapour-deposition method was found to have ideal speckle-free properties. The elastic emission machining method was utilized for developing reflective mirrors without distortion of the wavefronts. The method was further applied to production of diffraction-limited focusing mirrors generating the smallest spot size in the sub-10 nm regime. To enable production of ultra-intense nanobeams at DLSRs, a low-vibration cooling system for a high-heat-load monochromator and advanced diagnostic systems to characterize X-ray beam properties precisely were developed. Finally, new experimental schemes for combinative nano-analysis and spectroscopy realised with novel X-ray optics are discussed. PMID:25177986

  8. Optics for coherent X-ray applications.

    PubMed

    Yabashi, Makina; Tono, Kensuke; Mimura, Hidekazu; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Tanaka, Takashi; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Tamasaku, Kenji; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Goto, Shunji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2014-09-01

    Developments of X-ray optics for full utilization of diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs) are presented. The expected performance of DLSRs is introduced using the design parameters of SPring-8 II. To develop optical elements applicable to manipulation of coherent X-rays, advanced technologies on precise processing and metrology were invented. With propagation-based coherent X-rays at the 1 km beamline of SPring-8, a beryllium window fabricated with the physical-vapour-deposition method was found to have ideal speckle-free properties. The elastic emission machining method was utilized for developing reflective mirrors without distortion of the wavefronts. The method was further applied to production of diffraction-limited focusing mirrors generating the smallest spot size in the sub-10 nm regime. To enable production of ultra-intense nanobeams at DLSRs, a low-vibration cooling system for a high-heat-load monochromator and advanced diagnostic systems to characterize X-ray beam properties precisely were developed. Finally, new experimental schemes for combinative nano-analysis and spectroscopy realised with novel X-ray optics are discussed. PMID:25177986

  9. Advanced X-ray diffractive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila-Comamala, J.; Jefimovs, K.; Pilvi, T.; Ritala, M.; Sarkar, S. S.; Solak, H. H.; Guzenko, V. A.; Stampanoni, M.; Marone, F.; Raabe, J.; Tzvetkov, G.; Fink, R. H.; Grolimund, D.; Borca, C. N.; Kaulich, B.; David, C.

    2009-09-01

    X-ray microscopy greatly benefits from the advances in x-ray optics. At the Paul Scherrer Institut, developments in x-ray diffractive optics include the manufacture and optimization of Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) and diffractive optical elements for both soft and hard x-ray regimes. In particular, we demonstrate here a novel method for the production of ultra-high resolution FZPs. This technique is based on the deposition of a zone plate material (iridium) onto the sidewalls of a prepatterned template structure (silicon) by atomic layer deposition. This approach overcomes the limitations due to electron-beam writing of dense patterns in FZP fabrication and provides a clear route to push the resolution into sub-10 nm regime. A FZP fabricated by this method was used to resolve test structures with 12 nm lines and spaces at the scanning transmission x-ray microscope of the PolLux beamline of the Swiss Light Source at 1.2 keV photon energy.

  10. Active Figure Control Effects on Mounting Strategy for X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Atkins, Carolyn; Roche, Jacqueline M.; ODell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2014-01-01

    As part of ongoing development efforts at MSFC, we have begun to investigate mounting strategies for highly nested xray optics in both full-shell and segmented configurations. The analytical infrastructure for this effort also lends itself to investigation of active strategies. We expect that a consequence of active figure control on relatively thin substrates is that errors are propagated to the edges, where they might affect the effective precision of the mounting points. Based upon modeling, we describe parametrically, the conditions under which active mounts are preferred over fixed ones, and the effect of active figure corrections on the required number, locations, and kinematic characteristics of mounting points.

  11. The X-ray optics for X-ray pulsar navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Dongdong; Li, Wenbin; Lian, Jian; Shi, Yufeng; Song, Juan; Wang, Wencong; Sun, Shukun

    2016-01-01

    The effective X-ray optics is a key premise for X-ray pulsar detection and navigation. However, it is very difficult to focus the X-ray photons through refraction for the reason that the X-ray photon is very easy to be absorbed by the materials. The most effective ways for the X-ray focusing is reflection. In this paper, we will give a brief introduction of the theory of the grazing incidence and the corresponding optical systems. By comparing the design parameters of main X-ray astronomical telescope in NASA and ESA, we will give the development trend of the X-ray optics for X-ray pulsar navigation and introduce several new technology for the manufacture of the micro-pore optics (MPO).

  12. Comets: mechanisms of x-ray activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibadov, Subhon

    2016-07-01

    Basic mechanisms of X-ray activity of comets are considered, including D-D mechanism corresponding to generation of X-rays due to production of hot short-living plasma clumps at high-velocity collisions between cometary and interplanetary dust particles as well as M-M one corresponding to production of X-rays due to recombination of multicharge ions of solar wind plasma via charge exchange process at their collisions with molecules/atoms of the cometary atmospheres. Peculiarities of the variation of the comet X-ray spectrum and X-ray luminosity with variation of its heliocentric distance are revealed.

  13. Optical and X-ray studies of chromospherically active stars: FR Cancri, HD 95559 and LO Pegasi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, J. C.; Singh, K. P.; Drake, S. A.; Sagar, R.

    2005-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of three chromospherically active stars, namely FR Cnc (= BD +16 degrees 1753), HD 95559 and LO Peg (=BD +22 degrees 4409), including newly obtained optical photometry, (for FR Cnc) low-resolution optical spectroscopy, as well as archival IR and X-ray observations. The BVR photometry carried out during the years 2001 - 2004 has found significant photometric variability to be present in all three stars. For FR Cnc, a photometric period 0.826685 +/- 0.000034 d has been established. The strong variation in the phase and amplitude of the FR Cnc light curves when folded on this period implies the presence of evolving and migrating spots or spot groups on its surface. Two independent spots with migration periods of 0.97 and 0.93 years respectively are inferred. The photometry of HD 95559 suggests the formation of a spot (group) during the interval of our observations. We infer the existence of two independent spots or groups in the photosphere of LO Peg, one of which has a migration period of 1.12 years. The optical spectroscopy of FR Cnc carried out during 2002-2003, reveals the presence of strong and variable Ca I1 H and K, H(sub beta) and H(sub alpha) emission features indicative of high level of chromospheric activity. The value of 5.3 for the ratio of the excess emission in H(sub alpha) to H(sub beta), EH(sub alpha)/EH(sub beta), suggests that the chromospheric emission may arise from an extended off-limb region. We have searched for the presence of color excesses in the near-IR JHK bands of these stars using 2MASS data, but none of them appear to have any significant color excess. We have also analyzed archival X-ray observations of HD 95559 and LO Peg carried out by with the ROSAT observatory. The best fit models to their X-ray spectra imply the presence of two coronal plasma components of differing temperatures and with sub-solar metal abundances. The inferred emission measures and temperatures of these systems are similar to

  14. Optical and X-Ray Studies of Chromospherically Active Stars: FR Cancri, HD 95559, and LO Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, J. C.; Singh, K. P.; Drake, S. A.; Sagar, R.

    2005-09-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of three chromospherically active stars, namely, FR Cnc (BD +16°1753), HD 95559, and LO Peg (BD +22°4409), including newly obtained optical photometry and low-resolution optical spectroscopy for FR Cnc, as well as archival IR and X-ray observations. The BVR photometry carried out from 2001 to 2004 has found significant photometric variability to be present in all three stars. For FR Cnc, a photometric period of 0.8267+/-0.0004 days has been established. The strong variation in the phase and amplitude of the FR Cnc light curves when folded on this period implies the presence of evolving and migrating spots or spot groups on its surface. Two independent spots with migration periods of 0.97 and 0.93 yr, respectively, are inferred. The photometry of HD 95559 suggests the formation of a spot (group) during the interval of our observations. We infer the existence of two independent spots or groups in the photosphere of LO Peg, one of which has a migration period of 1.12 yr. The optical spectroscopy of FR Cnc carried out during 2002-2003 reveals the presence of strong and variable Ca II H and K, Hβ, and Hα emission features indicative of a high level of chromospheric activity. The value of 5.3 for the ratio of the excess emission in Hα to Hβ, EHα/EHβ, suggests that the chromospheric emission may arise from an extended off-limb region. We have searched for the presence of color excesses in the near-IR JHK bands of these stars using Two Micron All Sky Survey data, but none of them appear to have any significant color excess. We have also analyzed archival X-ray observations of HD 95559 and LO Peg carried out with the ROSAT observatory. The best-fit models to their X-ray spectra imply the presence of two coronal plasma components of differing temperatures and with subsolar metal abundances. The inferred emission measures and temperatures of these systems are similar to those found for other active dwarf stars. The kinematics of FR

  15. First Search for an X-Ray-Optical Reverberation Signal in an Ultraluminous X-Ray Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Trippe, Margaret L.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Gandhi, Poshak

    2016-02-01

    Using simultaneous optical (VLT/FORS2) and X-ray (XMM-Newton) data of NGC 5408, we present the first ever attempt to search for a reverberation signal in an ultraluminous X-ray source (NGC 5408 X-1). The idea is similar to active galactic nucleus broad line reverberation mapping where a lag measurement between the X-ray and the optical flux combined with a Keplerian velocity estimate should enable us to weigh the central compact object. We find that although NGC 5408 X-1's X-rays are variable on a timescale of a few hundred seconds (rms of 9.0 ± 0.5%), the optical emission does not show any statistically significant variations. We set a 3σ upper limit on the rms optical variability of 3.3%. The ratio of the X-ray to the optical variability is an indicator of X-ray reprocessing efficiency. In X-ray binaries, this ratio is roughly 5. Assuming a similar ratio for NGC 5408 X-1, the expected rms optical variability is ≈2%, which is still a factor of roughly two lower than what was possible with the VLT observations in this study. We find marginal evidence (3σ) for optical variability on a ˜24 hr timescale. Our results demonstrate that such measurements can be made, but photometric conditions, low sky background levels, and longer simultaneous observations will be required to reach optical variability levels similar to those of X-ray binaries.

  16. Large area soft x-ray collimator to facilitate x-ray optics testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espy, Samuel L.

    1994-01-01

    The first objective of this program is to design a nested conical foil x-ray optic which will collimate x-rays diverging from a point source. The collimator could then be employed in a small, inexpensive x-ray test stand which would be used to test various x-ray optics and detector systems. The second objective is to demonstrate the fabrication of the x-ray reflectors for this optic using lacquer-smoothing and zero-stress electroforming techniques.

  17. Principles of femtosecond X-ray/optical cross-correlation with X-ray induced transient optical reflectivity in solids

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, S. E-mail: martin.beye@helmholtz-berlin.de; Beye, M. E-mail: martin.beye@helmholtz-berlin.de; Pietzsch, A.; Quevedo, W.; Hantschmann, M.; Ochmann, M.; Huse, N.; Ross, M.; Khalil, M.; Minitti, M. P.; Turner, J. J.; Moeller, S. P.; Schlotter, W. F.; Dakovski, G. L.; Föhlisch, A.

    2015-02-09

    The discovery of ultrafast X-ray induced optical reflectivity changes enabled the development of X-ray/optical cross correlation techniques at X-ray free electron lasers worldwide. We have now linked through experiment and theory the fundamental excitation and relaxation steps with the transient optical properties in finite solid samples. Therefore, we gain a thorough interpretation and an optimized detection scheme of X-ray induced changes to the refractive index and the X-ray/optical cross correlation response.

  18. X-ray optics - Developments in the CSFR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, Rene

    1991-10-01

    The development and present state of X-ray optics are reviewed. Comparisons are made between the state of X-ray optics in various countries, with special attention given to projects involving the CSFR and the X-ray telescope aboard Salyut 7 and the participation of X-ray telescopes in the Phobos missions. Prospects for future developments in X-ray optics are addressed.

  19. Diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses using MEMS-based X-ray optics

    DOEpatents

    Lopez, Daniel; Shenoy, Gopal; Wang, Jin; Walko, Donald A.; Jung, Il-Woong; Mukhopadhyay, Deepkishore

    2016-08-09

    A method and apparatus are provided for implementing Bragg-diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses using MicroElectroMechanical systems (MEMS) based diffractive optics. An oscillating crystalline MEMS device generates a controllable time-window for diffraction of the incident X-ray radiation. The Bragg-diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses includes isolating a particular pulse, spatially separating individual pulses, and spreading a single pulse from an X-ray pulse-train.

  20. Increased soft X-ray activity but no optical response in Swift J1753.5-0127

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, A. W.; Charles, P. A.; Gandhi, P.; Altamirano, D.

    2015-03-01

    We report on new X-ray and optical observations of the unusual black hole candidate Swift J1753.5-0127. As previously found (ATel #7196), the source has been declining significantly in hard X-rays (15-50 keV) as seen in Swift-BAT light curves (http://swift.gsfc.nasa.gov/results/transients/SWIFTJ1753.5-0127/), with a similar response reported in the MAXI-GSC light curves (http://maxi.riken.jp/top/index.php?cid=1 & jname=J1753-014).

  1. Renewed optical activity of the Be/X-ray binary V 0332+53/BQCam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camero-Arranz, A.; Caballero-Garcia, M.; Ozbey-Arabaci, M.; Zurita, C.

    2015-06-01

    We report on optical observations of the binary system V 0332+53. The optical photometry was obtained with the 80-cm IAC80 telescope at the Observatorio del Teide on Tenerife (Spain) and with the Optical Monitoring Camera (OMC) on board the INTEGRAL satellite.

  2. X-ray emission from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R.

    1985-01-01

    It is often held that the X-ray emission from active galactic nuclei (AGN) arises from a region close to the central energy source. Thus X-ray observations may provide the best constraints on the central engine. In particular, the shape of the X-ray continuum gives information about the mechanism for photon generation, X-ray time variability data can constrain the size and mass of the continuum source, and X-ray occultation data give constraints on the relative sizes of the continuum source and the intervening absorbing material (often assumed to be the broad line clouds). In addition, since a fair fraction of the total energy of an AGN is emitted at X-ray wavelengths, direct measurement of the amount and spectral form of this radiation is important for modeling of the optically emitting clouds.

  3. X-ray Optics for BES Light Source Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Dennis; Padmore, Howard; Lessner, Eliane

    2013-03-27

    nanolithographic techniques for improved spatial resolution and efficiency of zone plates. Development of large, perfect single crystals of materials other than silicon for use as beam splitters, seeding monochromators, and high-resolution analyzers. Development of improved thin-film deposition methods for fabrication of multilayer Laue lenses and high-spectral-resolution multilayer gratings. Development of supports, actuator technologies, algorithms, and controls to provide fully integrated and robust adaptive X-ray optic systems. Development of fabrication processes for refractive lenses in materials other than silicon. The workshop participants also addressed two important nontechnical areas: our relationship with industry and organization of optics within the light source facilities. Optimization of activities within these two areas could have an important effect on the effectiveness and efficiency of our overall endeavor. These are crosscutting managerial issues that we identified as areas that needed further in-depth study, but they need to be coordinated above the individual facilities. Finally, an issue that cuts across many of the optics improvements listed above is routine access to beamlines that ideally are fully dedicated to optics research and/or development. The success of the BES X-ray user facilities in serving a rapidly increasing user community has led to a squeezing of beam time for vital instrumentation activities. Dedicated development beamlines could be shared with other R&D activities, such as detector programs and novel instrument development. In summary, to meet the challenges of providing the highest-quality X-ray beams for users and to fully utilize the high-brightness sources of today and those that are on the horizon, it will be critical to make strategic investments in X-ray optics R&D. This report can provide guidance and direction for effective use of investments in the field of X-ray optics and potential approaches to develop a better

  4. X-ray and Optical follow-up of the mid-2014 Outburst of Aql X-1 at peak and at low activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Poshak; Dhillon, Vik S.; Tomsick, John A.; Butterley, Tim; Littlefair, Stuart M.; Wilson, Richard W.; Kennea, Jamie A.

    2014-09-01

    Following reports of optical and X-ray brightening of the soft X-ray transient Aql X-1 (ATel #6280, #6286), we obtained monitoring observations of the source with the Swift X-ray mission, and with the 0.5 m Durham/Sheffield robotic optical telescope located on La Palma.

  5. Mechanics of Magnetostrictive Thin Film Deformation and its Application in Active X-ray Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoli

    High quality imaging system of telescopes in astronomy requires innovations to remove or correct the mid-spatial frequency (MSF) ripples on the mirror surface of lightweight optics. When the telescope is sent to the space, its launch mass is the key point to limit its collecting area. Therefore, the lightweight optics (100-150 mum thick electroplated nickel/cobalt, or 200-400 mum thick glass) is considered to be employed. However, the surface profile of the thin optical surface can't be polished to extremely high accuracy. Instead, the profile is expected to be corrected by applying voltage or magnetic field to drive the coating of smart materials (piezo or magnetostrictive materials) on the back side of the mirrors. During the process, the surface profile correction by the local stress on the 2-d surface is challenging. Both the measurements and the theoretical prediction of the surface profiles after correction are investigated. As a first step in the development of tools to predict the deformation of the coated glass strip samples (20x5x0.1 mm), one commercial magnetically smart material (MSM) was deposited on the samples by the magnetron sputtering method. One experimental setup was established to measure the deflections of these coated samples under an external magnetic field by Zygo NewView white light interferometry (WLI). These deflections agreed well with the results from the developed analytical and numerical analysis under various magnetic field strengths. In the further research, more efforts were made to analyze the full three-dimensional deformation behavior of MSM thin films on a square glass sample (50x50x0.2 mm). With the magnetic field applied, the 2-d surface profile of the coated glass sample was measured by WLI. To better study the deformation of the sample coated with MSMs, a finite element method (FEM) and a theoretical model were developed to predict the deformation of the sample with local misfit strains. The results calculated form the FEM

  6. The X-ray spectroscopy of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R.

    1985-01-01

    The scientific goals of X-ray spectroscopy of active galactic nuclei are discussed. The underlying energy source, the regions responsible for the optical emission lines, the different types of active galaxies, and cosmology are considered. The requirements for an X-ray mission of broad band width, large collecting area, modest spatial resolution and good spectral resolution are outlined. It is concluded that the ESA XMM mission meets these requirements.

  7. Indus-2 X-ray lithography beamline for X-ray optics and material science applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dhamgaye, V. P. Lodha, G. S.

    2014-04-24

    X-ray lithography is an ideal technique by which high aspect ratio and high spatial resolution micro/nano structures are fabricated using X-rays from synchrotron radiation source. The technique has been used for fabricating optics (X-ray, visible and infrared), sensors and actuators, fluidics and photonics. A beamline for X-ray lithography is operational on Indus-2. The beamline offers wide lithographic window from 1-40keV photon energy and wide beam for producing microstructures in polymers upto size ∼100mm × 100mm. X-ray exposures are possible in air, vacuum and He gas environment. The air based exposures enables the X-ray irradiation of resist for lithography and also irradiation of biological and liquid samples.

  8. Challenges for Synchrotron X-Ray Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Andreas K.

    2002-12-01

    It is the task of x-ray optics to adapt the raw beam generated by modern sources such as synchrotron storage rings to a great variety of experimental requirements in terms of intensity, spot size, polarization and other parameters. The very high quality of synchrotron radiation (source size of a few microns and beam divergence of a few micro-radians) and the extreme x-ray flux (power of several hundred Watts in a few square mm) make this task quite difficult. In particular the heat load aspect is very important in the conditioning process of the brute x-ray power to make it suitable for being used on the experimental stations. Cryogenically cooled silicon crystals and water-cooled diamond crystals can presently fulfill this task, but limits will soon be reached and new schemes and materials must be envisioned. A major tendency of instrument improvement has always been to concentrate more photons into a smaller spot utilizing a whole variety of focusing devices such as Fresnel zone plates, refractive lenses and systems based on bent surfaces, for example, Kirkpatrick-Baez systems. Apart from the resistance of the sample, the ultimate limits are determined by the source size and strength on one side, by materials properties, cooling, mounting and bending schemes on the other side, and fundamentally by the diffraction process. There is also the important aspect of coherence that can be both a nuisance and a blessing for the experiments, in particular for imaging techniques. Its conservation puts additional constraints on the quality of the optical elements. The overview of the present challenges includes the properties of present and also mentions aspects of future x-ray sources such as the "ultimate" storage ring and free electron lasers. These challenges range from the thermal performances of monochromators to the surface quality of mirrors, from coherence preservation of modern multilayers to short pulse preservation by crystals, and from micro- and nano

  9. Correlated X-ray and optical variability in X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, K.; Horne, K.

    In X-ray binaries much of the optical/UV emission arises from X-rays reprocessed by material in the accretion disk, stream and the companion star. The resulting optical variability will be delayed in time with respect to the X-ray variability depending on the position of the reprocessing regions in the binary system. By deconvolving the X-ray and optical variability we can determine a range of time-delays present in the system. This time-delay transfer function can be used to echo-map the geometry of the reprocessing regions in the binary system. We present results from our echo-mapping campaign using X-ray lightcurves from RXTE, simultaneous with high time resolution optical and UV observations. In the SXT, GRO J1655-40, using RXTE and HST shortly after the 1996 outburst, we find evidence for reprocessing in the outer regions of a thick accretion disk. In the Z-source Cygnus X-2, using RXTE and Keck II, we find an anti-correlation of the X-ray and optical variability on the timescale of hours, with superimposed correlated X-ray and optical flaring.

  10. Optical, x-ray and microwave diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Tudisco, S.; Mascali, D.; Altana, C.; Anzalone, A.; Gammino, S.; Musumarra, A.; Musumeci, F.; Scordino, A.; Romano, F. P.; Tramontana, A.

    2013-07-26

    Laser-driven ion acceleration is a new approach for the particles acceleration, which allows obtaining ion beams with unique properties, such as short burst duration, large particle number, small size source size, low transverse emittance. Currently, two main acceleration mechanisms have been identified and investigated: target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) and radiation pressure acceleration (RPA). Electrons dynamics and energies are strongly coupled to these acceleration mechanisms and they can be investigated with optical and X-ray techniques. The main aim of these studies are the identification of few physical observables that can be directly correlated to the proton emission obtained (in terms of reproducibility and intensity) in operations with different target material and structure and laser-target interaction parameters.

  11. Multilayers for EUV, soft x-ray and x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhanshan; Huang, Qiushi; Zhang, Zhong

    2016-02-01

    Driven by the requirements in synchrotron radiation applications, astronomical observation, and dense plasma diagnostics, the EUV, soft X-rays and X-rays multilayer optics have been tremendously developed. Based on the LAMP project for soft X-ray polarimetry, Co/C and Cr/C multilayers have been fabricated and characterized. Both Co/C and Cr/C multilayers reveal good optical performance working at 250 eV. Pd/Y multilayers have been successfully fabricated using reactive sputtering with nitrogen working at around 9.4 nm. EUV normal incidence Schwarzschild and soft X-ray grazing incidence KB microscopes were developed for ICF plasma diagnostics. This paper covers the outline of the multilayer optics and the current status in our lab.

  12. Renewed X-ray activity in GX 339-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. M.; Heindl, W. A.; Swank, J. H.; Wilms, J.; Pottschmidt, K.

    2004-02-01

    Recent monitoring of GX 339-4 in the 2-30 keV X-ray band by the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) shows that the newly reported activity in the optical and radio (ATEL #230) is accompanied by faint X-ray emission. On February 1 at 04:00 UT, the X-ray count rate was 1 count/second/Proportional Counter Unit (PCU). On February 9 at 05:40 UT, the rate was about 6 times higher, yielding sufficient statistics for a spectral fit, which shows the source to be in the hard state (photon power law index 1.55).

  13. Combined optical and X-ray observations of variable stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, C. S.

    1975-01-01

    Questions concerning the optical identification of X-ray sources are considered. There are now a total of eight optically identified galactic X-ray sources. Of these eight, five are definitely established as binaries. The nature of the other three sources remains unknown. Studies of U Geminorum conducted on the basis of optical and X-ray observations are also discussed. From the upper limit to the accretion rate for U Gem obtained with the aid of soft X-ray data, it is seen that most of the mass flow in U Gem is lost from the system.

  14. Optimizing Focusing X-Ray Optics for Planetary Science Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melso, Nicole; Romaine, Suzanne; Hong, Jaesub; Cotroneo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    X-Ray observations are a valuable tool for studying the composition, formation and evolution of the numerous X-Ray emitting objects in our Solar System. Although there are plenty of useful applications for in situ X-Ray focusing instrumentation, X-Ray focusing optics have never been feasible for use onboard planetary missions due to their mass and cost. Recent advancements in small-scale X-Ray instrumentation have made focusing X-Ray technology more practical and affordable for use onboard in situ spacecraft. Specifically, the technology of a metal-ceramic hybrid material combined with Electroformed Nickel Replication (ENR) holds great promise for realizing lightweight X-ray optics. We are working to optimize these lightweight focusing X-Ray optics for use in planetary science applications. We have explored multiple configurations and geometries that maximize the telescope's effective area and field of view while meeting practical mass and volume requirements. Each configuration was modeled via analytic calculations and Monte Carlo ray tracing simulations and compared to alternative Micro-pore Optics designs. The improved performance of our approach using hybrid materials has many exciting implications for the future of planetary science, X-Ray instrumentation, and the exploration of X-Ray sources in our Solar System.This work was supported in part by the NSF REU and DoD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  15. The Swift BAT Survey Detects Two Optical Broad Line, X-Ray Heavily Obscured Active Galaxies: NVSS 193013+341047 and IRAS 05218-1212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, J. Drew; Winter, Lisa M.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Trippe, Margaret

    2012-06-01

    The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) is discovering interesting new objects while monitoring the sky in the 14-195 keV band. Here we present the X-ray properties and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for two unusual active galactic nucleus sources. Both NVSS 193013+341047 and IRAS 05218-1212 are absorbed, Compton-thin, but heavily obscured (N H ~ 1023 cm-2), X-ray sources at redshifts <0.1. The SEDs reveal these galaxies to be very red, with high extinction in the optical and UV. A similar SED is seen for the extremely red objects (EROs) detected in the higher redshift universe. This suggests that these unusual BAT-detected sources are a low-redshift (z Lt 1) analog to EROs, which recent evidence suggests are a class of the elusive type II quasars. Studying the multi-wavelength properties of these sources may reveal the properties of their high-redshift counterparts.

  16. Investigation of X-Ray Optical Anisotropy of Materials by means of X-Ray Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mkrtchyan, Vahram P.; Gasparyan, Laura G.; Balyan, Minas K.

    2010-04-06

    A novel approach is proposed in the present work for investigation of X-ray optical anisotropy of materials, that is based on X-ray interferometric method of measurements. Unlike the existing methods, where the specimen to be tested is placed in the path of one of interfering beams, in the proposed approach the specimens under investigation are placed directly in the paths of both the interfering beams, owing to which the impact of other factors on the shift of interference Moire fringes is eliminated. In this way the Moire fringes simultaneously appear during the same exposure both in the absence and presence of specimens with different orientations of optical axes. Due to the fact that the relative displacement of Moire fringes is observed in three different columns of the same beam, it becomes possible to simultaneously observe and immediately identify the presence of X-ray optical anisotropy, as well as to measure the values of refractive indices n{sub o} and n{sub e} for specimens under study. By means of proposed method the X-ray optical anisotropy of cellophane film was registered and values of refractive indices n{sub o} and n{sub e} for cellophane were measured. It was established that cellophane is X-ray optically positive anisotropic medium.

  17. Investigation of X-Ray Optical Anisotropy of Materials by means of X-Ray Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkrtchyan, Vahram P.; Gasparyan, Laura G.; Balyan, Minas K.

    2010-04-01

    A novel approach is proposed in the present work for investigation of X-ray optical anisotropy of materials, that is based on X-ray interferometric method of measurements. Unlike the existing methods, where the specimen to be tested is placed in the path of one of interfering beams, in the proposed approach the specimens under investigation are placed directly in the paths of both the interfering beams, owing to which the impact of other factors on the shift of interference Moire fringes is eliminated. In this way the Moire fringes simultaneously appear during the same exposure both in the absence and presence of specimens with different orientations of optical axes. Due to the fact that the relative displacement of Moire fringes is observed in three different columns of the same beam, it becomes possible to simultaneously observe and immediately identify the presence of X-ray optical anisotropy, as well as to measure the values of refractive indices no and ne for specimens under study. By means of proposed method the X-ray optical anisotropy of cellophane film was registered and values of refractive indices no and ne for cellophane were measured. It was established that cellophane is X-ray optically positive anisotropic medium.

  18. X-Ray Optics on a Chip: Guiding X Rays in Curved Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salditt, T.; Hoffmann, S.; Vassholz, M.; Haber, J.; Osterhoff, M.; Hilhorst, J.

    2015-11-01

    We study the propagation of hard x rays in single curved x-ray waveguide channels and observe waveguide effects down to surprisingly small radii of curvature R ≃10 mm and a large contour length s ≃5 mm , deflecting beams up to 30°. At these high angles, about 2 orders of magnitude above the critical angle of total reflection θc, most radiation modes are lost by "leaking" into the cladding, while certain "survivor" modes persist. This may open up a new form of integrated x-ray optics "on a chip," requiring curvatures mostly well below the extreme values studied here, e.g., to split and to delay x-ray pulses.

  19. X-Ray Optics on a Chip: Guiding X Rays in Curved Channels.

    PubMed

    Salditt, T; Hoffmann, S; Vassholz, M; Haber, J; Osterhoff, M; Hilhorst, J

    2015-11-13

    We study the propagation of hard x rays in single curved x-ray waveguide channels and observe waveguide effects down to surprisingly small radii of curvature R≃10  mm and a large contour length s≃5  mm, deflecting beams up to 30°. At these high angles, about 2 orders of magnitude above the critical angle of total reflection θ(c), most radiation modes are lost by "leaking" into the cladding, while certain "survivor" modes persist. This may open up a new form of integrated x-ray optics "on a chip," requiring curvatures mostly well below the extreme values studied here, e.g., to split and to delay x-ray pulses. PMID:26613440

  20. Property of slice square polycapillary x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi-Qi, Peng; Zhi-Guo, Liu; Tian-Xi, Sun; Kai, Wang; Long-Tao, Yi; Kui, Yang; Man, Chen; Jin-Bang, Wang

    2016-02-01

    A geometrical description of square polycapillary x-ray optics and the basic theory of the transmission of x-rays are presented. A method of numerical calculation is developed based on ray-tracing theory. The method simulates the intensity distribution of x-rays propagating through slice square polycapillary x-ray optics. The simulation results are compared with the experimental results. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 2012LZD07 and 2014kJJCA03) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11375027 and 11075017).

  1. Impact of microfabrication technology on x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect

    Ceglio, N.M.

    1981-08-01

    X-ray optics stands on the threshold of realizing its early promise: precision analysis of microstructure on the scale of the x-ray wavelength. The achievement of this exciting goal will depend in large part on advances in microfabrication technology making possible the precision fabrication of periodic microstructures. A review of recent advances in, as well as future prospects for: x-ray microscopy, coded imaging, and space-time resolved spectroscopy, resulting from improved microstructure fabrication capabilities is presented.

  2. Active X-ray mirror development at UCL: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Carolyn; Doel, Peter; Yao, Jun; Brooks, David; Thompson, Samantha; Willingale, Richard; Feldman, Charlotte; Button, Tim; Zhang, Dou; James, Ady

    2007-12-01

    The Smart X-ray Optics project is a UK based consortium consisting of several institutions to investigate the application of active/adaptive optics upon both small and large scale grazing incidence x-ray optics. The work done at University College London (UCL) focuses on the application of piezoelectric materials to large scale optics in order to actively deform the mirror's surface. These optics are geared towards the next generation of x-ray telescopes and it is hoped that the project will be able to achieve a resolution greater than that currently available by Chandra (0.5"). One of the aims of the consortium is to produce a working prototype. The initial design is based on a thin nickel ellipsoid segment with an x-ray reflective coating, on the back of which will be bonded a series of piezoelectric actuators. Investigation into the specification of the design of an active x-ray optic prototype and suitable support test structure has been undertaken. The dimensions and constraints upon the prototype, and the manufacturing process to produce a nickel shell are discussed. Finite element analysis (FEA) of the physical characteristics of piezoelectric materials has shown the ability to deform the nickel surface to correct for errors of several microns. FEA has also been utilised in the specification of the prototype's support structure to ensure that gravitational sag upon the optic is kept to a minimum. Laboratory experiments have tested a series of materials, different actuators and bonding methods, which could then be applied to the prototype.

  3. X-ray optics of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Letfullin, Renat R; Rice, Colin E W; George, Thomas F

    2014-11-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been investigated as contrast agents for traditional x-ray medical procedures, utilizing the strong absorption characteristics of the nanoparticles to enhance the contrast of the detected x-ray image. Here we use the Kramers-Kronig relation for complex atomic scattering factors to find the real and imaginary parts of the index of refraction for the medium composed of single-element materials or compounds in the x-ray range of the spectrum. These complex index of refraction values are then plugged into a Lorenz-Mie theory to calculate the absorption efficiency of various size gold nanoparticles for photon energies in the 1-100 keV range. Since the output from most medical diagnostic x-ray devices follows a wide and filtered spectrum of photon energies, we introduce and compute the effective intensity-absorption-efficiency values for gold nanoparticles of radii varying from 5 to 50 nm, where we use the TASMIP model to integrate over all spectral energies generated by typical tungsten anode x-ray tubes with kilovolt potentials ranging from 50 to 150 kVp. PMID:25402878

  4. Sequential Activation of Molecular Breathing and Bending during Spin-Crossover Photoswitching Revealed by Femtosecond Optical and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cammarata, Marco; Bertoni, Roman; Lorenc, Maciej; Cailleau, Hervé; Di Matteo, Sergio; Mauriac, Cindy; Matar, Samir F; Lemke, Henrik; Chollet, Matthieu; Ravy, Sylvain; Laulhé, Claire; Létard, Jean-François; Collet, Eric

    2014-11-28

    We study the basic mechanisms allowing light to photoswitch at the molecular scale a spin-crossover material from a low- to a high-spin state. Combined femtosecond x-ray absorption performed at LCLS X-FEL and optical spectroscopy reveal that the structural stabilization of the photoinduced high-spin state results from a two step structural trapping. Molecular breathing vibrations are first activated and rapidly damped as part of the energy is sequentially transferred to molecular bending vibrations. During the photoswitching, the system follows a curved trajectory on the potential energy surface. PMID:25494090

  5. Sequential Activation of Molecular Breathing and Bending during Spin-Crossover Photoswitching Revealed by Femtosecond Optical and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammarata, Marco; Bertoni, Roman; Lorenc, Maciej; Cailleau, Hervé; Di Matteo, Sergio; Mauriac, Cindy; Matar, Samir F.; Lemke, Henrik; Chollet, Matthieu; Ravy, Sylvain; Laulhé, Claire; Létard, Jean-François; Collet, Eric

    2014-11-01

    We study the basic mechanisms allowing light to photoswitch at the molecular scale a spin-crossover material from a low- to a high-spin state. Combined femtosecond x-ray absorption performed at LCLS X-FEL and optical spectroscopy reveal that the structural stabilization of the photoinduced high-spin state results from a two step structural trapping. Molecular breathing vibrations are first activated and rapidly damped as part of the energy is sequentially transferred to molecular bending vibrations. During the photoswitching, the system follows a curved trajectory on the potential energy surface.

  6. X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Henke, B. L.; Gullikson, E. M.; Davis, J. C.

    The primary interactions of low-energy x-rays within condensed matter, viz. photoabsorption and coherent scattering, are described for photon energies outside the absorption threshold regions by using atomic scattering factors. The atomic scattering factors may be accurately determined from the atomic photoabsorption cross sections using modified Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations. From a synthesis of the currently available experimental data and recent theoretical calculations for photoabsorption, the angle-independent, forward-scattering components of the atomic scattering factors have been thus semiempirically determined and tabulated here for 92 elements and for the region 50-30,000 eV. Atomic scattering factors for all angles of coherent scattering and at the higher photon energies are obtained from these tabulated forward-scattering values by adding a simple angle-dependent form-factor correction. The incoherent scattering contributions that become significant for the light elements at the higher photon energies are similarly determined. The basic x-ray interaction relations that are used in applied x-ray physics are presented here in terms of the atomic scattering factors. The bulk optical constants are also related to the atomic scattering factors. These atomic and optical relations are applied to the detailed calculation of the reflectivity characteristics of a series of practical x-ray mirror, multilayer, and crystal monochromators. Comparisons of the results of this semiempirical,"atom-like", description of x-ray interactions for the low-energy region with those of experiment and ab initio theory are presented.

  7. CHANDRA X-RAY AND HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF OPTICALLY SELECTED KILOPARSEC-SCALE BINARY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. I. NATURE OF THE NUCLEAR IONIZING SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xin; Civano, Francesca; Shen, Yue; Green, Paul; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2013-01-10

    Kiloparsec-scale binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) signal active supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs in merging galaxies. Despite their significance, unambiguously confirmed cases remain scarce and most have been discovered serendipitously. In a previous systematic search, we optically identified four kpc-scale binary AGNs from candidates selected with double-peaked narrow emission lines at z = 0.1-0.2. Here, we present Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging of these four systems. We critically examine and confirm the binary-AGN scenario for two of the four targets, by combining high angular resolution X-ray imaging spectroscopy with Chandra ACIS-S, better nuclear position constraints from WFC3 F105W imaging, and direct starburst estimates from WFC3 F336W imaging; for the other two targets, the existing data are still consistent with the binary-AGN scenario, but we cannot rule out the possibility of only one AGN ionizing gas in both merging galaxies. We find tentative evidence for a systematically smaller X-ray-to-[O III] luminosity ratio and/or higher Compton-thick fraction in optically selected kpc-scale binary AGNs than in single AGNs, possibly caused by a higher nuclear gas column due to mergers and/or a viewing angle bias related to the double-peak narrow-line selection. While our result lends some further support to the general approach of optically identifying kpc-scale binary AGNs, it also highlights the challenge and ambiguity of X-ray confirmation.

  8. Spontaneous emission effects in optically pumped x-ray FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Smetanin, I.V.; Grigor`ev, S.V.

    1995-12-31

    An effect of spontaneous emission in both quantum and classical regimes of the optically pumped X-ray free electron laser (FEL) in investigated. The quantum properties of an FEL are determined by the ratio of the separation {h_bar} between the absorption and emission lines (i.e. the quanta emitted) and their effective width {Delta}{epsilon} {eta}={h_bar}/{Delta}{epsilon}. In the conventional classical regime {eta} {much_lt} 1 an electron emits and absorbes a great number of shortwavelength photons over the interaction region, the gain in FEL being the result of these competitive processes. In the quantum limit {eta} {much_gt} 1 the emission and absorption lines are completely separated and thus the FEL becomes a two-level quantum oscillator with a completely inverted active medium. Spontaneous emission causes the electron to leave the range of energies where resonant interaction with the laser field occurs, thus effectively reducing the number of particles that take part in generating the induced X-ray signal. This effect is found to be crucial for lasing in optically pumped X-ray FEL. The characteristic relaxation times are calculated for both classical and quantum FEL regimes. It is shown that spontaneous emission results in FEL electron beam threshold current, which is of rather high value. An optimal range of pumping laser intensities is determined.

  9. X-ray properties of optically selected QSOs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avni, Y.; Tananbaum, H.

    1986-01-01

    The dependence of the X-ray-to-optical luminosity ratio on optical luminosity and redshift for optically selected QSOs is studied, largely on the basis of two, complete, magnitude-limited samples (Bright Quasar Survey /1983/ and Braccesi Faint /1984/) which were observed with the Einstein Observatory. Heterogeneous samples are established as adequate for the study of that dependence. Optimal choices for increasing the size of the data set for such a study are pointed out. The previous results of Avni and Tananbaum for alpha sub 0, x(z, L sub opt) are confirmed and strengthened, and the numerical sensitivity to changes in the values of q sub 0 and of the optical spectral index is evaluated. It is shown that the large majority, probably all, of optically selected QSOs are X-ray loud; no more than a few percent can be X-ray quiet. Thus X-ray emission appears to be a universal property of QSOs. It is shown that comparisons of optically selected QSOs with X-ray selected QSOs are numerically sensitive to the details of the input ingredients. A residual discrepancy of about a factor of 2 between calculated and observed X-ray number counts is found. Directions for further research that are important for understanding the full bivariate optical-X-ray evolution and luminosity function for QSOs are discussed.

  10. COMPACT OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS OF ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Lian; Feng Hua; Grise, Fabien; Kaaret, Philip

    2011-08-20

    Using archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging data, we report the multiband photometric properties of 13 ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) that have a unique compact optical counterpart. Both magnitude and color variation are detected at timescales of days to years. The optical color, variability, and X-ray to optical flux ratio indicate that the optical emission of most ULXs is dominated by X-ray reprocessing on the disk, similar to that of low-mass X-ray binaries. For most sources, the optical spectrum is a power law, F{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup {alpha}} with {alpha} in the range 1.0-2.0 and the optically emitting region has a size on the order of 10{sup 12} cm. Exceptions are NGC 2403 X-1 and M83 IXO 82, which show optical spectra consistent with direct emission from a standard thin disk, M101 ULX-1 and M81 ULS1, which have X-ray to optical flux ratios more similar to high-mass X-ray binaries, and IC 342 X-1, in which the optical light may be dominated by the companion star. Inconsistent extinction between the optical counterpart of NGC 5204 X-1 and the nearby optical nebulae suggests that they may be unrelated.

  11. X-ray-optical analytical microscope with two Kumakhov lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, G. I.; Kondratenko, R. I.; Odinov, B. V.; Pukhov, A. V.

    2005-07-01

    On the basis of research microscope equipped with a 3D sample stage and two x-ray micro analyzers fitted with Kumakhov polycapillary optics, an x-ray optical scanning microscope (ROCAM) has been developed. The instrument is designed for investigation ofheterogeneous objects in optic and x-ray spectra of photon radiation. Examples of ROCAM application for forensic studies and in mineralogy are shown. The instrument can be used in medicine and biology, metal studies, nuclear power, ecology, micro electronics, in customs, for investigation of pieces of art and so on.

  12. Flight programs and X-ray optics development at MSFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; Swartz, D.; Gaskin, J.; Weisskopf, M.

    The X-ray astronomy group at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing electroformed nickel/cobalt x-ray optics for suborbital and orbital experiments. Suborbital instruments include the Focusing X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) and Micro-X sounding rocket experiments and the HEROES balloon payload. Our current orbital program is the fabrication of mirror modules for the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) to be launched on board the Russian-German Spectrum Roentgen Gamma Mission (SRG). A second component of our work is the development of fabrication techniques and optical metrology to improve the angular resolution of thin-shell optics to the arcsecond-level.

  13. Capillary optics for micro x-ray fluorescence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bjeoumikhov, A.; Langhoff, N.; Bjeoumikhova, S.; Wedell, R.

    2005-06-15

    Practically achieved parameters of capillary optics are presented. A micro x-ray fluorescence (XRF) arrangement was realized by using a microfocus x-ray tube and a capillary optic. Several examples for application of micro XRF are given. It was shown that polycapillary lenses free of the 'halo effect' well suited for micro XRF of heavy elements can be manufactured. Limits of opportunities for micro XRF applications and further development for micro XRF by using capillary optics are analyzed.

  14. Development of X-Ray Optics for the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, William W.; Bolognese, J.; Byron, G.; Caldwell, D.; Chan, K.; Content, D. A.; Gubarev, M.; Davis, W.; Freeman, M.; Hadjimichael, T. J.; He, C.; Hong, M.; Kolos, L.; Jones, W. D.; Lehan, . P.; Lozipone, L.; Mazzarella, J.; McClelland, R.; Nguyen, D. T.; Olsen, L.; Petre, R.; Podgorski, W.; Robinson, D.; Russell, R.; Romaine, S.

    2009-01-01

    The International X-ray Observatory requires mirror assemblies with unprecedented characteristics that cannot be provided by existing optical technologies. In the past several years, the project has supported a vigorous mirror technology development program. This program includes the fabrication of lightweight mirror segments by slumping commercially available thin glass sheets, the support and mounting of these thin mirror segments for accurate metrology, the mounting and attachment of these mirror segments for the purpose of X-ray tests, and development of methods for aligning and integrating these mirror segments into mirror assemblies. This paper describes our efforts and developments in these areas.

  15. Refractive Optics for Hard X-ray Transmission Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, M.; Last, A.; Mohr, J.; Nazmov, V.; Reznikova, E.; Ahrens, G.; Voigt, A.

    2011-09-09

    For hard x-ray transmission microscopy at photon energies higher than 15 keV we design refractive condenser and imaging elements to be used with synchrotron light sources as well as with x-ray tube sources. The condenser lenses are optimized for low x-ray attenuation--resulting in apertures greater than 1 mm--and homogeneous intensity distribution on the detector plane, whereas the imaging enables high-resolution (<100 nm) full-field imaging. To obtain high image quality at reasonable exposure times, custom-tailored matched pairs of condenser and imaging lenses are being developed. The imaging lenses (compound refractive lenses, CRLs) are made of SU-8 negative resist by deep x-ray lithography. SU-8 shows high radiation stability. The fabrication technique enables high-quality lens structures regarding surface roughness and arrangement precision with arbitrary 2D geometry. To provide point foci, crossed pairs of lenses are used. Condenser lenses have been made utilizing deep x-ray lithographic patterning of thick SU-8 layers, too, whereas in this case, the aperture is limited due to process restrictions. Thus, in terms of large apertures, condenser lenses made of structured and rolled polyimide film are more attractive. Both condenser types, x-ray mosaic lenses and rolled x-ray prism lenses (RXPLs), are considered to be implemented into a microscope setup. The x-ray optical elements mentioned above are characterized with synchrotron radiation and x-ray laboratory sources, respectively.

  16. Correlated optical, X-ray, and γ-ray flaring activity seen with INTEGRAL during the 2015 outburst of V404 Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J.; Cadolle Bel, M.; Alfonso-Garzón, J.; Siegert, T.; Zhang, X.-L.; Grinberg, V.; Savchenko, V.; Tomsick, J. A.; Chenevez, J.; Clavel, M.; Corbel, S.; Diehl, R.; Domingo, A.; Gouiffès, C.; Greiner, J.; Krause, M. G. H.; Laurent, P.; Loh, A.; Markoff, S.; Mas-Hesse, J. M.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Russell, D. M.; Wilms, J.

    2015-09-01

    After 25 years of quiescence, the microquasar V404 Cyg entered a new period of activity in June 2015. This X-ray source is known to undergo extremely bright and variable outbursts seen at all wavelengths. It is therefore an object of prime interest to understand the accretion-ejection connections. These can, however, only be probed through simultaneous observations at several wavelengths. We made use of the INTEGRAL instruments to obtain long, almost uninterrupted observations from 2015 June 20, 15:50 UTC to June 25, 4:05 UTC, from the optical V band up to the soft γ-rays. V404 Cyg was extremely variable in all bands, with the detection of 18 flares with fluxes exceeding 6 Crab (20-40 keV) within three days. The flare recurrence can be as short as ~20 min from peak to peak. A model-independent analysis shows that the >6 Crab flares have a hard spectrum. A simple 10-400 keV spectral analysis of the off-flare and flare periods shows that the variation in intensity is likely to be only due to variations of a cut-off power-law component. The optical flares seem to be at least of two different types: one occurring in simultaneity with the X-ray flares, the other showing a delay greater than 10 min. The former could be associated with X-ray reprocessing by either an accretion disk or the companion star. We suggest that the latter are associated with plasma ejections that have also been seen in radio. Table 1 and Fig. 4 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Flight Programs and X-ray Optics Development at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; O'Dell, S. L.; Elsner, R.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; Swartz, D.; Gaskin, J.; Weisskopf, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The X-ray astronomy group at the Marshall Space Flight Center is developing electroformed nickel/cobalt x-ray optics for suborbital and orbital experiments. Suborbital instruments include the Focusing X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) and Micro-X sounding rocket experiments and the HERO balloon payload. Our current orbital program is the fabrication of a series of mirror modules for the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) to be launched on board the Russian-German Spectrum Roentgen Gamma Mission (SRG.) The details and status of these various programs are presented. A second component of our work is the development of fabrication techniques and optical metrology to improve the angular resolution of thin shell optics to the arcsecond-level. The status of these x-ray optics technology developments is also presented.

  18. Developments for Nickel Electroformed X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, B.; Engelhaupt, D.; Gubarev, M.; O'Dell, S.; Speegle, C.; Weisskopf, M.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the developments at Marshall Space Flight Center in fabricating Electroformed Nickel X-ray Optical devices. Missions that are using the mandrels created using the described process are reviewed, and improvements in the process of creating better quality mandrels are also reviewed. One of the processes, Electrochemically-Enhanced Mechanical Polishing (EEMP), is described. The Alignment and mounting system for full-shell replicated X-Ray Optics is shown, and the selective deposition process is also shown.

  19. Diamond turning in the production of x ray optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fawcett, Steven C.

    1994-01-01

    A demonstration x-ray optic has been produced by diamond turning and replication techniques that could revolutionize the fabrication of advanced mirror assemblies. The prototype optic was developed as part of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility - Spectrographic project (AXAF-S). The initial part of the project was aimed at developing and testing the replica technique so that it could potentially be used for the production of the entire mirror array comprised of up to 50 individual mirror shells.

  20. FINDING FOSSIL GROUPS: OPTICAL IDENTIFICATION AND X-RAY CONFIRMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Eric D.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Dupke, Renato A.; Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia; Proctor, Robert N.; Lopes de Oliveira, Raimundo; Garmire, Gordon P.; Koester, Benjamin P.; McKay, Timothy A.

    2012-03-10

    We report the discovery of 12 new fossil groups (FGs) of galaxies, systems dominated by a single giant elliptical galaxy and cluster-scale gravitational potential, but lacking the population of bright galaxies typically seen in galaxy clusters. These FGs, selected from the maxBCG optical cluster catalog, were detected in snapshot observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We detail the highly successful selection method, with an 80% success rate in identifying 12 FGs from our target sample of 15 candidates. For 11 of the systems, we determine the X-ray luminosity, temperature, and hydrostatic mass, which do not deviate significantly from expectations for normal systems, spanning a range typical of rich groups and poor clusters of galaxies. A small number of detected FGs are morphologically irregular, possibly due to past mergers, interaction of the intra-group medium with a central active galactic nucleus (AGN), or superposition of multiple massive halos. Two-thirds of the X-ray-detected FGs exhibit X-ray emission associated with the central brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), although we are unable to distinguish between AGN and extended thermal galaxy emission using the current data. This sample representing a large increase in the number of known FGs, will be invaluable for future planned observations to determine FG temperature, gas density, metal abundance, and mass distributions, and to compare to normal (non-fossil) systems. Finally, the presence of a population of galaxy-poor systems may bias mass function determinations that measure richness from galaxy counts. When used to constrain power spectrum normalization and {Omega}{sub m}, these biased mass functions may in turn bias these results.

  1. Weak soft X-ray excesses need not result from the high-frequency tail of the optical/ultraviolet bump in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czerny, Bozena; Zycki, Piotr T.

    1994-01-01

    The broad-band ROSAT/EXOSAT X-ray spectra of six Seyfert 1 galaxies are fitted by a model consisting of a direct power law and a component due to reflection/reprocessing from a partially ionized, optically thick medium. The reflected spectrum contains emission features from various elements in the soft X-ray range. In all objects but one (Mrk 335), the fit is satisfactory, and no additional soft X-ray excess is required by the data. This means that in most sources there is no need for the thermal 'big blue bumps' to extend into soft X-rays, and the soft X-ray excesses reported previously can be explained by reflection/reprocessing. Satisfactory fits are obtained for a medium ionized by a source radiating at less than or approximately 15% of the Eddington rate. The fits require that the reflection is enhanced relative to an isotropically emitting source above a flat disk. The necessary high effectiveness of reflection in the soft X-ray band requires strong soft thermal flux dominating over hard X-rays.

  2. Anecdotes about the Early Days of X-Ray Optics.

    PubMed

    Baez, A V

    1997-01-01

    An anecdotal description of the trials and tribulations encountered by the first investigators in the field of x-ray optics starting in the late 1940s and how they managed to overcome them is provided. Some of the players, in addition to the author, included Paul Kirkpatrick, Hussein El Sum, and Howard Pattee of Stanford. At the University of Redlands we became interested in producing an x-ray microscope based on the concepts of holography which Dennis Gabor had demonstrated. This led to correspondence with Gabor and the opportunity to meet him and many other investigators at the first International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy and Microradiography held in Cambridge, England, in 1956. With the help of V.E. Cosslett and William Nixon, a point-focus x-ray tube was obtained by the University of Redlands for its experiments in x-ray holography in the1950s. PMID:21307542

  3. Progress with MEMS x-ray micro pore optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezoe, Yuichiro; Moriyama, Teppei; Ogawa, Tomohiro; Kakiuchi, Takuya; Ohashi, Takaya; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Horade, Mitsuhiro; Sugiyama, Susumu; Riveros, Raul E.; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Kanamori, Yoshiaki; Morishita, Kohei; Nakajima, Kazuo; Maeda, Ryutaro

    2012-09-01

    Our development of ultra light-weight X-ray micro pore optics based on MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical System) technologies is described. Using dry etching or X-ray lithography and electroplating, curvilinear sidewalls through a flat wafer are fabricated. Sidewalls vertical to the wafer surface are smoothed by use of high temperature annealing and/or magnetic field assisted finishing to work as X-ray mirrors. The wafer is then deformed to a spherical shape. When two spherical wafers with different radii of curvature are stacked, the combined system will be an approximated Wolter type-I telescope. This method in principle allows high angular resolution and ultra light-weight X-ray micro pore optics. In this paper, performance of a single-stage optic, coating of a heavy metal on sidewalls with atomic layer deposition, and assembly of a Wolter type-I telescope are reported.

  4. Optical and X-ray Properties of Groups of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dell'Antonio, I. P.; Geller, M. J.; Fabricant, D.

    1992-12-01

    We study the optical and x-ray properties of 30 groups of galaxies observed with EINSTEIN. We have obtained redshifts for the galaxies in the group fields down to a limiting magnitude M_B<= 15.7. Typically this corresponds to ~ 18 redshifts per group. Our sample contains 14 MKW-AWM clusters, three of which are actually superpositions of two groups. We compare the velocity dispersions and virial masses we derive from the optical data with the x-ray luminosity and structure. We find remarkable correlations between the x-ray structure and optical galaxy positions. The x-ray emission associated with the galaxies is extended even in more distant groups. This emission is probably due to hot gas in the individual galaxy potentials, which implies that the poor clusters of galaxies are dynamically young. This is consistent with results from N-body simulations of group formation.

  5. X-ray optic developments at NASA's MSFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, C.; Ramsey, B.; Kilaru, K.; Gubarev, M.; O'Dell, S.; Elsner, R.; Swartz, D.; Gaskin, J.; Weisskopf, M.

    2013-05-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a successful history of fabricating optics for astronomical x-ray telescopes. In recent years optics have been created using electroforming replication for missions such as the balloon payload HERO (High energy replicated optics) and the rocket payload FOXSI (Focusing Optics x-ray Solar Imager). The same replication process is currently being used in the creation seven x-ray mirror modules (one module comprising of 28 nested shells) for the Russian ART-XC (Astronomical Rontgen Telescope) instrument aboard the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission and for large-diameter mirror shells for the Micro-X rocket payload. In addition to MSFC's optics fabrication, there are also several areas of research and development to create the high resolution light weight optics which are required by future x-ray telescopes. Differential deposition is one technique which aims to improve the angular resolution of lightweight optics through depositing a filler material to smooth out fabrication imperfections. Following on from proof of concept studies, two new purpose built coating chambers are being assembled to apply this deposition technique to astronomical x-ray optics. Furthermore, MSFC aims to broaden its optics fabrication through the recent acquisition of a Zeeko IRP 600 robotic polishing machine. This paper will provide a summary of the current missions and research and development being undertaken at NASA's MSFC.

  6. Microfocus/Polycapillary-Optic Crystallographic X-Ray System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joy, Marshall; Gubarev, Mikhail; Ciszak, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    A system that generates an intense, nearly collimated, nearly monochromatic, small-diameter x-ray beam has been developed for use in macromolecular crystallography. A conventional x-ray system for macromolecular crystallography includes a rotating-anode x-ray source, which is massive (.500 kg), large (approximately 2 by 2 by 1 m), and power-hungry (between 2 and 18 kW). In contrast, the present system generates a beam of the required brightness from a microfocus source, which is small and light enough to be mounted on a laboratory bench, and operates at a power level of only tens of watts. The figure schematically depicts the system as configured for observing x-ray diffraction from a macromolecular crystal. In addition to the microfocus x-ray source, the system includes a polycapillary optic . a monolithic block (typically a bundle of fused glass tubes) that contains thousands of straight or gently curved capillary channels, along which x-rays propagate with multiple reflections. This particular polycapillary optic is configured to act as a collimator; the x-ray beam that emerges from its output face consists of quasi-parallel subbeams with a small angular divergence and a diameter comparable to the size of a crystal to be studied. The gap between the microfocus x-ray source and the input face of the polycapillary optic is chosen consistently with the focal length of the polycapillary optic and the need to maximize the solid angle subtended by the optic in order to maximize the collimated x-ray flux. The spectrum from the source contains a significant component of Cu K (photon energy is 8.08 keV) radiation. The beam is monochromatized (for Cu K ) by a nickel filter 10 m thick. In a test, this system was operated at a power of 40 W (current of 897 A at an accelerating potential of 45 kV), with an anode x-ray spot size of 41+/-2 microns. Also tested, in order to provide a standard for comparison, was a commercial rotating-anode x-ray crystallographic system with a

  7. X-Ray Optics at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Broadway, David M.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gaskin, Jessica A.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Roche, Jacqueline M.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Zavlin, Vyacheslav E.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engages in research, development, design, fabrication, coating, assembly, and testing of grazing-incidence optics (primarily) for x-ray telescope systems. Over the past two decades, MSFC has refined processes for electroformed-nickel replication of grazing-incidence optics, in order to produce high-strength, thin-walled, full-cylinder x-ray mirrors. In recent years, MSFC has used this technology to fabricate numerous x-ray mirror assemblies for several flight (balloon, rocket, and satellite) programs. Additionally, MSFC has demonstrated the suitability of this technology for ground-based laboratory applications-namely, x-ray microscopes and cold-neutron microscopes and concentrators. This mature technology enables the production, at moderately low cost, of reasonably lightweight x-ray telescopes with good (15-30 arcsecond) angular resolution. However, achieving arcsecond imaging for a lightweight x-ray telescope likely requires development of other technologies. Accordingly, MSFC is conducting a multi-faceted research program toward enabling cost-effective production of lightweight high-resolution x-ray mirror assemblies. Relevant research topics currently under investigation include differential deposition for post-fabrication figure correction, in-situ monitoring and control of coating stress, and direct fabrication of thin-walled full-cylinder grazing-incidence mirrors.

  8. X-ray optics at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Broadway, David M.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gaskin, Jessica A.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Roche, Jacqueline M.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Zavlin, Vyacheslav E.

    2015-05-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engages in research, development, design, fabrication, coating, assembly, and testing of grazing-incidence optics (primarily) for x-ray telescope systems. Over the past two decades, MSFC has refined processes for electroformed-nickel replication of grazing-incidence optics, in order to produce highstrength, thin-walled, full-cylinder x-ray mirrors. In recent years, MSFC has used this technology to fabricate numerous x-ray mirror assemblies for several flight (balloon, rocket, and satellite) programs. Additionally, MSFC has demonstrated the suitability of this technology for ground-based laboratory applications—namely, x-ray microscopes and cold-neutron microscopes and concentrators. This mature technology enables the production, at moderately low cost, of reasonably lightweight x-ray telescopes with good (15-30 arcsecond) angular resolution. However, achieving arcsecond imaging for a lightweight x-ray telescope likely requires development of other technologies. Accordingly, MSFC is conducting a multi-faceted research program toward enabling cost-effective production of lightweight high-resolution x-ray mirror assemblies. Relevant research topics currently under investigation include differential deposition for post-fabrication figure correction, in-situ monitoring and control of coating stress, and direct fabrication of thin-walled full-cylinder grazing-incidence mirrors.

  9. Magnetic smart material application to adaptive x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, M. P.; Graham, Michael E.; Vaynman, Semyon; Cao, J.; Takacs, Peter Z.

    2010-09-01

    We discuss a technique of shape modification that can be applied to thin walled ({100-400 micron thickness) electroformed replicated optics or slumped glass optics to improve the near net shape of the mirror as well as the midfrequency ripple. The process involves sputter deposition of a magnetic smart material (MSM) film onto a permanently magnetic material. The MSM material exhibits strains about 400 times stronger than ordinary ferromagnetic materials. The deformation process involves a magnetic write head which traverses the surface, and under the guidance of active metrology feedback, locally magnetizes the surface to impart strain where needed. Designs and basic concepts as applied to space borne X-ray optics will be described.

  10. Spherical mirror grazing incidence x-ray optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, Jr., Webster C. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An optical system for x-rays combines at least two spherical or near spherical mirrors for each dimension in grazing incidence orientation to provide the functions of a lens in the x-ray region. To focus x-ray radiation in both the X and the Y dimensions, one of the mirrors focusses the X dimension, a second mirror focusses the Y direction, a third mirror corrects the X dimension by removing comatic aberration and a fourth mirror corrects the Y dimension. Spherical aberration may also be removed for an even better focus. The order of the mirrors is unimportant.

  11. Improved release coatings for electroformed x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaine, S.; Boike, J.; Bruni, R.; Engelhaupt, D.; Gorenstein, P.; Ramsey, B.

    2011-09-01

    X-ray astronomy grazing incidence telescopes use the principle of nested shells to maximize the collecting area. Some of the more recent missions, such as XMM-Newton [1], have used an electroformed nickel replication (ENR) process [2] to fabricate the mirror shells. Upcoming missions, such as Spectrum-Röntgen-Gamma [3] and Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager [4], also use the electroforming process to fabricate nested shell grazing incidence X-ray telescopes. We present recent results on fabrication of replicas with multilayer coatings from Wolter-1 mandrels using a new hardcoat release material to simplify and improve this electroforming process.

  12. The Focusing Optics Solar X-ray Imager (FOXSI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christe, S.; Glesener, L.; Krucker, S.; Ramsey, B.; Ishikawa, S.; Takahashi, T.

    2009-12-01

    The Focusing Optics x-ray Solar Imager is a sounding rocket payload funded under the NASA Low Cost Access to Space program to test hard x-ray focusing optics and position-sensitive solid state detectors for solar observations. Today's leading solar hard x-ray instrument, the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager provides excellent spatial (2 arcseconds) and spectral (1~keV) resolution. Yet, due to its use of indirect imaging, the derived images have a low dynamic range (<30) and sensitivity. These limitations make it difficult to study faint x-ray sources in the solar corona which are crucial for understanding the solar flare acceleration process. Grazing-incidence x-ray focusing optics combined with position-sensitive solid state detectors can overcome both of these limitations enabling the next breakthrough in understanding particle acceleration in solar flares. The foxsi project is led by the Space Science Laboratory at the University of California. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, with experience from the HERO balloon project, is responsible for the grazing-incidence optics, while the Astro H team (JAXA/ISAS) will provide double-sided silicon strip detectors. FOXSI will be a pathfinder for the next generation of solar hard x-ray spectroscopic imagers. Such observatories will be able to image the non-thermal electrons within the solar flare acceleration region, trace their paths through the corona, and provide essential quantitative measurements such as energy spectra, density, and energy content in accelerated electrons.

  13. Optical and X-ray observations of the low-mass X-ray binary EXO 0748-676

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Brian; Corbet, Robin; Augusteijn, Thomas; Callanan, Paul; Smale, Alan P.

    1993-01-01

    Optical and X-ray observations of EXO-676 in late March 1989 are presented. Our optical observations provide some support for the previously observed correlation between the mean optical brightness and light curve morphology. Unexpectedly, the mean X-ray and optical flux levels during this period do not reflect similar system states. The optical counterpart is found to be in an intermediate to low state, while X-ray data imply a bright (high) state. The changed relationship between optical and X-ray fluxes is evidence showing that EXO 0748-676 has possibly evolved. We fail to find correlated variability in simultaneous X-ray and optical observations. The lack of covariability is attributed to the limited simultaneous coverage of the source and/or significant geometric modulation in the optical light curve.

  14. THE SWIFT BAT SURVEY DETECTS TWO OPTICAL BROAD LINE, X-RAY HEAVILY OBSCURED ACTIVE GALAXIES: NVSS 193013+341047 AND IRAS 05218-1212

    SciTech Connect

    Hogg, J. Drew; Winter, Lisa M.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Trippe, Margaret E-mail: lisa.winter@colorado.edu

    2012-06-20

    The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) is discovering interesting new objects while monitoring the sky in the 14-195 keV band. Here we present the X-ray properties and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for two unusual active galactic nucleus sources. Both NVSS 193013+341047 and IRAS 05218-1212 are absorbed, Compton-thin, but heavily obscured (N{sub H} {approx} 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}), X-ray sources at redshifts <0.1. The SEDs reveal these galaxies to be very red, with high extinction in the optical and UV. A similar SED is seen for the extremely red objects (EROs) detected in the higher redshift universe. This suggests that these unusual BAT-detected sources are a low-redshift (z << 1) analog to EROs, which recent evidence suggests are a class of the elusive type II quasars. Studying the multi-wavelength properties of these sources may reveal the properties of their high-redshift counterparts.

  15. Recoil splitting of x-ray-induced optical fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilyuk, S.; Aagren, H.; Gel'mukhanov, F.; Sun, Y.-P.; Levin, S.

    2010-03-15

    We show that the anisotropy of the recoil velocity distribution of x-ray-ionized atoms or molecules leads to observable splittings in subsequent optical fluorescence or absorption when the polarization vector of the x rays is parallel to the momentum of the fluorescent photons. The order of the magnitude of the recoil-induced splitting is about 10 {mu}eV, which can be observed using Fourier or laser-absorption spectroscopic techniques.

  16. Cosmic X-ray spectroscopy with multilayer optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Martinez, Dennis S.; Paris, Elizabeth S.; Hoover, Richard B.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Multilayer optics operated at normal incidence offer a powerful new technology for the study of the solar spectrum in the XUV. The spectra of most cosmic X-ray sources are strongly extinguished at wavelengths above 40 A due to absorption and scattering by interstellar grains. We describe a number of configurations which allow multilayer optics to be used at nonnormal angles of incidence in conjunction with grazing incidence optics to analyze the spectra of cosmic X-ray sources in the wavelength interval between 1.5 and 40 A. These optical configurations utilize both multilayer mirrors and gratings, and permit the efficient observation of extended sources using stigmatic spectrographs. The response of the instruments described to typical cosmic X-ray sources is also discussed.

  17. Evolution of the optical and hard X-ray activity of AM Her in a season dominated by the high states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimon, Vojtěch

    2016-07-01

    The long-term activity of AM Her, the prototype of polars, consists of interchanging high and low states. This analysis uses the data from the BAT/ Swift, MAXI/ ISS, and AAVSO data archives (including long CCD V-band night series) for investigating the relation of the time evolution of intensities in the hard X-ray, medium/hard X-ray, and the optical bands on super-orbital timescale in a season dominated by the long high-state episodes. The observations mapped the relation of the cyclotron and bremsstrahlung luminosities in such episodes. Although an increase of intensity of the cyclotron emission is generally accompanied by a brightening of the bremsstrahlung component, this relation differs for the individual high-state episodes. These variations were accompanied by the large changes of the optical modulation. In my view, all of these variations suggest variations of the dimensions and structure of the cyclotron emitting region(s), not only the changes of the mass accretion rate. The activity during a decline (much less steep than the state transition) from an initial very bright peak can be explained by a gradual evolution of the conditions in stratified shock regions in a single high state episode. The observed behavior in the neighboring high-state episodes is also important for explaining the mechanisms which cause the low state between them. In the interpretation, some low-state episodes cause that AM Her develops a different accretion mode than the one before entering the low state. Each high-state episode is a complex phenomenon in the history of accretion in this system.

  18. Breakthroughs in photonics 2013: X-ray optics

    SciTech Connect

    Soufli, Regina

    2014-04-01

    Here, this review discusses the latest advances in extreme ultraviolet/X-ray optics development, which are motivated by the availability and demands of new X-ray sources and scientific and industrial applications. Among the breakthroughs highlighted are the following: i) fabrication, metrology, and mounting technologies for large-area optical substrates with improved figure, roughness, and focusing properties; ii) multilayer coatings with especially optimized layer properties, achieving improved reflectance, stability, and out-of-band suppression; and iii) nanodiffractive optics with improved efficiency and resolution.

  19. Replicated Nickel Optics for the Hard-X-Ray Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Replicated nickel optics has been used extensively in x-ray astronomy, most notable for the XMM/Newton mission. Thc combination of relative ease of fabrication and the inherent stability of full shell optics, make them FIJI attractive approach for medium-resolution, high-throughput applications. MSFC has been developing these optics for use in the hard-x-ray region. Efforts at improving the resolution of these, particularly the very-thin shells required to meet thc weight budget of future missions, will be described together with the prospects for significant improvements down to the 5-arcsec level.

  20. X-raying the Winds of Luminous Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, W. N.; Chartas, G.; Gallagher, S. C.; Gibson, R. R.; Miller, B. P.

    2009-12-01

    We briefly describe some recent observational results, mainly at X-ray wavelengths, on the winds of luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These winds likely play a significant role in galaxy feedback. Topics covered include (1) Relations between X-ray and UV absorption in Broad Absorption Line (BAL) and mini-BAL quasars; (2) X-ray absorption in radio-loud BAL quasars; and (3) Evidence for relativistic iron K BALs in the X-ray spectra of a few bright quasars. We also mention some key outstanding problems and prospects for future advances; e.g., with the International X-ray Observatory (IXO).

  1. Optical variability of X-ray-selected QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pica, Andrew J.; Webb, James R.; Smith, Alex G.; Leacock, Robert J.; Bitran, Mauricio

    1987-08-01

    Photometric data for ten X-ray-selected quasistellar objects have been obtained from archival records of the Rosemary Hill Observatory. Reliable magnitudes were obtained for seven of the ten sources and six displayed optical variations significant at the 95 percent confidence level or greater. One source appeared to exhibit optically violent behavior. Light curves and photographic magnitudes are presented and discussed.

  2. Development of microchannel plate x-ray optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this research program was to develop a novel technique for focusing x-rays based on the optical system of a lobster's eye. A lobster eye employs many closely packed reflecting surfaces arranged within a spherical or cylindrical shell. These optics have two unique properties: they have unlimited fields of view and can be manufactured via replication of identical structures. Because the angular resolution is given by the ratio of the size of the individual optical elements to the focal length, optical elements with size on the order of one hundred microns are required to achieve good angular resolution with a compact telescope. We employed anisotropic etching of single crystal silicon wafers for the fabrication of micron-scale optical elements. This technique, commonly referred to as silicon micromachining, is based on silicon fabrication techniques developed by the microelectronics industry. We have succeeded in producing silicon lenses with a geometry suitable for a 1-d focusing x-ray optics. These lenses have an aspect ratio (40:1) suitable for x-ray reflection and have very good optical surface alignment. We have developed a number of process refinements which improved the quality of the lens geometry and the repeatability of the etch process. In addition to the silicon fabrication, an x-ray beam line was constructed at Columbia for testing the optics. Most recently, we have done several experiments to find the fundamental limits that the anisotropic etch process placed on the etched surface roughness.

  3. Technology development for high-energy x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Engelhaupt, Darell; Kester, Thomas; Speegle, Chet

    2006-06-01

    We are developing hard-x-ray optics using an electroformed-nickel-replication process off superpolished mandrels. To date, we have fabricated over 100 shells for our HERO balloon payload with typical angular resolutions in the 13-15 arcsec range. This paper discusses the factors currently limiting this resolution and various developments geared towards the production of higher-resolution optics.

  4. Optical variability of X-ray-selected QSOs

    SciTech Connect

    Pica, A.J.; Webb, J.R.; Smith, A.G.; Leacock, R.J.; Bitran, M.

    1987-08-01

    Photometric data for ten X-ray-selected quasistellar objects have been obtained from archival records of the Rosemary Hill Observatory. Reliable magnitudes were obtained for seven of the ten sources and six displayed optical variations significant at the 95 percent confidence level or greater. One source appeared to exhibit optically violent behavior. Light curves and photographic magnitudes are presented and discussed. 22 references.

  5. Chandra X-ray Observatory Optical Axis and Aimpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Chandra X-ray Observatory revolutionized the X-ray astronomy as being the first, and so far the only, X-ray telescope achieving sub-arcsecond resolution. Chandra comprises of three principal elements: the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA), Pointing Control and Aspect Determination (PCAD) system, and the Science Instrument Module (SIM). To achieve and retain the unprecedented imaging quality, it is critical that these three principal elements stay rigid and stable for the entire life time of the Chandra operation. Tracking the Chandra optical axis and aimpoint with respect to detector positions is the most relevant measurement for understanding telescope stability. The study shows that both the optical axis and the aimpoint has been drifting since Chandra launch. I will discuss the telescope focal-point, optical axis, aimpoint, their positiondrifts during the mission, the impact to Chandra operations, and the permanent default aimpoint, to be implemented in Chandra cycle 18.

  6. X-Ray and Optical Filaments in M87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, William B.; Donahue, Megan; Jordán, Andrés; Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick

    2004-05-01

    We compare a very deep X-ray image of M87, at the center of the Virgo Cluster, to high-quality optical images of the low-excitation emission-line gas in the same region. There are striking coincidences of detail between the two. We explore the possibility that this represents a thermal interaction between hot gas at 107 K and warm gas at 104 K. We find that two temperatures are present in the X-ray gas, with the lower more prevalent in the vicinity of the optical filaments. Electron conduction from the hot phase to the cooler one provides a quantitatively acceptable energy source for the optical filaments, and we show additionally that it can do so for the brightest X-ray cluster, Perseus. If operative, conduction in the presence of gas-rich galaxy mergers may explain the presence of ``cool cores'' in clusters of galaxies.

  7. Optical and X-ray variability in NGC 4395

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lira, P.; Lawrence, A.

    We are studying a volume-limited sample of very nearby galaxies using multi-band imaging and optical spectroscopy. Our aims are to study the nature of low luminosity nuclear activity in normal galaxies, and the star formation activity and history in nuclear regions. The sample of 46 galaxies was selected from the Kraan-Korteweg & Tamman (KKT) catalogue and contains all galaxies within 7 Mpc, with declinations > -35 deg, and Hubble types Sdm or earlier. With complete UBVRI imaging, and near-IR, X-ray and radio data for the majority of our sample, we selected all interesting targets for high S/N, long-slit spectroscopy. Currently 76% of the sample has been observed with the ISIS spectrograph at The William Herschel Telescope. In this poster we present results from our spectroscopic data, which involves the analysis and modelling of the nuclear stellar population and emission-line spectra.

  8. X-ray multilayer optics for Indus synchrotrons application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Maheswar; Pradhan, P. C.; Lodha, G. S.

    2015-06-01

    We present the state-of-the-art X-ray multilayer optics fabrication facilities at Indus synchrotrons complex. The facilities are regularly used for fabrication of high quality x-ray multilayer structures. The results on two representative materials combination of Mo/Si and W/B4C are presented. In Mo/Si multilayer system, we have achieved ˜70% of reflectivity (near normal incidence angle) at soft x-ray region. Large area (300mm×50mm) Mo/Si multilayers are also successively fabricated for monochromator application in hard x-ray region. Whereas in W/B4C system, we demonstrate the capability of these facilities to fabricate ultra short period multilayer (periodicity ˜15-20 Å) with large number of layer pairs in the range of 200-400 for transmission polarizer near Fe L-edge and for monochromator application in hard x-ray region. Hard x-ray reflectivity of ˜54% is achieved from W/B4C MLs with periodicity ˜20 Å and number of layer pairs 300.

  9. Optical properties of X-rays--dynamical diffraction.

    PubMed

    Authier, André

    2012-01-01

    The first attempts at measuring the optical properties of X-rays such as refraction, reflection and diffraction are described. The main ideas forming the basis of Ewald's thesis in 1912 are then summarized. The first extension of Ewald's thesis to the X-ray case is the introduction of the reciprocal lattice. In the next step, the principles of the three versions of the dynamical theory of diffraction, by Darwin, Ewald and Laue, are given. It is shown how the comparison of the dynamical and geometrical theories of diffraction led Darwin to propose his extinction theory. The main optical properties of X-ray wavefields at the Bragg incidence are then reviewed: Pendellösung, shift of the Bragg peak, fine structure of Kossel lines, standing waves, anomalous absorption, paths of wavefields inside the crystal, Borrmann fan and double refraction. Lastly, some of the modern applications of the dynamical theory are briefly outlined: X-ray topography, location of adsorbed atoms at crystal surfaces, optical devices for synchrotron radiation and X-ray interferometry. PMID:22186282

  10. Optics-free x-ray FEL oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Hao, Y.; Kayran, D.; Trbojevic, D.

    2011-03-28

    There is a need for an Optics-Free FEL Oscillators (OFFELO) to further the advantages of free-electron lasers and turning them in fully coherent light sources. While SASE (Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission) FELs demonstrated the capability of providing very high gain and short pulses of radiation and scalability to the X-ray range, the spectra of SASE FELs remains rather wide ({approx}0.5%-1%) compared with typical short wavelengths FEL-oscillators (0.01%-0.0003% in OK-4 FEL). Absence of good optics in VUV and X-ray ranges makes traditional oscillator schemes with very high average and peak spectral brightness either very complex or, strictly speaking, impossible. In this paper, we discuss lattice of the X-ray optics-free FEL oscillator and present results of initial computer simulations of the feedback process and the evolution of FEL spectrum in X-ray OFFELO. We also discuss main limiting factors and feasibility of X-ray OFFELO.

  11. Chandra X-ray Observatory Aimpoint and Optical Axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Chandra X-ray Observatory revolutionized the X-ray astronomy as being the first, and so far the only, X-ray telescope achieving sub-arcsecond resolution. The Chandra telescope is comprised of three principal elements: the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA), Pointing Control and Aspect Determination (PCAD) system, and the Science Instrument Module (SIM), which is where the X-ray detectors mounted and is connected to the HRMA by a 10-meter long Optical Bench Assembly. To achieve and retain the unprecedented imaging quality, it is critical that these three principal elements to stay rigid and stable for the entire life time of the Chandra operation. By measuring the telescope Aimpoint and Optical Axis positions on the detectors, we can exam the stability of the telescope. These positions have been monitored continuously as one of the Chandra on-orbit calibration tasks. The results show that these positions have been drifting continuously since launch. I will present the drift of the Optical Axis and Aimpoint, their default offset, and explain their impacts to the Chandra operation and evaluates the integrity and stability of the telescope. This study is essential to ensure the optimal operation of the Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  12. Optical Design for a Survey X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.; McClelland, Ryan S.

    2014-01-01

    Optical design trades are underway at the Goddard Space Flight Center to define a telescope for an x-ray survey mission. Top-level science objectives of the mission include the study of x-ray transients, surveying and long-term monitoring of compact objects in nearby galaxies, as well as both deep and wide-field x-ray surveys. In this paper we consider Wolter, Wolter-Schwarzschild, and modified Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope designs as basic building blocks for the tightly nested survey telescope. Design principles and dominating aberrations of individual telescopes and nested telescopes are discussed and we compare the off-axis optical performance at 1.0 KeV and 4.0 KeV across a 1.0-degree full field-of-view.

  13. Technology Development for Nickel X-Ray Optics Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Engelhaupt, Darell

    2008-01-01

    We are developing grazing-incidence x-ray optics for high-energy astrophysics using the electroform-nickel replication process. In this process, mirror shells are fabricated by replication off super-polished cylindrical mandrels. The mirrors fabricated using this process have a demonstrated optical performance at the level of 11-12 arc seconds resolution (HPD) for 30 keV x rays. Future missions demand ever higher angular resolutions and this places stringent requirements on the quality of the mandrels, the precision of the metrology, and the mounting and alignment of the mirror shells in their housings. A progress report on recent technology developments in all these areas will be presented along with a discussion on possible post fabrication, in-situ improvement of the x-ray mirrors quality.

  14. X-RAY PRODUCTION BY V1647 Ori DURING OPTICAL OUTBURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Teets, William K.; Weintraub, David A.; Grosso, Nicolas; Principe, David; Kastner, Joel H.; Richmond, Michael; Hamaguchi, Kenji

    2011-11-10

    The pre-main-sequence (PMS) star V1647 Ori has recently undergone two optical/near-infrared (OIR) outbursts that are associated with dramatic enhancements in the stellar accretion rate. Our intensive X-ray monitoring of this object affords the opportunity to investigate whether and how the intense X-ray emission is related to PMS accretion activity. Our analysis of all 14 Chandra X-Ray Observatory observations of V1647 Ori demonstrates that variations in the X-ray luminosity of V1647 Ori are correlated with similar changes in the OIR brightness of this source during both (2003-2005 and 2008) eruptions, strongly supporting the hypothesis that accretion is the primary generation mechanism for the X-ray outbursts. Furthermore, the Chandra monitoring demonstrates that the X-ray spectral properties of the second eruption were strikingly similar to those of the 2003 eruption. We find that X-ray spectra obtained immediately following the second outburst-during which V1647 Ori exhibited high X-ray luminosities, high hardness ratios, and strong X-ray variability-are well modeled as a heavily absorbed (N{sub H} {approx} 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}), single-component plasma with characteristic temperatures (kT{sub X} {approx} 2-6 keV) that are consistently too high to be generated via accretion shocks but are in the range expected for plasma heated by magnetic reconnection events. We also find that the X-ray absorbing column has not changed significantly throughout the observing campaign. Since the OIR and X-ray changes are correlated, we hypothesize that these reconnection events either occur in the accretion stream connecting the circumstellar disk to the star or in accretion-enhanced protostellar coronal activity.

  15. The Focusing Optics Solar X-ray Imager (FOXSI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christe, Steven; Glesener, L.; Krucker, S.; Ramsey, B.; Ishikawa, S.; Takahashi, T.; Tajima, H.

    2010-05-01

    The Focusing Optics x-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) is a sounding rocket payload funded under the NASA Low Cost Access to Space program to test hard x-ray focusing optics and position-sensitive solid state detectors for solar observations. Today's leading solar hard x-ray instrument, the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) provides excellent spatial (2 arcseconds) and spectral (1 keV) resolution. Yet, due to its use of indirect imaging, the derived images have a low dynamic range (<30) and sensitivity. These limitations make it difficult to study faint x-ray sources in the solar corona which are crucial for understanding the solar flare acceleration process. Grazing-incidence x-ray focusing optics combined with position-sensitive solid state detectors can overcome both of these limitations enabling the next breakthrough in understanding particle acceleration in solar flares. The FOXSI project is led by the Space Science Laboratory at the University of California. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, with experience from the HERO balloon project, is responsible for the grazing-incidence optics, while the Astro H team (JAXA/ISAS) will provide double-sided silicon strip detectors. FOXSI will be a pathfinder for the next generation of solar hard x-ray spectroscopic imagers. Such observatories will be able to image the non-thermal electrons within the solar flare acceleration region, trace their paths through the corona, and provide essential quantitative measurements such as energy spectra, density, and energy content in accelerated electrons.

  16. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krucker, Sam; Christe, Steven; Glesener, Lindsay; McBride, Steve; Turin, Paul; Glaser, David; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Delory, Gregory; Lin, R. P.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Terada, Yukikatsu; Ishikawa, Shin-Nosuke; Kokubun, Motohide; Saito, Shinya; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Shin; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Masuda, Satoshi; Minoshima, Takashi; Shomojo, Masumi

    2009-08-01

    The Focusing Optics x-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) is a sounding rocket payload funded under the NASA Low Cost Access to Space program to test hard x-ray focusing optics and position-sensitive solid state detectors for solar observations. Today's leading solar hard x-ray instrument, the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) provides excellent spatial (2 arcseconds) and spectral (1 keV) resolution. Yet, due to its use of indirect imaging, the derived images have a low dynamic range (<30) and sensitivity. These limitations make it difficult to study faint x-ray sources in the solar corona which are crucial for understanding the solar flare acceleration process. Grazing-incidence x-ray focusing optics combined with position-sensitive solid state detectors can overcome both of these limitations enabling the next breakthrough in understanding particle acceleration in solar flares. The FOXSI project is led by the Space Science Laboratory at the University of California. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, with experience from the HERO balloon project, is responsible for the grazing-incidence optics, while the Astro H team (JAXA/ISAS) will provide double-sided silicon strip detectors. FOXSI will be a pathfinder for the next generation of solar hard x-ray spectroscopic imagers. Such observatories will be able to image the non-thermal electrons within the solar flare acceleration region, trace their paths through the corona, and provide essential quantitative measurements such as energy spectra, density, and energy content in accelerated electrons.

  17. Optical Shaping of X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, A; Coffee, R; Vetter, S; Hering, P; West, G N; Gilevich, S; Lutman, A A; Li, S; Maxwell, T; Galayda, J; Fry, A; Huang, Z

    2016-06-24

    In this Letter we report the experimental demonstration of a new temporal shaping technique for x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs). This technique is based on the use of a spectrally shaped infrared (IR) laser and allows optical control of the x-ray generation process. By accurately manipulating the spectral amplitude and phase of the IR laser, we can selectively modify the electron bunch longitudinal emittance thus controlling the duration of the resulting x-ray pulse down to the femtosecond time scale. Unlike other methods currently in use, optical shaping is directly applicable to the next generation of high-average power x-ray FELs such as the Linac Coherent Light Source-II or the European X-FEL, and it enables pulse shaping of FELs at the highest repetition rates. Furthermore, this laser-shaping technique paves the way for flexible tailoring of complex multicolor FEL pulse patterns required for nonlinear multidimensional x-ray spectroscopy as well as novel multicolor diffraction imaging schemes. PMID:27391728

  18. Optical Shaping of X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinelli, A.; Coffee, R.; Vetter, S.; Hering, P.; West, G. N.; Gilevich, S.; Lutman, A. A.; Li, S.; Maxwell, T.; Galayda, J.; Fry, A.; Huang, Z.

    2016-06-01

    In this Letter we report the experimental demonstration of a new temporal shaping technique for x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs). This technique is based on the use of a spectrally shaped infrared (IR) laser and allows optical control of the x-ray generation process. By accurately manipulating the spectral amplitude and phase of the IR laser, we can selectively modify the electron bunch longitudinal emittance thus controlling the duration of the resulting x-ray pulse down to the femtosecond time scale. Unlike other methods currently in use, optical shaping is directly applicable to the next generation of high-average power x-ray FELs such as the Linac Coherent Light Source-II or the European X-FEL, and it enables pulse shaping of FELs at the highest repetition rates. Furthermore, this laser-shaping technique paves the way for flexible tailoring of complex multicolor FEL pulse patterns required for nonlinear multidimensional x-ray spectroscopy as well as novel multicolor diffraction imaging schemes.

  19. Microchannel-plate-based x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beijersbergen, Marco W.; Bavdaz, Markos; Peacock, Anthony J.; Tomaselli, Enrico; Fraser, G.; Brunton, A.; Flyckt, E.; Krumrey, Michael K.; Souvorov, Alexei

    1999-10-01

    X-ray optics based on micro-channel plates (MCPs) offer some distinctive advantages over conventional technologies used to produce imagin optics for astrophysics applications. Such micro-pore optics (MPOs) are far lighter and allow a larger stacking density than optics based on metallic foils or plates. Until recent, x-ray optics based on MCPs were not feasible or useful because of the limited quality of the MCPs. We have produced thick square pore MPOs of improved quality and have developed methods to stack the channels in a radial pattern, as required for imagin optics based on Wolter type I or II designs. The individual plates were tested in synchrotron radiation facilities and conventional beam lines to determine their geometric and surface scattering properties.

  20. Activity in X-ray-selected late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takalo, Leo O.; Nousek, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    A spectroscopic study has been conducted of nine X-ray bright late-type stars selected from two Einstein X-ray surveys: the Columbia Astrophysical Laboratory Survey (five stars) and the CFA Medium Sensitivity Survey (MSS; four stars). Spectral classes were determined and radial and V sin(i) velocities were measured for the stars. Four of the Columbia Survey stars were found to be new RS CVn-type binaries. The fifth Columbia survey star was found to be an active G dwarf star without evidence for binarity. None of the four MSS stars were found to be either binaries or optically active stars. Activity in these stars was assessed by measuring the excess emission in H-alpha and the Ca II IRT (8498, 8542) lines in comparison with inactive stars of similar spectral types. A correlation was found between X-ray luminosity and V sin(i) and H-alpha line excess. The measured excess line emission in H-alpha was also correlated with V sin(i) but not with the IRT line excess.

  1. X-ray optics simulation using Gaussian superposition technique.

    PubMed

    Idir, Mourad; Cywiak, Moisés; Morales, Arquímedes; Modi, Mohammed H

    2011-09-26

    We present an efficient method to perform x-ray optics simulation with high or partially coherent x-ray sources using Gaussian superposition technique. In a previous paper, we have demonstrated that full characterization of optical systems, diffractive and geometric, is possible by using the Fresnel Gaussian Shape Invariant (FGSI) previously reported in the literature. The complex amplitude distribution in the object plane is represented by a linear superposition of complex Gaussians wavelets and then propagated through the optical system by means of the referred Gaussian invariant. This allows ray tracing through the optical system and at the same time allows calculating with high precision the complex wave-amplitude distribution at any plane of observation. This technique can be applied in a wide spectral range where the Fresnel diffraction integral applies including visible, x-rays, acoustic waves, etc. We describe the technique and include some computer simulations as illustrative examples for x-ray optical component. We show also that this method can be used to study partial or total coherence illumination problem. PMID:21996845

  2. High energy, high resolution X-ray optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Joy, Marshall; Kahn, Steven

    1990-01-01

    The scientific goals of X-ray astronomy are considered to evaluate the relative advantages of using classical Wolter-1 optics or using a different approach. The portion of the X-ray band over 10 keV is unexploited in the present X-ray optics technology, and focussing in this portion of the band is crucial because nonfocussed experiments are background limited. The basic design of 'hard' X-ray optics is described theoretically emphasizing the very small angles of incidence in the grazing-incidence optics. Optimization of the signal-to-noise ratio is found to occur at a finite angular resolution. In real applications, the effective area reduced by the efficiency of the two reflections is 80 percent at energies up to 40 keV, and the quality of the reflecting surface can be monitored to minimize scattering. Focussing optics are found to offer improvements in signal-to-noise as well as more effective scientific return because microelectronic focal-plane technology is employed.

  3. X-ray optics simulation using Gaussian superposition technique

    SciTech Connect

    Idir, M.; Cywiak, M.; Morales, A. and Modi, M.H.

    2011-09-15

    We present an efficient method to perform x-ray optics simulation with high or partially coherent x-ray sources using Gaussian superposition technique. In a previous paper, we have demonstrated that full characterization of optical systems, diffractive and geometric, is possible by using the Fresnel Gaussian Shape Invariant (FGSI) previously reported in the literature. The complex amplitude distribution in the object plane is represented by a linear superposition of complex Gaussians wavelets and then propagated through the optical system by means of the referred Gaussian invariant. This allows ray tracing through the optical system and at the same time allows calculating with high precision the complex wave-amplitude distribution at any plane of observation. This technique can be applied in a wide spectral range where the Fresnel diffraction integral applies including visible, x-rays, acoustic waves, etc. We describe the technique and include some computer simulations as illustrative examples for x-ray optical component. We show also that this method can be used to study partial or total coherence illumination problem.

  4. FY06 LDRD Final Report Next-generation x-ray optics: focusing hard x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Pivovaroff, M; Soufli, R

    2007-03-01

    The original goal of our research was to open up a new class of scientific experiments by increasing the power of newly available x-ray sources by orders of magnitude. This was accomplished by developing a new generation of x-ray optics, based on hard x-ray (10-200 keV) reflective and diffractive focusing elements. The optical systems we envision begin with a core reflective optic, which has the ability to capture and concentrate x-rays across a wide range of energies and angles band, combined with diffractive optics, based on large-scale multilayer structures, that will further enhance the spatial, spectral and temporal resolving power of the system. Enabling technologies developed at LLNL such as precise mounting of thermally formed substrates, smoothing techniques and multilayer films of ultra-high reflectance and precision were crucial in the development and demonstration of our research objectives. Highlights of this phase of the project include: the design and fabrication of a concentrator optic for the Pleiades Thomson X-ray source located at LLNL, smoothing of glass substrates through application of polyimide films, and the design, fabrication and testing of novel volume multilayers structures. Part of our research into substrate smooth led to the development of a new technique (patent pending) to construct high-quality, inexpensive x-ray optics. This innovation resulted in LLNL constructing a x-ray optic for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) and allowed LLNL to join the international experiment.

  5. Polarization selection rules and optical transitions in terbium activated yttrium tantalate phosphor under x-ray, vacuum-ultraviolet, and ultraviolet excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, Mihail; Tsukerblat, Boris; Byeon, Clare Chisu; Arellano, Ivan; Popovici, Elisabeth-Jeanne; Noh, Do Young

    2009-01-01

    The terbium-activated yttrium tantalite (YTaO4:Tb{sup 3{sup +}}) phosphor is of great interest due to the interesting spectroscopic properties of rare earth ions in crystals and also practical use in x-ray imaging. Using the group-theoretical approach, we analyze the selection rules for the transition between Stark components of Tb{sup 3{sup +}} in symmetry of the actual crystal field and the polarization for the allowed transitions. The luminescence upon UV, vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV), and x-ray excitation is presented and discussed. The YTaO4:Tb{sup 3{sup +}} phosphors are found to be efficient VUV-excited luminescent materials that could be used not only in x-ray intensifying screens, but also in mercury-free fluorescent lamps or plasma display panels.

  6. Soft X-ray astronomy using grazing incidence optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John M.

    1989-01-01

    The instrumental background of X-ray astronomy with an emphasis on high resolution imagery is outlined. Optical and system performance, in terms of resolution, are compared and methods for improving the latter in finite length instruments described. The method of analysis of broadband images to obtain diagnostic information is described and is applied to the analysis of coronal structures.

  7. Very low luminosity active galaxies and the X-ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, M.; Soltan, A.; Keel, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    The properties of very low luminosity active galactic nuclei are not well studied, and, in particular, their possible contribution to the diffuse X-ray background is not known. In the present investigation, an X-ray luminosity function for the range from 10 to the 39th to 10 to the 42.5th ergs/s is constructed. The obtained X-ray luminosity function is integrated to estimate the contribution of these very low luminosity active galaxies to the diffuse X-ray background. The construction of the X-ray luminosity function is based on data obtained by Keel (1983) and some simple assumptions about optical and X-ray properties.

  8. A 0535+26: an X-ray/Optical Tour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camero-Arranz, A.; Finger, M. H.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Jenke, P.; Coe, M. J.; Steele, I.; Caballero, I.; Gutierrez-Soto, J.; Kretschmar, P.; Suso, J.; McBride, V. A.; Rodríguez, J.

    2011-09-01

    We compiled X-ray and Optical observations of the accreting X-ray binary sytem A 0535+26 since its discovery in 1975, that will allow us to shed light on the unpredictible behavior of this binary system. We present the data in terms of the Be-disc interaction with the neutron star companion. In addition, we show recent results from the continous monitoring of this source by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), on board the Fermi observatory, since its launch in 2008 June 11.

  9. Simultaneous X-ray and optical observations of GX 339-4 in an X-ray high state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makishima, K.; Mitsuda, K.; Maejima, Y.; Bradt, H. V.; Remillard, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Optical emission, soft X-rays, and hard X-rays have been observed simultaneously from the black hole candidate GX 3339-4 in a typical high state. Each of these components is interpreted as arising from a characteristic region of the accretion disk. Considered as a black hole, GX 339-4 lacks the variable 2 keV blackbody component that would be emitted from the 'solid' surface of a neutron star in the low-mass neutron star binaries. The X-ray emission in the high state is therefore extremely soft and stable in time. The intermediate disk region is optically thick and geometrically thin. The observed soft X-ray component with a 'disk blackbody' spectrum comes from this region. The innermost disk region is dynamically unstable due to the effect of general relativity and possibly due to radiation pressure. This region is responsible for the generation of the hard X-ray tail through Comptonization.

  10. Optical Klystron Enhancement to SASE X-ray FELs

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Yuantao; Emma, Paul; Huang, Zhirong; Kumar, Vinit

    2006-04-07

    The optical klystron enhancement to self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free electron lasers (FELs) is studied in theory and in simulations. In contrast to a seeded FEL, the optical klystron gain in a SASE FEL is not sensitive to any phase mismatch between the radiation and the microbunched electron beam. The FEL performance with the addition of four optical klystrons located at the undulator long breaks in the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) shows significant improvement if the uncorrelated energy spread at the undulator entrance can be controlled to a very small level. In addition, FEL saturation at shorter x-ray wavelengths (around 1.0 A) within the LCLS undulator length becomes possible. We also discuss the application of the optical klystron in a compact x-ray FEL design that employs relatively low electron beam energy together with a shorter-period undulator.

  11. The cosmological evolution and luminosity function of X-ray selected active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccacaro, T.; Gioia, I. M.; Avni, Y.; Giommi, P.; Griffiths, R. E.; Liebert, J.; Stocke, J.; Danziger, J.

    1983-01-01

    The cosmological evolution and the X-ray luminosity function of X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are derived and discussed. The sample used consists of 31 AGNs extracted from a fully identified sample of X-ray sources from the Einstein Observatory Medium Sensitivity Survey and is therefore exclusively defined by its X-ray properties. The distribution in space is found to be strongly nonuniform. The amount of cosmological evolution required by the X-ray data is derived in the framework of pure luminosity evolution and is found to be smaller than the amount determined from optically selected samples. The X-ray luminosity function is derived. It can be satisfactorily represented by a single power law only over a limited range of absolute luminosities. Evidence that the luminosity function flattens at low luminosity or steepens at high luminosity, or both, is presented and discussed.

  12. The Focusing Optics X-Ray Solar Imager: FOXSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krucker, Saem; Christe, Steven; Glesener, Lindsay; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; McBride, Stephen; Glaser, David; Turin, Paul; Lin, R. P.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Saito, Shinya; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Shin; Tajima, Takaaki; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Masuda, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    The Focusing Optics x-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) is a sounding rocket payload funded under the NASA Low Cost Access to Space program to test hard x-ray (HXR) focusing optics and position-sensitive solid state detectors for solar observations. Today's leading solar HXR instrument, the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) provides excellent spatial (2 arcseconds) and spectral (1 keV) resolution. Yet, due to its use of an indirect imaging system, the derived images have a low dynamic range (typically <10) and sensitivity. These limitations make it difficult to study faint x-ray sources in the solar corona which are crucial for understanding the particle acceleration processes which occur there. Grazing-incidence x-ray focusing optics combined with position-sensitive solid state detectors can overcome both of these limitations enabling the next breakthrough in understanding impulsive energy release on the Sun. The FOXSI project is led by the Space Sciences Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for the grazing-incidence optics, while the Astro-H team at JAXA/ISAS has provided double-sided silicon strip detectors. FOXSI is a pathfinder for the next generation of solar hard x-ray spectroscopic imagers. Such observatories will be able to image the non-thermal electrons within the solar flare acceleration region, trace their paths through the corona, and provide essential quantitative measurements such as energy spectra, density, and energy content in accelerated electrons.

  13. [High-Performance Active Pixel X-Ray Sensors for X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautz, Mark; Suntharalingam, Vyshnavi

    2005-01-01

    The subject grants support development of High-Performance Active Pixel Sensors for X-ray Astronomy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Center for Space Research and at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory. This memo reports our progress in the second year of the project, from April, 2004 through the present.

  14. Combined optic system based on polycapillary X-ray optics and single-bounce monocapillary optics for focusing X-rays from a conventional laboratory X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xuepeng; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Yi, Longtao; Sun, Weiyuan; Li, Fangzuo; Jiang, Bowen; Ma, Yongzhong; Ding, Xunliang

    2015-12-01

    Two combined optic systems based on polycapillary X-ray optics and single-bounce monocapillary optics (SBMO) were designed for focusing the X-rays from a conventional laboratory X-ray source. One was based on a polycapillary focusing X-ray lens (PFXRL) and a single-bounce ellipsoidal capillary (SBEC), in which the output focal spot with the size of tens of micrometers of the PFXRL was used as the "virtual" X-ray source for the SBEC. The other system was based on a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL) and a single-bounce parabolic capillary (SBPC), in which the PPXRL transformed the divergent X-ray beam from an X-ray source into a quasi-parallel X-ray beam with the divergence of sever milliradians as the incident illumination of the SBPC. The experiment results showed that the combined optic systems based on PFXRL and SBEC with a Mo rotating anode X-ray generator with the focal spot with a diameter of 300 μm could obtain a focal spot with the total gain of 14,300 and focal spot size of 37.4 μm, and the combined optic systems based on PPXRL and SBPC with the same X-ray source mentioned above could acquire a focal spot with the total gain of 580 and focal spot size of 58.3 μm, respectively. The two combined optic systems have potential applications in micro X-ray diffraction, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption near edge structure, full field X-ray microscopes and so on.

  15. Optical Variability of X-Ray Bright Southern Symbiotic Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedrick, C.; Sokoloski, J.

    2004-12-01

    We performed weekly B- and V-band observations of four X-ray bright southern symbiotic binary stars -- CD-43 14304, Hen 3-1591, LMC S63, and SMC LN 358 -- using the 1.3-m telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). We began optical monitoring in August 2003 for two of the objects (LMC S63 and SMC LN 358) and in January 2004 for the other two objects (CD-43 14304 and Hen 3-1591). None of the four survey objects experienced a major outburst during the monitoring period. We did, however, detect small-amplitude ( 0.1 mag) optical variability on a time scale of tens of days, for the first time, in each of the four systems. Both the structure and amplitude of the variations are roughly the same in the B band and V band in all of the symbiotics in our sample except one (LMC S63), and is most consistent with the idea that the week-time-scale variability originates with the hot component (most likely an accreting white dwarf) rather than the red giant. We compare the variability properties of our small sample of X-ray-bright symbiotic stars to those of samples of both X-ray-bright and X-ray-dim symbiotic stars from the database of the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO).

  16. Development of net-shape piezoelectric actuators for large x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Zhang, Dou; Button, Tim; Meggs, Carl; Atkins, Carolyn; Doel, Peter; Brooks, David; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; James, Ady; Willis, Graham; Smith, Andy

    2010-09-01

    The design of current X-ray telescope systems needs to reach a compromise between the resolution and sensitivity. A new area of interest of adaptive optics is the development of actively controlled thin X-ray mirrors, where aberrations would be corrected. Their assembly on an X-ray telescope would provide an instrument with both high resolution and sensitivity. The Smart X-Ray Optics (SXO) project comprises a U.K.-based consortium developing prototypes for the next generation of X-ray telescopes. The overall aim is to produce X-ray mirrors using thin, below 1mm, structures, comprising Ni mirror shells with bonded piezoelectric unimorph actuators, and with a target resolution of {0.1 arcs. Such an optic would enable the design of an X-ray telescope with both a greater resolution and collective area than the best currently available by Chandra (0.5arcs) and XMM Newton (1650cm2) respectively. Lead zirconate titanate, PZT-based piezoelectric actuators are being developed in this programme to fit precisely the curved Ni mirror shell prototypes (100×300×0.4mm, radius of curvature 167mm). Viscous plastic processing has been chosen for the fabrication of net-shaped piezoelectric unimorph actuators 75×32×0.18mm, with radius of curvature conforming to those of the X-ray optic. Laser machining has been used for precisely controlling the actuator shape and for the definition of the multi-segment electrodes. Accurate control of the thickness, surface finish and curvature are the key factors to delivering satisfactory actuators. Results are presented concerning the fabrication and characterisation of the piezoelectric actuators, and the integration procedure on the nickel optic.

  17. X-Ray Testing Constellation-X Optics at MSFC's 100-m Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen; Baker, Markus; Content, David; Freeman, Mark; Glenn, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhail; Hair, Jason; Jones, William; Joy, Marshall

    2003-01-01

    features --- fixed aperture mask and movable sub-aperture mask --- to facilitate X-ray characterization of the optics. Although the OAPZ was designed to- have low sensitivity to temperature offsets and gradients, analyses showed the necessity of active temperature control for the X-ray performance testing. Thus, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) implemented a thermal control and monitoring system, designed to hold the OAP2 close to its assembly.

  18. Development of microchannel plate x-ray optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, Philip; Chen, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research program was to develop a novel technique for focusing x-rays based on the optical system of a lobster's eye. A lobster eye employs many closely packed reflecting surfaces arranged within a spherical or cylindrical shell. These optics have two unique properties: they have unlimited fields of view and can be manufactured via replication of identical structures. Because the angular resolution is given by the ratio of the size of the individual optical elements to the focal length, optical elements with sizes on the order of one hundred microns are required to achieve good angular resolution with a compact telescope. We employed anisotropic etching of single crystal silicon wafers for the fabrication of micron-scale optical elements. This technique, commonly referred to as silicon micromachining, is based on silicon fabrication techniques developed by the microelectronics industry. An anisotropic etchant is a chemical which etches certain silicon crystal planes much more rapidly than others. Using wafers in which the slowly etched crystal planes are aligned perpendicularly to the wafer surface, it is possible to etch a pattern completely through a wafer with very little distortion. Our optics consist of rectangular pores etched completely through group of zone axes (110) oriented silicon wafers. The larger surfaces of the pores (the mirror elements) were aligned with the group of zone axes (111) planes of the crystal perpendicular to the wafer surface. We have succeeded in producing silicon lenses with a geometry suitable for 1-d focusing x-ray optics. These lenses have an aspect ratio (40:1) suitable for x-ray reflection and have very good optical surface alignment. We have developed a number of process refinements which improved the quality of the lens geometry and the repeatability of the etch process. A significant progress was made in obtaining good optical surface quality. The RMS roughness was decreased from 110 A for our initial lenses

  19. Optics for nano-satellite X-ray monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichý, Vladimír.; Burrows, David N.; Prieskorn, Zachary; Hudec, René

    The Schmidt lobster eye design for a grazing incidence X-ray optics provides wide field of view of the order of many degrees, for this reason it can be a convenient approach for the construction of space X-ray monitors. It is possible to assemble Schmidt lobster eye telescopes with dimensions and focal lengths acceptable for nano class satellites. In this paper, draft of nano-class space mission providing monitoring of specific sky area is presented. Preliminary optical design study for such mission is performed. Two of possible opticle designs are presented. For those designs, field of view, effective input area and other basic optical parameters are calculated. Examples of observed images are presented.

  20. Bendable X-ray Optics for High Resolution Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; Broadway, D.

    2014-01-01

    Current state-of the-art for x-ray optics fabrication calls for either the polishing of massive substrates into high-angular-resolution mirrors or the replication of thin, lower-resolution, mirrors from perfectly figured mandrels. Future X-ray Missions will require a change in this optics fabrication paradigm in order to achieve sub-arcsecond resolution in light-weight optics. One possible approach to this is to start with perfectly flat, light-weight surface, bend it into a perfect cone, form the desired mirror figure by material deposition, and insert the resulting mirror into a telescope structure. Such an approach is currently being investigated at MSFC, and a status report will be presented detailing the results of finite element analyses, bending tests and differential deposition experiments.

  1. Workshop on high heat load x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    A workshop on High Heat Load X-Ray Optics'' was held at Argonne National Laboratory on August 3--5, 1989. The object of this workshop was to discuss recent advances in the art of cooling x-ray optics subject to high heat loads from synchrotron beams. The cooling of the first optical element in the intense photon beams that will be produced in the next generation of synchrotron sources is recognized as one of the major challenges that must be faced before one will be able to use these very intense beams in future synchrotron experiments. Considerable advances have been made in this art during the last few years, but much work remains to be done before the heating problem can be said to be completely solved. Special emphasis was placed on recent cooling experiments and detailed finite element'' and finite difference'' calculations comparing experiment with theory and extending theory to optimize performance.

  2. Spectral encoding method for measuring the relative arrival time between x-ray/optical pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Bionta, M. R.; Hartmann, N.; Weaver, M.; French, D.; Glownia, J. M.; Bostedt, C.; Chollet, M.; Ding, Y.; Fritz, D. M.; Fry, A. R.; Krzywinski, J.; Lemke, H. T.; Messerschmidt, M.; Schorb, S.; Zhu, D.; White, W. E.; Nicholson, D. J.; Cryan, J. P.; Baker, K.; Kane, D. J.; and others

    2014-08-15

    The advent of few femtosecond x-ray light sources brings promise of x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments that can measure chemical and structural changes in the 10–100 fs time regime. Widely distributed timing systems used at x-ray Free-Electron Laser facilities are typically limited to above 50 fs fwhm jitter in active x-ray/optical synchronization. The approach of single-shot timing measurements is used to sort results in the event processing stage. This has seen wide use to accommodate the insufficient precision of active stabilization schemes. In this article, we review the current technique for “measure-and-sort” at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The relative arrival time between an x-ray pulse and an optical pulse is measured near the experimental interaction region as a spectrally encoded cross-correlation signal. The cross-correlation provides a time-stamp for filter-and-sort algorithms used for real-time sorting. Sub-10 fs rms resolution is common in this technique, placing timing precision at the same scale as the duration of the shortest achievable x-ray pulses.

  3. OTELO SURVEY: DEEP BVRI BROADBAND PHOTOMETRY OF THE GROTH STRIP. II. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF X-RAY EMITTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Povic, M.; Perez GarcIa, A. M.; Bongiovanni, A.; Castaneda, H.; Lorenzo, M. Fernandez; Lara-Lopez, M. A.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Alfaro, E.; Gallego, J.; Gonzalez-Serrano, J. I.; Gonzalez, J. J. E-mail: miguel.sanchez@sciops.esa.in

    2009-11-20

    The Groth field is one of the sky regions that will be targeted by the OSIRIS Tunable Filter Emission Line Object survey in the optical 820 nm and 920 nm atmospheric windows. In the present paper, public Chandra X-ray data with total exposure time of 200 ks are analyzed and combined with optical broadband data of the Groth field, in order to study a set of optical structural parameters of the X-ray emitters and its relation with X-ray properties. To this aim, we processed the raw, public X-ray data using the Chandra Interactive Analysis of Observations, and determined and analyzed different structural parameters, in order to produce a morphological classification of X-ray sources. We present the morphology of 340 X-ray emitters with optical counterpart detected. Objects have been classified by X-ray type using a diagnostic diagram relating X-ray-to-optical ratio (X/O) to hardness ratio. We did not find any clear correlation between X-ray and morphological types. We analyzed the angular clustering of X-ray sources with optical counterpart using two-point correlation functions. A significant positive angular clustering was obtained from a preliminary analysis of four subsamples of the X-ray sources catalog. The clustering signal of the optically extended counterparts is similar to that of strongly clustered populations like red and very red galaxies, suggesting that the environment plays an important role in active galactic nuclei phenomena. Finally, we combined optical structural parameters with other X-ray and optical properties, and we confirmed an anticorrelation between the X/O ratio and the Abraham concentration index, which might suggest that early-type galaxies have lower Eddington rates than those of late-type galaxies.

  4. Optical, radio, and X-ray structure in NGC 1275.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Brian R.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Sarazin, Craig L.

    1996-07-01

    We have compiled U, I, Hα, radio, and x-ray maps of NGC 1275 in order to study the galaxy's structure and color distribution. There are strong indications that the radio source is interacting with the gaseous medium in NGC 1275. A ~2 mag spread in U-I color is found across the face of the galaxy. The brightest and bluest structure in the U-band image is located along the northern radio lobes and cavity walls in the x-ray emission. Correspondingly bright features are absent along the southern radio lobe. The low velocity Hα emission avoids the cavities in the x-ray emission occupied by the radio lobes. The global distribution of excess blue light, Hα emission, and brightest x-ray emission occur over similar spatial scales (~30-40 kpc). However, the x-ray and optical structures are not correlated in detail. We have detected a faint blue continuum from the outer, "crab-like" low velocity filaments, which may signal ongoing star formation there. In addition, we have detected blue continuum toward the high velocity emission regions, perhaps from stars associated with the high velocity gas. Dark features, probably associated with dust, surround the nucleus and extend in filaments to the north- west. We suggest the dust surrounding the nucleus is associated with NGC 1275 itself, whereas the dust to the north-west may be associated with the high velocity system. The color distribution is consistent with population ages ranging from ~10 Myr to 1 Gyr superposed on an older, elliptical background population. The formation of the youngest (brightest, bluest) population along the radio lobes may have been induced by shock compression of cold gas along the northern radio lobe. This interpretation is complicated, however, by the superposition of light toward both high and low velocity gas to the north-west of the nucleus and the pole-on aspect of the radio source. The cooling rate of the x-ray-emitting gas in the central 20 kpc or so is comparable to the estimated star

  5. Characterization of X-Ray Diffraction System with a Microfocus X-Ray Source and a Polycapillary Optic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Marshall, Joy K.; Ciszak, Ewa; Ponomarev, Igor

    2000-01-01

    We present here an optimized microfocus x-ray source and polycapillary optic system designed for diffraction of small protein crystals. The x-ray beam is formed by a 5.5mm focal length capillary collimator coupled with a 40 micron x-ray source operating at 46Watts. Measurements of the x-ray flux, the divergence and the spectral characteristics of the beam are presented, This optimized system provides a seven fold greater flux than our recently reported configuration [M. Gubarev, et al., J. of Applied Crystallography (2000) 33, in press]. We now make a comparison with a 5kWatts rotating anode generator (Rigaku) coupled with confocal multilayer focusing mirrors (Osmic, CMF12- 38Cu6). The microfocus x-ray source and polycapillary collimator system delivers 60% of the x-ray flux from the rotating anode system. Additional ways to improve our microfocus x-ray system, and thus increase the x-ray flux will be discussed.

  6. Correlated X-ray/ultraviolet/optical variability in NGC 6814

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troyer, Jon; Starkey, David; Cackett, Edward M.; Bentz, Misty C.; Goad, Michael R.; Horne, Keith; Seals, James E.

    2016-03-01

    We present results of a three-month combined X-ray/UV/optical monitoring campaign of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 6814. The object was monitored by Swift from June through August 2012 in the X-ray and UV bands and by the Liverpool Telescope from May through July 2012 in B and V. The light curves are variable and significantly correlated between wavebands. Using cross-correlation analysis, we compute the time lag between the X-ray and lower energy bands. These lags are thought to be associated with the light travel time between the central X-ray emitting region and areas further out on the accretion disc. The computed lags support a thermal reprocessing scenario in which X-ray photons heat the disc and are reprocessed into lower energy photons. Additionally, we fit the light curves using CREAM, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo code for a standard disc. The best-fitting standard disc model yields unreasonably high super-Eddington accretion rates. Assuming more reasonable accretion rates would result in significantly underpredicted lags. If the majority of the reprocessing originates in the disc, then this implies the UV/optical emitting regions of the accretion disc are farther out than predicted by the standard thin disc model. Accounting for contributions from broad emission lines reduces the lags in B and V by ˜25 per cent (less than the uncertainty in the lag measurements), though additional contamination from the Balmer continuum may also contribute to the larger than expected lags. This discrepancy between the predicted and measured interband delays is now becoming common in AGN where wavelength-dependent lags are measured.

  7. New micro pore optics for x-ray pulsar navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Ge; Zhang, Qindong; Xu, Zhao; Zhang, Zhengjun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Xu, Wei; Li, Jingwen; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Solutions of focusing pulsars X-ray is a key factor in improving the accuracy of pulsar navigation. Based on the focusing principle of lobster eye grazing incidence, new micro pore optics (MPO) for pulsar navigation which is glass-substrated X-ray MPO is researched and developed. The effective areas on MPO when single grazing incidence or double grazing incidence happens are analyzed in detail and the first generation of MPO is produced. By illumination of parallel X-ray beam with 1.49keV and 8.05keV on the MPO, it is found that the crossing focusing image can be clearly visible, and the arm of cross image of 1.49keV and 8.05keV are is respectively 30mm and 17mm in length. Moreover, the center intensity was significantly higher than the cross arm which is consistent with theoretical calculation. Besides, the angular resolution of first generation of MPO with 8.05keV parallel X-ray beam illuminated is 4.19'.

  8. Transient x-ray diffraction and its application to materials science and x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect

    Hauer, A.A.; Kopp, R.; Cobble, J.; Kyrala, G.; Springer, R.

    1997-12-01

    Time resolved x-ray diffraction and scattering have been applied to the measurement of a wide variety of physical phenomena from chemical reactions to shock wave physics. Interest in this method has heightened in recent years with the advent of versatile, high power, pulsed x-ray sources utilizing laser plasmas, electron beams and other methods. In this article, we will describe some of the fundamentals involved in time resolved x-ray diffraction, review some of the history of its development, and describe some recent progress in the field. In this article we will emphasize the use of laser-plasmas as the x-ray source for transient diffraction.

  9. X-ray mirror assessment with optical light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunieda, Hideyo; Serlemitsos, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The imaging capability of a thin foil X-ray mirror has been examined with optical light, using a laser beam and a wide optical parallel beam. These measurements reveal that: (1) image broadening due to millimeter scale waviness (orange peel) of the aluminum substrate, partly intrinsic to the foil and partly caused during the foil treatment, is 1.2-min of arc half-power diameter (HPD) in two reflections; (2) slope errors due to foil shaping and misalignment cause broadening of 1.6-2.0-min of arc HPD; and (3) total broadening is about 3-min of arc HPD, which is consistent with the broadening of 2.6-min of arc HPD measured with X rays.

  10. Management of optics. [for HEAO-2 X ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchner, T. E.; Russell, M.

    1981-01-01

    American Science and Engineering, Inc., designed the large X-ray optic for the HEAO-2 X-ray Telescope. The key element in this project was the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA), subcontracting the fabrication of the optical surfaces and their assembly and alignment. The roles and organization of the key participants in the creation of HRMA are defined, and the degree of interaction between the groups is described. Management of this effort was extremely complex because of the intricate weaving of responsibilities, and AS&E, as HEAO-2 Program managers, needed to be well versed in the scientific objectives, the technical requirements, the program requirements, and the subcontract management. Understanding these factors was essential for implementing both technical and management controls, such as schedule and budget constraints, in-process control, residence requirements, and scientist review and feedback. Despite unforeseen technical problems and interaction differences, the HEAO-2 was built on schedule and to specification.

  11. Multitapered x-ray capillary optics for mammography.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Carla D; Peppler, Walter W; Ross, Richard E

    2002-06-01

    X-ray mammography is currently the primary tool used for breast cancer detection. However, studies have shown that 5%-15% of breast cancers are not visualized mammographically. The long term goal of this project is to improve the x-ray mammographic imaging system using capillary optics. A post-patient capillary optic lens has the potential to increase spatial resolution and eliminate the detection of scattered x rays, thereby improving image contrast and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Several individual and two prototype multitapered optics were studied to determine the feasibility of a full-field multitapered optic. Scatter fraction, contrast, transmission, uniformity, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) were measured for a Mo target tube/computed radiography (CR) imaging system when this prototype was applied. The results were compared with standard grid and airgap techniques. The multitapered optic lens removed 85% of the scattered photons as compared to 66% and 39% for the air gap and grid methods, respectively. This resulted in an improvement of contrast by approximately 80% for the optics, 51% for the air gap, and 30% for grid methods. The single optic lens improved the limiting resolution (5% MTF level) of the CR detector by 78% due to magnification with very little focal spot blurring, while the multitapered prototype improved resolution significantly, but not as much as the single optic. These measurements have shown that it is feasible to create a multitapered optic lens that significantly improves system MTF and virtually eliminates scatter. With continued improvements in fabrication techniques, a full-field multitapered lens will be feasible. PMID:12094979

  12. X-ray and optical observations of four polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worpel, H.; Schwope, A. D.; Granzer, T.; Reinsch, K.; Schwarz, R.; Traulsen, I.

    2016-08-01

    Aims: We investigate the temporal and spectral behaviour of four polar cataclysmic variables from the infrared to X-ray regimes, refine our knowledge of the physical parameters of these systems at different accretion rates, and search for a possible excess of soft X-ray photons. Methods: We obtained and analysed four XMM-Newton X-ray observations of three of the sources, two of them discovered with the SDSS and one in the RASS. The X-ray data were complemented by optical photometric and spectroscopic observations and, for two sources, archival Swift observations. Results: SDSSJ032855.00+052254.2 was X-ray bright in two XMM-Newton and two Swift observations, and shows transitions from high and low accretion states on a timescale of a few months. The source shows no significant soft excess. We measured the magnetic field strength at the main accreting pole to be 39 MG and the inclination to be 45° ≤ i ≤ 77°, and we refined the long-term ephemeris. SDSSJ133309.20+143706.9 was X-ray faint. We measured a faint phase X-ray flux and plasma temperature for this source, which seems to spend almost all of its time accreting at a low level. Its inclination is less than about 76°. 1RXSJ173006.4+033813 was X-ray bright in the XMM-Newton observation. Its spectrum contained a modest soft blackbody component, not luminous enough to be considered a significant soft excess. We inferred a magnetic field strength at the main accreting pole of 20 to 25 MG, and that the inclination is less than 77° and probably less than 63°. V808 Aur, also known as CSS081231:J071126+440405, was X-ray faint in the Swift observation, but there is nonetheless strong evidence for bright and faint phases in X-rays and perhaps in UV. Residual X-ray flux from the faint phase is difficult to explain by thermal emission from the white dwarf surface, or by accretion onto the second pole. We present a revised distance estimate of 250 pc. Conclusions: The three systems we were able to study in detail

  13. X-ray Transport Optics and Diagnostics Commissioning Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bionta, R M

    2004-10-24

    We discuss commissioning work funded through LCLS WBS element 1.5: X-ray Transport Optics and Diagnostics (XTOD.) A short description of the XTOD commissioning diagnostics hardware is followed by a brief discussion of FEL induced damage considerations. The remainder discusses simulation work on the response of the Direct Imager camera to a mix of spontaneous and FEL radiation and a Monte Carlo Calculation of the reflections of the spontaneous radiation in the undulator vacuum tube.

  14. Microstructured Optical Fiber for X-ray Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeHaven, Stanton L.

    2009-01-01

    A novel scintillating optical fiber is presented using a composite micro-structured quartz optical fiber. Scintillating materials are introduced into the multiple inclusions of the fiber. This creates a composite optical fiber having quartz as a cladding with an organic scintillating material core. X-ray detection using these fibers is compared to a collimated cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. Results show a good correlation between the fiber count rate trend and that of the CdTe detector.

  15. MICROSTRUCTURED OPTICAL FIBER FOR X-RAY DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    DeHaven, S. L.

    2010-02-22

    A novel scintillating optical fiber is presented using a composite micro-structured quartz optical fiber. Scintillating materials are introduced into the multiple inclusions of the fiber. This creates a composite optical fiber having quartz as a cladding with an organic scintillating material core. X-ray detection using these fibers is compared to a collimated cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. Results show a good correlation between the fiber count rate trend and that of the CdTe detector.

  16. Synchronous time-resolved optical and x-ray emission from simultaneous optical and x-ray streak cameras driven by a master ramp generator

    SciTech Connect

    Balmer, J.E.; Lampert, W.; Roschger, E.; Hares, J.D.; Kilkenny, J.D.

    1985-05-01

    An optical and an x-ray streak camera have been synchronized by driving the deflection plates of both cameras from the same ramp generator. The relative timing of the two cameras was calibrated by running UV light onto the x-ray streak camera. The x-ray streak camera was then used to measure the time of the x-ray emission from a laser plasma with respect to the laser pulse.

  17. Merging Technologies to Develop Light Weight X-ray Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaine, Suzanne

    We have made significant progress in our on-going program to develop higher resolution grazing incidence focusing hard X-ray optics for future missions. This proposal is for continued development of light weight optics for future hard X-ray missions. Our goal is to reduce the mass of the present full shell nickel replicated optics by more than half, while at the same time improving their resolution. The electroformed-nickel-replication process produces full shells of revolution, which are inherently stable with good figure control, offering the potential for good angular resolution. With angular resolution of 10 15 , such a telescope will improve the sensitivity by a factor of 5 over current planned high energy missions, and would lead to compelling new science which is central to NASA s Physics of the Cosmos Program. We have made significant progress over our previous period of performance and have achieved most of our goals including the first replication of a Wolter-1 mandrel using a metal-ceramic coating with an effective density of less than 4gm/cc. Achieving our goals will significantly advance the state-of-the-art for replicated full shell telescopes and will lower the cost for future NASA X-ray astronomy missions of moderate resolution.

  18. Chandra X-Ray and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Optically Selected Kiloparsec-scale Binary Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Host Galaxy Morphology and AGN Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangguan, Jinyi; Liu, Xin; Ho, Luis C.; Shen, Yue; Peng, Chien Y.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    Binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provide clues to how gas-rich mergers trigger and fuel AGNs and how supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs evolve in a gas-rich environment. While significant effort has been invested in their identification, the detailed properties of binary AGNs and their host galaxies are still poorly constrained. In a companion paper, we examined the nature of ionizing sources in the double nuclei of four kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs with redshifts between 0.1 and 0.2. Here, we present their host galaxy morphology based on F336W (U-band) and F105W (Y-band) images taken by the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Our targets have double-peaked narrow emission lines and were confirmed to host binary AGNs with follow-up observations. We find that kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs occur in galaxy mergers with diverse morphological types. There are three major mergers with intermediate morphologies and a minor merger with a dominant disk component. We estimate the masses of the SMBHs from their host bulge stellar masses and obtain Eddington ratios for each AGN. Compared with a representative control sample drawn at the same redshift and stellar mass, the AGN luminosities and Eddington ratios of our binary AGNs are similar to those of single AGNs. The U ‑ Y color maps indicate that clumpy star-forming regions could significantly affect the X-ray detection of binary AGNs, e.g., the hardness ratio. Considering the weak X-ray emission in AGNs triggered in merger systems, we suggest that samples of X-ray-selected AGNs may be biased against gas-rich mergers. Based, in part, on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program number GO 12363.

  19. Hybrid x-ray/optical luminescence imaging: Characterization of experimental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, C. M.; Sun, C.; Pratx, G.; Rao, R.; Xing, L.

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: The feasibility of x-ray luminescence imaging is investigated using a dual-modality imaging system that merges x-ray and optical imaging. This modality utilizes x-ray activated nanophosphors that luminesce when excited by ionizing photons. By doping phosphors with lanthanides, which emit light in the visible and near infrared range, the luminescence is suitable for biological applications. This study examines practical aspects of this new modality including phosphor concentration, light emission linearity, detector damage, and spectral emission characteristics. Finally, the contrast produced by these phosphors is compared to that of x-ray fluoroscopy. Methods: Gadolinium and lanthanum oxysulfide phosphors doped with terbium (green emission) or europium (red emission) were studied. The light emission was imaged in a clinical x-ray scanner with a cooled CCD camera and a spectrophotometer; dose measurements were determined with a calibrated dosimeter. Using these properties, in addition to luminescence efficiency values found in the literature for a similar phosphor, minimum concentration calculations are performed. Finally, a 2.5 cm agar phantom with a 1 cm diameter cylindrical phosphor-filled inclusion (diluted at 10 mg/ml) is imaged to compare x-ray luminescence contrast with x-ray fluoroscopic contrast at a superficial location. Results: Dose to the CCD camera in the chosen imaging geometry was measured at less than 0.02 cGy/s. Emitted light was found to be linear with dose (R{sup 2}=1) and concentration (R{sup 2}=1). Emission peaks for clinical x-ray energies are less than 3 nm full width at half maximum, as expected from lanthanide dopants. The minimum practical concentration necessary to detect luminescent phosphors is dependent on dose; it is estimated that subpicomolar concentrations are detectable at the surface of the tissue with typical mammographic doses, with the minimum detectable concentration increasing with depth and decreasing with dose. In

  20. Recent development in homemade x-ray polycapillary optic and its application to topics of x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, R. Daniel

    2012-05-01

    The possibilities of performing non-destructive x-ray microanalysis with homemade polycapillary optics are described in this paper. Monocapillaries and monolithic polycapillary half-lenses using fiber glass technology were made by drawing glass capillary bundles at high temperature in a heating furnace. General guidelines of the manufacture process are enumerated and the specific process implemented in our conventional laboratory is described. The potential of the lenses is illustrated by some applications on x-ray microanalysis as the recently developed confocal geometry. The selected examples show the feasibility of elemental and structural depth profile analysis using homemade polycapillary optics. The developed lenses provide an opportunity to upgrade conventional laboratories with a low cost investment.

  1. TW Hya: A Simultaneous Optical and X-Ray Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, Andrea K.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Cranmer, S. R.; Irwin, J.; Bessell, M. S.; Crause, L. A.; Lawson, W. A.; Luna, J.; Mallik, S. V.; Pallavicini, R.; Schuler, S. C.

    2010-01-01

    A world-wide campaign of spectroscopy and photometry was carried out for 17 days in February- March 2007 (JD 2454147 - 2454164) in support of an extended CHANDRA HETG observation of the nearby accreting T Tauri star: TW Hya (CD -34 7151).This program included photometry from Super WASP-South and SAAO. Spectroscopy was obtained from TNG/SARG, Vainu Bappu Observatory, SAAO, MSSO, Magellan/MIKE, Pico do Dios, and Gemini-S. The photometric period of the star derived from the periodogram of WASP-S photometry during this time was 4.76+/-0.01 d. Hα fluxes do not appear to correlate well with the photometric period nor the total X-ray flux, perhaps influenced by flaring that occurred in both optical and X-ray sequences during this time. Hα profiles from TW Hya can change dramatically during a night, with substantial systematic changes in the wind opacity signaled both in Hα and the He I 10830 Å transition. Related posters by Schneider et al., and Wolk et al. address the optical veiling and X-ray spectrum of TW Hya from this program. Research supported in part by NASA and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

  2. Development Roadmap for an Adjustable X-Ray Optics Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Dan; Brissenden, R.; Bookbinder, J.; Davis, W.; Forman, W.; Freeman, M.; O'Dell, S.; Ramsey, B.; Reid, P.; Romaine, S.; Tananbaum, H.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Wilke, R.; Vikhlinin, A.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing adjustable X-ray optics to use on a mission such as SMART-X (see posters 38.02, 38.03 and Presentation 30.03). To satisfy the science problems expected to be posed by the next decadal survey, we anticipate requiring effective area greater than 1 square meter and Chandra-like angular resolution: approximately equal to 0.5 inches. To achieve such precise resolution we are developing adjustable mirror technology for X-ray astronomy application. This uses a thin film of piezoelectric material deposited on the back surface of the mirror to correct for figure distortions, including manufacturing errors and deflections due to gravity and thermal effects. We present here a plan to raise this technology from its current Level 2, to Level 6, by 2018.

  3. Streak cameras for soft x-ray and optical radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Medecki, H.

    1983-09-01

    The principal component of a streak camera is the image converter tube. A slit-shaped photocathode transforms the radiation into a proportional emission of electrons. An electron - optics arrangement accelerates the electrons and projects them into a phosphor screen creating the image of the slit. A pair of deflection plates deflects the electronic beam along a direction perpendicular to the main dimension of the slit. Different portions of the phosphor screen show the instantaneous image of the slit with brightness proportional to the number of emitted electrons and, consequently, to the intensity of the radiation. For our x-ray streak cameras, we use the RCA C73435A image conventer tube intended for the measurement of the radiation of light and modified to have an x-ray sensitive photocathode. Practical considerations lead to the use of transparent rather than reflecting photocathodes. Several of these camera tubes are briefly described.

  4. Breadboard micro-pore optic development for x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Kotska; Collon, Maximilien J.; Beijersbergen, Marco W.; Oemrawsingh, Sumant; Bavdaz, Marcos; Schyns, Emile

    2007-09-01

    Technology associated with x-ray optics for missions such as ESA's XMM-Newton are not compatible with the demanding mass requirements for planetary explorers. Glass micro-pore optics are an enabling technology for future ESA missions to fly remote, planetary, x-ray imagers, by facilitating mass and volume reduction. Activities pursued by ESA have developed manufacturing techniques for micro-channel plates to produce high quality, square fibres, which are used to form glass plates containing square micro-channel pores, with diameters from 10 μm and fill factors around 60%. Matched pairs of plates can be deformed under heat and pressure to form spherical surfaces, such that each plate approximates the radius of one part of the tandem pair of a Wolter I configuration. In such a configuration the tangential walls of the concentric rings of pores are used as the grazing incidence, reflective surfaces that focus x-rays. The monolithic structure of the plates allows dense packing of the rings of x-ray mirrors and simplifies mounting, especially with respect to thermal and mechanical considerations. To improve x-ray reflectivity, processes to coat the channel surfaces with elements such as Ni and Ir have also been investigated. This paper discusses the design of a structure to support the optic segments and assembly of the optics into a structure. Pairs of plates must be aligned into tandems and fixed to form segments of the x-ray optic. Each tandem pair must be aligned into a structure which will support the plates through thermal and mechanical loading. A structure has been designed to allow assembly of the optic within tolerances justified by analysis. Replacement of individual tandems is possible. Thermal and mechanical analyses have been performed to assess the performance and survivability of the optic under loads. An assembly plan has been designed to allow maximisation of the effective area of the optic and ensure its best performance.

  5. Reflective Coating for Lightweight X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Zhang, William W.; Windt, David; Hong, Mao-Ling; Saha, Timo; McClelland, Ryan; Sharpe, Marton; Dwivedi, Vivek H.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray reflective coating for next generation's lightweight, high resolution, optics for astronomy requires thin-film deposition that is precisely fine-tuned so that it will not distort the thin sub-mm substrates. Film of very low stress is required. Alternatively, mirror distortion can be cancelled by precisely balancing the deformation from multiple films. We will present results on metallic film deposition for the lightweight optics under development. These efforts include: low-stress deposition by magnetron sputtering and atomic layer deposition of the metals, balancing of gross deformation with two-layer depositions of opposite stresses and with depositions on both sides of the thin mirrors.

  6. Quantum Dots Microstructured Optical Fiber for X-Ray Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeHaven, Stan; Williams, Phillip; Burke, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Microstructured optical fibers containing quantum dots scintillation material comprised of zinc sulfide nanocrystals doped with magnesium sulfide are presented. These quantum dots are applied inside the microstructured optical fibers using capillary action. The x-ray photon counts of these fibers are compared to the output of a collimated CdTe solid state detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. The results of the fiber light output and associated effects of an acrylate coating and the quantum dot application technique are discussed.

  7. Design, Fabrication and Testing of Multilayer Coated X-Ray Optics for the Water Window Imaging X-Ray Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Dwight C.

    1996-01-01

    Hoover et. al. built and tested two imaging Schwarzschild multilayer microscopes. These instruments were constructed as prototypes for the "Water Window Imaging X-Ray Microscope," which is a doubly reflecting, multilayer x-ray microscope configured to operate within the "water window." The "water window" is the narrow region of the x-ray spectrum between the K absorption edges of oxygen (lamda = 23.3 Angstroms) and of carbon (lamda = 43.62 Angstroms), where water is relatively highly transmissive and carbon is highly absorptive. This property of these materials, thus permits the use of high resolution multilayer x-ray microscopes for producing high contrast images of carbon-based structures within the aqueous physiological environments of living cells. We report the design, fabrication and testing of multilayer optics that operate in this regime.

  8. Simultaneous X-ray and optical observations of the flaring X-ray source, Aquila A-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, C. S.; Charles, P. A.

    1979-01-01

    During the summer of 1978 the recurrent transient X-ray source, Aquila X-1, underwent its first major outburst in two years. The results of extensive observations at X-ray and optical wavelengths throughout this event, which lasted for approximately two months are presented. The peak X-ray luminosity was approximately 1.3 times that of the Crab and exhibited spectral dependent flickering on timescales approximately 5 minutes. The observations are interpreted in terms of a standard accretion disk model withparticular emphasis on the similarities to Sco X-1 and other dward X-ray systems, although the transient nature of the system remains unexplained. It was found that Aquila X-1 can be described adequately by the semi-detached Roche lobe model and yields a mass ratio of less than or approximate to 3.5.

  9. Optically thick X-ray transfer - The shell game. [transmission through gas surrounding cosmic x ray source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, S. H.; Ross, R. R.; Mccray, R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper investigates the radiative transfer of X-rays through a shell that is optically thick to Compton scattering, surrounding a point source of continuum X-rays. The emission and absorption of X-rays due to K-shell transitions of iron are included. The calculations are done in two entirely independent ways: by Monte Carlo simulation and by solving a Fokker-Planck diffusion equation. The emergent spectra agree very well for Thomson depths of at least about 2. The validity is confirmed of the modification to the Fokker-Planck equation of Kompaneets (1957) that is required when the photon energy is large compared with the average thermal energy of the electrons. A procedure is also developed for treating models of compact X-ray sources consisting of incomplete shells.

  10. Multi-tapered x-ray capillary optics for mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Carla Duquesne

    X-ray mammography is currently the primary tool used for breast cancer detection. However mammography has limitations. Studies have shown that 5%-15% of breast cancers are not visualized mammographically and of the number of cases sent to biopsy, only 15% are actually cancerous (high false positive percentage). The long term goal of this project is to improve the x- ray mammographic imaging system using capillary optics. A post-patient capillary optic lens has the potential to increase spatial resolution and eliminate the detection of scattered x-rays, thereby improving image contrast and SNR. These improvements can be exploited with any detector but may have the greatest potential when implemented with digital detectors. An image analysis study has been performed using a prototype multi-tapered optic to determine the feasibility of a full-field multi-tapered optic. Scatter fraction, contrast, transmission, uniformity, MTF, NPS and DQE were measured for a CR imaging system when the prototype multi-tapered optic lens was applied. The results were compared with standard grid and air gap techniques. The measurements demonstrate that the multi-tapered optic lens removes 85% of the scattered photons, while air gap and grid methods remove 66% and 39%, respectively. This results in an improvement of contrast by approximately 80% for the optics, compared to 51% for the air gap and 30% for the grid methods. The single capillary optic lenses can improve the limiting resolution (5% MTF level) of the CR detector by 78% due to magnification with very little focal spot blurring, while the multi-tapered prototype improved resolution significantly but not as much as the single optic. This was due to relative misalignment of the individual lenses in the multi- tapered optic. Acceptable levels of misalignment have been established that appear to be readily achievable. Once this relative misalignment issue is resolved, the multi-tapered lens will produce results similar to single

  11. X-Ray, UV, and Optical Observations of Supernova 2006bp with Swift: Detection of Early X-Ray Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immler, S.; Brown, P. J.; Milne, P.; Dessart, L.; Mazzali, P. A.; Landsman, W.; Gehrels, N.; Petre, R.; Burrows, D. N.; Nousek, J. A.; Chevalier, R. A.; Williams, C. L.; Koss, M.; Stockdale, C. J.; Kelley, M. T.; Weiler, K. W.; Holland, S. T.; Pian, E.; Roming, P. W. A.; Pooley, D.; Nomoto, K.; Greiner, J.; Campana, S.; Soderberg, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    We present results on the X-ray and optical/UV emission from the Type IIP supernova (SN) 2006bp and the interaction of the SW shock with its environment, obtained with the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT) on-board the Swift observatory. SN 2006bp is detected in X-rays at a 4.5 sigmalevel of significance in the merged XRT data from days 1 to 12 after the explosion. If the (0.2-10 keV band) X-ray luminosity of L(sub 0.2-10) = (1.8 plus or minus 0.4) x l0(exp 39 ergs s(exp -1) is caused by interaction of the SN shock with circumstellar material (CSM), deposited by a stellar wind from the progenitor's companion star, a mass-loss rate of M is approximately 2x10(exp -6) solar mass yr(exp -1) (v(sub w)/10 km s(exp -l) is inferred. The mass-loss rate is one of the lowest ever recorded for a core-collapse SN and consistent with the non-detection in the radio with the VLA on days 2, 9, and 11 after the explosion. The Swift data further show a fading of the X-ray emission starting around day 12 after the explosion. In combination with a follow-up XMM-Newton observation obtained on day 21 after the explosion, an X-ray rate of decline Lx, varies as t(exp -n) with index n = 1.2 plus or minus 0.6 is inferred. Since no other SN has been detected in X-rays prior to the optical peak and since Type IIP SNe have an extended 'plateau' phase in the optical, we discuss the scenario that the X-rays might be due to inverse Compton scattering of photospheric optical photons off relativistic electrons produced in circumstellar shocks. However, due to the high required value of the Lorentz factor (approximately 10-100), inconsistent with the ejecta velocity inferred from optical line widths, we conclude that Inverse Compton scattering is an unlikely explanation for the observed X-ray emission. The fast evolution of the optical/ultraviolet (1900-5500A) spectral energy distribution and the spectral changes observed with Swift reveal the onset of metal line-blanketing and

  12. Simultaneous x-rays/optical tomography of small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, A.; Leabad, M.; Bordy, T.; Dinten, J.-M.; Peltié, P.; Rizo, P.

    2007-03-01

    A small animal multimodality tomographer dedicated to the co-registration of fluorescence optical signal and X-rays measurements has been developed in our laboratory. The purpose of such a system is to offer the possibility to get in vivo anatomical and functional information at once. Moreover, anatomical measurements can be used as a regularization factor in order to get the reconstructions of the biodistribution of fluorochromes more accurate and to speed up the treatment. The optical system is basically composed with a CW laser (Krypton, 752 nm) for an optimal excitation of Alexa-Fluor 750 fluorochromes, and a CCD camera coupled with a combination of filters for the fluorescence detection. The animal is placed inside a transparent tube filled with an index matching fluid. In order to perform multiple views of fluorescence data acquisitions, the cylinder is fixed to a rotating stage. The excitation beam is brought to the cylinder via two mirrors mounted on translation plates allowing a vertical scan. The optical data acquisitions are performed with a high sensitivity CCD camera. The X-ray generator and the X-ray detector have been placed perpendicularly to the optical chain. A first study on phantoms was conducted to evaluate the feasibility, to test the linearity and the reproducibility, and to fix the parameters for the co-registration. These test experiments were reproduced by considering mice in the oesophagus of which thin glass tubes containing fluorochromes were inserted. Finally, the performance of the system was evaluated in vivo on mice bearing tumours in the lungs, tagged with Transferin-AlexaFluor 750.

  13. CORRELATED OPTICAL AND X-RAY FLARES IN THE AFTERGLOW OF XRF 071031

    SciTech Connect

    Kruehler, T.; Greiner, J.; McBreen, S.; Afonso, P.; Clemens, C.; Filgas, R.; Yoldas, A.; Klose, S.; Rossi, A.; Yoldas, A. Kuepcue; Szokoly, G. P.

    2009-05-20

    We present a densely sampled early light curve of the optical/near-infrared (NIR) afterglow of the X-Ray Flash (XRF) 071031 at z = 2.692. Simultaneous and continuous observations in seven photometric bands from g' to K{sub S} with GROND (Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-InfraRed Detector) at the 2.2-m MPI/ESO telescope on LaSilla were performed between 4 minutes and 7 hr after the burst. The light curve consists of 547 individual points which allows us to study the early evolution of the optical transient associated with XRF 071031 in great detail. The optical/NIR light curve is dominated by an early increase in brightness which can be attributed to the apparent onset of the forward shock emission. There are several bumps which are superimposed onto the overall rise and decay. Significant flaring is also visible in the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) light curve from early to late times. The availability of high-quality, broadband data enables detailed studies of the connection between the X-ray and optical/NIR afterglow and its color evolution during the first night postburst. We find evidence of spectral hardening in the optical bands contemporaneous with the emergence of the bumps from an underlying afterglow component. The bumps in the optical/NIR light curve can be associated with flares in the X-ray regime suggesting late central engine activity as the common origin.

  14. Results of X-ray and optical monitoring of SCO X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mook, D. E.; Messina, R. J.; Hiltner, W. A.; Belian, R.; Conner, J.; Evans, W. D.; Strong, I.; Blanco, V.; Hesser, J.; Kunkel, W.

    1974-01-01

    Sco X-1 was monitored at optical and X-ray wavelengths from 1970 April 26 to 1970 May 21. The optical observations were made at six observatories around the world and the X-ray observations were made by the Vela satellites. There was a tendency for the object to show greater variability in X-ray when the object is optically bright. A discussion of the intensity histograms is presented for both the optical and X-ray observations. No evidence for optical or X-ray periodicity was detected.

  15. Narrow-line X-Ray-selected Galaxies in the Chandra-COSMOS Field. II. Optically Elusive X-Ray AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, E.; Elvis, M.; Civano, F.; Watson, M. G.

    2016-06-01

    In the Chandra-COSMOS (C-COSMOS) survey, we have looked for X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs), which are not detected as such in the optical, the so-called elusive AGNs. A previous study based on XMM-Newton and Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations has found a sample of 31 X-ray AGNs optically misclassified as star-forming (SF) galaxies at z\\lt 0.4, including 17 elusive Sy2s. Using Chandra observations provides a sample of fainter X-ray sources and so, for a given X-ray luminosity, extends to higher redshifts. To study the elusive Sy2s in the C-COSMOS field, we have removed the NLS1s that contaminate the narrow-line sample. Surprisingly, the contribution of NLS1s is much lower in the C-COSMOS sample (less than 10% of the optically misclassified X-ray AGNs) than in Pons & Watson. The optical misclassification of the X-ray AGNs ({L}{{X}}\\gt {10}42 {erg} {{{s}}}-1) can be explained by the intrinsic weakness of these AGNs, in addition to, in some cases, optical dilution by the host galaxies. Interestingly, we found the fraction of elusive Sy2s (narrow emission-line objects) optically misclassified as SF galaxies up to z∼ 1.4 to be 10% ± 3% to 17% ± 4%, compared to the 6% ± 1.5% of the Pons & Watson work (up to z∼ 0.4). This result seems to indicate an evolution with redshift of the number of elusive Sy2s.

  16. Growing Cutting-edge X-ray Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Ray Conley

    2012-11-30

    Ever imagined that an Xbox controller could help open a window into a world spanning just one billionth of a meter? Brookhaven Lab's Ray Conley grows cutting-edge optics called multilayer Laue lenses (MLL) one atomic layer at a time to focus high-energy x-rays to within a single nanometer. To achieve this focusing feat, Ray uses a massive, custom-built atomic deposition device, an array of computers, and a trusty Xbox controller. These lenses will be deployed at the Lab's National Synchrotron Light Source II, due to begin shining super-bright light on pressing scientific puzzles in 2015

  17. Growing Cutting-edge X-ray Optics

    ScienceCinema

    Ray Conley

    2013-07-17

    Ever imagined that an Xbox controller could help open a window into a world spanning just one billionth of a meter? Brookhaven Lab's Ray Conley grows cutting-edge optics called multilayer Laue lenses (MLL) one atomic layer at a time to focus high-energy x-rays to within a single nanometer. To achieve this focusing feat, Ray uses a massive, custom-built atomic deposition device, an array of computers, and a trusty Xbox controller. These lenses will be deployed at the Lab's National Synchrotron Light Source II, due to begin shining super-bright light on pressing scientific puzzles in 2015

  18. What obscures low-X-ray-scattering active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hönig, S. F.; Gandhi, P.; Asmus, D.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Antonucci, R.; Ueda, Y.; Ichikawa, K.

    2014-02-01

    X-ray surveys have revealed a new class of active galactic nuclei (AGN) with a very low observed fraction of scattered soft X-rays, fscat <0.5 per cent. Based on X-ray modelling, these `X-ray new-type', or low observed X-ray-scattering (hereafter, `low-scattering') sources have been interpreted as deeply buried AGN with a high covering factor of gas. In this paper, we address the questions whether the host galaxies of low-scattering AGN may contribute to the observed X-ray properties, and whether we can find any direct evidence for high covering factors from the infrared (IR) emission. We find that X-ray low-scattering AGN are preferentially hosted by highly inclined galaxies or merger systems as compared to other Seyfert galaxies, increasing the likelihood that the line of sight towards the AGN intersects with high columns of host-galactic gas and dust. Moreover, while a detailed analysis of the IR emission of low-scattering AGN ESO 103-G35 remains inconclusive, we do not find any indication of systematically higher dust covering factors in a sample of low-scattering AGN based on their IR emission. For ESO 103-G35, we constrained the temperature, mass and location of the IR emitting dust which is consistent with expectations for the dusty torus. However, a deep silicate absorption feature probably from much cooler dust suggests an additional screen absorber on larger scales within the host galaxy. Taking these findings together, we propose that the low fscat observed in low-scattering AGN is not necessarily the result of circumnuclear dust but could originate from interference of host-galactic gas with a column density of the order of 1022 cm-2 with the line of sight. We discuss implications of this hypothesis for X-ray models, high-ionization emission lines and observed star formation activity in these objects.

  19. JIM: a joint integrated module of glass x-ray optics for astronomical telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proserpio, Laura; Breunig, Elias; Friedrich, Peter; Winter, Anita; Rohé, Christian; Eder, Josef; Burwitz, Vadim; Hartner, Gisela D.; Menz, Benedikt; Civitani, Marta; Basso, Stefano; Buratti, Enrico

    2015-09-01

    For several years, the Max-Planck-Institute for extraterrestrial Physics in Germany (MPE) and the Astronomical Observatory of Brera in Italy (INAF-OAB) have been studying the slumping technology for the manufacturing of segmented glass X-ray optics for astronomy. Despite some differences in their specific approaches, the synergy of the two institutes has always been good, focusing on the common goal of developing a technology able to meet the outstanding requirements for future X-ray telescopes: i.e. large collecting areas, low mass and good angular resolution. This synergy has in the last year resulted in an active collaboration for the production of a Joint Integrated Module (JIM) that puts together the expertise of the two research groups. In particular, the indirect slumping approach of MPE has been employed for the manufacturing of X-ray mirror segments that have been integrated into a kind of X-ray Optical Unit following the approach developed at INAF-OAB. The module has then been tested in X-ray at the MPE PANTER facility, in Neuried. The several steps and the results of this joint activity are reviewed and discussed in this paper.

  20. Recent progress in X-ray optics at the ESRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, A.

    2003-03-01

    It is the task of x-ray optics to adapt the raw beam generated by modern sources such as synchrotron storage rings to a great variety of experimental requirements in terms of intensity, spot size, polarization and other parameters. The very high quality of synchrotron radiation (source size of a few microns and beam divergence of a few micro-radians) and the extreme x-ray flux (power of several hundred Watts in a few square mm) make this task quite difficult. In particular the heat load aspect is very important in the conditioning process of the brute x-ray power. Cryogenically cooled silicon crystals and water-cooled diamond crystals can presently fulfil this task, but limits will soon be reached and new schemes and materials must be envisioned. A major tendency of instrument improvement has a ways been to concentrate more photons into a smaller spot utilizing a whole variety of focusing devices such as Fresnel zone plates, refractive lenses and Systems based on bent surfaces, for example Kirkpatrick-Baez Systems. Apart from the resistance of the sample, the ultimate limits are determined by the source size and strength on one side, by materials properties, cooling, mounting and bending schemes on the other side, and fundamentally by the diffraction process. There is also the important aspect of coherence that can be both a nuisance and a blessing for the experiments, in particular for imaging techniques. Its conservation puts additional constraints on the quality of the optical elements. A review of recent progress in this field is given.

  1. High efficiency replicated x-ray optics and fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Lane, Stephen M.; Hoffman, Donald E.

    2001-01-01

    Replicated x-ray optics are fabricated by sputter deposition of reflecting layers on a super-polished reusable mandrel. The reflecting layers are strengthened by a supporting multilayer that results in stronger stress-relieved reflecting surfaces that do not deform during separation from the mandrel. The supporting multilayer enhances the ability to part the replica from the mandrel without degradation in surface roughness. The reflecting surfaces are comparable in smoothness to the mandrel surface. An outer layer is electrodeposited on the supporting multilayer. A parting layer may be deposited directly on the mandrel before the reflecting surface to facilitate removal of the layered, tubular optic device from the mandrel without deformation. The inner reflecting surface of the shell can be a single layer grazing reflection mirror or a resonant multilayer mirror. The resulting optics can be used in a wide variety of applications, including lithography, microscopy, radiography, tomography, and crystallography.

  2. Optical Monitoring of Selected X-ray AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, V. D.; Sadun, A.; Kelly, M.; Baca, P.; Holt, J.; Galadari, A.; Nied, P.; Howard, E.; Ghosh, K.

    2001-12-01

    We present the results of microvariability studies of X-ray loud/radio quiet AGN in optical wavelengths (R band). The optical data were taken over approximately eight months at the Sommers-Bausch Observatory (U. Colorado-Boulder), and at the SARA Observatory. In addition to engaging in routine optical analysis, we investigated the extent to which these objects exhibited intra-night variability. The presence of microvariability would indicate that in addition to an accretion disk, there would also be present relativistic components such as parsec-scale jets; quiescence would indicate that long-term variability in these objects is perhaps due to accretion disk instabilities alone. The preliminary indication from our data is that there is indeed evidence of relativistic jets in this class of objects.

  3. X-ray refelection from photoionized media in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zycki, Piotr T.; Krolik, Julian H.; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Kallman, Timothy R.

    1994-01-01

    We calculate the spectrum of X-ray radiation and reprocessed by a partly ionized optically thick medium in an active galactic nucleus. We self-consistently calculate the ionization balance and thermal balance in the medium along with the distribution of X-ray intensity with optical depth. In addition to absorption or scattering of the incident X-rays, we also compute the spectrum of X-rays emitted by the material, including lines, edges, and bremsstrahlung. The albedo of the medium depends primarily on the X-ray ionization parameter (ratio of incident flux to gas density, zeta(sub Chi), and secondarily on the UV flux generated by dissipation inside the disk; we locate the critical range of zeta(sub Chi) over which the albedo increases from small to nearly unity. While the continuum reflection is very weak below 10 keV when zeta(sub Chi) is small, significnat fluxes are emitted in atomic lines and edges in this energy range. In the limit of large zeta(sub Chi), the albedo below 10 keV increases, but reflection in this band is never gray: some photoelectric absorption remains up to rather large values of zeta(sub Chi), while at still higher values, inverse Compton scattering amplifies the soft X-ray flux. These features are sufficiently sharp that current and near-future X-ray experiments should permit diagnostic measures of zeta(sub Chi).

  4. Basic studies on x-ray fluorescence analysis for active x-ray spectrometer on SELENE-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusano, Hiroki; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Kodama, Takuro; Oyama, Yuki; Tanaka, Reiko; Amano, Yoshiharu; Kim, Kyeong J.; Matias Lopes, Josè A.

    2013-09-01

    An active X-ray spectrometer (AXS) is now being developed as a payload candidate for the rover on SELENE-2, the next Japanese lunar exploration mission. The AXS will determine the chemical compositions of lunar rocks and regolith around the landing site. The surface of lunar rock samples will be ground using a rock abrasion tool. Thus, fundamental studies on the X-ray fluorescence analysis for lunar rocks and regolith are required to design and develop the AXS. In this study, we have investigated the X-ray fluorescence analysis in order to evaluate the effects of surface roughness of samples and the angle of incident and emergent X-rays. It was found that the fluorescent X-ray yield for low energy X-rays, i.e. the light elements, decreases at rough surface samples. This effect of surface roughness becomes small for smooth surface samples. It was also found that the fluorescent X-ray yield depends on the incident angle, which is attributed to the fact that the X-ray fluorescence occurs closer to the sample surface at larger incident angles. Since the emergent X-rays are affected by the detection geometry and surface roughness, the incident angle effect also depends on the above conditions.

  5. The Chandra Deep Field North Survey. XV. Optically Bright, X-Ray-Faint Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornschemeier, A. E.; Bauer, F. E.; Alexander, D. M.; Brandt, W. N.; Sargent, W. L. W.; Bautz, M. W.; Conselice, C.; Garmire, G. P.; Schneider, D. P.; Wilson, G.

    2003-08-01

    We have analyzed optically bright, X-ray-faint [OBXF; i.e., log(fX/fR)<~-2] sources identified in an 178.9 arcmin2 area having high exposure (greater than 1500 ks) within the Chandra Deep Field North 2 Ms survey. We find 43 OBXF sources in this area, making up ~15% of the X-ray sources above a 0.5-2 keV flux of ~2.3×10-17 ergs cm-2 s-1. We present spectroscopic identifications for 42 of the OBXF sources and optical spectra for 25, including five previously unpublished redshifts. Deep optical imaging data (either Hubble Space Telescope [HST] or ground-based) are presented for all the OBXF sources; we measure the optical morphologies of the 20 galaxies having HST imaging data. The OBXF population consists mainly of normal and starburst galaxies detected out to cosmologically significant distances (i.e., to a median redshift of z=0.297 and a full redshift range z=0.06-0.845). This is notable since these distances equate to look-back times of up to ~8 Gyr; we are thus provided with a window on the X-ray emission from galaxies at redshifts much closer to the cosmic star formation peak than was possible prior to the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. The X-ray luminosity distribution of OBXF sources extends to higher luminosity than does that of ``normal'' galaxies, indicating that a significant fraction are likely dominated by low-luminosity active galactic nuclei or vigorous star formation. The lowest redshift galaxies (z~0.06-0.2) have very low X-ray-to-optical flux ratios [i.e., log(fX/fR)<~-3], which are consistent with those of normal galaxies in the local universe. By combining the detected X-ray counts, we find the average OBXF X-ray spectrum to be consistent with a Γ~2.0 power law. The 0.5-2 keV logN-logS for the OBXF galaxies is much steeper (α~-1.7) than for the general X-ray source population. Indeed, the number of OBXF sources has doubled between the 1 and 2 Ms surveys, rising sharply in numbers at faint fluxes. The extragalactic OBXF sources are found to

  6. Recent progress in adjustable X-ray optics for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Paul B.; Allured, R.; Cotroneo, V.; McMuldroch, S.; Marquez, V.; Schwartz, D. A.; Vikhlinin, A.; O'Dell, S. L.; Ramsey, B.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Johnson-Wilke, R.; Wilke, R. H.

    2014-01-01

    Two adjustable X-ray optics approaches are being developed for thin grazing incidence optics for astronomy. The first approach employs thin film piezoelectric material sputter deposited as a continuous layer on the back of thin, lightweight Wolter-I mirror segments. The piezoelectric material is used to correct mirror figure errors from fabrication, mounting/alignment, and any ground to orbit changes. The goal of this technology is to produce Wolter mirror segment pairs corrected to 0.5 arc sec image resolution. With the combination of high angular resolution and lightweight, this mirror technology is suitable for the Square Meter Arc Second Resolution Telescope for X-rays (SMART-X) mission concept.. The second approach makes use of electrostrictive adjusters and full shell nickel/cobalt electroplated replication mirrors. An array of radial adjusters is used to deform the full shells to correct the lowest order axial and azimuthal errors, improving imaging performance from the 10 - 15 arc sec level to ~ 5 arc sec. We report on recent developments in both technologies. In particular, we discuss the use of in-situ strain gauges on the thin piezo film mirrors for use as feedback on piezoelectric adjuster functionality, including their use for on-orbit figure correction. We also report on the first tests of full shell nickel/cobalt mirror correction with radial adjusters.

  7. Recent Progress in Adjustable X-ray Optics for Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Paul B.; Allured, Ryan; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; McMuldroch, Stuart; Marquez, Vanessa; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Vikhlinin, Alexey; ODell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan; Wilke, Rudeger H.

    2014-01-01

    Two adjustable X-ray optics approaches are being developed for thin grazing incidence optics for astronomy. The first approach employs thin film piezoelectric material sputter deposited as a continuous layer on the back of thin, lightweight Wolter-I mirror segments. The piezoelectric material is used to correct mirror figure errors from fabrication, mounting/alignment, and any ground to orbit changes. The goal of this technology is to produce Wolter mirror segment pairs corrected to 0.5 arc sec image resolution. With the combination of high angular resolution and lightweight, this mirror technology is suitable for the Square Meter Arc Second Resolution Telescope for X-rays (SMART-X) mission concept.. The second approach makes use of electrostrictive adjusters and full shell nickel/cobalt electroplated replication mirrors. An array of radial adjusters is used to deform the full shells to correct the lowest order axial and azimuthal errors, improving imaging performance from the 10 - 15 arc sec level to 5 arc sec. We report on recent developments in both technologies. In particular, we discuss the use of insitu strain gauges on the thin piezo film mirrors for use as feedback on piezoelectric adjuster functionality, including their use for on-orbit figure correction. We also report on the first tests of full shell nickel/cobalt mirror correction with radial adjusters.

  8. Monochromatic Mammographic Imaging Using X-Ray Polycapillary Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiro, Francisca

    2002-06-01

    Monochromatic imaging is typically done with synchrotron sources. These sources are expensive and not practical for clinical settings. However, conventional laboratory sources normally have insufficient intensity. Polycapillary x-ray optics can be used to efficiently produce an intense parallel beam, which can be diffracted from a crystal to create monochromatic radiation. Monochromatic parallel beam imaging produces high subject contrast, high resolution, and low patient dose. Contrast, resolution, and intensity measurements were performed with both high and low angular acceptance crystals. Testing was first done at 8 keV with an intense copper rotating anode source. Preliminary l7.5 kev measurements were then made with a molybdenum source. At 8 keV, contrast enhancement was a factor of five relative to the polychromatic case, in good agreement with theoretical values. At l7.5 kev, monochromatic subject contrast was a factor of two times greater than the conventional polychromatic contrast. The measured angular resolution with a silicon crystal is 0.6 mrad at 8 keV, and 0.2 - 0.3 mrad at 17.5 keV. For a 50-mm thick patient, this angle corresponds to 50 lp/mm with an ideal detector. The use of polychromatic collimating optics allow monochromatic mammographic imaging measurements with a conventional x-ray source in a practical clinical setting.

  9. X-Ray Reprocessing in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2004-01-01

    This is the final report for research entitled "X-ray reprocessing in active galactic nuclei," into X-ray absorption and emission in various classes of active galaxy via X-ray spectral signatures. The fundamental goal of the research was to use these signatures as probes of the central engine structure and circumnuclear environment of active galactic nuclei. The most important accomplishment supported by this grant involved the detailed analysis and interpretation of the XMM data for the bright Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG-6-30-15. This work was performed by Drs. Christopher Reynolds and Mitchell Begelman in collaboration with Dr. Jorn Wilms (University of Tubingen, Germany; PI of the XMM observation) and other European scientists. With XMM we obtained medium resolution X-ray spectra of unprecedented quality for this Seyfert galaxy. Modeling the X-ray spectrum within the framework of accretion disk reflection models produced the first evidence for energy extraction from the spin of a black hole. Specifically, we found that the extreme gravitational redshifts required to explain the X-ray spectrum suggests that the bulk of the energy dissipation is concentrated very close to the black hole, in contrast with the expectations of any pure accretion disk model. In a second paper we addressed the low- energy spectral complexity and used RXTE specta to pin down the high-energy spectral index, thus firming up our initial interpretation. Additionally, we carried out detailed spectral and variability analyses of a number of Seyfert and radio galaxies (e.g., NGC 5548 and 3C 111) and developed general techniques that will be useful in performing X-ray reverberation mapping of accretion disks in AGN, once adequate data becomes available. A list of papers supported by this research is included.

  10. Long-term optical variability of high-mass X-ray binaries. II. Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reig, P.; Nersesian, A.; Zezas, A.; Gkouvelis, L.; Coe, M. J.

    2016-05-01

    Context. High-mass X-ray binaries are bright X-ray sources. The high-energy emission is caused by the accretion of matter from the massive companion onto a neutron star. The accreting material comes from either the strong stellar wind in binaries with supergiant companions or the cirscumstellar disk in Be/X-ray binaries. In either case, the Hα line stands out as the main source of information about the state of the accreting material. Aims: We present the results of our monitoring program to study the long-term variability of the Hα line in high-mass X-ray binaries. Our aim is to characterise the optical variability timescales and study the interaction between the neutron star and the accreting material. Methods: We fitted the Hα line with Gaussian profiles and obtained the line parameters and equivalent width. The peak separation in split profiles was used to determine the disk velocity law and estimate the disk radius. The relative intensity of the two peaks (V/R ratio) allowed us to investigate the distribution of gas particles in the disk. The equivalent width was used to characterise the degree of variability of the systems. We also studied the variability of the Hα line in correlation with the X-ray activity. Results: Our results can be summarised as follows: i) we find that Be/X-ray binaries with narrow orbits are more variable than systems with long orbital periods; ii) we show that a Keplerian distribution of gas particles provides a good description of the disks in Be/X-ray binaries, as it does in classical Be stars; iii) a decrease in the Hα equivalent width is generally observed after major X-ray outbursts; iv) we confirm that the Hα equivalent width correlates with disk radius; v) while systems with supergiant companions display multi-structured profiles, most of the Be/X-ray binaries show, at some epoch, double-peak asymmetric profiles, which indicates that density inhomogeneities is a common property in the disk of Be/X-ray binaries; vi) the

  11. Optical synchronization system for femtosecond X-ray sources

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, Russell B.; Holzwarth, Ronald

    2011-12-13

    Femtosecond pump/probe experiments using short X-Ray and optical pulses require precise synchronization between 100 meter-10 km separated lasers in a various experiments. For stabilization in the hundred femtosecond range a CW laser is amplitude modulated at 1-10 GHz, the signal retroreflected from the far end, and the relative phase used to correct the transit time with various implementations. For the sub-10 fsec range the laser frequency itself is upshifted 55 MHz with an acousto-optical modulator, retroreflected, upshifted again and phase compared at the sending end to a 110 MHz reference. Initial experiments indicate less than 1 fsec timing jitter. To lock lasers in the sub-10 fs range two single-frequency lasers separated by several teraHertz will be lock to a master modelocked fiber laser, transmit the two frequencies over fiber, and lock two comb lines of a slave laser to these frequencies, thus synchronizing the two modelocked laser envelopes.

  12. Glancing incidence optics for X-ray and ultraviolet astronomy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, J. H.; Neupert, W. M.; Hoover, R. B.

    1971-01-01

    Glancing incidence telescopes of the kind first described by Wolter have now been physically realized, so that it is possible to obtain high-resolution images of celestial objects at all wavelengths greater than about 3 A. The GSFC-MSFC X-ray telescope for the Apollo telescope mount uses Wolter type 1 optics and is capable of forming images of the sun in the 8-70 A region with spatial resolution of the order of one arc second. The GSFC extreme ultraviolet spectroheliometer for OSO H uses type 2 optics and can obtain images of the sun in spectral lines in the 170-400 A region with a spatial resolution of about ten arc seconds. Theoretical (ray trace) and laboratory data on these systems are presented.

  13. Active membranes studied by X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Giahi, A; El Alaoui Faris, M; Bassereau, P; Salditt, T

    2007-08-01

    In view of recent theories of "active" membranes, we have studied multilamellar phospholipid membrane stacks with reconstituted transmembrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (BR) under different illumination conditions by X-ray scattering. The light-active protein is considered as an active constituent which drives the system out of equilibrium and is predicted to change the collective fluctuation properties of the membranes. Using X-ray reflectivity, X-ray non-specular (diffuse) scattering, and grazing incidence scattering, we find no detectable change in the scattering curves when changing the illumination condition. In particular the intermembrane spacing d remains constant, after eliminating hydration-related artifacts by design of a suitable sample environment. The absence of any observable non-equilibrium effects in the experimental window is discussed in view of the relevant parameters and recent theories. PMID:17712523

  14. X-Ray and Optical Observations of A 0535+26

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camero-Arranz, A.; Finger, M. H.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Jenke, P.; Steele, I.; Coe, M. J.; Gutierrez-Soto, J.; Kretschmar, P.; Caballero, I.; Yan, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Suso, J.; Case, G.; Cherry, M. L.; Guiriec, S.; McBride, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present recent contemporaneous X-ray and optical observations of the Be/X-ray binary system A 0535+26 with the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and several ground-based observatories. These new observations are put into the context of the rich historical data (since 1978) and discussed in terms of the neutron-star-Be-disk interaction. The Be circumstellar disk was exceptionally large just before the 2009 December giant outburst, which may explain the origin of the unusual recent X-ray activity of this source. We found a peculiar evolution of the pulse profile during this giant outburst, with the two main components evolving in opposite ways with energy. A hard 30-70 mHz X-ray quasi-periodic oscillation was detected with GBM during this 2009 December giant outburst. It becomes stronger with increasing energy and disappears at energies below 25 keV. In the long term a strong optical/X-ray correlation was found for this system, however in the medium term the Halpha equivalent width and the V-band brightness showed an anti-correlation after 2002 August. Each giant X-ray outburst occurred during a decline phase of the optical brightness, while the H showed a strong emission. In late 2010 and before the 2011 February outburst, rapid V/R variations are observed in the strength of the two peaks of the H line. These had a period of 25 days and we suggest the presence of a global one-armed oscillation to explain this scenario. A general pattern might be inferred, where the disk becomes weaker and shows V/R variability beginning 6 months following a giant outburst.

  15. X-Ray and Optical Observations of A 0535+26

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camero-Arranz, A.; Finger, M. H.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Jenke, P.; Steele, I.; Coe, M. J.; Gutierrez-Soto, J.; Kretschmar, P.; Caballero, I.; Yan, J.; Rodríguez, J.; Suso, J.; Case, G.; Cherry, M. L.; Guiriec, S.; McBride, V. A.

    2012-07-01

    We present recent contemporaneous X-ray and optical observations of the Be/X-ray binary system A 0535+26 with the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and several ground-based observatories. These new observations are put into the context of the rich historical data (since ~1978) and discussed in terms of the neutron-star-Be-disk interaction. The Be circumstellar disk was exceptionally large just before the 2009 December giant outburst, which may explain the origin of the unusual recent X-ray activity of this source. We found a peculiar evolution of the pulse profile during this giant outburst, with the two main components evolving in opposite ways with energy. A hard 30-70 mHz X-ray quasi-periodic oscillation was detected with GBM during this 2009 December giant outburst. It becomes stronger with increasing energy and disappears at energies below 25 keV. In the long term a strong optical/X-ray correlation was found for this system, however in the medium term the Hα equivalent width and the V-band brightness showed an anti-correlation after ~2002 August. Each giant X-ray outburst occurred during a decline phase of the optical brightness, while the Hα showed a strong emission. In late 2010 and before the 2011 February outburst, rapid V/R variations are observed in the strength of the two peaks of the Hα line. These had a period of ~25 days and we suggest the presence of a global one-armed oscillation to explain this scenario. A general pattern might be inferred, where the disk becomes weaker and shows V/R variability beginning ~6 months following a giant outburst.

  16. X-RAY AND OPTICAL OBSERVATIONS OF A 0535+26

    SciTech Connect

    Camero-Arranz, A.; Finger, M. H.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Jenke, P.; Coe, M. J.; McBride, V. A.; Gutierrez-Soto, J.; Yan, J.; Suso, J.; Guiriec, S.

    2012-07-20

    We present recent contemporaneous X-ray and optical observations of the Be/X-ray binary system A 0535+26 with the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and several ground-based observatories. These new observations are put into the context of the rich historical data (since {approx}1978) and discussed in terms of the neutron-star-Be-disk interaction. The Be circumstellar disk was exceptionally large just before the 2009 December giant outburst, which may explain the origin of the unusual recent X-ray activity of this source. We found a peculiar evolution of the pulse profile during this giant outburst, with the two main components evolving in opposite ways with energy. A hard 30-70 mHz X-ray quasi-periodic oscillation was detected with GBM during this 2009 December giant outburst. It becomes stronger with increasing energy and disappears at energies below 25 keV. In the long term a strong optical/X-ray correlation was found for this system, however in the medium term the H{alpha} equivalent width and the V-band brightness showed an anti-correlation after {approx}2002 August. Each giant X-ray outburst occurred during a decline phase of the optical brightness, while the H{alpha} showed a strong emission. In late 2010 and before the 2011 February outburst, rapid V/R variations are observed in the strength of the two peaks of the H{alpha} line. These had a period of {approx}25 days and we suggest the presence of a global one-armed oscillation to explain this scenario. A general pattern might be inferred, where the disk becomes weaker and shows V/R variability beginning {approx}6 months following a giant outburst.

  17. Development of the water window imaging X-ray microscope utilizing normal-incidence multilayer optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Shealy, David L.; Brinkley, B. R.; Baker, Phillip C.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A water-window imaging X-ray telescope configured with normal-incidence multilayer X-ray mirrors has been developed to obtain images with unprecedented spatial resolution and contrast of carbon-based microstructures within living cells. The narrow bandpass response inherent in multilayer X-ray optics is accurately tuned to wavelengths within the water window.

  18. The X-ray properties of high redshift, optically selected QSOs. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    In order to study the X-ray properties of high redshift QSOs, grism/grens plates covering 17 deg. of sky previously imaged to very sensitive X-ray flux levels with the Einstein Observatory were taken. Following optical selection of the QSO, the archived X-ray image is examined to extract an X-ray flux detection or a sensitive upper limit.

  19. The peculiar optical-UV X-ray spectra of the X-ray weak quasar PG 0043+039

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollatschny, W.; Schartel, N.; Zetzl, M.; Santos-Lleó, M.; Rodríguez-Pascual, P. M.; Ballo, L.; Talavera, A.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The object PG 0043+039 has been identified as a broad absorption line (BAL) quasar based on its UV spectra. However, this optical luminous quasar has not been detected before in deep X-ray observations, making it the most extreme X-ray weak quasar known today. Aims: This study aims to detect PG 0043+039 in a deep X-ray exposure. The question is what causes the extreme X-ray weakness of PG 0043+039? Does PG 0043+039 show other spectral or continuum peculiarities? Methods: We took simultaneous deep X-ray spectra with XMM-Newton, far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectra with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and optical spectra of PG 0043+039 with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) in July, 2013. Results: We have detected PG 0043+039 in our X-ray exposure taken in 2013. We presented our first results in a separate paper (Kollatschny et al. 2015). PG 0043+039 shows an extreme αox gradient (αox = -2.37). Furthermore, we were able to verify an X-ray flux of this source in a reanalysis of the X-ray data taken in 2005. At that time, it was fainter by a factor of 3.8 ±0.9 with αox = -2.55. The X-ray spectrum is compatible with a normal quasar power-law spectrum (Γ = 1.70-0.45+0.57) with moderate intrinsic absorption (NH = 5.5-3.9+6.9 × 1021 cm-2) and reflection. The UV/optical flux of PG 0043+039 has increased by a factor of 1.8 compared to spectra taken in the years 1990-1991. The FUV spectrum is highly peculiar and dominated by broad bumps besides Lyα. There is no detectable Lyman edge associated with the BAL absorbing gas seen in the CIV line. PG 0043+039 shows a maximum in the overall continuum flux at around λ ≈ 2500 Å in contrast to most other AGN where the maximum is found at shorter wavelengths. All the above is compatible with an intrinsically X-ray weak quasar, rather than an absorbed X-ray emission. Besides strong FeII multiplets and broad Balmer and HeI lines in the optical band we only detect a narrow [O ii

  20. Progress on the Slumped Glass X-Ray Optics for the International X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, Robert

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been developing technology for the large area IXO mirror based on precise slumping of glass sheets into parabolic and hyperbolic mirror segments. Recent progress toward attaining the stringent IXO angular resolution requirement and demonstrating technical readiness of the slumped glass technology will be described. This includes a series of X-ray measurements of mirror segment pairs in a flight-like mount. Additionally, the plan for maturing the slumped glass approach over the next several years will be summarized.

  1. LUMINOUS X-RAY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Koulouridis, E.; Plionis, M.

    2010-05-10

    We present a study of X-ray active galactic nucleus (AGN) overdensities in 16 Abell clusters, within the redshift range 0.073 < z < 0.279, in order to investigate the effect of the hot inter-cluster environment on the triggering of the AGN phenomenon. The X-ray AGN overdensities, with respect to the field expectations, were estimated for sources with L{sub x} {>=} 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} (at the redshift of the clusters) and within an area of 1 h {sup -1} {sub 72} Mpc radius (excluding the core). To investigate the presence or absence of a true enhancement of luminous X-ray AGNs in the cluster area, we also derived the corresponding optical galaxy overdensities, using a suitable range of r-band magnitudes. We always find the latter to be significantly higher (and only in two cases roughly equal) with respect to the corresponding X-ray overdensities. Over the whole cluster sample, the mean X-ray point-source overdensity is a factor of {approx}4 less than that corresponding to bright optical galaxies, a difference which is significant at a >0.995 level, as indicated by an appropriate student's t-test. We conclude that the triggering of luminous X-ray AGNs in rich clusters is strongly suppressed. Furthermore, searching for optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey counterparts of all the X-ray sources, associated with our clusters, we found that about half appear to be background QSOs, while others are background and foreground AGNs or stars. The true overdensity of X-ray point sources, associated with the clusters, is therefore even smaller than what our statistical approach revealed.

  2. Efficient Fresnel x-ray optics made simple.

    PubMed

    Braig, Christoph; Predehl, Peter

    2007-05-10

    A practical design for upcoming spaceborne x-ray telescopes with ultrahigh angular resolution is proposed. Particular attention is directed to technological simplicity and robust as well as cheap components. Based on dispersion corrected Fresnel lenses, an optimized arrangement will be identified with respect to the instrumental sensitivity for a given focal spot size. We show that this optical Gamow peak essentially depends on the radial transmission profile of a diffractive-refractive aperture. Examples for energies above 4 keV illustrate astronomical capabilities for large-scale compact and segmented objectives as well. The spectral and spatial resolutions of conventional semiconductor detectors are very well matched to imaging characteristics of those achromatic lenses. The constraints to fabrication techniques using most promising materials like Li, Be, and plastics are discussed. PMID:17446906

  3. Alkali Halide Microstructured Optical Fiber for X-Ray Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeHaven, S. L.; Wincheski, R. A.; Albin, S.

    2014-01-01

    Microstructured optical fibers containing alkali halide scintillation materials of CsI(Na), CsI(Tl), and NaI(Tl) are presented. The scintillation materials are grown inside the microstructured fibers using a modified Bridgman-Stockbarger technique. The x-ray photon counts of these fibers, with and without an aluminum film coating are compared to the output of a collimated CdTe solid state detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. The photon count results show significant variations in the fiber output based on the materials. The alkali halide fiber output can exceed that of the CdTe detector, dependent upon photon counter efficiency and fiber configuration. The results and associated materials difference are discussed.

  4. Alkali halide microstructured optical fiber for X-ray detection

    SciTech Connect

    DeHaven, S. L. E-mail: russel.a.wincheski@nasa.gov; Wincheski, R. A. E-mail: russel.a.wincheski@nasa.gov; Albin, S.

    2015-03-31

    Microstructured optical fibers containing alkali halide scintillation materials of CsI(Na), CsI(Tl), and NaI(Tl) are presented. The scintillation materials are grown inside the microstructured fibers using a modified Bridgman-Stockbarger technique. The x-ray photon counts of these fibers, with and without an aluminum film coating are compared to the output of a collimated CdTe solid state detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. The photon count results show significant variations in the fiber output based on the materials. The alkali halide fiber output can exceed that of the CdTe detector, dependent upon photon counter efficiency and fiber configuration. The results and associated materials difference are discussed.

  5. Soft X-Ray Optics by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Felix E.

    1996-01-01

    Mo/Si and C/Co multilayers for soft x-ray optics were designed for spectral regions of interest in possible applications. Fabrication was effected by Pulsed Laser Deposition using Nd:YAG (355 nm) or excimer (248 nm) lasers in order to evaluate the suitability of this technique. Results for Mo/Si structures were not considered satisfactory due mainly to problems with particulate production and target surface modification during Si ablation. These problems may be alleviated by a two-wavelength approach, using separate lasers for each target. Results for C/Co multilayers are much more encouraging, since indication of good layering was observed for extremely thin layers. We expect to continue investigating this possibility. In order to compete with traditional PVD techniques, it is necessary to achieve film coverage uniformity over large enough areas. It was shown that this is feasible, and novel means of achieving it were devised.

  6. X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray excited optical luminescence studies of II-VI semiconducting nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Michael Wayne

    2010-06-01

    Various II-VI semiconducting nanomaterials such as ZnO-ZnS nanoribbons (NRs), CdSxSe1-x nanostructures, ZnS:Mn NRs, ZnS:Mn,Eu nanoprsims (NPs), ZnO:Mn nanopowders, and ZnO:Co nanopowders were synthesized for study. These materials were characterized by techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, element dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and X-ray diffraction. The electronic and optical properties of these nanomaterials were studied by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) techniques, using tuneable soft X-rays from a synchrotron light source. The complementary nature ofthe XAFS and XEOL techniques give site, element and chemical specific measurements which allow a better understanding of the interplay and role of each element in the system. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of ZnS powder in a limited oxygen environment resulted in side-by-side biaxial ZnO-ZnS NR heterostructures. The resulting NRs contained distinct wurtzite ZnS and wurtzite ZnO components with widths of 10--100 nm and 20 --500 nm, respectively and a uniform interface region of 5-15 nm. XAFS and XEOL measurements revealed the luminescence of ZnO-ZnS NRs is from the ZnO component. The luminescence of CdSxSe1-x nanostructures is shown to be dependent on the S to Se ratio, with the band-gap emission being tunable between that of pure CdS and CdSe. Excitation of the CdSxSe 1-x nanostructures by X-ray in XEOL has revealed new de-excitation channels which show a defect emission band not seen by laser excitation. CVD of Mn2+ doped ZnS results in nanostructures with luminescence dominated by the yellow Mn2+ emission due to energy transfer from the ZnS host to the Mn dopant sites. The addition of EuCl3 to the reactants in the CVD process results in a change in morphology from NR to NP. Zn1-xMnxO and Zn1-xCOxO nanopowders were prepared by sol-gel methods at dopant concentrations

  7. OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS OF THE NEAREST ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Gladstone, Jeanette C.; Heinke, Craig O.; Cartwright, Taylor F.; Copperwheat, Chris; Roberts, Timothy P.; Levan, Andrew J.; Goad, Mike R.

    2013-06-01

    We present a photometric survey of the optical counterparts of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in nearby ({approx}<5 Mpc) galaxies. Of the 33 ULXs with HST and Chandra data, 9 have no visible counterpart, placing limits on their M{sub V} of {approx} -4 to -9, enabling us to rule out O-type companions in 4 cases. The refined positions of two ULXs place them in the nucleus of their host galaxy. They are removed from our sample. Of the 22 remaining ULXs, 13 have one possible optical counterpart, while multiple are visible within the error regions of other ULXs. By calculating the number of chance coincidences, we estimate that 13 {+-} 5 are the true counterparts. We attempt to constrain the nature of the companions by fitting the spectral energy distribution and M{sub V} to obtain candidate spectral types. We can rule out O-type companions in 20 cases, while we find that one ULX (NGC 253 ULX2) excludes all OB-type companions. Fitting with X-ray irradiated models provides constraints on the donor star mass and radius. For seven ULXs, we are able to impose inclination-dependent upper and/or lower limits on the black holes' mass, if the extinction to the assumed companion star is not larger than the Galactic column. These are NGC 55 ULX1, NGC 253 ULX1, NGC 253 ULX2, NGC 253 XMM6, Ho IX X-1, IC342 X-1, and NGC 5204 X-1. This suggests that 10 ULXs do not have O companions, while none of the 18 fitted rule out B-type companions.

  8. X-Ray Activity in the Open Cluster IC 4665

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giamapapa, Mark S.; Prosser, Charles F.; Fleming, Thomas A.

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of a joint ROSAT High Resolution Imager (HRI) and optical investigation of the open cluster IC 4665. The ROSAT data contains detections for 28 stellar sources in the field, including 22 cluster members and candidate members spanning the color range -0.18 less than or equal to (B - V(sub o)) less than or equal to +1.63 (approx. B3 - M3). Upper limits are given for the remaining members (or candidate members) in the HRI field. Keck HIRES spectra have been obtained that yield radial and rotational velocity measures, respectively, for faint, low mass candidate members located within the field of the ROSAT HRI observation. In addition, photometry of possible optical counterparts to previously uncatalogued X-ray sources in the HRI field is presented. The trends in X-ray properties with (B - V) color in IC 4665 are found to be quite similar to that for other, more nearby young clusters such as the Pleiades and alpha Persei. In particular, a maximum in normalized X-ray luminosity of log (L(sub x)/L(sub bol)) approx. equal 3 is observed, beginning in the color range of (B - V)(sub o) = 0.7 - 0.8. This is similar to the corresponding color range among Pleiades members, in agreement with the earlier estimate, that the age of IC 4665 is similar to the age of the Pleiades. The correlation of rotation and X-ray emission levels is consistent with that in other young clusters. Among the high mass stars in IC 4665, five B stars are detected as X-ray sources. Of these, one is a spectroscopic binary while the remaining objects are apparently single staxs. The level of intrinsic X-ray emission observed in the rapidly rotating (v sini greater than 200 km/ s), single B stars is consistent with an origin due to shock heating of the ambient medium by radiatively driven, rotationally enhanced winds. On the basis of these observations and the results for other clusters, we argue that observed levels of X-ray emission in high mass stars of log (L(sub x)/L(sub bol

  9. OCCUPATION OF X-RAY-SELECTED GALAXY GROUPS BY X-RAY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Allevato, V.; Finoguenov, A.; Hasinger, G.; Cappelluti, N.; Miyaji, T.; Salvato, M.; Brusa, M.; Zamorani, G.; Gilli, R.; George, M. R.; Tanaka, M.; Silverman, J.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Shankar, F.

    2012-10-10

    We present the first direct measurement of the mean halo occupation distribution (HOD) of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the COSMOS field at z {<=} 1, based on the association of 41 XMM and 17 C-COSMOS AGNs with member galaxies of 189 X-ray-detected galaxy groups from XMM-Newton and Chandra data. We model the mean AGN occupation in the halo mass range log M{sub 200} [M{sub Sun }] = 13-14.5 with a rolling-off power law with the best-fit index {alpha} = 0.06(- 0.22; 0.36) and normalization parameter f{sub a} 0.05(0.04; 0.06). We find the mean HOD of AGNs among central galaxies to be modeled by a softened step function at log M{sub h} > log M{sub min} = 12.75(12.10, 12.95) M{sub Sun} while for the satellite AGN HOD we find a preference for an increasing AGN fraction with M{sub h} , suggesting that the average number of AGNs in satellite galaxies grows slower ({alpha}{sub s} < 0.6) than the linear proportion ({alpha}{sub s} = 1) observed for the satellite HOD of samples of galaxies. We present an estimate of the projected autocorrelation function (ACF) of galaxy groups over the range of r{sub p} = 0.1-40 h {sup -1} Mpc at (z) = 0.5. We use the large-scale clustering signal to verify the agreement between the group bias estimated by using the observed galaxy groups ACF and the value derived from the group mass estimates. We perform a measurement of the projected AGN-galaxy-group cross-correlation function, excluding from the analysis AGNs that are within galaxy groups and we model the two-halo term of the clustering signal with the mean AGN HOD based on our results.

  10. X-rays From Quasars and Active Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightman, Alan P.

    1981-01-01

    Features of quasars and active galactic nuclei are discussed and include: the nature of the power source, the radiation processes, and the mechanism for the formation and collimation of long-lived jets of matter observed to emanate from the center of these of these objects. The phenomena that produce X-rays are highlighted.

  11. FIRST IMAGES FROM THE FOCUSING OPTICS X-RAY SOLAR IMAGER

    SciTech Connect

    Krucker, Säm; Glesener, Lindsay; Turin, Paul; McBride, Stephen; Glaser, David; Fermin, Jose; Lin, Robert; Christe, Steven; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Shin; Saito, Shinya; Tanaka, Takaaki; White, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket payload flew for the first time on 2012 November 2, producing the first focused images of the Sun above 5 keV. To enable hard X-ray (HXR) imaging spectroscopy via direct focusing, FOXSI makes use of grazing-incidence replicated optics combined with fine-pitch solid-state detectors. On its first flight, FOXSI observed several targets that included active regions, the quiet Sun, and a GOES-class B2.7 microflare. This Letter provides an introduction to the FOXSI instrument and presents its first solar image. These data demonstrate the superiority in sensitivity and dynamic range that is achievable with a direct HXR imager with respect to previous, indirect imaging methods, and illustrate the technological readiness for a spaceborne mission to observe HXRs from solar flares via direct focusing optics.

  12. First Images from the Focusing Optics X-Ray Solar Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krucker, Säm; Christe, Steven; Glesener, Lindsay; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Ramsey, Brian; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Shin; Saito, Shinya; Gubarev, Mikhail; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Tanaka, Takaaki; Turin, Paul; McBride, Stephen; Glaser, David; Fermin, Jose; White, Stephen; Lin, Robert

    2014-10-01

    The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket payload flew for the first time on 2012 November 2, producing the first focused images of the Sun above 5 keV. To enable hard X-ray (HXR) imaging spectroscopy via direct focusing, FOXSI makes use of grazing-incidence replicated optics combined with fine-pitch solid-state detectors. On its first flight, FOXSI observed several targets that included active regions, the quiet Sun, and a GOES-class B2.7 microflare. This Letter provides an introduction to the FOXSI instrument and presents its first solar image. These data demonstrate the superiority in sensitivity and dynamic range that is achievable with a direct HXR imager with respect to previous, indirect imaging methods, and illustrate the technological readiness for a spaceborne mission to observe HXRs from solar flares via direct focusing optics.

  13. Optical Synchronization Systems for Femtosecond X-raySources

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, Russell; Staples, John W.; Holzwarth, Ronald

    2004-05-09

    In femtosecond pump/probe experiments using short X-Ray and optical pulses, precise synchronization must be maintained between widely separated lasers in a synchrotron or FEL facility. We are developing synchronization systems using optical signals for applications requiring different ranges of timing error over 100 meter of glass fiber. For stabilization in the hundred femtosecond range a CW laser is amplitude modulated at 1 10 GHz, the signal retroreflected from the far end, and the relative phase used to correct the transit time with a piezoelectric phase modulator. For the sub-10 fsec range the laser frequency itself is upshifted 55 MHz with an acousto-optical modulator, retroreflected, upshifted again and phase compared at the sending end to a 110 MHz reference. Initial experiments indicate less than 1 fsec timing jitter. To lock lasers in the sub-10 fs range we will lock two single-frequency lasers separated by several tera Hertz to a master modelocked fiber laser, transmit the two frequencies over fiber, and lock two comb lines of a slave laser to these frequencies, thus synchronizing the two modelocked laser envelopes.

  14. Development of Coherent X-ray Diffraction Apparatus with Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirror Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Y.; Tsutsumi, R.; Mimura, H.; Matsuyama, S.; Nishino, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Yamauchi, K.

    2011-09-09

    To realize coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy with higher spatial resolution, it is necessary to increase the density of x-ray photons illuminated onto the sample. In this study, we developed a coherent x-ray diffraction apparatus with Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror optics. By using mirrors fabricated by elastic emission machining, a high-density coherent x-ray beam was produced. In a demonstration experiment using a silver nanocube as a sample, a high-contrast coherent x-ray diffraction pattern was observed over a wide-q range. This proves that both the density and the degree of coherence of the focused beam were high.

  15. Two-Layer Ultra-High Density X-Ray Optical Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezirganyan, Hakob (Akop) P.; Bezirganyan, Siranush E.; Bezirganyan, Hayk H., Jr.; Bezirganyan, Petros H., Jr.

    Data reading procedure from nanostructured semiconductor X-ray optical memory (X-ROM) system detects data by measuring the changes in x-ray micro beam intensity reflected from the various surface points of data storage media. Two different mechanisms of the digital information read-out procedure, which are utilizing grazing-angle incidence X-ray backscattering diffraction (GIXB) and grazing-angle incidence X-ray reflection (GIX) techniques respectively, enable, in principle, the fabrication and exploitation of two-layer X-ROM. Angle of incidence of the x-ray micro beam is different for each storage layer of the proposed two-layer X-ROM.

  16. Very High Resolution Solar X-ray Imaging Using Diffractive Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Skinner, G. K.; Li, M. J.; Shih, A. Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development of X-ray diffractive optics for imaging solar flares with better than 0.1 arcsec angular resolution. X-ray images with this resolution of the greater than or equal to 10 MK plasma in solar active regions and solar flares would allow the cross-sectional area of magnetic loops to be resolved and the coronal flare energy release region itself to be probed. The objective of this work is to obtain X-ray images in the iron-line complex at 6.7 keV observed during solar flares with an angular resolution as fine as 0.1 arcsec - over an order of magnitude finer than is now possible. This line emission is from highly ionized iron atoms, primarily Fe xxv, in the hottest flare plasma at temperatures in excess of approximately equal to 10 MK. It provides information on the flare morphology, the iron abundance, and the distribution of the hot plasma. Studying how this plasma is heated to such high temperatures in such short times during solar flares is of critical importance in understanding these powerful transient events, one of the major objectives of solar physics.We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of phase zone plate X-ray lenses with focal lengths of approximately equal to 100 m at these energies that would be capable of achieving these objectives. We show how such lenses could be included on a two-spacecraft formation-flying mission with the lenses on the spacecraft closest to the Sun and an X-ray imaging array on the second spacecraft in the focal plane approximately equal to 100 m away. High resolution X-ray images could be obtained when the two spacecraft are aligned with the region of interest on the Sun. Requirements and constraints for the control of the two spacecraft are discussed together with the overall feasibility of such a formation-flying mission.

  17. Electroform/Plasma-Spray Laminates for X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulmer, Melville P.; Graham, Michael; Vaynman, Semyon

    2007-01-01

    Electroform/plasma-spray laminates have shown promise as lightweight, strong, low-thermal-expansion components for xray optics. The basic idea is to exploit both (1) the well-established art of fabrication of optical components by replication and (2) plasma spraying as a means of reinforcing a thin replica optic with one or more backing layer(s) having tailorable thermomechanical properties. In x-ray optics as in other applications, replication reduces the time and cost of fabrication because grinding and polishing can be limited to a few thick masters, from which many lightweight replicas can thereafter be made. The first step in the fabrication of a component of the type in question is to make a replica optic by electroforming a thin layer of nickel on a master. Through proper control of the electroforming process conditions, it is possible to minimize residual stress and, hence, to minimize distortion in the replica. Next, a powder comprising ceramic particles coated with a metal compatible with the electroformed nickel is plasma-sprayed onto the backside of the nickel replica. Then through several repetitions and variations of the preceding steps or perhaps a small compressive stress, alternating layers of electroformed nickel and plasma-sprayed metal-coated ceramic powder are deposited. The thicknesses of the layers and the composition of the metal-coated ceramic powder are chosen to optimize the strength, areal mass density, and toughness of the finished component. An important benefit of using both electroforming and plasma spraying is the possibility of balancing stresses to a minimum level, which could be zero or perhaps a small net compressive stress designed to enhance the function of the component in its intended application.

  18. X-ray optical units made of glass: achievements and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civitani, M.; Basso, S.; Ghigo, M.; Pareschi, G.; Salmaso, B.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vecchi, G.; Burwitz, V.; Hartner, G. D.; Menz, B.

    2014-07-01

    Future X-ray telescopes with very large collecting area, like the proposed Athena with more than 2 m2 effective area at 1 keV, need to be realized as assemblies of a large number of X-ray optical units, named X-ray Optical Units (XOUs). The Brera Astronomical Observatory (INAF-OAB) is developing a new technology to manufacture these modular elements, compatible with an angular resolution of 5 arcsec HEW (Half-Energy-Width). This technique consists in stacking in a Wolter-I configuration several layers of thin foils of glass, previously formed by direct hot slumping. The achievable global angular resolution of the optics relies on the required surface shape accuracy of slumped foils, on the smoothness of the mirror surfaces and on the correct integration and co-alignment of the mirror segments operated trough a dedicated Integration Machine (IMA). In this paper we provide an overview of the project development, reporting on the very promising results achieved so far, including in-focus full illumination X-ray tests of the prototype (Proof of Concept, POC#2, integrated at the beginning of 2013) for which an HEW of 22.1'' has been measured at Panter/MPE. Moreover we report on the on-going activities, with a new integrated prototype (PoC#3). X-ray test in pencil beam revealed that at least a segment between two external ribs is characterized by an HEW well below 10''. Lastly, the overall process up-grade to go from 20 m to 12m focal length (to be compatible with Athena+ configuration) is presented.

  19. Coating Thin Mirror Segments for Lightweight X-ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Sharpe, Marton V.; Zhang, William; Kolosc, Linette; Hong, Melinda; McClelland, Ryan; Hohl, Bruce R.; Saha, Timo; Mazzarellam, James

    2013-01-01

    Next generations lightweight, high resolution, high throughput optics for x-ray astronomy requires integration of very thin mirror segments into a lightweight telescope housing without distortion. Thin glass substrates with linear dimension of 200 mm and thickness as small as 0.4 mm can now be fabricated to a precision of a few arc-seconds for grazing incidence optics. Subsequent implementation requires a distortion-free deposition of metals such as iridium or platinum. These depositions, however, generally have high coating stresses that cause mirror distortion. In this paper, we discuss the coating stress on these thin glass mirrors and the effort to eliminate their induced distortion. It is shown that balancing the coating distortion either by coating films with tensile and compressive stresses, or on both sides of the mirrors is not sufficient. Heating the mirror in a moderately high temperature turns out to relax the coated films reasonably well to a precision of about a second of arc and therefore provide a practical solution to the coating problem.

  20. Size Optimization for Mirror Segments for X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biskach, Michael P.; McClelland, Ryan S.; Saha, Timo; Zhang, William W.

    2011-01-01

    The flight mirror assemblies (FMA) for X-ray telescopes similar to that of the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) concept consist of several thousands of individual mirror segments. The size, shape, and location of these mirrors affect many characteristics of the telescope design. Mission requirements among other factors in turn restrict mirror segment parameters such as thickness, axial- length, azimuthal span, and mass density. This paper provides an overview of the critical relationships relating to mirror segment size and configuration throughout the design and analysis of an X-ray mirror assembly. A computational analysis is presented in the form of ray tracing pairs of thin X-ray mirror segments of varying sizes aligned in gravity and supported using kinematic constraints with corresponding self weight distortions calculated using finite element analysis (FEA). The work in this paper may be used as a starting point for determining mirror segment sizes for X-ray missions like that of IXO and beyond.

  1. Unwrapping the X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, C. S.

    2016-05-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are complex phenomena. At the heart of an AGN is a relativistic accretion disk around a spinning supermassive black hole (SMBH) with an X-ray emitting corona and, sometimes, a relativistic jet. On larger scales, the outer accretion disk and molecular torus act as the reservoirs of gas for the continuing AGN activity. And on all scales from the black hole outwards, powerful winds are seen that probably affect the evolution of the host galaxy as well as regulate the feeding of the AGN itself. In this review article, we discuss how X-ray spectroscopy can be used to study each of these components. We highlight how recent measurements of the high-energy cutoff in the X-ray continuum by NuSTAR are pushing us to conclude that X-ray coronae are radiatively-compact and have electron temperatures regulated by electron-positron pair production. We show that the predominance of rapidly-rotating objects in current surveys of SMBH spin is entirely unsurprising once one accounts for the observational selection bias resulting from the spin-dependence of the radiative efficiency. We review recent progress in our understanding of fast (v˜ (0.1-0.3)c, highly-ionized (mainly visible in Fe XXV and Fe XXVI lines), high-column density winds that may dominate quasar-mode galactic feedback. Finally, we end with a brief look forward to the promise of Astro-H and future X-ray spectropolarimeters.

  2. The INTEGRAL/IBIS AGN catalogue - I. X-ray absorption properties versus optical classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malizia, A.; Bassani, L.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Masetti, N.; Panessa, F.; Stephen, J. B.; Ubertini, P.

    2012-11-01

    In this work we present the most comprehensive INTEGRAL active galactic nucleus (AGN) sample. It lists 272 AGN for which we have secure optical identifications, precise optical spectroscopy and measured redshift values plus X-ray spectral information, i.e. 2-10 and 20-100 keV fluxes plus column density. Here we mainly use this sample to study the absorption properties of active galaxies, to probe new AGN classes and to test the AGN unification scheme. We find that half (48 per cent) of the sample is absorbed, while the fraction of Compton-thick AGN is small (˜7 per cent). In line with our previous analysis, we have however shown that when the bias towards heavily absorbed objects which are lost if weak and at large distance is removed, as it is possible in the local Universe, the above fractions increase to become 80 and 17 per cent. We also find that absorption is a function of source luminosity, which implies some evolution in the obscuration properties of AGN. A few peculiar classes, so far poorly studied in the hard X-ray band, have been detected and studied for the first time such as 5 X-ray bright optically normal galaxies, 5 type 2 QSOs and 11 low-ionization nuclear emission regions. In terms of optical classification, our sample contains 57 per cent of type 1 and 43 per cent of type 2 AGN; this subdivision is similar to that found in X-rays if unabsorbed versus absorbed objects are considered, suggesting that the match between optical and X-ray classifications is overall good. Only a small percentage of sources (12 per cent) does not fulfil the expectation of the unified theory as we find 22 type 1 AGN which are absorbed and 10 type 2 AGN which are unabsorbed. Studying in depth these outliers we found that most of the absorbed type 1 AGN have X-ray spectra characterized by either complex or warm/ionized absorption more likely due to ionized gas located in an accretion disc wind or in the biconical structure associated with the central nucleus, therefore

  3. An X-ray and optical study of the cluster of galaxies Abell 754

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabricant, D.; Beers, T. C.; Geller, M. J.; Gorenstein, P.; Huchra, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray and optical data for A754 are used to study the relative distribution of the luminous and dark matter in this dense, rich cluster of galaxies with X-ray luminosity comparable to that of the Coma Cluster. A quantitative statistical comparison is made of the galaxy positions with the total mass responsible for maintaining the X-ray emitting gas in hydrostatic equilibrium. A simple bimodal model which fits both the X-ray and optical data suggests that the galaxies are distributed consistently with the projected matter distribution within the region covered by the X-ray map (0.5-1 Mpc). The X-ray and optical estimates of the mass in the central region of the cluster are 2.9 x 10 to the 14th and 3.6 + or - 0.5 x 10 to the 14th solar masses, respectively.

  4. Payload study activities on the International X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D.; Rando, N.; Lumb, D.; Verhoeve, P.; Oosterbroek, T.; Puig, L.; Saavedra, G.; Bavdaz, M.; Gondoin, P.

    2010-07-01

    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) is an L class mission candidate within the science programme Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 of the European Space Agency, with a planned launch by 2020. IXO is an international cooperative project, pursued by ESA, JAXA and NASA. By allowing astrophysical observations between 100 eV and 40 keV using a very large effective collecting area mirror and state-of-the art instruments, IXO would represent the new generation X-ray observatory, following the XMM-Newton, Astro-H and Chandra heritage. The IXO mission concept is based on a single aperture telescope with an external diameter of about 3.5 m and a focal length of 20 m. The focal plane consists of a fixed and a moveable instrument platform (FIP and MIP respectively). The model payload consists of a suite of five instruments which can each be located at the telescope's focus by the MIP, these are: 1. a wide field imager (WFI) based on a silicon DEPFET array; 2. a Hard-X-ray Imager (HXI), which will be integrated together with the WFI; 3. an X-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer (XMS); 4. an X-ray Polarimeter camera (X-POL) based on a gas cell with integrated anode array; 5. a High-Time Resolution Spectrometer (HTRS) based on a silicon drift detector array. In addition, the FIP will carry a grating spectrometer (XGS) mounted in a fixed position and which will allow simultaneous observations with the on-axis instrument. This paper provides a summary of the preliminary results achieved during the assessment activities presently ongoing at ESA. Whereas we will provide a brief overview on the overall spacecraft design, we will focus on the payload description, characteristics, the technology used and the accommodation on the instrument platform.

  5. X-RAY EMISSION FROM OPTICALLY SELECTED RADIO-INTERMEDIATE AND RADIO-LOUD QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B. P.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Wu Jianfeng; Gibson, R. R.; Steffen, A. T. E-mail: niel@astro.psu.edu E-mail: jfwu@astro.psu.edu E-mail: rgibson@astro.washington.edu

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an investigation into the X-ray properties of radio-intermediate and radio-loud quasars (RIQs and RLQs, respectively). We combine large, modern optical (e.g., SDSS) and radio (e.g., FIRST) surveys with archival X-ray data from Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT to generate an optically selected sample that includes 188 RIQs and 603 RLQs. This sample is constructed independently of X-ray properties but has a high X-ray detection rate (85%); it provides broad and dense coverage of the l-z plane, including at high redshifts (22% of objects have z = 2-5), and it extends to high radio-loudness values (33% of objects have R* = 3-5, using logarithmic units). We measure the 'excess' X-ray luminosity of RIQs and RLQs relative to radio-quiet quasars (RQQs) as a function of radio loudness and luminosity, and parameterize the X-ray luminosity of RIQs and RLQs both as a function of optical/UV luminosity and also as a joint function of optical/UV and radio luminosity. RIQs are only modestly X-ray bright relative to RQQs; it is only at high values of radio loudness (R* {approx}> 3.5) and radio luminosity that RLQs become strongly X-ray bright. We find no evidence for evolution in the X-ray properties of RIQs and RLQs with redshift (implying jet-linked IC/CMB emission does not contribute substantially to the nuclear X-ray continuum). Finally, we consider a model in which the nuclear X-ray emission contains both disk/corona-linked and jet-linked components and demonstrate that the X-ray jet-linked emission is likely beamed but to a lesser degree than applies to the radio jet. This model is used to investigate the increasing dominance of jet-linked X-ray emission at low inclinations.

  6. Possible application of X-ray optical elements for reducing the spectral bandwidth of an X-ray SASE FEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldhaus, J.; Saldin, E. L.; Schneider, J. R.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.

    1997-08-01

    A new design for a single pass X-ray Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) FEL is proposed. The scheme consists of two undulators and an X-ray monochromator located between them. The first stage of the FEL amplifier operates in the SASE linear regime. After the exit of the first undulator the electron bunch is guided through a non-isochronous bypass and the X-ray beam enters the monochromator. The main function of the bypass is to suppress the modulation of the electron beam induced in the first undulator. This is possible because of the finite value of the natural energy spread in the beam. At the entrance to the second undulator the radiation power from the monochromator dominates significantly over the shot noise and the residual electron bunching. As a result the second stage of the FEL amplifier operates in the steady-state regime when the input signal bandwidth is small with respect to that of the FEL amplifier. Integral losses of the radiation power in the monochromator are relatively small because grazing incidence optics can be used. The proposed scheme is illustrated for the example of the 6 nm option SASE FEL at the TESLA Test Facility under construction at DESY. As shown in this paper the spectral bandwidth of such a two-stage SASE FEL (Δλ/λ⋍ 5 × 10-5) is close to the limit defined by the finite duration of the radiation pulse. The average brilliance is equal to 7 × 1024photons/(s × mrad2 × mm2 × 0.1% bandw.) which is by two orders of magnitude higher than the value which could be reached by the conventional SASE FEL. The monochromatization of the radiation is performed at a low level of radiation power (about 500 times less than the saturation level) which allows one to use conventional X-ray optical elements (grazing incidence grating and mirrors) for the monochromator design.

  7. RADIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS BY HIGH SENSITIVITY DUAL-OPTIC MICRO X-RAY FLUORESCENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel dual-optic micro X-ray fluorescence instrument will be developed to do radiochemical analysis of high-level radioactive wastes at DOE sites such as Savannah River Site and Hanford. This concept incorporates new X-ray optical elements such as monolithic polycapillaries and...

  8. Optical and X-ray early follow-up of ANTARES neutrino alerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Albert, A.; Samarai, I. Al; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bogazzi, C.; Bormuth, R.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herrero, A.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, S.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaš, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tönnis, C.; Turpin, D.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vecchi, M.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; Klotz, A.; Boer, M.; Le Van Suu, A.; Akerlof, C.; Zheng, W.; Evans, P.; Gehrels, N.; Kennea, J.; Osborne, J. P.; Coward, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    High-energy neutrinos could be produced in the interaction of charged cosmic rays with matter or radiation surrounding astrophysical sources. Even with the recent detection of extraterrestrial high-energy neutrinos by the IceCube experiment, no astrophysical neutrino source has yet been discovered. Transient sources, such as gamma-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae, or active galactic nuclei are promising candidates. Multi-messenger programs offer a unique opportunity to detect these transient sources. By combining the information provided by the ANTARES neutrino telescope with information coming from other observatories, the probability of detecting a source is enhanced, allowing the possibility of identifying a neutrino progenitor from a single detected event. A method based on optical and X-ray follow-ups of high-energy neutrino alerts has been developed within the ANTARES collaboration. This method does not require any assumptions on the relation between neutrino and photon spectra other than time-correlation. This program, denoted as TAToO, triggers a network of robotic optical telescopes (TAROT and ROTSE) and the Swift-XRT with a delay of only a few seconds after a neutrino detection, and is therefore well-suited to search for fast transient sources. To identify an optical or X-ray counterpart to a neutrino signal, the images provided by the follow-up observations are analysed with dedicated pipelines. A total of 42 alerts with optical and 7 alerts with X-ray images taken with a maximum delay of 24 hours after the neutrino trigger have been analysed. No optical or X-ray counterparts associated to the neutrino triggers have been found, and upper limits on transient source magnitudes have been derived. The probability to reject the gamma-ray burst origin hypothesis has been computed for each alert.

  9. Ion Figuring of Replicated X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantey, Thomas M.; Gregory, Don A.

    1997-01-01

    This investigation included experiments to demonstrate ion beam figuring effects on electroless nickel with the expressed desire to figure X-ray optic mandrels. It was important to establish that ion beam figuring did not induce any adverse effects to the nickel surface. The ion beam has consistently been shown to be an excellent indicator of the quality of the subsurface. Polishing is not the only cause for failure in the ion beam final figuring process, the material composition is equally important. Only by careful consideration of both these factors can the ion beam final figuring process achieve its greatest potential. The secondary goal was to construct a model for representing the ion beam material removal rate. Representing the ion beam removal rate is only an approximation and has a number of limiting factors. The resolution of the metrology apparatus limits the modeling of the beam function as well. As the surface error corrections demand more precision in the final figuring, the model representing beam function must be equally precise. The precision to which the beam function can be represented is not only determined by the model but also by the measurements producing that model. The method developed for determining the beam function has broad application to any material destined to be ion beam figured.

  10. An active M star with X-ray double flares disguised as an ultra-luminous X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jin-Cheng; Liu, Ji-Feng; Wang, Song; Wu, Yue; Qin, Yu-Xiang

    2016-02-01

    Here we present research on an ultra-luminous X-ray source (ULX) candidate 2XMM J140229.91+542118.8. The X-ray light curves of this ULX candidate in M101 exhibit features of a flare star. More importantly, the Chandra light curve displays unusual X-ray double flares, which is comprised of two close peaks. The X-ray (0.3-11.0 keV) flux of the first peak was derived from the two-temperature APEC model as ˜ 1.1 ± 0.1 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1. The observed flux at its first peak increased by about two orders of magnitude in X-ray as compared to quiescence. The slope of the second fast decay phase is steeper than the slope of the first fast decay phase, indicating that the appearance of a second flare accelerated the cooling of the first flare in a way we do not understand yet. We also observed its optical counterpart using a 2.16 m telescope administered by National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. By optical spectral fitting, it is confirmed to be a late type dMe2.5 star. According to the spectral type and apparent magnitude of its optical counterpart, we estimate the photometric distance to be ˜ 133.4 ± 14.2 pc. According to the X-ray spectral fitting, a possible explanation is provided. However, more similar close double flares are needed to confirm whether this accelerated cooling event is a unique coincidence or a common physical process during double flaring.

  11. X-RAY AND OPTICAL STUDY OF LOW CORE DENSITY GLOBULAR CLUSTERS NGC6144 AND E3

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, S-H; Kong, Albert K. H.; Verbunt, Frank; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Bassa, Cees; Anderson, Scott F.; Pooley, David

    2010-03-20

    We report on the Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of two low core-density globular clusters, NGC6144 and E3. By comparing the number of X-ray sources inside the half-mass radius to those outside, we found six X-ray sources within the half-mass radius of NGC6144, of which four are expected to be background sources; three X-ray sources are also found within the half-mass radius of E3, of which three are expected to be background sources. Therefore, we cannot exclude the possibility that all our sources are background sources. However, combining the results from X-ray and optical observations, we found that one to two sources in NGC6144 and one source in E3 are likely to be cataclysmic variables and that one source in NGC6144 is an active binary, based on the X-ray and optical properties. The number of faint X-ray sources in NGC6144 and E3 found with Chandra and HST is higher than a prediction based on collision frequency, but is closer to that based on mass. Our observations strongly suggest that the compact binary systems in NGC6144 and E3 are primordial in origin.

  12. Single-pulse x-ray diffraction using polycapillary optics for in situ dynamic diffraction.

    PubMed

    Maddox, B R; Akin, M C; Teruya, A; Hunt, D; Hahn, D; Cradick, J; Morgan, D V

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic use of single-pulse x-ray diffraction (XRD) at pulsed power facilities can be challenging due to factors such as the high flux and brightness requirements for diffraction and the geometric constraints of experimental platforms. By necessity, the x-ray source is usually positioned very close, within a few inches of the sample. On dynamic compression platforms, this puts the x-ray source in the debris field. We coupled x-ray polycapillary optics to a single-shot needle-and-washer x-ray diode source using a laser-based alignment scheme to obtain high-quality x-ray diffraction using a single 16 ns x-ray pulse with the source >1 m from the sample. The system was tested on a Mo sample in reflection geometry using 17 keV x-rays from a Mo anode. We also identified an anode conditioning effect that increased the x-ray intensity by 180%. Quantitative measurements of the x-ray focal spot produced by the polycapillary yielded a total x-ray flux on the sample of 3.3 ± 0.5 × 10(7) molybdenum Kα photons. PMID:27587130

  13. X-ray pump optical probe cross-correlation study of GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, S.M.; Clevenger, T.; Graber, T.; Henning, R.

    2012-09-10

    Ultrafast dynamics in atomic, molecular and condensed-matter systems are increasingly being studied using optical-pump, X-ray probe techniques where subpicosecond laser pulses excite the system and X-rays detect changes in absorption spectra and local atomic structure. New opportunities are appearing as a result of improved synchrotron capabilities and the advent of X-ray free-electron lasers. These source improvements also allow for the reverse measurement: X-ray pump followed by optical probe. We describe here how an X-ray pump beam transforms a thin GaAs specimen from a strong absorber into a nearly transparent window in less than 100 ps, for laser photon energies just above the bandgap. We find the opposite effect - X-ray induced optical opacity - for photon energies just below the bandgap. This raises interesting questions about the ultrafast many-body response of semiconductors to X-ray absorption, and provides a new approach for an X-ray/optical cross-correlator for synchrotron and X-ray free-electron laser applications.

  14. X-ray and Optical Studies of Low--Mass Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcalá, J. M.

    1994-02-01

    Weak--line T Tauri stars (WTTS) are low--mass pre--main sequence (PMS) stars which lack both the strong emission lines and the infra--red (IR) excesses typical of classical T Tauri stars (CTTS). Most of them have been discovered on the basis of their solar--like X--ray emission. In this work, X--ray data from the ROSAT all-sky survey in the Chamaeleon (Cha) and the Orion star forming regions (SFR's), and from one ROSAT pointed observation in the Cha I dark cloud, were used to determine the number of WTTS, to investigate their spatial distribution, and to study their physical properties and their X--ray emission. The total number of X-ray sources detected in the ROSAT survey is 820 in Orion (~450 square degrees), and 181 in Chamaeleon (~200 square degrees). Fifty four X--ray sources were detected in the ROSAT pointed observation in Cha I. Cross correlation of the X-ray positions with those of catalogued objects in the Simbad database gives about 30% of coincidences in the two SFR's. These counterparts are mainly extragalactic objects, HD, HR or SAO stars, CTTS, and a few WTTS known from previous EINSTEIN observations. For the remaining sources, a programme of spectroscopic observations has been conducted. These observations led to the identification of 85 and 58 new WTTS in the Chamaeleon and Orion SFR's respectively. For the Chamaeleon SFR, the spectroscopic identification of the survey sources is complete, while for the Orion SFR there are about 470 sources still to be investigated. Eighty percent of the sources from the pointed observation in Cha I have been identified. In addition, optical and near IR photometric observations of a sub--sample of the new WTTS were carried out. The spectral energy distributions of these stars are very similar to those of normal stars of the same spectral type. The effective temperature and the stellar luminosity were derived in order to place the sub--sample of WTTS in the H--R diagram. By comparison with the theoretical

  15. Lightweight x-ray optics for future space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, Rene; Pina, Ladislav; Inneman, Adolf V.; Ticha, Hana; Brozek, Vlastimil; Zentkova, Maria; Zentko, Anton; Chylek, Tomas

    2003-03-01

    The future X-ray astrophysics space missions require very light-weight but large and precise X-ray mirrors shells. Clearly, developments of innovative techniques and approaches are necessary. We discuss the possible alternative techniques with focus on the technologies and experience available in the Czech Republic. They include light ceramics replication by plasma spraying as well as by CVD and PVD technologies, SiC, thin glass technology, improved electroforming, glossy carbon, as well as glossy metals.

  16. Lithium metal for x-ray refractive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Nino R.; Arms, Dohn A.; Clarke, Roy; Dierker, Steve B.; Dufresne, Eric; Foster, D.

    2001-12-01

    Lithium is the best material for refractive x-ray lenses, with peak performance around 8 keV. To date we have built a prototype of Cederstrom's so-called alligator lens, and have tested the lens with beamline 7ID's 10 keV x-rays on the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratories. To date we have attained only a threefold gain, most likely limited by surface roughness that is avoidable with more careful manufacturing techniques.

  17. Kinoform optics applied to x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Sandy, A. R.; Narayanan, S.; Sprung, M.; Su, J.-D.; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Isakovic, A. F.; Stein, A.; BNL

    2010-01-01

    Moderate-demagnification higher-order silicon kinoform focusing lenses have been fabricated to facilitate small-angle X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) experiments. The geometric properties of such lenses, their focusing performance and their applicability for XPCS measurements are described. It is concluded that one-dimensional vertical X-ray focusing via silicon kinoform lenses significantly increases the usable coherent flux from third-generation storage-ring light sources for small-angle XPCS experiments.

  18. Discovery of the optical polarization flare following the X-ray giant outburst of V0332+53.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slowikowska, Agnieszka; Reig, Pablo; Krzeszowski, Krzysztof; Zejmo, M. Michal

    2016-07-01

    V0332+53 is a transient Be X-ray binary that went through a giant outburst between June 2015 and October 2015 registered by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GMB) on board of the Fermi satellite. We present the discovery of a flare of linearly polarized optical light in V0332+53 that followed the X-ray outburst. We monitored the source with the multi-wavelength optical polarimeter RINGO3 on the 2-m fully robotic Liverpool Telescope located at the Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos on La Palma. RINGO3 measures polarization simultaneously in three spectral wavelength bands: blue (350-640 nm), green (650-760 nm) and red (770-1000 nm). The polarized optical flare went off around 90 days after the X-ray burst and lasted another 90 days in all three wavelength bands of RINGO3. Polarization degree reached up to 6% in blue and up to 4% in red, while the PA changed by more than 100 degrees during the flare. This is the first detection of optical polarization flare of high mass X-ray binary correlated with a preceding X-ray outburst. Our observations shed new light on the activities of X-ray binaries.

  19. THE CHANDRA COSMOS SURVEY. III. OPTICAL AND INFRARED IDENTIFICATION OF X-RAY POINT SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Aldcroft, T.; Fruscione, A.; Hao, H.; Lanzuisi, G.; Brusa, M.; Salvato, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Cappelluti, N.; Gilli, R.; Lusso, E.; Capak, P.; Cisternas, M.; Fiore, F.; Kartaltepe, J.; Koekemoer, A.; Impey, C. D.; and others

    2012-08-01

    The Chandra COSMOS Survey (C-COSMOS) is a large, 1.8 Ms, Chandra program that has imaged the central 0.9 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field down to limiting depths of 1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -16} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the soft (0.5-2 keV) band, 7.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -16} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the hard (2-10 keV) band, and 5.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -16} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the full (0.5-10 keV) band. In this paper we report the i, K, and 3.6 {mu}m identifications of the 1761 X-ray point sources. We use the likelihood ratio technique to derive the association of optical/infrared counterparts for 97% of the X-ray sources. For most of the remaining 3%, the presence of multiple counterparts or the faintness of the possible counterpart prevented a unique association. For only 10 X-ray sources we were not able to associate a counterpart, mostly due to the presence of a very bright field source close by. Only two sources are truly empty fields. The full catalog, including spectroscopic and photometric redshifts and classification described here in detail, is available online. Making use of the large number of X-ray sources, we update the 'classic locus' of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) defined 20 years ago in soft X-ray surveys and define a new locus containing 90% of the AGNs in the survey with full-band luminosity >10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. We present the linear fit between the total i-band magnitude and the X-ray flux in the soft and hard bands, drawn over two orders of magnitude in X-ray flux, obtained using the combined C-COSMOS and XMM-COSMOS samples. We focus on the X-ray to optical flux ratio (X/O) and we test its known correlation with redshift and luminosity, and a recently introduced anti-correlation with the concentration index (C). We find a strong anti-correlation (though the dispersion is of the order of 0.5 dex) between X/O computed in the hard band and C and that 90% of the obscured AGNs in the sample with morphological

  20. On the origin of power-law X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlosman, I.; Shaham, J.; Shaviv, G.

    1984-01-01

    In the present analytical model for a power law X-ray continuum production in active galactic nuclei, the dissipation of turbulent energy flux above the accretion disk forms an optically thin transition layer with an inverted temperature gradient. The emitted thermal radiation has a power law spectrum in the 0.1-100 keV range, with a photon energy spectral index gamma of about 0.4-1.0. Thermal X-ray contribution from the layer is 5-10 percent of the total disk luminosity. The gamma value of 0.75 is suggested as a 'natural' power law index for Seyfert galaxies and QSOs.

  1. Investigation of x ray variability in highly active cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Ginga x ray observations of highly active cool star coronae were obtained and analyzed in an effort to better understand the nature of their time variability. The possible types of variability studied included x ray occultations via eclipses in a binary system, rotational modulation of x ray emission, flares, and a search for microflaring. Observation of both sigma(sup 2) CrB and Algol were performed successfully by Ginga. The sigma(sup 2) CrB observations occurred on 27 to 30 June 1988, and the Algol observations on 12 to 14 January 1989. In the sigma(sup 2) CrB observation, simultaneous IUE and Very Large Array (VLA) observations were obtained during part of the Ginga observation. Flaring activity was detected on sigma(sup 2) CrB in the Ginga 1.7 to 11 KeV band and in the IUE microwave region. A large flare on Algol which lasted well over 12 hours was detected, began with a maximum temperature of 65 MK which gradually decayed to 36 MK, and evidence was shown of highly ionized Fe line emission.

  2. A comparison of X-ray and optical emission in Cassiopeia A

    SciTech Connect

    Patnaude, Daniel J.; Fesen, Robert A.

    2014-07-10

    Broadband optical and narrowband Si XIII X-ray images of the young Galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) obtained over several decades are used to investigate spatial and temporal emission correlations on both large and small angular scales. The data examined consist of optical and near-infrared ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope images taken between 1951 and 2011, and of X-ray images from Einstein, ROSAT, and Chandra taken between 1979 and 2013. We find weak spatial correlations between the remnant's X-ray and optical emission features on large scales, but several cases of good optical/X-ray correlations on small scales for features which have brightened due to recent interactions with the reverse shock. We also find instances (1) where a time delay is observed between the appearance of a feature's optical and X-ray emissions, (2) of displacements of several arcseconds between a feature's X-ray and optical emission peaks, and (3) of regions showing no corresponding X-ray or optical emissions. To explain this behavior, we propose a highly inhomogeneous density model for Cas A's ejecta consisting of small, dense optically emitting knots (n ∼10{sup 2-3} cm{sup –3}) and a much lower density (n ∼0.1-1 cm{sup –3}) diffuse X-ray emitting component often spatially associated with optical emission knots. The X-ray emitting component is sometimes linked to optical clumps through shock-induced mass ablation generating trailing material leading to spatially offset X-ray/optical emissions. A range of ejecta densities can also explain the observed X-ray/optical time delays since the remnant's ≈5000 km s{sup –1} reverse shock heats dense ejecta clumps to temperatures around 3 × 10{sup 4} K relatively quickly, which then become optically bright while more diffuse ejecta become X-ray bright on longer timescales. Highly inhomogeneous ejecta as proposed here for Cas A may help explain some of the X-ray/optical emission features seen in other young core

  3. A Comparison of X-Ray and Optical Emission in Cassiopeia A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patnaude, Daniel J.; Fesen, Robert A.

    2014-07-01

    Broadband optical and narrowband Si XIII X-ray images of the young Galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) obtained over several decades are used to investigate spatial and temporal emission correlations on both large and small angular scales. The data examined consist of optical and near-infrared ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope images taken between 1951 and 2011, and of X-ray images from Einstein, ROSAT, and Chandra taken between 1979 and 2013. We find weak spatial correlations between the remnant's X-ray and optical emission features on large scales, but several cases of good optical/X-ray correlations on small scales for features which have brightened due to recent interactions with the reverse shock. We also find instances (1) where a time delay is observed between the appearance of a feature's optical and X-ray emissions, (2) of displacements of several arcseconds between a feature's X-ray and optical emission peaks, and (3) of regions showing no corresponding X-ray or optical emissions. To explain this behavior, we propose a highly inhomogeneous density model for Cas A's ejecta consisting of small, dense optically emitting knots (n ~102-3 cm-3) and a much lower density (n ~0.1-1 cm-3) diffuse X-ray emitting component often spatially associated with optical emission knots. The X-ray emitting component is sometimes linked to optical clumps through shock-induced mass ablation generating trailing material leading to spatially offset X-ray/optical emissions. A range of ejecta densities can also explain the observed X-ray/optical time delays since the remnant's ≈5000 km s-1 reverse shock heats dense ejecta clumps to temperatures around 3 × 104 K relatively quickly, which then become optically bright while more diffuse ejecta become X-ray bright on longer timescales. Highly inhomogeneous ejecta as proposed here for Cas A may help explain some of the X-ray/optical emission features seen in other young core-collapse supernova remnants.

  4. Unveiling optical and X-ray properties of the high mass X-ray binary XMMU J054134.7-682550

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Placco, V. M.

    2014-10-01

    XMMU J054134.7-682550 is an X-ray source located in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Based on its X-ray properties, and from optical and near-infrared photometry, it was assumed to be a Be/X-ray binary. In this work we present the characterization of its optical counterpart from optical medium-resolution spectra acquired with the 3.6-m New Technology Telescope and the 4.1-m SOAR Telescope. Photospheric lines along with strong emission lines from the Hα, Hβ and several transitions of iron show that the optical counterpart is a Be star with a dense or large circumstellar disk. Thus, it is now conclusive that the system is indeed a Be/X-ray binary. Additionally, we present an ongoing program which aims to improve the characterization of the system from XMM-Newton, Swift/BAT and ASM/RXTE X-ray observations.

  5. Nanostructured diffractive optical devices for soft X-ray microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambach, D.; Peuker, M.; Schneider, G.

    2001-07-01

    The new transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) installed at the BESSY II electron storage ring uses an off-axis transmission zone plate (OTZ) as diffractive and focusing element of the condenser-monochromator setup. A high resolution micro-zone plate (MZP) forms a magnified image on a CCD-detector. Both, the OTZ with an active area of up to 24 mm2 and the MZP with zone widths as small as 25 nm are generated by a process including electron beam lithography (EBL), dry etching and subsequent electroplating of nickel on top of silicon membrane substrates with about 100- 150 nm thickness. The combination of a larger zone width and the usage of nickel zone structures allows to increase the diffraction efficiency of the condenser element at least by a factor of 3 compared to the earlier used KZP7 condenser zone plate in the TXM at BESSY I. Groove diffraction efficiencies of 21.6% and 14.7% were measured for MZP objectives with 40 and 25 nm outermost zone width, respectively.

  6. Novel x-ray optics for medical diagnostic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuyumchyan, A.; Arvanian, V.; Kuyumchyan, D.; Aristov, V.; Shulakov, E.

    2009-08-01

    A new hard X - ray hologram with using crystal Fresnel zone plates (ZP) has been described. An image of Fourier hologram for hard X- ray is presented. X-ray phase contrast methods for medical diagnostics techniques are presented. We have developed an X-ray microscope, based on micro focus source which is capable of high resolution phasecontrast imaging and holograms. We propose a new imaging technique with the x-ray energy 8 keV. The method is expected to have wide applications in imaging of low absorbing samples such as biological and medical tissue. We used FIB to reproduction three dimension structures of damaged spinal cord of rat before and after combined treatment with NT3 and NR2D. PUBLISHER'S NOTE 12/16/09: This SPIE Proceedings paper has been updated with an erratum correcting several issues throughout the paper. The corrected paper was published in place of the earlier version on 9/1/2009. If you purchased the original version of the paper and no longer have access, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service at CustomerService@SPIEDigitalLibrary.org for assistance.

  7. Long-term optical observations of the Be/X-ray binary X Per

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hui; Yan, Jingzhi; Zhou, Jianeng; Liu, Qingzhong

    2014-12-01

    We present optical spectroscopic observations of X Per from 1999 to 2013 with the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong Station and the 2.4 m telescope at Lijiang Station, National Astronomical Observatories of China. Combining these observations with the public optical photometric data, we find certain epochs of anti-correlations between the optical brightness and the intensity of the Hα and He I 6678 lines, which may be attributed to the mass ejections from the Be star; however, alternative explanations are also possible. The variability of the Fe II 6317 line in the spectra of X Per might also be caused by the shocked waves formed after the mass ejections from the Be star. The X-ray activities of the system might also be connected with the mass ejection events from the Be star. When the ejected materials were transported from the surface of the Be star to the orbit of the neutron star, an X-ray flare could be observed in its X-ray light curves. We use the neutron star as a probe to constrain the motion of the ejected material in the circumstellar disk. With the diffusion time of the ejected material from the surface of the Be star to the orbit of neutron star, the viscosity parameter α of the circumstellar disk is estimated to be 0.39 and 0.28 for the different times, indicating that the disk around the Be star may be truncated by the neutron star at the 2:1 resonance radius and that a Type I X-ray outburst is unlikely to be observed in X Per.

  8. Hard X-ray Optics Technology Development for Astronomy at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Kilaru, Kiranmayee

    2009-01-01

    Grazing-incidence telescopes based on Wolter 1 geometry have delivered impressive advances in astrophysics at soft-x-ray wavelengths, while the hard xray region remains relatively unexplored at fine angular resolution and high sensitivities. The ability to perform ground-breaking science in the hard-x-ray energy range had been the motivation for technology developments aimed at fabricating low-cost, light-weight, high-quality x-ray mirrors. Grazing-incidence x-ray optics for high-energy astrophysical applications is being developed at MSFC using the electroform-nickel replication process.

  9. Soft-x-ray hollow fiber optics with inner metal coating.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Yuji; Oyama, Tadaaki; Miyagi, Mitsunobu

    2005-10-10

    A glass capillary with an inner metal coating is proposed to be used as soft-x-ray fiber optics in medical applications. Based on the results of theoretical calculations, nickel was chosen as the coating material for x rays radiated from a conventional x-ray tube. A nickel-coated capillary was fabricated by electroless deposition, and focusing and collimating effects were observed from measurements of the transmission efficiency of soft x rays. The transmission of a nickel-coated capillary with an inner diameter of 0.53 mm and a length of 300 mm was 10%, which is approximately double that of an uncoated glass capillary. PMID:16237934

  10. Next Generation Astronomical X-ray Optics: High Angular Resolution, Light Weight, and Low Production Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang. W. W.; Biskach, M. P.; Blake, P. N.; Chan, K. W.; Gaskin, J. A.; Hong, M. L.; Jones, W. D.; Kolos, L. D.; Mazzarella, J. R.; McClelland, R. S.; O'Dell, S. L.; Saha, T. T.; Sharpe, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray astronomy depends on the availability of telescopes with high resolution and large photon collecting areas. Since x-ray observation can only be carried out above the atmosphere, these telescopes must be necessarily lightweight. Compounding the lightweight requirement is that an x-ray telescope consists of many nested concentric shells, which further require that x-ray mirrors must also be geometrically thin to achieve high packing efficiency. This double lightweight and geometrically thin requirement poses significant technical challenges in fabricating the mirrors and in integrating them into mirror assemblies. This paper reports on the approach, strategy and status of our x-ray optics development program whose objective is to meet these technical challenges at modest cost to enable future x-ray missions, including small Explorer missions in the near term, probe class missions in the medium term, and large flagship missions in the long term.

  11. Pinhole X-ray/coronagraph optical systems concept definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehnpfenning, T. F.; Rappaport, S.; Wattson, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    The Pinhole X-ray/Coronagraph Concept utilizes the long baselines possible in Earth orbit with the space transportation system (shuttle) to produce observations of solar X-ray emission features at extremely high spatial resolution (up to 0.1 arc second) and high energy (up to 100 keV), and also white light and UV observations of the inner and outer corona at high spatial and/or spectral resolution. An examination of various aspects of a preliminary version of the X-ray Pinhole/Coronagraph Concept is presented. For this preliminary version, the instrument package will be carried in the shuttle bay on a mounting platform, and will be connected to the occulter with a deployable boom such as an Astromast. Generally, the spatial resolution, stray light levels, and minimum limb observing angles improve as the boom length increases. However, the associated engineering problems also become more serious with greater boom lengths.

  12. Effect of focusing optics on x-ray speckle contrast

    SciTech Connect

    Retsch, C. C.; Wang, Y.; Frigo, S. P.; McNulty, I.; Lurio, L. B.; Stephenson, G. B.

    1999-11-02

    The authors investigated the behavior of speckle contrast and size under various experimental conditions using 1.82 keV x-rays. In this paper, they report the comparison of two different setups for x-ray speckle experiments: one employing a focusing zone plate and one in which a pinhole selects the size of the coherent x-ray beam. They found a strong dependence of the speckle contrast and size on the type of setup. In general, the pinhole setup results in higher contrast but smaller speckle size. On the other hand the zone plate setup allows one to target much smaller areas of interest in the sample, down to submicron dimensions, and also to adjust the speckle size. The authors anticipate that these results will be useful in future time-correlation spectroscopy experiments.

  13. High-resolution X-ray imaging by polycapillary optics and lithium fluoride detectors combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampai, D.; Dabagov, S. B.; Della Ventura, G.; Bellatreccia, F.; Magi, M.; Bonfigli, F.; Montereali, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Novel results on high-resolution X-ray imaging by a table-top laboratory system based on lithium fluoride (LiF) imaging radiation detectors and a X-ray tube combined with polycapillary optics are reported for the first time. In this paper, imaging experiments of reference objects, as well as thick geological samples, show some of the potentialities of this approach for the development of a compact laboratory X-ray microscopy apparatus. The high spatial resolution and dynamic range of versatile LiF imaging detectors, based on optical reading of photoluminescence from X-ray-induced color centers in LiF crystals and films, allow us to use very simple contact imaging techniques. Promising applications can be foreseen in the fields of bio-medical imaging diagnostics, characterization of X-ray sources and optical elements, material science and photonics.

  14. Nanofabrication of diffractive optics for soft X-ray and atom beam focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehbein, S.

    2003-03-01

    Nanostructuring processes are described for manufacturing diffractive optics for the condensermonochromator set-up of the transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) and for the scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) at the BESSY II electron storage ring in Berlin. Furthermore, a process for manufacturing freestanding nickel zone plates for helium atom beam focusing experiments is presented.

  15. Numerical simulation of x-ray luminescence optical tomography for small-animal imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Changqing; Martínez-Dávalos, Arnulfo; Cherry, Simon R

    2014-04-01

    X-ray luminescence optical tomography (XLOT) is an emerging hybrid imaging modality in which x-ray excitable particles (phosphor particles) emit optical photons when stimulated with a collimated x-ray beam. XLOT can potentially combine the high sensitivity of optical imaging with the high spatial resolution of x-ray imaging. For reconstruction of XLOT data, we compared two reconstruction algorithms, conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) and a new algorithm, x-ray luminescence optical tomography with excitation priors (XLOT-EP), in which photon propagation is modeled with the diffusion equation and the x-ray beam positions are used as reconstruction priors. Numerical simulations based on dose calculations were used to validate the proposed XLOT imaging system and the reconstruction algorithms. Simulation results showed nanoparticle concentrations reconstructed with XLOT-EP are much less dependent on scan depth than those obtained with FBP. Measurements at just two orthogonal projections are sufficient for XLOT-EP to reconstruct an XLOT image for simple source distributions. The heterogeneity of x-ray energy deposition is included in the XLOT-EP reconstruction and improves the reconstruction accuracy, suggesting that there is a need to calculate the x-ray energy distribution for experimental XLOT imaging. PMID:24695846

  16. Interferometric and optical tests of water window imaging x ray microscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. Barry

    1993-01-01

    Interferometric tests of Schwarzchild X-ray Microscope are performed to evaluate the optical properties and alignment of the components. Photographic measurements of the spatial resolution, focal properties, and vignetting characteristics of the prototype Water Window Imaging X-ray Microscope are made and analyzed.

  17. A NEW COSMOLOGICAL DISTANCE MEASURE USING ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS X-RAY VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Franca, Fabio La; Bianchi, Stefano; Branchini, Enzo; Matt, Giorgio; Ponti, Gabriele

    2014-05-20

    We report the discovery of a luminosity distance estimator using active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We combine the correlation between the X-ray variability amplitude and the black hole (BH) mass with the single-epoch spectra BH mass estimates which depend on the AGN luminosity and the line width emitted by the broad-line region. We demonstrate that significant correlations do exist that allow one to predict the AGN (optical or X-ray) luminosity as a function of the AGN X-ray variability and either the Hβ or the Paβ line widths. In the best case, when the Paβ is used, the relationship has an intrinsic dispersion of ∼0.6 dex. Although intrinsically more disperse than supernovae Ia, this relation constitutes an alternative distance indicator potentially able to probe, in an independent way, the expansion history of the universe. With respect to this, we show that the new mission concept Athena should be able to measure the X-ray variability of hundreds of AGNs and then constrain the distance modulus with uncertainties of 0.1 mag up to z ∼ 0.6. We also discuss how our estimator has the prospect of becoming a cosmological probe even more sensitive than the current supernovae Ia samples by using a new dedicated wide-field X-ray telescope able to measure the variability of thousands of AGNs.

  18. THE X-RAY QUIESCENCE OF SWIFT J195509.6+261406 (GRB 070610): AN OPTICAL BURSTING X-RAY BINARY?

    SciTech Connect

    Rea, N.; Jonker, P. G.; Nelemans, G.; Pons, J. A.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Wijnands, R.

    2011-03-10

    We report on an {approx}63 ks Chandra observation of the X-ray transient Swift J195509.6+261406 discovered as the afterglow of what was first believed to be a long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB 070610). The outburst of this source was characterized by unique optical flares on timescales of second or less, morphologically similar to the short X-ray bursts usually observed from magnetars. Our Chandra observation was performed {approx}2 years after the discovery of the optical and X-ray flaring activity of this source, catching it in its quiescent state. We derive stringent upper limits on the quiescent emission of Swift J195509.6+261406, which argues against the possibility of this object being a typical magnetar. Our limits show that the most viable interpretation on the nature of this peculiar bursting source is a binary system hosting a black hole or a neutron star with a low-mass companion star (<0.12 M{sub sun}) and with an orbital period smaller than a few hours.

  19. Li metal for x-ray refractive optics

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Nino R.; Arms, Dohn A.; Clarke, Roy; Dierker, Steve B.; Dufresne, Eric; Foster, D.

    2004-01-27

    Lithium metal is the best material for refractive lenses that must focus x-rays with energies below 15 keV, but to date no lens from Li has been reported. This letter demonstrates focusing of 10 keV x-rays with a one-dimensional sawtooth lens made from Li. The lens theoretical gain is 4.5, with manufacturing imperfections likely responsible for the threefold gain that is observed. Despite the Li reactivity the lens is stable over months of operation if kept under vacuum.

  20. Analysis and design of grazing incidence x-ray optics for pulsar navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Fuchang; Chen, Jianwu; Li, Liansheng; Mei, Zhiwu

    2013-10-01

    As a promising new technology for deep space exploration due to autonomous capability, pulsar navigation has attracted extensive attentions from academy and engineering domains. The pulsar navigation accuracy is determined by the measurement accuracy of Time of Arrival (TOA) of X-ray photon, which can be enhanced through design of appropriate optics. The energy band of X-ray suitable for pulsar navigation is 0.1-10keV, the effective focusing of which can be primely and effectively realized by the grazing incidence reflective optics. The Wolter-I optics, originally proposed based on a paraboloid mirror and a hyperboloid mirror for X-ray imaging, has long been widely developed and employed in X-ray observatory. Some differences, however, remain in the requirements on optics between astronomical X-ray observation and pulsar navigation. X-ray concentrator, the simplified Wolter-I optics, providing single reflection by a paraboloid mirror, is more suitable for pulsar navigation. In this paper, therefore, the requirements on aperture, effective area and focal length of the grazing incidence reflective optics were firstly analyzed based on the characteristics, such as high time resolution, large effective area and low angular resolution, of the pulsar navigation. Furthermore, the preliminary design of optical system and overall structure, as well as the diaphragm, was implemented for the X-ray concentrator. Through optical and FEA simulation, system engineering analysis on the X-ray concentrator was finally performed to analyze the effects of environmental factors on the performance, providing basis and guidance for fabrication of the X-ray concentrator grazing incidence optics.

  1. Differential Deposition for Surface Figure Corrections in Grazing Incidence X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian D.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Atkins, Carolyn; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Broadway, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Differential deposition corrects the low- and mid- spatial-frequency deviations in the axial figure of Wolter-type grazing incidence X-ray optics. Figure deviations is one of the major contributors to the achievable angular resolution. Minimizing figure errors can significantly improve the imaging quality of X-ray optics. Material of varying thickness is selectively deposited, using DC magnetron sputtering, along the length of optic to minimize figure deviations. Custom vacuum chambers are built that can incorporate full-shell and segmented Xray optics. Metrology data of preliminary corrections on a single meridian of full-shell x-ray optics show an improvement of mid-spatial frequencies from 6.7 to 1.8 arc secs HPD. Efforts are in progress to correct a full-shell and segmented optics and to verify angular-resolution improvement with X-ray testing.

  2. Space optics: Imaging X-ray optics workshop; Proceedings of the Seminar, Huntsville, Ala., May 22-24, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M.

    1979-01-01

    The papers in this volume are broadly based and represent a comprehensive summary of past achievements, new designs, techniques and future plans in space optics. The design, construction, testing and use of grazing incidence optics have played an integral role in the advance of X-ray astronomy. Topics of interest include a cosmic X-ray telescope for ARIES rocket observations, quest for ultrahigh resolution in X-ray optics, optical coating techniques for Wolter-type substrates, astronomical applications of grazing incidence telescopes with polynomial surfaces, and a paraboloidal X-ray telescope mirror for solar coronal spectroscopy.

  3. X-Ray Psoralen Activated Cancer Therapy (X-PACT).

    PubMed

    Oldham, Mark; Yoon, Paul; Fathi, Zak; Beyer, Wayne F; Adamson, Justus; Liu, Leihua; Alcorta, David; Xia, Wenle; Osada, Takuya; Liu, Congxiao; Yang, Xiao Y; Dodd, Rebecca D; Herndon, James E; Meng, Boyu; Kirsch, David G; Lyerly, H Kim; Dewhirst, Mark W; Fecci, Peter; Walder, Harold; Spector, Neil L

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates X-PACT (X-ray Psoralen Activated Cancer Therapy): a new approach for the treatment of solid cancer. X-PACT utilizes psoralen, a potent anti-cancer therapeutic with current application to proliferative disease and extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) of cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma. An immunogenic role for light-activated psoralen has been reported, contributing to long-term clinical responses. Psoralen therapies have to-date been limited to superficial or extracorporeal scenarios due to the requirement for psoralen activation by UVA light, which has limited penetration in tissue. X-PACT solves this challenge by activating psoralen with UV light emitted from novel non-tethered phosphors (co-incubated with psoralen) that absorb x-rays and re-radiate (phosphoresce) at UV wavelengths. The efficacy of X-PACT was evaluated in both in-vitro and in-vivo settings. In-vitro studies utilized breast (4T1), glioma (CT2A) and sarcoma (KP-B) cell lines. Cells were exposed to X-PACT treatments where the concentrations of drug (psoralen and phosphor) and radiation parameters (energy, dose, and dose rate) were varied. Efficacy was evaluated primarily using flow cell cytometry in combination with complimentary assays, and the in-vivo mouse study. In an in-vitro study, we show that X-PACT induces significant tumor cell apoptosis and cytotoxicity, unlike psoralen or phosphor alone (p<0.0001). We also show that apoptosis increases as doses of phosphor, psoralen, or radiation increase. Finally, in an in-vivo pilot study of BALBc mice with syngeneic 4T1 tumors, we show that the rate of tumor growth is slower with X-PACT than with saline or AMT + X-ray (p<0.0001). Overall these studies demonstrate a potential therapeutic effect for X-PACT, and provide a foundation and rationale for future studies. In summary, X-PACT represents a novel treatment approach in which well-tolerated low doses of x-ray radiation are delivered to a specific tumor site to generate UVA light which

  4. The X-ray AGN content of the Molonglo 408 MHz Survey: Bulk properties of previously optically identified sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinkmann, W.; Siebert, J.; Boller, TH.

    1994-01-01

    The cross-correlation of a source list from the ROSAT All Sky Survey with the Molonglo 408 MHz Survey (MRC) yields a calalogue of 549 sources. The majority of the objects are quasars and radio galaxies with known optical counterparts, most of them detected in X-rays for the first time. More than one third of the objects are optically unidentified. In this paper we will present a discussion of the representative properties of the 337 previously optically identified active galactic nuclei (AGN). We find strong correlations between luminosities in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands which differ for quasars and radio galaxies. Several of the statistical source characteristics seem not to support simple unification schemes. However, for many objects some of their key properties like redshift, radio morphology and environmental conditions are not known yet. The fraction of X-ray detected quasars in the MRC is around 30%, higher than that of radio galaxies (less tha 8%). It is not currently known which intrinsic properties are responsible for the X-ray loudness of these radio objects. We further have evidence for a considerable number of objects being radio- and X-ray loud, but optically very faint.

  5. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  6. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  7. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  8. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  9. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  10. Local x-ray structure analysis of optically manipulated biological micro-objects

    SciTech Connect

    Cojoc, Dan; Ferrari, Enrico; Santucci, Silvia C.; Amenitsch, Heinz; Sartori, Barbara; Rappolt, Michael; Marmiroli, Benedetta; Burghammer, Manfred; Riekel, Christian

    2010-12-13

    X-ray diffraction using micro- and nanofocused beams is well suited for nanostructure analysis at different sites of a biological micro-object. To conduct in vitro studies without mechanical contact, we developed object manipulation by optical tweezers in a microfluidic cell. Here we report x-ray microdiffraction analysis of a micro-object optically trapped in three dimensions. We revealed the nanostructure of a single starch granule at different points and investigated local radiation damage induced by repeated x-ray exposures at the same position, demonstrating high stability and full control of the granule orientation by multiple optical traps.

  11. Calibration of the Solar-B x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosmo, Mario L.; DeLuca, Edward E.; Golub, Leon; Austin, Gerald K.; Chappell, Jon H.; Barbera, Marco; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Cheimets, Peter N.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Podgorski, William A.; Davis, William; Varisco, Salvatore; Weber, Mark A.

    2005-08-01

    The Solar-B X-ray telescope (XRT) is a grazing-incidence modified Wolter I X-ray telescope, of 35 cm inner diameter and 2.7 m focal length. XRT, designed for full sun imaging over the wavelength 6-60 Angstroms, will be the highest resolution solar X-Ray telescope ever flown. Images will be recorded by a 2048 X 2048 back-illuminated CCD with 13.5 μm pixels (1 arc-sec/pixel ) with full sun field of view. XRT will have a wide temperature sensitivity in order to observe and discriminate both the high (5-10 MK) and low temperature (1-5 MK) phenomena in the coronal plasma. This paper presents preliminary results of the XRT mirror calibration performed at the X-ray Calibration Facility, NASA-MSFC, Huntsville, Alabama during January and February 2005. We discuss the methods and the most significant results of the XRT mirror performance, namely: characteristics of the point response function (PSF), the encircled energy and the effective area. The mirror FWHM is 0.8" when corrected for 1-g, finite source distance, and CCD pixelization. With the above corrections the encircled energy at 27 μm and 1keV is 52%. The effective area is greater than 2cm2 at 0.5keV and greater than 1.7cm2 at 1.0keV.

  12. Optical and X-ray properties of CAL 83 - II. An X-ray pulsation at ˜67 s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odendaal, A.; Meintjes, P. J.; Charles, P. A.; Rajoelimanana, A. F.

    2014-01-01

    CAL 83 is the prototypical close binary supersoft X-ray source in the Large Magellanic Cloud, has a 1 d orbital period, and is believed to consist of a white dwarf (WD) primary accreting from an evolved donor. Based on published WD model atmosphere fits to X-ray data, the WD has a mass of ˜1.3 M⊙, just below the Chandrasekhar limit. From a systematic search through archival XMM-Newton data for periodic emission from CAL 83 down to the shortest possible period just above the WD break-up period, we report the discovery of an ˜67 s supersoft X-ray modulation, which we interpret as the rotation period of a highly spun-up WD. Such a short period can be explained within the framework of a high mass accretion history, where accretion disc torques could have spun up the WD over time-scales comparable to the thermal time-scale. The presence of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen in published optical and ultraviolet spectra may suggest CNO cycling in the envelope of a secondary star that is oversized for its inferred mass, suggesting that the secondary star shed a significant fraction of its envelope during a high mass-transfer history, resulting in a highly spun-up WD. The reported 67 s period shows an approximately ±3 s drift from the median value in single runs, which we interpret as a hydrogen burning gas envelope surrounding the WD, with a period not quite synchronized with the WD rotation period.

  13. On the X-ray and optical properties of the Be star HD 110432: a very hard-thermal X-ray emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Motch, C.; Smith, M. A.; Negueruela, I.; Torrejón, J. M.

    2007-11-01

    HD 110432 is the first proposed, and best studied, member of a growing group of Be stars with X-ray properties similar to γ Cas. These stars exhibit hard-thermal X-rays that are variable on all measurable timescales. This emission contrasts with the soft emission of “normal" massive stars and with the non-thermal emission of all well known Be/X-ray binaries - so far, all Be + neutron star systems. In this work we present X-ray spectral and timing properties of HD 110432 from three XMM-Newton observations in addition to new optical spectroscopic observations. Like γ Cas, the X-rays of HD 110432 appear to have a thermal origin, as supported by strongly ionized Fe XXV and Fe XXVI lines detected in emission. A fluorescent iron feature at 6.4 keV is present in all observations, while the Fe XXVI Lyβ line is present in two of them. Its X-ray spectrum, complex and time variable, is well described in each observation by three thermal plasmas with temperatures ranging between 0.2-0.7, 3-6, and 16-37 keV. Thus, HD 110432 has the hottest thermal plasma of any known Be star. A sub-solar iron abundance (~0.3-0.5 ×Z_Fe,⊙) is derived for the hottest plasma, while lines of less excited ions at longer wavelengths are consistent with solar abundances. The star has a moderate 0.2-12 keV luminosity of ~5×1032 erg s-1. The intensity of the X-ray emission is strongly variable. Recurrent flare-like events on time scales as short as ~10 s are superimposed over a basal flux which varies on timescales of ~5-10×103 s, followed by similarly rapid hardness variabilities. There is no evidence for coherent oscillations, and an upper limit of ~2.5% is derived on the pulsed fraction for short pulsations from 0.005 to 2.5 Hz. In the optical region the strong and quasi-symmetrical profile of the Hα line (EW ~ -60 Å) as well as the detection of several metallic lines in emission strongly suggest a dense and/or large circumstellar disk. Also, the double-peaked profiles of metallic lines

  14. Segmented X-Ray Optics for Future Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClelland, Ryan S.

    2013-01-01

    Lightweight and high resolution mirrors are needed for future space-based X-ray telescopes to achieve advances in high-energy astrophysics. The slumped glass mirror technology in development at NASA GSFC aims to build X-ray mirror modules with an area to mass ratio of approx.17 sq cm/kg at 1 keV and a resolution of 10 arc-sec Half Power Diameter (HPD) or better at an affordable cost. As the technology nears the performance requirements, additional engineering effort is needed to ensure the modules are compatible with space-flight. This paper describes Flight Mirror Assembly (FMA) designs for several X-ray astrophysics missions studied by NASA and defines generic driving requirements and subsequent verification tests necessary to advance technology readiness for mission implementation. The requirement to perform X-ray testing in a horizontal beam, based on the orientation of existing facilities, is particularly burdensome on the mirror technology, necessitating mechanical over-constraint of the mirror segments and stiffening of the modules in order to prevent self-weight deformation errors from dominating the measured performance. This requirement, in turn, drives the mass and complexity of the system while limiting the testable angular resolution. Design options for a vertical X-ray test facility alleviating these issues are explored. An alternate mirror and module design using kinematic constraint of the mirror segments, enabled by a vertical test facility, is proposed. The kinematic mounting concept has significant advantages including potential for higher angular resolution, simplified mirror integration, and relaxed thermal requirements. However, it presents new challenges including low vibration modes and imperfections in kinematic constraint. Implementation concepts overcoming these challenges are described along with preliminary test and analysis results demonstrating the feasibility of kinematically mounting slumped glass mirror segments.

  15. Characteristics of x-ray emission from optically thin high-Z plasmas in the soft x-ray region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Hayato; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Yuhei; Arai, Goki; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Daiji; Murakami, Izumi; Tamura, Naoki; Sudo, Shigeru; Koike, Fumihiro; Suzuki, Chihiro

    2015-07-01

    The characteristics of soft x-ray emission from optically thin high-Z plasmas of gold, lead and bismuth were investigated with the large helical device. Compared to optically thicker laser-produced plasmas, significantly different spectral structures were observed due to the difference in opacities and electron temperatures. Peak structures appearing in unresolved transition arrays were identified by calculations using atomic structure codes. The main contributors of discrete line emission in each case were Pd-, Ag-, and Rh-like ion stages. The present calculations point to the overestimation of contributions for 4p-4d transitions based on intensity estimates arising purely from gA distributions that predict strong emission from 4p-4d transitions. Understanding of such spectral emission is not only important for the completion of databases of high-Z highly ion charge states but also the development of promising high brightness sources for biological imaging applications.

  16. A coordinated X-ray, optical, and microwave study of the flare star Proxima Centauri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisch, B. M.; Linsky, J. L.; Slee, O. B.; Hearn, D. R.; Walker, A. R.; Rydgren, A. E.; Nicolson, G. D.

    1978-01-01

    Results are reported for a three-day coordinated observing program to monitor the flare star Proxima Centauri in the X-ray, optical, and radio spectrum. During this interval 30 optical flares and 12 possible radio bursts were observed. The SAS 3 X-ray satellite made no X-ray detections. An upper limit of 0.08 on the X-ray/optical luminosity ratio is derived for the brightest optical flare. The most sensitive of the radio telescopes failed to detect 6-cm emission during one major and three minor optical flares, and on this basis an upper limit on the flare radio emission (1 hundred-thousandth of the optimal luminosity) is derived.

  17. Optical fiducial timing system for X-ray streak cameras with aluminum coated optical fiber ends

    DOEpatents

    Nilson, David G.; Campbell, E. Michael; MacGowan, Brian J.; Medecki, Hector

    1988-01-01

    An optical fiducial timing system is provided for use with interdependent groups of X-ray streak cameras (18). The aluminum coated (80) ends of optical fibers (78) are positioned with the photocathodes (20, 60, 70) of the X-ray streak cameras (18). The other ends of the optical fibers (78) are placed together in a bundled array (90). A fiducial optical signal (96), that is comprised of 2.omega. or 1.omega. laser light, after introduction to the bundled array (90), travels to the aluminum coated (82) optical fiber ends and ejects quantities of electrons (84) that are recorded on the data recording media (52) of the X-ray streak cameras (18). Since both 2.omega. and 1.omega. laser light can travel long distances in optical fiber with only a slight attenuation, the initial arial power density of the fiducial optical signal (96) is well below the damage threshold of the fused silica or other material that comprises the optical fibers (78, 90). Thus the fiducial timing system can be repeatably used over long durations of time.

  18. INTEGRAL finds renewed X-ray activity of the Neutron star X-ray transient SAX J1750.8-2900

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Fernandez, Celia; Chenevez, Jerome; Kuulkers, Erik; Bazzano, Angela; Beckmann, Volker; Bird, Tony; Bodaghee, Arash; Del Santo, Melania; Domingo, Albert; Jonker, Peter; Kretschmar, Peter; Markwardt, Craig; Paizis, Ada; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wijnands, Rudy

    2015-09-01

    INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring observations (ATel #438) on UT 13 September 2015 18:50-22:32 reveal renewed X-ray activity from the low-mass X-ray binary transient and Type I X-ray burster SAX J1750.8-2900 (IAU Circ. #6597). The last outburst from this source was reported in 2011 (ATels #3170, 3181).

  19. Coordinated X-ray optical and radio observations of YZ Canis Minoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, J. T.; Crannell, C. J.; Hobbs, R. W.; Maran, S. P.; Moffett, T. J.; Bardas, D.; Clark, G. W.; Hearn, D. R.; Li, F. K.; Markert, T. M.

    1976-01-01

    Coordinated X ray, optical, and radio observations of the flare star YZ CMi are reported. Twenty-two minor optical flares and twelve radio events were recorded. No major optical flares, greater than 3 magnitudes, were observed. Although no flare related X ray emission was observed, the measured upper limits in this band enable meaningful comparisons with published flare star models. Three of the five models predicting the relative X ray to optical or radio flare luminosities are in serious disagreement with the observations. For the largest optical flare with coincident X ray coverage, the 3 sigma upper limit on X ray emission in the 0.15 to 0.8 keV band is 8.7 x 10 to the 28th power erg/s, corresponding to a ratio of X ray to B-band luminosity of less than 0.3. Based on the present results, the contribution of the flares UV Ceti flare stars to the galactic component of the diffuse soft X ray background is less than 0.2 percent.

  20. Three-Dimensional High-Resolution Optical/X-Ray Stereoscopic Tracking Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cha, Soyoung S.; Ramachandran, Narayanan

    2004-01-01

    Measurement of three-dimensional (3-D) three-component velocity fields is of great importance in a variety of research and industrial applications for understanding materials processing, fluid physics, and strain/displacement measurements. The 3-D experiments in these fields most likely inhibit the use of conventional techniques, which are based only on planar and optically-transparent-field observation. Here, we briefly review the current status of 3-D diagnostics for motion/velocity detection, for both optical and x-ray systems. As an initial step for providing 3-D capabilities, we nave developed stereoscopic tracking velocimetry (STV) to measure 3-D flow/deformation through optical observation. The STV is advantageous in system simplicity, for continually observing 3- D phenomena in near real-time. In an effort to enhance the data processing through automation and to avoid the confusion in tracking numerous markers or particles, artificial neural networks are employed to incorporate human intelligence. Our initial optical investigations have proven the STV to be a very viable candidate for reliably measuring 3-D flow motions. With previous activities are focused on improving the processing efficiency, overall accuracy, and automation based on the optical system, the current efforts is directed to the concurrent expansion to the x-ray system for broader experimental applications.

  1. Three-Dimensional High-Resolution Optical/X-Ray Stereoscopic Tracking Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cha, Soyoung S.; Ramachandran, Naryanan

    2005-01-01

    Measurement of three-dimensional (3-D) three-component velocity fields is of great importance in a variety of research and industrial applications for understanding materials processing, fluid physics, and strain/displacement measurements. The 3-D experiments in these fields most likely inhibit the use of conventional techniques, which are based only on planar and optically-transparent-field observation. Here, we briefly review the current status of 3-D diagnostics for motion/velocity detection, for both optical and x-ray systems. As an initial step for providing 3-D capabilities, we have developed stereoscopic tracking velocimetry (STV) to measure 3-D flow/deformation through optical observation. The STV is advantageous in system simplicity, for continually observing 3-D phenomena in near real-time. In an effort to enhance the data processing through automation and to avoid the confusion in tracking numerous markers or particles, artificial neural networks are employed to incorporate human intelligence. Our initial optical investigations have proven the STV to be a very viable candidate for reliably measuring 3-D flow motions. With previous activities focused on improving the processing efficiency, overall accuracy, and automation based on the optical system, the current efforts is directed to the concurrent expansion to the x-ray system for broader experimental applications.

  2. Rapid X-Ray Variability of Active Galaxies. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennant, A. F., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei are luminous sources of X-rays. The thesis that the X-rays are generated within 10 gravitational radii from the central object is tested. A very sensitive search for rapid ( 1 day) X-ray variability from active galaxies was made.

  3. X-RAY SOURCES AND THEIR OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS IN THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER M12 (NGC 6218)

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, T.-N.; Kong, Albert K. H.; Bassa, Cees; Verbunt, Frank; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Anderson, Scott F.; Pooley, David

    2009-11-01

    We study a Chandra X-ray Observatory ACIS-S observation of the Galactic globular cluster M12. With a 26 ks exposure time, we detect six X-ray sources inside the half-mass radius (2.'16) of which two are inside the core radius (0.'72) of the cluster. If we assume that these sources are all associated with globular cluster M12, the luminosity L {sub X} among these sources between 0.3 and 7.0 keV varies roughly from 10{sup 30} to 10{sup 32} erg s{sup -1}. For identification, we also analyzed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) data and identified the optical counterparts to five X-ray sources inside the HST ACS field of view. According to the X-ray and optical features, we found 2-5 candidate active binaries (ABs) or cataclysmic variables (CVs) and 0-3 background galaxies within the HST ACS field of view. Based on the assumption that the number of X-ray sources scales with the encounter rate and the mass of the globular cluster, we expect two X-ray sources inside M12, and the expectation is consistent with our observational results. Therefore, the existence of identified X-ray sources (possible CVs or ABs) in M12 suggests the primordial origin of X-ray sources in globular clusters which is in agreement with previous studies.

  4. X-ray diffraction of actively shortening muscle.

    PubMed

    Podolsky, R J; St Onge, H; Yu, L; Lymn, R W

    1976-03-01

    Low angle x-ray diffraction patterns were obtained from resting and activated frog sartorius muscles by means of a position-sensitive detector. Although the intensity ratio I10/I11 decreased many-fold upon activation, it was nearly the same during isometric and isotonic contraction. Thus, motion has a much smaller effect on the low order equatorial pattern than the transition from rest to activity. Analysis of the 10 and 11 reflections separately showed that I10 and I11 change reciprocally upon activation, and that they both increase by a small amount in the transition from isometric to isotonic contraction. If the intensity ratio can be taken as a measure of cross-bridge number, the results provide evidence that the drop in force in an actively shortening muscle is due primarily to the influence of motion on the configuration, rather than the number, of cross-bridges. PMID:1062793

  5. New active galactic nuclei among the INTEGRAL and SWIFT X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burenin, R. A.; Mescheryakov, A. V.; Revnivtsev, M. G.; Sazonov, S. Yu.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Pavlinsky, M. N.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    2008-06-01

    We present the results of our optical identifications of a set of X-ray sources from the INTEGRAL and SWIFT all-sky surveys. The optical data have been obtained with the 1.5-m Russian-Turkish Telescope (RTT-150). Nine X-ray sources have been identified with active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Two of them are located in the nearby spiral galaxies MCG-01-05-047 and NGC 973 seen almost edge-on. One source, IGR J16562-3301, is probably a BL Lac object (blazar). The remaining AGNs are observed as the starlike nuclei of spiral galaxies whose spectra exhibit broad emission lines. The relation between the hard X-ray (17-60 keV) luminosity and the [O III] 5007 line luminosity, log L x/ L [O III] ≈ 2.1, holds good for most of the AGNs detected in hard X rays. However, the luminosities of some AGNs deviate from this relation. The fraction of such objects can reach ˜20%. In particular, the [O III] line flux is lower for two nearby edge-on spiral galaxies. This can be explained by the effect of absorption in the galactic disks.

  6. Quest for ultrahigh resolution in X-ray optics. [for solar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. M.; Krieger, A. S.; Silk, J. K.; Chase, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    A program of solar X-ray astronomy using grazing incidence optics has culminated in X-ray images of the corona having one arc second spatial resolution. These images have demonstrated that, in general, X-ray optics can be fabricated to their specifications and can provide the level of resolution for which they are designed. Several aspects of these programs relating to the performance of X-ray optics in regard to resolution, including the point response function, the variation of resolution with off-axis position and the recognition that nearly all solar X-ray images have been film limited, are discussed. By extending the experience gained on this and other programs it is clearly possible to design and fabricate X-ray optics with sub arc sec resolution. The performance required to meet the scientific objectives for the remainder of the century are discussed in relation to AXIO, an Advanced X-Ray Imaging Observatory for solar observations which is proposed for flight on the Space Shuttle. Several configurations of AXIO are described, each of which would be a major step in the quest for ultrahigh-resolution observations.

  7. The theoretical reflectance of X-rays from optical surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neergaard, J. R.; Reynolds, J. M.; Fields, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    The theoretical reflectance of X-rays from various materials and evaporated films is presented. A computer program was written that computes the reflected intensity as a function of the angle of the incident radiation. The quantities necessary to generate the efficiency and their effect on the data are demonstrated. Five materials were chosen for evaluation: (1) fused silica, (2) chromium, (3) beryllium, (4) gold, and (5) a thin layer contaminant. Fused silica is a versatile and common material; chromium has high reflection efficiency at X-ray wavelengths and is in the middle of the atomic number range; beryllium contains a single atomic shell and has a low range atomic number; gold contains multiple atomic shells and has a high atomic number; the contaminant is treated as a thin film in the calculations and results are given as a function of thickness for selected wavelengths. The theoretical results are compared to experimental data at lambda = 8.34 A.

  8. DiffractX: A Simulation Toolbox for Diffractive X-ray Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selin, M.; Bertilson, M.; Nilsson, D.; von Hofsten, O.; Hertz, H. M.; Vogt, U.

    2011-09-01

    X-ray wavefront propagation is a powerful technique when simulating the performance of x-ray optical components. Using various numerical methods, interesting parameters such as focusing capability and efficiency can be investigated. Here we present the toolbox DiffractX, implemented in MATLAB. It contains many different wave propagation methods for the simulation of diffractive x-ray optics, including Fresnel propagation, the finite difference method (FDM), the thin object approximation, the rigorous coupled wave theory (RCWT), and the finite element method (FEM). All tools are accessed through a graphical interface, making the design of simulations fast and intuitive, even for users with little or no programming experience. The tools have been utilized to characterize realistic as well as idealized optical components. This will aid further developments of diffractive x-ray optics.

  9. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HOLMBERG IX X-1 AND ITS STELLAR ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Grise, F.; Kaaret, P.; Pakull, M. W.; Motch, C.

    2011-06-10

    Holmberg IX X-1 is an archetypal ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX). Here we study the properties of the optical counterpart and of its stellar environment using optical data from SUBARU/Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph, GEMINI/GMOS-N and Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys, as well as simultaneous Chandra X-ray data. The V {approx} 22.6 spectroscopically identified optical counterpart is part of a loose cluster with an age {approx}< 20 Myr. Consequently, the mass upper limit on individual stars in the association is about 20 M{sub sun}. The counterpart is more luminous than the other stars of the association, suggesting a non-negligible optical contribution from the accretion disk. An observed UV excess also points to non-stellar light similar to X-ray active low-mass X-ray binaries. A broad He II {lambda}4686 emission line identified in the optical spectrum of the ULX further suggests optical light from X-ray reprocessing in the accretion disk. Using stellar evolutionary tracks, we have constrained the mass of the counterpart to be {approx}> 10 M{sub sun}, even if the accretion disk contributes significantly to the optical luminosity. Comparison of the photometric properties of the counterpart with binary models show that the donor may be more massive, {approx}> 25 M{sub sun}, with the ULX system likely undergoing case AB mass transfer. Finally, the counterpart exhibits photometric variability of 0.14 mag between two HST observations separated by 50 days which could be due to ellipsoidal variations and/or disk reprocessing of variable X-ray emission.

  10. Alignment, Assembly and Testing of High Energy X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian

    2005-01-01

    We are developing grazing-incidence x-ray imaging optics for a balloon-borne hard x-ray telescope (HERO). The HERO payload, scheduled for launch in May 2005, currently consists of 8 mirror modules each containing 12 mirror shells fabricated using electroform-nickel replication off super-polished cylindrical mandrels. An optical system developed for aligning and assembling the shells in the modules will be described. Sources for systematic errors associated with this process will be discussed and results from on-ground x-ray testing of each module will be presented.

  11. The Discovery of X-ray Emission from Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Back in 1974 the UHURU catalog (3U) had been published with many UHGLS - unidentified high galactic latitude sources. Identifications were hampered by the square degree sized error boxes (positional uncertainties). Could these explain the cosmic X-ray background? Could UHGLS be "X-ray galaxies"? Only three active galaxies (AGNs) had been found as X-ray sources: 3C273, Cen A and NGC 4151, while others had upper limits. What was the difference between X-ray and non-X-ray AGNs? It turned out that the slightly better positioning capability and slightly deeper sensitivity of the Ariel V Sky Survey Instrument (SSI), launched in October 1974, were just enough to show that the UHGLS were Seyfert galaxies. And I was lucky enough that I'd joined the Leicester X-ray group and had taken on the UHGLS for my PhD thesis, with Ken Pounds as my supervisor. With the SSI we made a catalog of high latitude sources, the "2A" catalog, including about a dozen known Seyfert galaxies (lowish luminosity nearby AGNs) and, with Mike Penston and Martin Ward, we went on to identify many of them with both newly discovered normal broad emission line AGNs and a few new "narrow emission line galaxies", or NELGs, as we called them. We are now convinced that it is summation of many obscured NELGs that produce the flat spectrum of the X-ray background, and we are still searching for them in Chandra deep surveys and at higher energies with NuSTAR. There was an obvious connection between the X-ray obscuration and the optical reddening, which must lie outside the region emitting the broad optical spectral lines. Andy Lawrence and I, following a clue from Bill Keel, put this together into what we now call the Unified Scheme for AGN structure. This idea of a flattened torus obscuring the inner regions of the AGN was so dramatically confirmed a few years later -- by Ski Antonucci and Joe Miller's discovery of polarized broad emission lines in NGC1068 -- that the precursor papers became irrelevant. But Ariel

  12. Comparison of X-ray and optically selected galaxy clusters in the XXL-N field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alis, Sinan; Pacaud, Florian; Pierre, Marguerite; Benoist, Christophe; Maurogordato, Sophie; Clerc, Nicolas; Faccioli, Lorenzo; Sadibekova, Tatyana

    2016-07-01

    Optically selected clusters from the CFHTLS and X-ray selected clusters from the intersecting XXL Survey are compared. We first compare the properties of the ˜100 galaxy clusters common to both catalogues in the redshift range of 0.1 < z < 1.2. Then we focus on the properties of the missed clusters on both sides and stress the impact of AGN contamination in this comparison. Finally scaling relations involving optical and X-ray quantities will be presented.

  13. A recent strong X-ray flaring activity of 1ES 1959+650 with possibly less efficient stochastic acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapanadze, B.; Dorner, D.; Vercellone, S.; Romano, P.; Kapanadze, S.; Mdzinarishvili, T.

    2016-09-01

    We present an X-ray flaring activity of 1ES 1959+650 in 2015 August-2016 January, which was the most powerful and prolonged during the 10.75 yr period since the start of its monitoring with X-ray Telescope onboard Swift. A new highest historical 0.3-10 keV count rate was recorded three times that makes this object the third BL Lacertae source exceeding the level of 20 counts s-1. Along with the overall variability by a factor of 5.7, this epoch was characterized by fast X-ray flares by a factor of 2.0-3.1, accompanied with an extreme spectral variability. The source also shows a simultaneous flaring activity in the optical - UV and 0.3-100 GeV bands, although a fast γ-ray flare without significant optical - X-ray counterparts is also found. In contrast to the X-ray flares in the previous years, the stochastic acceleration seems be less important for the electrons responsible for producing X-ray emission during this flare that challenges the earlier suggestion that the electrons in the jets of TeV-detected BL Lacertae objects should undergo an efficient stochastic acceleration resulting in a lower X-ray spectral curvature.

  14. A recent strong X-ray flaring activity of 1ES 1959+650 with possibly less efficient stochastic acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapanadze, B.; Dorner, D.; Vercellone, S.; Romano, P.; Kapanadze, S.; Mdzinarishvili, T.

    2016-03-01

    We present an X-ray flaring activity of 1ES 1959+650 in 2015 August - 2016 January, which was the most powerful and prolonged during the 10.75 yr period since the start of its monitoring with X-ray Telescope onboard Swift. A new highest historical 0.3 - 10 keV count rate was recorded three times that makes this object the third BL Lacertae source exceeding the level of 20 cts s-1. Along with the overall variability by a factor of 5.7, this epoch was characterized by fast X-ray flares by a factor of 2.0 - 3.1, accompanied with an extreme spectral variability. The source also shows a simultaneous flaring activity in the optical - UV and 0.3 - 100 GeV bands, although a fast γ-ray flare without significant optical - X-ray counterparts is also found. In contrast to the X-ray flares in the previous years, the stochastic acceleration seems be less important for the electrons responsible for producing X-ray emission during this flare that challenges the earlier suggestion that the electrons in the jets of TeV-detected BL Lacertae objects should undergo an efficient stochastic acceleration resulting in a lower X-ray spectral curvature.

  15. SPECTRAL SURVEY OF X-RAY BRIGHT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM THE ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, Elizabeth; Markowitz, Alex; Rothschild, Richard

    2011-03-15

    Using long-term monitoring data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), we have selected 23 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with sufficient brightness and overall observation time to derive broadband X-ray spectra from 3 to {approx}>100 keV. Our sample includes mainly radio-quiet Seyferts, as well as seven radio-loud sources. Given the longevity of the RXTE mission, the greater part of our data is spread out over more than a decade, providing truly long-term average spectra and eliminating inconsistencies arising from variability. We present long-term average values of absorption, Fe line parameters, Compton reflection strengths, and photon indices, as well as fluxes and luminosities for the hard and very hard energy bands, 2-10 keV and 20-100 keV, respectively. We find tentative evidence for high-energy rollovers in three of our objects. We improve upon previous surveys of the very hard X-ray energy band in terms of accuracy and sensitivity, particularly with respect to confirming and quantifying the Compton reflection component. This survey is meant to provide a baseline for future analysis with respect to the long-term averages for these sources and to cement the legacy of RXTE, and especially its High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment, as a contributor to AGN spectral science.

  16. Novel applications of diagnostic x-rays in activating photo-agents through x-ray induced visible luminescence from rare-earth particles: an in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abliz, Erkinay; Collins, Joshua E.; Friedberg, Joseph S.; Kumar, Ajith; Bell, Howard; Waynant, Ronald W.; Tata, Darrell B.

    2010-02-01

    Photodynamic agents such as Photofrin II (Photo II) utilized in photodynamic therapy (PDT) possess a remarkable property to become preferentially retained within the tumor's micro-environment. Upon the photo-agent's activation through visible light photon absorption, the agents exert their cellular cytotoxicity through type II and type I mechanistic pathways through extensive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS): singlet oxygen 1O2, superoxide anion O2 -, and hydrogen peroxide H2O2, within the intratumoral environment. Unfortunately, due to shallow visible light penetration depth (~2mm to 5mm) in tissues, the PDT strategy currently has largely been restricted to the treatments of surface tumors, such as the melanomas. Additional invasive strategies through optical fibers are currently utilized in getting the visible light into the intended deep seated targets within the body for PDT. In this communication, we report on a novel strategy in utilizing "soft" energy diagnostic X-rays to indirectly activate Photo II through X-ray induced luminescence from Gadolinium oxysulfide (20 micron dimension) particles doped with Terbium: Gd2O2S:Tb. X-ray induced visible luminescence from Gd2O2S:Tb particles was spectroscopically characterized and the ROS production levels from clinically relevant concentration (10 μg/ml) of Photo II was quantified through changes in the Vitamin C absorbance. ROS kinetics through X-ray induced luminescence was found to be similar to the ROS kinetics from red He-Ne laser exposures used in the clinics. Taken together, in-vitro findings herein provide the basis for future studies in determining the safety and efficacy of this non-invasive X-ray induced luminescence strategy in activating photo-agent in deep seated tumors.

  17. Capillary Optics Based X-Ray Micro-Imaging Elemental Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampai, D.; Dabagov, S. B.; Cappuccio, G.; Longoni, A.; Frizzi, T.; Cibin, G.

    2010-04-01

    A rapidly developed during the last few years micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μXRF) is a promising multi-elemental technique for non-destructive analysis. Typically it is rather hard to perform laboratory μXRF analysis because of the difficulty of producing an original small-size X-ray beam as well as its focusing. Recently developed for X-ray beam focusing polycapillary optics offers laboratory X-ray micro probes. The combination of polycapillary lens and fine-focused micro X-ray tube can provide high intensity radiation flux on a sample that is necessary in order to perform the elemental analysis. In comparison to a pinhole, an optimized "X-ray source-op tics" system can result in radiation density gain of more than 3 orders by the value. The most advanced way to get that result is to use the confocal configuration based on two X-ray lenses, one for the fluorescence excitation and the other for the detection of secondary emission from a sample studied. In case of X-ray capillary microfocusing a μXRF instrument designed in the confocal scheme allows us to obtain a 3D elemental mapping. In this work we will show preliminary results obtained with our prototype, a portable X-ray microscope for X-ray both imaging and fluorescence analysis; it enables μXRF elemental mapping simultaneously with X-ray imaging. A prototype of compact XRF spectrometer with a spatial resolution less than 100 μm has been designed.

  18. Metrology for the Development of High Energy X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Engelhaupt, Darell; Dpeegle, Chet

    2005-01-01

    We are developing grazing incidence x-ray optics for a balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescope (HERO). The instrument will have 200 sq cm effective collecting area at 40 keV and an angular resolution goal of 15 arcsec. The HERO mirror shells are fabricated using electroform-nickel replication off super-polished cylindrical mandrels. The angular resolution goal puts stringent requirements on the quality of x-ray mirrors and, hence, on mandrel quality. We used metrology in an iterative approach to monitor and refine the x- ray mirror fabrication process. Comparison of surface figure and microroughness measurements of the mandrel and the shells will be presented together with results from x-ray tests.

  19. Numerical simulation for all-optical Thomson scattering X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Fang; Zhu, Bin; Han, Dan; Xin, Jian-Ting; Zhao, Zong-Qing; Cao, Lei-Feng; Gu, Yu-Qiu; Zhang, Bao-Han

    2014-03-01

    Energy spectra, angular distributions, and temporal profiles of the photons produced by an all-optical Thomson scattering X-ray source are explored through numerical simulations based on the parameters of the SILEX-I laser system (800 nm, 30 fs, 300 TW) and the previous wakefield acceleration experimental results. The simulation results show that X-ray pulses with a duration of 30 fs and an emission angle of 50 mrad can be produced from such a source. Using the optimized electron parameters, X-ray pulses with better directivity and narrower energy spectra can be obtained. Besides the electron parameters, the laser parameters such as the wavelength, pulse duration, and spot size also affect the X-ray yield, the angular distribution, and the maximum photon energy, except the X-ray pulse duration which is slightly changed for the case of ultrafast laser—electron interaction.

  20. Optics Requirements For The Generation-X X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, S. .; Elsner, R. F.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Zhang, W. W.; Content, D. A.; Petre, R.; Saha, T. T.; Reid, P. B.; Schwartz, D. A.; Brissenden, R. J.; Elvis, M.; Freeman, M.; Gaetz, T.; Gorenstein, P.; Jerius, D.; Juda, M.; Murray, S. S.; Podgorski, W. A.; Wolk, S. J.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.

    2008-01-01

    US, European, and Japanese space agencies each now operate successful X-ray missions -- NASA s Chandra, ESA s XMM-Newton, and JAXA s Suzaku observatories. Recently these agencies began a collaboration to develop the next major X-ray astrophysics facility -- the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) -- for launch around 2020. IXO will provide an order-of-magnitude increase in effective area, while maintaining good (but not sub-arcsecond) angular resolution. X-ray astronomy beyond IXO will require optics with even larger aperture areas and much better angular resolution. We are currently conducting a NASA strategic mission concept study to identify technology issues and to formulate a technology roadmap for a mission -- Generation-X (Gen-X) -- to provide these capabilities. Achieving large X-ray collecting areas in a space observatory requires extremely lightweight mirrors.

  1. Metrology for the development of high-energy x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Engelhaupt, Darell; Speegle, Chet; Smithers, Martin

    2005-08-01

    We are developing grazing-incidence x-ray optics for a balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescope (HERO). The instrument will have 200 cm2 effective collecting area at 40 keV and an angular resolution goal of 15 arcsec. The HERO mirror shells are fabricated using electroformed-nickel replication off super-polished cylindrical mandrels. The angular resolution goal puts stringent requirements on the quality of the x-ray mirrors and, hence, on mandrel quality. We used metrology in an iterative approach to monitor and refine the x-ray mirror fabrication process. Comparison of axial slope measurements of the mandrel and the shells will be presented together with results from x-ray tests.

  2. Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, S.; Grguraš, I.; Behrens, C.; Bromberger, H.; Costello, J. T.; Czwalinna, M. K.; Felber, M.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Ilchen, M.; Liu, H. Y.; Mazza, T.; Meyer, M.; Pfeiffer, S.; Prędki, P.; Schefer, S.; Schmidt, C.; Wegner, U.; Schlarb, H.; Cavalieri, A. L.

    2015-01-20

    Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30 fs r.m.s. for 90 fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarily by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses.

  3. Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schulz, S.; Grguraš, I.; Behrens, C.; Bromberger, H.; Costello, J. T.; Czwalinna, M. K.; Felber, M.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Ilchen, M.; Liu, H. Y.; et al

    2015-01-20

    Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30 fs r.m.s. for 90 fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarilymore » by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses.« less

  4. Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, S.; Grguraš, I.; Behrens, C.; Bromberger, H.; Costello, J. T.; Czwalinna, M. K.; Felber, M.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Ilchen, M.; Liu, H. Y.; Mazza, T.; Meyer, M.; Pfeiffer, S.; Prędki, P.; Schefer, S.; Schmidt, C.; Wegner, U.; Schlarb, H.; Cavalieri, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30 fs r.m.s. for 90 fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarily by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses. PMID:25600823

  5. Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, S.; Grguraš, I.; Behrens, C.; Bromberger, H.; Costello, J. T.; Czwalinna, M. K.; Felber, M.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Ilchen, M.; Liu, H. Y.; Mazza, T.; Meyer, M.; Pfeiffer, S.; Prędki, P.; Schefer, S.; Schmidt, C.; Wegner, U.; Schlarb, H.; Cavalieri, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30 fs r.m.s. for 90 fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarily by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses.

  6. Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Schulz, S; Grguraš, I; Behrens, C; Bromberger, H; Costello, J T; Czwalinna, M K; Felber, M; Hoffmann, M C; Ilchen, M; Liu, H Y; Mazza, T; Meyer, M; Pfeiffer, S; Prędki, P; Schefer, S; Schmidt, C; Wegner, U; Schlarb, H; Cavalieri, A L

    2015-01-01

    Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30 fs r.m.s. for 90 fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarily by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses. PMID:25600823

  7. The Behavior of the Optical and X-Ray Emission from Scorpius X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, B. J.; Harrison, T. E.; Zavala, R. T.; Galvan, Eduardo; Galvan, Javier; Jarvis, T.; Killgore, GeeAnn; Mireles, O. R.; Olivares, D.; Rodriquez, B. A.; Sanchez, M.; Silva, Allison L.; Silva, Andrea L.; Silva-Velarde, E.; Templeton, M. R.

    2003-03-01

    In 1970, Hiltner & Mook reported the results of the first multiyear study of the optical emission from Sco X-1. They found that the Sco X-1 B-magnitude histograms changed from year to year. Subsequent multiwavelength campaigns confirmed the variable nature of these optical histograms and also found that the X-ray and optical emissions were only correlated when Sco X-1 was brighter than about B=12.6. Models had suggested that the optical emission from this source arose from X-rays reprocessed in an accretion disk surrounding the central neutron star. It was therefore difficult to explain why the optical and X-ray fluxes were not more closely correlated. In 1994 and 1995, two new simultaneous optical and X-ray campaigns on Sco X-1 were conducted with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and the 1 m Yale telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. Using these data and models by Psaltis, Lamb, & Miller, it is now possible to provide a qualitative picture of how the X-ray and optical emissions from Sco X-1 are related. Differences in the B-magnitude histograms are caused by variations in the mass accretion rate and the relatively short time period typically covered by optical investigations. The tilted-Γ pattern seen in plots of the simultaneous X-ray and optical emission from Sco X-1 arises from (1) the nearly linear relation between the optical B magnitude and the mass accretion rate in the range 13.3>=B>=12.3 and an asymptotic behavior in the B magnitude outside this range, and (2) a double-valued relation between the X-ray emission and mass accretion rate along the normal branch and lower flaring branch of this source.

  8. HST/ACS IMAGING OF OMEGA CENTAURI: OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS OF CHANDRA X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Cool, Adrienne M.; Arias, Tersi; Brochmann, Michelle; Dorfman, Jason; Gafford, April; White, Vivian; Haggard, Daryl; Anderson, Jay E-mail: dhaggard@northwestern.edu

    2013-02-15

    We present results of a search for optical counterparts of X-ray sources in and toward the globular cluster Omega Centauri (NGC 5139) using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ACS data consist of a mosaic of Wide Field Channel images obtained using F625W, F435W, and F658N filters; with nine pointings we cover the central {approx}10' Multiplication-Sign 10' of the cluster and encompass 109 known Chandra sources. We find promising optical counterparts for 59 of the sources, {approx}40 of which are likely to be associated with the cluster. These include 27 candidate cataclysmic variables (CVs), 24 of which are reported here for the first time. Fourteen of the CV candidates are very faint, with absolute magnitudes in the range M {sub 625} =10.4-12.6, making them comparable in brightness to field CVs near the period minimum discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Additional optical counterparts include three BY Dra candidates, a possible blue straggler, and a previously reported quiescent low-mass X-ray binary. We also identify 3 foreground stars and 11 probable active galactic nuclei. Finally, we report the discovery of a group of seven stars whose X-ray properties are suggestive of magnetically active binaries, and whose optical counterparts lie on or very near the metal-rich anomalous giant and subgiant branches in {omega} Cen. If the apparent association between these seven stars and the RGB/SGB-a stars is real, then the frequency of X-ray sources in this metal-rich population is enhanced by a factor of at least five relative to the other giant and subgiant populations in the cluster. If these stars are not members of the metal-rich population, then they bring the total number of red stragglers (also known as sub-subgiants) that have been identified in {omega} to Cen 20, the largest number yet known in any globular cluster.

  9. X-ray optics metrology limited by random noise, instrumental drifts, and systematic errors

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Cambie, Rossana; Celestre, Richard; Conley, Raymond; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Gregory; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Yuan, Sheng; Padmore, Howard A.

    2010-07-09

    Continuous, large-scale efforts to improve and develop third- and forth-generation synchrotron radiation light sources for unprecedented high-brightness, low emittance, and coherent x-ray beams demand diffracting and reflecting x-ray optics suitable for micro- and nano-focusing, brightness preservation, and super high resolution. One of the major impediments for development of x-ray optics with the required beamline performance comes from the inadequate present level of optical and at-wavelength metrology and insufficient integration of the metrology into the fabrication process and into beamlines. Based on our experience at the ALS Optical Metrology Laboratory, we review the experimental methods and techniques that allow us to mitigate significant optical metrology problems related to random, systematic, and drift errors with super-high-quality x-ray optics. Measurement errors below 0.2 mu rad have become routine. We present recent results from the ALS of temperature stabilized nano-focusing optics and dedicated at-wavelength metrology. The international effort to develop a next generation Optical Slope Measuring System (OSMS) to address these problems is also discussed. Finally, we analyze the remaining obstacles to further improvement of beamline x-ray optics and dedicated metrology, and highlight the ways we see to overcome the problems.

  10. The Einstein Observatory Medium Sensitivity Survey - Optical identifications for a complete sample of X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocke, J. T.; Liebert, J.; Gioia, I. M.; Maccacaro, T.; Griffiths, R. E.; Danziger, I. J.; Kunth, D.; Lub, J.

    1983-01-01

    It is suggested that virtually all the X-ray sources in the Einstein Observatory's Medium Sensitivity Survey flux range can be identified with objects visible on the POSS, on the basis of the complete identification of all sources north of -25 deg declination. There is no evidence for a significant population of 'blank field' X-ray sources at this flux level, and therefore no evidence for any new X-ray source class with very high L(x)/L(v). Most of the quasars detected in the present survey are spectroscopically similar to optical or radio-selected quasars. About 25 percent of the quasar sample, however, had reddish colors, and permitted lines dominated by a narrow-line component. These objects form a second sequence of active galactic nuclei, distinct in their optical properties from the broad line objects.

  11. Glass capillary optics for making x-ray beams of 0.1 to 50 microns diameter

    SciTech Connect

    Bilderback, Donald H.; Fontes, Ernest

    1997-07-01

    We have fabricated a unique computerized glass puller that can make parabolic or elliptically tapered glass capillaries for microbeam x-ray experiments from hollow glass tubing. We have produced optics that work in a single-bounce imaging mode or in a multi-bounce condensing mode. The imaging-mode capillaries have been used to create 20 to 50 micron diameter x-ray beams at 12 keV that are quite useful for imaging diffraction patterns from tiny bundles of carbon and Kevlar fibers. The condensing-mode capillaries are useful for creating submicron diameter beams and show great promise in x-ray fluorescence applications with femtogram sensitivity for patterned Er and Ti dopants diffused into an optically-active lithium niobate wafer.

  12. The December 2015 optical outburst of OJ 287: X-ray and UV time-domain monitor by Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprini, S.; Perri, M.; Verrecchia, F.; Valtonen, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Swift satellite is monitoring from 2015 Nov. 28 the BL Lac object OJ 287 (z=0.306). Our Swift X-ray and UV time-domain monitor program has been proposed and granted in response to a predicted, and then observed, phase of increased optical activity from OJ 287 (see, ATel#8372 and ATel#8378).

  13. Direct fabrication of full-shell x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Kolodziejczak, J. K.; Smith, W. S.; Roche, J.; Jones, W.; Griffith, C.; Kester, T.; Atkins, C.; Arnold, W.

    2015-09-01

    The next generation of astrophysical missions will require fabrication technology capable of producing high angular resolution x-ray mirrors. A full-shell direct fabrication approach using modern robotic polishing machines has the potential for producing stiff and light-weight shells that can be heavily nested, to produce large collecting areas, and are easier to mount, align and assemble, giving improved angular resolution. This approach to mirror fabrication, is being pursued at MSFC. The current status of this direct fabrication technology is presented.

  14. Wide-Field Sky Monitoring - Optical and X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; BART Teams; Ondrejov Observatory Lobster Eye Team

    We report on selected projects in wide-field sky imaging. This includes the recent efforts to digitize the astronomical sky plate archives and to apply these data for various scientific projects. We also address and discuss the status of the development of related algorithms and software programs. These data may easily provide very long term monitoring over very extended time intervals (up to more than 100 years) with limiting magnitudes between 12 and 23. The further experiments include CCD sky monitors, OMC camera onboard the ESA Integral satellite, robotic telescopes, and innovative wide-field X-ray telescopes.

  15. Unveiling the nature of INTEGRAL objects through optical spectroscopy. VIII. Identification of 44 newly detected hard X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masetti, N.; Parisi, P.; Palazzi, E.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.; Chavushyan, V.; Bassani, L.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Dean, A. J.; Charles, P. A.; Galaz, G.; Landi, R.; Malizia, A.; Mason, E.; McBride, V. A.; Minniti, D.; Morelli, L.; Schiavone, F.; Stephen, J. B.; Ubertini, P.

    2010-09-01

    Hard X-ray surveys performed by the INTEGRAL satellite have discovered a conspicuous fraction (up to 30%) of unidentified objects among the detected sources. Here we continue our program of identification of these objects by (i) selecting probable optical candidates by means of positional cross-correlation of the INTEGRAL detections with soft X-ray, radio, and/or optical archives and (ii) performing optical spectroscopy on them. As a result, we pinpointed and identified, or more accurately characterized, 44 definite or likely counterparts of INTEGRAL sources. Among them, 32 are active galactic nuclei (AGNs; 18 with broad emission lines, 13 with narrow emission lines only, and one X-ray bright, optically normal galaxy) with redshift 0.019 < z < 0.6058, 6 cataclysmic variables (CVs), 5 high-mass X-ray binaries (2 of which in the Small Magellanic Cloud), and 1 low-mass X-ray binary. This was achieved by using 7 telescopes of various sizes and archival data from two online spectroscopic surveys. The main physical parameters of these hard X-ray sources were also determined using the multiwavelength information available in the literature. In general, AGNs are the most abundant population among hard X-ray objects, and our results confirm the tendency of finding AGNs more frequently than any other type of hard X-ray emitting object among unidentified INTEGRAL sources when optical spectroscopy is used as an identification tool. Moreover, the deeper sensitivity of the more recent INTEGRAL surveys enables one to begin detecting hard X-ray emission above 20 keV from sources such as LINER-type AGNs and non-magnetic CVs. Based on observations collected at the following observatories: Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory (Chile); Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Canary Islands, Spain); ESO (La Silla, Chile) under programme 083.D-0110(A); Astronomical Observatory of Bologna in Loiano (Italy); Astronomical Observatory of

  16. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager: Second Flight and Recent Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christe, Steven; Krucker, Sam; Glesener, Lindsay; Ramsey, Brian; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Camilo Buitrago Casas, Juan; Foster, Natalie; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2015-04-01

    Energy release and particle acceleration on the Sun is a frequent occurrence associated with a number of different solar phenomenon including but not limited to solar flares and coronal mass ejections. The exact mechanism through which particle are accelerated is still not well understood. One of the best ways to gain insight into accelerated particles on the Sun is by observing the Sun in hard X-rays (HXR) which provide one of the most direct diagnostics of energetic electrons. Past and current HXR observations lack the sensitivity and dynamic range necessary to observe the faint signature of accelerated electrons where they are accelerated in the solar corona. However these limitations can be overcome through the use of HXR focusing optics coupled with solid-state pixelated detectors. We present on the second successful launch of the Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager, a sounding rocket payload which flew on December 11, 2014. In this flight, the FOXSI optics were upgraded for better sensitivity and new CdTe strip detectors were included to provide increased detection efficiency. During this flight, FOXSI observed thermal emission from at least three active regions (AR#12234, AR#12233, AR#12235). Another observation target for FOXSI was the quiet Sun. In this presentation we summarize the flight as well as the latest observations and analysis.

  17. X-ray and optical properties of groups of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dell'antonio, Ian P.; Geller, Margaret J.; Fabricant, Daniel G.

    1994-01-01

    We have measured 125 redshifts in 31 groups of galaxies observed with Einstein, and have compiled an additional 543 redshifts from the literature. There is a correlation between galaxy surface density and group velocity dispersion, with mu is proportional to sigma(exp 1.6 +/- 0.6), but the scatter about this relation is large. We examine the relationship between the group x-ray luminosity in the 0.3-3.5 keV band and the measured velocity dispersion. Richer groups follow the same relation as rich clusters (1982) with L(sub X) proportional to sigma(exp 4.0 +/- 0.6), but the relation flattens for lower luminosity systems which have velocity dispersions below 300 km/s. We suggest that the L(sub x)-sigma relation arises from a combination of extended cluster emission and emission associated with individual galaxies. The x-ray emission for the richer groups is dominated by emission from the intragroup medium, as for the richer clusters; emission from the poorer clusters is dominated by less extended emission associated with the individual group galaxies.

  18. The development of hard x-ray optics at MSFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Brian D.; Elsner, Ron F.; Engelhaupt, Darell; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Speegle, Chet O.; Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2004-02-01

    We have developed the electroformed-nickel replication process to enable us to fabricate light-weight, high-quality mirrors for the hard-x-ray region. Two projects currently utilizing this technology are the production of 240 mirror shells, of diameters ranging from 50 to 94 mm, for our HERO balloon payload, and 150- and 230-mm-diameter shells for a prototype Constellation-X hard-x-ray telescope module. The challenge for the former is to fabricate, mount, align and fly a large number of high-resolution mirrors within the constraints of a modest budget. For the latter, the challenge is to maintain high angular resolution despite weight-budget-driven mirror shell thicknesses (100 μm) which make the shells extremely sensitive to fabrication and handling stresses, and to ensure that the replication process does not degrade the ultra-smooth surface finish (~3 Å) required for eventual multilayer coatings. We present a progress report on these two programs.

  19. Concentration of synchrotron beams by means of monolithic polycapillary x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect

    Ullrich, J.B.; Klotzko, I.L. |; Huang, K.G.; Owens, S.M.; Aloisi, D.C.; Hofmann, F.A.; Gao, N.; Gibson, W.M.

    1995-08-01

    Capillary Optics have proven to be a valuable tool for concentrating synchrotron radiation. Single tapered capillaries are used at several facilities. However, most of these optics collect only over a small area. this can be overcome by using larger capillary structures. Polycapillary optics can deflect x-rays by larger angles than other x-ray optics that use only one or two reflections. Conventional x-ray optics that achieve similar deflections, are much more energy selective than capillaries. Therefore, capillaries achieve very short focal distances for a wide range of energies. The measurements shown here represent first tests performed with polycapillaries of large input diameter. The performance with respect to transmission efficiency and spot size was evaluated for a set of four very different prototypes. It is shown that a significant gain may be achieved if a spot size of the order of 0.1 mm is required. Further, some characteristics of the different optics are discussed.

  20. Electron optics simulation for designing carbon nanotube based field emission x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, Shabana

    In this dissertation, electron optics simulation for designing carbon nanotube (CNT) based field emission x-ray source for medical imaging applications will be presented. However, for design optimization of x-ray tubes accurate electron beam optics simulation is essential. To facilitate design of CNT x-ray sources a commercial 3D finite element software has been chosen for extensive simulation. The results show that a simplified model of uniform electron field emission from the cathode surface is not sufficient when compared to experimental measurements. This necessitated the development of a refined model to describe a macroscopic field emission CNT cathode for electron beam optics simulations. The model emulates the random distribution of CNTs and the associated variation of local field enhancement factor. The main parameter of the model has been derived empirically from the experimentally measured I-V characteristics of the CNT cathode. Simulation results based on this model agree well with experiments which include measurements of the transmission rate and focus spot size. The model provides a consistent simulation platform for optimization of electron beam optics in CNT x-ray source design. A systematic study of electron beam optics in CNT x-ray tubes led to the development of a new generation of compact x-ray source with multiple pixels. A micro focus field emission x-ray source with a variable focal spot size has been fully characterized and evaluated. It has been built and successfully integrated into micro-CT scanners which are capable of dynamic cardiac imaging of free-breathing small animals with high spatial and temporal resolutions. In addition a spatially distributed high power multi-beam x-ray source has also been designed and integrated into a stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (s-DBT) configuration. This system has the potential to reduce the total scan time to 4 seconds and yield superior image quality in breast imaging.

  1. ROSAT x ray survey observations of active chromospheric binary systems and other selected sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    1993-01-01

    The connection between processes that produce optical chromospheric activity indicators and those that produce x-rays in RS CVn binary systems by taking advantage of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) results and our unique ground-based data set was investigated. In RS CVn systems, excess emission in the Ca 2 resonance (K & H) and infrared triplet (IRT) lines and in the Balmer lines of hydrogen is generally cited as evidence for chromospheric activity, which is usually modeled as scaled up solar-type activity. X-ray emission in RS CVn systems is believed to arise from coronal loop structures. Results from spectra data obtained from RASS observations are discussed and presented.

  2. Observation of the x-ray magneto-optical Voigt effect.

    PubMed

    Mertins, H C; Oppeneer, P M; Kunes, J; Gaupp, A; Abramsohn, D; Schäfers, F

    2001-07-23

    The existence of the x-ray magneto-optical Voigt effect is demonstrated. By means of polarization analysis the Voigt rotation and ellipticity of linearly polarized synchrotron radiation are measured at the Co L3 edge upon transmission through an amorphous Co film. The observed x-ray Voigt rotation is about 7.5 degrees /microm. On the basis of ab initio calculations it is shown that the x-ray Voigt effect follows sensitively the amount of spin polarization of the 2p core states. Therefore it provides a unique measure of the spin splitting of the core states. PMID:11461644

  3. Simultaneous X-ray and optical spectroscopy of the Oef supergiant λ Cephei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauw, G.; Hervé, A.; Nazé, Y.; González-Pérez, J. N.; Hempelmann, A.; Mittag, M.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schröder, K.-P.; Gosset, E.; Eenens, P.; Uuh-Sonda, J. M.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Probing the structures of stellar winds is of prime importance for the understanding of massive stars. Based on their optical spectral morphology and variability, it has been suggested that the stars in the Oef class feature large-scale structures in their wind. Aims: High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy and time-series of X-ray observations of presumably single O-type stars can help us understand the physics of their stellar winds. Methods: We have collected XMM-Newton observations and coordinated optical spectroscopy of the O6 Ief star λ Cep to study its X-ray and optical variability and to analyse its high-resolution X-ray spectrum. We investigate the line profile variability of the He ii λ 4686 and Hα emission lines in our time series of optical spectra, including a search for periodicities. We further discuss the variability of the broadband X-ray flux and analyse the high-resolution spectrum of λ Cep using line-by-line fits as well as a code designed to fit the full high-resolution X-ray spectrum consistently. Results: During our observing campaign, the He ii λ 4686 line varies on a timescale of ~18 h. On the contrary, the Hα line profile displays a modulation on a timescale of 4.1 days which is likely the rotation period of the star. The X-ray flux varies on timescales of days and could in fact be modulated by the same 4.1-day period as Hα, although both variations are shifted in phase. The high-resolution X-ray spectrum reveals broad and skewed emission lines as expected for the X-ray emission from a distribution of wind-embedded shocks. Most of the X-ray emission arises within less than 2 R∗ above the photosphere. Conclusions: The properties of the X-ray emission of λ Cep generally agree with the expectations of the wind-embedded shock model. There is mounting evidence for the existence of large-scale structures that modulate the Hα line and about 10% of the X-ray emission of λ Cep. Based on observations collected with XMM-Newton, an ESA

  4. X-ray and optical observations of 2 new cataclysmic variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, K. P.; Szkody, P.; Barrett, P.; Schlegel, E.; White, N. E.; Silber, A.; Fierce, E.; Hoard, D.; Hakala, P. J.; Piirola, V.; Sohl, K.

    1996-01-01

    The light curves and spectra of two ultra soft X-ray sources are presented. The sources, WGAJ 1047.1+6335 and WGAJ 1802.1+1804 were discovered during a search using the Rosat position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC). The X-ray spectra of both objects show an unusually strong black body component with respect to the harder bremsstrahlung component. Based on the optical observations and on the analysis of the X-ray data, the two objects are identified with new AM Her type cataclysmic variables.

  5. Ultra soft X-ray Microbeam: optical analysis and intensity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, M. Di Paolo; Palladino, L.; Del Grande, F.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, optical analysis and intensity measurements of the Ultra Soft x-ray microbeam (100 eV–1 keV) are presented. X-ray emission at 500 eV are generated from a plasma produced by focusing Nd-YAG laser beam on the Yttrium target. In particular, we will report the study of x-ray intensity and the measurement of focal spot dimension. Moreover, the software/hardware control of sample holder position and the alignment of biological sample to the microbeam will be described.

  6. Design and development of the SIMBOL-X hard x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareschi, G.; Attinà, P.; Basso, S.; Borghi, G.; Burkert, W.; Buzzi, R.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Conconi, P.; Cotroneo, V.; Cusumano, G.; Dell'Orto, E.; Freyberg, M.; Hartner, G. D.; Gorenstein, P.; Mattaini, E.; Mazzoleni, F.; Parodi, G.; Romaine, S.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Valtolina, R.; Valsecchi, G.; Vernani, D.

    2008-07-01

    The SIMBOL-X formation-flight X-ray mission will be operated by ASI and CNES in 2014, with a large participation of the French and Italian high energy astrophysics scientific community. Also German and US Institutions are contributing in the implementation of the scientific payload. Thanks to the formation-flight architecture, it will be possible to operate a long (20 m) focal length grazing incidence mirror module, formed by 100 confocal multilayer-coated Wolter I shells. This system will allow us to focus X-rays over a very broad energy band, from 0.5 keV up to 80 keV and beyond, with more than two orders of magnitude improvement in angular resolution (20 arcsec HEW) and sensitivity (0.5 µCrab on axis @30 keV) compared to non focusing detectors used so far. The X-ray mirrors will be realized by Ni electroforming replication, already successfully used for BeppoSAX, XMM-Newton, and JET-X/SWIFT; the thickness trend will be about two times less than for XMM, in order to save mass. Multilayer reflecting coatings will be implemented, in order to improve the reflectivity beyond 10 keV and to increase the field of view 812 arcmin at 30 keV). In this paper, the SIMBOL-X optics design, technology and implementation challenges will be discussed; it will be also reported on recent results obtained in the context of the SIMBOL-X optics development activities.

  7. A Magnetron Sputter Deposition System for the Development of Multilayer X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broadway, David; Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The proposal objective is to establish the capability to deposit multilayer structures for x-ray, neutron, and EUV optic applications through the development of a magnetron sputtering deposition system. A specific goal of this endeavor is to combine multilayer deposition technology with the replication process in order to enhance the MSFC's position as a world leader in the design of innovative X-ray instrumentation through the development of full shell replicated multilayer optics. The development of multilayer structures is absolutely necessary in order to advance the field of X-ray astronomy by pushing the limit for observing the universe to ever increasing photon energies (i. e. up to 200 keV or higher); well beyond Chandra (approx. 10 keV) and NuStar's (approx. 75 keV) capability. The addition of multilayer technology would significantly enhance the X-ray optics capability at MSFC and allow NASA to maintain its world leadership position in the development, fabrication and design of innovative X-ray instrumentation which would be the first of its kind by combining multilayer technology with the mirror replication process. This marriage of these technologies would allow astronomers to see the universe in a new light by pushing to higher energies that are out of reach with today's instruments.To this aim, a magnetron vacum sputter deposition system for the deposition of novel multilayer thin film X-ray optics is proposed. A significant secondary use of the vacuum deposition system includes the capability to fabricate multilayers for applications in the field of EUV optics for solar physics, neutron optics, and X-ray optics for a broad range of applications including medical imaging.

  8. Developments in glass micro pore optics for x-ray applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Kotska; Collon, Maximilien; Bavdaz, Marcos; Fairbend, Ray; Séguy, Julien; Krumrey, Michael

    2006-06-01

    ESA is developing technologies for x-ray imaging to reduce the mass and volume of future missions. Applications of x-ray optics are foreseen in future planetary x-ray imagers, x-ray timing observatories and in observatories for high-energy astrophysics. With reference to planetary x-ray imagers the use of glass micro-pore material is being investigated. This technology allows the formation of a monolithic, glass structure that can be used to focus x-rays by glancing reflections off the pore walls. A technique to form x-ray focusing plates that contain thousands of square micro-pores has been developed with Photonis. The square pores are formed in a process that fuses blocks of extruded square fibres, which can then be sliced, etched and slumped to form the segment of an optic with a specific radius. A proposed imager would be created from 2 optics, slumped with different radii, and mounted to form an approximation of a Wolter I optic configuration. Reflection can be improved by coating the channel surfaces with a heavy element, such as nickel. Continuing developments have been made to enhance the manufacturing processes and improve the characteristics of the manufactured x-ray focusing plates, such as improved surface roughness and squareness of pore walls, improved pore alignment from fibre stacking through to optic segment slumping and development of pore wall coatings. In order to measure improvements x-ray measurements are performed by ESA and cosine Research BV, using the BESSY-II synchrotron facility four-crystal monochromator beamline of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, on multifibres, sectors and slumped sectors. A probing beam is used to investigate a number of pores to determine x-ray transmission, focussing characteristics as they relate to the overall transmission, x-ray reflectivity of channel walls, radial alignment of fibres, slumping radius and fibre position in a fused block. SEM measurements and microscope inspection have also been used

  9. Focal construct geometry for high intensity energy dispersive x-ray diffraction based on x-ray capillary optics.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangzuo; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Jiang, Bowen; Zhu, Yu

    2016-03-14

    We presented a focal construct geometry (FCG) method for high intensity energy dispersive X-ray diffraction by utilizing a home-made ellipsoidal single-bounce capillary (ESBC) and a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL). The ESBC was employed to focus the X-rays from a conventional laboratory source into a small focal spot and to produce an annular X-ray beam in the far-field. Additionally, diffracted polychromatic X-rays were confocally collected by the PPXRL attached to a stationary energy-resolved detector. Our FCG method based on ESBC and PPXRL had achieved relatively high intensity diffraction peaks and effectively narrowed the diffraction peak width which was helpful in improving the potential d-spacing resolution for material phase analysis. PMID:26979685

  10. Focal construct geometry for high intensity energy dispersive x-ray diffraction based on x-ray capillary optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fangzuo; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Jiang, Bowen; Zhu, Yu

    2016-03-01

    We presented a focal construct geometry (FCG) method for high intensity energy dispersive X-ray diffraction by utilizing a home-made ellipsoidal single-bounce capillary (ESBC) and a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL). The ESBC was employed to focus the X-rays from a conventional laboratory source into a small focal spot and to produce an annular X-ray beam in the far-field. Additionally, diffracted polychromatic X-rays were confocally collected by the PPXRL attached to a stationary energy-resolved detector. Our FCG method based on ESBC and PPXRL had achieved relatively high intensity diffraction peaks and effectively narrowed the diffraction peak width which was helpful in improving the potential d-spacing resolution for material phase analysis.

  11. Grazing Incidence Wavefront Sensing and Verification of X-Ray Optics Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.; Rohrbach, Scott; Zhang, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of interferometrically measured mirror metrology data and characterization of a telescope wavefront can be powerful tools in understanding of image characteristics of an x-ray optical system. In the development of soft x-ray telescope for the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO), we have developed new approaches to support the telescope development process. Interferometrically measuring the optical components over all relevant spatial frequencies can be used to evaluate and predict the performance of an x-ray telescope. Typically, the mirrors are measured using a mount that minimizes the mount and gravity induced errors. In the assembly and mounting process the shape of the mirror segments can dramatically change. We have developed wavefront sensing techniques suitable for the x-ray optical components to aid us in the characterization and evaluation of these changes. Hartmann sensing of a telescope and its components is a simple method that can be used to evaluate low order mirror surface errors and alignment errors. Phase retrieval techniques can also be used to assess and estimate the low order axial errors of the primary and secondary mirror segments. In this paper we describe the mathematical foundation of our Hartmann and phase retrieval sensing techniques. We show how these techniques can be used in the evaluation and performance prediction process of x-ray telescopes.

  12. Recent Developments of Multilayer Mirror Optics for Laboratory X-ray Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelsen, Carsten; Wiesmann, Jörg; Hoffmann, C.; Wulf, K.; Brugemann, Lutz; Storm, A.

    2002-12-01

    In this paper we review various improvements that we made in the development of multilayer mirror optics for home-lab x-ray analytical equipment in recent years. For the detection of light elements using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, we developed a number of new multilayers with improved detection limits. In detail, we found that La/B4C multilayers improve the detection limit of boron by 29 % compared to the previous Mo/B4C multilayers. For the detection of carbon, TiO2/C multilayers improve the detection limit also by 29 % compared to the V/C multilayers previously used. For the detection of aluminum, WSi2/Si or Ta/Si multilayers can lead to detection limit improvements over the current W/Si multilayers of up to 60 % for samples on silicon wafers. For the use as beam-conditioning elements in x-ray diffractometry, curved optics coated with laterally d-spacing graded multilayers give rise to major improvements concerning usable x-ray intensity and beam quality. Recent developments lead to a high quality of these multilayer optics concerning beam intensity, divergence, beam uniformity and spectral purity. For example, x-ray reflectometry instruments equipped with such multilayer optics have dynamic ranges previously only available at synchrotron sources. Two-dimensional focusing multilayer optics are shown to become essential optical elements in protein crystallography and structural proteomics.

  13. Thirteen new BL Lacertae objects discovered by an efficient x ray/radio/optical technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schachter, Jonathan F.; Stocke, John T.; Perlman, Eric; Elvis, Martin S.; Luu, Jane; Huchra, John P.; Humphreys, Roberta; Remillard, Ron; Wallin, John

    1992-01-01

    The discovery of 13 serendipitous BL Lac objects in the Einstein IPC Slew Survey by means of x ray/radio vs. x ray/optical color-color diagrams and confirmation by optical spectroscopy are reported. These 13 BL Lacs were discovered using a technique which exploits the characteristic broad band spectra of BL Lacs. New VLA detections provide accurate fluxes (f(6 cm) is approximately 0.5 mJy) and 2 in. positions, facilitating the determination of an optical counterpart. All 13 new BL Lacs show essentially featureless optical spectra. Nine of these lie within the range of colors of known x ray selected BL Lacs. Of the remaining four, one is apparently x ray louder (by a factor of 1.5) or optically quieter (by 0.8 mags); and three are optically louder (by 1-1.3 mags) than x ray selected BL Lacs. Approximately 50 new BL Lacs in total are expected from VLA work and upcoming Australia Telescope observations, yielding a complete Slew Survey sample of approximately 90 BL Lacs.

  14. HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES OF THE SWIFT BAT ULTRA HARD X-RAY SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Gehrels, Neil; Valencic, Lynne

    2011-10-01

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) active galactic nucleus (AGN) with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (z < 0.05), moderate luminosity AGNs from the Swift BAT sample. The BAT AGN host galaxies have intermediate optical colors (u - r and g - r) that are bluer than a comparison sample of inactive galaxies and optically selected AGNs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are chosen to have the same stellar mass. Based on morphological classifications from the RC3 and the Galaxy Zoo, the bluer colors of BAT AGNs are mainly due to a higher fraction of mergers and massive spirals than in the comparison samples. BAT AGNs in massive galaxies (log M{sub *} >10.5) have a 5-10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGNs or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-infrared emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGNs are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGNs have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] {lambda}5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGNs in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as a whole. In agreement with the unified model of AGNs, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGNs suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.

  15. Theoretical Implications of Optical and X-ray Observations of Swift GRB Afterglows

    SciTech Connect

    Panaitescu, A.

    2007-08-21

    The Swift satellite has measured the X-ray emission of GRB afterglows starting from the burst epoch, filling thus a gap of about 2 decades in the temporal coverage of X-ray afterglows previously achieved. At the same time, the accurate localizations provided by Swift and their rapid dissemination has allowed ground-based telescopes to monitor the optical afterglow emission at comparably early epochs. Such optical and X-ray observations allows us to test more thoroughly the basic predictions of the relativistic blast-wave. Perhaps it is not an understatement to say that there were more surprises than anyone expected. A majority of Swift X-ray afterglows exhibit a slow-decay phase from 500 s to about 1 h after trigger, which indicates a long-lived process of energy injection into the blast-wave. At around 1 h, the X-ray decay steepens, indicating the end of significant energy addition to the forward shock. This steeper decay is consistent with the blast-wave model expectations but the 1 h break is, generally, not accompanied by a steepening of the optical light-curve, which indicates that forward-shock microphysical parameters are not constant, as was previously assumed and allowed by afterglow observations. A subsequent steepening of the X-ray light-curve decay, at about 1 d, was observed by Swift for only a few afterglows. This second break appears consistent with originating from the blast-wave collimation (a jet), but a better optical coverage is required to test that it is, indeed, a jet-break. Although the jet model has been the subject of many tens of papers, pre-Swift optical and X-ray observations of GRB afterglows have provided little proof that the 1 d optical breaks observed in a dozen afterglows are consistent with the expectations for a collimated outflow.

  16. Synchrotron X-ray and optical studies of the DNA-mediated growth of plasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Wang, Geng; Zhang, Xiaonan; Geng, Heping; Xu, Lifeng; Li, Wenqin; Liu, Xin

    2015-03-01

    Reproducible and controllable growth of nanostructures with well-defined physical and chemical properties is a longstanding problem in nanoscience. A key step to address this issue is to understand their underlying growth mechanism, which is often entangled in the complexity of growth environments and obscured by rapid reaction speeds. Synchrotron x-rays, because of their specific wavelengths (nanometers) and advantages of large flux, high penetration and adjustable photon energy, have a particularly important position in structural and electronic characterizations of nanomaterials. Herein, we demonstrate that the evolution of size, surface morphology, and the optical properties of plasmonic nanostructures could be quantitatively intercepted by dynamic and stoichiometric control of the DNA-mediated growth. By combining synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering with transmission electron microscopy, we reliably obtained quantitative structural parameters for these fine nanostructures that correlate well with their optical properties as identified by UV/Vis absorption and dark-field scattering spectroscopy. We report growth mechanisms for SERS active plasmonic nanostructures, and the remarkable interplay between their morphology and plasmonic properties. Work supported by NNSF of China (11375256) and Sci. and Tech. Commission of Shanghai Municipality (14JC1493300).

  17. Second flight of the Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager sounding rocket [FOXSI-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitrago-Casas, J. C.; Krucker, S.; Christe, S.; Glesener, L.; Ishikawa, S. N.; Ramsey, B.; Foster, N. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) is a sounding rocket experiment that has flown twice to test a direct focusing method for measuring solar hard X-rays (HXRs). These HXRs are associated with particle acceleration mechanisms at work in powering solar flares and aid us in investigating the role of nanoflares in heating the solar corona. FOXSI-1 successfully flew for the first time on November 2, 2012. After some upgrades including the addition of extra mirrors to two optics modules and the inclusion of new fine-pitch CdTe strip detectors, in addition to the Si detectors from FOXSI-1, the FOXSI-2 payload flew successfully again on December 11, 2014. During the second flight four targets on the Sun were observed, including at least three active regions, two microflares, and ~1 minute of quiet Sun observation. This work is focused in giving an overview of the FOXSI rocket program and a detailed description of the upgrades for the second flight. In addition, we show images and spectra investigating the presence of no thermal emission for each of the flaring targets that we observed during the second flight.

  18. Micro-pore optics: from planetary x-rays to industrial market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutz, Jean-Luc; Bonnet, Olivier; Fairbend, Ray; Schyns, Emile; Seguy, Julien

    2007-02-01

    For over fifteen years, micro-Channel plate (MCP) optics, later termed "Micro Pore Optics" (MPOs) - have been under development to replace the heavy Wolter Type 1 replicated or foil mirrors currently used in X-ray astronomy. Noting other possible applications, including X-ray Lithography and imaging X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy - and after considerable, sustained investment from the European Space Agency Technology Research Programme (TRP), a reliable manufacturing process has now been established, able to produce high quality, low mass X-ray and UV optics in a variety of formats. Optimisation of the glass preparation and drawing technology, in line process controls and metrology as well as improvements in the fibre stacking processes, core glass etching and plate slumping have all been developed. Channel coating methods have also been developed to enhance the high energy response. All these improvements enable Photonis to offer MPOs with square pores from 10x10 μm up to 100x100 μm, with channel aspect ratios of up to 500:1 in both square and radially packed geometries in various shapes and with focal lengths in the range 10 cm to several metres. Space science projects such as LOBSTER (an X-ray all-sky monitor), the Wide Field Auroral Imager for Kuafu B and the Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (MIXS) for BepiColombo are likely to benefit from this unique technology. Other applications are, however, under consideration, such as X-ray pulsar- based navigation systems for autonomous terrestrial and space navigation. The potential industrial-commercial market interest in developing these compact X-ray lenses for ground-based applications is the subject of our paper.

  19. Accretion and Nuclear Activity of Quiescent Supermassive Black Holes. I. X-Ray Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, R.; Fabbiano, G.; Graham, Alister W.; Baldi, A.; Elvis, M.; Jerjen, H.; Pellegrini, S.; Siemiginowska, A.

    2006-03-01

    We have studied the nuclear activity in a sample of six quiescent early-type galaxies, with new Chandra data and archival HST optical images. Their nuclear sources have X-ray luminosities ~1038-1039 ergs s-1 (LX/LEdd~10-8 to 10-7) and colors or spectra consistent with accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs), except for the nucleus of NGC 4486B, which is softer than typical AGN spectra. In a few cases, the X-ray morphology of the nuclear sources shows hints of marginally extended structures, in addition to the surrounding diffuse thermal emission from hot gas, which is detectable on scales >~1 kpc. In one case (NGC 5845), a dusty disk may partially obstruct our direct view of the SMBH. We have estimated the temperature and density of the hot interstellar medium, which is one major source of fuel for the accreting SMBH; typical central densities are ne~(0.02+/-0.01) cm-3. Assuming that the hot gas is captured by the SMBH at the Bondi rate, we show that the observed X-ray luminosities are too faint to be consistent with standard disk accretion, but brighter than predicted by radiatively inefficient solutions (e.g., advection-dominated accretion flows [ADAFs]). In total, there are ~20 galaxies for which SMBH mass, hot gas density, and nuclear X-ray luminosity are simultaneously known. In some cases, the nuclear sources are brighter than predicted by the ADAF model; in other cases, they are consistent or fainter. We discuss the apparent lack of correlations between Bondi rate and X-ray luminosity and suggest that, in order to understand the observed distribution, we need to know two additional parameters: the amount of gas supplied by the stellar population inside the accretion radius, and the fraction (possibly <<1) of the total gas available that is accreted by the SMBH. We leave a detailed study of these issues to a subsequent paper.

  20. A CANDIDATE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS WITH A PURE SOFT THERMAL X-RAY SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Terashima, Yuichi; Kamizasa, Naoya; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Kubota, Aya; Ueda, Yoshihiro

    2012-06-20

    We report the discovery of a candidate active galactic nucleus (AGN), 2XMM J123103.2+110648 at z = 0.13, with an X-ray spectrum represented purely by soft thermal emission reminiscent of Galactic black hole (BH) binaries in the disk-dominated state. This object was found in the second XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalog as a highly variable X-ray source. In three separate observations, its X-ray spectrum can be represented either by a multicolor disk blackbody model with an inner temperature of kT{sub in} Almost-Equal-To 0.16-0.21 keV or a Wien spectrum Comptonized by an optically thick plasma with kT Almost-Equal-To 0.14-0.18 keV. The soft X-ray luminosity in the 0.5-2 keV band is estimated to be (1.6-3.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. Hard emission above {approx}2 keV is not detected. The ratio of the soft to hard emission is the strongest among AGNs observed thus far. Spectra selected in high/low-flux time intervals are examined in order to study spectral variability. In the second observation with the highest signal-to-noise ratio, the low-energy (below 0.7 keV) spectral regime flattens when the flux is high, while the shape of the high-energy part (1-1.7 keV) remains unchanged. This behavior is qualitatively consistent with being caused by strong Comptonization. Both the strong soft excess and spectral change consistent with Comptonization in the X-ray spectrum imply that the Eddington ratio is large, which requires a small BH mass (smaller than {approx}10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }).

  1. Generation-X mirror technology development plan and the development of adjustable x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Paul B.; Davis, William; O'Dell, Stephen; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Tolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Zhang, William

    2009-08-01

    Generation-X is being studied as an extremely high resolution, very large area grazing incidence x-ray telescope. Under a NASA Advanced Mission Concepts Study, we have developed a technology plan designed to lead to the 0.1 arcsec (HPD) resolution adjustable optics with 50 square meters of effective area necessary to meet Generation-X requirements. We describe our plan in detail. In addition, we report on our development activities of adjustable grazing incidence optics via the fabrication of bimorph mirrors. We have successfully deposited thin-film piezo-electric material on the back surface of thin glass mirrors. We report on the electrical and mechanical properties of the bimorph mirrors. We also report on initial finite element modeling of adjustable grazing incidence mirrors; in particular, we examine the impact of how the mirrors are supported - the boundary conditions - on the deformations which can be achieved.

  2. Simultaneous X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and radio observations of the flare star Proxima Centauri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisch, B. M.; Slee, O. B.; Siegman, B. C.; Nikoloff, I.; Candy, M.; Harwood, D.; Verveer, A.; Quinn, P. J.; Wilson, I.; Linsky, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Results of coordinated program of observations in the X-ray, UV, optical and radio regions of the dM5e flare star Proxima Centauri are presented. Simultaneous observations of the star were obtained on March 6 and March 7, 1979, by the Einstein Observatory IPC, the IUE SWP and LWR cameras at low dispersion, three ground-based optical telescopes in Australia and the Parkes 64-m radio telescope. A total of 10 radio bursts and six optical flares was detected during three nights of simultaneous radio and optical observations, which appear to be broadly correlated. A major X-ray flare event was detected with temperatures of 1.7 x 10 to the 7th and 1.2 x 10 to the 7th K during the rise and decay phases, respectively, respective X-ray fluxes of 3.0 x 10 to the -11th and 3.7 x 10 to the -11th ergs/sq cm per sec, and changes in spectral flux distribution. No radio, optical or UV flare emission corresponding to the X-ray flare was detected. The X-ray flare is interpreted in terms of an arch model with cooling predominantly by X-ray radiation, with an electron density of 1.0 x 10 to the 11th/cu cm during the decay phase and a total arch length comparable to the size of the star itself. The X-ray flare observed is thus more similar to a typical strong solar flare than heretofore seen on a flare star.

  3. Energy dependence measurement of small-type optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter by means of characteristic X-rays induced with general diagnostic X-ray equipment.

    PubMed

    Takegami, Kazuki; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Okino, Hiroki; Kimoto, Natsumi; Maehata, Itsumi; Kanazawa, Yuki; Okazaki, Tohru; Hashizume, Takuya; Kobayashi, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    For X-ray inspections by way of general X-ray equipment, it is important to measure an entrance-skin dose. Recently, a small optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter was made commercially available by Landauer, Inc. The dosimeter does not interfere with the medical images; therefore, it is expected to be a convenient detector for measuring personal exposure doses. In an actual clinical situation, it is assumed that X-rays of different energies will be detected by a dosimeter. For evaluation of the exposure dose measured by a dosimeter, it is necessary to know the energy dependence of the dosimeter. Our aim in this study was to measure the energy dependence of the OSL dosimeter experimentally in the diagnostic X-ray region. Metal samples weighing several grams were irradiated and, in this way, characteristic X-rays having energies ranging from 8 to 85 keV were generated. Using these mono-energetic X-rays, the dosimeter was irradiated. Simultaneously, the fluence of the X-rays was determined with a CdTe detector. The energy-dependent efficiency of the dosimeter was derived from the measured value of the dosimeter and the fluence. Moreover, the energy-dependent efficiency was calculated by Monte-Carlo simulation. The efficiency obtained in the experiment was in good agreement with that of the simulation. In conclusion, our proposed method, in which characteristic X-rays are used, is valuable for measurement of the energy dependence of a small OSL dosimeter in the diagnostic X-ray region. PMID:26589210

  4. The Einstein database of IPC x-ray observations of optically selected and radio-selected quasars, 1.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Worrall, D. M.; Avni, Yoram; Oey, M. S.; Flanagan, Joan

    1994-01-01

    We present the first volume of the Einstein quasar database. The database includes estimates of the X-ray count rates, fluxes, and luminosities for 514 quasars and Seyfert 1 galaxies observed with the Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) aboard the Einstein Observatory. All were previously known optically selected or radio-selected objects, and most were the targets of the X-ray observations. The X-ray properties of the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) have been derived by reanalyzing the IPC data in a systematic manner to provide a uniform database for general use by the astronomical community. We use the database to extend earlier quasar luminosity studies which were made using only a subset of the currently available data. The database can be accessed on internet via the SAO Einstein on-line system ('Einline') and is available in ASCII format on magnetic tape and DOS diskette.

  5. X-Ray and Optical Studies of Thin Organic Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, William Joseph, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    In order to quantitatively understand the fundamental statistical physics of Langmuir monolayers (LMs) it is essential that their properties be measured under equilibrium conditions. In order to address this issue, the phase diagrams of relaxed films of doeicosanoic acid and methyl eicosanoate were mapped out over the temperature range of 5.5^circ to 26 ^circC. In contrast to the prevailing technique in which isotherms are taken at a constant rate of compression, isotherms in this study were taken through a series of incremental compressions, separated by variable waiting periods that allowed the monolayer to relax to a steady state. X-ray diffraction, Brewster angle microscopy, and surface pressure measurements at each area were interpreted to characterize the structure of the phases of a relaxed LM of methyl eicosanoate. Below 12^circ C and 2.25 dynes/cm the I(L_2^ {''}) phase, an orthorhombic structure with tilt toward nearest neighbor was observed. Between 12^circ and 22^ circC and below 8 dynes/cm the F(L _2^') phase, with tilt toward next nearest neighbor and an orthorhombic structure was seen. Above 22^circC the Ov phase, with tilt toward nearest neighbor and a hexagonal structure was seen. At higher pressures, the U ^'(CS)/U(S)/R(LS) sequence of phases, typical of most saturated alkane systems, was detected. In order to better understand issues of equilibrium and relaxation for LMs of the fatty acids and to compare our results to previous "fast" measurements, a detailed study of relaxed films of doeicosanoic acid was conducted. Both relaxation isotherms and isochores were performed simultaneously with x-ray diffraction measurements. It was found that, despite uncertainty in the macroscopic trough area per molecule due to collapse of the film, a physically useful phase diagram could be constructed in terms of the microscopic area per molecule, derived from diffraction measurements. In addition, by using a two-dimensional analog of the Clausius -Clapeyron

  6. FOXSI-2: Upgrades of the Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager for its Second Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christe, Steven; Glesener, Lindsay; Buitrago-Casas, Camilo; Ishikawa, Shin-Nosuke; Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Turin, Paul; Shourt, Van; Foster, Natalie; Krucker, Sam

    2016-03-01

    The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket payload flew for the second time on 2014 December 11. To enable direct Hard X-Ray (HXR) imaging spectroscopy, FOXSI makes use of grazing-incidence replicated focusing optics combined with fine-pitch solid-state detectors. FOXSI’s first flight provided the first HXR focused images of the Sun. For FOXSI’s second flight several updates were made to the instrument including updating the optics and detectors as well as adding a new Solar Aspect and Alignment System (SAAS). This paper provides an overview of these updates as well as a discussion of their measured performance.

  7. The Mechanism of the Optical Variability of Supersoft X-Ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, A.; Matsuda, T.; Matsumoto, K.; Fukue, J.

    1999-12-01

    We present models of an accretion disk of Supersoft X-ray Sources (SSXSs) to compare with observations. Some SSXSs show peculior behavior in optical light curves. Especially SSXS RX J0513 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is known for its quasi-periodic optical variability and X-ray on/off. Considering these observations, we examine three models of an accretion disk whose shape may affect the luminosity from the binary system. We, then, compare the computed spectra based on three models with observation. Two models give good agreements in the optical range, while the other does not. Using present models, we may predict the spectrum in currently unobservable wavelength.

  8. Thermoluminescent response of single mode optical fibre to x-ray irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che Omar, S. S.; Hashim, S.; Ibrahim, S. A.; Hassan, W. M. S. Wan; Mahdiraji, G. A.; Isa, N. Md; Mad Isa, M. J.; Abd Jalil, M. M.; Kadir, A. B.

    2014-11-01

    We present the characteristics of the thermoluminescence (TL) response of single mode optical fibre (SMF) subjected to 30 and 70 kV x-ray irradiation. The TL responses are compared with commercially available TLD-100 (rod types). The SMF and TLD-100 were irradiated with x-ray source by using X-rays Generator model Phillips MG 165 located at Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The SMF and TLD-100 show linear dose response subjected to 30 and 70 kV x-ray irradiation. The SMF shows TL response by 10 times and 8 times greater than TLD-100 for the above-mentioned energies. The TL sensitivity characteristics of SMF show promising results to be introduced as a TL dosimeter material. The SMF could be used in several applications in the fields of medicine, industry, and research purposes.

  9. A combined optical/X-ray study of the Galaxy cluster Abell 2256

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabricant, Daniel G.; Kent, Stephen M.; Kurtz, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamics of Abell 2256 is investigated by combining X-ray observations of the intracluster gas with optical observations of the galaxy distribution and kinematics. Magnitudes and positions are presented for 172 galaxies and new redshifts for 75. Abell 2256 is similar to the Coma Cluster in its X-ray luminosity, mass, and galaxy density. Both the X-ray surface brightness and the galaxy surface density distributions exhibit an elliptical morphology. The radial galaxy distribution is steeper than the density profile of the X-ray-emitting gas, yet the galaxy velocity dispersion is higher than the equivalent value for the gas. Under the simplest assumptions that the galaxy velocity distribution is isotropic and the gas is isothermal, the galaxies and gas cannot be in hydrostatic equilibrium in a common gravitational potential. Models consistent with available data have mass-to-light ratios which increase with radius and galaxy orbits that are anisotropic with a radial bias.

  10. High resolution double-sided diffractive optics for hard X-ray microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mohacsi, Istvan; Vartiainen, Ismo; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Karvinen, Petri; Guzenko, Vitaliy A; Müller, Elisabeth; Färm, Elina; Ritala, Mikko; Kewish, Cameron M; Somogyi, Andrea; David, Christian

    2015-01-26

    The fabrication of high aspect ratio metallic nanostructures is crucial for the production of efficient diffractive X-ray optics in the hard X-ray range. We present a novel method to increase their structure height via the double-sided patterning of the support membrane. In transmission, the two Fresnel zone plates on the two sides of the substrate will act as a single zone plate with added structure height. The presented double-sided zone plates with 30 nm smallest zone width offer up to 9.9% focusing efficiency at 9 keV, that results in a factor of two improvement over their previously demonstrated single-sided counterparts. The increase in efficiency paves the way to speed up X-ray microscopy measurements and allows the more efficient utilization of the flux in full-field X-ray microscopy. PMID:25835837

  11. THE CHANDRA MULTI-WAVELENGTH PROJECT: OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY AND THE BROADBAND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF X-RAY-SELECTED AGNs

    SciTech Connect

    Trichas, Markos; Green, Paul J.; Aldcroft, Tom; Kim, Dong-Woo; Mossman, Amy; Silverman, John D.; Barkhouse, Wayne; Cameron, Robert A.; Constantin, Anca; Ellison, Sara L.; Foltz, Craig; Haggard, Daryl; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Marshall, Herman L.; Perez, Laura M.; Romero-Colmenero, Encarni; Ruiz, Angel; Smith, Malcolm G.; and others

    2012-06-01

    From optical spectroscopy of X-ray sources observed as part of the Chandra Multi-wavelength Project (ChaMP), we present redshifts and classifications for a total of 1569 Chandra sources from our targeted spectroscopic follow-up using the FLWO/1.5 m, SAAO/1.9 m, WIYN 3.5 m, CTIO/4 m, KPNO/4 m, Magellan/6.5 m, MMT/6.5 m, and Gemini/8 m telescopes, and from archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopy. We classify the optical counterparts as 50% broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 16% emission line galaxies, 14% absorption line galaxies, and 20% stars. We detect QSOs out to z {approx} 5.5 and galaxies out to z {approx} 3. We have compiled extensive photometry, including X-ray (ChaMP), ultraviolet (GALEX), optical (SDSS and ChaMP-NOAO/MOSAIC follow-up), near-infrared (UKIDSS, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and ChaMP-CTIO/ISPI follow-up), mid-infrared (WISE), and radio (FIRST and NVSS) bands. Together with our spectroscopic information, this enables us to derive detailed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for our extragalactic sources. We fit a variety of template SEDs to determine bolometric luminosities, and to constrain AGNs and starburst components where both are present. While {approx}58% of X-ray Seyferts (10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} < L{sub 2-10keV} <10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) require a starburst event (>5% starburst contribution to bolometric luminosity) to fit observed photometry only 26% of the X-ray QSO (L{sub 2-10keV} >10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) population appear to have some kind of star formation contribution. This is significantly lower than for the Seyferts, especially if we take into account torus contamination at z > 1 where the majority of our X-ray QSOs lie. In addition, we observe a rapid drop of the percentage of starburst contribution as X-ray luminosity increases. This is consistent with the quenching of star formation by powerful QSOs, as predicted by the merger model, or with a time lag between the peak of star formation and QSO

  12. Femtosecond optical/hard X-ray timing diagnostics at an FEL: implementation and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Henrik T.; Weaver, Matt; Chollet, Matthieu; Robinson, Joseph; Glownia, James M.; Zhu, Diling; Bionta, Mina R.; Cammarata, Marco; Harmand, Marion; Coffee, Ryan N.; Fritz, David M.

    2013-05-01

    The development of Free Electron Lasers has opened the possibility to investigate ultrafast processes using femtosecond hard x-ray pulses. In optical/x-ray light pump/probe experiments, however, the time resolution is mainly limited by the ability to synchronize both light sources over a long distance (<100 fs FWHM) rather than their pulse length (<10 fs FWHM). We have implemented a spectrally encoding x-ray to optical laser timing diagnostic into the XPP beamline at LCLS with a timing uncertainty down to 10 fs. An x-ray induced change of refractive index in a solid target is temporally probed for single pulses by a chirped white light pulse [4]. By resorting single shot data to the timestamps obtained by the diagnostics, the temporal data quality can be improved to basically pulse length limited time resolution. By interchangable targets and adjustable x-ray and laser foci, the method was successfully applied for very different x-ray parameters. These are different photon energies in the range of 6-20 keV, which at LCLS also includes application of 3rd Harmonic radiation, pulse energy, and bandwidth, when using a Si(111) monochromator.

  13. GSFC Contributions to the NATO X-ray Astronomy Institute, Erice, July 1979. [X-ray spectra of supernova remants, galactic X-ray sources, active galactic nuclei, and clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of X-ray astronomical spectroscopy in general is presented and results obtained by HEAO 1 and 2 as well as earlier spacecraft are examined. Particular emphasis is given to the spectra of supernova remnants; galactic binary X-ray sources, cataclysmic variables, bulges, pulsars, and stars; the active nuclei of Seyfert 1 galaxy, BL Lac, and quasars; the diffuse X-ray background; and galactic clusters.

  14. X-ray and optical observations of accreting neutron stars and black holes and the construction and testing of the stellar x-ray polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomsick, John Allen

    1999-10-01

    In the first part of this thesis, I present results from observations of accreting neutron stars and black hole candidates (BHCs). Through measurements of the physical parameters of neutron stars, including the mass, spin period and magnetic field strength, accreting neutron stars provide an opportunity to learn about matter at extremely high densities and in strong magnetic fields. Here, I study the neutron star X-ray binary XTE J2123-058. X-ray observations are used to estimate the neutron star spin period and magnetic field strength, and the measured spin period of 3.9 ms has implications for neutron star evolution. Results of optical observations provide some of the information necessary to eventually determine the neutron star mass. For BHC X-ray binaries, demonstrating the existence of the event horizon and measuring physical parameters of black holes are of great interest. In order to make progress toward these goals, it is necessary to understand the accretion processes and emission mechanisms that operate in these systems. For some accreting compact objects, significant changes in the X- ray emission properties are observed over time. Here, I study the changes in X-ray emission properties that occurred over three months for an accreting BHC, 4U 1630-47. I also include a study of sharp drops in the 4U 1630-47 X-ray flux (i.e. X-ray dips). X-ray dips provide an opportunity to constrain the sizes of the X-ray emission regions. The 4U 1630-47 X-ray dips provide evidence that one of the two X-ray emission components comes from within ten Schwarzschild radii of the compact object. In the second part of this thesis, I describe work I have done on the Stellar X-Ray Polarimeter (SXRP). The SXRP will be more than an order of magnitude more sensitive than any previous X-ray polarimeter in the 2-15 keV energy band and is expected to increase the number of sources with X-ray polarization detections from one, the Crab Nebula, to between 20 and 30. X-ray binaries will be

  15. A long-term optical-X-ray correlation in 4U 1957+11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, D. M.; Lewis, F.; Roche, P.; Clark, J. S.; Breedt, E.; Fender, R. P.

    2010-03-01

    Three years of optical monitoring of the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) 4U 1957+11 is presented. The source was observed in V, R and i bands using the Faulkes Telescopes North and South. The light curve is dominated by long-term variations which are correlated (at the >3σ level) with the soft X-ray flux from the All Sky Monitor on board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. The variations span 1mag in all three filters. We find no evidence for periodicities in our light curves, contrary to a previous short-time-scale optical study in which the flux varied on a 9.3-h sinusoidal period by a smaller amplitude. The optical spectral energy distribution is blue and typical of LMXBs in outburst, as is the power-law index of the correlation β = 0.5, where Fν,OPT ~ FβX. The discrete cross-correlation function reveals a peak at an X-ray lag of 2-14 days, which could be the viscous time-scale. However, adopting the least-squares method we find the strongest correlation at a lag of 0 +/- 4 d, consistent with X-ray reprocessing on the surface of the disc. We therefore constrain the optical lag behind X-ray to be between -14 and +4 d. In addition, we use the optical-X-ray luminosity diagram for LMXBs as a diagnostic tool to constrain the nature of the compact object in 4U 1957+11, since black hole and neutron star sources reside in different regions of this diagram. It is found that if the system contains a black hole (as is the currently favoured hypothesis), its distance must exceed ~20 kpc for the optical and X-ray luminosities to be consistent with other soft-state black hole systems. For distances <20 kpc, the data lie in a region of the diagram populated only by neutron star sources (black hole systems are 10 times optically brighter for this X-ray luminosity). 4U 1957+11 is unique: it is either the only black hole LMXB to exist in an apparent persistent soft state or a neutron star LMXB which behaves like a black hole.

  16. High performance X-ray and neutron microfocusing optics. Phase II final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Hirsch

    2000-01-14

    The use of extremely small diameter x-ray beams at synchrotron radiation facilities has become an important experimental technique for investigators in many other scientific disciplines. While there have been several different optical elements developed for producing such microbeams, this SBIR project was concerned with one particular device: the tapered-monocapillary optic.

  17. Optical constants in the extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rife, J. C.; Osantowski, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The nature of optical constants and their measurement by reflection or absorption techniques in the extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectral region from 30 to 3000 eV is discussed with emphasis on mirror design. Sources of optical constant data are mentioned and reflectance measurements for SiC and Kanigen between 40 and 200 eV are reported.

  18. Influence of optical gaps on signal and noise properties of luminescent screen x-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Andreas

    2004-05-01

    X-ray detection with luminescent screens requires optical signal transfer as an intermediate step between x-ray detection and conversion to an electronic signal. Luminescent screens may be granular (phosphor screens), structured (e.g. CsI) or transparent (scintillators). The optical signal is imaged with lenses, fibre optics, electron optics or by proximity focussing to an electronic detector. Poor focussing or poor optical contact may degrade the signal and noise transfer characteristics, i.e. modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). The case when x-rays are detected with granular luminescent screens, imaged onto flat panel electronic detectors is considered here. The detector assembly often requires layers of glue or protective thin films creating optical gaps, in which light is spread, hence spatial resolution is degraded. The noise spectrum is not necessarily changed the same way. Its exact shape depends on the dominant noise sources in a given detector configuration under the specific operating conditions: The noise of the primary x-ray quanta, noise aliasing and direct x-ray detection by the electronic detection layer are the main contributions in this investigation. Especially at high spatial frequencies small optical gaps in conjunction with white quantum noise from direct x-ray absorption of the electronic imager degrade DQE: A gap of 40 μm between luminescent screen and detector reduces the DQE by 33% at the Nyquist frequency. This was demonstrated with an a-Si imager of 143-μm pixel size and a Lanex Fine luminescent screen operated at 100 kV.

  19. Evidence for Optical Flares in Quiescent Soft X-Ray Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurita, C.; Casares, J.; Shahbaz, T.

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of high time resolution optical photometry of five quiescent soft X-ray transients (SXTs): V404 Cyg, A0620-00, J0422+32, GS 2000+25, and Cen X-4. We detect fast optical variations superposed on the secondary star's double-humped ellipsoidal modulation. The variability resembles typical flare activity and has amplitudes ranging from 0.06 to 0.6 mag. Flares occur on timescales of minutes to a few hours, with no dependency on orbital phase, and contribute ~19%-46% to the total veiling observed in the R band. We find that the observed level of flaring activity is veiled by the light of the companion star, and therefore, systems with cool companions (e.g., J0422+32) exhibit stronger variability. After correcting for this dilution, we do not find any correlation between the flaring activity and fundamental system parameters. We find no underlying coherent periods in the data, only quasi-periodic variations ranging between 30 and 90 minutes for the short-period SXTs and longer than 1 hr for V404 Cyg. The power-law index of the power spectra is consistent with what is observed at X-rays wavelengths, i.e., a 1/f distribution, which is compatible with the cellular automaton model. Our observed R'-band luminosities, which are in the range 1031-1033 ergs s-1, are too large to be due to chromospheric activity in the rapidly rotating companions. Since the typical timescale of the flares increases with orbital period, they are most likely produced in the accretion disk. The associated dynamical (Keplerian) timescales suggest that flares are produced at ~0.3Rd-0.7Rd. Possible formation mechanisms are magnetic loop reconnection events in the disk or, less likely, optical reprocessing of X-ray flares. In the former scenario, the maximum duration of the flares suggests that the outer disk is responsible for the flare events and so allows us to constrain the sharing timescale to τ~(5-6)Ω-1K.

  20. Activation of oncogenes by radon progeny and x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The overall goal of this proposal is to study the carcinogenic effect of both high and low LET radiation at the molecular level, utilizing techniques developed in molecular biology, cancer cell biology and radiation biology. The underlying assumption is that malignant transformation of normal cells is a multistep process requiring two or more molecular events in the genomic DNA. We hypothesize that radiation may induce such events in one or more steps of the multistep process. We will use in vitro models of transformation that reproduce the stepwise progression of normal cells toward the transformed phenotype and ask whether radiation can provide the necessary activating function at discrete steps along this path. Our strategy involves transfecting into normal primary cells a variety of cloned oncogenes that are known to supply only some of the functions necessary for full transformation. These partially transformed'' cells will be the targets for irradiation by x-rays and alpha particles. The results will provide the basis for assessing the ability of ionizing radiation to activate oncogenic functions that complement'' the oncogene already present in the transfected cells and produce the fully transformed phenotype. Progress is described. 121 refs.

  1. Defect-Assisted Hard-X-Ray Microscopy with Capillary Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korecki, Paweł; Sowa, Katarzyna M.; Jany, Benedykt R.; Krok, Franciszek

    2016-06-01

    Polycapillary x-ray focusing devices are built from hundreds of thousands of bent microcapillaries that are stacked into hexagonal arrays. We show that intrinsic point defects of the optics (e.g., missing or larger capillaries) lead to the formation of multiple x-ray images of an object positioned in the focal plane. These images can be recorded in parallel, and can provide spatial resolution that is limited by the defect size and not by the focal spot size. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we demonstrate submicron resolution, which has not yet been achieved with polycapillary focusing optics. Tailored optics with a controlled distribution of "defects" could be used for multimodal nanoscale x-ray imaging with laboratory setups.

  2. Roles of Thin Film Stress in Making Extremely Lightweight X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, William W.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray optics typically must be coated with one of the noble metals, gold, platinum, or iridium, to enhance their photon collection area. In general, iridium is preferred to the other two because it generates the highest X-ray reflectivity in the I to 10 keV band. Unfortunately, iridium films typically have also the highest stress that can severely degrade the optical figure of the mirror substrate, resulting in a poorer image quality. In this paper we will report our work in understanding this stress and our method to counterbalance it. In particular we will also report on potential ways of using this stress to improve the substrate's optical figure, turning a bug into a desirable feature. This work is done in the context of developing an enabling technology for the International X-ray Observatory which is a collaborative mission of NASA, ESA, and JAXA, and expected to be launched into an L2 orbit in 2021.

  3. The new BL Lacertae objects discovered by an efficient X-ray/radio/optical technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schachter, Jonathan F.; Stocke, John T.; Perlman, Eric; Elvis, Martin; Remillard, Ron; Granados, Arno; Luu, Jane; Huchra, John P.; Humphreys, Roberta; Urry, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    We report the recent discovery of ten BL Lac objects in the Einstein IPC Slew Survey by means of X-ray/radio versus X-ray/optical color-color diagrams and confirming optical spectroscopy. These ten BL Lac objects were discovered using a technique proposed by Stocke et al. (1989) which exploits the characteristic broad-band spectra of BL Lac objects. New VLA detections provide accurate fluxes (limiting f(6 cm) about 0.5 mJy) and about 1 arcsec positions, facilitating the determination of an optical counterpart. All ten new BL Lac objects show essentially featureless optical spectra and lie within the range of radio/X-ray/optical colors of known X-ray-selected BL Lac objects, when about 1 mag optical variability is included. We expect about 50 new BL Lac objects in total, from complete optical follow-up of our now completed VLA work and recent Australia Telescope observations, yielding a complete Slew Survey sample of about 90 BL Lac objects.

  4. New X-ray microprobe system for trace heavy element analysis using ultraprecise X-ray mirror optics of long working distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Yasuko; Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Uruga, Tomoya

    2010-05-01

    A new X-ray microprobe system for trace heavy element analysis using ultraprecise X-ray mirror optics of 300 mm long working distance has been developed at beamline 37XU of SPring-8. A focusing test has been performed in the X-ray energy range 20-37.7 keV. A focused beam size of 1.3 μm ( V)×1.5 μm ( H) has been achieved at an X-ray energy of 30 keV, and a total photon flux of the focused beam was about 2.7×10 10 photons/s. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) analysis of eggplant roots has been carried out using the developed microprobe. It is clearly observed in the XRF images that cadmium is highly accumulated in the endodermis, exodermis and epidermis of roots. This study demonstrates the potential of scanning microscopy for heavy elements analysis in the high-energy X-ray region.

  5. Integrated modeling for parametric evaluation of smart x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Agostino, S.; Riva, M.; Spiga, D.; Basso, S.; Civitani, Marta

    2014-08-01

    This work is developed in the framework of AXYOM project, which proposes to study the application of a system of piezoelectric actuators to grazing-incidence X-ray telescope optic prototypes: thin glass or plastic foils, in order to increase their angular resolution. An integrated optomechanical model has been set up to evaluate the performances of X-ray optics under deformation induced by Piezo Actuators. Parametric evaluation has been done looking at different number and position of actuators to optimize the outcome. Different evaluations have also been done over the actuator types, considering Flexible Piezoceramic, Multi Fiber Composites piezo actuators, and PVDF.

  6. Simultaneous X-Ray and Optical Timing Observations of GX 339-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, Philip; Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this proposal is to perform the first comprehensive study of the correlated X-ray and optical variability of the Galactic accreting black hole candidate GX 339-4 using the X-ray and optical instruments on XMM-Newton. With these observations, we hope to make significant progress in understanding the coupled inflow - outflow system around a persistently accreting stellar mass black hole. The data is now all reduced. This includes the data analysis for all of the instruments on XMM-Newton, the EPIC - PN, the EPIC - MOS, the RGS, and the OM. We are currently preparing the results for publication.

  7. X-ray reflection and scatter measurements on selected optical samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, S. A.; Reynolds, J. M.; Holland, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    The results from an experimental program to determine the reflection efficiency and scatter parameters of selected optical samples are presented. The measurements were made using 8.34A X-rays at various angles of incidence. Selected samples were contaminated after being measured and then remeasured to determine the effects of contamination. The instrumentation involved in taking the data, including the X-ray reflectometer and data processing equipment, is discussed in detail. The condition of the optical surfaces, the total reflection measurements, the scatter measurements, and the analysis are discussed.

  8. Contemporaneous Optical and X-ray Observations of the V404 Cygni Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Updike, Adria C.; Finan, Sidney; Alfahani, Faihan

    2016-01-01

    The 12 solar mass black hole V404 Cygni began a series of renewed flaring on June 15th, 2015, as detected by Swift and Fermi, when material from its small binary companion began to fall into the black hole. The source was observed for several hours in four optical bands on June 19th by 0.9m Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy (SARA) telescope on Kitt Peak in Arizona. Several x-ray flares from Swift were detected during the same time period. We present the contemporaneous data and look for simultaneous flaring in the optical and x-ray.

  9. Optically Triggered RXTE Observations of Soft X-Ray Transients (core Program)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We propose to use optical/infra-red observations from the SMARTS consortium to trigger RXTE observations of transient soft X-ray binaries. We will trigger on two kinds of events: 1) a rise from quiescence; 2) state transitions during an outburst. These RXTE data, together with data from our already approved Swift program, radio ATCA observations and the SMARTS data themselves, will provide broad-band coverage in optical/IR and X-ray bandpasses, which will be used to study accretion processes and jets in black holes and neutron stars.

  10. Vibration diagnosis and remediation design for an x-ray optics stitching interferometer system.

    SciTech Connect

    Preissner, C.; Assoufid, L.; Shu, D.; Experimental Facilities Division

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) x-ray optics Metrology Laboratory currently operates a small-aperture Wyko laser interferometer in a stitching configuration. While the stitching configuration allows for easier surface characterization of long x-ray substrates and mirrors, the addition of mechanical components for optic element translation can compromise the ultimate measurement performance of the interferometer. A program of experimental vibration measurements, quantifying the laboratory vibration environment and identifying interferometer support-system behavior, has been conducted. Insight gained from the ambient vibration assessment and modal analysis has guided the development of a remediation technique. Discussion of the problem diagnosis and possible solutions are presented in this paper.

  11. The active galactic nucleus population in X-ray-selected galaxy groups at 0.5 < Z < 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Semyeong; Woo, Jong-Hak; Matsuoka, Kenta; Mulchaey, John S.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Tanaka, Masayuki; Cooper, Michael C.; Ziparo, Felicia; Bauer, Franz E.

    2014-07-20

    We use Chandra data to study the incidence and properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in 16 intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 1.1) X-ray-selected galaxy groups in the Chandra Deep Field-South. We measure an AGN fraction of f(L{sub X,H}>10{sup 42};M{sub R}<−20)=8.0{sub −2.3}{sup +3.0}% at z-bar ∼0.74, approximately a factor of two higher than the AGN fraction found for rich clusters at comparable redshift. This extends the trend found at low redshift for groups to have higher AGN fractions than clusters. Our estimate of the AGN fraction is also more than a factor of three higher than that of low redshift X-ray-selected groups. Using optical spectra from various surveys, we also constrain the properties of emission-line selected AGNs in these groups. In contrast to the large population of X-ray AGNs (N(L{sub X,{sub H}} > 10{sup 41} erg s{sup –1}) = 25), we find only four emission-line AGNs, three of which are also X-ray bright. Furthermore, most of the X-ray AGNs in our groups are optically dull (i.e., lack strong emission-lines), similar to those found in low redshift X-ray groups and clusters of galaxies. This contrasts with the AGN population found in low redshift optically selected groups which are dominated by emission-line AGNs. The differences between the optically and X-ray-selected AGNs populations in groups are consistent with a scenario where most AGNs in the densest environments are currently in a low accretion state.

  12. The Active Galactic Nucleus Population in X-Ray-selected Galaxy Groups at 0.5 < z < 1.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Semyeong; Mulchaey, John S.; Woo, Jong-Hak; Finoguenov, Alexis; Tanaka, Masayuki; Cooper, Michael C.; Ziparo, Felicia; Bauer, Franz E.; Matsuoka, Kenta

    2014-07-01

    We use Chandra data to study the incidence and properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in 16 intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 1.1) X-ray-selected galaxy groups in the Chandra Deep Field-South. We measure an AGN fraction of f(LX,H \\gt 1042;MR < {-20}) = 8.0-2.3+3.0% at \\bar{z} ˜ 0.74, approximately a factor of two higher than the AGN fraction found for rich clusters at comparable redshift. This extends the trend found at low redshift for groups to have higher AGN fractions than clusters. Our estimate of the AGN fraction is also more than a factor of three higher than that of low redshift X-ray-selected groups. Using optical spectra from various surveys, we also constrain the properties of emission-line selected AGNs in these groups. In contrast to the large population of X-ray AGNs (N(L X, H > 1041 erg s-1) = 25), we find only four emission-line AGNs, three of which are also X-ray bright. Furthermore, most of the X-ray AGNs in our groups are optically dull (i.e., lack strong emission-lines), similar to those found in low redshift X-ray groups and clusters of galaxies. This contrasts with the AGN population found in low redshift optically selected groups which are dominated by emission-line AGNs. The differences between the optically and X-ray-selected AGNs populations in groups are consistent with a scenario where most AGNs in the densest environments are currently in a low accretion state.

  13. Imaging X-Ray, Optical, and Infrared Observations of the Transient Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar XTE J1810-197

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Halpern, J. P.; Buxton, M.; Bailyn, C.

    2004-04-01

    We report X-ray imaging, timing, and spectral studies of XTE J1810-197, a 5.54 s pulsar discovered by Ibrahim and coworkers in recent Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations. In a set of short exposures with the High Resolution Camera on board the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, we detect a strongly modulated signal (55%+/-4% pulsed fraction) with the expected period located at (J2000) 18h09m51s08, -19deg43'51.7", with a uncertainty radius of 0.6" (90% confidence level). Spectra obtained with XMM-Newton are well fitted by a two-component model that typically describes anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs), an absorbed blackbody plus power law with parameters kT=0.67+/-0.01 keV, Γ=3.7+/-0.2, NH=(1.05+/-0.05)×1022 cm-2, and FX(0.5-10keV)=3.98×10-11 ergs cm-2 s-1. Alternatively, a two-temperature blackbody fit is just as acceptable. The location of CXOU J180951.0-194351 is consistent with a point source seen in archival Einstein, ROSAT, and ASCA images, when its flux was nearly 2 orders of magnitude fainter, and from which no pulsations are found. The spectrum changed dramatically between the ``quiescent'' and ``active'' states; the former can be modeled as a softer blackbody. Using XMM-Newton timing data, we place an upper limit of 0.03 lt-s on any orbital motion in the period range 10 minutes-8 hr. Optical and infrared images obtained on the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) show no object in the Chandra error circle to limits V=22.5, I=21.3, J=18.9, and K=17.5. Together, these results argue that CXOU J180951.0-194351 is an isolated neutron star, one most similar to the transient AXP AX J1844.8-0256. Continuing study of XTE J1810-197 in various states of luminosity is important for understanding and possibly unifying a growing class of isolated, young neutron stars that are not powered by rotation.

  14. Next Generation X-Ray Optics: High-Resolution, Light-Weight, and Low-Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, William W.

    2012-01-01

    mirror segments is the continued development and perfection of alignment and integration techniques, for incorporating individual mirror segments into a precision mirror assembly. Recently, we have been developing a technique called edge-bonding, which has achieved an accuracy to enable 10-arcsecond x-ray telescopes. Currently, we are investigating and improving the long-term alignment stability of so-bonded mirrors. Next, we shall refine this process to enable 5-arsecond x-ray telescopes. This technology development program includes all elements to demonstrate progress toward TRL-6: metrology; x-ray performance tests; coupled structural, thermal, and optical performance analysis, and environmental testing.

  15. Next Generation X-Ray Optics: High-Resolution, Light-Weight, and Low-Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, William W.

    2011-01-01

    segments is the continued development and perfection of alignment and integration techniques, for incorporating individual mirror segments into a precision mirror assembly. Recently, we have been developing a technique called edge-bonding, which has achieved an accuracy to enable 10- arcsecond x-ray telescopes. Currently, we are investigating and improving the long-term alignment stability of so-bonded mirrors. Next, we shall refine this process to enable 5-arsecond x-ray telescopes. This technology development program includes all elements to demonstrate progress toward TRL-6: metrology; x-ray performance tests; coupled structural, thermal, and optical performance analysis, and environmental testing.

  16. Simultaneous X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and radio observations of the flare star Proxima Centauri

    SciTech Connect

    Haisch, B.M.; Linsky, J.L.; Slee, O.B.; Siegman, B.C.; Nikoloff, I.; Candy, M.; Harwood, D.; Verveer, A.; Quinn, P.J.; Wilson, I.; Page, A.A.; Higson, P.; Seward, F.D.

    1981-05-01

    We report on a coordinated program involving X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and radio observations of the dM5e flare star Proxima Centauri. We detected one major X-ray flare event with L/sub x/(0.2--4.0 keV)roughly-equal6.0 x 10/sup 27/ ergs s/sup -1/, T = 1.7 x 10/sup 7/ K, and EM = 7.5 x 10/sup 50/ cm/sup -3/ during the rise phase and L/sub x/roughly-equal7.4 x 10/sup 27/ ergs s/sup -1/, T = 1.2 x 10/sup 7/ K, and EM = 12.0 x 10/sup 50/ cm/sup -3/ during the decay phase. This is the first detection of a time-resolved stellar X-ray flare that shows changes in its spectral flux distribution. We detected no ultraviolet, optical or radio emission corresponding to this flare, but we did detect a total of five optical and 12 possible radio flares, including one event with simultaneous radio and optical emission. We interpret the absence of optical and ultraviolet emission at the time of the X-ray flare in terms of an arch model in which the flare cools predominently by X-ray radiation. The observed 20 min expotential cooling time is consistent with an electron density of 1.0 x 10/sup 11/ cm/sup -3/ during the decay phase and a flare of total arch length of ..pi.. x 10/sup 10/ cm, comparable to the size of the star itself. We conclude that we have observed an X-ray flare more like a typical strong solar flare than heretofore seen on a flare star.

  17. A Coordinated X-Ray and Optical Campaign of the Nearest Massive Eclipsing Binary, Delta Orionis Aa. I. Overview of the X-Ray Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. F.; Nicholas, J. S.; Pablo, H.; Shenar, T.; Pollock, A. M. T.; Waldron, W. L.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Richardson, N. D.; Russell, C. M. P.; Hamaguchi, K.; Leutenegger, M.; Gull, T. R.; Iping, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of four deep phase-constrained Chandra HETGS X-ray observations of Delta Ori A. Delta Ori A is actually a triple system that includes the nearest massive eclipsing spectroscopic binary, Delta Ori Aa, the only such object that can be observed with little phase-smearing with the Chandra gratings. Since the fainter star, Delta Ori Aa2, has a much lower X-ray luminosity than the brighter primary (Delta Ori Aa1), Delta Ori Aa provides a unique system with which to test the spatial distribution of the X-ray emitting gas around Delta Ori Aa1 via occultation by the photosphere of, and wind cavity around, the X-ray dark secondary. Here we discuss the X-ray spectrum and X-ray line profiles for the combined observation, having an exposure time of nearly 500 ks and covering nearly the entire binary orbit. The companion papers discuss the X-ray variability seen in the Chandra spectra, present new space-based photometry and ground-based radial velocities obtained simultaneously with the X-ray data to better constrain the system parameters, and model the effects of X-rays on the optical and UV spectra. We find that the X-ray emission is dominated by embedded wind shock emission from star Aa1, with little contribution from the tertiary star Ab or the shocked gas produced by the collision of the wind of Aa1 against the surface of Aa2. We find a similar temperature distribution to previous X-ray spectrum analyses. We also show that the line half-widths are about 0.3-0.5 times the terminal velocity of the wind of star Aa1. We find a strong anti-correlation between line widths and the line excitation energy, which suggests that longer-wavelength, lower-temperature lines form farther out in the wind. Our analysis also indicates that the ratio of the intensities of the strong and weak lines of Fe XVII and Ne X are inconsistent with model predictions, which may be an effect of resonance scattering.

  18. A Coordinated X-Ray and Optical Campaign of the Nearest Massive Eclipsing Binary, δ Orionis Aa. I. Overview of the X-Ray Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcoran, M. F.; Nichols, J. S.; Pablo, H.; Shenar, T.; Pollock, A. M. T.; Waldron, W. L.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Richardson, N. D.; Russell, C. M. P.; Hamaguchi, K.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Oskinova, L.; Hamann, W.-R.; Nazé, Y.; Ignace, R.; Evans, N. R.; Lomax, J. R.; Hoffman, J. L.; Gayley, K.; Owocki, S. P.; Leutenegger, M.; Gull, T. R.; Hole, K. T.; Lauer, J.; Iping, R. C.

    2015-08-01

    We present an overview of four deep phase-constrained Chandra HETGS X-ray observations of δ Ori A. Delta Ori A is actually a triple system that includes the nearest massive eclipsing spectroscopic binary, δ Ori Aa, the only such object that can be observed with little phase-smearing with the Chandra gratings. Since the fainter star, δ Ori Aa2, has a much lower X-ray luminosity than the brighter primary (δ Ori Aa1), δ Ori Aa provides a unique system with which to test the spatial distribution of the X-ray emitting gas around δ Ori Aa1 via occultation by the photosphere of, and wind cavity around, the X-ray dark secondary. Here we discuss the X-ray spectrum and X-ray line profiles for the combined observation, having an exposure time of nearly 500 ks and covering nearly the entire binary orbit. The companion papers discuss the X-ray variability seen in the Chandra spectra, present new space-based photometry and ground-based radial velocities obtained simultaneously with the X-ray data to better constrain the system parameters, and model the effects of X-rays on the optical and UV spectra. We find that the X-ray emission is dominated by embedded wind shock emission from star Aa1, with little contribution from the tertiary star Ab or the shocked gas produced by the collision of the wind of Aa1 against the surface of Aa2. We find a similar temperature distribution to previous X-ray spectrum analyses. We also show that the line half-widths are about 0.3-0.5 times the terminal velocity of the wind of star Aa1. We find a strong anti-correlation between line widths and the line excitation energy, which suggests that longer-wavelength, lower-temperature lines form farther out in the wind. Our analysis also indicates that the ratio of the intensities of the strong and weak lines of Fe xvii and Ne x are inconsistent with model predictions, which may be an effect of resonance scattering.

  19. Optical-X-ray Observations of BL Lacertae Object AO 0235+164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Emily S.; Webb, James R.; Balonek, Thomas J.; McGrath, Elizabeth; Shrader, Chris R.

    1998-11-01

    The BL Lacertea object AO 0235+164 dramatically increased in brightness on October 20, 1997. This outburst was observed with the 1 meter SARA (Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy) telescope located at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) located southwest of Tucson, Arizona. As a result of our observations, AO 0235+164 was also observed during the outbust by the Rossi X-ray Timing Experiment (RXTE) and Foggy Bottom Observaotry, Colgate Univserity, New York as a part of a Target of Opportunity (TOO) program. We present here the historical lightcurve of AO 0235+164, Optical observations during the ourtburst from the SARA and Foggy Bottom Observatories and X-ray observations from RXTE. Also, we present multifrequency data during this period and compare the variability of the Optical and X-ray bands.

  20. Optical Metrology for the Segmented Optics on the Constellation-X Spectroscopy X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Content, David; Colella, David; Fleetwood, Charles; Hadjimichael, Theo; Lehan, John; McMann, Joseph; Reid, Paul; Saha, Timo; Wright, Geraldine; Zhang, William

    2004-01-01

    We present the metrology requirements and metrology implementation necessary to prove out the reflector technology for the Constellation X(C-X) spectroscopy X-ray telescope (SXT). This segmented, 1.6m diameter highly nested Wolter-1 telescope presents many metrology and alignment challenges. In particular, these mirrors have a stringent imaging error budget as compared to their intrinsic stiffness; This is required for Constellation-X to have sufficient effective area with the weight requirement. This has implications for the metrology that can be used. A variety of contract and noncontact optical profiling and interferometric methods are combined to test the formed glass substrates before replication and the replicated reflector segments.The reflectors are tested both stand-alone and in-situ in an alignment tower.Some of these methods have not been used on prior X-ray telescopes and some are feasible only because of the segmented approach used on the SXT. Methods discussed include high precision coordinate measurement machines using very low force or optical probe axial interferometric profiling azimuthal circularity profiling and use of advanced null optics such as conical computer generated hologram (CGHs).

  1. Variability of Optical Counterparts to X-ray Selected Sources in the Galactic Bulge Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Christopher; Hynes, Robert I.; Jonker, Peter; Torres, Manuel; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Britt, Christopher; Steeghs, Danny; Galactic Bulge Survey Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) is a wide-field, multi-wavelength survey of new X-ray sources in the Galactic Bulge detected with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The goals of the GBS are to test binary population models by uncovering quiescent Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries (LMXB), and to identify suitable systems for follow-up mass determination using multi-wavelength observations. This follow-up is essential to better determine black hole and neutron star mass distributions. We present preliminary results from the southernmost portion of the GBS positioned 1.5-2.0 degrees below the Galactic Center which contains 424 unique X-ray sources. The optical photometry presented here were acquired using the DECam imager and the previous Mosaic-II imager on the 4m Blanco telescope at Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). We combine photometry with optical spectroscopy from several different telescopes to help characterize the detected X-ray sources. To accomplish this goal, we analyze the light curve morphology and the spectroscopic features of the optical counterparts to classify these binary systems. I will describe the technique for determining the correct optical counterpart within the error circle using image subtraction and report on the statistics of the sample. I will then summarize the candidate LMXBs we have identified so far and highlight other interesting sources. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-0908789 and by NASA through Chandra Award Number AR3-14002X issued by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the National Aeronautics Space Administration under contract NAS8-03060. We also acknowledge support from a Graduate Student Research Award administered by the Louisiana Space Grant Consortium (LaSPACE).

  2. X-ray Pulse Length Characterization using the Surface Magneto Optic Kerr Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Krejcik, P.; /SLAC

    2006-10-04

    It will be challenging to measure the temporal profile of the hard X-ray SASE beam independently from the electron beam in the LCLS and other 4th generation light sources. A fast interaction mechanism is needed that can be probed by an ultrafast laser pulse in a pump-probe experiment. It is proposed to exploit the rotation in polarization of light reflected from a thin magnetized film, known as the surface magneto optic Kerr effect (SMOKE), to witness the absorption of the x-ray pulse in the thin film. The change in spin orbit coupling induced by the x-ray pulse occurs on the subfemtosecond time scale and changes the polarization of the probe beam. The limitation to the technique lies with the bandwidth of the probe laser pulse and how short the optical pulse can be made. The SMOKE mechanism will be described and the choices of materials for use with 1.5 {angstrom} x-rays. A schematic description of the pump-probe geometry for x-ray diagnosis is also described.

  3. An optical and X-ray survey of s-type Markarian galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutter, D. J.; Mufson, S. L.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a study of 23 compact, lineless Markarian galaxies using broadband optical photometry and X-ray satellite observations are reported. The photometry shows that the sample can be broken into four groups. In one group (Mrk 180, 421, and 501) are composite objects in which a BL Lacertae object is embedded in an elliptical galaxy. For this group, the results of multiepoch X-ray observations using the HEAO-1 and -2 satellites are presented. In addition, photometry is used to decompose the optical emission into nonthermal and galactic components. In the second group are objects showing a small ultraviolet excess relative to normal galaxies. The X-ray survey indicates that the X-ray luminosity of objects in group 2 is much lower than those in group 1. This suggests that there is an intrinsic difference between objects in groups 1 and 2. The third and fourth groups are objects whose colors are indistinguishable from those of normal field galaxies and those of galactic stars, respectively. No X-ray emission was detected from objects in either of these groups.

  4. X-ray/microwave relation of different types of active stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guedel, Manuel; Benz, Arnold O.

    1993-01-01

    Coronal active stars of seven classes between spectral types F and M, single and double, are compared in their quiescent radio and X-ray luminosities L(R) and L(X). We find, largely independent of stellar class, log L(X) is less than about log L(R) + 15.5. This general relation points to an intimate connection between the nonthermal, energetic electrons causing the radio emission and the bulk plasma of the corona responsible for thermal X-rays. The relation, observed over six orders of magnitude, suggests that the heating mechanism necessarily involves particle acceleration. We derive requirements for simple models based on optically thin gyrosynchrotron emission of mildly relativistic electrons and thermal X-rays from the bulk plasma. We discuss the possibility that a portion of the accelerated particles heats the ambient plasma by collisions. More likely, plasma heating and particle acceleration may occur in parallel and in the same process, but at a fixed ratio.

  5. Spectral evolution of active galactic nuclei: A unified description of the X-ray and gamma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiter, D.; Boldt, E.

    1982-01-01

    A model for spectral evolution is presented whereby active galactic nuclei (AGN) of the type observed individually emerge from an earlier stage at z approx = 4 in which they are the thermal X-ray sources responsible for most of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB). The conjecture is pursued that these precursor objects are initially supermassive Schwarzschild black holes with accretion disks radiating near the Eddington luminosity limit. It is noted that after approx. 10 to the 8th power years these central black holes are spun-up to a canonical Kerr equilibrium state (A/M = 0.998; Thorne 1974) and shown how they then can lead to spectral evolution involving non-thermal emission extending to gamma rays, at the expense of reduced thermal disk radiation. That major portion of the CXB remaining after the contribution of usual AGN are considered, while a superposition of AGN sources at z 1 can account for the gamma ray background. Extensive X-ray measurements carried out with the HEAO 1 and 2 missions as well as gamma ray and optical data are shown to compare favorably with principal features of this model.

  6. Development of differential deposition technique for figure corrections in grazing incidence x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Ramsey, Brian D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2009-08-01

    A differential deposition technique is being developed to correct the low- and mid-spatial-frequency deviations in the axial figure profile of Wolter-type grazing-incidence X-ray optics. These deviations arise due to various factors in the fabrication process and they degrade the performance of optics by limiting the achievable angular resolution. In the differential deposition technique, material is selectively deposited in varying thickness along the length of the optic to minimize these deviations, thereby improving the overall figure. The process is being tested on focusing X-ray optics being developed at MSFC for small-animal radionuclide imaging. The required spatial resolution for these optics is 100 μm (30 arc secs), which can be achieved with the electroformnickel- replication fabrication technique regularly employed at MSFC. However, by improving the figure quality of the optics through differential deposition, we aim to significantly improve the resolution beyond this value.

  7. Radio observations of a hard X-ray selected sample of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unger, S. W.; Lawrence, A.; Wilson, A. S.; Elvis, M.; Wright, A. E.

    1987-01-01

    Radio observations of a hard X-ray selected sample of active galaxies obtained with the VLA and Parkes radio telescopes are discussed, and the ratio of the radio to X-ray flux density is used to determine the degree of radio-loudness of the galaxies. A continuous distribution of the degree of radio loudness is found amongst the sample galaxies, and no evidence for distinct radio-quiet and radio-loud populations is noted. The X-ray and radio luminosity is shown to be nonlinearly correlated, with the radio-loud objects all having high X-ray luminosity.

  8. Combined X-Ray and mm-Wave Observations of Radio Quiet Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behar, E.

    2016-06-01

    A connection between the X-ray and radio sources in radio quiet active galaxies (AGNs) will be demonstrated. High radio frequency, i.e., mm-wave observations are promising probes of the X-ray emitting inner regions of the accretion disks in radio quiet AGNs. An argument for simultaneous observations in X-rays and in mm waves will be made, in order to promote these as one of the future science goals of X-ray and AGN astronomy in the next decade. Preliminary results from an exploratory campaign with several space and ground based telescopes will be presented.

  9. a Modified Sine-Condition for Single Reflector X-Ray Optics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva Anna Marjatta

    1982-03-01

    Any reduction in the amount of coma in an optical system implies that Abbe's sine-condition is being satisfied to some extent. Abbe's sine-condition as stated and sometimes derived in standard optics textbooks refers to refraction optics. The usual admonition accompanying its statement is to keep the object and image size small. It is not clear with what the object and image sizes should be compared. The difficulty of interpreting and applying Abbe's sine-condition is further coufounded when x-ray reflection optical-systems are under consideration. What if any changes in its form or interpretation occur in the case of reflection optics and in particular grazing incidence optics at x-ray wavelengths? Previous applications of the usual form of Abbe's sine -condition would rule out the possibility of using a single x-ray reflector for good imaging, free of coma. However, the high quality of some experimental x-ray images using single reflecting surfaces raised some questions about the interpretation and limits of Abbe's sine-condition. These questions are more satisfactorily answered by the development herein of a new and highly quantitative sine-condition applicable to x-ray reflection from a single surface. Ray tracing results for a number of different surface shapes, such as circular, elliptical and cubic are compared as to attainable resolution and freedom from coma. One use of the new sine-condition is to generate a new reflecting surface and compare its performance with the more common surfaces. Another use is to specify the optical parameters such as magnification, focal length and field of view allowable for an image of specified quality in terms of wave-abberation theory.

  10. Refractive optical elements and optical system for high energy x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, M.; Altapova, V.; Baumbach, T.; Kluge, M.; Last, A.; Marschall, F.; Mohr, J.; Nazmov, V.; Vogt, H.

    2012-05-17

    In material science, X-ray radiation with photon energies above 25 keV is used because of its penetration into high density materials. Research of the inner structure of novel materials, such as electrodes in high power batteries for engines, require X-ray microscopes operating in the hard X-ray energy range. A flexible X-ray microscope for hard X-rays with photon energies higher than 25 keV will be realized at the synchrotron source ANKA in Karlsruhe, Germany. The device will use refractive X-ray lenses as condenser as well as objective lenses.

  11. Outflowing X-ray corona in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junxian; Liu, Teng; Yang, Huan; Zhu, Feifan; Zhou, Youyuan

    2015-08-01

    Hard X-ray emission in radio-quiet AGNs is believed to be produced via inverse Compton scattering by hot and compact corona near the super massive black hole. However the origin and physical properties of the coronae, including geometry, kinematics and dynamics, yet remain poorly known. Taking [OIV] 25.89um emission line as an isotropic indicator of AGN's intrinsic luminosity, we compare the intrinsic corona X-ray emission between Seyfert 1 and Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies, which are viewed at different inclinations according to the unification scheme. We find that Seyfert 1 galaxies are brighter in "absorption-corrected" 2-10 keV emission by a factor of ~2.8, comparing with Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies. The Seyfert 1 and Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies follow a statistically identical correlation between the absorption-corrected 2-10 keV luminosity and the SWIFT BAT 14-195 keV luminosity, indicating that our absorption correction to the 2-10 keV flux is sufficient. The difference between the two populations thus can not be attributed to X-ray absorption, and instead implies an intrinsic anisotropy in the corona X-ray emission. This striking anisotropy of X-ray emission can be explained by a bipolar outflowing corona with a bulk velocity of ~0.3-0.5c. This would provide a natural link between the so-called coronae and weak jets in these systems. We also show that how this study would affect our understanding to the nature of mid-infrared emission in AGNs and the properties of dusty torus. Furthermore, such anisotropy implies that, contrary to previous understanding based on the assumption of isotropic corona emission, hard X-ray AGN surveys are biased against type 2 AGNs even after absorption-correction, and careful correction for this effect is required to measure the obscured fraction from X-ray surveys. Other interesting consequences of this discovery will also be discussed.

  12. X-ray tomography for structural analysis of microstructured and multimaterial optical fibers and preforms.

    PubMed

    Sandoghchi, S R; Jasion, G T; Wheeler, N V; Jain, S; Lian, Z; Wooler, J P; Boardman, R P; Baddela, N; Chen, Y; Hayes, J; Fokoua, E Numkam; Bradley, T; Gray, D R; Mousavi, S M; Petrovich, M; Poletti, F; Richardson, D J

    2014-10-20

    Specialty optical fibers, in particular microstructured and multi-material optical fibers, have complex geometry in terms of structure and/or material composition. Their fabrication, although rapidly developing, is still at a very early stage of development compared with conventional optical fibers. Structural characterization of these fibers during every step of their multi-stage fabrication process is paramount to optimize the fiber-drawing process. The complexity of these fibers restricts the use of conventional refractometry and microscopy techniques to determine their structural and material composition. Here we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first nondestructive structural and material investigation of specialty optical fibers using X-ray computed tomography (CT) methods, not achievable using other techniques. Recent advances in X-ray CT techniques allow the examination of optical fibers and their preforms with sub-micron resolution while preserving the specimen for onward processing and use. In this work, we study some of the most challenging specialty optical fibers and their preforms. We analyze a hollow core photonic band gap fiber and its preforms, and bond quality at the joint between two fusion-spliced hollow core fibers. Additionally, we studied a multi-element optical fiber and a metal incorporated dual suspended-core optical fiber. The application of X-ray CT can be extended to almost all optical fiber types, preforms and devices. PMID:25401650

  13. The X-Ray Optics for the High Angular Resolution Imager (HARI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation shows the basic parameters of the x-ray optics, the housing,a graph of the effective area vs energy, another graph showing the angular off-set vs HEW, and a series of graphs showing the detector offsets and tilts,

  14. Combined Optical and X-ray Tomosynthesis Breast Imaging1

    PubMed Central

    Selb, Juliette; Carp, Stefan A.; Boverman, Gregory; Miller, Eric L.; Brooks, Dana H.; Moore, Richard H.; Kopans, Daniel B.; Boas, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the optical and physiologic properties of normal and lesion-bearing breasts by using a combined optical and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) imaging system. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval and patient informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study. Combined optical and tomosynthesis imaging analysis was performed in 189 breasts from 125 subjects (mean age, 56 years ± 13 [standard deviation]), including 138 breasts with negative findings and 51 breasts with lesions. Three-dimensional (3D) maps of total hemoglobin concentration (HbT), oxygen saturation (So2), and tissue reduced scattering coefficients were interpreted by using the coregistered DBT images. Paired and unpaired t tests were performed between various tissue types to identify significant differences. Results: The estimated average bulk HbT from 138 normal breasts was 19.2 μmol/L. The corresponding mean So2 was 0.73, within the range of values in the literature. A linear correlation (R = 0.57, P < .0001) was found between HbT and the fibroglandular volume fraction derived from the 3D DBT scans. Optical reconstructions of normal breasts revealed structures corresponding to chest-wall muscle, fibroglandular, and adipose tissues in the HbT, So2, and scattering images. In 26 malignant tumors of 0.6–2.5 cm in size, HbT was significantly greater than that in the fibroglandular tissue of the same breast (P = .0062). Solid benign lesions (n = 17) and cysts (n = 8) had significantly lower HbT contrast than did the malignant lesions (P = .025 and P = .0033, respectively). Conclusion: The optical and DBT images were structurally consistent. The malignant tumors and benign lesions demonstrated different HbT and scattering contrasts, which can potentially be exploited to reduce the false-positive rate of conventional mammography and unnecessary biopsies. © RSNA, 2010 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol

  15. Coordinated X-Ray, Ultraviolet, Optical, and Radio Observations of the PSR J1023+0038 System in a Low-mass X-Ray Binary State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Slavko; Archibald, Anne M.; Bassa, Cees; Deller, Adam T.; Halpern, Jules P.; Heald, George; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Janssen, Gemma H.; Lyne, Andrew G.; Moldón, Javier; Paragi, Zsolt; Patruno, Alessandro; Perera, Benetge B. P.; Stappers, Ben W.; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; D'Angelo, Caroline R.; Wijnands, Rudy

    2015-06-01

    The PSR J1023+0038 binary system hosts a neutron star and a low-mass, main-sequence-like star. It switches on year timescales between states as an eclipsing radio millisecond pulsar and a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB). We present a multi-wavelength observational campaign of PSR J1023+0038 in its most recent LMXB state. Two long XMM-Newton observations reveal that the system spends ˜70% of the time in a ≈3 × 1033 erg s-1 X-ray luminosity mode, which, as shown in Archibald et al., exhibits coherent X-ray pulsations. This emission is interspersed with frequent lower flux mode intervals with ≈ 5× {10}32 erg s-1 and sporadic flares reaching up to ≈1034 erg s-1, with neither mode showing significant X-ray pulsations. The switches between the three flux modes occur on timescales of order 10 s. In the UV and optical, we observe occasional intense flares coincident with those observed in X-rays. Our radio timing observations reveal no pulsations at the pulsar period during any of the three X-ray modes, presumably due to complete quenching of the radio emission mechanism by the accretion flow. Radio imaging detects highly variable, flat-spectrum continuum radiation from PSR J1023+0038, consistent with an origin in a weak jet-like outflow. Our concurrent X-ray and radio continuum data sets do not exhibit any correlated behavior. The observational evidence we present bears qualitative resemblance to the behavior predicted by some existing “propeller” and “trapped” disk accretion models although none can account for key aspects of the rich phenomenology of this system.

  16. The whispering gallery as an optical component in the X-ray region

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, M.R.

    1995-08-01

    The whispering gallery phenomenon in acoustics has been known and studied for more than a century, and the same effect has been observed to take place with waves other than sound waves. In this paper we review the theoretical basis and attractive features of the whispering gallery as a soft x-ray optical component and indicate some of its potential applications. We then describe what may be its most unique capability which, in favorable cases, is to provide a way. to manipulate the phase difference between the s and p polarization components and thus to generate circularly or elliptically polarized soft x-rays.

  17. Development of a Direct Fabrication Technique for Full-Shell X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M.; Kolodziejczak, J. K.; Griffith, C.; Roche, J.; Smith, W. S.; Kester, T.; Atkins, C.; Arnold, W.; Ramsey, B.

    2016-01-01

    Future astrophysical missions will require fabrication technology capable of producing high angular resolution x-ray optics. A full-shell direct fabrication approach using modern robotic polishing machines has the potential for producing high resolution, light-weight and affordable x-ray mirrors that can be nested to produce large collecting area. This approach to mirror fabrication, based on the use of the metal substrates coated with nickel phosphorous alloy, is being pursued at MSFC. The design of the polishing fixtures for the direct fabrication, the surface figure metrology techniques used and the results of the polishing experiments are presented.

  18. X-ray and Optical Properties of an Unbiased Sample of Local AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Lisa M.; Mushotzky, R.; Tueller, J.; Lewis, K.; Reynolds, C.

    2007-12-01

    The SWIFT Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), while not focused on a Gamma-ray burst, conducts an all-sky survey in the 14 - 195 keV band. After the first 9 months, the BAT has detected a sample of 153 local (z ˜ 0.03) AGN at a flux limit of a few times 10-11 erg/s/cm-2 (Tueller et al. 2007). Since the AGN were detected at very high X-ray energies, they are an unbiased sample towards column densities below 1025 cm-2. We present the X-ray and optical properties of a sample of the BAT AGN.

  19. The faint X-ray sources in and out of omega Centauri: X-ray observations and optical identifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cool, Adrienne M.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Callanan, Paul J.; Hertz, Paul

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of an observation of the globular cluster omega Cen (NGC 5139) with the Einstein high-resolution imager (HRI). Of the five low-luminosity X-ray sources toward omega Cen which were first identified with the Einstein imaging proportional counter (IPC) (Hertz and Grindlay 1983a, b), two are detected in the Einstein HRI observation: IPC sources A and D. These detections provide source positions accurate to 3 sec-4 sec; the positions are confirmed in a ROSAT HRI observation reported here. Using CCD photometry and spectroscopy, we have identified both sources as foreground dwarf M stars with emission lines (dMe). The chance projection of two Mde stars within approximately 13 min of the center of omega Cen is not extraordinary, given the space density of these stellar coronal X-ray sources. We discuss the possible nature of the three as yet unidentified IPC sources toward omega Cen, and consider the constraints that the Einstein observations place on the total population of X-ray sources in this cluster. The integrated luminosity from faint X-ray sources in omega Cen appears to be low relative to both the old open cluster M67 and the post-core-collapse globular, NGC 6397.

  20. Improving X-ray Optics Through Differential Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Atkins, Carolyn; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Gaskin, Jessica A.; O'Dell, Steve; Weisskopf, Martin; Zhang, William; Romaine, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    The differential deposition technique can in theory correct shell figures to approximate arcsecond value. We have received APRA funding and are building two custom system to demonstrate the technique on full shell and segmented optics. We hope to be able to demonstrate < 5 arcsec performance in < 2 years. To go beyond this, (arcsecond level) is very difficult to judge as we have not yet discovered the problems. May necessitate in-situ metrology, stress reduction investigations, correcting for gravity effects, correcting for temperature effects. Some of this will become obvious in early parts of the investigation.

  1. Spatially confined low-power optically pumped ultrafast synchrotron x-ray nanodiffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Joonkyu; Zhang, Qingteng; Chen, Pice; Cosgriff, Margaret P.; Tilka, Jack A.; Evans, Paul G.; Adamo, Carolina; Schlom, Darrell G.; Wen, Haidan; Zhu, Yi

    2015-08-15

    The combination of ultrafast optical excitation and time-resolved synchrotron x-ray nanodiffraction provides unique insight into the photoinduced dynamics of materials, with the spatial resolution required to probe individual nanostructures or small volumes within heterogeneous materials. Optically excited x-ray nanobeam experiments are challenging because the high total optical power required for experimentally relevant optical fluences leads to mechanical instability due to heating. For a given fluence, tightly focusing the optical excitation reduces the average optical power by more than three orders of magnitude and thus ensures sufficient thermal stability for x-ray nanobeam studies. Delivering optical pulses via a scannable fiber-coupled optical objective provides a well-defined excitation geometry during rotation and translation of the sample and allows the selective excitation of isolated areas within the sample. Experimental studies of the photoinduced lattice dynamics of a 35 nm BiFeO{sub 3} thin film on a SrTiO{sub 3} substrate demonstrate the potential to excite and probe nanoscale volumes.

  2. Optical tomography as adjunct to x-ray mammography: methods and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khayat, Mario; Ichalalene, Zahia; Mincu, Niculae; Leblond, Fredéric; Guilman, Olga; Djeziri, Salim

    2007-02-01

    Recent years have seen significant efforts deployed to apply optical imaging techniques in clinical indications. Optical mammography as an adjunct to X-ray mammography is one such application. 3D optical mammography relies on the sensitivity of near-infrared light to endogenous breast chromophores in order to generate in vivo functional views of the breast. This work presents prospective tissue characterization results from a multi-site clinical study targeting optical tomography as an adjunct to conventional mammography. A 2 nd -generation multi-wavelength time-domain acquisition system was used to scan a wide population of women presenting normal or suspicious X-ray mammograms. Application specific algorithms based on a diffusive model of light transport were used to quantify the breast's optical properties and derive 3D images of physiological indices. Using histopathological findings as a gold standard, results confirm that optically derived parameters provide statistically significant discrimination between malignant and benign tissue in wide population of subjects. The methodology developed for case reviews, lesion delineation and characterization allows for better translation of the optical data to the more traditional x-ray paradigm while maintaining efficacy. They also point to the need for guidelines that facilitate correlation of optical data if those results are to be confirmed in a clinical setting.

  3. Spatially confined low-power optically pumped ultrafast synchrotron x-ray nanodiffraction.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonkyu; Zhang, Qingteng; Chen, Pice; Cosgriff, Margaret P; Tilka, Jack A; Adamo, Carolina; Schlom, Darrell G; Wen, Haidan; Zhu, Yi; Evans, Paul G

    2015-08-01

    The combination of ultrafast optical excitation and time-resolved synchrotron x-ray nanodiffraction provides unique insight into the photoinduced dynamics of materials, with the spatial resolution required to probe individual nanostructures or small volumes within heterogeneous materials. Optically excited x-ray nanobeam experiments are challenging because the high total optical power required for experimentally relevant optical fluences leads to mechanical instability due to heating. For a given fluence, tightly focusing the optical excitation reduces the average optical power by more than three orders of magnitude and thus ensures sufficient thermal stability for x-ray nanobeam studies. Delivering optical pulses via a scannable fiber-coupled optical objective provides a well-defined excitation geometry during rotation and translation of the sample and allows the selective excitation of isolated areas within the sample. Experimental studies of the photoinduced lattice dynamics of a 35 nm BiFeO3 thin film on a SrTiO3 substrate demonstrate the potential to excite and probe nanoscale volumes. PMID:26329208

  4. Renewed Activity from the X-Ray Transient SAXJ 1810.8-2609 with Integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiocchi, M.; Natalucci, L.; Chenevez, J.; Bazzano, A.; Tarana, A.; Ubertini, P.; Brandt, S.; Beckmann, V.; Federici, M.; Galis, R.; Hudec, R.

    2009-03-01

    We report on the results of International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) observations of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary SAX J1810.8-2609 during its latest active phase in 2007 August. The current outburst is the first one since 1998 and the derived luminosity is 1.1-2.6 ×1036 erg s-1 in the 20-100 keV energy range. This low outburst luminosity and the long-term time-average accretion rate of ~5 × 10-12 M sun yr-1 suggest that SAX J1810.8-2609 is a faint soft X-ray transient. During the flux increase, spectra are consistent with a thermal Comptonization model with a temperature plasma of kT e~ 23-30 keV and an optical depth of τ~ 1.2-1.5, independent of the luminosity of the system. This is a typical low hard spectral state for which the X-ray emission is attributed to the upscattering of soft seed photons by a hot, optically thin electron plasma. During the decay, spectra have a different shape, the high energy tail being compatible with a single power law. This confirm similar behavior observed by BeppoSAX during the previous outburst, with the absence of visible cutoff in the hard X-ray spectrum. INTEGRAL/JEM-X instrument observed four X-ray bursts in Fall 2007. The first one has the highest peak flux (≈3.5 crab in 3-25 keV) giving an upper limit to the distance of the source of about 5.7 kpc, for a L Edd ≈ 3.8 × 1038 erg s-1. The observed recurrence time of ~ 1.2 days and the ratio of the total energy emitted in the persistent flux to that emitted in the bursts (α~ 73) allow us to conclude that the burst fuel was composed by mixed hydrogen and helium with X >= 0.4. INTEGRAL is an ESA project with Instruments and Science Data Center funded by ESA member states, especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain; Czech Republic and Poland; and with the participation of Russia and USA.

  5. Absolute Timing of the Crab Pulsar: X-ray, Radio, and Optical Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, P. S.; Wood, K. S.; Wolff, M. T.; Lovellette, M. N.; Sheikh, S.; Moon, D.-S.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Roberts, M.; Bloom, E. D.; Tournear, D.; Saz Parkinson, P.; Reilly, K.

    2002-12-01

    We report on multiwavelength observations of the Crab Pulsar and compare the pulse arrival time at radio, IR, optical, and X-ray wavelengths. Comparing absolute arrival times at multiple energies can provide clues to the magnetospheric structure and emission region geometry. Absolute time calibration of each observing system is of paramount importance for these observations and we describe how this is done for each system. We directly compare arrival time determinations for 2--10 keV X-ray observations made contemporaneously with the PCA on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and the USA Experiment on ARGOS. These two X-ray measurements employ very different means of measuring time and satellite position and thus have different systematic error budgets. The comparison with other wavelengths requires additional steps such as dispersion measure corrections and a precise definition of the ``peak'' of the light curve since the light curve shape varies with observing wavelength. We will describe each of these effects and quantify the magnitude of the systematic error that each may contribute. Basic research on X-ray Astronomy at NRL is funded by NRL/ONR.

  6. Preliminary investigation of changes in x-ray multilayer optics subjected to high radiation flux

    SciTech Connect

    Hockaday, M.P.; Blake, R.L.; Grosso, J.S.; Selph, M.M.; Klein, M.M.; Matuska, W. Jr.; Palmer, M.A.; Liefeld, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    A variety of metal multilayers was exposed to high x-ray flux using Sandia National Laboratories' PROTO II machine in the gas puff mode. Fluxes incident on the multilayers above 700 MW/cm/sup 2/ in total radiation, in nominal 20 ns pulses, were realized. The neon hydrogen- and helium-like resonance lines were used to probe the x-ray reflectivity properties of the multilayers as they underwent change of state during the heating pulse. A fluorescer-fiber optic-streak camera system was used to monitor the changes in x-ray reflectivity as a function of time and irradiance. Preliminary results are presented for a W/C multilayer. Work in progress to model the experiment is discussed. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  7. X-ray binaries and black hole candidates: a review of optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casares, Jorge

    This chapter summarizes the optical properties of X-ray binaries, with special emphasis on the class of low mass X-ray binaries and soft X-ray transients. The latter provide the most compelling evidence for the existence of black holes in the Universe, with nine well-established dynamical studies. We review the techniques employed to extract the component masses and discuss the importance of systematic effects. Despite the growing number of black hole cases, the uncertainties involved are still too large to draw statistical conclusions on the mass distribution of collapsed objects. We also present new observational techniques which may help to improve the mass determinations and set constraints on the theory of supernovae and black hole formation.

  8. Design and Analysis of Modules for Segmented X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClelland, Ryan S.; BIskach, Michael P.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Saha, Timo T; Zhang, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Future X-ray astronomy missions demand thin, light, and closely packed optics which lend themselves to segmentation of the annular mirrors and, in turn, a modular approach to the mirror design. The modular approach to X-ray Flight Mirror Assembly (FMA) design allows excellent scalability of the mirror technology to support a variety of mission sizes and science objectives. This paper describes FMA designs using slumped glass mirror segments for several X-ray astrophysics missions studied by NASA and explores the driving requirements and subsequent verification tests necessary to qualify a slumped glass mirror module for space-flight. A rigorous testing program is outlined allowing Technical Development Modules to reach technical readiness for mission implementation while reducing mission cost and schedule risk.

  9. Optimizing Monocapillary Optics for Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction, Fluorescence Imaging, and Spectroscopy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bilderback, Donald H.; Kazimirov, Alexander; Gillilan, Richard; Cornaby, Sterling; Woll, Arthur; Zha, Chang-Sheng; Huang Rong

    2007-01-19

    A number of synchrotron x-ray applications such as powder diffraction in diamond anvil cells, microbeam protein crystallography, x-ray fluorescence imaging, etc. can benefit from using hollow glass monocapillary optics to improve the flux per square micron on a sample. We currently draw glass tubing into the desired elliptical shape so that only one-bounce under total reflection conditions is needed to bring the x-ray beam to a focus at a 25 to 50 mm distance beyond the capillary tip. For modest focal spot sizes of 10 to 20 microns, we can increase the intensity per square micron by factors of 10 to 1000. We show some of the results obtained at CHESS and Hasylab with capillaries focusing 5 to 40 keV radiation, their properties, and how even better the experimental results could be if more ideal capillaries were fabricated in the future.

  10. Optimizing Monocapillary Optics for Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction, Fluorescence Imaging, and Spectroscopy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilderback, Donald H.; Kazimirov, Alexander; Gillilan, Richard; Cornaby, Sterling; Woll, Arthur; Zha, Chang-Sheng; Huang, Rong

    2007-01-01

    A number of synchrotron x-ray applications such as powder diffraction in diamond anvil cells, microbeam protein crystallography, x-ray fluorescence imaging, etc. can benefit from using hollow glass monocapillary optics to improve the flux per square micron on a sample. We currently draw glass tubing into the desired elliptical shape so that only one-bounce under total reflection conditions is needed to bring the x-ray beam to a focus at a 25 to 50 mm distance beyond the capillary tip. For modest focal spot sizes of 10 to 20 microns, we can increase the intensity per square micron by factors of 10 to 1000. We show some of the results obtained at CHESS and Hasylab with capillaries focusing 5 to 40 keV radiation, their properties, and how even better the experimental results could be if more ideal capillaries were fabricated in the future.

  11. Development of a computer-controlled polishing process for x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Gufran S.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Arnold, William; Ramsey, Brian

    2009-08-01

    Future X-ray observatory missions require grazing-incidence X-ray optics with angular resolution of < 5 arcsec half power diameter. For X-ray mirrors fabricated using replication processes, the achievable resolution depends ultimately on the quality of the polished replication mandrels. With an aim to fabricate better mirror shells, and also to reduce the cost/time of mandrel production, a computer-controlled machine is being developed for deterministic and localized polishing of mandrels. A key component in this is software that predicts the surface residual errors under a given set of operating parameters and lap configuration. Design considerations of the polishing lap are discussed and the effects of nonconformance of the lap and the mandrel are presented.

  12. Optical and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of α-Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Ram; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Vinay; Choudhary, R. J.; Phase, D. M.

    2016-05-01

    α-Al2O3 powder sample was synthesized at 550 °C via solution combustion synthesis (SCS) method using urea as an organic fuel. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Optical spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) without any further thermal treatment. XRD study reveals that the powder crystallized directly in the hexagons α-Al2O3 phase. A band gap of 5.7 eV was estimated using diffuse reflectance spectra. For surface investigation X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) was carried out. The XPS survey scan study of α-Al2O3 powder reveals that the sample is free from impurity. The core levels of Al-2s and O-1s are also reported.

  13. Rapid optical and X-ray timing observations of GX339-4: multicomponent optical variability in the low/hard state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, P.; Dhillon, V. S.; Durant, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Kubota, A.; Makishima, K.; Malzac, J.; Marsh, T. R.; Miller, J. M.; Shahbaz, T.; Spruit, H. C.; Casella, P.

    2010-10-01

    A rapid timing analysis of Very Large Telescope (VLT)/ULTRACAM (optical) and RXTE (X-ray) observations of the Galactic black hole binary GX339-4 in the low/hard, post-outburst state of 2007 June is presented. The optical light curves in the r',g' and u' filters show slow (~20s) quasi-periodic variability. Upon this is superposed fast flaring activity on times approaching the best time resolution probed (~50ms in r' and g') and with maximum strengths of more than twice the local mean. Power spectral analysis over ~0.004-10Hz is presented, and shows that although the average optical variability amplitude is lower than that in X-rays, the peak variability power emerges at a higher Fourier frequency in the optical. Energetically, we measure a large optical versus X-ray flux ratio, higher than that seen on previous occasions when the source was fully jet dominated. Such a large ratio cannot be easily explained with a disc alone. Studying the optical-X-ray cross-spectrum in Fourier space shows a markedly different behaviour above and below ~0.2Hz. The peak of the coherence function above this threshold is associated with a short optical time lag with respect to X-rays, also seen as the dominant feature in the time-domain cross-correlation at ~150ms. The rms energy spectrum of these fast variations is best described by distinct physical components over the optical and X-ray regimes, and also suggests a maximal irradiated disc fraction of 20 per cent around 5000Å. If the constant time delay is due to propagation of fluctuations to (or within) the jet, this is the clearest optical evidence to date of the location of this component. The low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation is seen in the optical but not in X-rays, and is associated with a low coherence. Evidence of reprocessing emerges at the lowest Fourier frequencies, with optical lags at ~10s and strong coherence in the blue u' filter. Consistent with this, simultaneous optical spectroscopy also shows the Bowen

  14. X-ray diffraction imaging of metal–oxide epitaxial tunnel junctions made by optical lithography: use of focused and unfocused X-ray beams

    PubMed Central

    Mocuta, Cristian; Barbier, Antoine; Stanescu, Stefan; Matzen, Sylvia; Moussy, Jean-Baptiste; Ziegler, Eric

    2013-01-01

    X-ray diffraction techniques are used in imaging mode in order to characterize micrometre-sized objects. The samples used as models are metal–oxide tunnel junctions made by optical lithography, with lateral sizes ranging from 150 µm down to 10 µm and various shapes: discs, squares and rectangles. Two approaches are described and compared, both using diffraction contrast: full-field imaging (topography) and raster imaging (scanning probe) using a micrometre-sized focused X-ray beam. It is shown that the full-field image gives access to macroscopic distortions (e.g. sample bending), while the local distortions, at the micrometre scale (e.g. tilts of the crystalline planes in the vicinity of the junction edges), can be accurately characterized only using focused X-ray beams. These local defects are dependent on the junction shape and larger by one order of magnitude than the macroscopic curvature of the sample. PMID:23412494

  15. The ROSAT Deep Survey. 2; Optical Identification, Photometry and Spectra of X-Ray Sources in the Lockman Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, M.; Hasinger, G.; Gunn, J.; Schneider, D.; Burg, R.; Giacconi, R.; Lehmann, I.; MacKenty, J.; Truemper, J.; Zamorani, G.

    1998-01-01

    The ROSAT Deep Survey includes a complete sample of 50 X-ray sources with fluxes in the 0.5 - 2 keV band larger than 5.5 x 10(exp -15)erg/sq cm/s in the Lockman field (Hasinger et al., Paper 1). We have obtained deep broad-band CCD images of the field and spectra of many optical objects near the positions of the X-ray sources. We define systematically the process leading to the optical identifications of the X-ray sources. For this purpose, we introduce five identification (ID) classes that characterize the process in each case. Among the 50 X-ray sources, we identify 39 AGNs, 3 groups of galaxies, 1 galaxy and 3 galactic stars. Four X-ray sources remain unidentified so far; two of these objects may have an unusually large ratio of X-ray to optical flux.

  16. Optical performance of grazing incidence X-ray/EUV telescopes for space science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Patrick Louis

    In order to improve and expand the field of X-ray astronomy, and imaging in general, we find that these days a comprehensive systems engineering approach to X-ray image formation must be undertaken. While some industrial interests have taken steps in this direction, any academic approach is lacking from within the archival literature to date, and there are virtually no established university courses. Indeed, it would seem that top level, optical-systems-engineering is exclusively reserved for those seasoned professionals who have accumulated (though somewhat artistically) the ``know-how'' to efficiently conceive and implement excellent optical designs. Such expert knowledge is not and should not be mysterious. To this end, we attempt to formulate a highly comprehensive approach to X-ray optical systems engineering and implement it within the context of the Wolter Type-I and Type-II (grazing incidence) telescopes currently utilized for practical X-ray/EUV astronomy. In addition, we will transform the classical paraboloid- hyperboloid designs into `aplanatic' and `isoplanatic', hyperboloid-hyperboloid systems, where certain coma conditions are minimized. As will be shown, one gains little improvement in performance when choosing a quasi-aplanatic mirror design over a classical one, owing to scatter and other image degradation effects. Next we will show that a generalized hyperboloid-hyperboloid design can be comprehensively optimized for any imaging requirement, where the operational field-of-view is weighted according to spatial information content. Our H-H design has been optimized for the GOES Solar X-ray Imager mission and adopted by NASA and NOAA. It is currently undergoing fabrication by Raytheon Optical Systems Inc. who is under subcontract to the Lockheed-Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory. Our design is expected to result in an 80% increase in optical system performance over the original SXI baseline design.

  17. Searching for galaxy clusters in X-ray and optical sky surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschin, W.

    2003-04-01

    The last decade has seen a poderous progress in the research of galaxy clusters. In fact, the application of modern technologies (CCDs, optical fibers, large aperture optical and X-ray telescopes, etc.) in the field of astrophysical observations has allowed fundamental studies of nearby galaxy clusters, both of the optical component of such objects, i.e. galaxies, and the X-ray emitting intracluster gas. Moreover, systematic searches of these objects done by new generation optical and X-ray telescopes have produced valuable samples of medium-distant clusters, helping us to shed light on the evolution of their physical properties (abundance, mass, temperature, etc.), with particular reference to the distribution functions of such quantities. In particular, the cluster abundance distribution in function of redshift is very important since it is strictly connected to the cosmological parameters. From these consideration it is clear that the search for galaxy systems at different redshifts is a fundamental task in modern observational astrophysics. In this work I discuss the topic of searching for galaxy clusters both in X-ray surveys and in optical data. In particular, the main result is the building of a new galaxy cluster catalog based on a serendipitous search in Chandra X-ray archival data. The first chapter describes the general properties of galaxy systems with emphasis on their scientific relevance and the methods used to identify them in the sky. In the second chapter I describe the Chandra X-ray observatory and explain why it is a good instrument to detect clusters. In chapter three I present the characteristics of my survey, the reduction of data, the technique of detection of X-ray sources and the catalog of detected clusters. By computing the sky coverage of the survey I also present a first determination of the cluster cumulative log N-log S relation and show that it is in agreement with results from previous deep ROSAT-based surveys. Finally, in chapter

  18. Iterative deconvolution of x ray and optical SNR images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nisenson, Peter; Standley, Clive; Hughes, John

    1992-01-01

    Blind Iterative Deconvolution (BID) is a technique which was originally developed to correct the degrading effects of atmospheric turbulence on astronomical images from single short exposure, high signal-to-noise-ratio frames. At the Center for Astro physics, we have implemented a version of BID following the general approach of Ayers and Dainty (1988), but extending the technique to use Wiener filtering, and developed it for application to high energy images from Einstein and ROSAT. In the optical, the point spread function (PSF) that degrades the images is due to a combination of telescope and atmospheric aberrations. At high energies, the degrading function is the instrument response function, which is known to be time and energy level unstable. In both cases, the PSF is poorly known, so BID can be used to extract the PSF from the image and then deconvolve the blurred image to produce a sharpened image. Other aspects of this technique are discussed.

  19. The Relationship Between Solar Coronal X-Ray Brightness and Active Region Magnetic Fields: A Study Using High-Resolution Hinode Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Soumitra; Nandy, Dibyendu; Ravindra, B.

    2015-03-01

    By using high-resolution observations of nearly co-temporal and co-spatial Solar Optical Telescope spectropolarimeter and X-Ray Telescope coronal X-ray data onboard Hinode, we revisit the problematic relationship between global magnetic quantities and coronal X-ray brightness. Co-aligned vector magnetogram and X-ray data were used for this study. The total X-ray brightness over active regions is well correlated with integrated magnetic quantities such as the total unsigned magnetic flux, the total unsigned vertical current, and the area-integrated square of the vertical and horizontal magnetic fields. On accounting for the inter-dependence of the magnetic quantities, we inferred that the total magnetic flux is the primary determinant of the observed integrated X-ray brightness. Our observations indicate that a stronger coronal X-ray flux is not related to a higher non-potentiality of active-region magnetic fields. The data even suggest a slightly negative correlation between X-ray brightness and a proxy of active-region non-potentiality. Although there are small numerical differences in the established correlations, the main conclusions are qualitatively consistent over two different X-ray filters, the Al-poly and Ti-poly filters, which confirms the strength of our conclusions and validate and extend earlier studies that used low-resolution data. We discuss the implications of our results and the constraints they set on theories of solar coronal heating.

  20. Affordable and lightweight high-resolution x-ray optics for astronomical missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W. W.; Biskach, M. P.; Bly, V. T.; Carter, J. M.; Chan, K. W.; Gaskin, J. A.; Hong, M.; Hohl, B. R.; Jones, W. D.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Kolos, L. D.; Mazzarella, J. R.; McClelland, R. S.; McKeon, K. P.; Miller, T. M.; O'Dell, S. L.; Riveros, R. E.; Saha, T. T.; Schofield, M. J.; Sharpe, M. V.; Smith, H. C.

    2014-07-01

    Future x-ray astronomical missions require x-ray mirror assemblies that provide both high angular resolution and large photon collecting area. In addition, as x-ray astronomy undertakes more sensitive sky surveys, a large field of view is becoming increasingly important as well. Since implementation of these requirements must be carried out in broad political and economical contexts, any technology that meets these performance requirements must also be financially affordable and can be implemented on a reasonable schedule. In this paper we report on progress of an x-ray optics development program that has been designed to address all of these requirements. The program adopts the segmented optical design, thereby is capable of making both small and large mirror assemblies for missions of any size. This program has five technical elements: (1) fabrication of mirror substrates, (2) coating, (3) alignment, (4) bonding, and (5) mirror module systems engineering and testing. In the past year we have made progress in each of these five areas, advancing the angular resolution of mirror modules from 10.8 arc-seconds half-power diameter reported (HPD) a year ago to 8.3 arc-seconds now. These mirror modules have been subjected to and passed all environmental tests, including vibration, acoustic, and thermal vacuum. As such this technology is ready for implementing a mission that requires a 10-arc-second mirror assembly. Further development in the next two years would make it ready for a mission requiring a 5-arc-second mirror assembly. We expect that, by the end of this decade, this technology would enable the x-ray astrophysical community to compete effectively for a major x-ray mission in the 2020s that would require one or more 1-arc-second mirror assemblies for imaging, spectroscopic, timing, and survey studies.

  1. Affordable and Lightweight High-Resolution X-ray Optics for Astronomical Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, W. W.; Biskach, M. P.; Bly, V. T.; Carter, J. M.; Chan, K. W.; Gaskin, J. A.; Hong, M.; Hohl, B. R.; Jones, W. D.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Future x-ray astronomical missions require x-ray mirror assemblies that provide both high angular resolution and large photon collecting area. In addition, as x-ray astronomy undertakes more sensitive sky surveys, a large field of view is becoming increasingly important as well. Since implementation of these requirements must be carried out in broad political and economical contexts, any technology that meets these performance requirements must also be financially affordable and can be implemented on a reasonable schedule. In this paper we report on progress of an x-ray optics development program that has been designed to address all of these requirements. The program adopts the segmented optical design, thereby is capable of making both small and large mirror assemblies for missions of any size. This program has five technical elements: (1) fabrication of mirror substrates, (2) coating, (3) alignment, (4) bonding, and (5) mirror module systems engineering and testing. In the past year we have made progress in each of these five areas, advancing the angular resolution of mirror modules from 10.8 arc-seconds half-power diameter reported (HPD) a year ago to 8.3 arc-seconds now. These mirror modules have been subjected to and passed all environmental tests, including vibration, acoustic, and thermal vacuum. As such this technology is ready for implementing a mission that requires a 10-arc-second mirror assembly. Further development in the next two years would make it ready for a mission requiring a 5-arc-second mirror assembly. We expect that, by the end of this decade, this technology would enable the x-ray astrophysical community to compete effectively for a major x-ray mission in the 2020s that would require one or more 1-arc-second mirror assemblies for imaging, spectroscopic, timing, and survey studies.

  2. Simultaneous optical and X-ray bursts from 4U/MXB 1636-53

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, H.; Lub, J.; Inoue, H.; Koyama, K.; Makishima, K.; Matsuoka, M.; Mitsuda, K.; Murakami, T.; Oda, M.; Ogawara, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of obtaining information about the geometry of X-ray burster systems from simultaneous optical and X-ray observations are discussed, and such simultaneous observations of 4U/MXB 1636-53 are reported. The physical idea of an optical burst being due to reprocessing of an X-ray burst in material in the vicinity of the compact object is discussed. The resulting modification of the X-ray burst signal is described in terms of an optical response function. Delay and smearing due to radiative processes are discussed along with those due to the geometry. For 4U/MXB 1636-53, the estimated delay is 2.5 seconds, the smearing is less than four seconds, and the maximum temperature of the reprocessing region is about 75,000 K. The projected area of the reprocessing region is about 6 x 10 to the 21st square cm. The neutron star is about 1.4 solar masses, the radius of the accretion disk is greater than 1.5 lt-sec, and the mass of the Roche lobe filling companion star is less than 2.0 solar masses, corresponding to a binary period between about one and ten hours.

  3. Thermoluminescence Response of Germanium-Doped Optical Fibers to X-Ray Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A. Saeed, M.; A. Fauzia, N.; Hossain, I.; T. Ramli, A.; A. Tahir, B.

    2012-07-01

    We present the characteristics of the thermoluminescence (TL) response of Ge-doped optical fibers with various energies and exposures of photon irradiation. To investigate the Ge-doped SiO2 as an efficient TL material, the TL responses are compared with commercially available standard TLD100 media. The Ge-doped optical fiber and TLD100 are placed in gelatin capsules and irradiated with x-ray using a Toshiba model KXO-15R x-ray generator. The Ge-doped fiber and TLD-100 show linear response as a function of current and time using x-ray photon of energy 60, 80 and 100 kV. When irradiated with 60, 80 and 100 kV x-ray energy at various currents (mA), tube distance (cm) and exposure time (second) ranges, TLD100 media provide a TL yield up to two times that of Ge-doped fibers. The energy response of the Ge-doped fibers is linear and similar over the 60-100 kV energy range, and its sensitivity is 0.39±0.05 of the TLD100 media. The glow curves of TLD 100 and doped optical fiber are also compared.

  4. The Optical and X-ray Spectral Properties of the Swift BAT-detected AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Lisa M.; Mushotzky, R.; Lewis, K.; Veilleux, S.; Koss, M.; Keeney, B.

    2010-01-01

    The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), while not focused on a Gamma-ray burst, conducts an all-sky survey in the 14 - 195 keV band. After the first 9 months, the BAT has detected a sample of 153 local (z 0.03) AGN at a flux limit of a few times 10-11 erg/s/cm-2 (Tueller et al. 2007). Since the AGN were detected at very high X-ray energies, they are an unbiased sample towards Compton thin AGN. We present the X-ray and optical spectral properties of a sample of the BAT AGN, including optical spectra obtained from the literature, SDSS, and our own KPNO 2.1-m observations. Among our results, we show that the optically identified Seyfert 1s and 2s have the same distribution of X-ray and [O III] luminosities. We also find that [O III] luminosity is not well-correlated with the hard X-rays and therefore not a good indicator of bolometric luminosity, supporting the results of Melendez et al. (2008).

  5. X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF YB3+-DOPED OPTICAL FIBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Citron, Robert; Kropf, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Optical fibers doped with Ytterbium-3+ have become increasingly common in fiber lasers and amplifiers. Yb-doped fibers provide the capability to produce high power and short pulses at specific wavelengths, resulting in highly effective gain media. However, little is known about the local structure, distribution, and chemical coordination of Yb3+ in the fibers. This information is necessary to improve the manufacturing process and optical qualities of the fibers. Five fibers doped with Yb3+ were studied using Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), in addition to Yb3+ mapping. The Yb3+ distribution in each fiber core was mapped with 2D and 1D intensity scans, which measured X-ray fluorescence over the scan areas. Two of the five fibers examined showed highly irregular Yb3+ distributions in the core center. In four of the five fibers Yb3+ was detected outside of the given fiber core dimensions, suggesting possible Yb3+ diffusion from the core, manufacturing error, or both. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis has so far proven inconclusive, but did show that the fibers had differing EXAFS spectra. The Yb3+ distribution mapping proved highly useful, but additional modeling and examination of fiber preforms must be conducted to improve XAS analysis, which has been shown to have great potential for the study of similar optical fi bers.

  6. FURTHER EVIDENCE THAT QUASAR X-RAY EMITTING REGIONS ARE COMPACT: X-RAY AND OPTICAL MICROLENSING IN THE LENSED QUASAR Q J0158-4325

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Christopher W.; Hainline, Laura J.; Chen Bin; Dai Xinyu; Tewes, Malte; Courbin, F.; Meylan, G.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Kozlowski, Szymon; Blackburne, Jeffrey A.; Mosquera, Ana M.; Chartas, G.

    2012-09-01

    We present four new seasons of optical monitoring data and six epochs of X-ray photometry for the doubly imaged lensed quasar Q J0158-4325. The high-amplitude, short-period microlensing variability for which this system is known has historically precluded a time delay measurement by conventional methods. We attempt to circumvent this limitation by the application of a Monte Carlo microlensing analysis technique, but we are only able to prove that the delay must have the expected sign (image A leads image B). Despite our failure to robustly measure the time delay, we successfully model the microlensing at optical and X-ray wavelengths to find a half-light radius for soft X-ray emission log (r{sub 1/2,X,soft}/cm) = 14.3{sup +0.4}{sub -0.5}, an upper limit on the half-light radius for hard X-ray emission log (r{sub 1/2,X,hard}/cm) {<=} 14.6, and a refined estimate of the inclination-corrected scale radius of the optical R-band (rest frame 3100 A) continuum emission region of log (r{sub s} /cm) = 15.6 {+-} 0.3.

  7. Differential Deposition to Correct Surface Figure Deviations in Astronomical Grazing-Incidence X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Ramsey, Brian D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2011-01-01

    A coating technique is being developed to correct the surface figure deviations in reflective-grazing-incidence X-ray optics. These optics are typically designed to have precise conic profiles, and any deviation in this profile, as a result of fabrication, results in a degradation of the imaging performance. To correct the mirror profiles, physical vapor deposition has been utilized to selectively deposit a filler material inside the mirror shell. The technique, termed differential deposition, has been implemented as a proof of concept on miniature X-ray optics developed at MSFC for medical-imaging applications. The technique is now being transferred to larger grazing-incidence optics suitable for astronomy and progress to date is reported.

  8. Optical Studies of Ultra Luminous X-ray Sources in NGC4490

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyuz, Aysun; Avdan, Hasan; Avdan, Senay; Aksaker, Nazim

    2016-07-01

    We present optical studies of Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in the spiral galaxy NGC4490 which is interacting with the irregular galaxy NGC 4485. ULXs are extra-nuclear, point-like X-ray sources with isotropic luminosities (Lx > 10 ^{39} erg s ^{-1}) above the Eddington limit for a 10 Msun black hole. HST/ACS/WFC and WFPC3 archival data have been analyzed to investigate the optical counterparts of five ULXs in NGC4490. Using relative astrometry the corrected ULX positions were derived only for three sources within the 1σ error radius of 0.5 arcsec on the HST images. We discuss the properties of three optical counterparts and constraints on their physical nature from multiband optical observations.

  9. Soft x ray optics by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Felix E.

    1994-01-01

    A series of molybdenum thin film depositions by PLD (Pulsed Laser Deposition) have been carried out, seeking appropriate conditions for multilayer fabrication. Green (532 nm) and UV (355 nm) light pulses, in a wide range of fluences, were used. Relatively large fluences (in comparison with Si) are required to cause evaporation of molybdenum. The optical penetration depths and reflectivities for Mo at these two wavelengths are comparable, which means that results should be, and do appear to be similar for equal fluences. For all fluences above threshold used, a large number of incandescent particles is ejected by the target (either a standard Mo sputtering target or a Mo sheet were tried), together with the plasma plume. Most of these particles are clearly seen to bounce off the substrate. The films were observed with light microscopy using Nomarski and darkfield techniques. There is no evidence of large debris. Smooth films plus micron-sized droplets are usually seen. The concentration of these droplets embedded in the film appears not to vary strongly with the laser fluence employed. Additional characterization with SEM and XRD is under way.

  10. Optical constants of materials in the EUV/soft x-ray region for multilayer mirror applications

    SciTech Connect

    Soufli, R

    1997-12-01

    The response of a given material to an incident electromagnetic wave is described by the energy dependent complex index of refraction n = 1 {minus} {delta} + i{beta}. In the extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/soft x-ray spectral region, the need for accurate determination of n is driven by activity in areas such as synchrotron based research, EUV/x-ray lithography, x-ray astronomy and plasma applications. Knowledge of the refractive index is essential for the design of the optical components of instruments used in experiments and applications. Moreover, measured values of n may be used to evaluate solid state models for the optical behavior of materials. The refractive index n of Si, Mo and Be is investigated in the EUV/soft x-ray region. In the case of Si, angle dependent reflectance measurements are performed in the energy range 50--180 eV. The optical constants {delta}, {beta} are both determined by fitting to the Fresnel equations. The results of this method are compared to the values in the 1993 atomic tables. Photoabsorption measurements for the optical constants of Mo are performed on C/Mo/C foils, in the energy range 60--930 eV. Photoabsorption measurements on Be thin films supported on silicon nitride membranes are performed, and the results are applied in the determination of the absorption coefficient of Be in the energy region 111.5--250 eV. The new results for Si and Mo are applied to the calculation of normal incidence reflectivities of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer mirrors. These calculations show the importance of accurate knowledge of {delta} and {beta} in the prediction and modeling of the performance of multilayer optics.

  11. Metallicity Determinations from Optical Emission Line Gas in X-ray Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athey, A.; Bregman, J.

    2001-05-01

    In the study of the hot interstellar medium in elliptical galaxies, one of the most contentious issues is the metallicity of the gas. The metallicity is an important parameter in the ISM because it provides insight to the origin of the gas, its mass and eventual evolution. Currently, the metallicity measurements are being determined from X-ray telescopes, such as Chandra and XMM. We conducted a program to obtain an independent determination of this critical quantity with ground based optical spectra from the 2.4m Hilter Telescope at MDM. Trinchieri & Alighieri (1991) investigated a sample of X-ray emitting galaxies through narrow-band optical imaging and found a large fraction (<85%) of X-ray bright galaxies to have optical emission lines (H-alpha and [N II]). Because the structure of this emission line gas is similar to the X-ray emission, it is likely tracing the cooling of the X-ray gas or possibly the injection of mass into the ISM from dying stars. We present optical spectra of 14 elliptical galaxies with wavelength coverage from 3200 Å - 5100 Å and 5600 Å - 7150 Å (NGC720, NGC1407, NGC1600, NGC2768, NGC3377, NGC3379, NGC3607, NGC4125, NGC4472, NGC4494, NGC4552, NGC4636, NGC5846). This wavelength coverage allows us to detect major lines for metallicity determinations, including [O I] 6300 Å, [O II] 3727 Å, [O III] 4363, 5007 Å, [N II] 6583Å, [S II] 6725 Å, as well as H-alpha and H-beta. In 6 of these 14 galaxies we detect emission line gas. In 4 of these galaxies we have complete information to determine metallicites.

  12. X-Ray Imaging of MHD Activity in the Text Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Brackin Allen

    Soft x-ray emission from a tokamak plasma may he used to obtain information about the electron temperature, density and impurity content of the plasma. Since the plasma is optically thin to x-rays, any measurement of x-ray emission is the sum of x-rays emitted all along the line of sight of the detector. It is useful to find a way to unfold the local values of x-ray emission from such a set of chord-integrated measurements. In this work, we implement a tomographic technique to invert the signals from two arrays of x-ray detectors that yields a two dimensional picture of x-ray emission from a poloidal slice of the plasma. This imaging method is applied to studies of magnetohydrodynamic motion in two separate discharges. One type of discharge is prepared so that a large amplitude m = 2 island persists throughout the discharge without causing a disruption. X -ray imaging is used to directly determine the location and width of the island. In another type of discharge, impurity pellet injection occasionally results in the suppression of sawteeth and the formation of a persistent m = 1 mode with the absence of sawteeth. X-ray imaging is used to determine the size of the m = 1 perturbation. The x-ray emissivity profiles are found to peak in the center, in the absence of sawteeth, implying accumulation of impurities. The m = 1 may be described as an internal kink-tearing mode which grows and saturates, but sawteeth do not occur because increased impurity radiation keeps the central thermal energy lower than necessary to trigger a sawtooth crash.

  13. Study of X-ray optics. [testing polished Kanigen coated beryllium mirror in X ray telescope on Skylark

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froechtenigt, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The testing is reported of a polished Kanigen coated beryllium mirror in a soft X-ray telescope to be flown on a Skylark sounding rocket. This test involved inserting the telescope in a 220 foot long vacuum line and taking photographs of an X-ray resolution source. These photographs were then used to evaluate the performance of the telescope mirror as a function of distance from the focal plane and the angular distance off the telescope axis. A second test was made in which a point source was used to study the imaging characteristics by means of a pinhole and proportional counter placed in the telescope focal plane. A third test was conducted using a position sensitive detector. The efficiency and resolution was increased by polishing.

  14. RESULTS FROM LONG-TERM OPTICAL MONITORING OF THE SOFT X-RAY TRANSIENT SAX J1810.8-2609

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Ling; Di Stefano, Rosanne; Wyrzykowski, Lukasz

    2012-12-20

    In this paper, we report the long-term optical observation of the faint soft X-ray transient SAX J1810.8-2609 from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) and Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics (MOA). We have focused on the 2007 outburst, and also cross-correlated its optical light curves and quasi-simultaneous X-ray observations from RXTE/Swift. Both the optical and X-ray light curves of the 2007 outburst show multi-peak features. Quasi-simultaneous optical/X-ray luminosity shows that both the X-ray reprocessing and viscously thermal emission can explain the observed optical flux. There is a slight X-ray delay of 0.6 {+-} 0.3 days during the first peak, while the X-ray emission lags the optical emission by {approx}2 days during the rebrightening stage, which suggests that X-ray reprocessing emission contributes significantly to the optical flux in the first peak, but the viscously heated disk origin dominates it during rebrightening. This implies variation of the physical environment of the outer disk, with even the source remaining in a low/hard state during the entire outburst. The {approx}2 day X-ray lag indicates a small accretion disk in the system, and its optical counterpart was not detected by OGLE and MOA during quiescence, which constrained it to be fainter than M{sub I} = 7.5 mag. There is a suspected short-time optical flare detected at MJD = 52583.5 with no detected X-ray counterpart; this single flux increase implies a magnetic loop reconnection in the outer disk, as proposed by Zurita et al. The observations cover all stages of the outburst; however, due to the low sensitivity of RXTE/ASM, we cannot conclude whether it is an optical precursor at the initial rise of the outburst.

  15. The optimal optical readout for the x-ray light valve--Document scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Oakham, P.; MacDougall, Robert D.; Rowlands, J. A.

    2008-12-15

    The x-ray light valve (XLV) is a novel, potentially low-cost, x-ray detector that converts an x-ray exposure into an optical image stored in a liquid crystal cell. This optical image is then transferred from the liquid crystal cell to a computer through an optical-to-digital imaging readout system. Previously, CCD-based cameras were used for the optical readout, but recently it was proposed that an inexpensive optical scanner, such as an office document scanner, is a better match to the optical properties of the XLV. A methodology for characterizing a document scanner's ability to produce medical quality images from the XLV is outlined and tested on a particular scanner (Canon LiDE 30). This scanner was shown to have key characteristics of a medical device--a linear response, dynamic range sufficient for chest radiography (although not mammography) in a single pass, and an MTF and NPS that exceed the requirements for all medical applications of the scanner. This combination of criteria shows that a document scanner can be used as a digitization method for the XLV.

  16. Angular resolution measurements at SPring-8 of a hard x-ray optic for the New Hard X-ray Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, D.; Raimondi, L.; Furuzawa, A.; Basso, S.; Binda, R.; Borghi, G.; Cotroneo, V.; Grisoni, G.; Kunieda, H.; Marioni, F.; Matsumoto, H.; Mori, H.; Miyazawa, T.; Negri, B.; Orlandi, A.; Pareschi, G.; Salmaso, B.; Tagliaferri, G.; Uesugi, K.; Valsecchi, G.; Vernani, D.

    2011-09-01

    The realization of X-ray telescopes with imaging capabilities in the hard (> 10 keV) X-ray band requires the adoption of optics with shallow (< 0.25 deg) grazing angles to enhance the reflectivity of reflective coatings. On the other hand, to obtain large collecting area, large mirror diameters (< 350 mm) are necessary. This implies that mirrors with focal lengths >=10 m shall be produced and tested. Full-illumination tests of such mirrors are usually performed with onground X-ray facilities, aimed at measuring their effective area and the angular resolution; however, they in general suffer from effects of the finite distance of the X-ray source, e.g. a loss of effective area for double reflection. These effects increase with the focal length of the mirror under test; hence a "partial" full-illumination measurement might not be fully representative of the in-flight performances. Indeed, a pencil beam test can be adopted to overcome this shortcoming, because a sector at a time is exposed to the X-ray flux, and the compensation of the beam divergence is achieved by tilting the optic. In this work we present the result of a hard X-ray test campaign performed at the BL20B2 beamline of the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility, aimed at characterizing the Point Spread Function (PSF) of a multilayer-coated Wolter-I mirror shell manufactured by Nickel electroforming. The mirror shell is a demonstrator for the NHXM hard X-ray imaging telescope (0.3 - 80 keV), with a predicted HEW (Half Energy Width) close to 20 arcsec. We show some reconstructed PSFs at monochromatic X-ray energies of 15 to 63 keV, and compare them with the PSFs computed from post-campaign metrology data, self-consistently treating profile and roughness data by means of a method based on the Fresnel diffraction theory. The modeling matches the measured PSFs accurately.

  17. X-ray optical system for imaging laser plumes with a spatial resolution of up to 70 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechai, A. N.; Pestov, A. E.; Polkovnikov, V. N.; Salashchenko, N. N.; Toropov, M. N.; Chkhalo, N. I.; Tsybin, N. N.; Shcherbakov, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    We consider an X-ray optical system which permits obtaining laser plume images at a wavelength of 13.5 nm with a resolution of up to 70 nm. The X-ray optical system comprises an X-ray Schwarzschild objective made up of two aspherical multilayer mirrors, a scintillator (YAG : Ce ceramics), which converts X-rays to the visible radiation, and a visible-optical system, which images the scintillator surface onto a CCD camera. The spatial resolution of the system is limited by the resolution of the optical system (0.7 μm) and the magnification (10×) of the X-ray objective and is as high as 70 nm. The effect of Schwarzschild objective mirror shapes on the spatial resolution is analysed. The profile of concave mirror aspherisation is considered, which provides the attainment of the diffraction-limited quality of the objective. Data are given for the quantum efficiency of the system at a wavelength of 13.5 nm. We describe the experimental test bench intended for studying the developed X-ray optical system and outline the first experimental data which illustrate its efficiency. Owing to the natural division into the 'X-ray' and 'visible' parts, the optical system under discussion permits an easy change of the magnification and the field of view without realigning the X-ray optical elements. The wavelength may be varied in a range between 3 and 40 nm by changing the multilayer mirrors.

  18. Possible application of X-ray optical elements for reducing the spectral bandwidth of an X-ray SASE FEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldhaus, J.; Saldin, E. L.; Schneider, J. R.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.

    1997-02-01

    A new design for a single pass X-ray SASE FEL is proposed. The scheme consists of two undulators and an X-ray monochromator located between them. The first stage of the FEL amplifier operates in the SASE linear regime. After the exit of the first undulator the electron bunch is guided through a non-isochronous bypass and the X-ray beam enters the monochromator. The main function of the bypass is to suppress the modulation of the electron beam induced in the first undulator. This is possible because of the finite value of the natural energy spread in the beam. At the entrance to the second undulator the radiation power from the monochromator dominates significantly over the shot noise and the residual electron bunching. As a result, the second stage of the FEL amplifier operates in the steady-state regime. The proposed scheme is illustrated for the example of the 6 nm option SASE FEL at the TESLA Test Facility under construction at DESY. The spectral bandwidth of such a two-stage SASE FEL ( {Δλ}/{λ} ⋍ 5 × 10 -5) is close to the limit defined by the finite duration of the radiation pulse. The average spectral brilliance is equal to 2 × 10 24 photons/(sec×mrad 2×mm 2×0.1% bandwidth) which is by two orders of magnitude higher than the value which could be reached by the conventional SASE FEL.

  19. Late-Time X-Ray, UV, and Optical Monitoring of Supernova 1979C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immler, Stefan; Fesen, Robert A.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Weiler, Kurt W.; Petre, Robert; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Pooley, David; Pietsch, Wolfgang; Aschenbach, Bernd; Hammell, Molly C.; Rudie, Gwen C.

    2005-10-01

    We present results from observations of supernova (SN) 1979C with the Newton X-Ray Multi-Mirror (XMM-Newton) mission in X-rays and in UV, archival X-ray, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data, and follow-up ground-based optical imaging. The XMM-Newton MOS spectrum shows the best-fit two-temperature thermal plasma emission characteristics of both the forward (kThigh=4.1+76-2.4 keV) and reverse shock (kTlow=0.79+0.24-0.17 keV) with no intrinsic absorption. The long-term X-ray light curve, constructed from all X-ray data available, reveals that SN 1979C is still radiating at a flux level similar to that detected by ROSAT in 1995, showing no sign of a decline over the last 6 years, some 16-23 yr after its outburst. The high inferred X-ray luminosity (L0.3-2=8×1038 ergs s-1) is caused by the interaction of the SN shock with dense circumstellar matter, likely deposited by a strong stellar wind from the progenitor with a high mass-loss rate of M˙~1.5×10-4 Msolar yr-1 (vw/10 km s-1). The X-ray data support a strongly decelerated shock and show a mass-loss rate history that is consistent with a constant progenitor mass-loss rate and wind velocity over the past >~16,000 yr in the stellar evolution of the progenitor. We find a best-fit circumstellar medium (CSM) density profile of ρCSM~r-s with index s<~1.7 and high CSM densities (>~104 cm-3) out to large radii from the site of the explosion (r>~4×1017 cm). Using XMM-Newton Optical Monitor data, we further detect a pointlike optical/UV source consistent with the position of SN 1979C, with B-, U-, and UVW1-band luminosities of 5, 7, and 9×1036 ergs s-1, respectively. The young stellar cluster in the vicinity of the SN, as imaged by the HST and follow-up ground-based optical imaging, can only provide a fraction of the total observed flux, so that a significant contribution to the output likely arises from the strong interaction of SN 1979C with dense CSM.

  20. Development of modular high-performance pore optics for the XEUS x-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, S.; Collon, M.; Guenther, R.; Beijersbergen, M. W.; Bavdaz, M.; Lumb, D. H.; Wallace, K.; Peacock, A.; Krumrey, M.; Hoffmann, M.; Mueller, P.; Lehmann, V.

    2005-08-01

    The next generation astronomical X-ray telescopes (such as the X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy mission XEUS) require extremely large collecting areas (effective area of ~10 m2 at 1 keV) in combination with good angular resolution of ~5" or better. The existing technologies such as polished glass and nickel electroforming would lead to excessively heavy and expensive optics, and/or are not able to produce the required large area. We have developed an entirely novel technology for producing X-ray optics which results in very light, stiff and modular optics. These can be assembled into almost arbitrarily large apertures and are perfectly suited for future astrophysics missions such as XEUS. Indeed this crucial technology ensures that the ambitious mission profile is actually feasible. The technology makes use of commercially available silicon wafers from the semiconductor industry. The latest generation of 12 inch silicon wafers have a surface roughness that is sufficiently low (~0.3 nm) for X-ray reflection, almost perfect mechanical properties and are considerably cheaper than other high-quality optical materials. The wafers are bent into an accurate cone and assembled to form a stiff pore structure. The resulting light and stiff modules, which we term a High-performance Pore Optics (HPO), form a small segment of a Wolter-I optic, and are easily assembled into a modular optic with large collecting area. We have implemented an automated production process of HPOs on laboratory scale and describe facilities developed with ESA at the Cosine Research Centre. We present the status of the production and the results obtained with this highly innovative technology.

  1. High Angular Resolution and Lightweight X-Ray Optics for Astronomical Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, W. W.; Biskach, M. P.; Blake, P. N.; Chan, K. W.; Evans, T. C.; Hong, M.; Jones, W. D.; Jones, W. D.; Kolos, L. D.; Mazzarella, J. M.; McClelland, R. S.; ODell, S. L.; Saha, T. T.; Sharpe, M. V.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray optics with both high angular resolution and lightweight is essential for further progress in x-ray astronomy. High angular resolution is important in avoiding source confusion and reducing background to enable the observation of the most distant objects of the early Universe. It is also important in enabling the use of gratings to achieve high spectral resolution to study, among other things, the myriad plasmas that exist in planetary, stellar, galactic environments, as well as interplanetary, inter-stellar, and inter-galactic media. Lightweight is important for further increase in effective photon collection area, because x-ray observations must take place on space platforms and the amount of mass that can be launched into space has always been very limited and is expected to continue to be very limited. This paper describes an x-ray optics development program and reports on its status that meets these two requirements. The objective of this program is to enable Explorer type missions in the near term and to enable flagship missions in the long term.

  2. Design study for supporting of thin glass optical elements for x-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Mark D.; Reid, Paul B.; Davis, William N.

    2008-07-01

    The next large x-ray astrophysics mission launched will likely include soft x-ray spectroscopy as a primary capability. A requirement to fulfill the science goals of such a mission is a large-area x-ray telescope focusing sufficient x-ray flux to perform high-resolution spectroscopy with reasonable observing times. One approach to manufacturing such a telescope is a Wolter-I optic utilizing thin glass segments rather than full shells of revolution. We describe a parameterized Finite Element Modeling (FEM) study that provides insights useful in optimizing the design of a discrete support system to balance the competing requirements of minimizing the effect on optical performance while providing sufficient support to withstand launch loads. Parameters analyzed are number and location of the supports around the glass segments, as well as the glass thickness, size, and angular span. In addition, we utilize more detailed models of several cases taken from the parametric study to examine stress around the bonded area and bond pad size, and compare the stress from the detailed model to the parametric cases from which they were derived.

  3. A Detailed Optical/X-ray Comparison of SNR RCW 86

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. Chris; Long, Knox S.

    1997-12-01

    We present a detailed optical/X-ray comparison of the filaments of the Galactic SNR RCW 86 (also known as G 315.2-2.3 or MSH 14-63). The optical data consist of deep Hα and [S II] emission line images taken with the UM/CTIO Curtis Schmidt telescope, and the X-ray dataset is composed of deep ROSAT PSPC and HRI images of the remnant. Our preliminary analysis of the HRI dataset (using only the two pointings available out of the four scheduled) shows no significant offset between the X-ray emission in the high-resolution HRI images and the sharp Balmer-dominated filaments. The Balmer-dominated filaments do however bound the X-ray filaments along all the sampled regions. The PSPC data show significant spectral variation around the remnant, which we interpret as temperature variations. We present an approximate temperature map based on the ratio of Snowden bands (6+7 over 3+4), and discuss the possible sources of the observed variations. This work was supported in part by NASA grant NAG5-4825 and the Dean B. McLaughlin Fellowship.

  4. Active galactic nucleus X-ray variability in the XMM-COSMOS survey

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzuisi, G.; Ponti, G.; Salvato, M.; Brusa, M.; Nandra, P. K.; Merloni, A.; Rosario, D.; Hasinger, G.; Sanders, D.; Cappelluti, N.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Bongiorno, A.; Lusso, E.; Steinhardt, C.; Silverman, J.; Schramm, M.; Trump, J.; and others

    2014-02-01

    We used the observations carried out by XMM in the COSMOS field over 3.5 yr to study the long term variability of a large sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) (638 sources) in a wide range of redshifts (0.1 < z < 3.5) and X-ray luminosities (10{sup 41} < L {sub 0.5-10} <10{sup 45.5}). Both a simple statistical method to assess the significance of variability and the Normalized Excess Variance (σ{sub rms}{sup 2}) parameter were used to obtain a quantitative measurement of the variability. Variability is found to be prevalent in most AGNs, whenever we have good statistics to measure it, and no significant differences between type 1 and type 2 AGNs were found. A flat (slope –0.23 ± 0.03) anti-correlation between σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and X-ray luminosity is found when all significantly variable sources are considered together. When divided into three redshift bins, the anti-correlation becomes stronger and evolving with z, with higher redshift AGNs being more variable. We prove, however, that this effect is due to the pre-selection of variable sources: when considering all of the sources with an available σ{sub rms}{sup 2} measurement, the evolution in redshift disappears. For the first time, we were also able to study long term X-ray variability as a function of M {sub BH} and Eddington ratio for a large sample of AGNs spanning a wide range of redshifts. An anti-correlation between σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and M {sub BH} is found, with the same slope of anti-correlation between σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and X-ray luminosity, suggesting that the latter may be a by-product of the former. No clear correlation is found between σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and the Eddington ratio in our sample. Finally, no correlation is found between the X-ray σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and optical variability.

  5. Measuring the Radius of a Neutron Star; Origin of High X-Ray Luminosities in Optically Passive Galaxies; Resolving the Source of X-Rays in IC 1613"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, David J.

    1998-01-01

    This recently expired grant has supported the work of the PI, his students, and his collaborators on a variety of ROSAT projects over the past three years. Annual reports have summarized much of the work accomplished; here we provide a brief review of the work resulting from this effort, and a summary of the personnel who have benefited from its support. A high resolution ROSAT HRI X-ray image of the Local Group dwarf IC1613 revealed that the principal source of X-ray emission in this direction arises in a background cluster of galaxies, as first suggested by Eskridge (1995). In addition, however, we found a bright X-ray source coincident with the only known supernova remnant in this galaxy, S # 8. Extensive ground-based follow-up observations in the radio and optical regimes were conducted. We confirmed the nonthermal radio spectral index of the source and measured its extent to be approx. 3 sec at 20 cm. Imaging spectrophotometric observations taken with the multi-pupil spectrograph of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in the FSU allowed us to determine the density and velocity distribution of the gas in the remnant. The simultaneous presence of luminous X-ray and optical emission suggests a relatively young remnant in which the outward-moving shock has recently encountered dense material. Many of this object's properties are similar to those of the brightest optical remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud, N49. Another potential source of X-rays in this galaxy which featured prominently in our original proposal, an Oxygen Wolf-Rayet star with a large surrounding wind-blown bubble, was not detected.

  6. Intrinsic disc emission and the soft X-ray excess in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Done, Chris; Davis, S. W.; Jin, C.; Blaes, O.; Ward, M.

    2012-03-01

    Narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies have low-mass black holes and mass accretion rates close to (or exceeding) Eddington, so a standard blackbody accretion disc should peak in the extreme ultraviolet. However, the lack of true absorption opacity in the disc means that the emission is better approximated by a colour temperature corrected blackbody, and this colour temperature correction is large enough (˜2.4) that the bare disc emission from a zero spin black hole can extend into the soft X-ray bandpass. Part of the soft X-ray excess seen in these objects must be intrinsic emission from the disc unless the vertical structure is very different to that predicted. None the less, this is not the whole story even for the extreme NLS1 as the shape of the soft excess is much broader than predicted by a bare disc spectrum, indicating some Compton upscattering by warm, optically thick material. We associate this with the disc itself, so it must ultimately be powered by mass accretion. We build an energetically self-consistent model assuming that the emission thermalizes to a (colour temperature corrected) blackbody only at large radii. At smaller radii the gravitational energy is split between powering optically thick Comptonized disc emission (forming the soft X-ray excess) and an optically thin corona above the disc (forming the tail to higher energies). We show examples of this model fit to the extreme NLS1 RE J1034+396, and to the much lower Eddington fraction broad-line Seyfert 1 PG 1048+231. We use these to guide our fits and interpretations of three template spectra made from co-adding multiple sources to track out a sequence of active galactic nucleus (AGN) spectra as a function of L/LEdd. Both the individual objects and template spectra show the surprising result that the Compton upscattered soft X-ray excess decreases in importance with increasing L/LEdd. The strongest soft excesses are associated with low mass accretion rate AGN rather than being tied to some

  7. Differential deposition technique for figure corrections in grazing-incidence x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Ramsey, Brian D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Gregory, Don A.

    2011-10-01

    A differential deposition technique was investigated as a way to minimize axial figure errors in full-shell, grazing-incidence, reflective x-ray optics. These types of optics use a combination of off-axis conic segments--hyperbolic, parabolic, and/or elliptical, to reflect and image x-rays. Several such mirrors or ``shells'' of decreasing diameter are typically concentrically nested to form a single focusing unit. Individual mirrors are currently produced at Marshall Space Flight Center using an electroforming technique, in which the shells are replicated off figured and superpolished mandrels. Several factors in this fabrication process lead to low- and mid-spatial frequency deviations in the surface profile of the shell that degrade the imaging quality of the optics. A differential deposition technique, discussed in this paper, seeks to improve the achievable resolution of the optics by correcting the surface profile deviations of the shells after fabrication. As a proof of concept, the technique was implemented on small-animal radionuclide-imaging x-ray optics being considered for medical applications. This paper discusses the deposition technique, its implementation, and the experimental results obtained to date.

  8. Miniature lightweight X-ray optics (MiXO) for surface elemental composition mapping of asteroids and comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jaesub; Romaine, Suzanne

    2016-02-01

    The compositions of diverse planetary bodies are of fundamental interest to planetary science, providing clues to the formation and evolutionary history of the target bodies and the solar system as a whole. Utilizing the X-ray fluorescence unique to each atomic element, X-ray imaging spectroscopy is a powerful diagnostic tool of the chemical and mineralogical compositions of diverse planetary bodies. Until now the mass and volume of focusing X-ray optics have been too large for resource-limited in situ missions, so near-target X-ray observations of planetary bodies have been limited to simple collimator-type X-ray instruments. We introduce a new Miniature lightweight Wolter-I focusing X-ray Optics (MiXO) using metal-ceramic hybrid X-ray mirrors based on electroformed nickel replication and plasma thermal spray processes. MiXO can enable compact, powerful imaging X-ray telescopes suitable for future planetary missions. We illustrate the need for focusing X-ray optics in observing relatively small planetary bodies such as asteroids and comet nuclei. We present a few example configurations of MiXO telescopes and demonstrate their superior performance in comparison to an alternative approach, micro-pore optics, which is being employed for the first planetary focusing X-ray telescope, the Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer-T onboard Bepicolumbo. X-ray imaging spectroscopy using MiXO will open a large new discovery space in planetary science and will greatly enhance our understanding of the nature and origin of diverse planetary bodies.

  9. Multilayer graphene stacks grown by different methods-thickness measurements by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and optical transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Tokarczyk, M. Kowalski, G.; Kępa, H.; Grodecki, K.; Drabińska, A.; Strupiński, W.

    2013-12-15

    X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and Optical absorption estimates of the thickness of graphene multi layer stacks (number of graphene layers) are presented for three different growth techniques. The objective of this work was focused on comparison and reconciliation of the two already widely used methods for thickness estimates (Raman and Absorption) with the calibration of the X-ray method as far as Scherer constant K is concerned and X-ray based Wagner-Aqua extrapolation method.

  10. Two-dimensional ultrahigh-density X-ray optical memory.

    PubMed

    Bezirganyan, Hakob P; Bezirganyan, Siranush E; Bezirganyan, Hayk H; Bezirganyan, Petros H

    2007-01-01

    Most important aspect of nanotechnology applications in the information ultrahigh storage is the miniaturization of data carrier elements of the storage media with emphasis on the long-term stability. Proposed two-dimensional ultrahigh-density X-ray optical memory, named X-ROM, with long-term stability is an information carrier basically destined for digital data archiving. X-ROM is a semiconductor wafer, in which the high-reflectivity nanosized X-ray mirrors are embedded. Data are encoded due to certain positions of the mirrors. Ultrahigh-density data recording procedure can e.g., be performed via mask-less zone-plate-array lithography (ZPAL), spatial-phase-locked electron-beam lithography (SPLEBL), or focused ion-beam lithography (FIB). X-ROM manufactured by nanolithography technique is a write-once memory useful for terabit-scale memory applications, if the surface area of the smallest recording pits is less than 100 nm2. In this case the X-ROM surface-storage capacity of a square centimetre becomes by two orders of magnitude higher than the volumetric data density really achieved for three-dimensional optical data storage medium. Digital data read-out procedure from proposed X-ROM can e.g., be performed via glancing-angle incident X-ray micro beam (GIX) using the well-developed X-ray reflectometry technique. In presented theoretical paper the crystal-analyser operating like an image magnifier is added to the set-up of X-ROM data handling system for the purpose analogous to case of application the higher numerical aperture objective in optical data read-out system. We also propose the set-up of the X-ROM readout system based on more the one incident X-ray micro beam. Presented scheme of two-beam data handling system, which operates on two mutually perpendicular well-collimated monochromatic incident X-ray micro beams, essentially increases the reliability of the digital information read-out procedure. According the graphs of characteristic functions presented in

  11. Normal incidence X-ray telescope power spectra of X-ray emission from solar active regions. I - Observations. II - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Daniel O.; Martens, Petrus C. H.; Golub, Leon

    1993-01-01

    Fourier analysis is applied to very high resolution image of coronal active regions obtained by the Normal Incidence X-Ray Telescope is used to find a broad isotropic power-law spectrum of the spatial distribution of soft X-ray intensities. Magnetic structures of all sizes are present down to the resolution limit of the instrument. Power spectra for the X-ray intensities of a sample of topologically different active regions are found which fall off with increasing wavenumber as 1/k-cubed. A model is presented that relates the basic features of coronal magnetic fluctuations to the subphotospheric hydrodynamic turbulence that generates them. The model is used to find a theoretical power spectrum for the X-ray intensity which falls off with increasing wavenumber as 1/k-cubed. The implications of a turbulent regime in active regions are discussed.

  12. At-wavelength and optical metrology of bendable x-ray optics for nanofocusing at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2009-06-11

    We report on a new research and development program at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab directed to establish both at-wavelength and conventional optical metrology techniques suitable to characterize the surface profile of super-high-quality x-ray optics with sub-microradian precision.

  13. The X-ray luminosity function of active galactic nuclei in the redshift interval z=3-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakis, A.; Aird, J.; Buchner, J.; Salvato, M.; Menzel, M.-L.; Brandt, W. N.; McGreer, I. D.; Dwelly, T.; Mountrichas, G.; Koki, C.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Hsu, L.-T.; Merloni, A.; Liu, Z.; Nandra, K.; Ross, N. P.

    2015-10-01

    We combine deep X-ray survey data from the Chandra observatory and the wide-area/shallow XMM-XXL field to estimate the active galactic nuclei (AGN) X-ray luminosity function in the redshift range z = 3-5. The sample consists of nearly 340 sources with either photometric (212) or spectroscopic (128) redshift in the above range. The combination of deep and shallow survey fields also provides a luminosity baseline of three orders of magnitude, LX(2-10 keV) ≈ 1043-1046 erg s- 1 at z > 3. We follow a Bayesian approach to determine the binned AGN space density and explore their evolution in a model-independent way. Our methodology properly accounts for Poisson errors in the determination of X-ray fluxes and uncertainties in photometric redshift estimates. We demonstrate that the latter is essential for unbiased measurement of space densities. We find that the AGN X-ray luminosity function evolves strongly between the redshift intervals z = 3-4 and z = 4-5. There is also suggestive evidence that the amplitude of this evolution is luminosity dependent. The space density of AGN with LX(2-10 keV) < 1045 erg s- 1 drops by a factor of 5 between the redshift intervals above, while the evolution of brighter AGN appears to be milder. Comparison of our X-ray luminosity function with that of ultraviolet (UV)/optical selected quasi-stellar objects at similar redshifts shows broad agreement at bright luminosities, LX(2-10 keV) > 1045 erg s- 1. At fainter luminosities X-ray surveys measure higher AGN space densities. The faint-end slope of UV/optical luminosity functions, however, is steeper than for X-ray selected AGN. This implies that the Type I AGN fraction increases with decreasing luminosity at z > 3, opposite to trends established at lower redshift. We also assess the significance of AGN in keeping the hydrogen ionized at high redshift. Our X-ray luminosity function yields ionizing photon rate densities that are insufficient to keep the Universe ionized at redshift z > 4. A

  14. X-ray optics developments at the APS for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, D.M.

    1996-09-01

    High brilliance third-generation synchrotron radiation sources simultaneously provide both a need and an opportunity for the development of new x-ray optical components. The high power and power densities of the x-ray beams produced by insertion devices have forced researchers to consider novel, and what may seem like exotic, approaches to the mitigation of thermal distortions that can dilute the beam brilliance delivered to the experiment or next optical component. Once the power has been filtered by such high heat load optical elements, specialized components can be employed that take advantage of the high degree of brilliance. This presentation reviews the performance of optical components that have been designed, fabricated, and tested at the Advanced Photon Source, starting with high heat load components and followed by examples of several specialized devices such as a milli-eV resolution (in-line) monochromator, a high energy x-ray phase retarder, and a phase zone plate with submicron focusing capability.

  15. Host galaxy colour gradients and accretion disc obscuration in AEGIS z ~ 1 X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, C. M.; Lotz, J. M.; Salim, S.; Laird, E. S.; Coil, A. L.; Bundy, K.; Willmer, C. N. A.; Rosario, D. J. V.; Primack, J. R.; Faber, S. M.

    2010-10-01

    We describe the effect of active galactic nucleus (AGN) light on host galaxy optical and UV-optical colours, as determined from X-ray-selected AGN host galaxies at z ~ 1, and compare the AGN host galaxy colours to those of a control sample matched to the AGN sample in both redshift and stellar mass. We identify as X-ray-selected AGNs 8.7+4-3 per cent of the red-sequence control galaxies, 9.8 +/- 3 per cent of the blue-cloud control galaxies and 14.7+4-3 per cent of the green-valley control galaxies. The nuclear colours of AGN hosts are generally bluer than their outer colours, while the control galaxies exhibit redder nuclei. AGNs in blue-cloud host galaxies experience less X-ray obscuration, while AGNs in red-sequence hosts have more, which is the reverse of what is expected from general considerations of the interstellar medium. Outer and integrated colours of AGN hosts generally agree with the control galaxies, regardless of X-ray obscuration, but the nuclear colours of unobscured AGNs are typically much bluer, especially for X-ray luminous objects. Visible point sources are seen in many of these, indicating that the nuclear colours have been contaminated by AGN light and that obscuration of the X-ray radiation and visible light are therefore highly correlated. Red AGN hosts are typically slightly bluer than red-sequence control galaxies, which suggests that their stellar populations are slightly younger. We compare these colour data to current models of AGN formation. The unexpected trend of less X-ray obscuration in blue-cloud galaxies and more in red-sequence galaxies is problematic for all AGN feedback models, in which gas and dust is thought to be removed as star formation shuts down. A second class of models involving radiative instabilities in hot gas is more promising for red-sequence AGNs but predicts a larger number of point sources in red-sequence AGNs than is observed. Regardless, it appears that multiple AGN models are necessary to explain the

  16. Optical Spectroscopy of X-Ray-selected Young Stars in the Carina Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidya, Kaushar; Chen, Wen-Ping; Lee, Hsu-Tai

    2015-12-01

    We present low-resolution optical spectra for 29 X-ray sources identified as either massive star candidates or low-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) star candidates in the clusters Trumpler 16 and Trumpler 14 of the Carina Nebula. Spectra of two more objects (one with an X-ray counterpart, and one with no X-ray counterpart), not originally our targets, but found close (˜3″) to two of our targets, are presented as well. Twenty early-type stars, including an O8 star, seven B1-B2 stars, two B3 stars, a B5 star, and nine emission-line stars, are identified. Eleven T Tauri stars, including eight classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) and three weak-lined T Tauri stars, are identified. The early-type stars in our sample are more reddened compared to the previously known OB stars of the region. The Chandra hardness ratios of our T Tauri stars are found to be consistent with the Chandra hardness ratios of T Tauri stars of the Orion Nebula Cluster. Most early-type stars are found to be nonvariable in X-ray emission, except the B2 star J104518.81-594217.9, the B3 star J104507.84-594134.0, and the Ae star J104424.76-594555.0, which are possible X-ray variables. J104452.20-594155.1, a CTTS, is among the brightest and the hardest X-ray sources in our sample, appears to be a variable, and shows a strong X-ray flare. The mean optical and near-infrared photometric variability in the V and Ks bands, of all sources, is found to be ˜0.04 and 0.05 mag, respectively. The T Tauri stars show significantly larger mean variation, ˜0.1 mag, in the Ks band. The addition of one O star and seven B1-B2 stars reported here contributes to an 11% increase of the known OB population in the observed field. The 11 T Tauri stars are the first ever confirmed low-mass PMS stars in the Carina Nebula region.

  17. An optical supernova associated with the X-ray flash XRF 060218.

    PubMed

    Pian, E; Mazzali, P A; Masetti, N; Ferrero, P; Klose, S; Palazzi, E; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Woosley, S E; Kouveliotou, C; Deng, J; Filippenko, A V; Foley, R J; Fynbo, J P U; Kann, D A; Li, W; Hjorth, J; Nomoto, K; Patat, F; Sauer, D N; Sollerman, J; Vreeswijk, P M; Guenther, E W; Levan, A; O'Brien, P; Tanvir, N R; Wijers, R A M J; Dumas, C; Hainaut, O; Wong, D S; Baade, D; Wang, L; Amati, L; Cappellaro, E; Castro-Tirado, A J; Ellison, S; Frontera, F; Fruchter, A S; Greiner, J; Kawabata, K; Ledoux, C; Maeda, K; Møller, P; Nicastro, L; Rol, E; Starling, R

    2006-08-31

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are associated with type Ic supernovae that are more luminous than average and that eject material at very high velocities. Less-luminous supernovae were not hitherto known to be associated with GRBs, and therefore GRB-supernovae were thought to be rare events. Whether X-ray flashes--analogues of GRBs, but with lower luminosities and fewer gamma-rays--can also be associated with supernovae, and whether they are intrinsically 'weak' events or typical GRBs viewed off the axis of the burst, is unclear. Here we report the optical discovery and follow-up observations of the type Ic supernova SN 2006aj associated with X-ray flash XRF 060218. Supernova 2006aj is intrinsically less luminous than the GRB-supernovae, but more luminous than many supernovae not accompanied by a GRB. The ejecta velocities derived from our spectra are intermediate between these two groups, which is consistent with the weakness of both the GRB output and the supernova radio flux. Our data, combined with radio and X-ray observations, suggest that XRF 060218 is an intrinsically weak and soft event, rather than a classical GRB observed off-axis. This extends the GRB-supernova connection to X-ray flashes and fainter supernovae, implying a common origin. Events such as XRF 060218 are probably more numerous than GRB-supernovae. PMID:16943831

  18. X-ray, Optical and Radio Observations of the Extragalactic Superbubble N7793-S26

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannuti, Thomas; Schlegel, E. M.; Filipovic, M. D.; Crawford, E.; Payne, J.; Grimes, C. K.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength (X-ray, optical and radio) spatial and spectral analysis of the extragalactic superbubble N7793-S26. Prior observations and analysis of this source had revealed extended emission spanning nearly 400 parsecs at all three wavelength domains: the extended morphology of this object suggests a superbubble classification, prompting the argument that N7793-S26 is actually a microquasar. We investigate the microquasar interpretation of this source based on analysis of its spatial and spectral properties and compare N7793-S26 to another known extragalactic superbubble located in the Local Group Galaxy IC 10. We investigate the scenario that the soft X-ray sources seen at the northern and southern edges of N7793-S26 are actually supernova remnants and that the central hard X-ray source is an X-ray binary serendipitously located to give the appearance of a central engine with two jets. This scenario will be presented and discussed.

  19. Ab initio calculations of optical constants from ultraviolet to X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, Gildardo

    We present a theory of x-ray absorption based on the real space Green's function formalism implemented in the FEFF x-ray spectroscopy code, and test it from UV to the hard x-ray limits. The one-electron theory includes self-consistent scattering potentials, core-hole and self-energy effects, and full or high order multiple scattering. From it we derive the total photo-absorption cross section summed over all edges. In contrast to standard atomic tables, the calculations include important solid-state corrections, e.g., the x-ray absorption fine structure, inelastic losses, lifetime broadening, etc. We further show that the same theory can be used to calculate the imaginary part of the complex dielectric function, from which other optical constants can be derived, e.g., the real part of the dielectric function, the complex index of refraction, and energy loss spectra. Typical results for elemental solids are presented and compared with standard theoretical tables and with experiment.

  20. X-Ray/Optical Studies of Two Outbursts of the Intermediate Polar YY (DO) Draconis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula; Nishikida, Kaori; Erb, Dawn; Mukai, Koji; Hellier, Coel; Uemura, M.; Kato, T.; Pavlenko, Elena; Katysheva, Nataly; Shugarov, Sergei; Cook, Lew

    2002-01-01

    YY Draconis (likely the same variable called DO Draconis) is one of a small number of intermediate polars (IPs) that show outburst behavior. We report results from Target of Opportunity observations with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer, together with ground-based optical photometry during outbursts in 1999 September and 2000 November. Similar behavior was evident in both outbursts. At outburst, the X-ray flux increased by more than a factor of 12, and the spectrum became hotter and more absorbed compared to quiescence. While the spin pulse at 529 s is clearly present in the X-ray data at 2-4 days past outburst peak and during quiescence, it was not detected in the X-ray data closest to outburst (1.5 days). This is contrary to the large increase in spin pulse amplitude that has been seen during outbursts of the IPs GK Per, XY Ari, and EX Hya. The differences in YY Dra are likely due to its unique geometry, with two relatively equal poles located near the white dwarf equator. The equal enhancement of both poles near outburst could account for the low pulse amplitude, while unequal feeding of the poles as the magnetosphere recedes during decline could explain the changes in amplitude and pulse shape. The changing height of the shocks may also have an effect on the visibility of both poles.

  1. Inhomogeneous nanostructured honeycomb optical media for enhanced cathodo- and under-x-ray luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaponenko, N. V.; Kortov, V. S.; Rudenko, M. V.; Pustovarov, V. A.; Zvonarev, S. V.; Slesarev, A. I.; Molchan, I. S.; Thompson, G. E.; Khoroshko, L. S.; Prislopskii, S. Ya.

    2012-05-01

    Photo-, radio-, and pulse cathodoluminescence spectra from sol-gel derived titania, doped with strontium and terbium, deposited on porous anodic alumina (PAA) films are reported. The morphology and qualitative elemental depth distributions have been examined by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and radio-frequency glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. PAA films with pore and cell sizes ranging from 170 to 190 and 240 to 270 nm, respectively, have been generated on aluminum and monocrystalline silicon substrates followed by spin-on sol-gel derived coating with the subsequent thermal treatment. The resultant PAA surface is not coated with a continuous xerogel film; the xerogel is mainly distributed near the pore bases, leaving much of the pore volume unfilled. The xerogel/PAA structures reveal terbium-related luminescence under x-ray excitation and cathodoluminescence. The same xerogels generated on monocrystalline silicon revealed no cathode- or under-x-ray luminescence. Thus, PAA enhances strongly the cathode- and under x-ray luminescence from terbium and strontium-doped titania xerogels confined in the porous matrix. The fabricated structures are considered as a type of low-cost, thin-film convertor of x-rays, and cathode ray irradiation into visible light, with an average cell size of the convertor of about 250 nm.

  2. Simultaneous X-Ray and Optical Timing Observations of GX 339-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, Philip; Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this proposal is to perform the first comprehensive study of the correlated x-ray and optical variability of the Galactic accreting black hole candidate GX 339-4 using the x-ray and optical instruments on XMM-Newton. With these observations, we hope to make significant progress in understanding the coupled inflow - outflow system around a persistently accreting stellar mass black hole. We are currently analyzing the data. The data analysis is rather complex as it involves all of the instruments on XMM-Newton, the EPIC-PN, the EPIC-MOS, the RGS, and the OM, and our analysis requires study of correlated fast variability in the EPIC-PN and OM. We expect to have results ready to submit for publication within 3 to 4 months.

  3. Simultaneous X-Ray and Optical Timing Observations of GX 339-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, Philip; Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this proposal was to perform the first comprehensive study of the correlated x-ray and optical variability of the Galactic accreting black hole candidate GX 339-4 using the x-ray and optical instruments on XMM-Newton. With these observations, we hoped to make significant progress in understanding the coupled inflow - outflow system around a persistently accreting stellar mass black hole. The work on this project is being led by the European Science PI. The data is fully reduced. This includes the data analysis for all of the instruments on XMM-Newton, the EPIC-PN, the EPIC-MOS, the RGS, and the OM. The results are now being prepared for results for publication and will be submitted for publication after the completion of this grant.

  4. Early evolution of an X-ray emitting solar active region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfson, C. J.; Acton, L. W.; Leibacher, J. W.; Roethig, D. T.

    1977-01-01

    The birth and early evolution of a solar active region has been investigated using X-ray observations from the mapping X-ray heliometer on board the OSO-8 spacecraft. X-ray emission is observed within three hours of the first detection of H-alpha plage. At that time, a plasma temperature of four million K in a region having a density on the order of 10 to the 10th power per cu cm is inferred. During the fifty hours following birth almost continuous flares or flare-like X-ray bursts are superimposed on a monotonically increasing base level of X-ray emission produced by the plasma. If the X-rays are assumed to result from heating due to dissipation of current systems or magnetic field reconnection, it may be concluded that flare-like X-ray emission soon after active region birth implies that the magnetic field probably emerges in a stressed or complex configuration.

  5. X-ray and optical measurements of the cataclysmic variable CH UMa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. H.; Chanan, G. A.; Wilson, A. S.; Pravdo, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    A program to identify optical counterparts of X-ray sources discovered with the Einstein Observatory has resulted in an independent identification of CH UMa as a cataclysmic variable. Spectrophotometric observations made with the Intensified Image Dissector Scanner on the 2.1-m telescope at KPNO revealed an emission line spectrum from an approximately 15 mag object similar to the spectra of cataclysmic variables. A subsequent search of the Harvard photographic plate collection revealed outbursts of 4 mag in amplitude.

  6. CdTe X-ray detectors under strong optical irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cola, Adriano; Farella, Isabella

    2014-11-17

    The perturbation behaviour of Ohmic and Schottky CdTe detectors under strong optical pulses is investigated. To this scope, the electric field profiles and the induced charge transients are measured, thus simultaneously addressing fixed and free charges properties, interrelated by one-carrier trapping. The results elucidate the different roles of the contacts and deep levels, both under dark and strong irradiation conditions, and pave the way for the improvement of detector performance control under high X-ray fluxes.

  7. Sputter deposition of PZT piezoelectric films on thin glass substrates for adjustable x-ray optics.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Rudeger H T; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N; Reid, Paul B; Schwartz, Daniel A; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2013-05-10

    Piezoelectric PbZr(0.52)Ti(0.48)O(3) (PZT) thin films deposited on thin glass substrates have been proposed for adjustable optics in future x-ray telescopes. The light weight of these x-ray optics enables large collecting areas, while the capability to correct mirror figure errors with the PZT thin film will allow much higher imaging resolution than possible with conventional lightweight optics. However, the low strain temperature and flexible nature of the thin glass complicate the use of chemical-solution deposition due to warping of the substrate at typical crystallization temperatures for the PZT. RF magnetron sputtering enabled preparation of PZT films with thicknesses up to 3 μm on Schott D263 glass substrates with much less deformation. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the films crystallized with the perovskite phase and showed no indication of secondary phases. Films with 1 cm(2) electrodes exhibited relative permittivity values near 1100 and loss tangents below 0.05. In addition, the remanent polarization was 26 μC/cm(2) with coercive fields of 33 kV/cm. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient was as high as -6.1±0.6 C/m(2). To assess influence functions for the x-ray optics application, the piezoelectrically induced deflection of individual cells was measured and compared with finite-element-analysis calculations. The good agreement between the results suggests that actuation of PZT thin films can control mirror figure errors to a precision of about 5 nm, allowing sub-arcsecond imaging. PMID:23669858

  8. A proposal for an open source graphical environment for simulating x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez del Rio, Manuel; Rebuffi, Luca; Demsar, Janez; Canestrari, Niccolo; Chubar, Oleg

    2014-09-01

    A new graphic environment to drive X-ray optics simulation packages such as SHADOW and SRW is proposed. The aim is to simulate a virtual experiment, including the description of the electron beam and simulate the emitted radiation, the optics, the scattering by the sample and radiation detection. Python is chosen as common interaction language. The ingredients of the new application, a glossary of variables for optical component, the selection of visualization tools, and the integration of all these components in a high level workflow environment built on Orange are presented.

  9. The optical light curve of the low-mass X-ray binary GX 9 + 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1990-01-01

    The detection of a small modulation in the light curve of the GX 9 + 9 optical counterpart at the same period as determined from the X-ray data is reported. The optical variability is roughly sinusoidal in shape with a period of 4.198 + or - 0.0094 hours and an average peak-to-peak amplitude in the B of 0.19 mag with comparable amplitudes in the V and R bandpasses, and has superposed flickering with a typical amplitude of six percent. The mass of the companion star is deduced to be 0.4 solar mass, which corresponds to an early M-type star. The bulk of the optical light arises in the accretion disk, while the variability arises from orbital modulation of the light reprocessed off the companion star and a bright spot. It is suggested that the X-ray modulation might be due to the asymmetries of X-rays reflected off the bright spot.

  10. Optical pulsations from the anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U0142+61.

    PubMed

    Kern, B; Martin, C

    2002-05-30

    Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) differ from ordinary radio pulsars in that their X-ray luminosity is orders of magnitude greater than their rate of rotational energy loss, and so they require an additional energy source. One possibility is that AXPs are highly magnetized neuron stars or 'magnetars' having surface magnetic fields greater than 10(14) G. This would make them similar to the soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), but alternative models that do not require extreme magnetic fields also exist. An optical counterpart to the AXP 4U0142+61 was recently discovered, consistent with emission from a magnetar, but also from a magnetized hot white dwarf, or an accreting isolated neutron star. Here we report the detection of optical pulsations from 4U0142+61. The pulsed fraction of optical light (27 per cent) is five to ten times greater than that of soft X-rays, from which we conclude that 4U0142+61 is a magnetar. Although this establishes a direct relationship between AXPs and the soft gamma-ray repeaters, the evolutionary connection between AXPs, SGRs and radio pulsars remains controversial. PMID:12037561

  11. Compensation of X-ray mirror shape-errors using refractive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawhney, Kawal; Laundy, David; Dhamgaye, Vishal; Pape, Ian

    2016-08-01

    Focusing of X-rays to nanometre scale focal spots requires high precision X-ray optics. For nano-focusing mirrors, height errors in the mirror surface retard or advance the X-ray wavefront and after propagation to the focal plane, this distortion of the wavefront causes blurring of the focus resulting in a limit on the spatial resolution. We describe here the implementation of a method for correcting the wavefront that is applied before a focusing mirror using custom-designed refracting structures which locally cancel out the wavefront distortion from the mirror. We demonstrate in measurements on a synchrotron radiation beamline a reduction in the size of the focal spot of a characterized test mirror by a factor of greater than 10 times. This technique could be used to correct existing synchrotron beamline focusing and nanofocusing optics providing a highly stable wavefront with low distortion for obtaining smaller focus sizes. This method could also correct multilayer or focusing crystal optics allowing larger numerical apertures to be used in order to reduce the diffraction limited focal spot size.

  12. Technology development of adjustable grazing incidence x-ray optics for sub-arc second imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, P. B.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Cotroneo, V.; Davis, W.; Johnson-Wilke, R. L.; McMuldroch, S.; Ramsey, B. D.; Schwartz, D. A.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Vikhlinin, A.; Wilke, R. H. T.

    2012-09-01

    We report on technical progress made over the past year developing thin film piezoelectric adjustable grazing incidence optics. We believe such mirror technology represents a solution to the problem of developing lightweight, sub-arc second imaging resolution X-ray optics. Such optics will be critical to the development next decade of astronomical X-ray observatories such as SMART-X, the Square Meter Arc Second Resolution X-ray Telescope. SMART-X is the logical heir to Chandra, with 30 times the collecting area and Chandra-like imaging resolution, and will greatly expand the discovery space opened by Chandra’s exquisite imaging resolution. In this paper we discuss deposition of thin film piezoelectric material on flat glass mirrors. For the first time, we measured the local figure change produced by energizing a piezo cell - the influence function, and showed it is in good agreement with finite element modeled predictions. We determined that at least one mirror substrate material is suitably resistant to piezoelectric deposition processing temperatures, meaning the amplitude of the deformations introduced is significantly smaller than the adjuster correction dynamic range. Also, using modeled influence functions and IXO-based mirror figure errors, the residual figure error was predicted post-correction. The impact of the residual figure error on imaging performance, including any mid-frequency ripple introduced by the corrections, was modeled. These, and other, results are discussed, as well as future technology development plans.

  13. Soft-x-ray magneto-optical Kerr effect and element-specific hysteresis measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M.

    1997-04-01

    Interest in the utilization of x-ray magneto-optical properties to provide element-specific magnetic information, combined with recent development of tunable linear polarizers for spectroscopic polarization measurement, have led the authors to the study of magneto-optical rotation (MOR) near core levels of magnetic atoms in magnetic multilayer and alloy films. Their initial observation of Faraday rotation (in transmission) demonstrated that for Fe MOR is easily measured and is larger at its L{sub 3} resonance than in the near-visible spectral regions. This work also demonstrated that the spectroscopic behavior of the MOR signal in transmission, resulting from the differential reaction of left- and right-circular components of a linearly polarized beam, is related to the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), or differential absorption, as expected by a Kramers-Kronig transformation. Thus MCD measurements using circular polarization and MOR measurements using linear polarization can provide complementary, and in some cases equivalent, information. On beamline 6.3.2 the authors have begun to investigate soft x-ray MOR in the reflection geometry, the x-ray magneto-optic Kerr effect (XMOKE). Early measurements have demonstrated the ability to measure element-specific hysteresis loops and large rotations compared to analogous near-visible measurements. The authors are investigating the spectral dependence of the XMOKE signal, and have initiated systematic materials studies of sputter-deposited films of Fe, Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 1{minus}x} alloys, and Fe/Cr multilayers.

  14. Slumped glass optics for x-ray telescopes: advances in the hot slumping assisted by pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmaso, B.; Brizzolari, C.; Basso, S.; Civitani, M.; Ghigo, M.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vecchi, G.

    2015-09-01

    Slumped Glass Optics is a viable solution to build future X-ray telescopes. In our laboratories we use a direct hot slumping approach assisted by pressure, in which the glass optical surface is in contact with the mould, and a pressure is applied to enforce the replication of the mould shape on the glass optical surface. Several prototypes have been already produced and tested in X-rays, showing a continuous improvement in our technology. In this paper, we present the advances in our technology, in terms of slumped glass foils quality and expected performances upon an ideal integration. By using Eagle XG glass foils and Zerodur K20 for the slumping mould, we have fine tuned several process parameters: we present a critical analysis correlating the changes in the process to the improvements in different spatial frequency ranges encompassing the profile and roughness measurements. The use of a re-polished K20 mould, together with the optimized process parameters, lead to the latest result of glass foils with expected performance of less than 3 arcsec in single reflection at 1 keV X-ray energy. This work presents all the relevant steps forward in the hot slumping technology assisted by pressure, aimed at reaching angular resolutions of 5 arcsec for the whole mirror assembly.

  15. Long-Term Optical/X-ray Variability of CVs, LMXBs and BeX Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Phil; Kotze, Marissa; Rajoelimanana, Andry

    2010-12-01

    The study of long-term variability of interacting binaries has been revolutionised at X-ray and optical wavelengths by RXTE's all-sky monitor, combined with ground-based wide-field optical monitoring of the Magellanic Clouds and galactic bulge regions. We present a summary of long-term, super-orbital X-ray modulations detected in luminous galactic X-ray binaries, with particular emphasis on the recently identified multi-year modulations which may be related to solar-cycle-like variations in the low-mass donor stars. The MACHO and OGLE databases of SMC optical monitoring have revealed long-term (200-3000 d) variations in BeX systems that we propose are a function of the formation and depletion of the rapidly-rotating Be star's equatorial disc. We compile a list of the 7 different types of super-orbital modulations now identified in interacting binaries, based on their observed characteristics and likely physical origin.

  16. X-ray magneto-optic KERR effect studies of spring magnet heterostructures.

    SciTech Connect

    Kortright, J. B.; Kim, S.-K.; Fullerton, E. E.; Jiang, J. S.; Bader, S. D.

    2000-11-01

    The complex 3-dimensional magnetization reversal behavior of Sin-Co/Fe exchange spring films is used to test the sensitivity of different resonant soft x-ray magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) measurements to changes in longitudinal and transverse moments within the SOIIFe layer and to changes in these moments in depth within the Fe layer. As in the visible MOKE, changes in longitudinal and net transverse moments are resolved by measuring both Kerr rotation and intensity loops in the near the Fe 2p core resonance. These x-ray MOKE signals measured using linear incident polarization are more directly interpreted in terms of longitudinal and transverse moments than are the same signals measured using elliptical polarization. Varying photon energy near the Fe L3line is shown to be an effective means of resolving distinctly different reversal behavior at the top and bottom of the 20 nm thick Fe layer resulting from the strong exchange coupling at the Sin-Co/Fe interface. Measured x-ray MOKE spectra and signals are in qualitative agreement with those calculated using standard magneto-optical formalisms incorporating interference between different layers and measured helicity-dependent magneto-optical constants for Fe.

  17. X-ray magneto-optic Kerr effect studies of spring magnet heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Kortright, J.B.; Kim, Sang-Koog; Fullerton, E.E.; Jiang, J.S.; Bader, S.D.

    2000-11-02

    The complex 3-dimensional magnetization reversal behavior of Sm-Co/Fe exchange spring films is used to test the sensitivity of different resonant soft x-ray magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) measurements to changes in longitudinal and transverse moments within the soft Fe layer and to changes in these moments in depth within the Fe layer. As in the visible MOKE, changes in longitudinal and net transverse moments are resolved by measuring both Kerr rotation and intensity loops, respectively, near the Fe 2p core resonance. These x-ray MOKE signals measured using linear incident polarization are more directly interpreted in terms of longitudinal and transverse moments than are the same signals measured using elliptical polarization. Varying photon energy near the Fe L{sub 3} line is shown to be an effective means of resolving distinctly different reversal behavior at the top and bottom of the 20 nm thick Fe layer resulting from the strong exchange coupling at the Sm-Co/Fe interface. Measured x-ray MOKE spectra and signals are in qualitative agreement with those calculated using standard magneto-optical formalisms incorporating interference between different layers and measured helicity-dependent magneto-optical constants for Fe.

  18. An X-Ray Spectral Survey of Radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei with ASCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambruna, Rita M.; Eracleous, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    1999-11-01

    We present a uniform and systematic analysis of the 0.6-10 keV X-ray spectra of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed by ASCA. The sample, which is not statistically complete, includes 10 broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs), five radio-loud quasars (QSRs), nine narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRGs), and 10 radio galaxies (RGs) of mixed FR I and FR II types. For several sources the ASCA data are presented here for the first time. The exposure times of the observations and the fluxes of the objects vary over a wide range; as a result, so does the signal-to-noise ratio of the individual X-ray spectra. At soft X-rays, about 50% of NLRGs and 100% of RGs exhibit thermal plasma emission components, with bimodal distributions of temperatures and luminosities. This indicates that the emission in such an object arises in hot gas either in a surrounding cluster or loose group or in a hot corona, consistent with previous ROSAT and optical results. At energies above 2 keV, a hard power-law component (photon index Γ~1.7-1.8) is detected in 90% of cases. The power-law photon indices and luminosities in BLRGs, QSRs, and NLRGs are similar. This is consistent with simple orientation-based unification schemes for lobe-dominated radio-loud sources in which BLRGs, QSRs, and NLRGs harbor the same type of central engine. Moreover, excess cold absorption in the range 1021-1024 cm-2 is detected in most (but not all) NLRGs, consistent with absorption by obscuring tori, as postulated by unification scenarios. The ASCA data provide initial evidence that the immediate gaseous environment of the X-ray source of BLRGs may be different than in Seyfert 1 galaxies: absorption edges of ionized oxygen, common in the latter, are detected in only one BLRG. Instead we detect large columns of cold gas in a fraction (~44%-60%) of BLRGs and QSRs, comparable to the columns detected in NLRGs, which is puzzling. This difference hints at different physical and/or geometrical properties of the medium

  19. Very high resolution UV and X-ray spectroscopy and imagery of solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, M.; Brown, W. A.; Haisch, B. M.

    1987-01-01

    A scientific investigation of the physics of the solar atmosphere, which uses the techniques of high resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy and high resolution UV imagery, is described. The experiments were conducted during a series of three sounding rocket flights. All three flights yielded excellent images in the UV range, showing unprecedented spatial resolution. The second flight recorded the X-ray spectrum of a solar flare, and the third that of an active region. A normal incidence multi-layer mirror was used during the third flight to make the first astronomical X-ray observations using this new technique.

  20. X-ray cycles and magnetic activity of solar-like stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robrade, J.

    2016-06-01

    Since the beginning of its operation XMM-Newton carries out a monitoring program to study coronal cyclic behavior in stars similar to our Sun. I present highlights and recent results from the X-ray monitoring campaign, that observes neighboring stellar systems like Alpha Centauri and 61 Cygni. Cyclic activity phenomena and coronal properties are discussed and put into context of X-ray emission from the Sun and solar-type stars. As an outlook, future perspectives of stellar X-ray studies with a focus on the eROSITA all-sky survey are presented.

  1. Automated X-ray and Optical Analysis of the Virtual Observatory and Grid Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ptak, A.; Krughoff, S.; Connolly, A.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing a system to combine the Web Enabled Source Identification with X-Matching (WESIX) web service, which emphasizes source detection on optical images,with the XAssist program that automates the analysis of X-ray data. XAssist is continuously processing archival X-ray data in several pipelines. We have established a workflow in which FITS images and/or (in the case of X ray data) an X-ray field can be input to WESIX. Intelligent services return available data (if requested fields have been processed) or submit job requests to a queue to be performed asynchronously. These services will be available via web services (for non-interactive use by Virtual Observatory portals and applications) and through web applications (written in the Django web application framework). We are adding web services for specific XAssist functionality such as determining .the exposure and limiting flux for a given position on the sky and extracting spectra and images for a given region. We are improving the queuing system in XAssist to allow for "watch lists" to be specified by users, and when X-ray fields in a user's watch list become publicly available they will be automatically added to the queue. XAssist is being expanded to be used as a survey planning 1001 when coupled with simulation software, including functionality for NuStar, eRosita, IXO, and the Wide Field Xray Telescope (WFXT), as part of an end to end simulation/analysis system. We are also investigating the possibility of a dedicated iPhone/iPad app for querying pipeline data, requesting processing, and administrative job control.

  2. Automated X-ray and Optical Analysis of the Virtual Observatory and Grid Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptak, A.; Krughoff, S.; Connolly, A.

    2011-07-01

    We are developing a system to combine the Web Enabled Source Identification with X-Matching (WESIX) web service, which emphasizes source detection on optical images,with the XAssist program that automates the analysis of X-ray data. XAssist is continuously processing archival X-ray data in several pipelines. We have established a workflow in which FITS images and/or (in the case of X-ray data) an X-ray field can be input to WESIX. Intelligent services return available data (if requested fields have been processed) or submit job requests to a queue to be performed asynchronously. These services will be available via web services (for non-interactive use by Virtual Observatory portals and applications) and through web applications (written in the Django web application framework). We are adding web services for specific XAssist functionality such as determining the exposure and limiting flux for a given position on the sky and extracting spectra and images for a given region. We are improving the queuing system in XAssist to allow for "watch lists" to be specified by users, and when X-ray fields in a user's watch list become publicly available they will be automatically added to the queue. XAssist is being expanded to be used as a survey planning tool when coupled with simulation software, including functionality for NuStar, eRosita, IXO, and the Wide-Field Xray Telescope (WFXT), as part of an end-to-end simulation/analysis system. We are also investigating the possibility of a dedicated iPhone/iPad app for querying pipeline data, requesting processing, and administrative job control. This work was funded by AISRP grant NNG06GE59G.

  3. Characterization of the Optical and X-ray Properties of the Northwestern Wisps in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; Bucciantini, N.; Idec, W.; Nillson, K.; Schweizer, T.; Tennant, A. F.; Zanin, R.

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the wisps to the northwest of the Crab pulsar as part of a multi-wavelength campaign in the visible and in X-rays. Optical observations were obtained using the Nordic Optical Telescope in La Palma and X-ray observations were made with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The observing campaign took place from October 2010 until September 2012. About once per year we observe wisps forming and peeling off from (or near) the region commonly associated with the termination shock of the pulsar wind. We find that the exact locations of the northwestern wisps in the optical and in X-rays are similar but not coincident, with X-ray wisps preferentially located closer to the pulsar. This suggests that the optical and X-ray wisps are not produced by the same particle distribution. It is also interesting to note that the optical and radio wisps are also separated from each other (Bietenholz et al. 2004). Our measurements and their implications are interpreted in terms of a Doppler-boosted ring model that has its origin in MHD modeling. While the Doppler boosting factors inferred from the X-ray wisps are consistent with current MHD simulations of PWNe, the optical boosting factors are not, and typically exceed values from MHD simulations by about a factor of 4.

  4. Magnetic Dynamos and X-ray Activity in Ultracool Dwarfs (UCDs): Constraining the Role of Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin A.; Williams, P. K.; Berger, E.

    2014-01-01

    Although many fully-convective stars are magnetically active, the mechanisms by which they generate, sustain, and dissipate their magnetic fields are not well-understood. Observations suggest that empirical relations between X-ray activity, rotation, and radio emission evolve dramatically between the solar and ultracool dwarf (UCD; spectral types later than ~M6) regimes. The limited number of X-ray detections has prevented the drawing of firm conclusions, however. We combine new Chandra observations of seven late-M dwarfs with three previously-unpublished measurements from the Chandra archive and data from the literature to construct a database of 38 ultracool dwarfs with both X-ray and rotation measurements, the largest such catalog yet presented. We identify a substantial number of rapidly-rotating UCDs with X-ray activity as far as two orders of magnitude below the standard "saturation" level and find a significant anticorrelation between rotation and X-ray activity. We discuss several proposed "supersaturation" mechanisms that suggest a direct connection between faster rotation and suppression of X-ray activity and find many of them to be inconsistent with the data. We instead suggest the observed effect may be indirectly driven by a separate parameter correlated with both X-ray activity and rotation. The strength and topology of large-scale stellar magnetic fields have been found to vary widely within UCDs of similar stellar parameters. We speculate varying field topologies could explain the observed trends. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution. We also acknowledge support from the NSF through Grant AST-1008361 and from NASA through Chandra Award Number G02-13007A issued by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and NASA under contract NAS8-03060.

  5. Anisotropic elasticity of silicon and its application to the modelling of X-ray optics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Barrett, Raymond; Cloetens, Peter; Detlefs, Carsten; Sanchez del Rio, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The crystal lattice of single-crystal silicon gives rise to anisotropic elasticity. The stiffness and compliance coefficient matrix depend on crystal orientation and, consequently, Young’s modulus, the shear modulus and Poisson’s ratio as well. Computer codes (in Matlab and Python) have been developed to calculate these anisotropic elasticity parameters for a silicon crystal in any orientation. These codes facilitate the evaluation of these anisotropy effects in silicon for applications such as microelectronics, microelectromechanical systems and X-ray optics. For mechanically bent X-ray optics, it is shown that the silicon crystal orientation is an important factor which may significantly influence the optics design and manufacturing phase. Choosing the appropriate crystal orientation can both lead to improved performance whilst lowering mechanical bending stresses. The thermal deformation of the crystal depends on Poisson’s ratio. For an isotropic constant Poisson’s ratio, ν, the thermal deformation (RMS slope) is proportional to (1 + ν). For a cubic anisotropic material, the thermal deformation of the X-ray optics can be approximately simulated by using the average of ν12 and ν13 as an effective isotropic Poisson’s ratio, where the direction 1 is normal to the optic surface, and the directions 2 and 3 are two normal orthogonal directions parallel to the optical surface. This average is independent of the direction in the optical surface (the crystal plane) for Si(100), Si(110) and Si(111). Using the effective isotropic Poisson’s ratio for these orientations leads to an error in thermal deformation smaller than 5.5%. PMID:24763640

  6. The X-Ray through Optical Fluxes and Line Strengths of Tidal Disruption Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Nathaniel; Kasen, Daniel; Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    We study the emission from tidal disruption events (TDEs) produced as radiation from black hole accretion propagates through an extended, optically thick envelope formed from stellar debris. We analytically describe key physics controlling spectrum formation, and present detailed radiative transfer calculations that model the spectral energy distribution and optical line strengths of TDEs near peak brightness. The steady-state transfer is coupled to a solver for the excitation and ionization states of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen (as a representative metal), without assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium. Our calculations show how an extended envelope can reprocess a fraction of soft X-rays and produce the observed optical fluxes of the order of 1043 erg s‑1, with an optical/UV continuum that is not described by a single blackbody. Variations in the mass or size of the envelope may help explain how the optical flux changes over time with roughly constant color. For high enough accretion luminosities, X-rays can escape to be observed simultaneously with the optical flux. Due to optical depth effects, hydrogen Balmer line emission is often strongly suppressed relative to helium line emission (with He ii-to-H line ratios of at least 5:1 in some cases) even in the disruption of a solar-composition star. We discuss the implications of our results to understanding the type of stars destroyed in TDEs and the physical processes responsible for producing the observed flares.

  7. Characterization of the Optical and X-ray Properties of the Northwestern Wisps in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; Tennant, A.; Schweizer, T.; Bucciantini, N.; Nilsson, K.

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the variability of the Crab Nebula both in the visible and in X -rays. Optical observations were obtained using the Nordic Optical Telescope in La Palma and X -ray observations were made with the Chandra X -Ray Observatory. We observe wisps forming and peeling off from the region commonly associated with the termination shock of the pulsar wind. We measure a number of properties of the wisps to the Northwest of the pulsar. We find that the exact locations of the wisps in the optical and in X-rays are similar but not coincident, with the X-ray wisp preferentially located closer to the pulsar. Our measurements and their implications are interpreted in terms of a MHD model. We find that the optical wisps are more strongly Doppler boosted than X-ray wisps, a result inconsistent with current MHD simulations. Indeed the inferred optical boosting factors exceed MHD simulation values by about one order of magnitude. These findings suggest that the optical and X-ray wisps are not produced by the same particle distribution, a result which is consistent with the spatial differences. Further, the X -ray wisps and optical wisps are apparently developing independently from each other, but every time a new X ]ray wisp is born so is an optical wisp, thus pointing to a possible common cause or trigger. Finally, we find that the typical wisp formation rate is approximately once per year, interestingly at about the same rate of production of the large gamma-ray flares.

  8. Low-mass Active Galactic Nuclei with Rapid X-Ray Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Luis C.; Kim, Minjin

    2016-04-01

    We present a detailed study of the optical spectroscopic properties of 12 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with candidate low-mass black holes (BHs) selected by Kamizasa et al. through rapid X-ray variability. The high-quality, echellette Magellan spectra reveal broad Hα emission in all the sources, allowing us to estimate robust virial BH masses and Eddington ratios for this unique sample. We confirm that the sample contains low-mass BHs accreting at high rates: the median MBH = 1.2 × 106 M⊙ and median Lbol/LEdd = 0.44. The sample follows the MBH–σ* relation, within the considerable scatter typical of pseudobulges, the probable hosts of these low-mass AGNs. Various lines of evidence suggest that ongoing star formation is prevalent in these systems. We propose a new strategy to estimate star formation rates in AGNs hosted by low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies, based on modification of an existing method using the strength of [O ii] λ3727, [O iii] λ5007, and X-rays.

  9. Influence of structural disorder on soft x-ray optical behavior of NbC thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Amol E-mail: rrcat.amol@gmail.com; Modi, Mohammed H.; Sinha, A. K.; Lodha, G. S.; Rajput, Parasmani

    2015-05-07

    Structural and chemical properties of compound materials are modified, when thin films are formed from bulk materials. To understand these changes, a study was pursued on niobium carbide (NbC) thin films of different thicknesses deposited on Si (100) substrate using ion beam sputtering technique. Optical response of the film was measured in 4–36 nm wavelength region using Indus-1 reflectivity beamline. A discrepancy in soft x-ray performance of NbC film was observed which could not be explained with Henke's tabulated data (see http://henke.lbl.gov/optical{sub c}onstants/ ). In order to understand this, detailed structural and chemical investigations were carried out using x-ray reflectivity, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, x-ray absorption near edge structure, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. It was found that the presence of unreacted carbon and Nb deficiency due to reduced Nb-Nb coordination are responsible for lower soft x-ray reflectivity performance. NbC is an important material for soft x-ray optical devices, hence the structural disorder need to be controlled to achieve the best performances.

  10. X-ray, UV and optical analysis of supergiants: ɛ Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puebla, Raul E.; Hillier, D. John; Zsargó, Janos; Cohen, David H.; Leutenegger, Maurice A.

    2016-03-01

    We present a multi-wavelength (X-ray to optical) analysis, based on non-local thermodynamic equilibrium photospheric+wind models, of the B0 Ia-supergiant: ɛ Ori. The aim is to test the consistency of physical parameters, such as the mass-loss rate and CNO abundances, derived from different spectral bands. The derived mass-loss rate is {dot {M}} / {√{f_{∞}}} {˜} 1.6 × 10-6 M⊙ yr-1 where f∞ is the volume filling factor. However, the S IV λλ1062,1073 profiles are too strong in the models; to fit the observed profiles it is necessary to use f∞ <0.01. This value is a factor of 5 to 10 lower than inferred from other diagnostics, and implies {dot{M}} ≲ 1 × 10^{-7} M⊙ yr-1. The discrepancy could be related to porosity-vorosity effects or a problem with the ionization of sulphur in the wind. To fit the UV profiles of N V and O VI it was necessary to include emission from an interclump medium with a density contrast (ρcl/ρICM) of ˜100. X-ray emission in H/He like and Fe L lines was modelled using four plasma components located within the wind. We derive plasma temperatures from 1 × 106 to 7 × 106 K, with lower temperatures starting in the outer regions (R0 ˜ 3-6 R*), and a hot component starting closer to the star (R0 ≲ 2.9 R*). From X-ray line profiles we infer {dot{M}} < 4.9 × 10-7 M⊙ yr-1. The X-ray spectrum (≥0.1 kev) yields an X-ray luminosity LX ˜ 2.0 × 10-7Lbol, consistent with the superion line profiles. X-ray abundances are in agreement with those derived from the UV and optical analysis: ɛ Ori is slightly enhanced in nitrogen and depleted in carbon and oxygen, evidence for CNO processed material.

  11. X-Ray Spectroscopy of Optically Bright Planets using the Chandra Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, P. G.; Elsner, R. F.

    2005-01-01

    Since its launch in July 1999, Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) has observed several planets (Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn) and 6 comets. At 0.5 arc-second spatial resolution, ACIS detects individual x-ray photons with good quantum efficiency (25% at 0.6 KeV) and energy resolution (20% FWHM at 0.6 KeV). However, the ACIS CCDs are also sensitive to optical and near-infrared light, which is absorbed by optical blocking filters (OBFs) that eliminate optical contamination from all but the brightest extended sources, e.g., planets. .Jupiter at opposition subseconds approx.45 arc-seconds (90 CCD pixels.) Since Chandra is incapable of tracking a moving target, the planet takes 10 - 20 kiloseconds to move across the most sensitive ACIS CCD, after which the observatory must be re-pointed. Meanwhile, the OBF covering that CCD adds an opt,ical signal equivalent to approx.110 eV to each pixel that lies within thc outline of the Jovian disk. This has three consequences: (1) the observatory must be pointed away from Jupiter while CCD bias maps are constructed; (2) most x-rays from within the optical image will be misidentified as charged-particle background and ignored; and (3) those x-rays that are reported will bc assigned anomalously high energies. The same also applies to thc other planets, but is less serious since they are either dimmer at optical wavelengths, or they show less apparent motion across the sky, permitting reduced CCD exposure times: the optical contamination from Saturn acids approx.15 eV per pixel, and from Mars and Venus approx.31 eV. After analyzing a series of short .Jupiter observations in December 2000, ACIS parameters were optimized for the February 2003 opposition. CCD bias maps were constructed while Chandra pointed away from Jupiter, and the subsequent observations employed on-board software to ignore any pixel that contained less charge than that expected from optical leakage. In addition, ACIS was commanded to report 5 x 5

  12. Optical, radio and x-ray radiation of red sprites produced by runaway air breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Yukhimuk, V.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E.; Taranenko, Y.

    1997-04-01

    The authors use the runaway air breakdown model of upward discharges to calculate optical, radio, and X-ray radiation generated by red sprites. Red sprites are high altitude (up to 90 km) lightning discharges. Aircraft based observations show that sprites are predominantly red in color at altitudes above {approximately}55 km with faint blue tendrils, which extend downward to an altitude of 40 km; the duration of a single sprite is less than 17 ms, their maximum brightness is about 600 kR, and estimated total optical energy is about 1--5 kJ per event. The ground based observations show similar results, and provide some additional information on spatial and temporal structure of sprites, and on sprite locations. One difference between aircraft and ground-based observations is that blue tendrils are rarely observed from the ground. Sprites usually occur above the anvils of large mesoscale convective systems and correlate with strong positive cloud to ground discharge. Upward discharges are the most probable source of X-ray emission observed above large thunderstorm complexes by the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory. To escape the atmosphere these {gamma}-rays must originate above 25 km altitude. Red sprites are usually observed at altitudes higher than 50 km, and are therefore a likely source of this x-ray emission.

  13. Theoretical Analysis of X-ray Compound Refractive Lens Optical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, V.; Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.

    2004-05-12

    We present a theoretical analysis of optical properties of parabolic compound refractive lenses (CRL). The parabolic CRL with a large number of elements is considered as a parabolic medium along the x-ray path. The problem of x-ray coherent wave propagation inside such a medium is solved exactly. The analytical formula is obtained for the parabolic CRL imaging propagator as a parabolic wave with complex parameters due to absorption of x rays inside the lens. The fast and universal computer program is developed for simulating the CRL generated images. An imaging example of a test object as a silicon plate of 3 {mu}m thickness with a round hole of 3 {mu}m diameter is presented and discussed in details. The main optical parameters of parabolic CRL such as an effective aperture, a diffraction limited resolution and a focal distance are calculated analytically and discussed. It is shown that parabolic CRL has no spherical aberration while long single plano-concave and bi-concave lenses have.

  14. The X-ray Properties of PS1 Optical Galaxy Survey Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeter, Doug; Ptak, A.; Thilker, D. A.; Hornschemeier, A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Through the 2013 Baltimore Excellence in STEM Teaching (BEST) program for high school science teachers sponsored by NASA and Towson University of Maryland, we studied the association of x-ray luminosity with star formation rates and stellar masses estimated from optical images in the PS1 Optical Galaxy Survey (POGS) project. POGS is an ongoing citizen science program in which maps of star formation rate, stellar masses and other parameters are computed based on pixel-by-pixel spectral energy distribution fitting of Pan-STARRS and Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric data (later to be expanded to include WISE and Galex images). The computation of these models is distributed using BOINC. The sample for this pilot study was based upon galaxies meeting the POGS selection criteria (most galaxies north of declination -30 degrees) with high Chandra exposure times, a redshift of less than 0.01, and that had been processed by POGS as of July 2013, resulting in 67 galaxies. We will discuss our preliminary results and prospects for expanding the project to the entire catalog of galaxies covered by both POGS and the X-ray archive and more detailed analysis of regions within galaxies with sufficient X-ray flux.

  15. Optimization of radiation damage to proteins using X-ray nanofocusing optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boularaoui, Selwa; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Lee, S.; Isakovic, A. F.

    2013-03-01

    The need to understand protein structure and perform treatment lead to the use of X-ray and particle-based radiation. Since the use of such radiation has undesirable side effects, mostly through the damage to proteins, it is important to continuously work on decreasing radiation damage. We outline the proposal to use the kinoform refractive optics to focus X-rays on the nanoscale to minimize the radiation damage to protein crystals under study. These optics devices are nanofabricated from low-Z elements (silicon, diamond) and can be used at synchrotron X-ray radiation facilities. We discuss the automated setup that performs nanopositioning of the nanofocusing element, and collects the chemical and structural protein solution under study. We offer simple mathematical models in irradiation and in treatment that help optimize the radiation parameters. This work is supported in part by Khalifa University IRF-Level 1 Fund. The work at BNL-NSLS is supported through US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  16. The optics system of the New Hard X-ray Mission: design and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Stefano; Pareschi, Giovanni; Citterio, Oberto; Spiga, Daniele; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Civitani, Marta; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Sironi, Giorgia; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Negri, Barbara; Parodi, Giancarlo; Martelli, Francesco; Borghi, Giuseppe; Orlandi, Alessandro; Vernani, Dervis; Valsecchi, Giuseppe; Binda, Riccardo; Romaine, Suzanne; Gorenstein, Paul; Attinà, Primo

    2010-07-01

    The New Hard X-ray Mission (NHXM) project will be operated by 2016 and is currently undergoing the Phase B study. It is based on 4 hard X-ray optics modules, each formed by 60 evenly spaced multilayer coated Wolter I mirror shells. An extensible bench is used to reach the 10 m focal length. The Wolter I monolithic substrates with multilayer coating are produced in NiCo by electroforming replication. Three of the mirror modules will host in the focal plane a hybrid a detector system (a soft X-ray Si DEPFET array plus a high energy CdTe detector). The detector of the fourth telescope will be a photoelectric polarimeter with imaging capabilities, operating from 2 up to 35 keV. The total on axis effective area of the three telescopes at 1 keV and 30 kev is of 1500 cm2 and 350 cm2 respectively, with an angular resolution of 20 arcsec HEW at 30 keV. In this paper we report on the design and development of the multilayer optics of the mission, based on thin replicated Ni mirror shells.

  17. Development of a prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X hard x-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaine, S.; Basso, S.; Bruni, R. J.; Burkert, W.; Citterio, O.; Cotroneo, V.; Engelhaupt, D.; Freyberg, M. J.; Gorenstein, P.; Gubarev, M.; Hartner, G.; Mazzoleni, F.; O'Dell, S.; Pareschi, G.; Ramsey, B. D.; Speegle, C.; Spiga, D.

    2007-09-01

    The Constellation-X mission concept has been streamlined to a single Atlas V 551 configuration. This decision was reached by the project team after considering the increases in launch costs announced in 2006 coupled with the constrained budget environment apparent with the release of the NASA 2007 budget. Along with the Spectroscopy X-ray Telescopes, this new configuration continues to carry a Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) component, with some modifications to the original requirements to adjust to the new configuration. The total effective area requirement in the 7 - 40 keV band has been reduced, but at the same time the angular resolution requirement has been increased from 1 arcmin to 30 arcsec. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Marshall Space Flight Center and Brera Observatory, Italy) have been collaborating to develop and HXT which meets the requirements of Constellation-X. The development work we have been engaged in to produce multilayer coated Electroformed-Nickel-Replicate (ENR) shells is well suited for this new configuration. We report here on results of fabrication and testing of a prototyped optic for the HXT. Full beam illumination X-ray tests, taken at MPE-Panter Test Facility, show that these optics meet the new requirement of 30 arcsec for the streamlined Constellation-X configuration. This report also presents preliminary results from studies using titanium nitride as a release agent to simplify and improve the nickel electroforming replication process.

  18. Development Status of Adjustable Grazing Incidence Optics for 0.5 Arcsecond X-Ray Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Paul B.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Allured, Ryan; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Marquez, Vanessa; McMuldroch, Stuart; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Zhao, Rui

    2014-01-01

    We describe progress in the development of adjustable grazing incidence X-ray optics for 0.5 arcsec resolution cosmic X-ray imaging. To date, no optics technology is available to blend high resolution imaging like the Chandra X-ray Observatory, with square meter collecting area. Our approach to achieve these goals simultaneously is to directly deposit thin film piezoelectric actuators on the back surface of thin, lightweight Wolter-I or Wolter- Schwarschild mirror segments. The actuators are used to correct mirror figure errors due to fabrication, mounting and alignment, using calibration and a one-time figure adjustment on the ground. If necessary, it will also be possible to correct for residual gravity release and thermal effects on-orbit. In this paper we discuss our most recent results measuring influence functions of the piezoelectric actuators using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. We describe accelerated and real-time lifetime testing of the piezoelectric material, and we also discuss changes to, and recent results of, our simulations of mirror correction.

  19. X-ray-Excited Optical Luminescence (XEOL) and X-ray Absorption Fine Structures (XAFS) Studies of Gold(I) Complexes with Diphosphine and Bipyridine Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Pil-Sook G.; Hu, Yongfeng; Brandys, Marie-C.; Burchell, Tara J.; Puddephatt, Richard J.; Sham, Tsun K.

    2008-10-14

    Synchrotron techniques, X-ray-excited optical luminescence (XEOL) combined with X-ray absorption fine structures (XAFS), have been used to study the electronic structure and optical properties of a series of luminescent gold(I) complexes with diphosphine and bipyridine ligands using tunable X-rays (in the regions of the C and P K-edges and the Au L{sub 3}-edge) and UV from synchrotron light sources. The effects of gold-ligand and aurophilic interactions on the luminescence from these gold(I) complexes have been investigated. It is found that the luminescence from these complexes is phosphorescence, primarily due to the decay of the Au (5d) {yields} PR{sub 3} ({pi}*), metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excitation as well as contributions from the conjugated {pi}-system in the bipyridine ligands via the gold-nitrogen bond. The large Au 5d spin-orbit coupling enhances the intersystem crossing. The elongation of the hydrocarbon chain of the diphosphine ligand does not greatly affect the spectral features of the luminescence from the gold(I) complexes. However, the intensity of the luminescence was reduced significantly when the bipyridine ligand was replaced with 1,2-bis(4-pyridylamido)benzene. The aurophilic interaction, as investigated by EXAFS at the Au L{sub 3}-edge, is shown to be only one of the factors that contribute to the luminescence of the complexes.

  20. Electronic structure and optical properties of CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} solid solution nanostructures from X-ray absorption near edge structure, X-ray excited optical luminescence, and density functional theory investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M. W.; Yiu, Y. M. Sham, T. K.; Ward, M. J.; Liu, L.; Hu, Y.; Zapien, J. A.; Liu, Yingkai

    2014-11-21

    The electronic structure and optical properties of a series of iso-electronic and iso-structural CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} solid solution nanostructures have been investigated using X-ray absorption near edge structure, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and X-ray excited optical luminescence at various absorption edges of Cd, S, and Se. It is found that the system exhibits compositions, with variable local structure in-between that of CdS and CdSe accompanied by tunable optical band gap between that of CdS and CdSe. Theoretical calculation using density functional theory has been carried out to elucidate the observations. It is also found that luminescence induced by X-ray excitation shows new optical channels not observed previously with laser excitation. The implications of these observations are discussed.