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Sample records for active young girls

  1. Butterfly Girls; promoting healthy diet and physical activity to young African American girls online: Rationale and design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally ...

  2. Butterfly Girls; promoting healthy diet and physical activity to young African American girls online: rationale and design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally and developmental appropriate online obesity prevention program for young African American girls. Methods/Design The Butterfly Girls and the Quest for Founder’s Rock is an 8-episode online program delivered as an animated, interactive comic. The program promotes healthy diet and physical activity and is specifically designed for 8–10 year old African American girls. Girls, parents, and community representatives provided formative feedback on cultural relevance and developmental appropriateness. A three-group (treatment, comparison, wait-list control) randomized design (n = 390 parent/child dyads) is employed, with child as the unit of assignment. Change in body mass index is the primary outcome; change in fruit and vegetable consumption, water, and physical activity are secondary outcomes. Data collection occurs at baseline, approximately 3 months after baseline (i.e., completion of the online program), and approximately three months later (i.e., maintenance assessment). Two dietary recalls are collected at each data collection period by trained interviewers using the Nutrient Data System for Research (NDSR 2012) system. Physical activity is objectively measured by seven days of accelerometry. Psychosocial and process data are also collected. Girls in the treatment and comparison groups will be interviewed at post 1 to obtain information on personal reactions to the program. Discussion This research will develop and evaluate the efficacy of an online program for reducing obesity risk among girls at risk of obesity and related diseases. Online programs offer the potential for wide dissemination, thus reducing disparities related to obesity. Trial

  3. Perceptions of Physical Activity and Influences of Participation in Young African-American Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shannon; Knight, Candace; Crew-Gooden, Annette

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore African-American adolescent girls' perceptions of physical activity participation, examine how physical activity is defined and identify the most preferred forms of physical activity. Qualitative focus group interviews of a convenience sample (N = 30; Mean age = 14.3 years) were used to identifyfactors that influence African-American girls' physical activity participation as well as to explore how physical activity is defined within this population. Four themes emerged: (a) benefits and motivation to engage in physical activity, (b) behaviors consistent with perceived physical activity, (c) most enjoyable physical activity/activities, and (d) barriers to physical activity. Physical activities that promoted normative adolescent development (i.e., autonomy) were perceived as most beneficial, desirable, and most likely to be sustained. Implications of these findings highlight the importance of the incorporation of socialization and peer engagement in physical activity programs designed for African-American adolescent girls. PMID:27045157

  4. [Pregnancy in young girls].

    PubMed

    Klapp, C

    2003-06-01

    More and increasingly young adolescents are sexually active and pay less or no attention to contraception. The pregnancy rate among adolescents has been definitely increasing in recent years and especially among the youngest. This entails a large proportion of medicosomatic and also psychosocial risks such as premature labour and delivery as well as social disadvantages. Moreover, abortions have greatly increased. e.g. by 20% in 2001. Among the causes besides earlier maturity we may assume inadequate sex education falling short of cognitive capacity and emotional needs as well as difficult social problems with deficiencies in tenderness requirements and poor prospects of vocational training and professional career 8 examples, case reports). The overall situation pre-programmes medium-term and long-term consequences such as deficient school education and training, financial dependence and excessive financial and emotional strain on mother and child. A considerable gap in this regard can be filled by medical health promotion in step with physical and mental development, as well as by primary and secondary prevention in respect of information deficits, within the framework of a sound relationship of trust and reliability between the physician and the (female) patient. PMID:14556119

  5. Interventions to Promote Physical Activity among Young and Adolescent Girls: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho-Minano, Maria J.; LaVoi, Nicole M.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.

    2011-01-01

    A narrative systematic review was conducted to describe the available evidence from physical activity (PA) interventions that targeted girls aged 5-18 years and to determine their effectiveness and key characteristics of success. Systematic literature searches were conducted using four databases: PubMed, Web of Science, PsychInfo and SPORTDiscus…

  6. Phenomenology of Depression in Young Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Duax, Jeanne; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms, the overlap between caregiver and child report, the association between depression and anxiety, and the relationship between symptoms of depression and impairment in young girls. Method: Participants in the Pittsburgh Girls Study, a community sample of 2,451 girls aged 5-8 years old and…

  7. Lower physical activity is associated with fat infiltration within skeletal muscle in young girls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fat infiltration within skeletal muscle is strongly associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. Lower physical activity may be a risk factor for greater fat infiltration within skeletal muscle, although whether lower physical activity is associated with fat infiltrati...

  8. Lupus vulgaris in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Tarang; Varshney, Anupam; Bakshi, S K

    2013-01-01

    With the estimated global burden of TB being 8.8 million incident cases and 1.1 million deaths from TB in HIV-negative cases and additional 0.35 million deaths in HIV-associated cases,1 the total number of cutaneous TB cases ( < 1-2 % of total cases) becomes significant. With the WHO setting up public-private mix partnerships and a millenium development goal of a 50% reduction in the total number of incident cases, the case detection and reporting of unusual cutaneous TB cases becomes very important. We present a case of lupus vulgaris in a young girl with rapid progression of a large plaque with hypertrophic features in the periphery. The case is unusual due to its rapid progression, unusual site and extensive giant form which have never been reported previously. PMID:24060723

  9. Personal and Social Interactions between Young Girls and Scientists: Examining Critical Aspects for Identity Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farland-Smith, Donna

    2012-01-01

    At a 5-day summer camp designed for middle-school girls (N = 50), fifth through ninth-grade students were able to identify with individual scientists and learn more about the science field. Data from the girls' journals, pictorial representations, and field notes demonstrated that these young women related to scientists who actively engaged them…

  10. The Young Gifted Girl: A Contemporary View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeper, Annemarie

    2003-01-01

    In this reprint of an article published in 1978, the role of women in society and its impact on gifted girls is discussed. It is argued that gender stereotypes work against gifted girls and that the women's movement has helped gifted girls develop a new image and concept of womanhood. (CR)

  11. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

  12. Preteen Girls, Magazines, and the Negotiation of Young Sexual Femininity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vares, Tiina; Jackson, Sue

    2015-01-01

    The focus on, and concern about, young girls and preteens or "tweens" relates to the "sexualisation" of girlhood and the notion that girls are "growing up too fast" and becoming "too sexy too soon". In both popular and academic accounts, "tween" magazines and the increasingly "sexualised"…

  13. Factors Related to Eating Disorders in Young Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisele, Jill; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Identified factors related to eating disorders in young adolescent girls. Findings revealed significant differences among the girls based on intact versus broken family; subjects' actual and preferred weight; whether the family ate meals together; average grades; age and grade in school; fathers' occupation; future career plans; place of…

  14. Peer Deviance, Parenting and Disruptive Behavior among Young Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shari; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations between peer deviance, parenting practices, and conduct and oppositional problems among young girls ages 7 and 8. Participants were 588 African American and European American girls who were part of a population-based study of the development of conduct problems and delinquency among…

  15. American Immigrant Girls' Understanding of Female Body Image in Disney: A Critical Analysis of Young Korean Girls' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lena

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses young Korean immigrant girls' understanding of American popular culture in a small-scale qualitative study in order to disclose young American immigrant girls' perspectives on such culture. In particular, this paper explores how these Korean girls (age five to eight) perceive female body images in American popular culture -…

  16. Peer Deviance, Parenting and Disruptive Behavior among Young Girls

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Shari; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations between peer deviance, parenting practices, and conduct and oppositional problems among young girls ages 7 and 8. Participants were 588 African American and European American girls who were part of a population-based study of the development of conduct problems and delinquency among girls. Affiliations with problem-prone peers were apparent among a sizeable minority of the girls, and these associations included both males and females. Although peer delinquency concurrently predicted disruptive behaviors, the gender of these peers did not contribute to girls’ behavior problems. Harsh parenting and low parental warmth showed both concurrent and prospective associations with girls’ disruptive behaviors. Similar patterns of association were seen for African American and European American girls. The findings show that peer and parent risk processes are important contributors to the early development of young girls’ conduct and oppositional behaviors. These data contribute to our understanding of girls’ aggression and antisocial behaviors and further inform our understanding of risk processes for these behaviors among young girls in particular. PMID:18777132

  17. Creating Passages for Young Minority Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    The gender gap - what is it? After all these years of gender equity in schools, does the gap still exist? Can it be closed? The answers to these questions are both simple and complex. For instance, there are still gender gaps between girls and boys in various aspects of achievement and other performance outcomes in schools. In some areas, girls…

  18. Hepatitis B, interferon, and acne fulminans in a young girl

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Sandeep; Malik, Ajay; Kumar, Dharmendra; Sodhi, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Acne fulminans (AF) is a very rare severe form of acne seen in young males, characterized by a sudden and explosive onset of hemorrhagic pustules and ulceration on the trunk, systemic features in the form of fever, polyarthropathy, malaise, erythema nodosum and painful osteolytic bone involvement with leukocytosis, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Conventional treatment of AF includes corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents for the initial phase followed by isotretinoin. Active hepatitis B infection with a high viral load precludes the administration of any immunosuppressive drugs. We present the case of an 18-year-old girl with a history of occasional acne who presented with AF of sudden onset following administration of interferon-alpha-2a for her recently detected hepatitis B infection. Management of hepatitis B was withheld in view of her general condition. The patient was managed with low dose isotretinoin with subsidence of lesions. AF in a young female precipitated by interferon and its management with isotretinoin in the presence of active hepatitis B infection make the case unique. PMID:27057488

  19. Hepatitis B, interferon, and acne fulminans in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sandeep; Malik, Ajay; Kumar, Dharmendra; Sodhi, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Acne fulminans (AF) is a very rare severe form of acne seen in young males, characterized by a sudden and explosive onset of hemorrhagic pustules and ulceration on the trunk, systemic features in the form of fever, polyarthropathy, malaise, erythema nodosum and painful osteolytic bone involvement with leukocytosis, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Conventional treatment of AF includes corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents for the initial phase followed by isotretinoin. Active hepatitis B infection with a high viral load precludes the administration of any immunosuppressive drugs. We present the case of an 18-year-old girl with a history of occasional acne who presented with AF of sudden onset following administration of interferon-alpha-2a for her recently detected hepatitis B infection. Management of hepatitis B was withheld in view of her general condition. The patient was managed with low dose isotretinoin with subsidence of lesions. AF in a young female precipitated by interferon and its management with isotretinoin in the presence of active hepatitis B infection make the case unique. PMID:27057488

  20. Totally Private & Personal: Journaling Ideas for Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilber, Jessica

    This book offers journaling ideas for girls and young women ages 11-16, although it states that others who like to "journal" will find something here for them, too. The book discusses the reasons for journaling, including that it can serve as a good release when angry, sad, troubled, or even happy. The book also states that a journal is a safe…

  1. MRI Neuroanatomy in Young Girls with Autism: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Courchesne, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that young girls and boys with autism exhibit different profiles of neuroanatomical abnormality relative to each other and relative to typically developing children. Method: Structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure gray and white matter volumes (whole cerebrum, cerebral lobes, and cerebellum) and…

  2. Analysis of Three High-Achieving Young Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Chae, Jeong-Lim; Schinck-Mikel, Amelie G.; Watson, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an in-depth cross-case analysis of three high-achieving young adolescent girls who had contrasting mathematics learning experiences during the first year of middle school. In particular, this study examines the foundation for their motivation, as well as the dominant mode of learning and academic engagement in relation to three…

  3. Young Girls Discovering Their Voice with Literacy and Readers Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambo, Debby

    2011-01-01

    The ideal female, as portrayed in the media, has a perfect body, owns many trendy and costly possessions, and is submissive and sexy. Young girls are easily influenced by the media's portrayal of teens and women, therefore, they may begin to form unrealistic ideas about beauty and begin to judge themselves and each other based on these…

  4. [Dermatitis artefacta in a young girl].

    PubMed

    Gil-Bistes, D; Kluger, N; Guillot, B; Bessis, D

    2010-11-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a self-inflicted skin disease during which the patient denies having produced and is not conscious of the psychological need he or she needs to satisfy through the lesions. Suggestive clinical features often include bizarre, linear, or geometric outlines of accessible parts of the body and an ambiguous history of the lesions. Dermatitis artefacta in children is often associated with familial dysfunction and/or problems at school. We report a case of acute linear purpuric lesions of the upper right limb in a 12-year-old girl. PMID:20880677

  5. Young widows, tragic voices. Voices of girls 2: Africa.

    PubMed

    Owen, M

    1998-01-01

    The tragic consequences for young girls of becoming widows or being the daughters of widows have not yet been addressed. In Africa, girls are sometimes given in marriage to old men. When the girls are widowed while still young, their chances for remarriage are slim. The marriages of girl children continue unabated in Africa and may be on the increase because of the AIDS epidemic. Modern legislation that complies with marriage age obligations created by the Convention for the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women simply creates statutory limits to marriage without parental consent and fails to regulate child marriages arranged by parents. Being the daughter of a widow is almost as bad as being a widow, because widows routinely withdraw their daughters from school to protect them from unwanted sexual approaches or marrying them off at a young age. Widows and their daughters are often considered chattel by male relatives who feel no compulsion to seek their consent before arranging marriages for them. Child widowhood is not addressed in the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women, but during the 1998 UN Commission on the Status of Women, the European Union countries agreed to pay special attention to widows. It is time for international agencies to begin to collect data on this issue. PMID:12321766

  6. Personal and Social Interactions Between Young Girls and Scientists: Examining Critical Aspects for Identity Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farland-Smith, Donna

    2012-02-01

    At a 5-day summer camp designed for middle-school girls (N = 50), fifth through ninth-grade students were able to identify with individual scientists and learn more about the science field. Data from the girls' journals, pictorial representations, and field notes demonstrated that these young women related to scientists who actively engaged them in hands-on, problem-based activities and had a sense of humor while doing so. Girls closely identified with science fields that offer an opportunity for travel and for interaction with animals. In addition, it is evident that the girls' personal and social interactions shaped their perceptions of scientists and helped them internalize their experiences as members of a science community in relation to their overall science identities.

  7. Barriers and Facilitators to Health Behaviour Change and Economic Activity among Slum-Dwelling Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Nairobi, Kenya: The Role of Social, Health and Economic Assets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austrian, Karen; Anderson, Althea D.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent girls and young women in urban slum areas in developing countries face a myriad of challenges regarding education, sexual health, livelihoods and gender-based violence. One way of understanding how these challenges interact with each other is through the Asset Building Framework, which posits that girls need a combination of social,…

  8. Cardiovascular fitness in premenarcheal girls and young women.

    PubMed

    Rowland, T; Miller, K; Vanderburgh, P; Goff, D; Martel, L; Ferrone, L

    2000-02-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in females, expressed as ml x kg(-1) x min(-1), declines steadily during the first three decades of life. The contribution of diminished cardiovascular function to this apparent fall in aerobic fitness is unknown. Cardiac responses to maximal cycle exercise were compared in 24 premenarcheal females (mean age 11.7 years) and 17 young adult women (mean age 27.4 years) using Doppler echocardiography. Mean VO2max was 40 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) and 34.7 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) in the girls and women, respectively (p < 0.05). When VO2max was expressed relative to allometrically-derived mass(0.52), however, no significant difference was observed in aerobic fitness between the two groups. Similar allometric analyses revealed no significant differences in average maximal cardiac output (10.50 vs 10.07 L x min(-1) BSA(-1.11) for girls and women, respectively) nor maximal stroke volume (53 vs 56 ml BSA(-1.13) respectively). These findings suggest that 1) allometric scaling is important in eliminating the effects of body size on VO2max, 2) body dimension differences can account for variations in VO2 in young females, and 3) cardiac functional reserve is similar in premenarcheal girls and young adult women. PMID:10727072

  9. Listening to Girls and Boys Talk about Girls' Physical Activity Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vu, Maihan B.; Murrie, Dale; Gonzalez, Vivian; Jobe, Jared B.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the formative assessment for the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG), a multicenter study to reduce the decline of physical activity in adolescent girls, girls and boys with diverse ethnicity from six states participated in focus groups and semistructured interviews. Data from 13 girls' focus groups (N = 100), 11 boys' focus…

  10. Understanding Gender through Disney's Marriages: A Study of Young Korean Immigrant Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lena

    2008-01-01

    Much American popular culture has often been criticized for its negative portrayals of females and its potentially harmful influence on young children. However, there are insufficient studies about American young girls' actual understanding of these female representations. Specifically, the perspectives of young immigrant girls have hardly been…

  11. The Formative Years: Pathways to Substance Abuse among Girls and Young Women Ages 8-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the reasons why girls and young women smoke, drink and use drugs, and what increases or lowers their risk of substance abuse. It demonstrates that certain key risk factors for substance abuse are unique to girls and young women and pose a greater threat to them than to boys and young men. This…

  12. Obesity with irregular menstrual cycle in young girls.

    PubMed

    Mustaqeem, M; Sadullah, S; Waqar, W; Farooq, M Z; Khan, A; Fraz, T R

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Obese women are at increased risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hyperlipidemia, rectal carcinoma and gynecological problems including sub fertility, menstrual dysfunction and polycystic ovarian disease. The aim of this study was to assess relationship of obesity with menstrual irregularity in young girls that can help to create awareness among young girls about obesity and how it can affect fertility. It was a case controlled cross sectional study comprising of 220 participants from different colleges and universities of Karachi and from outpatients department of private clinic and Civil Hospital Karachi. A questionnaire was designed to assess the relationship of obesity with irregular menstrual cycle. Questionnaires were filled by co-authors after taking verbal consent. Data was collected from March 2013 to December 2013 and entered and analyzed on SPSS 16.0. Out of 220 participants obese and overweight were 67(30.4%) and 49(22.2%) respectively. Significant association was found between body composition and menstrual cycle irregularity as menstrual irregularity was present in only 9.5% when the BMI was normal and 14.09% and 24% girls in the overweight and obese categories respectively. Waist to hip ratio was found increased in 61.36% of girls. Sixty four point forty four percent (64.44%) of the girls with increased waist to hip ratio reported menstrual irregularity which makes 39.55% of the total sample population. Dysmenorrhea was reported by 63.6% of participants and family history was positive in 77.3%. Hirsutism was reported in 36.7% and 49.2%, acne in 34.6% and 43.2%, weight gain tendency in 85.7% and 98.5%, types 2 diabetes in 0% and 4.4% and hypertension in 8.16% and 31.3% of overweight and obese participants respectively. This study shows considerable association between overall and central obesity with menstrual cycle irregularity. This study provides the

  13. Young Girls' and Caretakers' Reports of Problem Behavior: Comprehension and Concordance across Age, Race, and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Lee Ann; Simpson, Sally S.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses a research instrument developed and utilized by the Pittsburgh Girls Study that asked young girls (ages 7 and 8) and their caretakers to report on the girls' involvement in a variety of problem behaviors. In this article, the authors evaluate whether comprehension, prevalence, and caretaker-child concordance of problem…

  14. Peer Influences on Body Dissatisfaction and Dieting Awareness in Young Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohnt, Hayley K.; Tiggemann, Marika

    2005-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to explore the role of peer influences in the development of body dissatisfaction and dieting awareness in young girls. Method: A sample of 81 girls (aged 5-8 years) were recruited from the first 3 years of formal schooling. Girls were individually interviewed. Body dissatisfaction was assessed by means of figure rating…

  15. Interventions with Young Female Offenders and Teenage Girls at Risk: Alternative Educational Services in a Singapore Girls' Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Kaili Chen; Choo, Andrew; Lim, Liping

    2009-01-01

    This article presents factors that place girls at risk of delinquency and offending as well as the patterns in juvenile delinquency trends for females in Singapore. The authors also describe Singapore's overall structure of services for young offenders and the current status of alternative education programmes for young women engaged in delinquent…

  16. Girls' Physically Active Play and Parental Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauber, Margaret A.

    Sex differences in children's physical activity levels, and associations between girls' activity level, childrearing characteristics and parent-child play behavior were investigated in a quasi-naturalistic situation. As part of a longitudinal project, 144 third grade children were videotaped in a 1-hour play session with one of their parents. A…

  17. 78 FR 38452 - Price for the 2013 Girl Scouts of the USA Young Collector Set

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the 2013 Girl Scouts of the USA Young Collector Set AGENCY: United States... of $54.95 for the 2013 Girl Scouts of the USA Young Collector Set. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  18. Multiple ovarian cysts in a young girl with severe hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Panico, Annalisa; Lupoli, Gelsy Arianna; Fonderico, Francesco; Colarusso, Sara; Marciello, Francesca; Poggiano, Maria Rita; Del Prete, Michela; Magliulo, Raffaele; Iervolino, Paolo; Lupoli, Giovanni

    2007-12-01

    Case study of a young female patient with severe hypothyroidism due to autoimmune thyroiditis and multiple ovarian cysts is reported. A 14-year 7-month-old girl presented with pelvic and abdominal pain and severe asthenia. Her last menstrual period was 10 months before presentation. Physical examination showed obesity; apathetic and flat expression; periorbital puffiness; pale, cold, dry skin and slow sustained reflexes; swelling in the hands and feet; no galactorrhea; a hardly palpable thyroid gland; and ovaries with a palpable irregular surface. Her heart rate was 90 bpm with a blood pressure within the normal range (110/70 mmHg). Laboratory findings showed severe hypothyroidism (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH]: 960 mIU/L), gravis macrocytic anemia, hyperfibrinogenemia, and hyperprolactinemia. Imaging examinations revealed a normal-size thyroid with irregular echogenicity, strongly hypoechogenous area at the neck ultrasonography, bilateral multilocular ovarian masses with cystic components at pelvic ultrasound and computed tomography, and both anterior and posterior pericardial effusion at echocardiography. As soon as thyroid replacement therapy was initiated, all symptoms progressively disappeared and biochemical and hormonal values normalized, while the right ovary did not decrease in size during the follow-up period. For this reason, our patient underwent right ovarian wedge resection 14 months after the initiation of medication replacement. Ovarian histological examination showed a benign ovarian cyst with extensive hemorrhage and myxedematous infiltration. It is concluded that it is important to recognize early in young girls the association between large multiple ovarian cysts and high elevated levels of TSH in order to resolve this disorder with substitutive therapy. PMID:18020917

  19. Phylloides tumors in adolescent girls and young women in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khurshid, Amna; Kayani, Naila; Bhurgri, Yasmin

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of phylloides tumor (PT) in adolescent girls and young women (less than and equal to 25 years of age) and to define the clinico-pathological features of PT in this unusual clinical setting. This descriptive study was carried out at the Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) pathology department. All consecutive cases of PT diagnosed during the last sixteen years in the section of histopathology from 1st January 1990 to 31st June 2005 were included. Selection of cases was restricted to patients up to 25 years of age. A total of 42 cases of PT in up to 25 years of age were diagnosed. This comprised 11% of the total PT cases (total n=363). The number of benign (BPT), borderline (BLPT) and malignant (MPT) was identical i.e. 14 (33.3%) each. Clinically all cases presented with a solid, mobile, palpable mass. The mean age was 19.1 years (95% CI, 16.7-21.6), 21.9 years (95% CI, 20.7-21.9) and 19.7 years (95% CI, 17.2-22.3) in BPT, BLPT and MPT respectively. In majority of cases the surgical procedure performed was lumpectomy (50% of BPT, 78% of BLPT and 64% of MPT). High grade PT (BLPT and MPT) is an uncommon mammary tumor in adolescent girls and young women but seems to be occurring with increased frequency in the study population. This observation may indicate the biological behavior of PT in a high risk population, though chances of referral bias are also present. In view of the rarity of the disease, larger population studies are suggested to confirm our findings. PMID:17250427

  20. Bringing Astronomy Activities and Science Content to Girls Locally and Nationally: A Girl Scout NIRCam Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Higgins, M. L.; McCarthy, D. W.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2012-03-01

    A long-term collaboration between the JWST’s NIRCam E/PO team and the Girl Scouts of Southern Arizona brings STEM activities and concepts to Girl Scout leaders, staff, and volunteers, and in turn to their councils and girls.

  1. Adolescent Girls' Perceptions of Physical Activity: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Sarah; Biddle, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity among adolescent girls are a cause for concern. Examining girls' physical activity perceptions and motivations through in-depth qualitative research allows for greater understanding of the reasons behind their physical activity-related choices. Forty-seven girls aged 14 to 16 years participated in exploratory focus…

  2. Promoting Physical Activity in Middle School Girls: Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Larry S.; Catellier, Diane J.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Murray, David M.; Pratt, Charlotte A.; Young, Deborah R.; Elder, John P.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Stevens, June; Jobe, Jared B.; Pate, Russell R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical activity is important for weight control and good health; however, activity levels decline in the adolescent years, particularly in girls. Design Group randomized controlled trial Setting/participants Middle school girls with English-speaking skills and no conditions to prevent participation in physical activity in 36 schools in six geographically diverse areas of the United States. Random, cross-sectional samples were drawn within schools: 6th graders in 2003 (n=1721) and 8th graders in 2005 (n=3504) and 2006 (n=3502). Intervention A 2-year study-directed intervention (fall 2003 to spring 2005) targeted schools, community agencies, and girls to increase opportunities, support, and incentives for increased physical activity. Components included programs linking schools and community agencies, physical education, health education, and social marketing. A third-year intervention used school and community personnel to direct intervention activities. Main outcome measures The primary outcome, daily MET-weighted minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MET-weighted MVPA), was assessed using accelerometry. Percent body fat was assessed using anthropometry. Results After the staff-directed intervention (pre-stated primary outcome), there were no differences (mean= −0.4, 95% CI= CI= −8.2 to 7.4) in adjusted MET-weighted MVPA between 8th-grade girls in schools assigned to intervention or control. Following the Program Champion–directed intervention, girls in intervention schools were more physically active than girls in control schools (mean difference 10.9 MET-weighted minutes of MVPA, 95% CI=0.52–21.2). This difference is about 1.6 minutes of daily MVPA or 80 kcal per week. There were no differences in fitness or percent body fat at either 8th-grade timepoint. Conclusion A school-based, community-linked intervention modestly improved physical activity in girls. PMID:18312804

  3. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Young Adolescent Girls: Moderators of the Distress-Function Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilt, Lori M.; Cha, Christine B.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This study examined nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a community sample of young adolescent girls. Potential moderators of the relationships between different types of distress (internal and interpersonal) and particular functions of NSSI (emotion-regulation and interpersonal) were explored. Participants included 94 girls (49% Hispanic; 25%…

  4. Barbie Girls and Xtractaurs: Discourse and Identity in Virtual Worlds for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Rebecca W.; Korobkova, Ksenia; Epler, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which Mattel's "Barbie Girls" and "Xtractaurs," online sites aimed at girls and boys of six years of age and up, respectively, offer markedly distinct literate and semiotic resources for their young users. Analysis focuses on the multimodal layers of meaning and the mediating tools,…

  5. Callous-Unemotional Behaviors in Young Girls: Shared and Unique Effects Relative to Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Pardini, Dustin A.; Loeber, Rolf; Sembower, Mark; Keenan, Kate; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2007-01-01

    Among girls, little is known about the shared and unique associations that callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors and conduct problems have with aspects of emotional and behavioral dysregulation and with parenting practices. This study examined these associations using a large community-based sample of young girls (N = 990). The findings revealed that…

  6. Young Women of Achievement: A Resource for Girls in Science, Math, and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Frances A.; Stephens, Kristen R.

    This book is intended to be a resource guide for girls and young women considering careers in science, math, and technology. An introductory chapter considers the status of girls and women in these fields, the importance of role models, and suggestions for using the book. Part 1 introduces readers to the various career opportunities available in…

  7. Measuring the neighborhood environment: associations with young girls' energy intake and expenditure in a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Neighborhood environments affect children's health outcomes. Observational methods used to assess neighborhoods can be categorized as indirect, intermediate, or direct. Direct methods, involving in-person audits of the neighborhoods conducted by trained observers, are recognized as an accurate representation of current neighborhood conditions. The authors investigated the associations of various neighborhood characteristics with young girls' diet and physical activity. Methods This study is based on a subset of participants in the Cohort Study of Young Girls' Nutrition, Environment and Transitions (CYGNET). In-person street audits were conducted within 215 girls' residential neighborhoods using a modified St. Louis Audit Tool. From the street audit data, exploratory factor analysis revealed five neighborhood scales: "mixed residential and commercial," "food and retail," "recreation," "walkability," and "physical disorder." A Neighborhood Deprivation Index was also derived from census data. The authors investigated if the five neighborhood scales and the Neighborhood Deprivation Index were associated with quartiles of total energy intake and expenditure (metabolic equivalent (MET) hours/week) at baseline, and whether any of these associations were modified by race/ethnicity. Results After adjustment for demographic characteristics, there was an inverse association between prevalence of "food and retail" destinations and total energy intake (for a one quartile increase, OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.74, 0.96). Positive associations were also observed between the "recreation" and "walkability" scales with physical activity among Hispanic/Latina girls (for a one quartile increase in MET, OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.31, 2.88 for recreation; OR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.11, 2.63 for walkability). Among African-American girls, there was an inverse association between "physical disorder" and physical activity (OR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.12, 0.80). Conclusions These results suggest that

  8. Sedentary Activity and Body Composition of Middle School Girls: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Charlotte; Webber, Larry S.; Baggett, Chris D.; Ward, Dianne; Pate, Russell R.; Murray, David; Lohman, Timothy; Lytle, Leslie; Elder, John P.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the relationships between sedentary activity and body composition in 1,458 sixth-grade girls from 36 middle schools across the United States. Multivariate associations between sedentary activity and body composition were examined with regression analyses using general linear mixed models. Mean age, body mass index, and…

  9. VERB [TM] Summer Scorecard: Increasing Tween Girls' Vigorous Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfonso, Moya L.; Thompson, Zachary; McDermott, Robert J.; Colquitt, Gavin; Jones, Jeffery A.; Bryant, Carol A.; Courtney, Anita H.; Davis, Jenna L.; Zhu, Yiliang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We assessed changes in the frequency of self-reported physical activity (PA) among tween girls exposed and not exposed to the VERB [TM] Summer Scorecard (VSS) intervention in Lexington, Kentucky, during 2004, 2006, and 2007. Methods: Girls who reported 0-1 day per week of PA were classi?ed as having "little or no" PA. Girls who reported…

  10. [Injuries of the genital organs in young girls and adolescents (1959-1988)].

    PubMed

    Berić, B; Dordević, M; Vukelić, J

    1990-01-01

    In the 30-year period from 1959 to 1988, there were 112 young and adolescent girls admitted and treated at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Novi Sad, i.e. 3-4 per year. Young girls most often suffered from accidental injuries (41-36.6%) while older girls suffered from intracoital injuries (71-63.4%). The most frequent accidental injuries were the injuries of the vulva, perineum, hymen, vagina and sphincter ani, as well as one case of a severe injury of Douglas pouch followed by intestine injury. Colporrhexis was the most frequent intracoital injury. PMID:2273902

  11. Successful EPO Strategies for Engaging Girls and Young Women in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Smith, D. A.; Dussault, M.; Hasan, H.; Krishnamurthi, A.; Lowes, L.; Stimmer, M.

    2010-08-01

    This mini workshop is geared toward participants—both researchers and educators—interested in sparking and supporting the interest of girls and young women in Earth and space sciences. Its prime focus is on strategies and lessons learned in creating resources and implementing activities that aim to achieve this goal. The workshop involves interactive discussions and mini-roundtables on the specifics of how to improve opportunities through formal (K-16) and informal education and public outreach programs. The emphasis is on drawing out successful strategies and why they have been successful, and on how education and public outreach (EPO) program leaders can work together or use each others' programs and practices. Underlying the discussions will be connections with the International Year of Astronomy project "She is an Astronomer" as well as what we can learn from cross-disciplinary studies to encourage women's participation in science and engineering fields and careers. Mini-roundtables will feature EPO practitioners who are directly involved with creating and implementing NASA-funded resources and activities to engage girls and young women in science. Discussions will be relevant to a wide range of EPO programs funded by various agencies.

  12. The Economic Future of Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitz, Joan

    Later marriage ages, longer life expectancy, higher divorce rates, and the feminization of poverty will all figure in the economic future of modern girls. Values about work, marriage, and motherhood are in flux during adolescence, and the messages they receive are often contradictory. Steps must be taken to educate girls to make clearheaded and…

  13. Developmental Trajectories of Young Girls with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Deborah D.; Wheeler, Anne; Sideris, John; Sullivan, Kelly; Reichardt, Alison; Roberts, Jane; Clark, Renee; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    To describe the early phenotype of girls with full mutation fragile X, we used 54 observations of 15 girls between the ages of 6 months and 9 years to examine developmental trajectories as measured by the Battelle Development Inventory. In this sample, autistic behavior was associated with poorer developmental outcomes, primarily due to…

  14. Title IX, Girls' Sports Participation, and Adult Female Physical Activity and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaestner, Robert; Xu, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Arguably, the most important school-based intervention to increase physical activity was Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which led to a 600% increase in girls' sports participation between 1972 and 1978. We studied the effect of this increase in sports participation and athletic opportunities while young on the physical activity and…

  15. "Cinderella Was a Wuss": A Young Girl's Responses to Feminist and Patriarchal Folktales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trousdale, Ann M.; McMillan, Sally

    2003-01-01

    Examines a young girl's responses to "feminist" and "patriarchal" folktales. Explains that issues raised by tales involved the exercise of personal agency, physical strength of males and females, and the symbolic significance of dress. Contends that findings challenge psychological theories about the appeal of folktales to young children, and…

  16. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

    PubMed Central

    ALFaris, Nora A.; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z.; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

  17. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh.

    PubMed

    ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M

    2015-01-01

    Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

  18. [To feed well and take good care of young girls is to promote maternal health].

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    countries have begun programs to assist girls who have left school at an early age. The InterAfrician Committee on Practices Affecting the Health of Girls and Children is leading efforts among 21 African committees and organizations to eliminate harmful traditional practices, including some practices during delivery, genital mutilation, nutritional taboos, and marriage of young children. Families who neglect the needs of their daughters are often attempting to make the best use of limited resources. Such practices are however a principal cause of poor health among women, and they must be combatted. The situation in each country should be defined through data comparing the status of girls and boys. Preventive measures include monitoring existing programs for inclusion of girls. PMID:12284956

  19. Altered Breast Development in Young Girls from an Agricultural Environment

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, Elizabeth A.; Conard, Craig; Lares, Fernando; Aguilar, Maria Guadalupe; McLachlan, John; Guillette, Louis J.

    2006-01-01

    In several human populations, the age at which female breast development begins is reported to have declined over the last five decades. Much debate has occurred over whether this reported decline has actually occurred and what factors contribute to it. However, geographical patterns reflecting earlier developmental onset in some human populations suggest environmental factors influence this phenomenon. These factors include interactions between genetic makeup, nutrition, and possible cumulative exposure to estrogens, both endogenous as well as environmental beginning during in utero development. We examined the onset of breast development in a group of peripubertal girls from the Yaqui Valley of Sonora, Mexico. We observed that girls from valley towns, areas using modern agricultural practices, exhibited larger breast fields than those of girls living in the foothills who exhibited similar stature [e.g., weight, height, body mass index (BMI)], and genetic background. Further, girls from valley towns displayed a poorly defined relationship between breast size and mammary gland development, whereas girls from the Yaqui foothills, where traditional ranching occurs, show a robust positive relationship between breast size and mammary size. The differences noted were obtained by a medically based exam involving morphometric analysis and palpation of tissues, in contrast to visual staging alone. In fact, use of the Tanner scale, involving visual staging of breast development for puberty, detected no differences between the study populations. Mammary tissue, determined by palpation, was absent in 18.5% of the girls living in agricultural areas, although palpable breast adipose tissue was present. No relationship was seen between mammary diameter and weight or BMI in either population. These data suggest that future in-depth studies examining mammary tissue growth and fat deposition in breast tissue are required if we are to understand environmental influences on these

  20. Girls' Perspectives: Physical Activity and Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Lynn; Manzer, Rebecca

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between activity and positive self-esteem in girls 9 to 12 years of age was explored in this study. The hypothesis was that the positive relationship between physical activity and positive self-esteem which exists for women also exists for girls. A secondary goal was to gain insight into some of the factors that are associated…

  1. High School Girls' Perceptions of Selected Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Bretzing, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    High school students, and particularly girls, are not very active (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006). To help girls develop the abilities to enjoy lifetime, healthy physical activity, physical educators need to provide curricula that will achieve this goal. In the process, they need to make sure they are aligned with the current…

  2. Discovering Their Voices: Engaging Adolescent Girls with Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Marsha M.; Keeling, Kara K.

    2007-01-01

    Authors Marsha M. Sprague and Kara K. Keeling propose a language arts curriculum that incorporates literature-based discussions to help adolescent girls deal constructively with difficult issues and develop their own authentic voices. To help put such a curriculum into action, this book offers the following resources: (1) A research base to frame…

  3. "Boys Like Smart Girls More than Pretty Girls": Young Korean Immigrant Girls' Understanding of Romantic Love in American Popular Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lena

    2009-01-01

    Despite the importance of understanding children's interpretations of popular culture in the United States, young children's voices have not been sufficiently explored in studies. Moreover, the perspectives of American immigrant children hardly have a presence in studies of popular culture. Thus, this paper explores how young immigrant children…

  4. Smart Girls, Black Girls, Mean Girls, and Bullies: At the Intersection of Identities and the Mediating Role of Young Girls' Social Network in Mathematical Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gholson, Maisie; Martin, Danny B.

    2014-01-01

    By taking an intersectional and emic view to studying a group of African American girls in a third-grade class, we attempted to capture the complexity of mathematics learning for these girls. Traditionally, children's social networks in school are framed as external to mathematics content learning. Our preliminary analyses of student interviews…

  5. Promoting positive body image in young girls: an evaluation of 'Shapesville'.

    PubMed

    Dohnt, Hayley K; Tiggemann, Marika

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the current research was to evaluate Shapesville, a children's picture book designed to promote positive body image in young children. Participants were a convenience sample comprising 84 girls (aged 5-9 years) recruited from four private girls' schools. Girls were randomly allocated to be read either Shapesville or a control book. Individual measures of body image, stereotyping on the basis of weight and media internalisation, as well as knowledge of non-appearance topics, were obtained at pre- and post-intervention, as well as at 6-week follow-up. Relative to the control book, girls' appearance satisfaction increased after reading Shapesville. In addition, stereotyping on the basis of weight and internalisation of media ideals was reduced. Finally, reading Shapesville also increased girls' knowledge base of non-appearance topics, such as recognising their special talents and awareness of healthy eating, at post-intervention. These gains were somewhat reduced at follow-up, yet were largely still significantly greater than at pre-intervention. The present study demonstrates that Shapesville has the potential to be a successful prevention tool for use with young girls. Schools can incorporate Shapesville into their curriculum as early as school entry, in order to help prevent the early development of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. PMID:17680591

  6. Empowering Girls with Chemistry, Exercise and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapham, Emily D.; Ciccomascolo, Lori E.; Clapham, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that a girl's career interests in the areas of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) declines between grades 6 and 8. Similarly, in middle school, there is a decrease in physical activity among girls. Researchers at the University of Rhode Island (URI) conducted a chemistry-based science camp that took place…

  7. Scale Development for Perceived School Climate for Girls' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Sallis, James F.; Elder, John P.; Dowda, Marsha

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To test an original scale assessing perceived school climate for girls' physical activity in middle school girls. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). Results: CFA retained 5 of 14 original items. A model with 2 correlated factors, perceptions about teachers' and boys' behaviors,…

  8. The experience of girls and young women with inherited bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Khair, K; Holland, M; Pollard, D

    2013-09-01

    Haemophilia carriers and women with inherited bleeding disorders (IBD) experience menorrhagia, bleed following dentistry, surgery, injury or childbirth. Symptoms are easily treated leading to full and active lives. Nevertheless, some girls and women suffer with abnormal bleeding for many years before diagnosis. We explored the experiences of girls and young women (aged 9-34 years) with IBD by means of focus groups which consisted of moderated discussion addressing specific aspects of bleeding, management and coping strategies. Subsequently, these issues were explored further though a paper-based questionnaire distributed via five specialist haemophilia centres in the UK. The study suggested that young women with IBD who are managed at haemophilia centres receive appropriate care and feel well supported. Although the clinic-based literature available to these women is "fit for purpose", it does not fully address the perceived needs specifically regarding sex, menorrhagia, conception and childbirth, the Pill, tattoos/piercings and so on, leading many to turn to other information sources. Most of those who responded to our survey are confident in their lives, able to manage their IBD and take pragmatic views towards the inherited nature of their condition. But there is a substantial subgroup of women who experience stigmatization, isolation and bullying and express concerns relating to fertility and conception. Overall, this cohort would benefit from opportunities for mutual support. This could be via Internet-based social networking and may be of particular value to those who are unable to seek help from traditional medical services due to religious or other cultural barriers. PMID:23607927

  9. EFFECT OF 4 WEEKS OF PILATES ON THE BODY COMPOSITION OF YOUNG GIRLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. There is a need to find ways to increase the physical activity levels and improve the body composition and blood pressure of girls. Methods. Thirty 11-year-old girls were recruited from two after-school programs in Houston, Texas, in spring 2005. Participants from one program (16) were r...

  10. Pachydermodactyly in a young girl: cutaneous manifestation of a psychiatric disorder?

    PubMed

    Cabanillas, Miguel; Monteagudo, Benigno; León-Muíños, Elvira; Suárez-Amor, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    ; Pachydermodactyly is a benign process characterized by painless fusiform skin swellings affecting radial and ulnar aspects of the proximal interphalangeal joints of the fingers. We report a case of this condition in a young girl, suggesting a major role of psychiatric disorder in the development of cutaneous lesions. PMID:20609157

  11. Spotlighting a Silent Category of Young Females: The Life Experiences of "House Girls" in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Kezban; Lukuslu, Demet

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the everyday life experiences of young women in Turkey known as "ev kizi" or "house girls." The article explores how traditional gender roles and family structure in Turkish society limit their full participation in political, economic, and public life. The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted with a total of 30…

  12. Ideas for Action: Helping Girls and Young Women in Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Barbara K.

    This idea book is a resource to help individuals focus their good will and energy on helping girls and young women in their communities. After a brief introduction to each of seven advocacy strategies, ideas for action are listed under each. The first advocacy strategy focuses on organizing your community for action. Ideas for action include…

  13. Late Adolescent and Young Adult Outcomes of Girls Diagnosed with ADHD in Childhood: An Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; MacLean, Michael G.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita; Robb, Jessica A.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the late adolescent and young adult outcomes of girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Method: The study included 58 women from a larger longitudinal study of ADHD. A total of 34 (M = 19.97 years old) met "DSM" criteria for ADHD in childhood, whereas the remaining 24 (M = 19.83 years old) did not. Self- and…

  14. Impact of Group Sandtray Therapy on the Self-Esteem of Young Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Yu-Pei; Armstrong, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of group sandtray therapy was examined using a pretest-posttest control group design with young adolescent girls (n = 37) identified as having low self-esteem. A split-plot analysis of variance (SPANOVA) revealed statistically significant differences between participants in the treatment and control groups in self-esteem on five…

  15. Rare cause of hip pain in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Raza, Ali; Kailash, Kailash; Malviya, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis (SC) is a rare benign disorder of unknown aetiology resulting in multiple cartilaginous loose bodies that form within a synovial joint. It is predominantly seen in men (2:1) in the third and fifth decade of life and is extremely rare in children. Hip joint is an extremely rare and unusual site of presentation thus leading to delay in diagnosis and associated morbidity. We report a successfully treated case of SC in a 12-year-old girl complaining of hip pain over a year. In addition, this is also the first case of a child with SC of the hip being treated arthroscopically. PMID:24813200

  16. Recruiting a Diverse Group of Middle School Girls into the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, John P.; Shuler, LaVerne; Moe, Stacey G.; Grieser, Mira; Pratt, Charlotte; Cameron, Sandra; Hingle, Melanie; Pickrel, Julie L.; Saksvig, Brit I.; Schachter, Kenneth; Greer, Susan; Bothwell, Elizabeth K. Guth

    2008-01-01

    Background: School-based study recruitment efforts are both time consuming and challenging. This paper highlights the recruitment strategies employed by the national, multisite Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG), a study designed to measure the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce the decline of physical activity levels among…

  17. Young girl with psychosis, cognitive failure and seizures

    PubMed Central

    Slettedal, Imer Önder; Dahl, Hilde Margrete; Sandvig, Inger; Dalmau, Josep; Strømme, Petter

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric symptoms combined with neurological disturbances should always arouse suspicion that the cause may be organic. We describe a young patient whose examination revealed a recently described condition for which there are precise diagnostics and in many cases effective treatment. PMID:23038201

  18. Universal routine HPV vaccination for young girls in Uganda: a review of opportunities and potential obstacles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the existing realities in Uganda to identify opportunities and potential obstacles of providing universal routine HPV vaccination to young adolescent girls. Cervical cancer is a public health priority in Uganda where it contributes to about 50–60% of all female malignancies. It is associated with a dismal 5-year relative survival of approximately 20%. With adequate financial resources, primary prevention through vaccination is feasible using existing education and health infrastructure. Cost-effectiveness studies show that at a cost of US$2 per dose, the current vaccines would be cost effective. With optimal (≥70%) coverage of the target population, the lifetime risk of cervical cancer could be reduced by >50%. Uganda fulfils 4 out of the 5 criteria set by the WHO for the introduction of routine HPV vaccination to young adolescent girls. The existing political commitment, community support for immunization and the favorable laws and policy environment all provide an opportunity that should not be missed to introduce this much needed vaccine to the young adolescent girls. However, sustainable financing by the government without external assistances remains a major obstacle. Also, the existing health delivery systems would require strengthening to cope with the delivery of HPV vaccine to a population that is normally not targeted for routine vaccination. Given the high incidence of cervical cancer and in the absence of a national screening program, universal HPV vaccination of Ugandan adolescent girls is critical for cervical cancer prevention. PMID:22950658

  19. Executive Functions in Girls with ADHD Followed Prospectively into Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Meghan; Ho, Jennifer; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Overview We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with ADHD (n = 140) and a matched comparison group (n = 88) into young adulthood (Mage = 19.6), 10 years after childhood initial assessments, to evaluate neuropsychological functioning. We hypothesized that neuropsychological deficits would persist through young adulthood for those with ADHD, and that those with continuing ADHD symptomatology in young adulthood would show the largest impairments. Method Neuropsychological measures at follow-up emphasized executive functions (EF) including planning, organization, inhibitory control, sustained attention, working memory, and set shifting. Results Parallel to findings from childhood and adolescence, the girls with childhood-diagnosed ADHD displayed medium to large deficits in EF relative to comparisons at follow-up, even with statistical control of baseline demographic and comorbidity variables. The addition of IQ as a covariate attenuated differences but several remained significant. Comparisons between the inattentive and combined subtypes of ADHD yielded nonsignificant results with small effect sizes. EF impairments were evident in both participants whose ADHD diagnoses persisted and in those whose ADHD symptoms had remitted to a non-diagnosable level; both subgroups had more EF deficits than those who did not meet criteria for ADHD in either childhood or young adulthood. Conclusions Those in both the persistent and remitted ADHD groups showed impairments in EF relative to comparisons and generally did not differ from each other. Overall, childhood ADHD in girls portends neuropsychological/EF deficits that persist for at least 10 years. PMID:22468822

  20. Acute pancreatitis in a young girl with the Netherton syndrome.

    PubMed

    Söreide, Kjetil; Söiland, Håvard; Körner, Hartwig; Haga, Harald; Söreide, Jon Arne

    2005-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is uncommon in children younger than 15 years. We present the first report on the association of acute pancreatitis with the Netherton syndrome. The Netherton syndrome is an inherited skin disease characterized by ichthyosiform erythroderma, a pathognomonic hair shaft defect ("bamboo hair"), and atopic features. A 14-year-old girl with symptoms and signs of severe acute pancreatitis was admitted to our department. A diagnostic workup could not reveal any common known cause of pancreatitis, and the cause of pancreatitis would most likely be considered idiopathic. However, based on recent reports regarding various pathophysiological mechanisms for both acute pancreatitis and the Netherton syndrome (eg, shearing the 5q locus for the respective gene-associated defects in SPINK1 and SPINK5), we speculate if a possible association may exist. Investigations on pancreatitis and the Netherton syndrome may disclose factors closely involved in the pathomechanisms of both. This notion may be of clinical importance as it adds to the number of potential life-threatening events to patients with the Netherton syndrome. PMID:16291148

  1. For All Our Daughters: How Mentoring Helps Young Women and Girls Master the Art of Growing Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echevarria, Pegine

    As girls face the serious emotional, physical, and developmental challenges during youth and adolescence, external support from a nonparental female role model is an essential, and too frequently ignored, requirement for healthy development. This book presents a process for mentoring young women and girls by providing guidance in five areas:…

  2. Young American Immigrant Children's Interpretations of Popular Culture: A Case Study of Korean Girls' Perspectives on Royalty in Disney Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lena

    2009-01-01

    This article explores how young Korean immigrant girls (age five to eight) living in the United States interpreted American popular culture by discussing their interpretations of Disney animated films. In particular, it scrutinizes these girls' understanding of the idea of monarchy--in this case, the process of and the qualification for a…

  3. Am I Too Fat to Be a Princess? Examining the Effects of Popular Children's Media on Young Girls' Body Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Sharon; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of brief exposure to appearance-related media on young girls' body image. One hundred and twenty-one girls aged 3-6 years old participated. Results indicated that exposure did not affect body dissatisfaction or engagement in appearance-related play behaviours. This is the first empirical study to provide…

  4. Popular Culture and Moral Panics about "Children at Risk": Revisiting the Sexualisation-of-Young-Girls Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaliki, Liza

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to resist moral panics over children's media consumption, and especially girls' consumption of hyper-sexualised popular media, this paper aims to offer a more positive account of popular culture and young children's, especially girls', engagement with it. By adopting a historical approach to modern childhood and the moral panics…

  5. [Benign tumors of the ovary in young girls. Apropos of 3 cases in Africa].

    PubMed

    Ribault, L; Barthe, B L

    1989-05-01

    From three cases of benign ovarian tumors in young African girls, the authors study the diagnostic means, among which ultrasonography is currently predominant. They finally discuss therapeutic means, with surgery permitting a histological diagnosis. Follicular cysts require a more nuanced approach; because of possible regression, one may consider repeated taps during laparoscopy, as surgery is not indicated just in the case of complications. PMID:2740713

  6. Intractable colitis associated with chronic granulomatous disease in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Yaman, Aytaç; Kuloğlu, Zarife; Doğu, Figen; İkincioğulları, Aydan; Ensari, Arzu; Çiftçi, Ergin; Kansu, Aydan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an autosomal recessive or X-linked disorder caused by NADPH oxidase deficiency leading to an impaired ability of reactive superoxide anion and metabolite formation and recurring severe bacterial and fungal infections, with a high mortality rate. Diarrhea, colitis, ileus, perirectal abscess formation and anal fissures are reported gastrointestinal findings in these patients. We report a case of intractable colitis associated with CGD in a young girl. PMID:26690604

  7. Recruiting a Diverse Group of Middle School Girls Into the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Elder, John P.; Shuler, LaVerne; Moe, Stacey G.; Grieser, Mira; Pratt, Charlotte; Cameron, Sandra; Hingle, Melanie; Pickrel, Julie L.; Saksvig, Brit I.; Schachter, Kenneth; Greer, Susan; Bothwell, Elizabeth K. Guth

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND School-based study recruitment efforts are both time consuming and challenging. This paper highlights the recruitment strategies employed by the national, multisite Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG), a study designed to measure the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce the decline of physical activity levels among middle school—aged girls. TAAG provided a unique opportunity to recruit large cohorts of randomly sampled girls within 36 diverse middle schools across the United States. METHODS Key elements of the formative planning, coordination, and design of TAAG’s recruitment efforts included flexibility, tailoring, and the use of incentives. Various barriers, including a natural disaster, political tension, and district regulations, were encountered throughout the recruitment process, but coordinated strategies and frequent communication between the 6 TAAG sites were helpful in tailoring the recruitment process at the 36 intervention and control schools. RESULTS Progressively refined recruitment strategies and specific attention to the target audience of middle school girls resulted in overall study recruitment rates of 80%, 85%, and 89%, for the baseline, posttest, and follow-up period, respectively. DISCUSSION The steady increase in recruitment rates over time is attributed to an emphasis on successful strategies and a willingness to modify less successful methods. Open and consistent communication, an increasingly coordinated recruitment strategy, interactive recruitment presentations, and participant incentives resulted in an effective recruitment campaign. PMID:18808471

  8. Strength Training for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

  9. Physical and Social Contexts of Physical Activities Among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, JoAnn; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Evenson, Kelly R.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Jobe, Jared B.; Rung, Ariane L.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Background With limited opportunities for physical activity during school hours, it is important to understand the contexts of physical activities done outside of school time. Given the importance of physical and social aspects of environments, the purpose of this study was to describe where and with whom girls participate in physical activities outside of school. Methods Participants were 1925 sixth-grade girls in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG). At baseline, they completed a 3-day physical activity recall (3DPAR), reporting the main activity performed during 30-minute intervals and the physical and social contexts of physical activities. Results The most frequently reported physical activities done outside of school time were house chores, walking (for transportation or exercise), dance, basketball, playing with younger children, and running or jogging. The most common location for these activities was at home or in the neighborhood. With the exception of household chores, these activities were typically done with at least one other person. Conclusions Interventions that promote physical activities that can be done at or around home or developing supportive social networks for physical activity would be consistent with the current physical activity contexts of adolescent girls. PMID:19420391

  10. Promoting moderate-vigorous physical activity in overweight minority girls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is limited research on the types of activities that are most effective for promoting moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children. The purpose of this study was to assess which types of activities elicit MVPA in overweight minority girls. The sample consisted of 31 overweight Latina ...

  11. Do Coaches Perceive Themselves as Influential on Physical Activity for Girls in Organised Youth Sport?

    PubMed Central

    Guagliano, Justin M.; Lonsdale, Chris; Rosenkranz, Richard R.; Kolt, Gregory S.; George, Emma S.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in organised youth sports (OYS) has been recommended as an opportunity to increase young peoples' physical activity (PA) levels. While coaches can potentially influence athletes' PA levels, what has not been explored is the question; do coaches perceive themselves as influential on PA for girls in OYS? Participants were 30 coaches of girls OYS teams aged 9–17 years in the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area, Australia. Participants took part in a semi-structured interview that lasted approximately 30 minutes. They responded to questions regarding their perceived role as coaches, their perceptions of themselves as role models for PA, their views on their athletes' current PA levels, their opinions on improving their athletes' PA levels, and their perceived challenges as coaches in OYS. Many coaches considered themselves role models for PA due to their own involvement in organised sports. Coaches felt that they were conscious of girls' PA levels during training and could accurately gauge how active girls were. Coaches perceived their training sessions to provide sufficient PA and thus, did not feel the need to try to increase PA during training. Many coaches were cautious about conducting training sessions where the PA intensity was high for prolonged periods because they believed that it could potentially result in dropout from OYS. Coaches' perceived time commitment to OYS, variability of skill/experience amongst girls, and poor parental support as major challenges they experienced in OYS. This study provided a unique insight from the perspective of coaches in OYS. Most coaches felt that they had the potential to influence PA for girls in OYS; however, coaches may underestimate or not fully realise the impact they can have on the girls they coach. Future research should focus on educating coaches to capitalise on the opportunity they have to promote PA through OYS. PMID:25184413

  12. The Clinical Utility of the Proposed DSM-5 Callous-Unemotional Subtype of Conduct Disorder in Young Girls

    PubMed Central

    Pardini, Dustin; Stepp, Stephanie; Hipwell, Alison; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Objective A callous-unemotional (CU) subtype of conduct disorder (CD) has been proposed as an addition to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). This study tested the hypothesis that young girls with the CU subtype of CD will exhibit more severe antisocial behavior and less severe internalizing problems over time relative to girls with CD alone. Secondly, the developmental outcomes of girls with CU traits in the absence of CD was examined because these girls will be overlooked by the proposed CU subtyping scheme. Method Theses issues were examined in a community sample of 1862 girls aged 6-8 at study onset. Outcomes included internalizing and externalizing problems, academic achievement, and global impairment assessed concurrently and at a six year follow-up. Results Girls with the CU subtype of CD had higher levels of externalizing disorder symptoms, bullying, relational aggression, and global impairment than girls with CD alone. Girls with CD alone tended to have more anxiety problems than girls with the CU subtype of CD. Girls with high CU traits without CD exhibited higher ODD and ADHD symptoms and lower academic achievement at the six-year follow-up relative to girls without CU traits and CD. Group differences at the six year follow-up were primarily accounted for by baseline differences on the outcomes. Conclusions The proposed DSM-5 CU subtype of CD identifies young girls who exhibit lower anxiety problems and more severe aggression, CD symptoms, academic problems and global impairment across time than girls with CD alone. PMID:22176940

  13. Associations between the School Environment and Adolescent Girls' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Joanna; Levin, Kate A.; Inchley, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores school sports facility provision, physical education allocation and opportunities for physical activity and their association with the number of days adolescent girls participate in at least 60 min of moderate-vigorous physical activity per week (MVPAdays). Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires from…

  14. The secret struggle of the active girl: a qualitative synthesis of interpersonal factors that influence physical activity in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Standiford, Anne

    2013-10-01

    The author conducted a systematic review of 19 international, multidisciplinary, qualitative studies of interpersonal factors that influence physical activity in adolescent girls. Themes were deductively generated based on reported findings, and were organized according to frequency of occurrence. Themes were further organized according to a theoretical model to illustrate how interpersonal, perceptual, and situational influences affect physical activity in adolescent girls. The three most frequently discovered themes follow: (a) ability comparison and competition; (b) family, peer, and teacher influence; and (c) appearance concerns. It is important to consider the influence of gender role conflict on physical activity. PMID:23790150

  15. Sonographic monitoring of LHRH analogue therapy in idiopathic precocious puberty in young girls.

    PubMed

    Hall, D A; Crowley, W F; Wierman, M E; Simeone, J F; McCarthy, K A

    1986-06-01

    Precocious puberty in young girls is defined as the development of secondary sexual characteristics and gonadal growth before 8 years of age. Approximately 60% of isosexual precocious development in girls has no organic cause and is termed idiopathic precocious puberty. Thirteen young girls with idiopathic precocious puberty were treated with LHRH analogue under a well-established protocol. Pelvic ultrasound was added to the protocol to examine ultrasound's role in supplying a morphologic parameter of suppression of the pubertal process. Initially, 11 patients had ovarian volumes greater than normal, and ovarian cysts measuring 0.5 cm to 4 cm in diameter were identified in seven patients. All 13 patients had enlarged pretreatment uteri greater than 3 cm in length. Eleven of these patients had a pubertal or adult uterine configuration. After 1 year of therapy, 11 patients had normal prepubertal ovarian volumes, and 12 of 13 patients had a decrease in ovarian volume. No demonstrable cysts were present at 1 year. Eleven had a reduction in uterine length. Nine of the 11 patients with a pubertal uterine configuration reverted to a more prepubertal-like morphology. The sonographic morphologic changes correlated well with laboratory and clinical data indicating suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. PMID:3088048

  16. How perfectionism and ineffectiveness influence growth of eating disorder risk in young adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Wade, Tracey D; Wilksch, Simon M; Paxton, Susan J; Byrne, Susan M; Austin, S Bryn

    2015-03-01

    While perfectionism is widely considered to influence risk for eating disorders, results of longitudinal studies are mixed. The goal of the current study was to investigate a more complex model of how baseline perfectionism (both high personal standards and self-critical evaluative concerns) might influence change in risk status for eating disorders in young adolescent girls, through its influence on ineffectiveness. The study was conducted with 926 girls (mean age of 13 years), and involved three waves of data (baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up). Latent growth curve modelling, incorporating the average rate at which risk changed over time, the intercept (initial status) of ineffectiveness, and baseline perfectionism, was used to explore longitudinal mediation. Personal standards was not supported as contributing to risk but results indicated that the higher mean scores on ineffectiveness over the three waves mediated the relationship between higher baseline self-critical evaluative concerns and both measures of eating disorder risk. The relationship between concern over mistakes and change in risk was small and negative. These results suggest the usefulness of interventions related to self-criticism and ineffectiveness for decreasing risk for developing an eating disorder in young adolescent girls. PMID:25698165

  17. Heterosocial Involvement, Peer Pressure for Thinness, and Body Dissatisfaction among Young Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Gondoli, Dawn M.; Corning, Alexandra F.; Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H.; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Fitzsimmons, Ellen E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal connections among young adolescent heterosocial involvement (i.e., mixed-sex interactions), peer pressure for thinness, and body dissatisfaction. Three years of self-report questionnaire data were collected from 88 adolescent girls as they completed 6th through 8th grades. Results indicated that the relation between heterosocial involvement and body dissatisfaction was mediated by perceived peer pressure for thinness. Within this model, heterosocial involvement was associated with greater peer pressure for thinness. In turn, peer pressure for thinness was associated with greater body dissatisfaction. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for prevention and intervention efforts aimed at girls during their middle-school years. PMID:21354882

  18. Project Destiny: Initiating Physical Activity for Nonathletic Girls through Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyles, Carli; Lounsbery, Monica

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to emphasize the need to develop unique physical activity and sport programs that specifically target the participation of nonathletic and nonactive girls. In addition, the authors provide an overview of an example of one such program, Project Destiny. A description of Project Destiny is provided in terms of its…

  19. Orthodontic management of a young girl with class I malocclusion and severe crowding: a case report.

    PubMed

    Islam, M M; Hossain, M Z; Rahman, M M

    2015-04-01

    We describe the treatment of a young girl age, 16 years, with Class I malocclusion. Both upper and lower anterior segment of jaws were crowded with buccally placed canines. Treatment consisted mainly of premolars extractions, canine retraction, labeling and alignment with Edgewise fixed appliances by multiloop technique. The patient did not show good cooperation, hence treatment time was prolonged. However the treatment resulted in Class I molar occlusion with proper alignment of both upper and lower anterior segment, an ideal overjet, overbite and incisor angulation. PMID:26007273

  20. Early Predictors of Sexually Intimate Behaviors in an Urban Sample of Young Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Keenan, Kate; Loeber, Rolf; Battista, Deena

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, concern has been raised about girls' involvement in sexual activity at progressively younger ages. Little is known about the prevalence of emerging intimate behaviors, the psychosocial factors associated with these behaviors, or the moderating effects of ethnicity on these associations in early adolescence. In the current…

  1. Nonsuicidal self-injury in young adolescent girls: moderators of the distress-function relationship.

    PubMed

    Hilt, Lori M; Cha, Christine B; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2008-02-01

    This study examined nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a community sample of young adolescent girls. Potential moderators of the relationships between different types of distress (internal and interpersonal) and particular functions of NSSI (emotion-regulation and interpersonal) were explored. Participants included 94 girls (49% Hispanic; 25% African American) ages 10-14 years who completed questionnaires regarding self-injurious behavior and other constructs of interest. Fifty-six percent of girls (n = 53) reported engaging in NSSI during their lifetime, including 36% (n = 34) in the past year. Internal distress (depressive symptoms) was associated with engaging in NSSI for emotion-regulation functions, and rumination moderated the relationship between depressive symptoms and engaging in NSSI for automatic positive reinforcement. Interpersonal distress (peer victimization) was associated with engaging in NSSI for social reinforcement, and quality of peer communication moderated this relationship. The clinical implications of these findings include designing preventions that address the particular contexts of self-injurious behavior. PMID:18229984

  2. Do Physical Activity Facilities near Schools Affect Physical Activity in High School Girls?

    PubMed Central

    Trilk, Jennifer L.; Ward, Dianne S.; Dowda, Marsha; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Porter, Dwayne E.; Hibbert, James; Pate, Russell R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between the number of physical activity facilities within walking distance of school and physical activity behavior in 12th grade girls during after-school hours. Methods Girls (N=1394) from 22 schools completed a self-report to determine physical activity after 3:00 pm. The number of physical activity facilities within a 0.75-mile buffer of the school was counted with a Geographic Information System. Associations between the number of facilities and girls’ physical activity were examined using linear mixed-model analysis of variance. Results Overall, girls who attended schools with ≥ 5 facilities within the buffer reported more physical activity per day than girls in schools with < 5 facilities. In addition, girls who attended rural schools with ≥ 5 facilities reported ~12% more physical activity per day than girls who attended rural schools with < 5 facilities. No difference existed for girls in urban/suburban schools with ≥ 5 vs. < 5 facilities. Conclusion When school siting decisions are made, the number of physical activity facilities surrounding the school should be considered to encourage physical activity in 12th grade girls. PMID:21334248

  3. Title IX, girls' sports participation, and adult female physical activity and weight.

    PubMed

    Kaestner, Robert; Xin Xu

    2010-02-01

    Arguably, the most important school-based intervention to increase physical activity was Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which led to a 600% increase in girls' sports participation between 1972 and 1978. We studied the effect of this increase in sports participation and athletic opportunities while young on the physical activity and weight of adult women some 20-25 years later. Our results indicate that adult women who were affected by Title IX and had greater opportunity to participate in athletics while young had lower body mass index (BMI) and lower rates of obesity and reported being more physically active than women who were not afforded these opportunities. However, effect sizes were quite modest. PMID:20130236

  4. Early Predictors of Sexually Intimate Behaviors in an Urban Sample of Young Girls

    PubMed Central

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Keenan, Kate; Loeber, Rolf; Battista, Deena

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, concern has been raised about girls’ involvement in sexual activity at progressively younger ages. Little is known about the prevalence of emerging intimate behaviors, the psychosocial factors associated with these behaviors, or the moderating effects of race on these associations in early adolescence. In the current prospective study, we examine the prevalence and predictors of sexually intimate behaviors at age 12 years in an urban community sample of 1,116 racially diverse girls. Cluster analysis revealed three groups at age 12: none, mild (e.g. holding hands) and moderate (e.g. laying together). Minority group girls reported higher rates of both mild and moderate sexually intimate behaviors compared with European American girls. After controlling for the significant effects of age 11 intimate behaviors, lifetime alcohol use, poor parent-child communication, deviant peer behavior, onset of menarche, and interactions between race and impulsivity, social self-worth and depression uniquely increased the odds of engaging in moderately intimate behaviors at age 12 years. Parenting characteristics increased the likelihood of moderate, relative to mild, behaviors. For European American girls only, high levels of impulsivity and low social self-worth were associated with a higher likelihood of engaging in moderate intimate behaviors, whereas high levels of depressive symptoms reduced the odds. The results suggest that early prevention efforts need to incorporate awareness of different social norms relating to sexual behavior. PMID:20210496

  5. Adolescent girls' energy expenditure during dance simulation active computer gaming.

    PubMed

    Fawkner, Samantha G; Niven, Alisa; Thin, Alasdair G; Macdonald, Mhairi J; Oakes, Jemma R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the energy expended and intensity of physical activity achieved by adolescent girls while playing on a dance simulation game. Twenty adolescent girls were recruited from a local secondary school. Resting oxygen uptake (VO(2)) and heart rate were analysed while sitting quietly and subsequently during approximately 30 min of game play, with 10 min at each of three increasing levels of difficulty. Energy expenditure was predicted from VO(2) at rest and during game play at three levels of play, from which the metabolic equivalents (METS) of game playing were derived. Mean +/- standard deviation energy expenditure for levels 1, 2, and 3 was 3.63 +/- 0.58, 3.65 +/- 0.54, and 4.14 +/- 0.71 kcal . min(-1) respectively, while mean activity for each level of play was at least of moderate intensity (>3 METS). Dance simulation active computer games provide an opportunity for most adolescent girls to exercise at moderate intensity. Therefore, regular playing might contribute to daily physical activity recommendations for good health in this at-risk population. PMID:20013462

  6. Bringing Astronomy Activities and Science Content to Girls Locally and Nationally: A Girl Scout and NIRCam Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, M. L.; Lebofsky, L. A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Lebofsky, N.

    2013-04-01

    In 2003, the University of Arizona's (UA) NIRCam EPO team (NASA James Webb Space Telescope's Near-Infrared Camera) and the Girl Scouts of Southern Arizona began a long-term collaboration to bring STEM and astronomy activities and concepts to adult Girl Scout volunteers and staff and, in turn, their councils and girls, i.e., to train the trainers. Nationally, our goal is to reach adult volunteers and staff in all 112 councils. To date, this program has reached nearly 240 adults from 78 councils in 41 states, DC, Guam, and Japan, bringing together adult volunteers and staff, UA graduate students, and NIRCam scientists and educators to experience Arizona's dark skies.

  7. Measuring Social Provisions for Physical Activity among Adolescent Black and White Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors evaluate the validity of the Social Provisions Scale for physical activity among adolescent Black (n = 896) and White (n = 823) girls. The girls completed the scale and measures of subjective norms and physical activity in the eighth and ninth grades. Within the sample of White girls, the Social Provisions Scale contained 24 items that…

  8. Differences in Physical Activity between Black and White Girls Living in Rural and Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Gwen M.; Dowda, Marsha; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.; Saunders, Ruth; Pate, Russell R.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship of race and rural/urban setting to physical, behavioral, psychosocial, and environmental factors associated with physical activity among eighth grade girls. More differences related to race than setting. Black girls were less active and more heavy than white girls. Enjoyment of physical education and family involvement in…

  9. Activities to Attract Girls to Physics in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izadi, Dina; Araste, Afshin Mohseni; Fadaei, Azita Seied

    2009-04-01

    In Iran there is no difference between boys' and girls' activities in scientific works; however, they study separately at schools until they reach the university level. Before going to university, students think engineering and medical science are better than the other sciences for earning enough money to support their lives. But after the entrance exam for universities most of the girls choose basic sciences based on their test results. Creative methods of teaching physics at the elementary and secondary levels, such as "Dominos in Physics" and "Physics in Nature," and understanding physics through real-life examples and animation are important for attracting students to further studies and careers in physics. Participating in international physics competitions and holding national tournaments and university open houses in physics is also very helpful. Studying physics can improve students' abilities and also help them to imagine, decide, think, and live better.

  10. Skeletal muscle fat content is inversely associated with bone strength in young girls.

    PubMed

    Farr, Joshua N; Funk, Janet L; Chen, Zhao; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Blew, Robert M; Lee, Vinson R; Laudermilk, Monica; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B

    2011-09-01

    Childhood obesity is an established risk factor for metabolic disease. The influence of obesity on bone development, however, remains controversial and may depend on the pattern of regional fat deposition. Therefore, we examined the associations of regional fat compartments of the calf and thigh with weight-bearing bone parameters in girls. Data from 444 girls aged 9 to 12 years from the Jump-In: Building Better Bones study were analyzed. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess bone parameters at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia along with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, mm(2) ) and muscle density (mg/cm(3) ), an index of skeletal muscle fat content. As expected, SAT was positively correlated with total-body fat mass (r = 0.87-0.89, p < .001), and muscle density was inversely correlated with total-body fat mass (r = -0.24 to -0.28, p < .001). Multiple linear regression analyses with SAT, muscle density, muscle cross-sectional area, bone length, maturity, and ethnicity as independent variables showed significant associations between muscle density and indices of bone strength at metaphyseal (β = 0.13-0.19, p < .001) and diaphyseal (β = 0.06-0.09, p < .01) regions of the femur and tibia. Associations between SAT and indices of bone strength were nonsignificant at all skeletal sites (β = 0.03-0.05, p > .05), except the distal tibia (β = 0.09, p = .03). In conclusion, skeletal muscle fat content of the calf and thigh is inversely associated with weight-bearing bone strength in young girls. PMID:21544865

  11. Mechanisms of enhanced osteoclastogenesis in girls and young women with Turner's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Brunetti, Giacomina; Ventura, Annamaria; Piacente, Laura; Messina, Maria Francesca; De Luca, Filippo; Ciccarelli, Maria; Oranger, Angela; Mori, Giorgio; Natale, Maria Pia; Gigante, Margherita; Ranieri, Elena; Gesualdo, Loreto; Colucci, Silvia; Cavallo, Luciano; Grano, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Subjects with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism due to Turner's syndrome show low cortical mineral density, osteoporosis and risk of fractures. It is not clear if this bone fragility derives from chromosomal abnormalities or is the result of inadequate bone formation due to estrogen deficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying bone fragility in subjects with Turner's syndrome before induction of puberty and after hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). For this purpose, we have evaluated the osteoclastogenic potential of non-fractioned and T-cell depleted cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) belonging to girls with Turner's syndrome who had not been treated with HRT yet, girls and young women who were on HRT and age-matched controls. Untreated subjects showed high FSH serum levels, whereas the other subjects displayed normal FSH serum levels. T-cell immunophenotype was analyzed through flow cytometry. Biochemical and DXA analyses were performed. Spontaneous osteoclastogenesis in non-fractioned and T-cell depleted cultures of PBMC belonging to girls with high FSH levels was more evident than in cultures of subjects with normal FSH levels. In the former, osteoclastogenesis was sustained by monocytes expressing high levels of c-fms, TNF-α and RANK, and T-cells producing high RANKL and TNF-α; in the latter it was supported by T-cells expressing high RANKL levels. CD4(+)CD25(high) T-cells were reduced in all subjects, whereas CD3(+)/CD16(+)/CD56(+) NKT-cells were increased in those with high FSH levels. High RANKL and CTX levels were detected in the sera. Bone impairment was already detectable by DXA in subjects aged under 10, although it became more evident with aging. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that bone fragility in subjects with Turner's syndrome is associated to enhanced osteoclastogenesis. This process seems to be due to high FSH serum levels before HRT, whereas it is caused by high RANKL during

  12. Dietary Predictors of Urinary Environmental Biomarkers in young girls, BCERP, 2004–7

    PubMed Central

    Mervish, Nancy; McGovern, Kathleen J.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Pinney, Susan M.; Windham, Gayle C.; Biro, Frank M.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Silva, Manori J.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposures of children to phthalates, parabens, and bisphenol-A (BPA) are of concern because of their hormonal potential. These agents are found in a wide range of foods and packaging. We investigated whether intake of certain foods predict exposures to these chemicals in young girls. Methods Among 1101 girls (6–8 years at enrollment) from the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Program (BCERP) study, we measured urinary exposure biomarkers for phthalates, parabens, and BPA and assessed dietary intake using 24-hour recall 2–4 times. We examined the average daily servings of major and minor food groups categorized as 0- <0.5, 0.5 – < 1 and ≥ 1 servings per day. Items included dairy, eggs, fats, fish, fruit, single grains, meat, non-poultry meats, pasta, poultry and vegetables. Covariate-adjusted least squares geometric means and 95% confidence intervals of creatinine-corrected phthalate and phenol metabolite concentrations in urine were calculated in relation to food intake. Results Grains, flour and dry mixes and total fish consumption were positively associated with BPA and the sum of four di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) urinary metabolite concentrations. Non-fresh vegetables and poultry were both positively associated with BPA and paraben urinary concentrations. Fats, oils and poultry consumption were positively associated with BPA. Whole-fat dairy consumption was associated with ΣDEHP. Conclusions Some foods may contribute to child exposures to certain chemicals, and this may constitute modifiable means to reduce these environmental exposures. PMID:24906063

  13. The microeconomics of sexual exploitation of girls and young women in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Mujica, Jaris

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the sexual exploitation of girls and young women as an increasing phenomenon within the extractive industries of wood, oil, minerals and gas in Peruvian Amazonia. The analysis focuses on the city of Pucallpa and the northern part of the Ucayali River and aims to identify the social and economic dynamics underpinning the commercial sexual exploitation of female children and teenagers around the main river port. The study describes the local operating mechanisms of bars and restaurants in the port, the demand for and perceptions of the sexual exploitation of children and teenagers, and the economic logic that it entails. Using a discourse analytic approach, it is argued that this is a business whose profitability is tied to the trade in alcoholic beverages and foods and which responds to a set of family connections and networks. PMID:23713475

  14. Sticks and Stones: The Multifarious Effects of Body-Based Harassment on Young Girls' Healthy Lifestyle Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Margery J.; Johnson, Jay; Lucier, Mary-Kaye

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of girls and boys about the effects that body-based harassment would have on girls' eating habits and engagement in physical activity. Five scenarios were read to focus groups comprised of 12- to 14-year-old students in grades 7 and 8. Each scenario represented behaviours that fall…

  15. Understanding Anne Frank's "The Diary of a Young Girl": A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopf, Hedda Rosner

    Anne Frank's "The Diary of a Young Girl" is the most widely read text about the Holocaust, yet it represents only one example of the tragic consequences of the Nazi policy to eliminate the Jews of Europe during World War II. This casebook enriches Anne Frank's remarkable personal account with a variety of historical documents that illuminate the…

  16. The Clinical Utility of the Proposed DSM-5 Callous-Unemotional Subtype of Conduct Disorder in Young Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardini, Dustin; Stepp, Stephanie; Hipwell, Alison; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A callous-unemotional (CU) subtype of conduct disorder (CD) has been proposed as an addition to the fifth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)." This study tested the hypothesis that young girls with the CU subtype of CD would exhibit more severe antisocial behavior and less severe internalizing…

  17. Summary of the Findings from a Study About Cigarette Smoking Among Teen-Age Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.

    This paper presents the major results of a study for the American Cancer Society on cigarette smoking among teen-age girls and young women, and findings relevant to the prevention and quitting of smoking. The four major trends found in this study are: (1) a dramatic increase in cigarette smoking among females; (2) an intellectual awareness of the…

  18. Adolescent Girls' ADHD Symptoms and Young Adult Driving: The Role of Perceived Deviant Peer Affiliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoos, Stephanie L.; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to examine the role of adolescent perceived deviant peer affiliation in mediating or moderating the association between adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and young adult driving risk in females with and without ADHD. The overall sample included 228 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls with…

  19. Profiling Early Socio-Communicative Development in Five Young Girls with the Preserved Speech Variant of Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschik, Peter B.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Einspieler, Christa; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D.; Wolin, Thomas; Pini, Giorgio; Budimirovic, Dejan B.; Zappella, Michele; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a developmental disorder characterized by regression of purposeful hand skills and spoken language, although some affected children retain some ability to speech. We assessed the communicative abilities of five young girls, who were later diagnosed with the preserved speech variant of RTT, during the pre-regression period…

  20. Delivery cost of human papillomavirus vaccination of young adolescent girls in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Odaga, John; Rout, Swampa Sarit; Ngoc, Diep Nguyen Thi; Menezes, Lysander; Araujo, Maria Ana Mendoza; LaMontagne, D Scott

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the incremental delivery cost of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young adolescent girls in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam. Methods Data were collected from a sample of facilities that participated in five demonstration projects for HPV vaccine delivery: school-based delivery was used in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam; health-centre-based delivery was also used in Viet Nam; and integrated delivery, which involved existing health services, was also used in Uganda. Microcosting methods were used to guide data collection on the use of resources (i.e. staff, supplies and equipment) and data were obtained from government, demonstration project and health centre administrative records. Delivery costs were expressed in 2009 United States dollars (US$). Exclusively project-related expenses and the cost of the vaccine were excluded. Findings The economic delivery cost per vaccine dose ranged from US$ 1.44 for integrated outreach in Uganda to US$ 3.88 for school-based delivery in Peru. In Viet Nam, the lowest cost per dose was US$ 1.92 for health-centre-based delivery. Cost profiles revealed that, in general, the largest contributing factors were project start-up costs and recurrent personnel costs. The delivery cost of HPV vaccine was higher than published costs for traditional vaccines recommended by the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Conclusion The cost of delivering HPV vaccine to young adolescent girls in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam was higher than that for vaccines currently in the EPI schedule. The cost per vaccine dose was lower when delivery was integrated into existing health services. PMID:23940406

  1. Acetylcholinesterase Activity and Neurodevelopment in Boys and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Himes, John H.; Jacobs, David R.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organophosphate exposures can affect children’s neurodevelopment, possibly due to neurotoxicity induced by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, and may affect boys more than girls. We tested the hypothesis that lower AChE activity is associated with lower neurobehavioral development among children living in Ecuadorian floricultural communities. METHODS: In 2008, we examined 307 children (age: 4–9 years; 52% male) and quantified AChE activity and neurodevelopment in 5 domains: attention/executive functioning, language, memory/learning, visuospatial processing, and sensorimotor (NEPSY-II test). Associations were adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and height-for-age, flower worker cohabitation, and hemoglobin concentration. RESULTS: Mean ± standard deviation AChE activity was 3.14 ± 0.49 U/mL (similar for both genders). The range of scores among neurodevelopment subtests was 5.9 to 10.7 U (standard deviation: 2.6–4.9 U). Girls had a greater mean attention/executive functioning domain score than boys. In boys only, there were increased odds ratios of low (<9th percentile) neurodevelopment among those in the lowest tertile versus the highest tertile of AChE activity (odds ratios: total neurodevelopment: 5.14 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84 to 31.48]; attention/executive functioning domain: 4.55 [95% CI: 1.19 to 17.38], memory/learning domain: 6.03 [95% CI: 1.17 to 31.05]) after adjustment for socioeconomic and demographic factors, height-for-age, and hemoglobin. Within these domains, attention, inhibition and long-term memory subtests were most affected. CONCLUSIONS: Low AChE activity was associated with deficits in neurodevelopment, particularly in attention, inhibition, and memory in boys but not in girls. These critical cognitive skills affect learning and academic performance. Added precautions regarding secondary occupational pesticide exposure would be prudent. PMID:24249815

  2. The Role of Peer Social Network Factors and Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Murray, David; Welk, Greg; Birnbaum, Amanda; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Saksvig, Brit; Jobe, Jared B.

    2005-01-01

    This report studies the relationship between peer-related physical activity (PA) social networks and the PA of adolescent girls. Methods: Cross-sectional, convenience sample of adolescent girls. Mixed-model linear regression analyses to identify significant correlates of self-reported PA while accounting for correlation of girls in the same…

  3. Social Cognitive Factors Associated with Physical Activity in Elementary School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Melanie K.; Miller, Sara; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Fries, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine social cognitive factors associated with physical activity (PA) among preadolescent girls. Method: Social cognitive theory was used to examine PA in girls (N = 90; 71% African American) participating in Girls on the Run. Multiple regressions explored factors associated with PA at posttesting and 3-month follow-up. Results:…

  4. Dental complications of rickets in early childhood: case report on 2 young girls.

    PubMed

    Davit-Béal, Tiphaine; Gabay, Julie; Antoniolli, Pauline; Masle-Farquhar, Jeanne; Wolikow, Maryse

    2014-04-01

    Vitamin D is an essential hormone for calcium gut absorption. It is also involved in child growth, cancer prevention, immune system responses, and tooth formation. Due to inadequate vitamin D intake and/or decreased sunlight exposure, vitamin D deficiency has resurfaced in developed countries despite known inexpensive and effective preventive methods. Vitamin D deficiency is a common cause of rickets, a condition that affects bone development in children and that can have serious dental complications. Deficiency during pregnancy can cause enamel hypoplasia of primary teeth. Enamel regeneration is currently impossible; hypoplasia is therefore irreversible, and once affected, teeth are prone to fast caries development. Deficiency during early childhood can affect permanent teeth and ensuing caries can sometimes lead to tooth loss at a young age. Oral manifestations of rickets should be diagnosed early by both physicians and dentists to prevent severe dental complications. This case study presents 2 young girls with rickets in early childhood who suffered from subsequent serious tooth decay. PMID:24616355

  5. Young Adult Outcomes Associated with Teen Pregnancy Among High-Risk Girls in an RCT of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Leve, Leslie D; Kerr, David C R; Harold, Gordon T

    2013-09-01

    Teen pregnancy is associated with a host of deleterious outcomes for girls such as drug use and poor parenting. Thus, reducing teen pregnancy rates could improve long-term developmental outcomes for girls, improving adjustment during young adulthood. Based on the positive effects of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to group care (GC) in a study of adolescent girls-significantly fewer pregnancies reported in the 2-year follow-up for MTFC girls-the present study followed this sample into young adulthood (approximately 7 years postbaseline) to examine the effects of adolescent pregnancy on young adult substance use and pregnancy-related outcomes. All participants were randomly assigned to MTFC (n = 81) or GC (n = 85) as adolescents as part of two RCTs. Results from logistic regression analyses indicated that becoming pregnant during the 2-year follow-up was significantly related to illicit drug use, miscarriage from a new pregnancy, and child welfare involvement at 7 years postbaseline. In addition, baseline marijuana use predicted marijuana use at 7 years postbaseline. PMID:24453470

  6. Design of the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls (TAAG)

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, June; Murray, David M.; Catellier, Diane J.; Hannan, Peter J.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Elder, John P.; Young, Deborah R.; Simons-Morton, Denise G.; Webber, Larry S.

    2005-01-01

    The primary aim of the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls (TAAG) is to test an intervention to reduce by half the age-related decline in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in middle school girls. The intervention will be evaluated using a group-randomized trial involving 36 middle schools. The primary endpoint is the mean difference in intensity-weighted minutes (i.e., MET-minutes) of MVPA between intervention and comparison schools assessed using accelerometry. The TAAG study design calls for two cross-sectional samples, one drawn from 6th graders at the beginning of the study and the second drawn from 8th graders at the end of the study following the 2-year implementation of the intervention. An important strength of this design over a cohort design is the consistency with the goals of TAAG, which focus on environmental-level rather than individual-level interventions to produce change. The study design specifies a recruitment rate of 80% and a smaller sample of girls at baseline (n=48 per school) than at follow-up (n=96 per school). A two-stage model will be used to test the primary hypothesis. In the first stage, MET-weighted minutes of MVPA will be regressed on school, time (baseline or follow-up), their interaction, ethnicity and week of data collection. The second stage analysis will be conducted on the 72 adjusted means from the first stage. In the main-effects model, we will regress the follow-up school mean MET-weighted minutes of MVPA on study condition, adjusting for the baseline school mean. The TAAG study addresses an important health behavior, and also advances the field of group-randomized trials through the use of a study design and analysis plan tailored to serve the main study hypothesis. PMID:15837442

  7. Co-occurrence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and autoimmune hepatitis in a young Senegalese girl.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Valerio; Marcellini, Matilde; Devito, Rita; Comparcola, Donatella; Vento, Sandro

    2006-08-01

    We report the case of a 9-year-old Senegalese girl with co-occurring wild-type (HBeAg-positive) chronic hepatitis B and antinuclear antibody-positive autoimmune hepatitis. Her HLA haplotype was A1, B8, DRB1*04, DQB1*02. Steriod and lamivudine therapy led to biochemical remission, and reactivation occurred when the patient stopped steroids. Persistent HBV infection due to wild-type virus (likely acquired vertically or early in life, as the mother was HBsAg positive) may have acted as a trigger for autoimmune hepatitis in this young girl. PMID:16825914

  8. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the squamous part of temporal bone in a young girl treated with adjuvant volumetric arc therapy.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Moujhuri; Bhattacharya, Jibak; Goswami, Suchanda; Goswami, Chanchal

    2015-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES)/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors usually arise in the long bones of children and young adults. Primary ES of the cranium is unusual. Treatment involves multi-modality therapy incorporating surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy; outcomes are similar to those arising from long bones. We report a case of Primary ES of the squamous part of temporal bone with intracranial extension in a 9-year-old girl who was treated with surgery, chemotherapy followed by adjuvant radiotherapy by volumetric arc therapy. Post 1-year of treatment the girl is performing well in her classes. PMID:26881573

  9. Bringing Astronomy Activities and Science Content to Girls Locally and Nationally: A Girl Scout and NIRCam Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Higgins, M. L.; McCarthy, D. W.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, the University of Arizona's (UA) NIRCam E/PO team (NASA James Webb Space Telescope) and the Sahuaro Girl Scout Council began a long-term collaboration to bring astronomy activities and concepts to Girl Scout leaders, staff, and volunteers and, in turn, to their councils and girls, i.e., to train the trainers. Nationally, our goal is to reach leaders in all councils. To date, this program has reached nearly 200 adults from 39 councils nationwide (plus Guam and Korea), bringing together leaders, UA graduate students, and NIRCam scientists and educators to experience Arizona's dark skies. Locally, our goal is to provide Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education to girls of all ages throughout southern Arizona. To accomplish this in astronomy, we have additional ongoing collaborations with the Planetary Science Institute, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, and, most recently with the Amphitheater School District. One of the programs that we have been recently emphasizing is Family Science and Astronomy Nights. These programs can be run at our local Girl Scout facility or can be incorporated into programs that we are running in local schools. Our near-term goal is to provide a series of interconnected activities that can be done in classrooms, in afterschool programs, as part of the Family Science and Astronomy Nights, or in summer astronomy camps. Our long-term goal is to empower girls ultimately to become leaders who are excited about the night sky and can take lead roles presenting activities and facilitating astronomy nights. Our poster will display a variety of the activities we have refined and developed through this progam: scale models of the Solar System and beyond, classifying Solar System objects, a portable human orrery, observing the night sky with and without telescopes, constellation transformations, and constellation sorting cards.NIRCam E/PO website: http://zeus.as.arizona.edu/ dmccarthy/GSUSA

  10. Contextualising the Sexualisation of Girls Debate: Innocence, Experience and Young Female Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehily, Mary Jane

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to contextualise debates on the sexualisation of girls by providing ways of interpreting it from different perspectives--including the perspectives of girls themselves. Asking not "are" girls being prematurely sexualised but "how" can this debate be understood as a feature of time and place and how does it relate to the lives of…

  11. Sociocultural and Individual Psychological Predictors of Body Image in Young Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Levina; Tiggemann, Marika

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective predictors of body image in 9- to 12-year-old girls. Participants were 150 girls in Grades 4-6 with a mean age of 10.3 years. Girls completed questionnaire measures of media and peer influences (television/magazine exposure, peer appearance conversations), individual psychological variables (appearance…

  12. Preventing Obesity Among Adolescent Girls: One-Year Outcomes of the Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls) Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Okely, Anthony D; Dewar, Deborah; Collins, Clare E; Batterham, Marijka; Callister, Robin; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2012-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of a 12-month multicomponent school-based obesity prevention program, Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls among adolescent girls. DESIGN Group randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. SETTING Twelve secondary schools in low-income communities in the Hunter and Central Coast regions of New South Wales, Australia. PARTICIPANTS Three hundred fifty-seven adolescent girls aged 12 to 14 years. INTERVENTION A multicomponent school-based intervention program tailored for adolescent girls. The intervention was based on social cognitive theory and included teacher professional development, enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity sessions, handbooks and pedometers for self-monitoring, parent newsletters, and text messaging for social support. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), BMI z score, body fat percentage, physical activity, screen time, dietary intake, and self-esteem. RESULTS After 12 months, changes in BMI (adjusted mean difference, -0.19; 95% CI, -0.70 to 0.33), BMI z score (mean, -0.08; 95% CI, -0.20 to 0.04), and body fat percentage (mean, -1.09; 95% CI, -2.88 to 0.70) were in favor of the intervention, but they were not statistically different from those in the control group. Changes in screen time were statistically significant (mean, -30.67 min/d; 95% CI, -62.43 to -1.06), but there were no group by time effects for physical activity, dietary behavior, or self-esteem. CONCLUSIONS A school-based intervention tailored for adolescent girls from schools located in low-income communities did not significantly reduce BMI gain. However, changes in body composition were of a magnitude similar to previous studies and may be associated with clinically important health outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION anzctr.org.au Identifier: 12610000330044. PMID:22566517

  13. Pathways Linking Perceived Athletic Competence and Parental Support at Age 9 Years to Girls' Physical Activity at Age 11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Downs, Danielle Symons; Birch, Leann L.

    2006-01-01

    Girls' perceived athletic competence and parental support of physical activity across the ages of 9 to 11 years were examined as predictors of girls' physical activity at age 11 years. Participants were 174 girls and their mothers and fathers who completed questionnaires when the girls were ages 9 and 11 years. Two alternative temporal pathways…

  14. Girl, woman, lover, mother: towards a new understanding of child prostitution among young Devadasis in rural Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Orchard, Treena Rae

    2007-06-01

    The emotive issue of child prostitution is at the heart of international debates over 'trafficking' in women and girls, the "new slave trade", and how these phenomena are linked with globalization, sex tourism, and expanding transnational economies. However, young sex workers, particularly those in the 'third world', are often represented through tropes of victimization, poverty, and "backwards" cultural traditions, constructions that rarely capture the complexity of the girls' experiences and the role that prostitution plays in their lives. Based on ethnographic fieldwork with girls and young women who are part of the Devadasi (servant/slave of the God) system of sex work in India, this paper introduces an alternative example of child prostitution. Demonstrating the ways in which this practice is socially, economically, and culturally embedded in certain regions of rural south India underlies this new perspective. I argue that this embeddedness works to create, inform, and give meaning to these girls as they grow up in this particular context, not to isolate and produce totally different experiences of family, gender identity, and moral character as popular accounts of child prostitution contend. Data pertaining to socialization, 'positive' aspects of being a young sex worker in this context, political economy, HIV/AIDS, and changes in the Devadasi tradition are used to support my position. Taken together, this alternative example presents a more complex understanding of the micro- and macro-forces that impact child prostitution as well as the many factors that affect the girls' ideas of what they do and who they are as people, not just sex workers. PMID:17412471

  15. Physical Activity Attitudes, Preferences, and Practices in African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieser, Mira; Vu, Maihan B.; Bedimo-Rung, Ariane L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Moody, Jamie; Young, Deborah Rohm; Moe, Stacey G.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity levels in girls decline dramatically during adolescence, most profoundly among minorities. To explore ethnic and racial variation in attitudes toward physical activity, semistructured interviews (n = 80) and physical activity checklists (n = 130) are conducted with African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian middle school girls in…

  16. Brief Report: Relationships between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudsepp, Lennart; Neissaar, Inga

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between changes in physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Participants were 277 urban adolescent girls. Physical activity was measured using the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall and depressive symptoms were assessed using questionnaire. Data were collected on three occasions over a 3-year…

  17. Effect of Physical Activity on BMI and Percent Body Fat of Chinese Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Frank H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of regular physical activity on body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat of Chinese girls grouped by age and physical activity patterns. Measurements of skinfold, height, and weight, and BMI calculations, found differences in BMI and percent body fat between active and inactive girls. (SM)

  18. Implementation of a School Environment Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in High School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, D. S.; Saunders, R.; Felton, G. M.; Williams, E.; Epping, J. N.; Pate, R. R.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity levels begin to decline in childhood and continue falling throughout adolescence, with girls being at greatest risk for inactivity. Schools are ideal settings for helping girls develop and maintain a physically active lifestyle. This paper describes the design and implementation of "Lifestyle Education for Activity Program", or…

  19. Changes in physical activity levels following 12-week family intervention in Hispanic girls: Bounce study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...

  20. The Contribution of Peer and Media Influences to the Development of Body Satisfaction and Self-Esteem in Young Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohnt, Hayley; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to prospectively examine the role of peer and media influences in the development of body satisfaction (incorporating the desire for thinness and satisfaction with appearance) in young girls, as well as the relationship between body satisfaction and self-esteem. A sample of 97 girls 5-8 years of age completed individual interviews…

  1. Effects of Title IX and sports participation on girls' physical activity and weight.

    PubMed

    Kaestner, Robert; Xu, Xin

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we examined the association between girls' participation in high school sports and the physical activity, weight, body mass, and body composition of adolescent females during the 1970s when girls' sports participation was dramatically increasing as a result of Title IX. We found that increases in girls' participation in high school sports, a proxy for expanded athletic opportunities for adolescent females, were associated with an increase in physical activity and an improvement in weight and body mass among girls. In contrast, adolescent boys experienced a decline in physical activity and an increase in weight and body mass during the period when girls' athletic opportunities were expanding. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that Title IX and the increase in athletic opportunities among adolescent females it engendered had a beneficial effect on the health of adolescent girls. PMID:19548549

  2. Young Women's Career and Educational Development through Extracurricular Activity Participation: A Qualitative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkerson, Annette H.

    The effects of participation in extracurricular activities on young women's career and educational development were examined. A constant comparative method was used to analyze the open-ended responses to questionnaires completed by 156 high school girls and the transcripts from semi-structured interviews with 5 female college freshmen and 2 young…

  3. Physical Activity and Diet Relative to Socio-Economic Status and Gender in British Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study considers the physical activity (PA) and dietary habits of British young people according to socio-economic status (SES). Methods: The PA and dietary habits of 98 boys and 101 girls (12.9 0.3 years) from two Welsh secondary schools (school 1 and school 2) were examined. Free school meal eligibility and Census 2001 data were…

  4. The Impact of Playworks on Boys' and Girls' Physical Activity during Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleeker, Martha; Beyler, Nicholas; James-Burdumy, Susanne; Fortson, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background: School-based programs, such as Playworks, that guide students in organized activities during recess and make improvements to the recess play yard may lead to significant increases in physical activity--especially for girls. This study builds on past research by investigating the impact of Playworks separately for girls and boys.…

  5. A Typology of Middle School Girls: Audience Segmentation Related to Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staten, Lisa K.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Jobe, Jared B.; Elder, John P.

    2006-01-01

    The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) combines social ecological and social marketing approaches to promote girls' participation in physical activity programs implemented at 18 middle schools throughout the United States. Key to the TAAG approach is targeting materials to a variety of audience segments. TAAG segments are individuals…

  6. School Influences on the Physical Activity of African American, Latino, and White Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Susan C.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Chaumeton, Nigel R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of school-related variables on the physical activity (PA) levels of early adolescent African American, Latino, and White girls. Methods: Data were collected from 353 African American (N?=?123), Latino (N?=?118), and White (N?=?112) girls. Physical activity levels included a PA…

  7. Comparison of Social Variables for Understanding Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Ruth P.; Motl, Robert W.; Dowda, Marsha; Dishman, Rod K.; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate social support and theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs in explaining physical activity in adolescent girls. Methods : One thousand seven hundred ninety-seven 8 th -grade girls completed a survey measuring social provisions, family support, TPB constructs, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and team sport…

  8. The Effect of Recreational Activities on Self-Esteem Development of Girls in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayazit, Betül

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of recreational activities on self-esteem development of girls in adolescence. For this purpose, a total of 20 girls in adolescence period took part in the present study. Recreational activities program included bowling, patenga, orienteering, basketball, volleyball, badminton, ping-pong, dance, fun…

  9. Physical Activity and Self-Esteem in Girls: The Teen Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Lynn; Ricker, Sherri

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between activity and positive self-esteem in girls 12 to 17 years of age was explored by this study. The primary goal was to determine if the positive relationship between physical activity and positive self-esteem which exists for women also exists for girls. It was also hoped that insight would be gained regarding the factors…

  10. A Qualitative Study: African-American Girls' Perceptions of Why Physical Activity Declines in High School.

    PubMed

    Williams, Wanda M; Berry, Diane C

    2015-12-01

    African-American adolescent girls are less physically active than any other U.S. racial/ethnic group. The school environment may contribute to physical inactivity in this group. The purpose of this study was to explore African-American girls' perceptions offactors that contribute to girls being less physically active in high school. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to identify individual perceptions of girls regarding physical activity. This resulted in four themes: personal appearances, scheduling/timing of classes, environmental/facilities issues, and lack of variety of activities in PE classes. Thefindings from this study indicated that African-American adolescent girls did not feel the physical or social school environment encouraged or supported them to be physically active. PMID:27045158

  11. Using self-determination theory to promote adolescent girls' physical activity: Exploring the theoretical fidelity of the Bristol Girls Dance Project

    PubMed Central

    Sebire, Simon J.; Kesten, Joanna M.; Edwards, Mark J.; May, Thomas; Banfield, Kathryn; Tomkinson, Keeley; Blair, Peter S.; Bird, Emma L.; Powell, Jane E.; Jago, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To report the theory-based process evaluation of the Bristol Girls' Dance Project, a cluster-randomised controlled trial to increase adolescent girls' physical activity. Design A mixed-method process evaluation of the intervention's self-determination theory components comprising lesson observations, post-intervention interviews and focus groups. Method Four intervention dance lessons per dance instructor were observed, audio recorded and rated to estimate the use of need-supportive teaching strategies. Intervention participants (n = 281) reported their dance instructors' provision of autonomy-support. Semi-structured interviews with the dance instructors (n = 10) explored fidelity to the theory and focus groups were conducted with participants (n = 59) in each school to explore their receipt of the intervention and views on the dance instructors' motivating style. Results Although instructors accepted the theory-based approach, intervention fidelity was variable. Relatedness support was the most commonly observed need-supportive teaching behaviour, provision of structure was moderate and autonomy-support was comparatively low. The qualitative findings identified how instructors supported competence and developed trusting relationships with participants. Fidelity was challenged where autonomy provision was limited to option choices rather than input into the pace or direction of lessons and where controlling teaching styles were adopted, often to manage disruptive behaviour. Conclusion The successes and challenges to achieving theoretical fidelity in the Bristol Girls' Dance Project may help explain the intervention effects and can more broadly inform the design of theory-based complex interventions aimed at increasing young people's physical activity in after-school settings. PMID:27175102

  12. Socio-cultural and cognitive predictors of eating disorder symptoms in young girls.

    PubMed

    Bell, C; Cooper, M J

    2005-12-01

    There is some evidence for a relationship between socio-cultural variables and the development of disordered eating or concerns. However, the role of individual cognition in adding to this relationship has not yet been investigated. The current study therefore had two main questions. Firstly, which of the socio-cultural factors investigated (parental, peers and the media) predict girls' eating disorder related symptoms? Secondly, do individuals' cognitions add to this prediction? Thirty-eight girls participated in the study. They completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), Eating Disorder Belief Questionnaire (EDBQ), measures of parental, peer and media influence, and a measure of their awareness and internalisation of societal standards of attractiveness. The results indicated that several of the socio-cultural factors were related to girls' EAT score. The belief that being thinner would make boys like them more was the most significant predictor in the whole sample (and in younger girls). Individual cognitions added significantly to this prediction in the whole sample but not in the younger girls. For older girls, the importance of magazines as a source of information about beauty and ideals was the strongest predictor of EAT score, and their cognitions added significantly to this prediction. It is concluded that peer and media influences are important determinants of girls' eating disorder related symptoms. However, individual cognitions add to this relationship, particularly in older girls. The implications and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:16682869

  13. Great Expectations and Post-Feminist Accountability: Young Women Living up to the "Successful Girls" Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of the discourse of "successful girls" (and failing boys) in Australia and internationally has been widely documented. Against the much-vaunted lifting of barriers to opportunity for girls and women, it might reasonably be expected that their educational experiences and career paths are expressive of wider opportunities, greater…

  14. Research on Young Women in Computer Science: Promoting High Technology for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crombie, Gail

    When the public school system of Ontario, Canada, began offering an all-female computer science course for girls in grade 11, female enrollment in computer science increased to approximately 40%. This increased enrollment level has been maintained for 3 years. The new course's effects on girls' attitudes were examined in a survey of 184 grade 11…

  15. Body Image Concerns in Young Girls: The Role of Peers and Media Prior to Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohnt, Hayley K.; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-01-01

    Peer and media influences have been identified as important conveyors of socio-cultural ideals in adolescent and preadolescent samples. This study aims to explore peer and media influences in the body image concerns and dieting awareness of younger girls, aged 5-8 years. A sample of 128 girls was recruited from the first 4 years of formal…

  16. Internalization of the Sociocultural Ideal: Weight-Related Attitudes and Dieting Behaviors among Young Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Nancy E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed adolescent girls regarding body dissatisfaction, dieting, and internalization of sociocultural values, media-influenced knowledge, acceptance of varied body shapes, and media exposure. Girls understood media influence on self-image and behavior and accepted varied body shapes. Significant numbers reported dissatisfaction with weight and…

  17. The Oversexualization of Young Adolescent Girls: Implications for Middle Grades Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Jennifer R.; Choate, Laura H.

    2010-01-01

    This article was meant to familiarize readers with ways in which the media and popular culture sexualize and stereotype girls and women and to raise awareness about the extent to which girls in the middle graders may be impacted by the sexualized media content they view. By framing the problem and its consequences through self-objectification…

  18. Young Girls' Eating Attitudes and Body Image Dissatisfaction: Associations with Communication and Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kichler, Jessica C.; Crowther, Janis H.

    2009-01-01

    The relationships among communication, modeling, body image dissatisfaction, and maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors in preadolescent girls were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 69 girls in fourth through sixth grade and their mothers. Participants completed questionnaires assessing familial and peer influences, body image…

  19. SchoolGirls. Young Women, Self-Esteem, and the Confidence Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orenstein, Peggy

    A survey conducted by the American Association of University Women (AAUW) polled 3,000 boys and girls between the ages of 9 and 15 years regarding their attitudes toward self, school, family, and friends. Results confirmed that the passage into adolescence is marked by a girl's loss of confidence in herself and her abilities. The AAUW discovered…

  20. Correlates of Physical Activity in Black, Hispanic and White Middle School Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Evelyn B.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Conway, Terry L.; Webber, Larry S.; Jobe, Jared B.; Going, Scott; Pate, Russell R.

    2010-01-01

    Background A need exists to better understand multilevel influences on physical activity among diverse samples of girls. This study examined correlates of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among adolescent girls from different racial/ethnic backgrounds. Methods 1,180 6th grade girls (24.5% black, 15.7% Hispanic and 59.8% white) completed a supervised self-administered questionnaire that measured hypothesized correlates of PA. MVPA data were collected for six days using the ActiGraph accelerometer. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine correlates of PA in each racial/ethnic group. Results Hispanic girls (n=185) engaged in 21.7 minutes of MVPA per day, black girls (n=289), 19.5 minutes and white girls (n=706), 22.8 minutes. Perceived transportation barriers (+; p=0.010) were significantly and positively related to MVPA for Hispanic girls. For black girls, Body Mass Index (BMI) (−; p=0.005) and social support from friends (+; p=0.006) were significant correlates of MVPA. For white girls, BMI (−; p <0.001), barriers (−; p=0.012), social support from friends (+; p=0.010), participation in school sports (+; p=0.009), and community sports (+; p=0.025) were significant correlates of MVPA. Explained variance ranged from 30 to 35%. Conclusions Correlates of MVPA varied by racial/ethnic groups. Effective interventions in ethnically diverse populations may require culturally tailored strategies. PMID:20484757

  1. Correlation of DNA methylation levels in blood and saliva DNA in young girls of the LEGACY Girls study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui-Chen; Wang, Qiao; Chung, Wendy K; Andrulis, Irene L; Daly, Mary B; John, Esther M; Keegan, Theresa HM; Knight, Julia; Bradbury, Angela R; Kappil, Maya A; Gurvich, Irina; Santella, Regina M; Terry, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and disease susceptibility measure DNA methylation in white blood cells (WBC). Some studies are also starting to use saliva DNA as it is usually more readily available in large epidemiologic studies. However, little is known about the correlation of methylation between WBC and saliva DNA. We examined DNA methylation in three repetitive elements, Sat2, Alu, and LINE-1, and in four CpG sites, including AHRR (cg23576855, cg05575921), cg05951221 at 2q37.1, and cg11924019 at CYP1A1, in 57 girls aged 6–15 years with blood and saliva collected on the same day. We measured all DNA methylation markers by bisulfite-pyrosequencing, except for Sat2 and Alu, which were measured by the MethyLight assay. Methylation levels measured in saliva DNA were lower than those in WBC DNA, with differences ranging from 2.8% for Alu to 14.1% for cg05575921. Methylation levels for the three repetitive elements measured in saliva DNA were all positively correlated with those in WBC DNA. However, there was a wide range in the Spearman correlations, with the smallest correlation found for Alu (0.24) and the strongest correlation found for LINE-1 (0.73). Spearman correlations for cg05575921, cg05951221, and cg11924019 were 0.33, 0.42, and 0.79, respectively. If these findings are replicated in larger studies, they suggest that, for selected methylation markers (e.g., LINE-1), methylation levels may be highly correlated between blood and saliva, while for others methylation markers, the levels may be more tissue specific. Thus, in studies that differ by DNA source, each interrogated site should be separately examined in order to evaluate the correlation in DNA methylation levels across DNA sources. PMID:24756002

  2. Correlation of DNA methylation levels in blood and saliva DNA in young girls of the LEGACY Girls study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui-Chen; Wang, Qiao; Chung, Wendy K; Andrulis, Irene L; Daly, Mary B; John, Esther M; Keegan, Theresa H M; Knight, Julia; Bradbury, Angela R; Kappil, Maya A; Gurvich, Irina; Santella, Regina M; Terry, Mary Beth

    2014-07-01

    Many epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and disease susceptibility measure DNA methylation in white blood cells (WBC). Some studies are also starting to use saliva DNA as it is usually more readily available in large epidemiologic studies. However, little is known about the correlation of methylation between WBC and saliva DNA. We examined DNA methylation in three repetitive elements, Sat2, Alu, and LINE-1, and in four CpG sites, including AHRR (cg23576855, cg05575921), cg05951221 at 2q37.1, and cg11924019 at CYP1A1, in 57 girls aged 6-15 years with blood and saliva collected on the same day. We measured all DNA methylation markers by bisulfite-pyrosequencing, except for Sat2 and Alu, which were measured by the MethyLight assay. Methylation levels measured in saliva DNA were lower than those in WBC DNA, with differences ranging from 2.8% for Alu to 14.1% for cg05575921. Methylation levels for the three repetitive elements measured in saliva DNA were all positively correlated with those in WBC DNA. However, there was a wide range in the Spearman correlations, with the smallest correlation found for Alu (0.24) and the strongest correlation found for LINE-1 (0.73). Spearman correlations for cg05575921, cg05951221, and cg11924019 were 0.33, 0.42, and 0.79, respectively. If these findings are replicated in larger studies, they suggest that, for selected methylation markers (e.g., LINE-1), methylation levels may be highly correlated between blood and saliva, while for others methylation markers, the levels may be more tissue specific. Thus, in studies that differ by DNA source, each interrogated site should be separately examined in order to evaluate the correlation in DNA methylation levels across DNA sources. PMID:24756002

  3. Developing the Girl as a Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembrow-Beach, Rose

    2011-01-01

    Single-sex educational environments can create young women who are engaged, active leaders. Girls receive differential treatment in combined-sex education environments. Girls often do not receive the encouragement or instruction to assume leadership. I want to identify the elements of single-sex education that foster female leadership and consider…

  4. Black, Hispanic, and White Girls' Perceptions of Environmental and Social Support and Enjoyment of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieser, Mira; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Saksvig, Brit I.; Lee, Jung-Sun; Felton, Gwen M.; Kubik, Martha Y.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examines the differences among black, Hispanic, and white adolescent girls in their perceptions surrounding physical activity (PA), including support within the school climate, friend and family social support, and personal enjoyment. Methods: Participants included 1466 sixth-grade girls from 36 middle schools across the…

  5. Developmental and Individual Differences in Girls' Sex-Typed Activities in Middle Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Susan M.; Shanahan, Lilly; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Crouter, Ann C.; Booth, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Girls' time in sex-typed leisure activities was studied across 2 years in middle childhood (n=98, M=8.2 years in Year 1), early adolescence (n=106, M=11.7 years), and middle adolescence (n=86, M=14.9 years). In annual home interviews, White middle-class girls, mothers, and fathers rated their gendered attitudes, interests, and personality…

  6. Providing Rich Art Activities for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahey, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Using works of art with young children is a perfect way to bridge the gap between art activities that are too open or too closed. Teachers of young children sometimes try to find a middle ground by allowing free painting time at an easel in addition to recipe-oriented activities such as putting together precut shapes to create a spider or an apple…

  7. Marry the Prince or Stay with Family--That Is the Question: A Perspective of Young Korean Immigrant Girls on Disney Marriages in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lena

    2009-01-01

    Although several studies have examined popular culture, the perspectives of young children from various cultures still have not been discussed at length in such studies. In order to listen to these children's voices, this paper focuses on young immigrant Korean girls in the United States. It particularly examines their interpretations of marriage…

  8. Advanced Pubertal Status at Age 11 and Lower Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Birgitta L.; Birch, Leann L.; Trost, Stewart G.; Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between pubertal timing and physical activity. Study design A longitudinal sample of 143 adolescent girls was assessed at ages 11 and 13 years. Girls' pubertal development was assessed at age 11 with blood estradiol levels, Tanner breast staging criteria, and parental report of pubertal development. Girls were classified as early maturers (n = 41) or later maturers (n = 102) on the basis of their scores on the 3 pubertal development measures. Dependent variables measured at age 13 were average minutes/day of moderate to vigorous and vigorous physical activity as measured by the ActiGraph accelerometer. Results Early-maturing girls had significantly lower self-reported physical activity and accumulated fewer minutes of moderate to vigorous and vigorous physical activity and accelerometer counts per day at age 13 than later maturing girls. These effects were independent of differences in percentage body fat and self-reported physical activity at age 11. Conclusion Girls experiencing early pubertal maturation at age 11 reported lower subsequent physical activity at age 13 than their later maturing peers. Pubertal maturation, in particular early maturation relative to peers, may lead to declines in physical activity among adolescent girls. PMID:17961691

  9. An analysis of a developmentally delayed young girl. Coordinating analytic and developmental processes.

    PubMed

    Olesker, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    Clinical material is presented from a multi-year treatment of a five-year-old girl with a variety of developmental interferences, making it necessary to consider whether standard technique would suffice. History includes the fact that she was adopted five days after birth and told as early as possible about her adoption; she was placed in a restrictive brace from four months to twenty months because of congenital hip displasia. Sandy's ability to let in the outside world was limited by her intense denial, not looking, not taking in, and by her detachment. Her passivity--whether a defense (modeled on her experience of physical restraint) or an arrest--was a formidable obstacle to the development of active transference moments. I use this case as an opportunity to look at the role of developmental sequences in the context of the analytic process. While I consciously did not do anything different than I would with any child analytic patient, I intuitively stressed certain kinds of interventions. PMID:14982015

  10. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions on infant and young child nutrition and feeding among adolescent girls and young mothers in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Kristy M; Mukta, Umme S; Jalal, Chowdhury S B; Sellen, Daniel W

    2015-04-01

    Improved infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices have the potential to improve child health and development outcomes in poorly resourced communities. In Bangladesh, approximately 60% of rural girls become mothers before the age of 18, but most interventions to improve IYCF practices target older mothers. We investigated the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding IYCF among adolescent girls and young women aged 15-23 years old in two rural regions in north-west Bangladesh and identified the main points of concordance with, or mismatch to, key international IYCF recommendations. We compared qualitative data collected during interviews and focus groups with participants who were unmarried, married without a child and married with at least one child, and stratified by region. Qualitative indicators of concordance with international recommendations suggest that IYCF knowledge of participants was limited, irrespective of marriage or maternity. Young mothers in our study were no more knowledgeable about feeding practices than their nulliparous peers. Some participants were well aware of an IYCF recommendation (e.g. to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months), but their interpretation of the recommendation deviated from the intended public health message. Notions of insufficient or 'spoiled' breast milk, gender-based biases in feeding intentions and understandings of infant needs, and generational shifts in feeding practices were commonly reported. Conclusions are that female adolescence is a window of opportunity for improving health outcomes among future children, and increased investment in early education of adolescent girls regarding safe IYCF may be an effective strategy to promote and support improved infant feeding practices. PMID:23061427

  11. Measurement characteristics of activity-related psychosocial measures in 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls in the Girls health Enrichment Multisite Study (GEMS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: This paper presents reliability and validity analyses of physical activity-related psychosocial questionnaires completed by 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls at baseline and follow-up assessments of pilot intervention studies in the Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Study (GEMS)....

  12. The contribution of dance to daily physical activity among adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Structured physical activity (PA) programs are well positioned to promote PA among youth, however, little is known about these programs, particularly dance classes. The aims of this study were to: 1) describe PA levels of girls enrolled in dance classes, 2) determine the contribution of dance classes to total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and 3) compare PA between days with a dance class (program days) and days without a dance class (non-program days). Methods Participants were 149 girls (11-18 years) enrolled in dance classes in 11 dance studios. Overall PA was assessed with accelerometry for 8 consecutive days, and girls reported when they attended dance classes during those days. The percent contribution of dance classes to total MVPA was calculated, and data were reduced to compare PA on program days to non-program days. Data were analyzed using mixed models, adjusting for total monitoring time. Results Girls engaged in 25.0 ± 0.9 minutes/day of MVPA. Dance classes contributed 28.7% (95% CI: 25.9%-31.6%) to girls' total MVPA. Girls accumulated more MVPA on program (28.7 ± 1.4 minutes/day) than non-program days (16.4 ± 1.5 minutes/day) (p < 0.001). Girls had less sedentary behavior on program (554.0 ± 8.1 minutes/day) than non-program days (600.2 ± 8.7 minutes/day) (p < 0.001). Conclusions Dance classes contributed a substantial proportion (29%) to girls' total MVPA, and girls accumulated 70% more MVPA and 8% less sedentary behavior on program days than on non-program days. Dance classes can make an important contribution to girls' total physical activity. PMID:21816074

  13. Effects of Body Fat on Weight Concerns, Dating, and Sexual Activity: A Longitudinal Analysis of Black and White Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Udry, J. Richard; Suchindran, Chirayath; Campbell, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Investigated implications of body-fat differences for dating and sexual activity and implications of heterosexual activity for dieting and weight concerns in adolescent girls. Found that among white girls, and blacks with college-educated mothers, more body fat was associated with lower dating probability, even among non-obese girls. Body fat was…

  14. Experiences in sport, physical activity, and physical education among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Araki, Kaori; Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed. PMID:23412952

  15. Experiences in Sport, Physical Activity, and Physical Education Among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed. PMID:23412952

  16. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    PubMed Central

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Dankulincova Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Kalman, Michal; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We obtained data regarding motives for PA and frequency of PA in 2010 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study in the Czech and Slovak Republics (n = 9018, mean age = 13.6, 49% boys). Respondents answered questions about their motives for PA and the frequency of their PA. Motives for PA were assessed using 13 items, which were structured in four groups. We explored the association between the motives for PA and sufficient PA using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, and separately for boys and girls. “Good child” motives and Achievement motives were significantly associated with sufficient PA among both boys and girls. Health motives were associated with sufficient PA only among boys, and Social motives were associated with sufficient PA only among girls. Motives for PA were associated with the level of PA, and this association was partially gender dependent. These gender differences should be considered in interventions focusing on enhancement of PA. PMID:26184246

  17. Internalization of the sociocultural ideal: weight-related attitudes and dieting behaviors among young adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, N E; Neumark-Sztainer, D

    2001-01-01

    Questionnaires returned from 234 fifth and sixth graders from 24 Girl Scout Troops in the Midwest showed that 29.3% of all girls and 68.7% of those who were dieting thought they were overweight. Most of those who were trying to lose weight were using healthy methods, but a few were using dangerous methods. Very few were unhappy with their weight, shape, and various body parts. Most appeared to be aware of the influence of media on body image and were accepting of a wide range of body shapes and sizes among themselves and their friends. PMID:11349342

  18. A Case Study of a Girls' Exergaming Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Yoonsin

    2012-01-01

    Girls 6 to 19 years old have the highest rates of obesity with about thirty percent being obese in the US (Ogden et al., 2006). Researchers studying the prevention of childhood obesity are examining exergames because playing video games is popular among youth (Rideout, Foehr, & Roberts, 2010). Recent research has mainly focused on energy…

  19. Young People's Favorite Leisure Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zvonovskii, Vladimir; Lutseva, Svetlana

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a study based on surveys conducted annually for the past nine years by the Samara Foundation for Social Research, commissioned by the committee for youth affairs of the administration of Samara Oblast. The sample consists of about 800 young people aged fourteen to thirty. In the present study the authors have focused on…

  20. A typology of middle school girls: audience segmentation related to physical activity.

    PubMed

    Staten, Lisa K; Birnbaum, Amanda S; Jobe, Jared B; Elder, John P

    2006-02-01

    The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) combines social ecological and social marketing approaches to promote girls' participation in physical activity programs implemented at 18 middle schools throughout the United States. Key to the TAAG approach is targeting materials to a variety of audience segments. TAAG segments are individuals who share one or more common characteristic that is expected to correlate with physical activity. Thirteen focus groups with seventh and eighth grade girls were conducted to identify and characterize segments. Potential messages and channels of communication were discussed for each segment. Based on participant responses, six primary segments were identified: athletic, preppy, quiet, rebel, smart, and tough. The focus group information was used to develop targeted promotional tools to appeal to a diversity of girls. Using audience segmentation for targeting persuasive communication is potentially useful for intervention programs but may be sensitive; therefore, ethical issues must be critically examined. PMID:16397160

  1. PARENTAL INFLUENCES ON YOUNG GIRLS' FRUIT AND VEGETABLE, MICRONUTRIENT, AND FAT INTAKES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate parents' fruit and vegetable intake and their use of pressure to eat in child feeding as predictors of their 5-year-old daughters' fruit and vegetable, micronutrient, and fat intakes. Data were obtained from 191 non-Hispanic white families with 5-year-old girls. Parent data included repo...

  2. Coping with Social Stress: Implications for Psychopathology in Young Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Warren, Michelle P.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of social stress on symptoms of psychopathology at the entry into adolescence (111 girls, Mage = 11.84, SD = 0.77). We examined whether peer stress and pubertal timing were associated with internalizing distress and aggression, and whether responses to stress and cortisol reactivity mediated or moderated these…

  3. The Girls' School Experience: A Survey of Young Alumnae of Single-Sex Schools. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition of Girls' Schools (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived outcomes associated with girls' school attendance, with a focus on examining alumnae perceptions of the effectiveness of their schools in preparing them for the academic and social aspects of college. Drawing on the responses of more than 1,000 alumnae representing 61 schools, the findings of…

  4. Urban Middle School African American Girls' Attitudes toward Physical Education and Out-of-School Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this two-part study were (1) to investigate urban middle school African American girls' physical activity levels and their relationships to attitudes and, (2) to explore urban middle school African American girls' attitude toward physical education. A total of (N = 649) African American girls from 14 New York City middle…

  5. Qualitative Iranian study of parents' roles in adolescent girls' physical activity habit development.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyyed Vahide; Anoosheh, Monireh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ehsani, Mohammad

    2013-06-01

    Parents are likely to be key influences on children's physical activity behaviors, although it is not clear how. This study was designed to explore parents' roles in Iranian adolescent girls' physical activity habit development. A qualitative study was conducted by means of semistructured one-to-one interviews with 25 participants, including 16 adolescent girls (10-19 years of age), seven mothers, and two fathers. Content analysis was applied. Two main themes emerged as parental role in adolescent girls' physical activity behavior: developing interest in physical activity (making children familiar with physical activity, discovering talents, and role modeling) and providing support to adolescents for physical activity (material and immaterial). This study provided a better understanding of how Iranian parents influence their children's physical activity behavior. This will enable nurses to design more effective family-based interventions. PMID:23302074

  6. Be BOLD: Encouraging Girls to Include Unstructured Bouts of Physical Activity into Daily Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kory; Williams, Gwynne M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls are less active than their male counterparts and physical activity levels tend to decline as one ages. One of the goals of concerned physical educators is to promote a physically active lifestyle and to teach skills and promote behaviors that will allow students to be active both in and out of school. This article presents a…

  7. Clinical and microbiological features of Haemophilus influenzae vulvovaginitis in young girls

    PubMed Central

    Cox, R A; Slack, M P E

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To define the clinical and microbiological features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls whose genital swabs yielded Haemophilus influenzae. Methods: Laboratory based study and retrospective collection of clinical data from the requesting doctors. Results: Thirty eight isolates of non-capsulate Haemophilus influenzae and one of H parainfluenzae were isolated from 32 girls aged 18 months to 11 years. No other pathogens, such as β haemolytic streptococci or yeasts, were present with H influenzae. The most common biotype was biotype II, comprising 57% of the 26 isolates biotyped. Six children had more than one episode of vulvovaginitis caused by H influenzae and a total of 14 children had recurrent vaginal symptoms. Conclusion: Children who have H influenzae vulvovaginitis are at risk of recurrent symptoms. Biotype II is the one most commonly associated with this condition. PMID:12461068

  8. Girls & Young Women Inventing: Twenty True Stories about Inventors Plus How You Can Be One Yourself.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Frances A.; Bean, Suzanne M.

    This book presents first-person accounts of 20 young female inventors. Most have won prizes for their inventions; some have even obtained patents. Part 1 "Inventors and Their Inventions," focuses on the young inventors and their lives, how they came up with their ideas, who helped them, what problems they faced, and how they solved their problems.…

  9. "I Was the Special Ed. Girl": Urban Working-Class Young Women of Colour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Beth A.; Connor, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent criticism of the over-representation of minority students in special education do not adequately account for gender, despite the fact that urban special education classrooms in the USA are largely populated by young men of colour. In fact, we know very little about how being female shapes the experiences and understandings of young women of…

  10. Privileged High School Girls' Responses to Depictions of Femininity in Popular Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suico, Theresa Go

    2013-01-01

    Young adult literature has been a subject of contention for educators, adolescent psychologists, and critics for decades. Although some commentators maintain that young adult literature can be educationally and developmentally beneficial for adolescent readers, others argue that it often contains negative and potentially harmful messages that…

  11. Examining the developmental interface of cortisol and depression symptoms in young adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Hipwell, Alison; Babinski, Dara; Bortner, Jenna; Henneberger, Angela; Hinze, Amanda; Klostermann, Susan; Rischall, Michal; Sapotichne, Brenna

    2013-01-01

    Despite the substantial amount of data supporting a link between HPA-axis functioning and depression, the ontogeny of this association is not known. The aim of the present study was to contribute data on the developmental interface of HPA-axis functioning and depression in girls by testing associations between repeated measures of depression symptoms and cortisol levels in childhood and early adolescence. Girls (N= 232) and their mothers, who were participating in a longitudinal study, were interviewed about depression symptoms annually from ages 9 to 12 years. Cortisol was assayed from saliva at ages 10 and 12 years upon arrival to the lab and following administration of the cold pressor task (CPT). Time of day of collection of saliva and level of pubertal development were included as covariates in model testing. Although most girls did not show an increase in cortisol in response to the CPT, lower levels of output during the CPT were associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. These findings were observed only for cortisol levels assessed at age 12 years. Girls with low levels of cortisol output at age 12, and decreases in output from ages 10 to 12, had stable or slightly increasing depression symptoms from ages 9 to 12 years. We conclude that associations between HPA-axis functioning and depression emerge as early as age 12. However, individual differences in cortisol levels at age 12 also were associated with depression symptoms at earlier ages. The data suggest two possibilities: 1) that childhood depression is associated with HPA-axis dysregulation, but that age related changes in the sensitivity or plasticity of the HPA-axis may result in a delay in the emergence of such an association, or 2) that dysregulation of the functioning of the HPA-axis develops following repeated experience of depression symptoms. PMID:23726646

  12. A Weeping Tumor in a Young Girl: An Unusual Presentation of Nodular Hidradenoma.

    PubMed

    Das, Anupam; Gayen, Tirthankar; Podder, Indrashis; Shome, Kaushik; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2016-01-01

    A 10-year-old girl presented with a swelling on her left thigh that was associated with dripping of serous fluid from the lesion. Based on histological features of the excised tumor, a diagnosis of nodular hidradenoma was made. Atypical features including large size of the tumor, location on the lower limb, a weeping presentation, and histological finding of a nodular hidradenoma with an unusually large cystic cavity discharging fluid prompted us to report the case. PMID:27293255

  13. A Weeping Tumor in a Young Girl: An Unusual Presentation of Nodular Hidradenoma

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anupam; Gayen, Tirthankar; Podder, Indrashis; Shome, Kaushik; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2016-01-01

    A 10-year-old girl presented with a swelling on her left thigh that was associated with dripping of serous fluid from the lesion. Based on histological features of the excised tumor, a diagnosis of nodular hidradenoma was made. Atypical features including large size of the tumor, location on the lower limb, a weeping presentation, and histological finding of a nodular hidradenoma with an unusually large cystic cavity discharging fluid prompted us to report the case. PMID:27293255

  14. Coping with Social Stress: Implications for Psychopathology in Young Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Warren, Michelle P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of social stress on symptoms of psychopathology at the entry into adolescence (111 girls, Mage=11.84, SD=0.77). We examined whether peer stress and pubertal timing were associated with internalizing distress and aggression, and whether responses to stress and cortisol reactivity mediated or moderated these associations. Cortisol samples were collected from saliva samples during in-home visits, and the YSR was used to assess psychopathology. Interestingly, pubertal timing demonstrated a trend association with cortisol. Responses to stress mediated the association between social stress and symptoms of internalizing distress and aggression. Specifically, early maturers and girls with higher levels of peer stress exhibited more problematic responses to stress, in turn demonstrating higher levels of internalizing distress and aggression. Significant moderation effects also emerged. For example, early maturers who experienced higher levels of emotional/cognitive numbing in response to peer stress were at greater risk for aggression. Findings identify coping strategies that may be used in evidence-based programming to help girls transition more successfully into adolescence will be discussed. PMID:18465219

  15. Predicting First Onset of Depression in Young Girls: Interaction of Diurnal Cortisol and Negative Life Events

    PubMed Central

    LeMoult, Joelle; Ordaz, Sarah J.; Kircanski, Katharina; Singh, Manpreet K.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between biological vulnerability and environmental adversity are central to the pathophysiology of depression. Given evidence that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences biological responses to environmental events, in the current longitudinal study we examined HPA-axis functioning, negative life events, and their interaction as predictors of the first onset of depression. At baseline, girls ages 9 to 14 years provided saliva samples to assess levels of diurnal cortisol production, quantified by total cortisol production (area under the curve with respect to ground; AUCg) and the cortisol awakening response (CAR). We then followed these participants until they reached age 18 in order to assess their subsequent experience of negative life events and the onset of a depressive episode. We found that the influence of negative life events on the subsequent onset of depression depended on HPA-axis functioning at baseline. Specifically, negative life events predicted the onset of depression in girls with higher levels AUCg, but not in girls with lower levels of AUCg. In contrast, CAR did not predict the onset of depression either alone or in interaction with negative life events. These findings suggest that elevated total cortisol production in daily life potentiates susceptibility to environmental adversity and signals the need for early intervention. PMID:26595472

  16. Predicting first onset of depression in young girls: Interaction of diurnal cortisol and negative life events.

    PubMed

    LeMoult, Joelle; Ordaz, Sarah J; Kircanski, Katharina; Singh, Manpreet K; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-11-01

    Interactions between biological vulnerability and environmental adversity are central to the pathophysiology of depression. Given evidence that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences biological responses to environmental events, in the current longitudinal study the authors examined HPA-axis functioning, negative life events, and their interaction as predictors of the first onset of depression. At baseline, girls ages 9 to 14 years provided saliva samples to assess levels of diurnal cortisol production, quantified by total cortisol production (area under the curve with respect to ground; AUCg) and the cortisol awakening response (CAR). The authors then followed these participants until they reached age 18 in order to assess their subsequent experience of negative life events and the onset of a depressive episode. They found that the influence of negative life events on the subsequent onset of depression depended on HPA-axis functioning at baseline. Specifically, negative life events predicted the onset of depression in girls with higher levels of AUCg, but not in girls with lower levels of AUCg. In contrast, CAR did not predict the onset of depression either alone or in interaction with negative life events. These findings suggest that elevated total cortisol production in daily life potentiates susceptibility to environmental adversity and signals the need for early intervention. PMID:26595472

  17. Using a socioecological approach to examine participation in sport and physical activity among rural adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Casey, Meghan M; Eime, Rochelle M; Payne, Warren R; Harvey, Jack T

    2009-07-01

    Adolescence is a critical time for developing lifelong healthy behaviors, including active lifestyles. Participation in sport and physical activity, however, declines during adolescence, and few studies have comprehensively identified why, particularly among rural girls. This article identifies a range of independent and interacting factors that influence sport and physical activity participation of rural adolescent girls. The socioecological model of health was used to guide four focus group discussions with Grade 7 girls (n = 34). The results showed that adolescent girls were positively influenced when sports or physical activities were fun, when they involved being with friends, and when they were supported by families and teachers through role modeling and positive feedback. A range of intrapersonal and organizational factors affected perceived self-competence, particularly the coeducational nature of school physical education classes and peer teasing, which supported social comparisons of skill level. In promoting sport and physical activity to rural adolescent girls, focus must be directed on developmentally appropriate activities that are fun, offering opportunities for single-sex classes, and generating cultural changes that encourage noncompetitive and self-referencing activities. PMID:19556398

  18. Girls on the Move” intervention protocol for increasing physical activity among low-active underserved urban girls: a group randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing moderate to vigorous physical activity among urban girls of low socioeconomic status is both a challenge and a public health priority. Physical activity interventions targeting exclusively girls remain limited, and maintenance of moderate to vigorous physical activity during the post-intervention period has been difficult to maintain. The main aim of the 5-year “Girls on the Move” group randomized trial is to evaluate the efficacy of a comprehensive school-based intervention in increasing girls’ minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity and improving cardiovascular fitness, body mass index, and percent body fat immediately post-intervention (after 17 weeks) and at 9-month post-intervention follow-up (9 months after end of intervention). Methods/Design A total of 24 urban middle schools in the Midwestern U.S. will be randomized to either receive the intervention or serve as a control (N = 1200 girls). The intervention, based on the Health Promotion Model and Self-Determination Theory, will include: (1) two face-to-face motivational, individually tailored counseling sessions with a registered nurse, one at the beginning and the other at the end of the intervention period; (2) an interactive Internet-based session during which each girl receives individually tailored motivational and feedback messages via iPad at 11 weeks (shortly after midpoint of intervention); and (3) a 90-minute after-school physical activity club. Racially diverse, low-active, 10- to 14-year-old 5th to 8th-grade girls will complete questionnaires and physical measures at baseline and post-intervention (n = 50 per school). Minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity will be assessed with accelerometers. Cardiovascular fitness will be assessed by estimating VO2 max with PACER (Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run) scores. Height and weight will be assessed to calculate body mass index. Percent body fat will be estimated with a foot

  19. Why Are Girls Less Physically Active than Boys? Findings from the LOOK Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Telford, Rohan M.; Telford, Richard D.; Olive, Lisa S.; Cochrane, Thomas; Davey, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background A gender-based disparity in physical activity (PA) among youth, whereby girls are less active than boys is a persistent finding in the literature. A greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying this difference has potential to guide PA intervention strategies. Methods Data were collected at age 8 and 12 years (276 boys, 279 girls) from 29 schools as part of the LOOK study. Multilevel linear models were fitted separately for boys and girls to examine effects of individual, family and environmental level correlates on pedometer measured PA. Cardio-respiratory fitness (multi-stage run), percent fat (DEXA), eye-hand coordination (throw and catch test) and perceived competence in physical education (questionnaire) were used as individual level correlates. At the family level, parent’s support and education (questionnaire) were used. School attended and extracurricular sport participation were included as environmental level correlates. Results Girls were 19% less active than boys (9420 vs 11360 steps/day, p<0.001, 95%CI [1844, 2626]). Lower PA among girls was associated with weaker influences at the school and family levels and through lower participation in extracurricular sport. School attended explained some of the variation in boys PA (8.4%) but not girls. Girls compared to boys had less favourable individual attributes associated with PA at age 8 years, including 18% lower cardio-respiratory fitness (3.5 vs 4.2, p<0.001, CI [0.5,0.9]), 44% lower eye-hand coordination (11.0 vs 17.3, p<0.001, CI [5.1,9.0]), higher percent body fat (28% vs 23%, p<0.001, CI [3.5,5.7]) and 9% lower perceived competence in physical education (7.7 vs 8.4, p<0.001, CI [0.2,0.9]). Participation in extracurricular sport at either age 8 or 12 years was protective against declines in PA over time among boys but not girls. Conclusion Girls PA was less favourably influenced by socio-ecological factors at the individual, family, school and environmental levels. These factors

  20. Morningness-Eveningness and Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls: Menarche as a Transition Point.

    PubMed

    Beal, Sarah J; Grimm, Kevin J; Dorn, Lorah D; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2016-07-01

    This study identified trajectories of morningness-eveningness (M-E) and physical activity when chronological (i.e., time since birth) versus gynecological (i.e., time since menarche) age is used to indicate maturation. Piecewise models were fit for girls (N = 262, ages 11-19) using chronological or gynecological age as the time metric. Girls stayed up later (i.e., eveningness) as they approach menarche. After menarche no change in M-E was observed. In contrast, no change in M-E was detected with chronological age. No change in physical activity was observed before menarche, and physical activity declined after menarche. With chronological age, physical activity declined as girls got older. Gynecological age may be more appropriate than chronological age as a metric for understanding changes in M-E and physical activity. PMID:27097124

  1. Fertility preservation for girls and young women with cancer: population-based validation of criteria for ovarian tissue cryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, W Hamish B; Smith, Alice Grove; Kelsey, Thomas W; Edgar, Angela E; Anderson, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Ovarian tissue cryopreservation with later reimplantation has been shown to preserve fertility in adult women, but this approach remains unproven and experimental in children and adolescents. We aimed to assess the use of the Edinburgh selection criteria for ovarian tissue cryopreservation in girls and young women with cancer to determine whether we are offering this invasive procedure to the patients who are most at risk of premature ovarian insufficiency. Methods Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been selectively offered to girls and young women with cancer who met the Edinburgh selection criteria since 1996. Between Jan 1, 1996, and June 30, 2012, 410 female patients younger than 18 years at diagnosis were treated for cancer (including leukaemia and brain tumours) at the Edinburgh Children's Cancer Centre, which serves the whole South East of Scotland region. We determined the ovarian status of these patients from review of clinical records and classified them as having premature ovarian insufficiency or not, or as unable to be determined. Patients younger than 12 years at time of data cutoff (Jan 31, 2013) were excluded from the analysis. Findings 34 (8%) of the 410 patients met the Edinburgh selection criteria and were offered ovarian tissue cryopreservation before starting cancer treatment. 13 patients declined the procedure and 21 consented, and the procedure was completed successfully in 20 patients. Of the 20 patients who had ovarian tissue successfully cryopreserved, 14 were available for assessment of ovarian function. Of the 13 patients who had declined the procedure, six were available for assessment of ovarian function. Median age at the time of follow-up for the 20 assessable patients was 16·9 years (IQR 15·5–21·8). Of the 14 assessable patients who had successfully undergone ovarian cryopreservation, six had developed premature ovarian insufficiency at a median age of 13·4 years (IQR 12·5–14·6), one of whom also had

  2. Learning Activities for the Young Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Don; And Others

    Presented is a collection of learning activities for the young handicapped child covering 295 individual learning objectives in six areas of development: gross motor skills, fine motor skills, social skills, self help skills, cognitive skills, and language skills. Provided for each learning activity are the teaching objective, teaching procedures,…

  3. Cooperative Activities in Young Children and Chimpanzees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warneken, Felix; Chen, Frances; Tomasello, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Human children 18-24 months of age and 3 young chimpanzees interacted in 4 cooperative activities with a human adult partner. The human children successfully participated in cooperative problem-solving activities and social games, whereas the chimpanzees were uninterested in the social games. As an experimental manipulation, in each task the adult…

  4. NEW PASS: Nontraditional Education for Women, Paths to Economic Self-Sufficiency. A Career Awareness Program for Economically Disadvantaged Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Judith

    This manual is designed for social service agencies, educational institutions, and other organizations who want to strengthen their programming for economicaly disadvantaged teenage girls and young women. It provides materials for the development and implementation of NEW PASS, a unique career awareness program that uses nontraditional employment…

  5. Engaging Girls in STEM: How to Plan or Revamp Your EPO Resources or Activities to be More Effective for Girls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleacher, Lora V.; Peterson, Karen A.; Sharma, Mangala; Smith, Denise

    2012-01-01

    This two-hour workshop, which was held as a follow-on to the plenary session "Engaging Girls in STEM: A Discussion of Foundational and Current Research on What Works," offered research-based insights, resources, and tips to help participants plan or revamp programs and resources aimed at encouraging girls in science. Led by Karen Peterson, PI for the National Girls Collaborative Project,1 the workshop included: a brief discussion about effective strategies recommended for encouraging girls in STEM; hands-on experience, where participants-availing of the expert's guidance-applied the recommended strategies to alter or tailor an existing or planned program/resource to be more girl-friendly; and a sharing out, where the participants reflected on the results of the hands-on exercise and developed action items to continue carrying out the girl-friendly best practices in science, technology, engineering, and math education and public outreach.

  6. Parental history of hypertension is associated with narrower retinal arteriolar caliber in young girls.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Baur, Louise A; Hardy, Louise L; Wang, Jie Jin; Teber, Erdahl; Wong, Tien Y; Mitchell, Paul

    2011-09-01

    We aimed to assess the associations between parental history of hypertension and indicators of cardiovascular risk (retinal vessel diameter, presence of obesity, and elevated blood pressure) in prepubertal children. There were 1739 (77.7% of those eligible) 6-year-old students (863 girls and 876 boys) who were examined from a random cluster sample of 34 Sydney schools. Parents completed questionnaires about their medical conditions, including whether they have/had hypertension. Retinal images were taken with a digital fundus camera, and retinal vessel caliber was quantified using computer software. Anthropometric (height, weight, percentage of body fat, and body mass index) and blood pressure measures were collected. There were 160 children (9.2%) with a positive parental history of hypertension (either biological mother and/or father). Children with a positive versus negative parental history of hypertension had significantly higher body mass index (16.8 versus 16.5 kg/m(2); P=0.04) and systolic blood pressure (101.3 versus 99.8 mm Hg; P=0.01). Girls with positive versus negative parental history of hypertension had significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (≈3.1 mm Hg; P=0.01) and narrower retinal arteriolar caliber (≈4.3 μm; P=0.0004). Positive parental history of hypertension was not associated with mean retinal vascular caliber among boys. We show that a positive parental history of hypertension in healthy prepubertal girls, but not boys, is associated with narrower retinal arteriolar vessels, likely conveying a predisposition to develop hypertension later in life. These findings may indicate the need for cardiovascular disease prevention measures starting early in life among offspring of hypertensive parents. PMID:21768527

  7. A case report of a young girl with mucinous borderline tumor of the ovary

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Mi; So, Kyeong A; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Lee, In-Ho; Kim, Tae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian tumors are relatively rare in children and adolescent. The incidence of malignancies in these groups is 1% to 1.5%. The common histologic type is non-epithelial type such as germ cell tumors or sex cord-stromal tumors and only 10% to 17% of those are epithelial tumors. It is important to accurately diagnose in the early these rare tumors for proper staging and treatment to save the patient's life and fertility. We present a case of a 13-year-old girl with a giant ovarian mucinous borderline tumor. PMID:27462604

  8. A case report of a young girl with mucinous borderline tumor of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Mi; So, Kyeong A; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Lee, In-Ho; Kim, Tae-Jin; Lee, Ki Heon

    2016-07-01

    Ovarian tumors are relatively rare in children and adolescent. The incidence of malignancies in these groups is 1% to 1.5%. The common histologic type is non-epithelial type such as germ cell tumors or sex cord-stromal tumors and only 10% to 17% of those are epithelial tumors. It is important to accurately diagnose in the early these rare tumors for proper staging and treatment to save the patient's life and fertility. We present a case of a 13-year-old girl with a giant ovarian mucinous borderline tumor. PMID:27462604

  9. Primary extra nodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the oral cavity in a young girl

    PubMed Central

    Vinoth, Ponnurangam N.; Selvan, Sathyamoorthi Muthamil; Sahni, Latika; Krishnaratnam, Kannan; Rajendiran, Swaminathan; Anand, Chidambaram Vishwanath; Scott, Julius X.

    2012-01-01

    Primary Non Hodgkin s Lymphoma (NHL) usually arises within the lymphnodes, but 20-30% account for extra nodal sites. Oral cavity, as a primary extra nodal site for NHL, is relatively rare and diverse in presentation, response to therapy and prognosis. We report a 14 year old adolescent girl who presented with multiple gingival swellings, the most prominent one being in the right anterior maxilla. Gingival biopsy showed NHL- diffuse large B cell type. Child was completely cured with chemotherapy and now she is in complete remission and under regular follow up. PMID:23833495

  10. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis in a young Lebanese girl.

    PubMed

    Safadieh, Layal; Dabbagh, Omar

    2013-10-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a recently recognized autoimmune neurologic disorder that presents with severe neuropsychiatric symptoms in previously healthy children. A 4-year-old Lebanese girl presented with new-onset behavioral changes, orofacial dyskinesias, fluctuation in consciousness, inability to walk, and mutism. Antibodies directed against NMDA receptors were detected in the patient's serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Prompt treatment with a single course of intravenous immunoglobulin resulted in early complete recovery. This is the first case report of a Middle Eastern child affected with this condition. PMID:22992990

  11. Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity in Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flohr, Judith A.; Todd, M. Kent; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) patterns of children. Forty-four 7th-grade students (19 boys, 25 girls) recorded pedometer data for 2 consecutive weeks. Separate 2 x 3 repeated measures analyses of variance were used to examine differences in total steps/day between boys and girls and between after-school…

  12. Adolescent girls' and parents' views on recruiting and retaining girls into an after-school dance intervention: implications for extra-curricular physical activity provision

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many adolescents are not sufficiently active and girls are less active than boys. Physical activity interventions delivered during curriculum time have reported weak effects. More sustained changes in physical activity may be obtained by facilitating participation in enjoyable activities. Dance is the favourite activity of UK girls but there is a shortage of dance provision. Dance sessions delivered after the school day could prove to be an effective means of engaging adolescent girls in physical activity. There is a lack of information about the factors that would affect girls' recruitment and retention in an after-school dance programme. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 65, Year 7 (11-12 year old) girls from 4 secondary schools in Bristol. In-depth phone interviews were also conducted with 16 (4 per school) of the girls' parents. Interviews and focus groups examined issues that would affect recruitment into the intervention, strategies that could be used to attract girls who have little or no previous experience in dance, any factors that would increase their interest in participating in an after-school dance programme and any factors that would affect retention in the programme. All interviews and focus groups were digitally recorded and thematically analysed. Results Girls reported that a taster session in which they had an opportunity to sample the intervention content and "word of mouth" campaigns by peers, who did not need to be their friends, would encourage them to participate in an after-school dance programme. Sessions that maximised enjoyment and facilitated socialisation opportunities would enhance retention. Parents reported that encouraging groups of friends to join the programme, and stressing the enjoyment of the session would increase participation. Conclusions Recruitment and retention campaigns that focus on enjoyment, socialisation, mastery, goal setting and relating to other girls may be effective strategies for recruiting

  13. Newspaper Activities for Young Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenup, Tess

    Designed for intermediate and junior high level students, the handbook gives 11 lessons using newspaper activities for teaching consumer education. The activities help students (1) define consumer education terms and distinguish between wants and needs; (2) define the term "caveat emptor" and understand the concept of consumer responsibility; (3)…

  14. Serum Biomarkers of Polyfluoroalkyl Compound Exposure in Young Girls in Greater Cincinnati and the San Francisco Bay Area, USA

    PubMed Central

    Pinney, Susan M.; Biro, Frank M.; Windham, Gayle; Herrick, Robert L.; Yaghjyan, Lusine; Calafat, Antonia M.; Succop, Paul; Sucharew, Heidi; Ball, Kathleen M.; Kato, Kayoko; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Bornschein, Robert

    2013-01-01

    PFC serum concentrations were measured in 6–8 year-old girls in Greater Cincinnati (GC) (N=353) and the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) (N=351). PFOA median concentration was lower in the SFBA than GC (5.8 vs. 7.3 ng/mL). In GC, 48/51 girls living in one area had PFOA concentrations above the NHANES 95th percentile for children 12–19 years (8.4 ng/mL), median 22.0 ng/mL. The duration of being breast fed was associated with higher serum PFOA at both sites and with higher PFOS, PFHxS and Me-PFOSA-AcOH concentrations in GC. Correlations of the PFC analytes with each other suggest that a source upriver from GC may have contributed to exposures through drinking water, and water treatment with granular activated carbon filtration resulted in less exposure for SWO girls compared to those in NKY. PFOA has been characterized as a drinking water contaminant, and water treatment systems effective in removing PFCs will reduce body burdens. PMID:24095703

  15. Serum biomarkers of polyfluoroalkyl compound exposure in young girls in Greater Cincinnati and the San Francisco Bay Area, USA.

    PubMed

    Pinney, Susan M; Biro, Frank M; Windham, Gayle C; Herrick, Robert L; Yaghjyan, Lusine; Calafat, Antonia M; Succop, Paul; Sucharew, Heidi; Ball, Kathleen M; Kato, Kayoko; Kushi, Lawrence H; Bornschein, Robert

    2014-01-01

    PFC serum concentrations were measured in 6-8 year-old girls in Greater Cincinnati (GC) (N = 353) and the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) (N = 351). PFOA median concentration was lower in the SFBA than GC (5.8 vs. 7.3 ng/mL). In GC, 48/51 girls living in one area had PFOA concentrations above the NHANES 95th percentile for children 12-19 years (8.4 ng/mL), median 22.0 ng/mL. The duration of being breast fed was associated with higher serum PFOA at both sites and with higher PFOS, PFHxS and Me-PFOSA-AcOH concentrations in GC. Correlations of the PFC analytes with each other suggest that a source upriver from GC may have contributed to exposures through drinking water, and water treatment with granular activated carbon filtration resulted in less exposure for SWO girls compared to those in NKY. PFOA has been characterized as a drinking water contaminant, and water treatment systems effective in removing PFCs will reduce body burdens. PMID:24095703

  16. Big Boys and Little Girls: Gender, Acculturation, and Weight among Young Children of Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    van Hook, Jennifer; Baker, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Previous research fails to find a consistent association between obesity and acculturation for children. We theorize that social isolation shelters children of immigrants from the U.S. “obesiogenic” environment, but this protective effect is offset by immigrant parents’ limited capacity to identify and manage this health risk in the United States. We further theorize that these factors affect boys more than girls. We use data from over 20,000 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Cohort and find that boys whose parents were raised outside the United States weighed more and gained weight faster than any other group. However, within this group, sons of low English-proficient parents gained weight more slowly than sons of English-proficient parents. The results thus suggest that two dimensions of low acculturation—foreign place of socialization and social isolation—affect children’s weight gain in opposite directions and are more important for boys than girls. PMID:20617759

  17. Mediators Affecting Girls’ Levels of Physical Activity Outside of School: Findings from the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Murray, David M.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Moody, Jamie; Pratt, Charlotte A.; Metcalfe, Lauve; Parra-Medina, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Background Providing after school activities is a community level approach for reducing the decline in physical activity of girls as they reach early adolescence. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial, environmental, and behavioral factors as potential mediators of after school physical activity in adolescent girls. Methods We assessed objectively measured levels of physical activity occurring outside of school and potential predictors and mediators of activity in girls participating in the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls (TAAG). Results We found that the TAAG intervention had a statistically significant and positive effect on out of school activity in the 2006 cohort. Self-efficacy, friends’ social support, total social support, and difficulty getting to and from community activities mediated the level of moderate to vigorous physical activity in girls. Conclusions Parents, communities, and schools should provide and enhance opportunities outside of the school day for adolescents to be active. Reducing transportation barriers and enlisting social support appear to be key. PMID:20012810

  18. A Typology of Middle School Girls: Audience Segmentation Related to Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Staten, Lisa K.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Jobe, Jared B.; Elder, John P.

    2008-01-01

    The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) combines social ecological and social marketing approaches to promote girls’ participation in physical activity programs implemented at 18 middle schools throughout the United States. Key to the TAAG approach is targeting materials to a variety of audience segments. TAAG segments are individuals who share one or more common characteristic that is expected to correlate with physical activity. Thirteen focus groups with seventh and eighth grade girls were conducted to identify and characterize segments. Potential messages and channels of communication were discussed for each segment. Based on participant responses, six primary segments were identified: athletic, preppy, quiet, rebel, smart, and tough. The focus group information was used to develop targeted promotional tools to appeal to a diversity of girls. Using audience segmentation for targeting persuasive communication is potentially useful for intervention programs but may be sensitive; therefore, ethical issues must be critically examined. PMID:16397160

  19. Gamer Girls, Gold Farmers, and Activism "In Real Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrave, Megan L.

    2016-01-01

    This essay analyzes the graphic novel "In Real Life" as an example of Cory Doctorow and Jen Wang's intention to raise young people's awareness about gender and economic disparities within the gaming industry. Broadly, "In Real Life" combats the pervasive cultural anxiety that Jane McGonigal challenges in her book "Reality…

  20. Motivation and Self-Perception Profiles and Links with Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Wang, C. K. John

    2003-01-01

    Research shows a decline in participation in physical activity across the teenage years. It is important, therefore, to examine factors that might influence adolescent girl's likelihood of being physically active. This study used contemporary theoretical perspectives from psychology to assess a comprehensive profile of motivational and…

  1. Physical Activities and Sedentary Pursuits in African American and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…

  2. Description and Analysis of the USAID Girls' Education Activity in Guatemala, Morocco, and Peru. Qualitative Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Lorelei; Heyman, Cory; Provasnik, Stephan; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    This qualitative report of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Girls' Education Activity (GEA) focuses on the results of project activities in Guatemala, Morocco, and Peru. Section 1 outlines the overall purpose and goals of the GEA; contrasts the major tactics of the program in each country; and describes the…

  3. [Pelvic and genital injuries in children. Sexual injuries of young girls. Management in a medico-legal context].

    PubMed

    Soutoul, J H; Robert, M; Pierre, F

    1988-01-01

    In the emergency care of a young girl presumed to be a victim of sexual assault and the treatment of the lesions discovered in the perineum and vulvo-vaginal tract, the paediatric surgeon must take into consideration the medico-legal aspects of the file right from the first approach to this young victim. It would actually be damaging to her if a paediatric surgeon reconstituted the perineal tissues, vulva and vagina "ad integrum" without carefully describing the lesions observed and without, whenever possible, taking good quality photographs to be kept in the case file to support the evidence of sexual assault, if a criminal procedure is filed. Similarly, as a complement to this assessment of the initial lesions, the surgeon must be able to establish an anatomical and functional assessment of the vulvo-vaginal tract after healing, to enable the experts appointed by the court to determine the basis for compensation of bodily damages related to the sexual assault and the expenses entailed by further plastic operations required by the sequelae of the genital lesions. The bases for a pretium doloris, future aesthetic, sexual and obstetric damages should also be indicated in any certificate given to the patient's family or to the court experts. Thus, if the surgeon participates indirectly in demonstrating evidence of the crime subject to penal sanction, he can help the victim in her parallel civil court action for compensation of her bodily damages before the repressive jurisdiction. PMID:3168089

  4. Post-laryngectomy voice rehabilitation with a voice prosthesis in a young girl with advanced thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Takahiro; Miyoshi, Masayuki; Fujii, Taihei; Miyake, Naritomo; Taira, Kenkichiro; Koyama, Satoshi; Taguchi, Daizo; Fujiwara, Kazunori; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Kitano, Hiroya; Takeuchi, Hiromi

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this report is to evaluate the effects of voice rehabilitation with a voice prosthesis in a young patient with thyroid cancer. A 17-year-old girl underwent voice restoration with a voice prosthesis after laryngectomy to treat thyroid cancer. She completed voice-related questionnaires (the Voice Handicap Index-10 and Voice-Related Quality Of Life Survey) at ages 17 and 21 and underwent phonetic functional evaluation. The sound spectrograms of her phonation using the voice prosthesis showed low frequency sounds without an obvious basic frequency. She was ashamed of her hoarse voice and did not use her voice prosthesis during high school. However, after beginning to work at age 20, she used her voice to communicate in the workplace. At age 21, her questionnaire scores, especially those related to the physical and functional domains, improved compared with those at age 17. Voice restoration with a voice prosthesis is recommended for young patients who undergo laryngectomy for advanced thyroid cancer. The advantages of voice restoration with a voice prosthesis may increase when the patient reaches working age, and it may improve post-laryngectomy quality of life considerably. PMID:26960746

  5. Physical Activity and Sport in the Lives of Girls. Physical & Mental Health Dimensions from an Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Research on Girls and Women in Sport.

    This report highlights relevant research and expert opinion on girls' involvement in physical activity and sport. Research findings revealed: (1) more girls are participating in a wider array of physical activities than ever before; (2) regular physical activity in adolescence can reduce risk for obesity and hyperlipidemia, increase bone mass and…

  6. UK Young Adults' Safety Awareness Online -- Is It a "Girl Thing"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a recent research project undertaken in the UK that investigated young adults' perception of potentially risky behaviour online. The research was undertaken through the use of an online survey associated with the UK teen soap opera "Being Victor". The findings of the project suggest that this sample of…

  7. The Boys and Girls of Summer: Baseball Theme Programming Tips To Catch Young Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Offers suggestions for library programs with a baseball theme, including tying into hobbies such as collecting baseball cards; a young peoples book discussion; trivia contests using different reference sources; letter writing to favorite players; bibliographies and displays; hosting former players; women in baseball; and the Negro Leagues. (LRW)

  8. Earthways: Simple Environmental Activities for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrash, Carol

    This book presents simple environmental activities designed for young children. The contents are organized seasonally and each section features subsections: The Whole Earth Home and Classroom, Bringing Nature In, The Season Garden, Seasonal Crafts, and Supplying the Missing Links. These sections provide information on how to set up an indoor…

  9. Physical Education Waivers and Young Adult Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2010-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the relationship between physical activity of young adults who were granted waivers from high school physical education versus those who completed courses in states requiring physical education teacher certification, with curriculum standards and credit requirements for graduation. University students from three…

  10. Linking Prenatal Androgens to Gender-Related Attitudes, Identity, and Activities: Evidence From Girls With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Endendijk, Joyce J; Beltz, Adriene M; McHale, Susan M; Bryk, Kristina; Berenbaum, Sheri A

    2016-10-01

    Key questions for developmentalists concern the origins of gender attitudes and their implications for behavior. We examined whether prenatal androgen exposure was related to gender attitudes, and whether and how the links between attitudes and gendered activity interest and participation were mediated by gender identity and moderated by hormones. Gender attitudes (i.e., gender-role attitudes and attitudes about being a girl), gender identity, and gender-typed activities were reported by 54 girls aged 10-13 years varying in degree of prenatal androgen exposure, including 40 girls with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (C-CAH) exposed to high prenatal androgens and 14 girls with non-classical (NC) CAH exposed to low, female-typical, prenatal androgens. Both girls with C-CAH and NC-CAH reported positive attitudes about being a girl and egalitarian gender attitudes, consistent with their female-typical gender identity. In contrast, girls with C-CAH had more male-typed activity interest and participation than girls with NC-CAH. Gender attitudes were linked to activities in both groups, with gender identity mediating the links. Specifically, gender-role attitudes and positive attitudes about being a girl were associated with feminine gender identity, which in turn was associated with decreased male-typed activity interests and participation, and increased female-typed activity interests. Our results are consistent with schema theories, with attitudes more closely associated with gender identity than with prenatal androgens. PMID:26940967

  11. Girls' Activity Levels and Lesson Contexts in Middle School PE: TAAG Baseline

    PubMed Central

    McKENZIE, THOMAS L.; CATELLIER, DIANE J.; CONWAY, TERRY; LYTLE, LESLIE A.; GRIESER, MIRA; WEBBER, LARRY A.; PRATT, CHARLOTTE A.; ELDER, JOHN P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To assess girls' physical activity (PA) in middle school physical education (PE) as it relates to field site, lesson context and location, teacher gender, and class composition. Methods We observed girls' PA levels, lesson contexts, and activity promotion by teachers in 431 lessons in 36 schools from six field sites participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls. Interobserver reliabilities exceeded 90% for all three categories. Data were analyzed using mixed-model ANOVA with controls for clustering effects by field site and school. Results Mean lesson length was 37.3 (± 9.4) min. Time (13.9 ± 7.0 min) and proportion of lessons (37.9 ± 18.5%) spent in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), and time (4.8 ± 4.2 min) and proportion of lessons (13.1 ± 11.7%) in vigorous PA (VPA) differed by field site (P < 0.004). Lesson time for instructional contexts differed by field site, with overall proportions as follows: game play (27.3%), management (26.1%), fitness activities (19.7%), skill drills (12.1%), knowledge (10.6%), and free play (4.4%). Coed classes were 7.9 min longer than girls-only classes (P = 0.03). Although 27 s shorter, outdoor lessons were more intense (MVPA% = 45.7 vs 33.7% of lesson, P < 0.001) and provided 4.0 more MVPA minutes (P < 0.001). MVPA, VPA, and lesson contexts did not differ by teacher gender. There was little direct promotion of PA by teachers during lessons. Conclusions Substantial variation in the conduct of PE exists. Proportion of lesson time girls spent accruing MVPA (i.e., 37.9%) fell short of the Healthy People 2010 objective of 50%. Numerous possibilities exist for improving girls' PA in PE. PMID:16826019

  12. Running into Trouble: Constructions of Danger and Risk in Girls' Access to Outdoor Space and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers girls' participation in running and other outdoor physical activities in their local areas in London, UK. The paper is concerned with the operation of risk discourses in and around this participation and looks at the way that such discourses impacted on girls' opportunities to take part in physical activities that required…

  13. Testing Social-Cognitive Theory to Explain Physical Activity Change in Adolescent Girls from Low-Income Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewar, Deborah L.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Morgan, Philip J.; Okely, Anthony D.; Costigan, Sarah A.; Lubans, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesized structural paths in Bandura's social-cognitive theory (SCT) model on adolescent girls' physical activity following a 12-month physical activity and dietary intervention to prevent obesity. Method: We conducted a 12-month follow-up study of 235 adolescent girls ("M[subscript…

  14. Delinquent Girls Grown Up: Young Adult Offending Patterns and Their Relation to Early Legal, Individual, and Family Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, Rebecca A.; Kim, Do Han; Mitchell-Herzfeld, Susan; Shady, Therese A.

    2009-01-01

    Although the number of girls served by the juvenile justice system has grown dramatically, little is known about the adult offending patterns of delinquent girls and the factors associated with their persistence and desistance from adult crime. To address this gap, we prospectively track 499 girls (62% Black, 16% Hispanic) discharged from juvenile…

  15. A Case Report of Adrenocortical Adenoma Mimicking Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in a Young Girl.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Qingfeng; Lv, Zhibao; Xu, Weijue; Liu, Jiangbin; Wu, Yibo; Xi, Zhengjun

    2015-06-01

    Adrenal cortical tumors are rare in children. Secondary tumors associated with untreated congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have also been reported in pediatric population. It is difficult for pediatricians to differentiate these 2 lesions.We described a 4.5-year-old girl who presented with symptoms and signs of virilization. Bone age was 9.5 years. Genetic analysis of CYP21A2 and CYP11B1 revealed a heterozygous mutation of CYP11B1 at c.1157C>T (A386V). No germline p53 gene mutation including R337H was detected.The patient was first misdiagnosed as CAH and treated with hydrocortisone for 3 months. Diagnosis of an adrenal cortical tumor was confirmed by laboratory data and abdominal computed tomography. After resection of the tumor, serum steroids normalized and clinical signs receded. The child received no additional treatment and remains disease free after 12 months of close observation. Histological examination showed neoplasia cells with predominantly eosinophilic cytoplasm and few atypical mitotic figures. The proliferation-associated Ki-67 index was <1% detected by immunohistochemistry.Neoplasm is a rare but significant cause of precocious puberty (PP). The possibility of neoplasms should always be considered early to avoid delayed cancer diagnosis and treatment in cases of PP. PMID:26107677

  16. Learning and Memory Recoveries in a Young Girl Treated with Growth Hormone and Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Devesa, Jesús; Lema, Hortensia; Zas, Eva; Munín, Borja; Taboada, Pilar; Devesa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background—To describe the results obtained after treating a non growth hormone-deficient 10-year-old girl who suffered asphyxia during delivery, resulting in important cognitive deficits, with growth hormone (GH) and neurorehabilitation. Methods—GH was administered (mg/day) at doses of 0.5 over three months followed by 0.9, every two weeks over three months, and then alternating 1.2 three days/week and 0.3 two days/week. Neurorehabilitation consisted of daily sessions of neurostimulation, speech therapy, occupational therapy and auditive stimulation. Treatment lasted nine months. Results—Scores obtained in all the areas treated showed that, at discharge, the patient clearly increased her cognitive abilities, memory and language competence index; her intelligence quotient score increased from 51 to 80, and the index of functional independence measure reached a value of 120 over 126 (maximal value). Conclusions—This case suggests that GH administration may play a role in improving cognitive deficits during neurorehabilitation in children with brain damage suffered during delivery. This agrees with the known effects of GH on cognition. PMID:26821051

  17. "Power, Regulation and Physically Active Identities": The Experiences of Rural and Regional Living Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, M.; Mooney, A.; Smyth, J.; Payne, W.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on interpretations of Foucault's techniques of power, we explored the discourses and power relations operative between groups of girls that appeared to influence their participation in Physical Education (PE) and outside of school in sport and physical activity (PA) in rural and regional communities. Interviews and focus groups were…

  18. Factorial Validity and Invariance of a Self-Report Measure of Physical Activity among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the factorial validity and factorial invariance of the 3-day physical activity recall (3DPAR) using confirmatory factor analysis. Adolescent girls from two cohorts (N=955, N=1,797) completed the 3DPAR in the eighth grade; participants in Cohort 2 (N=1,658) completed the 3DPAR again 1 year later in the ninth grade. The 3DPAR…

  19. Self-Motivation and Physical Activity among Black and White Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Felton, Gwen; Pate, Russell R.

    2003-01-01

    Established the psychometric properties of the Self-Motivation Inventory for Children (SMI-C) using tests of factorial validity, factorial invariance, latent mean structure, and predictive validity. Two cohorts of black and white adolescent girls completed the SMI-C and various physical activity measures. The single-factor, positively worded,…

  20. Romantic and Sexual Activities, Parent-Adolescent Stress, and Depressive Symptoms among Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Joanne; Stroud, Catherine B.; Starr, Lisa R.; Miller, Melissa Ramsay; Yoneda, Athena; Hershenberg, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Building on evidence that romantic experiences are associated with depressive symptoms in adolescence, we examined their bidirectional association, as well as the role of sexual activity and parent-adolescent stress in their association. Data were collected from 71 early adolescent girls (M age 13.45 years; SD = 0.68) and their primary caregiver…

  1. Psycho-Physiological Contributions of Physical Activity and Sports for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunker, Linda K

    1998-01-01

    Sport and physical activity contribute to the physical movement capabilities of girls, the health status of their bodies, the values and ethical behaviors they develop, and their personal development of a unique identity. This paper offers an overview of contributions and potential challenges related to physiological dimensions and psychosocial…

  2. Determinants of Physical Activity in Low-income, Overweight African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lown, Debbie A.; Braunschweig, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between puberty, sedentary behaviors, and psychosocial influences with intention for physical activity (PA) and PA. Methods: Low-income, overweight African American girls (n=72) completed 5 questionnaires that assessed PA, sedentary behaviors, and psychosocial influences. Puberty was assessed using Tanner…

  3. Lessons Learned from the USAID Girls' Education Activity in Guatemala, Morocco, and Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugh, Andrea; Brush, Lorelei

    The Girls' Education Activity (GEA) is a project of the United States Agency for International Development's (USAID's) Office of Women in Development (WID) in the Bureau for Economic Growth, Agriculture and Trade. This report summarizes the experiences and lessons learned from 12 project initiatives in the 3 participating countries (Guatemala,…

  4. Promoting Physical Activity in Girls: A Case Study of One School's Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Gwen; Saunders, Ruth P.; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2005-01-01

    This case study profiles one of 24 high schools that participated in a school-based, NIH-funded study to increase physical activity among high school girls. The case study school was one of 12 randomly assigned to the intervention group. The study intervention was based on the premise that a successful intervention is developed and tailored by…

  5. Severe gonadotoxic insult manifests early in young girls treated for Ewing sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Mörse, Helena; Elfving, Maria; Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Andersen, Claus Yding; Øra, Ingrid

    2016-08-01

    We prospectively investigated anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as a measure of ovarian insult in young females during and after treatment for Wilms tumor (WT), osteosarcoma (OS), and Ewing sarcoma (ES).Twenty-one female childhood cancer patients, with a mean age of 7.9 years (range 0.6-17), entered the study. Levels of AMH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone were monitored at diagnosis and every 3 to 4 months during, and regularly for a mean of 2.6 years after treatment.A profound decline in AMH was seen in the majority of the 21 study patients 3 to 4 months after the beginning of treatment, the exception being patients with WT, of whom 60% showed no such decline. During the remaining treatment, all patients except those with WT not treated with whole abdominal radiotherapy or stem cell transplantation (SCT) had AMH below detection limit.After completion of treatment, patients with OS and WT (without whole abdominal radiotherapy and SCT) recovered in AMH and had FSH in the normal range. In contrast, ES patients showed no AMH recovery and highly fluctuating FSH in the first years of follow-up, except for the 2 youngest patients, who had a late, slow AMH recovery.In conclusion, young female ES patients already showed signs of severe ovarian dysfunction during the first years after cancer treatment similar to patients treated with SCT and abdominal radiotherapy, in contrast to females with WT and OS. Fertility counseling and information concerning fertility preservation procedures should be considered before starting to treat young females with ES. PMID:27537574

  6. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. PMID:22388946

  7. The contribution of peer and media influences to the development of body satisfaction and self-esteem in young girls: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Dohnt, Hayley; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-09-01

    This study aimed to prospectively examine the role of peer and media influences in the development of body satisfaction (incorporating the desire for thinness and satisfaction with appearance) in young girls, as well as the relationship between body satisfaction and self-esteem. A sample of 97 girls 5-8 years of age completed individual interviews at Time 1 and 1 year later at Time 2. Linear panel analyses found that Time 1 perception of peers' desire for thinness was temporally antecedent to girls' desire for thinness, appearance satisfaction, and self-esteem 1 year later. In addition, the watching of appearance-focused television programs was temporally antecedent to appearance satisfaction. Finally, girls' desire for thinness was found to temporally precede low self-esteem. Thus, as early as school entry, girls appear to already live in a culture in which peers and the media transmit the thin ideal in a way that negatively influences the development of body image and self-esteem. PMID:16953697

  8. A model for promoting physical activity among rural South African adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Kinsman, John; Norris, Shane A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Twine, Rhian; Riggle, Kari; Edin, Kerstin; Mathebula, Jennifer; Ngobeni, Sizzy; Monareng, Nester; Micklesfield, Lisa K.

    2015-01-01

    Background In South Africa, the expanding epidemic of non-communicable diseases is partly fuelled by high levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour. Women especially are at high risk, and interventions promoting physical activity are urgently needed for girls in their adolescence, as this is the time when many girls adopt unhealthy lifestyles. Objective This qualitative study aimed to identify and describe facilitating factors and barriers that are associated with physical activity among adolescent girls in rural, north-eastern South Africa and, based on these, to develop a model for promoting leisure-time physical activity within this population. Design The study was conducted in and around three secondary schools. Six focus group discussions were conducted with adolescent girls from the schools, and seven qualitative interviews were held with sports teachers and youth leaders. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. Results Seven thematic areas were identified, each of which was associated with the girls’ self-reported levels of physical activity. The thematic areas are 1) poverty, 2) body image ideals, 3) gender, 4) parents and home life, 5) demographic factors, 6) perceived health effects of physical activity, and 7) human and infrastructural resources. More barriers to physical activity were reported than facilitating factors. Conclusions Analysis of the barriers found in the different themes indicated potential remedial actions that could be taken, and these were synthesised into a model for promoting physical activity among South African adolescent girls in resource-poor environments. The model presents a series of action points, seen both from the ‘supply-side’ perspective (such as the provision of resources and training for the individuals, schools, and organisations which facilitate the activities) and from the ‘demand-side’ perspective (such as the development of empowering messages about body image for teenage girls, and

  9. Evaluation of GoGirlGo!; A practitioner based program to improve physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background GoGirlGo! (GGG) is designed to increase girls’ physical activity (PA) using a health behavior and PA-based curriculum and is widely available for free to afterschool programs across the nation. However, GGG has not been formally evaluated. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the GGG curricula to improve PA, and self-efficacy for and enjoyment of PA in elementary aged girls (i.e., 5-13 years). Methods Nine afterschool programs were recruited to participate in the pilot (within subjects repeated measures design). GGG is a 12-week program, with a once a week, one-hour lesson with 30 minutes of education and 30 minutes of PA). Data collection occurred at baseline, mid (twice), post, and at follow-up (3-months after the intervention ended). PA was assessed via accelerometry at each time point. Self-efficacy for and enjoyment of PA was measured using the Self-Efficacy Scale and the Short-PA enjoyment scale and was assessed at baseline, post, and follow-up. Fidelity was assessed at midpoint. Results Across all age groups there was a statistically significant increase in PA. Overall, on days GGG was offered girls accumulated an average of 11 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA compared to 8 minutes during non-GGG days. There was a statistically significant difference in girls’ self-efficacy for PA reported between baseline and post, which was maintained at follow-up. An improvement in enjoyment of PA for girls was found between baseline and follow-up. According to fidelity assessment, 89% of the activities within the curriculum were completed each lesson. Girls appeared to respond well to the curriculum but girls 5-7 years had difficulties paying attention and understanding discussion questions. Conclusions Even though there were statistically significant differences in self-efficacy for PA and enjoyment of PA, minimal increases in girls’ PA were observed. GGG curricula improvements are warranted. Future GGG programming

  10. Where Has Class Gone? The Pervasiveness of Class in Girls' Physical Activity in a Rural Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, John; Mooney, Amanda; Casey, Meghan

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to animate discussion around how social class operates with adolescent girls from low socio-economic status backgrounds to shape and inform their decisions about participation in physical activity (PA) inside and outside of school. Examining the instance of girls in a single secondary school in an Australian regional town, the…

  11. Young adolescent girls are at high risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa: an observational multicountry study

    PubMed Central

    Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain; Mackanga, Jean Rodolphe; González, Raquel; Ouedraogo, Smaila; Kakolwa, Mwaka A; Manego, Rella Zoleko; Basra, Arti; Rupérez, María; Cot, Michel; Kabanywany, Abdunoor M; Matsiegui, Pierre-Blaise; Agnandji, Seldiji T; Vala, Anifa; Massougbodji, Achille; Abdulla, Salim; Adegnika, Ayôla A; Sevene, Esperança; Macete, Eusebio; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Kremsner, Peter G; Aponte, John J; Menéndez, Clara; Ramharter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives One of Africa's most important challenges is to improve maternal and neonatal health. The identification of groups at highest risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes is important for developing and implementing targeted prevention programmes. This study assessed whether young adolescent girls constitute a group at increased risk for adverse birth outcomes among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. Setting Data were collected prospectively as part of a large randomised controlled clinical trial evaluating intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (NCT00811421—Clinical Trials.gov), conducted between September 2009 and December 2013 in Benin, Gabon, Mozambique and Tanzania. Participants Of 4749 participants, pregnancy outcomes were collected for 4388 deliveries with 4183 live births including 83 multiple gestations. Of 4100 mothers with a singleton live birth delivery, 24% (975/4100) were adolescents (≤19 years of age) and 6% (248/4100) were aged ≤16 years. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes of this predefined analysis were preterm delivery and low birth weight. Results The overall prevalence of low birthweight infants and preterm delivery was 10% (371/3851) and 4% (159/3862), respectively. Mothers aged ≤16 years showed higher risk for the delivery of a low birthweight infant (OR: 1.96; 95% CI 1.35 to 2.83). Similarly, preterm delivery was associated with young maternal age (≤16 years; OR: 2.62; 95% CI 1.59 to 4.30). In a subanalysis restricted to primiparous women: preterm delivery, OR 4.28; 95% CI 2.05 to 8.93; low birth weight, OR: 1.29; 95% CI 0.82 to 2.01. Conclusions Young maternal age increases the risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes and it is a stronger predictor for low birth weight and preterm delivery than other established risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa. This finding highlights the need to improve adolescent reproductive health in sub-Saharan Africa. Trial registration number NCT00811421

  12. Neurodevelopmental variability in three young girls with a rare chromosomal disorder, 48, XXXX.

    PubMed

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole; Keen, Colleen; Mitchell, Francie; Sadeghin, Teresa; Gropman, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Fourty eight, XXXX is a rare chromosomal aneuploidy associated with neurocognitive deficits, speech and language disorders and executive dysfunction but the scarcity and variability of reported cases limit our understanding of the 48, XXXX phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the neurodevelopmental profile of three young females with 48, XXXX. Patient 1 (age = 11.0), Patient 2 (age = 10.9), and Patient 3 (age = 6.4) were evaluated using comprehensive neurodevelopmental assessments. Parent questionnaires were completed to assess behavioral and psychosocial domains including executive function, ADHD and anxiety. Nonverbal intelligence quotients were 56, 80, and 91 for Patients 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There were significantly impaired visual motor capacities in graphomotor and perceptual domains below the 5th centile in Patients 1 and 2, and mildly impaired visual perception skills in Patient 3. All three patients had Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) but of varying severity and similar executive dysfunction, externalizing problems and social difficulties. Familial learning disabilities (FLD) in Patient 1 and the co-occurrence of ADHD in Patient's 1 and 2 may contribute to their more impaired cognitive performances relative to Patient 3 who is the second reported case of 48, XXXX to have normal intellect. These distinct and overlapping characteristics expand the phenotypic profile of 48, XXXX and may be used in the counseling of families and treatment of children with 48, XXXX. PMID:26086740

  13. Bidirectional Linkages between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities among African- American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Objective The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African-American girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding has not been examined among African-American youth or in clinical samples. African-American girls in psychiatric treatment suffer disparities in HIV/AIDS vulnerability, and understanding the context of girls’ risk-taking (and how psychological symptoms contribute) may aid prevention efforts. Method 265 African-American girls seeking psychiatric care were assessed for mental health symptoms and light and heavy sexual behaviors. Participants completed a six-month follow-up. Results Baseline light sexual activity predicted increased internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use at follow-up. Internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicted increased heavy sexual behaviors over time, including HIV-risk behaviors. Conclusions Results support the association between romantic involvement and depression. Psychological symptoms may play a key role in the emergence of risky sexual behaviors among African-American girls in psychiatric care, and should be considered in prevention program development. PMID:22742458

  14. Seeds of prevention: the impact on health behaviors of young adolescent girls in Uttar Pradesh, India, a cluster randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Kapadia-Kundu, Nandita; Storey, Douglas; Safi, Basil; Trivedi, Geetali; Tupe, Rama; Narayana, G

    2014-11-01

    Of the world's 1.2 billion adolescents (10-19 years), India is home to the largest number globally, about 243 million. However not much is known about the health of young adolescent girls (11-14 years) in India who enter puberty with substantial nutritional and health deficits. Identifying early adolescence as a "gateway" moment, the Saloni pilot study is arandomized control trial (RCT) to improve nutrition, hygiene and reproductive health behaviors in 30 schools in rural Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. A prevention model that includes Sadharanikaran, an ancient Indian theory of communication, guided the development of the intervention. The Saloni strategy includes a 10 session in-school intervention based on compassion, self efficacy, emotional well being, peer and parental support, packaged in the form of short, easy-to-use instructional modules. A diary designed to engage adolescent girls is provided to each girl. The cluster RCT was conducted from January 2010 to October 2011 with adolescent girls (11-14 years of age) in Hardoi district. The trial is a two-level, nested RCT with the unit of randomization being the block with 15 schools in the intervention arm and 15 schools in the control arm. A sample of 1200 girls was randomly selected. The intervention had a significant impact on more than 13 preventive health behaviors. About 65 percent girls in the intervention group had adopted 13 or more health behaviors at end line compared 4.5 percent in the control group at end line and 5 percent at baseline. Behavioral impact was demonstrated in all three areas of nutrition, hygiene and reproductive health. The study provides evidence that early adolescence is indeed a "gateway moment" to build nutritional and health reserves. PMID:25254614

  15. Young Girls' Arithmetic and Spatial Skills: The Distal and Proximal Roles of Family Socioeconomics and Home Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearing, Eric; Casey, Beth M.; Ganley, Colleen M.; Tillinger, Miriam; Laski, Elida; Montecillo, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The present study addressed girls' (N=127) early numerical and spatial reasoning skills, within the context of a critical environment in which these cognitive skills develop, namely their homes. Specifically, proximal links between distal family socioeconomic conditions and first-grade girls' arithmetic and spatial skills were examined (mean…

  16. Girls' Class, Infinite Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ost, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    The co-director of a small independent school describes Girls' Class, which she created in order to have a special time together with the girls in grades 6 through 8. The class provides guidance and celebrates spirituality and the beginning of menses for the young women. To end the class, each person says a positive self-affirmation and gives…

  17. Girls in Science Rule!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jan E.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a camping experience and its activities created for girls entering 6th grade who wanted to learn science and explore science-related fields. Indicates that the camping experience for girls promoted positive attitudes toward science learning. (KHR)

  18. Girls Trafficked from Nepal into Indian Brothels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Arati

    1996-01-01

    Account of the underground culture of sexual slavery of young girls. Children from Nepal are being lured in large numbers into the sex industry in Bombay, India. Describes the process by which children are seduced and coerced into this bondage with active support from political and law enforcement leaders. (LSR)

  19. The Perceived and Built Environment Surrounding Urban Schools & Physical Activity among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Erin R.; Witherspoon, Dawn; Gormley, Candice; Latta, Laura; Pepper, M. Reese; Black, Maureen M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Neighborhood perceived/built environment and physical activity (PA) associations have been examined for adolescents around homes, but not surrounding schools. Purpose To examine if positive perceptions/built environment in neighborhoods surrounding schools predict PA among low-income, urban adolescent girls. Methods Measures include: minutes in moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA, ankle accelerometry), perceptions of the school environment (questionnaire), built environment (neighborhood audit). Analyses include multi-level models. Results 224 6th and 7th grade girls [mean(sd) age=12.1(0.7) years] from 12 schools serving low-income, primarily African American communities; mean MVPA 35.4minutes (mean days assessed=5.8). Girls in schools with more positive perceptions of the neighborhood environment surrounding the school were less active (β=7.2,p=0.043). Having “places to go within walking distance” (perceptions) and number of food stores near school (built environment) positively relate to MVPA (β=5.5,p=0.042 and β=0.59,p=0.047). Conclusions Among neighborhoods surrounding urban schools, positive perceptions do not predict PA; accessibility, via both perceived and built environment, support PA. PMID:23334761

  20. Parental Influence on Young Children's Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zecevic, Cheryl A.; Tremblay, Line; Lovsin, Tanya; Michel, Lariviere

    2010-01-01

    Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA) behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys). Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B = .78, P < .10) and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B = .69, P < .05) were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B = −.08, P < .01), having older parents (B = −.26, P < .01), and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B = 1.55, P < .01) reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B = 1.44, P < .05). Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits. PMID:20671967

  1. Rescue for sexually abused girls in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Treguear, T; Peters, L

    1995-01-01

    In San Jose, Costa Rica, the nongovernmental organization PROCAL has established two rescue homes for sexually abused girls 10-15 years of age. One of these homes is devoted to the care of pregnant girls. In almost all cases, the perpetrator was a male relative. Since girls are taught they must obey older male relatives, they are powerless to stop the abuse. When girls become pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, they face social ostracism and are blamed for their participation in sexual activity. PROCAL counsels the girls that they are victims of their own lack of power and provides them with skills and education they need to return to society and start a new life. The stories of two young girls who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse and were helped by PROCAL are presented. PMID:12319363

  2. Facebook photo activity associated with body image disturbance in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Meier, Evelyn P; Gray, James

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between body image and adolescent girls' activity on the social networking site (SNS) Facebook (FB). Research has shown that elevated Internet "appearance exposure" is positively correlated with increased body image disturbance among adolescent girls, and there is a particularly strong association with FB use. The present study sought to replicate and extend upon these findings by identifying the specific FB features that correlate with body image disturbance in adolescent girls. A total of 103 middle and high school females completed questionnaire measures of total FB use, specific FB feature use, weight dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, thin ideal internalization, appearance comparison, and self-objectification. An appearance exposure score was calculated based on subjects' use of FB photo applications relative to total FB use. Elevated appearance exposure, but not overall FB usage, was significantly correlated with weight dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, thin ideal internalization, and self-objectification. Implications for eating disorder prevention programs and best practices in researching SNSs are discussed. PMID:24237288

  3. Comparing Perceived and Objectively Measured Access to Recreational Facilities as Predictors of Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Cohen, Deborah A.; Cox, Christine E.

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies in recent years have identified both self-report and objectively measured accessibility of recreational facilities as important predictors of physical activity in youth. Yet, few studies have: (1) examined the relationship between the number and proximity of objectively measured neighborhood physical activity facilities and respondents’ perceptions and (2) compared objective and self-report measures as predictors of physical activity. This study uses data on 1,367 6th-grade girls who participated in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) to explore these issues. Girls reported whether nine different types of recreational facilities were easily accessible. These facilities included basketball courts, golf courses, martial arts studios, playing fields, tracks, skating rinks, swimming pools, tennis courts, and dance/gymnastic clubs. Next, geographic information systems (GIS) were used to identify all the parks, schools, and commercial sites for physical activity located within a mile of each girl’s home. These sites were then visited to inventory the types of facilities available. Girls wore accelerometers to measure their weekly minutes of non-school metabolic equivalent weighted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MW-MVPA). The number of facilities within a half-mile of girls’ homes strongly predicted the perception of easy access to seven out of nine facility types. Both individual facility perceptions and the total number of facilities perceived were associated with increased physical activity. For each additional facility perceived, girls clocked 3% more metabolic equivalent weighted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (p < 0.001). Although girls tended to record 3% more of this kind of physical activity (p < 0.05) per basketball court within a mile of their homes, objective facility measures were otherwise unrelated to physical activity. The results from this study suggest that raising the profile of existing

  4. Ankle Accelerometry for Assessing Physical Activity among Adolescent Girls: Threshold Determination, Validity, Reliability, and Feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Erin R.; Treuth, Margarita S.; Gormely, Candice; Epps, LaShawna; Snitker, Soren; Black, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ankle accelerometry allows for 24-hour data collection, improving data volume/integrity versus hip accelerometry. Using Actical ankle accelerometry, the purpose was to (a) develop sensitive/specific thresholds; (b) examine validity/reliability; (c) compare new thresholds with manufacturer’s; and (d) examine feasibility in a community sample (low-income, urban adolescent girls). Methods Two studies were conducted with 6th–7th grade girls (age 10–14 years): Laboratory study (n=24)- Two Actical accelerometers were placed on the ankle and worn while measuring energy expenditure (Cosmed K4b2, Metabolic Equivalents (METs)) during 10 prescribed activities. Analyses included device equivalence reliability (intraclass correlation (ICC): activity counts of 2 Acticals), criterion-related validity (correlation: activity counts and METs), and calculations of sensitivity, specificity, kappa and ROC curves for thresholds. Free-Living study (n=459)- an Actical was worn >7 days on the ankle (full 24-hour days retained). Analyses included feasibility (frequencies: missing data) and paired t-tests (new thresholds versus manufacturer’s). Results Laboratory study- Actical demonstrated reliability (ICC=.92) and validity (r=.81). Thresholds demonstrated sensitivity (91%), specificity (84%), kappa=.73 (p=.043), area under curve range .81–.97. Free-Living study- 99.6% wore the accelerometer; 84.1% had complete/valid data (mean=5.7 days). Primary reasons for missing/invalid data: Improper programming/documentation (5.2%), failure to return device (5.0%), wear-time ≤2 days (2.8%). The Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) threshold (>3200 counts/minute) yielded 37.2 minutes/day, 2–4.5 times lower than the manufacturer’s software (effect size=.74–4.05). Conclusions Validity, reliability, and feasibility evidences support Actical ankle accelerometry to assess physical activity in community studies of adolescent girls. When comparing manufacturers’ software

  5. Changes in Psychosocial Factors and Physical Activity Frequency among Third- to Eighth-Grade Girls Who Participated in a Developmentally Focused Youth Sport Program: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debate, Rita D.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Zwald, Marissa; Huberty, Jennifer; Zhang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Despite the numerous physiological, psychological, and academic benefits of physical activity (PA), declines in PA levels among girls have been observed over the last decade. The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess the short-term changes pertaining to Girls on the Run and Girls on Track developmentally focused youth sport…

  6. "This Choice Thing Really Works?…?" Changes in Experiences and Engagement of Adolescent Girls in Physical Education Classes, during a School-Based Physical Activity Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Fiona; Gray, Shirley; Inchley, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a significant amount of research which shows a proportion of girls are not engaging with physical education (PE) in school, resulting in a number of relatively inactive girls within the PE class. These girls are often identified in the literature as "low active", "hard to reach" or "disengaged".…

  7. Well Researched, Yet Little Understood: Young Adults and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cothran, Donetta; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2005-01-01

    The authors present two beginning studies. One investigated the teaching-style preferences of young adults, and the other looked at physical activity trends within this age group. One key to understanding young adults and physical activity is to recognize the importance of participant cognition on physical activity patterns. From this…

  8. An Evaluation Study of the Young Empowered Sisters (YES!) Program: Promoting Cultural Assets among African American Adolescent Girls through a Culturally Relevant School-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Oseela; Davidson, William; McAdoo, Harriette

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of a culturally relevant school-based intervention in promoting cultural assets (i.e., ethnic identity, collectivist orientation, racism awareness, and liberatory youth activism) among a group of African American adolescent girls. The overall goal of the intervention was to promote cultural factors that can…

  9. The impact of adolescent girls' life concerns and leisure activities on body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, M

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to situate adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem in the context of their life concerns and leisure activities. Questionnaires containing measures of life concerns, leisure activities, body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem were administered to 306 girls with a mean age of 16 years. It was found that although academic success and intelligence were rated as the most important life concerns, an emphasis on slimness was most strongly linked to body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and global self-esteem. An emphasis on popularity with girls also was related to body dissatisfaction, and hours spent watching television were related to lower self-esteem. In contrast, emphasis on sport seemed to serve a protective function. It was concluded that adolescent girls who have a high concern for slimness should be assisted in decreasing this emphasis in order to improve their general well-being. PMID:11432599

  10. Affecting Girls' Activity and Job Interests Through Play: The Moderating Roles of Personal Gender Salience and Game Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Emily F; Liben, Lynn S

    2016-03-01

    Gender schema theory (GST) posits that children approach opportunities perceived as gender appropriate, avoiding those deemed gender inappropriate, in turn affecting gender-differentiated career trajectories. To test the hypothesis that children's gender salience filters (GSF-tendency to attend to gender) moderate these processes, 62 preschool girls (M = 4.5 years) were given GSF measures. Two weeks later, they played a computer game about occupations that manipulated the game-character's femininity (hyperfeminized Barbie vs. less feminized Playmobil Jane). Following game play, girls' interests in feminine activities showed an interaction of game condition and GSF: High-GSF girls showed intensified feminine activity interests only with Barbie; low-GSF girls showed no change with either character. Neither GSF nor game condition affected occupational interests. Implications for GST, individual differences, and occupational interventions are discussed. PMID:26548652

  11. Objectively measured physical activity of young Canadian children using accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Heale, Liane D; Anderson, Laura N; Tremblay, Mark S; Maguire, Jonathon L; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study was to describe objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary time of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers and determine the proportion meeting Canadian age-specific PA guidelines. Ninety children (47 girls, 43 boys; mean age 32 (range, 4-70) months) attending scheduled health supervision visits and in the TARGet Kids! (The Applied Research Group for Kids) cohort wore an Actical accelerometer for 7 days. Participants with 4 or more valid days were included in the analysis. Time, in mean minutes per day (min/day), spent sedentary and in light PA, moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), and total PA was determined using published cut-points; age groups were compared using ANOVA. Twenty-three percent of children <18 months (n = 28) and 76% of children aged 18-59 months (n = 45) met the guideline of 180 min/day of total PA; 13% of children ≥60 months (n = 17) met the guideline of 60 min/day of MVPA. Children <18 months spent more of their waking time per day engaged in sedentary behaviours (79%; ∼7.3 h) compared with children aged 18-59 months (63%; ∼6.6 h) and children ≥60 months (58%; ∼6.6 h). In conclusion, most children aged 18-59 months met the Canadian PA guidelines for children aged 0-4 years, whereas few younger than 18 months met the same guidelines. Only 13% of children ≥5 years met their age-specific PA guidelines. Further research is needed to develop, test, and implement effective strategies to promote PA and reduce sedentary behaviour in very young children. PMID:26573442

  12. Qualitative study exploring healthy eating practices and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary behaviours and physical activity are modifiable risk factors to address increasing levels of obesity among children and adolescents, and consequently to reduce later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. This paper explores perceptions, attitudes, barriers, and facilitators related to healthy eating and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in the rural Agincourt subdistrict, covered by a health and sociodemographic surveillance system, in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Semistructured “duo-interviews” were carried out with 11 pairs of adolescent female friends aged 16 to 19 years. Thematic content analysis was used. Results The majority of participants considered locally grown and traditional foods, especially fruits and vegetables, to be healthy. Their consumption was limited by availability, and these foods were often sourced from family or neighbourhood gardens. Female caregivers and school meal programmes facilitated healthy eating practices. Most participants believed in the importance of breakfast, even though for the majority, limited food within the household was a barrier to eating breakfast before going to school. The majority cited limited accessibility as a major barrier to healthy eating, and noted the increasing intake of “convenient and less healthy foods”. Girls were aware of the benefits of physical activity and engaged in various physical activities within the home, community, and schools, including household chores, walking long distances to school, traditional dancing, and extramural activities such as netball and soccer. Conclusions The findings show widespread knowledge about healthy eating and the benefits of consuming locally grown and traditional food items in a population that is undergoing nutrition transition. Limited access and food availability are strong barriers to healthy eating practices. School meal programmes are an important

  13. Female genital mutilation in infants and young girls: report of sixty cases observed at the general hospital of abobo (abidjan, cote d'ivoire, west Africa).

    PubMed

    Plo, Kouie; Asse, Kouadio; Seï, Dohagneron; Yenan, John

    2014-01-01

    The practice of female genital mutilations continues to be recurrent in African communities despite the campaigns, fights, and laws to ban it. A survey was carried out in infants and young girls at the General Hospital of Abobo in Cote D'Ivoire. The purpose of the study was to describe the epidemiological aspects and clinical findings related to FGM in young patients. Four hundred nine (409) females aged from 1 to 12 years and their mothers entered the study after their consent. The results were that 60/409 patients (15%) were cut. The majority of the young females came from Muslim families (97%); the earlier age at FGM procedure in patients is less than 5 years: 87%. Amongst 409 mothers, 250 women underwent FGM which had other daughters cut. Women were mainly involved in the FGM and their motivations were virginity, chastity, body cleanliness, and fear of clitoris similar to penis. Only WHO types I and II were met. If there were no incidental events occurred at the time of the procedure, the obstetrical future of these young females would be compromised. With FGM being a harmful practice, health professionals and NGOs must unite their efforts in people education to abandon the procedure. PMID:24729789

  14. Female Genital Mutilation in Infants and Young Girls: Report of Sixty Cases Observed at the General Hospital of Abobo (Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire, West Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Plo, Kouie; Asse, Kouadio; Seï, Dohagneron; Yenan, John

    2014-01-01

    The practice of female genital mutilations continues to be recurrent in African communities despite the campaigns, fights, and laws to ban it. A survey was carried out in infants and young girls at the General Hospital of Abobo in Cote D'Ivoire. The purpose of the study was to describe the epidemiological aspects and clinical findings related to FGM in young patients. Four hundred nine (409) females aged from 1 to 12 years and their mothers entered the study after their consent. The results were that 60/409 patients (15%) were cut. The majority of the young females came from Muslim families (97%); the earlier age at FGM procedure in patients is less than 5 years: 87%. Amongst 409 mothers, 250 women underwent FGM which had other daughters cut. Women were mainly involved in the FGM and their motivations were virginity, chastity, body cleanliness, and fear of clitoris similar to penis. Only WHO types I and II were met. If there were no incidental events occurred at the time of the procedure, the obstetrical future of these young females would be compromised. With FGM being a harmful practice, health professionals and NGOs must unite their efforts in people education to abandon the procedure. PMID:24729789

  15. Changing Girls' Education in Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Cory; Brush, Lorie; Provasnik, Stephen; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Access to quality education is a problem for all rural children in Peru, but especially for rural girls, who complete primary school at far lower rates than other Peruvian children. In 1998, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity (GEA) in Peru, also known as New Horizons for Girls' Education, which aims to increase girls' completion of…

  16. Atypical Functional Brain Activation During a Multiple Object Tracking Task in Girls With Turner Syndrome: Neurocorrelates of Reduced Spatiotemporal Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Beaton, Elliott A.; Stoddard, Joel; Lai, Song; Lackey, John; Shi, Jianrong; Ross, Judith L.; Simon, Tony J.

    2010-01-01

    Turner syndrome is associated with spatial and numerical cognitive impairments. We hypothesized that these nonverbal cognitive impairments result from limits in spatial and temporal processing, particularly as it affects attention. To examine spatiotemporal attention in girls with Turner syndrome versus typically developing controls, we used a multiple object tracking task during functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) imaging. Participants actively tracked a target among six distracters or passively viewed the animations. Neural activation in girls with Turner syndrome during object tracking overlapped with but was dissimilar to the canonical frontoparietal network evident in typically developing controls and included greater limbic activity. Task performance and atypical functional activation indicate anomalous development of cortical and subcortical temporal and spatial processing circuits in girls with Turner syndrome. PMID:20441384

  17. From Snuggling and Snogging to Sampling and Scratching: Girls' Nonparticipation in Community-Based Music Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Sarah; Cohen, Bruce M. Z.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on gendered youth music practices in community-based organizations (CBOs) in Australia, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Drawing on interviews and observational fieldwork from the Playing for Life research project, the authors highlight the absence of young women from many activities, especially in the area…

  18. A girl with increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner's syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Ahouee, Shohreh Mohseni; Shooshtari, Mitra Hakim; Bidaki, Reza

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the findings on the evaluation of a 9-year-old girl with disabling and pronounced increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner's syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder. She spent most of the time doing these activities which affected not only her academic performance, but also social relationships. A comprehensive treatment plan consists of both biological and psychological aspects, is the main point of this case. Low dose of risperidone (0.5 mg/day) was started to decrease the patient's stereotypic behaviors. Sertraline (12.5 mg/day) was prescribed for her phobia. She was also referred to an occupational therapist in order to improve her social skills. PMID:26015917

  19. Overweight and Obese Adolescent Girls: The Importance of Promoting Sensible Eating and Activity Behaviors from the Start of the Adolescent Period

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Alwyn S.; Street, Steven J.; Ziviani, Jenny; Byrne, Nuala M.; Hills, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    The adolescent period is associated with changes in eating and activity behaviors in girls. Less reliance on parental provision and choice of food, coupled with a decrease in participation in physical activity and sport, can create an energy imbalance, predisposing to weight gain. Physiological alterations to body composition, reduction in insulin sensitivity, and psychological adjustments may further amplify the risk of becoming overweight and maintaining an unhealthy level of body fat into childbearing years. During pregnancy excess body fat is a risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes and may predispose an infant to a lifelong heightened risk of being overweight and developing chronic disease. Interventions aimed at preventing the accumulation of body fat in adolescent girls and young women may have far reaching impact and be critically important in reducing intergenerational weight gain. Lifestyle interventions in adolescence have the potential to modify adult obesity risk by switching at-risk individuals from a high to lower obesity risk trajectory. This paper discusses multiple approaches to assist at-risk individuals reduce obesity risk. A key focus is placed on engagement in food preparation and choice, and opportunities for physical activity and sport. Support, education, and opportunity at home and at school, are often associated with the success of lifestyle interventions, and may enable adolescents to make positive choices, and engage in health promoting behaviors during adolescence and childbearing years. PMID:25690003

  20. A 27-Month Evaluation of a Sexual Activity Prevention Program in Boys & Girls Clubs across the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Tena L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluated an abstinence-only sexual activity prevention program, Stay SMART, which also aims to prevent drug use among Boys and Girls Club youths. No effects were observed for virgins. Desired effects for sexual behavior and attitudes toward sexual activity were found for nonvirgins who participated in only Stay SMART. (Author/RJM)

  1. Correlates of Lifetime Physical Activity in Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Lorraine Silver

    2003-01-01

    This study retrospectively examined physical activity patterns across three specific age periods (childhood, teenage, and young adulthood) in a cross sectional sample of young Caucasian undergraduate women (N = 44). All women (mean age = 22.27 plus or minus 3.14 years) completed questionnaire packets assessing transtheoretical model of behavior…

  2. Drama and Music: Creative Activities for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Janet; Merrion, Margaret

    This book presents sequentially ordered activities designed to foster young children's native creativity. The book is organized in three parts. Part 1: "Unleashing Your Creative Potential," introduces the types of activities found in the body of the book and provides teaching suggestions. Part 2: "Activities, Activities, Activities," gives a…

  3. Young adult follow-up of adolescent girls in juvenile justice using the Columbia suicide severity rating scale.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David C R; Gibson, Brandon; Leve, Leslie D; Degarmo, David S

    2014-04-01

    This study focused on the reliability and validity of the Columbia Suicide Severity Scale (C-SSRS). Severely delinquent adolescent girls (n = 166) participated in a treatment trial and repeated assessments over time. Lifetime suicide attempt history was measured using the C-SSRS in early adulthood (n = 144; 7-12 years postbaseline). Nonclinician raters showed strong interrater reliability using the C-SSRS. Self-reports, caseworker reports, and caregiver reports of girls' suicide attempt histories collected at baseline correlated with adult participants' recollections of their baseline attempt histories. Suicidal ideation measured prospectively across a 7- to -12-year period was associated with retrospectively reported suicide attempt across the same period. PMID:24446880

  4. Girls' Schooling and Transition to Marriage and Motherhood: Exploring the Pathways to Young Women's Reproductive Agency in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Feyza; Jeffery, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced young women's reproductive agency could contribute to much-needed improvements in reproductive and child health in Pakistan. The RECOUP programme of research was designed to unpack the channels through which schooling might contribute to such an enhancement for young mothers in the two provinces of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Key…

  5. "Gay Boy Talk" Meets "Girl Talk": HIV Risk Assessment Assumptions in Young Gay Men's Sexual Health Communication with Best Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutchler, Matt G.; McDavitt, Bryce

    2011-01-01

    Young adults, particularly young gay men (YGM), are vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Yet, little is known about how YGM discuss sexual health issues with their friends ("gay boy talk"). We conducted semi-structured interviews with YGM and their best friends (11 YGM/YGM dyads and 13 YGM/heterosexual female dyads). In this paper, we…

  6. Serenoa repens as an Endocrine Disruptor in a 10-Year-Old Young Girl: A New Case Report.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Paolo; Miroddi, Marco; Giovinazzo, Salvatore; Spina, Edoardo; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2015-01-01

    Serenoa repens, commonly known as saw palmetto, is the sole species currently classified in the genus Serenoa. The plant is a low shrubby palm that is native of West Indies, and it grows in the coastal lands of North America and other European mediterranean countries. Its fruits contain high concentrations of fatty acids and phytosterols. S. repens extracts have been studied for the symptomatic treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Recently, they have been proposed to treat androgenic alopecia and other hair disorders. We report a new case of hot flashes in a 10-year-old girl using a food supplement containing the extract of S. repens for the treatment of hirsutism. When the girl discontinued the treatment, the hot flashes stopped. A 'rechallenge' of the supplement was tried and symptoms reappeared. About 4 months after starting therapy, the girl experienced menarche. Exposure to the plant-derived product could be responsible for the appearance of menarche. In our opinion, use of phytotherapeutic agents in pediatric patients should be associated to a better evaluation of benefit/risk profile taking in account the physiological changes that occurs at different ages in this subgroup of population. PMID:26043832

  7. "It's Murder Out Today": Middle School Girls Speak Out about Girl Fighting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letendre, Joan; Smith, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Girl fighting and its relational context is a problem that is receiving extensive attention in popular and academic circles. This article reports on a project that gathered the opinions from focus groups of seventh- and eighth-grade girls, organized to understand the perspectives of young adolescent girls in middle school on girl fighting. Both…

  8. Young

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, jumps up from the lunar surface as he salutes the U.S. Flag at the Descartes landing site during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1). Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this picture. The Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' is on the left. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked beside the LM. The object behind Young in the shade of the LM is the Far Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph. Stone Mountain dominates the background in this lunar scene.

  9. Psychosocial predictors of changes in adolescent girls' physical activity and dietary behaviors over the course of the Go Girls! group-based mentoring program.

    PubMed

    Dowd, A Justine; Chen, Michelle Y; Schmader, Toni; Jung, Mary E; Zumbo, Bruno D; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2016-08-01

    Changes in social cognitions targeted within a group-based mentoring program for adolescent girls were examined as predictors of changes in physical activity (PA) and dietary behavior (in two separate models) over the course of the 7-week program. Data were collected from 310 participants who participated in the program. Multilevel path models were used to assess changes in psychosocial variables predicting changes in behavioral outcomes from pre- to post-program. Analyses revealed that 24.4 and 12.3% of the variance in increases in PA and dietary behavior, respectively, was explained by increases in affective and instrumental attitudes, self-regulatory efficacy (SRE), and intentions. Increases in intentions partially mediated the effects of increases in SRE and affective attitudes on increases in PA behavior. In relation to improvements in dietary behavior, increases in intentions and SRE directly predicted improvements in dietary behavior. These findings suggest potential psychological mechanisms through which a group-based mentoring program may lead to changes in adolescent girls' health-enhancing PA and dietary behaviors. PMID:27325620

  10. USE OF AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO EVALUATE YOUNG CHILDREN'S ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Linking a young child's activity pattern data with the environmental, biological, and personal samples that are collected during an exposure assessment is important in evaluating potential exposures and dose associated with environmental contaminants. A number of different appro...

  11. The relative influence of demographic, individual, social, and environmental factors on physical activity among boys and girls

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the associations of selected demographic, individual, social, and environmental factors with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a sample of children and adolescents. Methods MVPA was assessed among youth (n = 294) 10-17-years-old using the ActiGraph accelerometer. Youth completed measures of demographic and individual variables related to physical activity (PA), perceived social support by parents and peers, and perceived neighborhood characteristics. Parents completed the long-form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The Physical Activity and Media Inventory was used to measure the home environment and Geographical Information Systems software was used to measure the physical neighborhood environment. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical multiple regression were conducted stratified by gender. Results Boys participated in significantly more MVPA than girls. In hierarchical analyses, peer support, home PA equipment, and temperature were significantly associated with MVPA among boys whereas distance to the school they attended was associated with MVPA among girls. The final models accounted for 25% and 15% of the variance in MVPA among boys and girls, respectively. Conclusions Important differences exist among the individual, social, and environmental factors related to MVPA between boys and girls. Boys' levels of activity appear to be influenced by factors closely linked to unstructured and social types of activities whereas girls' activities relate to internal and external barriers as well as their proximity to their schools. The prospective contribution of these important individual, social, and environmental factors to changes in MVPA among children and adolescents remains to be determined. PMID:21047429

  12. "Am I Able? Is It Worth It?" Adolescent Girls' Motivational Predispositions to School Physical Education: Associations with Health-Enhancing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairclough, Stuart; Hilland, Toni; Stratton, Gareth; Ridgers, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    The study purpose was to investigate predictive associations between adolescent girls' motivational predispositions to physical education (PE) and habitual physical activity. Two hundred girls (age 13.1 [plus or minus] 0.6 years) completed the Physical Education Predisposition Scale and the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children.…

  13. Pilot Intervention to Increase Physical Activity among Sedentary Urban Middle School Girls: A Two-Group Pretest-Posttest Quasi-Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Lorraine B.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Maier, Kimberly S.; Lo, Yun-Jia; Wesolek, Stacey M.

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to determine whether girls in one school receiving nurse counseling plus an after-school physical activity club showed greater improvement in physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, and body composition than girls assigned to an attention control condition in another school (N = 69). Linear regressions…

  14. Longitudinal relationships between whole body and central adiposity on weight-bearing bone geometry, density, and bone strength: a pQCT study in young girls

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Joshua N.; Laudermilk, Monica J.; Lee, Vinson R.; Blew, Robert M.; Stump, Craig; Houtkooper, Linda; Lohman, Timothy G.; Going, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Longitudinal relationships between adiposity (total body and central) and bone development were assessed in young girls. Total body and android fat masses were positively associated with bone strength and density parameters of the femur and tibia. These results suggest adiposity may have site-specific stimulating effects on the developing bone. Introduction Childhood obesity may impair bone development, but the relationships between adiposity and bone remain unclear. Failure to account for fat pattern may explain the conflicting results. Purpose Longitudinal associations of total body fat mass (TBFM) and android fat mass (AFM) with 2-year changes in weight-bearing bone parameters were examined in 260 girls aged 8–13 years at baseline. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography was used to measure bone strength index (BSI, square milligrams per quartic millimeter), strength–strain index (SSI, cubic millimeters), and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD, milligrams per cubic centimeter) at distal metaphyseal and diaphyseal regions of the femur and tibia. TBFM and AFM were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results Baseline TBFM and AFM were positively associated with the change in femur BSI (r =0.20, r =0.17, respectively) and femur trabecular vBMD (r =0.19, r =0.19, respectively). Similarly, positive associations were found between TBFM and change in tibia BSI and SSI (r =0.16, r =0.15, respectively), and femur total and trabecular vBMD (r =0.12, r =0.14, respectively). Analysis of covariance showed that girls in the middle thirds of AFM had significantly lower femur trabecular vBMD and significantly higher tibia cortical vBMD than girls in the highest thirds of AFM. All results were significant at p <0.05. Conclusions Whereas baseline levels of TBFM and AFM are positive predictors of bone strength and density at the femur and tibia, higher levels of AFM above a certain level may impair cortical vBMD growth at weight-bearing sites. Future

  15. Impact of a Six-Month Empowerment-Based Exercise Intervention Programme in Non-Physically Active Adolescent Swedish Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Eva-Carin; Baigi, Amir; Apitzsch, Erwin; Bergh, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated changes in self-efficacy in non-physically active adolescent girls (13-19 years old) who participated in a six-month, empowerment-based exercise intervention programme (EIP). Design: The study used a pre- and post-test randomized group design and included one pre- and one post-test (at six months) and non-physically…

  16. Early to Bed: A Study of Adaptation among Sexually Active Urban Adolescent Girls Younger than Age Sixteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andres; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Caminis, Argyro; Vermeiren, Robert; Henrich, Christopher C.; Schwab-Stone, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between sexual activity among urban adolescent girls and four global measures of psychosocial adaptation (academic motivation, school achievement, depressive symptoms, and expectations about the future). Method: Data derived from the Social and Health Assessment, a self-report survey administered in 1998 to…

  17. "Because I Am Muslim, I Cannot Wear a Swimsuit:" Muslim Girls Negotiate Participation Opportunities for Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamzeh, Manal; Oliver, Kimberly L.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the works of postcolonial critical feminist and Arab Muslim feminist scholars, we discuss in this paper how 4 Muslim girls (ages 14-17 years) negotiated their participation in opportunities for physical activity. Data collection methods included self-mapping questionnaires, digital photos, private journal entries, and recordings of…

  18. Process Evaluation Results from a School- and Community-Linked Intervention: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, D. R.; Steckler, A.; Cohen, S.; Pratt, C.; Felton, G.; Moe, S. G.; Pickrel, J.; Johnson, C. C.; Grieser, M.; Lytle, L. A.; Lee, J.-S.; Raburn, B.

    2008-01-01

    Process evaluation is a component of intervention research that evaluates whether interventions are delivered and received as intended. Here, we describe the process evaluation results for the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) intervention. The intervention consisted of four synergistic components designed to provide supportive school-…

  19. The Role of Self-Efficacy and Referent Specific Social Support in Promoting Rural Adolescent Girls' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Forlaw, Loretta

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the role of social support (SS) and self-efficacy (SE) for physical activity (PA) in rural high school girls (N = 259, 15.5+1.2yrs). Methods: Using structural equation modeling, the relationships among PA, SS for PA from mother, father, and peers, and SE for overcoming barriers, seeking support, and resisting competing…

  20. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute. PMID:12158002

  1. Vegetable protein and vegetable fat intakes in pre-adolescent and adolescent girls, and risk for benign breast disease in young women.

    PubMed

    Berkey, Catherine S; Willett, Walter C; Tamimi, Rulla M; Rosner, Bernard; Frazier, A Lindsay; Colditz, Graham A

    2013-09-01

    Previous investigations, of adolescent diet recalled in adulthood, found lower risk for benign breast disease (BBD) with higher intakes of vegetable fat and nuts during high school. We investigate whether vegetable protein and fat, derived from diets reported during pre-adolescence and adolescence, are associated with subsequent risk for BBD in young women. The Growing Up Today Study includes 9,039 females, 9-15 years in 1996, who completed questionnaires annually through 2001, and then in 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2010. Food frequency questionnaires (1996-2001) obtained intake data on a variety of foods. Beginning in 2005, women (18-30 years) reported whether they had ever been diagnosed with BBD that was confirmed by breast biopsy (n = 112 cases). Logistic regression estimated associations between intakes of vegetable protein and fat and biopsy-confirmed BBD. Those individual foods that were the largest contributors of protein and fat in this cohort were also investigated. In analyses of intakes from 1996 through 1998, when our cohort was youngest, vegetable fat (OR = 0.72/(10 gm/day), 95 % CI 0.53-0.98; p = 0.04) was inversely associated with BBD risk. The greatest sources of vegetable fat and protein in these girls were peanut butter, peanuts, nuts, beans (beans, lentils, and soybeans), and corn. A daily serving of any one of these was associated with lower risk (OR = 0.32/(serv/day), 95 % CI 0.13-0.79; p = 0.01). Peanut butter (and nuts) at age 11 years was inversely associated with risk (p = 0.01). In analyses of intakes at age 14 years, vegetable protein was associated with lower BBD risk (OR = 0.64/(10 gm/day), 95 % CI 0.43-0.95; p = 0.03). A daily serving at 14 years of any one of the foods was associated with lower risk (OR = 0.34, 95 % CI 0.16-0.75; p = 0.01), as was peanut butter (and nuts) (p = 0.02). Girls with a family history of breast cancer had significantly lower risk if they consumed these foods or vegetable fat. In conclusion, consumption of

  2. Girls' Active Identities: Navigating Othering Discourses of Femininity, Bodies and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Within physical education and sport, girls must navigate discourses of valued athletic and gendered bodies that marginalise or "other" non-normative performances through systems of surveillance and punishment. The purpose of this paper is to share girls' perspectives on how these discourses affected their gender performances and activity…

  3. Internalizing trajectories in young boys and girls: the whole is not a simple sum of its parts.

    PubMed

    Carter, Alice S; Godoy, Leandra; Wagmiller, Robert L; Veliz, Philip; Marakovitz, Susan; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2010-01-01

    There is support for a differentiated model of early internalizing emotions and behaviors, yet researchers have not examined the course of multiple components of an internalizing domain across early childhood. In this paper we present growth models for the Internalizing domain of the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment and its component scales (General Anxiety, Separation Distress, Depression/Withdrawal, and Inhibition to Novelty) in a sample of 510 one- to three-year-old children. For all children, Internalizing domain scores decreased over the study, although girls had significantly higher initial levels and boys had steeper declines. General Anxiety increased over the study period and, when modeled individually, girls evidenced higher initial levels and greater increases. For all children, Separation Distress and Inhibition to Novelty decreased significantly over time, while Depression/Withdrawal remained low without change. Findings from our parallel process model, in which all components were modeled simultaneously, revealed that initial levels of internalizing scales were closely associated while rates of change were less closely related. Sex differences in variability around initial levels and rates of change emerged on some scales. Findings suggest that, for one- to three-year-olds, examining scales of the internalizing domain separately rather than as a unitary construct reveals more meaningful developmental and gender variation. PMID:19662525

  4. Hot flashes in a young girl: a wake-up call concerning Serenoa repens use in children.

    PubMed

    Miroddi, Marco; Carnì, Antonio; Mannucci, Carmen; Moleti, Mariacarla; Navarra, Michele; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2012-11-01

    Extracts of the plant Serenoa repens are widely used in male adults for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Recently, therapy with S repens has been proposed as a "natural" alternative to conventional treatments for male androgenetic alopecia as well as for other hair disorders. Telogen effluvium is a form of alopecia characterized by abnormality of hair cycling, resulting in excessive loss of telogen hair. We report the case of an 11-year-old girl presenting hot flashes that appeared after treatment of telogen effluvium with a food supplement containing S repens that lasted for ~2 months. When use of the product was discontinued, the hot flashes no longer occurred. Four months after the start of S repens intake and 45 days from the cessation of therapy, the girl experienced menarche at the age of 11 years. The Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a probable relationship (score of 6) between the appearance of hot flashes and the intake of S repens. A correlation between exposure to S repens and the onset of menarche is not certain, but it cannot be excluded. Medicinal products or food supplements containing S repens are generally well tolerated in male adults, but we believe that their use in pediatric patients should be better evaluated. PMID:23027164

  5. Chronic multisite pain in adolescent girls and boys with emotional and behavioral problems: the Young-HUNT study.

    PubMed

    Skrove, Marit; Romundstad, Pål; Indredavik, Marit S

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of chronic multisite pain with high disability in relation to emotional or behavioral problems and resilience factors in adolescence. A second aim was to investigate if resilience factors could attenuate the associations between psychiatric symptoms and chronic multisite pain. The study was based on a large cross-sectional study carried out in Norway between 2006 and 2008 and included 7,070 adolescents aged 13-19 years. Chronic multisite pain was defined as pain at least once a week during the last 3 months, scoring high on a disability index, and occurring in three or more locations. Chronic multisite pain was prevalent among adolescents with high scores (>85%) for anxiety/depression, social anxiety, conduct or attention problems (22.8-31.0 for girls, 8.8-19.0% for boys). Several coexistent psychiatric symptoms increased the prevalence of chronic multisite pain for both girls and boys. Resilience factors, including high self-esteem, seldom feeling lonely, and high scores for family cohesion or social competence, were associated with a lower prevalence and markedly attenuated the association between psychiatric symptoms and chronic multisite pain. Psychiatrists should be careful to assess and treat comorbid chronic pain in adolescents with emotional or behavioral problems. PMID:25138145

  6. Elephants and Their Young: Science and Math Activities for Young Children. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echols, Jean C.; Kopp, Jaine; Blinderman, Ellen

    This book contains a series of playful activities in which young children actively learn about the African elephant's body structure, family life, and social behavior. Children make model elephants out of paper and cardboard, then devise elephant puppets with sock trunks as well as create models of elephant's ears, trunks, tusks, make elephant…

  7. Physical Activity Patterns of Young Women Post-College Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

    2008-01-01

    Americans need more physical activity in their daily routines. There are numerous physical as well as psychological benefits that can be credited to regular physical activity. The purpose of this research was to examine the physical activity patterns of young women, post-college graduation. The average woman in this study exercised 22 minutes per…

  8. A Path Analysis to Identify the Psychosocial Factors Influencing Physical Activity and Bone Health in Middle-School Girls

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shreela V.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Kelder, Steven H.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Day, R. Sue; Hergenroeder, Albert C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify pathways used by psychosocial factors to influence physical activity and bone health in middle-school girls. Methods Baseline data from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study collected in 2001 to 2003 were used. IMPACT was a 1 1/2 years nutrition and physical activity intervention study designed to improve bone density in 717 middle-school girls in Texas. Structural Equations Modeling was used to examine the interrelationships and identify the direct and indirect pathways used by various psychosocial and environmental factors to influence physical activity and bone health. Results Results show that physical activity self-efficacy and social support (friend, family engagement, and encouragement in physical activity) had a significant direct and indirect influence on physical activity with participation in sports teams as the mediator. Participation in sports teams had a direct effect on both physical activity (β= 0.20, P < .05) and bone health and (β=0.13, P < .05). Conclusion The current study identified several direct and indirect pathways that psychosocial factors use to influence physical activity and bone health among adolescent girls. These findings are critical for the development of effective interventions for promoting bone health in this population. PMID:19953837

  9. A comparison of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in 9–11 year old British Pakistani and White British girls: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that British children of South Asian origin are less active and more sedentary than White British children. However, little is known about the behaviours underlying low activity levels, nor the familial contexts of active and sedentary behaviours in these groups. Our aim was to test hypotheses about differences between British Pakistani and White British girls using accelerometry and self-reports of key active and sedentary behaviours, and to obtain an understanding of factors affecting these behaviours using parental interviews. Methods Participants were 145 girls (70 White British and 75 British Pakistani) aged 9–11 years and parents of 19 of the girls. Accelerometry data were collected over 4 days and girls provided 24-hour physical activity interviews on 3 of these days. Multilevel linear regression models and generalised linear mixed models tested for ethnic differences in activity, sedentary time, and behaviours. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents. Results Compared to White British girls, British Pakistani girls accumulated 102 (95% CI 59, 145) fewer counts per minute and 14 minutes (95% CI 8, 20) less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. British Pakistani girls spent more time (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 14, 42) sedentary. Fewer British Pakistani than White British girls reported participation in organised sports and exercise (OR 0.22 95% CI 0.08, 0.64) or in outdoor play (OR 0.42 95% CI 0.20, 0.91). Fewer British Pakistani girls travelled actively to school (OR 0.26 95% CI 0.10, 0.71). There was no significant difference in reported screen time (OR 0.88 95% CI 0.45, 1.73). Parental interviews suggested that structural constraints (e.g. busy family schedules) and parental concerns about safety were important influences on activity levels. Conclusions British Pakistani girls were less active than White British girls and were less likely to participate in key active behaviours

  10. Adolescent physical activity and inactivity: a prospective study of risk of benign breast disease in young women.

    PubMed

    Berkey, Catherine S; Tamimi, Rulla M; Willett, Walter C; Rosner, Bernard; Lindsay Frazier, A; Colditz, Graham A

    2014-08-01

    In previous investigations of adolescent activity recalled in adulthood, modest reductions in risk of benign breast disease (BBD) and premenopausal breast cancer were seen with moderate-strenuous activity during high school. We therefore investigated physical activity, walking, and recreational inactivity (watching TV-videos, playing computer-videogames) reported by adolescent girls in relation to their subsequent risk for BBD as young women. The Growing Up Today Study includes 9,039 females, 9-15 years at study initiation (1996), who completed questionnaires annually through 2001, then in 2003, 2005, 2007, 2010 and 2013. Annual surveys (1996-2001) obtained data on physical and sedentary activities during the past year. Beginning in 2005, women (≥18 years) reported whether they had ever been diagnosed with BBD confirmed by breast biopsy (n = 133 cases, to 11/01/2013). Logistic regression (adjusted for baseline adiposity and age; additional factors in multivariable-adjusted models) estimated associations between adolescent activities (moderate-vigorous, walking, METS, inactivity) and biopsy-confirmed BBD in young women. Girls who walked the most had significantly lower risk of BBD (multivariable-adjusted OR = 0.61, ≥30 vs ≤15 min/day; p = .049). We observed no evidence that inactivity (≥3 vs <2 h/day OR = 1.02, p = .92) or METS (top vs bottom tertile OR = 1.19, p = .42) were associated with BBD. Accounting for factors including family history, childhood adiposity, and other activities and inactivities, adolescent girls who walked the most were at lower risk for BBD. We found no evidence that high moderate-vigorous activity might reduce risk, nor did we observe any association with inactivity. Continued follow-up will re-evaluate these findings as more BBD cases, and ultimately breast cancer, are diagnosed. PMID:25034340

  11. Adolescent Physical Activity and Inactivity: A Prospective Study of Risk of Benign Breast Disease in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Berkey, Catherine S.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Willett, Walter C.; Rosner, Bernard; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Colditz, Graham A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In previous investigations of adolescent activity recalled in adulthood, modest reductions in risk of benign breast disease (BBD) and premenopausal breast cancer were seen with moderate-strenuous activity during high school. We therefore investigated physical activity, walking, and recreational inactivity (watching TV-videos, playing computer-videogames) reported by adolescent girls in relation to their subsequent risk for BBD as young women. Methods The Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) includes 9039 females, 9–15yrs at study initiation (1996), who completed questionnaires annually through 2001, then 2003, 2005, 2007, 2010 and 2013. Annual surveys (1996–2001) obtained data on physical and sedentary activities during the past year. Beginning in 2005, women (≥18yr) reported whether they had been diagnosed with BBD confirmed by breast biopsy (n=133 cases, to 11/01/2013). Logistic regression (adjusted for baseline adiposity and age; additional factors in multivariable-adjusted models) estimated associations between adolescent activities (moderate-vigorous, walking, METS, inactivity) and biopsy-confirmed BBD in young women. Results Girls who walked the most had significantly lower risk of BBD (multivariable-adjusted OR=0.61,p=.049, ≥30min/day vs ≤15min/day). We observed no evidence that inactivity (≥3 hrs/day vs <2hr/day OR=1.02,p=.92) or METS (top vs bottom tertile OR=1.19,p=.42) were associated with BBD. Conclusion Accounting for factors including family history, childhood adiposity, other activities and inactivities, adolescent girls who walked the most were at lower risk for BBD. We found no evidence that high moderate-vigorous activity might reduce risk, nor did we observe any association with inactivity. Continued follow-up will re-evaluate these findings as more BBD cases, and ultimately breast cancer, are diagnosed. PMID:25034340

  12. Self-Efficacy Moderates the Relation Between Declines in Physical Activity and Perceived Social Support in High School Girls

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Ruth P.; Motl, Robert W.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test whether self-efficacy for overcoming barriers to physical activity has direct, indirect (i.e., mediated), or moderating relations with naturally occurring change in perceived social support and declines in physical activity during high school. Methods Latent growth modeling was used with measures completed in the 8th, 9th, and 12th grades by a cohort of 195 Black and White girls. Results Self-efficacy was stable and moderated the relation between changes in physical activity and perceived social support. Girls who maintained a perception of strong social support had less of a decline in physical activity if they also had high self-efficacy. However, girls having high self-efficacy had a greater decline in physical activity if they perceived declines in social support. Conclusions Randomized controlled trials of physical activity interventions based on social cognitive theory should consider that the influence of girls’ perceptions of social support on their physical activity may differ according to their efficacy beliefs about barriers to physical activity. PMID:18812410

  13. Motion Sensor Reactivity in Physically Active Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether young adults changed their physical activity (PA) behavior when wearing motion sensors. PA patterns of 119 young adults (M age = 20.82 years, SD = 1.50, M body mass index = 23.93 kg/m[superscript 2] , SD = 4.05) were assessed during 2 consecutive weeks. In Week 1, participants wore an accelerometer.…

  14. Counting Girls Out: A Review of Suicide among Young Substance Misusers and Gender Difference Implications in the Evaluation of Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    This literature review examines the evidence of suicide risk among young female substance misusers in comparison with their male counterparts, and considers arguments that suicide risk is underestimated for this group due to the methodological difficulties presented by small cohort numbers. Existing evidence indicates significant gender…

  15. A Comparison of Girls' and Boys' Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior Trajectories across Elementary School: Prediction to Young Adult Antisocial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Petras, Hanno; Ialongo, Nicholas; Masyn, Katherine E.; Hubbard, Scott; Poduska, Jeanne; Kellam, Sheppard

    2006-01-01

    Multiple group analysis and general growth mixture modeling was used to determine whether aggressive-disruptive behavior trajectories during elementary school, and their association with young adulthood antisocial outcomes, vary by gender. Participants were assessed longitudinally beginning at age 6 as part of an evaluation of 2 school-based…

  16. Gossiping Girls, Insider Boys, A-List Achievement: Examining and Exposing Young Adult Novels Consumed by Conspicuous Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    This article employs critical discourse analysis methods to (a) apply Marxist and critical literacy theories to recently published young adult novels that feature wealthy New York teens whose privilege grants them lives of leisure and (b) discuss the implications of using these texts in the classroom to encourage students to read (and consume)…

  17. 'Gay boy talk' meets 'girl talk': HIV risk assessment assumptions in young gay men's sexual health communication with best friends.

    PubMed

    Mutchler, Matt G; McDavitt, Bryce

    2011-06-01

    Young adults, particularly young gay men (YGM), are vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Yet, little is known about how YGM discuss sexual health issues with their friends ('gay boy talk'). We conducted semi-structured interviews with YGM and their best friends (11 YGM/YGM dyads and 13 YGM/heterosexual female dyads). In this paper, we examine risk assessment assumptions conveyed within YGM's communication about sexual health with their friends and how, if at all, the sexual scripts guiding these assumptions may differ between YGM and young women. Findings demonstrated that, while these young adults clearly intended to support their friends and promote safer sex, they also conveyed assumptions about HIV risk assessment, especially regarding sexual partner selection, that may actually increase their friends' risk for HIV infection. Since inaccurate HIV risk assessment assumptions were transmitted via sexual health communication between peers, it is suggested that such assumptions may need to be addressed in HIV prevention programs working with YGM and their friends. Further, gender differences were identified within the sexual scripts shared between YGM and their friends, suggesting that such interventions should be tailored to the specific needs of different friendship networks. PMID:21059803

  18. Developing Confidence within Girls through Self-Defense Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Aaron L.

    2012-01-01

    Through physical activity, physical educators have long sought to improve the self-efficacy and self-esteem in girls and young woman. Current research indicates that self-defense education may have a positive psychological impact on female participants, specifically regarding the development of self-efficacy and self-esteem. Through participation…

  19. Camp GLOW (Girls Leading Our World): Handbook for Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    Camp GLOW (Girls Leading Our World) began in Romania in 1995 as a weeklong leadership camp with the purpose of encouraging young women to become active citizens by building their self-esteem and confidence, increasing their self-awareness, and developing their skills in goal-setting, assertiveness, and career and life planning. Since that first…

  20. Changes in Commitment to Physical Activity among 8-to-11-Year-Old Girls Participating in a Curriculum-Based Running Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBate, Rita; Zhang, Yan; Thompson, Sharon H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Despite findings that support physical activity (PA) as an effective means of improving health and quality of life, PA levels among girls tend to decline with age. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess changes pertaining to PA commitment following a curriculum-based running program designed for 3rd-to-5th-grade girls.…

  1. Reaching Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charlotte E.; Kuriloff, Peter J.; Cox, Amanda B.

    2014-01-01

    If educators want to engage girls in learning, they must align teaching practices with girls' specific needs. In a study modeled after Reichert and Hawley's study of boys, the authors learned that lessons with hands-on learning, elements of creativity, multimodal projects, and class discussions all worked to stimulate girls'…

  2. Activities for Young Gifted Children: Using the CIBER Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowden, Peggy L.

    1994-01-01

    The acronym CIBER represents five basic principles ensuring that the needs of young gifted children are appropriately and effectively addressed: capitalize, integrate, balance, expose and enhance, and be realistic. Science activities and interdisciplinary learning activities are suggested to enhance development in cognitive, affective,…

  3. Physical Activity among Young People in the Context of Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telama, Risto; Nupponen, Heimo; Pieron, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    The promotion of a healthy lifestyle is the main goal of physical education in many countries. However, very little is known about the relationship between different lifestyles and physical activity patterns among young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lifestyle and physical activity among 12- and…

  4. The prevalence of hypercalciuria in girl kids with over active bladder

    PubMed Central

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Rafiei, Mohammad; Aziminejad, Atefeh; Pakniyat, Abdolghader

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Hypercalciuria may be a sign of over active bladder, these symptoms may be treated if we get rid of hypercalciuria. Objectives: This paper is intended to get to the prevalence of hypercalciuria in girl kids with over active bladder. Patients and Methods: All patients with index of over active urinary bladder who admitted to Amir-Kabir hospital of Arak and children who have admitted without any particular disease just for a laboratory check were studied simultaneously. Urine sample was taken from both groups. Results: The prevalence of hypercalciuria in the group with normal urinary bladder was 22.6% and in the case group was 42.9%. Hypercalciuria was reported in 30 (22.6%) children of control group and 57 (42.9%) children of case group. Based on chi-square test, hypercalciuria distribution between the two groups is not homogeneous (P = 0.001). Mean calcium to creatinine ratios were 2.384330 ± 0.55694 (mg/mg) and 2.186552 ± 0.56714 (mg/mg) for control and case groups respectively and no significant difference is observed between the two groups (P = 0.976). Based on logistic regression test, there is a significant relationship between both case and control groups and the occurrence of hypercalciuria with 2.58 times more than control group observed in case group. Conclusion: Based on the high prevalence of hypercalciuria in case group, examination and treatment of hypercalciuria in patients with over active bladder may be effective. PMID:26693498

  5. The impact of menstrual cycle-related physical symptoms on daily activities and psychological wellness among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    van Iersel, Kirsten C; Kiesner, Jeff; Pastore, Massimiliano; Scholte, Ron H J

    2016-06-01

    Associations between perimenstrual physical and psychological symptoms have not been adequately studied among adolescent girls. The purpose of the present study was to test a mediation hypothesis postulating that perimenstrual disengagement from daily activities would mediate the association between physical symptoms and psychological symptoms. A non-clinical sample of N = 208 Italian adolescent girls (age M = 16.68 years) completed a 95-item online retrospective questionnaire regarding perimenstrual symptoms, and how these symptoms affect their daily activities. Structural Equation Modeling was used to test the mediation hypothesis. Results showed that physical and psychological symptoms were strongly associated. More importantly, results supported the hypothesis that perimenstrual disengagement from daily activities mediates the association between physical symptoms and psychological symptoms, but only for depressed mood and cognitive symptoms. This study provides support for a novel theoretical framework linking diverse aspects of menstrual cycle change. Longitudinal research is needed to replicate these findings. PMID:27017504

  6. Laying the foundation for girls' healthy futures: can sports play a role?

    PubMed

    Brady, M

    1998-03-01

    For many girls in developing countries, adolescence is characterized by a high risk of early and unwanted sexual activity, forced marriage, and early pregnancy-related events. By themselves, the provision of contraceptive services are unlikely to change these trends. Also since many girls receive no formal education, and those who do often have negative experiences, school-based sex education will have only a limited impact. Other approaches are needed to support girls in their transition to adulthood. The Population Council is investigating the feasibility of targeting adolescent women through sports programs. Creating opportunities for young women to develop self-esteem, master new skills, and establish a sense of bodily integrity may be critical to improving girls' health and self-image. Physical education and participation in sports are an untapped, potentially important area for public health intervention. Girls' perception of their bodies, how sports benefit girls, and possibilities in developing country settings are discussed. PMID:9561671

  7. Examination of Perceived Neighborhood Characteristics and Transportation on Changes in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: The Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Murray, David M.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Cohen, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the association between perceived neighborhood characteristics and transport and 2-year changes in accelerometer-determined nonschool MET-weighted moderate to vigorous physical activity (MW-MVPA) and sedentary behavior of adolescent girls. Reporting that children do not play outdoors in their neighborhood, that their neighborhood was well lit, and that there were trails in their neighborhood were each associated with significant decreases in nonschool MW-MVPA. None of the neighborhood or transportation measures was associated with changes in nonschool sedentary behavior. Further work is needed to understand the determinants of the decline in physical activity and the increase in sedentary behavior among adolescent girls. PMID:20615746

  8. Examination of perceived neighborhood characteristics and transportation on changes in physical activity and sedentary behavior: The Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Evenson, Kelly R; Murray, David M; Birnbaum, Amanda S; Cohen, Deborah A

    2010-09-01

    We examined the association between perceived neighborhood characteristics and transport and 2-year changes in accelerometer-determined nonschool MET-weighted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MW-MVPA) and sedentary behavior of adolescent girls. Reporting that children do not play outdoors in their neighborhood, that their neighborhood was well lit, and that there were trails in their neighborhood were each associated with significant decreases in nonschool MW-MVPA. None of the neighborhood or transportation measures was associated with changes in nonschool sedentary behavior. Further work is needed to understand the determinants of the decline in physical activity and the increase in sedentary behavior among adolescent girls. PMID:20615746

  9. Weather Watchers--Activities for Young Meteorologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Fran

    1989-01-01

    Describes science activities which were adapted from a teacher's guide entitled "For Spacious Skies" and contains resources for interdisciplinary weather studies. Includes studying properties of air, gravity, cloud movement, humidity, tornadoes, and weather instruments. (RT)

  10. Cortical Brain Morphology in Young, Estrogen-Naive, and Adolescent, Estrogen-Treated Girls with Turner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lepage, Jean-Francois; Mazaika, Paul K.; Hong, David S.; Raman, Mira; Reiss, Allan L.

    2013-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a genetic condition that permits direct investigation of the complex interaction among genes, hormones, behavior, and brain development. Here, we used automated segmentation and surface-based morphometry to characterize the differences in brain morphology in children (n = 30) and adolescents (n = 16) with TS relative to age- and sex-matched control groups (n = 21 and 24, respectively). Our results show that individuals with TS, young and adolescent, present widespread reduction of gray matter volume, white matter volume and surface area (SA) over both parietal and occipital cortices bilaterally, as well as enlarged amygdala. In contrast to the young cohort, adolescents with TS showed significantly larger mean cortical thickness and significantly smaller total SA compared with healthy controls. Exploratory developmental analyses suggested aberrant regional brain maturation in the parahippocampal gyrus and orbitofrontal regions from childhood to adolescence in TS. These findings show the existence of abnormal brain morphology early in development in TS, but also suggest the presence of altered neurodevelopmental trajectories in some regions, which could potentially be the consequences of estrogen deficiency, both pre- and postnatally. PMID:22806268

  11. Long-term persistence of systemic and mucosal immune response to HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in preteen/adolescent girls and young women.

    PubMed

    Petäjä, Tiina; Pedersen, Court; Poder, Airi; Strauss, Gitte; Catteau, Gregory; Thomas, Florence; Lehtinen, Matti; Descamps, Dominique

    2011-11-01

    Vaccination against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is one key intervention for cervical cancer prevention. This follow-up study assessed the persistence of the systemic and mucosal immune responses together with the safety profile of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to young women aged 10-25 years. Serum and cervicovaginal secretion (CVS) samples were collected at prespecified time-points during the 48-month follow-up period. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody levels in serum and CVS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). At Month 48, all subjects remained seropositive for serum anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies. As previously observed, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies levels (ELISA Units/mL) were higher in subjects vaccinated at the age of 10-14 years (2862.2 and 940.8) compared to subjects vaccinated at the age of 15-25 years (1186.2 and 469.8). Moreover, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies in CVS were still detectable for subjects aged 15-25 years (84.1% and 69.7%, respectively). There was a strong correlation between serum and CVS anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies levels (correlation coefficients = 0.84 and 0.90 at Month 48, respectively) supporting the hypothesis of transudation or exudation of serum immunoglobulin G antibodies through the cervical epithelium. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile. In conclusion, this follow-up study shows that the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to preteen/adolescents girls and young women induces long-term systemic and mucosal immune response and has a clinically acceptable safety profile up to 4 years after the first vaccine dose. PMID:21190190

  12. Team Building Activities for Young Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Team building activities are an excellent way to challenge students and teach them the critical communication and problem solving skills that encourage trust, empathy, and ability to work together. They create an atmosphere that enhances the ability to meet fitness and skill goals because students, regardless of skill level, will possess increased…

  13. 474 Science Activities for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Moira D.

    This book uses a child-initiated, whole language approach to help children have fun while exploring the world of science. The activities are divided into 23 units. Each unit begins with an "Attention Getter," the purpose of which is to introduce the unit to children in a way that grabs their attention, stimulates their interest, and creates…

  14. The Young Astrophysicist: A Very Inexpensive Activity to Discuss Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockington, Guilherme; Testoni, Leonardo André; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2015-01-01

    The continuing fascination of young people with celestial bodies leads them to pose challenging questions to their science teachers, such as how was the universe born? How were the stars formed? In this paper we present an extremely inexpensive but highly engaging activity to teach the basics of spectroscopy. Guided by the question "how do…

  15. Young Adolescents' Perceptions of Romantic Relationships and Sexual Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Heather R.; Keller, Mary L.; Heidrich, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe young adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationships, ratings of important romantic partner characteristics, and acceptability of sexual activity with romantic relationships. Fifty-seven eighth-grade participants (average age = 13.8 years) from one urban US public middle school completed an anonymous…

  16. Novel Ideas for Young Readers! Projects and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuta, Katherine Wiesolek; Zernial, Susan

    This book offers 60 stimulating, classroom-tested activities to instill a love of literature and help young learners develop as readers, writers, and speakers. By using picture books, novels, or even nonfiction readings as starting points, the reproducible worksheets in the book can be implemented to strengthen students' entire spectrum of…

  17. Activity and Imagined Activity Can Enhance Young Children's Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenberg, Arthur M.; Gutierrez, Tiana; Levin, Joel R.; Japuntich, Sandra; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    The Indexical Hypothesis suggests a new method for enhancing children's reading comprehension. Young readers may not consistently "index," or map, words to the objects the words represent. Consequently, these readers fail to derive much meaning from the text. The instructional method involves manipulating toy objects referred to in the text (e.g.,…

  18. Effect of Food Load on Activities of Enzymes of the Main Metabolic Pathways in Blood Lymphocytes in Girls with Different Anthropometric Parameters.

    PubMed

    Fefelova, V V; Fefelova, Yu A; Kazakova, T V; Koloskova, T P; Sergeeva, E Yu

    2015-07-01

    Changes in enzyme activities reflecting functioning of the basic metabolic pathways in cells (Krebs cycle, glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway) were evaluated in blood lymphocytes of girls of different somatotypes with different body composition under conditions of food load. A common regularity was found: a decrease in succinate dehydrogenase activity after meal in girls of all somatotypes. Specific features of individual somatotypes were also revealed. Only girls of athletic somatotype showed increased lactate dehydrogenase level after food load. Activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase increased (more than twice) after food load only in girls of euryplastic somatotype. This somatotype is characterized by maximum values of fat and other components of the body. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is the first enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway; activation of this pathway accompanies enhancement of synthetic processes, including lipid synthesis. This can contribute to accumulation of the fat component (and other components) due to redistribution of substrate flows between metabolic pathways. PMID:26205721

  19. Development of the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort.

    PubMed

    Berg, Christine; McCollum, Mary; Cho, Esther; Jason, Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Emerging adulthood defines transition to employment, higher education, and domestic life. This study describes the development of an assessment of self-reported participation in a range of age-appropriate activities. Item selection was established from literature review, feedback from youth and professionals, the former Adolescent Activity Card Sort (AACS), and the original Activity Card Sort (ACS). Iterative item selection occurred with three separate samples of emerging adults and six professionals. Test-retest reliability was evaluated. The Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) consists of chores (11 items), leisure (13), social (10), health and fitness (9), work (10), education (8), and parenting (9). Test-retest reliability showed significant moderate to substantial Kappa agreement (.48-.85) for all domains except parenting (κ = .15). This preliminary study describes the development of the AYA-ACS to be used with individuals who encounter challenges when transitioning to young adulthood. PMID:27505902

  20. News Girls in Physics: Getting girls engaged with physics Schools Lecture: How to explore the universe: the IOP schools lecture series 2009 Elastomobile Competition: Rubber-band vehicles go for gold Congress: Congress celebrates centenary Outreach Programme: Tales of the Stars inspires young children from around the world Physics Olympiad: BPhO selects top students for International Physics Olympiad Mobile Science: Mobile teaching lab visits rural Turkey China: Inspiration and competition in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-07-01

    Girls in Physics: Getting girls engaged with physics Schools Lecture: How to explore the universe: the IOP schools lecture series 2009 Elastomobile Competition: Rubber-band vehicles go for gold Congress: Congress celebrates centenary Outreach Programme: Tales of the Stars inspires young children from around the world Physics Olympiad: BPhO selects top students for International Physics Olympiad Mobile Science: Mobile teaching lab visits rural Turkey China: Inspiration and competition in China

  1. Social Provisions and Young Women's Health-Related Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Ulvick, Jocelyn D; Spink, Kevin S

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors involved in being active enough for health benefits is necessary to promote health-related physical activity. Given the documented role of social support in women's activity (Molloy et al. 2010), this study examined the relationship between Weiss's (1974) social provisions and health-related physical activity in young women. College undergraduate women (N = 136) from a kinesiology course completed a modified Social Provisions Scale (Cutrona and Russell 1987) and reported on the physical activity they engaged in with others over a 4-week period in the fall of 2011. We used average daily energy expenditure, calculated based on participants' reported activity involvement, to classify participants as either sufficiently or insufficiently active (Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Research Institute 1999). A logistic regression using sufficient/insufficient activity levels for health as the dependent variable revealed that the six provisions reliably differentiated between those who were active enough for health benefits versus not. Of the six, two provisions were significantly associated with health-related physical activity--specifically, those who held higher perceptions of reassurance of worth and social integration were more likely to be in the sufficiently-active group. These results provide an initial indication of the specific social provisions associated with young women who are active enough to achieve health benefits. PMID:26086201

  2. Bidirectional Linkages between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities among African American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding…

  3. Treatment Fidelity of Motivational Interviewing Delivered by a School Nurse to Increase Girls' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Lorraine B.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Maier, Kimberly S.; LaDrig, Stacey M.; Berg-Smith, Steven Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    Motivational interviewing, which involves the use of person-centered, directive counseling techniques, shows promise for changing adolescent behaviors. The purpose of this article was to describe the methodology and findings related to the treatment fidelity of three face-to-face motivational interviewing sessions involving middle school girls and…

  4. "In the Eye of the Beholder...": Girls', Boys' and Teachers' Perceptions of Boys' Aggression to Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Laurence; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2005-01-01

    Because children and young teenagers usually associate in same-sex groups, psychological research concerned with adolescent aggression has often concentrated on within-sex relationships. However, during adolescence, boys and girls increasingly interact socially. This paper reports a study of boy-to-girl aggression as perceived by girls, boys and…

  5. Attracting girls to physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, Anne; Sui, Manling

    2013-03-01

    Large regional differences remain in the number of girls studying physics and the number of female physicists in academic positions. While many countries struggle with attracting female students to university studies in physics, climbing the academic ladder is the main challenge for these women. Furthermore, for many female physicists the working climate is not very supportive. The workshop Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the 4th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, South Africa 2011, addressed attitudes among education-seeking teenagers and approaches for attracting young girls to physics through successful recruitment plans, including highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications. The current paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from this workshop.

  6. Circulating thymic hormone activity in young cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Consolini, R; Cei, B; Cini, P; Bottone, E; Casarosa, L

    1986-01-01

    We measured serum levels of Facteur Thymique Sérique (FTS) in 56 young cancer patients compared to normal controls. All patients who received immunosuppressive therapy had low age-corrected titres of FTS. Low levels were also found at diagnosis and off therapy. Plasma from 22 patients contained factors capable of inhibiting biological activity of FTS in vitro. The nature of this inhibitor has not been elucidated. No zinc deficiency was found in the patients studied, suggesting that FTS is secreted in its active form. Our study points out the importance of monitoring FTS activity in young cancer patients for its implications on immunological surveillance. The practical applications of thymic hormone therapy in cancer patients are discussed. PMID:3802571

  7. Activation of Antioxidant Defenses in Whole Saliva by Psychosocial Stress Is More Manifested in Young Women than in Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Tsuber, Viktoriia; Kadamov, Yunus; Tarasenko, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases oxidative damage in whole saliva of young people. An examination stress caused a significant increase of catalase activity, accompanied by a decrease of levels of oxidized proteins. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances did not increase at stress, indicating that lipid peroxidation was not activated. The stress-induced alterations were more manifested in young women compared to young men. Thus, antioxidant protective mechanisms are more activated by a moderate stressor in young women than in young men. PMID:25525800

  8. Attracting Girls to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandow, Barbara; Marks, Ann; Borg, Anne

    2009-04-01

    In most countries the number of girls studying physics, as well female physicists in academic positions, is still low. Active recruitment at all levels is essential to change this situation. In some countries a large proportion of students are female, but career progression is difficult. Highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications is a major approach in attracting girls to physics. This paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from the workshop, Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the Third IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, Seoul, 2008.

  9. Gifted Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drum, Jean, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This journal issue focuses on the theme of the education of gifted female students. This document consists of the five articles devoted to this subject. The lead article by Carolyn M. Callahan, titled "How Schools Shortchange Girls: Implications for Parents and Educators of Gifted Girls," discusses the development of gender roles, the experiences…

  10. Attitudes, Knowledge and Factors Associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Uptake in Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Iris L. Y.; Machalek, Dorothy A.; Garland, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination targets high-risk HPV16/18 that cause 70% of all cancers of the cervix. In Australia there is a fully-funded, school-based National HPV Vaccination Program which has achieved vaccine initiation rate of 82% among age-eligible females. Improving HPV vaccination rates is important in the prevention of morbidity and mortality associated with HPV-related disease. This study aimed to identify factors and barriers associated with uptake of the HPV vaccine in the Australian Program. Methods Between 2011 and 2014, females aged 18–25 years, living in Victoria, Australia who were offered HPV vaccination between 2007 and 2009 as part of the National HPV Vaccination Program, living in Victoria, Australia were recruited into a a young women’s study examining effectiveness of the Australian National HPV Vaccination Program. Overall, 668 participants completed the recruitment survey, which collected data of participants’ demographics and HPV knowledge. In 2015 these participants were invited to complete an additional supplementary survey on parental demographics and attitudes towards vaccinations. Results In 2015, 417 participants completed the supplementary survey (62% response rate). Overall, 19% of participants were unvaccinated. In multivariate analyses, HPV vaccination was significantly associated with their being born in Australia (p<0.001), having completed childhood vaccinations (p<0.001) and their parents being main decision-makers for participants’ HPV vaccination (p<0.001). The main reason reported for HPV non-vaccination was parental concern about vaccine safety (43%). Compared with HPV-vaccinated participants, those unvaccinated were significantly more likely to be opposed to all vaccines, including HPV vaccines (p<0.001) and were less likely to consider vaccinating their own children with all vaccines (p = 0.033), including HPV vaccines (p<0.001). Overall, 61% of unvaccinated participants reported that a

  11. High tibial osteotomies in the young active patient

    PubMed Central

    Traub, Shaun; Efird, Chad

    2010-01-01

    Unicompartmental changes in the knee of a young athlete remains a difficult and controversial problem in orthopaedics. Excessive premature loading of articular cartilage, most often the result of a knee injury, has been shown to result in increased degenerative changes and pain in the younger patient. Instability may also contribute to the degeneration of cartilage and must therefore be considered in the treatment of osteoarthritis in the young adult. High tibial osteotomy has been described as a treatment option for malalignment in the older, less active adult and has shown promising results in a younger, more active population. Osteotomies for instability are more controversial and should be considered in more complex injury patterns. PMID:20076957

  12. Challenging Stereotypes: Muslim Girls Talk about Physical Activity, Physical Education and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knez, Kelly; Macdonald, Doune; Abbott, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Often labelled as "problematic" within health and physical education (HPE) and sporting literature, young Muslim women's participation is frequently understood through both cultural and religious limitations seen to be placed upon them. Although these factors are negotiated by many young Muslim women, and contribute to the way in which some will…

  13. "I Am Only Ten Years Old": Femininities, Clothing-Fashion Codes and the Intergenerational Gap of Interpretation of Young Girls' Clothes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rysst, Mari

    2010-01-01

    Based in experience-near anthropology, this article explores constructions of gender by 10-year-old Norwegian girls who are informed by a developmental discourse and by new clothing-fashion codes. The analysis reveals gaps in aesthetic understanding between the clothing-fashion industry, preteen girls and older generations. The industry seems to…

  14. "It's A Girl Thing!" Do Boys Engage in Relational Aggression? Exploration of Whether Strategies to Educate Young People about Relational Aggression Are Relevant for Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Deborah; Lawlor, Maria; Murphy, Niamh; Flynn, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Relational aggression is often perceived as a female issue. Less is known about relational aggression in adolescent boys. This study examines whether the issues associated with relational aggression in girls are similar for boys to determine whether an intervention designed for girls would be relevant for boys. Focus group discussions illustrate…

  15. Young Children's Help-Seeking as Active Information Gathering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vredenburgh, Christopher; Kushnir, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Young children's social learning is a topic of great interest. Here, we examined preschoolers' (M = 52.44 months, SD = 9.7 months) help-seeking as a social information gathering activity that may optimize and support children's opportunities for learning. In a toy assembly task, we assessed each child's competency at assembling toys and the…

  16. Exploring Young Students Creativity: The Effect of Model Eliciting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilat, Talya; Amit, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how engaging students in real-life mathematical situations can stimulate their mathematical creative thinking. We analyzed the mathematical modeling of two girls, aged 10 and 13 years, as they worked on an authentic task involving the selection of a track team. The girls displayed several modeling cycles that…

  17. Girls Looking for a "Second Home": Bodies, Difference and Places of Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzarito, Laura; Hill, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Young people's health status and level of physical activity participation are pressing issues in many Western countries, yet social, economic, and educational inequalities in local spaces remain under-theorized. In the USA and the UK, ethnic-minority girls have been identified as the least physically active and as having the worst…

  18. A novel de novo mutation within PHEX gene in a young girl with hypophosphatemic rickets and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hoon Sang; Kim, Su Yung; Kwak, Min Jung; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2014-01-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is the most common form of familial hypophosphatemic rickets and it is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the PHEX gene. Recently, a wide variety of PHEX gene defects in XLH have been revealed; these include missense mutations, nonsense mutations, splice site mutations, insertions, and deletions. Recently, we encountered a 2-year-9-month-old female with sporadic hypophosphatemic rickets. She underwent osteotomy, dental abscess was evident, and there was severe bowing of the legs. A low serum phosphorus level in combination with elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity and normal serum calcium is suggestive of hypophosphatemic rickets. PHEX gene analysis revealed a splice acceptor site mutation, c.934-1G>T (IVS8-1G>T), at the intron8 and exon9 junction. To the best of our knowledge, this mutation is novel and has not been reported. The results of this study expand and improve our understanding of the clinical and molecular characteristics and the global pool of patients with sporadic hypophosphatemic rickets. PMID:24926462

  19. Selected case from the Arkadi M. Rywlin International Pathology Slide Club: carcinoma of the transverse colon in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Galliani, Carlos A; Sanchez, Irene C; D'Errico, Maria M; Bisceglia, Michele

    2015-05-01

    We report a case of a 14-year-old female with primary adenocarcinoma of the transverse colon. She was hospitalized after presenting with abdominal pain and signs of intestinal obstruction. There was no health antecedent or family history of neoplasia. Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen. Tenderness was elicited to palpation of the right lower quadrant. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen revealed obstructive signs, with a constricting lesion in the mid-transverse colon of probable neoplastic nature. Laparoscopic segmental resection of the colon was followed by standard right hemicolectomy. A circumferential mid-transverse tumor was diagnosed as primary colorectal carcinoma (CRC) of signet-ring cell type, AJCC stage IIIC, Dukes' C stage. On the basis of immunohistochemistry and clinical data, hereditary nonpolyposis and hamartomatous colorectal cancer syndromes were excluded. Involvement of either the p53, BRAF, or K-RAS genes was ruled out by immunohistochemistry profiling and genetic testing. The neoplasm was categorized as sporadic. The possibility of activation of the Wnt signaling pathway was suspected, because of a defective turnover of the β-catenin protein. Postoperatively, the patient was treated with both systemic and intra-abdominal adjuvant chemotherapy, including oxaliplatin. Between 18 and 24 months after diagnosis, intra-abdominal tumor recurrences were detected. The patient underwent bilateral oophorectomies for Krukenberg tumors and received salvage chemotherapy. Recently, additional recurrent metastatic retroperitoneal disease caused hydronephrosis. The retroperitoneal mass was debulked and a ureteric stent was placed. At the time of this writing, 43 months after diagnosis, the patient is receiving FOLFOX chemotherapy combined with panitumumab. CRC of childhood is exceedingly rare, generally develops in the setting of unrecognized genetic predisposing factors to cancer, presents with advanced disease, is high grade, and tends

  20. Reexamining Obesigenic Families: Parents' Obesity-related Behaviors Predict Girls' Change in BMI

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Francis, Lori A.; Birch, Leann L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective It has been shown that girls from families in which mothers and fathers had high dietary intake and low physical activity (i.e., obesigenic families) were at increased risk of obesity from ages 5 to 7 years. This follow-up study uses additional data collected when girls were 9 and 11 years old to examine whether girls from obesigenic families continued to show greater increases in BMI over time and reported unhealthy dietary and activity patterns. Research Methods and Procedures Families from the original cohort were reexamined when girls were 9 and 11 years of age. Parents' and girls' BMI, dietary intake, and physical activity and girls' percentage body fat and television viewing were assessed. Results In comparison with girls from non-obesigenic families, girls from obesigenic families showed greater increases in BMI and BMI z score from ages 5 to 7 years that were maintained across ages 7 to 11 years. Furthermore, girls from obesigenic families had higher percentage body fat at ages 9 and 11 years. These results were independent of parents' BMI. Additional findings showed that girls from obesigenic families had diets higher in percentage fat and had higher levels of television viewing than girls from non-obesigenic families. Discussion The environment that parents create, by way of their own dietary and physical activity behaviors, may have a lasting negative effect on children's weight trajectories and their emerging obesity risk behaviors, such as their dietary patterns. These findings further highlight the importance of the family in establishing children's obesity risk and the necessity of targeting parents of young children in obesity prevention efforts. PMID:16339130

  1. Girl child in rural India.

    PubMed

    Devendra, K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education. PMID:12158006

  2. But I Like PE: Factors Associated With Enjoyment of Physical Education Class in Middle School Girls

    PubMed Central

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Ward, Dianne S.; Conway, Terry L.; Pratt, Charlotte; Baggett, Chris D.; Lytle, Leslie; Pate, Russell R.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined associations between physical education (PE) class enjoyment and sociodemographic, personal, and perceived school environment factors among early adolescent girls. Participants included 1,511 sixth-grade girls who completed baseline assessments for the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls, with 50% indicating they enjoyed PE class a lot. Variables positively associated with PE class enjoyment included physical activity level, perceived benefits of physical activity, self-efficacy for leisure time physical activity, and perceived school climate for girls' physical activity as influenced by teachers, while body mass index was inversely associated with PE class enjoyment. After adjusting for all variables in the model, PE class enjoyment was significantly greater in Blacks than in Whites. In model testing, with mutual adjustment for all variables, self-efficacy was the strongest correlate of PE class enjoyment, followed by perceived benefits, race/ethnicity, and teacher's support for girls' physical activity, as compared to boys, at school. The overall model explained 11% of the variance in PE class enjoyment. Findings suggest that efforts to enhance girls' self-efficacy and perceived benefits and to provide a supportive PE class environment that promotes gender equality can potentially increase PE class enjoyment among young girls. PMID:18431947

  3. Mediating Effects of Self-Efficacy, Benefits and Barriers on the Association between Peer and Parental Factors and Physical Activity among Adolescent Girls with a Lower Educational Level

    PubMed Central

    Cardon, Greet; De Craemer, Marieke; D’Haese, Sara; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of physical activity among lower educated adolescent girls is low, suggesting it is important to have insights into the complex processes that may underlie their physical activity levels. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the mediating effects of self-efficacy, perceived benefits and barriers on the associations between peer and parental variables and physical activity among lower educated adolescent girls. Methods In total, 226 girls (mean age 16.0±1.0 years; 53% technical education; 47% vocational education) from a convenience sample of 6 secondary schools in Flanders, Belgium, completed a questionnaire on their total physical activity level and related peer and parental variables (i.e. modeling of physical activity, co-participation in physical activities and encouragement to be active) and personal variables (i.e. self-efficacy to be active, and specific perceived benefits of physical activity and specific barriers to be active). Mediating effects were tested using MacKinnon’s product-of-coefficients test based on multilevel linear regression analyses. Results Higher peer and parental modeling, co-participation and encouragement were significantly related to a higher physical activity level among adolescent girls (p<0.05). Self-efficacy, the perceived benefits of having fun, being around friends or meeting new people, and not being bored and the perceived barrier of not liking physical activity mediated several associations between peer and parental variables and girls’ physical activity, with some of the mediated proportions exceeding 60%. Conclusions This study contributed to a better understanding of the complexity of how parental and peer factors work together with personal factors to influence the physical activity levels of adolescent girls with a lower educational level. Interventions should involve both peers and parents, as they may influence girls’ physical activity both directly and indirectly through the

  4. Neural Activation during Anticipated Peer Evaluation and Laboratory Meal Intake in Overweight Girls with and without Loss of Control Eating

    PubMed Central

    Jarcho, Johanna; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Nelson, Eric E.; Engel, Scott G.; Vannucci, Anna; Field, Sara E.; Romer, Adrienne; Hannallah, Louise; Brady, Sheila M.; Demidowich, Andrew P.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Courville, Amber B.; Pine, Daniel S.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2015-01-01

    The interpersonal model of loss of control (LOC) eating proposes that socially distressing situations lead to anxious states that trigger excessive food consumption. Self-reports support these links, but the neurobiological underpinnings of these relationships remain unclear. We therefore examined brain regions associated with anxiety in relation to LOC eating and energy intake in the laboratory. Twenty-two overweight and obese (BMIz: 1.9±0.4) adolescent (15.8±1.6y) girls with LOC eating (LOC+, n=10) and without LOC eating (LOC−, n=12) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a simulated peer interaction chatroom paradigm. Immediately after the fMRI scan, girls consumed lunch ad libitum from a 10,934-kcal laboratory buffet meal with the instruction to “let yourself go and eat as much as you want.” Pre-specified hypotheses regarding activation of five regions of interest were tested. Analysis of fMRI data revealed a significant group by peer feedback interaction in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), such that LOC+ had less activity following peer rejection (vs. acceptance), while LOC− had increased activity (p <.005). Moreover, functional coupling between vmPFC and striatum for peer rejection (vs. acceptance) interacted with LOC status: coupling was positive for LOC+, but negative in LOC− (p <.005). Activity of fusiform face area (FFA) during negative peer feedback from high-value peers also interacted with LOC status (p < .005). A positive association between FFA activation and intake during the meal was observed among only those with LOC eating. In conclusion, overweight and obese girls with LOC eating may be distinguished by a failure to engage regions of prefrontal cortex implicated in emotion regulation in response to social distress. The relationship between FFA activation and food intake supports the notion that heightened sensitivity to incoming interpersonal cues and perturbations in socio-emotional neural circuits

  5. Neural activation during anticipated peer evaluation and laboratory meal intake in overweight girls with and without loss of control eating.

    PubMed

    Jarcho, Johanna M; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Nelson, Eric E; Engel, Scott G; Vannucci, Anna; Field, Sara E; Romer, Adrienne L; Hannallah, Louise; Brady, Sheila M; Demidowich, Andrew P; Shomaker, Lauren B; Courville, Amber B; Pine, Daniel S; Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-03-01

    The interpersonal model of loss of control (LOC) eating proposes that socially distressing situations lead to anxious states that trigger excessive food consumption. Self-reports support these links, but the neurobiological underpinnings of these relationships remain unclear. We therefore examined brain regions associated with anxiety in relation to LOC eating and energy intake in the laboratory. Twenty-two overweight and obese (BMIz: 1.9±0.4) adolescent (15.8±1.6y) girls with LOC eating (LOC+, n=10) and without LOC eating (LOC-, n=12) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a simulated peer interaction chatroom paradigm. Immediately after the fMRI scan, girls consumed lunch ad libitum from a 10,934-kcal laboratory buffet meal with the instruction to "let yourself go and eat as much as you want." Pre-specified hypotheses regarding activation of five regions of interest were tested. Analysis of fMRI data revealed a significant group by peer feedback interaction in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), such that LOC+ had less activity following peer rejection (vs. acceptance), while LOC- had increased activity (p<.005). Moreover, functional coupling between vmPFC and striatum for peer rejection (vs. acceptance) interacted with LOC status: coupling was positive for LOC+, but negative in LOC- (p<.005). Activity of fusiform face area (FFA) during negative peer feedback from high-value peers also interacted with LOC status (p<.005). A positive association between FFA activation and intake during the meal was observed among only those with LOC eating. In conclusion, overweight and obese girls with LOC eating may be distinguished by a failure to engage regions of prefrontal cortex implicated in emotion regulation in response to social distress. The relationship between FFA activation and food intake supports the notion that heightened sensitivity to incoming interpersonal cues and perturbations in socio-emotional neural circuits may lead to

  6. Parental Attitudes and Young People's Online Sexual Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorbring, Emma; Hallberg, Jonas; Bohlin, Margareta; Skoog, Therése

    2015-01-01

    Parental attitudes towards young people's sexuality in traditional (i.e. non-online media) settings have been associated with young people's sexual activities. In this study, we explored the association between key parent and youth characteristics and parental attitudes towards young people's online sexual activities. We also…

  7. A group-randomized controlled trial for health promotion in Girl Scouts: Healthier Troops in a SNAP (Scouting Nutrition & Activity Program)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Girl Scouting may offer a viable channel for health promotion and obesity prevention programs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention program delivered through Girl Scout Junior troops that was designed to foster healthful troop meeting environments and increase obesity prevention behaviors at home. Methods Seven Girl Scout troops were randomized to intervention (n = 3, with 34 girls) or standard-care control (n = 4, with 42 girls) conditions. Girls ranged in age from 9 to 13 years (mean 10.5 years). Intervention troop leaders were trained to implement policies promoting physical activity (PA) and healthful eating opportunities at troop meetings, and to implement a curriculum promoting obesity-prevention behaviors at home. The primary outcome variable was child body mass index (BMI) z-score. Secondary outcomes included accelerometer-assessed PA levels in troop meetings, direct observations of snack offerings, time spent in physically active meeting content, and leader encouragement of PA and healthful eating. Results The intervention was delivered with good fidelity, and intervention troops provided greater opportunities for healthful eating and PA (x2 = 210.8, p < .001), relative to control troops. In troop meetings, intervention troop leaders promoted PA (x2 = 23.46, p < .001) and healthful eating (x2 = 18.14, p < .001) more frequently, and discouraged healthful eating and PA less frequently (x2 = 9.63, p = .002) compared to control troop leaders. Most effects of the intervention on individual-level variables of girls and parents were not significantly different from the control condition, including the primary outcome of child BMI z-score (F1, 5 = 0.42, p = .544), parent BMI (F1, 5 = 1.58, p = .264), and related behavioral variables. The notable exception was for objectively assessed troop PA, wherein girls in intervention troops accumulated significantly less sedentary (x2 = 6.3, p = .011), significantly more moderate (x2 = 8.2, p

  8. Smart Girls, Hard-Working Girls but Not yet Self-Assured Girls: The Limits of Gender Equity Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dentith, Audrey

    2008-01-01

    Higher levels of girls and women's participation in targeted areas are widely apparent, particularly in affluent and middle-class sites. Here, we report on research with young middle and upper middle-class high school girls successfully enrolled in non-traditional advanced placement (AP) courses in mathematics, science, and computer programming in…

  9. Teacher learning from girls' informal science experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birmingham, Daniel J.

    School science continues to fail to engage youth from non-dominant communities (Carlone, Huan-Frank & Webb, 2011). However, recent research demonstrates that informal science learning settings support both knowledge gains and increased participation in science among youth from non-dominant communities (Dierking, 2007; Falk et al., 2007; HFRP, 2010). Despite the success, little is known about how teachers can learn from informal science practices to support student engagement in science. In this study, I examine the impact informal science experiences has for the teaching and learning of science in school contexts. This study is focused on eliciting girls' stories of informal science learning experiences and sharing these stories with science teachers to examine what they notice and make meaning of in connection with their classroom practices (van Es & Sherin, 2002). I co-constructed cases of informal science experiences with middle school females who participate in an after school science program in an urban area. These cases consisted of the girls' written stories, their explicit messages to science teachers, examples of actions taken when investigating community based science issues and transcripts of conversations between the girls and researchers. These cases were shared with local science teachers in order to investigate what they "notice" (van Es & Sherin, 2002) regarding girls' participation in informal science learning, how they make meaning of youths' stories and whether the stories influence their classroom practices. I found that the girls' use their cases to share experiences of how, where and why science matters, to express hope for school science and to critique stereotypical views that young, female, students of color from lower SES backgrounds are not interested or capable of making contributions to scientific investigations. Additionally, I found that teachers noticed powerful messages within and across the girls' cases. The messages include; 1

  10. Psychometric properties of the Social Cognitive Theory questionnaire for physical activity in a sample of Iranian adolescent girl students.

    PubMed

    Ardestani, M S; Niknami, S; Hidarnia, A; Hajizadeh, E

    2016-05-01

    This research examined the validity and reliability of a researcher-developed questionnaire based on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) to assess the physical activity behaviour of Iranian adolescent girls (SCT-PAIAGS). Psychometric properties of the SCT-PAIAGS were assessed by determining its face validity, content and construct validity as well as its reliability. In order to evaluate factor structure, cross-sectional research was conducted on 400 high-school girls in Tehran. Content validity index, content validity ratio and impact score for the SCT-PAIAGS varied between 0.97-1, 0.91-1 and 4.6-4.9 respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis approved a six-factor structure comprising self-efficacy, self-regulation, family support, friend support, outcome expectancy and self-efficacy to overcoming impediments. Factor loadings, t-values and fit indices showed that the SCT model was fitted to the data. Cronbach's α-coefficient ranged from 0.78 to 0.85 and intraclass correlation coefficient from 0.73 to 0.90. PMID:27553398

  11. A Longitudinal Examination of the Influence of Maturation on Physical Self-Perceptions and the Relationship with Physical Activity in Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Niven, Ailsa G.; Fawkner, Samantha G.; Henretty, Joan M.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the influence of maturation on physical self-perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls (N = 150; mean age = 12.79 plus or minus 0.31). Physical characteristics were measured and participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children, the Children and…

  12. Lessons learnt from the Bristol Girls Dance Project cluster RCT: implications for designing and implementing after-school physical activity interventions

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Mark J; May, Thomas; Kesten, Joanna M; Banfield, Kate; Bird, Emma L; Powell, Jane E; Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Objective To consider implementation issues associated with the delivery of Bristol Girls Dance Project (BGDP) and to identify improvements that may aid the design of after-school physical activity (PA) interventions. Design Two-armed cluster randomised control trial. The BGDP was a 20-week school-based intervention, consisting of two 75 min after-school dance sessions per week, which aimed to support Year 7 girls to be more physically active. Setting 18 secondary schools (nine intervention, nine control) in the Greater Bristol area (as an indication of deprivation, children eligible for the pupil premium in participant schools ranged from 6.9 to 53.3%). Participants 571 Year 7 girls. This article reports on qualitative data collected from 59 girls in the intervention arm of the trial, 10 dance instructors and 9 school contacts involved in the delivering of the BGDP. Methods Data were obtained from nine focus groups with girls (one per intervention school), and interviews with dance instructors and school contacts. Focus groups sought views of girls’ motivation to participate, teaching styles and experiences of the intervention. Interviews explored views on implementation and dissemination. Framework analysis was used to analyse data. Results Qualitative data elicited three themes associated with the delivery of BGDP that affected implementation: project design, session content and project organisation. ‘Project design’ found issues associated with recruitment, timetabling and session quantity to influence the effectiveness of BGDP. ‘Session content’ found that dance instructors delivered a range of content and that girls enjoyed a variety of dance. Themes within ‘project organisation’ suggested an ‘open enrolment’ policy and greater parental involvement may facilitate better attendance. Conclusions After-school PA interventions have potential for increasing PA levels among adolescent girls. There is a need to consider the context in which

  13. Physical activity of Polish adolescents and young adults according to IPAQ: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Bergier, Józef; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Biliński, Przemysław; Paprzycki, Piotr; Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The alarming problem of a decline in physical activity among children and adolescents and its detrimental effects on public health has been well recognised worldwide. Low physical activity is responsible for 6% of deaths worldwide and 5-10% of deaths in the countries of the WHO European Region, according to country. Within the last decade, many initiatives have been launched to counteract this phenomenon. The objective of presented study was analysis of the level of physical activity among adolescents and young adults in Poland, according to the IPAQ questionnaire. The study group covered 7,716 adolescents: 5,086 children attending high school and secondary schools and 2,630 university students. Low physical activity was noted among 57% of schoolchildren and 20.84% of students. Analysis of the level of physical activity according to the IPAQ indicated that it was lower among girls, compared to boys. An additional analysis, with the consideration of the place of residence, showed that the highest percentage of the population with low physical activity was noted in the rural areas (29.30%), while among the urban inhabitants of cities with a population above 100,000 it was on the level of 23.69% and 20.57%. Median for weekly physical activity by respondents" gender was on the level of 1,554.00 MET*min. weekly among females, and 2,611.00 MET*min. weekly among males (p<0.000). The highest weekly physical activity expressed in MET*min. was observed among the inhabitants of towns with a population less than 100,000, whereas among the rural population and inhabitants of large cities with a population of over 100,000 the weekly physical activity was on a similar level (1,830.50 and 1,962.00 respectively). An extended analysis of respondents' physical activity showed that during the day students spend significantly more time in a sedentary position, compared to schoolchildren. The presented results of studies indicate the necessity to continue and intensify actions to

  14. Creating a virtual community of practice to investigate legitimate peripheral participation by African American middle school girls in science activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Leslie D.

    How do teenage girls develop an interest in science? What kinds of opportunities can science teachers present to female students that support their engagement with learning science? I studied one aspect of this issue by focusing on ways students could use science to enhance or gain identities that they (probably) already valued. To do that I created technology-rich activities and experiences for an after school class in science and technology for middle school girls who lived in a low socio-economic urban neighborhood. These activities and experiences were designed to create a virtual community of practice whose members used science in diverse ways. Student interest was made evident in their responses to the activities. Four conclusions emerged. (1) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of admired African American business women interested students in learning by linking it to their middle-class aspirations and their interest in things that money and status can buy. (2) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of African American women experts in science in a classroom context where students then practiced similar kinds of actual scientific tasks engaged students in relations of legitimate peripheral participation in a virtual and diverse community of practice focused on science which was created in the after-school classes. (3) Opportunities where students used science to show off for family, friends, and supporters of the after-school program, identities they valued, interested them enough that they engaged in long-term science and technology projects that required lots of revisions. (4) In response to the opportunities presented, new and enhanced identities developed around becoming a better student or becoming some kind of scientist.

  15. Predictors for Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls Using Statistical Shrinkage Techniques for Hierarchical Longitudinal Mixed Effects Models

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Edward M.; Young, Deborah Rohm; Wu, Tong Tong

    2015-01-01

    We examined associations among longitudinal, multilevel variables and girls’ physical activity to determine the important predictors for physical activity change at different adolescent ages. The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls 2 study (Maryland) contributed participants from 8th (2009) to 11th grade (2011) (n=561). Questionnaires were used to obtain demographic, and psychosocial information (individual- and social-level variables); height, weight, and triceps skinfold to assess body composition; interviews and surveys for school-level data; and self-report for neighborhood-level variables. Moderate to vigorous physical activity minutes were assessed from accelerometers. A doubly regularized linear mixed effects model was used for the longitudinal multilevel data to identify the most important covariates for physical activity. Three fixed effects at the individual level and one random effect at the school level were chosen from an initial total of 66 variables, consisting of 47 fixed effects and 19 random effects variables, in additional to the time effect. Self-management strategies, perceived barriers, and social support from friends were the three selected fixed effects, and whether intramural or interscholastic programs were offered in middle school was the selected random effect. Psychosocial factors and friend support, plus a school’s physical activity environment, affect adolescent girl’s moderate to vigorous physical activity longitudinally. PMID:25928064

  16. The young astrophysicist: a very inexpensive activity to discuss spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockington, Guilherme; André Testoni, Leonardo; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2015-09-01

    The continuing fascination of young people with celestial bodies leads them to pose challenging questions to their science teachers, such as how was the universe born? How were the stars formed? In this paper we present an extremely inexpensive but highly engaging activity to teach the basics of spectroscopy. Guided by the question ‘how do scientists know what a star is made of?’, this simple activity allows a wide range of physical content to be taught, based on the analysis of the emission spectrum of a star’s light. It is possible to see the configuration of lines of each chemical element as a fingerprint, thereby inferring each one’s presence in the composition of the celestial body. As many countries do not have access to even inexpensive technologies, such as simple computers or digital cameras, this alternative could teach and motivate students of different ages to understand and enjoy the beauty of the nature of light.

  17. Is Music "Haram"? Jordanian Girls Educating Each Other about Nation, Faith and Gender in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adely, Fida J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This research explores the importance of extracurricular activities, specifically music performances of a high school music group in Jordan, for the education of adolescent girls about patriotism, the proper way to live their faith, and their role as young women in contemporary Jordan. Setting: Article is based on research in a high…

  18. Bringing Dinosaur Science to the Junior Girl Scouts Through a College Service-Learning Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guertin, Laura A.; Cao, Edna T.; Craig, Karen A.; George, Alice E.; Goldson, Shana T.; Makatche, Shanon P.; Radusevich, Brett T.; Sandor, Charles W.; Takos, Anya T.; Tuller, Ryan; Williams, James K.; Williams, Michael A.

    2004-12-01

    Undergraduate students in an introductory-level geoscience course successfully designed and conducted a science badge day for the Junior Girl Scouts. With national concerns that girls turn away from science at a young age, a service-learning project was incorporated into a college course with the end result providing a group of girls a positive and fun science-learning experience. A number of science and technology badges exist for the Girl Scouts, yet not many of these badges have been completed because of a lack of confidence the troop leaders have in teaching science and a paucity of scheduled science events for the leaders to take their girls. Junior Girl Scout troops were invited to the Pennsylvania State University Delaware County campus to complete a series of hands-on dinosaur science activities that allowed them to earn the Science in Everyday Life badge. At the conclusion of the badge event, the girls reported a greater interest in science, a desire to learn more science, and a desire to complete additional science-related Girl Scout badges.

  19. Changing Girls' Education in Guatemala.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provasnik, Stephen; Brush, Lorie; Heyman, Cory; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Guatemala's school completion rates are among the lowest in Latin America and are particularly low in rural indigenous areas ravaged by 36 years of civil conflict. In 1997, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity, known as Proyecto Global in Guatemala, to increase the percentage of girls who complete fifth grade, especially in rural areas and…

  20. Adolescent Girls Face the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Lynn; Bergeron, Suzie

    1994-01-01

    This article is the final report on a study of adolescent girls which explored the relationship between physical activity and self-esteem. Two earlier phases of the study collected data on girls aged 9 to 12 years (n=76) and aged 12 to 17 years (n=67). A questionnaire explored: (1) confidence and perceived competence; (2) sports and activity…

  1. Young Children as Active Citizens in Local Government: Possibilities and Challenges from an Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomaeus, Clare; Gregoric, Carolyn; Krieg, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable research and discussion regarding children and young people's rights and citizenship, the participation of young children in community decision-making is still limited. In this exploratory research, a case study is reported on how ideas about young children as active citizens are interpreted within one local government…

  2. Ready, Steady, Action: What Enables Young People to Perceive Themselves as Active Agents in Their Lives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Government and educational priorities place importance on young people of secondary school age being active, having their voices heard, and participating in their community. This paper explores an understanding of the role of agency in young people's lives and how the concept is developing. Young people who perceive themselves as having…

  3. Turtle Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Charles; Ponder, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The day the Turtle Girls received Montel's adoption papers, piercing screams ricocheted across the school grounds instantaneously and simultaneously--in that moment, each student felt the joy of civic stewardship. Read on to find out how a visit to The Turtle Hospital inspired a group of elementary students to create a club devoted to supporting…

  4. Girls' Success: Mentoring Guide about HIV and AIDS. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The issue of HIV and AIDS is a serious global issue that affects girls and boys, women and men, from all communities. Girls and women are particularly vulnerable to contracting HIV which can develop into AIDS. This guide for mentoring contains important information about HIV and AIDS related to young women and girls. The guide also provides ideas…

  5. Blurring Boundaries: Two Groups of Girls Collaborate on a Wiki

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schillinger, Trace

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, a secondary English and feminist studies teacher created a course and designed a study around a reading exchange for eighth-grade girls from two vastly different communities. Girls from a school in a northeastern state read young adult novels and wrote about their reading and related topics with girls from Washington, DC on a wikispace…

  6. Physical Activity, Body Composition and Metabolic Syndrome in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Salonen, Minna K.; Wasenius, Niko; Kajantie, Eero; Lano, Aulikki; Lahti, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low physical activity (PA) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS), its components and body composition among young Finnish adults. Research Design and Methods The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband) five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET). Results The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours) or intensity (MET) were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS. Conclusions MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS. PMID:25992848

  7. From Ambivalence to Activism: Young People's Environmental Views and Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partridge, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Do young people really take a particular interest in environmental issues, or are they apathetic? This paper considers what young people really think about the environment by drawing together and reviewing attitudinal polling and other research into young people's views. It seeks to challenge simplistic assumptions, and instead acknowledges the…

  8. Energy Expenditure during Sexual Activity in Young Healthy Couples

    PubMed Central

    Frappier, Julie; Toupin, Isabelle; Levy, Joseph J.; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylene; Karelis, Antony D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine energy expenditure in kilocalories (kcal) during sexual activity in young healthy couples in their natural environment and compare it to a session of endurance exercise. Methods The study population consisted of twenty one heterosexual couples (age: 22.6 ± 2.8 years old) from the Montreal region. Free living energy expenditure during sexual activity and the endurance exercise was measured using the portable mini SenseWear armband. Perceived energy expenditure, perception of effort, fatigue and pleasure were also assessed after sexual activity. All participants completed a 30 min endurance exercise session on a treadmill at a moderate intensity. Results Mean energy expenditure during sexual activity was 101 kCal or 4.2 kCal/min in men and 69.1 kCal or 3.1 kCal/min in women. In addition, mean intensity was 6.0 METS in men and 5.6 METS in women, which represents a moderate intensity. Moreover, the energy expenditure and intensity during the 30 min exercise session in men was 276 kCal or 9.2 kCal/min and 8.5 METS, respectively and in women 213 kCal or 7.1 kCal/min and 8.4 METS, respectively. Interestingly, the highest range value achieved by men for absolute energy expenditure can potentially be higher than that of the mean energy expenditure of the 30 min exercise session (i.e. 306.1 vs. 276 kCal, respectively) whereas this was not observed in women. Finally, perceived energy expenditure during sexual activity was similar in men (100 kCal) and in women (76.2 kCal) when compared to measured energy expenditure. Conclusion The present study indicates that energy expenditure during sexual activity appears to be approximately 85 kCal or 3.6 kCal/min and seems to be performed at a moderate intensity (5.8 METS) in young healthy men and women. These results suggest that sexual activity may potentially be considered, at times, as a significant exercise. PMID:24205382

  9. Effectiveness of a summer healthy lifestyle program for promoting moderate-vigorous activity in minority girls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity each day. However, there is little research on what types of activities are most effective for facilitating this amount of activity. To assess which physical activities elicite...

  10. Brief Report: Effect of Menarcheal Status and Family Structure on Depressive Symptoms and Emotional/Behavioural Problems in Young Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capron, Christiane; Therond, Carine; Duyme, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between depressive symptoms and emotional/behavioural problems in adolescent girls (N = 553) aged 12-13 years, menarcheal status and family structure, and considered whether the effect of family structure was the same in the presence or absence of menses. The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the…

  11. Prevalence of Eating Disturbance and Body Image Dissatisfaction in Young Girls: An Examination of the Variance across Racial and Socioeconomic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeel, Marissa L.; Hughes, Tammy L.; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Hipwell, Alison; Theodore, Lea A.

    2009-01-01

    Eating disorder research has predominantly focused on White adolescent females. More recent research suggests that eating disorders occur in various racial and age groups. The current study examines prevalence and stability of body image dissatisfaction and eating disturbance in 9- and 10-year-old girls and whether there is variability by racial…

  12. Deep, Deep, Deep Inside We're All Friends: A Qualitative Study of How Young Girls Engage, Develop, Maintain, and Assess Relationships with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Sheila Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative research study examines the manner in which second grade girls engage, develop, maintain, and assess relationships with peers. Grounded theory methodology was employed to collect and analyze data. The study makes three claims: the institutional structure of the school impacted the development of friendships between and among…

  13. Girls in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Three years ago, the San Diego Zoo embarked on a new crusade--to introduce opportunities in the scientific realm to a small, diverse population of girls at a local inner-city, low-income junior high school. Researchers from the National Council for Research on Women found that mentoring programs and the opportunity to perform active science are…

  14. Physical Activity Levels and Motivational Responses of Boys and Girls: A Comparison of Direct Instruction and Tactical Games Models of Games Teaching in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lindsey; Harvey, Stephen; Savory, Louise; Fairclough, Stuart; Kozub, Stephen; Kerr, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to independently determine the levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and self-determined motivation of both boys and girls as they participated in prolonged units of invasion games (i.e. 6-12 lessons) through two pedagogical models: direct instruction and the tactical games model (TGM). It was…

  15. An Investigation of Adolescent Girls' Global Self-Concept, Physical Self-Concept, Identified Regulation, and Leisure-Time Physical Activity in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Emily Kristin; Garn, Alex C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among identified regulation, physical self-concept, global self-concept, and leisure-time physical activity with a sample of middle and high school girls (N = 319) enrolled in physical education. Based on Marsh's theory of self-concept, it was hypothesized that a) physical self-concept would mediate the…

  16. Her Life Depends on It II: Sport, Physical Activity, and the Health and Well-Being of American Girls and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staurowsky, Ellen J.; Miller, Kathleen E.; Shakib, Sohaila; De Souza, Mary Jane; Ducher, Gaele; Gentner, Noah; Theberge, Nancy; Williams, Nancy I.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the Women's Sports Foundation published the first edition of "Her Life Depends On It" (Don Sabo, Kathleen E. Miller, Merrill J. Melnick, and Leslie Heywood). At that time, it was clear that evidence-based research confirmed that regular physical activity and sport provides the critical foundation, in no small part, that allows girls and…

  17. Her Life Depends on It II: Sport, Physical Activity, and the Health and Well-Being of American Girls and Women. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staurowsky, Ellen J.; DeSouza, Mary Jane; Ducher, Gaele; Gentner, Noah; Miller, Kathleen E.; Shakib, Sohaila; Theberge, Nancy; Williams, Nancy I.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the Women's Sports Foundation published the first edition of "Her Life Depends On It" (Sabo et al.). At that time, it was clear that evidence-based research confirmed that regular physical activity and sport provides the critical foundation, in no small part, that allows girls and women to lead healthy, strong, and fulfilled lives. Now,…

  18. Process evaluation of "Girls on the Run": exploring implementation in a physical activity-based positive youth development program.

    PubMed

    Iachini, Aidyn L; Beets, Michael W; Ball, Annahita; Lohman, Mary

    2014-10-01

    Many positive youth development programs rely on physical activity as a primary program component. Referred to as physical activity-based youth development programs, these program designs have great potential for promoting healthy youth development. This study examined how one such physical activity-based positive youth development program was implemented in order to identify design features critical to maximizing positive youth outcomes. This mixed method, multi-site process evaluation of Girls on the Run (GOTR) utilized focus groups, site visits, and self-report implementation checklists. Implementation scores were calculated to assess implementation fidelity across twenty-nine sites, and qualitative data were inductively analyzed to identify factors influential for implementation. Results reveal variability in how GOTR was implemented. Five themes emerged from the data that represented factors serving as facilitators or barriers to programmatic implementation. These included contextual/environmental factors (e.g., parental involvement, relationships with school personnel), organizational factors (e.g., implementation support and responsiveness of staff), program-specific factors (e.g., curriculum design), coach factors (e.g., existing relationships with participants, responsiveness to participant's needs), and youth factors (e.g., behavioral and discipline issues). Study findings have implications for improving the design of physical activity-based and other positive youth development programs, with relevance to evaluators, program planners, youth development leaders, and others working with children and youth. PMID:24858574

  19. Research and Activism about Girls' Education for Global Democracy: The Case of the Campaign "Etna, Volcano of Peace," Catania, Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cristaldi, Melita; Pampanini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    According to a progressive interpretation of human development, girls' education should form an integral part of a full democratic system. Nevertheless, girls' education is threatened and attacked in many ways in current societies, be they authoritarian or democratic societies, developing or developed ones. In this article the two authors, both…

  20. Improving Girls' Education in Guatemala. Impact Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC. Center for Development Information and Evaluation.

    In Guatemala, many girls attend no school. A project by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Basic Education Strengthening (BEST), demonstrated that improving educational quality is the best approach to enhancing girls' participation. BEST included a Girls Education Program (GEP) activity. Under the BEST/GEP umbrella,…

  1. Girls and science education in Mauritius: a study of science class practices and their effects on girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naugah, Jayantee; Watts, Mike

    2013-11-01

    Background: The population of Mauritius consists of 52% females and scientific literacy is seen to be of vital importance for all young people if they are to be sufficiently equipped to meet the challenges of a fast changing world. Previous research shows, however, that science is not popular among girls. This paper explores one of many reasons why few girls opt for science subjects after compulsory schooling. Purpose: This study investigated the approaches to teaching in four science classrooms in Mauritius, with particular emphases on the preferences of girls as they learn science. Sample: A total of 20 student interviews and 16 teacher interviews were conducted in four schools in Mauritius. The four mixed-faith schools comprised two all-girl schools (one state, one fee-paying), and two mixed-sex schools (one state, one fee-paying), within urban, suburban and rural situations. Design and method: 80 non-participant lessons were observed, of which 60 were science lessons while the remaining 20 non-science lessons were in economics, accounts and commerce. Group interviews with five pupils in each of the four schools were conducted and 16 individual interviews with teachers in the four schools gave an insight into the pedagogic approaches used for the teaching and learning of science. Results: Transmissive approaches to teaching, giving little opportunity for collaborative or activity-based learning, were found to be the most important factors in alienating the girls from science. Conclusions: There need to be radical changes in approaches to teaching to retain young girls' interest in the sciences.

  2. The independent prospective associations of activity intensity and dietary energy density with adiposity in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    van Sluijs, Esther M F; Sharp, Stephen J; Ambrosini, Gina L; Cassidy, Aedin; Griffin, Simon J; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-03-14

    There is limited evidence on the prospective association of time spent in activity intensity (sedentary (SED), moderate (MPA) or vigorous (VPA) physical activity) and dietary intake with adiposity indicators in young people. This study aimed to assess associations between (1) baseline objectively measured activity intensity, dietary energy density (DED) and 4-year change in adiposity and (2) 4-year change in activity intensity/DED and adiposity at follow-up. We conducted cohort analyses including 367 participants (10 years at baseline, 14 years at follow-up) with valid data for objectively measured activity (Actigraph), DED (4-d food diary), anthropometry (waist circumference (WC), %body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), weight status) and covariates. Linear and logistic regression models were fit, including adjustment for DED and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results showed that baseline DED was associated with change in WC (β for 1kJ/g difference: 0·71; 95% CI 0·26, 1·17), particularly in boys (1·26; 95% CI 0·41, 2·16 v. girls: 0·26; 95% CI -0·34, 0·87), but not with %BF, FMI or weight status. In contrast, baseline SED, MPA or VPA were not associated with any of the outcomes. Change in DED was negatively associated with FMI (β for 1kJ/g increase: -0·86; 95% CI -1·59, -0·12) and %BF (-0·86; 95% CI -1·25, -0·11) but not WC (-0·27; 95% CI -1·02, 0·48). Change in SED, MPA and VPA did not predict adiposity at follow-up. In conclusion, activity intensity was not prospectively associated with adiposity, whereas the directions of associations with DED were inconsistent. To inform public health efforts, future studies should continue to analyse longitudinal data to further understand the independent role of different energy-balance behaviours in changes in adiposity in early adolescence. PMID:26758859

  3. Girls' Success: Mentoring Guide on Transitioning Girls from School to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Liza; Bertone, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Mentoring girls is a challenge. Girls will come to mentors with hard questions and great hope. Sometimes mentors will be able to help make their lives better; other times they will feel that they have not done very much. This guide serves as a road map for mentors. This guide focuses on a very important step in young women's journey toward…

  4. Girls Rule! TGIF: Thank God I'm Female: Girls Kick Butt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Elaine M.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that teachers and librarians can have a positive influence on the lives of young girls by complimenting their reading choices and search strategies rather than just their shoes and hairdos. Discusses books dealing with beauty, clothes, media stereotypes, women in sports, sexuality, and recommended reading for girls. (PEN)

  5. A Ray of Hope for Girls in Trouble: Alternative Education Services in a Singapore Girls' Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Kaili Chen; Wu, Deirdra I-Hwey

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a trans-cultural perspective of emotional/behavioral difficulties and a brief overview of the subculture of today's young adolescent girls. Features of successful alternative education services provided at a Singapore girls' home are also presented. This paper concludes with a consideration of implications for teachers and…

  6. Future Girls, Transcendent Femininities and New Pedagogies: Toward Girls' Hybrid Bodies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzarito, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Media provides a material site for girls' identity formation and presents conflicting images of femininity, which challenge young women's self-expression and physicality development. The "problem" with girls' physicality has not been resolved, but rather complicated by discourses of new femininities in sport, fitness and health promoted by the new…

  7. Missionary Girl Power: Saving the "Third World" One Girl at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensoy, Ozlem; Marshall, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Deborah Ellis's "The Breadwinner" is a popular young adult novel about Muslim girls. In this paper, we offer an analysis of the representation of Muslim girls and women in the book as well as responses from undergraduate students enrolled in a children's literature course to these constructions. Building on the work of postcolonial feminism…

  8. High physical activity in young children suggests positive effects by altering autoantigen-induced immune activity.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, E; Ludvigsson, J; Huus, K; Faresjö, M

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity in children is associated with several positive health outcomes such as decreased cardiovascular risk factors, improved lung function, enhanced motor skill development, healthier body composition, and also improved defense against inflammatory diseases. We examined how high physical activity vs a sedentary lifestyle in young children influences the immune response with focus on autoimmunity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, collected from 55 5-year-old children with either high physical activity (n = 14), average physical activity (n = 27), or low physical activity (n = 14), from the All Babies In Southeast Sweden (ABIS) cohort, were stimulated with antigens (tetanus toxoid and beta-lactoglobulin) and autoantigens (GAD65 , insulin, HSP60, and IA-2). Immune markers (cytokines and chemokines), C-peptide and proinsulin were analyzed. Children with high physical activity showed decreased immune activity toward the autoantigens GAD65 (IL-5, P < 0.05), HSP60 and IA-2 (IL-10, P < 0.05) and also low spontaneous pro-inflammatory immune activity (IL-6, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and CCL2 (P < 0.05)) compared with children with an average or low physical activity. High physical activity in young children seems to have positive effects on the immune system by altering autoantigen-induced immune activity. PMID:25892449

  9. Activity trends in young solar-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtinen, J.; Jetsu, L.; Hackman, T.; Kajatkari, P.; Henry, G. W.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We study a sample of 21 young and active solar-type stars with spectral types ranging from late F to mid K and characterize the behaviour of their activity. Methods: We apply the continuous period search (CPS) time series analysis method on Johnson B- and V-band photometry of the sample stars, collected over a period of 16 to 27 years. Using the CPS method, we estimate the surface differential rotation and determine the existence and behaviour of active longitudes and activity cycles on the stars. We supplement the time series results by calculating new log R'HK = log F'HK/σTeff4 emission indices for the stars from high resolution spectroscopy. Results: The measurements of the photometric rotation period variations reveal a positive correlation between the relative differential rotation coefficient and the rotation period as k ∝ Prot1.36, but do not reveal any dependence of the differential rotation on the effective temperature of the stars. Secondary period searches reveal activity cycles in 18 of the stars and temporary or persistent active longitudes in 11 of them. The activity cycles fall into specific activity branches when examined in the log Prot/Pcyc vs. log Ro-1, where Ro-1 = 2Ωτc, or log Prot/Pcyc vs. log R'HK diagram. We find a new split into sub-branches within this diagram, indicating multiple simultaneously present cycle modes. Active longitudes appear to be present only on the more active stars. There is a sharp break at approximately log R'HK = -4.46 separating the less active stars with long-term axisymmetric spot distributions from the more active ones with non-axisymmetric configurations. In seven out of eleven of our stars with clearly detected long-term non-axisymmetric spot activity the estimated active longitude periods are significantly shorter than the mean photometric rotation periods. This systematic trend can be interpreted either as a sign of the active longitudes being sustained from a deeper level in the stellar interior

  10. Peer stress-related coping activities in young adolescents' asthma management.

    PubMed

    Yang, TienYu Owen; Lunt, Ingrid; Sylva, Kathy

    2009-08-01

    Managing asthma around peers can be stressful for young adolescents (age 9-14). However, the contexualised coping activities under asthma management-related peer stress is under-investigated. The study aims to explore the peer stress-related coping strategies young adolescents adopt in asthma management. Thirty-four young adolescents were interviewed with semi-structured storytelling protocols. Young adolescents expressed their opinions about four scenarios where the characters had difficulties managing asthma among peers. Interviews were transcribed, and qualitative data were analysed with analytical induction and constant comparison to generate themes that described the coping activities young adolescents adopted in four asthma management scenarios. Young adolescents' responses in each scenario were summarised. The coping activities adolescents adopted were cognitive justifying, explaining, outsourcing and undisclosing. Despite the limitations in a scenario-based qualitative study, the results may be useful for teachers and health professionals in social skill interventions for asthma management in early adolescence. PMID:19657905

  11. "Dolly" Girls: Tweenies as Artefacts of Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Fiona; Kelly, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The apparent sexualization and exploitation of young girls by the consumer media is a much debated topic in the advanced liberal democracies. This paper will develop the argument that the "consumer-media culture" has established itself as one of the most powerful influences in processes of self-formation for young people, and that a tweenie self…

  12. [Transgender] Young Men: Gendered Subjectivities and the Physically Active Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudwell, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss [transgender] young men's social, physical and embodied experiences of sport. These discussions draw from interview research with two young people who prefer to self-identify as "male" and not as "trans men", although they do make use of this term. Finn and Ed volunteered to take part in the…

  13. Brief Report: The Theory of Planned Behaviour Applied to Physical Activity in Young People Who Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Emma S.; Daley, Amanda J.; Ussher, Michael

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that physical activity may be useful as a smoking cessation intervention for young adults. In order to inform such interventions, this study evaluated the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) for understanding physical activity behaviour in young smokers. Regular smokers aged 16-19 years (N=124), self-reported physical…

  14. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…

  15. Showcasing Mathematics for the Young Child: Activities for Three-, Four-, and Five-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copley, Juanita V., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Written for all teachers of young children, this book illustrates activities that promote early mathematics development for children ages three to five and "showcases" mathematics for the young child. The thirty-five activities in this book are distributed into five content areas: number and operations, geometry, algebra, measurement, and data…

  16. Factors Related to Rural Young Adolescents' Participation in Outdoor, Noncompetitive Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiana, Richard W.; Davis, Marsha; Wilson, Mark G.; McCarty, Frances A.; Green, Gary T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Young adolescents who have little interest in participating in competitive team sports are at an increased risk for physical inactivity. Noncompetitive outdoor physical activity can provide young adolescents with increased opportunities to participate in physical activities that appeal to them and have positive health effects. The purpose…

  17. Young Adult Follow-Up of Hyperactive Children: Antisocial Activities and Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; Fischer, Mariellen; Smallish, Lori; Fletcher, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Background: Hyperactive/ADHD children are believed to be a greater risk for adolescent and young adult antisocial activity and drug use/abuse, particularly that subset having comorbid conduct problems/disorder. Method: We report on the lifetime antisocial activities and illegal drug use self-reported at young adult follow-up (mean age 20-21 years;…

  18. Young People's Voluntary and Campaigning Activities as Sources of Political Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roker, Debi; Player, Katie; Coleman, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses political apathy and alienation among youth, challenging this negative image. Describes empirical research that demonstrates a high level of engagement by young people in social activism and community activities, focuses on factors influencing young people's participation, and demonstrates that volunteering and campaigning affect young…

  19. Effects of Habitual Physical Activity and Fitness on Tibial Cortical Bone Mass, Structure and Mass Distribution in Pre-pubertal Boys and Girls: The Look Study.

    PubMed

    Duckham, Rachel L; Rantalainen, Timo; Ducher, Gaele; Hill, Briony; Telford, Richard D; Telford, Rohan M; Daly, Robin M

    2016-07-01

    Targeted weight-bearing activities during the pre-pubertal years can improve cortical bone mass, structure and distribution, but less is known about the influence of habitual physical activity (PA) and fitness. This study examined the effects of contrasting habitual PA and fitness levels on cortical bone density, geometry and mass distribution in pre-pubertal children. Boys (n = 241) and girls (n = 245) aged 7-9 years had a pQCT scan to measure tibial mid-shaft total, cortical and medullary area, cortical thickness, density, polar strength strain index (SSIpolar) and the mass/density distribution through the bone cortex (radial distribution divided into endo-, mid- and pericortical regions) and around the centre of mass (polar distribution). Four contrasting PA and fitness groups (inactive-unfit, inactive-fit, active-unfit, active-fit) were generated based on daily step counts (pedometer, 7-days) and fitness levels (20-m shuttle test and vertical jump) for boys and girls separately. Active-fit boys had 7.3-7.7 % greater cortical area and thickness compared to inactive-unfit boys (P < 0.05), which was largely due to a 6.4-7.8 % (P < 0.05) greater cortical mass in the posterior-lateral, medial and posterior-medial 66 % tibial regions. Cortical area was not significantly different across PA-fitness categories in girls, but active-fit girls had 6.1 % (P < 0.05) greater SSIpolar compared to inactive-fit girls, which was likely due to their 6.7 % (P < 0.05) greater total bone area. There was also a small region-specific cortical mass benefit in the posterior-medial 66 % tibia cortex in active-fit girls. Higher levels of habitual PA-fitness were associated with small regional-specific gains in 66 % tibial cortical bone mass in pre-pubertal children, particularly boys. PMID:26983726

  20. Safety and Immunogenicity of Human Papillomavirus-16/18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine: A Randomized Trial in 10–25-Year-Old HIV-Seronegative African Girls and Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Sow, Papa Salif; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Kiviat, Nancy; Changalucha, John; Mbaye, Khardiata Diallo; Brown, Joelle; Bousso, Kouro; Kavishe, Bazil; Andreasen, Aura; Toure, Macoumba; Kapiga, Saidi; Mayaud, Philippe; Hayes, Richard; Lebacq, Marie; Herazeh, Marjan; Thomas, Florence; Descamps, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cervical cancer is a major public health problem for women in sub-Saharan Africa. Availability of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine could have an important public health impact. Methods. In this phase IIIb, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial (NCT00481767), healthy African girls and young women seronegative for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were stratified by age (10–14 or 15–25 years) and randomized (2:1) to receive either HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (n = 450) or placebo (n = 226) at 0, 1, and 6 months. The primary objective was to evaluate HPV-16/18 antibody responses at month 7. Seropositivity rates and corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. In the according-to-protocol analysis at month 7, 100% of initially seronegative participants in the vaccine group were seropositive for both anti–HPV-16 and anti–HPV-18 antibodies (n = 130 and n = 128 for 10–14-year-olds, respectively; n = 190 and n = 212 for 15–25-year-olds). GMTs for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were higher in 10–14-year-olds (18 423 [95% confidence interval, 16 185–20 970] and 6487 [5590–7529] enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units (EU)/mL, respectively) than in 15–25-year-olds (10 683 [9567–11 930] and 3743 [3400–4120] EU/mL, respectively). Seropositivity was maintained at month 12. No participant withdrew owing to adverse events. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine was highly immunogenic and had a clinically acceptable safety profile when administered to healthy HIV-seronegative African girls and young women. PMID:23242542

  1. Hemothorax under thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue: plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in a 16-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Varnholt, V; Ringe, H; Nietsch, L; Gaedicke, G

    1999-12-01

    We present the case of a 16-year-old girl with an extended thrombosis of the femoral and iliac vein and the inferior vena cava during pleuropneumonia; predisposing risk factors for thrombophilia were: use of contraceptives, nicotine abuse and congenital deficiency of antithrombin III (not previously diagnosed). Thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA; initial dose: 0.08 mg/kg/h) was started. 2 days later--after diagnosis of an extended hemothorax: 1500 ml blood were obtained after thoracocentesis, transfusion of packed red blood cells was necessary--rt-PA was stopped, with only heparin (400 U/kg/d) being administered. 36 h later--the thrombosis had not yet changed--the thrombolytic therapy with rt-PA was continued in a markedly reduced dose (0.015 mg/kg/d) with no further bleeding complications. 8 days later--after successful thrombolysis--t-PA was stopped, heparin was given for another 10 days, then cumarin was administered orally. PMID:10650854

  2. Girls Are Great. Contemporary Issues: Growing Up Female.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosatche, Harriet S.; And Others

    This document is designed to help Girl Scout leaders understand the maturation of girls and how to assist the girls in their development. The information and activities described in this booklet are designed to help girls see themselves in a positive way, understand some of the forces that influence them as they develop, and cope with the stresses…

  3. Longitudinal Changes in Beliefs by Stage of Physical Activity Adoption in Iranian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taymoori, Parvaneh; Berry, Tanya R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to examine the relationships among physical activity (PA)-related beliefs and to determine to what extent Iranian adolescents in different stages of PA adoption differ in perceived benefits and barriers during a 3-year transition from junior high school to high school. Methods: Data were collected from…

  4. Enhanced oxidative stress and platelet activation combined with reduced antioxidant capacity in obese prepubertal and adolescent girls with full or partial metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karamouzis, I; Pervanidou, P; Berardelli, R; Iliadis, S; Papassotiriou, I; Karamouzis, M; Chrousos, G P; Kanaka-Gantenbein, C

    2011-08-01

    In adults, obesity is a main factor implicated in increased oxidative stress (OS), platelet activation (PA) and impaired antioxidant status (AS), all predisposing factors for cardiovascular disease leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an important cardiovascular risk factor, which progressively develops and may already be present during late childhood or adolescence. However, scarce data exist on oxidative-antioxidant balance and PA in childhood and adolescence in the presence of partial (PMetS) or full MetS. The aim of the study was to evaluate OS, PA, and AS in prepubertal and adolescent obese girls with partial or full MetS. 96 girls with a clinical and metabolic evaluation for obesity and 44 healthy normal-weight sex- and age-matched girls were studied. IDF-adopted criteria were used to define full and partial MetS and the patient population was divided into 4 groups: the first comprised 31 pre-pubertal girls with PMetS (PR-PMetS), the second 37 adolescents with PMetS (AD-PMetS), the third 10 prepubertal girls with full MetS (PR-MetS), and the fourth 18 adolescents with full MetS (AD-MetS). The OS was evaluated by measuring plasma 15-F(2t)-Isoprostane levels (15-F(2t)-IsoP) and protein carbonyls, PA by thromboxane B(2) levels (TXB(2)), and AS by serum vitamin E and plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels. 15-F(2t)-IsoP, protein carbonyls, and TXB(2) levels were significantly gradually amplified, and vitamin E and TAC reduced, and significantly correlated with obesity from childhood to adolescence and from partial to full MetS. This study demonstrates the loss of the normal homeostatic balance between oxidant-antioxidant state in obese children and adolescents with manifestations of partial and full MetS. PMID:21823055

  5. Shifting Motivations: Young Women's Reflections on Physical Activity over Time and across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Kurzer, Mindy S.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2010-01-01

    This research analyzes motivations expressed by young, healthy, sedentary women before and after an exercise intervention. Young women (aged 18-30, n = 39) participated in focus groups or interviews during a 4-month exercise intervention. Afterward, 22 of these women and 20 controls completed physical activity diaries for 6 months and were…

  6. Young Adult Outcome of Hyperactive Children: Adaptive Functioning in Major Life Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; Fischer, Mariellen; Smallish, Lori; Fletcher, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors report the adaptive functioning of hyperactive and control children in southeastern Wisconsin (Milwaukee) followed to young adulthood. Method: Interviews with participants concerning major life activities were collected between 1992 and 1996 and used along with employer ratings and high school records at the young adult…

  7. Young adult males' motivators and perceived barrier towards eating healthily and being active: A qualitative study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a lack of understanding of young men's perspectives in obesity-related research. This study aims to: (1) identify young men's perceived motivators and barriers in adopting healthy eating and physical activity behaviors, and (2) explore any differences in responses by weight status categorie...

  8. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internationally, young men (aged 18-25 years) have a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and many fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity or dietary guidelines. There is a lack of engagement and understanding of young men's needs in health-related research. Therefore, this study a...

  9. Toward Broader Perspectives of Young Children's Mathematics: Recognizing and Comparing Olivia's Beliefs and Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernet, Jamie L; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists on young children's beliefs about mathematics, and current research perspectives on early mathematical activity may overlook a great deal of young children's sophisticated mathematical thinking. We argue this is attributable, in part, to a need for a broader view of what mathematics is, including cultural practices that are…

  10. Boys and Girls: Join the Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Allesandro, Lou; Wool, Michael; McKenzie, Mary Alice

    2012-01-01

    Boys & Girls Clubs of America count 4,000 community-based clubs serving more than 4 million young people through membership and community outreach. They provide a safe place to spend time during non-school hours and the summer as an alternative to the streets or being home alone--a place to play, have fun and learn. Boys & Girls Clubs began in New…

  11. ‘Gay boy talk’ meets ‘girl talk’: HIV risk assessment assumptions in young gay men's sexual health communication with best friends

    PubMed Central

    Mutchler, Matt G.; McDavitt, Bryce

    2011-01-01

    Young adults, particularly young gay men (YGM), are vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Yet, little is known about how YGM discuss sexual health issues with their friends (‘gay boy talk’). We conducted semi-structured interviews with YGM and their best friends (11 YGM/YGM dyads and 13 YGM/heterosexual female dyads). In this paper, we examine risk assessment assumptions conveyed within YGM's communication about sexual health with their friends and how, if at all, the sexual scripts guiding these assumptions may differ between YGM and young women. Findings demonstrated that, while these young adults clearly intended to support their friends and promote safer sex, they also conveyed assumptions about HIV risk assessment, especially regarding sexual partner selection, that may actually increase their friends’ risk for HIV infection. Since inaccurate HIV risk assessment assumptions were transmitted via sexual health communication between peers, it is suggested that such assumptions may need to be addressed in HIV prevention programs working with YGM and their friends. Further, gender differences were identified within the sexual scripts shared between YGM and their friends, suggesting that such interventions should be tailored to the specific needs of different friendship networks. PMID:21059803

  12. Tracking of physical activity, fitness, body composition and diet from adolescence to young adulthood: The Young Hearts Project, Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Boreham, Colin; Robson, Paula J; Gallagher, Alison M; Cran, Gordon W; Savage, J Maurice; Murray, Liam J

    2004-10-01

    BACKGROUND: The assumption that lifestyles formed early in life track into adulthood has been used to justify the targeting of health promotion programmes towards children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to use data from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project to ascertain the extent of tracking, between adolescence and young adulthood, of physical activity, aerobic fitness, selected anthropometric variables, and diet. METHODS: Males (n 245) and females (n 231) were assessed at age 15 y, and again in young adulthood [mean (SD) age 22 (1.6) y]. At both timepoints, height, weight and skinfold thicknesses were measured, and physical activity and diet were assessed by questionnaire and diet history method respectively. At 15y, fitness was assessed using the 20 metre shuttle run, while at young adulthood, the PWC170 cycle ergometer test was used. For each measurement made at 15y, subjects were ranked into 'low' (L1; lowest 25%), 'medium' (M1; middle 50%) or 'high' (H1; highest 25%) categories. At young adulthood, similar categories (L2, M2, H2) were created. The extent of tracking of each variable over time was calculated using 3 x 3 matrices constructed using these two sets of categories, and summarised using kappa (kappa) statistics. RESULTS: Tracking of diet and fitness was poor (kappa activity in males was fair (kappa 0.202), but was poor in females (kappa 0.021). In contrast, anthropometric variables such as weight, body mass index and sum of skinfolds tracked more strongly in females (kappa 0.540, kappa 0.307, kappa 0.357 respectively) than in males (kappa 0.337, kappa 0.199, kappa 0.216 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The poor tracking of fitness and diet in both sexes, and physical activity in females, suggests that these aspects of adolescent lifestyle are unlikely to be predictive of behaviours in

  13. A Qualitative Study to Examine Feasibility and Design of an Online Social Networking Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Teenage Girls

    PubMed Central

    Van Kessel, Gisela; Kavanagh, Madeleine; Maher, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Background Online social networks present wide-reaching and flexible platforms through which to deliver health interventions to targeted populations. This study used a social marketing approach to explore teenage girls’ perceptions of physical activity and the potential use of online social networks to receive a physical activity intervention. Methods Six focus groups were conducted with 19 Australian teenage girls (ages 13 to 18 years) with varying levels of physical activity and socioeconomic status. A semi-structured format was used, with groups discussion transcribed verbatim. Content analysis identified emergent themes, with triangulation and memos used to ensure accuracy. Results Physical activity was most appealing when it emphasised sport, exercise and fitness, along with opportunities for socialisation with friends and self-improvement. Participants were receptive to delivery of a physical activity intervention via online social networks, with Facebook the most widely reported site. Participants commonly accessed online social networks via mobile devices and particularly smartphones. Undesirable features included promotion of physical activity in terms of walking; use of cartoon imagery; use of humour; and promotion of the intervention via schools, each of which were considered “uncool”. Participants noted that their parents were likely to be supportive of them using an online social networking physical activity intervention, particularly if not promoted as a weight loss intervention. Conclusion This study identified key features likely to increase the feasibility and retention of an online social networking physical activity intervention for teenage girls. Guidelines for the design of interventions for teenage girls are provided for future applications. PMID:26934191

  14. Girls on the Fringe: The Writing Lives of Two Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pytash, Kristine E.

    2016-01-01

    Writing plays an important role in young adults' lives. It is tied to academic achievement and also provides young adults with a voice in social interactions, a way to express their feelings, and an opportunity to reflect on life events. This study explores the writing practices of 2 adolescent girls: Suzanne and Molly. On multiple occasions they…

  15. [You will become a saleswoman, my girl. Press review: Niger].

    PubMed

    1999-12-01

    In the Maradi district of southwestern Niger, the country¿s commercial hub, children are born with business sense. Parents in the district expect their young daughters to take part in the region¿s business activities by selling products at village markets. Therefore, only 13% of girls in the district attend school and during market days, classrooms are almost empty, but particularly devoid of female students. Students in Sabon Machi village have school vacation every Tuesday in order to attend the weekly market, then catch up on coursework on Wednesdays. Parents approve of such district norms because they prefer to keep their girls at home to help with household chores. Otherwise, they enroll their daughters in a Koranic school, where they can learn the basics of becoming a wife. Girls in this part of Niger are either promised to someone else in the future or they are under the control of their mothers, who are charged with teaching daughters what they need to know to be proper wives. Girls sell market products to slowly accumulate funds for their dowries. Also with regard to daughters, many parents believe that school attendance is synonymous with unwanted pregnancies, abortions, and other sorts of aberrations. Niger¿s government and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are wondering how to convince parents in this region to send their daughters to school. Some approaches employed to reassure and convince parents to that end are described. PMID:12296192

  16. Girls' Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.

  17. Preadolescent Violence among Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    This research study explored preadolescent girl-to-girl violence based on the perceptions of the victim at 14 years of age and those of her family. Using a heuristic research design (Moustakas, 1990), this constant comparative analysis of multiple data sources found (a) a clearly delineated progression of girl-to-girl violence, (b) blindness…

  18. Atypical Functional Brain Activation during a Multiple Object Tracking Task in Girls with Turner Syndrome: Neurocorrelates of Reduced Spatiotemporal Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, Elliott A.; Stoddard, Joel; Lai, Song; Lackey, John; Shi, Jianrong; Ross, Judith L.; Simon, Tony J.

    2010-01-01

    Turner syndrome is associated with spatial and numerical cognitive impairments. We hypothesized that these nonverbal cognitive impairments result from limits in spatial and temporal processing, particularly as it affects attention. To examine spatiotemporal attention in girls with Turner syndrome versus typically developing controls, we used a…

  19. Using Mobile Devices in Physical Education to Enhance Learning and Physical Activity for At-Risk Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbone, Anne; Perez, Samantha L.; Virgilio, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to illustrate how a physical education program uses mobile devices to motivate at-risk girls attending an urban charter school. Permitting students to use mobile devices in physical education gives students a "technological freedom" that has been removed in other contexts. The apps described in this article…

  20. Chromospherically active stars. II - HD 82558, a young single BY Draconis variable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Bopp, Bernard W.; Africano, John L.; Goodrich, Bret D.; Palmer, Leigh Hunter

    1986-01-01

    It is presently noted that the HD 82558 chromospherically active star is a young and rapidly rotating K2 V single BY Draconis variable with very strong far-UV emission features and an H-alpha line filled to the continuum level by emission. HD 82558 has constant velocity and is not a member of the Hyades Supercluster. Its light curve behavior, which appears to have been stable for several hundred rotation cycles, is reminiscent of that of the young, rapidly rotating, single K V variable H II 1883 in the Pleiades; this stability may be characteristic of young, single, chromospherically active stars.

  1. Horse-Girl Assemblages: Towards a Post-Human Cartography of Girls' Desire in an Ex-Mining Valleys Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renold, Emma; Ivinson, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    The paper works with queer and feminist post-human materialist scholarship to understand the way young teen valleys' girls experienced ubiquitous feelings of fear, risk, vulnerability and violence. Longitudinal ethnographic research of girls (aged 12-15) living in an ex-mining semi-rural community suggests how girls are negotiating complex…

  2. Young Scientists Explore the World of Water. Book 9--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of water. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  3. The effect of increasing autonomy through choice on young children’s physical activity behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing autonomy by manipulating the choice of available physical activity options in a laboratory setting can increase physical activity in older children and adults. However, the effect of manipulating the number of physically active choices has yet to be examined in young children in a gymnas...

  4. Young Scientists Explore Nature. Book 10--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of nature. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  5. Young Scientists Explore Inner & Outer Space. Book 6--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of space (inner and outer). Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for…

  6. Un dia en la vida: The Everyday Activities of Young Children from Central American Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denmark, Nicole; Jones Harden, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the everyday activities of young children from low-income Central American (CA) immigrant families. From the perspective that everyday activities propel children's development of culturally and contextually valued behaviours and skills, 48 mothers were interviewed regarding the activities that are available…

  7. Validity of a Self-Administered 3-Day Physical Activity Recall in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jennifer L.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most physical activity recall questionnaires assess activity over a 7-day period. However, questionnaires have been validated in adolescents and adults using shorter recall timeframes. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a self-administered 3-day physical activity recall instrument (3DR) in young adults.…

  8. Young Scientists Explore Light & Color. Book 12--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of light and color. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each…

  9. Young Scientists Explore Electricity & Magnetism. Book 7--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of electricity and magnetism. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for…

  10. Young Scientists Explore Rocks & Minerals. Book 11--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of rocks and minerals. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each…

  11. Young Scientists Explore the Five Senses. Book 4--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of the five senses. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each…

  12. Using Antecedent Physical Activity to Increase On-Task Behavior in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Sara; Vail, Cynthia O.; Ayres, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    A withdrawal design was used to investigate how physical activity affects on-task behavior of young children with significant developmental delays in a special education preschool classroom. Five preschool age children with significant developmental delays engaged in either physical activity or seated center activities for 20 min prior to a 15-min…

  13. The Treasure in Leisure Activities: Fostering Resilience in Young People Who Are Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup, Glenda M.; Cornell, Elaine; Bundy, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    Because leisure activities are often viewed as optional, their value to people with disabilities may not be recognized. This study explored the benefits of leisure activities for eight young people who are blind. These activities provided them with supportive relationships, a desirable identity, experiences of power and control, and experiences of…

  14. Interventions to Promote Young People's Physical Activity: Issues, Implications and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo

    2006-01-01

    There has been increased interest in the development and implementation of physical activity interventions designed to increase young people's physical activity participation in recent years. This is perhaps founded on concerns over youngsters' physical activity levels and the possible health consequences. School-based interventions are the most…

  15. Young Scientists Explore Animals. Book 2--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of animals. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  16. Young Scientists Explore the World Around Them. Book 1--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of scientists. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  17. Influence of Genetic Risk Information on Parental Role Identity in Adolescent Girls and Young Women from Families with Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Heise, Elizabeth Melvin; Spiridigliozzi, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    Using a multi-group cross-sectional design, we explored self-concept related to parental role salience and enactment in 53 young women (14 to 24 years) with knowledge they were either carriers, non-carriers, or could be a carrier of fragile X syndrome (FXS). Parental role salience included the participants’ desire “to be a mother” and the importance they placed on this role. Enactment focused on the participants’ views regarding ways to become a mother (reproductive options), parenting a child affected by FXS, and the development of partner relationships (marriage). Participants completed the FXS Adolescent Interview and the FX-Visual Analog Scale. Participants’ knowledge of their genetic risk status appears to have influenced both salience and enactment of the parental role, and the effect varied based on carrier status. For many, knowledge of genetic risk appears to have led to reappraisal, redefinition, and re-engagement with the goal of becoming a parent. This process was prominent in those who were carriers and less so in those who were at-risk, and it did not typically occur in those who were non-carriers. Findings offer valuable insight into the impact of genetic risk information on developing perceptions of the parental role and offer new directions for genetic counseling with adolescents and young women with a family history of FXS. PMID:21826579

  18. Girls with anorexia nervosa as young adults. Self-reported and parent-reported emotional and behavioural problems compared with siblings.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Inger; Andersen, Anne; Heyerdahl, Sonja

    2005-10-01

    This follow-up study had three objectives: 1) to investigate emotional and behavioural problems, adaptive functioning and substance use in former anorexia nervosa (AN) patients compared with siblings, 2) to compare information obtained from different informants, and 3) to compare questionnaire results with interview results. Fifty (of 55) female AN patients, representative for AN patients under 18 years referred to county health services, were assessed at a mean of 8.8 years after treatment start with the Young Adult Self-Report and the Young Adult Behaviour Checklist (mean age 23.1 years). In all, 48 patients, 25 siblings, 33 mothers and 27 fathers participated in the questionnaire study. Although 41/50 (82 %) had recovered from their eating disorder, the former AN patients had substantially more self-reported and parent-reported problems than their siblings, particularly with regard to Internalising Problems and on the Anxious/Depressed syndrome scale. Cross-informant agreement between the parents and between parents and patients was high, but low between parents and siblings. The patients with psychiatric diagnoses at follow-up had substantially higher problem scores than those without diagnoses both on the self-report and the parent-report, supporting the validity of the questionnaires. In conclusion, the self- and parent-reports showed a high level of Internalising Problems and were useful instruments in the assessment of former AN patients. PMID:16254769

  19. Young Scientists Explore an Encyclopedia of Energy Activities. Book 8--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of energy. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  20. Preadolescent Girls and the Presentation of Self: A Dramaturgical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lori; MacKinnon, David

    2001-01-01

    Interviews and focus groups with five 9- and 10-year-old girls from rural Nova Scotia (Canada) clearly revealed the power and influence of the media in manipulating young girls' perceptions of themselves and others. Goffman's interactionist perspective of the "theatrical performance" provided a framework for the study. (Contains 47 references.)…

  1. Raising Their Voices: The Politics of Girls' Anger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lyn Mikel

    Challenging conventional characterization of teenage girlhood as a wasteland of depression, low self-esteem, and passive victimhood, this book presents accounts of young girls showing how their voices are shaped and constrained by socioeconomic class. Based on a year-long study involving conversations with white adolescent girls from the working…

  2. Socialization and Instrumental Competence in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    1970-01-01

    Discusses relationships between parental authority patterns by which children are influenced and the development of socially responsible and independent behavior in young children (especially girls). (NH)

  3. Catalog of programs, activities, assistance, and materials for young inventors

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, N.E. . Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.)

    1990-01-01

    An important issue to Americans during the 1990s will be improving the country's economic health by nurturing creative problem-solving in today's youth. The Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) at the US Department of Energy is contributing to this important effort by funding the development and annual revision of this catalog. The purpose of the catalog is to act as a springboard for involving educators and inventor organizations in programs for young inventors by describing existing programs in the US and Canada, including names, addresses, and telephone numbers. We especially encourage collaboration between educators and inventors in developing local programs. The first part of the catalog describes how 39 inventor organizations have acted as catalysts in statewide programs, developed special programs for young inventors outside the classroom, and written curriculum materials. The second part of the catalog describes local, statewide, and national programs and contests developed by a variety of organizations, individuals, and school systems. Program types are located by geographic region, and entries are indexed by state/province, program name, and grade level. 1 fig.

  4. Helping Girls Take a Byte Out of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Carol J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes several strategies principals can use to improve girls' confidence in using computer and information technology, such as making technology instruction "girl friendly," stressing active and cooperative learning, and demonstrating the positive impact of technology on society. (PKP)

  5. The tribal girl child in Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Bhanti, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the status of the girl child among tribes in India. Tribes have son preference but do not discriminate against girls by female infanticide or sex determination tests. Girls do not inherit land, but they are not abused, hated, or subjected to rigid social norms. Girls are not veiled and are free to participate in dancing and other recreational programs. There is no dowry on marriage. The father of the bridegroom pays a brideprice to the father of the girl. Widowed or divorced women are free to marry again. Daughters care for young children, perform housework, and work in the field with their brothers. In the tribal village of Choti Underi girls were not discriminated against in health and nutrition, but there was a gender gap in education. Both girls and boys were equally exposed to infection and undernourishment. Tribals experience high rates of infant and child mortality due to poverty and its related malnutrition. Child labor among tribals is a way of life for meeting the basic needs of the total household. A recent report on tribals in Rajasthan reveals that 15-20% of child labor involved work in mines that were dangerous to children's health. Girl children had no security provisions or minimum wages. Tribal children were exploited by human service agencies. Child laborers were raped. Government programs in tribal areas should focus on improving living conditions for children in general. Special programs for girls are needed for providing security in the workplace and increasing female educational levels. More information is needed on the work burden of tribal girls that may include wage employment as well as housework. PMID:12158009

  6. "I Liked Girls and I Thought They Were Pretty": Initial Memories of Same-Sex Attraction in Young Lesbian and Bisexual Women.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Sara I; Rubin, Jennifer D; Bauermeister, José A

    2016-08-01

    There is little research on what is meant by the concept of "feeling attracted" and even less about what same-sex attraction looks and feels like for individuals. Without insight into the phenomenon of same-sex attraction, researchers risk misunderstanding the role of sexual attraction in sexual identity development and risk mis-categorizing individuals in research designs that compare LGBTQ and heterosexual samples. The current study draws from semi-structured interviews (n = 30) with young lesbian-, bisexual-, and queer-identified women (ages 18-24) about their initial memories of same-sex attraction. Two questions were pursued using qualitative analytic strategies. We examined the age that participants remembered first experiencing same-sex attraction using content analysis. Two age groups emerged as distinct: those with experiences of same-sex attraction in childhood and those with initial attractions in later adolescence. We also examined key elements in participants' descriptions of early same-sex attraction using thematic analysis. The role of embodied feelings, relationships with other young women, and social environments including media images emerged as central to initial experiences of attraction. Findings highlight how early experiences of same-sex attraction produced different types of interpretations within individuals and, in turn, these interpretations informed how participants did or did not take up LGBTQ identity labels. These findings may help guide the development of more refined measurement tools for researchers hoping to sample sexual minorities and can contribute to developing more effective supports for individuals who experience same-sex attraction but may not adopt LGBTQ identity labels and, as a result, are routinely missed in outreach efforts. PMID:25987490

  7. Labial adhesions in pubertal girls.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Roy Kallol; Sonika, Agarwal; Charu, Chanana; Sunesh, Kumar; Neena, Malhotra

    2006-01-01

    Labial adhesions after puberty are rare and are usually the result of chronic inflammation, urinary tract infection, hypoestrogenism or surgical procedures leading to vulval trauma. Sexual abuse leading to labial adhesions is extremely rare in girls who have attained menarche. Complete vulval fusion can rarely occur without any evidence of hypoestrogenism. We address this rare entity in three young pubertal girls wherein one had a history of genital trauma, the second had a history of surgical intervention due to urinary retention and the last one had a history of sexual abuse. All patients had history of genital trauma in common. Accepted management of this condition is adhesiolysis followed by application of estrogen cream in the postoperative period. PMID:16189695

  8. Physical activity in aging: Comparison among young, aged, and nonagenarian individuals

    PubMed Central

    Johannsen, Darcy L.; DeLany, James P.; Frisard, Madlyn I.; Welsch, Michael A.; Rowley, Christina K.; Fang, Xiaobing; Jazwinski, S. Michal; Ravussin, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is known to decline with age; however, there is a paucity of data on activity in persons who are in their nineties and beyond. We used objective and reliable methods to measure PA in nonagenarians (≥90 yr; n = 98) and hypothesized that activity would be similar to that of aged (60–74 yr; n = 58) subjects but less than in young (20–34 yr; n = 53) volunteers. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured by doubly labeled water over 14 days and resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry. Measures of PA included activity energy expenditure adjusted for body composition, TEE adjusted for RMR, physical activity level (PAL), and activity over 14 days by accelerometry expressed as average daily durations of light and moderate activity. RMR and TEE were lower with increasing age group (P < 0.01); however, RMR was not different between aged and nonagenarian subjects after adjusting for fat-free mass, fat mass, and sex. Nonagenarians had a lower PAL and were more sedentary than the aged and young groups (P < 0.01); however, the nonagenarians who were more active on a daily basis walked further during a timed test, indicating higher physical functionality. For all measures of activity, no differences were found between young and aged volunteers. PA was markedly lower in nonagenarians compared with young and aged adults. Interestingly, PA was similar between young volunteers and those who were in their 60s and 70s, likely due to the sedentary nature of our society, particularly in young adults. PMID:18556430

  9. Physical Activity and Play Behaviours in Children and Young People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boddy, Lynne M.; Downs, Samantha J.; Knowles, Zoe R.; Fairclough, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of physical activity and active play for children and young people are well established. However, there is a lack of physical activity research involving children and young people with intellectual disabilities. This study investigated habitual physical activity and recess play behaviour in 70 5- to 15-year-old participants with…

  10. The GLAMA (Girls! Lead! Achieve! Mentor! Activate!) physical activity and peer leadership intervention pilot project: A process evaluation using the RE-AIM framework

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Implementing new initiatives and physical activity interventions in schools represents a myriad of challenges that if overcome can potentially facilitate a range of behavioural changes. The aim of this paper is to describe the process evaluation of specific design constructs used in the GLAMA (Girls! Lead! Achieve! Mentor! Activate!) peer leadership and physical activity pilot project. Conducted in a state secondary school in Australia, the intervention was designed to provide students with opportunities to develop leadership skills, school and social connectedness in addition to a range of physical activity experiences. Methods This process evaluation used the RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance) health promotion evaluation framework to assess three design constructs of the intervention: the effectiveness of leadership training and leader preparedness, activity suitability and participation, and the barriers to implementation of the intervention and potential solutions to overcome these barriers. As it was not the specific aim of this pilot, no behavioural change data were collected from students. Data were collected using a mixed methods approach including student questionnaires, teachers and researchers reporting on their own observations and feedback from students. Results There were three main considerations evident across more than one RE-AIM dimension that need to be addressed to assist with future GLAMA dissemination. Firstly, the development of teacher, school and student participation. This needs to be through a variety of professional development opportunities for teachers, integration of the program within timetabled classes within the school and promoting the program to students as an opportunity to develop a range of skills to apply to future learning and workplace environments. Secondly, the successful translation of leadership training to practice is necessary to ensure that leaders are effectively able to

  11. Girls and ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content Article Body The fact that many more boys than girls are diagnosed with ADHD—at a ratio of ... even when their symptoms are the same as boys’, and girls are less likely than boys to receive sufficient ...

  12. Active summers matter: evaluation of a community-based summertime program targeting obesogenic behaviors of low-income, ethnic minority girls.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Amy M; Ward, Amanda K; Burdette, Kimberly A; Silton, Rebecca L; Dugas, Lara R

    2014-01-01

    Low-income minority females are disproportionately affected by obesity. The relevance of summer months to weight gain is often overlooked. Some evidence suggests that summer programming, such as day camps, may offer increased opportunities for structured physical activities resulting in less weight gain. This study examined the effectiveness of Girls in the Game, a six-hour four-week sports and fitness summer camp program, in increasing physical activity (PA) and reducing body mass index and media use. Statistically significant increases were observed in four physical activity measures including total PA, MVPA, average number of ten-minute bouts of MVPA, and minutes participants spent in bouts of at least ten minutes of MVPA. This chapter highlights the importance of investigating the potential relationships among weight, physical activity, sedentary time, media use, and participation in summer camp programming. PMID:25530244

  13. The physical self in motion: within-person change and associations of change in self-esteem, physical self-concept, and physical activity in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Lindwall, Magnus; Asci, Hulya; Crocker, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of within-person change, and associations of change, in global self-esteem (GSE), physical self-perceptions (PSP), and physical activity in a sample of 705 Canadian adolescent girls over three measurements points and 24 months. The Physical Self-Perceptions Profile (PSPP) was used to measure GSE and PSP, and the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A) was used to assess physical activity. Latent growth curve models were used to analyze the data. All PSP variables except for body attractiveness demonstrated significant average decline, but also significant was the change in between-person heterogeneity. Change in GSE and PSP was moderately to strongly related on a between-person level and weakly to moderately associated on a within-person level. Change in physical activity was related to change in the majority of the PSP variables but not to change in GSE. PMID:25602138

  14. Pueblo Girls: Growing Up in Two Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Marcia

    This book portrays San Ildefonso Pueblo on the east bank of the Rio Grande river in New Mexico through the lives of Sonja, age 10, and her sister Desiree, age 8. Growing up in San Ildefonso Pueblo, the girls enjoy the same activities as other American girls, such as basketball, cheerleading, playing video games, and sending e-mail. But they also…

  15. Reading Girls: Living Literate and Powerful Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettis, Pam; Roe, Mary F.

    2008-01-01

    In this qualitative study, the authors merge two bodies of previously separated scholarship: (1) a socio-cultural understanding of adolescent girls in light of the shifting meaning of ideal girlhood, and (2) the participation and success of adolescent girls in school-based literacy activities. They apply these fields of inquiry to explore the…

  16. Library Materials and Services for Teen Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Katie

    This book describes how libraries can define their service goals to better serve and empower young women, including how to establish partnerships with organizations, offer developmentally appropriate programming, and provide timely reader's advisory services. Chapter 1, "Girls in the Spotlight: A Short History," addresses the search for nonsexist…

  17. Listening to Girls Talk about Their Bodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichter, Mimi

    2000-01-01

    This article, written by an anthropologist who has studied the culture of teenage girls, explores influences on their sense of self, including those of peers, parents, and the media. Educators and parents can play important roles in helping young people navigate successfully through adolescence. (Author/MKA)

  18. Postural Variables in Girls Practicing Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabara, Malgorzata; Hadzik, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess body posture of young female volleyball players in relation to their untrained mates. Material and methods: A group of 42 volleyball players and another of 43 untrained girls, all aged 13-16 years were studied with respect to their body posture indices by using computer posturography. Spinal angles and curvatures were…

  19. Girl child and gender bias.

    PubMed

    Chowdhry, D P

    1995-01-01

    This article identifies gender bias against female children and youth in India. Gender bias is based on centuries-old religious beliefs and sayings from ancient times. Discrimination is reflected in denial or ignorance of female children's educational, health, nutrition, and recreational needs. Female infanticide and selective abortion of female fetuses are other forms of discrimination. The task of eliminating or reducing gender bias will involve legal, developmental, political, and administrative measures. Public awareness needs to be created. There is a need to reorient the education and health systems and to advocate for gender equality. The government of India set the following goals for the 1990s: to protect the survival of the girl child and practice safe motherhood; to develop the girl child in general; and to protect vulnerable girl children in different circumstances and in special groups. The Health Authorities should monitor the laws carefully to assure marriage after the minimum age, ban sex determination of the fetus, and monitor the health and nutrition of pre-school girls and nursing and pregnant mothers. Mothers need to be encouraged to breast feed, and to breast feed equally between genders. Every village and slum area needs a mini health center. Maternal mortality must decline. Primary health centers and hospitals need more women's wards. Education must be universally accessible. Enrollments should be increased by educating rural tribal and slum parents, reducing distances between home and school, making curriculum more relevant to girls, creating more female teachers, and providing facilities and incentives for meeting the needs of girl students. Supplementary income could be provided to families for sending girls to school. Recreational activities must be free of gender bias. Dowry, sati, and devdasi systems should be banned. PMID:12158019

  20. Factors Associated with Leisure Activity among Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Lollar, Donald

    2006-01-01

    The framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) was applied to examine the factors associated with childhood impairment and leisure activity. Information on leisure activity was obtained using a structured questionnaire from a population-based cohort of young adults with childhood impairment. The…

  1. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  2. Understanding How Young People Do Activism: Youth Strategies on Sexual Health in Ecuador and Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Anna-Britt; Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    While social movement research employs "tactical repertoire" to emphasize protest tactics directed at the state, literature on youth activism globally indicates that young people do politics outside the realm of formal political spheres. Youth activism on body politics in Latin America offers evidence that enhances conceptual tools…

  3. Curriculum Diversity and Young Adult Physical Activity: Reflections from High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2008-01-01

    This study was to evaluate if exposure to a diverse curriculum in high school physical education had an impact on young adult physical activity. Students from two universities were surveyed concerning high school physical education content exposure and physical activity in four areas. By investigating relationships between content exposure and…

  4. Project Kealahou: improving Hawai'i's system of care for at-risk girls and young women through gender-responsive, trauma-informed care.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Edward; Jackson, David S; Slavin, Lesley A; Michels, M Stanton; McGeehan, Kathleen M

    2014-12-01

    Project Kealahou (PK) is a six-year, federally-funded program aimed at improving services and outcomes for Hawai'i's female youth who are at risk for running away, truancy, abuse, suicide, arrest and incarceration. PK builds upon two decades of sustained cross-agency efforts among the state's mental health, juvenile justice, education, and child welfare systems to promote system-of-care (SOC) principles of community-based, individualized, culturally and linguistically competent, family driven, youth-guided, and evidence-based services. In addition, PK emphasizes trauma-informed and gender-responsive care in serving its target population of females ages 11-18 years who have experienced psychological trauma. Results from the first four years of the implementation of PK in the Department of Health's (DOH) Child and Adolescent Mental Health Division (CAMHD) highlight the serious familial, socioeconomic, functional, and interpersonal challenges faced by the young women who receive services in Hawai'i's SOC. Despite the challenges faced by PK youth and their families, preliminary results of the evaluation of PK show significant improvements across multiple clinical and functional domains of service recipients. A financial analysis indicates that these outcomes were obtained with a minimal overall increase in costs when compared to standard care alone. Overall, these results suggest that PK may offer a cost effective way to improve access, care, and outcomes for at-risk youth and their families in Hawai'i. PMID:25628971

  5. Youth and young adult physical activity and body composition of young adult women: findings from the dietary intervention study in children.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Melissa G; Hovinga, Mary; Shepherd, John A; Egleston, Brian; Gabriel, Kelley; Van Horn, Linda; Robson, Alan; Snetselaar, Linda; Stevens, Victor K; Jung, Seungyoun; Dorgan, Joanne

    2015-02-01

    This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend = 0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (β=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p = .02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women. PMID:25387239

  6. "Why Girls Go Wrong": Advising Female Teen Readers in the Early Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Jennifer Burek

    2007-01-01

    This article traces historical uses of the phrase "why girls go wrong" to provide a context for analysis of Progressive Era reading guidance for girls and then turns to actual girls' responses to reading. The historic context depicts the milieu in which young women and the advisors who sought to guide them lived and read as a time of intense…

  7. Bringing Dinosaur Science to the Junior Girl Scouts through a College Service-Learning Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guertin, Laura A.; Cao, Edna T.; Craig, Karen A.; George, Alice E.; Goldson, Shana T.; Makatche, Shanon P.; Radusevich, Brett T.; Sandor, Charles W.; Takos, Anya T.; Tuller, Ryan; Williams, James K.; Williams, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Undergraduate students in an introductory-level geoscience course successfully designed and conducted a science badge day for the Junior Girl Scouts. With national concerns that girls turn away from science at a young age, a service-learning project was incorporated into a college course with the end result providing a group of girls a positive…

  8. Educating the girl child in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Tandon, S

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of educating female children in India. There is ample evidence worldwide that improvements in girls' education benefit the status of the family and empower women. The World Declaration of Education for All was adopted in Jomtein, Thailand in 1990. It urged access to and improvement in the quality of education of girls and women to remove obstacles that hamper active participation. 1990 was the Year of Literacy and the Year of the Girl Child. Girls lag in education worldwide. The gender gap is widest in India in levels of literacy, school enrollment, school dropouts, and opportunities for vocational training. There is a need to educate the public, particularly mothers, about the value of girls. In rural and backward areas of India, there is fear of educating girls that is related to prevalent practices of exploitation and violence against women. Education and vocational training should be linked with anti-poverty programs. Adult literacy should be linked with girls' education. The National Policy on Education in 1986 targeted removal of sex stereotyping from school curricula and promoted diversified curricula and access of girls to vocational and professional training programs. The policy recommended integrated child care services and primary education. The national action plan for the 1990s focuses on protection, survival, and development of the girl child in India. Special schools for developing skills in nutrition, cooking, sewing, home economics, and child development should be set up in villages for girls 12-20 years old. The gap in girls' education is attributed to apathy and resistance of parents, unfavorable attitudes toward coeducation, poverty of parents, shortages of schools, and poor quality instruction. Girls' continuing education should be ensured by incentives, such as free books and clothes; time tables conducive to work; support systems; and work schemes. PMID:12158008

  9. Differences in lower-extremity muscular activation during walking between healthy older and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Anne; Silder, Amy; Heiderscheit, Bryan; Mahoney, Jane; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have identified differences in gait kinetics between healthy older and young adults. However, the underlying factors that cause these changes are not well understood. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of age and speed on the activation of lower-extremity muscles during human walking. We recorded electromyography (EMG) signals of the soleus, gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, medial hamstrings, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris as healthy young and older adults walked over ground at slow, preferred and fast walking speeds. Nineteen healthy older adults (age, 73 ± 5 years) and 18 healthy young adults (age, 26 ± 3 years) participated. Rectified EMG signals were normalized to mean activities over a gait cycle at the preferred speed, allowing for an assessment of how the activity was distributed over the gait cycle and modulated with speed. Compared to the young adults, the older adults exhibited greater activation of the tibialis anterior and soleus during mid-stance at all walking speeds and greater activation of the vastus lateralis and medial hamstrings during loading and mid-stance at the fast walking speed, suggesting increased coactivation across the ankle and knee. In addition, older adults depend less on soleus muscle activation to push off at faster walking speeds. We conclude that age-related changes in neuromuscular activity reflect a strategy of stiffening the limb during single support and likely contribute to reduced push off power at fast walking speeds. PMID:19081734

  10. Facilitators, barriers, and components of a culturally-tailored afterschool physical activity program in preadolescent African-American girls and their mothers

    PubMed Central

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Greever, Cory; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Mendoza, Albert; Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Traditional physical activity (PA) programs have not been effective in increasing PA in African-American girls. Currently, there is limited information regarding the components of PA programs that drive participation in African-American girls. The purpose of this investigation was to describe the facilitators, barriers, and components of a culturally-tailored afterschool PA program that will potentially inspire the participation of African-American mother-daughter dyads. Methods Six focus groups (n=12 mother-daughter dyads; daughters, 7–10 yrs in age) were conducted between March and May 2012. Focus group semi-structured interviews were transcribed, coded, and systematically analyzed using NVivo. Results Mothers reported a preference for non-traditional (dancing, household chores) types of PA. While daughters preferred to participate in both dance-based and traditional types (walking, riding bikes) of PA. Participants felt that the use of a culturally-tailored dance program would be appealing because it highlights the cultural and historical legacy of the African-American culture. Mothers wanted programs that would allow them time to spend with their daughters. Top three dance styles that mothers wanted to participate in were African, Hip-hop, and Salsa/samba. While, daughters reported that they would enjoy participating in Hip-hop, African, and Jazz. The most common responses given for resources needed for participating in a culturally-tailored afterschool dance program were the location of the program, transportation, and childcare for siblings. Conclusions The present investigation highlights some cultural factors related to facilitators and barriers of PA that should be addressed in designing PA studies for African-American girls and their mothers. PMID:24620442

  11. The Measurement of Physical Activity in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Melody; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents data from two studies determining the validity of various measures of physical activity in preschool children. One explored how certain measures of activity predicted observed behavior. The other examined the Caltrac motion sensor's predictive validity. Results indicate the Caltrac monitor is sensitive to children's individual differences…

  12. How Young Children Spend Their Time: Television and Other Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston, Aletha C.; Wright, John C.; Marquis, Janet; Green, Samuel B.

    1999-01-01

    Examined television viewing over three years among two cohorts of 2- and 4-year olds. Found that viewing declined with age. With age, time in reading and educational activities increased on weekdays but declined on weekends, and sex differences in time-use patterns increased. Increased time in educational activities, social interaction, and video…

  13. Young School Children's Recess Physical Activity: Movement Patterns and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Amelia M.; Graber, Kim C.; Daum, David N.; Gentry, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study examined physical activity (PA) variables related to recess PA patterns of kindergarten, first and second grade children, and the social preferences and individuals influencing their PA. Data collected (N = 147) used the System of Observing Children's Activity and Relationships during Play (SOCARP) instrument. Children were interviewed.…

  14. The Very Young and Education: 1974 State Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayas, Denise Kale; Ross, Doris M.

    This booklet contains more than 100 brief descriptions of early childhood projects, activities, studies, and legislation obtained from newsletters, bulletins, and the Education Commission of the States' (ECS) 1974 Annual Survey. Only legislation and activities that have been validated or newly reported are included. Bills which failed or were…

  15. Sharing a Small World: Environmental Activities for Young Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains a collection of activities developed for pre-K through second grade students. All of the activities in this teacher's guide use an interdisciplinary approach and explore the human connection with all living things and their environment. Contents include: (1) "Sharing Space and Working Together"; (2) "Sharing Resources and…

  16. Labor force activities and income among young Guatemalan adults.

    PubMed

    Hoddinott, John; Behrman, Jere R; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2005-06-01

    This paper considers labor force activities among adults (26 to 41 years of age in 2003) who participated as children in a nutrition supplementation trial in Guatemala. The vast majority of men are engaged in some type of income-generating activity in 2002-04. However, unlike their fathers, these men are much more likely to be engaged in wage labor, even if they remain in the original study villages. Those engaged in wage employment appear to do so steadily. Women are much more likely to be engaged in some type of income-generating activity than their mothers. For both men and women, there appears to be considerable movement in and out of own business activities. In Guatemala City, wage work is the predominant economic activity with more than half of the women interviewed working for wages; elsewhere operating non-farm businesses is the most often cited activity. For both men and women, agriculture now appears to be very much a secondary activity. PMID:16060216

  17. All-Girls Adventure Programmes: What Are the Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, Anja; Mack, Erica Nixon; Budbill, Nadine W.; McKenney, Priscilla

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the benefits of all-girls adventure programmes from the perspective of adolescent girls. Participants included 361 girls aged 10-17 years from diverse ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds who completed a variety of adventure programmes. Adventure activities included rock climbing, sea kayaking, mountaineering, backpacking,…

  18. Girls & Technology: An Idea Book for Educators & Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition of Girls' Schools, Concord, MA.

    This booklet represents an effort to combine research findings, strategies, teaching and parenting tips, activities, career profiles, and print and online information that can help make technology more accessible to girls. Chapters include: "Why a Focus on Girls & Technology: New Priorities"; "Girls & Technology: Different Styles of Learning";…

  19. Within salvation: girl hawkers and the colonial state in development era Lagos.

    PubMed

    George, Abosede

    2011-01-01

    For almost two decades between the close of the Second World War and Nigerian independence in 1960, the British colonial state which faced a crisis of legitimacy in Lagos upheld city ordinances that made itinerant trading by young children in Lagos a punishable status offense. Although anti-trading regulations were gender-neutral in their language, girls were disproportionately sanctioned for engaging in street trading and related activities. In defending their concentration on girl sellers over boy sellers, colonial welfare officials painted a picture of the urban context as an inherently dangerous context and of girls as being particularly at risk of violent assault in the city, making them particularly in need of protection from town life. Sources which show that parents generally resisted or ignored the street trading regulations and continued permitting their daughters to sell despite entreaties, warnings, or fines from colonial officials, suggest that African parents and British colonial officials may have had conflicting views on the inherent danger of the city, on what constituted child endangerment, and on the gendered nature of childhood. This article argues that the girl saving campaigns of development era Lagos were as much about the legitimization of a colonial state facing a crisis of legitimacy as they were about debates between African parents and colonial welfare officials in Lagos concerning ideas of children and childhood and the dangers of street trading by African girls. PMID:21853619

  20. What Matters to Girls and Boys in a Black Primary School in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhana, Deevia

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the construction of gender identities among young boys and girls in a black primary school. Against the backdrop of food insecurity, young boys' and girls' vulnerability to violence and to using violence as a means of getting food is increased. Violence is a clear manifestation of gender inequalities. Drawing on data…