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Sample records for active x-ray telescopes

  1. Toward Active X-ray Telescopes II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Aldroft, Thomas L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Lillie, Charles F.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Sanmartin, Daniel Rodriguez; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Ulmer, Melville P.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2012-01-01

    In the half century since the initial discovery of an astronomical (non-solar) x-ray source, the sensitivity for detection of cosmic x-ray sources has improved by ten orders of magnitude. Largely responsible for this dramatic progress has been the refinement of the (grazing-incidence) focusing x-ray telescope. The future of x-ray astronomy relies upon the development of x-ray telescopes with larger aperture areas (greater than 1 m2) and finer angular resolution (less than 1.). Combined with the special requirements of grazing-incidence optics, the mass and envelope constraints of space-borne telescopes render such advances technologically challenging.requiring precision fabrication, alignment, and assembly of large areas (greater than 100 m2) of lightweight (approximately 1 kg m2 areal density) mirrors. Achieving precise and stable alignment and figure control may entail active (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. This paper discusses relevant programmatic and technological issues and summarizes progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  2. Toward active x-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2011-09-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution (< 1") optics with very-large-aperture (> 25 m2) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kg/m2 or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve active (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, active optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States (US). This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  3. The x-ray/EUV telescope for the Solar-C mission: science and development activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakao, Taro; Narukage, Noriyuki; Imada, Shinsuke; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Shimojo, Masumi; Tsuneta, Saku; DeLuca, Edward E.; Watanabe, Kyoko; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke

    2012-09-01

    We report science and development activities of the X-ray/EUV telescope for the Japanese Solar-C mission whose projected launch around 2019. The telescope consists of a package of (a) a normal-incidence (NI) EUV telescope and (b) a grazing-incidence (GI) soft X-ray telescope. The NI telescope chiefly provides images of low corona (whose temperature 1 MK or even lower) with ultra-high angular resolution (0.2-0.3"/pixel) in 3 wavelength bands (304, 171, and 94 angstroms). On the other hand, the GI telescope provides images of the corona with a wide temperature coverage (1 MK to beyond 10 MK) with the highest-ever angular resolution (~0.5"/pixel) as a soft X-ray coronal imager. The set of NI and GI telescopes should provide crucial information for establishing magnetic and gas-dynamic connection between the corona and the lower atmosphere of the Sun which is essential for understanding heating of, and plasma activities in, the corona. Moreover, we attempt to implement photon-counting capability for the GI telescope with which imaging-spectroscopy of the X-ray corona will be performed for the first time, in the energy range from ~0.5 keV up to 10 keV. The imaging-spectroscopic observations will provide totally-new information on mechanism(s) for the generation of hot coronal plasmas (heated beyond a few MK), those for magnetic reconnection, and even generation of supra-thermal electrons associated with flares. An overview of instrument outline and science for the X-ray photoncounting telescope are presented, together with ongoing development activities in Japan towards soft X-ray photoncounting observations, focusing on high-speed X-ray CMOS detector and sub-arcsecond-resolution GI mirror.

  4. Focusing X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen; Brissenden, Roger; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terrance; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhall; Jerlus, Diab; Juda, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Murray, Stephen; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William; Ramsey, Brian; Reid, Paul; Saha, Timo; Wolk, Scott; Troller-McKinstry, Susan; Weisskopf, Martin; Wilke, Rudeger; Zhang, William

    2010-01-01

    During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, focusing x-ray telescopes, through increased effective area and finer angular resolution, have improved sensitivity by 8 orders of magnitude. Here, we review previous and current x-ray-telescope missions. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility, the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility, Generation X. Its scientific objectives will require very large areas (about 10,000 sq m) of highly-nested, lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors, with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsec) resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure.

  5. Normal incidence X-ray telescope power spectra of X-ray emission from solar active regions. I - Observations. II - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Daniel O.; Martens, Petrus C. H.; Golub, Leon

    1993-01-01

    Fourier analysis is applied to very high resolution image of coronal active regions obtained by the Normal Incidence X-Ray Telescope is used to find a broad isotropic power-law spectrum of the spatial distribution of soft X-ray intensities. Magnetic structures of all sizes are present down to the resolution limit of the instrument. Power spectra for the X-ray intensities of a sample of topologically different active regions are found which fall off with increasing wavenumber as 1/k-cubed. A model is presented that relates the basic features of coronal magnetic fluctuations to the subphotospheric hydrodynamic turbulence that generates them. The model is used to find a theoretical power spectrum for the X-ray intensity which falls off with increasing wavenumber as 1/k-cubed. The implications of a turbulent regime in active regions are discussed.

  6. Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Gerald K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes, using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution many orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the super-massive black holes in the center of active galaxies. What then is precluding their immediate adoption? Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history, and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed.

  7. Modeling active region transient brightenings observed with X-ray telescope as multi-stranded loops

    SciTech Connect

    Kobelski, Adam R.; McKenzie, David E.; Donachie, Martin

    2014-05-10

    Strong evidence exists that coronal loops as observed in extreme ultraviolet and soft X-rays may not be monolithic isotropic structures, but can often be more accurately modeled as bundles of independent strands. Modeling the observed active region transient brightenings (ARTBs) within this framework allows for the exploration of the energetic ramifications and characteristics of these stratified structures. Here we present a simple method of detecting and modeling ARTBs observed with the Hinode X-Ray Telescope (XRT) as groups of zero-dimensional strands, which allows us to probe parameter space to better understand the spatial and temporal dependence of strand heating in impulsively heated loops. This partially automated method can be used to analyze a large number of observations to gain a statistical insight into the parameters of coronal structures, including the number of heating events required in a given model to fit the observations. In this article, we present the methodology and demonstrate its use in detecting and modeling ARTBs in a sample data set from Hinode/XRT. These initial results show that, in general, multiple heating events are necessary to reproduce observed ARTBs, but the spatial dependence of these heating events cannot yet be established.

  8. Nearly Anastigmatic X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsch, D.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed X-ray telescope made of many concentric reflecting rings, each of which consists of two portions of cone. Proposed design is variation on conventional grazing incidence X-ray telescope, which has just one twosegment reflecting element but suffers from excessive astigmatism and field curvature. Using many short elements instead of single long element, new design gives nearly anastigmatic image.

  9. Extended range X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An X-ray telescope system is described which is comprised of a tubular mount having a collecting region remote from the one axial end. A soft X-ray/XUV subsystem associated with the collecting region directs only relatively soft, near on-axis X-rays/XUV radiation incident on a first portion of the collecting region into a first detector sensitive to relatively soft X-rays/XUV radiation. A hard X-ray subsystem associated with the collecting region directs only relatively hard near on-axis X-rays incident on a second portion of the collecting region into a second detector sensitive to relatively hard X-rays.

  10. Variable magnification glancing incidence x ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A multispectral glancing incidence x ray telescope is disclosed, which capable of broadband, high resolution imaging of solar and stellar x ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation sources includes a primary optical system which focuses the incoming radiation to a primary focus. Two or more ellipsoidal mirrors are positioned behind the primary focus at an inclination to the optical axis, each mirror having a concave surface coated with a multilayer synthetic microstructure coating to reflect a desired wavelength. The ellipsoidal mirrors are segments of respective ellipsoids having a common first focus coincident with the primary focus. A detector such as an x ray sensitive photographic film is positioned at the second focus of each of the ellipsoids so that each of the ellipsoidal mirrors may reflect the image at the first focus to the detector. In one embodiment the mirrors are inclined at different angles and has its respective second focus at a different location, separate detectors being located at the respective second focus. The mirrors are arranged so that the magnification and field of view differ, and a solenoid activated arm may withdraw at least one mirror from the beam to select the mirror upon which the beam is to impinge so that selected magnifications and fields of view may be detected.

  11. Toward Adaptive X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Tim W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peer; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey J.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution (less than 1 inch) optics with very-large-aperture (greater than 25 square meter) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the surface areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kilogram per square meter or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve adaptive (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, adaptive optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States, and the Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom. This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward adaptive x-ray telescopes.

  12. High-resolution x-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Brissenden, Roger J.; Davis, William N.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Elvis, Martin S.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gaetz, Terrance; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Jerius, Diab; Juda, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Murray, Stephen S.; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Saha, Timo; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Wolk, Scott; Zhang, William W.

    2010-08-01

    High-energy astrophysics is a relatively young scientific field, made possible by space-borne telescopes. During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, the sensitivity of focusing x-ray telescopes-through finer angular resolution and increased effective area-has improved by a factor of a 100 million. This technological advance has enabled numerous exciting discoveries and increasingly detailed study of the high-energy universe-including accreting (stellarmass and super-massive) black holes, accreting and isolated neutron stars, pulsar-wind nebulae, shocked plasma in supernova remnants, and hot thermal plasma in clusters of galaxies. As the largest structures in the universe, galaxy clusters constitute a unique laboratory for measuring the gravitational effects of dark matter and of dark energy. Here, we review the history of high-resolution x-ray telescopes and highlight some of the scientific results enabled by these telescopes. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility-the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility-Generation X. The scientific objectives of such a mission will require very large areas (about 10000 m2) of highly-nested lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsecond) angular resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure.

  13. Hartman Testing of X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.; Biskasch, Michael; Zhang, William W.

    2013-01-01

    Hartmann testing of x-ray telescopes is a simple test method to retrieve and analyze alignment errors and low-order circumferential errors of x-ray telescopes and their components. A narrow slit is scanned along the circumference of the telescope in front of the mirror and the centroids of the images are calculated. From the centroid data, alignment errors, radius variation errors, and cone-angle variation errors can be calculated. Mean cone angle, mean radial height (average radius), and the focal length of the telescope can also be estimated if the centroid data is measured at multiple focal plane locations. In this paper we present the basic equations that are used in the analysis process. These equations can be applied to full circumference or segmented x-ray telescopes. We use the Optical Surface Analysis Code (OSAC) to model a segmented x-ray telescope and show that the derived equations and accompanying analysis retrieves the alignment errors and low order circumferential errors accurately.

  14. OPTICAL SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF SWIFT BURST ALERT TELESCOPE HARD X-RAY-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, Lisa M.; Keeney, Brian; Lewis, Karen T.; Koss, Michael; Veilleux, Sylvain; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2010-02-10

    The Swift Burst Alert Telescope survey of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is providing an unprecedented view of local AGNs ((z) {approx} 0.03) and their host galaxy properties. In this paper, we present an analysis of the optical spectra of a sample of 64 AGNs from the nine month survey, detected solely based on their 14-195 keV flux. Our analysis includes both archived spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and our own observations from the 2.1 m Kitt Peak National Observatory telescope. Among our results, we include line ratio classifications utilizing standard emission line diagnostic plots, [O III] 5007 A luminosities, and Hbeta-derived black hole masses. As in our X-ray study, we find the type 2 sources to be less luminous (in [O III] 5007 A and 14-195 keV luminosities) with lower accretion rates than the type 1 sources. We find that the optically classified low-ionization narrow emission line regions, H II/composite galaxies, and ambiguous sources have the lowest luminosities, while both broad-line and narrow-line Seyferts have similar luminosities. From a comparison of the hard X-ray (14-195 keV) and [O III] luminosities, we find that both the observed and extinction-corrected [O III] luminosities are weakly correlated with X-ray luminosity. In a study of the host galaxy properties from both continuum fits and measurements of the stellar absorption indices, we find that the hosts of the narrow-line sources have properties consistent with late-type galaxies.

  15. Characteristics of Anemone Active Regions Appearing in Coronal Holes Observed with the Yohkoh Soft X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, Ayumi; Shibata, Kazunari; Hara, Hirohisa; Nitta, Nariaki V.

    2008-02-01

    Coronal structure of active regions appearing in coronal holes is studied, using data that were obtained with the Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) aboard Yohkoh between 1991 November and 1993 March. The following characteristics are found. Many of the active regions (ARs) appearing in coronal holes show a structure that looks like a sea anemone. Such active regions are called anemone ARs. About one-fourth of all active regions that were observed with SXT from their births showed the anemone structure. For almost all the anemone ARs, the order of the magnetic polarities is consistent with the Hale-Nicholson polarity law. These anemone ARs also showed, to a greater or lesser extent, an east-west asymmetry in the X-ray intensity distribution, such that the following (eastern) part of the AR was brighter than its preceding (western) part. This, as well as the anemone shape itself, is consistent with the magnetic polarity distribution around the anemone ARs. These observations also suggest that an active region appearing in coronal holes has a simpler (less sheared) and more preceding-spot-dominant magnetic structure than those appearing in other regions.

  16. High-Resolution X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODell, Stephen L.; Brissenden, Roger J.; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald F.; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terry; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental needs for future x-ray telescopes: a) Sharp images => excellent angular resolution. b) High throughput => large aperture areas. Generation-X optics technical challenges: a) High resolution => precision mirrors & alignment. b) Large apertures => lots of lightweight mirrors. Innovation needed for technical readiness: a) 4 top-level error terms contribute to image size. b) There are approaches to controlling those errors. Innovation needed for manufacturing readiness. Programmatic issues are comparably challenging.

  17. The Swift X-ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. E.; Burrows, D. N.; Nousek, J. A.; Wells, A.; Turner, M.; Willingale, R.; Holland, A.; Citterio, O.; Chincarini, G.; Campana, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Swift XRT Team

    1999-12-01

    The Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer will be launched in 2003 to observe hundreds of gamma ray bursts per year and study their X-ray and optical afterglows, using a multiwavelength complement of three instruments: a wide-field Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), an X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and a UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT). The XRT is designed to study X-ray counterparts of the gamma ray bursts and their afterglows, beginning 20--70 s from the time of the burst, and continuing for days or weeks. The XRT utilizes a superb mirror set built for JET-X (Citterio et al. 1996) and a state-of-the-art XMM/EPIC CCD detector to provide a sensitive broad-band (0.2-10 keV) X-ray imager with effective area of 110 cm2 at 1.5 keV, field of view of 23.6 x 23.6 arcminutes, and angular resolution of 15 arcsec HPD. The sensitivity is 2 x 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1 in 104 seconds. The telescope electronics will be designed to provide automated source detection and position reporting, with a position good to 2.5 arcseconds transmitted to the ground within two minutes of the burst detection. The XRT will operate in an auto-exposure mode, adjusting the CCD readout mode automatically to optimize the science return for each frame as the source fades. The XRT will measure spectra and lightcurves of the GRB afterglow beginning within about a minute after the burst and will follow each burst until it fades from view, typically monitoring 2-3 ``old'' bursts at a time while waiting for a new burst to be detected. This work is supported at Penn State by NASA grant NAG5-8401 and at Leicester University by funding from PPARC.

  18. Active and passive shielding design optimization and technical solutions for deep sensitivity hard x-ray focusing telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaguti, G.; Pareschi, G.; Ferrando, P.; Caroli, E.; Di Cocco, G.; Foschini, L.; Basso, S.; Del Sordo, S.; Fiore, F.; Bonati, A.; Lesci, G.; Poulsen, J. M.; Monzani, F.; Stevoli, A.; Negri, B.

    2005-08-01

    The 10-100 keV region of the electromagnetic spectrum contains the potential for a dramatic improvement in our understanding of a number of key problems in high energy astrophysics. A deep inspection of the universe in this band is on the other hand still lacking because of the demanding sensitivity (fraction of μCrab in the 20-40 keV for 1 Ms integration time) and imaging (≈ 15" angular resolution) requirements. The mission ideas currently being proposed are based on long focal length, grazing incidence, multi-layer optics, coupled with focal plane detectors with few hundreds μm spatial resolution capability. The required large focal lengths, ranging between 8 and 50 m, can be realized by means of extendable optical benches (as foreseen e.g. for the HEXITSAT, NEXT and NuSTAR missions) or formation flight scenarios (e.g. Simbol-X and XEUS). While the final telescope design will require a detailed trade-off analysis between all the relevant parameters (focal length, plate scale value, angular resolution, field of view, detector size, and sensitivity degradation due to detector dead area and telescope vignetting), extreme attention must be dedicated to the background minimization. In this respect, key issues are represented by the passive baffling system, which in case of large focal lengths requires particular design assessments, and by the active/passive shielding geometries and materials. In this work, the result of a study of the expected background for a hard X-ray telescope is presented, and its implication on the required sensitivity, together with the possible implementation design concepts for active and passive shielding in the framework of future satellite missions, are discussed.

  19. Hard X-Ray And Wide Focusing Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, Paul; Johnson, William B. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The development of a hard X-ray telescope requires new technology for both substrates and coatings. Our activities in these two areas were carried out virtually in parallel during most of the past few years. They are converging on the production of our first integral conical, substrate electroformed mirror that will be coated with a graded d-spacing multilayer. Its imaging properties and effective area will be measured in hard X-ray beams. We discuss each of these activities separately in the following two sections.

  20. Multispectral glancing incidence X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A multispectral glancing incidence X-ray telescope is illustrated capable of broadband, high-resolution imaging of solar and stellar X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation sources which includes a primary optical system preferably of the Wolter I type having a primary mirror system (20, 22). The primary optical system further includes an optical axis (24) having a primary focus (F1) at which the incoming radiation is focused by the primary mirrors. A plurality of ellipsoidal mirrors (30a, 30b, 30cand 30d) are carried at an inclination to the optical axis behind the primary focus (F1). A rotating carrier (32) is provided on which the ellipsoidal mirrors are carried so that a desired one of the ellipsoidal mirrors may be selectively positioned in front of the incoming radiation beam (26). In the preferred embodiment, each of the ellipsoidal mirrors has an identical concave surface carrying a layered synthetic microstructure coating tailored to reflect a desired wavelength of 1.5 .ANG. or longer. Each of the identical ellipsoidal mirrors has a second focus (F2) at which a detector (16) is carried. Thus the different wavelength image is focused upon the detector irregardless of which mirror is positioned in front of the radiation beam. In this manner, a plurality of low wavelengths in a wavelength band generally less than 30 angstroms can be imaged with a high resolution.

  1. New x-ray telescope design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassova, Martina; Harvey, James E.

    2003-11-01

    The Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) is a complimentary, add-on instrument designed for use on the next generation of Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellites (GOES). Its primary mission is to continuously observe the full solar disc at X-ray wavelengths; including coronal holes, active regions, flares, and coronal mass ejections. For wide-field imaging applications, there is little merit in an optical design exhibiting stigmatic imaging on-axis; we therefore departed from the classical Wolter Type I design in favor of a hyperboloid-hyperboloid design that balances not only defocus with field curvature but also third-order spherical aberration and astigmatism with oblique spherical aberration. A detailed system engineering analysis including the substantial surface scattering and detector effects indicates that the resulting hyperboloid-hyperboloid design will achieve an 80% increase (over the baseline design) in the number of spatial resolution elements (and hence in total information content in the image) over an 18 arc min radius field-of-view. A comparison of performance predictions with X-ray test data for the SXI Engineering Model is included.

  2. Wide field x-ray telescopes: Detecting x-ray transients/afterglows related to GRBs

    SciTech Connect

    Hudec, Rene; Pina, Ladislav; Inneman, Adolf; Gorenstein, Paul

    1998-05-16

    The recent discovery of X-ray afterglows of GRBs opens the possibility of analyses of GRBs by their X-ray detections. However, imaging X-ray telescopes in current use mostly have limited fields of view. Alternative X-ray optics geometries achieving very large fields of view have been theoretically suggested in the 70's but not constructed and used so far. We review the geometries and basic properties of the wide-field X-ray optical systems based on one- and two-dimensional lobster-eye geometry and suggest technologies for their development and construction. First results of the development of double replicated X-ray reflecting flats for use in one-dimensional X-ray optics of lobster-eye type are presented and discussed. The optimum strategy for locating GRBs upon their X-ray counterparts is also presented and discussed.

  3. Design of Grazing-incidence X-Ray Telescopes. 1.

    PubMed

    Weisskopf, M C

    1973-07-01

    The theoretical and practical constraints on designs of grazing-incidence x-ray telescopes are discussed. It is shown that there is a maximum useful diameter for an x-ray telescope. It is further shown that when practical constraints are considered, the maximum reflecting area is not necessarily achieved by utilizing the largest available area within this diameter. Equations are derived that allow rapid calculation of the effective area of an x-ray telescope before one proceeds to detailed studies utilizing Monte Carlo techniques. PMID:20125544

  4. Design of grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes. I.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.

    1973-01-01

    The theoretical and practical constraints on designs of grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes are discussed. It is shown that there is a maximum useful diameter for an X-ray telescope. It is further shown that when practical constraints are considered, the maximum reflecting area is not necessarily achieved by utilizing the largest available area within this diameter. Equations are derived that allow rapid calculation of the effective area of an X-ray telescope before one proceeds to detailed studies utilizing Monte Carlo techniques.

  5. Wide Field X-Ray Telescope Mission Concept Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, R. C.; Thomas, H. D.; Fabisinski, L. L.; Baysinger, M.; Hornsby, L. S.; Maples, C. D.; Purlee, T. E.; Capizzo, P. D.; Percy, T. K.

    2014-01-01

    The Wide Field X-Ray Telescope (WFXT) is an astrophysics mission concept for detecting and studying extra-galactic x-ray sources, including active galactic nuclei and clusters of galaxies, in an effort to further understand cosmic evolution and structure. This Technical Memorandum details the results of a mission concept study completed by the Advanced Concepts Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in 2012. The design team analyzed the mission and instrument requirements, and designed a spacecraft that enables the WFXT mission while using high heritage components. Design work included selecting components and sizing subsystems for power, avionics, guidance, navigation and control, propulsion, structures, command and data handling, communications, and thermal control.

  6. A normal incidence X-ray telescope sounding rocket payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.

    1985-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following major activities on the X-ray telescope: (1) complete design of the entire telescope assembly and fabrication of all front-end components was completed; (2) all rocket skin sections, including bulkheads, feedthroughs and access door, were specified; (3) fabrication, curing and delivery of the large graphite-epoxy telescope tube were completed; (4) an engineering analysis of the primary mirror vibration test was completed and a decision made to redesign the mirror attachment system to a kinematic three-point mount; (5) detail design of the camera control, payload and housekeeping electronics were completed; and (6) multilayer mirror plates with 2d spacings of 50 A and 60 A were produced.

  7. Toward Large-Area Sub-Arcsecond X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Allured, Ryan; Atkins, Carolyn; Burrows, David N.; Cao, Jian; Chalifoux, Brandon D.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Elsner, Ronald F.; Graham, Michael E.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey J.; McMuldroch, Stuart; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Riveros, Raul E.; Roche, Jacqueline M.; Saha, Timo T.; Schattenburg, Mark L.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Ulmer, Melville P.; Vaynman, Semyon; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Wang, Xiaoli; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    The future of x-ray astronomy depends upon development of x-ray telescopes with larger aperture areas (>1 sq m) and finer angular resolution(<1).Combined with the special requirements of nested grazing incidence optics, the mass and envelope constraints of spaceborne telescopes render such advances technologically challenging. Achieving this goal will require precision fabrication, alignment, mounting, and assembly of large areas (>100 sq m) of lightweight (1 kg/sq m areal density) high quality mirrors-possibly entailing active (in-space adjustable) alignment and figure correction. This paper discusses relevant programmatic and technological issues and summarizes progress toward large area sub-arcsecond x-ray telescopes. Key words: X-ray telescopes, x-ray optics, active optics, electroactive devices, silicon mirrors, differential deposition, ion implantation.

  8. Filters for soft X-ray solar telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiller, Eberhard; Grebe, Kurt; Golub, Leon

    1990-01-01

    Soft X-ray telescopes require filters that block visible and infrared light and have good soft X-ray transmission. The optical properties of possible materials are discussed, and the fabrication and testing methods for the filters used in a 10-inch normal incidence telescope for 63 A are described. The best performances in the 44-114-A wavelength range are obtained with foils of carbon and rhodium.

  9. The X-ray properties of normal galaxies. What do we know and what can we learn with the next generation of X-ray telescopes?. [spaceborne telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabbiano, G.

    1985-01-01

    Einstein Observatory results are used to assess the possibilities of spaceborne X-ray astronomy projects such as XMM (ESA) and AXAF (NASA). Einstein observations show that normal galaxies of all morphological types are spatially extended sources of X-ray emission with 0.5 to 3.0 keV X-ray luminosities of 10 to the 39th to 41st power erg/sec. X-ray telescopes can study the end products of stellar evolution in galaxies of different morphological types. Phenomena linked to starburst nuclear activity can best be detected and studied in X-ray. Hot coronae or a hot phase of the interstellar medium can only be studied through their X-ray emission. It is shown that high spatial resolution is essential for studying normal galaxies and identifying different emission regions. Good spectral sensitivity and spectral imaging capability are essential for gaining a deeper understanding of the phenomena at work.

  10. Chandra X-Ray and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Optically Selected Kiloparsec-scale Binary Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Host Galaxy Morphology and AGN Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangguan, Jinyi; Liu, Xin; Ho, Luis C.; Shen, Yue; Peng, Chien Y.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    Binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provide clues to how gas-rich mergers trigger and fuel AGNs and how supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs evolve in a gas-rich environment. While significant effort has been invested in their identification, the detailed properties of binary AGNs and their host galaxies are still poorly constrained. In a companion paper, we examined the nature of ionizing sources in the double nuclei of four kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs with redshifts between 0.1 and 0.2. Here, we present their host galaxy morphology based on F336W (U-band) and F105W (Y-band) images taken by the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Our targets have double-peaked narrow emission lines and were confirmed to host binary AGNs with follow-up observations. We find that kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs occur in galaxy mergers with diverse morphological types. There are three major mergers with intermediate morphologies and a minor merger with a dominant disk component. We estimate the masses of the SMBHs from their host bulge stellar masses and obtain Eddington ratios for each AGN. Compared with a representative control sample drawn at the same redshift and stellar mass, the AGN luminosities and Eddington ratios of our binary AGNs are similar to those of single AGNs. The U ‑ Y color maps indicate that clumpy star-forming regions could significantly affect the X-ray detection of binary AGNs, e.g., the hardness ratio. Considering the weak X-ray emission in AGNs triggered in merger systems, we suggest that samples of X-ray-selected AGNs may be biased against gas-rich mergers. Based, in part, on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program number GO 12363.

  11. GRBs and Lobster Eye X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A.

    2013-07-01

    A large majority of GRBs exhibit X-ray emission. In addition, a dedicated separate group of GRB, the XRFs, exists which emission dominates in the X-ray spectral range. And the third group of GRB related objects (yet hypothetical) are the group of off-axis observed GRBs (orphan afterglows). These facts justify the consideration of an independent experiment for monitoring, detection and analyses of GRBs and others fast X-ray transients in X-rays. We will present and discuss such experiment based on wide-field X-ray telescopes of Lobster Eye type. We show that the wide field and fine sensitivity of Lobster Eye X-ray All-Sky Monitor make such instruments important tools in study of GRBs.

  12. The High Energy Astronomy Observatory X-ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R.; Austin, G.; Koch, D.; Jagoda, N.; Kirchner, T.; Dias, R.

    1978-01-01

    The High Energy Astronomy Observatory-Mission B (HEAO-B) is a satellite observatory for the purpose of performing a detailed X-ray survey of the celestial sphere. Measurements will be made of stellar radiation in the range 0.2 through 20 keV. The primary viewing requirement is to provide final aspect solution and internal alignment information to correlate an observed X-ray image with the celestial sphere to within one-and-one-half arc seconds. The Observatory consists of the HEAO Spacecraft together with the X-ray Telescope. The Spacecraft provides the required attitude control and determination system, data telemetry system, space solar power system, and interface with the launch vehicle. The X-ray Telescope includes a high resolution mirror assembly, optical bench metering structure, X-ray detectors, detector positioning system, detector electronics and aspect sensing system.

  13. Optical Design for a Survey X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.; McClelland, Ryan S.

    2014-01-01

    Optical design trades are underway at the Goddard Space Flight Center to define a telescope for an x-ray survey mission. Top-level science objectives of the mission include the study of x-ray transients, surveying and long-term monitoring of compact objects in nearby galaxies, as well as both deep and wide-field x-ray surveys. In this paper we consider Wolter, Wolter-Schwarzschild, and modified Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope designs as basic building blocks for the tightly nested survey telescope. Design principles and dominating aberrations of individual telescopes and nested telescopes are discussed and we compare the off-axis optical performance at 1.0 KeV and 4.0 KeV across a 1.0-degree full field-of-view.

  14. Fabrication of X-ray telescopes for sounding rocket flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Two X-ray telescopes and two detector systems were fabricated, and one of the telescopes (15 in. diameter, Wolter type I telescope) was flown on two sounding rocket flights. The telescopes were fabricated using the diamond point technique which provided the accurate figure of the mirrors to about a focal plane blur of 0.5 arc minutes. The 15 in. telescope mirrors were polished using standard polishing techniques to remove tooling marks from the diamond turning, then chemically polished to bring the X-ray reflectivity up to nearly the theoretical values. The optical image formed by the 15 in. telescope was found to produce a blur of about 40 arc seconds for a parallel beam of incoming laser light. The first flight of the telescope produced an X-ray image of Capella which indicated that the X-ray image was blurred to the extent of about 2 arc minutes. This additional image degradation was due to a slight error in focusing the X-ray image onto the detector.

  15. One-dimensional focusing X-ray telescope for stellar X-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helava, H.; Mitchell, D.; Novick, R.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Wolff, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    A one-dimensional X-ray telescope of the Kirkpatrick-Baez design is described. The instrument consists of a grazing-incidence X-ray telescope and a multiwire proportional counter. The optics were provided with a gold reflecting surface to yield an energy response from below 0.25 to above 4.0 keV. The angular resolution of the system is 6 min by 9.5 deg over a 1.1 deg by 9.5 deg field of view.

  16. Telescope Scientist on the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanSpeybroeck, Leon

    1999-01-01

    The most important activity during this reporting period was the calibration of the AXAF High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) and the analysis of the copious data which were obtained during that project. The calibration was highly successful, and will result in the AXAF being by far the best calibrated X-ray observatory ever flown, and more accurate results by all of its users. This period also included participation in the spacecraft alignment and assembly activities and final flight readiness reviews. The planning of the first year of Telescope Scientist AXAF observations also was accomplished. The Telescope Scientist team also served as a technical resource for various problems which were encountered during this period. Many of these contributions have been documented in memoranda sent to the project.

  17. Advanced X-Ray Telescope Mirrors Provide Sharpest Focus Ever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-03-01

    Performing beyond expectations, the high- resolution mirrors for NASA's most powerful orbiting X-ray telescope have successfully completed initial testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Calibration Facility, Huntsville, AL. "We have the first ground test images ever generated by the telescope's mirror assembly, and they are as good as -- or better than -- expected," said Dr. Martin Weisskopf, Marshall's chief scientist for NASA's Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). The mirror assembly, four pairs of precisely shaped and aligned cylindrical mirrors, will form the heart of NASA's third great observatory. The X-ray telescope produces an image by directing incoming X-rays to detectors at a focal point some 30 feet beyond the telescope's mirrors. The greater the percentage of X-rays brought to focus and the smaller the size of the focal spot, the sharper the image. Tests show that on orbit, the mirror assembly of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility will be able to focus approximately 70 percent of X-rays from a source to a spot less than one-half arc second in radius. The telescope's resolution is equivalent to being able to read the text of a newspaper from half a mile away. "The telescope's focus is very clear, very sharp," said Weisskopf. "It will be able to show us details of very distant sources that we know are out there, but haven't been able to see clearly." In comparison, previous X-ray telescopes -- Einstein and Rosat -- were only capable of focusing X- rays to five arc seconds. The Advanced X-ray Telescope's resolving power is ten times greater. "Images from the new telescope will allow us to make major advances toward understanding how exploding stars create and disperse many of the elements necessary for new solar systems and for life itself," said Dr. Harvey Tananbaum, director of the Advanced X- ray Astrophysics Facility Science Center at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, in Cambridge, MA -- responsible for the telescope

  18. Radio astronomers, X-ray astronomers and the space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longair, M. S.

    1979-01-01

    The use of the Space Telescope and the study of objects in the radio and X-ray wavebands, particularly extragalactic objects, are discussed. The scientific objectives of a number of projects which involve observations with the Space Telescope are described.

  19. Selective vignetting of Type 1 X-ray telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangus, J.

    1969-01-01

    Selective vignetting technique optimizes the performance of a Type 1 X-ray telescope. The image quality of the telescope system is improved by matching the detector to the optimum focal surface and by vignetting rays which formerly contributed to the flare in comatic images.

  20. Cosmic X-ray telescope for ARIES rocket observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catura, R. C.; Acton, L. W.; Berthelsdorf, R.; Culhane, J. L.; Sanford, P. W.; Franks, A.

    1979-01-01

    A rocket-borne Wolter Type I X-ray telescope having a focal length of 2.3m, an entrance aperture of 66cm and a geometrical area of 380cm2 is nearing completion. The telescope mirrors are formed by diamond turning their figures into forged aluminum substrates of 5083 alloy. These diamond-turned substrates are subsequently plated with a thin coating of electroless nickel and polished to obtain the final X-ray reflecting surfaces. Details of the rocket payload, the X-ray telescope, its calculated response and the experience gained in selecting the mirror substrate alloy are discussed and the current status of the telescope is reviewed.

  1. A transmissive x-ray polarimeter design for hard x-ray focusing telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong; Feng, Hua; Ji, Jianfeng; Deng, Zhi; He, Li; Zeng, Ming; Li, Tenglin; Liu, Yinong; Heng, Peiying; Wu, Qiong; Han, Dong; Dong, Yongwei; Lu, Fangjun; Zhang, Shuangnan

    2015-08-01

    The X-ray Timing and Polarization (XTP) is a mission concept for a future space borne X-ray observatory and is currently selected for early phase study. We present a new design of X-ray polarimeter based on the time projection gas chamber. The polarimeter, placed above the focal plane, has an additional rear window that allows hard X-rays to penetrate (a transmission of nearly 80% at 6 keV) through it and reach the detector on the focal plane. Such a design is to compensate the low detection efficiency of gas detectors, at a low cost of sensitivity, and can maximize the science return of multilayer hard X-ray telescopes without the risk of moving focal plane instruments. The sensitivity in terms of minimum detectable polarization, based on current instrument configuration, is expected to be 3% for a 1mCrab source given an observing time of 105 s. We present preliminary test results, including photoelectron tracks and modulation curves, using a test chamber and polarized X-ray sources in the lab.

  2. Ground-based x-ray calibration of the Astro-H soft x-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Ryo; Hayashi, Takayuki; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Ishida, Manabu; Tomikawa, Kazuki; Sato, Toshiki; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Okajima, Takashi; Soong, Yang; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Mori, Hideyuki; Izumiya, Takanori; Minami, Sari

    2014-07-01

    The X-ray astronomy satellite Astro-H, planned to be launched in 2015, will have several instruments for covering a wide energy band from a few hundreds eV to 600 keV. There are four X-ray telescopes, and two of them are soft X-ray telescopes (SXTs) covering up to about 15 keV. One is for an X-ray micro-calorimeter detector (SXS) and the other is for an X-ray CCD detector (SXI). The design of the SXTs is a conical approximation of the Wolter Type-I optics, which is also adopted for the telescopes on the previous mission Suzaku launched in 2005. It consists 203 thin-foil reflectors coated with gold monolayer (2000 Å) on the aluminum substrate (101.6 mm length) with the thickness of 0.15, 0.23 and 0.31 mm. These are nested confocally within the radius of 58 to 225 mm. The focal length of SXTs is 5.6 m. The weight is as light as ~ 43 kg per telescope. We present the current status of the calibration activity of two SXTs (SXT-1 and SXT-2). The developments of two SXTs were completed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). First X-ray measurements with a diverging beam at the GSFC 100m beamline found an angular resolution at 8.0 keV to be 1.1 and 1.0 arcmin (HPD) for SXT-1 and SXT-2, respectively. The full characterization of the X-ray performance has been now continuously calibrated with the 30m X-ray beamline facility at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) of Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) in Japan. We adopted a raster scan method with a narrow X-ray pencil beam with the divergence of ~ 15". X-ray characterization of the two SXTs has been measured from May and December 2013, respectively. In the case of SXT-1, the on-axis effective area was approximately 580, 445, 370, 270, 185 and 90 cm2 at energies of 1.5, 4.5, 8.0, 9.4, 11.1 and 12.9 keV respectively. The effective area of SXT-2 is 2% larger than that of SXT-1 irrespective to X-ray energy. The on-axis angular resolution of SXT-1 was evaluated as 1.3 - 1.5 arcmin (HPD) in the 1

  3. Detection of soft X-rays from Alpha Lyrae and Eta Bootis with an imaging X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topka, K.; Fabricant, D.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Gorenstein, P.; Rosner, R.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented for observations of Alpha Lyr (Vega) and Eta Boo with an imaging X-ray telescope during two rocket flights. It is found that Vega and Eta Boo are soft X-ray sources with respective luminosities of approximately 3 x 10 to the 28th erg/s (0.15-0.8 keV) and 1 x 10 to the 29th erg/s (0.15-1.5 keV). Surface X-ray luminosities of about 640,000 erg/sq cm per sec for Vega and 300,000 erg/sq cm per sec for Eta Boo are estimated and shown to fall within the range of solar coronal X-ray emission. It is concluded that in view of the substantially larger surface areas of these stars, the relatively large total soft X-ray luminosity (as compared with that of the sun) can in both cases be understood as resulting from a moderately active corona, although the Vega observation is in severe conflict with simple models for X-ray emission from single main-sequence stars.

  4. CHANDRA X-RAY AND HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF OPTICALLY SELECTED KILOPARSEC-SCALE BINARY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. I. NATURE OF THE NUCLEAR IONIZING SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xin; Civano, Francesca; Shen, Yue; Green, Paul; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2013-01-10

    Kiloparsec-scale binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) signal active supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs in merging galaxies. Despite their significance, unambiguously confirmed cases remain scarce and most have been discovered serendipitously. In a previous systematic search, we optically identified four kpc-scale binary AGNs from candidates selected with double-peaked narrow emission lines at z = 0.1-0.2. Here, we present Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging of these four systems. We critically examine and confirm the binary-AGN scenario for two of the four targets, by combining high angular resolution X-ray imaging spectroscopy with Chandra ACIS-S, better nuclear position constraints from WFC3 F105W imaging, and direct starburst estimates from WFC3 F336W imaging; for the other two targets, the existing data are still consistent with the binary-AGN scenario, but we cannot rule out the possibility of only one AGN ionizing gas in both merging galaxies. We find tentative evidence for a systematically smaller X-ray-to-[O III] luminosity ratio and/or higher Compton-thick fraction in optically selected kpc-scale binary AGNs than in single AGNs, possibly caused by a higher nuclear gas column due to mergers and/or a viewing angle bias related to the double-peak narrow-line selection. While our result lends some further support to the general approach of optically identifying kpc-scale binary AGNs, it also highlights the challenge and ambiguity of X-ray confirmation.

  5. Hard X-Ray and Wide Focusing Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Studies are being carried out to compare the performance of several different separation materials used in the replication process. This report presents the results obtained during the second year of a program which consists of replicating smooth, thin substrates, depositing multilayer coatings upon them, and evaluating their performance. Replication and multilayer coatings are both critically important to the development of focussing hard X-ray telescopes that function up to 100 keV. The activities of the current year include extending the comparison between sputtered amorphous carbon and evaporated gold to include sputtered as well as evaporated gold. The figure of merit being the smoothness of the replica which has a direct effect on the specular reflectivity. These results were obtained with epoxy replication, but they should be applicable to electroformed nickel, the process we expect to use for the ultimate replicated optics.

  6. X-ray baffle of the XMM telescope: development and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Chambure, Daniel; Laine, Robert; van Katwijk, Kees; Ruehe, Wolfgang; Schink, Dietmar; Hoelzle, Edgar; Gutierrez, Yolanda; Domingo, Miquel; Ibarretxe, Inigo; Tock, Jean P.; Domken, Isabelle; Stockman, Yvan; Houbrecht, Yvette; Hansen, Hebert; Aschenbach, Bernd

    1999-08-01

    The high throughput x-ray spectroscopy mission XMM is the second cornerstone project in the European Space Agency (ESA) long-term program for space science. This observatory has at its heart three large x-ray telescopes, which will provide a large collection area with a spatial resolution around 15 arcsec. Five flight models of the XMM x-ray telescope have been delivered to ESA in 1998. They show optical performance, which is far better than the specifications, especially in terms of optical and x-ray stray light reduction. The low level of x-ray stray light will be an important benefit for the observation of the extended faint sources such as super nova remnants or clusters of active galaxies. This reduction of x-ray stray light is due, in particular, to the implementation of a very complex and accurate x-ray baffle mounted at the entrance of the telescope. In this paper, we present first the need, the design, the manufacturing and the integration of the x-ray baffle. Then, we concentrate on the verification of the performance of the baffle at the Centre Spatial de Liege. Finally, we will present the excellent results obtained with these baffles.

  7. Analysis of NOAA-MSFC GOES X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The general telescope system was assumed to be a paraboloid-hyperboloid in a Wolter Type 1 configuration. The equations which specify the telescope parameters and the resolution as a function of the collecting area are discussed as well as the spot size and point response function for off-axis rays. The measured resolution of the Goddard ATM X-ray telescope (S-056) is compared to the rms blur circle radius and the full width half maximum of the line spread function. An empirical scaling formula, Eq. 26, which transforms the rms blur circle radius into a more accurate measure of resolution, is introduced. The geometrical imaging properties of the proposed NOAA-MSFC GOES X-ray telescope are considered. Conclusions and alternate mirror designs are included.

  8. Comets: mechanisms of x-ray activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibadov, Subhon

    2016-07-01

    Basic mechanisms of X-ray activity of comets are considered, including D-D mechanism corresponding to generation of X-rays due to production of hot short-living plasma clumps at high-velocity collisions between cometary and interplanetary dust particles as well as M-M one corresponding to production of X-rays due to recombination of multicharge ions of solar wind plasma via charge exchange process at their collisions with molecules/atoms of the cometary atmospheres. Peculiarities of the variation of the comet X-ray spectrum and X-ray luminosity with variation of its heliocentric distance are revealed.

  9. Spectral slicing X-ray telescope with variable magnification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, R. B.; Hildner, E. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A telescope for viewing high frequency radiation (soft X-ray, extreme ultraviolet) is described. This telescope has a long focal length with a selection of magnifications despite a short housing. Light enters the telescope and is reflected by the telescope's primary optical system to one of several secondary mirrors at different locations on a movable frame. The secondary mirrors have varying degrees of magnification and select narrow spectral slices of the incident radiation. Thus, both the magnification and effective focal length field of view and wavelength can be altered by repositioning the moving frame. Configurations for spaceborne applications are discussed.

  10. Development of high throughput X-ray telescopes for X-ray imaging and dispersive spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.

    1986-01-01

    During the past year the technical approach to the realization of a high throughput Kirkpatrick-Baez X-ray mirror became better defined in terms of construction methodology and factors which affect maximum size. More progress was made than anticipated in the area of automatic figure formation. However, effort to improve the resolution of float glass by simple techniques were not successful. Mirror development, spectroscopy, all sky telescope, and explorer concept studies are discussed.

  11. Grazing incidence telescopes for x-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenstein, Paul

    2012-01-01

    With grazing incidence telescopes, x-ray astronomy became a major branch of astrophysics. They are an indispensable tool in the study of >106 K thermal and non-thermal high energy phenomena occurring in objects from the solar system to the most distant sites in the universe. They have shed light upon dark matter and dark energy. Four cosmic missions with focusing grazing incidence x-ray telescopes based upon the Wolter 1 geometry are currently in space. They include two observatory class facilities launched in 1999, NASA's high resolution x-ray and ESA's high throughput XMM-Newton. Two others are Japan's Suzaku, performing a variety of studies, and the Swift XRT, which finds precise positions for the x-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. Four new cosmic missions with Wolter-like focusing telescopes are scheduled for launch. They will provide much broader bandwidth (NuSTAR and Astro-H), perform a new sky survey with more exposure time and a broader energy range than previous surveys (eROSITA), have an imaging detector with much better energy resolution (Astro-H), and measure polarization (GEMS). The Kirkpatrick-Baez and the lobster-eye are two types of potentially useful grazing incidence telescopes that have not yet been in orbit. It may not be possible to improve upon Chandra's 0.5 arcsec resolution without new technology.

  12. The Swift X-ray Telescope Cluster Survey. II. X-ray spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozzi, P.; Moretti, A.; Tundo, E.; Liu, T.; Rosati, P.; Borgani, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Campana, S.; Fugazza, D.; D'Avanzo, P.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: We present a spectral analysis of a new, flux-limited sample of 72 X-ray selected clusters of galaxies identified with the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on board the Swift satellite down to a flux limit of ~10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 (SWXCS). We carry out a detailed X-ray spectral analysis with the twofold aim of measuring redshifts and characterizing the properties of the intracluster medium (ICM) for the majority of the SWXCS sources. Methods: Optical counterparts and spectroscopic or photometric redshifts for some of the sources are obtained with a cross-correlation with the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Additional photometric redshifts are computed with a dedicated follow-up program with the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo and a cross-correlation with the SDSS. In addition, we also blindly search for the Hydrogen-like and He-like iron Kα emission line complex in the X-ray spectrum. We detect the iron emission lines in 35% of the sample, and hence obtain a robust measure of the X-ray redshift zX with typical rms error 1-5%. We use zX whenever the optical redshift is not available. Finally, for all the sources with measured redshift, background-subtracted spectra are fitted with a single-temperature mekal model to measure global temperature, X-ray luminosity and iron abundance of the ICM. We perform extensive spectral simulations to accounts for fitting bias, and to assess the robustness of our results. We derive a criterion to select reliable best-fit models and an empirical formula to account for fitting bias. The bias-corrected values are then used to investigate the scaling properties of the X-ray observables. Results: Overall, we are able to characterize the ICM of 46 sources with redshifts (64% of the sample). The sample is mostly constituted by clusters with temperatures between 3 and 10 keV, plus 14 low-mass clusters and groups with temperatures below 3 keV. The redshift distribution peaks around z ~ 0.25 and extends up to z ~ 1, with 60% of the sample at 0.1 < z

  13. Laboratory x-ray CCD camera electronics: a test bed for the Swift X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Joanne E.; Zugger, Michael E.; Shoemaker, Jason; Witherite, Mark E.; Koch, T. Scott; Chou, Lester L.; Case, Traci; Burrows, David N.

    2000-12-01

    The Penn State University Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics has been active in the design of X-ray CCD cameras for astronomy for over two decades, including sounding rocket systems, the CUBIC instrument on the SAC-B satellite and the ACIS camera on the Chandra satellite. Currently the group is designing and building an X-ray telescope (XRT), which will comprise part of the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer satellite. The Swift satellite, selected in October 1999 as one of two winners of NASA Explorer contracts, will -- within one minute -- detect, locate, and observe gamma-ray bursts simultaneously in the optical, ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma- ray wavelengths using three co-aligned telescopes. The XRT electronics is required to read out the telescope's CCD sensor in a number of different ways depending on the observing mode selected. Immediately after the satellite re-orients to observe a newly detected burst, the XRT will enter an imaging mode to determine the exact position of the burst. The location will then be transmitted to the ground, and the XRT will autonomously enter other modes as the X-ray intensity of the burst waxes and wanes. This paper will discuss the electronics for a laboratory X-ray CCD camera, which serves as a test bed for development of the Swift XRT camera. It will also touch upon the preliminary design of the flight camera, which is closely related. A major challenge is achieving performance and reliability goals within the cost constraints of an Explorer mission.

  14. The soft x ray telescope for Solar-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. A.; Acton, L. W.; Bruner, M. E.; Lemen, J. R.; Strong, K. T.

    1989-01-01

    The Solar-A satellite being prepared by the Institute for Sapce and Astronautical Sciences (ISAS) in Japan is dedicated to high energy observations of solar flares. The Soft X Ray Telescope (SXT) is being prepared to provide filtered images in the 2 to 60 A interval. The flight model is now undergoing tests in the 1000 foot tunnel at MSFC. Launch will be in September 1991. Earlier resolution and efficiency tests on the grazing incidence mirror have established its performance in soft x rays. The one-piece, two mirror grazing incidence telescope is supported in a strain free mount separated from the focal plane assembly by a carbon-epoxy metering tube whose windings and filler are chosen to minimize thermal and hygroscopic effects. The CCD detector images both the x ray and the concentric visible light aspect telescope. Optical filters provide images at 4308 and 4700 A. The SXT will be capable of producing over 8000 of the smallest partial frame images per day, or fewer but larger images, up to 1024 x 1024 pixel images. Image sequence with two or more of the five x ray analysis filters, with automatic exposure compensation to optimize the charge collection by the CCD detector, will be used to provide plasma diagnostics. Calculations using a differential emission measure code were used to optimize filter selection over the range of emission measure variations and to avoid redundancy, but the filters were chosen primarily to give ratios that are monotonic in plasma temperature.

  15. High Precision Assembly of Thin Mirror X-ray Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schattenburg, Mark

    Lightweight high resolution x-ray telescope optics are one of the key technologies under development for next-generation x-ray telescopes. The ultimate goal of this effort is to realize optics with spatial resolution rivaling Chandra (<1 arc-sec) but with collecting areas that are larger by orders of magnitude. In the USA several institutions, including GSFC, MSFC, Harvard-SAO, MIT and Northwest University are working on a variety of approaches to this problem. An excellent example is the NuSTAR x-ray telescope, which teamed Cal Tech, GSFC, Columbia University and LLNL to produce a superb set of hard x-ray optics. The telescope was composed of thousands of 0.2 mm-thick glass mirrors which were epoxied into place around a spindle structure. While very light weight, this process resulted in ~1 arc min resolution. We want to achieve ~100 times better with similar mass. A group at NASA GSFC has recently demonstrated an alternative thin-glass assembly procedure that has achieved ~7 arc sec resolution with x-ray tests. Further progress towards 1 arc-sec will require mirrors with improved figure, lower stress coatings, improved alignment, better metrology, and low stress bonding. Many of the difficulties with current mirror assembly practice stem from the use of epoxy as a bonding agent. Epoxy has many disadvantages, including high shrinkage, large CTE and creep, resin aging effects, water absorption, outgassing, low tensile strength, exothermicity, and requiring large amounts of time and/or heat to cure. These effects can cause errors that become â€oefrozen in― to the bond with no possibility of correction. We propose to investigate replacing epoxy with low temperature, low shrinkage solder alloys. We use these solders in conjunction with high power, millisec-long pulses from a fiber IR laser to deliver controlled amounts of heat into the bond area. We have demonstrated that laser pulses can be used to actuate carefully designed bonds by permanently compressing

  16. The Soft X-Ray Spectrometer (SXS) for the ISAS/JAXA New Exploration X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; McCammon, D.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Okajima, T.; Petre, R.; Porter, F. S.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Smith, R. K.; Soong, Y.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Mitsuda, K.; Ohashi, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Ezoe, Y.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Shinozaki, K.; Fujimoto, R.; Kawaharada, M.

    2008-03-01

    The ISAS/JAXA New Exploration X-Ray Telescope (NEXT) is now under development for launch in 2013. The observatory is designed to provide extremely high spectral resolution with large collecting area below 10 keV using an x-ray calorimeter, and a very large band pass (up to 300 keV) with extraordinary sensitivity over the range 10-80 keV using focusing x-ray optics. In this talk we will discuss plans for the Soft X-Ray Spectrometer (SXS), which uses an x-ray calorimeter array to provide the high spectral resolution. The SXS is a joint effort between ISAS and NASA and recently proposed to NASA as a Mission of Opportunity for the US participation. The SXS incorporates a 6x6 calorimeter array that has strong heritage in the Suzaku program and better than 7 eV energy resolution, with 4-5 eV expected based on recent laboratory tests. The cryogenic system will be a hybrid design with both liquid helium and mechanical coolers to provide a robust, redundant system with long life (> 3 years). The x-ray optical system (6 m focal length) uses thin-foil conical optics to provide at least 220 square cm at 6 keV. The SXS will enable a wide variety of interesting science topics to be pursued, including testing theories of structure formation using velocity measurements of clusters of galaxies and inferring the energy output from the jets and winds of active galaxies. The SXS will accurately measure metal abundances in the oldest galaxies, providing unique information on the origin of the elements, and observe matter in extreme gravitational fields, enabling time-resolved spectra from material approaching the event horizon of a black hole. Along with providing the instrument, we have proposed a well supported guest investigator program that will enable full US participation.

  17. Metrology Requirements of Future X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental needs for future x-ray telescopes: a) Sharp images => excellent angular resolution. b) High throughput => large aperture areas. Generation-X optics technical challenges: a) High resolution => precision mirrors & alignment. b) Large apertures => lots of lightweight mirrors. Innovation needed for technical readiness: a) 4 top-level error terms contribute to image size. b) There are approaches to controlling those errors. Innovation needed for manufacturing readiness: Programmatic issues are at least as severe

  18. Three mirror glancing incidence system for X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, R. B. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A telescope suitable for soft X-ray astronomical observations consists of a paraboloid section for receiving rays at a grazing angle and a hyperboloid section which receives reflections from the paraboloid at a grazing angle and directs them to a predetermined point of focus. A second hyperboloid section is centrally located from the other two surfaces and positioned to reflect from its outer surface radiation which was not first reflected by the paraboloid. A shutter is included to assist in calibration.

  19. The X-ray telescope on board ASCA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Jalota, Lalit; Soong, Yang; Kunieda, Hideyo; Tawara, Yuzuru; Tsusaka, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Hisanori; Sakima, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Takashi; Yoshioka, Hidenori

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) instrument uses identical conical foil X-ray mirrors for its four telescopes. One of the major advantages of ASCA's telescopes is the first time ever use of X-ray imaging over a broad energy band and high throughput for conducting astronomical spectroscopy. Nested thin foil reflectors make possible a large effective area up to 10 keV, even under the tight weight restriction of the ASCA spacecraft. The expected characteristics of the ASCA mirrors are summarized based on ray tracings and pre-flight calibrations. The total effective area of four telescopes at 1 and 7 keV are approximately 1200 and 600 sq cm, respectively. The image size (half power diameter: HPD) is about 3 min. The field of view is 24 min and 16 min full width at half maximum for 1 and 7 keV, respectively. Observations of several X-ray sources from space during the performance verification phase have confirmed those performances as well as the alignment of the optical systems.

  20. ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soong, Yang; Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Odell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Ishida, Manabu; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Iizuka, Ryo; Hayashi, Takayuki; Tawara, Yuzuru; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Mori, Hideyuki; Miyazawa, Takuya; Kunieda, Hideyo; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Sugita, Satoshi; Tamura, Keisuke; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Izumiya, Takanori; Minami, Sari; Sato, Toshiki; Tomikawa, Kazuki; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Iwase, Toshihiro

    2014-07-01

    ASTRO-H is an astrophysics satellite dedicated for non-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic study on selective celestial X-ray sources. Among the onboard instruments there are four Wolter-I X-ray mirrors of their reflectors' figure in conical approximation. Two of the four are soft X-ray mirrors1, of which the energy range is from a few hundred eV to 15 keV within the effective aperture being defined by the nested reflectors' radius ranging between 5.8 cm to 22.5 cm. The focal point instruments will be a calorimeter (SXS) and a CCD camera (SXI), respectively. The mirrors were in quadrant configuration with photons being reflected consecutively in the primary and secondary stage before converging on the focal plane of 5.6 m away from the interface between the two stages. The reflectors of the mirror are made of heat-formed aluminum substrate of the thickness gauged of 152 μm, 229 μm, and 305 μm of the alloy 5052 H-19, followed by epoxy replication on gold-sputtered smooth Pyrex cylindrical mandrels to acquire the X-ray reflective surface. The epoxy layer is 10 m nominal and surface gold layer of 0.2 μm. Improvements on angular response over its predecessors, e.g. Astro-E1/Suzaku mirrors, come from error reduction on the figure, the roundness, and the grazing angle/radius mismatching of the reflecting surface, and tighter specs and mechanical strength on supporting structure to reduce the reflector positioning and the assembly errors. Each soft x-ray telescope (SXT), SXT-1 or SXT-2, were integrated from four independent quadrants of mirrors. The stray-light baffles, in quadrant configuration, were mounted onto the integrated mirror. Thermal control units were attached to the perimeter of the integrated mirror to keep the mirror within operating temperature in space. The completed instrument went through a series of optical alignment, thus made the quadrant images confocal and their optical axes in parallel to achieve highest throughput possible. Environmental tests

  1. X-ray Telescopes: Development, Flight and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse-Madsen, Kristin Carolin

    2007-04-01

    This thesis is divided into three parts as themes of the same general subject: the X-ray focusing telescopes. On the 18'th of May 2005 the balloon borne High Energy Focusing Telescope, HEFT, was launched on its maiden voyage from Fort Sumner, New Mexico. For 24 hours the gondola remained afloat proving that it could successfully track and detect the galactic X-ray sources, Cygnus X-1 and the Crab, before plunging to a hard and brutal landing in the desert. In this thesis I describe the HEFT gondola platform, designed and build by LLNL to hold the HEFT payload, and discuss the sensor groups available for pointing, their performance and accuracy. I also outline the pointing strategy we adopted, and describe how the sensors worked in concert to achieve the required pointing stability. Based on the gondola configuration I present the aspect reconstruction procedures and use them to show a first data analysis of the HEFT flight observations of the Crab and Cygnus X-1. In the second part of my thesis I present a method of simulating concept study designs of grazing incidence focusing X-ray telescopes used on the X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy Mission, XEUS. Past and current X-ray missions have used single films of gold, platinum or iridium coatings, utilizing the critical angle to achieve high grazing incidence reflection. These coatings are, however, not efficient at energies above 20 keV. A method of pushing up the energy is by employing multilayers, or supermirrors, which is a stack of films of alternating low and high density material. Using a Figure of Merit code I step through a limited parameter space and find the optimal multilayer recipe that yields the best reflectivity for a given telescope design. This tool can be used to study the effects of different design parameters such as material selection and substrate thickness. In the third part I analyze data of the QSO B1152+199 taken with the Chandra x-ray observatory. I present evidence of variability in

  2. Extended range X-ray telescope: X-ray microscope design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, D. L.; Kassim, A.; Chao, S.

    1982-01-01

    A glancing incidence X-ray microscope using a confocal hyperboloid ellipsoid mirror was designed to couple optically a Wolter 1 telescope to a CCD focal plane detector. Both the RMS spot size and the point spread function calculations were used to evaluate the resolution, defocusing, and vignetting effects of the system for microscope focal lengths of 1, 1.5, and 2 meters and for magnifications varying from 2 to 10x. For the specific application with the S-056 telescope, a 2 meter, 8x microscope with a fabrication ratio of the microscope mirror length to the inner diameter at hyperboloid ellipsoid intersection of 2.5 was designed to be used with a thinned, back illuminated CCD detector array with 320 by 512, 30 micron pixels.

  3. G-133: A soft X ray solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Memorie K.; Campbell, Branton; Roming, Peter W. A.; Spute, Mark K.; Moody, J. Ward

    1992-10-01

    The GOLDHELOX Project, NASA payload number G-133, is a robotic soft x ray solar telescope designed and built by an organization of undergraduate students. The telescope is designed to observe the sun at a wavelength of 171 to 181 A. Since we require observations free from atmospheric interference, the telescope will be launched in a NASA Get-Away-Special (GAS) canister with a Motorized Door Assembly (MDA). In this paper we primarily discuss the most important elements of the telescope itself. We also elaborate on some of the technical difficulties associated with doing good science in space on a small budget (about $100,000) and mention ways in which controlling the instrument environment has reduced the complexity of the system and thus saved us money.

  4. G-133: A soft x ray solar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Memorie K.; Campbell, Branton; Roming, Peter W. A.; Spute, Mark K.; Moody, J. Ward

    1992-01-01

    The GOLDHELOX Project, NASA payload number G-133, is a robotic soft x ray solar telescope designed and built by an organization of undergraduate students. The telescope is designed to observe the sun at a wavelength of 171 to 181 A. Since we require observations free from atmospheric interference, the telescope will be launched in a NASA Get-Away-Special (GAS) canister with a Motorized Door Assembly (MDA). In this paper we primarily discuss the most important elements of the telescope itself. We also elaborate on some of the technical difficulties associated with doing good science in space on a small budget (about $100,000) and mention ways in which controlling the instrument environment has reduced the complexity of the system and thus saved us money.

  5. Assembly of NASA's Most Powerful X-Ray Telescope Completed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    Assembly of the world's most powerful X-ray telescope, NASA's Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, was completed last week with the installation of its power-generating twin solar panels. The observatory is scheduled for launch aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-93, in December 1998. The last major components of the observatory were bolted and pinned into place March 4 at TRW Space & Electronics Group in Redondo Beach, Calif., and pre-launch testing of the fully assembled observatory began March 7. "Completion of the observatory's assembly process is a big step forward toward launch scheduled for the end of this year," said Fred Wojtalik, manager of the Observatory Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "With all the major components in place, we are now concentrating on a thorough pre-launch checkout of the observatory." "We're delighted to reach this major milestone for the program," said Craig Staresinich, TRW's Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility program manager. "The entire observatory team has worked hard to get to this point and will continue an exhaustive test program to ensure mission success. We're looking forward to delivering a truly magnificent new space capability to NASA later this summer." The first pre-launch test of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was an acoustic test, which simulated the sound pressure environment inside the Space Shuttle cargo bay during launch. A thorough electrical checkout before and after the acoustic test verifies that the observatory and its science instruments can withstand the extreme sound levels and vibrations that accompany launch. "With 10 times the resolution and 50-100 times the sensitivity of any previous X-ray telescope, this observatory will provide us with a new perspective of our universe," said the project's chief scientist, Dr. Martin Weisskopf of Marshall Center. "We'll be able to study sources of X-rays throughout the universe, like colliding galaxies and black

  6. The study of X-ray scattering to determine surface topography of smooth surfaces. [X-ray telescope mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, A. C.

    1982-01-01

    The scattering of X-rays from state-of-the-art polished mirrors is discussed with reference to the requirements of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility telescope. An experimental set-up is described which allows information to be obtained with subarcsecond resolution. A sample of the data obtained is presented along with a possible theoretical model for its interpretation.

  7. Multispectral variable magnification glancing incidence x ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A multispectral, variable magnification, glancing incidence, x-ray telescope capable of broadband, high resolution imaging of solar and stellar x-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation sources is discussed. The telescope includes a primary optical system which focuses the incoming radiation to a primary focus. Two or more rotatable mirror carriers, each providing a different magnification, are positioned behind the primary focus at an inclination to the optical axis. Each carrier has a series of ellipsoidal mirrors, and each mirror has a concave surface covered with a multilayer (layered synthetic microstructure) coating to reflect a different desired wavelength. The mirrors of both carriers are segments of ellipsoids having a common first focus coincident with the primary focus. A detector such as an x-ray sensitive photographic film is positioned at the second respective focus of each mirror so that each mirror may reflect the image at the first focus to the detector at the second focus. The carriers are selectively rotated to position a selected mirror for receiving radiation from the primary optical system, and at least the first carrier may be withdrawn from the path of the radiation to permit a selected mirror on the second carrier to receive the radiation.

  8. X ray microscope/telescope test and alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Arthur B. C.; Hoover, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    The tasks performed by the Center for Applied Optics (CAO) in support of the Normal Incidence Multilayer X-Ray Optics Program are detailed. The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA) was launched on a Terrier-boosted Black Brant sounding rocket from White Sands Missile Range on 13 May 1991. High resolution images of the sun in the soft x ray to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) regime were obtained with normal-incidence Cassegrain, Ritchey-Chretien, and Herschelian telescopes mounted in the sounding rocket. MSSTA represents the first use of multilayer optics to study a very broad range of x ray and EUV solar emissions. Energy-selective properties of multilayer-coated optics allow distinct groups of emission lines to be isolated in the solar corona and transition region. Features of the near and far coronal structures including magnetic loops of plasmas, coronal plumes, coronal holes, faint structures, and cool prominences are visible in these images. MSSTA successfully obtained unprecedented information regarding the structure and dynamics of the solar atmosphere in the temperature range of 10(exp 4)-10(exp 7) K. The performance of the MSSTA has demonstrated a unique combination of ultra-high spatial resolution and spectral differentiation by use of multilayer optics.

  9. The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krucker, Sam; STIX Team

    2013-07-01

    The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) is one of 10 instruments on board Solar Orbiter, a confirmed M-class mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) within the Cosmic Vision program scheduled to be launched in 2017. STIX applies a Fourier-imaging technique using a set of tungsten grids (at pitches from 0.038 to 1 mm) in front of 32 pixelized CdTe detectors to provide imaging spectroscopy of solar thermal and non-thermal hard X-ray emissions from 4 to 150 keV. The status of the instrument that will be presented at the Critical Design Review (CDR) later this year will be discussed in this poster.

  10. Management of optics. [for HEAO-2 X ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchner, T. E.; Russell, M.

    1981-01-01

    American Science and Engineering, Inc., designed the large X-ray optic for the HEAO-2 X-ray Telescope. The key element in this project was the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA), subcontracting the fabrication of the optical surfaces and their assembly and alignment. The roles and organization of the key participants in the creation of HRMA are defined, and the degree of interaction between the groups is described. Management of this effort was extremely complex because of the intricate weaving of responsibilities, and AS&E, as HEAO-2 Program managers, needed to be well versed in the scientific objectives, the technical requirements, the program requirements, and the subcontract management. Understanding these factors was essential for implementing both technical and management controls, such as schedule and budget constraints, in-process control, residence requirements, and scientist review and feedback. Despite unforeseen technical problems and interaction differences, the HEAO-2 was built on schedule and to specification.

  11. Goldhelox: a soft x-ray solar telescope.

    PubMed

    Durfee, D S; Moody, J W; Brady, K D; Brown, C; Campbell, B; Durfee, M K; Early, D; Hansen, E; Madsen, D W; Morey, D B; Roming, P W; Savage, M B; Eastman, P F; Jensen, V

    1995-01-01

    The Goldhelox Project is the construction and use of a near-normal incidence soft x-ray robotic solar telescope by undergraduate students at Brigham Young University. Once it is completed and tested, it will be deployed from a Get-Away-Special (GAS) canister in the bay of a space shuttle. It will image the sun at a wavelength of 171-181Å with a time resolution of 1 sec and a spatial resolution of 2.5 arcsec. The observational bandpass was chosen to image x-rays from highly ionized coronal Fe lines. The data will be an aid in better understanding the beginning phases of solar flares and how flaring relates to the physics of the corona-chromosphere transition region. Goldhelox is tentatively scheduled to fly on a space shuttle sometime in 1995 or 1996. This paper outlines the project goals, basic instrument design, and the unique aspects of making this an undergraduate endeavor. PMID:21307474

  12. Segmented X-Ray Optics for Future Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClelland, Ryan S.

    2013-01-01

    Lightweight and high resolution mirrors are needed for future space-based X-ray telescopes to achieve advances in high-energy astrophysics. The slumped glass mirror technology in development at NASA GSFC aims to build X-ray mirror modules with an area to mass ratio of approx.17 sq cm/kg at 1 keV and a resolution of 10 arc-sec Half Power Diameter (HPD) or better at an affordable cost. As the technology nears the performance requirements, additional engineering effort is needed to ensure the modules are compatible with space-flight. This paper describes Flight Mirror Assembly (FMA) designs for several X-ray astrophysics missions studied by NASA and defines generic driving requirements and subsequent verification tests necessary to advance technology readiness for mission implementation. The requirement to perform X-ray testing in a horizontal beam, based on the orientation of existing facilities, is particularly burdensome on the mirror technology, necessitating mechanical over-constraint of the mirror segments and stiffening of the modules in order to prevent self-weight deformation errors from dominating the measured performance. This requirement, in turn, drives the mass and complexity of the system while limiting the testable angular resolution. Design options for a vertical X-ray test facility alleviating these issues are explored. An alternate mirror and module design using kinematic constraint of the mirror segments, enabled by a vertical test facility, is proposed. The kinematic mounting concept has significant advantages including potential for higher angular resolution, simplified mirror integration, and relaxed thermal requirements. However, it presents new challenges including low vibration modes and imperfections in kinematic constraint. Implementation concepts overcoming these challenges are described along with preliminary test and analysis results demonstrating the feasibility of kinematically mounting slumped glass mirror segments.

  13. Future high-resolution x-ray telescope technologies: prototype fabrication methods and finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Carolyn; Wang, Hongchang; Doel, Peter; Brooks, David; Thompson, Samantha; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Button, Tim; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Zhang, Dou; James, Ady; Theobald, Craig

    2008-07-01

    The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) project is a UK based consortium consisting of several institutions investigating the application of active/adaptive optics to both large and small scale grazing incidence x-ray optics. University College London presents work relating to the large scale x-ray optics that is geared towards the next generation of x-ray space telescopes. It is proposed that through the addition of piezoelectric actuators, an active x-ray telescope with a resolution better than that currently achieved (e.g. Chandra 0.5") could be realised. An immediate aim of the SXO project is to produce an operational active ellipsoidal segment prototype, with point-to- point focusing and with the intention of being tested at the University of Leicester's x-ray beam source. Work relating to the fabrication of the prototype will be presented, including shell replication via a nickel sulphamate electroforming process, piezoelectric actuators and prototype assembly and operation. Results from finite element analysis modelling will be discussed; these relate primarily to gravitational distortion effects and the plating tank electrostatics.

  14. Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) Work Station in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-35 mission was round the clock observation of the celestial sphere in ultraviolet and X-Ray astronomy with the Astro-1 observatory which consisted of four telescopes: the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT); the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE); the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT); and the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT). The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Teams of controllers and researchers directed on-orbit science operations, sent commands to the spacecraft, received data from experiments aboard the Space Shuttle, adjusted mission schedules to take advantage of unexpected science opportunities or unexpected results, and worked with crew members to resolve problems with their experiments. Due to loss of data used for pointing and operating the ultraviolet telescopes, MSFC ground teams were forced to aim the telescopes with fine tuning by the flight crew. This photo captures the activity of WUPPE (Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment) data review at the Science Operations Area during the mission. This image shows mission activities at the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) Work Station in the Science Operations Area (SOA).

  15. Telescope Scientist on the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Carl M. (Technical Monitor); VanSpeybroeck, Leon; Tananbaum, Harvey D.

    2004-01-01

    In this period, the Chandra X-ray Observatory continued to perform exceptionally well, with many scientific observations and spectacular results. The HRMA performance continues to be essentially identical to that predicted from ground calibration data. The Telescope Scientist Team has improved the mirror model to provide a more accurate description to the Chandra observers, enabling them to reduce the systematic errors and uncertainties in their data reduction. There also has been good progress in the scientific program. Using the Telescope Scientist GTO time, we carried out an extensive Chandra program to observe distant clusters of galaxies. The goals of this program were to use clusters to derive cosmological constraints and to investigate the physics and evolution of clusters. A total of 71 clusters were observed with ACIS-I; the last observations were completed in December 2003.

  16. The SWIFT Gamma-Ray Burst X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. E.; Burrows, D. N.; Nousek, J. A.; Wells, A.; Chincarini, G.; Abbey, A. F.; Angelini, L.; Beardmore, A.; Brauninger, H. W.; Chang, W.

    2006-01-01

    The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer is designed to make prompt multi-wavelength observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts and GRB afterglows. The X-ray Telescope enables Swift to determine GRB positions with a few arcseconds accuracy within 100 seconds of the burst onset. The XRT utilizes a mirror set built for JET-X and an XMM-Newton/ EPIC MOS CCD detector to provide a sensitive broad-band (0.2-10 keV) X-ray imager with an effective area of more than 120 sq cm at 1.5 keV, a field of view of 23.6 x 23.6 arcminutes, and an angular resolution of 18 arcseconds (HPD). The detection sensitivity is 2x10(exp 14) erg/sq cm/s in 10(exp 4) seconds. The instrument provides automated source detection and position reporting within 5 seconds of target acquisition. It can also measure the redshifts of GRBs with Iron line emission or other spectral features. The XRT operates in an auto-exposure mode, adjusting the CCD readout mode automatically to optimize the science return as the source intensity fades. The XRT measures spectra and lightcurves of the GRB afterglow beginning about a minute after the burst and follows each burst for days or weeks. We provide an overview of the X-ray Telescope scientific background from which the systems engineering requirements were derived, with specific emphasis on the design and qualification aspects from conception through to launch. We describe the impact on cleanliness and vacuum requirements for the instrument low energy response and to maintain the high sensitivity to the fading signal of the Gamma-ray Bursts.

  17. XCAT: the JANUS x-ray coded aperture telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcone, A. D.; Burrows, D. N.; Barthelmy, S.; Chang, W.; Fox, D.; Fredley, J.; Gehrels, N.; Kelly, M.; Klar, R.; Palmer, D.; Persyn, S.; Reichard, K.; Roming, P.; Seifert, E.; Smith, R. W. M.; Wood, P.; Zugger, M.

    2010-07-01

    The JANUS mission concept is designed to study the high redshift universe using a small, agile Explorer class observatory. The primary science goals of JANUS are to use high redshift (6X-Ray Coded Aperture Telescope (XCAT) and the Near-IR Telescope (NIRT) are the two primary instruments on JANUS. XCAT has been designed to detect bright X-ray flashes (XRFs) and gamma ray bursts (GRBs) in the 1-20 keV energy band over a wide field of view (4 steradians), thus facilitating the detection of z>6 XRFs/GRBs, which can be further studied by other instruments. XCAT would use a coded mask aperture design with hybrid CMOS Si detectors. It would be sensitive to XRFs and GRBs with flux in excess of approximately 240 mCrab. In order to obtain redshift measurements and accurate positions from the NIRT, the spacecraft is designed to rapidly slew to source positions following a GRB trigger from XCAT. XCAT instrument design parameters and science goals are presented in this paper.

  18. A normal incidence, high resolution X-ray telescope for solar coronal observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.

    1984-01-01

    Efforts directed toward the completion of an X-ray telescope assembly design, the procurement of major components, and the coordination of optical fabrication and X-ray multilayer testing are reported.

  19. Development of High Resolution Hard X-Ray Telescope with Multilayer Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, Paul; Brinton, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The activities that occurred during the first year of the grant were: a) completed construction of the large multilayer deposition facility; b) Coated a large number of flat substrates and the interiors of cylindrical X-ray telescope shell substrates with uniform period and depth graded periods of tungsten-silicon (W/Is) bi-layers and other coatings; c) studied the influence of various factors affecting the quality of the multilayer coatings by measuring their reflection efficiency at 8 keV and higher energy X-rays.

  20. The Constellation-X Spectroscopy X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, Robert; Content, David; Lehan, John; O'Dell, Stephen; Owens, Scott; Podgorsky, William; Stewart, Jeff; Zhang, William

    2004-01-01

    The status of technology development for the Constellation-X Spectroscopy X-ray Telescope (SXT) mirror is presented. The SXT mirror combines a large (1.6 m) aperture with modest (12 arc sec half power diameter) angular resolution and low mass (750 kg). The overall collecting area, larger than 9,600 square cm at 0.25 keV, requires high throughput, and thus nesting of a substantial number of thin reflectors. A phased development program is underway to develop reflectors, mounting and alignment approaches, and metrology techniques for components and the mirror has a whole. The latest results in all these areas are summarized, along with an overview of results of optical testing of reflector performance.

  1. Imaging performance and tests of soft x-ray telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Spiller, E.; McCorkle, R.; Wilczynski, J. . Thomas J. Watson Research Center); Golub, L.; Nystrom, G. ); Takacz, P.Z. ); Welch, C. )

    1990-08-01

    Photos obtained during 5 min. of observation time from the flight of our 10 in. normal incidence soft x-ray ({lambda} = 63.5{Angstrom}) telescope on September 11, 1989 are analyzed and the data are compared to the results expected from tests of the mirror surfaces. These tests cover a range of spatial periods from 25 cm to 1{Angstrom}. The photos demonstrate a reduction in the scattering of the multilayer mirror compared to a single surface for scattering angles above 1 arcmin, corresponding to surface irregularities with spatial periods below 10 {mu}m. Our results are used to predict the possible performance of future flights. Sounding rocket observations might be able to reach a resolution around 0.1 arcsec. Higher resolutions will require flights of longer durations and improvements in mirror testing for the largest spatial periods. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Time Domain X-ray Astronomy with "All-Sky" Focusing Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenstein, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The largest and most diverse types of temporal variations in all of astronomy occur in the soft, i.e. 0.5 to 10 keV, X-ray band. They range from millisecond QPO’s in compact binaries to year long flares from AGNs due to the absorption of a star by a SMBH, and the appearance of transient sources at decadal intervals. Models predict that at least some gravitational waves will be accompanied by an X-ray flare. A typical GRB produces more photons/sq. cm. in the soft band than it does in the Swift BAT 15 to 150 keV band. In addition the GRB X-ray fluence and knowledge of the details of the onset of the X-ray afterglow is obtained by observing the seamless transition from the active burst phase that has been attributed to internal shocks to the afterglow phases that has been attributed to external shocks. Detecting orphan X-ray afterglows will augment the event rate. With high sensitivity detectors some GRB identifications are likely to be with the youngest, most distant galaxies in the universe. Previous all-sky X-ray monitors have been non focusing limited field of view scanning instruments. An “All-Sky” (actually several ster FOV), focusing lobster-eye X-ray telescope will have much more grasp than the previous instruments and will allow a wide range of topics to be studied simultaneously. Two types of lobster-eye telescopes have been proposed. One type focuses in one dimension and uses a coded mask for resolution in the second. The other type focuses in two dimensions but has less effective area and less bandwidth. Both types are compatible with a Probe mission.

  3. Study of X-ray optics. [testing polished Kanigen coated beryllium mirror in X ray telescope on Skylark

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froechtenigt, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The testing is reported of a polished Kanigen coated beryllium mirror in a soft X-ray telescope to be flown on a Skylark sounding rocket. This test involved inserting the telescope in a 220 foot long vacuum line and taking photographs of an X-ray resolution source. These photographs were then used to evaluate the performance of the telescope mirror as a function of distance from the focal plane and the angular distance off the telescope axis. A second test was made in which a point source was used to study the imaging characteristics by means of a pinhole and proportional counter placed in the telescope focal plane. A third test was conducted using a position sensitive detector. The efficiency and resolution was increased by polishing.

  4. Imaging the sun in hard x rays using Fourier telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    For several years, solar flares have been observed with a variety of instruments confirming that tremendous amounts of energy are locally stored in the solar magnetic field and then rapidly released during the life of the flare. In concert with observations, theorists have attempted to describe the means by which these energetic events occur and evolve. Two competing theories have emerged and have stood the test of time. One theory describes the flare in terms of nonthermal, electron beam injection into a thick target while the other uses a thermal approach. Both theories provide results which are reasonably consistent with current observations; but to date, none have been able to provide conclusive evidence as to the validity of either model. Imaging on short time scales (1 s) and/or small size scales (1 arc s) should give definitive answers to these questions. In order to test whether a realistic telescope can indeed discriminate between models, we construct model sources based upon the thermal and the nonthermal models and calculate the emission as a function of time and energy in the range from 10 to 100 keV. In addition, we construct model telescopes representing both the spatial modulation collimator (SMC) and the rotating modulation collimator (RMC) techniques of observation using random photon counting statistics. With these two types of telescopes we numerically simulate the instrument response to the above two model flares to see if there are distinct x-ray signatures which may be discernable. We find that theoretical descriptions of the primary models of solar flares do indeed predict different hard x-ray signatures for 1 sec time scales and at 1-5 arc sec spatial resolution. However, these distinguishing signatures can best be observed early in the impulsive phase and from a position perpendicular to the plane of the loop. Furthermore, we find that Fourier telescopes with reasonable and currently attainable design characteristics can image these

  5. Soft X Ray Telescope (SXT) focus error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Anees

    1991-01-01

    The analysis performed on the soft x-ray telescope (SXT) to determine the correct thickness of the spacer to position the CCD camera at the best focus of the telescope and to determine the maximum uncertainty in this focus position due to a number of metrology and experimental errors, and thermal, and humidity effects is presented. This type of analysis has been performed by the SXT prime contractor, Lockheed Palo Alto Research Lab (LPARL). The SXT project office at MSFC formed an independent team of experts to review the LPARL work, and verify the analysis performed by them. Based on the recommendation of this team, the project office will make a decision if an end to end focus test is required for the SXT prior to launch. The metrology and experimental data, and the spreadsheets provided by LPARL are used at the basis of the analysis presented. The data entries in these spreadsheets have been verified as far as feasible, and the format of the spreadsheets has been improved to make these easier to understand. The results obtained from this analysis are very close to the results obtained by LPARL. However, due to the lack of organized documentation the analysis uncovered a few areas of possibly erroneous metrology data, which may affect the results obtained by this analytical approach.

  6. JIM: a joint integrated module of glass x-ray optics for astronomical telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proserpio, Laura; Breunig, Elias; Friedrich, Peter; Winter, Anita; Rohé, Christian; Eder, Josef; Burwitz, Vadim; Hartner, Gisela D.; Menz, Benedikt; Civitani, Marta; Basso, Stefano; Buratti, Enrico

    2015-09-01

    For several years, the Max-Planck-Institute for extraterrestrial Physics in Germany (MPE) and the Astronomical Observatory of Brera in Italy (INAF-OAB) have been studying the slumping technology for the manufacturing of segmented glass X-ray optics for astronomy. Despite some differences in their specific approaches, the synergy of the two institutes has always been good, focusing on the common goal of developing a technology able to meet the outstanding requirements for future X-ray telescopes: i.e. large collecting areas, low mass and good angular resolution. This synergy has in the last year resulted in an active collaboration for the production of a Joint Integrated Module (JIM) that puts together the expertise of the two research groups. In particular, the indirect slumping approach of MPE has been employed for the manufacturing of X-ray mirror segments that have been integrated into a kind of X-ray Optical Unit following the approach developed at INAF-OAB. The module has then been tested in X-ray at the MPE PANTER facility, in Neuried. The several steps and the results of this joint activity are reviewed and discussed in this paper.

  7. X-Ray Monitoring of GRBs with Lobster Eye Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Sveda, L.; Pina, L.; Hudec, R.; Inneman, A.; Pizzichini, G.

    2004-09-28

    We present here the soft X-ray All-Sky Monitor (ASM). It is based on the current technological capabilities, sensitive in the {approx} 0.1 - 10.0 keV range with angular resolution of {approx} 3 - 4 arcmin, and has a limiting detectable flux {approx} 10-12 erg/s/cm2 for daily scans in the mentioned energy range. The ASM will play a key role in studying transient X-ray sources like XRBs, GRBs, XRFs, X-ray novae, as well as in the study of the long term variability of X-ray sources like XRBs, AGN, or stellar X-ray flares.

  8. THE NUCLEAR SPECTROSCOPIC TELESCOPE ARRAY (NuSTAR) HIGH-ENERGY X-RAY MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Fiona A.; Cook, W. Rick; Forster, Karl; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Mao, Peter H.; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Craig, William W.; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Koglin, Jason E.; Mori, Kaya; Zhang, William W.; Boggs, Steven E.; Stern, Daniel; Kim, Yunjin; Giommi, Paolo; Perri, Matteo; and others

    2013-06-20

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission, launched on 2012 June 13, is the first focusing high-energy X-ray telescope in orbit. NuSTAR operates in the band from 3 to 79 keV, extending the sensitivity of focusing far beyond the {approx}10 keV high-energy cutoff achieved by all previous X-ray satellites. The inherently low background associated with concentrating the X-ray light enables NuSTAR to probe the hard X-ray sky with a more than 100-fold improvement in sensitivity over the collimated or coded mask instruments that have operated in this bandpass. Using its unprecedented combination of sensitivity and spatial and spectral resolution, NuSTAR will pursue five primary scientific objectives: (1) probe obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity out to the peak epoch of galaxy assembly in the universe (at z {approx}< 2) by surveying selected regions of the sky; (2) study the population of hard X-ray-emitting compact objects in the Galaxy by mapping the central regions of the Milky Way; (3) study the non-thermal radiation in young supernova remnants, both the hard X-ray continuum and the emission from the radioactive element {sup 44}Ti; (4) observe blazars contemporaneously with ground-based radio, optical, and TeV telescopes, as well as with Fermi and Swift, to constrain the structure of AGN jets; and (5) observe line and continuum emission from core-collapse supernovae in the Local Group, and from nearby Type Ia events, to constrain explosion models. During its baseline two-year mission, NuSTAR will also undertake a broad program of targeted observations. The observatory consists of two co-aligned grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes pointed at celestial targets by a three-axis stabilized spacecraft. Deployed into a 600 km, near-circular, 6 Degree-Sign inclination orbit, the observatory has now completed commissioning, and is performing consistent with pre-launch expectations. NuSTAR is now executing its primary science mission, and with an

  9. Toward Large-Area Sub-Arcsecond X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODell, Stephen L.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Allured, Ryan; Atkins, Carolyn; Burrows, David N.; Cao, Jian; Chalifoux, Brandon D.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Elsner, Ronald F.; Graham, Michael E.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Lillie, Charles F.; McMuldroch, Stuart; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Riveros, Raul E.; Roche, Jacqueline M.; Saha, Timo T.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    The future of x-ray astronomy depends upon development of x-ray telescopes with larger aperture areas (approx. = 3 square meters) and fine angular resolution (approx. = 1 inch). Combined with the special requirements of nested grazing-incidence optics, the mass and envelope constraints of space-borne telescopes render such advances technologically and programmatically challenging. Achieving this goal will require precision fabrication, alignment, mounting, and assembly of large areas (approx. = 600 square meters) of lightweight (approx. = 1 kilogram/square meter areal density) high-quality mirrors at an acceptable cost (approx. = 1 million dollars/square meter of mirror surface area). This paper reviews relevant technological and programmatic issues, as well as possible approaches for addressing these issues-including active (in-space adjustable) alignment and figure correction.

  10. MSFC Reviews Data from the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) During STS-35 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-35 mission was round the clock observation of the celestial sphere in ultraviolet and X-Ray astronomy with the Astro-1 observatory which consisted of four telescopes: the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT); the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE); the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT); and the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT). The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Teams of controllers and researchers directed on-orbit science operations, sent commands to the spacecraft, received data from experiments aboard the Space Shuttle, adjusted mission schedules to take advantage of unexpected science opportunities or unexpected results, and worked with crew members to resolve problems with their experiments. Due to loss of data used for pointing and operating the ultraviolet telescopes, MSFC ground teams were forced to aim the telescopes with fine tuning by the flight crew. This photo captures the activity of BBKRT data review in the Science Operations Area during the mission.

  11. The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) High-Energy X-ray Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Fiona A.; Craig, Willliam W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Zhang, William W.; Boggs, Steven E.; Stern, Daniel; Cook, W. Rick; Forster, Karl; Giommi, Paolo; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Kim, Yunjin; Kitaguchi, Takao; Koglin, Jason E.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Mao, Peter H.; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Mori, Kaya; Perri, Matteo; Markwardt, Craig B.; Wik, Daniel R.; Hornschemeier, Anne E.; Ptak, Andrew; Rigby, Jane R.

    2013-01-01

    High-energy X-ray telescope in orbit. NuSTAR operates in the band from 3 to 79 keV, extending the sensitivity of focusing far beyond the 10 keV high-energy cutoff achieved by all previous X-ray satellites. The inherently low background associated with concentrating the X-ray light enables NuSTAR to probe the hard X-ray sky with a more than 100-fold improvement in sensitivity over the collimated or coded mask instruments that have operated in this bandpass. Using its unprecedented combination of sensitivity and spatial and spectral resolution, NuSTAR will pursue five primary scientific objectives: (1) probe obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity out to thepeak epoch of galaxy assembly in the universe (at z 2) by surveying selected regions of the sky; (2) study the population of hard X-ray-emitting compact objects in the Galaxy by mapping the central regions of the Milky Way; (3) study the non-thermal radiation in young supernova remnants, both the hard X-ray continuum and the emission from the radioactive element 44Ti; (4) observe blazars contemporaneously with ground-based radio, optical, and TeV telescopes, as well as with Fermi and Swift, to constrain the structure of AGN jets; and (5) observe line and continuum emission from core-collapse supernovae in the Local Group, and from nearby Type Ia events, to constrain explosion models. During its baseline two-year mission, NuSTAR will also undertake a broad program of targeted observations. The observatory consists of two co-aligned grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes pointed at celestial targets by a three-axis stabilized spacecraft. Deployed into a 600 km, near-circular, 6 inclination orbit, the observatory has now completed commissioning, and is performing consistent with pre-launch expectations. NuSTAR is now executing its primary science mission, and with an expected orbit lifetime of 10 yr, we anticipate proposing a guest investigator program, to begin in late 2014.

  12. Payload study activities on the International X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D.; Rando, N.; Lumb, D.; Verhoeve, P.; Oosterbroek, T.; Puig, L.; Saavedra, G.; Bavdaz, M.; Gondoin, P.

    2010-07-01

    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) is an L class mission candidate within the science programme Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 of the European Space Agency, with a planned launch by 2020. IXO is an international cooperative project, pursued by ESA, JAXA and NASA. By allowing astrophysical observations between 100 eV and 40 keV using a very large effective collecting area mirror and state-of-the art instruments, IXO would represent the new generation X-ray observatory, following the XMM-Newton, Astro-H and Chandra heritage. The IXO mission concept is based on a single aperture telescope with an external diameter of about 3.5 m and a focal length of 20 m. The focal plane consists of a fixed and a moveable instrument platform (FIP and MIP respectively). The model payload consists of a suite of five instruments which can each be located at the telescope's focus by the MIP, these are: 1. a wide field imager (WFI) based on a silicon DEPFET array; 2. a Hard-X-ray Imager (HXI), which will be integrated together with the WFI; 3. an X-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer (XMS); 4. an X-ray Polarimeter camera (X-POL) based on a gas cell with integrated anode array; 5. a High-Time Resolution Spectrometer (HTRS) based on a silicon drift detector array. In addition, the FIP will carry a grating spectrometer (XGS) mounted in a fixed position and which will allow simultaneous observations with the on-axis instrument. This paper provides a summary of the preliminary results achieved during the assessment activities presently ongoing at ESA. Whereas we will provide a brief overview on the overall spacecraft design, we will focus on the payload description, characteristics, the technology used and the accommodation on the instrument platform.

  13. Physical Processes Shaping Gamma-Ray Burst X-Ray Afterglow Light Curves: Theoretical Implications from the Swift X-Ray Telescope Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing; Fan, Y. Z.; Dyks, Jaroslaw; Kobayashi, Shiho; Mészáros, Peter; Burrows, David N.; Nousek, John A.; Gehrels, Neil

    2006-05-01

    With the successful launch of the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer, a rich trove of early X-ray afterglow data has been collected by its onboard X-Ray Telescope (XRT). Some interesting features are emerging, including a distinct rapidly decaying component preceding the conventional afterglow component in many sources, a shallow decay component before the more ``normal'' decay component observed in a good fraction of GRBs, and X-ray flares in nearly half of the afterglows. In this paper we systematically analyze the possible physical processes that shape the properties of the early X-ray afterglow light curves and use the data to constrain various models. We suggest that the steep decay component is consistent with the tail emission of the prompt gamma-ray bursts and/or the X-ray flares. This provides strong evidence that the prompt emission and afterglow emission are likely two distinct components, supporting the internal origin of the GRB prompt emission. The shallow decay segment observed in a group of GRBs suggests that very likely the forward shock keeps being refreshed for some time. This might be caused by either a long-lived central engine, or a wide distribution of the shell Lorentz factors, or else possibly the deceleration of a Poynting flux-dominated flow. X-ray flares suggest that the GRB central engine is very likely still active after the prompt gamma-ray emission is over, but with a reduced activity at later times. In some cases, the central engine activity even extends to days after the burst triggers. Analyses of early X-ray afterglow data reveal that GRBs are indeed highly relativistic events and that early afterglow data of many bursts, starting from the beginning of the XRT observations, are consistent with the afterglow emission from an ISM environment.

  14. Study of a Solar X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The highly structured nature of the outer solar atmosphere seems to be intimately linked to the presence, at the solar surface, of magnetic fields that have been generated inside the Sun and have emerged to the surface. The corona is brightest (and also hottest) at just those locations where the magnetic field has emerged from inside the Sun. Dynamo theory predicts that strong magnetic fields will be generated deep in the solar interior and that bundles or 'ropes' of magnetic flux will float to the surface. When this happens, a magnetically bipolar region will become visible, extending above the surface in a three-dimensional structure. The field lines penetrate through the surface, showing two magnetic poles, and also exhibit a three-dimensional structure above the surface. The structure created by the field emergence is rooted in the (relatively) cool photosphere and extends through the chromosphere and transition region to the corona. Thus, the magnetic field creates a region, called an active region, which contains portions at temperatures from less than 10(exp 4) K to greater than 10(exp 6) K, and is therefore visible at wavelengths from the infrared through x-rays. The locations where the magnetic field leaves and reenters the visible surface are called the 'footpoints' of the coronal structures associated with the magnetic field. The magnetic fields themselves are not directly visible. However, the hot coronal plasma is, for the most part, constrained to follow the direction of the magnetic field lines in the atmosphere. Now, 100 years after the discovery of x-rays by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1896, we can routinely make observations of the solar corona from outside the Earth's atmosphere in this region of the electromagnetic spectrum. As shown by comparing x-ray images with magnetograms, the bright corona over these bipolar magnetic regions consists of closed structures that seem to follow the orientation of the magnetic field. Although we can see down to the

  15. Research study entitled advanced X-ray astrophysical observatory (AXAF). [system engineering for a total X-ray telescope assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasche, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    General background and overview material are presented along with data from studies performed to determine the sensitivity, feasibility, and required performance of systems for a total X-ray telescope assembly. Topics covered include: optical design, mirror support concepts, mirror weight estimates, the effects of l g on mirror elements, mirror assembly resonant frequencies, optical bench considerations, temperature control of the mirror assembly, and the aspect determination system.

  16. A Hard X-Ray Telescope Science Enhancement Package for the Constellation X-Ray Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian; Gorenstein, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Details of a hard-x-ray science enhancement package for the Constellation-X mission are presented. A scientific case is made for the inclusion of such an instrument on the planned mission and a detailed design is presented that will satisfy science requirements yet fall within the ground rules for enhancement packages: a cost of less than $100M and a mass of no more than 100 kg.

  17. Status of the eROSITA Telescope testing and calibrating the x-ray mirror assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burwitz, Vadim; Predehl, Peter; Bräuninger, Heinrich; Burkert, Wolfgang; Dennerl, Konrad; Eder, Josef; Friedrich, Peter; Fürmetz, Maria; Grisoni, Gabriele; Hartner, Gisela; Marioni, Fabio; Menz, Benedikt; Pfeffermann, Elmar; Valsecchi, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    The eROSITA X-ray observatory that will be launched on board the Russian Spectrum-RG mission comprises seven X-ray telescopes, each with its own mirror assembly (mirror module + X-ray baffle), electron deflector, filter wheel, and CCD camera with its control electronics. The completed flight mirror modules are undergoing many thorough X-ray tests at the PANTHER X-ray test facility after delivery, after being mated with the X-ray baffle, and again after both the vibration and thermal-vacuum tests. A description of the work done with mirror modules/assemblies and the test results obtained will be reported here. We report also on the environmental tests that have been performed on the eROSITA telescope qualification model.

  18. Active X-ray mirror development at UCL: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Carolyn; Doel, Peter; Yao, Jun; Brooks, David; Thompson, Samantha; Willingale, Richard; Feldman, Charlotte; Button, Tim; Zhang, Dou; James, Ady

    2007-12-01

    The Smart X-ray Optics project is a UK based consortium consisting of several institutions to investigate the application of active/adaptive optics upon both small and large scale grazing incidence x-ray optics. The work done at University College London (UCL) focuses on the application of piezoelectric materials to large scale optics in order to actively deform the mirror's surface. These optics are geared towards the next generation of x-ray telescopes and it is hoped that the project will be able to achieve a resolution greater than that currently available by Chandra (0.5"). One of the aims of the consortium is to produce a working prototype. The initial design is based on a thin nickel ellipsoid segment with an x-ray reflective coating, on the back of which will be bonded a series of piezoelectric actuators. Investigation into the specification of the design of an active x-ray optic prototype and suitable support test structure has been undertaken. The dimensions and constraints upon the prototype, and the manufacturing process to produce a nickel shell are discussed. Finite element analysis (FEA) of the physical characteristics of piezoelectric materials has shown the ability to deform the nickel surface to correct for errors of several microns. FEA has also been utilised in the specification of the prototype's support structure to ensure that gravitational sag upon the optic is kept to a minimum. Laboratory experiments have tested a series of materials, different actuators and bonding methods, which could then be applied to the prototype.

  19. Ultra high throughput four-reflection x-ray telescope for high resolution spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawara, Yuzuru; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Babazaki, Yasunori; Nakamichi, Ren; Bandai, Ayako

    2015-09-01

    The first application of four-times reflection X-ray optics is planned for the DIOS mission, in which very soft X-ray observation is expected. On the other hand, effective area of the telescope for higher X-ray energy (E < 10 keV) including iron K emission lines has been so far limited to about 1000 cm2 for assumed several meter focal length. However, if we introduce four-reflection optics to this energy range, we can get several times large effective area for single telescope with same several meter focal length. To prove this possibility, we performed ray tracing simulation for four-reflection telescope with 6 m focal length and found that effective area of 3100 cm2 at 6 keV can be obtained for single telescope. In this paper, we will discuss about other telescope performances, mechanical properties and application to fine spectroscopic mission using X-ray micro-calorimeter.

  20. An extreme ultraviolet telescope with no soft X-ray response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, David S.; Jelinsky, Patrick; Bowyer, Stuart; Malina, Roger F.

    1986-01-01

    While EUV grazing incidence telescopes of conventional design exhibit a substantial X-ray response as well as an extreme UV response, and existing bandpass filters for the transmission of radiation longward of 400 A also transmit soft X-rays, the grazing incidence telescope presented suppresses this soft X-ray throughput through the incorporation of a Wolter Schwarzschild Type II mirror with large graze angles. The desirable features of an EUV photometric survey telescope are retained. An instrument of this design will be flown on the EUE mission, in order to make a survey of the sky at wavelengths longer than 400 A.

  1. Sub-arcsecond X-ray Telescope for Imaging the Solar Corona at 1 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, D.; Cash, W.; Jelsma, S.

    1996-05-01

    Over the past several years at the University of Colorado we have been developing an X-ray telescope that uses a new technique for focusing X-rays with grazing incidence optics The telescope uses spherical optics for all its components, thus utilizing the high quality surfaces obtainable when polishing spherical optics as compared to that of aspherical optics. A prototype engineering X-ray telescope has been fabricated and tested using the 300 meter vacuum pipe at White Sands Missile Range, NM. The telescope uses approximately 2 degree graze angles with tungsten coatings which gives a bandpass of 0.25-1.5 keV and a peak effective area of 0.08 cm(2) at 0.83 keV. Results from X-ray testing at energies of 0.25 keV and 0.93 keV (C-K and Cu-L) will be presented which verify 0.5 arcseconds performance at 0.93 keV. Results from modeling the X-ray telescope's response to the sun show that the current optics design would be capable of recording on the order of 10 images of a solar active region during a 300 second NASA sounding rocket flight at resolution of 0.5 arcsecond.

  2. Observation of a solar flare at the limb with the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuneta, Saku; Hara, Hirohisa; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Acton, Loren W.; Strong, Keith T.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Ogawara, Yoshiaki

    1992-01-01

    A long-enduring soft X-ray flare at the solar limb was well observed by the Soft X-ray Telescope aboard the Yohkoh spacecraft from the preflare stage through the postflare phase. A 'helmet streamer' arch appears several hours prior to the flare, in association with a continuous expansion and restructuring of the active-region magnetic structure. This arch then starts to flare, and increases its height and footpoint separation at v = 10-30 km/s. The arch has a complex temperature structure in the rising phase, whereas the outer arches have systematically higher temperatures in the decay phase. Magnetic reconnection in a neutral sheet at the loop top, created by preflare magnetic restructuring, would explain this type of flare.

  3. New Mission Concept Study: Energetic X-Ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This Report summarizes the activity carried out under the New Mission Concept (NMC) study for a mission to conduct a sensitive all-sky imaging survey in the hard x-ray (HX) band (approximately 10-600 keV). The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) mission was originally proposed for this NMC study and was then subsequently proposed for a MIDEX mission as part of this study effort. Development of the EXIST (and related) concepts continues for a future flight proposal. The hard x-ray band (approximately 10-600 keV) is nearly the final band of the astronomical spectrum still without a sensitive imaging all-sky survey. This is despite the enormous potential of this band to address a wide range of fundamental and timely objectives - from the origin and physical mechanisms of cosmological gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to the processes on strongly magnetic neutron stars that produce soft gamma-repeaters and bursting pulsars; from the study of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasars to the origin and evolution of the hard x-ray diffuse background; from the nature and number of black holes and neutron stars and the accretion processes onto them to the extreme non-thermal flares of normal stars; and from searches for expected diffuse (but relatively compact) nuclear line (Ti-44) emission in uncatalogued supernova remnants to diffuse non-thermal inverse Compton emission from galaxy clusters. A high sensitivity all-sky survey mission in the hard x-ray band, with imaging to both address source confusion and time-variable background radiations, is very much needed.

  4. ASTRO-H Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soong, Yang; Serlemitsos Peter J.; Okajima, Takashi; Hahne, Devin

    2011-01-01

    ASTRO-H is an astrophysics satellite dedicated for X-ray spectroscopic study non-dispersively and to carry out survey complementally, which will be borne out of US-Japanese collaborative effort. Among the onboard instruments there are four conically approximated Wolter-I X-ray mirrors, among which two of them are soft X-ray mirrors\\ of which the energy range is from a few hundred eV to 15 keY, currently being fabricated in the X-ray Optics Lab at Goddard Space Flight Center. The focal point instruments will be a calorimeter (SXS) and a CCD camera (SXI), respectively. The reflectors of the mirror are made of heat-formed aluminum substrate of the thickness gauged of 152 micron, 229 micron, and 305 micron of the alloy 5052 H-19, followed by epoxy replication on gold-sputtered smooth Pyrex cylindrical mandrels to acquire the X-ray reflective surface. The epoxy layer is 10 micron nominal and surface gold layer of 0.2 micron. Improvements on angular response over the Astro-El/Suzaku mirrors come from error reduction on the figure, the roundness, and the grazing angle/radius mismatching of the reflecting surface, and tighter specs and mechanical strength on supporting structure to reduce the reflector positioning and the assembly errors. In this paper, we report the results of calibration of the engineering model of SXT (EM), and project the quality of the flight mirrors.

  5. Radio observations of a hard X-ray selected sample of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unger, S. W.; Lawrence, A.; Wilson, A. S.; Elvis, M.; Wright, A. E.

    1987-01-01

    Radio observations of a hard X-ray selected sample of active galaxies obtained with the VLA and Parkes radio telescopes are discussed, and the ratio of the radio to X-ray flux density is used to determine the degree of radio-loudness of the galaxies. A continuous distribution of the degree of radio loudness is found amongst the sample galaxies, and no evidence for distinct radio-quiet and radio-loud populations is noted. The X-ray and radio luminosity is shown to be nonlinearly correlated, with the radio-loud objects all having high X-ray luminosity.

  6. Combined X-Ray and mm-Wave Observations of Radio Quiet Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behar, E.

    2016-06-01

    A connection between the X-ray and radio sources in radio quiet active galaxies (AGNs) will be demonstrated. High radio frequency, i.e., mm-wave observations are promising probes of the X-ray emitting inner regions of the accretion disks in radio quiet AGNs. An argument for simultaneous observations in X-rays and in mm waves will be made, in order to promote these as one of the future science goals of X-ray and AGN astronomy in the next decade. Preliminary results from an exploratory campaign with several space and ground based telescopes will be presented.

  7. Design and Development of Thin Plastic Foil, Conical Approximation, High Through-out X-Ray Telescope: Light Weight, Thin Plastic Foil, X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnopper, Herbert W.; Barbera, Marco; Silver, Eric; Ingram, Russell; Christensen, Finn E.; Romaine, Suzanne; Cohen, Lester; Collura, Alfonso; Murray, Stephen S.; Brinton, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present results from a program to develop an X-ray telescope made from thin plastic shells. Our initial results have been obtained from multi-shell cylindrical lenses that are used in a point-to-point configuration to image the small focal spot of a an X-ray tube on a microchannel plate detector. We describe the steps that led up to the present design and present data from the tests that have been used to identify the properties of the plastic material that make it a suitable X-ray reflector. We discuss two applications of our technology to X-ray missions that are designed to address some of the scientific priorities set forth in NASA's long term plans for high energy astrophysics. One mission will observe in the 1 - 10 keV band, the other will extend up to ca. 100 keV.

  8. Compton polarimeter as a focal plane detector for hard X-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, T.; Vadawale, S. V.

    X-ray polarimetry is expected to provide unique opportunity to study the behavior of matter and radiation under extreme magnetic fields and extreme gravitational fields. However sensitivity of the X-ray polarimeters has always been an issue for the last three decades; there is almost no progress in this field whereas there is a significant advance in the fields of X-ray spectroscopy, imaging and timing. Recently significant improvement in the sensitivity is expected in polarimetric measurements using GEM-based photoelectron tracking polarimeters coupled to soft X-ray telescopes. However they are sensitive in the soft X-ray regime. On the other hand mostly for the X-ray sources higher degree of polarisation at hard X-rays is expected because of the dominance of nonthermal X-ray emission mechanisms over the thermal counterpart. So polarisation measurement in hard X-ray can yield significant insights into such processes. Of late with the advent of high energy focussing telescopes (e.g. Nu STAR, ASTRO-H), sensitivity of X-ray detectors in hard X-ray range is expected to improve significantly. In this context we explore feasibility of a focal plane hard X-ray polarimeter based on Compton scattering having a thin plastic scatterer surrounded by cylindrical array of scintillator detectors. We have carried out detailed Geant4 simulations to estimate the modulation factor for 100% polarized beam as well as polarimetric efficiency of this configuration. Polarimetric sensitivity of the instrument critically depends on low energy threshold in central plastic scatterer. We estimated the sensitivity for a range of plastic threshold energy. We also discuss the methodology to measure the threshold energy in plastic scatterer. Here we present the initial results of polarisation sensitivities of such focal plane Compton polarimeter coupled with the reflection efficiency of present era hard X-ray optics and the experimental results for threshold measurements in plastic.

  9. Development of High Resolution Hard X-Ray Telescope with Multilayer Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinton, John C. (Technical Monitor); Gorenstein, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The major objective of this program is the development of a focusing hard X-ray telescope with moderately high angular resolution, i .e. comparable to the telescopes of XMM-Newton. The key ingredients of the telescope are a depth graded multilayer coatings and electroformed nickel substrates that are considerably lighter weight than those of previous missions such as XMM-Newton, which have had conventional single metal layer reflective coatings and have operated at much lower energy X-rays. The ultimate target mission for this technology is the Hard X-Ray Telescope (HXT) of the Constellation X-Ray Mission. However, it is applicable to potential SMEX and MIDEX programs as well.

  10. First Images from HERO: A Hard-X-Ray Focusing Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian D.; Alexander, Cheryl D.; Apple, Jeff A.; Benson, Carl M.; Dietz, Kurtis L.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Engelhaupt, Darell E.; Ghosh, Kajal K.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; ODell, Stephen L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We are developing a balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescope that utilizes grazing incidence optics. Termed HERO, for High-Energy Replicated Optics, the instrument will provide unprecented sensitivity in the hard-x-ray region and will achieve milliCrab-level sensitivity in a typical 3-hour balloon-flight observation and 50 microCrab sensitivity on ultra-long-duration flights. A recent proof-of-concept flight, featuring a small number of mirror shells captured the first focused hard-x-ray images of galactic x-ray sources. Full details of the payload, its expected future performance and its recent measurements are provided.

  11. A CATALOG OF SOLAR X-RAY PLASMA EJECTIONS OBSERVED BY THE SOFT X-RAY TELESCOPE ON BOARD YOHKOH

    SciTech Connect

    Tomczak, M.; Chmielewska, E. E-mail: chmielewska@astro.uni.wroc.pl

    2012-03-01

    A catalog of X-ray plasma ejections (XPEs) observed by the Soft X-ray Telescope on board the Yohkoh satellite has been recently developed in the Astronomical Institute of University of Wroclaw. The catalog contains records of 368 events observed in years 1991-2001 including movies and cross-references to associated events like flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). One hundred sixty-three XPEs out of 368 in the catalog were not reported until now. A new classification scheme of XPEs is proposed in which morphology, kinematics, and recurrence are considered. The relation between individual subclasses of XPEs and the associated events was investigated. The results confirm that XPEs are strongly inhomogeneous, responding to different processes that occur in the solar corona. A subclass of erupting loop-like XPEs is a promising candidate to be a high-temperature precursor of CMEs.

  12. Lost and Found: X-ray Telescope Locates Missing Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-02-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered two huge intergalactic clouds of diffuse hot gas. These clouds are the best evidence yet that a vast cosmic web of hot gas contains the long-sought missing matter - about half of the atoms and ions in the Universe. Various measurements give a good estimate of the mass-density of the baryons - the neutrons and protons that make up the nuclei of atoms and ions - in the Universe 10 billion years ago. However, sometime during the last 10 billion years a large fraction of the baryons, commonly referred to as "ordinary matter" to distinguish them from dark matter and dark energy, have gone missing. Chandra X-ray Spectrum of Mkn 421 Chandra X-ray Spectrum of Mkn 421 "An inventory of all the baryons in stars and gas inside and outside of galaxies accounts for just over half the baryons that existed shortly after the Big Bang," explained Fabrizio Nicastro of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, and lead author of a paper in the 3 February 2005 issue of Nature describing the recent research. "Now we have found the likely hiding place of the missing baryons." Nicastro and colleagues did not just stumble upon the missing baryons - they went looking for them. Computer simulations of the formation of galaxies and galaxy clusters indicated that the missing baryons might be contained in an extremely diffuse web-like system of gas clouds from which galaxies and clusters of galaxies formed. These clouds have defied detection because of their predicted temperature range of a few hundred thousand to a million degrees Celsius, and their extremely low density. Evidence for this warm-hot intergalactic matter (WHIM) had been detected around our Galaxy, or in the Local Group of galaxies, but the lack of definitive evidence for WHIM outside our immediate cosmic neighborhood made any estimates of the universal mass-density of baryons unreliable. Chandra X-ray Image of Mkn 421 Chandra X-ray Image of Mkn 421 The discovery of much more

  13. ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soong, Yang; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Okajima, Takashi; Hahne, Devin

    2011-09-01

    ASTRO-H is an astrophysics satellite dedicated for X-ray spectroscopic study non-dispersively and to carry out survey complementally, which will be borne out of US-Japanese collaborative effort. Among the onboard instruments there are four conically approximated Wolter-I X-ray mirrors, among which two of them are soft X-ray mirrors1, of which the energy range is from a few hundred eV to 15 keV, currently being fabricated in the X-ray Optics Lab at Goddard Space Flight Center. The focal point instruments will be a calorimeter (SXS) and a CCD camera (SXI), respectively. The reflectors of the mirror are made of heat-formed aluminum substrate of the thickness gauged of 152 μm, 229 μm, and 305 μm of the alloy 5052 H-19, followed by epoxy replication on gold-sputtered smooth Pyrex cylindrical mandrels to acquire the X-ray reflective surface. The epoxy layer is 10 μm nominal and surface gold layer of 0.2 μm. Improvements on angular response over the Astro-E1/Suzaku mirrors come from error reduction on the figure, the roundness, and the grazing angle/radius mismatching of the reflecting surface, and tighter specs and mechanical strength on supporting structure to reduce the reflector positioning and the assembly errors. In this paper, we report the results of calibration of the engineering model of SXT (EM), and project the quality of the flight mirrors.

  14. Future X-Ray Telescopes: Fresnel Lenses and Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, T. L.; Romaine, S. E.

    2002-12-01

    Science goals are well established for the next generation X-ray observatories, such as Constellation-X1 and Xeus2, which are being planned as followups to the successful Chandra3 and XMM-Newton4, missions which were launched in 1999. Both Constellation-X and Xeus observatories, planned for launch the end of this decade, emphasize large collecting area and high spectral resolution over angular resolution. Hence their angular resolution will not equal the < ~0.5'' of Chandra, the highest angular resolution of any X-ray observatory to date. These missions indicate a new direction for future X-ray observatories: from large general purpose observatories, such as Chandra, to missions with more focused science goals and therefore more tailored designs. Just as Constellation-X and Xeus emphasize throughput and spectral resolution, there are other designs which emphasize imaging with angular resolution surpassing Chandra's already invaluable 0.5''. This will be the emphasis of the missions to follow Constellation-X5. Two of these designs, Fresnel Lenses and X-ray interferometry, present optical systems which, theoretically, can reach micro-arcsecond angular resolutions. Many obstacles have stood in the way of making these designs a reality, but technology is now being developed6 which overcomes these obstacles, opening the door to X-ray imaging at unprecedented resolution. We present basic characteristics of both optical designs as well as the type of science that would benefit most from a milliarcsecond (or better) observatory. 1http://constellation.gsfc.nasa.gov/ 2http://astro.estec.esa.nl/SA-general/Projects/XEUS/ 3http://chandra.harvard.edu/ 4http://sci.esa.int/home/xmm-newton/index.cfm 5http://maxim.gsfc.nasa.gov/ 6Cash, W., Shipley, A., Osterman, S., & Joy, M. 2000, Nature 407, 160 This work was supported in part by NSF grant AST-9731923 to the SAO Summer Intern program.

  15. On the Design of Wide-Field X-ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, Ronald F.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Weiskopf, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray telescopes having a relatively wide field-of-view and spatial resolution vs. polar off-axis angle curves much flatter than the parabolic dependence characteristic of Wolter I designs are of great interest for surveys of the X-ray sky and potentially for study of the Sun s X-ray emission. We discuss the various considerations affecting the design of such telescopes, including the possible use of polynomial mirror surface prescriptions, a method of optimizing the polynomial coefficients, scaling laws for mirror segment length vs. intersection radius, the loss of on-axis spatial resolution, and the positioning of focal plane detectors.

  16. Simultaneous Hubble Space Telescope/Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Observations of Scorpius X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallman, T.; Boroson, B.; Vrtilek, S. D.

    1998-07-01

    Scorpius X-1 is the brightest extrasolar point source of X-rays and may serve as a prototype for low-mass X-ray binaries as a class. It has been suggested that the UV and optical emission arise as a result of reprocessing of X-rays and that a likely site for such reprocessing is an accretion disk around the X-ray source. If UV and optical emission are enhanced by the reprocessing of X-rays, the X-ray variability may be manifest in UV emission. We test this by using high temporal resolution UV data obtained simultaneously with high temporal resolution X-ray data collected by the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on the Hubble Space Telescope and by the X-Ray Timing Explorer. We analyze the variability behavior of the UV spectrum and of the X-rays, and we also measure the properties of the emission-line profiles as viewed at high resolution (resolving power ~= 25,000) with the echelle gratings. The variability behavior does not provide direct support for the reprocessing scenario, although the correlated variability between UV and X-rays does not conflict with this hypothesis. Furthermore, the emission-line profiles do not fit with simple models for disk emission lines.

  17. The NeXT x-ray telescope system: status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasaka, Yasushi; Kunieda, Hideyo; Miyazawa, Takuya; Serlemitsos, Peter; Soong, Yang; Okajima, Takashi; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Mori, Hideyuki; Ishida, Manabu; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Namba, Yoshiharu; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio; Haba, Yoshito; Tamura, Keisuke; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Koujun; Itoh, Masayuki

    2008-07-01

    Japan's NeXT mission has been approved for the Phase-A in 2007. At present NeXT is in the process of transition to the Phase-B. One of the unique feature of the mission is an imaging spectroscopy in unprecedentedly wide energy region from 0.5 to 80 keV. The X-Ray Telescope (XRT) system covers the energy region by means of grazing incidence reflective optics. International collaboration has been formed for the project and design and basic study have been carried out so far. Current baseline specification includes two hard X-ray telescopes which are combined with the Hard X-ray Imager (Si + CdTe pixel or strip) and cover 5 to 80 keV, and two soft X-ray telescopes which cover 0.3 to about 20 keV, one combined with a high resolution X-ray micro-calorimeter and the other with an X-ray CCD. Both of hard and soft X-ray mirrors employ same optical design; tightly-nested, conically-approximated thin-foil Wolter-I optics. The mission requirements for XRT system have been identified as 300 cm2 at 30 keV for the hard X-ray telescope in total and 400 cm2 at 6 keV for the soft X-ray telescope per unit. The requirement on the point spread function is 1.7 arcmin in HPD, as well as the goal being 1.2 arcmin. Based on the current level of technology all the mission requirements are expected to be satisfied.

  18. X-ray optical properties of a Wolter telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ondrusch, A.

    1980-01-01

    Physical properties and the fabrication sequence of a Wolter telescope are discussed. Such telescopes are intended to examine the dust scattering halos after being placed in orbit by a booster rocket launched from Australia.

  19. Most powerful X-ray telescope marks third anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-08-01

    A black hole gobbles up matter in our own Milky Way Galaxy. A hot spot of X-rays pulsates from near Jupiter's poles. An intergalactic web of hot gas, hidden from view since the time galaxies formed, is finally revealed. These scenarios sound like science fiction - but to those familiar with the latest developments in X-ray astronomy, they are just a few of the real-life discoveries made by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory during its third year of operation. "Within the last year, Chandra has revealed another series of never-before-seen phenomena in our galaxy and beyond," said Chandra project scientist Dr. Martin Weisskopf of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "When you combine recent discoveries with the secrets revealed during the observatory's first two years in orbit, it's amazing how much Chandra has told us about the universe in a relatively short period of time." One such discovery was an unprecedented view of a supermassive black hole devouring material in the Milky Way Galaxy - a spectacle witnessed for the first time when Chandra observed a rapid X-ray flare emitted from the direction of the black hole residing at our galaxy's center. In a just few minutes, Sagittarius A, a source of radio emission believed to be associated with the black hole, became 45 times brighter in X-rays, before declining to pre-flare levels a few hours later, offering astronomers a never-before-seen view of the energetic processes surrounding this supermassive black hole. "When we launched the Chandra Observatory, we attempted to explain its amazing capabilities in Earthly terms, such as the fact it can 'see' so well, it's like someone reading the letters of a stop sign 12 miles away," said Chandra Program Manager Tony Lavoie of the Marshall Center. "But now that the observatory has been in orbit for three years, we have unearthly proof of the technological marvel Chandra really is. Not only has it continued to operate smoothly and efficiently, it has

  20. Wolter-schwarzschild telescopes for x-ray astronomy.

    PubMed

    Chase, R C; Vanspeybroeck, L P

    1973-05-01

    The resolution of a Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope is intrinsically superior to the resolution of the corresponding paraboloid-hyperboloid telescope. The improvement is important for high resolution and wide field telescope designs having grazing angles larger than about 1.5 degrees . PMID:20125465

  1. SOME LIKE IT HOT: CORONAL HEATING OBSERVATIONS FROM HINODE X-RAY TELESCOPE AND RHESSI

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelz, J. T.; Kashyap, V. L.; Saar, S. H.; Grigis, P. C.; DeLuca, E. E.; Golub, L.; Weber, M. A.; Dennis, B. R.; Holman, G. D.; Lin, L.

    2009-10-10

    We have used Hinode X-Ray Telescope observations and RHESSI upper limits together to characterize the differential emission measure (DEM) from a quiescent active region. We find a relatively smooth DEM curve with the expected active region peak at log T = 6.4. We also find a high-temperature component with significant emission measure at log T approx> 7. This curve is consistent with previous observations of quiescent active regions in that it does not produce observable Fe XIX lines. It is different from that generated with X-Ray Telescope (XRT) data alone-RHESSI rules out the possibility of a separate high-temperature component with a peak of approximately log T = 7.4. The strength and position of the high-temperature peak in this XRT-only analysis was, however, poorly determined; adding RHESSI flux upper limits in the 4-13 keV energy range provide a strong high-temperature constraint which greatly improves the multi-thermal findings. The results of the present work as well as those from a growing number of papers on this subject imply that our previous understanding of the temperature distribution in active regions has been limited. Hot plasma (log T approx 7) appears to be prevalent, although in relatively small quantities as predicted by nanoflare models. Other models may need to be adjusted or updated to account for these new results.

  2. Swift X-Ray Telescope Observations of Superluminous Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kae Batara Olaes, Melanie; Quimby, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Superluminous Supernovae (SLSNe) are a part of an emerging class of exceptionally bright supernovae with peak luminosities 10 times brighter than typical Type Ia supernovae. Similar to supernovae, SLSNe are divided into two subclasses: hydrogen poor SLSN-I and hydrogen rich SLSN-II. However, the luminosity of these events is far too high to be explained by the models for normal supernovae. New models developed to explain SLSNe predict high luminosity X-ray emission at late times. A consistent analysis of incoming SLSNe is essential in order to place constraints on the mechanisms behind these events. Here we present the results of X-ray analysis on SLSNe using a Bayesian method of statistical inference for low count rate events.

  3. X-raying the Winds of Luminous Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, W. N.; Chartas, G.; Gallagher, S. C.; Gibson, R. R.; Miller, B. P.

    2009-12-01

    We briefly describe some recent observational results, mainly at X-ray wavelengths, on the winds of luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These winds likely play a significant role in galaxy feedback. Topics covered include (1) Relations between X-ray and UV absorption in Broad Absorption Line (BAL) and mini-BAL quasars; (2) X-ray absorption in radio-loud BAL quasars; and (3) Evidence for relativistic iron K BALs in the X-ray spectra of a few bright quasars. We also mention some key outstanding problems and prospects for future advances; e.g., with the International X-ray Observatory (IXO).

  4. A comparison of calculated and measured background noise rates in hard X-ray telescopes at balloon altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, A. J.; Perotti, F.; Dipper, N. A.; Lewis, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    An actively shielded hard X-ray astronomical telescope has been flown on stratospheric balloons. An attempt is made to compare the measured spectral distribution of the background noise counting rates over the energy loss range 20-300 keV with the contributions estimated from a series of Monte Carlo and other computations. The relative contributions of individual particle interactions are assessed.

  5. Thermal Properties of A Solar Coronal Cavity Observed with the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, Katherine K.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Kucera, Theresa A.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Kano, Ryouhei

    2011-01-01

    Coronal cavities are voids in coronal emission often observed above high latitude filament channels. Sometimes, these cavities have areas of bright X-ray emission in their centers. In this study, we use data from the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Hinode satellite to examine the thermal emission properties of a cavity observed during July 2008 that contains bright X-ray emission in its center. Using ratios of XRT filters, we find evidence for elevated temperatures in the cavity center. The area of elevated temperature evolves from a ring-shaped structure at the beginning of the observation, to an elongated structure two days later, finally appearing as a compact round source four days after the initial observation. We use a morphological model to fit the cavity emission, and find that a uniform structure running through the cavity does not fit the observations well. Instead, the observations are reproduced by modeling several short cylindrical cavity "cores" with different parameters on different days. These changing core parameters may be due to some observed activity heating different parts of the cavity core at different times. We find that core temperatures of 1.75 MK, 1.7 MK and 2.0 MK (for July 19, July 21 and July 23, respectively) in the model lead to structures that are consistent with the data, and that line-of-sight effects serve to lower the effective temperature derived from the filter ratio.

  6. Analysis of the 23 June 1988 flare using NIXT multilayer X-ray images. [normal incidence X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon; Herant, Marc

    1989-01-01

    Results obtained during the June 23, 1988 flight of the normal incidence X-ray telescope (NIXT) sounding rocket payload are reported. The telescope primary is 25 cm in diameter, in a 750 cm e.f.l. (f/30) Ritchey-Chretien configuration, with multilayer coatings on the optics designed to image the Fe XVI and Mg X coronal emission lines near 63.5 A. Images of the onset phase of a large (M8) Solar flare were recorded during the flight on a modified T-max 400 film manufactured by Kodak. Some of the results obtained by comparison of the NIXT data with ground-based observations of the sun obtained simultaneously to the flight are also reported.

  7. From x-ray telescopes to neutron focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Khaykovich, Boris; Ramsey, Brian; Moncton, David; Zavlin, Vyacheslav E.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Romaine, Suzanne; Rosati, Richard E.; Bruni, Ricardo; Robertson, Lee; Crow, Lowell; Ambaye, Haile; Lauter, Valeria

    2011-09-01

    In the case of neutrons the refractive index is slightly less than unity for most elements and their isotopes [1]. Consequently, thermal and cold neutrons can be reflected from smooth surfaces at grazing-incidence angles. Hence, the optical technologies developed for x-ray astronomy can be applied for neutron focusing. The focusing capabilities of grazing incidence neutron imaging optics have been successfully demonstrated using nickel mirrors. The mirrors were fabricated using an electroformed nickel replication process at Marshall Space Flight Center. Results of the neutron optics experiments and current status of the multilayer coating replication technique development are presented.

  8. From X-Ray Telescopes to Neutron Focusing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M. V.; Khaykovich, B.; Ramsey, B.; Moncton, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    In the case of neutrons the refractive index is slightly less than unity for most elements and their isotopes. Consequently, thermal and cold neutrons can be reflected from smooth surfaces at grazing-incidence angles. Hence, the optical technologies developed for x-ray astronomy can be applied for neutron focusing. The focusing capabilities of grazing incidence neutron imaging optics have been successfully demonstrated using nickel mirrors. The mirrors were fabricated using an electroformed nickel replication process at Marshall Space Flight Center. Results of the neutron optics experiments will be presented. Challenges of the neutron imaging optics as well as possible applications of the optics will be discussed.

  9. A normal incidence, high resolution X-ray telescope for solar coronal observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.

    1984-01-01

    A Normal Incidence high resolution X-ray Telescope is reported. The design of a telescope assembly which, after fabrication, will be integrated with the mirror fabrication process is described. The assembly is engineered to fit into the Black Brant rocket skin to survive sounding rocket launch conditions. A flight ready camera is modified and tested.

  10. The challenge of developing thin mirror shells for future x-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döhring, Thorsten; Stollenwerk, Manfred; Gong, Qingqing; Proserpio, Laura; Winter, Anita; Friedrich, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Previously used mirror technologies are not able to fulfil the requirements of future X-ray telescopes due to challenging requests from the scientific community. Consequently new technical approaches for X-ray mirror production are under development. In Europe the technical baseline for the planned X-ray observatory ATHENA is the radical new approach of silicon pore optics. NASÁs recently launched NuSTAR mission uses segmented mirrors shells made from thin bended glasses, successfully demonstrating the feasibility of the glass forming technology for X-ray mirrors. For risk mitigation also in Europe the hot slumping of thin glasses is being developed as an alternative technology for lightweight X-ray telescopes. The high precision mirror manufacturing requires challenging technical developments; several design trades and trend-setting decisions need to be made and are discussed within this paper. Some new technical and economic aspects of the intended glass mirror serial production are also studied within the recently started interdisciplinary project INTRAAST, an acronym for "industry transfer of astronomical mirror technologies". The goal of the project, embedded in a cooperation of the Max-Planck-Institute for extraterrestrial Physics and the University of Applied Sciences Aschaffenburg, is to master the challenge of producing thin mirror shells for future X-ray telescopes. As a first project task the development of low stress coatings for thin glass mirror substrates have been started, the corresponding technical approach and first results are presented.

  11. The Extended Range X-Ray Telescope center director's discretionary fund report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, R. B.; Cumings, N. P.; Hildner, E.; Moore, R. L.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    An Extended Range X-Ray Telescope (ERXRT) of high sensitivity and spatial resolution capable of functioning over a broad region of the X-ray/XUV portion of the spectrum has been designed and analyzed. This system has been configured around the glancing-incidence Wolter Type I X-ray mirror system which was flown on the Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount as ATM Experiment S-056. Enhanced sensitivity over a vastly broader spectral range can be realized by the utilization of a thinned, back-illuminated, buried-channel Charge Coupled Device (CCD) as the X-ray/XUV detector rather than photographic film. However, to maintain the high spatial resolution inherent in the X-ray optics when a CCD of 30 micron pixel size is used, it is necessary to increase the telescope plate scale. This can be accomplished by use of a glancing-incidence X-ray microscope to enlarge and re-focus the primary image onto the focal surface of the CCD.

  12. A Very Wide-Field Hybrid (Focusing/Coded Mask) X-Ray Telescope Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenstein, Paul

    2011-09-01

    The success of Swift at detecting and positioning variable hard X-ray sources, most notably gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), demonstrates that investigations with a very wide field telescope should continue permanently, like the continuing search for supernovas, and its scope expanded. The softer X-ray band is likely to be an even richer arena in which to search for ever more distant GRBs. The X-ray component of their spectra will be enriched by the redshift especially at large distances where the redshift increases very rapidly with distance. Furthermore most GRBs are likely to have an X-ray afterglow, which a very wide field telescope would detect from its birth. Multiple X-ray afterglows can be studied simultaneously. Some GRB models predict that X-ray afterglows will be more numerous than GRBs because they are less narrowly beamed. In addition many other types of variable X-ray sources can be monitored even more effectively than by scanning instruments. There are three possible approaches to a very wide field X-ray telescope, a 2D coded mask like Swift, a 2D lobster-eye telescope, and a hybrid that is a lobster-eye telescope in one dimension and a coded mask in the other. For the same field of view and the same focal length all three could use the same detector system including an omni-directional gamma-ray detector. We offer reasons why the hybrid, which is composed of identical flat mirrors, is the best of the three. It has much less background from diffuse X-rays and known X-ray sources than the 2D coded mask, and has substantially more area and bandwidth than the 2D lobster-eye. While positions are expected to be an arc minute or better, a small number of the mirrors used to fabricate the hybrid can be configured as a KB telescope that when pointed refines positions to arc second precision.

  13. Metrology for x-ray telescope mirrors in a vertical configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Haizhang; Li, Xiaodan; Grindel, M.W.

    1995-09-01

    Mirrors used in x-ray telescope systems for observations outside of the earth`s atmosphere are usually made of several thin nested shells, each formed by a pair of paraboloidal and hyperboloidal surfaces. The thin shells are very susceptible to self-weight deflection caused by gravity and are nearly impossible to test by conventional interferometric techniques. The metrology requirements for these mirrors are extremely challenging. This paper presents a prototype of a Vertical Scanning Long Trace Profiler (VSLTP) which is optimized to measure the surface figure of x-ray telescope mirrors in a vertical orientation. The optical system of the VSLTP is described. Experimental results from measurements on an x-ray telescope mandrel and tests of the accuracy and repeatability of the prototype VSLTP are presented. The prototype instrument has achieved a height measurement accuracy of about 50 nanometers with a repeatability of better than 20 nanometers, and a slope measurement accuracy of about 1 microradian.

  14. Performance of the ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Soong, Y.

    2013-04-01

    The X-ray astronomy satellite, ASTRO-H, being developed under the collaboration among JAXA, NASA's GSFC and ESA, will have two Soft X-ray Telescopes (SXTs), among other instruments onboard, with a sensitive energy band up to 15 keV. One is for an X-ray micro-calorimeter detector and the other for an X-ray CCD detector. The SXT uses a conically approximated Wolter I grazing incidence optic implemented by thin aluminum foil substrates with thickness of 0.152, 0.229, and 0.305 mm. X-ray reflecting surface is a gold thin layer (2000A) transferred from a smooth glass mandrel to the substrate by a replication method using an epoxy buffer layer (12 um). It is similar to the Suzaku X-ray telescope, but with larger diameter (45 cm) and longer focal length (5.6 m). Recently we have completed the first flight SXT (SXT-1). X-ray measurments with a diverging beam at the Goddard 100-m beamline found an angular resolution to be 1.13 arcmin (HPD) at 4.5 keV. Since we also found that this performance has radial dependence, the angular resolution will be different for a parallel beam, i.e. in orbit. It will be measured by the full performance characterization at ISAS/JAXA, Japan, later this year. SXT-1 has successfully gone through environmental testing (vibration and thermal) and the performance ramains same. In this paper, we will report X-ray test results obtained at the Goddard X-ray beamline.

  15. X-ray emission from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R.

    1985-01-01

    It is often held that the X-ray emission from active galactic nuclei (AGN) arises from a region close to the central energy source. Thus X-ray observations may provide the best constraints on the central engine. In particular, the shape of the X-ray continuum gives information about the mechanism for photon generation, X-ray time variability data can constrain the size and mass of the continuum source, and X-ray occultation data give constraints on the relative sizes of the continuum source and the intervening absorbing material (often assumed to be the broad line clouds). In addition, since a fair fraction of the total energy of an AGN is emitted at X-ray wavelengths, direct measurement of the amount and spectral form of this radiation is important for modeling of the optically emitting clouds.

  16. Skylab ATM/S-056 X-ray event analyzer observations versus solar flare activity: An event compilation. [tables (data)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    An event compilation is presented which correlates ATM/S-056 X-ray event analyzer solar observations with solar flare activity. Approximately 1,070 h of pulse height analyzed X-ray proportional counter data were obtained with the X-ray event analyzer during Skylab. During its operation, 449 flares (including 343 flare peaks) were observed. Seventy events of peak X-ray emission or = Cl were simultaneously observed by ground based telescopes, SOLRAD 9 and/or Vela, and the X-ray event analyzer. These events were observed from preflare through flare rise to peak and through flare decline.

  17. The development of the μROSI X-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiedemann, Lars; Breunig, Elias; Burwitz, Vadim; Fürmetz, Maria; Hartner, Gisela; Kink, Walter; Menz, Benedikt; Predehl, Peter; Röser, Hans-Peter; Schlecker, Martin; Valsecchi, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    The μROSI (Micro Roentgen Satellite Instrument) miniature X-ray telescope is the first X-ray telescope specifically designed for an amateur micro satellite. Its mission is to perform an all-sky survey in the soft X-ray band on board the Italian satellite Max-Valier. Due to the limitations imposed by the small size of the spacecraft, the instrument features a silicon drift detector (SDD) with very low power consumption and a focusing optics that consists of 12 nested mirror shells. With a field of view of 1°, μROSI will perform an all-sky survey flying in sun-synchronous orbit (SSO). As a secondary mission objective, the telescope will observe the Earth's upper atmosphere during the all-sky survey, potentially detecting the O2 absorption line. This paper describes the overall telescope design and gives an overview of the key components of the telescope: the mirror subsystem and the detector subsystem. All subsystems have been tested with flight-like engineering models. The results of these tests are presented in this paper. The silicon drift detector (SDD) of the μROSI telescope has been tested with a breadboard electronics and the engineering model of the electronics is currently being manufactured. The breadboard test proved that the SDD together with the specifically developed electronics is capable of measuring high resolution spectra in the soft X-ray bandwidth. One demonstrator mirror shell has been produced and tested in the PANTER X-ray test facility to verify the X-ray properties. The measurements suggest that the final μROSI mirror system fulfills all requirements for conducting its mission successfully.

  18. Effects of Contamination Upon the Performance of X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Oosterbroek, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Particulate and molecular contamination can each impact the performance of x-ray telescope systems. Furthermore, any changes in the level of contamination between on-ground calibration and in-space operation can compromise the validity of the calibration. Thus, it is important to understand the sensitivity of telescope performance, especially the net effective area and the wings of the point spread function to contamination. Here, we quantify this sensitivity and discuss the flow-down of science requirements to contamination-control requirements. As an example, we apply this methodology to the International X-ray Observatory (IXO), currently under joint study by ESA, JAXA, and NASA.

  19. [High-Performance Active Pixel X-Ray Sensors for X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautz, Mark; Suntharalingam, Vyshnavi

    2005-01-01

    The subject grants support development of High-Performance Active Pixel Sensors for X-ray Astronomy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Center for Space Research and at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory. This memo reports our progress in the second year of the project, from April, 2004 through the present.

  20. First measurement of the ASTRO-H soft x-ray telescope performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Soong, Yang; Hahne, Devin J.

    2012-09-01

    ASTRO-H is a Japanese X-ray astrophysics satellite under the development led by Japan and US. It will have two Soft X-ray Telescopes (SXTs), among other instruments, that are being developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. One is for an X-ray micro-calorimeter instrument and the other for an X-ray CCD camera, both covering the X-ray energy band below 15 keV. The SXT Engineering Model (EM) quadrant was successfully completed and has shown big improvements in the X-ray performance from Suzaku owing to number of changes made. The EM was tested at the Goddard 100-m X-ray beamline (diverging beam) and the ISAS/JAXA beamline (pencil beam scan). The angular resolution was found to be 1.1 arcmin at Goddard, while 1.27 arcmin at ISAS, and the effective area was 157 and 122 cm2 at 1 and 6 keV, respectively. The discrepancy in the angular resolution can be explained by the difference of the measurement method, i.e. the diverging beam vs. the pencil beam scan. The development of the first Flight Model (FM) is underway. The first three quadrants are completed so far and show about 1 arcmin (HPD) angular resolution. We expect that the first FM SXT will have about 1 arcmin resolution, which will be completed in September, 2012.

  1. Development of the ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT): Engineering Model Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Soong, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The X-ray astronomy satellite ASTRO-H, being developed under the collaboration among JAXA, NASA's GSFC and ESA, will have two Soft X-ray Telescopes (SXTs), among other instuments onboard, with a sensitive energy band below 12 keV. One is for an X-ray micorocalorimeter detector and the other for a X-ray CCD detector. The SXT uses a conically approximated Wolter I grazing incidence optic implemented by thin aluminum foil substrates with thickness of 0.152, 0.229, and 0.305 mm. It is similar to the Suzaku XRT, but with larger diameter (45 cm) and longer focal length (5.6 m). Goal of the angular resolution and effective area are 1 arcmin and 390 cm$A2$ at 6 keV, respectively. We made serveral improvements from Suzaku to ASTRO-H, such as thicker substrates, more forming mandrels, thinner epoxy layer for replication, stiffer housings, precise alignment bars, etc. With all these changes, we have fabricated the engineering test unit of the SXT. In this paper, we will discuss all the changes made, their effects, and report X-ray performance of the SXT test unit. An angular resolution of the test unit was measured at new Goddard X-ray calibration facility (100 m X-ray beamline) and was found to be 1.1 arcmin. We will also discuss further improvements toward the flight unit to be delivered to JAXA in 2012.

  2. Development of ultra-thin thermal shield for ASTRO-H x-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawara, Yuzuru; Sugita, Satoshi; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Tachibana, Kenji; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Ishida, Manabu; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Ogawa, Mina

    2011-09-01

    ASTRO-H is a general purpose X-ray observatory scheduled for launch in 2014. Two soft X-ray telescopes (SXT) and two hard X-ray telescopes (HXT) will be onboard covering energy range of 0.2 -80 keV. Thermal control of the telescope is similar to that of Suzaku, using a thermal shield (TS) placed in front of the telescope and a electric heater attached on the telescope housing. Thus it is required for a TS to have high soft X-ray transmission, low solar absorptance and a low infrared emissivity. To meet these requirement, TS should be made of thin plastic film coated by metal such as aluminum. Then most important property of TS is mechanical strength to survive various environments at the launch and in orbit. This paper describes designing of TS, method of TS production, various environmental conditions and tests, risk management of treatment of ultra-thin film of TS in the process of production, testing and assembling.

  3. Observations of the structure and evolution of solar flares with a soft X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorpahl, J. A.; Gibson, E. G.; Landecker, P. B.; Mckenzie, D. L.; Underwood, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Soft X ray flare events were observed with the S-056 X-ray telescope that was part of the ATM complement of instruments aboard SKYLAB. Analyses of these data are reported. The observations are summarized and a detailed discussion of the X-ray flare structures is presented. The data indicated that soft X-ray emitted by a flare come primarily from an intense well-defined core surrounded by a region of fainter, more diffuse emission. An analysis of flare evolution indicates evidence for preliminary heating and energy release prior to the main phase of the flare. Core features are found to be remarkably stable and retain their shape throughout a flare. Most changes in the overall configuration seem to be result of the appearance, disappearance or change in brightness of individual features, rather than the restructuring or reorientation of these features. Brief comparisons with several theories are presented.

  4. Primary aberrations for grazing incidence. [in X-ray telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, C. E.; Korsch, D.

    1977-01-01

    Beginning with exact relations between object and image coordinates for a single reflective surface, a systematic analysis of general grazing incidence systems is presented. A complete set of primary aberrations for single-element and two-element systems is developed. The importance of a judicious choice for a coordinate system in showing field curvature to be clearly the predominant aberration for a two-element system is discussed. The validity of the theory is verified through comparisons with the exact ray-trace results for the case of a telescope.

  5. Characterization and Evolution of the Swift X-ray Telescope Instrumental Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Joanne; Pagani, C.; Morris, D. C.; Racusin, J.; Grupe, D.; Vetere, L.; Stroh, M.; Falcone, A.; Kennea, J.; Burrows, D. N.; Nousek, J. A.; Abbey, A. F.; Angelini, L.; Beardmore, A. P.; Campana, S.; Capalbi, M.; Chincarini, G.; Citterio O.; Cusumano, G.; Giommi, P.; Godet, O.; Hill, J. E.; LaParola, V.; Mangano, V.; Mineo, T.

    2007-01-01

    The X-ray telescope (XRT) on board the Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer has successfully operated since the spacecraft launch on 20 November 2004, automatically locating GRB afterglows, measuring their spectra and lightcurves and performing observations of high-energy sources. In this work we investigate the properties of the instrumental background, focusing on its dynamic behavior on both long and short timescales. The operational temperature of the CCD is the main factor that influences the XRT background level. After the failure of the Swift active on-board temperature control system, the XRT detector now operates at a temperature range between -75C and -45C thanks to a passive cooling Heat Rejection System. We report on the long-term effects on the background caused by radiation, consisting mainly of proton irradiation in Swift's low Earth orbit and on the short-term effects of transits through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), which expose the detector to periods of intense proton flux. We have determined the fraction of the detector background that is due to the internal, instrumental background and the part that is due to unresolved astrophysical sources (the cosmic X-ray background) by investigating the degree of vignetting of the measured background and comparing it to the expected value from calibration data.

  6. Rocket studies of solar corona and transition region. [X-Ray spectrometer/spectrograph telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, L. W.; Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Brown, W. A.; Nobles, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The XSST (X-Ray Spectrometer/Spectrograph Telescope) rocket payload launched by a Nike Boosted Black Brant was designed to provide high spectral resolution coronal soft X-ray line information on a spectrographic plate, as well as time resolved photo-electric records of pre-selected lines and spectral regions. This spectral data is obtained from a 1 x 10 arc second solar region defined by the paraboloidal telescope of the XSST. The transition region camera provided full disc images in selected spectral intervals originating in lower temperature zones than the emitting regions accessible to the XSST. A H-alpha camera system allowed referencing the measurements to the chromospheric temperatures and altitudes. Payload flight and recovery information is provided along with X-ray photoelectric and UV flight data, transition camera results and a summary of the anomalies encountered. Instrument mechanical stability and spectrometer pointing direction are also examined.

  7. Development of High Resolution Hard X-Ray Telescope with Multi-Layer Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, Paul; Brinton, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    This is the annual report for the third year of a three-year program. Previous annual reports have described progress achieved in the first and second years. The major objective of this program is the development of a focusing hard X-ray telescope with moderately high angular resolution, i.e. comparable to the telescopes of XMM-Newton. The key ingredients of the telescope are a depth graded multilayer coatings and electroformed nickel substrates that are considerably lighter weight than those of previous missions such as XMM-Newton, which have had conventional single metal layer reflective coatings and have operated at much lower energy X-rays. The ultimate target mission for this technology is the Hard X-Ray Telescope (HXT) of the Constellation X-Ray Mission. However, it is applicable to potential SMEX and MIDEX programs as well. We are building upon technology that has proven to be successful in the XMM-Newton and SWIFT missions. The improvements that we are adding are a significant reduction in mass without much loss of angular resolution and an order of magnitude extension of the bandwidth through the use of multilayer coatings. The distinctive feature of this approach compared to those of other hard X-ray telescope programs is that we expect the angular resolution to be superior than telescopes made by other methods thanks to the structural integrity of the substrates. They are thin walled complete cylinders of revolution with a Wolter Type 1 figure; the front half is a parabola, the rear half a hyperbola.

  8. Telescope Scientist on the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanSpeybroeck, L.; Smith, Carl M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This period included many scientific observations made with the Chandra Observatory. The results, as is well known, are spectacular. Fortunately, the HRMA performance continues to be essentially identical to that predicted from ground calibration data. The Telescope Scientist Team has improved the mirror model to provide a more accurate description to the Chandra observers and enable them to reduce the systematic errors and uncertainties in their data reduction. There also has been progress in the scientific program. At this time 47 distant clusters of galaxies have been observed. We are performing a systematic analysis of this rather large data set for the purpose of determining absolute distances utilizing the Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect.

  9. Telescope Scientist on the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanSpeybroeck, L.; Smith, Carl M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This period included many scientific observations made with the Chandra Observatory. The results, as is well known, are spectacular. Fortunately, the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) performance continues to be essentially identical to that predicted from ground calibration data. The Telescope Scientist Team has improved the mirror model to provide a more accurate description to the Chandra observers and enable them to reduce the systematic errors and uncertainties in their data reduction. We also have made considerable progress in improving the scattering model. There also has been progress in the scientific program. At this time 58 distant clusters of galaxies have been observed. We are performing a systematic analysis of this rather large data set for the purpose of determining absolute distances utilizing the Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect. These observations also have been used to study the evolution of the cluster baryon mass function and the cosmological constraints which result from this evolution.

  10. SuperHERO: Design of a New Hard X-Ray Focusing Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Elsner, Ronald; Ramsey, Brian; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Tennant, Allyn; Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert; Kiranmayee, Kilaru; Swartz, Douglas; Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew; Stuchlik, David; Weddendorf, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    SuperHERO is a hard x-ray (20-75 keV) balloon-borne telescope, currently in its proposal phase, that will utilize high angular-resolution grazing-incidence optics, coupled to novel CdTe multi-pixel, fine-pitch (250 micrometers) detectors. The high-resolution electroformed-nickel, grazing-incidence optics were developed at MSFC, and the detectors were developed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, and are being readied for flight at GSFC. SuperHERO will use two active pointing systems; one for carrying out astronomical observations and another for solar observations during the same flight. The telescope will reside on a light-weight, carbon-composite structure that will integrate the Wallops Arc Second Pointer into its frame, for arcsecond or better pointing. This configuration will allow for Long Duration Balloon flights that can last up to 4 weeks. This next generation design, which is based on the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) and HERO to Explore the Sun (HEROES) payloads, will be discussed, with emphasis on the core telescope components.

  11. Properties of a transmission grating behind a grazing incidence telescope for cosmic x-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Beuermann, K P; Lenzen, R; Bräuninger, H

    1977-05-01

    Third-order aberrations are discussed of a transmission grating positioned behind a Wolter type I telescope, using Fermat's principle. We describe the conditions required to obtain a coma-free grating. The performance of a grating spectrometer for cosmic x-ray spectroscopy is discussed in some detail. PMID:20168712

  12. Solar-B X-ray Telescope (XRT) Concept Study Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon

    1999-01-01

    The X-ray observations from the Yohkoh SXT provided the greatest step forward in our understanding of the solar corona in nearly two decades. Expanding on the accomplishments of Yohkoh, we believe that the scientific objectives of the Solar-B mission are achieved with a significantly improved X-ray telescope (XRT) similar to the SXT. The Solar-B XRT will have twice the spatial resolution and a broader temperature response, while building on the knowledge gained from the successful Yohkoh mission. We present the scientific justification for this view, discuss the instrumental requirements that flow from the scientific objectives, and describe the instrumentation to meet these requirements. We then provide a detailed discussion of the design activities carried out during Phase A, noting the conclusions that were reached in terms of their implications for the detailed design activities which are now commencing. Details of the instrument that have changed as a result of the Phase A studied are specifically noted, and areas of concern going into Phase B are highlighted. XRT is a grazing-incidence (GI) modified Wolter I X-ray telescope, of 35cm inner diameter and 2.7m focal length. The 2048x2048 back-illuminated CCD (now an ISAS responsibility) has 13.5 micron pixels, corresponding to 1.0 arcsec and giving full Sun field of view. This will be the highest resolution GI X-ray telescope ever flown for Solar coronal studies, and it has been designed specifically to observe both the high and low temperature coronal plasma. A small optical telescope provides visible light images for co-alignment with the Solar-B optical and EUV instruments. The XRT science team is working in close cooperation with our Japanese colleagues in the design and construction of this instrument. All of the expertise and resources of the High Energy and Solar/Stellar Divisions of the Center for Astrophysics are being made available to this program, and our team will carry its full share of

  13. Testing multilayer-coated polarizing mirrors for the LAMP soft X-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, D.; Salmaso, B.; She, R.; Tayabaly, K.; Wen, M.; Banham, R.; Costa, E.; Feng, H.; Giglia, A.; Huang, Q.; Muleri, F.; Pareschi, G.; Soffitta, P.; Tagliaferri, G.; Valsecchi, G.; Wang, Z.

    2015-09-01

    The LAMP (Lightweight Asymmetry and Magnetism Probe) X-ray telescope is a mission concept to measure the polarization of X-ray astronomical sources at 250 eV via imaging mirrors that reflect at incidence angles near the polarization angle, i.e., 45 deg. Hence, it will require the adoption of multilayer coatings with a few nanometers dspacing in order to enhance the reflectivity. The nickel electroforming technology has already been successfully used to fabricate the high angular resolution imaging mirrors of the X-ray telescopes SAX, XMM-Newton, and Swift/XRT. We are investigating this consolidated technology as a possible technique to manufacture focusing mirrors for LAMP. Although the very good reflectivity performances of this kind of mirrors were already demonstrated in grazing incidence, the reflectivity and the scattering properties have not been tested directly at the unusually large angle of 45 deg. Other possible substrates are represented by thin glass foils or silicon wafers. In this paper we present the results of the X-ray reflectivity campaign performed at the BEAR beamline of Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste on multilayer coatings of various composition (Cr/C, Co/C), deposited with different sputtering parameters on nickel, silicon, and glass substrates, using polarized X-rays in the spectral range 240 - 290 eV.

  14. The Imaging Properties of a Silicon Wafer X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joy, M. K.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Fair, S.; Ramsey, B. D.

    1994-01-01

    Silicon wafers have excellent optical properties --- low microroughness and good medium-scale flatness --- which Make them suitable candidates for inexpensive flat-plate grazing-incidence x-ray mirrors. On short spatial scales (less than 3 mm) the surface quality of silicon wafers rivals that expected of the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) high-resolution optics. On larger spatial scales, however, performance may be degraded by the departure from flatness of the wafer and by distortions induced by the mounting scheme. In order to investigate such effects, we designed and constructed a prototype silicon-wafer x-ray telescope. The device was then tested in both visible light and x rays. The telescope module consists of 94 150-mm-diameter wafers, densely packed into the first stage of a Kirkpatrick-Baez configuration. X-ray tests at three energies (4.5, 6.4, and 8.0 keV) showed an energy-independent line spread function with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 150 arcseconds, dominated by deviations from large-scale flatness.

  15. Calculated performance of a Wolter type I X-ray telescope coated by multilayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catura, R. C.; Brown, W. A.; Joki, E. G.; Nobles, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Deposition of multilayered diffraction coatings on the reflecting surfaces of a Wolter type I X-ray telescope offers the potential of using Bragg reflection to achieve enhanced effective area in selected high energy bandpasses. The structure of a gold-carbon multilayer has been optimized for study of 1.8 A iron-line emission with an X-ray telescope designed for observations from Spacelab. The response of this mirror assembly has been calculated as a function of X-ray energy and the resulting effective area is enhanced by a factor of 10 and peaks at 160 sq cm with a bandpass of 0.4 keV FWHM. This enhanced response is sufficient to allow study of the angular distribution of iron-line emission from the 20 brightest cluster X-ray sources during a 7 day Spacelab mission. The possibility of achieving X-ray imaging in narrow bandpasses at even higher energies has been investigated. It is concluded that it should be possible to achieve effective areas of approximately 5 sq cm in bandpasses approximately 1 keV wide for energies in the 15-25 keV range, a spectral region of much importance during the impulsive phase of solar flares.

  16. Optical studies of X-ray peculiar chromosphereically active stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, J. C.

    2006-02-01

    A multiwavelength study of the late-type active stars, selected on the basis of their X-ray and radio luminosities is presented in this thesis. For FR Cnc, a photometric period 0.8267 +/- 0.0004 d has been established. The strong variation in the phase and amplitude of the FR Cnc light curves when folded on this period implies the presence of evolving and migrating spots or spot groups on its surface. A photometric period of 18.802 +/- 0.074 has been discovered in the star HD 81032. The shape and amplitude of the photometric light curves of FR Cnc, HD 81032, HD 95559 and LO Peg are observed to be changing from one epoch to another. The change in the amplitude is mainly due to a change in the minimum of the light curve, and this May be due to a change in the spot coverage. This indicates that photometric variability is due to the presence of dark spots on the surface of active star. Two groups of spots are identified for FR Cnc and LO Peg. The spots are found to migrate, and migration periods of 0.97 year and 0.93 year are determined from the 4 years of data. A migration period of 1.12 years for one group of spots in LO Peg is also determined. Formation of a new group of spots in the star HD 95559 was also seen during our observations. A single large group of spots is found to migrate, and a migration period of 7.32 +/- 0.04 years is determined for HD 81032. The stars FR Cnc, HD 81032, HD 160934 and LO Peg are seen to be redder at the light minimum and we interpret this is due to the relatively cooler temperature of the darker regions present in the visible hemisphere. We find the lack of color-brightness correlation in the star HD 95559 and this May be due to the presence of bright faculae and plages like regions accompanied by dark spots in any one component of the this binary system. The optical spectroscopy of FR Cnc and HD 81032 carried out during 2002-2003, reveals the presence of strong and variable Ca II H and K, Halpha and Hbeta emission features indicative

  17. Development of the ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT): Engineering Model Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Soong, Y.

    2011-09-01

    The X-ray astronomy satellite, ASTRO-H, being developed under the collaboration among JAXA, NASA's GSFC and ESA, will have two Soft X-ray Telescopes (SXTs), among other instruments onboard, with a sensitive energy band up to 15 keV. One is for an X-ray micro-calorimeter detector and the other for an X-ray CCD detector. The SXT uses a conically approximated Wolter I grazing incidence optic implemented by thin aluminum foil substrates with thickness of 0.152, 0.229, and 0.305 mm. X-ray reflecting surface is a gold thin layer ( 2000A) transferred from a smooth glass mandrel to the substrate by a replication method using an epoxy buffer layer (12 um). It is similar to the Suzaku XRT, but with larger diameter (45 cm) and longer focal length (5.6 m). Goals of angular resolution and effective area are 1 arcmin and 390 cm2 at 6 keV, respectively. We made several improvements from Suzaku to ASTRO-H, such as thicker substrates, more forming mandrels, thinner epoxy layer for replication, stiffer housings, precise alignment bars, etc. With all these changes, we have fabricated the engineering test unit of the SXT. In this paper, we will discuss all the changes made, their effects, and report X-ray performance of the SXT test unit. An angular resolution of the test unit was measured at new Goddard X-ray calibration facility (100 m X-ray beamline) and was found to be 65 arcsec at 4.5 keV. We will also discuss further improvements toward the flight unit to be delivered to JAXA in 2012.

  18. Composite Image of the Cat's Eye From Chandra X-Ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Left image: The x-ray data from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) has revealed a bright central star surrounded by a cloud of multimillion-degree gas in the planetary nebula known as the Cat's Eye. This CXO image, where the intensity of the x-ray emission is correlated to the brightness of the orange coloring, captures the expulsion of material from a star that is expected to collapse into a white dwarf in a few million years. The intensity of x-rays from the central star was unexpected, and it is the first time astronomers have seen such x-ray emission from the central star of a planetary nebula. Right image: An image of Cat's Eye taken by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). By comparing the CXO data with that from the HST, researchers are able to see where the hotter, x-ray emitting gas appears in relation to the cooler material seen in optical wavelengths by the HST. The CXO team found that the chemical abundance in the region of hot gas (its x-ray intensity is shown in purple) was not like those in the wind from the central star and different from the outer cooler material (the red and green structures.) Although still incredibly energetic and hot enough to radiate x-rays, CXO shows the hot gas to be somewhat cooler than scientists would have expected for such a system. CXO image credit: (NASA/UIUC/Y. Chu et al.) HST image credit: (NASA/HST)

  19. Optical optimization for anti-coincidence detectors of a Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun-Long; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Zhao; Fu, Min-Xue; Chen, Yi-Bao; Zhao, Dong-Hua; Deng, Jing-Kang; Shang, Ren-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The anti-coincidence detectors of Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) are designed to suppress the X-ray background induced by incident charged cosmic-ray particles. The main components of anti-coincidence detectors are thin flat plastic scintillators. In this work we apply the TracePro program to study the light transfer features in the scintillators, and we propose several optimized reflector configurations to significantly improve the light transfer efficiency. The simulation results are verified by measurements of the detector prototypes. We chose a particular optimized reflector configuration.

  20. A Preliminary Research on the Development of the Hard X-ray Imaging Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chun-Xiao; Cai, Ming-Sheng; Hu, Yi-Ming; Huang, Yong-Yi; Gong, Yi-Zhong

    2014-10-01

    The hard X-ray imaging telescope based on the Fourier transform imaging technique is introduced. The double-layer parallel gratings are used to make the modulation and coding on the light emerging from a celestial X-ray source, the modulated light is acquired, to make the optoelectronic conversion by scintillation crystal detectors, and finally read out by the electronic system. The modulation collimator X-ray telescopes can be divided into two types: the spatial modulation and temporal modulation. The temporal modulation system requires the scanning motion of the detector system, but the spatial modulation system requires no motion. The technology of grating fabrication is investigated, and the basic structure design of the collimators is given. The principal compo- nents of the prototype hard X-ray imaging telescope of spatial modulation type are successfully developed, including the 8 CsI crystal detector modules (contain- ing photomultipliers or PMTs), 8-channel shaping amplifiers (two of them are prepared for experiments), and the data acquisition system. And the preliminary test results of the electronic system are also given.

  1. Theoretical analysis of segmented Wolter/LSM X-ray telescope systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, D. L.; Chao, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    The Segmented Wolter I/LSM X-ray Telescope, which consists of a Wolter I Telescope with a tilted, off-axis convex spherical Layered Synthetic Microstructure (LSM) optics placed near the primary focus to accommodate multiple off-axis detectors, has been analyzed. The Skylab ATM Experiment S056 Wolter I telescope and the Stanford/MSFC nested Wolter-Schwarzschild x-ray telescope have been considered as the primary optics. A ray trace analysis has been performed to calculate the RMS blur circle radius, point spread function (PSF), the meridional and sagittal line functions (LST), and the full width half maximum (PWHM) of the PSF to study the spatial resolution of the system. The effects on resolution of defocussing the image plane, tilting and decentrating of the multilayer (LSM) optics have also been investigated to give the mounting and alignment tolerances of the LSM optic. Comparison has been made between the performance of the segmented Wolter/LSM optical system and that of the Spectral Slicing X-ray Telescope (SSXRT) systems.

  2. Development of thermally formed glass optics for astronomical hard X-ray telescopes.

    PubMed

    Craig, W; Hailey, C; Jimenez-Garate, M; Windt, D; Harrison, F; Mao, P; Christensen, F; Hussain, A

    2000-08-14

    The next major observational advance in hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray astrophysics will come with the implementation of telescopes capable of focusing 10-200 keV radiation. Focusing allows high signal-to-noise imaging and spectroscopic observations of many sources in this band for the first time. The recent development of depth-graded multilayer coatings has made the design of telescopes for this bandpass practical, however the ability to manufacture inexpensive substrates with appropriate surface quality and figure to achieve sub-arcminute performance has remained an elusive goal. In this paper, we report on new, thermally-formed glass micro-sheet optics capable of meeting the requirements of the next-generation of astronomical hard X-ray telescopes. PMID:19407863

  3. GoldHelox solar x-ray telescope testing progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jonathan P.; Roming, Peter W.; Moody, J. W.; Turley, R. S.; Eastman, Paul F.; Lloyd, T.; Eldredge, K. D.; Raines, Allen L.; Reily, J. Cary; Kegley, Jeffrey R.; Keidel, John W.; McCracken, Jeff E.; Whitley, Kenneth M.; Wright, Ernest R.; Baker, Markus A.; Carpenter, James R.; Chavers, D. G.; Haight, Harlan J.; Hale, K. Barry; Hill, Thomas A.; Javins, David R.; Norwood, Joseph K.; Siler, Richard D.; Tucker, John M.; Watson, David W.; Takahashi, R.

    2000-07-01

    The GoldHelox Solar X-ray Telescope underwent several tests during the years of 1997 - 1999, and continues through the testing phase of the project. The instrument itself, a solar telescope to ride on board the Space Shuttle, is designed to photograph the sun in soft x-ray wavelengths between 171 angstroms to 181 angstroms. Critical to its success, many tests are required to insure safety, robustness, and overall accuracy of the telescope during its mission. Among these are shake table tests, optical tests, vacuum integrity, and thermal analysis. This paper describes the GoldHelox project including its current status as a mission, the tests performed on the instrument to date, and the tests pending.

  4. Molecular Contamination Assessments on Hinode X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urayama, Fumitaka; Bando, Takamasa; Kano, Ryouhei; Hara, Hirohisa; Narukage, Noriyuki; Sakao, Taro

    The Hinode (Solar-B) was launched by M-V rocket on 22 September 2006 UT. The telemetry data of the Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT) showed that the X-ray count rate detected with the XRT had decreased rapidly since the operational heaters on the XRT telescope tube were turned on. This is attributed to the fact that molecular contaminants accumulated onto the CCD with the temperature of -60ºC resulting in the degradation of the XRT sensitivity. We baked the CCD at the temperature of 35ºC in order to remove the contaminants from the CCD surface. However many contaminant spots appeared on the surface. We found that major contaminant source existed in the telescope tube, and identified the contaminants as diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) or DEHP-like organics. The mechanisms to yield the contaminant spots were discussed.

  5. Grazing incidence telescopes - A new class for soft X-ray and EUV spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hettrick, M. C.; Bowyer, S.

    1984-01-01

    A new class of grazing incidence telescopes is identified, and its advantages for stellar spectroscopy are discussed. In particular, three types of telescope geometry consisting of a primary and a secondary, both at grazing incidence, are proposed. Type I delivers a converging beam having a real focus; type II delivers a diverging beam from a virtual focus, and type III delivers a collimated beam concentrated relative to the primary aperture. The three telescope types are shown to possess unique properties which improve the efficiency and shorten the length of soft X-ray/EUV spectrographs.

  6. The X-ray spectroscopy of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R.

    1985-01-01

    The scientific goals of X-ray spectroscopy of active galactic nuclei are discussed. The underlying energy source, the regions responsible for the optical emission lines, the different types of active galaxies, and cosmology are considered. The requirements for an X-ray mission of broad band width, large collecting area, modest spatial resolution and good spectral resolution are outlined. It is concluded that the ESA XMM mission meets these requirements.

  7. Progress on indirect glass slumping for future x-ray telescope optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Anita; Breunig, Elias; Friedrich, Peter; Proserpio, Laura

    2014-07-01

    Large X-ray telescopes for future observations need to combine a big collecting area with good angular resolution. Due to the mass limits of the launching rocket, light-weight materials are needed in order to enhance the collecting area in future telescopes. We study the development of mirror segments made from thin glass sheets which are shaped by thermal slumping. At MPE we follow the indirect approach which enables us the production of the parabolic and hyperbolic part of the Wolter type I mirrors in one piece. In our recent research we have used a test mould made of CeSiC™ for slumping processes in our lab furnace as well as in a heatable vacuum chamber, to avoid oxidation and air enclosure. Additional slumping tests in the vacuum furnace have been carried out using a Kovar mould and are compared with results under air. We describe the experimental set-up, the slumping process and the metrology methods and give an outlook on future activities.

  8. Manufacturing technologies for high-throughput imaging x-ray telescopes: XMM carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) technology compared to other x-ray systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boerret, Rainer; Glatzel, Holger; Schmidt, Michael

    1994-09-01

    High throughput and/or high resolution imaging telescopes for x-ray energies up to 8 keV are part of several space based astronomic missions to study small and faint cosmic x-ray objects. High throughput telescopes are applied for spectroscopy missions, high resolution telescopes to detect and analyze small X-ray sources. Depending on the goal and the constraints of the mission some of the various parameters such as resolution, throughput, number of nested shells or weight etc. are optimized. The production technology has to match to the mission goals and constraints to obtain an optimum balance between scientific performance, production time and costs. The entire production process of XMM mirror shells at Carl Zeiss and Medialario (Italy) respectively will be presented in this paper. This technology will be compared with the ones of other x-ray telescopes such as EINSTEIN, EXOSAT, ROSAT, JET-X, AND AXAF; and EUV telescopes such as CDS and EUVE regarding potentials and limitations of the manufacturing processes and optical performances.

  9. Design study for supporting of thin glass optical elements for x-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Mark D.; Reid, Paul B.; Davis, William N.

    2008-07-01

    The next large x-ray astrophysics mission launched will likely include soft x-ray spectroscopy as a primary capability. A requirement to fulfill the science goals of such a mission is a large-area x-ray telescope focusing sufficient x-ray flux to perform high-resolution spectroscopy with reasonable observing times. One approach to manufacturing such a telescope is a Wolter-I optic utilizing thin glass segments rather than full shells of revolution. We describe a parameterized Finite Element Modeling (FEM) study that provides insights useful in optimizing the design of a discrete support system to balance the competing requirements of minimizing the effect on optical performance while providing sufficient support to withstand launch loads. Parameters analyzed are number and location of the supports around the glass segments, as well as the glass thickness, size, and angular span. In addition, we utilize more detailed models of several cases taken from the parametric study to examine stress around the bonded area and bond pad size, and compare the stress from the detailed model to the parametric cases from which they were derived.

  10. Renewed X-ray activity in GX 339-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. M.; Heindl, W. A.; Swank, J. H.; Wilms, J.; Pottschmidt, K.

    2004-02-01

    Recent monitoring of GX 339-4 in the 2-30 keV X-ray band by the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) shows that the newly reported activity in the optical and radio (ATEL #230) is accompanied by faint X-ray emission. On February 1 at 04:00 UT, the X-ray count rate was 1 count/second/Proportional Counter Unit (PCU). On February 9 at 05:40 UT, the rate was about 6 times higher, yielding sufficient statistics for a spectral fit, which shows the source to be in the hard state (photon power law index 1.55).

  11. A Normal Incidence X-ray Telescope (NIXT) Sounding Rocket Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon

    1996-01-01

    During the past year the changeover from the normal incidence X ray telescope (NIXT) program to the new TXI sounding rocket program was completed. The NIXT effort, aimed at evaluating the viability of the remaining portions of the NIXT hardware and design has been finished and the portions of the NIXT which are viable and flightworthy, such as filters, mirror mounting hardware, electronic and telemetry interface systems, are now part of the new rocket payload. The backup NIXT multilayer-coated X ray telescope and its mounting hardware have been completely fabricated and are being stored for possible future use in the TXI rocket. The h-alpha camera design is being utilized in the TXI program for real-time pointing verification and control via telemetry. Two papers, summarizing scientific results from the NIXT rocket program were published this year.

  12. Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. II - Soft X-ray/EUV reflectivity of the multilayer mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Weed, J. W.; Hoover, Richard B.; Allen, Maxwell J.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Deforest, Craig E.; Paris, Elizabeth S.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The Multispectral Solar Telescope Array is a rocket-borne observatory which encompasses seven compact soft X-ray/EUV, multilayer-coated, and two compact far-UV, interference film-coated, Cassegrain and Ritchey-Chretien telescopes. Extensive measurements are presented on the efficiency and spectral bandpass of the X-ray/EUV telescopes. Attention is given to systematic errors and measurement errors.

  13. What obscures low-X-ray-scattering active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hönig, S. F.; Gandhi, P.; Asmus, D.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Antonucci, R.; Ueda, Y.; Ichikawa, K.

    2014-02-01

    X-ray surveys have revealed a new class of active galactic nuclei (AGN) with a very low observed fraction of scattered soft X-rays, fscat <0.5 per cent. Based on X-ray modelling, these `X-ray new-type', or low observed X-ray-scattering (hereafter, `low-scattering') sources have been interpreted as deeply buried AGN with a high covering factor of gas. In this paper, we address the questions whether the host galaxies of low-scattering AGN may contribute to the observed X-ray properties, and whether we can find any direct evidence for high covering factors from the infrared (IR) emission. We find that X-ray low-scattering AGN are preferentially hosted by highly inclined galaxies or merger systems as compared to other Seyfert galaxies, increasing the likelihood that the line of sight towards the AGN intersects with high columns of host-galactic gas and dust. Moreover, while a detailed analysis of the IR emission of low-scattering AGN ESO 103-G35 remains inconclusive, we do not find any indication of systematically higher dust covering factors in a sample of low-scattering AGN based on their IR emission. For ESO 103-G35, we constrained the temperature, mass and location of the IR emitting dust which is consistent with expectations for the dusty torus. However, a deep silicate absorption feature probably from much cooler dust suggests an additional screen absorber on larger scales within the host galaxy. Taking these findings together, we propose that the low fscat observed in low-scattering AGN is not necessarily the result of circumnuclear dust but could originate from interference of host-galactic gas with a column density of the order of 1022 cm-2 with the line of sight. We discuss implications of this hypothesis for X-ray models, high-ionization emission lines and observed star formation activity in these objects.

  14. The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays STIX on Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csillaghy, A.; Battaglia, M.; Krucker, S.; Hurford, G. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) will provide imaging spectroscopy of solar thermal and non-thermal X-ray emissions from ~4 to 150 keV. STIX will play an important role in answering two of Solar Orbiter's main science questions: (1) How and where are energetic particles accelerated at the Sun, and how are they transported into interplanetary space? X-ray images and spectra will provide information on the location, spectrum and intensity of flare accelerated electrons near the Sun. (2) What is the magnetic connection from Solar Orbiter back to the Sun? STIX will play a key role in linking remote sensing and in-situ observations on Solar Orbiter. Radio signatures of flare accelerated electrons will be observed by the Radio and Plasma wave instrument (RPW), while the SupraThermal Electron sensor (STE) of the Energetic Particle Detector suite (EPD) will detect electrons in-situ. Thus, the magnetic structure, field line length and connectivity can be tracked. STIX is based on a Fourier-transform imaging technique similar to that used successfully by the Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) on the Japanese Yohkoh mission, and related to that used for the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager mission. STIX has a higher sensitivity than RHESSI, with comparable image quality and spectral and spatial resolution. It will be able to observe thermal and non-thermal emission from nanoflares up to the largest X- class events. STIX consists of three main parts: 1. An X-ray window, 2. An imager with 32 subcollimators, and 3. A spectrometer with 32 Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) X-ray detectors The transmission through the grid pairs to the detectors is a very sensitive function of the direction of incidence of the X-ray flux. The relative count rates of the detectors behind the different sets of grids encode the spatial information that can be subsequently decoded on the ground to reconstruct images of the source region at different X-ray energies.

  15. Film calibration for the Skylab/ATM S-056 X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henze, W., Jr.; Broussard, R. M.; Underwood, J. H.; Mcguire, J. P.; Reichmann, E. J.; Smith, J. B., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The sensitometry and film calibration effort for the Skylab/ATM S-056 X-ray telescope is summarized. The apparatus and procedures used are described together with the two types of flight film used, Kodak SO-212 and SO-242. The sensitometry and processing of the flight film are discussed, and the results are presented in the form of the characteristic curves and related data. The use of copy films is also discussed.

  16. A systems approach to mechanisms for a white light coronagraph X-ray XUV telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastronardi, R.; Cabral, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A combined instrument package containing nine mechanisms was designed and developed for the international solar polar mission (ISPM). This complement of instruments, commonly called the CXX, is the only imaging system on either the NASA or ESA spacecraft and consists of a white light coronagraph mounted parallel to a combined X-ray and extreme ultra-violet (XUV) telescope. Requirements for and implementation of mechanisms in the CXX instrument are discussed.

  17. Development of position sensitive scintillation counter for balloon-borne hard x-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Keisuke; Kunieda, Hideyo; Ogasaka, Yasushi; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Shibata, Ryo; Nakamura, Tomokazu; Ohnishi, Katsuhiko; Kanou, Yasufumi; Miyata, Emi; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2006-06-01

    We have been developing position sensitive scintillation counter as focal plane detector of hard X-ray telescope onboard a balloon borne experiment. This detector consists NaI(TI) scintillator and position sensitive photo-multiplier tube. Focal plane detector has to have high efficiency in hard X-ray region, enough position resolution and detection area. 3mm thickness of NaI(TI) scintillator can achieve almost 100% efficiency below 80 keV. We measured position resolved energy and position resolution in synchrotron radiation facility SPring-8 BL20B2. Position resolution of 2.4mm at 60keV is about half of plate scale of half power diameter of X-ray telescope. The detector has 6 cm diameter window and it corresponds to 25 arcmin field of view, and it is enough lager than the that of telescope, which is 12 arcmin in FWHM. Balloon borne experiment for observation of the background was performed on May 24, 2005 from Sanriku balloon center. We could obtain background data for 3 hours at altitude of 40 km.

  18. SuperHERO: The Next Generation Hard X-ray HEROES Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Christe, Steven D.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Shih, Albert Y. M.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Swartz, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    SuperHERO is a new high-sensitivity Long Duration Balloon (LDB)-capable, hard-x-ray (20-75 keV) telescope for making novel astrophysics and heliophysics observations. The proposed SuperHERO payload will be developed jointly by the Astrophysics Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the Solar Physics Laboratory and Wallops Flight Facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. SuperHERO is a follow-on payload to the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) balloon-borne telescope that recently launched from Fort Sumner, NM in September of 2013. The HEROES core instrument is a hard x-ray telescope consisting of x-ray 109 optics configured into 8 modules. Each module is aligned to a matching gas-filled detector at a focal length of 6 m. SuperHERO will make significant improvements to the HEROES payload, including: new solid-state multi-pixel CdTe detectors, additional optics, the Wallops Arc-Second Pointer, alignment monitoring systems and lighter gondola.

  19. SuperHERO: The Next Generation Hard X-Ray HEROES Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gaskin, Jessica A.; Christe, Steven D.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Seller, Paul; Shih, Albert Y.; Stuchlik, David W.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tenant, Allyn F.; Wilson, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    SuperHERO is a new high-sensitivity Long Duration Balloon (LDB)-capable, hard-x-ray (20-75 keV) telescope for making novel astrophysics and heliophysics observations. The proposed SuperHERO payload will be developed jointly by the Astrophysics Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the Solar Physics Laboratory and Wallops Flight Facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. SuperHERO is a follow-on payload to the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) balloon-borne telescope that recently launched from Fort Sumner, NM in September of 2013. The HEROES core instrument is a hard x-ray telescope consisting of x-ray 109 optics configured into 8 modules. Each module is aligned to a matching gas-filled detector at a focal length of 6 m. SuperHERO will make significant improvements to the HEROES payload, including: new solid-state multi-pixel CdTe detectors, additional optics, the Wallops Arc-Second Pointer, alignment monitoring systems and lighter gondola.

  20. X-ray polarimetry with the Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array (PolSTAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczynski, Henric S.; Stern, Daniel; Harrison, Fiona A.; Kislat, Fabian F.; Zajczyk, Anna; Beilicke, Matthias; Hoormann, Janie; Guo, Qingzhen; Endsley, Ryan; Ingram, Adam R.; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Madsen, Kristin K.; Aaron, Kim M.; Amini, Rashied; Baring, Matthew G.; Beheshtipour, Banafsheh; Bodaghee, Arash; Booth, Jeffrey; Borden, Chester; Böttcher, Markus; Christensen, Finn E.; Coppi, Paolo S.; Cowsik, Ramanath; Davis, Shane; Dexter, Jason; Done, Chris; Dominguez, Luis A.; Ellison, Don; English, Robin J.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Falcone, Abe; Favretto, Jeffrey A.; Fernández, Rodrigo; Giommi, Paolo; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Kara, Erin; Lee, Chung H.; Lyutikov, Maxim; Maccarone, Thomas; Matsumoto, Hironori; McKinney, Jonathan; Mihara, Tatehiro; Miller, Jon M.; Narayan, Ramesh; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Özel, Feryal; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Pravdo, Steven; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Okajima, Takashi; Toma, Kenji; Zhang, William W.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array (PolSTAR), a mission proposed to NASA's 2014 Small Explorer (SMEX) announcement of opportunity. PolSTAR measures the linear polarization of 3-50 keV (requirement; goal: 2.5-70 keV) X-rays probing the behavior of matter, radiation and the very fabric of spacetime under the extreme conditions close to the event horizons of black holes, as well as in and around magnetars and neutron stars. The PolSTAR design is based on the technology developed for the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission launched in June 2012. In particular, it uses the same X-ray optics, extendable telescope boom, optical bench, and CdZnTe detectors as NuSTAR. The mission has the sensitivity to measure ˜1% linear polarization fractions for X-ray sources with fluxes down to ˜5 mCrab. This paper describes the PolSTAR design as well as the science drivers and the potential science return.

  1. Basic studies on x-ray fluorescence analysis for active x-ray spectrometer on SELENE-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusano, Hiroki; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Kodama, Takuro; Oyama, Yuki; Tanaka, Reiko; Amano, Yoshiharu; Kim, Kyeong J.; Matias Lopes, Josè A.

    2013-09-01

    An active X-ray spectrometer (AXS) is now being developed as a payload candidate for the rover on SELENE-2, the next Japanese lunar exploration mission. The AXS will determine the chemical compositions of lunar rocks and regolith around the landing site. The surface of lunar rock samples will be ground using a rock abrasion tool. Thus, fundamental studies on the X-ray fluorescence analysis for lunar rocks and regolith are required to design and develop the AXS. In this study, we have investigated the X-ray fluorescence analysis in order to evaluate the effects of surface roughness of samples and the angle of incident and emergent X-rays. It was found that the fluorescent X-ray yield for low energy X-rays, i.e. the light elements, decreases at rough surface samples. This effect of surface roughness becomes small for smooth surface samples. It was also found that the fluorescent X-ray yield depends on the incident angle, which is attributed to the fact that the X-ray fluorescence occurs closer to the sample surface at larger incident angles. Since the emergent X-rays are affected by the detection geometry and surface roughness, the incident angle effect also depends on the above conditions.

  2. Single-Grid-Pair Fourier Telescope for Imaging in Hard-X Rays and gamma Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This instrument, a proposed Fourier telescope for imaging in hard-x rays and gamma rays, would contain only one pair of grids made of an appropriate radiation-absorpting/ scattering material, in contradistinction to multiple pairs of such as grids in prior Fourier x- and gamma-ray telescopes. This instrument would also include a relatively coarse gridlike image detector appropriate to the radiant flux to be imaged. Notwithstanding the smaller number of grids and the relative coarseness of the imaging detector, the images produced by the proposed instrument would be of higher quality.

  3. Sub-arcsec X-Ray Telescope for Imaging The Solar Corona In the 0.25 - 1.2 keV Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Dennis; Cash, Webster; Jelsma, Schuyler; Farmer, Jason

    1996-01-01

    We have developed an X-ray telescope that uses a new technique for focusing X-rays with grazing incidence optics. The telescope was built with spherical optics for all of its components, utilizing the high quality surfaces obtainable when polishing spherical (as opposed to aspherical) optics. We tested the prototype X-ray telescope in the 300 meter vacuum pipe at White Sands Missile Range, NM. The telescope features 2 degee graze angles with tungsten coatings, yielding a bandpass of 0.25-1.5 keV with a peak effective area of 0.8 sq cm at 0.83 keV. Results from X-ray testing at energies of 0.25 keV and 0.93 keV (C-K and Cu-L) verify 0.5 arcsecond performance at 0.93 keV. Results from modeling the X-ray telescope's response to the Sun show that the current design would be capable of recording 10 half arcsecond images of a solar active region during a 300 second NASA sounding rocket flight.

  4. Subarcsecond x-ray telescope for imaging the solar corona in the 0.25- to 1.2-keV band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Dennis J.; Cash, Webster C.; Jelsma, Schuyler; Farmer, Jason

    1996-07-01

    We have developed an x-ray telescope that uses a new technique for focusing x-rays with grazing incidence optics. The telescope was built with spherical optics for all of its components, utilizing the high quality surfaces obtainable when polishing spherical (as opposed to aspherical) optics. We tested the prototype x-ray telescope in the 300 meter vacuum pipe at White Sands Missile Range, NM. The telescope features 2 degree graze angles with tungsten coatings, yielding a bandpass of 0.25-1.5 keV with a peak effective area of 0.8 cm(superscript 2) at 0.83 keV. Results from x-ray testing at energies of 0.25 keV and 0.93 keV (C-K and Cu-L) verify 0.5 arcsecond performance at 0.93 keV. Results from modeling the x-ray telescope's response to the SUn show that the current design would be capable of recording 10 half arcsecond images of a solar active region during a 300 second NASA sounding rocket flight.

  5. X-Ray Reprocessing in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2004-01-01

    This is the final report for research entitled "X-ray reprocessing in active galactic nuclei," into X-ray absorption and emission in various classes of active galaxy via X-ray spectral signatures. The fundamental goal of the research was to use these signatures as probes of the central engine structure and circumnuclear environment of active galactic nuclei. The most important accomplishment supported by this grant involved the detailed analysis and interpretation of the XMM data for the bright Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG-6-30-15. This work was performed by Drs. Christopher Reynolds and Mitchell Begelman in collaboration with Dr. Jorn Wilms (University of Tubingen, Germany; PI of the XMM observation) and other European scientists. With XMM we obtained medium resolution X-ray spectra of unprecedented quality for this Seyfert galaxy. Modeling the X-ray spectrum within the framework of accretion disk reflection models produced the first evidence for energy extraction from the spin of a black hole. Specifically, we found that the extreme gravitational redshifts required to explain the X-ray spectrum suggests that the bulk of the energy dissipation is concentrated very close to the black hole, in contrast with the expectations of any pure accretion disk model. In a second paper we addressed the low- energy spectral complexity and used RXTE specta to pin down the high-energy spectral index, thus firming up our initial interpretation. Additionally, we carried out detailed spectral and variability analyses of a number of Seyfert and radio galaxies (e.g., NGC 5548 and 3C 111) and developed general techniques that will be useful in performing X-ray reverberation mapping of accretion disks in AGN, once adequate data becomes available. A list of papers supported by this research is included.

  6. The low Earth orbit radiation environment and its impact on the prompt background of hard x-ray focusing telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioretti, V.; Bulgarelli, A.; Malaguti, G.; Bianchin, V.; Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.

    2012-07-01

    The background minimization is a science-driven necessity in order to reach deep sensitivity levels in the hard X-ray band, one of the key scientific requirements for hard X-ray telescopes (e.g. NuSTAR, ASTRO-H). It requires a careful modeling of the radiation environment and new concepts of shielding systems. We exploit the Bologna Geant4 Multi-Mission Simulator (BoGEMMS) features to evaluate the impact of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) radiation environment on the prompt background level for a hybrid Si/CdTe soft and hard X-ray detection assembly and a combined active and passive shielding system. For each class of particles, the spectral distribution of the background flux is simulated, exploring the effect of different materials (plastic vs inorganic active scintillator) and configurations (passive absorbers enclosing or surrounded by the active shielding) on the background count rate. While protons are efficiently removed by the active shielding, an external passive shielding causes the albedo electrons and positrons to be the primary source of background. Albedo neutrons are instead weakly interactive with the active shielding, and they cause an intense background level below 10 keV via elastic scattering. The best shielding configuration in terms of background and active shielding count rates is given by an inorganic scintillator placed inside the passive layers, with the addition of passive material to absorb the intense fluorescence lines of the active shielding and avoid escape peaks on the CdTe detector.

  7. Calibration of the Soft X-ray Telescopes (SXT) Onboard the ASTRO-H Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soong, Yang; Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    ASTRO-H is an astrophysics satellite dedicated for non-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic study on selective celestial X-ray sources. Among the onboard instruments there are four Wolter-I X-ray mirrors of their reflectors' figure in conical approximation. Two of the four are soft X-ray mirrors, of which the energy range is from a few hundred eV to 15 keV. The focal point instruments will be a calorimeter (SXS) and a CCD camera (SXI), respectively. The mirrors were in quadrant configuration with photons being reflected consecutively in the primary and secondary stage before landing on the focal plane of 5.6 m away from the interface between the two stages. The reflectors of the mirror are made of heat-formed aluminum substrate of the thickness gauged of 152 m, 229 m, and 305 m of the alloy 5052 H-19, followed by epoxy replication on gold-sputtered smooth Pyrex cylindrical mandrels to acquire the X-ray reflective surface. The epoxy layer is 10 m nominal and surface gold layer of 0.2 m. Improvements on angular response over its predecessors, e.g. Astro-E1/Suzaku mirrors, come from error reduction on the figure, the roundness, and the grazing angle/radius mismatching of the reflecting surface, and tighter specs and mechanical strength on supporting structure to reduce the reflector positioning and the assembly errors. Each soft x-ray telescope (SXT), FM1 or FM2, were integrated from four independent quadrants of mirrors. The stray-light baffles, in quadrant configuration, were mounted onto the integrated mirror. Thermal control units were attached to the perimeter of the integrated mirror to keep the mirror within operating temperature in space. The completed instrument went through a series of optical alignment, thus made the quadrant images confocal and their optical axes in parallel to achieve highest throughput possible. Environmental tests were carried out, and optical quality of the telescopes has been confirmed. The optical and x-ray calibrations also include

  8. Active membranes studied by X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Giahi, A; El Alaoui Faris, M; Bassereau, P; Salditt, T

    2007-08-01

    In view of recent theories of "active" membranes, we have studied multilamellar phospholipid membrane stacks with reconstituted transmembrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (BR) under different illumination conditions by X-ray scattering. The light-active protein is considered as an active constituent which drives the system out of equilibrium and is predicted to change the collective fluctuation properties of the membranes. Using X-ray reflectivity, X-ray non-specular (diffuse) scattering, and grazing incidence scattering, we find no detectable change in the scattering curves when changing the illumination condition. In particular the intermembrane spacing d remains constant, after eliminating hydration-related artifacts by design of a suitable sample environment. The absence of any observable non-equilibrium effects in the experimental window is discussed in view of the relevant parameters and recent theories. PMID:17712523

  9. Swift-X-Ray Telescope Monitoring of the Candidate Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient IGR J16418-4532

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romano, P.; Mangano, V.; Ducci, L.; Esposito, P.; Evans, P. A.; Vercellone, S.; Kennea, J. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Gehrels, N.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the Swift monitoring of the candidate supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT) IGR J16418-4532, for which both orbital and spin periods are known (approx. 3.7 d and approx.1250 s, respectively). Our observations, for a total of approx. 43 ks, span over three orbital periods and represent the most intense and complete sampling of the light curve of this source with a sensitive X-ray instrument. With this unique set of observations, we can address the nature of this transient. By applying the clumpy wind model for blue supergiants to the observed X-ray light curve, and assuming a circular orbit, the X-ray emission from this source can be explained in terms of the accretion from a spherically symmetric clumpy wind, composed of clumps with different masses, ranging from approx. 5 × 10(exp 16) to 10(exp 21) g. Our data suggest, based on the X-ray behaviour, that this is an intermediate SFXT.

  10. The Operation and Evolution of the Swift X-ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennea, Jamie; Burrows, D. N.; Pagani, C.; Hill, Joanne; Racusin, J. L.; Morris, D. C.; Abbey, A. F.; Beardmore, A. P.; Campana, G.; Chincarini, G.; Cusumano, G.; Evans, P. A.; Gehrels, N.; Godet, O.; Mineo, T.; LaParola, V.; Mangano, V.; Moretti, A.; Nousek, J. A.; Osborne, J. P.; Page, K. L.; Perri, M.; Starling, R. L. C.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tamburelli, F.

    2007-01-01

    The Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) is a CCD based X-ray telescope designed for localization, spectroscopy and long term light curve monitoring of Gamma-Ray Bursts and their X-ray afterglows. Since the launch of Swift in November 2004, the XRT has undergone significant evolution in the way it is operated. Shortly after launch there was a failure of the thermo-electric cooler on the XRT CCD, which led to the XRT team being required to devise a method of keeping the XRT CCD temperature below 50C utilizing only passive cooling by minimizing the exposure of the XRT radiator to the Earth. We present in this paper an update on how the modeling of this passive cooling method has improved in first -1000 days since the method was devised, and the success rate of this method in day-to-day planning. We also discuss the changes to the operational modes and onboard software of the XRT. These changes include improved rapid data product generation in order to improve speed of rapid Gamma-Ray Burst response and localization to the community; changes to the way XRT observation modes are chosen in order to better fine tune data aquisition to a particular science goal; reduction of "mode switching" caused by the contamination of the CCD by Earth light or high temperature effects.

  11. Development of a prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X hard x-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaine, S.; Basso, S.; Bruni, R. J.; Burkert, W.; Citterio, O.; Cotroneo, V.; Engelhaupt, D.; Freyberg, M. J.; Gorenstein, P.; Gubarev, M.; Hartner, G.; Mazzoleni, F.; O'Dell, S.; Pareschi, G.; Ramsey, B. D.; Speegle, C.; Spiga, D.

    2007-09-01

    The Constellation-X mission concept has been streamlined to a single Atlas V 551 configuration. This decision was reached by the project team after considering the increases in launch costs announced in 2006 coupled with the constrained budget environment apparent with the release of the NASA 2007 budget. Along with the Spectroscopy X-ray Telescopes, this new configuration continues to carry a Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) component, with some modifications to the original requirements to adjust to the new configuration. The total effective area requirement in the 7 - 40 keV band has been reduced, but at the same time the angular resolution requirement has been increased from 1 arcmin to 30 arcsec. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Marshall Space Flight Center and Brera Observatory, Italy) have been collaborating to develop and HXT which meets the requirements of Constellation-X. The development work we have been engaged in to produce multilayer coated Electroformed-Nickel-Replicate (ENR) shells is well suited for this new configuration. We report here on results of fabrication and testing of a prototyped optic for the HXT. Full beam illumination X-ray tests, taken at MPE-Panter Test Facility, show that these optics meet the new requirement of 30 arcsec for the streamlined Constellation-X configuration. This report also presents preliminary results from studies using titanium nitride as a release agent to simplify and improve the nickel electroforming replication process.

  12. Hard X-ray Polarimetry With Wide Band Laue Lens Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caroli, E.

    2011-09-01

    Polarimetry is today considered a key observational parameter which can be used to help solve important scientific issues that are still open in the hard X-ray domain (above 10 keV). Therefore the ability to perform high sensitivity polarisation measurements has become a mandatory requirement for the next generation of space telescopes operating in this energy range. In particular the development of new high energy focusing optics, such as wide band Laue lenses operating from ~60 keV up to several hundred keV, with their 50-100 times better sensitivity with respect to current instrumentation, opens a real possibility to make hard X-ray polarimetry an almost standard measurement. Hard X-ray polarimetry can be performed using highly segmented focal plane detectors operated as scattering polarimeters. In this work we summarize results obtained by our group in a series of experiments with CZT/CdTe pixel detector prototypes operating as scattering polarimeters in the range between ~100-700 keV as well as Montecarlo evaluations of the achievable performance in polarisation measurements for Laue lens telescopes using focal planes based on CdTe/CZT pixel detectors.

  13. Application of an EMCCD Camera for Calibration of Hard X-Ray Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J K; Pivovaroff, M J; Nagarkar, V V; Kudrolli, H; Madsen, K K; Koglin, J E; Christensen, F E; Brejnholt, N F

    2011-11-08

    Recent technological innovations now make it feasible to construct hard x-ray telescopes for space-based astronomical missions. Focusing optics are capable of improving the sensitivity in the energy range above 10 keV by orders of magnitude compared to previously used instruments. The last decade has seen focusing optics developed for balloon experiments and they will soon be implemented in approved space missions such as the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and ASTRO-H. The full characterization of x-ray optics for astrophysical and solar imaging missions, including measurement of the point spread function (PSF) as well as scattering and reflectivity properties of substrate coatings, requires a very high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, photon counting and energy discriminating, large area detector. Novel back-thinned Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Devices (EMCCDs) are highly suitable detectors for ground-based calibrations. Their chip can be optically coupled to a microcolumnar CsI(Tl) scintillator via a fiberoptic taper. Not only does this device exhibit low noise and high spatial resolution inherent to CCDs, but the EMCCD is also able to handle high frame rates due to its controllable internal gain. Additionally, thick CsI(Tl) yields high detection efficiency for x-rays. This type of detector has already proven to be a unique device very suitable for calibrations in astrophysics: such a camera was used to support the characterization of the performance for all NuSTAR optics. Further optimization will enable similar cameras to be improved and used to calibrate x-ray telescopes for future space missions. In this paper, we discuss the advantages of using an EMCCD to calibrate hard x-ray optics. We will illustrate the promising features of this detector solution using examples of data obtained during the ground calibration of the NuSTAR telescopes performed at Columbia University during 2010/2011. Finally, we give an outlook on ongoing

  14. Development of an X-ray Telescope with a Large Effective Area for the Iron K Line Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Hironori; Tachibana, Sasagu; Yoshikawa, Shun; Tamura, Keisuke; Mori, Hideyuki; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Tawara, Yuzuru; Kunieda, Hideyo; Yamashita, Kojun

    2015-08-01

    X-ray micro-calorimeters such as the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) on board ASTRO-H will enable precise spectroscopy of iron K lines even for spatially extended objects. To exploit the full power of the high-energy resolution, X-ray telescopes with a large effective area around 6 keV are essentially important. Conventional Wolter-I X-ray telescopes aimed at X-rays below 10 keV have used the principle of total reflection to collect the X-rays. Enlarging the diameter of this type of telescopes is not effective to obtain the large effective area, since the incident angle of X-rays for the outer part of the telescope exceeds the critical angle, and the X-ray reflectivity of the outer part is significantly low. For example, the critical angle of Ir for an X-ray of 6 keV is 0.748 deg. Thus if we assume a focal length of 6 m for a Wolter-I optics using mirrors covered with Ir as a reflector, the mirrors the radial position of which are larger than 34 cm cannot reflect X-rays above 6 keV effectively. If multi-layer mirrors are applied to the outer part of the telescope, however, the X-ray reflectivity can be enhanced significantly by the principle of Bragg reflection. Our objective is to develop a Wolter-I X-ray telescope with an aperture of 110 cm and a focal length of 6 m, and make all mirrors in the telescope can reflect X-rays around 6 keV effectively by utilizing the multi-layer mirrors. The size of the telescope is determined by a boundary condition that can be launched by the epsilon rocket of ISAS/JAXA. The multi-layer is designed to enhance the reflectivity at 6.4 keV, 6.7 keV, or 6.9 keV. Our simulation suggests that the effective area averaged in the 5.7-7.7 keV band could be 2000 cm2, whichis comparable to the effective area of Athena launched in 2028 by ESA. Furthermore, we showed that the Ir/C multi-layers produced by our DC magnetron sputtering machine has a surface roughness of less than 4 angstrom. This value is smaller than the average surface roughness

  15. Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors: Large Format X-ray Spectral Imagers for the Next Generation of X-ray Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckart, Megan E.; Mazin, B. A.; Bumble, B.; Golwala, S. R.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Day, P. K.; Harrison, F. A.

    2006-09-01

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) have the potential to provide megapixel imagers with few eV spectral resolution for future X-ray missions such as Gen-X. MKIDs offer the advantage over many other cryogenic detector technologies that they can be easily multiplexed, so that arrays with many thousand pixels are readily achievable. In addition, the readout electronics can be operated at room temperature, a significant advantage for space applications. MKIDs exploit the dependence of surface impedance of a superconductorwith the quasiparticle density. Quasiparticles are created by absorption of X-rays, with number proportional to the X-ray energy. The impedance change may be sensitively measured using a thin-film resonant circuit. The practical application of MKIDs for photon detection requires a method of efficiently coupling the photon energy to the MKID. To apply the MKID scheme to X-ray detection we pattern tantalum strips with aluminum MKIDs attached at each end. An incident X-ray is absorbed in the Ta and creates millions of quasiparticle excitations, which diffuse to each end of the strip, finally entering the Al resonators where they are trapped and sensed. Simultaneous monitoring of the signal at both ends of the strip allow position and energy determination for each photon. We have demonstrated working strip detectors in the laboratory, and will present our measurements of the quasiparticle diffusion constant and the quasiparticle lifetime in tantalum, the aluminum quasiparticle lifetime, and the energy resolution of the detector. We will also discuss ideas for future detector designs and suggest ultimate performance goals for X-ray astronomy applications.

  16. The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. II - Soft X-ray/EUV reflectivity of the multilayer mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Weed, J. W.; Hoover, Richard B. C., Jr.; Allen, Max J.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Deforest, Craig E.; Paris, Elizabeth S.; Walker, Arthur B. C.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed seven compact soft X-ray/EUV (XUV) multilayer coated and two compact FUV interference film coated Cassegrain and Ritchey-Chretien telescopes for a rocket borne observatory, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. We report here on extensive measurements of the efficiency and spectral bandpass of the XUV telescopes carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory.

  17. Technology Development for the Constellation-X Spectroscopy X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, Robert; Lehan, John; O'Dell, Stephen; Owens, Scott; Reid, Paul B.; Saha, Timo; Stewart, Jeff; Jones, William D.; Zhang, William

    2005-01-01

    The Constellation-X Spectroscopy X-ray Telescope (SXT) is a large diameter, high throughput, grazing incidence imaging mirror system, designed to perform high sensitivity spectroscopy of cosmic X-ray sources in the 0.2-10.0 keV band. The baseline effective area requirement is -3 m# at 1 keV. The system-level angular-resolution requirement is a 15-arcseconds half-power diameter, with a 5-arcsecond goal. The effective area is attained through a modular design, involving the nesting of many confocal, thin-walled Wolter I mirror segments. Considerable progress has been made in developing thin, thermally formed, glass mirror substrates that meet or better the angular-resolution requirement. Several approaches to mounting and aligning reflector segments into a mirror system are under investigation. We report here on the progress of the SXT technology development program toward reaching the performance goals.

  18. The development of DIOS FXT (Four-stage X-ray Telescope)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawara, Yuzuru; Kurebayashi, Yuki; Sugita, Satoshi; Sakurai, Ikuya; Masuda, Tadashi; Torii, Tatsuharu; Matsushita, Kohji

    2010-07-01

    A small satellite mission DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor ) is planned to observe the warm-hot intergalactic medium ( WHIM ) of a few millions of degree, by mapping the redshifted emission lines of oxygen. FXT( Four Stage X-ray Telescope) has been developed as the best fit optics for DIOS. The X-ray measurement of the first demonstration model showed a few time larger angular resolution than designed value and compact optical measurement systems for each stage single mirror were made to clarify the reason of worse performance. We will report on the present status of the development of FXT including compact optical measurement system and reexamination of the process of replica foil mirror fabrication.

  19. Development of the Four-stage X-ray telescope (FXT) for the DIOS mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawara, Yuzuru; Sakurai, Ikuya; Sugita, Satoshi; Takizawa, Shunya; Babazaki, Yasunori; Nakamichi, Ren; Bandai, Ayako; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Hayashi, Takayuki

    2014-07-01

    A Four-stage X-ray Telescope (FXT) has been developed as the best-fit optics for the Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor (DIOS) mission, a small satellite mission for mapping observations of the warm-hot intergalactic medium. The FXT mirrors are based on a conical approximation of the Wolter-I design, fabrication technique used in the Suzaku satellite. We made the second FXT demonstration model, in which we installed 4 sets of 4 stage mirrors with diameter of about 500 mm using alignment plate. Both optical and X-ray measurement were done to estimate FXT performance. Although angular resolution is two to three times worse than that of the requirement and the goal, the field of view and the effective area are consistent with expected performance derived by the ray tracing simulation.

  20. The spectrometer telescope for imaging x-rays on board the Solar Orbiter mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, A. O.; Krucker, S.; Hurford, G. J.; Arnold, N. G.; Orleanski, P.; Gröbelbauer, H.-P.; Klober, S.; Iseli, L.; Wiehl, H. J.; Csillaghy, A.; Etesi, L.; Hochmuth, N.; Battaglia, M.; Bednarzik, M.; Resanovic, R.; Grimm, O.; Viertel, G.; Commichau, V.; Meuris, A.; Limousin, O.; Brun, S.; Vilmer, N.; Skup, K. R.; Graczyk, R.; Stolarski, M.; Michalska, M.; Nowosielski, W.; Cichocki, A.; Mosdorf, M.; Seweryn, K.; Przepiórka, A.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Mrozek, T.; Podgorski, P.; Mann, G.; Aurass, H.; Popow, E.; Onel, H.; Dionies, F.; Bauer, S.; Rendtel, J.; Warmuth, A.; Woche, M.; Plüschke, D.; Bittner, W.; Paschke, J.; Wolker, D.; Van Beek, H. F.; Farnik, F.; Kasparova, J.; Veronig, A. M.; Kienreich, I. W.; Gallagher, P. T.; Bloomfield, D. S.; Piana, M.; Massone, A. M.; Dennis, B. R.; Schwarz, R. A.; Lin, R. P.

    2012-09-01

    The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) is one of 10 instruments on board Solar Orbiter, a confirmed Mclass mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) within the Cosmic Vision program scheduled to be launched in 2017. STIX applies a Fourier-imaging technique using a set of tungsten grids (at pitches from 0.038 to 1 mm) in front of 32 pixelized CdTe detectors to provide imaging spectroscopy of solar thermal and non-thermal hard X-ray emissions from 4 to 150 keV. The status of the instrument reviewed in this paper is based on the design that passed the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) in early 2012. Particular emphasis is given to the first light of the detector system called Caliste-SO.

  1. Aligning, Bonding, and Testing Mirrors for Lightweight X-ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Zhang, William W.; Saha, Timo T.; McClelland, Ryan S.; Biskach, Michael P.; Niemeyer, Jason; Schofield, Mark J.; Mazzarella, James R.; Kolos, Linette D.; Hong, Melinda M.; Numata, Ai; Sharpe, Marton V.; Solly, Peter M.; Riveros, Raul E.; Allgood, Kim D.; McKeon, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution, high throughput optics for x-ray astronomy entails fabrication of well-formed mirror segments and their integration with arc-second precision. In this paper, we address issues of aligning and bonding thin glass mirrors with negligible additional distortion. Stability of the bonded mirrors and the curing of epoxy used in bonding them were tested extensively. We present results from tests of bonding mirrors onto experimental modules, and on the stability of the bonded mirrors tested in x-ray. These results demonstrate the fundamental validity of the methods used in integrating mirrors into telescope module, and reveal the areas for further investigation. The alignment and integration methods are applicable to the astronomical mission concept such as STAR-X, the Survey and Time-domain Astronomical Research Explorer.

  2. MASS AND ENERGY OF ERUPTING SOLAR PLASMA OBSERVED WITH THE X-RAY TELESCOPE ON HINODE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jin-Yi; Moon, Yong-Jae; Kim, Kap-Sung; Raymond, John C.; Reeves, Katharine K.

    2015-01-10

    We investigate seven eruptive plasma observations by Hinode/XRT. Their corresponding EUV and/or white light coronal mass ejection features are visible in some events. Five events are observed in several passbands in X-rays, which allows for the determination of the eruptive plasma temperature using a filter ratio method. We find that the isothermal temperatures vary from 1.6 to 10 MK. These temperatures are an average weighted toward higher temperature plasma. We determine the mass constraints of eruptive plasmas by assuming simplified geometrical structures of the plasma with isothermal plasma temperatures. This method provides an upper limit to the masses of the observed eruptive plasmas in X-ray passbands since any clumping causes the overestimation of the mass. For the other two events, we assume the temperatures are at the maximum temperature of the X-ray Telescope (XRT) temperature response function, which gives a lower limit of the masses. We find that the masses in XRT, ∼3 × 10{sup 13}-5 × 10{sup 14} g, are smaller in their upper limit than the total masses obtained by LASCO, ∼1 × 10{sup 15} g. In addition, we estimate the radiative loss, thermal conduction, thermal, and kinetic energies of the eruptive plasma in X-rays. For four events, we find that the thermal conduction timescales are much shorter than the duration of eruption. This result implies that additional heating during the eruption may be required to explain the plasma observations in X-rays for the four events.

  3. Simbol-X: A New Generation Soft/Hard X-ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slane, Patrick O.; Romaine, S.; Murray, S. S.; Brissenden, R.; Elvis, M.; Gorenstein, P.; Steel, S.; O'Dell, S.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Ramsey, B.; Angelini, L.; Citterio, O.; Pareschi, G.

    2008-03-01

    Simbol-X is arguably the most powerful broad-band focusing hard (0.5-80 keV) X-ray telescope operating in the 2013 timeframe. The combination of good angular resolution, broad energy response, and efficient observing provided by a good field of view and high orbit will provide a very large increase in sensitivity in a hitherto relatively unexplored spectral region. This will enable key scientific investigations including a census of supermassive black holes in the crucial energy range in which the cosmic X-ray background peaks, measurements of the geometry and dynamics of accretion in black hole binaries, characterization of hard X-ray sources in the Galactic center, and the nature and origin of energetic particles in galaxy clusters and supernova remnants. Its single optics module contains a set of nested nickel shells coated with multilayers to boost the high-energy response and the field of view. Its focal plane detectors are a novel hybrid configuration, with thick-depletion silicon providing the low energy response, and Cadmium Telluride the high energy response. To achieve the long focal length necessary for large collecting areas at high energies, the optics and detectors are on separate high-earth-orbit formation-flying spacecrafts, 20 m apart. We describe a proposed US participation in the Simbol-X program to provide technical expertise in the area of multilayer coatings for the X-ray optics; expertise in science and the X-ray testing and calibration of the flight optics; and support as a data analysis, Guest Investigator, and archiving center. The use of the NASA DSN Goldstone station, as a complement to the Malindi tracking station,will also be provided.

  4. Optical performance of grazing incidence X-ray/EUV telescopes for space science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Patrick Louis

    In order to improve and expand the field of X-ray astronomy, and imaging in general, we find that these days a comprehensive systems engineering approach to X-ray image formation must be undertaken. While some industrial interests have taken steps in this direction, any academic approach is lacking from within the archival literature to date, and there are virtually no established university courses. Indeed, it would seem that top level, optical-systems-engineering is exclusively reserved for those seasoned professionals who have accumulated (though somewhat artistically) the ``know-how'' to efficiently conceive and implement excellent optical designs. Such expert knowledge is not and should not be mysterious. To this end, we attempt to formulate a highly comprehensive approach to X-ray optical systems engineering and implement it within the context of the Wolter Type-I and Type-II (grazing incidence) telescopes currently utilized for practical X-ray/EUV astronomy. In addition, we will transform the classical paraboloid- hyperboloid designs into `aplanatic' and `isoplanatic', hyperboloid-hyperboloid systems, where certain coma conditions are minimized. As will be shown, one gains little improvement in performance when choosing a quasi-aplanatic mirror design over a classical one, owing to scatter and other image degradation effects. Next we will show that a generalized hyperboloid-hyperboloid design can be comprehensively optimized for any imaging requirement, where the operational field-of-view is weighted according to spatial information content. Our H-H design has been optimized for the GOES Solar X-ray Imager mission and adopted by NASA and NOAA. It is currently undergoing fabrication by Raytheon Optical Systems Inc. who is under subcontract to the Lockheed-Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory. Our design is expected to result in an 80% increase in optical system performance over the original SXI baseline design.

  5. Green Bank Telescope and Swift X-Ray Telescope Observations of the Galactic Center Radio Magnetar SGR J1745-2900

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Ryan S.; Archibald, Robert F.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Scholz, Paul

    2015-06-01

    We present results from eight months of Green Bank Telescope 8.7 GHz observations and nearly 18 months of Swift X-ray telescope observations of the radio magnetar SGR J1745-2900. We tracked the radio and X-ray flux density, polarization properties, profile evolution, rotation, and single-pulse behavior. We identified two main periods of activity. The first is characterized by approximately 5.5 months of relatively stable evolution in radio flux density, rotation, and profile shape, while in the second these properties varied substantially. Specifically, a third profile component emerged and the radio flux also became more variable. The single pulse properties also changed, most notably with a larger fraction of pulses with pulse widths ˜5-20 ms in the erratic state. Bright single pulses are well described by a log-normal energy distribution at low energies, but with an excess at high energies. The 2-10 keV flux decayed steadily since the initial X-ray outburst, while the radio flux remained stable to within ˜20% during the stable state. A joint pulsar timing analysis of the radio and X-ray data shows a level of timing noise unprecedented in a radio magnetar, though during the time covered by the radio data alone the timing noise was at a level similar to that observed in other radio magnetars. While SGR J1745-2900 is similar to other radio magnetars in many regards, it differs by having experienced a period of relative stability in the radio that now appears to have ended, while the X-ray properties evolved independently.

  6. Hard x-ray telescopes to be onboard ASTRO-H.

    PubMed

    Awaki, Hisamitsu; Kunieda, Hideyo; Ishida, Manabu; Matsumoto, Hironori; Babazaki, Yasunori; Demoto, Tadatsugu; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Haba, Yoshito; Hayashi, Takayuki; Iizuka, Ryo; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Ishida, Naoki; Itoh, Masayuki; Iwase, Toshihiro; Kosaka, Tatsuro; Kurihara, Daichi; Kuroda, Yuuji; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Meshino, Yoshifumi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Miyata, Yuusuke; Miyazawa, Takuya; Mori, Hideyuki; Nagano, Housei; Namba, Yoshiharu; Ogasaka, Yasushi; Ogi, Keiji; Okajima, Takashi; Saji, Shigetaka; Shimasaki, Fumiya; Sato, Takuro; Sato, Toshiki; Sugita, Satoshi; Suzuki, Yoshio; Tachibana, Kenji; Tachibana, Sasagu; Takizawa, Shunya; Tamura, Keisuke; Tawara, Yuzuru; Torii, Tatsuharu; Uesugi, Kentato; Yamashita, Koujun; Yamauchi, Shigeo

    2014-11-10

    The new Japanese x-ray astronomy satellite, ASTRO-H, will carry two identical hard x-ray telescopes (HXTs), which cover the energy range of 5 to 80 keV. The HXT mirrors employ tightly nested, conically approximated thin-foil Wolter-I optics, and the mirror surfaces are coated with Pt/C depth-graded multilayers to enhance the hard x-ray effective area by means of Bragg reflection. The HXT comprises foils 120-450 mm in diameter and 200 mm in length, with a focal length of 12 m. To obtain a large effective area, 213 aluminum foils 0.2 mm in thickness are tightly nested confocally. The requirements for HXT are a total effective area of >300  cm2 at 30 keV and an angular resolution of <1.7' in half-power diameter (HPD). Fabrication of two HXTs has been completed, and the x-ray performance of each HXT was measured at a synchrotron radiation facility, SPring-8 BL20B2 in Japan. Angular resolutions (HPD) of 1.9' and 1.8' at 30 keV were obtained for the full telescopes of HXT-1 and HXT-2, respectively. The total effective area of the two HXTs at 30 keV is 349  cm2. PMID:25402988

  7. InFOCuS: A Balloon-borne Hard X-ray Imaging Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krimm, Hans A.; Tueller, J.; Furuzawa, A.; Koss, M.; Kunieda, H.; Ogasaka, Y.; Okajima, T.

    2009-01-01

    InFOCuS is a new generation balloon-borne hard X-ray telescope with focusing optics and spectroscopy. After several successful flights in recent years it is being refurbished for a 2010 flight from Australia to map the hard X-ray emission from the galactic center region. in this poster, we present the status of the mirror, detectors and attitude control system. The grazing incidence optics consists of a depth-graded platinum-carbon multilayer mirror with an 8-meter focal length. It has an effective area of 78 cm(sup 2) at 30 keV. an angular resolution of 2.0 arcmin (HPD), and a field of view of 10 arcmin. The detector is a CdZnTe solid-state device capable of imaging spectroscopy. The detector is surrounded by a 3-cm thick CsI anti-coincidence shield to reduce background from particles and photons not incident along the mirror focal direction. The gondola is being reconfigured in a floating ball configuration to improve pointing control and allow the telescope to be pointed vertically. Tracking will be accomplished with a suite of on-axis and off-axis star cameras. The payload will be ready to fly from Alice Springs, Australia in Spring 2010. In this flight, InFOCuS will have the angular resolution and sensitivity to determine whether Sgr A* is the source of the hard X-rays detected by Swift/BAT and INTEGRAL and determine if there are other nearby hard X-ray sources.

  8. Simultaneous Chandra X ray, Hubble Space Telescope Ultraviolet, and Ulysses Radio Observations of Jupiter's Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; Lugaz, N.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Cravens, T. E.; Gladstone, G. R.; Ford, P.; Grodent, D.; Bhardwaj. A.; MacDowall, R. J.; Desch, M. D. 8; Majeed, T.

    2005-01-01

    Observations of Jupiter carried out by the Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-S) instrument over 24-26 February 2003 show that the auroral X-ray spectrum consists of line emission consistent with high-charge states of precipitating ions, and not a continuum as might be expected from bremsstrahlung. The part of the spectrum due to oxygen peaks around 650 eV, which indicates a high fraction of fully stripped oxygen in the precipitating ion flux. A combination of the OVIII emission lines at 653 eV and 774 eV, as well as the OVII emission lines at 561 eV and 666 eV, are evident in the measure auroral spectrum. There is also line emission at lower energies in the spectral region extending from 250 to 350 eV, which could be from sulfur and/or carbon. The Jovian auroral X-ray spectra are significantly different from the X-ray spectra of comets. The charge state distribution of the oxygen ions implied by the measured auroral X-ray spectra strongly suggests that independent of the source of the energetic ions, magnetospheric or solar wind, the ions have undergone additional acceleration. This spectral evidence for ion acceleration is also consistent with the relatively high intensities of the X rays compared with the available phase space density of the (unaccelerated) source populations of solar wind or magnetospheric ions at Jupiter, which are orders of magnitude too small to explain the observed emissions. The Chandra X-ray observations were executed simultaneously with observations at ultraviolet wavelengths by the Hubble Space Telescope and at radio wavelengths by the Ulysses spacecraft. These additional data sets suggest that the source of the X rays is magnetospheric in origin and that the precipitating particles are accelerated by strong field-aligned electric fields, which simultaneously create both the several-MeV energetic ion population and the relativistic electrons observed in situ by Ulysses that are correlated with approx.40 min quasi

  9. Intercalibration of the X-ray Telescope and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, Leon; Cirtain, J.; DeLuca, E. E.; Hara, H.; Warren, H.; Weber, M.

    2007-05-01

    The X-Ray Telescope and the Extreme-Ultra Violet Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode are designed to measure the emission of excited ions formed at temperatures ranging from 104-108 K. The temperature overlap of these two telescope is from 0.7 to 20 MK, and an on-orbit calibration of the sensitivity of the two instruments to solar features will provide a basis for future observational comparisons. Using calibrated samples of data from each instrument, and relying to a great extent on the CHIANTI spectral code, we have derived an estimate of the inter-calibration of the two telescope for a variety of different solar features and conditions. This is a major step in enhancing our ability to use the instruments together for providing quantitative diagnostics of the solar plasma.

  10. Industrialization scenario for X-ray telescopes production based on glass slumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proserpio, Laura; Döhring, Thorsten; Breunig, Elias; Friedrich, Peter; Winter, Anita

    2014-07-01

    Large X-ray segmented telescopes will be a key element for future missions aiming to solve still hidden mysteries of the hot and energetic Universe, such as the role of black holes in shaping their surroundings or how and why ordinary matter assembles into galaxies and clusters as it does. The major challenge of these systems is to guarantee a large effective area in combination with large field of view and good angular resolution, while maintaining the mass of the entire system within the geometrical and mass budget posed by space launchers. The slumping technology presents all the technical potentiality to be implemented for the realization of such demanding systems: it is based on the use of thin glass foils, shaped at high temperature in an oven over a suitable mould. Thousands of slumped segments are then aligned and assembled together into the optical payload. An exercise on the mass production approach has been conducted at Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) to show that the slumping technology can be a valuable approach for the realization of future X-ray telescopes also from a point of view of industrialization. For the analysis, a possible design for the ATHENA mission telescope was taken as reference.

  11. Optical Metrology for the Segmented Optics on the Constellation-X Spectroscopy X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Content, David; Colella, David; Fleetwood, Charles; Hadjimichael, Theo; Lehan, John; McMann, Joseph; Reid, Paul; Saha, Timo; Wright, Geraldine; Zhang, William

    2004-01-01

    We present the metrology requirements and metrology implementation necessary to prove out the reflector technology for the Constellation X(C-X) spectroscopy X-ray telescope (SXT). This segmented, 1.6m diameter highly nested Wolter-1 telescope presents many metrology and alignment challenges. In particular, these mirrors have a stringent imaging error budget as compared to their intrinsic stiffness; This is required for Constellation-X to have sufficient effective area with the weight requirement. This has implications for the metrology that can be used. A variety of contract and noncontact optical profiling and interferometric methods are combined to test the formed glass substrates before replication and the replicated reflector segments.The reflectors are tested both stand-alone and in-situ in an alignment tower.Some of these methods have not been used on prior X-ray telescopes and some are feasible only because of the segmented approach used on the SXT. Methods discussed include high precision coordinate measurement machines using very low force or optical probe axial interferometric profiling azimuthal circularity profiling and use of advanced null optics such as conical computer generated hologram (CGHs).

  12. Design of hard x-ray focusing telescope with a large field-of-view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shenghao; Mu, Baozhong; Ma, Shuang; Wang, Zhanshan

    2014-11-01

    X-ray Timing and Polarization (XTP) satellite with focusing optics and advanced detectors will study Black Hole, Neutron Star, Quark Star and the physics under extreme gravity, density and magnetism. XTP is about to make the most sensitive temporal and polarization observations with good energy resolution in 1-30 keV. We present the design of XTP Telescope with a larger field of view in this paper. The initial structure design of nested conical Wolter-I telescope in X-rays is determined with the focal length f=4.5m, mirror length L=100mm, thickness t=0.3mm, inner and outer diameter Din-out=100-450mm. To optimize the structure parameters, a self-complied Matlab software is used to maximize the center geometrical collecting are. A constant deviation gap between every two mirrors is introduced, and we calculate geometrical area in on-axis and off-axis. Balancing the performance of the telescope, the final gap value is 0.06 mm. The geometrical collecting area of on-axis decreased by 5%, the average geometrical area of off-axis is increased about 1.7% and the field of view is improved from 22' to 24', meanwhile, number of mirrors and total weight of mirrors also are decreased by 5.8%, 5.3% respectively.

  13. OCCUPATION OF X-RAY-SELECTED GALAXY GROUPS BY X-RAY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Allevato, V.; Finoguenov, A.; Hasinger, G.; Cappelluti, N.; Miyaji, T.; Salvato, M.; Brusa, M.; Zamorani, G.; Gilli, R.; George, M. R.; Tanaka, M.; Silverman, J.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Shankar, F.

    2012-10-10

    We present the first direct measurement of the mean halo occupation distribution (HOD) of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the COSMOS field at z {<=} 1, based on the association of 41 XMM and 17 C-COSMOS AGNs with member galaxies of 189 X-ray-detected galaxy groups from XMM-Newton and Chandra data. We model the mean AGN occupation in the halo mass range log M{sub 200} [M{sub Sun }] = 13-14.5 with a rolling-off power law with the best-fit index {alpha} = 0.06(- 0.22; 0.36) and normalization parameter f{sub a} 0.05(0.04; 0.06). We find the mean HOD of AGNs among central galaxies to be modeled by a softened step function at log M{sub h} > log M{sub min} = 12.75(12.10, 12.95) M{sub Sun} while for the satellite AGN HOD we find a preference for an increasing AGN fraction with M{sub h} , suggesting that the average number of AGNs in satellite galaxies grows slower ({alpha}{sub s} < 0.6) than the linear proportion ({alpha}{sub s} = 1) observed for the satellite HOD of samples of galaxies. We present an estimate of the projected autocorrelation function (ACF) of galaxy groups over the range of r{sub p} = 0.1-40 h {sup -1} Mpc at (z) = 0.5. We use the large-scale clustering signal to verify the agreement between the group bias estimated by using the observed galaxy groups ACF and the value derived from the group mass estimates. We perform a measurement of the projected AGN-galaxy-group cross-correlation function, excluding from the analysis AGNs that are within galaxy groups and we model the two-halo term of the clustering signal with the mean AGN HOD based on our results.

  14. X-rays From Quasars and Active Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightman, Alan P.

    1981-01-01

    Features of quasars and active galactic nuclei are discussed and include: the nature of the power source, the radiation processes, and the mechanism for the formation and collimation of long-lived jets of matter observed to emanate from the center of these of these objects. The phenomena that produce X-rays are highlighted.

  15. Hyperboloid-hyperboloid grazing incidence x-ray telescope designs for wide-field imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, James E.; Thompson, Patrick L.; Krywonos, Andrey

    2000-07-01

    The classical Wolter Type 1 X-ray telescope consists of two grazing incidence mirrors, a confocal paraboloid and hyperboloid. This design exhibits perfect geometric imaging on-axis (i.e., no spherical aberration) but suffers from severe field curvature, coma, astigmatism, and higher-order aberrations such as oblique spherical aberration. The Wolter-Schwarzschild design, consisting of two general aspheric grazing incidence surfaces, is corrected for both spherical aberration and coma, thus yielding very good geometrical performance at small field angles that becomes severely degraded at large field angles. The image quality criterion for stellar (small-field) X-ray telescopes is frequently expressed in terms of an on-axis fractional encircled energy, with the off-axis performance being dictated by the field-dependent aberrations characteristic of the design. A more appropriate image quality criterion for wide-angle applications is some area-weighted-average measure of resolution that maximizes the number of spatial resolution elements over a given operational field-of-view (OFOV). In practice, scattering effects from residual optical fabrication errors and detector effects (finite pixel size and charge spreading) dominate geometrical aberrations for small field angles whereas the geometrical aberrations dominate the image degradation at large field angles. Under these conditions, there is little merit in a telescope design corrected for coma (or even spherical aberration). Our new image quality criterion has led us to a whole new class of generalized Wolter Type I (hyperboloid- hyperboloid) designs that can be optimized for a given OFOV. A specific design and its predicted systems performance for the Solar X-ray Imager mission are described in detail.

  16. Thin Mirror Shaping Technology for High-Throughput X-ray Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schattenburg, Mark

    This proposal is submitted to the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences program (ROSES-2012) in response to NASA Research Announcement NNH12ZDA001N- APRA. It is targeted to the Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Analysis (APRA) program element under the Supporting Technology category. Powerful x-ray telescope mirrors are critical components of a raft of small-to-large mission concepts under consideration by NASA. The science questions addressed by these missions have certainly never been more compelling and the need to fulfill NASA s core missions of exploring the universe and strengthening our nation s technology base has never been greater. Unfortunately, budgetary constraints are driving NASA to consider the cost/benefit and risk factors of new missions more carefully than ever. New technology for producing x-ray telescopes with increased resolution and collecting area, while holding down cost, are key to meeting these goals and sustaining a thriving high-energy astrophysics enterprise in the US. We propose to develop advanced technology which will lead to thin-shell x-ray telescope mirrors rivaling the Chandra x-ray telescope in spatial resolution but with 10-100X larger area all at significantly reduced weight, risk and cost. The proposed effort builds on previous research at MIT and complements NASA-supported research at other institutions. We are currently pursuing two thin-mirror technology development tracks which we propose to extend and accelerate with NASA support. The first research track utilizes rapidly-maturing thermal glass slumping technology which uses porous ceramic air-bearing mandrels to shape glass mirrors without touching, thus avoiding surface-induced mid-range spatial frequency ripples. A second research track seeks to remove any remaining mid- to long-range errors in mirrors by using scanning ion-beam implant to impart small, highly deterministic and very stable amounts of stress into thin glass, utilizing local

  17. Development of an Energetic X-Ray Imaging Telescope Experiment (EXITE) and Associated Balloon Gondola System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is the Final Report for grant NAGW-624, which was our original grant to develop the Energetic X- ray Imaging Telescope Experiment (EXITE) and Associated Balloon Gondola. The EXITE grant was changed over to a new grant (from GSFC), NAG5-5103, beginning in FY97 and is currently very much continuing under that grant. The Final Report presented here then covers the EXITE development under the original grant, which in fact continued (with a 1 year no-cost extension) through December 31, 1997.

  18. Design, fabrication and expected performance of the HEAO-B X ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Speybroeck, L. P.

    1977-01-01

    The X-ray telescope of the second High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO-B) is described. The design consists of four concentric paraboloid/hyperboloid pairs. Focal length is 3.44 meters, paraboloid diameters vary from 580-336 mm, grazing angles vary from 70 to 40 arcmin for paraxial rays, segment lengths are 511 mm. The reflecting surfaces are nickel-coated fused quartz and the resolution is limited by assembly errors (for small field angles) and design aberrations (for large field angles). The local slope, roundness, and surface roughness are identified as the primary optical tolerances connected with the individual elements.

  19. Potential of the Large Observatory for X-ray Timing telescope for the search for dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neronov, A.; Boyarsky, A.; Iakubovskyi, D.; Ruchayskiy, O.

    2014-12-01

    Large observatory for x-ray timing (LOFT) is a concept of a next-generation x-ray telescope considered in the context of the "Cosmic Vision" program of the European Space Agency. The Large Area Detector on board of LOFT will be a collimator-type telescope with an unprecedentedly large collecting area of about 1 05 cm2 in the energy band between 2 and 100 keV. We demonstrate that LOFT will be a powerful dark matter detector, suitable for the search of the x-ray line emission expected from decays of light dark matter particles in galactic halos. We show that LOFT will have sensitivity for dark matter line search more than an order of magnitude higher than that of all existing x-ray telescopes. In this way, LOFT will be able to provide a new insight into the fundamental problem of the nature of dark matter.

  20. Variable magnification variable dispersion glancing incidence imaging x-ray spectroscopic telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A variable magnification variable dispersion glancing incidence x-ray spectroscopic telescope capable of multiple high spatial revolution imaging at precise spectral lines of solar and stellar x-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation sources includes a pirmary optical system which focuses the incoming radiation to a primary focus. Two or more rotatable carries each providing a different magnification are positioned behind the primary focus at an inclination to the optical axis, each carrier carrying a series of ellipsoidal diffraction grating mirrors each having a concave surface on which the gratings are ruled and coated with a mutlilayer coating to reflect by diffraction a different desired wavelength. The diffraction grating mirrors of both carriers are segments of ellipsoids having a common first focus coincident with the primary focus. A contoured detector such as an x-ray sensitive photogrpahic film is positioned at the second respective focus of each diffraction grating so that each grating may reflect the image at the first focus to the detector at the second focus. The carriers are selectively rotated to position a selected mirror for receiving radiation from the primary optical system, and at least the first carrier may be withdrawn from the path of the radiation to permit a selected grating on the second carrier to receive radiation.

  1. Evaluation of a `CMOS' Imager for a Shadow Mask Hard X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, U. D.; Orwig, L. E.

    2002-05-01

    We have developed a hard x-ray coder that provides high angular resolution imaging capability using a coarse position-sensitive image plane detector. The coder consists of two Fresnel zone plates (FZP). Two such FZP's generate Moiré fringe patterns whose frequency and orientation define the arrival direction of a beam with respect to the telescope axis. The image plane detector needs to resolve the Moiré fringe pattern. Pixellated detectors can be used as an image plane detector. The recently available `CMOS' imager could provide a very low power large area image plane detector for hard x-rays. We have looked into a unit made by Rad-Icon Imaging Corp. The Shad-o-Box 1024 x-ray camera is a high resolution 1024x1024 pixel detector of 50x50 mm area. It is a very low power, stand-alone camera. We present some preliminary results of our evaluation of such a camera.

  2. Variable magnification variable dispersion glancing incidence imaging x ray spectroscopic telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A variable magnification variable dispersion glancing incidence x ray spectroscopic telescope capable of multiple high spatial revolution imaging at precise spectral lines of solar and stellar x ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation sources includes a primary optical system which focuses the incoming radiation to a primary focus. Two or more rotatable carriers each providing a different magnification are positioned behind the primary focus at an inclination to the optical axis, each carrier carrying a series of ellipsoidal diffraction grating mirrors each having a concave surface on which the gratings are ruled and coated with a multilayer coating to reflect by diffraction a different desired wavelength. The diffraction grating mirrors of both carriers are segments of ellipsoids having a common first focus coincident with the primary focus. A contoured detector such as an x ray sensitive photographic film is positioned at the second respective focus of each diffraction grating so that each grating may reflect the image at the first focus to the detector at the second focus. The carriers are selectively rotated to position a selected mirror for receiving radiation from the primary optical system, and at least the first carrier may be withdrawn from the path of the radiation to permit a selected grating on the second carrier to receive radiation.

  3. Slumped glass optics for x-ray telescopes: advances in the hot slumping assisted by pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmaso, B.; Brizzolari, C.; Basso, S.; Civitani, M.; Ghigo, M.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vecchi, G.

    2015-09-01

    Slumped Glass Optics is a viable solution to build future X-ray telescopes. In our laboratories we use a direct hot slumping approach assisted by pressure, in which the glass optical surface is in contact with the mould, and a pressure is applied to enforce the replication of the mould shape on the glass optical surface. Several prototypes have been already produced and tested in X-rays, showing a continuous improvement in our technology. In this paper, we present the advances in our technology, in terms of slumped glass foils quality and expected performances upon an ideal integration. By using Eagle XG glass foils and Zerodur K20 for the slumping mould, we have fine tuned several process parameters: we present a critical analysis correlating the changes in the process to the improvements in different spatial frequency ranges encompassing the profile and roughness measurements. The use of a re-polished K20 mould, together with the optimized process parameters, lead to the latest result of glass foils with expected performance of less than 3 arcsec in single reflection at 1 keV X-ray energy. This work presents all the relevant steps forward in the hot slumping technology assisted by pressure, aimed at reaching angular resolutions of 5 arcsec for the whole mirror assembly.

  4. The spectrometer telescope for imaging X-rays (STIX) on board Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilmer, Nicole; Krucker, Samuel; Karol Seweryn, D..; Orleanski, Piotr; Limousin, Olivier; Meuris, Aline; Brun, Allan Sacha; Grimm, Oliver; Groebelbauer, HansPeter; Rendtel, J.

    The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) is one of 10 instruments on board Solar Orbiter, a confirmed M-class mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) within the Cosmic Vision program scheduled to be launched in 2017. STIX applies a Fourier-imaging technique using a set of tungsten grids (at pitches from 0.038 to 1 mm) in front of 32 pixelized CdTe detectors to provide imaging spectroscopy of solar thermal and non-thermal hard X-ray emissions from 4 to 150 keV. The paper presents the status of the instrument for the Critical Design Review to be held with ESA in June 2014. Particular emphasis is given to the CdTe hybrid detector called Caliste-SO for high resolution hard X-ray spectroscopy from 4 to 150 keV: Characterizations of the first production batch are reported. Caliste-SO spectrometer units could also fulfill the needs for the SORENTO instrument of the Russian Interhelioprobe mission currently in assessment study.

  5. The Constellation-X Spectroscopy X-ray Telescope: Recent Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, Robert; Lehan, John L.; Owens, Scott; Saha, Timo; Stewart, Jeff; Zhang, William W.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Jones, Wiliam D.; Reid, Paul B.

    2006-01-01

    We describe recent progress in the technology development program for the mirror system for the Constellation-X Spectroscopy X-ray Telescope (SXT). Development of this mirror represents a significant technology challenge, as it must provide a combination of large effective area (3 sq. m) and modest angular resolution (15 arc second half power diameter requirement; 5 arc second goal) with a limited mass allocation. The baseline design incorporates over 200 nested Wolter 1 mirrors. Each of these in turn is segmented in order to simplify handling of the mirrors and facilitate mass production. The X-ray reflecting surfaces are fabricated from thin, thermally formed glass sheets. Production improvements have yielded mirror segments that approach the performance requirement without the need for epoxy replication. A mounting and alignment approach incorporating piezoelectric actuators has been shown to manipulate mirror segments with the required precision without introducing significant distortion. Substantial improvements in metrology methodology have provided insights into the mirror segment forming and alignment processes. An X-ray demonstration of a mirror segment pair is planned for early 2006.

  6. Development of modular high-performance pore optics for the XEUS x-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, S.; Collon, M.; Guenther, R.; Beijersbergen, M. W.; Bavdaz, M.; Lumb, D. H.; Wallace, K.; Peacock, A.; Krumrey, M.; Hoffmann, M.; Mueller, P.; Lehmann, V.

    2005-08-01

    The next generation astronomical X-ray telescopes (such as the X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy mission XEUS) require extremely large collecting areas (effective area of ~10 m2 at 1 keV) in combination with good angular resolution of ~5" or better. The existing technologies such as polished glass and nickel electroforming would lead to excessively heavy and expensive optics, and/or are not able to produce the required large area. We have developed an entirely novel technology for producing X-ray optics which results in very light, stiff and modular optics. These can be assembled into almost arbitrarily large apertures and are perfectly suited for future astrophysics missions such as XEUS. Indeed this crucial technology ensures that the ambitious mission profile is actually feasible. The technology makes use of commercially available silicon wafers from the semiconductor industry. The latest generation of 12 inch silicon wafers have a surface roughness that is sufficiently low (~0.3 nm) for X-ray reflection, almost perfect mechanical properties and are considerably cheaper than other high-quality optical materials. The wafers are bent into an accurate cone and assembled to form a stiff pore structure. The resulting light and stiff modules, which we term a High-performance Pore Optics (HPO), form a small segment of a Wolter-I optic, and are easily assembled into a modular optic with large collecting area. We have implemented an automated production process of HPOs on laboratory scale and describe facilities developed with ESA at the Cosine Research Centre. We present the status of the production and the results obtained with this highly innovative technology.

  7. A NEW COSMOLOGICAL DISTANCE MEASURE USING ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS X-RAY VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Franca, Fabio La; Bianchi, Stefano; Branchini, Enzo; Matt, Giorgio; Ponti, Gabriele

    2014-05-20

    We report the discovery of a luminosity distance estimator using active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We combine the correlation between the X-ray variability amplitude and the black hole (BH) mass with the single-epoch spectra BH mass estimates which depend on the AGN luminosity and the line width emitted by the broad-line region. We demonstrate that significant correlations do exist that allow one to predict the AGN (optical or X-ray) luminosity as a function of the AGN X-ray variability and either the Hβ or the Paβ line widths. In the best case, when the Paβ is used, the relationship has an intrinsic dispersion of ∼0.6 dex. Although intrinsically more disperse than supernovae Ia, this relation constitutes an alternative distance indicator potentially able to probe, in an independent way, the expansion history of the universe. With respect to this, we show that the new mission concept Athena should be able to measure the X-ray variability of hundreds of AGNs and then constrain the distance modulus with uncertainties of 0.1 mag up to z ∼ 0.6. We also discuss how our estimator has the prospect of becoming a cosmological probe even more sensitive than the current supernovae Ia samples by using a new dedicated wide-field X-ray telescope able to measure the variability of thousands of AGNs.

  8. Swift Observations of the Recent X-ray Activity of Eta Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalil Liburd, Jamar; Corcoran, Michael F.; Morris, David C.; Theodore Gull, Kenji Hamaguchi, Thomas Madura, Mairan Teodoro, Nick Durofchalk, Caleb Gimar.

    2015-01-01

    The extremely massive Luminous Blue Variable binary star, Eta Carinae, lies 7,500 light years away, deep within the Homunculus nebula where vigorous Wind-Wind collisions between the primary star and the companion star generate high-energy gases that produce X-rays. Complex X-ray variations occur near periastron, the point of least stellar separation between the two stars. Understanding the variability in Eta Carinae's high-energy spectrum during this period gives us a better understanding of the system's physical and stellar properties. We present the processing techniques and background estimation methods used to process and analyze weekly observations done with Swift's X-ray Telescope during Eta Carinae's most recent periastron passage in 2014. We present analysis of Eta Carinae's current column density and compare it to that of previous cycles. The exact nature of Eta Carinae's X-ray minimum activity, which occurs every 5.54 years, is still unclear. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms of the X-ray deep minimum stage and the associated differences in column density in each cycle will contribute to a clearer understanding of the wind-driven mass-loss from this unique system.

  9. Optimization of graded multilayer designs for astronomical X-ray telescopes.

    PubMed

    Mao, P H; Harrison, F A; Windt, D L; Christensen, F E

    1999-08-01

    We developed a systematic method for optimizing the design of depth-graded multilayers for astronomical hard-x-ray and soft-gamma-ray telescopes based on the instrument's bandpass and the field of view. We apply these methods to the design of the conical-approximation Wolter I optics employed by the balloon-borne High Energy Focusing Telescope, using W/Si as the multilayer materials. In addition, we present optimized performance calculations of mirrors, using other material pairs that are capable of extending performance to photon energies above the W K-absorption edge (69.5 keV), including Pt/C, Ni/C, Cu/Si, and Mo/Si. PMID:18323965

  10. SuperHERO: the next generation hard x-ray HEROES telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Christe, Steven D.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Ramsey, Brian D.; Seller, Paul; Shih, Albert Y.; Stuchlik, David W.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Weddendorf, Bruce; Wilson, Matthew D.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2014-07-01

    SuperHERO is a new high-resolution, Long Duration Balloon-capable, hard-x-ray (20-75 keV) focusing telescope for making novel astrophysics and heliophysics observations. The SuperHERO payload, currently in its proposal phase, is being developed jointly by the Astrophysics Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Solar Physics Laboratory and the Wallops Flight Facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. SuperHERO is a follow-on payload to the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) balloon-borne telescope that recently flew from Fort Sumner, NM in September of 2013, and will utilize many of the same features. Significant enhancements to the HEROES payload will be made, including the addition of optics, novel solid-state multi-pixel CdTe detectors, integration of the Wallops Arc-Second Pointer and a significantly lighter gondola suitable for Long Duration Flights.

  11. Unwrapping the X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, C. S.

    2016-05-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are complex phenomena. At the heart of an AGN is a relativistic accretion disk around a spinning supermassive black hole (SMBH) with an X-ray emitting corona and, sometimes, a relativistic jet. On larger scales, the outer accretion disk and molecular torus act as the reservoirs of gas for the continuing AGN activity. And on all scales from the black hole outwards, powerful winds are seen that probably affect the evolution of the host galaxy as well as regulate the feeding of the AGN itself. In this review article, we discuss how X-ray spectroscopy can be used to study each of these components. We highlight how recent measurements of the high-energy cutoff in the X-ray continuum by NuSTAR are pushing us to conclude that X-ray coronae are radiatively-compact and have electron temperatures regulated by electron-positron pair production. We show that the predominance of rapidly-rotating objects in current surveys of SMBH spin is entirely unsurprising once one accounts for the observational selection bias resulting from the spin-dependence of the radiative efficiency. We review recent progress in our understanding of fast (v˜ (0.1-0.3)c, highly-ionized (mainly visible in Fe XXV and Fe XXVI lines), high-column density winds that may dominate quasar-mode galactic feedback. Finally, we end with a brief look forward to the promise of Astro-H and future X-ray spectropolarimeters.

  12. Manufacture of aspherical molding dies for x-ray telescopes after ASTRO-H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namba, Yoshiharu; Beaucamp, Anthony; Matsumoto, Hironori; Tamura, Keisuke; Tawara, Yuzuru; Kunieda, Hideyo; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2014-07-01

    Producing X-ray imaging space telescopes is a very expensive endeavor, due in great part to the difficulty of fabricating thin mirrors for Wolter type-I optical assemblies. To meet this challenge, replication from optical molding dies (also called mandrels) has become the preferred method, as it is reliable and economical. Several replication methods exist: in the case of the ASTRO-H mission, DC magnetron sputtering was used to deposit Pt/C multilayer coating on glass molding dies. The multilayer coating was then bonded with epoxy to aluminum shells and then separated from the die. Another mirror replication method consists of slumping thin glass sheets over a full (or a section of) revolution molding die under high temperature. This method was demonstrated in the case of the NuSTAR mission. But the challenge of fabricating truly aspheric Wolter type molding dies, which are capable of highly accurate angular resolution (below 5 arcs), remains very expensive and time consuming. In this paper, three methods for producing X-ray optic molding dies are presented. Each method uses a different substrate material and process chain, as follows: electroless nickel plated aluminum (first diamond turned then correctively polished), fused silica (first precision ground then correctively polished), and CVD silicon carbide (which can be finished entirely with a newly developed Shape Adaptive Grinding process). The process chains employed for each method are explained in details, and their relative merits discussed. A way forward for the next generation of X-ray telescopes after ASTRO-H is then drawn out.

  13. Study of a coded mask telescope for astronomical measurements in the hard X-ray domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberl, F.

    1984-05-01

    A coded mask telescope was investigated for balloon flights, and sensitivity studies of a rotation-modulation collimator system were carried out. An Anger camera with a spatial resolution of 8 to 10 mm was built for the telescope. The mask coding theory and mask construction are described. A correlation method is used for image evaluation. The effects of detector characteristics on the correlation image are determined. The efficiency of the correlation method is found to depend on the detector spatial resolution. Measurements on a laboratory model show a measuring accuracy of 0.1 deg and a correlation efficiency conforming to values found by simulations. The efficiency decreases with source energy as expected. Simulation shows that the collimator-induced shift in source position at the boundary of the image can be corrected. The coded mask telescope does not require a precise alignment of the telescope axis, and is four times more sensitive than the rotation-modulation collimator. The telescope is very well suited for measurements on weak X-ray sources.

  14. Development of mirrors made of chemically tempered glass foils for future X-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmaso, Bianca; Civitani, Marta; Brizzolari, Claudia; Basso, Stefano; Ghigo, Mauro; Pareschi, Giovanni; Spiga, Daniele; Proserpio, Laura; Suppiger, Yves

    2015-10-01

    Thin slumped glass foils are considered good candidates for the realization of future X-ray telescopes with large effective area and high spatial resolution. However, the hot slumping process affects the glass strength, and this can be an issue during the launch of the satellite because of the high kinematical and static loads occurring during that phase. In the present work we have investigated the possible use of Gorilla® glass (produced by Corning®), a chemical tempered glass that, thanks to its strength characteristics, would be ideal. The un-tempered glass foils were curved by means of an innovative hot slumping technique and subsequently chemically tempered. In this paper we show that the chemical tempering process applied to Gorilla® glass foils does not affect the surface micro-roughness of the mirrors. On the other end, the stress introduced by the tempering process causes a reduction in the amplitude of the longitudinal profile errors with a lateral size close to the mirror length. The effect of the overall shape changes in the final resolution performance of the glass mirrors was studied by simulating the glass foils integration with our innovative approach based on glass reinforcing ribs. The preliminary tests performed so far suggest that this approach has the potential to be applied to the X-ray telescopes of the next generation.

  15. Theoretical analysis of Wolter/LSM X-ray telescope systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, D. L.; Chao, S.

    1985-01-01

    A ray tracing analysis has been performed for the spectral slicing zoom X-ray telescope for configurations in which a convex layered synthetic microstructure (LSM) optic is placed in front of the prime focus or a concave LSM optic is placed behind the prime focus. The analysis has considered the geometrical shape of the LSM optic to be either a hyperboloid, sphere, ellipsoid or constant optical path aspheric element for two configurations of the glancing incidence X-ray telescope: the ATM Experimental S-056 Wolter I system and the Stanford/MSFC Wolter-Schwarzchild nested system. For the different systems the RMS blur circle radii, the point spread function (PSF), the full width half maximum (FWHM) of the PSF have been evaluated as a function of field angle and magnification of the secondary to determine resolution of the system. The effects of decentration and tilt of the selected LSM element on the performance of the system have been studied to determine mounting and alignment tolerances.

  16. The Swift Burst Alert Telescope Detected Seyfert 1 Galaxies: X-Ray Broadband Properties and Warm Absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Lisa M.; Veilleux, Sylvain; McKernan, Barry; Kallman, T.

    2012-01-01

    We present results from an analysis of the broadband, 0.3-195 keV, X-ray spectra of 48 Seyfert 1-1.5 sources detected in the very hard X-rays with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). This sample is selected in an all-sky survey conducted in the 14-195 keV band. Therefore, our sources are largely unbiased toward both obscuration and host galaxy properties. Our detailed and uniform model fits to Suzaku/BAT and XMM-Newton/BAT spectra include the neutral absorption, direct power-law, reflected emission, soft excess, warm absorption, and narrow Fe I K[alpha] emission properties for the entire sample. We significantly detect O VII and O VIII edges in 52% of our sample. The strength of these detections is strongly correlated with the neutral column density measured in the spectrum. Among the strongest detections, X-ray grating and UV observations, where available, indicate outflowing material. The ionized column densities of sources with O VII and O VIII detections are clustered in a narrow range with Nwarm [approx] 1021 cm-2, while sources without strong detections have column densities of ionized gas an order of magnitude lower. Therefore, we note that sources without strong detections likely have warm ionized outflows present but at low column densities that are not easily probed with current X-ray observations. Sources with strong complex absorption have a strong soft excess, which may or may not be due to difficulties in modeling the complex spectra of these sources. Still, the detection of a flat [Gamma] [approx] 1 and a strong soft excess may allow us to infer the presence of strong absorption in low signal-to-noise active galactic nucleus spectra. Additionally, we include a useful correction from the Swift BAT luminosity to bolometric luminosity, based on a comparison of our spectral fitting results with published spectral energy distribution fits from 33 of our sources.

  17. Method of and means for testing a glancing-incidence mirror system of an X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dailey, C. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus was designed for measuring the resolution and efficiency of a glancing-incidence mirror system having an even number of coaxial and confocal reflecting surfaces for use in an X-ray telescope. A collimated beam of X-rays is generated by an X-ray laser and directed along the axis of the system so that the beam is incident on the reflecting surfaces and illuminates a predetermined area. An X-ray detector, such as a photographic film, is located at the common focus of the surfaces so that the image produced by the X-rays may be compared with a test pattern interposed between the laser and the system.

  18. An active M star with X-ray double flares disguised as an ultra-luminous X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jin-Cheng; Liu, Ji-Feng; Wang, Song; Wu, Yue; Qin, Yu-Xiang

    2016-02-01

    Here we present research on an ultra-luminous X-ray source (ULX) candidate 2XMM J140229.91+542118.8. The X-ray light curves of this ULX candidate in M101 exhibit features of a flare star. More importantly, the Chandra light curve displays unusual X-ray double flares, which is comprised of two close peaks. The X-ray (0.3-11.0 keV) flux of the first peak was derived from the two-temperature APEC model as ˜ 1.1 ± 0.1 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1. The observed flux at its first peak increased by about two orders of magnitude in X-ray as compared to quiescence. The slope of the second fast decay phase is steeper than the slope of the first fast decay phase, indicating that the appearance of a second flare accelerated the cooling of the first flare in a way we do not understand yet. We also observed its optical counterpart using a 2.16 m telescope administered by National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. By optical spectral fitting, it is confirmed to be a late type dMe2.5 star. According to the spectral type and apparent magnitude of its optical counterpart, we estimate the photometric distance to be ˜ 133.4 ± 14.2 pc. According to the X-ray spectral fitting, a possible explanation is provided. However, more similar close double flares are needed to confirm whether this accelerated cooling event is a unique coincidence or a common physical process during double flaring.

  19. Soft X-Ray Exposure Testing of FEP Teflon for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.

    1998-01-01

    The FEP Teflon (DuPont) multilayer insulation (MLI) thermal-control blanket material on the Hubble Space Telescope is degrading in the space environment. During the first Hubble servicing mission in 1993, after 3.6 years in low Earth orbit, aluminized and silvered FEP Teflon MLI thermal-control blanket materials were retrieved. These materials have been jointly analyzed by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for degradation induced in the space environment (ref. 1). Solar-facing blanket materials were found to be embrittled with through-the-thickness cracking in the 5-mil FEP. During the second Hubble servicing mission in 1997, astronauts noticed that several blankets had large areas with tears. The torn FEP was curled up in some areas, exposing the underlying materials to the space environment. This tearing problem, and the associated curling up of torn areas, could lead to over-heating of the telescope and to particulate contamination. A Hubble Space Telescope MLI Failure Review Board was assembled by Goddard to investigate and identify the degradation mechanism of the FEP, to identify and characterize replacement materials, and to estimate the extent of damage at the time of the third servicing mission in 1999. A small piece of FEP retrieved during the second servicing mission is being evaluated by this failure review board along with materials from the first servicing mission. Since the first servicing mission, and as part of the failure review board, Lewis has been exposing FEP to soft x-rays to help determine the damage mechanisms of FEP in the space environment. Soft x-rays, which can penetrate into the bulk of FEP, are generated during solar flares and appear to be contributing to the degradation of the Hubble MLI.

  20. Constraints on axino warm dark matter from X-ray observation at the Chandra telescope and SPI

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Paramita; Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Roy, Sourov; Vempati, Sudhir K. E-mail: biswarup@hri.res.in E-mail: vempati@cts.iisc.ernet.in

    2012-05-01

    A sufficiently long lived warm dark matter could be a source of X-rays observed by satellite based X-ray telescopes. We consider axinos and gravitinos with masses between 1 keV and 100 keV in supersymmetric models with small R-parity violation. We show that axino dark matter receives significant constraints from X-ray observations of Chandra and SPI, especially for the lower end of the allowed range of the axino decay constant f{sub a}, while the gravitino dark matter remains unconstrained.

  1. Activity in X-ray-selected late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takalo, Leo O.; Nousek, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    A spectroscopic study has been conducted of nine X-ray bright late-type stars selected from two Einstein X-ray surveys: the Columbia Astrophysical Laboratory Survey (five stars) and the CFA Medium Sensitivity Survey (MSS; four stars). Spectral classes were determined and radial and V sin(i) velocities were measured for the stars. Four of the Columbia Survey stars were found to be new RS CVn-type binaries. The fifth Columbia survey star was found to be an active G dwarf star without evidence for binarity. None of the four MSS stars were found to be either binaries or optically active stars. Activity in these stars was assessed by measuring the excess emission in H-alpha and the Ca II IRT (8498, 8542) lines in comparison with inactive stars of similar spectral types. A correlation was found between X-ray luminosity and V sin(i) and H-alpha line excess. The measured excess line emission in H-alpha was also correlated with V sin(i) but not with the IRT line excess.

  2. Investigation of x ray variability in highly active cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Ginga x ray observations of highly active cool star coronae were obtained and analyzed in an effort to better understand the nature of their time variability. The possible types of variability studied included x ray occultations via eclipses in a binary system, rotational modulation of x ray emission, flares, and a search for microflaring. Observation of both sigma(sup 2) CrB and Algol were performed successfully by Ginga. The sigma(sup 2) CrB observations occurred on 27 to 30 June 1988, and the Algol observations on 12 to 14 January 1989. In the sigma(sup 2) CrB observation, simultaneous IUE and Very Large Array (VLA) observations were obtained during part of the Ginga observation. Flaring activity was detected on sigma(sup 2) CrB in the Ginga 1.7 to 11 KeV band and in the IUE microwave region. A large flare on Algol which lasted well over 12 hours was detected, began with a maximum temperature of 65 MK which gradually decayed to 36 MK, and evidence was shown of highly ionized Fe line emission.

  3. Broad band X-ray telescope (BBXRT) displacement monitor system (DMS) testing and calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John G.; Northcutt, William

    1989-01-01

    NASA's shuttle-borne Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) consists of two glancing incidence imaging mirror assemblies mounted on an optical bench which is bolted to the primary structure of the instrument. The X-ray detectors are located in the focal plane of the mirror assemblies approximately 3.5 meters away. It is desirable to monitor the relative alignment of these components throughout ground testing, and to determine the magnitude of launch or thermally induced perturbations to the alignment during flight. The Displacement Monitor System (DMS) was designed to accomplish this task. This paper describes the design of the DMS, the development and optimization of the DMS calibration facility, and the characterization of the system. The characterization of the DMS includes environmental qualification, displacement vs output calibration over the operating temperature range, a detailed error analysis, and the generation of a calibration polynomial which utilizes DMS detector output and thermocouple data to optimize system performance. The DMS accuracy exceeded the requirements of a 15 arc second limit of error, and passed the stringent environmental tests. As such, the DMS is one of the first flight qualified displacement monitor systems with this accuracy to be flown in space.

  4. Calibration of the NuSTAR High-energy Focusing X-ray Telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Kristin K.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Markwardt, Craig B.; An, Hongjun; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Bachetti, Matteo; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Kitaguchi, Takao; Bhalerao, Varun; Boggs, Steve; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Forster, Karl; Fuerst, Felix; Hailey, Charles J.; Perri, Matteo; Puccetti, Simonetta; Rana, Vikram; Stern, Daniel; Walton, Dominic J.; Jørgen Westergaard, Niels; Zhang, William W.

    2015-09-01

    We present the calibration of the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) X-ray satellite. We used the Crab as the primary effective area calibrator and constructed a piece-wise linear spline function to modify the vignetting response. The achieved residuals for all off-axis angles and energies, compared to the assumed spectrum, are typically better than ±2% up to 40 keV and 5%-10% above due to limited counting statistics. An empirical adjustment to the theoretical two-dimensional point-spread function (PSF) was found using several strong point sources, and no increase of the PSF half-power diameter has been observed since the beginning of the mission. We report on the detector gain calibration, good to 60 eV for all grades, and discuss the timing capabilities of the observatory, which has an absolute timing of ±3 ms. Finally, we present cross-calibration results from two campaigns between all the major concurrent X-ray observatories (Chandra, Swift, Suzaku, and XMM-Newton), conducted in 2012 and 2013 on the sources 3C 273 and PKS 2155-304, and show that the differences in measured flux is within ˜10% for all instruments with respect to NuSTAR.

  5. Optimizing the search for high-z GRBs:. the JANUS X-ray coded aperture telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, D. N.; Fox, D.; Palmer, D.; Romano, P.; Mangano, V.; La Parola, V.; Falcone, A. D.; Roming, P. W. A.

    We discuss the optimization of gamma-ray burst (GRB) detectors with a goal of maximizing the detected number of bright high-redshift GRBs, in the context of design studies conducted for the X-ray transient detector on the JANUS mission. We conclude that the optimal energy band for detection of high-z GRBs is below about 30 keV. We considered both lobster-eye and coded aperture designs operating in this energy band. Within the available mass and power constraints, we found that the coded aperture mask was preferred for the detection of high-z bursts with bright enough afterglows to probe galaxies in the era of the Cosmic Dawn. This initial conclusion was confirmed through detailed mission simulations that found that the selected design (an X-ray Coded Aperture Telescope) would detect four times as many bright, high-z GRBs as the lobster-eye design we considered. The JANUS XCAT instrument will detect 48 GRBs with z>5 and fluence S_x > 3 × 10-7 erg cm-2 in a two year mission.

  6. Instrument data processing unit for spectrometer/telescope for imaging x-rays (STIX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skup, Konrad R.; Cichocki, A.; Graczyk, R.; Michalska, M.; Mosdorf, M.; Nowosielski, W.; Orleański, P.; Przepiórka, A.; Seweryn, K.; Stolarski, M.; Winkler, M.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Mrozek, T.; Podgorski, P.; Benz, A. O.; Krucker, S.; Hurford, G. J.; Arnold, N. G.; Önele, H.; Meuris, A.; Limousin, O.; Grimm, O.

    2012-05-01

    The Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) is one of 10 instruments on board Solar Orbiter, an M-class mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) scheduled to be launch in 2017. STIX applies a Fourier-imaging technique using a set of tungsten grids in front of 32 pixelized CdTe detectors to provide imaging spectroscopy of solar thermal and non-thermal hard X-ray emissions from 4 to 150 keV. These detectors are source of data collected and analyzed in real-time by Instrument Data Processing Unit (IDPU). Besides the data processing the IDPU controls and manages other STIX's subsystems: ASICs and ADCs associated with detectors, Aspect System, Attenuator, PSU and HK. The instrument reviewed in this paper is based on the design that passed the Instrument Preliminary Design Review (IPDR) in early 2012 and Software Preliminary Design Review (SW PDR) in middle of 2012. Particular emphasis is given to the IDPU and low level software called Basic SW (BSW).

  7. Moduli Dark Matter and the Search for Its Decay Line using Suzaku X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusenko, Alexander; Loewenstein, Michael; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2013-01-01

    Light scalar fields called moduli arise from a variety of different models involving supersymmetry and/or string theory; thus their existence is a generic prediction of leading theories for physics beyond the standard model. They also present a formidable, long-standing problem for cosmology. We argue that an anthropic solution to the moduli problem exists in the case of small moduli masses and that it automatically leads to dark matter in the form of moduli. The recent discovery of the 125 GeV Higgs boson implies a lower bound on the moduli mass of about a keV. This form of dark matter is consistent with the observed properties of structure formation, and it is amenable to detection with the help of x-ray telescopes. We present the results of a search for such dark matter particles using spectra extracted from the first deep x-ray observations of the Draco and Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxies, which are darkmatter- dominated systems with extreme mass-to-light ratios and low intrinsic backgrounds. No emission line is positively detected, and we set new constraints on the relevant new physics.

  8. SuperHERO: The Next Generation Hard X-Ray Focusing Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Ramsey, Brian; Elsner, Ronald; Tennant, Allyn F.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Swartz, Douglas A.; Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert Y.; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew; Stuchlik, David

    2015-01-01

    SuperHERO is a balloon-borne hard x-ray (20-75 keV) telescope that couples high-angular resolution (~20 arcsecs) electroformed-nickel grazing incidence optics to state-of-the-art fine pixel-pitch (250 µm) Cadmium-Telluride detectors with a 6 m focal length. This telescope, currently in the proposal phase, will have the highest angular resolution of any hard x-ray telescope to date, and comparable energy resolution to that of the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array. The high angular resolution afforded by focusing optics is essential for mitigating source confusion in crowded fields, for direct imaging of extended sources on fine spatial scales, and for efficient observing through greatly-increased sensitivity. As such, the primary astronomical targets are the Galactic Center, pulsar-powered synchrotron nebulae and diffusive shock accelerated sites in supernova remnants. To facilitate solar observations, the SuperHERO detectors have a high processing rate of ~10 kHz over the entire 80x80 pixel array, or over 5M photons per second over the detector area. The current SuperHERO configuration has a total on-axis effective area of 145 cm2 at 30 keV and a field of view of ~7 arcmin FWHM at 30 keV (simulated). The optics, developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, have significant flight heritage as similar mirrors have flown on balloon payloads, sounding rockets and a satellite mission. The detectors, developed at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), utilize the novel HEXITEC Application Specific Integrated Circuit. RAL has been working on these and similar detectors for over a decade for applications ranging from medical to defense. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, working with RAL and MSFC has been adapting these detectors for flight, with good progress. The telescope will reside on a carbon-composite frame that will integrate the Wallops Arc Second Pointer. This design will allow for Long Duration Balloon flights from Antarctica that can last up to 4 weeks

  9. Continuing data analysis of the AS/E grazing incidence X-ray telescope experiment on the OSO-4 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaiana, G.; Haggerty, R.; Kahler, S.; Krieger, A.; Landini, M.; Timothy, A.; Webb, D.

    1973-01-01

    The work to correct and extend the calculation of the theoretical solar X-ray spectrum produced during earlier OSO-4 data analysis is reported along with the work to formulate models of active regions, and compare these models with the experimental values. An atlas of solar X-ray photographs is included, and solar X-ray observations are correlated with the solar wind.

  10. Development of Four-Stage X-ray Telescope (FXT) for DIOS mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Ikuya; Sugita, Satoshi; Tawara, Yuzuru; Takizawa, Shunya; Babazaki, Yasunori; Nakamichi, Ren

    2013-09-01

    A Four-stage X-ray Telescope (FXT) has been developed as the best-fit optics for the Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor (DIOS) mission, a small satellite mission for mapping observations of the warm-hot intergalactic medium. The FXT mirrors are based on a conical approximation of the Wolter-I design, fabrication technique used in the Suzaku satellite. We developed processes for fabricating a large-diameter (>= 50 cm) foil mirror and made a new full size quadrant housing 60 cm in diameter with four-stage integrated alignment plates. We made optical measurement using one set of four-stage mirrors over than diameter of more than 50 cm.

  11. Development of Prototype Nickel Optic for the Constellation-X Hard X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaine, S.; Gorenstein, P.; Bruni, R.; Pareschi, G.; Citterio, O.; Ghigo, M.; Mazzoleni, F.; Spiga, D.; Basso, S.; Conti, G.; Ramsey, B.; Gubarev, M.; O'Dell, S.; Speegle, C.; Engelhaupt, D.; Freyberg, M.; Burkert, W.; Hartner, G.

    2005-12-01

    The Constellation-X mission planned for launch in 2015, will feature an array of Hard X-ray telescopes (HXT) whose bandwidth extends to \\ 70 keV. Several technologies are being investigated for fabrication of these optics, including multilayer Coated Electroformed-Nickel-Replicated (ENR) shells. We are building a prototype HXT mirror module using an ENR process to fabricate the in dividual shells.This prototype consists of 5 shells with diameters ranging from 150 mm to 280 mm with a length of 426 mm. This paper presents a progress update and focuses on accomplishments during this past year. In particular, we will present results from high energy full illumination tests, taken at the MPE Panter Test Facility. This work was supported in part by NASA Grant NNG05WC27G and CONX/NASA grant 44A-1046805.

  12. SWIFT X-RAY TELESCOPE MONITORING OF FERMI-LAT GAMMA-RAY SOURCES OF INTEREST

    SciTech Connect

    Stroh, Michael C.; Falcone, Abe D.

    2013-08-15

    We describe a long-term Swift monitoring program of Fermi gamma-ray sources, particularly the 23 gamma-ray ''sources of interest''.We present a systematic analysis of the Swift X-Ray Telescope light curves and hardness ratios of these sources, and we calculate excess variability. We present data for the time interval of 2004 December 22 through 2012 August 31. We describe the analysis methods used to produce these data products, and we discuss the availability of these data in an online repository, which continues to grow from more data on these sources and from a growing list of additional sources. This database should be of use to the broad astronomical community for long-term studies of the variability of these objects and for inclusion in multiwavelength studies.

  13. Advanced flow-polishing and surface metrology of the SO56 X Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The surface finishing of X ray grazing incidence optics is a most demanding area of optical processing, both in terms of metrology and application of optical finishing techniques. An existing optical mirror was processed using a new removal technique that uses a jet of finely dispersed and extremely small particles that impact a surface, which under the correct conditions, produces an ultrasmooth surface, especially on aspheric curvatures. The surfaces of the SO56 mirror are tapered conical shapes that have a continuously changing radius with the primary mirror having a parabolic shape and the secondary mirror a hyperbolic shape. An optical ray trace that was conducted of a telescope used the measured parameters from the existing substrates to set up the prescription for the optical layout. The optimization indicated a wavefront performance of 0.10 A at 0.633 micron.

  14. On-Orbit Performance and Calibration of the Soft X-Ray Telescope on Yohkoh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, Loren W.

    2016-02-01

    This paper documents details of the on-orbit performance, data problem solving, and calibration of the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) experiment on Yohkoh. This information is important to a full understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the SXT data set. The paper begins with summaries of SXT calibration issues and how they have been addressed, operational anomalies experienced during the mission, and a brief discussion of the SXT optical train. The following section on the accuracy of Yohkoh pointing determination provides information important for alignment of SXT images with each other and with other solar data. The remainder of the paper gives details of work by the experiment team to understand and ameliorate the many instrument anomalies and changes which impacted the scientific data.

  15. Calibrating Data from the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope and Associated Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobelski, Adam R.; Saar, Steven H.; Weber, Mark A.; McKenzie, David E.; Reeves, Katharine K.

    2014-07-01

    The X-Ray Telescope (XRT) onboard the Hinode satellite, launched 23 September 2006 by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), is a joint mission of Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom to study the solar corona. In particular, XRT was designed to study solar plasmas with temperatures between 1 and 10 MK with ≈ 1″ pixels (≈ 2″ resolution). Prior to analysis, the data product from this instrument must be properly calibrated and data values quantified to accurately assess the information contained within. We present here the standard methods of calibration for these data. The calibration was performed on an empirical basis that uses the least complicated correction that accurately describes the data while suppressing spurious features. By analyzing the uncertainties remaining in the data after calibration, we conclude that the procedure is successful, because the remaining uncertainty after calibration is dominated by photon noise. This calibration software is available in the SolarSoft software library.

  16. Automated Figuring and Polishing of Replication Mandrels for X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor); Content, David; Fleetwood, Charles; Wright, Geraldine; Arsenovic, Petar; Collela, David; Kolos, Linette

    2003-01-01

    In support of the Constellation X mission the Optics Branch at Goddard Space Flight Center is developing technology for precision figuring and polishing of mandrels used to produce replicated mirrors that will be used in X-Ray telescopes. Employing a specially built machine controlled in 2 axes by a computer, we are doing automated polishing/figuring of 15 cm long, 20 cm diameter cylindrical, conical and Wolter mandrels. A battery of tests allow us to fully characterize all important aspects of the mandrels, including surface figure and finish, mid-frequency errors, diameters and cone angle. Parts are currently being produced with surface roughnesses at the .5nm RMS level, and half-power diameter slope error less than 2 arcseconds.

  17. Development of a prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X hard x-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaine, Suzanne E.; Basso, Stefano; Bruni, Ricardo J.; Citterio, Oberto; Engelhaupt, Darell; Ghigo, Mauro; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Mazzoleni, Francesco; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Pareschi, Giovanni; Parodi, Giancarlo; Ramsey, Brian D.; Speegle, Chet O.

    2004-02-01

    The Constellation-X mission, planned for launch in 2013, will feature an array of hard-x-ray telescopes (HXT) with a total collecting area of greater than 1500 cm2 at 40 keV. Two technologies are currently being investigated for the optics of these telescopes including multilayer-coated Eletroformed-Nickel-Replicated (ENR) shells. The attraction of the ENR process is that the resulting full-shell optics are inherently stable and offer the prospect of better angular resolution which results in lower background and higher instrument sensitivity. The challenge for this process is to meet a relatively tight weight budget with a relatively dense material (ρnickel = 9 g/cm3.) To demonstrate the viability of the ENR process we are fabricating a prototype HXT mirror module to be tested against a competing segmented-glass-shell optic. The ENR prototype will consist of 5 shells of diameters from 150 mm to 280 mm with a length of 426 mm. To meet the stringent weight budget for Con-X, the shells will range in thickness from 100 microns to 150 microns. The innermost of these will be coated with Iridium, while the remainder will be coated with graded-dspaced W/Si multilayers. Mandrels for these shells are in the fabrication stage, the first test shells have been produced and are currently undergoing tests for figure and microroughness. A tentative date of June '04 has been set for the prototype X-ray testing at MSFC. Issues currently being addressed are the control of stresses in the multiplayer coating and ways of mitigating their effects on the figure of the necessarily thin shells. The fabrication, handling and mounting of these shells must be accomplished without inducing permanent figure distortions. A full status report on the prototype optic will be presented along with test results as available.

  18. Matching a curved focal plane with CCD's - Wide field imaging of glancing incidence X-ray telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nousek, J. A.; Garmire, G. P.; Ricker, G. R.; Bautz, M. W.; Levine, A. M.; Collins, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    The design of a wide field imaging camera suitable for use with a glancing incidence X-ray telescope is complicated by the sharply concave nature of the optimum focal surface of such a telescope. Such a camera made up of a mosaic of CCDs is being designed which is intended for flight aboard the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). The design rationale and tradeoffs are discussed, and the layout for the imaging CCD array is presented. The related issue of optimizing performance of transmission objective gratings is also discussed, and the array of CCD orientations suitable for this problem is presented.

  19. New active galactic nuclei among the INTEGRAL and SWIFT X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burenin, R. A.; Mescheryakov, A. V.; Revnivtsev, M. G.; Sazonov, S. Yu.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Pavlinsky, M. N.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    2008-06-01

    We present the results of our optical identifications of a set of X-ray sources from the INTEGRAL and SWIFT all-sky surveys. The optical data have been obtained with the 1.5-m Russian-Turkish Telescope (RTT-150). Nine X-ray sources have been identified with active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Two of them are located in the nearby spiral galaxies MCG-01-05-047 and NGC 973 seen almost edge-on. One source, IGR J16562-3301, is probably a BL Lac object (blazar). The remaining AGNs are observed as the starlike nuclei of spiral galaxies whose spectra exhibit broad emission lines. The relation between the hard X-ray (17-60 keV) luminosity and the [O III] 5007 line luminosity, log L x/ L [O III] ≈ 2.1, holds good for most of the AGNs detected in hard X rays. However, the luminosities of some AGNs deviate from this relation. The fraction of such objects can reach ˜20%. In particular, the [O III] line flux is lower for two nearby edge-on spiral galaxies. This can be explained by the effect of absorption in the galactic disks.

  20. Spectral and Temporal Behavior of Low Mass X-ray Binaries Observed by the Einstein SSS and MPC, and the Broad Band X-ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, D. J.; Swank, J. H.

    1992-12-01

    An extensive survey of 50 low mass X-ray binaries was carried out using the HEAO-2 Einstein Solid State Spectrometer data (0.5-4.5 keV) with the Monitor Proportional Counter data (1.2-20.0 keV) and the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) (0.5-12 keV). Spectra were selected on the basis of intensity and fit with a set of simple and complex spectral models. For all the subclasses, including Eddington-limited bulge sources, bursters, dippers, the soft spectrum black hole candidates, and a few transients in decline, the spectra could be fit acceptably with combinations of thermal bremsstrahlung and blackbody spectra or a Comptonized spectrum and a blackbody. The results rule out optically thick disk models for the bright Z sources and power law models for bursters. There is a progression of spectra as a function of X-ray luminosity for the bursters, Atoll and Z sources. Interpretation is discussed in terms of separate emission regions, one due to radial accretion onto a neutron star and the optically thick component that appears for higher luminosity due to a boundary layer or to high optical depth to scattering in the flow. A lower temperature blackbody required in some cases could be an expected contribution from the accretion disk. The soft spectrum sources are dominated by blackbody spectra, but for two, low effective area is a problem for the black hole interpretation. The strongest of previously reported low energy X-ray lines due to OVIII or Fe L transitions are confirmed. Similar line emission is seen for several other sources, in particular X0614+091. The photoionized gas in the inner part of an accretion disk corona can give Fe K lines from Fe XXV. BBXRT obtained upper limits for X0614+091 and M15 which are consistent with the coronal model.

  1. A recent strong X-ray flaring activity of 1ES 1959+650 with possibly less efficient stochastic acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapanadze, B.; Dorner, D.; Vercellone, S.; Romano, P.; Kapanadze, S.; Mdzinarishvili, T.

    2016-09-01

    We present an X-ray flaring activity of 1ES 1959+650 in 2015 August-2016 January, which was the most powerful and prolonged during the 10.75 yr period since the start of its monitoring with X-ray Telescope onboard Swift. A new highest historical 0.3-10 keV count rate was recorded three times that makes this object the third BL Lacertae source exceeding the level of 20 counts s-1. Along with the overall variability by a factor of 5.7, this epoch was characterized by fast X-ray flares by a factor of 2.0-3.1, accompanied with an extreme spectral variability. The source also shows a simultaneous flaring activity in the optical - UV and 0.3-100 GeV bands, although a fast γ-ray flare without significant optical - X-ray counterparts is also found. In contrast to the X-ray flares in the previous years, the stochastic acceleration seems be less important for the electrons responsible for producing X-ray emission during this flare that challenges the earlier suggestion that the electrons in the jets of TeV-detected BL Lacertae objects should undergo an efficient stochastic acceleration resulting in a lower X-ray spectral curvature.

  2. A recent strong X-ray flaring activity of 1ES 1959+650 with possibly less efficient stochastic acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapanadze, B.; Dorner, D.; Vercellone, S.; Romano, P.; Kapanadze, S.; Mdzinarishvili, T.

    2016-03-01

    We present an X-ray flaring activity of 1ES 1959+650 in 2015 August - 2016 January, which was the most powerful and prolonged during the 10.75 yr period since the start of its monitoring with X-ray Telescope onboard Swift. A new highest historical 0.3 - 10 keV count rate was recorded three times that makes this object the third BL Lacertae source exceeding the level of 20 cts s-1. Along with the overall variability by a factor of 5.7, this epoch was characterized by fast X-ray flares by a factor of 2.0 - 3.1, accompanied with an extreme spectral variability. The source also shows a simultaneous flaring activity in the optical - UV and 0.3 - 100 GeV bands, although a fast γ-ray flare without significant optical - X-ray counterparts is also found. In contrast to the X-ray flares in the previous years, the stochastic acceleration seems be less important for the electrons responsible for producing X-ray emission during this flare that challenges the earlier suggestion that the electrons in the jets of TeV-detected BL Lacertae objects should undergo an efficient stochastic acceleration resulting in a lower X-ray spectral curvature.

  3. The hard X-ray telescopes for MIRAX and protoMIRAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, J.; D'Amico, F.; Avila, M. C.; Rodrigues, B. H. G.; Grindlay, J. E.; Allen, B.; Hong, J.; Barthelmy, S.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2014-10-01

    The Monitor e Imageador de Raios X (MIRAX), under development at the National Institute for Space Research (INPE), Brazil, is a hard X-ray astronomy experiment that will be launched in low-Earth orbit (650 km altitude, 15° inclination) onboard the Lattes satellite mission in 2018. MIRAX consists essentially in two coded-aperture imaging telescopes equipped with cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) solid-state room-temperature semiconductor detectors. One telescope (T1) has been in development at INPE's Astrophysics Division and will fly in a high altitude (˜ 43 km) balloon in 2014 for testing and demonstration; this development is called the protoMIRAX project. T1 uses an array of 13× 13 CZT planar detectors with dimensions 10mm× 10mm× 2mm and a 1mm-thick lead coded mask with 20 mm openings in a 13× 13 Modified Uniformly Redundant Array (MURA) basic pattern. It will have a 20°× 20° fully-coded field-of-view (FCFOV) and an angular resolution of 1.5°. T1 will be mounted in a balloon gondola with an attitude control and pointing systems as well as a 500 kbps telemetry and command capability for real-time operation and data acquisition. The imaging CZT detectors for the second telescope (T2) are being developed at the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). The detector plane for T2 will have a 0.6 mm spatial resolution and an area of 250 cm^{2}. A 0.3mm-thick tungsten mask with a random pattern will provide images with 6' angular resolution with a 20°× 20° FWHM FOV. In this presentation we will describe the current status of MIRAX and present results of the protoMIRAX detector, telescope and balloon gondola developments.

  4. X-Ray Psoralen Activated Cancer Therapy (X-PACT).

    PubMed

    Oldham, Mark; Yoon, Paul; Fathi, Zak; Beyer, Wayne F; Adamson, Justus; Liu, Leihua; Alcorta, David; Xia, Wenle; Osada, Takuya; Liu, Congxiao; Yang, Xiao Y; Dodd, Rebecca D; Herndon, James E; Meng, Boyu; Kirsch, David G; Lyerly, H Kim; Dewhirst, Mark W; Fecci, Peter; Walder, Harold; Spector, Neil L

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates X-PACT (X-ray Psoralen Activated Cancer Therapy): a new approach for the treatment of solid cancer. X-PACT utilizes psoralen, a potent anti-cancer therapeutic with current application to proliferative disease and extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) of cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma. An immunogenic role for light-activated psoralen has been reported, contributing to long-term clinical responses. Psoralen therapies have to-date been limited to superficial or extracorporeal scenarios due to the requirement for psoralen activation by UVA light, which has limited penetration in tissue. X-PACT solves this challenge by activating psoralen with UV light emitted from novel non-tethered phosphors (co-incubated with psoralen) that absorb x-rays and re-radiate (phosphoresce) at UV wavelengths. The efficacy of X-PACT was evaluated in both in-vitro and in-vivo settings. In-vitro studies utilized breast (4T1), glioma (CT2A) and sarcoma (KP-B) cell lines. Cells were exposed to X-PACT treatments where the concentrations of drug (psoralen and phosphor) and radiation parameters (energy, dose, and dose rate) were varied. Efficacy was evaluated primarily using flow cell cytometry in combination with complimentary assays, and the in-vivo mouse study. In an in-vitro study, we show that X-PACT induces significant tumor cell apoptosis and cytotoxicity, unlike psoralen or phosphor alone (p<0.0001). We also show that apoptosis increases as doses of phosphor, psoralen, or radiation increase. Finally, in an in-vivo pilot study of BALBc mice with syngeneic 4T1 tumors, we show that the rate of tumor growth is slower with X-PACT than with saline or AMT + X-ray (p<0.0001). Overall these studies demonstrate a potential therapeutic effect for X-PACT, and provide a foundation and rationale for future studies. In summary, X-PACT represents a novel treatment approach in which well-tolerated low doses of x-ray radiation are delivered to a specific tumor site to generate UVA light which

  5. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  6. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  7. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  8. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  9. 38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shown by X-ray in active service. 3.370 Section 3.370 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Rating Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service. (a) Active disease. X-ray evidence alone may be adequate for grant of direct...

  10. Investigation of new material combinations for hard x-ray telescope designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, C. P.; Madsen, K. K.; Christensen, F. E.

    2006-06-01

    The materials chosen for depth graded multilayer designs for hard x-ray telescopes (10 keV to 80 keV) have until now been focusing on W/Si, W/SiC, Pt/C, and Pt/SiC. These material combinations have been chosen because of good stability over time and low interface roughness, However both W and Pt have absorption edges in the interesting energy range from 70 - 80 keV. If looking at the optical constants Cu and Ni would be good alternative high-Z candidates since the k-absorption edges in Cu and Ni is below 10 keV. We have investigated both of these materials as the reflecting layer in combination with SiC as the spacer layer and give the performance in terms of roughness, minimum obtainable d-spacing and stability over time as deposited in our planar magnetron sputtering facility. Likewise we review the same properties of WC/SiC coatings which we have previously developed and which allow for very small d-spacings. The combination of WC/SiC or the well established W/SiC with the above mentioned Cu and Ni-containing multilayers in the same stack allows for novel telescope designs operating up to and above 100 keV without the absorption edge structure.

  11. ATHENA: system design and implementation for a next generation x-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayre, M.; Bavdaz, M.; Ferreira, I.; Wille, E.; Lumb, D.; Linder, M.

    2015-08-01

    ATHENA, Europe's next generation x-ray telescope, has recently been selected for the 'L2' slot in ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme, with a mandate to address the 'Hot and Energetic Universe' Cosmic Vision science theme. The mission is currently in the Assessment/Definition Phase (A/B1), with a view to formal adoption after a successful System Requirements Review in 2019. This paper will describe the reference mission architecture and spacecraft design produced during Phase 0 by the ESA Concurrent Design Facility (CDF), in response to the technical requirements and programmatic boundary conditions. The main technical requirements and their mapping to resulting design choices will be presented, at both mission and spacecraft level. An overview of the spacecraft design down to subsystem level will then be presented (including the telescope and instruments), remarking on the critically-enabling technologies where appropriate. Finally, a programmatic overview will be given of the on-going Assessment Phase, and a snapshot of the prospects for securing the `as-proposed' mission within the cost envelope will be given.

  12. Analytical computation of stray light in nested mirror modules for x-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, Daniele

    2015-09-01

    Stray light in X-ray telescopes are a well-known issue. Unlike rays focused via a double reflection by usual grazing-incidence geometries such as the Wolter-I, stray rays coming from off-axis sources are reflected only once by either the parabolic or the hyperbolic segment. Although not focused, stray light may represent a major source of background and ghost images especially when observing a field of faint sources in the vicinities of another, more intense, just outside the field of view of the telescope. The stray light problem is faced by mounting a pre-collimator in front of the mirror module, in order to shade a part of the reflective surfaces that may give rise to singly-reflected rays. Studying the expected stray light impact, and consequently designing a pre-collimator, is a typical ray-tracing problem, usually time and computation consuming, especially if we consider that rays propagate throughout a densely nested structure. This in turn requires one to pay attention to all the possible obstructions, increasing the complexity of the simulation. In contrast, approaching the problems of stray light calculation from an analytical viewpoint largely simplifies the problem, and may also ease the task of designing an effective pre-collimator. In this work we expose an analytical formalism that can be used to compute the stray light in a nested optical module in a fast and effective way, accounting for obstruction effects.

  13. INTEGRAL finds renewed X-ray activity of the Neutron star X-ray transient SAX J1750.8-2900

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Fernandez, Celia; Chenevez, Jerome; Kuulkers, Erik; Bazzano, Angela; Beckmann, Volker; Bird, Tony; Bodaghee, Arash; Del Santo, Melania; Domingo, Albert; Jonker, Peter; Kretschmar, Peter; Markwardt, Craig; Paizis, Ada; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wijnands, Rudy

    2015-09-01

    INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring observations (ATel #438) on UT 13 September 2015 18:50-22:32 reveal renewed X-ray activity from the low-mass X-ray binary transient and Type I X-ray burster SAX J1750.8-2900 (IAU Circ. #6597). The last outburst from this source was reported in 2011 (ATels #3170, 3181).

  14. APD-based X-ray imaging telescope using fresnel zone plates for extremely high Spatial Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squillante, Michael R.; Myers, Richard A.; Woodring, Mitchell; Christian, James F.; Robertson, Frank; Farrell, Richard; Kogan, Alexander I.; Tiernan, Timothy C.; Entine, Gerald

    2005-09-01

    A method for constructing an x-ray telescope with exceedingly hgh spatial resolution is to use a pair of coaxial, Fresnel zone plates aligned with an imaging x-ray detector. This combination allows the high sensitivity imaging of x-ray and gamma-ray sources ranging in energy from 1 keV to several hundred keV over a field of view of several degrees with spatial resolution of a fraction of an arc minute. We have implemented a version of such a telescope using several relatively new technologies. These include specialized techniques for constructing Fresnel zone plates from thin sheets of tungsten, a 64-element, avalanche photodiode (APD) array coupled to a matching, segmented, CsI(T1) scintillator, a new ASIC which provides 16-channels of low noise amplification, and image processing software that provides the user not only with localized intensity information, but also with localized spectral information.

  15. Large scale telescopes for high resolution X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy. [using widely separated satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Lin, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    This paper shows that angular-resolution, energy-range, and structural constraints on image-modulated X-ray telescopes are not fundamental and that the limits on angular resolution can be overcome by constructing such telescopes on a very large spatial scale. It is proposed that widely separated satellites be used for the modulating mask and detector array. Implementation of this concept is discussed in terms of a simple system consisting of a pinhole camera (i.e., a hole in an opaque mask on one subsatellite and a detector array on another). Advantages and problems of such systems are briefly discussed, and a solar X-ray telescope intended for deployment from a Shuttle orbiter is described. It is noted that such large-scale telescopes can be constructed to image gamma rays and even energetic neutrons as well.

  16. High resolution large area modular array of reflectors /LAMAR/ Wolter type I X-ray telescope for Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catura, R. C.; Acton, L. W.; Brown, W. A.; Gilbreth, C. W.; Springer, L. A.; Vieira, J. R.; Culhane, J. L.; Mason, I. W.; Siegmund, O.; Patrick, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    The Spacelab Wolter type I X-ray telescope, which is intended for both astronomical observations and the functional verification of the future Large Area Modular Array of Reflectors (LAMAR) concept, comprises five mirrors and is designed to have a blur circle radius of 20 arcsec, with effective areas of (1) 400 sq cm at 0.25 keV, (2) 200 sq cm in the 0.5-2.0 keV range, and (3) 50 sq cm between 2 and 5 keV. A rotary interchange mechanism allows either of two imaging proportional counters to be placed at the telescope focus. The telescope's primary objective is the observational study of galactic and extragalactic X-ray sources, extending the work of the Einstein Observatory to fainter sources and higher energies. Secondarily, the costs and performance to be expected from the use of this telescope type in the LAMAR mission will be assessed.

  17. High resolution imaging with multilayer soft X-ray, EUV and FUV telescopes of modest aperture and cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; Timothy, J. G.; Hoover, Richard B.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Baker, Phillip C.; Powell, Forbes R.

    1991-01-01

    The development of multilayer reflective coatings now permits soft X-ray, EUV and FUV radiation to be efficiently imaged by conventional normal incidence optical configurations. Telescopes with quite modest apertures can, in principle, achieve images with resolutions which would require apertures of 1.25 meters or more at visible wavelengths. The progress is reviewed which has been made in developing compact telescopes for ultra-high resolution imaging of the sun at soft X-ray, EUV and FUV wavelengths, including laboratory test results and astronomical images obtained with rocket-borne multilayer telescopes. The factors are discussed which limit the resolution which has been achieved so far, and the problems which must be addressed to attain, and surpass the 0.1 arc-second level. The application of these technologies to the development of solar telescopes for future space missions is also described.

  18. Rapid X-Ray Variability of Active Galaxies. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennant, A. F., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei are luminous sources of X-rays. The thesis that the X-rays are generated within 10 gravitational radii from the central object is tested. A very sensitive search for rapid ( 1 day) X-ray variability from active galaxies was made.

  19. X-ray and optical performance of the flight filters for the JET-X telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Christian M.; Watson, D. J.; Wells, Alan A.; Kent, Barry J.; Barbera, Marco; Collura, Alfonso; Bavdaz, Marcos

    1997-10-01

    The optical filters on board the JET-X telescope comprise thin foils of aluminum coated Lexan. During ground calibration of the filters, narrow spectral regions of high UV leakage, with peak levels of up to a few percent, were observed in broad band optical measurements in the 1000 to 10,000 angstrom range. Furthermore, transmission values were typically up to two orders of magnitude higher than calculated for the aluminum thickness. Investigation showed that these effects were attributed to a combination of aluminum oxidation, which reduces the opacity, and the use of a double sided aluminum layer in the filter design which behaves as a Fabry-Perot interference filter. These effects were verified by a multi- layer model of the filter UV response. Recent redesign of the filters for the flight program eliminated the UV leakage by adopting a single aluminum layer configuration, thus eliminating interference effects, and increasing the thickness by 30% to compensate for oxidation levels. The integrated x- ray transmission below 1 keV was found to be only reduced by 3%. In parallel with the production of the new Lexan flight filters, a set of qualification model filters was produced by the Luxel Corporation in the USA. These filters use polyimide as a substrate material which has the advantage that it is optically opaque to wavelengths below 3000 angstroms, unlike Lexan which is transparent. These new filters were found to have superior mechanical strength, being able to survive extended qualification vibration without any visible degradation in performance, and had a higher cosmetic quality and attenuation levels. As a result, these filters have now been included in the JET-X flight program. We report on the optical tests results from both Lexan and polyimide filters along with high resolution x-ray transmission results carried out at the BESSY synchrotron facility in Germany. Results of the mapping of the filter edge structures, global transmission values and

  20. Monte Carlo-based multiphysics coupling analysis of x-ray pulsar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liansheng; Deng, Loulou; Mei, Zhiwu; Zuo, Fuchang; Zhou, Hao

    2015-10-01

    X-ray pulsar telescope (XPT) is a complex optical payload, which involves optical, mechanical, electrical and thermal disciplines. The multiphysics coupling analysis (MCA) plays an important role in improving the in-orbit performance. However, the conventional MCA methods encounter two serious problems in dealing with the XTP. One is that both the energy and reflectivity information of X-ray can't be taken into consideration, which always misunderstands the essence of XPT. Another is that the coupling data can't be transferred automatically among different disciplines, leading to computational inefficiency and high design cost. Therefore, a new MCA method for XPT is proposed based on the Monte Carlo method and total reflective theory. The main idea, procedures and operational steps of the proposed method are addressed in detail. Firstly, it takes both the energy and reflectivity information of X-ray into consideration simultaneously. And formulate the thermal-structural coupling equation and multiphysics coupling analysis model based on the finite element method. Then, the thermalstructural coupling analysis under different working conditions has been implemented. Secondly, the mirror deformations are obtained using construction geometry function. Meanwhile, the polynomial function is adopted to fit the deformed mirror and meanwhile evaluate the fitting error. Thirdly, the focusing performance analysis of XPT can be evaluated by the RMS. Finally, a Wolter-I XPT is taken as an example to verify the proposed MCA method. The simulation results show that the thermal-structural coupling deformation is bigger than others, the vary law of deformation effect on the focusing performance has been obtained. The focusing performances of thermal-structural, thermal, structural deformations have degraded 30.01%, 14.35% and 7.85% respectively. The RMS of dispersion spot are 2.9143mm, 2.2038mm and 2.1311mm. As a result, the validity of the proposed method is verified through

  1. Toward a Complete Metrological Solution for the Mirrors for the Constellation-X Spectroscopy X-ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehan, John; Owens, S.; Hadjimichael, T.; Hong, M.; Chan, K.-W.; Saha, T. T.; Reid, P.; Zhang, W. W.

    2007-01-01

    We present an overview update of the metrological approach to be employed for the segmented mirror fabrication for Constellation-X spectroscopy x-ray telescope. We compare results achieved to date with mission requirements. This is discussed in terms of inherent capability versus in-practice capability.

  2. X-ray diffraction of actively shortening muscle.

    PubMed

    Podolsky, R J; St Onge, H; Yu, L; Lymn, R W

    1976-03-01

    Low angle x-ray diffraction patterns were obtained from resting and activated frog sartorius muscles by means of a position-sensitive detector. Although the intensity ratio I10/I11 decreased many-fold upon activation, it was nearly the same during isometric and isotonic contraction. Thus, motion has a much smaller effect on the low order equatorial pattern than the transition from rest to activity. Analysis of the 10 and 11 reflections separately showed that I10 and I11 change reciprocally upon activation, and that they both increase by a small amount in the transition from isometric to isotonic contraction. If the intensity ratio can be taken as a measure of cross-bridge number, the results provide evidence that the drop in force in an actively shortening muscle is due primarily to the influence of motion on the configuration, rather than the number, of cross-bridges. PMID:1062793

  3. BEaTriX, expanded x-ray beam facility for testing modular elements of telescope optics: an update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelliciari, C.; Spiga, D.; Bonnini, E.; Buffagni, E.; Ferrari, C.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2015-09-01

    We present in this paper an update on the design of BEaTriX (Beam Expander Testing X-ray facility), an X-ray apparatus to be realized at INAF/OAB and that will generate an expanded, uniform and parallel beam of soft X-rays. BEaTriX will be used to perform the functional tests of X-ray focusing modules of large X-ray optics such as those for the ATHENA X-ray observatory, using the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) as a baseline technology, and Slumped Glass Optics (SGO) as a possible alternative. Performing the tests in X-rays provides the advantage of an in-situ, at-wavelength quality control of the optical modules produced in series by the industry, performing a selection of the modules with the best angular resolution, and, in the case of SPOs, there is also the interesting possibility to align the parabolic and the hyperbolic stacks directly under X-rays, to minimize the aberrations. However, a parallel beam with divergence below 2 arcsec is necessary in order to measure mirror elements that are expected to reach an angular resolution of about 4 arcsec, since the ATHENA requirement for the entire telescope is 5 arcsec. Such a low divergence over the typical aperture of modular optics would require an X-ray source to be located in a several kilometers long vacuum tube. In contrast, BEaTriX will be compact enough (5 m x 14 m) to be housed in a small laboratory, will produce an expanded X-ray beam 60 mm x 200 mm broad, characterized by a very low divergence (1.5 arcsec HEW), strong polarization, high uniformity, and X-ray energy selectable between 1.5 keV and 4.5 keV. In this work we describe the BEaTriX layout and show a performance simulation for the X-ray energy of 4.5 keV.

  4. THE SWIFT BURST ALERT TELESCOPE DETECTED SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES: X-RAY BROADBAND PROPERTIES AND WARM ABSORBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, Lisa M.; Veilleux, Sylvain; McKernan, Barry; Kallman, T. R.

    2012-02-01

    We present results from an analysis of the broadband, 0.3-195 keV, X-ray spectra of 48 Seyfert 1-1.5 sources detected in the very hard X-rays with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). This sample is selected in an all-sky survey conducted in the 14-195 keV band. Therefore, our sources are largely unbiased toward both obscuration and host galaxy properties. Our detailed and uniform model fits to Suzaku/BAT and XMM-Newton/BAT spectra include the neutral absorption, direct power-law, reflected emission, soft excess, warm absorption, and narrow Fe I K{alpha} emission properties for the entire sample. We significantly detect O VII and O VIII edges in 52% of our sample. The strength of these detections is strongly correlated with the neutral column density measured in the spectrum. Among the strongest detections, X-ray grating and UV observations, where available, indicate outflowing material. The ionized column densities of sources with O VII and O VIII detections are clustered in a narrow range with N{sub warm} {approx} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}, while sources without strong detections have column densities of ionized gas an order of magnitude lower. Therefore, we note that sources without strong detections likely have warm ionized outflows present but at low column densities that are not easily probed with current X-ray observations. Sources with strong complex absorption have a strong soft excess, which may or may not be due to difficulties in modeling the complex spectra of these sources. Still, the detection of a flat {Gamma} {approx} 1 and a strong soft excess may allow us to infer the presence of strong absorption in low signal-to-noise active galactic nucleus spectra. Additionally, we include a useful correction from the Swift BAT luminosity to bolometric luminosity, based on a comparison of our spectral fitting results with published spectral energy distribution fits from 33 of our sources.

  5. Technology requirements for a square meter, arcsecond resolution telescope for x-rays: the SMART-X mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William R.; Freeman, Mark D.; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul B.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey A.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Jackson, Thomas N.; Ramirez, J. Israel; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.

    2014-09-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first super-massive black holes. We have envisioned a mission, the Square Meter Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-rays (SMART-X), based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, incorporating mirrors with the required small ratio of mass to collecting area. We are pursuing technology which achieves sub-arcsecond resolution by on-orbit adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMART-X will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no requirements more stringent than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  6. Technology Requirements for a Square Meter, Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-Rays: The SMART-X Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William R.; Freeman, Mark D.; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul B.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey A.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Jackson, Thomas N.; Ramirez, J. Israel; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; ODell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first super-massive black holes. We have envisioned a mission, the Square Meter Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-rays (SMART-X), based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, incorporating mirrors with the required small ratio of mass to collecting area. We are pursuing technology which achieves sub-arcsecond resolution by on-orbit adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMART-X will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no requirements more stringent than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  7. The Relationship Between Solar Coronal X-Ray Brightness and Active Region Magnetic Fields: A Study Using High-Resolution Hinode Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Soumitra; Nandy, Dibyendu; Ravindra, B.

    2015-03-01

    By using high-resolution observations of nearly co-temporal and co-spatial Solar Optical Telescope spectropolarimeter and X-Ray Telescope coronal X-ray data onboard Hinode, we revisit the problematic relationship between global magnetic quantities and coronal X-ray brightness. Co-aligned vector magnetogram and X-ray data were used for this study. The total X-ray brightness over active regions is well correlated with integrated magnetic quantities such as the total unsigned magnetic flux, the total unsigned vertical current, and the area-integrated square of the vertical and horizontal magnetic fields. On accounting for the inter-dependence of the magnetic quantities, we inferred that the total magnetic flux is the primary determinant of the observed integrated X-ray brightness. Our observations indicate that a stronger coronal X-ray flux is not related to a higher non-potentiality of active-region magnetic fields. The data even suggest a slightly negative correlation between X-ray brightness and a proxy of active-region non-potentiality. Although there are small numerical differences in the established correlations, the main conclusions are qualitatively consistent over two different X-ray filters, the Al-poly and Ti-poly filters, which confirms the strength of our conclusions and validate and extend earlier studies that used low-resolution data. We discuss the implications of our results and the constraints they set on theories of solar coronal heating.

  8. SPECTRAL SURVEY OF X-RAY BRIGHT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM THE ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, Elizabeth; Markowitz, Alex; Rothschild, Richard

    2011-03-15

    Using long-term monitoring data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), we have selected 23 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with sufficient brightness and overall observation time to derive broadband X-ray spectra from 3 to {approx}>100 keV. Our sample includes mainly radio-quiet Seyferts, as well as seven radio-loud sources. Given the longevity of the RXTE mission, the greater part of our data is spread out over more than a decade, providing truly long-term average spectra and eliminating inconsistencies arising from variability. We present long-term average values of absorption, Fe line parameters, Compton reflection strengths, and photon indices, as well as fluxes and luminosities for the hard and very hard energy bands, 2-10 keV and 20-100 keV, respectively. We find tentative evidence for high-energy rollovers in three of our objects. We improve upon previous surveys of the very hard X-ray energy band in terms of accuracy and sensitivity, particularly with respect to confirming and quantifying the Compton reflection component. This survey is meant to provide a baseline for future analysis with respect to the long-term averages for these sources and to cement the legacy of RXTE, and especially its High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment, as a contributor to AGN spectral science.

  9. Spectral and temporal behavior of low mass X ray binaries observed with the Einstein SSS and MPC, and the Broad Band X Ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Damian Joseph

    An extensive survey of 50 low mass X-ray binaries was carried out using the HEAO-2 Einstein Solid State Spectrometer data (0.5-4.5 keV) with the Monitor Proportional Counter data (1.2-20.0 keV). The SSS provided 160 eV resolution below 4.5 keV with about 200 sq cm of area, 100 times that of grating instruments on Einstein and EXOSAT. Additional observations were obtained with the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (0.5-12 keV). Although LMXRB are some of the most luminous X-ray sources and include one of the first X-ray sources discovered, the nature of their emission regions has remained uncertain. Spectra were selected on the basis of intensity and fit with a set of simple and complex spectral models. For all the subclasses, including Eddington-limited bulge sources, bursters, dippers, the soft spectrum black hole candidates, and a few transients in decline, the spectra could be fit acceptably with combinations of thermal bremsstrahlung and blackbody spectra or a Comptonized spectrum and a blackbody. The results rule out optically thick disk models for the bright Z sources and power law models for bursters. The results suggest a progression of spectra as a function of X-ray luminosity for the bursters, Atoll, and Z sources, in which there are separate emission regions, one optically thin to scattering. The optically thick component that appears for higher luminosity may be due to a boundary layer or to high optical depth to scattering in the flow. A lower temperature blackbody indicated in some cases could be an expected contribution from the accretion disk. The soft spectrum sources are dominated by blackbody spectra, but for two, low effective area of emission is a problem for the black hole interpretation. There did not appear to be any clear selection between models for the sources with high binary orbit inclinations. Column densities for absorption by cold gas were determined simultaneously with the fits. They give distance estimates for the galactic bulge sources

  10. Mechanical and Thermal Analysis of the Spectroscopy X-ray Telescopes for the Constellation-X Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Bolognese, Jeffrey; Saha, Timo; Sturm, James; Zhang, William

    2007-01-01

    Area and mass requirements for the Constellation-X Spectroscopy X-Ray Telescopes restrict the thickness of the mirror segment to below a mm. Requirement of angular resolution of 15" over the soft x-ray band implies that allowable optic deformation is sub-micrometer for these thin segments. These requirements place stringent constraint on the mounting, alignment and affixing of these mirror segments in both the metrology and integration processes. We present analyses and optimization of the Constellation-X mirrors under relevant mechanical and thermal environments.

  11. ISS-Lobster: A Proposed Wide-Field X-Ray Telescope on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The Lobster wide-field imaging telescope combines simultaneous high FOV, high sensitivity and good position resolution. These characteristics can open the field of X-Ray time domain astronomy, which will study many interesting transient sources, including tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, and high redshift gamma-ray bursts. Also important will be its use for the X-ray follow-up of gravitational wave detections. I will describe our present effort to propose the Lobster concept for deployment on the International Space Station through a NASA Mission of Opportunity this fall.

  12. The demonstration model of four-stage x-ray telescope for DIOS mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawara, Y.; Sakurai, I.; Furuzawa, A.; Ogasaka, Y.; Tamura, K.; Shibata, R.; Miyazawa, T.; Fukaya, Y.; Masuda, T.; Torii, T.; Sakashita, M.

    2006-06-01

    To search for warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM), a small satellite mission DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyer ) is planned and a specially designed four-stage X-ray telescope (FXT) has been developed as the best fit optics to have a wide field of view and a large effective area. Based on the previous works such as the design of optics and replica foil mirror fabrication, we made the demonstration model of the FXT, which has a set of four-stage mirror supported by alignment plates to reduce alignment errors between different stages. On the selection of mirror surface metrial, we tried to increase the reflectivity of gold or platinum replica mirror at low energies. We are also trying to make Ni replica mandrel having the shape of four different cone angles for developing a full or partial shell of four-stage mirror formed in a same substrate. We describe the expected performance and alignment procedure of the demonstration model, the present status of the selection of mirror surface material and the development of Ni mandrel.

  13. High-precision figure correction of x-ray telescope optics using ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalifoux, Brandon; Sung, Edward; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2013-09-01

    Achieving both high resolution and large collection area in the next generation of x-ray telescopes requires highly accurate shaping of thin mirrors, which is not achievable with current technology. Ion implantation offers a promising method of modifying the shape of mirrors by imparting internal stresses in a substrate, which are a function of the ion species and dose. This technique has the potential for highly deterministic substrate shape correction using a rapid, low cost process. Wafers of silicon and glass (D-263 and BK-7) have been implanted with Si+ ions at 150 keV, and the changes in shape have been measured using a Shack-Hartmann metrology system. We show that a uniform dose over the surface repeatably changes the spherical curvature of the substrates, and we show correction of spherical curvature in wafers. Modeling based on experiments with spherical curvature correction shows that ion implantation could be used to eliminate higher-order shape errors, such as astigmatism and coma, by using a spatially-varying implant dose. We will report on progress in modelling and experimental tests to eliminate higher-order shape errors. In addition, the results of experiments to determine the thermal and temporal stability of implanted substrates will be reported.

  14. Vibration properties of mirror foils for hard x-ray telescope onboard satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Takahiro; Kosaka, Tatsuro; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Ogi, Keiji; Ishida, Manabu; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Miyazawa, Takuya; Yamane, Nobuyuki; Kato, Hiroyoshi; Kunieda, Hideyo

    2012-09-01

    ASTRO-H is a next version of Japanese X=ray astronomy satellite for lunch in 2014. The hard X-rray telescope (HXT) on board the satellite has a cylindrical mirror housing which contains reflection circular mirror foils. In the present paper, vibration properties of the mirror foils installed in the HXT on-board a satellite were investigated. Vibration tests and FEM analysis of mirror foils installed in the part model of HXT were conducted. From the experimental results, it appeared that the mirror had resonant frequenxcies at 64, 73 and 118Hz. The modal shapes of 64 and 73Hz peaks shhoed that the maximum amplitude appeared at edges of the foil. On the other hand, vibration amplitude became maximum at the center in the modal shape of 118 Hz peak. In addition, it appeared that the first peak of the edge mode decreased with increasing acceleration while the second peak had weak dependency on acceleration. These vibration behaviours are thought to be governed degree of constraint of the connections between the foil and alignment bars.

  15. Simulating correction of adjustable optics for an x-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Reid, Paul B.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.

    2012-10-01

    The next generation of large X-ray telescopes with sub-arcsecond resolution will require very thin, highly nested grazing incidence optics. To correct the low order figure errors resulting from initial manufacture, the mounting process, and the effects of going from 1 g during ground alignment to zero g on-orbit, we plan to adjust the shapes via piezoelectric "cells" deposited on the backs of the reflecting surfaces. This presentation investigates how well the corrections might be made. We take a benchmark conical glass element, 410×205 mm, with a 20×20 array of piezoelectric cells 19×9 mm in size. We use finite element analysis to calculate the influence function of each cell. We then simulate the correction via pseudo matrix inversion to calculate the stress to be applied by each cell, considering distortion due to gravity as calculated by finite element analysis, and by putative low order manufacturing distortions described by Legendre polynomials. We describe our algorithm and its performance, and the implications for the sensitivity of the resulting slope errors to the optimization strategy.

  16. Research with Large Area Imaging X-Ray Telescope Sounding Rocket Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, Paul

    1999-01-01

    We are engaged in a program to develop focussing hard X-ray telescopes in a double conical or Wolter 1 geometry that function up to 100 keV by employing small graze angles and multilayer coatings. Directly polished substrates are not an option because they are too thick to be nested efficiently. The only alternative is to fabricate the very thin substrates by replication. Our objective is the production of integral cylindrical substrates because they should result in better angular resolution than segmented foil geometries. In addition, integral cylinders would be more resistant to possible stress from deep multilayer coatings than segmented ones. Both electroforming of nickel (method of SkX, JET-X, and XMM) and epoxy replication are under consideration. Both processes can utilize the same types of mandrels and separation agents- While electroforming can produce substrates that are thin, the high density of the nickel may result in high weight optics for some missions. For convenience, experimentation with replication and coating is being carried out initially on flats. Our replication studies include trials with gold and carbon separation agents. This paper reports on our efforts with epoxy replicated optics.

  17. The point spread function of the soft X-ray telescope aboard Yohkoh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, Petrus C.; Acton, Loren W.; Lemen, James R.

    1995-01-01

    The point spread function of the SXT telescope aboard Yohkoh has been measured in flight configuration in three different X-ray lines at White Sands Missile Range. We have fitted these data with an elliptical generalization of the Moffat function. Our fitting method consists of chi squared minimization in Fourier space, especially designed for matching of sharply peaked functions. We find excellent fits with a reduced chi squared of order unity or less for single exposure point spread functions over most of the CCD. Near the edges of the CCD the fits are less accurate due to vignetting. From fitting results with summation of multiple exposures we find a systematic error in the fitting function of the order of 3% near the peak of the point spread function, which is close to the photon noise for typical SXT images in orbit. We find that the full width to half maximum and fitting parameters vary significantly with CCD location. However, we also find that point spread functions measured at the same location are consistent to one another within the limit determined by photon noise. A 'best' analytical fit to the PSF as function of position on the CCD is derived for use in SXT image enhancemnent routines. As an aside result we have found that SXT can determine the location of point sources to about a quarter of a 2.54 arc sec pixel.

  18. Constellation-X Spectroscopy X-Ray Telescope Requirements and Development Program: MSFC Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, S. L.; Jones, W. D.; Russell, J. K.; Ramsey, B. D.; Engelhaupt, D.; Cohen, L. M.; VanSpeybroeck, L. P.

    1999-01-01

    The Constellation-X Spectroscopy X-ray Telescope (SXT) will provide high-throughput, high-resolution spectroscopy of cosmic sources, from 0.25 keV to 10 keV. Key to this capability is the development of large (1.6 m diameter), lightweight optics for the SXT mirror assembly. Teams led by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and by Italy's Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (OAB) are currently developing competing mirror technologies for this planned mission. Each team is making significant research progress in developing mirror technologies which satisfy the SXT requirements for lightweight optics, consistent with a system-level optical performance of better than 15 arcsec half-power diameter. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), in collaboration with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), has focussed its efforts on full-shell replicated optics, of electroformed nickel alloys. Recent progress in identifying a surface treatment to effect low, controlled adhesion and, more significantly, in developing new high-strength nickel alloys make this a viable, low cost approach to satisfying the SXT requirements.

  19. Development of a Prototype Nickel Optic for the Constellation-X Hard-X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basso, S.; Bruni, R. J.; Citerio, O.; Engelhaupt, D.; Ghigo, M.; Gorenstien, P.; Mazzoleni, F.; ODell, S. L.; Pareschi, G.; Ramsey, B. D.

    2003-01-01

    The Constellation-X mission, planned for launch in 2011, will feature an array of hard-x ray telescopes with a total collecting area goal of 1500 square centimeters at 40 keV. Various technologies are currently being investigated for the optics of these telescopes including multilayer-coated Eletroformed-Nickel-Replicated (ENR) shells. The attraction of the ENR process is that the resulting full-shell optics are inherently stable and offer the promise of good angular resolution and enhanced instrument sensitivity. The challenge for this process is to meet a relatively tight weight budget with a relatively dense material (rho nickel = 9 grams per cubic centimeters.) To demonstrate the viability of the ENR process we are fabricating a prototype HXT mirror module to be tested against a competing segmented-glass-shell optic. The ENR prototype will consist of 5 shells of diameters from 150 mm to 280 mm and of 426 mm total length. To meet the stringent weight budget for Con-X, the shells will be only 150 micron thick. The innermost of these will be coated with Iridium, while the remainder will be coated with graded-density multilayers. Mandrels for these shells are currently under fabrication (Jan 03), with the first shells scheduled for production in February 03. A tentative date of late Summer has been set for prototype testing. Issues currently being addressed are the control of stresses in the multiplayer coating and ways of mitigating their effects on the figure of the necessarily thin shells. Also, the fabrication, handling and mounting of these shells without inducing permanent figure distortions. A full status report on the prototype optic will be presented along with test results as available.

  20. Development of the focal plane PNCCD camera system for the X-ray space telescope eROSITA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meidinger, Norbert; Andritschke, Robert; Ebermayer, Stefanie; Elbs, Johannes; Hälker, Olaf; Hartmann, Robert; Herrmann, Sven; Kimmel, Nils; Schächner, Gabriele; Schopper, Florian; Soltau, Heike; Strüder, Lothar; Weidenspointner, Georg

    2010-12-01

    A so-called PNCCD, a special type of CCD, was developed twenty years ago as focal plane detector for the XMM-Newton X-ray astronomy mission of the European Space Agency ESA. Based on this detector concept and taking into account the experience of almost ten years of operation in space, a new X-ray CCD type was designed by the ‘MPI semiconductor laboratory’ for an upcoming X-ray space telescope, called eROSITA (extended Roentgen survey with an imaging telescope array). This space telescope will be equipped with seven X-ray mirror systems of Wolter-I type and seven CCD cameras, placed in their foci. The instrumentation permits the exploration of the X-ray universe in the energy band from 0.3 up to 10 keV by spectroscopic measurements with a time resolution of 50 ms for a full image comprising 384×384 pixels. Main scientific goals are an all-sky survey and investigation of the mysterious ‘Dark Energy’. The eROSITA space telescope, which is developed under the responsibility of the ‘Max-Planck-Institute for extraterrestrial physics’, is a scientific payload on the new Russian satellite ‘Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma’ (SRG). The mission is already approved by the responsible Russian and German space agencies. After launch in 2012 the destination of the satellite is Lagrange point L2. The planned observational program takes about seven years. We describe the design of the eROSITA camera system and present important test results achieved recently with the eROSITA prototype PNCCD detector. This includes a comparison of the eROSITA detector with the XMM-Newton detector.

  1. Elemental abundances via X-ray observations of galaxy clusters and the InFOCmuS hard X-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Wayne H.

    2004-08-01

    The first part of this dissertation deals with the oxygen abundance of the Milky Way interstellar medium. Previous measurements had shown that oxygen in the ISM was depleted compared to its abundance in the sun. This dissertation presents new measurements of the ISM oxygen abundance taken in the X-ray band by observing the oxygen 0.6 keV photoionization K-edge in absorption towards 10 galaxy clusters. These measurements show that the ISM oxygen abundance is 0.9 solar, much greater than earlier depleted values. The oxygen abundance is found to be uniform across our 10 lines of sight, showing that it is not dependent on the depth of the hydrogen column. This implies that the galactic oxygen abundance does not depend on density, and that it is the same in dense clouds and in the more diffuse ISM. The next part of the dissertation measures elemental abundances in the galaxy clusters themselves. The abundances of the elements iron, silicon, sulfur, calcium, argon, and nickel are measured using the strong resonance K-shell emission lines in the X-ray band. Over 300 clusters from the ASCA archives are analyzed with a joint fitting procedure to improve the S/N ratio and provide the first average abundance results for clusters as a function of mass. The α elements silicon, sulfur, argon and calcium are not found to have similar abundances as expected from their supposed common origin. Also, no combination of SN Ia and SN II yields can account for the cluster abundance ratios, perhaps necessitating a contribution from a cosmologically early generation of massive population III stars. The last part of this dissertation details the development of the Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors on the InFOCμS hard X-ray telescope. InFOCμS is a balloon-borne imaging spectrometer that incorporates multi-layer coated grazing-incidence optics and CZT detectors. These detectors are well suited for hard X-ray astronomy because their large bandgap and high atomic number allow for

  2. A COMBINED LOW-RADIO FREQUENCY/X-RAY STUDY OF GALAXY GROUPS. I. GIANT METREWAVE RADIO TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS AT 235 MHz AND 610 MHz

    SciTech Connect

    Giacintucci, Simona; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Vrtilek, Jan; David, Laurence P.; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Gitti, Myriam; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Raychaudhury, Somak; Ponman, Trevor; Venturi, Tiziana; Athreya, Ramana M.; Clarke, Tracy E.; Murgia, Matteo; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.

    2011-05-10

    We present new Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations at 235 MHz and 610 MHz of 18 X-ray bright galaxy groups. These observations are part of an extended project, presented here and in future papers, which combines low-frequency radio and X-ray data to investigate the interaction between central active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and the intra-group medium (IGM). The radio images show a very diverse population of group-central radio sources, varying widely in size, power, morphology, and spectral index. Comparison of the radio images with Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray images shows that groups with significant substructure in the X-ray band and marginal radio emission at {approx}>1 GHz host low-frequency radio structures that correlate with substructures in IGM. Radio-filled X-ray cavities, the most evident form of AGN/IGM interaction in our sample, are found in half of the systems and are typically associated with small, low-, or mid-power double radio sources. Two systems, NGC5044 and NGC4636, possess multiple cavities, which are isotropically distributed around the group center, possibly due to group weather. In other systems the radio/X-ray correlations are less evident. However, the AGN/IGM interaction can manifest itself through the effects of the high-pressure medium on the morphology, spectral properties, and evolution of the radio-emitting plasma. In particular, the IGM can confine fading radio lobes in old/dying radio galaxies and prevent them from dissipating quickly. Evidence for radio emission produced by former outbursts that co-exist with current activity is found in six groups of the sample.

  3. Optics Requirements For The Generation-X X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, S. .; Elsner, R. F.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Zhang, W. W.; Content, D. A.; Petre, R.; Saha, T. T.; Reid, P. B.; Schwartz, D. A.; Brissenden, R. J.; Elvis, M.; Freeman, M.; Gaetz, T.; Gorenstein, P.; Jerius, D.; Juda, M.; Murray, S. S.; Podgorski, W. A.; Wolk, S. J.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.

    2008-01-01

    US, European, and Japanese space agencies each now operate successful X-ray missions -- NASA s Chandra, ESA s XMM-Newton, and JAXA s Suzaku observatories. Recently these agencies began a collaboration to develop the next major X-ray astrophysics facility -- the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) -- for launch around 2020. IXO will provide an order-of-magnitude increase in effective area, while maintaining good (but not sub-arcsecond) angular resolution. X-ray astronomy beyond IXO will require optics with even larger aperture areas and much better angular resolution. We are currently conducting a NASA strategic mission concept study to identify technology issues and to formulate a technology roadmap for a mission -- Generation-X (Gen-X) -- to provide these capabilities. Achieving large X-ray collecting areas in a space observatory requires extremely lightweight mirrors.

  4. The fabrication and characterisation of piezoelectric actuators for active x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dou; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Button, Tim W.; Meggs, Carl; Atkins, Carolyn; Doel, Peter; Brooks, David; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Michette, Alan; Pfauntsch, Slawka; Sahraei, Shahin; James, Ady; Dunare, Camelia; Stevenson, Tom; Parkes, William; Smith, Andrew; Wang, Hongchang

    2009-08-01

    Piezoelectric actuators are widely employed in adaptive optics to enable an actively controlled mirror surface and improve the optical resolution and sensitivity. Currently two new prototype adaptive X-ray optical systems are under development through the Smart X-ray Optics project in a UK based consortium. One proposed technology is micro-structured optical arrays (MOAs) which uses aligned micro-channels structures obtained by deep silicon etching using both dry and wet techniques and bonded piezoelectric actuators to produce a micro-focused X-ray source for biological applications. The other technology is large scale optics which uses a thin shell mirror segment with 20-40 bonded piezo-actuators for the next generation of X-ray telescopes with an aim to achieve a resolution greater than that currently available by Chandra (0.5"). The Functional Materials Group of Birmingham University has the capability of fabricating a wide range of piezo-actuators including, for example, unimorph, bimorph and active fibre composites (AFC) by using a viscous plastic processing technique. This offers flexibility in customising the shapes (from planar to 3-D helix) and feature sizes (>20 μm) of the actuators, as well as achieving good piezoelectric properties. PZT unimorph actuators are being developed in this programme according to the design and implementation of the proposed mirror and array structures. Precise controls on the dimension, thickness, surface finishing and the curvature have been achieved for delivering satisfactory actuators. Results are presented regarding the fabrication and characterisation of such piezo-actuators, as well as the progress on the large optic and MOAs prototypes employing the piezo-actuators.

  5. X-ray color analysis of the spectra of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Netzer, Hagai; Turner, T. J.; George, Ian M.

    1994-01-01

    The identification and detection of X-ray absorption and emission features depends on the resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the observation, the understanding of the instrument response, and the Galactic line-of-sight absorption. Since many of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) data sets are limited in their S/N and full modeling of the physical conditions is rather complicated, we suggest a new analysis method based on 'X-ray colors.' The two sets of X-ray colors, defined for low (ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC)) and medium (Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT)) and ASCA Solid-State Imaging Spectrometers (SIS) resolution experiments, are used to separate regions of different physical conditions in a two-dimensional color-color plane. They are similar but superior to previous methods using the X-ray 'hardness ratio' in being able to reveal more of the physical properties of the source. We illustrate the use of such diagrams by studying a number of AGNs suspected of showing absorption features. A sample of 14 AGNs observed by the ROSAT PSPC is presented which includes several objects with suspected 'warm absorbers' along the line-of-sight to the nucleus, several others exhibiting intrinsic continuum variations, and a number of control objects thought to be featureless. Our new observations show, for the first time, the color variation as a function of time for three of the Seyfert 1 sources: NGC 4051, Mrk 335, and Mrk 766. The variations suggest that in two sources we are witnessing real changes in continuum shape, while one (NGC 4051) is consistent with having a warm absorber. Four of the objects observed by BBXRT are reanalyzed using our X-ray colors. Out of these, we discuss in detail the case of NGC 4151 and show that the color-color analysis agrees very well with previous, detailed spectral fitting methods. In particular, we confirm that the observed BBXRT observation of this source is not consistent with the warm absorber

  6. Mathematical Formalism for Designing Wide-Field X-Ray Telescopes: Mirror Nodal Positions and Detector Tilts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; O'Dell, S. L.; Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    We provide a mathematical formalism for optimizing the mirror nodal positions along the optical axis and the tilt of a commonly employed detector configuration at the focus of a x-ray telescope consisting of nested mirror shells with known mirror surface prescriptions. We adopt the spatial resolution averaged over the field-of-view as the figure of merit M. A more complete description appears in our paper in these proceedings.

  7. A normal incidence, high resolution X-ray telescope for solar coronal observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.

    1985-01-01

    The following major activities were advanced or completed: complete design of the entire telescope assembly and fabrication of all front-end components; specification of all rocket skin sections including bulkheads, feedthroughs and access door; fabrication, curing, and delivery of the large graphite-epoxy telescope tube; engineering analysis of the primary mirror vibration test was completed and a decision made to redesign the mirror attachment to a kinematic three-point mount; detail design of the camera control, payload and housekeeping electronics; and multilayer mirror flats with 2d spacings of 50 A and 60 A.

  8. Revealing a detailed performance of the soft x-ray telescopes of the ASTRO-H mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Iizuka, R.; Hayashi, T.; Maeda, Y.; Ishida, M.; Tomikawa, K.; Kikuchi, N.; Okajima, T.; Soong, Y.; Serlemitsos, P.; Mori, H.; Izumiya, T.; Minami, S.

    2014-07-01

    The international X-ray observatory, ASTRO-H is currently planed as launched in 2015. The ASTRO-H mission covers a wide energy range from a few hundreds eV to 600 keV. The two Soft X-ray Telescopes (SXT- 1 and SXT-2) play a role to image the soft X-ray sky up to ~12 keV in that range. Each of them focuses an image on the focal plane detectors of the CCD camera (SXI) and the calorimeter (SXS-XCS), respectively. In this paper, we present spot scan measurements of the two SXTs. The spot scan fully illuminates the telescope by mapping with the 8 mm by 8 mm beam and creates the "maps" of the half power diameter (HPD) and the focal location of the focused image. We found variations of performance at local area of the telescope. Each of the spot images has different focal-location and different HPD. Moreover, we found that the map of the HPD is very similar from quadrant to quadrant, but the map of the focal location is different from quadrant to quadrant, from radius to radius, and from azimuthal angle to angle.

  9. GSFC Contributions to the NATO X-ray Astronomy Institute, Erice, July 1979. [X-ray spectra of supernova remants, galactic X-ray sources, active galactic nuclei, and clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of X-ray astronomical spectroscopy in general is presented and results obtained by HEAO 1 and 2 as well as earlier spacecraft are examined. Particular emphasis is given to the spectra of supernova remnants; galactic binary X-ray sources, cataclysmic variables, bulges, pulsars, and stars; the active nuclei of Seyfert 1 galaxy, BL Lac, and quasars; the diffuse X-ray background; and galactic clusters.

  10. SMART-X: Square Meter, Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikhlinin, Alexey; SMART-X Collaboration

    2013-04-01

    SMART-X is a concept for a next-generation X-ray observatory with large-area, 0.5" angular resolution grazing incidence adjustable X-ray mirrors, high-throughput critical angle transmission gratings, and X-ray microcalorimeter and CMOS-based imager in the focal plane. High angular resolution is enabled by new technology based on controlling the shape of mirror segments using thin film piezo actuators deposited on the back surface. Science applications include observations of growth of supermassive black holes since redshifts of ~10, ultra-deep surveys over 10's of square degrees, galaxy assembly at z=2-3, as well as new opportunities in the high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy and time domains. We also review the progress in technology development, tests, and mission design over the past year.

  11. The square meter arcsecond resolution x-ray telescope: SMART-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Forman, William R.; Freeman, Mark D.; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Derek; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan

    2012-10-01

    We describe an X-ray Observatory mission with 0.5" angular resolution, comparable to the Chandra X-ray Observatory, but with 30 times more effective collecting area. The concept is based on developing the new technology of adjustable X-ray optics for ultra thin (0.4 mm), highly nested grazing incidence X-ray mirrors. Simulations to date indicate that the corrections for manufacturing and mounting can be determined on the ground and the effects of gravity release can be calculated to sufficient accuracy, so that all adjustments are applied only once on-orbit, without the need of any on-orbit determination of the required corrections. The mission concept is based on the Chandra Observatory, and takes advantage of the technology studies which have taken place over the past fifteen years developing large area, light weight mirrors.

  12. Study on the effect of contamination on the performance of X-ray telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, W. R.; Reidy, W. P.

    1973-01-01

    Modifications were made to the X-ray reflectometer located at the Space Sciences Laboratory, Marshall Space Flight Center. One was an automatic drive for the Large Micrometer Head. This system, interfaced with the Hewlett Packard Computer System, is used to record data and provides the X-ray reflectometer with an automated data-taking capability. Using this system, a complete scatter curve can be obtained automatically. Previously, it was necessary to manually reset the system after recording for each data point in the scatter curve. The second modification provided an externally controlled electrical drive to move the microfocus X-ray source along its axis. With this modification, one can translate the X-ray source while it is operating to locate the position providing maximum count rate.

  13. Simulations of X-Ray Telescopes for eROSITA and IXO

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, C.; Wilms, J.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Martin, M.; Kendziorra, E.; Muehlegger, M.; Brunner, H.; Fuermetz, M.; Predehl, P.; Barret, D.

    2010-07-15

    We report on the development of a generic X-ray instrument simulator to be used in simulations of future X-ray missions. Based on a Monte Carlo approach the code generates photon events for sources in an X-ray source catalogue such as the ROSAT all sky survey or the XMM-Newton slew surveys and then models the imaging and detection process based on the available calibration files (e.g., point spread functions for the imaging). The output of the program are event lists, which can be analysed using standard software such as xselect. Due to its modular concept the simulation software can be easily adapted to different concepts of imaging detectors.As examples for the potential use of the simulation we present our studies for eROSITA and show results of simulations of the detector performance for the High Time Resolution Spectrometer and the Wide Field Imager on the International X-ray Observatory.

  14. Simulations of X-Ray Telescopes for eROSITA and IXO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, C.; Martin, M.; Wilms, J.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Mühlegger, M.; Brunner, H.; Fürmetz, M.; Predehl, P.; Kendziorra, E.; Barret, D.

    2010-07-01

    We report on the development of a generic X-ray instrument simulator to be used in simulations of future X-ray missions. Based on a Monte Carlo approach the code generates photon events for sources in an X-ray source catalogue such as the ROSAT all sky survey or the XMM-Newton slew surveys and then models the imaging and detection process based on the available calibration files (e.g., point spread functions for the imaging). The output of the program are event lists, which can be analysed using standard software such as xselect. Due to its modular concept the simulation software can be easily adapted to different concepts of imaging detectors. As examples for the potential use of the simulation we present our studies for eROSITA and show results of simulations of the detector performance for the High Time Resolution Spectrometer and the Wide Field Imager on the International X-ray Observatory.

  15. Activation of oncogenes by radon progeny and x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The overall goal of this proposal is to study the carcinogenic effect of both high and low LET radiation at the molecular level, utilizing techniques developed in molecular biology, cancer cell biology and radiation biology. The underlying assumption is that malignant transformation of normal cells is a multistep process requiring two or more molecular events in the genomic DNA. We hypothesize that radiation may induce such events in one or more steps of the multistep process. We will use in vitro models of transformation that reproduce the stepwise progression of normal cells toward the transformed phenotype and ask whether radiation can provide the necessary activating function at discrete steps along this path. Our strategy involves transfecting into normal primary cells a variety of cloned oncogenes that are known to supply only some of the functions necessary for full transformation. These partially transformed'' cells will be the targets for irradiation by x-rays and alpha particles. The results will provide the basis for assessing the ability of ionizing radiation to activate oncogenic functions that complement'' the oncogene already present in the transfected cells and produce the fully transformed phenotype. Progress is described. 121 refs.

  16. The pre-collimator for the ASTRO-H x-ray telescopes: shielding from stray lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Hideyuki; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Ishida, Manabu; Sato, Takuro; Ichihara, Kou; Tomikawa, Kazuki; Kunieda, Hideyo; Tawara, Yuzuru; Sugita, Satoshi; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Torii, Tatsuharu; Tachibana, Kenji; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Okajima, Takashi; Mochida, Masayuki; Kawabata, Eiji

    2012-09-01

    We report recent progresses on the fabrication of pre-collimators (PCs). The PCs are designed to mitigate stray lights for X-ray telescopes to be onboard ASTRO-H. Each PC consists of cylindrical aluminum shells (blades) wiht varying radii of 60-225 mm, alignment frames to guilde the blade positions, and the bade housing body. The alignment frame and the housing are made of Aluminum 6061 and 7075 alloy, respectively. Heat-forming process is introduced to the production to stabilize the blade shape in orbit. Precise curvature of radius (tolerance of 1mm) and the linearity along with the direction of incident X-rays (P.V. < 20 microns) ensure that the blades do not obscure the telescope aperature. Each PC blade is placed precisely on top of the respective reflector mirror shell to reduce off-axis X-ray photons that leads to a "ghost" image within the detector field of view. In September 2010, the PC design--its height, thickness, and material of blades--was fixed and we produced the engineering model (EM) for the Soft X-ray Telescopes (SXTs). Since then, vibration tests for the EM PC unit are carried out twice, verifying that the PC has sufficient structural strength to withstand severe conditions during its launch. The EM PC is also installed onto the SXT mirror housing fabricated at the NASA's GSFC to validate our PC assembly method without any loss of thetelescope's effective aperture area. Since August 2011, we have been manusfacturing the PC blades for the flight models. We hereby show the manufacturing processes and also results of stray-light measurement without PCs for the SXT EM (obtained at ISAS 30m beamline facility) and the HXT FM (obtained at SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility).

  17. Broad band X-ray Telescope observations of the hot interstellar media in NGC 1399 and NGC 4472

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serlemitsos, P. J.; Loewenstein, M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Marshall, F. E.; Petre, R.

    1993-01-01

    We present our analysis and interpretation of spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy of the elliptical galaxies NGC 1399 and NGC 4472 obtained with the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope. The X-ray emission from both galaxies is dominated by thermal emission from a hot interstellar medium. The temperature of the plasma in NGC 1399 is 1.0-1.2 keV with a mild positive temperature gradient; for NGC 4472 the average temperature is 0.7-1.0 keV. The temperature of NGC 1399, when combined with other X-ray and optical data, implies that, if the gas is gravitationally confined, about 70 percent of the mass inside a radius of about 8.6 arcmin (38 kpc) is nonluminous. The derived metallicities and metallicity gradients are consistent with optically determined stellar metallicities, and allow surprisingly small upper limits to be placed on Type Ia supernovae rates in both galaxies. The implications of this for the gasdynamical evolution of the two galaxies are discussed. Limits on the oxygen-to-iron ratio and the line-of-sight column density are derived. There is a possible detection of cold gas in the line of sight to NGC 1399 that exceeds the Galactic value. Constraints on the contribution from a harder spectral component are placed, and likely candidates for the origin of this secondary component are evaluated.

  18. Superorbital periodic modulation in wind-accretion high-mass X-ray binaries from swift burst alert telescope observations

    SciTech Connect

    Corbet, Robin H. D.; Krimm, Hans A.

    2013-11-20

    We report the discovery using data from the Swift-Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) of superorbital modulation in the wind-accretion supergiant high-mass X-ray binaries 4U 1909+07 (= X 1908+075), IGR J16418–4532, and IGR J16479–4514. Together with already known superorbital periodicities in 2S 0114+650 and IGR J16493–4348, the systems exhibit a monotonic relationship between superorbital and orbital periods. These systems include both supergiant fast X-ray transients and classical supergiant systems, and have a range of inclination angles. This suggests an underlying physical mechanism which is connected to the orbital period. In addition to these sources with clear detections of superorbital periods, IGR J16393–4643 (= AX J16390.4–4642) is identified as a system that may have superorbital modulation due to the coincidence of low-amplitude peaks in power spectra derived from BAT, Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array, and International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory light curves. 1E 1145.1–6141 may also be worthy of further attention due to the amount of low-frequency modulation of its light curve. However, we find that the presence of superorbital modulation is not a universal feature of wind-accretion supergiant X-ray binaries.

  19. Superorbital Periodic Modulation in Wind-Accretion High-Mass X-Ray Binaries from Swift Burst Alert Telescope Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbet, Robin H. D.; Krimm, Hans A.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery using data from the Swift-Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) of superorbital modulation in the wind-accretion supergiant high-mass X-ray binaries 4U 1909+07 (= X 1908+075), IGR J16418-4532, and IGR J16479-4514. Together with already known superorbital periodicities in 2S 0114+650 and IGR J16493-4348, the systems exhibit a monotonic relationship between superorbital and orbital periods. These systems include both supergiant fast X-ray transients and classical supergiant systems, and have a range of inclination angles. This suggests an underlying physical mechanism which is connected to the orbital period. In addition to these sources with clear detections of superorbital periods, IGR J16393-4643 (= AX J16390.4-4642) is identified as a system that may have superorbital modulation due to the coincidence of low-amplitude peaks in power spectra derived from BAT, Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array, and International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory light curves. 1E 1145.1-6141 may also be worthy of further attention due to the amount of low-frequency modulation of its light curve. However, we find that the presence of superorbital modulation is not a universal feature of wind-accretion supergiant X-ray binaries.

  20. Mirrors for X-ray telescopes: Fresnel diffraction-based computation of point spread functions from metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimondi, L.; Spiga, D.

    2015-01-01

    Context. The imaging sharpness of an X-ray telescope is chiefly determined by the optical quality of its focusing optics, which in turn mostly depends on the shape accuracy and the surface finishing of the grazing-incidence X-ray mirrors that compose the optical modules. To ensure the imaging performance during the mirror manufacturing, a fundamental step is predicting the mirror point spread function (PSF) from the metrology of its surface. Traditionally, the PSF computation in X-rays is assumed to be different depending on whether the surface defects are classified as figure errors or roughness. This classical approach, however, requires setting a boundary between these two asymptotic regimes, which is not known a priori. Aims: The aim of this work is to overcome this limit by providing analytical formulae that are valid at any light wavelength, for computing the PSF of an X-ray mirror shell from the measured longitudinal profiles and the roughness power spectral density, without distinguishing spectral ranges with different treatments. Methods: The method we adopted is based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle for computing the diffracted intensity from measured or modeled profiles. In particular, we have simplified the computation of the surface integral to only one dimension, owing to the grazing incidence that reduces the influence of the azimuthal errors by orders of magnitude. The method can be extended to optical systems with an arbitrary number of reflections - in particular the Wolter-I, which is frequently used in X-ray astronomy - and can be used in both near- and far-field approximation. Finally, it accounts simultaneously for profile, roughness, and aperture diffraction. Results: We describe the formalism with which one can self-consistently compute the PSF of grazing-incidence mirrors, and we show some PSF simulations including the UV band, where the aperture diffraction dominates the PSF, and hard X-rays where the X-ray scattering has a major impact

  1. Very low luminosity active galaxies and the X-ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, M.; Soltan, A.; Keel, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    The properties of very low luminosity active galactic nuclei are not well studied, and, in particular, their possible contribution to the diffuse X-ray background is not known. In the present investigation, an X-ray luminosity function for the range from 10 to the 39th to 10 to the 42.5th ergs/s is constructed. The obtained X-ray luminosity function is integrated to estimate the contribution of these very low luminosity active galaxies to the diffuse X-ray background. The construction of the X-ray luminosity function is based on data obtained by Keel (1983) and some simple assumptions about optical and X-ray properties.

  2. CdZnTe Image Detectors for Hard-X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. M. Hubert; Cook, Walter R.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Lin, Jiao Y. Y.; Mao, Peter H.; Schindler, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    Arrays of CdZnTe photodetectors and associated electronic circuitry have been built and tested in a continuing effort to develop focal-plane image sensor systems for hard-x-ray telescopes. Each array contains 24 by 44 pixels at a pitch of 498 m. The detector designs are optimized to obtain low power demand with high spectral resolution in the photon- energy range of 5 to 100 keV. More precisely, each detector array is a hybrid of a CdZnTe photodetector array and an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) containing an array of amplifiers in the same pixel pattern as that of the detectors. The array is fabricated on a single crystal of CdZnTe having dimensions of 23.6 by 12.9 by 2 mm. The detector-array cathode is a monolithic platinum contact. On the anode plane, the contact metal is patterned into the aforementioned pixel array, surrounded by a guard ring that is 1 mm wide on three sides and is 0.1 mm wide on the fourth side so that two such detector arrays can be placed side-by-side to form a roughly square sensor area with minimal dead area between them. Figure 1 shows two anode patterns. One pattern features larger pixel anode contacts, with a 30-m gap between them. The other pattern features smaller pixel anode contacts plus a contact for a shaping electrode in the form of a grid that separates all the pixels. In operation, the grid is held at a potential intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials to steer electric charges toward the anode in order to reduce the loss of charges in the inter-anode gaps. The CdZnTe photodetector array is mechanically and electrically connected to the ASIC (see Figure 2), either by use of indium bump bonds or by use of conductive epoxy bumps on the CdZnTe array joined to gold bumps on the ASIC. Hence, the output of each pixel detector is fed to its own amplifier chain.

  3. CdZnTe detector for hard x-ray and low energy gamma-ray focusing telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natalucci, L.; Alvarez, J. M.; Barriere, N.; Caroli, E.; Curado da Silva, R. M.; Del Sordo, S.; Di Cosimo, S.; Frutti, M.; Hernanz, M.; Lozano, M.; Quadrini, E.; Pellegrini, G.; Stephen, J. B.; Ubertini, P.; Uslenghi, M. C.; Zoglauer, A.

    2008-07-01

    The science drivers for a new generation soft gamma-ray mission are naturally focused on the detailed study of the acceleration mechanisms in a variety of cosmic sources. Through the development of high energy optics in the energy energy range 0.05-1 MeV it will be possible to achieve a sensitivity about two orders of magnitude better than the currently operating gamma-ray telescopes. This will open a window for deep studies of many classes of sources: from Galactic X-ray binaries to magnetars, from supernova remnants to Galaxy clusters, from AGNs (Seyfert, blazars, QSO) to the determination of the origin of the hard X-/gamma-ray cosmic background, from the study of antimatter to that of the dark matter. In order to achieve the needed performance, a detector with mm spatial resolution and very high peak efficiency is needed. The instrumental characteristics of this device could eventually allow to detect polarization in a number of objects including pulsars, GRBs and bright AGNs. In this work we focus on the characteristics of the focal plane detector, based on CZT or CdTe semiconductor sensors arranged in multiple planes and viewed by a side detector to enhance gamma-ray absorption in the Compton regime. We report the preliminary results of an optimization study based on simulations and laboratory tests, as prosecution of the former design studies of the GRI mission which constitute the heritage of this activity.

  4. A High-Pressure Gas-Scintillation-Proportional Counter for the Focus of a Hard-X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, R. A.; Ramsey, B. D.; Tse, C. L.

    1999-01-01

    We are developing a high-pressure Gas Scintillation Proportional Counter (GSPC) for the focus of a balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescope. The device has a total active diameter of 50 mm, of which the central 20 mm only is used, and is filled with xenon + 4% helium at a total pressure of 10 6 Pa giving a quantum efficiency of greater than 85% up to 60 keV. The detector entrance is sealed with a beryllium window, 3-mm thick, which provides useful transmission down to 6 keV, way below the atmospheric cut-off at balloon float altitudes. Scintillation light exits the detector via a UV transmitting window in its base and is registered by a Hamamatsu position-sensitive crossed-grid-readout photomultiplier tube. Initial testing is underway, quantifying light yield and energy resolution. Following that, the spatial resolution and absolute efficiency will be calibrated. Simulations show that a spatial resolution of better than 0.5 mm FWHM should be achievable up to 60 keV, and this is well matched to the angular resolution and plate scale of the mirror system. The energy resolution will be around 5% at 22 keV. Full details of the instrument design and its performance will be presented. A first flight is scheduled for the Fall of 99, on a stratospheric balloon to be launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico.

  5. Experimental study and analytical model of deformation of magnetostrictive films as applied to mirrors for x-ray space telescopes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Knapp, Peter; Vaynman, S; Graham, M E; Cao, Jian; Ulmer, M P

    2014-09-20

    The desire for continuously gaining new knowledge in astronomy has pushed the frontier of engineering methods to deliver lighter, thinner, higher quality mirrors at an affordable cost for use in an x-ray observatory. To address these needs, we have been investigating the application of magnetic smart materials (MSMs) deposited as a thin film on mirror substrates. MSMs have some interesting properties that make the application of MSMs to mirror substrates a promising solution for making the next generation of x-ray telescopes. Due to the ability to hold a shape with an impressed permanent magnetic field, MSMs have the potential to be the method used to make light weight, affordable x-ray telescope mirrors. This paper presents the experimental setup for measuring the deformation of the magnetostrictive bimorph specimens under an applied magnetic field, and the analytical and numerical analysis of the deformation. As a first step in the development of tools to predict deflections, we deposited Terfenol-D on the glass substrates. We then made measurements that were compared with the results from the analytical and numerical analysis. The surface profiles of thin-film specimens were measured under an external magnetic field with white light interferometry (WLI). The analytical model provides good predictions of film deformation behavior under various magnetic field strengths. This work establishes a solid foundation for further research to analyze the full three-dimensional deformation behavior of magnetostrictive thin films. PMID:25322105

  6. Development of a prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X hard x-ray telescope: III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaine, S.; Basso, S.; Bruni, R. J.; Burkert, W.; Citterio, O.; Conti, G.; Engelhaupt, D.; Freyberg, M. J.; Ghigo, M.; Gorenstein, P.; Gubarev, M.; Hartner, G.; Mazzoleni, F.; O'Dell, S.; Pareschi, G.; Ramsey, B. D.; Speegle, C.; Spiga, D.

    2005-08-01

    The Constellation-X (Con-X) mission planned for launch in 2015, will feature an array of Hard X-ray telescopes (HXT) with a total collecting area greater than 1500 cm2 at 40 keV. Two technologies are being investigated for the optics of these telescopes, including multilayer coated Electroformed-Nickel-Replicated (ENR) shells. The attraction of the ENR process is that the resulting full-shell optics are inherently stable and offer the prospect of better angular resolution which results in lower background and higher instrument sensitivity. We are building a prototype HXT mirror module using an ENR process to fabricate the individual shells. This prototype consists of 5 shells with diameters ranging from 150 mm to 280 mm with a length of 426 mm. The innermost of these will be coated with iridium, while the remainder will be coated with graded d-spaced W/Si multilayers. Parts I and II of this work were presented at the SPIE meetings in 2003 and 2004. This paper presents a progress update and focuses on accomplishments during this past year. In particular, we will present results from full illumination X-ray tests of multilayer coated shells, taken at the MPE-Panter X-ray facility.

  7. ART-XC: A Medium-energy X-ray Telescope System for the Spectrum-R-Gamma Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arefiev, V.; Pavlinsky, M.; Lapshov, I.; Thachenko, A.; Sazonov, S.; Revnivtsev, M.; Semena, N.; Buntov,M.; Vikhlinin, A.; Gubarev, M.; ODell, S.; Ramsey, B.; Romaine, S.; Swartz. D/; Weisskopf, M.; Hasinger, G.; Predehl, P.; Grigorovich, S.; Litvin, D.; Meidinger, N.; Strueder, L. W.

    2008-01-01

    The ART-XC instrument is an X-ray grazing-incidence telescope system in an ABRIXAS-type optical configuration optimized for the survey observational mode of the Spectrum-RG astrophysical mission which is scheduled to be launched in 2011. ART-XC has two units, each equipped with four identical X-ray multi-shell mirror modules. The optical axes of the individual mirror modules are not parallel but are separated by several degrees to permit the four modules to share a single CCD focal plane detector, 1/4 of the area each. The 450-micron-thick pnCCD (similar to the adjacent eROSITA telescope detector) will allow detection of X-ray photons up to 15 keV. The field of view of the individual mirror module is about 18 x 18 arcminutes(exp 2) and the sensitivity of the ART-XC system for 4 years of survey will be better than 10(exp -12) erg s(exp -1) cm(exp -2) over the 4-12 keV energy band. This will allow the ART-XC instrument to discover several thousand new AGNs.

  8. Development of an x-ray telescope using the carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Hironori; Iwase, Toshihiro; Maejima, Masato; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Kunieda, Hideyo; Ishida, Naoki; Sugita, Satoshi; Miyazawa, Takuya; Shima, Naoki; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Tawara, Yuzuru

    2015-09-01

    We are developing an X-ray mirror using the carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) as a substrate in order to improve the angular resolution of tightly-nested thin-foil Wolter-I X-ray mirrors. We found that curing of the epoxy used in the replication process at the room temperature is effective to suppress the print through. We were able to make mirrors whose shape accuracy is 3 - 5 μm. Characterization at the synchrotron facility SPring-8 using the X-ray pencil beam of 20 keV showed that the angular resolution was 3 - 5 arcmin as a whole, but can reach to 20 arcsec locally.

  9. The cosmological evolution and luminosity function of X-ray selected active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccacaro, T.; Gioia, I. M.; Avni, Y.; Giommi, P.; Griffiths, R. E.; Liebert, J.; Stocke, J.; Danziger, J.

    1983-01-01

    The cosmological evolution and the X-ray luminosity function of X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are derived and discussed. The sample used consists of 31 AGNs extracted from a fully identified sample of X-ray sources from the Einstein Observatory Medium Sensitivity Survey and is therefore exclusively defined by its X-ray properties. The distribution in space is found to be strongly nonuniform. The amount of cosmological evolution required by the X-ray data is derived in the framework of pure luminosity evolution and is found to be smaller than the amount determined from optically selected samples. The X-ray luminosity function is derived. It can be satisfactorily represented by a single power law only over a limited range of absolute luminosities. Evidence that the luminosity function flattens at low luminosity or steepens at high luminosity, or both, is presented and discussed.

  10. Studies of the Origin of High-frequency Quasi-periodic Oscillations of Mass-accreting Black Holes in X-Ray Binaries with Next-generation X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshtipour, Banafsheh; Hoormann, Janie K.; Krawczynski, Henric

    2016-08-01

    Observations with RXTE (Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer) revealed the presence of high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) of the X-ray flux from several accreting stellar-mass black holes. HFQPOs (and their counterparts at lower frequencies) may allow us to study general relativity in the regime of strong gravity. However, the observational evidence today does not yet allow us to distinguish between different HFQPO models. In this paper we use a general-relativistic ray-tracing code to investigate X-ray timing spectroscopy and polarization properties of HFQPOs in the orbiting Hotspot model. We study observational signatures for the particular case of the 166 Hz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the galactic binary GRS 1915+105. We conclude with a discussion of the observability of spectral signatures with a timing-spectroscopy experiment such as the LOFT (Large Observatory for X-ray Timing) and polarization signatures with space-borne X-ray polarimeters such as IXPE (Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer), PolSTAR (Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array), PRAXyS(Polarimetry of Relativistic X-ray Sources), or XIPE (X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer). A mission with high count rate such as LOFT would make it possible to get a QPO phase for each photon, enabling the study of the QPO-phase-resolved spectral shape and the correlation between this and the flux level. Owing to the short periods of the HFQPOs, first-generation X-ray polarimeters would not be able to assign a QPO phase to each photon. The study of QPO-phase-resolved polarization energy spectra would thus require simultaneous observations with a first-generation X-ray polarimeter and a LOFT-type mission.

  11. Stress manipulated coating for fabricating lightweight X-ray telescope mirrors.

    PubMed

    Yao, Youwei; Wang, Xiaoli; Cao, Jian; Ulmer, Melville

    2015-11-01

    In this paper wepresent a method to correct the surface profile of an X-ray mirror by using a stress manipulated coating on the back side of mirror shells. The ability to fabricate a thin walled mirror by some replication process is required if future affordable X-ray space missions are to have ~30 times the effective area of the current best X-ray observatory, i.e., the Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO). Thus, some process is necessary for using replicated X-ray optics to make the next generation X-ray observatory. However, although the surface roughness of sub-100 μm length scales can be replicated, no known replication technique can make 1 arc-second or better CXO-like optics. Yet, because the images produced by the CXO are so exquisite, many X-ray astronomers are not willing to settle for less in the future. Therefore, a post replication technique must be developed to make future major X-ray astronomy missions possible. In this paper, we describe a technique based on DC magnetron sputtering. For figure correction, we apply a controlled bias voltage on the surface during the sputtering. We show that we can produce, in 1-D, shape changes large enough (1 μm over 10 mm) to correct the typical figure errors in replicated optics. We demonstrate reproducibility on an order of 0.6%, and stability over weeks on a scale of less than 1 μm over 10 mm. For these tests, we used 200 μm thick pieces of D263 Schott glass, about 5 mm x 20 mm. In addition to the basic concept of controlling the stress with the coating, we describe a new optimization software design to calculate the stress distribution for a desired surface profile. We show that the combination of the stress optimization software coupled with the coating process, can reduce the slope error of a 5 mm x 20 mm glass sample by a factor of ten. PMID:26561130

  12. Calibration of the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) Hard X-ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gaskin, Jessica; Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert; Tennant, Allyn; Swartz, Doug; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Elsner, Ron; Kolodziejczak, Jeff; Ramsey, Brian

    2014-01-01

    On September 21-22, 2013, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) hard X-ray telescope, flew as a balloon payload from Ft. Sumner, N.M. HEROES observed the Sun, the black hole binary GRS 1915+105, and the Crab Nebula during its 27 hour flight. In this paper we describe laboratory calibration measurements of the HEROES detectors using line and continuum sources, applications of these measurements to define channel to energy (gain) corrections for observed events and to define detector response matrices. We characterize the HEROES X-ray grazing incidence optics using measurements taken in the Stray-Light (SLF) Facility in Huntsville, AL, and using ray traces.

  13. Detection and period measurements of GX1+4 at hard x ray energies with the SIGMA telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurent, PH.; Salotti, L.; Lebrun, F.; Paul, J.; Denis, M.; Barret, D.; Jourdain, E.; Roques, J. P.; Churazov, E.; Gilfanov, M.

    1992-01-01

    The galactic Low Mass X ray Binary GX1+4 was detected by the coded aperture hard X ray gamma ray SIGMA telescope during the Feb. to April 1991 observations of the galactic center regions. The source, whose emission varied during the survey of a factor greater than 40 pct., reached a maximum luminosity in the 40 to 140 energy range of 1.03 x 10(exp 37) erg/s (D = 8.5 kpc), thus approaching the emission level of the 1970 to 1980 high state. Two minute flux pulsations were detected on Mar. 22 and on Mar. 31 and Apr. 1. Comparison with the last period measurements shows that the current spin-down phase of GX1+4 is ending. Concerning the proposed association of this source with the galactic center 511 keV annihilation emission, upper limits were derived.

  14. Mathematical Design Optimization of Wide-Field X-ray Telescopes: Mirror Nodal Positions and Detector Tilts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, Ronald; O'Dell, Stephen; Ramsey, Brian; Weisskopf, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We describe a mathematical formalism for determining the mirror shell nodal positions and detector tilts that optimize the spatial resolution averaged over a field-of-view for a nested x-ray telescope, assuming known mirror segment surface prescriptions and known detector focal surface. The results are expressed in terms of ensemble averages over variable combinations of the ray positions and wavevectors in the flat focal plane intersecting the optical axis at the nominal on-axis focus, which can be determined by Monte-Carlo ray traces of the individual mirror shells. This work is part of our continuing efforts to provide analytical tools to aid in the design process for wide-field survey x-ray astronomy missions.

  15. Mathematical Design Optimization of Wide-Field X-ray Telescopes: Mirror Nodal Positions and Detector Tilts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R. F.; O'Dell, S. L.; Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a mathematical formalism for determining the mirror shell nodal positions and detector tilts that optimize the spatial resolution averaged over a field-of-view for a nested x-ray telescope, assuming known mirror segment surface prescriptions and known detector focal surface. The results are expressed in terms of ensemble averages over variable combinations of the ray positions and wave vectors in the flat focal plane intersecting the optical axis at the nominal on-axis focus, which can be determined by Monte-Carlo ray traces of the individual mirror shells. This work is part of our continuing efforts to provide analytical tools to aid in the design process for wide-field survey x-ray astronomy missions.

  16. Research of advanced techniques for X-ray detectors and telescopes with applications to rockets and the LAMAR facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.

    1985-01-01

    A program for the development of high throughput instrumentation for X-ray astronomy based upon focusing optics is being carried out by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. The instrumentation is applicable to investigations requiring large area focusing optics for direct imaging or dispersive spectroscopy. The long range goals of this program are the development of telescopes and gratings for future major X-ray astronomy facilities, including additions to the LAMAR OSS-2/SHEAL experiment after the initial flights. Tests of the devices and their more immediate utilization in scientific investigations can be carried out with SPARTAN payloads deployed and retrieved by the Space Shuttle. However, the present backlog of approved SPARTAN missions is longer than the three-year duration of the program described in this program. Laboratory studies and breadboarding of instrumentation are discussed.

  17. Calibration of the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) Hard X-ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gaskin, Jessica; Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert; Tennant, Allyn; Swartz, Doug; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Elsner, Ron; Kolodziejczak, Jeff; Ramsey, Brian

    On 2013 September 21-22, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) hard X-ray telescope flew as a balloon payload from Ft. Sumner, NM. HEROES observed the Sun, the black hole binary GRS 1915+105, and the Crab Nebula during its 27 h flight. In this paper, we describe laboratory calibration measurements of the HEROES detectors using line and continuum sources and applications of these measurements to define channel to energy (gain) corrections for observed events and to define detector response matrices. We characterize the HEROES X-ray grazing incidence optics using measurements taken in the Stray Light Facility (SLF) in Huntsville, AL, and using ray traces. We describe the application of our calibration measurements to in-flight observations of the Crab Nebula.

  18. Highly damped exactly constrained mounting of an x-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Paul S.; Decker, Todd A.; Hale, Layton C.

    1995-05-01

    Instruments and machines requiring very high stability should be isolated from their normally less stable environment. Exact constraint mounting using six, single-constraint flexures provides a stiff connection between the instrument and its environment while isolating the instrument from low frequency deformations of the environment, such as thermal expansion. Higher frequency disturbances, however, transfer through the flexures and excite vibration modes of the instrument. Traditionally, passive or active vibration isolation is employed to attenuate environmental disturbances reaching the instrument. However, strict alignment requirements for the instrument preclude the use of low-frequency isolation, unless active methods are used. Therefore, the solution is to provide damping in parallel with the flexures to reduce the vibration amplitudes of the instrument. Flexures concentrate strain energy in blades making them excellent candidates for damping treatments. A properly designed damping treatment across the flexures can provide as much as 8% to 10% viscous damping to the isolation modes and will also help attenuate the instrument vibration modes. Thus, through the use of six damped single-constraint flexures the instrument's requirements for stability, alignment, stress, and vibration may be met. An application of this approach will be employed on the Reflection Grating Array (RGA) for the X-ray Multi-mirror Mission for the European Space Agency. The RGA is an array of 200 diffraction gratings aligned to sub-micron and sub-arc-second tolerances relative to each other. This produces a coherent wavefront for spectrum analysis. The launch vehicle will be an Ariane 5 scheduled for 1998.

  19. X-Ray Activity in the Open Cluster IC 4665

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giamapapa, Mark S.; Prosser, Charles F.; Fleming, Thomas A.

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of a joint ROSAT High Resolution Imager (HRI) and optical investigation of the open cluster IC 4665. The ROSAT data contains detections for 28 stellar sources in the field, including 22 cluster members and candidate members spanning the color range -0.18 less than or equal to (B - V(sub o)) less than or equal to +1.63 (approx. B3 - M3). Upper limits are given for the remaining members (or candidate members) in the HRI field. Keck HIRES spectra have been obtained that yield radial and rotational velocity measures, respectively, for faint, low mass candidate members located within the field of the ROSAT HRI observation. In addition, photometry of possible optical counterparts to previously uncatalogued X-ray sources in the HRI field is presented. The trends in X-ray properties with (B - V) color in IC 4665 are found to be quite similar to that for other, more nearby young clusters such as the Pleiades and alpha Persei. In particular, a maximum in normalized X-ray luminosity of log (L(sub x)/L(sub bol)) approx. equal 3 is observed, beginning in the color range of (B - V)(sub o) = 0.7 - 0.8. This is similar to the corresponding color range among Pleiades members, in agreement with the earlier estimate, that the age of IC 4665 is similar to the age of the Pleiades. The correlation of rotation and X-ray emission levels is consistent with that in other young clusters. Among the high mass stars in IC 4665, five B stars are detected as X-ray sources. Of these, one is a spectroscopic binary while the remaining objects are apparently single staxs. The level of intrinsic X-ray emission observed in the rapidly rotating (v sini greater than 200 km/ s), single B stars is consistent with an origin due to shock heating of the ambient medium by radiatively driven, rotationally enhanced winds. On the basis of these observations and the results for other clusters, we argue that observed levels of X-ray emission in high mass stars of log (L(sub x)/L(sub bol

  20. Outflowing X-ray corona in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junxian; Liu, Teng; Yang, Huan; Zhu, Feifan; Zhou, Youyuan

    2015-08-01

    Hard X-ray emission in radio-quiet AGNs is believed to be produced via inverse Compton scattering by hot and compact corona near the super massive black hole. However the origin and physical properties of the coronae, including geometry, kinematics and dynamics, yet remain poorly known. Taking [OIV] 25.89um emission line as an isotropic indicator of AGN's intrinsic luminosity, we compare the intrinsic corona X-ray emission between Seyfert 1 and Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies, which are viewed at different inclinations according to the unification scheme. We find that Seyfert 1 galaxies are brighter in "absorption-corrected" 2-10 keV emission by a factor of ~2.8, comparing with Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies. The Seyfert 1 and Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies follow a statistically identical correlation between the absorption-corrected 2-10 keV luminosity and the SWIFT BAT 14-195 keV luminosity, indicating that our absorption correction to the 2-10 keV flux is sufficient. The difference between the two populations thus can not be attributed to X-ray absorption, and instead implies an intrinsic anisotropy in the corona X-ray emission. This striking anisotropy of X-ray emission can be explained by a bipolar outflowing corona with a bulk velocity of ~0.3-0.5c. This would provide a natural link between the so-called coronae and weak jets in these systems. We also show that how this study would affect our understanding to the nature of mid-infrared emission in AGNs and the properties of dusty torus. Furthermore, such anisotropy implies that, contrary to previous understanding based on the assumption of isotropic corona emission, hard X-ray AGN surveys are biased against type 2 AGNs even after absorption-correction, and careful correction for this effect is required to measure the obscured fraction from X-ray surveys. Other interesting consequences of this discovery will also be discussed.

  1. A Normal Incidence X-ray Telescope (NIXT) Sounding Rocket Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The following two papers, summarizing scientific results from the NIXT rocket program, are presented: (1) 'The Solar X-ray Corona,' - an introduction to the physics of the solar corona, with a major portion concerning a summary of results from the series of NIXT sounding rocket flights; and (2) 'Difficulties in Observing Coronal Structure.'

  2. HERO: A Balloon-Borne Hard-X-Ray Focusing Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian

    2008-01-01

    HERO, for High Energy Replicated Optics, is an evolutionary balloon payload featuring hard-x-ray grazing-incidence nickel optics. The HERO payload is designed to perform high-sensitivity, fine spatial resolution observations of galactic and extragalactic sources in an energy range that is as yet unexplored with grazing-incidence optics. A proof-of-concept flight with just 6 x-ray mirrors was completed in 2001 and captured the first focused hard-x-ray images galactic sources. Since that time, the payload has been greatly expanded and now features 100, in-house-fabricated mirror shells with an attendant large increase in sensitivity. In its current form, HERO was flown in 2007, from Fort Sumner, NM, and is schedules to fly again in September 2009, from Alice Springs, NT. Full details of the HERO payload will be provided in this presentation together with a discussion of the challenges of flying moderate resolution x-ray optics from a balloon platform.

  3. High-Sensitivity X-ray Polarimetry with Amorphous Silicon Active-Matrix Pixel Proportional Counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. K.; Deines-Jones, P.; Jahoda, K.; Ready, S. E.; Street, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    Photoelectric X-ray polarimeters based on pixel micropattern gas detectors (MPGDs) offer order-of-magnitude improvement in sensitivity over more traditional techniques based on X-ray scattering. This new technique places some of the most interesting astronomical observations within reach of even a small, dedicated mission. The most sensitive instrument would be a photoelectric polarimeter at the focus of 2 a very large mirror, such as the planned XEUS. Our efforts are focused on a smaller pathfinder mission, which would achieve its greatest sensitivity with large-area, low-background, collimated polarimeters. We have recently demonstrated a MPGD polarimeter using amorphous silicon thin-film transistor (TFT) readout suitable for the focal plane of an X-ray telescope. All the technologies used in the demonstration polarimeter are scalable to the areas required for a high-sensitivity collimated polarimeter. Leywords: X-ray polarimetry, particle tracking, proportional counter, GEM, pixel readout

  4. Finite element analyses of thin film active grazing incidence x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, William N.; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Daniel A.

    2010-09-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory, with its sub-arc second resolution, has revolutionized X-ray astronomy by revealing an extremely complex X-ray sky and demonstrating the power of the X-ray window in exploring fundamental astrophysical problems. Larger area telescopes of still higher angular resolution promise further advances. We are engaged in the development of a mission concept, Generation-X, a 0.1 arc second resolution x-ray telescope with tens of square meters of collecting area, 500 times that of Chandra. To achieve these two requirements of imaging and area, we are developing a grazing incidence telescope comprised of many mirror segments. Each segment is an adjustable mirror that is a section of a paraboloid or hyperboloid, aligned and figure corrected in situ on-orbit. To that end, finite element analyses of thin glass mirrors are performed to determine influence functions for each actuator on the mirrors, in order to develop algorithms for correction of mirror deformations. The effects of several mirror mounting schemes are also studied. The finite element analysis results, combined with measurements made on prototype mirrors, will be used to further refine the correction algorithms.

  5. Using the EXIST Active Shields for Earth Occultation Observations of X-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Colleen A.; Fishman, Gerald; Hong, Jae-Sub; Gridlay, Jonathan; Krawczynski, Henric

    2005-01-01

    The EXIST active shields, now being planned for the main detectors of the coded aperture telescope, will have approximately 15 times the area of the BATSE detectors; and they will have a good geometry on the spacecraft for viewing both the leading and training Earth's limb for occultation observations. These occultation observations will complement the imaging observations of EXIST and can extend them to higher energies. Earth occultatio observations of the hard X-ray sky with BATSE on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory developed and demonstrated the capabilities of large, flat, uncollimated detectors for this method. With BATSE, a catalog of 179 X-ray sources was monitored twice every spacecraft orbit for 9 years at energies above about 25 keV, resulting in 83 definite detections and 36 possible detections with 5-sigma detection sensitivities of 3.5-20 mcrab (20-430 keV) depending on the sky location. This catalog included four transients discovered with this technique and many variable objects (galactic and extragalactic). This poster will describe the Earth occultation technique, summarize the BATSE occultation observations, and compare the basic observational parameters of the occultation detector elements of BATSE and EXIST.

  6. THE FIRST HARD X-RAY POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY FUNCTIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, T. Taro; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2013-06-10

    We present results of our power spectral density (PSD) analysis of 30 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using the 58 month light curves from Swift's Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) in the 14-150 keV band. PSDs were fit using a Monte Carlo based algorithm to take into account windowing effects and measurement error. All but one source were found to be fit very well using an unbroken power law with a slope of {approx} - 1, consistent at low frequencies with previous studies in the 2-10 keV band, with no evidence of a break in the PSD. For five of the highest signal-to-noise ratio sources, we tested the energy dependence of the PSD and found no significant difference in the PSD at different energies. Unlike previous studies of X-ray variability in AGNs, we do not find any significant correlations between the hard X-ray variability and different properties of the AGN including luminosity and black hole mass. The lack of break frequencies and correlations seem to indicate that AGNs are similar to the high state of Galactic black holes.

  7. CCD detectors for spectroscopy and imaging of x-rays with the eROSITA space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meidinger, N.; Andritschke, R.; Ebermayer, S.; Elbs, J.; Hälker, O.; Hartmann, R.; Herrmann, S.; Kimmel, N.; Predehl, P.; Schächner, G.; Soltau, H.; Strüder, L.; Tiedemann, L.

    2009-08-01

    A special type of CCD, the so-called PNCCD, was originally developed for the focal plane camera of the XMMNewton space telescope. After the satellite launch in 1999, the MPI Halbleiterlabor continued the detector development for various ground-based applications. Finally, a new X-ray PNCCD was designed again for a space telescope named eROSITA. The space telescope will be equipped with an array of seven parallel oriented X-ray mirror systems of Wolter-I type and seven cameras, placed in their foci. This instrumentation will permit the exploration of the X-ray universe in the energy band from 0.3 keV up to 10 keV with a time resolution of 50 ms for a full image comprising 384 x 384 pixels. eROSITA will be accommodated on the new Russian Spectrum-RG satellite. The mission was already approved by the responsible German and Russian space agencies. The detector development is focussed to fulfil the scientific specifications for detector performance under the constraints of all the mechanical, power, thermal and radiation hardness issues for space instrumentation. This considers also the recent change of the satellite's orbit. The Lagrange point L2 was decided as new destination of the satellite instead of a low-Earth orbit (LEO). We present a detailed description of the detector system and the current development status. The most recent test results are reported here. Essential steps for completion of the seven focal plane detectors until satellite launch in 2012 will be itemized.

  8. CCD camera systems and support electronics for a White Light Coronagraph and X-ray XUV solar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D. C.; Kubierschky, K.; Staples, M. H.; Carpenter, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    Two instruments, a White Light Coronagraph and an X-ray XUV telescope built into the same housing, share several electronic functions. Each instrument uses a CCD as an imaging detector, but due to different spectral requirements, each uses a different type. Hardware reduction, required by the stringent weight and volume allocations of the interplanetary mission, is made possible by the use of a microprocessor. Most instrument functions are software controlled with the end use circuits treated as peripherals to the microprocessor. The instruments are being developed for the International Solar Polar Mission.

  9. HERO: A Balloon-Borne Hard-X-Ray Focusing Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Brian

    HERO, for High Energy Replicated Optics, is an evolutionary balloon payload featuring hard-xray grazing-incidence nickel optics. The HERO payload is designed to perform high-sensitivity, fine spatial resolution observations of galactic and extragalactic sources in an energy range that is as yer unexplored with grazing-incidence optics. A proof-of-concept flight with just 6 x-ray mirrors was completed in 2001 and captured the first focused hard-x-ray images galactic sources. Since that time, the payload has been greatly expanded and now features 100, in-house-fabricated mirror shells with an attendant large increase in sensitivity. In its current form, HERO was flown in 2007, from Fort Sumner, NM, and is schedules to fly again in September 2009, from Alice Springs, NT. Full details of the HERO payload will be provided in this presentation together with a discussion of the challenges of flying moderate resolution x-ray optics from a balloon platform.

  10. The Swift X-Ray Telescope Cluster Survey. III. Cluster Catalog from 2005-2012 Archival Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Teng; Tozzi, Paolo; Tundo, Elena; Moretti, Alberto; Rosati, Piero; Wang, Jun-Xian; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Campana, Sergio; Giavalisco, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    We present the Swift X-ray Cluster Survey (SWXCS) catalog obtained using archival data from the X-ray telescope (XRT) on board the Swift satellite acquired from 2005 February to 2012 November, extending the first release of the SWXCS. The catalog provides positions, soft fluxes, and, when possible, optical counterparts for a flux-limited sample of X-ray group and cluster candidates. We consider the fields with Galactic latitude |b| > 20° to avoid high H I column densities. We discard all of the observations targeted at groups or clusters of galaxies, as well as particular extragalactic fields not suitable to search for faint extended sources. We finally select ~3000 useful fields covering a total solid angle of ~400 deg2. We identify extended source candidates in the soft-band (0.5-2 keV) images of these fields using the software EXSdetect, which is specifically calibrated for the XRT data. Extensive simulations are used to evaluate contamination and completeness as a function of the source signal, allowing us to minimize the number of spurious detections and to robustly assess the selection function. Our catalog includes 263 candidate galaxy clusters and groups down to a flux limit of 7 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1 in the soft band, and the logN-logS is in very good agreement with previous deep X-ray surveys. The final list of sources is cross-correlated with published optical, X-ray, and Sunyaev-Zeldovich catalogs of clusters. We find that 137 sources have been previously identified as clusters in the literature in independent surveys, while 126 are new detections. Currently, we have collected redshift information for 158 sources (60% of the entire sample). Once the optical follow-up and the X-ray spectral analysis of the sources are complete, the SWXCS will provide a large and well-defined catalog of groups and clusters of galaxies to perform statistical studies of cluster properties and tests of cosmological models.

  11. THE SWIFT X-RAY TELESCOPE CLUSTER SURVEY. III. CLUSTER CATALOG FROM 2005-2012 ARCHIVAL DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Teng; Wang, Jun-Xian; Tozzi, Paolo; Tundo, Elena; Moretti, Alberto; Rosati, Piero; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Campana, Sergio; Giavalisco, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    We present the Swift X-ray Cluster Survey (SWXCS) catalog obtained using archival data from the X-ray telescope (XRT) on board the Swift satellite acquired from 2005 February to 2012 November, extending the first release of the SWXCS. The catalog provides positions, soft fluxes, and, when possible, optical counterparts for a flux-limited sample of X-ray group and cluster candidates. We consider the fields with Galactic latitude |b| > 20° to avoid high H I column densities. We discard all of the observations targeted at groups or clusters of galaxies, as well as particular extragalactic fields not suitable to search for faint extended sources. We finally select ∼3000 useful fields covering a total solid angle of ∼400 deg{sup 2}. We identify extended source candidates in the soft-band (0.5-2 keV) images of these fields using the software EXSdetect, which is specifically calibrated for the XRT data. Extensive simulations are used to evaluate contamination and completeness as a function of the source signal, allowing us to minimize the number of spurious detections and to robustly assess the selection function. Our catalog includes 263 candidate galaxy clusters and groups down to a flux limit of 7 × 10{sup –15} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} in the soft band, and the logN-logS is in very good agreement with previous deep X-ray surveys. The final list of sources is cross-correlated with published optical, X-ray, and Sunyaev-Zeldovich catalogs of clusters. We find that 137 sources have been previously identified as clusters in the literature in independent surveys, while 126 are new detections. Currently, we have collected redshift information for 158 sources (60% of the entire sample). Once the optical follow-up and the X-ray spectral analysis of the sources are complete, the SWXCS will provide a large and well-defined catalog of groups and clusters of galaxies to perform statistical studies of cluster properties and tests of cosmological models.

  12. Discovery of Associated Absorption Lines in an X-Ray Warm Absorber: Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph Observations of MR 2251-178

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monier, Eric M.; Mathur, Smita; Wilkes, Belinda; Elvis, Martin

    2001-01-01

    The presence of a 'warm absorber' was first suggested to explain spectral variability in an X-ray spectrum of the radio-quiet quasi-stellar object (QSO) MR 2251-178. A unified picture, in which X-ray warm absorbers and 'intrinsic' UV absorbers are the same, offers the opportunity to probe the nuclear environment of active galactic nuclei. To test this scenario and understand the physical properties of the absorber, we obtained a UV spectrum of MR 2251-178 with the Faint Object Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST spectrum clearly shows absorption due to Lyalpha, N v, and C IV, blueshifted by 300 km s(exp -1) from the emission redshift of the QSO. The rarity of both X-ray and UV absorbers in radio-quiet QSOs suggests these absorbers are physically related, if not identical. Assuming the unified scenario, we place constraints on the physical parameters of the absorber and conclude the mass outflow rate is essentially the same as the accretion rate in MR 2251-178.

  13. Error budgets for the image degradation of x-ray telescope on board Astro-E2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misaki, Kazutami; Shibata, Ryo; Hidaka, Yasuhiro; Kunieda, Hideyo; Ishida, Manabu; Honda, Hirohiko; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Endo, Takao; Imamura, Kohsuke; Haba, Yoshito; Itoh, Kei; Mori, Hideyuki; Iizuka, Ryo; Hayakawa, Akira; Morihisa, Taijiro

    2003-03-01

    X-ray telescopes (XRTs) of nested thin foil mirrors were developed for Astro-E, the fifth Japanese x-ray astronomy satellite. Although the launch was not successful, the re-flight of Astro-E mission is approved as Astro-E2 and will carry the same XRTs. Ground-based calibration of Astro-E XRT revealed that its image quality and effective area are somewhat worse than what are expected from the original design. Conceivable causes of these defects of the XRT performance (i.e., surface roughness, waviness, misalignment of reflectors, and so on) are examined by X-rays and optical microscopic measurements. In this paper, we distinguish quantitatively these causes to limit the performance of the Astro-E XRT. Using the detail measurements, we can attribute both degradation of the image quality and a deficit of the effective area from the design values mainly to a slope error with a mm scale in each reflector and shadowing effects of neighboring reflectors due to various factors. There is still room for improvement in the support system of reflectors (i.e., alignment bars) in the XRT. One of the main aims of the mirror system calibration is to construct response function. Therefore, it is important that the development of a representative numerical model and its validation against extensive ground-based calibration. Taking account of the results of the pre-flight calibration and the microscopic measurements, we develop and tune a ray-tracing simulator which constructs the XRT response function for a point source at an arbitrary off-axis angle and spatial distributions of celestial X-ray sources.

  14. Development of a prototype nickel optic for the Constellation-X hard x-ray telescope: IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaine, S.; Basso, S.; Bruni, R. J.; Burkert, W.; Citterio, O.; Conti, G.; Engelhaupt, D.; Freyberg, M. J.; Ghigo, M.; Gorenstein, P.; Gubarev, M.; Hartner, G.; Mazzoleni, F.; O'Dell, S.; Pareschi, G.; Ramsey, B. D.; Speegle, C.; Spiga, D.

    2006-06-01

    The Constellation-X mission planned for launch in 2015-2020 timeframe, will feature an array of Hard X-ray telescopes (HXT) with a total collecting area greater than 1500 cm2 at 40 keV. Two technologies are being investigated for the optics of these telescopes, one of which is multilayer-coated Electroformed-Nickel-Replicated (ENR) shells. The attraction of the ENR process is that the resulting full-shell optics are inherently stable and offer the prospect of better angular resolution which results in lower background and higher instrument sensitivity. We are building a prototype HXT mirror module using an ENR process to fabricate the individual shells. This prototype consists of 5 shells with diameters ranging from 15 cm to 28 cm with a length of 42.6 cm. The innermost of these will be coated with iridium, while the remainder will be coated with graded d-spaced W/Si multilayers. The assembly structure has been completed and last year we reported on full beam illumination results from the first test shell mounted in this structure. We have now fabricated and coated two (15 cm and 23 cm diameter) 100 micron thick shells which have been aligned and mounted. This paper presents the results of full beam illumination X-ray tests, taken at MPE-Panter. The HEW of the individual shells will be discussed, in addition to results from the full two shell optic test.

  15. The Milli-Arc-Second Structure Imager, MASSIM: A New Concept for a High Angular Resolution X-ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Gerry; Arzoumanian, Z.; Cash, W.; Gehrels, N.; Gendreau, K.; Gorenstein, P.; Krizmanic, J.; Leitner, J.; Miller, M.; Reasenberg, R.; Reynolds, C.; Sambruna, R.; Streitmatter, R.; Windt, D.

    2008-01-01

    MASSIM, the Milli-Arc-Second Structure Imager, is a mission that has been proposed for study within the context of NASA's "Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Studies" program. It uses a set of achromatic diffractive-refractive Fresnel lenses on an optics spacecraft to focus 5-11 keV X-rays onto detectors on a second spacecraft flying in formation 1000 km away. It will have a point-source sensitivity comparable with that of the current generation of major X-ray observatories (Chandra, XMM-Newton) but an angular resolution some three orders of magnitude better. MASSIM is optimized for the study of jets and other phenomena that occur in the immediate vicinity of black holes and neutron stars. It can also be used for studying other astrophysical phenomena on the milli-arc-second scale, such as those involving proto-stars, the surfaces and surroundings of nearby active stars and interacting winds. After introducing the principle of diffractive imaging in the x-ray/gamma-ray regime, the MASSIM mission concept and baseline design will be described along with a discussion of the options and trade-offs within the X-ray optics design.

  16. A Normal Incidence X-ray Telescope (NIXT) Sounding Rocket Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon

    1998-01-01

    The solar corona, and the coronae of solar-type stars, consist of a low-density magnetized plasma at temperatures exceeding 10(exp 6) K. The primary coronal emission is therefore in the UV and soft X-ray range. The observed close connection between solar magnetic fields and the physical parameters of the corona implies a fundamental role for the magnetic field in coronal structuring and dynamics. Variability of the corona occurs on all temporal and spatial scales - at one extreme, as the result of plasma instabilities, and at the other extreme driven by the global magnetic flux emergence patterns of the solar cycle.

  17. Analysis of X-ray and EUV spectra of solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, K. T.; Acton, L. W.

    1979-01-01

    Data acquired by two flights of an array of six Bragg crystal spectrometers on an Aerobee rocket to obtain high spatial and spectral resolution observations of various coronal features at soft X-ray wavelengths (9-23A) were analyzed. The various aspects of the analysis of the X-ray data are described. These observations were coordinated with observations from the experiments on the Apollo Telescope Mount and the various data sets were related to one another. The Appendices contain the published results, abstracts of papers, computer code descriptions and preprints of papers, all produced as a result of this research project.

  18. Experimental evaluation of the ring focus test for X-ray telescopes using AXAF's technology mirror assembly, MSFC CDDF Project No. H20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zissa, D. E.; Korsch, D.

    1986-01-01

    A test method particularly suited for X-ray telescopes was evaluated experimentally. The method makes use of a focused ring formed by an annular aperture when using a point source at a finite distance. This would supplement measurements of the best focus image which is blurred when the test source is at a finite distance. The telescope used was the Technology Mirror Assembly of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysis Facility (AXAF) program. Observed ring image defects could be related to the azimuthal location of their sources in the telescope even though in this case the predicted sharp ring was obscured by scattering, finite source size, and residual figure errors.

  19. Detection of High-energy Gamma-Ray Emission During the X-Ray Flaring Activity in GRB 100728A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bonnell, J.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Granot, J.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lubrano, P.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mészáros, P.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Paciesas, W. S.; Pelassa, V.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Racusin, J. L.; Rainò, S.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L. C.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Sonbas, E.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stamatikos, M.; Strickman, M. S.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uehara, T.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; von Kienlin, A.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yamazaki, R.; Yang, Z.; Ziegler, M.; Piro, L.

    2011-06-01

    We present the simultaneous Swift and Fermi observations of the bright GRB 100728A and its afterglow. The early X-ray emission is dominated by a vigorous flaring activity continuing until 1 ks after the burst. In the same time interval, high-energy emission is significantly detected by the Fermi/Large Area Telescope. Marginal evidence of GeV emission is observed up to later times. We discuss the broadband properties of this burst within both the internal and external shock scenarios, with a particular emphasis on the relation between X-ray flares, the GeV emission, and a continued long-duration central engine activity as their power source.

  20. HERO: A Hard-X-Ray Balloon-Borne Focusing Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian; Stahl, H. Philip

    2008-01-01

    HERO, for High Energy Replicated Optics, is an evolutionary balloon payload featuring hard-X-ray grazing-incidence nickel optics. The payload provides a scientific instrument capable of high-sensitivity observations in an energy regime that is relatively unexplored at fine spatial scales, and also serves as a demonstration vehicle for in-house fabricated optics and focal plane detectors. After a proof-of-concept flight in 2001, which captured the first focused hard-X-ray images galactic sources, HERO has been significantly expanded from just 6, 3-m-focal length mirror shells to its current complement of nearly 100, 6-m-focal length mirrors. HERO was flown in 2007, from Fort Sumner, NM, and is scheduled to fly again in September 2009, from Alice Springs, NT. Full details of the payload will be provided along with preliminary data from the previous flight and science targets for the next flight, where the galactic center region will be imaged.

  1. Early evolution of an X-ray emitting solar active region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfson, C. J.; Acton, L. W.; Leibacher, J. W.; Roethig, D. T.

    1977-01-01

    The birth and early evolution of a solar active region has been investigated using X-ray observations from the mapping X-ray heliometer on board the OSO-8 spacecraft. X-ray emission is observed within three hours of the first detection of H-alpha plage. At that time, a plasma temperature of four million K in a region having a density on the order of 10 to the 10th power per cu cm is inferred. During the fifty hours following birth almost continuous flares or flare-like X-ray bursts are superimposed on a monotonically increasing base level of X-ray emission produced by the plasma. If the X-rays are assumed to result from heating due to dissipation of current systems or magnetic field reconnection, it may be concluded that flare-like X-ray emission soon after active region birth implies that the magnetic field probably emerges in a stressed or complex configuration.

  2. EUV and X-ray Spectroscopy of the Active Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raftery, Claire L.

    2012-10-01

    This thesis strives to improve our understanding of solar activity, specifically the behaviour of solar flares and coronal mass ejections. An investigation into the hydrodynamic evolution of a confined solar flare was carried out using RHESSI, CDS, GOES and TRACE. Evidence for pre-flare heating, explosive and gentle chromospheric evaporation and loop draining were observed in the data. The observations were compared to a 0-D hydrodynamic model, EBTEL, to aid interpretation. This led to the conclusion that the flare was not heated purely by non-thermal beam heating as previously believed, but also required direct heating of the plasma. An observational investigation in to the initiation mechanism of a coronal mass ejection and eruptive flare was then carried out, again utilising observations from a wide range of spacecraft: MESSENGER/SAX, RHESSI, EUVI, Cor1 and Cor2. Observations provided evidence of CME triggering by internal tether-cutting and not by breakout reconnection. A comparison of the confined and eruptive flares suggests that while they have different characteristics, timescales and topologies, these two phenomena are the result of the same fundamental processes. Finally, an investigation into the sensitivity of EUV imaging telescopes was carried out. This study established a new technique for calculating the sensitivity of EUV imagers to plasmas of different temperatures for four different types of plasma: coronal hole, quiet sun, active region and solar flare. This was carried out for six instruments: Proba-2/SWAP, TRACE, SOHO/EIT, STEREO A/EUVI, STEREO B/EUVI and SDO/AIA. The importance of considering the multi-thermal nature of these instruments was then put into the context of investigating explosive solar activity.

  3. INFRARED AND HARD X-RAY DIAGNOSTICS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS IDENTIFICATION FROM THE SWIFT/BAT AND AKARI ALL-SKY SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuta, K.; Dotani, T.; Yamamura, I.; Gandhi, P.; Nakagawa, T.; Isobe, N.; Stawarz, L.; Ueda, Y.; Ichikawa, K.; Terashima, Y.; Oyabu, S.

    2012-07-10

    We combine data from two all-sky surveys in order to study the connection between the infrared and hard X-ray (>10 keV) properties for local active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The Swift Burst Alert Telescope all-sky survey provides an unbiased, flux-limited selection of hard X-ray-detected AGNs. Cross-correlating the 22 month hard X-ray survey with the AKARI all-sky survey, we studied 158 AGNs detected by the AKARI instruments. We find a strong correlation for most AGNs between the infrared (9, 18, and 90 {mu}m) and hard X-ray (14-195 keV) luminosities, and quantify the correlation for various subsamples of AGNs. Partial correlation analysis confirms the intrinsic correlation after removing the redshift contribution. The correlation for radio galaxies has a slope and normalization identical to that for Seyfert 1 galaxies, implying similar hard X-ray/infrared emission processes in both. In contrast, Compton-thick (CT) sources show a large deficit in the hard X-ray band, because high gas column densities diminish even their hard X-ray luminosities. We propose two photometric diagnostics for source classification: one is an X-ray luminosity versus infrared color diagram, in which type 1 radio-loud AGNs are well isolated from the others in the sample. The other uses the X-ray versus infrared color as a useful redshift-independent indicator for identifying CT AGNs. Importantly, CT AGNs and starburst galaxies in composite systems can also be differentiated in this plane based upon their hard X-ray fluxes and dust temperatures. This diagram may be useful as a new indicator to classify objects in new and upcoming surveys such as WISE and NuSTAR.

  4. Very high resolution UV and X-ray spectroscopy and imagery of solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, M.; Brown, W. A.; Haisch, B. M.

    1987-01-01

    A scientific investigation of the physics of the solar atmosphere, which uses the techniques of high resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy and high resolution UV imagery, is described. The experiments were conducted during a series of three sounding rocket flights. All three flights yielded excellent images in the UV range, showing unprecedented spatial resolution. The second flight recorded the X-ray spectrum of a solar flare, and the third that of an active region. A normal incidence multi-layer mirror was used during the third flight to make the first astronomical X-ray observations using this new technique.

  5. X-ray cycles and magnetic activity of solar-like stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robrade, J.

    2016-06-01

    Since the beginning of its operation XMM-Newton carries out a monitoring program to study coronal cyclic behavior in stars similar to our Sun. I present highlights and recent results from the X-ray monitoring campaign, that observes neighboring stellar systems like Alpha Centauri and 61 Cygni. Cyclic activity phenomena and coronal properties are discussed and put into context of X-ray emission from the Sun and solar-type stars. As an outlook, future perspectives of stellar X-ray studies with a focus on the eROSITA all-sky survey are presented.

  6. X-ray refelection from photoionized media in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zycki, Piotr T.; Krolik, Julian H.; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Kallman, Timothy R.

    1994-01-01

    We calculate the spectrum of X-ray radiation and reprocessed by a partly ionized optically thick medium in an active galactic nucleus. We self-consistently calculate the ionization balance and thermal balance in the medium along with the distribution of X-ray intensity with optical depth. In addition to absorption or scattering of the incident X-rays, we also compute the spectrum of X-rays emitted by the material, including lines, edges, and bremsstrahlung. The albedo of the medium depends primarily on the X-ray ionization parameter (ratio of incident flux to gas density, zeta(sub Chi), and secondarily on the UV flux generated by dissipation inside the disk; we locate the critical range of zeta(sub Chi) over which the albedo increases from small to nearly unity. While the continuum reflection is very weak below 10 keV when zeta(sub Chi) is small, significnat fluxes are emitted in atomic lines and edges in this energy range. In the limit of large zeta(sub Chi), the albedo below 10 keV increases, but reflection in this band is never gray: some photoelectric absorption remains up to rather large values of zeta(sub Chi), while at still higher values, inverse Compton scattering amplifies the soft X-ray flux. These features are sufficiently sharp that current and near-future X-ray experiments should permit diagnostic measures of zeta(sub Chi).

  7. Ultraviolet and X-ray Activity and Flaring on Low-Mass Exoplanet Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Kevin; Parke Loyd, R. O.; Brown, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    The spectral and temporal behavior of exoplanet host stars is a critical input to models of the chemistry and evolution of planetary atmospheres. High-energy photons (X-ray to NUV) from these stars regulate the atmospheric temperature profiles and photochemistry on orbiting planets, influencing the production of potential “biomarker” gases. We present results from the MUSCLES Treasury Survey, an ongoing study of time-resolved UV and X-ray spectroscopy of nearby M and K dwarf exoplanet host stars. This program uses contemporaneous Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra (or XMM) observations to characterize the time variability of the energetic radiation field incident on the habitable zones planetary systems at d < 15 pc. We find that all exoplanet host stars observed to date exhibit significant levels of chromospheric and transition region UV emission. M dwarf exoplanet host stars display 30 - 2000% UV emission line amplitude variations on timescales of minutes-to-hours. The relative flare/quiescent UV flux amplitudes on old (age > 1 Gyr) planet-hosting M dwarfs are comparable to active flare stars (e.g., AD Leo), despite their lack of flare activity at visible wavelengths. We also detect similar UV flare behavior on a subset of our K dwarf exoplanet host stars. We conclude that strong flares and stochastic variability are common, even on “optically inactive” M dwarfs hosting planetary systems. These results argue that the traditional assumption of weak UV fields and low flare rates on older low-mass stars needs to be revised.

  8. X-ray spectrometer spectrograph telescope system. [for solar corona study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Acton, L. W.; Brown, W. A.; Salat, S. W.; Franks, A.; Schmidtke, G.; Schweizer, W.; Speer, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A new sounding rocket payload that has been developed for X-ray spectroscopic studies of the solar corona is described. The instrument incorporates a grazing incidence Rowland mounted grating spectrograph and an extreme off-axis paraboloic sector feed system to isolate regions of the sun of order 1 x 10 arc seconds in size. The focal surface of the spectrograph is shared by photographic and photoelectric detection systems, with the latter serving as a part of the rocket pointing system control loop. Fabrication and alignment of the optical system is based on high precision machining and mechanical metrology techniques. The spectrograph has a resolution of 16 milliangstroms and modifications planned for future flights will improve the resolution to 5 milliangstroms, permitting line widths to be measured.

  9. Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Bright Galactic X-Ray Binaries in Crowded Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Eric W.; Margon, Bruce; Wachter, Stefanie; Anderson, Scott F.

    1996-01-01

    We report high spatial resolution HST imagery and photometry of three well-studied, intense Galactic X-ray binaries, X2129+470, CAL 87, and GX 17+2. All three sources exhibit important anomalies that are not readily interpreted by conventional models. Each source also lies in a severely crowded field, and in all cases the anomalies would be removed if much of the light observed from the ground in fact came from a nearby, thus far unresolved superposed companion. For V1727 Cyg (X2129+470), we find no such companion. We also present an HST FOS spectrum and broadband photometry which is consistent with a single, normal star. The supersoft LMC X-ray source CAL 87 was already known from ground-based work to have a companion separated by O.9 minutes from the optical counterpart; our HST images clearly resolve these objects and yield the discovery of an even closer, somewhat fainter additional companion. Our photometry indicates that contamination is not severe outside eclipse, where the companions only contribute 20% of the light in V, but during eclipse more than half of the V light comes from the companions. The previously determined spectral type of the CAL 87 secondary may need to be reevaluated due to this significant contamination, with consequences on inferences of the mass of the components. We find no companions to NP Ser (= X1813-14, = GX 17+2). However, for this object we point out a small but possibly significant astrometric discrepancy between the position of the optical object and that of the radio source which is the basis for the identification. This discrepancy needs to be clarified.

  10. Magnetic Dynamos and X-ray Activity in Ultracool Dwarfs (UCDs): Constraining the Role of Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin A.; Williams, P. K.; Berger, E.

    2014-01-01

    Although many fully-convective stars are magnetically active, the mechanisms by which they generate, sustain, and dissipate their magnetic fields are not well-understood. Observations suggest that empirical relations between X-ray activity, rotation, and radio emission evolve dramatically between the solar and ultracool dwarf (UCD; spectral types later than ~M6) regimes. The limited number of X-ray detections has prevented the drawing of firm conclusions, however. We combine new Chandra observations of seven late-M dwarfs with three previously-unpublished measurements from the Chandra archive and data from the literature to construct a database of 38 ultracool dwarfs with both X-ray and rotation measurements, the largest such catalog yet presented. We identify a substantial number of rapidly-rotating UCDs with X-ray activity as far as two orders of magnitude below the standard "saturation" level and find a significant anticorrelation between rotation and X-ray activity. We discuss several proposed "supersaturation" mechanisms that suggest a direct connection between faster rotation and suppression of X-ray activity and find many of them to be inconsistent with the data. We instead suggest the observed effect may be indirectly driven by a separate parameter correlated with both X-ray activity and rotation. The strength and topology of large-scale stellar magnetic fields have been found to vary widely within UCDs of similar stellar parameters. We speculate varying field topologies could explain the observed trends. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution. We also acknowledge support from the NSF through Grant AST-1008361 and from NASA through Chandra Award Number G02-13007A issued by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and NASA under contract NAS8-03060.

  11. 1SXPS: A Deep Swift X-Ray Telescope Point Source Catalog with Light Curves and Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, P. A.; Osborne, J. P.; Beardmore, A. P.; Page, K. L.; Willingale, R.; Mountford, C. J.; Pagani, C.; Burrows, D. N.; Kennea, J. A.; Perri, M.; Tagliaferri, G.; Gehrels, N.

    2013-01-01

    We present the 1SXPS (Swift-XRT point source) catalog of 151,524 X-ray point sources detected by the Swift-XRT in 8 yr of operation. The catalog covers 1905 sq deg distributed approximately uniformly on the sky. We analyze the data in two ways. First we consider all observations individually, for which we have a typical sensitivity of approximately 3 × 10(exp -13) erg cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) (0.3-10 keV). Then we co-add all data covering the same location on the sky: these images have a typical sensitivity of approximately 9 × 10(exp -14) erg cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) (0.3-10 keV). Our sky coverage is nearly 2.5 times that of 3XMM-DR4, although the catalog is a factor of approximately 1.5 less sensitive. The median position error is 5.5 (90% confidence), including systematics. Our source detection method improves on that used in previous X-ray Telescope (XRT) catalogs and we report greater than 68,000 new X-ray sources. The goals and observing strategy of the Swift satellite allow us to probe source variability on multiple timescales, and we find approximately 30,000 variable objects in our catalog. For every source we give positions, fluxes, time series (in four energy bands and two hardness ratios), estimates of the spectral properties, spectra and spectral fits for the brightest sources, and variability probabilities in multiple energy bands and timescales.

  12. Get the Latest on the World's Most Powerful X-ray Telescope: NASA Experts Available to Talk About Chandra Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    Media Advisory: 99-142 You could read a newspaper from half a mile away or see a stop sign from 12 miles. That’s the kind of strength packed into the world’s most powerful X-ray telescope. Its name is the Chandra X-ray observatory and it starts a five-year mission this week when the Space Shuttle’s first female commander, Eileen Collins, and her crew release the new observatory from the Shuttle’s payload bay. Chandra is the largest and heaviest payload ever launched by the Space Shuttle. Using Chandra, scientists will learn more about black holes, study quasars at the edge of the universe, analyze comets in our solar system, and more. Get the story on NASA’s newest great observatory from the experts at the Operations Control Center in Cambridge, Mass. Who: Chandra Experts When: Beginning Tuesday evening, July 20 through July 27 Time: 6 - 10 a.m.; 6 - 10 p.m. EDT Satellite Windows: 10 minutes Satellite Interview Information: Robert Drake, Producer (256) 544-4139 (256) 544-1183 (PIN 0022) Story Information: Tim Tyson, Media Relations (256) 544-0034

  13. Structure and stress studies of low temperature annealed W/Si multilayers for the X-ray telescope.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiushi; Zhang, Jinshuai; Qi, Runze; Yang, Yang; Wang, Fengli; Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Zhong; Wang, Zhanshan

    2016-07-11

    Low stress W/Si multilayer mirrors are demanded in the hard X-ray telescopes to achieve the high angular resolution. To reduce the stress of the as-deposited multilayer and maintain a high reflectivity, two groups of low-temperature annealing experiments were performed on the periodic multilayers with a d-spacing of ~3.8 nm. The temperature-dependent experiments show that the 150 °C annealing can slightly increase the reflectivity while the stress reduced only by 24%. Higher temperature annealing induced a larger reduction of the stress and the multilayer reached an almost zero stress state at 250 °C. The stress relaxation was accompanied by a small drop of reflectivity of ≤5% and a period compaction of <0.02 nm. The time-dependent experiments indicate that most of the stress changes occurred within the first 10 minutes while a prolonged annealing is not useful. The X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy were further used to study the microstructure changes of the multilayers. It is found that the W/Si multilayer exhibits an amorphous structure before and after annealing, while an enhanced diffusion and intermixing is the main reason for the stress relaxation and structure changes. PMID:27410835

  14. The SPARX Project: R & D Activity Towards X-Rays FEL Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Alesini, D.; Bellaveglia, M.; Bertolucci, S.; Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Castellano, M.; Clozza, A.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Esposito, A.; Ferrario, M.; Filippetto, D.; Fusco, V.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Incurvati, M.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Migliorati, M.; /Frascati /ENEA, Frascati /INFN, Milan /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome2 /Milan Polytechnic /UCLA /SLAC

    2005-08-05

    SPARX is an evolutionary project proposed by a collaboration among ENEA-INFN-CNR-Universita di Roma Tor Vergata aiming at the construction of a FELSASE X-ray source in the Tor Vergata Campus. The first phase of the SPARX project, funded by Government Agencies, will be focused on R&D activity on critical components and techniques for future X-ray facilities as described in this paper.

  15. Flight qualified solid argon cooler for the BBXRT instrument. [Broad Band X Ray Telescope for ASTRO-1 payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cygnarowicz, Thomas A.; Schein, Michael E.; Lindauer, David A.; Scarlotti, Roger; Pederson, Robert

    1990-01-01

    A solid argon cooler (SAC) for attached Shuttle payloads has been developed and qualified to meet the need for low cost cooling of flight instruments to the temperature range of 60-120 K. The SACs have been designed and tested with the intent of flying them up to five times. Two coolers, as part of the Broad Band X-ray Telescope (BBXRT) instrument on the ASTRO-1 payload, are awaiting launch on Space Shuttle mission STS-35. This paper describes the design, testing and performance of the SAC and its vacuum maintenance system (VMS), used to maintain the argon as a solid during launch delays of up to 5 days. BBXRT cryogen system design features used to satisfy Shuttle safety requirements are discussed, along with SAC ground servicing equipment (GSE) and procedures used to fill, freeze and subcool the argon.

  16. Simulated Solar Flare X-Ray and Thermal Cycling Durability Evaluation of Hubble Space Telescope Thermal Control Candidate Replacement Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Scheiman, David A.

    1998-01-01

    During the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) second servicing mission (SM2), astronauts noticed that the multilayer insulation (MLI) covering the telescope was damaged. Large pieces of the outer layer of MLI (aluminized Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP)) were torn in several locations around the telescope. A piece of curled up Al-FEP was retrieved by the astronauts and was found to be severely embrittled, as witnessed by ground testing. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) organized a HST MLI Failure Review Board (FRB) to determine the damage mechanism of FEP in the HST environment, and to recommend replacement insulation material to be installed on HST during the third servicing mission (SM3) in 1999. Candidate thermal control replacement materials were chosen by the FRB and tested for environmental durability under various exposures and durations. This paper describes durability testing of candidate materials which were exposed to charged particle radiation, simulated solar flare x-ray radiation and thermal cycling under load. Samples were evaluated for changes in solar absorptance and tear resistance. Descriptions of environmental exposures and durability evaluations of these materials are presented.

  17. [Build and Demonstrate a X-Ray Interferometer and Build and Fly a High Resolution Telescope on a Sounding Rocket}

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report is written with eight months still go on the 36 month period of the grant. This grant, as originally proposed three years ago, was two pronged - to build and demonstrate a practical x-ray interferometer, and to build and fly a high resolution telescope on a sounding rocket. As we started into these projects, we received community feedback that led to our giving priority to the interferometer., The rocket would achieve O.2-arcsecond resolution that, while better, than that of Chandra, would, because of the limited signal of a sub-orbital flight, not be of substantially greater scientific use. The interferometry, on the other hand, shows the potential for many orders of magnitude improvement. For this reason we gave priority to the lab interferometry, and the building of the telescope lagged behind. With our new understanding (and practical demonstration) of how to build an interferometer, we changed the telescope design from spherical surfaces in the Kirkpatrick-Baez configuration, to an interferometer with resolution between .005 and .05 arcseconds.

  18. X-ray spectroscopy of AGN with the AXAF 'Microcalorimeter'. [Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Stephen S.

    1987-01-01

    A novel technique for X-ray spectroscopy has been configured as part of the definition payload of the AXAF Observatory. It is basically a calorimeter which, operating at 0.1 K, senses the total conversion of single photoelectrically absorbed X-rays via the differential temperature rise of the absorber. The technique promises to achieve less than 10 eV FWHM with near-unit efficiency simultaneously over the entire AXAF bandpass. This combination of high resolution and high efficiency allows for the possibility of investigating thermal, fluorescent and absorption X-ray line features in many types of X-ray source, including a large sample of active galactic nuclei.

  19. Intense X-ray flares from active stellar systems - EV Lacertae and HD 8357

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambruster, C.; Snyder, W. A.; Wood, K. S.

    1984-01-01

    The HEAO A-1 Sky Survey Experiment included X-ray data used to define light curves for the flare star EV Lac and for X-ray flares observed in the binary system HD 8357. The data were taken during flare events and were detailed enough to calculate the flare rates and flaring luminosities. The peak luminosities during flares were several times the luminosities in normal X-ray flares emitted by the objects. Peak luminosities reached 30-50 times the normal variations and were associated with an order of magnitude increase in energy output. EV Lac was sufficiently active to be recommended for inclusion in future X-ray monitoring programs.

  20. Vibration properties of hard x-ray telescope on board satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaka, Tatsuro; Igarashi, Takeyuki; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Ogi, Keiji; Itoh, Keitaro; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Ichida, Manabu; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Miyazawa, Takuya; Kunieda, Hideyo

    2010-07-01

    ASTRO-H is the new Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite for launch in 2013. HXT on board the satellite has a mirror housing which is a cylindrical case and contains reflection mirror foils, which are constrained by alignment bars. In order to investigate vibration properties of HXT on board the satellite, vibration tests and FEM analyses were conducted. From the results of x-vibration test, it was found that there were no resonant frequencies at frequency less than 120 Hz. It also appeared that foils move along grooves of alignment bars when the housing was vibrated because kinetic connection between foils and alignment bars is only friction force. From the simulated results, this loose connection used in the actual HXT housing is useful to suppress a strong resonance at 51Hz predicted by supposing tight connections such as adhesiveness. As for z-vibration properties, vibration property of the housing was complicated since foils leap when zacceleration becomes larger than 1G. However it could be confirmed that the distinct resonant peaks did not appear at frequency less than 200 Hz. From these results, it was found that HXT housing had not any resonant frequencies less than 120 Hz, which is the maximum frequency of sinusoidal vibrations applied when launched.

  1. Disentangling AGN and starburst activities in NGC 6240 from an X-ray perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junfeng

    2016-02-01

    The circum-nuclear region in an active galaxy is often complex with presence of high excitation gas, collimated radio outflow, and star formation activities, besides the actively accreting supermassive black hole. The unique spatial resolving power of Chandra X-ray imaging spectroscopy enables more investigations to disentangle the active galactic nuclei and starburst activities. For galaxies in the throes of a violent merging event such as NGC6240, we were able to resolve the high temperature gas surrounding its binary active black holes and discovered a large scale soft X-ray halo.

  2. Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. IV - The soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Powell, Forbes R.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Hoover, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    NASA's Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array uses various combinations of thin foil filters composed of Al, C, Te, Be, Mo, Rh, and phthalocyanine to achieve the requisite radiation-rejection characteristics. Such rejection is demanded by the presence of strong EUV radiation at longer wavelengths where the specular reflectivity of multilayer mirrors can cause 'contamination' of the image in the narrow band defined by the Bragg condition.

  3. LUMINOUS X-RAY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Koulouridis, E.; Plionis, M.

    2010-05-10

    We present a study of X-ray active galactic nucleus (AGN) overdensities in 16 Abell clusters, within the redshift range 0.073 < z < 0.279, in order to investigate the effect of the hot inter-cluster environment on the triggering of the AGN phenomenon. The X-ray AGN overdensities, with respect to the field expectations, were estimated for sources with L{sub x} {>=} 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} (at the redshift of the clusters) and within an area of 1 h {sup -1} {sub 72} Mpc radius (excluding the core). To investigate the presence or absence of a true enhancement of luminous X-ray AGNs in the cluster area, we also derived the corresponding optical galaxy overdensities, using a suitable range of r-band magnitudes. We always find the latter to be significantly higher (and only in two cases roughly equal) with respect to the corresponding X-ray overdensities. Over the whole cluster sample, the mean X-ray point-source overdensity is a factor of {approx}4 less than that corresponding to bright optical galaxies, a difference which is significant at a >0.995 level, as indicated by an appropriate student's t-test. We conclude that the triggering of luminous X-ray AGNs in rich clusters is strongly suppressed. Furthermore, searching for optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey counterparts of all the X-ray sources, associated with our clusters, we found that about half appear to be background QSOs, while others are background and foreground AGNs or stars. The true overdensity of X-ray point sources, associated with the clusters, is therefore even smaller than what our statistical approach revealed.

  4. Development of high angular resolution x-ray telescopes based on slumped glass foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghigo, M.; Basso, S.; Borsa, F.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Conconi, P.; Pagano, G.; Pareschi, G.; Proserpio, L.; Salmaso, B.; Sironi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Zambra, A.; Parodi, G.; Martelli, F.; Gallieni, D.; Tintori, M.; Bavdaz, M.; Wille, E.

    2012-09-01

    The mirrors of the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) were based on a large number of high quality segments, aiming at achieving a global spatial resolution better than 5” HEW while giving a large collecting area (around 3m2@ 1 keV). A study concerning the hot slumping of thin glass foils was started in Europe, funded by ESA and led by the Brera Astronomical Observatory (INAF-OAB), for the development of a replication technology based on glass material. The study is currently continuing even after the IXO program has been descoped and renamed ATHENA, in the perspective of using the technology under development for other future missions or applications. INAF-OAB efforts have been focused on the "Direct" slumping approach with convex moulds, meaning that during the thermal cycle the optical surface of the glass is in direct contact with the mould surface. The single mirror segments are made of thin glass plates (0.4 mm thick), with a reflecting area of 200 mm × 200 mm. The adopted integration process foresees the use of glass reinforcing ribs for bonding together the plates in such a way to form a rigid and stiff stack of segmented mirror shells; the stack is supported by a thick backplane. During the bonding process, the plates are constrained in close contact with the surface of a precisely figured integration master by the application of vacuum pump suction. In this way, the springback deformations and the low frequency errors still present in the plates' profile after slumping can be corrected. The status of the technology development is presented in this paper, together with the description and metrology of the prototypes already realized or under construction at the Observatory laboratories.

  5. Liquid metal actuators: correctable mounting and assembly of thin-shell x-ray telescope mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruccoleri, Alexander R.; Klingensmith, Martin; Chalifoux, Brandon; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2015-09-01

    An ideal bonding agent for thin-shell x-ray mirrors could be quickly applied to joints and set with deterministic and stable properties. Unfortunately, mirror assembly methods have typically utilized various epoxy formulations which are messy, slow to apply and cure, and far from deterministic or stable. Problems include shrinkage, creep and high thermal and humidity sensitivity. Once the bond is set errors are frozen in and cannot be corrected. We are developing a new method for bonding thin-foil mirrors that has the potential to solve these problems. Our process to bond mirrors to housing reference points is achieved via small beads of a low-melting-point bonding agent (such as solder or thermoset). The mirror is bonded to small contact surface points under real-time metrology. If the position of the mirror needs to be adjusted after bonding, a small force is applied normal or parallel to the contact surface and a pulsed fiber laser is used to melt an ultrathin layer of the solder for a very short time. The joint is then compressed, stretched or sheared while molten before refreezing in a new position, enabling repeatable and stable mirror position adjustments along the direction of the force in nm-level steps with minimal heat input. We present results from our prototype apparatus demonstrating proof of principle. The initial experiment includes developing a technique to bond D263 glass to Kovar, designing and building a one-dimensional stage to precisely apply force, and using an infrared laser pulse to heat the joint while measuring position and force.

  6. Analysis of nearly simultaneous X-ray and optical observations of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, James Raymond

    Rosemary Hill optical and EINSTEIN X-ray observations of a sample of 36 active galactic nuclei (AGN) were reduced and analyzed. Seventy-two X-ray observations of these sources were reduced, nineteen of which yielded spectral information. Of these spectral observations, significant hydrogen column densities above the galactic value were required for nine of the eleven sources which were observed more than once by EINSTEIN. Correlations between the X-ray and optical luminosities were investigated using the Jefferys method of least squares. This method allows for errors in both variables. The results indicate a strong correlation between the X-ray and optical luminosities for the entire sample. Division of the sample into groups with similar optical variability characteristics show that the less violently violent variable AGN are more highly correlated than the violently variable blazars. Infrared and radio observations were combined with the X-ray and optical observations of six AGN. These sources were modelled in terms of the synchrotron-self-Compton model. The turnover frequency falls between the infrared and radio data and reliable estimates of this parameter are difficult to estimate. Therefore the results were found as a function of the turnover frequency. Four sources required relativistic bulk motion or beaming. Multifrequency spectra made at different times for one individual source, 0235+164, required different amounts of beaming to satisfy the X-ray observations. Sizes of the emitting regions for the sources modelled ranged from 0.5 parsec to 1.0 parsec.

  7. The x-ray telescope eROSITA: qualification of the thermal control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürmetz, Maria; Eder, Josef; Pfeffermann, Elmar; Predehl, Peter

    2014-07-01

    eROSITA is the core instrument on the Spektrum-Röntgen-Gamma (SRG) mission, scheduled for launch in 2016. The main tasks of the thermal control system are heating of the mirror modules, cooling of the camera electronics, cooling of the CCD detectors and temperature control of the telescope structure in general. Special attention is paid to the camera cooling, since it is the most critical one. The complex assembly with the sevenfold symmetry of the eROSITA telescope requires an innovative design. Large distances and a very low operating temperature (-90°C to -100°C) place high demands on the cooling chain. In total, three different types of low-temperature ethane heat pipes are used to transport the heat from the cameras to two radiators outside the telescope structure. Extreme environmental temperature gradients with the Sun on the one side and the cold space on the other present a real challenge not only to the camera cooling systems, but to the overall thermal control. A thermal model of the complete telescope was used to predict the thermal behavior of the telescope and its subsystems. Through various tests, this model could be improved step by step. The most complex test was the space simulation test of the eROSITA qualification model in January 2013 at the IABG facilities in Ottobrunn, Germany. About 50 heaters, a liquid-nitrogen-cooled chamber and a Sun simulator provided realistic mission conditions. Approximately 200 temperature sensors monitored the relevant temperatures during the test. The results were predominantly within the predicted intervals and therefore not only verified the complete concept but also enabled a further refining of the thermal model. This, in turn, allows for reliable predictions of the thermal behavior during the mission. Some deviations required minor changes in the final design which were implemented and re-qualified in a separate test of the thermal control system flight model in March 2014 in the PANTER test facility of MPE

  8. Influence of alignment and surface defects on the performance of X-ray telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsch, D.; Perry, L. M.; Wyman, C. L.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of misalignment and surface deformations on the image quality of a grazing incidence telescope with six nested subsystems are investigated. The axial rms-spot size serves as a measure for the image quality. The surface deformations are simulated by ellipsoidal and sinusoidal deviations from the ideal surface. Misalignments are tilts, decenters, and despaces of the individual elements. The effects of each type of defect are analyzed in a single two-element system. The full nested system is then analyzed in the presence of all possible defects on all 12 elements, whereby the magnitude of the defects is randomized within a given upper limit.

  9. Selective photo-activation analysis with laser-driven x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sudeep; Golovin, Grigory; Powers, Nathan; Liu, Cheng; Chen, Shouyuan; Petersen, Chad; Zhang, Jun; Ghebregziabher, Isaac; Zhao, Baozhen; Brown, Kevin; Mills, Jared; Umstadter, Donald; Haden, Dan; Silano, Jack; Karwowski, Hugon

    2013-04-01

    We discuss a technique for the identification of nuclear isotopes by selective photo-activation analysis. A narrow divergence beam of high-energy photons is produced when a laser driven electron beam Compton backscatters off a counter-propagating high-intensity laser pulse. The x-rays from this compact laser-driven synchrotron light source are MeV energy, narrow-bandwidth, tunable, polarized, and bright (10^8 photons s-1). Such characteristics make these x-rays well-suited for nuclear interrogation by means of triggering (γ,f) and (γ,xn) reactions. The narrow bandwidth of the x-ray light can be exploited to selectively activate nuclei with isotopic sensitivity, without causing unwanted background from collateral activation. Additionally, the polarized nature of the x-rays can be used to study anisotropy of neutron emission, for precise identification of isotopes. Activation by laser-driven synchrotron x-rays will be compared with activation by bremsstrahlung.

  10. Minimalist coupled evolution model for stellar X-ray activity, rotation, mass loss, and magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Eric G.; Owen, James E.

    2016-05-01

    Late-type main-sequence stars exhibit an X-ray to bolometric flux ratio that depends on {tilde{R}o}, the ratio of rotation period to convective turnover time, as {tilde{R}o}^{-ζ } with 2 ≤ ζ ≤ 3 for {tilde{R}o} > 0.13, but saturates with |ζ| < 0.2 for {tilde{R}o} < 0.13. Saturated stars are younger than unsaturated stars and show a broader spread of rotation rates and X-ray activity. The unsaturated stars have magnetic fields and rotation speeds that scale roughly with the square root of their age, though possibly flattening for stars older than the Sun. The connection between faster rotators, stronger fields, and higher activity has been established observationally, but a theory for the unified time-evolution of X-ray luminosity, rotation, magnetic field and mass loss that captures the above trends has been lacking. Here we derive a minimalist holistic framework for the time evolution of these quantities built from combining a Parker wind with new ingredients: (1) explicit sourcing of both the thermal energy launching the wind and the X-ray luminosity via dynamo produced magnetic fields; (2) explicit coupling of X-ray activity and mass-loss saturation to dynamo saturation (via magnetic helicity build-up and convection eddy shredding); (3) use of coronal equilibrium to determine how magnetic energy is divided into wind and X-ray contributions. For solar-type stars younger than the Sun, we infer conduction to be a subdominant power loss compared to X-rays and wind. For older stars, conduction is more important, possibly quenching the wind and reducing angular momentum loss. We focus on the time evolution for stars younger than the Sun, highlighting what is possible for further generalizations. Overall, the approach shows promise towards a unified explanation of all of the aforementioned observational trends.

  11. Performance analysis of grazing incidence imaging systems. [X ray telescope aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, C. E.; Korsch, D.

    1977-01-01

    An exact expression relating the coordinates of a point on the incident ray, a point of reflection from an arbitrary surface, and a point on the reflected ray is derived. The exact relation is then specialized for the case of grazing incidence, and first order and third order systematic analyses are carried out for a single reflective surface and then for a combination of two surfaces. The third order treatment yields a complete set of primary aberrations for single element and two element systems. The importance of a judicious choice for a coordinate system in showing field curvature to clearly be the predominant aberration for a two element system is discussed. The validity of the theory is verified through comparisons with the exact ray trace results for the case of the telescope.

  12. Progress report on air bearing slumping of thin glass mirrors for x-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schattenburg, Mark L.; Chalifoux, Brandon; DeTienne, Michael D.; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Zuo, Heng

    2015-09-01

    The successful NuSTAR telescope was fabricated with thin glass mirrors formed into conic shapes by thermal slumping of thin glass sheets onto high precision mandrels. While mirrors generated by this process have very good figure, the best mirrors to date have a resolution limited to ~7 arc sec, due primarily to mid-range scale spatial frequency errors. These mid-range errors are believed to be due to clumping and particulates in the anti-stick coatings used to prevent sticking between mandrel and mirrors. We have developed a new slumping process which avoids sticking and surface-induced mid-range error by floating hot glass substrates between a pair of porous air bearing mandrels through which compressed nitrogen is forced. We report on the design and testing of an improved air bearing slumping tool and show results of short and long slumping cycles.

  13. THE GLOBAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE HARD X-RAY EXCESS IN TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Tatum, M. M.; Turner, T. J.; Reeves, J. N.; Miller, L.

    2013-01-10

    Recent evidence for a strong 'hard excess' of flux at energies {approx}> 20 keV in some Suzaku observations of type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has motivated an exploratory study of the phenomenon in the local type 1 AGN population. We have selected all type 1 AGNs in the Swift Burst Alert Telescope 58 month catalog and cross-correlated them with the holdings of the Suzaku public archive. We find the hard excess phenomenon to be a ubiquitous property of type 1 AGNs. Taken together, the spectral hardness and equivalent width of Fe K{alpha} emission are consistent with reprocessing by an ensemble of Compton-thick clouds that partially cover the continuum source. In the context of such a model, {approx}80% of the sample has a hardness ratio consistent with >50% covering of the continuum by low-ionization, Compton-thick gas. A more detailed study of the three hardest X-ray spectra in our sample reveal a sharp Fe K absorption edge at {approx}7 keV in each of them, indicating that blurred reflection is not responsible for the very hard spectral forms. Simple considerations place the distribution of Compton-thick clouds at or within the optical broad-line region.

  14. An Extensive Census of Hubble Space Telescope Counterparts to Chandra X-Ray Sources in the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae. II. Time Series and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, Peter D.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Heinke, Craig O.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    2003-10-01

    ) studies by Albrow et al. The X-ray properties of these objects (luminosity, hardness ratios, and variability) are consistent with those of active binaries found in field studies, and the FX/Fopt distribution is significantly different from those of the CVs and the MSPs that are detected (or possibly detected) in the optical. Despite these results, we examine the possibility that a few of the active binaries are MSPs with main-sequence companions resulting from double exchanges in the crowded core of 47 Tuc. No solid evidence is found for a significant population of such objects, and therefore, using the methods of Grindlay et al., we estimate that the number of MSPs in 47 Tuc with luminosities above 1030 ergs s-1 is ~30-40, near the previous lower limit. We present the results of a new, deeper search for faint low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in quiescence. One reasonable and one marginal candidate for optical identification of a quiescent LMXB was found (one is already known). Finally, it is shown that the periods of the blue variables showing little or no evidence for X-ray emission are too long for Roche lobe filling (if the variations are ellipsoidal). These blue variables also show no evidence for the large flickering levels seen in comparably bright CVs. At present we have no satisfactory explanation for these objects, although some may be detached white dwarf-main-sequence star binaries. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at STScI, which is operated by AURA, Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  15. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF THE X-RAY TIME-DELAY TRANSFER FUNCTION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, E.; Miller, L.; Turner, T. J.; Giustini, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Kraemer, S. B.

    2012-11-20

    The origin of the observed time lags, in nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs), between hard and soft X-ray photons is investigated using new XMM-Newton data for the narrow-line Seyfert I galaxy Ark 564 and existing data for 1H 0707-495 and NGC 4051. These AGNs have highly variable X-ray light curves that contain frequent, high peaks of emission. The averaged light curve of the peaks is directly measured from the time series, and it is shown that (1) peaks occur at the same time, within the measurement uncertainties, at all X-ray energies, and (2) there exists a substantial tail of excess emission at hard X-ray energies, which is delayed with respect to the time of the main peak, and is particularly prominent in Ark 564. Observation (1) rules out that the observed lags are caused by Comptonization time delays and disfavors a simple model of propagating fluctuations on the accretion disk. Observation (2) is consistent with time lags caused by Compton-scattering reverberation from material a few thousand light-seconds from the primary X-ray source. The power spectral density and the frequency-dependent phase lags of the peak light curves are consistent with those of the full time series. There is evidence for non-stationarity in the Ark 564 time series in both the Fourier and peaks analyses. A sharp 'negative' lag (variations at hard photon energies lead soft photon energies) observed in Ark 564 appears to be generated by the shape of the hard-band transfer function and does not arise from soft-band reflection of X-rays. These results reinforce the evidence for the existence of X-ray reverberation in type I AGN, which requires that these AGNs are significantly affected by scattering from circumnuclear material a few tens or hundreds of gravitational radii in extent.

  16. Analysis of nearly simultaneous x-ray and optical observations of active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Rosemary Hill optical and EINSTEIN X-ray observations of a sample of 36 galactic nuclei (AGN) were reduced and analyzed. Seventy-two x-ray observations of these sources were reduced, nineteen of which yielded spectral information. Of these spectra observations, significant hydrogen column densities above the galactic value were required for nine of the active galactic nuclei. X-ray variability was detected in eight of the eleven sources which were observed more than once by EINSTEIN. Correlations between the x-ray and optical luminosities were investigated using the Jefferys method of least squares. This method allows for errors in both variables. The results indicate a strong correlation between the x-ray and optical luminosities for the entire sample. Division of the sample into groups with similar optical variability characteristics show that the less violently violent variable AGN are more highly correlated than the violently variable blazars. Infrared and radio observations were combined with the x-ray and optical observations of six AGN. These sources were modelled in terms of the synchrotron-self-Compton model. The turnover frequency falls between the infrared and radio data and reliable estimates of this parameter are difficult to estimate. Therefore the results were found as a function of the turnover frequency. Four sources required relativistic bulk motion or beaming. Multifrequency spectra made at different times for one individual source, 0235+164, required different amounts of beaming to satisfy the x-ray observations. Sizes of the emitting regions for the sources modelled ranged from 0.5 parsec to 1.0 parsec.

  17. Water maser emission from X-ray-heated circumnuclear gas in active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Maloney, Philip R.; Conger, Sarah

    1994-01-01

    We have modeled the physical and chemical conditions present within dense circumnuclear gas that is irradiated by X-rays from an active galactic nucleus. Over a wide range of X-ray fluxes and gas pressures, the effects of X-ray heating give rise to a molecular layer at temperatures of 400-1000 K within which the water abundance is large. The physical conditions within this molecular layer naturally give rise to collisionally pumped maser emission in the 6(sub 16) - 5(sub 23) 22 GHz transition of ortho-water, with predicted maser luminosities of 10(exp 2 +/- 0.5) solar luminosity per sq. pc of illuminated area. Given plausible assumptions about the geometry of the source and about the degree to which the maser emission is anisotropic, such surface luminosities are sufficient to explain the large apparent luminosities observed in water maser sources that are associated with active galactic nuclei.

  18. Thin fused silica optics for a few arcsec angular resolution and large collecting area x-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citterio, O.; Civitani, M. M.; Pareschi, G.; Basso, S.; Campana, S.; Conconi, P.; Ghigo, M.; Mattaini, E.; Moretti, A.; Parodi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2013-09-01

    The implementation of a X-ray mission with high imaging capabilities, similar to those achieved with Chandra (< 1 arcsec Half Energy Width, HEW), but with a much larger throughput is a very attractive perspective, even if challenging. For such a mission the scientific opportunities, in particular for the study of the early Universe, would remain at the state of the art for the next decades. At the beginning of the new millennium the XEUS mission has been proposed, with an effective area of several m2 and an angular resolution better than 2 arcsec HEW. Unfortunately, after the initial study, this mission was not implemented, mainly due to the costs and the low level of technology readiness. Currently the most advanced proposal for such a kind of mission is the SMART-X project, led by CfA and involving several other US Institutes. This project is based on adjustable segments of thin foil mirrors with piezo-electric actuators, aiming to achieve an effective area < 2 m2 at 1 keV and an angular resolution better than 1 arcsec HEW. Another attractive technology to realize an X-ray telescope with similar characteristics is being developed at NASA/Goddard. In this case the mirrors are based on Si substrates that are super-polished and figured starting from a bulky Si ingot, from which they are properly cut. Here we propose an alternative method based on precise direct grinding, figuring and polishing of thin (a few mm) glass shells with innovative deterministic polishing methods. This is followed by a final correction via ion figuring to obtain the desired accuracy in order to achieve the 1 arc sec HEW requirement. For this purpose, a temporary stiffening structure is used to support the shell from the polishing operations up to its integration in the telescope supporting structure. We will present the technological process under development, the results achieved so far and some mission scenarios based on this kind of optics, aiming to achieve an effective area more than

  19. Thin fused silica optics for a high angular resolution and large collecting area X Ray telescope after Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareschi, Giovanni; Citterio, Oberto; Civitani, Marta M; Basso, Stefano; Campana, Sergio; Conconi, Paolo; Ghigo, Mauro; Mattaini, Enrico; Moretti, Alberto; Parodi, Giancarlo; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero

    2014-08-01

    The implementation of an X-ray mission with high imaging capabilities, similar to those achieved with Chandra (<1 arcsec Half Energy Width, HEW), but with a much larger throughput is very attractive, even if challenging. For such a mission the scientific opportunities, in particular for the study of the early Universe, would remain at the state of the art for the next decades. Initially the ESA-led XEUS mission was proposed, with an effective area of several m2 and an angular resolution better than 2 arcsec HEW. Unfortunately, this mission was not implemented, mainly due to the costs and the low level of technology readiness. Currently the most advanced proposal for such a mission is the SMART-X project, led by CfA together with other US institutes. This project is based on adjustable segments of thin foil mirrors with piezo-electric actuators, aiming to achieve an effective area >2 m2 at 1 keV and an angular resolution better than 1 arcsec HEW. Another attractive technology to realize an X-ray telescope with similar characteristics is being developed at NASA/Goddard. In this case the mirrors are based on Si substrates that are super-polished and figured starting from a bulky Si ingot, from which they are properly cut. Here we propose an alternative method based on precise direct grinding, figuring and polishing of thin (a few mm) glass shells with innovative deterministic polishing methods. This is followed by a final correction via ion figuring to obtain the desired accuracy. For this purpose, a temporary stiffening structure is used to support the shell from the polishing operations up to its integration in the telescope supporting structure. This paper deals with the technological process under development, the results achieved so far and some mission scenarios based on this kind of optics, aiming to achieve an effective area more than 10 times larger than Chandra and an angular resolution of 1 arcsec HEW on axis and of a few arcsec off-axis across a large

  20. Ray tracing simulations for the wide-field x-ray telescope of the Einstein Probe mission based on Geant4 and XRTG4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Donghua; Zhang, Chen; Yuan, Weimin; Willingale, Richard; Ling, Zhixing; Feng, Hua; Li, Hong; Ji, Jianfeng; Wang, Wenxin; Zhang, Shuangnan

    2014-07-01

    Einstein Probe (EP) is a proposed small scientific satellite dedicated to time-domain astrophysics working in the soft X-ray band. It will discover transients and monitor variable objects in 0.5-4 keV, for which it will employ a very large instantaneous field-of-view (60° × 60°), along with moderate spatial resolution (FWHM ˜ 5 arcmin). Its wide-field imaging capability will be achieved by using established technology in novel lobster-eye optics. In this paper, we present Monte-Carlo simulations for the focusing capabilities of EP's Wide-field X-ray Telescope (WXT). The simulations are performed using Geant4 with an X-ray tracer which was developed by cosine (http://cosine.nl/) to trace X-rays. Our work is the first step toward building a comprehensive model with which the design of the X-ray optics and the ultimate sensitivity of the instrument can be optimized by simulating the X-ray tracing and radiation environment of the system, including the focal plane detector and the shielding at the same time.

  1. High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun: Hard X-ray balloon-borne telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskin, J.; Apple, J.; Chavis, K. S.; Dietz, K.; Holt, M.; Koehler, H.; Lis, T.; O'Connor, B.; Otero, M. R.; Pryor, J.; Ramsey, B.; Rinehart-Dawson, M.; Smith, L.; Sobey, A.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Christe, S.; Cramer, A.; Edgerton, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Shih, A.; Gregory, D.; Jasper, J.; Bohon, S.

    Set to fly in the Fall of 2013 from Ft. Sumner, NM, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) mission is a collaborative effort between the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center to upgrade an existing payload, the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) balloon-borne telescope, to make unique scientific measurements of the Sun and astrophysical targets during the same flight. The HEROES science payload consists of 8 mirror modules, housing a total of 109 grazing-incidence optics. These modules are mounted on a carbon-fiber - and Aluminum optical bench 6 m from a matching array of high pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counters, which serve as the focal-plane detectors. The HERO gondola utilizes a differential GPS system (backed by a magnetometer) for coarse pointing in the azimuth and a shaft angle encoder plus inclinometer provides the coarse elevation. The HEROES payload will incorporate a new solar aspect system to supplement the existing star camera, for fine pointing during both the day and night. A mechanical shutter will be added to the star camera to protect it during solar observations. HEROES will also implement two novel alignment monitoring system that will measure the alignment between the optical bench and the star camera and between the optics and detectors for improved pointing and post-flight data reconstruction. The overall payload will also be discussed. This mission is funded by the NASA HOPE (Hands On Project Experience) Training Opportunity awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership, in partnership with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Office of the Chief Engineer and Office of the Chief Technologist.

  2. High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun: Hard X-Ray Balloon-Borne Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Apple, Jeff; StevensonChavis, Katherine; Dietz, Kurt; Holt, Marlon; Koehler, Heather; Lis, Tomasz; O'Connor, Brian; RodriquezOtero, Miguel; Pryor, Jonathan; Ramsey, Brian; Rinehart-Dawson, Maegan; Smith, Leigh; Sobey, Alexander; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Christe, Steven; Cramer, Alexander; Edgerton, Melissa; Rodriquez, Marcello; Shih, Albert; Gregory, Don; Jasper, John; Bohon, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Set to fly in the Fall of 2013 from Ft. Sumner, NM, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) mission is a collaborative effort between the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center to upgrade an existing payload, the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) balloon-borne telescope, to make unique scientific measurements of the Sun and astrophysical targets during the same flight. The HEROES science payload consists of 8 mirror modules, housing a total of 109 grazing-incidence optics. These modules are mounted on a carbon-fiber - and Aluminum optical bench 6 m from a matching array of high pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counters, which serve as the focal-plane detectors. The HERO gondola utilizes a differential GPS system (backed by a magnetometer) for coarse pointing in the azimuth and a shaft angle encoder plus inclinometer provides the coarse elevation. The HEROES payload will incorporate a new solar aspect system to supplement the existing star camera, for fine pointing during both the day and night. A mechanical shutter will be added to the star camera to protect it during solar observations. HEROES will also implement two novel alignment monitoring system that will measure the alignment between the optical bench and the star camera and between the optics and detectors for improved pointing and post-flight data reconstruction. The overall payload will also be discussed. This mission is funded by the NASA HOPE (Hands On Project Experience) Training Opportunity awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership, in partnership with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Office of the Chief Engineer and Office of the Chief Technologist

  3. X-ray crystal structure of divalent metal-activated ß-xyloisdase, RS223BX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the first X-ray structure of a glycoside hydrolase family 43 ß-xylosidase, RS223BX, which is strongly activated by the addition of divalent metal cations. The 2.69 Å structure reveals that the Ca2+ cation is located at the back of the active site pocket. The Ca2+ coordinates to H274 to sta...

  4. X-ray induced stellar mass loss near active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voit, G. Mark; Shull, J. Michael

    1988-01-01

    The effects of UV and X-ray radiation on stars in active galactic nuclei (AGN) are critically evaluated. Mass loss rates in X-ray-induced winds are evaluated for realistic red giant models, and the effects of the ablation of stellar envelopes by radiation pressure are considered. The importance of X-ray-induced mass loss in the standard quasar model is evaluated and whether it can provide a source of accretion fuel or emission-line clouds is discussed. It is concluded that thermal winds driven by X-ray heating are a minor total supply of mass to AGN, but that thermal plus line-driven winds and stellar ablation may increase the mass loss and improve the chances for supplying a fraction of the necessary mass supply to the central object. It is speculated that when steady winds are inefficient, complex time-dependent processes due to X-ray energy injection deep into a stellar atmosphere could still release significant mass from stars.

  5. Solar activity: The Sun as an X-ray star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.

    1981-01-01

    The existence and constant activity of the Sun's outer atmosphere are thought to be due to the continual emergence of magnetic fields from the Solar interior and the stressing of these fields at or near the surface layers of the Sun. The structure and activity of the corona are thus symptomatic of the underlying magnetic dynamo and the existence of an outer turbulent convective zone on the Sun. A sufficient condition for the existence of coronal activity on other stars would be the existence of a magnetic dynamo and an outer convective zone. The theoretical relationship between magnetic fields and coronal activity can be tested by Solar observations, for which the individual loop structures can be resolved. A number of parameters however, which enter into the alternative theoretical formulations remain fixed in all Solar observations. To determine whether these are truly parameters of the theory observations need to be extended to nearby stars on which suitable conditions may occur.

  6. The optical emission lines of type 1 X-ray bright Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Mura, G.; Berton, M.; Ciroi, S.; Cracco, V.; Di Mille, F.; Rafanelli, P.

    2014-10-01

    A strong X-ray emission is one of the defining signatures of nuclear activity in galaxies. According to the Unified Model for Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), both the X-ray radiation and the prominent broad emission lines, characterizing the optical and UV spectra of Type 1 AGNs, are originated in the innermost regions of the sources, close to the Super Massive Black Holes (SMBH), which power the central engine. Since the emission is concentrated in a very compact region (with typical size r⩽0.1 pc) and it is not possible to obtain resolved images of the source, spectroscopic studies of this radiation represent the only valuable key to constrain the physical properties of matter and its structure in the center of active galaxies. Based on previous studies on the physics of the Broad Line Region (BLR) and on the X-ray spectra of broad (FWHMHβ ⩾ 2000 km s-1) and narrow line (1000 km s-1 ⩽FWHMHβ ⩽ 2000 km s-1) emitting objects, it has been observed that the kinematic and ionization properties of matter close to the SMBHs are related together, and, in particular, that ionization is higher in narrow line sources. Here we report on the study of the optical and X-ray spectra of a sample of Type 1 AGNs, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database, within an upper redshift limit of z=0.35, and detected at X-ray energies. We present analysis of the broad emission line fluxes and profiles, as well as the properties of the X-ray continuum and Fe Kα emission and we use these parameters to assess the consistency of our current AGN understanding.

  7. Compton polarimeter as a focal plane detector for hard X-ray telescope: sensitivity estimation with Geant4 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, T.; Vadawale, S. V.; Pendharkar, J.

    2013-04-01

    X-ray polarimetry can be an important tool for investigating various physical processes as well as their geometries at the celestial X-ray sources. However, X-ray polarimetry has not progressed much compared to the spectroscopy, timing and imaging mainly due to the extremely photon-hungry nature of X-ray polarimetry leading to severely limited sensitivity of X-ray polarimeters. The great improvement in sensitivity in spectroscopy and imaging was possible due to focusing X-ray optics which is effective only at the soft X-ray energy range. Similar improvement in sensitivity of polarisation measurement at soft X-ray range is expected in near future with the advent of GEM based photoelectric polarimeters. However, at energies >10 keV, even spectroscopic and imaging sensitivities of X-ray detector are limited due to lack of focusing optics. Thus hard X-ray polarimetry so far has been largely unexplored area. On the other hand, typically the polarisation degree is expected to increase at higher energies as the radiation from non-thermal processes is dominant fraction. So polarisation measurement in hard X-ray can yield significant insights into such processes. With the recent availability of hard X-ray optics (e.g. with upcoming NuSTAR, Astro-H missions) which can focus X-rays from 5 KeV to 80 KeV, sensitivity of X-ray detectors in hard X-ray range is expected to improve significantly. In this context we explore feasibility of a focal plane hard X-ray polarimeter based on Compton scattering having a thin plastic scatterer surrounded by cylindrical array scintillator detectors. We have carried out detailed Geant4 simulation to estimate the modulation factor for 100 % polarized beam as well as polarimetric efficiency of this configuration. We have also validated these results with a semi-analytical approach. Here we present the initial results of polarisation sensitivities of such focal plane Compton polarimeter coupled with the reflection efficiency of present era hard X-ray

  8. THE EFFECTS OF X-RAY FEEDBACK FROM ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI ON HOST GALAXY EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hambrick, D. Clay; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Naab, Thorsten; Johansson, Peter H.

    2011-09-01

    Hydrodynamic simulations of galaxies with active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have typically employed feedback that is purely local, i.e., an injection of energy to the immediate neighborhood of the black hole (BH). We perform GADGET-2 simulations of massive elliptical galaxies with an additional feedback component: an observationally calibrated X-ray radiation field which emanates from the BH and heats gas out to large radii from the galaxy center. We find that including the heating and radiation pressure associated with this X-ray flux in our simulations enhances the effects which are commonly reported from AGN feedback. This new feedback model is twice as effective as traditional feedback at suppressing star formation, produces three times less star formation in the last 6 Gyr, and modestly lowers the final BH mass (30%). It is also significantly more effective than an X-ray background in reducing the number of satellite galaxies.

  9. Global analysis of active longitudes of solar X-ray flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Mursula, K.; Usoskin, I.; Wang, H.

    2011-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that various manifestations of solar activity are non-axisymmetric and mainly occur in two preferred longitude ranges, so called active longitudes. We have earlier analyzed the longitudinal occurrence of solar X-ray flares observed by GOES satellites using a specially developed dynamic, differentially rotating coordinate system. In this frame, the longitude distribution shows two persistent preferred longitudes separated by about 180 degrees whose strength alternates in time according to the so called flip-flop phenomenon. Here we make the first global statistical analysis to find the best fitting values for parameters describing the differential rotation of active longitudes of X-ray flares. We find that the new analysis greatly improves the earlier values for the rotation parameters, making them consistent between the three different classes of X-ray flares. The improved parameters also yield a systematically higher level of non-axisymmetry for the longitudinal distribution, thus increasing the statistical significance of the existence of active longitudes. Accordingly, a significant amount of X-ray flares of different classes are produced by the same two active longitudes. We also find a significant difference between the rotation rates in the two solar hemispheres, with active longitudes rotating faster than the Carrington rate in the northern hemisphere and slower than the Carrington rate in the southern hemisphere.

  10. X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANTS METHOD DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jurgensen, A; David Missimer, D; Ronny Rutherford, R

    2007-08-08

    The x-ray fluorescence laboratory (XRF) in the Analytical Development Directorate (ADD) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop an x-ray fluorescence spectrometry method for elemental characterization of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pretreated low activity waste (LAW) stream to the LAW Vitrification Plant. The WTP is evaluating the potential for using XRF as a rapid turnaround technique to support LAW product compliance and glass former batching. The overall objective of this task was to develop an XRF analytical method that provides rapid turnaround time (<8 hours), while providing sufficient accuracy and precision to determine variations in waste.

  11. On the origin of power-law X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlosman, I.; Shaham, J.; Shaviv, G.

    1984-01-01

    In the present analytical model for a power law X-ray continuum production in active galactic nuclei, the dissipation of turbulent energy flux above the accretion disk forms an optically thin transition layer with an inverted temperature gradient. The emitted thermal radiation has a power law spectrum in the 0.1-100 keV range, with a photon energy spectral index gamma of about 0.4-1.0. Thermal X-ray contribution from the layer is 5-10 percent of the total disk luminosity. The gamma value of 0.75 is suggested as a 'natural' power law index for Seyfert galaxies and QSOs.

  12. X-ray Spectroscopy of Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei with XMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiMatteo, Tiziana; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The measurement of black hole masses in nearby galaxies has transformed our understanding of these systems, allowing us to quantify the relevant scales of power, length and time and explore how the activity of black holes is linked to their environments and to the evolution of their host galaxies. In this project, Dr. Tiziana Di Matteo has the primary responsibility for developing and investigating theoretical models for the origin of the X-ray emission observed in low-luminosity AGN. Dr. Di Matteo has been involved in interpreting X-ray data and assessing accretion models throughout the project.

  13. X-ray and Optical follow-up of the mid-2014 Outburst of Aql X-1 at peak and at low activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Poshak; Dhillon, Vik S.; Tomsick, John A.; Butterley, Tim; Littlefair, Stuart M.; Wilson, Richard W.; Kennea, Jamie A.

    2014-09-01

    Following reports of optical and X-ray brightening of the soft X-ray transient Aql X-1 (ATel #6280, #6286), we obtained monitoring observations of the source with the Swift X-ray mission, and with the 0.5 m Durham/Sheffield robotic optical telescope located on La Palma.

  14. The Vignetting Effect of the Soft X-Ray Telescope Onboard Yohkoh: II. Pre-Launch Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, J.; Sakurai, T.

    2016-02-01

    The vignetting effect in the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) onboard Yohkoh is studied using a two-dimensional distribution of the effective area in the field of view taken from a pre-launch experiment. Our initial estimation of the vignetting in SXT was carried out by fitting the data with a second-order polynomial function. The results show that a two-dimensional vignetting effect in SXT is not rotationally symmetric, particularly in the y- (north-south) direction, which is probably due to the offset of SXT's optical center from the location of its CCD center. We adopted a combined functional form consisting of a second-order polynomial function and a Gaussian function to take this asymmetric distribution of the effective area into account. We also considered the steep gradient of the effective area variation at the region near the vignetting center for the case of higher photon energy with this form. We completed a two-dimensional description of the vignetting effect in SXT by a spline surface fit using the "cleaned" effective area data whose noise was reduced satisfactorily by the fitting of our combined function.

  15. Production of thin glass mirrors by hot slumping for x-ray telescopes: present process and ongoing development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmaso, B.; Basso, S.; Brizzolari, C.; Civitani, M.; Ghigo, M.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vecchi, G.

    2014-07-01

    Thin glass foils are considered good candidates to build a segmented X-ray telescope with effective area as large as 2 m2 and angular resolution better than 5 arcsec. In order to produce thin glass mirror segments, we developed a direct hot slumping technique assisted by pressure, in which the shape of a mould is replicated onto the optical surface of the glass. In this paper we present the result obtained with AF32 (by Schott) and EAGLE XG (by Corning) glass types. The selected mould material is Zerodur K20, as it does not require any anti-sticking layer and has a good matching, in terms of Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, with both glass types. Our group already produced a few prototypes, reaching angular resolution near 20 arcsec. In this work, relevant steps forward aimed at attaining a 5 arcsec angular resolution are described, along with the tuning of few key parameters in the slumping process. The results obtained on a newly procured cylindrical Zerodur K20 mould are presented.

  16. The thermal control system of the x-ray telescope eROSITA on Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürmetz, Maria; Eder, Josef; Pfeffermann, Elmar; Predehl, Peter; Tiedemann, Lars

    2012-09-01

    The X-ray telescope eROSITA is the main instrument besides the Russian ART-XC on the Spektrum-Rontgen-Gamma mission. Starting from 2014, an all-sky survey will be performed in the range between 0.3-10keV, followed by pointed observations. The main objective of thismission is the detection of 100 0000 galaxy clusters in order to constrain cosmological parameters, amongst others the density distribution and evolution of dark energy. Due to the minimum lifetime of seven years the thermal control system has to be completely passive without any consumables. With the ideal operational temperature of the CCD cameras being between 173K and 183K, this requires a very effective heat rejection system, consisting of a complex heat pipe system and a good thermal insulation. Simultaneously, a very sensitive temperature control via variable conductance heat pipes is implemented. For special outgassing requirements at the betinning of the mission these heat pipes are not working after launch but can be switched on any time. On the other hand the mirror moduules have to be tempered at room temperature and more than 200W of the electronics have to be dissipated without affecting the surrounding components or the satellite structure. The thermal control system has to be able to keep up the required temperature range and has to guarantee the optimum working conditions for all parts of the instrument. Calculations and verification tests validated the thermal concept.

  17. Novel applications of diagnostic x-rays in activating photo-agents through x-ray induced visible luminescence from rare-earth particles: an in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abliz, Erkinay; Collins, Joshua E.; Friedberg, Joseph S.; Kumar, Ajith; Bell, Howard; Waynant, Ronald W.; Tata, Darrell B.

    2010-02-01

    Photodynamic agents such as Photofrin II (Photo II) utilized in photodynamic therapy (PDT) possess a remarkable property to become preferentially retained within the tumor's micro-environment. Upon the photo-agent's activation through visible light photon absorption, the agents exert their cellular cytotoxicity through type II and type I mechanistic pathways through extensive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS): singlet oxygen 1O2, superoxide anion O2 -, and hydrogen peroxide H2O2, within the intratumoral environment. Unfortunately, due to shallow visible light penetration depth (~2mm to 5mm) in tissues, the PDT strategy currently has largely been restricted to the treatments of surface tumors, such as the melanomas. Additional invasive strategies through optical fibers are currently utilized in getting the visible light into the intended deep seated targets within the body for PDT. In this communication, we report on a novel strategy in utilizing "soft" energy diagnostic X-rays to indirectly activate Photo II through X-ray induced luminescence from Gadolinium oxysulfide (20 micron dimension) particles doped with Terbium: Gd2O2S:Tb. X-ray induced visible luminescence from Gd2O2S:Tb particles was spectroscopically characterized and the ROS production levels from clinically relevant concentration (10 μg/ml) of Photo II was quantified through changes in the Vitamin C absorbance. ROS kinetics through X-ray induced luminescence was found to be similar to the ROS kinetics from red He-Ne laser exposures used in the clinics. Taken together, in-vitro findings herein provide the basis for future studies in determining the safety and efficacy of this non-invasive X-ray induced luminescence strategy in activating photo-agent in deep seated tumors.

  18. Solar x ray astronomy rocket program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The dynamics were studied of the solar corona through the imaging of large scale coronal structures with AS&E High Resolution Soft X ray Imaging Solar Sounding Rocket Payload. The proposal for this program outlined a plan of research based on the construction of a high sensitivity X ray telescope from the optical and electronic components of the previous flight of this payload (36.038CS). Specifically, the X ray sensitive CCD camera was to be placed in the prime focus of the grazing incidence X ray mirror. The improved quantum efficiency of the CCD detector (over the film which had previously been used) allows quantitative measurements of temperature and emission measure in regions of low x ray emission such as helmet streamers beyond 1.2 solar radii or coronal holes. Furthermore, the improved sensitivity of the CCD allows short exposures of bright objects to study unexplored temporal regimes of active region loop evolution.

  19. A normal incidence high resolution X-ray telescope for solar coronal observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon

    1987-01-01

    The preflight preparation of the multilayer mirror fabrication and testing, integration and testing, and WSMR activities are described. Post-flight analysis shows that all payload systems and subsystems performed well within acceptable limits, with the sole exception of the light-blocking prefilters. Suggested corrective actions were discussed. Refurbishment and reflight are then described.

  20. The nuclear X-ray source in NGC 3628: A strange active galactic nucleus or the most luminous high-mass X-ray binary known?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlem, Michael; Heckman, Timothy M.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina

    1995-01-01

    After 12 years, during which its unabsorbed soft X-ray flux in the 0.1-2.0 keV band was almost constant at about f(sub x) approximately 10(exp -12) ergs/s/sq cm, the compact nuclear source in NGC 3628 was not detected in one of our ROSAT observations, with a limiting sensitivity of f(sub x) approximately 5 x 10(exp -14) ergs/s/sq cm. Our data can be explained in two ways. The source is either the most massive X-ray binary known so far, with a greater than and approximately equal to 75 solar mass black hole, or an unusual low-luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). The X-ray spectrum is typical of a high-mass X-ray binary, while the luminosity of the source of L(sub x) is approximately equal to 10(exp 40) ergs/s is more similar to those of low-luminosity AGNs. If it is an AGN, variable obscuration might explain the observed light curve.

  1. Elliptically Bent X-ray Mirrors with Active Temperature Stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Sheng; Church, Matthew; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Celestre, Rich; McKinney, Wayne R.; Kirschman, Jonathan; Morrison, Greg; Noll, Tino; Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard A.

    2010-01-31

    We present details of design of elliptically bent Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors developed and successfully used at the Advanced Light Source for submicron focusing. A distinctive feature of the mirror design is an active temperature stabilization based on a Peltier element attached directly to the mirror body. The design and materials have been carefully optimized to provide high heat conductance between the mirror body and substrate. We describe the experimental procedures used when assembling and precisely shaping the mirrors, with special attention paid to laboratory testing of the mirror-temperature stabilization. For this purpose, the temperature dependence of the surface slope profile of a specially fabricated test mirror placed inside a temperature-controlled container was measured. We demonstrate that with active mirror-temperature stabilization, a change of the surrounding temperature by more than 3K does not noticeably affect the mirror figure. Without temperature stabilization, the surface slope changes by approximately 1.5 ?mu rad rms (primarily defocus) under the same conditions.

  2. Active Galactic Nuclei, Quasars, BL Lac Objects and X-Ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The XMM COSMOS survey is producing the large surface density of X-ray sources anticipated. The first batch of approx. 200 sources is being studied in relation to the large scale structure derived from deep optical/near-IR imaging from Subaru and CFHT. The photometric redshifts from the opt/IR imaging program allow a first look at structure vs. redshift, identifying high z clusters. A consortium of SAO, U. Arizona and the Carnegie Institute of Washington (Pasadena) has started a large program using the 6.5meter Magellan telescopes in Chile with the prime objective of identifying the XMM X-ray sources in the COSMOS field. The first series of observing runs using the new IMACS multi-slit spectrograph on Magellan will take place in January and February of 2005. Some 300 spectra per field will be taken, including 70%-80% of the XMM sources in each field. The four first fields cover the center of the COSMOS field. A VLT consortium is set to obtain bulk redshifts of the field galaxies. The added accuracy of the spectroscopic redshifts over the photo-z's will allow much lower density structures to be seen, voids and filaments. The association of X-ray selected AGNs, and quasars with these filaments, is a major motivation for our studies. Comparison to the deep VLA radio data now becoming available is about to begin.

  3. The Discovery of X-ray Emission from Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Back in 1974 the UHURU catalog (3U) had been published with many UHGLS - unidentified high galactic latitude sources. Identifications were hampered by the square degree sized error boxes (positional uncertainties). Could these explain the cosmic X-ray background? Could UHGLS be "X-ray galaxies"? Only three active galaxies (AGNs) had been found as X-ray sources: 3C273, Cen A and NGC 4151, while others had upper limits. What was the difference between X-ray and non-X-ray AGNs? It turned out that the slightly better positioning capability and slightly deeper sensitivity of the Ariel V Sky Survey Instrument (SSI), launched in October 1974, were just enough to show that the UHGLS were Seyfert galaxies. And I was lucky enough that I'd joined the Leicester X-ray group and had taken on the UHGLS for my PhD thesis, with Ken Pounds as my supervisor. With the SSI we made a catalog of high latitude sources, the "2A" catalog, including about a dozen known Seyfert galaxies (lowish luminosity nearby AGNs) and, with Mike Penston and Martin Ward, we went on to identify many of them with both newly discovered normal broad emission line AGNs and a few new "narrow emission line galaxies", or NELGs, as we called them. We are now convinced that it is summation of many obscured NELGs that produce the flat spectrum of the X-ray background, and we are still searching for them in Chandra deep surveys and at higher energies with NuSTAR. There was an obvious connection between the X-ray obscuration and the optical reddening, which must lie outside the region emitting the broad optical spectral lines. Andy Lawrence and I, following a clue from Bill Keel, put this together into what we now call the Unified Scheme for AGN structure. This idea of a flattened torus obscuring the inner regions of the AGN was so dramatically confirmed a few years later -- by Ski Antonucci and Joe Miller's discovery of polarized broad emission lines in NGC1068 -- that the precursor papers became irrelevant. But Ariel

  4. Swift X-ray telescope observations of the nova-like cataclysmic variables MV Lyr, BZ Cam, and V592 Cas

    SciTech Connect

    Balman, Şölen; Godon, Patrick; Sion, Edward M. E-mail: patrick.godon@villanova.edu

    2014-10-10

    We present a total of ∼45 ks (3 × 15 ks) of Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) observations for three nonmagnetic nova-like (NL) cataclysmic variables (CVs; MV Lyr, BZ Cam, V592 Cas) in order to study characteristics of boundary layers (BLs) in CVs. The nonmagnetic NLs are found mostly in a state of high mass accretion rate (≥1 × 10{sup –9} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}), and some show occasional low states. Using the XRT data, we find optically thin multiple-temperature cooling flow type emission spectra with X-ray temperatures (kT {sub max}) of 21-50 keV. These hard X-ray-emitting BLs diverge from simple isobaric cooling flows, indicating X-ray temperatures that are of virial values in the disk. In addition, we detect power-law emission components from MV Lyr and BZ Cam and plausibly from V592 Cas, which may be a result of the Compton scattering of the optically thin emission from the fast wind outflows in these systems and/or Compton upscattering of the soft disk photons. The X-ray luminosities of the (multitemperature) thermal plasma emission in the 0.1-50.0 keV range are (0.9-5.0) × 10{sup 32} erg s{sup –1}. The ratio of the X-ray and disk luminosities (calculated from the UV-optical wavelengths) yields an efficiency (L{sub x} /L {sub disk}) ∼ 0.01-0.001. Given this non-radiative ratio for the X-ray-emitting BLs with no significant optically thick blackbody emission in the soft X-rays (consistent with ROSAT observations), together with the high/virial X-ray temperatures, we suggest that high-state NL systems may have optically thin BLs merged with ADAF-like flows and/or X-ray coronae. In addition, we note that the axisymmetric bipolar and/or rotation-dominated fast-wind outflows detected in these three NLs (particularly BZ Cam and V592 Cas) or some other NL may also be explained in the context of ADAF-like BL regions.

  5. The impact of stellar activity on X-ray and UV transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llama, Joe; Shkolnik, Evgenya

    2015-12-01

    X-ray and UV observations of transiting exoplanets have revealed the presence of extended atmospheres around a number of systems. At high energies, stellar radiation is absorbed high up in the planetary atmosphere, making X-ray and UV observations a potential tool for investigating the upper atmospheres of exoplanets. However, at these high energies, stellar activity can dramatically impact the observations. At short wavelengths the star appears limb-brightened, and active regions appear as bright features on the stellar disk. These will impact both the transit depth and shape, affecting our ability to measure the true planet-to-star radius ratio.I will show results of simulate exoplanet transit light curves using Solar data obtained in the soft X-ray and UV by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory to investigate the impact of stellar activity at these wavelengths. By using a limb-brightened transit model coupled with disk resolved Solar images in the X-ray, extreme- and far-UV I will show how both occulted and unocculted active regions can mimic an inflated planetary atmosphere by changing the depth and shape of the transit profile. I will also show how the disk integrated Lyman-alpha Solar irradiance varies on both short and long timescales and how this variability can impact our ability to recover the true radius ratio of a transiting exoplanet.Finally, I will present techniques on how to overcome these effects to determine the true planet-to-star radius in X-ray and UV observations.

  6. Technology Requirements For a Square-Meter, Arcsecond-Resolution Telescope for X-Rays: The SMART-X Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William; Freeman, Mark; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger; Gubarev, Mikhail; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; O'Dell, Steve; Ramsey, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first supermassive black holes. We have envisioned a mission based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, in order to achieve the required reduction of mass to collecting area for the mirrors. We are pursuing technology which effects this adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMARTX will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no more stringent requirements than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  7. Development of multilayer coatings (Ni/C-Pt/C) for hard x-ray telescopes by e-beam evaporation with ion assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, Daniele; Pareschi, Giovanni; Citterio, Oberto; Banham, Robert; Basso, Stefano; Cassanelli, Marco; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Negri, Barbara; Grisoni, Gabriele; Valsecchi, Giuseppe; Vernani, Dervis

    2004-10-01

    A number of X-ray astronomical missions of near future (XEUS, Constellation-X, SIMBOL-X, HEXIT-SAT, NEXT) will make use of hard X-ray (10-100 keV) optics with broad-band multilayer coatings. To this aim we are developing a multilayer deposition technique for large substrates based on the e-beam deposition technique, improved by the implementation of an ion beam assistance device, in order to reduce the interfacial roughness and improve the reflectivity. The e-beam deposition with ion assistance keeps the film smoothness at a good level and takes the advantage of a reduction of the interlayer stresses. This approach is well suited for the manufacturing of high-reflectance multilayer mirrors for hard X-rays space telescopes where, in addition to a high quality of the deposited films, a volume production is also requested. Moreover, we are also up-grading the replication technique by nickel electroforming, already successfully used for the gold coated soft X-ray mirrors of Beppo-SAX, XMM, JET-X/SWIFT missions, to the case of multilayer coated mirrors. In this paper we will present the technique under development and the implemented deposition facility. Some preliminary, very encouraging, results achieved with the X-ray (8.05 and 17.4 keV) and topographic characterization on flat samples will be discussed.

  8. Empirical electro-optical and x-ray performance evaluation of CMOS active pixels sensor for low dose, high resolution x-ray medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Arvanitis, C D; Bohndiek, S E; Royle, G; Blue, A; Liang, H X; Clark, A; Prydderch, M; Turchetta, R; Speller, R

    2007-12-01

    Monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors with high performance have gained attention in the last few years in many scientific and space applications. In order to evaluate the increasing capabilities of this technology, in particular where low dose high resolution x-ray medical imaging is required, critical electro-optical and physical x-ray performance evaluation was determined. The electro-optical performance includes read noise, full well capacity, interacting quantum efficiency, and pixels cross talk. The x-ray performance, including x-ray sensitivity, modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detection quantum efficiency, has been evaluated in the mammographic energy range. The sensor is a 525 x 525 standard three transistor CMOS active pixel sensor array with more than 75% fill factor and 25 x 25 microm pixel pitch. Reading at 10 f/s, it is found that the sensor has 114 electrons total additive noise, 10(5) electrons full well capacity with shot noise limited operation, and 34% interacting quantum efficiency at 530 nm. Two different structured CsI:Tl phosphors with thickness 95 and 115 microm, respectively, have been optically coupled via a fiber optic plate to the array resulting in two different system configurations. The sensitivity of the two different system configurations was 43 and 47 electrons per x-ray incident on the sensor. The MTF at 10% of the two different system configurations was 9.5 and 9 cycles/mm with detective quantum efficiency of 0.45 and 0.48, respectively, close to zero frequency at approximately 0.44 microC/kg (1.72 mR) detector entrance exposure. The detector was quantum limited at low spatial frequencies and its performance was comparable with high resolution a: Si and charge coupled device based x-ray imagers. The detector also demonstrates almost an order of magnitude lower noise than active matrix flat panel imagers. The results suggest that CMOS active pixel sensors when coupled

  9. Empirical electro-optical and x-ray performance evaluation of CMOS active pixels sensor for low dose, high resolution x-ray medical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Arvanitis, C. D.; Bohndiek, S. E.; Royle, G.; Blue, A.; Liang, H. X.; Clark, A.; Prydderch, M.; Turchetta, R.; Speller, R.

    2007-12-15

    Monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors with high performance have gained attention in the last few years in many scientific and space applications. In order to evaluate the increasing capabilities of this technology, in particular where low dose high resolution x-ray medical imaging is required, critical electro-optical and physical x-ray performance evaluation was determined. The electro-optical performance includes read noise, full well capacity, interacting quantum efficiency, and pixels cross talk. The x-ray performance, including x-ray sensitivity, modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detection quantum efficiency, has been evaluated in the mammographic energy range. The sensor is a 525x525 standard three transistor CMOS active pixel sensor array with more than 75% fill factor and 25x25 {mu}m pixel pitch. Reading at 10 f/s, it is found that the sensor has 114 electrons total additive noise, 10{sup 5} electrons full well capacity with shot noise limited operation, and 34% interacting quantum efficiency at 530 nm. Two different structured CsI:Tl phosphors with thickness 95 and 115 {mu}m, respectively, have been optically coupled via a fiber optic plate to the array resulting in two different system configurations. The sensitivity of the two different system configurations was 43 and 47 electrons per x-ray incident on the sensor. The MTF at 10% of the two different system configurations was 9.5 and 9 cycles/mm with detective quantum efficiency of 0.45 and 0.48, respectively, close to zero frequency at {approx}0.44 {mu}C/kg (1.72 mR) detector entrance exposure. The detector was quantum limited at low spatial frequencies and its performance was comparable with high resolution a:Si and charge coupled device based x-ray imagers. The detector also demonstrates almost an order of magnitude lower noise than active matrix flat panel imagers. The results suggest that CMOS active pixel sensors when coupled to

  10. The effects of X-rays from active galactic nuclei on the interstellar medium of the surrounding galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of an active nucleus on the large-scale properties of the host galaxy are examined, focusing on the effects of X-ray heating on the host galaxy's interstellar medium. The basic properties of AGNs and several questions concerning AGNs are reviewed. The relationship between X-ray heated winds and coronae is outlined. The case of X-ray heated winds in type 2 Seyfert galaxies is discussed.

  11. A thermal stress test of the depth-graded Pt/C reflectors used in the ASTRO-H Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Yoshitomo; Ichihara, Kou; Shionome, Yu; Sato, Takuro; Hayashi, Takayuki; Ishida, Manabu; Kan, Hiroaki; Namba, Yoshiharu; Takahashi, Hideaki; Miyazawa, Takuya; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Sakai, Michito; Sugita, Satoshi; Haba, Yoshito; Matsumoto, Hironori; Mori, Hideyuki

    2012-09-01

    The ASTRO-H Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) to cover hard X-rays up to 80 keV is thin-foil, multi-nested conical optics with depth-graded Pt/C multilayer. The reflectors are made of heat-formed aluminum substrate of the thickness gauged of 200 μm of the alloy 5052, followed by epoxy replication on Pt/C-sputtered smooth Pyrex cylindrical mandrels to acquire the X-ray reflective surface. The epoxy layer is 20 μm depth. In this paper, we report a thermal stress test of the reflectors of the HXT. The reflectors can experience in various temperature environment either in ground or in space. The temperature range can be as wide as several tens degrees in space dependently on the thermal design of the telescope system. We kept the reflectors in the three different temperatures at -5, 50 and 60 degrees, respectively, for a week. It is found that the surface of the reflectors at 60 degrees or higher temperature were significantly changed. The change appears as wrinkles with a typical scale length of a few tens micron meters. It is noticed that the scale length is equivalent to the depth of the epoxy layer, suggesting the existence of the epoxy layer causes the change in the scale length. No changes on the surface were observed from the -5 and 50 degree samples. No change on X-ray reflectivity was also detected from them.

  12. The thermal analysis of the Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) and the investigation of the deformation of the mirror foil due to temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Keitaro; Ogi, Keiji; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Kosaka, Tatsuro; Yamamoto, Yasufumi

    2010-07-01

    The thin film technology called "depth-graded multi-layer" is used to manufacture reflector foils, which are inserted in a hard X-ray telescope. When the temperature of the foil changes from the temperature at which the foil was produced; thermal deformation is induced due to difference of linear coefficient of expansion of its constituents. The deformation causes performance of X-ray image formation to deteriorate. Therefore, it is absolutely imperative to estimate the amount of deformation quantitatively and to establish a method of temperature control for the foil under the thermal environment on orbit. We used the hard X-ray telescope, which is part of the currently-projected the ASTRO-H X-ray satellite, as an example for investigation. The effective method of the HXT thermal control was examined with the thermal analytical software, "Thermal Desktop". The deformation of the foil when the temperature was changed by 1 degree C was predicted by a finite element analysis (FEA). The thermal desktop analysis shows that the overall foil temperature in orbit can be close to the temperature at which the foils were produced (~22degree C) by the newly developed thermal control method. The FEM analysis shows that the prediction of the foil deformation due to a temperature change of 1 degree C is about 8 μm.

  13. A Micromegas-based low-background x-ray detector coupled to a slumped-glass telescope for axion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aznar, F.; Castel, J.; Christensen, F. E.; Dafni, T.; Decker, T. A.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Garcia, J. A.; Giomataris, I.; Garza, J. G.; Hailey, C. J.; Hill, R. M.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jakobsen, A. C.; Luzon, G.; Mirallas, H.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Ruz, J.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the design, construction and operation of a low background x-ray detection line composed of a shielded Micromegas detector of the microbulk technology. The detector is made from radiopure materials and is placed at the focal point of a ~ 5 cm diameter, 1.5 m focal-length, cone-approximation Wolter I x-ray telescope (XRT) assembled from thermally-formed (or "slumped") glass substrates deposited with multilayer coatings. The system has been conceived as a technological pathfinder for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO), as it combines two of the techniques (optic and detector) proposed in the conceptual design of the project. It is innovative for two reasons: it is the first time an x-ray optic has been designed and fabricated specifically for axion research, and the first time a Micromegas detector has been operated with an x-ray optic. The line has been installed at one end of the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) magnet and is currently looking for solar axions. The combination of the XRT and Micromegas detector provides the best signal-to-noise ratio obtained so far by any detection system of the CAST experiment with a background rate of 5.4×10-3 counts per hour in the energy region-of-interest and signal spot area.

  14. Accretion disk winds in active galactic nuclei: X-ray observations, models, and feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombesi, F.

    2016-05-01

    Powerful winds driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are often invoked to play a fundamental role in the evolution of both supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies, quenching star formation and explaining the tight SMBH-galaxy relations. A strong support of this ``quasar mode'' feedback came from the recent X-ray observation of a mildly relativistic accretion disk wind in a ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) and its connection with a large-scale molecular outflow, providing a direct link between the SMBH and the gas out of which stars form. Spectroscopic observations, especially in the X-ray band, show that such accretion disk winds may be common in local AGN and quasars. However, their origin and characteristics are still not fully understood. Detailed theoretical models and simulations focused on radiation, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) or a combination of these two processes to investigate the possible acceleration mechanisms and the dynamics of these winds. Some of these models have been directly compared to X-ray spectra, providing important insights into the wind physics. However, fundamental improvements on these studies will come only from the unprecedented energy resolution and sensitivity of the upcoming X-ray observatories, namely ASTRO-H (launch date early 2016) and Athena (2028).

  15. In situ x-ray, electrochemical, and modeling investigation of the oxygen electrode activation.

    SciTech Connect

    Yildiz, B.; Chang, K.-C.; Meyers, D.; Carter, J. D.; You, H.

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen electrodes of solid oxide electrochemical cells have been shown to improve under strong cathodic and anodic polarization. Our study investigates the mechanism causing such improvement, using in situ x-ray and electrochemical characterization and electrochemical impedance modeling of the oxygen electrodes. Several porous and dense thin-film model electrodes of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSM) and La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LCM) on single crystal yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes have been analyzed in situ at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) using x-ray reflectivity and x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) at the Mn K-edge and La LII-edge. In situ x-ray reflectivity analysis show that no clear correlation between the polarization of the electrode and any further changes in the roughness of the LSM/YSZ interface exist. XANES measurements illustrate that the cathodic or anodic dc polarization at high temperature induces no detectable changes in Mn chemical state either in the bulk or at the surface of the LCM and LSM electrodes on YSZ, while the La chemical state changes reversibly at the electrode surface. This field-induced chemical change of La at the surface of electrodes is assumed to be a cause of the electrochemical activation through enhanced surface exchange of oxygen on the doped lanthanum manganite electrodes.

  16. Future lunar mission Active X-ray Spectrometer development: Surface roughness and geometry studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, M.; Hasebe, N.; Kusano, H.; Nagaoka, H.; Kuwako, M.; Oyama, Y.; Shibamura, E.; Amano, Y.; Ohta, T.; Kim, K. J.; Lopes, J. A. M.

    2015-07-01

    The Active X-ray Spectrometer (AXS) is considered as one of the scientific payload candidates for a future Japanese mission, SELENE-2. The AXS consists of pyroelectric X-ray generators and a Silicon Drift Detector to conduct X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) on the Moon to measure major elements: Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe; minor elements: Na, K, P, S, Cr and Mn; and the trace element Ni depending on their concentration. Some factors such as roughness, grain size and porosity of sample, and the geometry of X-ray incidence, emission and energy will affect the XRF measurements precision. Basic studies on the XRF are required to develop the AXS. In this study, fused samples were used to make homogeneous samples free from the effect of grain size and porosity. Experimental and numerical studies on the XRF were conducted to evaluate the effects from incidence and emission angles and surface roughness. Angle geometry and surface roughness will be optimized for the design of the AXS on future missions from the results of the experiment and the numerical simulation.

  17. ASTRONOMY: Brown Dwarf's Flare Opens X-ray Eyes.

    PubMed

    Seife, C

    2000-07-21

    When the Chandra X-ray Observatory pointed its snout at a failed star 16 light-years away, astronomers expected it to see little sign of activity. Instead, the orbiting telescope got smacked in the eye by an x-ray flare--and astrophysicists are still trying to explain why. PMID:17840567

  18. Magnetic Dynamos and X-Ray Activity in Ultracool Dwarfs (UCDs): Surprises in the Radio Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Peter K.; Cook, B. A.; Berger, E.

    2014-01-01

    Radio observations established early on that some brown dwarfs host kilogauss magnetic fields, despite their low temperatures and the absence of the shearing tachocline that is believed to be key to the solar dynamo. The observed radio emission is often surprisingly bright, exceeding the standard magnetic radio/X-ray (Güdel-Benz) relation by as much as five orders of magnitude. This effect is still not satisfactorily explained. In an attempt to improve matters, we have constructed and analyzed a comprehensive database of ultracool dwarfs with both radio and X-ray data, including new observations of seven targets with Chandra and the upgraded VLA. While all of the newly-observed objects were detected in the X-ray, only one was detected in the radio. These new targets are thus consistent with the standard relation, in striking contrast with some previous data. Some pairs of dwarfs with outwardly similar characteristics (spectral type, v sin i) have dramatically different emission properties, with radio/X-ray ratios that differ by two orders of magnitude. These results suggest that there is dramatic variance in ultracool magnetic activity. As we also discuss in a companion poster examining the relation between rotation and activity, variation in the topology of the magnetic field may explain the data. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution. We also acknowledge support from the NSF through Grant AST-1008361 and from NASA through Chandra Award Number G02-13007A issued by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and NASA under contract NAS8-03060.

  19. Performance and qualification of CdTe pixel detectors for the Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, O.; Bednarzik, M.; Birrer, G.; Arnold, N.; Commichau, V.; Hurford, G.; Krucker, S.; Limousin, O.; Meuris, A.

    2015-02-01

    The Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) is a remote sensing instrument on-board the ESA Solar Orbiter spacecraft. STIX is designated to the study of energetic phenomena in solar flares. A Fourier-imaging technique using tungsten grid collimators in front of CdTe pixel detectors is employed, covering the 4 to 150 keV energy range with a full-width-half maximum resolution around 1 keV at low energies. Acrorad CdTe detectors of 1 mm thickness with a planar aluminum Schottky contact are used as basis for a subsequent patterning process into eight large pixels, four small pixels, and a guard ring. The patterning is done by means of microfabrication technologies. The area of the patterned sensor is 10×10 mm2. Test equipment has been developed for selecting the detectors with best performance prior to integration with the read-out system, and for qualification purposes. The set-up allows pixel-based dark current measurements at low temperatures. Pixel dark currents below 60 pA are needed to avoid excess noise in the read-out ASIC. The best pixels show dark currents below 10 pA at 300 V bias and -20 °C. Spectroscopic measurements with 133Ba sources confirm the good performance. This paper briefly explains the mission context of the CdTe detectors and then gives details of the production and testing procedures. Typical results are shown, with emphasis on performance degradation studies from displacement damage by proton irradiation. This is expected to be the dominant degradation mechanism for this application.

  20. Skylab observations of X-ray loops connecting separate active regions. [solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, R. C.; Krieger, A. S.; Svestka, Z.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1976-01-01

    One hundred loops interconnecting 94 separate active solar regions detectable in soft X-rays were identified during the Skylab mission. While close active regions are commonly interconnected with loops, the number of such interconnections decreases steeply for longer distances; the longest interconnecting loop observed in the Skylab data connected regions separated by 37 deg. Several arguments are presented which support the point of view that this is the actual limit of the size of magnetic interconnections between active regions. No sympathetic flares could be found in the interconnected regions. These results cast doubt on the hypothesis that accelerated particles can be guided in interconnecting loops from one active region to another over distances of 100 deg or more and eventually produce sympathetic flares in them.

  1. Ionized Absorbers in Active Galactic Nuclei and Very Steap Soft X-Ray Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiore, Fabrizio; White, Nicholas (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Steep soft X-ray (0.1-2 keV) quasars share several unusual properties: narrow Balmer lines, strong Fe II emission, large and fast X-ray variability, and a rather steep 2-10 keV spectrum. These intriguing objects have been suggested to be the analogues of Galactic black hole candidates in the high, soft state. We present here results from ASCA observations for two of these quasars: NAB 0205 + 024 and PG 1244 + 026. Both objects show similar variations (factor of approximately 2 in 10 ks), despite a factor of approximately 10 difference in the 0.5-10 keV luminosity (7.3 x 10(exp 43) erg/s for PG 1244 + 026 and 6.4 x 10(exp 44) erg/s for NAB 0205 + 024, assuming isotropic emission, H(sub 0) = 50.0 and q(sub 0) = 0.0). The X-ray continuum of the two quasars flattens by 0.5-1 going from the 0.1-2 keV band towards higher energies, strengthening recent results on another half-dozen steep soft X-ray active galactic nuclei. PG 1244 + 026 shows a significant feature in the '1-keV' region, which can be described either as a broad emission line centered at 0.95 keV (quasar frame) or as edge or line absorption at 1.17 (1.22) keV. The line emission could be a result of reflection from a highly ionized accretion disc, in line with the view that steep soft X-ray quasars are emitting close to the Eddington luminosity. Photoelectric edge absorption or resonant line absorption could be produced by gas outflowing at a large velocity (0.3-0.6 c).

  2. Accretion and Nuclear Activity of Quiescent Supermassive Black Holes. I. X-Ray Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, R.; Fabbiano, G.; Graham, Alister W.; Baldi, A.; Elvis, M.; Jerjen, H.; Pellegrini, S.; Siemiginowska, A.

    2006-03-01

    We have studied the nuclear activity in a sample of six quiescent early-type galaxies, with new Chandra data and archival HST optical images. Their nuclear sources have X-ray luminosities ~1038-1039 ergs s-1 (LX/LEdd~10-8 to 10-7) and colors or spectra consistent with accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs), except for the nucleus of NGC 4486B, which is softer than typical AGN spectra. In a few cases, the X-ray morphology of the nuclear sources shows hints of marginally extended structures, in addition to the surrounding diffuse thermal emission from hot gas, which is detectable on scales >~1 kpc. In one case (NGC 5845), a dusty disk may partially obstruct our direct view of the SMBH. We have estimated the temperature and density of the hot interstellar medium, which is one major source of fuel for the accreting SMBH; typical central densities are ne~(0.02+/-0.01) cm-3. Assuming that the hot gas is captured by the SMBH at the Bondi rate, we show that the observed X-ray luminosities are too faint to be consistent with standard disk accretion, but brighter than predicted by radiatively inefficient solutions (e.g., advection-dominated accretion flows [ADAFs]). In total, there are ~20 galaxies for which SMBH mass, hot gas density, and nuclear X-ray luminosity are simultaneously known. In some cases, the nuclear sources are brighter than predicted by the ADAF model; in other cases, they are consistent or fainter. We discuss the apparent lack of correlations between Bondi rate and X-ray luminosity and suggest that, in order to understand the observed distribution, we need to know two additional parameters: the amount of gas supplied by the stellar population inside the accretion radius, and the fraction (possibly <<1) of the total gas available that is accreted by the SMBH. We leave a detailed study of these issues to a subsequent paper.

  3. ACTIVE GALAXY UNIFICATION IN THE ERA OF X-RAY POLARIMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Dorodnitsyn, A.; Kallman, T.

    2010-03-10

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs), Seyfert galaxies, and quasars are powered by luminous accretion and often accompanied by winds that are powerful enough to affect the AGN mass budget, and whose observational appearance bears an imprint of processes that are happening within the central parsec around the black hole (BH). One example of such a wind is the partially ionized gas responsible for X-ray and UV absorption (warm absorbers). Here, we show that such gas will have a distinct signature when viewed in polarized X-rays. Observations of such polarization can test models for the geometry of the flow and the gas responsible for launching and collimating it. We present calculations that show that the polarization depends on the hydrodynamics of the flow, the quantum mechanics of resonance-line scattering, and the transfer of polarized X-ray light in the highly ionized moving gas. The results emphasize the three-dimensional nature of the wind for modeling spectra. We show that the polarization in the 0.1-10 keV energy range is dominated by the effects of resonance lines. We predict a 5%-25% X-ray polarization signature of type-2 objects in this energy range. These results are generalized to flows that originate from a cold torus-like structure, located {approx}1 pc from the BH, which wraps the BH and is ultimately responsible for the apparent dichotomy between type 1 and type 2 AGNs. Such signals will be detectable by future dedicated X-ray polarimetry space missions, such as the NASA Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer.

  4. A CANDIDATE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS WITH A PURE SOFT THERMAL X-RAY SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Terashima, Yuichi; Kamizasa, Naoya; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Kubota, Aya; Ueda, Yoshihiro

    2012-06-20

    We report the discovery of a candidate active galactic nucleus (AGN), 2XMM J123103.2+110648 at z = 0.13, with an X-ray spectrum represented purely by soft thermal emission reminiscent of Galactic black hole (BH) binaries in the disk-dominated state. This object was found in the second XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalog as a highly variable X-ray source. In three separate observations, its X-ray spectrum can be represented either by a multicolor disk blackbody model with an inner temperature of kT{sub in} Almost-Equal-To 0.16-0.21 keV or a Wien spectrum Comptonized by an optically thick plasma with kT Almost-Equal-To 0.14-0.18 keV. The soft X-ray luminosity in the 0.5-2 keV band is estimated to be (1.6-3.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. Hard emission above {approx}2 keV is not detected. The ratio of the soft to hard emission is the strongest among AGNs observed thus far. Spectra selected in high/low-flux time intervals are examined in order to study spectral variability. In the second observation with the highest signal-to-noise ratio, the low-energy (below 0.7 keV) spectral regime flattens when the flux is high, while the shape of the high-energy part (1-1.7 keV) remains unchanged. This behavior is qualitatively consistent with being caused by strong Comptonization. Both the strong soft excess and spectral change consistent with Comptonization in the X-ray spectrum imply that the Eddington ratio is large, which requires a small BH mass (smaller than {approx}10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }).

  5. Ensemble X-ray variability of active galactic nuclei from serendipitous source catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagnetti, F.; Turriziani, S.; Trevese, D.

    2011-12-01

    Context. The X-ray variability of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) has been most often investigated with studies of individual, nearby sources, and only a few ensemble analyses have been applied to large samples in wide ranges of luminosity and redshift. Aims: We aim to determine the ensemble variability properties of two serendipitously selected AGN samples extracted from the catalogues of XMM-Newton and Swift, with redshift between ~0.2 and ~4.5, and X-ray luminosities, in the 0.5-4.5 keV band, between ~1043 erg/s and ~1046 erg/s. Methods: We used the structure function (SF), which operates in the time domain, and allows for an ensemble analysis even when only a few observations are available for individual sources and the power spectral density (PSD) cannot be derived. The SF is also more appropriate than fractional variability and excess variance, because these parameters are biased by the duration of the monitoring time interval in the rest-frame, and therefore by cosmological time dilation. Results: We find statistically consistent results for the two samples, with the SF described by a power law of the time lag, approximately as SF ∝ τ0.1. We do not find evidence of the break in the SF, at variance with the case of lower luminosity AGNs. We confirm a strong anti-correlation of the variability with X-ray luminosity, accompanied by a change of the slope of the SF. We find evidence in support of a weak, intrinsic, average increase of X-ray variability with redshift. Conclusions: The change of amplitude and slope of the SF with X-ray luminosity provides new constraints on both single oscillator models and multiple subunit models of variability. Tables 1 and 2 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. X-Ray Properties of the First Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect Selected Galaxy Cluster Sample from the South Pole Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, K.; Benson, B. A.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aird, K. A.; Armstrong, B.; Bautz, M.; Bleem, L. E.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Desai, S.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dudley, J. P.; Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R.; Garmire, G.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Halverson, N. W.; High, F. W.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hrubes, J. D.; Jones, C.; Joy, M.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Lueker, M.; Marrone, D. P.; McMahon, J. J.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mohr, J. J.; Montroy, T. E.; Murray, S. S.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruel, J.; Ruhl, J. E.; Schaffer, K. K.; Shaw, L.; Shirokoff, E.; Song, J.; Spieler, H. G.; Stalder, B.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Stubbs, C. W.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikhlinin, A.; Williamson, R.; Yang, Y.; Zahn, O.; Zenteno, A.

    2011-09-01

    We present results of X-ray observations of a sample of 15 clusters selected via their imprint on the cosmic microwave background from the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. These clusters are a subset of the first SZ-selected cluster catalog, obtained from observations of 178 deg2 of sky surveyed by the South Pole Telescope (SPT). Using X-ray observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton, we estimate the temperature, TX , and mass, Mg , of the intracluster medium within r 500 for each cluster. From these, we calculate YX = MgTX and estimate the total cluster mass using an M 500-YX scaling relation measured from previous X-ray studies. The integrated Comptonization, Y SZ, is derived from the SZ measurements, using additional information from the X-ray-measured gas density profiles and a universal temperature profile. We calculate scaling relations between the X-ray and SZ observables and find results generally consistent with other measurements and the expectations from simple self-similar behavior. Specifically, we fit a Y SZ-YX relation and find a normalization of 0.82 ± 0.07, marginally consistent with the predicted ratio of Y SZ/YX = 0.91 ± 0.01 that would be expected from the density and temperature models used in this work. Using the YX -derived mass estimates, we fit a Y SZ-M 500 relation and find a slope consistent with the self-similar expectation of Y SZvpropM 5/3 with a normalization consistent with predictions from other X-ray studies. We find that the SZ mass estimates, derived from cosmological simulations of the SPT survey, are lower by a factor of 0.78 ± 0.06 relative to the X-ray mass estimates. This offset is at a level of 1.3σ when considering the ~15% systematic uncertainty for the simulation-based SZ masses. Overall, the X-ray measurements confirm that the scaling relations of the SZ-selected clusters are consistent with the properties of other X-ray-selected samples of massive clusters, even allowing for the broad redshift range (0.29 < z

  7. X-ray imaging of chemically active valence electrons during a pericyclic reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredtmann, Timm; Ivanov, Misha; Dixit, Gopal

    2014-11-01

    Time-resolved imaging of chemically active valence electron densities is a long-sought goal, as these electrons dictate the course of chemical reactions. However, X-ray scattering is always dominated by the core and inert valence electrons, making time-resolved X-ray imaging of chemically active valence electron densities extremely challenging. Here we demonstrate an effective and robust method, which emphasizes the information encoded in weakly scattered photons, to image chemically active valence electron densities. The degenerate Cope rearrangement of semibullvalene, a pericyclic reaction, is used as an example to visually illustrate our approach. Our work also provides experimental access to the long-standing problem of synchronous versus asynchronous bond formation and breaking during pericyclic reactions.

  8. ROSAT x ray survey observations of active chromospheric binary systems and other selected sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    1993-01-01

    The connection between processes that produce optical chromospheric activity indicators and those that produce x-rays in RS CVn binary systems by taking advantage of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) results and our unique ground-based data set was investigated. In RS CVn systems, excess emission in the Ca 2 resonance (K & H) and infrared triplet (IRT) lines and in the Balmer lines of hydrogen is generally cited as evidence for chromospheric activity, which is usually modeled as scaled up solar-type activity. X-ray emission in RS CVn systems is believed to arise from coronal loop structures. Results from spectra data obtained from RASS observations are discussed and presented.

  9. X-ray imaging of chemically active valence electrons during a pericyclic reaction

    PubMed Central

    Bredtmann, Timm; Ivanov, Misha; Dixit, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Time-resolved imaging of chemically active valence electron densities is a long-sought goal, as these electrons dictate the course of chemical reactions. However, X-ray scattering is always dominated by the core and inert valence electrons, making time-resolved X-ray imaging of chemically active valence electron densities extremely challenging. Here we demonstrate an effective and robust method, which emphasizes the information encoded in weakly scattered photons, to image chemically active valence electron densities. The degenerate Cope rearrangement of semibullvalene, a pericyclic reaction, is used as an example to visually illustrate our approach. Our work also provides experimental access to the long-standing problem of synchronous versus asynchronous bond formation and breaking during pericyclic reactions. PMID:25424639

  10. Soft X-ray variability over the present minimum of solar activity as observed by SphinX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Kepa, A.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Bakala, J.; Podgorski, P.; Kordylewski, Z.; Plocieniak, S.; Sylwester, B.; Trzebinski, W.; Kuzin, S.

    2011-04-01

    Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX) is an instrument designed to observe the Sun in X-rays in the energy range 0.85-15.00 keV. SphinX is incorporated within the Russian TESIS X and EUV telescope complex aboard the CORONAS-Photon satellite which was launched on January 30, 2009 at 13:30 UT from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, northern Russia. Since February, 2009 SphinX has been measuring solar X-ray radiation nearly continuously. The principle of SphinX operation and the content of the instrument data archives is studied. Issues related to dissemination of SphinX calibration, data, repository mirrors locations, types of data and metadata are discussed. Variability of soft X-ray solar flux is studied using data collected by SphinX over entire mission duration.

  11. HEXIT-SAT: a mission concept for x-ray grazing incidence telescopes from 0.5 to 70 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Fabrizio; Perola, Giuseppe C.; Pareschi, Giovanni; Citterio, Oberto; Anselmi, Alberto; Comastri, Andrea

    2004-10-01

    While the energy density of the Cosmic X-ray Background (CXB) provides a statistical estimate of the super massive black hole (SMBH) growth and mass density in the Universe, the lack, so far, of focusing instrument in the 20-60 keV (where the CXB energy density peaks), frustrates our effort to obtain a comprehensive picture of the SMBH evolutionary properties. HEXIT-SAT (High Energy X-ray Imaging Telescope SATellite) is a mission concept capable of exploring the hard X-ray sky with focusing/imaging instrumentation, to obtain an unbiased census of accreting SMBH up to the redshifts where galaxy formation peaks, and on extremely wide luminosity ranges. This will represent a leap forward comparable to that achieved in the soft X-rays by the Einstein Observatory in the late 70'. In addition to accreting SMBH, and very much like the Einstein Observatory, this mission would also have the capabilities of investigating almost any type of the celestial X-ray sources. HEXIT-SAT is based on high throughput (>400 cm2 @ 30 keV; >1200 cm2 @ 1 keV), high quality (15 arcsec Half Power Diameter) multi-layer optics, coupled with focal plane detectors with high efficiency in the full 0.5-70keV range. Building on the BeppoSAX experience, a low-Earth, equatorial orbit, will assure a low and stable particle background, and thus an extremely good sensitivity for faint hard X-ray sources. At the flux limits of 1/10 microCrab (10-30 keV) and 1/3 microCrab (20-40 keV) (reachable in one Msec observation) we should detect ~100 and ~40 sources in the 15 arcmin FWHM Field of View respectively, thus resolving >80% and ~65% of the CXB where its energy density peaks.

  12. Image Properties of an X-Ray Telescope of the Wolter-1 Type with Emphasis on Contrast Reduction by Diffuse Reflection. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenzen, R.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental results are presented on the geometrical-optic imaging properties of a Wolter-1 type paraboloid-hyperboloid X-ray telescope. Particular consideration is given to the effect of microroughness of the mirror on the imaging properties. Experiments were conducted in which scattering properties were determined as a function of wavelength, incidence angle, and roughness of the plane mirrors. Results indicate the need for optimization of mirror material and polishing technology as well as the development of improved mirror manufacturing techniques. The use of transmission gratings along with the Wolter-1 type telescope in spectroscopy applications is discussed.

  13. Status of MBI activities: Will a transient collisional x-ray laser with high repetition rate come soon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickles, Peter V.; Janulewicz, Karol A.; Priebe, Gerd; Lucianetti, Antonio; Kroemer, Robert K.; Gerlitzke, Anne-Kathrin; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2003-12-01

    Some prospects for development of collisional X-ray lasers with a high repetition rate based on the output characteristics of a transient Ni-like Ag soft X-ray laser pumped by a single picosecond laser pulse are analysed. Such problems as target technology, new driver development and the active medium parameters are discussed.

  14. Upper limits for X-ray emission from Jupiter as measured from the Copernicus satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vesecky, J. F.; Culhane, J. L.; Hawkins, F. J.

    1975-01-01

    X-ray telescopic observations are made by the Copernicus satellite for detecting X-ray emission from Jupiter analogous to X-rays from terrestrial aurorae. Values of X-ray fluxes recorded by three Copernicus detectors covering the 0.6 to 7.5 keV energy range are reported. The detectors employed are described and the times at which the observations were made are given. Resulting upper-limit spectra are compared with previous X-ray observations of Jupiter. The upper-limit X-ray fluxes are discussed in terms of magnetospheric activity on Jupiter.

  15. Ultraviolet-excess selection of the counterpart to a globular cluster X-ray burster - Hubble Space Telescope images of the core of NGC 6712

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Scott F.; Margon, Bruce; Deutsch, Eric W.; Downes, Ronald A.

    1993-01-01

    Using the Planetary Camera on the Hubble Space Telescope, we have obtained high spatial resolution, multicolor images and photometry of the core of the globular cluster NGC 6712. A comparison of our blue and ultraviolet images unambiguously reveals a faint (B = 21), UV-excess object, 'star S', within the Einstein error box for the bursting X-ray source X1850-086. The unusual color of star S is immediately apparent even in a cursory visual comparison of the images, and is more quantitatively (U-B of about -1) confirmed via photometry. A variety of different candidate optical counterparts to the X-ray source have previously been suggested from ground-based work, but our images indicate that star S is almost certainly the only viable candidate brighter than U = 21. Compared with the mean values for low mass X-ray binaries in the field, star S has a typical (U-B) color, and a moderate-to-high X-ray-to-optical luminosity ratio, but its luminosity (MB = 5) is about 4 mag fainter than average.

  16. X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E. III. Guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of the ray-tracing simulator.

    PubMed

    Misaki, Kazutami; Hidaka, Yasuhiro; Ishida, Manabu; Shibata, Ryo; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Haba, Yoshito; Itoh, Kei; Mori, Hideyuki; Kunieda, Hideyo

    2005-02-20

    We present a detailed study of the performance of the Astro-E x-ray telescope (XRT) onboard the Astro-E satellite. As described in preceding papers the ground-based calibrations of the Astro-E XRT revealed that its image quality and effective area are somewhat worse than that expected from the original design. Conceivable causes for such performance degradation are examined by x-ray and optical microscopic measurements at various levels, such as individual reflectors, sectors, and quadrants of the XRT and their alignments. We can attribute, based on detailed measurements, the degradation of the image quality to a slope error in the individual reflectors and the positioning error of reflectors. As for the deficit of the effective area, the shadowing of x rays within the XRT body is the dominant factor. Error budgets for the performance degradation of the Astro-E XRT are summarized. The ray-tracing simulator, which is needed to construct the response function for arbitrary off-axis angles and spatial distributions of any celestial x-ray sources, has been developed and tuned based on the results of detailed measurements. The ray-tracing simulation provides results that are consistent within 3% with the real measurement except for large off-axis angles and higher energies. We propose, based on knowledge obtained from all the measurements and simulations, several plans for future developments to improve the performance of the nested thin-foil mirrors. PMID:15751683

  17. Investigation of Water-Soluble X-ray Luminescence Nanoparticles for Photodynamic Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuanfang; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shaopeng; Joly, Alan G.

    2008-01-28

    In this letter, we report the synthesis of LaF3:Tb3+-MTCP (meso-Tetra(4-carboxyphenyl) porphine) nanoparticle conjugates and investigate the energy transfer as well as singlet oxygen generation following X-ray irradiation. Our observations indicate that LaF3:Tb3+-MTCP nanoparticle conjugates are efficient photodynamic agents that can be initiated by X-rays at a reasonably low dose. The addition of folic acid to facilitate targeting to folate receptors on tumor cells has no effect on the quantum yield of singlet oxygen in the nanoparticle-MTCP conjugates. Our pilot studies indicate that water-soluble scintillation nanoparticles can be potentially used to activate photodynamic therapy as a promising deep cancer treatment.

  18. Manufacturing an active X-ray mirror prototype in thin glass.

    PubMed

    Spiga, D; Barbera, M; Collura, A; Basso, S; Candia, R; Civitani, M; Di Bella, M S; Di Cicca, G; Lo Cicero, U; Lullo, G; Pelliciari, C; Riva, M; Salmaso, B; Sciortino, L; Varisco, S

    2016-01-01

    Adjustable mirrors equipped with piezo actuators are commonly used at synchrotron and free-electron laser (FEL) beamlines, in order to optimize their focusing properties and sometimes to shape the intensity distribution of the focal spot with the desired profile. Unlike them, X-ray mirrors for astronomy are much thinner in order to enable nesting and reduce the areal mass, and the application of piezo actuators acting normally to the surface appears much more difficult. There remains the possibility to correct the deformations using thin patches that exert a tangential strain on the rear side of the mirror: some research groups are already at work on this approach. The technique reported here relies on actively integrating thin glass foils with commercial piezoceramic patches, fed by voltages driven by the feedback provided by X-rays, while the tension signals are carried by electrodes on the back of the mirror, obtained by photolithography. Finally, the shape detection and the consequent voltage signal to be provided to the piezoelectric array will be determined by X-ray illumination in an intra-focal setup at the XACT facility. In this work, the manufacturing steps for obtaining a first active mirror prototype are described. PMID:26698046

  19. HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES OF THE SWIFT BAT ULTRA HARD X-RAY SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Gehrels, Neil; Valencic, Lynne

    2011-10-01

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) active galactic nucleus (AGN) with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (z < 0.05), moderate luminosity AGNs from the Swift BAT sample. The BAT AGN host galaxies have intermediate optical colors (u - r and g - r) that are bluer than a comparison sample of inactive galaxies and optically selected AGNs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are chosen to have the same stellar mass. Based on morphological classifications from the RC3 and the Galaxy Zoo, the bluer colors of BAT AGNs are mainly due to a higher fraction of mergers and massive spirals than in the comparison samples. BAT AGNs in massive galaxies (log M{sub *} >10.5) have a 5-10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGNs or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-infrared emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGNs are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGNs have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] {lambda}5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGNs in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as a whole. In agreement with the unified model of AGNs, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGNs suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.

  20. Variable X-Ray and UV emission from AGB stars: Accretion activity associated with binarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Sanz-Forcada, Jorge; Sánchez Contreras, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    Almost all of our current understanding of the late evolutionary stages of (1 — 8) Mʘ stars is based on single-star models. However, binarity can drastically affect late stellar evolution, producing dramatic changes in the history and geometry of mass loss that occurs in stars as they evolve off the AGB to become planetary nebulae (PNe). A variety of binary models have been proposed, which can lead to the generation of accretion disks and magnetic fields, which in turn produce the highly collimated jets that have been proposed as the primary agents for the formation of bipolar and multipolar PNe. However, observational evidence of binarity in AGB stars is sorely lacking simply these stars are very luminous and variable, invalidating standard techniques for binary detection. Using an innovative technique of searching for UV emission from AGB stars with GALEX, we have identified a class of AGB stars with far- ultraviolet excesses (fuvAGB stars), that are likely candidates for active accretion associated with a binary companion. We have carried out a pilot survey for X-ray emission from fuvAGB stars. The X-ray fluxes are found to vary in a stochastic or quasi-periodic manner on roughly hour-long times-scales, and simultaneous UV observations show similar variations in the UV fluxes. We discuss several models for the X-ray emission and its variability and find that the most likely scenario for the origin of the X-ray (and FUV) emission involves accretion activity around a main-sequence companion star, with confinement by strong magnetic fields associated with the companion and/or an accretion disk around it.

  1. Analysis of Active Figure Control Effects on Mounting Strategy for X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey J.; Roche, Jacqueline M.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Elsner, Ryan F.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    As part of ongoing development efforts at MSFC, we have begun to investigate mounting strategies for highly nested x-ray optics in both full-shell and segmented configurations. The analytical infrastructure for this effort also lends itself to investigation of active strategies. We expect that a consequence of active figure control on relatively thin substrates is that errors are propagated to the edges, where they might affect the effective precision of the mounting points. Based upon modeling, we describe parametrically, the conditions under which active mounts are preferred over fixed ones, and the effect of active figure corrections on the required number, locations, and kinematic characteristics of mounting points.

  2. HERO: Program Status and Fist Images from a Balloon-Borne Focusing Hard-X-ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, B. D.; Alexander, C. D.; Apple, J. A.; Benson, C. M.; Dietz, K. L.; Elsner, R. F.; Engelhaupt. D. E.; Ghosh, K. K.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; ODell, S. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    HERO is a balloon payload featuring shallow-graze angle replicated optics for hard-x-ray imaging. When completed, the instrument will offer unprecedented sensitivity in the hard-x-ray region, giving thousands of sources to choose from for detailed study on long flights. A recent proof-of-concept flight captured the first hard-x-ray focused images of the Crab Nebula, Cygnus X-1 and GRS 1915+105. Full details of the HERO program are presented, including the design and performance of the optics, the detectors and the gondola. Results from the recent proving flight are discussed together with expected future performance when the full science payload is completed.

  3. X-ray spectra and time variability of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    The X-ray spectra of broad line active galactic nuclei (AGN) of all types (Seyfert I's, NELG's, broadline radio galaxies) are well fit by a power law in the .5 to 100 keV band of man energy slope alpha = .68 + or - .15. There is, as yet, no strong evidence for time variability of this slope in a given object. The constraints that this places on simple models of the central energy source are discussed. BL Lac objects have quite different X-ray spectral properties and show pronounced X-ray spectral variability. On time scales longer than 12 hours most radio quiet AGN do not show strong, delta I/I .5, variability. The probability of variability of these AGN seems to be inversely related to their luminosity. However characteristics timescales for variability have not been measured for many objects. This general lack of variability may imply that most AGN are well below the Eddington limit. Radio bright AGN tend to be more variable than radio quiet AGN on long, tau approx 6 month, timescales.

  4. X-ray/microwave relation of different types of active stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guedel, Manuel; Benz, Arnold O.

    1993-01-01

    Coronal active stars of seven classes between spectral types F and M, single and double, are compared in their quiescent radio and X-ray luminosities L(R) and L(X). We find, largely independent of stellar class, log L(X) is less than about log L(R) + 15.5. This general relation points to an intimate connection between the nonthermal, energetic electrons causing the radio emission and the bulk plasma of the corona responsible for thermal X-rays. The relation, observed over six orders of magnitude, suggests that the heating mechanism necessarily involves particle acceleration. We derive requirements for simple models based on optically thin gyrosynchrotron emission of mildly relativistic electrons and thermal X-rays from the bulk plasma. We discuss the possibility that a portion of the accelerated particles heats the ambient plasma by collisions. More likely, plasma heating and particle acceleration may occur in parallel and in the same process, but at a fixed ratio.

  5. Spectral evolution of active galactic nuclei: A unified description of the X-ray and gamma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiter, D.; Boldt, E.

    1982-01-01

    A model for spectral evolution is presented whereby active galactic nuclei (AGN) of the type observed individually emerge from an earlier stage at z approx = 4 in which they are the thermal X-ray sources responsible for most of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB). The conjecture is pursued that these precursor objects are initially supermassive Schwarzschild black holes with accretion disks radiating near the Eddington luminosity limit. It is noted that after approx. 10 to the 8th power years these central black holes are spun-up to a canonical Kerr equilibrium state (A/M = 0.998; Thorne 1974) and shown how they then can lead to spectral evolution involving non-thermal emission extending to gamma rays, at the expense of reduced thermal disk radiation. That major portion of the CXB remaining after the contribution of usual AGN are considered, while a superposition of AGN sources at z 1 can account for the gamma ray background. Extensive X-ray measurements carried out with the HEAO 1 and 2 missions as well as gamma ray and optical data are shown to compare favorably with principal features of this model.

  6. Ion-heated thermal Comptonization models and x-ray spectral correlations in active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Dermer, C.D.

    1989-11-01

    Recent Ginga observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxies NGC 4051 and MCG 6-30-15 show a positive correlation between the 2-10 keV luminosity and photon spectral index {alpha}. Similar behavior has also been reported in Exosat and Einstein observations of other active galactic nuclei, and is suggested in hard x-ray low-state data of the galactic black-hole candidate Cygnus X-1. A two-temperature thermal Comptonization model with internal soft-photon production provides a simple explanation for this correlation. The electron temperature, determined by a balance between ion heating and radiative cooling, decreases in response to an enhancement of the soft photon flux, resulting in a softening of the spectrum and an increase in the soft x-ray luminosity. The bulk of the soft photons are produced through pion production in collisions between the hot ions. Pivoting of the spectrum at photon energies {var epsilon} > 50 keV is a consequence of variations in the ion temperature. An important test of the model would be time correlations between soft and hard x-ray bands. 17 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Clumpy tori around type II active galactic nuclei as revealed by X-ray fluorescent lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiren; Liu, Yuan; Li, Xiaobo; Xu, Weiwei; Gou, Lijun; Cheng, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    The reflection spectrum of a torus around an active galactic nucleus (AGN) is characterized by X-ray fluorescent lines, which are most prominent for type II AGNs. A clumpy torus allows photons reflected from the back-side of the torus to leak through the front regions that are free of obscuration. The observed X-ray fluorescent lines are therefore sensitive to the clumpiness of the torus. We analysed a sample of type II AGNs observed with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS), and measured the fluxes for the Si Kα and Fe Kα lines. The measured Fe Kα/Si Kα ratios, spanning a range between 5 and 60, are far smaller than the ratios predicted from simulations of smooth tori, indicating that the tori of the studied sources have clumpy distributions rather than smooth ones. We compared the measured Fe Kα/Si Kα ratios with simulation results of clumpy tori. The Circinus galaxy has a Fe Kα/Si Kα ratio of ˜60, which is close to the simulation results for N = 5, where N is the average number of clumps along the line of sight. The Fe Kα/Si Kα ratios of the other sources are all below the simulation results for N = 2. Overall, this shows that the non-Fe fluorescent lines in the soft X-ray band are a potentially powerful probe of the clumpiness of tori around AGNs.

  8. The Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays on Solar Orbiter: Flight design, challenges and trade-offs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krucker, S.; Bednarzik, M.; Grimm, O.; Hurford, G. J.; Limousin, O.; Meuris, A.; Orleański, P.; Seweryn, K.; Skup, K. R.

    2016-07-01

    STIX is the X-ray spectral imaging instrument on-board the Solar Orbiter space mission of the European Space Agency, and together with nine other instruments will address questions of the interaction between the Sun and the heliosphere. STIX will study the properties of thermal and accelerated electrons near the Sun through their Bremsstrahlung X-ray emission, addressing in particular the emission from flaring regions on the Sun. The design phase of STIX has been concluded. This paper reports the final flight design of the instrument, focusing on design challenges that were faced recently and how they were addressed.

  9. [X-ray microanalysis of the activity of immobilized urease on chitosan membrane].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-li; Yao, Zi-hua

    2005-03-01

    The localization of the activity of immobilized urease on chitosan membrane was studied by X-ray microanalysis. BaCl2 and urea were selected as the capture and substrate respectively. The substrate was hydrolyzed by immobilized urease to produce NH3 and CO2 in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.0), and the latter was captured by BaCl2 to form precipitate. The precipite was deposited on the active site of immobilized urease. It is shown that the method is practicable and reliable. The optimum condition for the localization of activity of immobilized urease was studied. PMID:16013332

  10. X-Ray Properties Expected from Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Silvia; Ciotti, Luca; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed hydrodynamic simulations of active galactic nucleus feedback have been performed including the effects of radiative and mechanical momentum and energy input on the interstellar medium (ISM) of typical elliptical galaxies. We focus on the observational properties of the models in the soft and hard X-ray bands: nuclear X-ray luminosity; global X-ray luminosity and temperature of the hot ISM; and temperature and X-ray brightness profiles before, during, and after outbursts. After ~10 Gyr, the bolometric nuclear emission L BH is very sub-Eddington (l = L BH/L Edd ~ 10-4), and within the range observed, though larger than typical values. Outbursts last for ≈107 yr, and the duty cycle of nuclear activity is a few × (10-3 to 10-2), over the last 6 Gyr. The ISM thermal luminosity L X oscillates in phase with the nuclear luminosity, with broader peaks. This behavior helps statistically reproduce the observed large L X variation. The average gas temperature is within the observed range, in the upper half of those observed. In quiescence, the temperature profile has a negative gradient; thanks to past outbursts, the brightness profile lacks the steep shape of cooling flow models. After outbursts, disturbances are predicted in the temperature and brightness profiles (analyzed by unsharp masking). Most significantly, during major accretion episodes, a hot bubble of shocked gas is inflated at the galaxy center (within ≈100 pc) the bubble would be conical in shape in real galaxies and would be radio-loud. Its detection in X-rays is within current capabilities, though it would likely remain unresolved. The ISM resumes its smooth appearance on a timescale of ≈200 Myr the duty cycle of perturbations in the ISM is of the order of 5%-10%. While showing general agreement between the models and real galaxies, this analysis indicates that additional physical input may still be required including moving to two-dimensional or three-dimensional simulations, input of

  11. X-Ray and Optical Correlation of Type I Seyfert NGC 3516 Studied with Suzaku and Japanese Ground-based Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Hirofumi; Minezaki, Takeo; Watanabe, Makoto; Kokubo, Mitsuru; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Itoh, Ryosuke; Morihana, Kumiko; Saito, Yoshihiko; Nakao, Hikaru; Imai, Masataka; Moritani, Yuki; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Kawabata, Miho; Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Uemura, Makoto; Kawabata, Koji; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Arai, Akira; Takagi, Yuhei; Morokuma, Tomoki; Doi, Mamoru; Itoh, Yoichi; Yamada, Shin’ya; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Makishima, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    From 2013 April to 2014 April, we performed X-ray and optical simultaneous monitoring of the type 1.5 Seyfert galaxy NGC 3516. We employed Suzaku and five Japanese ground-based telescopes—the Pirka, Kiso Schmidt, Nayuta, MITSuME, and the Kanata telescopes. The Suzaku observations were conducted seven times with various intervals ranging from days or weeks to months, with an exposure of ∼50 ks each. The optical B-band observations not only covered those of Suzaku almost simultaneously, but also followed the source as frequently as possible. As a result, NGC 3516 was found in its faint phase with a 2–10 keV flux of 0.21–2.70 × 10‑11 erg s‑1 cm‑2. The 2–45 keV X-ray spectra were composed of a dominant variable hard power-law (PL) continuum with a photon index of ∼1.7 and a non-relativistic reflection component with a prominent Fe–Kα emission line. Producing the B-band light curve by differential image photometry, we found that the B-band flux changed by ∼2.7 × 10‑11 erg s‑1 cm‑2, which is comparable to the X-ray variation, and we detected a significant flux correlation between the hard PL component in X-rays and the B-band radiation, for the first time in NGC 3516. By examining their correlation, we found that the X-ray flux preceded that in the B band by {2.0}-0.6+0.7 days (1σ error). Although this result supports the X-ray reprocessing model, the derived lag is too large to be explained by the standard view, which assumes a “lamppost”-type X-ray illuminator located near a standard accretion disk. Our results are better explained by assuming a hot accretion flow and a truncated disk.

  12. Barbiturate bearing aroylhydrazine derivatives: Synthesis, NMR investigations, single crystal X-ray studies and biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giziroglu, Emrah; Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Aygün, Muhittin; Basbulbul, Gamze; Soyleyici, H. Can; Firinci, Erkan; Kirkan, Bulent; Alkis, Ayse; Saylica, Tayfur; Biyik, Halil

    2016-03-01

    A series of barbituric acid aroylhydrazine derivatives have been prepared from their corresponding 1,3-dimethyl-5-acetyl barbituric acid and aroylhydrazines. All compounds have been fully characterized by using FT-IR, multinuclear NMR (1H, 13C) and Mass (MS) spectrometry. We also describe the X-ray crystal structure of 3a, which crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/n space group. The crystal structure is stabilized with infinite linear chains of dimeric units. Furthermore, all compounds were investigated for their tyrosinase inhibition, antioxidative and antimicrobial activies. The results from biological activity assays have shown that all of compounds have excellent antioxidant, significant tyrosinase inhibition and moderate antimicrobial activity.

  13. Active galactic nucleus X-ray variability in the XMM-COSMOS survey

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzuisi, G.; Ponti, G.; Salvato, M.; Brusa, M.; Nandra, P. K.; Merloni, A.; Rosario, D.; Hasinger, G.; Sanders, D.; Cappelluti, N.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Bongiorno, A.; Lusso, E.; Steinhardt, C.; Silverman, J.; Schramm, M.; Trump, J.; and others

    2014-02-01

    We used the observations carried out by XMM in the COSMOS field over 3.5 yr to study the long term variability of a large sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) (638 sources) in a wide range of redshifts (0.1 < z < 3.5) and X-ray luminosities (10{sup 41} < L {sub 0.5-10} <10{sup 45.5}). Both a simple statistical method to assess the significance of variability and the Normalized Excess Variance (σ{sub rms}{sup 2}) parameter were used to obtain a quantitative measurement of the variability. Variability is found to be prevalent in most AGNs, whenever we have good statistics to measure it, and no significant differences between type 1 and type 2 AGNs were found. A flat (slope –0.23 ± 0.03) anti-correlation between σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and X-ray luminosity is found when all significantly variable sources are considered together. When divided into three redshift bins, the anti-correlation becomes stronger and evolving with z, with higher redshift AGNs being more variable. We prove, however, that this effect is due to the pre-selection of variable sources: when considering all of the sources with an available σ{sub rms}{sup 2} measurement, the evolution in redshift disappears. For the first time, we were also able to study long term X-ray variability as a function of M {sub BH} and Eddington ratio for a large sample of AGNs spanning a wide range of redshifts. An anti-correlation between σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and M {sub BH} is found, with the same slope of anti-correlation between σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and X-ray luminosity, suggesting that the latter may be a by-product of the former. No clear correlation is found between σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and the Eddington ratio in our sample. Finally, no correlation is found between the X-ray σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and optical variability.

  14. Renewed Activity from the X-Ray Transient SAXJ 1810.8-2609 with Integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiocchi, M.; Natalucci, L.; Chenevez, J.; Bazzano, A.; Tarana, A.; Ubertini, P.; Brandt, S.; Beckmann, V.; Federici, M.; Galis, R.; Hudec, R.

    2009-03-01

    We report on the results of International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) observations of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary SAX J1810.8-2609 during its latest active phase in 2007 August. The current outburst is the first one since 1998 and the derived luminosity is 1.1-2.6 ×1036 erg s-1 in the 20-100 keV energy range. This low outburst luminosity and the long-term time-average accretion rate of ~5 × 10-12 M sun yr-1 suggest that SAX J1810.8-2609 is a faint soft X-ray transient. During the flux increase, spectra are consistent with a thermal Comptonization model with a temperature plasma of kT e~ 23-30 keV and an optical depth of τ~ 1.2-1.5, independent of the luminosity of the system. This is a typical low hard spectral state for which the X-ray emission is attributed to the upscattering of soft seed photons by a hot, optically thin electron plasma. During the decay, spectra have a different shape, the high energy tail being compatible with a single power law. This confirm similar behavior observed by BeppoSAX during the previous outburst, with the absence of visible cutoff in the hard X-ray spectrum. INTEGRAL/JEM-X instrument observed four X-ray bursts in Fall 2007. The first one has the highest peak flux (≈3.5 crab in 3-25 keV) giving an upper limit to the distance of the source of about 5.7 kpc, for a L Edd ≈ 3.8 × 1038 erg s-1. The observed recurrence time of ~ 1.2 days and the ratio of the total energy emitted in the persistent flux to that emitted in the bursts (α~ 73) allow us to conclude that the burst fuel was composed by mixed hydrogen and helium with X >= 0.4. INTEGRAL is an ESA project with Instruments and Science Data Center funded by ESA member states, especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain; Czech Republic and Poland; and with the participation of Russia and USA.

  15. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC ACCRETION DISK WINDS AS X-RAY ABSORBERS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumura, Keigo; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Behar, Ehud

    2010-05-20

    We present the two-dimensional ionization structure of self-similar magnetohydrodynamic winds off accretion disks around and irradiated by a central X-ray point source. On the basis of earlier observational clues and theoretical arguments, we focus our attention on a subset of these winds, namely those with radial density dependence n(r) {proportional_to} 1/r (r is the spherical radial coordinate). We employ the photoionization code XSTAR to compute the ionic abundances of a large number of ions of different elements and then compile their line-of-sight (LOS) absorption columns. We focus our attention on the distribution of the column density of the various ions as a function of the ionization parameter {xi} (or equivalently r) and the angle {theta}. Particular attention is paid to the absorption measure distribution (AMD), namely their hydrogen-equivalent column per logarithmic {xi} interval, dN{sub H}/dlog {xi}, which provides a measure of the winds' radial density profiles. For the chosen density profile n(r) {proportional_to} 1/r, the AMD is found to be independent of {xi}, in good agreement with its behavior inferred from the X-ray spectra of several active galactic nuclei (AGNs). For the specific wind structure and X-ray spectrum, we also compute detailed absorption line profiles for a number of ions to obtain their LOS velocities, v {approx} 100-300 km s{sup -1} (at log {xi} {approx} 2-3) for Fe XVII and v {approx} 1000-4000 km s{sup -1} (at log {xi} {approx} 4-5) for Fe XXV, in good agreement with the observation. Our models describe the X-ray absorption properties of these winds with only two parameters, namely the mass-accretion rate m-dot and the LOS angle {theta}. The probability of obscuration of the X-ray ionizing source in these winds decreases with increasing m-dot and increases steeply with the LOS inclination angle {theta}. As such, we concur with previous authors that these wind configurations, viewed globally, incorporate all the requisite

  16. Hard x-ray imaging system for XEUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunieda, Hideyo; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Kokubun, Motohide; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Ogasaka, Yasushi

    2008-07-01

    One of the major sciences of XEUS is the evolution of massive black holes from early to current Universe. As is well known, considerable fraction of massive black holes harbored in active galactic nuclei are embedded in thick absorbing material. In order to observe black holes without any bias of absorption, we propose a hard X-ray imaging system to XEUS. The hard X-ray imaging system is consisted of super mirror X-ray telescopes with multilayer coating and of the position sensitive hard X-ray imaging CdTe detector. Under the current boundary conditions, the design parameters will be optimized for the telescope and the multilayers. Current achievements of hard X-ray imaging detectors are also presented.

  17. An X-Ray Spectral Survey of Radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei with ASCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambruna, Rita M.; Eracleous, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    1999-11-01

    We present a uniform and systematic analysis of the 0.6-10 keV X-ray spectra of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed by ASCA. The sample, which is not statistically complete, includes 10 broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs), five radio-loud quasars (QSRs), nine narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRGs), and 10 radio galaxies (RGs) of mixed FR I and FR II types. For several sources the ASCA data are presented here for the first time. The exposure times of the observations and the fluxes of the objects vary over a wide range; as a result, so does the signal-to-noise ratio of the individual X-ray spectra. At soft X-rays, about 50% of NLRGs and 100% of RGs exhibit thermal plasma emission components, with bimodal distributions of temperatures and luminosities. This indicates that the emission in such an object arises in hot gas either in a surrounding cluster or loose group or in a hot corona, consistent with previous ROSAT and optical results. At energies above 2 keV, a hard power-law component (photon index Γ~1.7-1.8) is detected in 90% of cases. The power-law photon indices and luminosities in BLRGs, QSRs, and NLRGs are similar. This is consistent with simple orientation-based unification schemes for lobe-dominated radio-loud sources in which BLRGs, QSRs, and NLRGs harbor the same type of central engine. Moreover, excess cold absorption in the range 1021-1024 cm-2 is detected in most (but not all) NLRGs, consistent with absorption by obscuring tori, as postulated by unification scenarios. The ASCA data provide initial evidence that the immediate gaseous environment of the X-ray source of BLRGs may be different than in Seyfert 1 galaxies: absorption edges of ionized oxygen, common in the latter, are detected in only one BLRG. Instead we detect large columns of cold gas in a fraction (~44%-60%) of BLRGs and QSRs, comparable to the columns detected in NLRGs, which is puzzling. This difference hints at different physical and/or geometrical properties of the medium

  18. Proposal to National Aeronautics and Space Administration for continuation of a grazing incidence imaging telescope for X-ray astronomy using sounding rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, B.

    1976-01-01

    The construction of a high resolution imaging telescope experiment payload suitable for launch on an Astrobee F sounding rocket was proposed. Also integration, launch, and subsequent data analysis effort were included. The payload utilizes major component subassemblies from the HEAO-B satellite program which were nonflight development units for that program. These were the X ray mirror and high resolution imager brassboard detector. The properties of the mirror and detector were discussed. The availability of these items for a sounding rocket experiment were explored with the HEAO-B project office.

  19. Determination of carrier yields for neutron activation analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.G.; Wandless, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    A new method is described for determining carrier yield in the radiochemical neutron activation analysis of rare-earth elements in silicate rocks by group separation. The method involves the determination of the rare-earth elements present in the carrier by means of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis, eliminating the need to re-irradiate samples in a nuclear reactor after the gamma ray analysis is complete. Results from the analysis of USGS standards AGV-1 and BCR-1 compare favorably with those obtained using the conventional method. ?? 1984 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  20. Swift/XRT detection of another active X-ray transient close to Sgr A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenaar, N.; Reynolds, M. T.; Wijnands, R.; Miller, J. M.; Kennea, J. A.; Ponti, G.; Haggard, D.; Gehrels, N.

    2016-06-01

    Daily monitoring observations of the Galactic center performed with the Swift/XRT (Degenaar et al. 2015) have revealed activity of a new X-ray transient located ~10" South of Sgr A*. This object is clearly detected during three consecutive ~0.9 ks PC mode observations performed on 2016 May 28 and 30, and June 1. The 0.3-10 keV count rate has risen from ~2E-2 to ~0.1 counts/s between those observations.

  1. Synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence activities at Indus-2: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, M. K.

    2014-04-24

    X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry is a powerful non-destructive technique for elemental analysis of materials at bulk and trace concentration levels. Taking into consideration several advantages of the synchrotron based XRF technique and to fulfill the requirements of Indian universities users we have setup a microfocus XRF beamline (BL-16) on Indus-2 synchrotron light source. The beamline offers a wide range of usages – both from research laboratories and industries; and for researchers working in diverse fields. A brief overview of the measured performance of the beamline, design specifications including various attractive features and recent research activities carried out on the BL-16 beamline are presented.

  2. Coordinated Observations of X-ray and High-resolution EUV Active Region Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    The recently-launched High-resolution Coronal imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket provided the highest resolution images of coronal loops and other small-scale structures in the 193 Angstrom passband to date. With just 5 minutes of observations, the instrument recorded a variety of dynamic coronal events -- including even a small B-class flare. We will present our results comparing these extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations with X-ray imaging from Hinode/XRT as well as EUV AIA data to identify sources of hot plasma rooted in the photosphere and track their affect on the overall topology and dynamics of the active region.

  3. Coordinated Observations of X-ray and High-Resolution EUV Active Region Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Sabrina; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    The recently-launched High-resolution Coronal imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket provided the highest resolution images of coronal loops and other small-scale structures in the 193 Angstrom passband to date. With just 5 minutes of observations, the instrument recorded a variety of dynamic coronal events -- including even a small B-class flare. We will present our results comparing these extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations with X-ray imaging from Hinode/XRT as well as EUV AIA data to identify sources of hot plasma rooted in the photosphere and track their affect on the overall topology and dynamics of the active region.

  4. X-ray imaging with amorphous silicon active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Mohri, Youcef; Antonuk, Larry E.; Jee, Kyung-Wook; Maolinbay, Manat; Rong, Xiujiang; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Verma, Manav; Zhao, Qihua

    1997-07-01

    Recent advances in thin-film electronics technology have opened the way for the use of flat-panel imagers in a number of medical imaging applications. These novel imagers offer real time digital readout capabilities (˜30 frames per second), radiation hardness (>106cGy), large area (30×40 cm2) and compactness (˜1 cm). Such qualities make them strong candidates for the replacement of conventional x-ray imaging technologies such as film-screen and image intensifier systems. In this report, qualities and potential of amorphous silicon based active matrix flat-panel imagers are outlined for various applications such as radiation therapy, radiography, fluoroscopy and mammography.

  5. The Swift BAT Survey Detects Two Optical Broad Line, X-Ray Heavily Obscured Active Galaxies: NVSS 193013+341047 and IRAS 05218-1212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, J. Drew; Winter, Lisa M.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Trippe, Margaret

    2012-06-01

    The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) is discovering interesting new objects while monitoring the sky in the 14-195 keV band. Here we present the X-ray properties and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for two unusual active galactic nucleus sources. Both NVSS 193013+341047 and IRAS 05218-1212 are absorbed, Compton-thin, but heavily obscured (N H ~ 1023 cm-2), X-ray sources at redshifts <0.1. The SEDs reveal these galaxies to be very red, with high extinction in the optical and UV. A similar SED is seen for the extremely red objects (EROs) detected in the higher redshift universe. This suggests that these unusual BAT-detected sources are a low-redshift (z Lt 1) analog to EROs, which recent evidence suggests are a class of the elusive type II quasars. Studying the multi-wavelength properties of these sources may reveal the properties of their high-redshift counterparts.

  6. DETECTION OF VHE {gamma}-RAYS FROM HESS J0632+057 DURING THE 2011 FEBRUARY X-RAY OUTBURST WITH THE MAGIC TELESCOPES

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksic, J.; Blanch, O.; Alvarez, E. A.; Asensio, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Bonnoli, G.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bock, R. K.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra Gonzalez, J.; Berger, K.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Boller, A.; Bosch-Ramon, V. E-mail: pmunar@am.ub.es; and others

    2012-07-20

    The very high energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray source HESS J0632+057 has recently been confirmed to be a {gamma}-ray binary. The optical counterpart is the Be star MWC 148, and a compact object of unknown nature orbits it every {approx}321 days with a high eccentricity of {approx}0.8. We monitored HESS J0632+057 with the stereoscopic MAGIC telescopes from 2010 October to 2011 March and detected significant VHE {gamma}-ray emission during 2011 February, when the system exhibited an X-ray outburst. We find no {gamma}-ray signal in the other observation periods when the system did not show increased X-ray flux. Thus, HESS J0632+057 exhibits {gamma}-ray variability on timescales of the order of one to two months possibly linked to the X-ray outburst that takes place about 100 days after the periastron passage. Furthermore, our measurements provide for the first time the {gamma}-ray spectrum down to about 140 GeV and indicate no turnover of the spectrum at low energies. We compare the properties of HESS J0632+057 with the similar {gamma}-ray binary LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 and discuss the possible origin of the multi-wavelength emission of the source.

  7. Detection of VHE γ-Rays from HESS J0632+057 during the 2011 February X-Ray Outburst with the MAGIC Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Alvarez, E. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bretz, T.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Huber, B.; Jankowski, F.; Jogler, T.; Kadenius, V.; Kellermann, H.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Paiano, S.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puerto Gimenez, I.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.

    2012-07-01

    The very high energy (VHE) γ-ray source HESS J0632+057 has recently been confirmed to be a γ-ray binary. The optical counterpart is the Be star MWC 148, and a compact object of unknown nature orbits it every ~321 days with a high eccentricity of ~0.8. We monitored HESS J0632+057 with the stereoscopic MAGIC telescopes from 2010 October to 2011 March and detected significant VHE γ-ray emission during 2011 February, when the system exhibited an X-ray outburst. We find no γ-ray signal in the other observation periods when the system did not show increased X-ray flux. Thus, HESS J0632+057 exhibits γ-ray variability on timescales of the order of one to two months possibly linked to the X-ray outburst that takes place about 100 days after the periastron passage. Furthermore, our measurements provide for the first time the γ-ray spectrum down to about 140 GeV and indicate no turnover of the spectrum at low energies. We compare the properties of HESS J0632+057 with the similar γ-ray binary LS I +61°303 and discuss the possible origin of the multi-wavelength emission of the source.

  8. Testing of the Mirrors for the Constellation-X Spectroscopy X-ray Telescope with a Refractive Null

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehan, John; Hadimichael, T.; Skocik, C.

    2007-01-01

    We present an introduction to the use of a refractive null lens for testing grazing incidence x-ray mirrors for the Constellation-X mission. The singular role of mirror mounting in glass shell mirror metrology is also touched upon. We compare results achieved to date with mission requirements along with some of the unique properties of the null lens. Additionally, uses beyond mirror metrology are briefly discussed.

  9. X-ray Crystal Structure of Divalent Metal-Activated β-xylosidase, RS223BX.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Douglas B; Braker, Jay D; Wagschal, Kurt; Lee, Charles C; Chan, Victor J; Dubrovska, Ievgeniia; Anderson, Spencer; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw

    2015-10-01

    We report the X-ray crystal structure of a glycoside hydrolase family 43 β-xylosidase, RS223BX, which is strongly activated by the addition of divalent metal cations. The 2.69 Å structure reveals that the Ca(2+) cation is located at the back of the active-site pocket. The Ca(2+) is held in the active site by the carboxylate of D85, an "extra" acid residue in comparison to other GH43 active sites. The Ca(2+) is in close contact with a histidine imidazole, which in turn is in contact with the catalytic base (D15) thus providing a mechanism for stabilizing the carboxylate anion of the base and achieve metal activation. The active-site pocket is mirrored by an "inactive-site" pocket of unknown function that resides on the opposite side of the monomer. PMID:26201482

  10. ZnO thin film transistors and electronic connections for adjustable x-ray mirrors: SMART-X telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson-Wilke, R. L.; Wilke, R. H. T.; Wallace, M.; Ramirez, J. I.; Prieskorn, Z.; Nikoleyczik, J.; Cotroneo, V.; Allured, R.; Schwartz, D. A.; McMuldroch, S.; Reid, P. B.; Burrows, D. N.; Jackson, T. N.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.

    2014-09-01

    The proposed SMART-X telescope consists of a pixelated array of a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film deposited on flexible glass substrates. These cells or pixels are used to actively control the overall shape of the mirror surface. It is anticipated that the telescope will consist of 8,000 mirror panels with 400-800 cells on each panel. This creates an enormous number (6.4 million) of traces and contacts needed to address the PZT. In order to simplify the design, a row/column addressing scheme using ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs) is proposed. In addition, connection of the gate and drain lines on the mirror segment to an external supply via a flexible cable was investigated through use of an anisotropic conductive film (ACF). This paper outlines the design of the ZnO TFTs, use of ACF for bonding, and describes a specially designed electronics box with associated software to address the desired cells.

  11. Energetic electrons, hard x-ray emission and MHD activity studies in the IR-T1 tokamak.

    PubMed

    Agah, K Mikaili; Ghoranneviss, M; Elahi, A Salar

    2015-01-01

    Determinations of plasma parameters as well as the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) activity, energetic electrons energy and energy confinement time are essential for future fusion reactors experiments and optimized operation. Also some of the plasma information can be deduced from these parameters, such as plasma equilibrium, stability, and MHD instabilities. In this contribution we investigated the relation between energetic electrons, hard x-ray emission and MHD activity in the IR-T1 Tokamak. For this purpose we used the magnetic diagnostics and a hard x-ray spectroscopy in IR-T1 tokamak. A hard x-ray emission is produced by collision of the runaway electrons with the plasma particles or limiters. The mean energy was calculated from the slope of the energy spectrum of hard x-ray photons. PMID:25882736

  12. X-ray irradiation activates K+ channels via H2O2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Gibhardt, Christine S; Roth, Bastian; Schroeder, Indra; Fuck, Sebastian; Becker, Patrick; Jakob, Burkhard; Fournier, Claudia; Moroni, Anna; Thiel, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a universal tool in tumor therapy but may also cause secondary cancers or cell invasiveness. These negative side effects could be causally related to the human-intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated-K+-channel (hIK), which is activated by X-ray irradiation and affects cell proliferation and migration. To analyze the signaling cascade downstream of ionizing radiation we use genetically encoded reporters for H2O2 (HyPer) and for the dominant redox-buffer glutathione (Grx1-roGFP2) to monitor with high spatial and temporal resolution, radiation-triggered excursions of H2O2 in A549 and HEK293 cells. The data show that challenging cells with ≥1 Gy X-rays or with UV-A laser micro-irradiation causes a rapid rise of H2O2 in the nucleus and in the cytosol. This rise, which is determined by the rate of H2O2 production and glutathione-buffering, is sufficient for triggering a signaling cascade that involves an elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ and eventually an activation of hIK channels. PMID:26350345

  13. X-ray irradiation activates K+ channels via H2O2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Gibhardt, Christine S.; Roth, Bastian; Schroeder, Indra; Fuck, Sebastian; Becker, Patrick; Jakob, Burkhard; Fournier, Claudia; Moroni, Anna; Thiel, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a universal tool in tumor therapy but may also cause secondary cancers or cell invasiveness. These negative side effects could be causally related to the human-intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated-K+-channel (hIK), which is activated by X-ray irradiation and affects cell proliferation and migration. To analyze the signaling cascade downstream of ionizing radiation we use genetically encoded reporters for H2O2 (HyPer) and for the dominant redox-buffer glutathione (Grx1-roGFP2) to monitor with high spatial and temporal resolution, radiation-triggered excursions of H2O2 in A549 and HEK293 cells. The data show that challenging cells with ≥1 Gy X-rays or with UV-A laser micro-irradiation causes a rapid rise of H2O2 in the nucleus and in the cytosol. This rise, which is determined by the rate of H2O2 production and glutathione-buffering, is sufficient for triggering a signaling cascade that involves an elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ and eventually an activation of hIK channels. PMID:26350345

  14. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of four active galaxies - Probing the intercloud medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Kenneth S. K.; Canizares, Claude R.; Markert, Thomas H.; Arnaud, Keith A.

    1990-01-01

    The focal plane crystal spectrometer (FPCS) on the Einstein Observatory has been used to perform a high-resolution spectroscopic search for oxygen X-ray line emission from four active galaxies: Fairall 9, Mrk 421, Mrk 501, and PKS 0548 - 322. Specifically, O VIII Ly-alpha and Ly-beta, whose unredshifted energies are 653 and 775 eV, respectively, were sought. No narrow-line emission was detected within the energy bands searched. Upper limits are calculated on the line flux from these sources of 30 eV equivalent width and use a photoionization model to place corresponding upper limits on the densities of diffuse gas surrounding the active nuclei. The upper limits on gas density range from about 0.02-50/cu cm and probe various radial distances from the central source. This is the first time high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy has been used to place constraints on the intercloud medium in active galaxies.

  15. X-ray generator

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, John M.

    1976-01-01

    Apparatus and method for producing coherent secondary x-rays that are controlled as to direction by illuminating a mixture of high z and low z gases with an intense burst of primary x-rays. The primary x-rays are produced with a laser activated plasma, and these x-rays strip off the electrons of the high z atoms in the lasing medium, while the low z atoms retain their electrons. The neutral atoms transfer electrons to highly excited states of the highly striped high z ions giving an inverted population which produces the desired coherent x-rays. In one embodiment, a laser, light beam provides a laser spark that produces the intense burst of coherent x-rays that illuminates the mixture of high z and low z gases, whereby the high z atoms are stripped while the low z ones are not, giving the desired mixture of highly ionized and neutral atoms. To this end, the laser spark is produced by injecting a laser light beam, or a plurality of beams, into a first gas in a cylindrical container having an adjacent second gas layer co-axial therewith, the laser producing a plasma and the intense primary x-rays in the first gas, and the second gas containing the high and low atomic number elements for receiving the primary x-rays, whereupon the secondary x-rays are produced therein by stripping desired ions in a neutral gas and transfer of electrons to highly excited states of the stripped ions from the unionized atoms. Means for magnetically confining and stabilizing the plasma are disclosed for controlling the direction of the x-rays.

  16. An X-ray spectral model for clumpy tori in active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuan; Li, Xiaobo E-mail: lixb@ihep.ac.cn

    2014-05-20

    We construct an X-ray spectral model for the clumpy torus in an active galactic nucleus (AGN) using Geant4, which includes the physical processes of the photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, Rayleigh scattering, γ conversion, fluorescence line, and Auger process. Since the electrons in the torus are expected to be bounded instead of free, the deviation of the scattering cross section from the Klein-Nishina cross section has also been included, which changes the X-ray spectra by up to 25% below 10 keV. We have investigated the effect of the clumpiness parameters on the reflection spectra and the strength of the fluorescent line Fe Kα. The volume filling factor of the clouds in the clumpy torus only slightly influences the reflection spectra, however, the total column density and the number of clouds along the line of sight significantly change the shapes and amplitudes of the reflection spectra. The effect of column density is similar to the case of a smooth torus, while a small number of clouds along the line of sight will smooth out the anisotropy of the reflection spectra and the fluorescent line Fe Kα. The smoothing effect is mild in the low column density case (N {sub H} = 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}), whereas it is much more evident in the high column density case (N {sub H} = 10{sup 25} cm{sup –2}). Our model provides a quantitative tool for the spectral analysis of the clumpy torus. We suggest that the joint fits of the broad band spectral energy distributions of AGNs (from X-ray to infrared) should better constrain the structure of the torus.

  17. Soft X-Ray Excess from Shocked Accreting Plasma in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumura, Keigo; Hendry, Douglas; Clark, Peter; Tombesi, Francesco; Takahashi, Masaaki

    2016-08-01

    We propose a novel theoretical model to describe the physical identity of the soft X-ray excess that is ubiquitously detected in many Seyfert galaxies, by considering a steady-state, axisymmetric plasma accretion within the innermost stable circular orbit around a black hole (BH) accretion disk. We extend our earlier theoretical investigations on general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic accretion, which implied that the accreting plasma can develop into a standing shock under suitable physical conditions, causing the downstream flow to be sufficiently hot due to shock compression. We perform numerical calculations to examine, for sets of fiducial plasma parameters, the physical nature of fast magnetohydrodynamic shocks under strong gravity for different BH spins. We show that thermal seed photons from the standard accretion disk can be effectively Compton up-scattered by the energized sub-relativistic electrons in the hot downstream plasma to produce the soft excess feature in X-rays. As a case study, we construct a three-parameter Comptonization model of inclination angle θ obs, disk photon temperature kT in, and downstream electron energy kT e to calculate the predicted spectra in comparison with a 60 ks XMM-Newton/EPIC-pn spectrum of a typical radio-quiet Seyfert 1 active galactic nucleus, Ark 120. Our χ 2-analyses demonstrate that the model is plausible for successfully describing data for both non-spinning and spinning BHs with derived ranges of 61.3 keV ≲ kT e ≲ 144.3 keV, 21.6 eV ≲ kT in ≲ 34.0 eV, and 17.°5 ≲ θ obs ≲ 42.°6, indicating a compact Comptonizing region of three to four gravitational radii that resembles the putative X-ray coronae.

  18. THE SECOND ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE TRANSIENT IN M31: CHANDRA, HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE, AND XMM OBSERVATIONS, AND EVIDENCE FOR AN EXTENDED CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, R.; Garcia, M.; Murray, S. S.

    2013-08-01

    XMMU J004243.6+412519 is a transient X-ray source in M31, first discovered 2012 January 15. Different approaches to fitting the brightest follow-up observation gave luminosities 1.3-2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1}, making it the second ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in M31, with a probable black hole accretor. These different models represent different scenarios for the corona: optically thick and compact, or optically thin and extended. We obtained Chandra ACIS and Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys observations of this object as part of our transient monitoring program, and also observed it serendipitously in a 120 ks XMM-Newton observation. We identify an optical counterpart at J2000 position 00:42:43.70 +41:25:18.54; its F435W ({approx}B band) magnitude was 25.97 {+-} 0.03 in the 2012 March 7 observation, and >28.4 at the 4{sigma} level during the 2012 September 7 observation, indicating a low-mass donor. We created two alternative light curves, using the different corona scenarios, finding linear decay for the compact corona and exponential decay for the extended corona; linear decay implies a disk that is >5 mag brighter than we observed. We therefore favor the extended corona scenario, but caution that there is no statistical preference for this model in the X-ray spectra alone. Using two empirical relations between the X-ray to optical ratio and the orbital period, we estimate a period of {approx}9-30 hr; this period is consistent with that of the first ULX in M31 (18{sup +5}{sub -6} hr)

  19. High Resolution X-ray Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, Webster

    2002-01-01

    NAG5-5020 covered a period of 7.5 years during which a great deal of progress was made in x-ray optical techniques under this grant. We survived peer review numerous times during the effort to keep the grant going. In 1994, when the grant started we were actively pursuing the application of spherical mirrors to improving x-ray telescopes. We had found that x-ray detectors were becoming rapidly more sophisticated and affordable, but that x-ray telescopes were only being improved through the intense application of money within the AXAF program. Clearly new techniques for the future were needed. We were successful in developing and testing at the HELSTF facility in New Mexico a four reflection coma-corrected telescope made from spheres. We were able to demonstrate 0.3 arcsecond resolution, almost to the diffraction limit of the system. The community as a whole was, at that time, not particularly interested in looking past AXAF (Chandra) and the effort needed to evolve. Since we had reached the diffraction limit using non-Wolter optics we then decided to see if we could build an x-ray interferometer in the laboratory. In the lab the potential for improved resolution was substantial. If synthetic aperture telescopes could be built in space, then orders of magnitude improvement would become feasible. In 1998 NASA, under the direction of Dr. Nick White of Goddard, started a study to assess the potential and feasibility of x-ray interferometry in space. My work became of central interest to the committee because it indicated that such was possible. In early 1999 we had the breakthrough that allowed us build a practical interferometer. By using flats and hooking up with the Marshall Space Flight Center facilities we were able to demonstrate fringes at 1.25keV on a one millimeter baseline. This actual laboratory demonstration provided the solid proof of concept that NASA needed.

  20. X-RAY ACTIVE MATRIX PIXEL SENSORS BASEDON J-FET TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPED FOR THE LINAC COHERENT LIGHT SOURCE.

    SciTech Connect

    CARINI,G.A.; CHEN, W.; LI, Z.; REHAK, P.; SIDDONS, D.P.

    2007-10-29

    An X-ray Active Matrix Pixel Sensor (XAMPS) is being developed for recording data for the X-ray Pump Probe experiment at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Special attention has to be paid to some technological challenges that this design presents. New processes were developed and refined to address problems encountered during previous productions of XAMPS. The development of these critical steps and corresponding tests results are reported here.