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Sample records for active young injection

  1. Gender differences in sexual and injection risk behavior among active young injection drug users in San Francisco (the UFO Study).

    PubMed

    Evans, Jennifer L; Hahn, Judith A; Page-Shafer, Kimberly; Lum, Paula J; Stein, Ellen S; Davidson, Peter J; Moss, Andrew R

    2003-03-01

    Female injection drug users (IDUs) represent a large proportion of persons infected with HIV in the United States, and women who inject drugs have a high incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Therefore, it is important to understand the role of gender in injection risk behavior and the transmission of blood-borne virus. In 2000-2002, 844 young (<30 years old) IDUs were surveyed in San Francisco. We compared self-reported risk behavior between 584 males and 260 female participants from cross-sectional baseline data. We used logistic regression to determine whether demographic, structural, and relationship variables explained increased needle borrowing, drug preparation equipment sharing, and being injected by another IDU among females compared to males. Females were significantly younger than males and were more likely to engage in needle borrowing, ancillary equipment sharing, and being injected by someone else. Females were more likely than males to report recent sexual intercourse and to have IDU sex partners. Females and males were not different with respect to education, race/ethnicity, or housing status. In logistic regression models for borrowing a used needle and sharing drug preparation equipment, increased risk in females was explained by having an injection partner who was also a sexual partner. Injecting risk was greater in the young female compared to male IDUs despite equivalent frequency of injecting. Overlapping sexual and injection partnerships were a key factor in explaining increased injection risk in females. Females were more likely to be injected by another IDU even after adjusting for years injecting, being in a relationship with another IDU, and other potential confounders. Interventions to reduce sexual and injection practices that put women at risk of contracting hepatitis and HIV are needed. PMID:12612103

  2. Ultrastructural study of phagocytic activities of young astrocytes in injured neonatal rat brain following intracerebral injection of colloidal carbon.

    PubMed

    Al-Ali, S Y; Al-Zuhair, A G; Dawod, B

    1988-01-01

    The cellular reaction to injury in the mature central nervous system (CNS) has been extensively studied in both man and animals, while a detailed study of the reaction of the immature CNS to injury is lacking in the literature. This study was undertaken to elucidate the response of young astrocytes following injection injury to developing brain. Colloidal carbon was applied because it is a suitable marker for phagocytosis, it is nontoxic, and it is readily identifiable by light and electron microscopy. The cerebral cortex of the neonatal rat was injected with 0.1 microliter of colloidal carbon solution. The animals were allowed to survive from 1 hour to 30 days postoperation. The brains were fixed by vascular perfusion and processed for light and electron microscopy. Carbon particles were ingested in membrane-bound vacuoles and sequestered in lysosomes of young astrocytes. Astrocytes, loaded with carbon particles, were identified after 4 days, and were seen in abundance between 10 to 21 days postoperation. Carbon-laden astrocytes were seen in the immediate vicinity of the site of the injection; in the surrounding, apparently normal, neuropil; and in the perivascular regions. This study demonstrates the ability of young astrocytes to engulf foreign particles injected into the developing brain. The presence of carbon particles in astrocytes located further away from the site of injection is discussed. PMID:2976040

  3. Assessing candidacy for acute hepatitis C treatment among active young injection drug users: a case-series report.

    PubMed

    Asher, Alice; Lum, Paula J; Page, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Treatment for acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has significantly better outcomes than treatment for chronic infection. The short window of the acute period poses challenges for young injection drug users (IDU), who are at highest risk of HCV infection, to demonstrate treatment candidacy. We recruited patients with acute HCV from a prospective cohort study to examine clinical and behavioral issues related to treatment candidacy. We report on outcomes and how nursing case management affected candidacy. All five acutely-infected participants reported daily drug use at baseline. All established primary care and decreased their drug use. None received treatment for their acute infection; one was treated within 12 months of infection. Establishing treatment candidacy for young IDU in the acute phase involves various health domains. An acute infection's short period poses many challenges to establishing candidacy, but it is a window of opportunity to engage young IDU in health care. PMID:21497111

  4. Assessing Candidacy for Acute Hepatitis C Treatment Among Active Young Injection Drug Users: A Case-Series Report

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Alice; Lum, Paula J.; Page, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Treatment for acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has significantly better outcomes than treatment for chronic infection. The short window of the acute period poses challenges for young injection drug users (IDU), who are at highest risk of HCV infection, to demonstrate treatment candidacy. We recruited patients with acute HCV from a prospective cohort study to examine clinical and behavioral issues related to treatment candidacy. We report on outcomes and how nursing case management affected candidacy. All 5 acutely-infected participants reported daily drug use at baseline. All established primary care and decreased their drug use. None received treatment for their acute infection; one was treated within 12 months of infection. . Establishing treatment candidacy for young IDU in the acute phase involves various health domains. Acute infection's short period poses many challenges to establishing candidacy, but it is a window of opportunity to engage young IDU in health care. PMID:21497111

  5. Patterns of Ketamine Use Among Young Injection Drug Users†

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic that has emerged as an increasingly popular choice among young drug users. Recent research indicates the presence of hidden populations of young people who inject ketamine in New York and other U.S. cities. Applying an ethno-epidemiological approach, the authors recruited 40 young injection drug users (IDUs) (< 25 years old) in New York City to explore health risks associated with ketamine use. This analysis looks at the varying patterns and frequencies of ketamine injection by examining personal, social, and cultural aspects of these young people’s lives. We learned that drug-using histories, experiential dimensions, sociocultural characteristics, and associations with other young people help account for the different patterns of injecting ketamine within the sample. In particular, these findings indicate that young people who were more frequent ketamine injectors had the following characteristics: initiated injection drug use with ketamine; enjoyed the effects of ketamine, were stably housed; lived in the vicinity of New York City; and associated with others who also injected ketamine. PMID:17523582

  6. First injection of ketamine among young injection drug users (IDUs) in three U.S. cities

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson; Hathazi, Dodi; Alarcon, Erica; Tortu, Stephanie; Clatts, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    Ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic, has emerged as an increasingly common drug among subgroups of young injection drug users (IDUs) in cities across the United States. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 213 young IDUs aged 16–28 years recruited in New York, New Orleans, and Los Angeles between 2004 and 2006. While some initiated injection drug use with ketamine, the drug was more frequently injected by IDUs with extensive polydrug using histories. IDUs initiating with ketamine commonly self-injected via an intramuscular mode of administration. The injection group provided crucial knowledge and material resources that enabled the injection event to occur, including ketamine, syringes, and injection skills. Injection paraphernalia was commonly shared during the first injection of ketamine, particularly vials of pharmaceutically-packaged liquid ketamine. Injection events infrequently occurred in a rave or club and more typically in a private home, which challenges ketamine’s designation as a ‘club’ drug. The first injection of ketamine was a noteworthy event since it introduced a novel drug or new mode of administration to be further explored by some, or exposed others to a drug to be avoided in the future. Risk reduction messages directed towards young IDUs should be expanded to include ketamine. PMID:16979848

  7. Longitudinal Trajectories of Ketamine Use among Young Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson; Shin, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Background Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic that became increasing popular in the club and rave scene in the 1980s and 1990s. Reports surfaced in the late 1990s indicating that ketamine was being injected in several U.S. cities by young injection drug users (IDUs). Since all studies on ketamine injection were cross-sectional, a longitudinal study was undertaken in 2005 to determine: characteristics of young IDUs who continue to inject ketamine; frequency of ketamine injection over an extended time period; risks associated with ongoing ketamine injection; and environmental factors that impact patterns of ketamine use. Methods Young IDUs aged 16 to 29 with a history of injecting ketamine (n=101) were recruited from public locations in Los Angeles and followed during a two-year longitudinal study. A semi-structured instrument captured quantitative and qualitative data on patterns of ketamine injection and other drug use. A statistical model sorted IDUs who completed three or more interviews (n=66) into three groups based upon patterns of ketamine injection at baseline and follow-up. Qualitative analysis focused on detailed case studies within each group. Results IDUs recruited at baseline were typically in their early 20s, male, heterosexual, white, and homeless. Longitudinal injection trajectories included: “Moderates,” who injected ketamine several times per year (n=5); “Occasionals,” who injected ketamine approximately once per year (n=21); and “Abstainers,” who did not inject any ketamine during follow-up (n=40). Findings suggest that ketamine is infrequently injected compared to other drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine. Most IDUs who begin injecting ketamine will stop or curb use due to: negative or ambivalent experiences associated with ketamine; an inability to find the drug due to declining supply; or maturing out of injecting drugs more generally. Conclusion Reducing ketamine injection among young IDUs may best be accomplished

  8. Pregnancy and Sexual Health among Homeless Young Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of…

  9. Initiation into Prescription Opioid Misuse among Young Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Teti, Michelle; Silva, Karol; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson; Harocopos, Alex; Treese, Meghan

    2011-01-01

    Background Prescription opioids are the most frequently misused class of prescription drugs among young adults. Initiation into prescription opioid misuse is an important public health concern since opioids are increasingly associated with drug dependence and fatal overdose. Descriptive data about initiation into prescription opioid misuse among young injection drug users (IDUs) are scarce. Methods An exploratory qualitative study was undertaken to describe patterns of initiation into prescription opioid misuse among IDUs aged 16 to 25 years. Those young IDUs who had misused a prescription drug at least three times in the past three months were recruited during 2008 and 2009 in Los Angeles (n=25) and New York (n=25). Informed by an ethno-epidemiological approach, descriptive data from a semi-structured interview guide were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Initiation into prescription opioid misuse was facilitated by easy access to opioids via participant’s own prescription, family, or friends, and occurred earlier than misuse of other illicit drugs, such as heroin. Nearly all transitioned into sniffing opioids, most injected opioids, and many initiated injection drug use with an opioid. Motives for transitions to sniffing and injecting opioids included obtaining a more potent high and/or substituting for heroin; access to multiple sources of opioids was common among those who progressed to sniffing and injecting opioids. Conclusion Prescription opioid misuse was a key feature of trajectories into injection drug use and/or heroin use among this sample of young IDUs. A new pattern of drug use may be emerging whereby IDUs initiate prescription opioid misuse before using heroin. PMID:21689917

  10. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders Among Young Injection Drug Users*

    PubMed Central

    Mackesy-Amiti, Mary E.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Ouellet, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of individuals in treatment for substance use have found high rates of psychiatric disorders, however little is known about the mental health of drug users not in treatment. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of lifetime and recent substance use and psychiatric disorders among young injection drug users (IDU) outside of a treatment setting. Methods Participants were recruited through outreach and respondent-driven sampling. Trained interviewers administered the Psychiatric Research Instrument for Substance and Mental Disorders. Interviews were conducted at two field stations operated by Community Outreach Intervention Projects in Chicago. Participants were 570 young adults (18-25 years) who injected drugs in the previous 30 days. Heroin was the primary drug used in this sample. Past 12-month and lifetime substance use disorders and primary and substance-induced mental disorders were based on DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Results Nearly all participants met the criteria for heroin dependence. Multiple substance use disorders were common; cannabis was the most common substance involved after heroin, followed by alcohol and cocaine. Major depression, alcohol dependence, antisocial personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder were highly prevalent. Other psychiatric disorders were observed at levels consistent with other young adult samples. Conclusions Young IDU experience major depression, alcohol dependence, anti-social personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder at high rates, and multiple substance use disorders are common. Anxiety disorders in this population appear to be similar in prevalence to young adults in general. PMID:22226707

  11. Individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices among young adult injection drug users in San Diego.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Fátima; Burgos, José Luis; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Teshale, Eyasu; Garfein, Richard S

    2015-01-01

    Unsafe injection practices significantly increase the risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among injection drug users (IDUs). We examined individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices in young adult IDUs in San Diego, California. Of 494 IDUs, 46.9 % reported receptive syringe sharing and 68.8 % sharing drug preparation paraphernalia in the last 3 months. Unsafe injection practices were associated with increased odds of having friends who injected drugs with used syringes, injecting with friends or sexual partners, and injecting heroin. Perceived high susceptibility to HIV and perceived barriers to obtaining sterile syringes were associated with increased odds of receptive syringe sharing, but not with sharing injection paraphernalia. Over half the IDUs reported unsafe injection practices. Our results suggest that personal relationships might influence IDUs' perceptions that dictate behavior. Integrated interventions addressing individual and socio-environmental factors are needed to promote safe injection practices in this population. PMID:24920342

  12. Individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices among young adult injection drug users in San Diego

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Fátima; Burgos, José Luis; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Teshale, Eyasu; Garfein, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe injection practices significantly increase the risk of hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among injection drug users (IDUs). We examined individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices in young adult IDUs in San Diego, California. Of 494 IDUs, 46.9% reported receptive syringe sharing and 68.8% sharing drug preparation paraphernalia in the last 3 months. Unsafe injection practices were associated with increased odds of having friends who injected drugs with used syringes, injecting with friends, sexual partners, and injecting heroin. Perceived high susceptibility to HIV and perceived barriers to obtaining sterile syringes were associated with increased odds of receptive syringe sharing, but not with sharing injection paraphernalia. Over half IDUs reported unsafe injection practices, and our results suggest that personal relationships might influence IDUs’ perceptions that dictate behavior. Integrated interventions addressing individual and socio-environmental factors are needed to promote safe injection practices in this population. PMID:24920342

  13. Pregnancy and sexual health among homeless young injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E; Sanders, Bill; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer

    2009-04-01

    Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of prenatal care, and histories of sexual victimization are described. A total of 81 lifetime pregnancies and 26 children were reported. Infrequent and ineffective use of contraception was common. While pregnancy motivated some homeless youth to establish housing, miscarriages and terminations were more frequent among youth who reported being housed. Widespread access to prenatal and medical services was reported during pregnancy, but utilization varied. Many women continued to use substances throughout pregnancy. Several youth reported childhood sexual abuse and sexual victimization while homeless. Pregnancy presents a unique opportunity to encourage positive health behaviors in a high-risk population seldom seen in a clinical setting. PMID:18692891

  14. Control over Drug Acquisition, Preparation, and Injection: Implications for HIV and HCV Risk among Young Female Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karla D.; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer; Hathazi, Susan Dodi; Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    Young female injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for HIV/HCV, and initiating the use of a new drug may confer additional and unexpected risks. While gender differences in the social context of injection drug use have been identified, it is unknown whether those differences persist during the initiation of a new drug. This mixed-methods study examined the accounts of 30 young female IDUs in Los Angeles, CA, USA from 2004 to 2006, who described the social context of initiating injection drug use and initiating ketamine injection. The analysis aimed to understand how the social context of young women's injection events contributes to HIV/HCV risk. Women's initiation into ketamine injection occurred approximately 2 years after their first injection of any drug. Over that time, women experienced changes in some aspects of the social context of drug injection, including the size and composition of the using group. A significant proportion of women described injection events characterized by a lack of control over the acquisition, preparation, and injection of drugs, as well as reliance on friends and sexual partners. Findings suggest that lack of control over drug acquisition, preparation, and injection may elevate women's risk; these phenomena should be considered as a behavioral risk factor when designing interventions. PMID:24364027

  15. Aged Mice Repeatedly Injected with Plasma from Young Mice: A Survival Study

    PubMed Central

    Shytikov, Dmytro; Balva, Olexiy; Debonneuil, Edouard; Glukhovskiy, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract It was reported using various biological models that the administration of blood factors from young animals to old animals could rejuvenate certain functions. To assess the anti-aging effect of young blood we tested the influence of repeated injections of plasma from young mice on the lifespan of aged mice. One group of 36 CBA/Ca female mice aged 10–12 months was treated by repeated injections of plasma from 2- to 4-month-old females (averaging 75–150 μL per injection, once intravenously and once intraperitoneally per week for 16 months). Their lifespan was compared to a control group that received saline injections. The median lifespan of mice from the control group was 27 months versus 26.4 months in plasma-treated group; the repeated injections of young plasma did not significantly impact either median or maximal lifespan. PMID:25371859

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Former Injection Drug Use Among Young Non-injecting Heroin Users in Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Broz, Dita; Ouellet, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    Non-injecting heroin users (NIHU) 16–30 years-old were street recruited in Chicago between 2002–2005 to examine factors associated with having ever injected. Participants completed computerized self-administered interviews and provided specimens for HIV and hepatitis serotesting. Of 689 NIHU, 51.2% were non-Hispanic Black, 64.4% were male, and the median age was 25 years. Former injection was reported by 17.9%; of those, 66.7% injected <10 times. Multivariable analysis identified individual and social factors that place young NIHU at increased risk of injection. Targeted interventions are necessary to prevent transitions to injection and reduce transmission of HIV and viral hepatitis infections. PMID:20380556

  17. Providing Rich Art Activities for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahey, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Using works of art with young children is a perfect way to bridge the gap between art activities that are too open or too closed. Teachers of young children sometimes try to find a middle ground by allowing free painting time at an easel in addition to recipe-oriented activities such as putting together precut shapes to create a spider or an apple…

  18. Best practice injection technique for children and young people with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gelder, Carole

    2014-09-01

    Children and young people who manage diabetes with injection therapy are at risk of using a poor technique. This may have serious consequences, including poor glycaemic control, leading to the longer term complications of diabetes. The Forum for Injection Technique (FIT) is an international body that promotes best practice in injection technique. This article summarises the forum's UK-specific guidance, with particular reference to the nursing care of children and young people with diabetes. The FIT UK board, of which the author is a member, consists of experienced diabetes specialist nurses. PMID:25200241

  19. Sexual Risk Behavior Associated with Transition to Injection Among Young Non-injecting Heroin Users

    PubMed Central

    Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Boodram, Basmattee; Williams, Chyvette; Ouellet, Lawrence J.; Broz, Dita

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transitioning from non-injection heroin use to injection drug use on sexual risk behavior. Non-injecting heroin users age 16–30 were enrolled from 2002 to 2005, and were re-interviewed at six-month intervals for up to three years; 561 participants completed at least one follow-up interview. The majority of participants were non-Hispanic (NH) Black (54%), 23% were Hispanic, and 21% were NH white. During follow-up, 154 participants (27.5%) transitioned to injecting drugs. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using generalized estimating equations (GEE) to estimate the effect of transition to injection drug use on changes in sexual risk behavior during follow-up. Transition to injection drug use during follow-up was associated with increased likelihood of sexual risk behavior, especially for men. Harm reduction efforts that focus on preventing initiation or return to injection among non-injecting drug users may also ameliorate HIV sexual risk behaviors. PMID:23065126

  20. Young People's Favorite Leisure Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zvonovskii, Vladimir; Lutseva, Svetlana

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a study based on surveys conducted annually for the past nine years by the Samara Foundation for Social Research, commissioned by the committee for youth affairs of the administration of Samara Oblast. The sample consists of about 800 young people aged fourteen to thirty. In the present study the authors have focused on…

  1. The Cedar Project: risk factors for transition to injection drug use among young, urban Aboriginal people

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cari L.; Pearce, Margo E.; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Thomas, Vicky; Christian, Chief Wayne; Schechter, Martin T.; Spittal, Patricia M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies suggest that Aboriginal people in Canada are over-represented among people using injection drugs. The factors associated with transitioning to the use of injection drugs among young Aboriginal people in Canada are not well understood. Methods: The Cedar Project is a prospective cohort study (2003–2007) involving young Aboriginal people in Vancouver and Prince George, British Columbia, who use illicit drugs. Participants’ venous blood samples were tested for antibodies to HIV and the hepatitis C virus, and drug use was confirmed using saliva screens. The primary outcomes were use of injection drugs at baseline and tranisition to injection drug use in the six months before each follow-up interview. Results: Of 605 participants, 335 (55.4%) reported using injection drugs at baseline. Young people who used injection drugs tended to be older than those who did not, female and in a relationship. Participants who injected drugs were also more likely than those who did not to have been denied shelter because of their drug use, to have been incarcerated, to have a mental illness and to have been involved in sex work. Transition to injection drug use occurred among 39 (14.4%) participants, yielding a crude incidence rate of 19.8% and an incidence density of 11.5 participants per 100 person-years. In unadjusted analysis, transition to injection drug use was associated with being female (odds ratio [OR] 1.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–3.72), involved in sex work (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.75–6.40), having a history of sexually transmitted infection (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.07–3.78) and using drugs with sex-work clients (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.19–5.32). In adjusted analysis, transition to injection drug use remained associated with involvement in sex work (adjusted OR 3.94, 95% CI 1.45–10.71). Interpretation: The initiation rate for injection drug use of 11.5 participants per 100 person-years among participants in the Cedar Project is distressing. Young

  2. Free-hand ultrasound guidance permits safe and efficient minimally invasive intrathymic injections in both young and aged mice.

    PubMed

    Tuckett, Andrea Z; Zakrzewski, Johannes L; Li, Duan; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Thornton, Raymond H

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate whether use of an aseptic free-hand approach to ultrasound-guided injection facilitates injection into the thymic gland in mice. We used this interventional radiology technique in young, aged and immunodeficient mice and found that the thymus was visible in all cases. The mean injection period was 8 seconds in young mice and 19 seconds in aged or immunodeficient mice. Injection accuracy was confirmed by intrathymic location of an injected dye or by in vivo bioluminescence imaging of injected luciferase-expressing cells. Accurate intrathymic injection was confirmed in 97% of cases. No major complications were observed. We conclude that an aseptic freehand technique for ultrasound-guided intrathymic injection is safe and accurate and reduces the time required for intrathymic injections. This method facilitates large-scale experiments and injection of individual thymic lobes and is clinically relevant. PMID:25701534

  3. Free-hand ultrasound guidance permits safe and efficient minimally invasive intrathymic injections in both young and aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Tuckett, Andrea Z.; Zakrzewski, Johannes L.; Li, Duan; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.; Thornton, Raymond H.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate whether using an aseptic free-hand approach for ultrasound-guided injection facilitates injection into the thymic gland in mice. We used this interventional radiology technique in young, aged, and immunodeficient mice and found that the thymus was visible in all cases. The mean injection period was 8 s in young mice and 19 s in aged or immunodeficient mice. Injection accuracy was confirmed by intrathymic location of an injected dye, or by in vivo bioluminescence imaging of injected luciferase-expressing cells. Accurate intrathymic injection was confirmed in 97% of cases. No major complications were observed. We conclude that an aseptic free-hand technique for ultrasound-guided intrathymic injection is safe, accurate, and reduces the time required for intrathymic injections. This method facilitates large-scale experiments, injection of individual thymic lobes, and is clinically relevant. PMID:25701534

  4. Learning Activities for the Young Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Don; And Others

    Presented is a collection of learning activities for the young handicapped child covering 295 individual learning objectives in six areas of development: gross motor skills, fine motor skills, social skills, self help skills, cognitive skills, and language skills. Provided for each learning activity are the teaching objective, teaching procedures,…

  5. Cooperative Activities in Young Children and Chimpanzees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warneken, Felix; Chen, Frances; Tomasello, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Human children 18-24 months of age and 3 young chimpanzees interacted in 4 cooperative activities with a human adult partner. The human children successfully participated in cooperative problem-solving activities and social games, whereas the chimpanzees were uninterested in the social games. As an experimental manipulation, in each task the adult…

  6. Newspaper Activities for Young Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenup, Tess

    Designed for intermediate and junior high level students, the handbook gives 11 lessons using newspaper activities for teaching consumer education. The activities help students (1) define consumer education terms and distinguish between wants and needs; (2) define the term "caveat emptor" and understand the concept of consumer responsibility; (3)…

  7. The role of social networks and geography on risky injection behaviors of young persons who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    Boodram, Basmattee; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary-Ellen; Latkin, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about young persons who inject drugs (PWID), who are increasingly from suburban communities and predominantly non-Hispanic white. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional personal network (egocentric) and geographic study of young PWID and their drug-using, sexual, and support network members in 2012-13 in metropolitan Chicago, Illinois, U.S. Results We enrolled 164 young (median age=26), mostly male (65%), non-Hispanic white PWID (71%), with a self-reported HCV prevalence of 13%. Many (59%) reported multiple residences (i.e., were transient) in the past year, 45% of whom reported living in both urban and suburban places (i.e., were cross-over transients). In multivariable analyses that adjusted for participant and network member characteristics, (1) large injection networks were more common among homeless participants; and (2) syringe sharing was (a) highest among cross-over transients compared to suburban (OR = 4.19 95% CI 1.69 – 10.35) and urban only residents (OR = 2.91 95% CI 1.06 – 8.03), (b) higher among HCV-unknown compared HCV-negative participants (OR = 4.62 95% CI 1.69-10.35), (c) more likely with network members who were cross-over transients compared to urban (OR = 4.94, 95% CI 2.17 – 11.23) and (d) less likely with network members with HCV-unknown compared to HCV-negative status (OR = 0.4 95% CI 0.19 – 0.84). Conclusions We identified homelessness as a significant risk factor for large networks and cross-over transience as a significant risk factor for syringe sharing. Further research is needed to understand the role of geographic factors promoting higher risk among these crossover transient PWID. PMID:26169447

  8. Earthways: Simple Environmental Activities for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrash, Carol

    This book presents simple environmental activities designed for young children. The contents are organized seasonally and each section features subsections: The Whole Earth Home and Classroom, Bringing Nature In, The Season Garden, Seasonal Crafts, and Supplying the Missing Links. These sections provide information on how to set up an indoor…

  9. Physical Education Waivers and Young Adult Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2010-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the relationship between physical activity of young adults who were granted waivers from high school physical education versus those who completed courses in states requiring physical education teacher certification, with curriculum standards and credit requirements for graduation. University students from three…

  10. Hepatitis C virus risk behaviors within the partnerships of young injecting drug users

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Judith A.; Evans, Jennifer L.; Davidson, Peter J.; Lum, Paula J.; Page, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Aims Young injection drug users (IDU) are at high risk for hepatitis C virus (HCV). We sought to determine whether perceiving one's injecting partner to be HCV positive was associated with decreased odds of engaging in receptive needle/syringe sharing (RNS) or ancillary equipment sharing (AES) with that partner. Design We conducted a cross-sectional study from 2003 to 2007 in San Francisco (n=212 participants) to examine whether perceived partner HCV status was associated with RNS and AES within injecting partnerships (n=492 partnerships) of young (under age 30) IDU who are HCV antibody negative. Findings RNS and AES (in the absence of RNS) occurred in 23% and 66% of injecting partnerships in the prior month. The odds of engaging in RNS were significantly lower for relationships in which the participant reported that his/her partner was HCV positive (odds ratio [OR] 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25-0.95). This association was attenuated when adjusted for reusing one's own needle/syringe (adjusted OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.28-1.15). The odds of engaging in AES were lower for participants who did not know the HCV status of their partner, only among non-sexual partnerships (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.29-0.76). Conclusions Because perceiving one's partner to be HCV positive was associated with decreased RNS, increased HCV testing and partner disclosure may be warranted. AES was common and was decreased only among non-sexual partnerships in which the HCV status of the partner was not known. This suggests that interventions to reduce AES in young IDU must be widespread. PMID:20491725

  11. Ordering of young injection events within Saturnian SLS longitude and local time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennelly, T.; Leisner, J. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Saturnian SLS longitude systems are based on periodic radio emissions generated at high latitudes and relatively close to the planet. These periodicities have been observed throughout the magnetosphere in both the magnetic field and the plasma. While their presence in the outer magnetosphere has been understood, one outstanding question is how these periodicities are transmitted to the inner magnetosphere. The inner and outer magnetospheres are connected by inward-moving flux tubes, referred to as injection events, and it was postulated that they could carry the periodicities between the two regions. Early analysis of these phenomena, however, showed that there was no ordering in longitude. In this study, we reexamine this possibility by limiting our data set to the young injection events observed by the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science instrument. We find that the young injection events are restricted to two local time sectors: post-noon and near-midnight. We find no structure in the post-noon sector, but the near-midnight events are strongly ordered by SLS longitude. Further, the longitudinal ordering varies with Saturnian season. Pre-equinox, the longitude system derived from the northern hemisphere's SKR emissions controls the event occurrence. Post-equinox, the events are ordered by the southern hemisphere-derived longitude system. We suggest that this may be an effect in the variations in the ionospheric conductivity or due to change in the magnetosphere's orientation relative to the solar wind.

  12. Recruiting and Retaining Mobile Young Injection Drug Users in a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Hathazi, Dodi; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal studies that research homeless persons or transient drug users face particular challenges in retaining subjects. Between 2005 and 2006, 101 mobile young injection drug users were recruited in Los Angeles into a 2-year longitudinal study. Several features of ethnographic methodology, including fieldwork and qualitative interviews, and modifications to the original design, such as toll-free calls routed directly to ethnographer cell phones and wiring incentive payments, resulted in retention of 78% of subjects for the first follow-up interview. Longitudinal studies that are flexible and based upon qualitative methodologies are more likely to retain mobile subjects while also uncovering emergent research findings. PMID:20222779

  13. Parental Influence on Young Children's Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zecevic, Cheryl A.; Tremblay, Line; Lovsin, Tanya; Michel, Lariviere

    2010-01-01

    Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA) behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys). Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B = .78, P < .10) and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B = .69, P < .05) were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B = −.08, P < .01), having older parents (B = −.26, P < .01), and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B = 1.55, P < .01) reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B = 1.44, P < .05). Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits. PMID:20671967

  14. Well Researched, Yet Little Understood: Young Adults and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cothran, Donetta; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2005-01-01

    The authors present two beginning studies. One investigated the teaching-style preferences of young adults, and the other looked at physical activity trends within this age group. One key to understanding young adults and physical activity is to recognize the importance of participant cognition on physical activity patterns. From this…

  15. The Everyday Violence of Hepatitis C Among Young Women Who Inject Drugs in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Bourgois, Philippe; Prince, Bridget; Moss, Andrew

    2004-09-01

    A theoretical understanding of the gendered contours of structural, everyday and symbolic violence suggests that young addicted women are particularly vulnerable to the infectious diseases caused by injection drug use-especially hepatitis C. Participant-observation fieldwork among heroin and speed addicts in San Francisco's Haight Ashbury neighborhood reveals that extreme levels of violence against women are normalized in the common sense of street-youth drug culture. Physical, sexual and emotional violence, as well as the pragmatics of income generation, including drug and resource sharing in the moral economy of street addicts, oblige most young homeless women to enter into relationships with older men. These relationships are usually abusive and economically parasitical to the women. Sexual objectification and a patriarchal romantic discourse of love and moral worth leads to the misrecognition of gender power inequities by both the men and women who are embroiled in them, as well as by many of the public services and research projects designed to help or control substance abusers. Despite deep epistemological, theoretical and logistical gulfs between quantitative and qualitative methods, applied public health research and the interventions they inform can benefit from the insights provided by a theoretical and cross-methodological focus on how social power contexts shape the spread of infectious disease and promote disproportional levels of social suffering in vulnerable populations. PMID:16685288

  16. The Everyday Violence of Hepatitis C Among Young Women Who Inject Drugs in San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Bourgois, Philippe; Prince, Bridget; Moss, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical understanding of the gendered contours of structural, everyday and symbolic violence suggests that young addicted women are particularly vulnerable to the infectious diseases caused by injection drug use—especially hepatitis C. Participant-observation fieldwork among heroin and speed addicts in San Francisco’s Haight Ashbury neighborhood reveals that extreme levels of violence against women are normalized in the common sense of street-youth drug culture. Physical, sexual and emotional violence, as well as the pragmatics of income generation, including drug and resource sharing in the moral economy of street addicts, oblige most young homeless women to enter into relationships with older men. These relationships are usually abusive and economically parasitical to the women. Sexual objectification and a patriarchal romantic discourse of love and moral worth leads to the misrecognition of gender power inequities by both the men and women who are embroiled in them, as well as by many of the public services and research projects designed to help or control substance abusers. Despite deep epistemological, theoretical and logistical gulfs between quantitative and qualitative methods, applied public health research and the interventions they inform can benefit from the insights provided by a theoretical and cross-methodological focus on how social power contexts shape the spread of infectious disease and promote disproportional levels of social suffering in vulnerable populations. PMID:16685288

  17. Prescription Opioid Misuse and Mental Health Among Young Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Mackesy-Amiti, Mary E.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Ouellet, Lawrence J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prescription opioid (PO) misuse is a significant concern in the United States. Objectives This study describes the prevalence and timing of PO misuse, diagnoses of opiate abuse and dependence, and their associations with psychiatric disorders in a sample of young people who inject drugs (PWID). Methods Participants were 570 young (18–25 years) PWID, primarily heroin users, recruited through outreach and respondent-driven sampling. Trained interviewers administered a semi-structured psychiatric interview. Diagnoses of substance use and mental disorders were based on DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Results Estimated rates of lifetime PO abuse and dependence were 19% and 17% respectively. Past year PO misuse was significantly associated with anti-social personality disorder (ASPD, OR = 2.15, 95% CI 1.43–3.24), past year substance-induced major depression (SIMD, OR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.16–2.83), and prior post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, OR = 2.45, 95% CI 1.31–4.60). Among male PO users, PTSD was a significant predictor of PO abuse (prior, OR = 7.62, 95% CI 2.16–26.88; past year, OR = 21.67 95% CI 2.46–190.75), and dependence (prior, OR = 4.82, 95% CI 1.48–15.67; past year, OR = 9.65, 95% CI 1.75–53.32). Conclusion Among young PWID, PTSD is a significant risk factor for PO misuse for both men and women, and men with PTSD are in addition at increased risk for PO abuse and dependence. These findings have implications for harm reduction and substance abuse prevention efforts. PMID:25105884

  18. Intracerebroventricular injection of adiponectin regulates locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Yumiko; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Ueta, Tomoyo; Taniguchi, Yasuko; Futami, Akari; Sato, Fukiko; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Tsutsumi, Rie; Harada, Nagakatsu; Nakaya, Yutaka; Sakaue, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing exercise motivation is the best way to prevent obesity and diabetes. In this study, we examined whether adiponectin affects locomotion activity in Wister and Spontaneously-Running Tokushima-Shikoku (SPORTS) rats using two types of behavioral assays: home cage and wheel running activity. SPORTS rats were established from an original line from Wister strain that had shown high level of wheel running activity in our laboratory. Injection of adiponectin into the lateral ventricle of Wister rats and SPORTS rats decreased home cage activity, but no change was observed in the food intake and oxygen consumption. This result indicates the possibility that adiponectin can reduce non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity via the central nervous system. In contrast, injection of adiponectin did not change wheel running activity in SPORTS rats. We produced hypothalamus-destructed model rat using monosodium glutamate (MSG) to elucidate the regulation site of adiponectin. Injection of adiponectin into MSG-treated SPORTS rats did not change amount of home cage activity and food intake, suggesting that adiponectin action on home cage activity was in the hypothalamic area. These results suggest that adiponectin regulates locomotion activity through mediobasal hypothalamus. PMID:26399348

  19. Electron beam injection during active experiments. I - Electromagnetic wave emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.; Kellogg, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    The wave emissions produced in Echo 7 experiment by active injections of electron beams were investigated to determine the properties of the electromagnetic and electrostatic fields for both the field-aligned and cross-field injection in such experiments and to evaluate the sources of free energy and relative efficiencies for the generation of the VLF and HF emissions. It is shown that, for typical beam energies in active experiments, electromagnetic effects do not substantially change the bulk properties of the beam, spacecraft charging, and plasma particle acceleration. Through simulations, beam-generated whistlers; fundamental z-mode and harmonic x-mode radiation; and electrostatic electron-cyclotron, upper-hybrid, Langmuir, and lower-hybrid waves were identified. The characteristics of the observed wave spectra were found to be sensitive to both the ratio of the electron plasma frequency to the cyclotron frequency and the angle of injection relative to the magnetic field.

  20. Tests of ionospheric control of young injection events identified from magnetometer observations at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivelson, M.; Jia, X.

    2015-12-01

    Kennelly et al. (2013) reported that young plasma injection events observed in Saturn's nightside magnetosphere and identified from plasma wave signatures are modulated at the period associated with the winter hemisphere. In a system unstable to interchange, radial motion of flux tubes is constrained by the "line-tying" effect of high ionospheric conductance (Southwood and Kivelson, 1989). Slippage of a flux tube would then occur initially in the hemisphere in which the ionospheric conductance is lowest. Saturn's ionospheric conductances vary not only with season, but also with rotation phase because of the presence of a pattern of rotating field-aligned currents that drive "planetary period oscillations" (Jia and Kivelson, 2012). The conductance should minimize near the center of the downward current region and, at this rotation phase in the winter hemisphere, the growth rate of the instability would be largest, accounting for control by the northern period. With motion starting in the winter hemisphere, the flux tube would develop a tilt of predictable sense and the initial inward motion of the interchanging flux tube would occur at a specific rotation phase of the winter ionosphere. For a subset of the Kennelly events, we found that the tilt and phase are consistent with expectations based on the control of displacement by ionospheric conductance. Many additional young interchange events have been identified by K. K. Khurana [personal communication, 2015] whom we thank for making the list available. We examine this more extensive set of events and use them to investigate the proposed mechanism more fully. __________ Jia, X., and M. G. Kivelson (2012), J. Geophys. Res., 117, A11219. Kennelly, T. J., J. S. Leisner, G. B. Hospodarsky, and D. A. Gurnett (2013), J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 118, 832-838. Kivelson, M., and X. Jia (2014), , AGU Fall meeting, 2014, SM51E-4295. Southwood, D. J., and M. G. Kivelson (1989), J. Geophys. Res., 94, 299-308.

  1. Activated carbon injection - a mercury control success story

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    Almost 100 full-scale activated carbon injection (ACI) systems have been ordered by US electric utilities. These systems have the potential to remove over 90% of the mercury in flue, at a cost below $10,000 per pound of mercury removal. Field trials of ACI systems arm outlined. 1 fig.

  2. Correlates of Lifetime Physical Activity in Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Lorraine Silver

    2003-01-01

    This study retrospectively examined physical activity patterns across three specific age periods (childhood, teenage, and young adulthood) in a cross sectional sample of young Caucasian undergraduate women (N = 44). All women (mean age = 22.27 plus or minus 3.14 years) completed questionnaire packets assessing transtheoretical model of behavior…

  3. Drama and Music: Creative Activities for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Janet; Merrion, Margaret

    This book presents sequentially ordered activities designed to foster young children's native creativity. The book is organized in three parts. Part 1: "Unleashing Your Creative Potential," introduces the types of activities found in the body of the book and provides teaching suggestions. Part 2: "Activities, Activities, Activities," gives a…

  4. Myocardial Infarction and Stroke Risk in Young Healthy Men Treated with Injectable Testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Robert S.; Cook, Kelly R.; Reilly, William G.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between testosterone therapy and new myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke events in a series of patients treated at Low T Centers across the United States, consisting of mainly young (mean age = 46), otherwise, healthy men. Electronic medical records were queried between the years 2009 and 2014 to identify patients diagnosed with hypogonadism, MI, and stroke, as indicated by ICD-9 codes. The incidence of MI and stroke events was compared to community-based registries. 39,936 patients recruited from 40 Low T Centers across the United States were treated and 19,968 met eligibility criteria for receiving testosterone treatment. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for MI in testosterone- (T-) treated versus nontreated patients was 0.14 (C.I. = 0.08 to 0.18, P < 0.0001) whereas the IRR for stroke for T-treated versus nontreated patients was 0.11 (C.I. = 0.02 to 0.13, P < 0.0001). There was no evidence of worsening preexisting MI or stroke in patients treated with testosterone. The experience in Low T Centers shows that, in an injectable testosterone patient registry, testosterone is generally safe for younger men who do not have significant risk factors. Of patients that developed MI with testosterone, there was no association with testosterone or hematocrit levels. PMID:26124832

  5. Quality investigation of hydroxyprogesterone caproate active pharmaceutical ingredient and injection

    PubMed Central

    Chollet, John L.; Jozwiakowski, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of hydroxyprogesterone caproate (HPC) active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) sources that may be used by compounding pharmacies, compared to the FDA-approved source of the API; and to investigate the quality of HPC injection samples obtained from compounding pharmacies in the US, compared to the FDA-approved product (Makena®). Samples of API were obtained from every source confirmed to be an original manufacturer of the drug for human use, which were all companies in China that were not registered with FDA. Eight of the ten API samples (80%) did not meet the impurity specifications required by FDA for the API used in the approved product. One API sample was found to not be HPC at all; additional laboratory testing showed that it was glucose. Thirty samples of HPC injection obtained from com pounding pharmacies throughout the US were also tested, and eight of these samples (27%) failed to meet the potency requirement listed in the USP monograph for HPC injection and/or the HPLC assay. Sixteen of the thirty injection samples (53%) exceeded the impurity limit setforthe FDA-approved drug product. These results confirm the inconsistency of compounded HPC Injections and suggest that the risk-benefit ratio of using an unapproved compounded preparation, when an FDA-approved drug product is available, is not favorable. PMID:22329865

  6. Young

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, jumps up from the lunar surface as he salutes the U.S. Flag at the Descartes landing site during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1). Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this picture. The Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' is on the left. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked beside the LM. The object behind Young in the shade of the LM is the Far Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph. Stone Mountain dominates the background in this lunar scene.

  7. USE OF AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO EVALUATE YOUNG CHILDREN'S ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Linking a young child's activity pattern data with the environmental, biological, and personal samples that are collected during an exposure assessment is important in evaluating potential exposures and dose associated with environmental contaminants. A number of different appro...

  8. Elephants and Their Young: Science and Math Activities for Young Children. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echols, Jean C.; Kopp, Jaine; Blinderman, Ellen

    This book contains a series of playful activities in which young children actively learn about the African elephant's body structure, family life, and social behavior. Children make model elephants out of paper and cardboard, then devise elephant puppets with sock trunks as well as create models of elephant's ears, trunks, tusks, make elephant…

  9. Physical Activity Patterns of Young Women Post-College Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

    2008-01-01

    Americans need more physical activity in their daily routines. There are numerous physical as well as psychological benefits that can be credited to regular physical activity. The purpose of this research was to examine the physical activity patterns of young women, post-college graduation. The average woman in this study exercised 22 minutes per…

  10. Injection drug use and hepatitis C virus infection in young adult injectors: using evidence to inform comprehensive prevention.

    PubMed

    Page, Kimberly; Morris, Meghan D; Hahn, Judith A; Maher, Lisa; Prins, Maria

    2013-08-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) virus epidemic is ongoing in the United States and globally. Incidence rates remain high, especially in young adult injection drug users. New outbreaks of HCV in the United States among young adults, in predominantly suburban and rural areas, have emerged and may be fueling an increase in HCV. This paper discusses some key HCV prevention strategies that to date have not been widely researched or implemented, and wherein future HCV prevention efforts may be focused: (1) reducing sharing of drug preparation equipment; (2) HCV screening, and testing and counseling; (3) risk reduction within injecting relationships; (4) injection cessation and "breaks"; (5) scaled-up needle/syringe distribution, HCV treatment, and vaccines, according to suggestions from mathematical models; and (6) "combination prevention." With ongoing and expanding transmission of HCV, there is little doubt that there is a need for implementing what is in the prevention "toolbox" as well as adding to it. Strong advocacy and resources are needed to overcome challenges to providing the multiple and comprehensive programs that could reduce HCV transmission and associated burden of disease worldwide in people who inject drugs. PMID:23884063

  11. Mortality among young injection drug users in San Francisco: a 10-year follow-up of the UFO study.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jennifer L; Tsui, Judith I; Hahn, Judith A; Davidson, Peter J; Lum, Paula J; Page, Kimberly

    2012-02-15

    This study examined associations between mortality and demographic and risk characteristics among young injection drug users in San Francisco, California, and compared the mortality rate with that of the population. A total of 644 young (<30 years) injection drug users completed a baseline interview and were enrolled in a prospective cohort study, known as the UFO ("U Find Out") Study, from November 1997 to December 2007. Using the National Death Index, the authors identified 38 deaths over 4,167 person-years of follow-up, yielding a mortality rate of 9.1 (95% confidence interval: 6.6, 12.5) per 1,000 person-years. This mortality rate was 10 times that of the general population. The leading causes of death were overdose (57.9%), self-inflicted injury (13.2%), trauma/accidents (10.5%), and injection drug user-related medical conditions (13.1%). Mortality incidence was significantly higher among those who reported injecting heroin most days in the past month (adjusted hazard ratio = 5.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 24.3). The leading cause of death in this group was overdose, and primary use of heroin was the only significant risk factor for death observed in the study. These findings highlight the continued need for public health interventions that address the risk of overdose in this population in order to reduce premature deaths. PMID:22227793

  12. Motion Sensor Reactivity in Physically Active Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether young adults changed their physical activity (PA) behavior when wearing motion sensors. PA patterns of 119 young adults (M age = 20.82 years, SD = 1.50, M body mass index = 23.93 kg/m[superscript 2] , SD = 4.05) were assessed during 2 consecutive weeks. In Week 1, participants wore an accelerometer.…

  13. Activities for Young Gifted Children: Using the CIBER Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowden, Peggy L.

    1994-01-01

    The acronym CIBER represents five basic principles ensuring that the needs of young gifted children are appropriately and effectively addressed: capitalize, integrate, balance, expose and enhance, and be realistic. Science activities and interdisciplinary learning activities are suggested to enhance development in cognitive, affective,…

  14. Physical Activity among Young People in the Context of Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telama, Risto; Nupponen, Heimo; Pieron, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    The promotion of a healthy lifestyle is the main goal of physical education in many countries. However, very little is known about the relationship between different lifestyles and physical activity patterns among young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lifestyle and physical activity among 12- and…

  15. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS) for interventional tool guidance.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M

    2014-01-01

    Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking. PMID:25337784

  16. Active Ultrasound Pattern Injection System (AUSPIS) for Interventional Tool Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking. PMID:25337784

  17. Weather Watchers--Activities for Young Meteorologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Fran

    1989-01-01

    Describes science activities which were adapted from a teacher's guide entitled "For Spacious Skies" and contains resources for interdisciplinary weather studies. Includes studying properties of air, gravity, cloud movement, humidity, tornadoes, and weather instruments. (RT)

  18. Opioid agonist therapy is associated with lower incidence of hepatitis C virus infection in young adult persons who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Judith I.; Evans, Jennifer L.; Lum, Paula J.; Hahn, Judith A.; Page, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Importance Injection drug use is the primary mode of transmission for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Prior studies suggest opioid agonist therapy may reduce incidence of HCV among people who inject drugs, however, little is known about its effects in younger injectors. Objective To evaluate whether opioid agonist therapy was associated with a lower incidence of HCV in a cohort of young adult injectors. Design Observational cohort study conducted January 2000 through August 2013 with quarterly interviews and blood samples. Setting San Francisco community outreach. Participants Young adult injectors (<30 years old) who were anti-HCV negative. Exposure(s) Recent (within past 3 months) substance use treatment: no treatment, non-opioid agonist forms of treatment, or opioid agonist therapy (methadone or buprenorphine) detoxification or maintenance. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) Incident HCV infection documented with a new positive HCV RNA result and/or a positive anti-HCV result. Cumulative HCV incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated assuming a Poisson distribution. Cox Proportional Hazards models were fit adjusting for age, gender, race, years of injection drug use, homelessness and incarceration. Results Baseline characteristics of the sample (n=552) were: median age 23 (IQR: 20–26), 32% female, 73% Caucasian, 40% did not graduate high school, and 69% were homeless. Over the observation period of 680 person-years (py), there were 171 incident cases of HCV (incidence rate=25.1/100 py; 95% CI: 21.6–29.2). The rate ratio was significantly lower for participants who reported recent maintenance opioid agonist therapy (0.31; 95% CI: 0.14–0.65), but not for those who reported recent non-opioid agonist forms of treatment (0.63; 95% CI: 0.37–1.08), or opioid agonist detoxification (1.45; 95% CI: 0.80–2.69). After adjustment for other covariates, maintenance opioid agonist therapy was associated with lower relative hazards for becoming

  19. Cost and performance of activated carbon injection for mercury control

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-15

    Activated carbon injection (ACI) is one technology being developed to absorb mercury from mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants. In 2003/04, the USDOE and NETL selected 14 projects to test and evaluate mercury control technologies. While field testing is still ongoing, DOE/NETL recently completed an economic analysis of mercury control for six test sites spanning three ACI variations - conventional powdered activated carbon (PAC), brominated PAC and conventional PAC combined with a sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) applied to the coal. To evaluate the progress of the field testing program and discern the performance of ACI, a data adjustment methodology was developed to account for baseline methane capture. This data were used to perform economic analyses to achieve low, mid and high levels of mercury control. The costs are given in the article. Full details are available on the DOE/NETL website, www.netl.doe.gov. 2 figs., 1 photo.

  20. Team Building Activities for Young Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Team building activities are an excellent way to challenge students and teach them the critical communication and problem solving skills that encourage trust, empathy, and ability to work together. They create an atmosphere that enhances the ability to meet fitness and skill goals because students, regardless of skill level, will possess increased…

  1. 474 Science Activities for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Moira D.

    This book uses a child-initiated, whole language approach to help children have fun while exploring the world of science. The activities are divided into 23 units. Each unit begins with an "Attention Getter," the purpose of which is to introduce the unit to children in a way that grabs their attention, stimulates their interest, and creates…

  2. The Young Astrophysicist: A Very Inexpensive Activity to Discuss Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockington, Guilherme; Testoni, Leonardo André; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2015-01-01

    The continuing fascination of young people with celestial bodies leads them to pose challenging questions to their science teachers, such as how was the universe born? How were the stars formed? In this paper we present an extremely inexpensive but highly engaging activity to teach the basics of spectroscopy. Guided by the question "how do…

  3. Young Adolescents' Perceptions of Romantic Relationships and Sexual Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Heather R.; Keller, Mary L.; Heidrich, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe young adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationships, ratings of important romantic partner characteristics, and acceptability of sexual activity with romantic relationships. Fifty-seven eighth-grade participants (average age = 13.8 years) from one urban US public middle school completed an anonymous…

  4. Novel Ideas for Young Readers! Projects and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuta, Katherine Wiesolek; Zernial, Susan

    This book offers 60 stimulating, classroom-tested activities to instill a love of literature and help young learners develop as readers, writers, and speakers. By using picture books, novels, or even nonfiction readings as starting points, the reproducible worksheets in the book can be implemented to strengthen students' entire spectrum of…

  5. 40 CFR 60.2115 - What if I do not use a wet scrubber, fabric filter, activated carbon injection, selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., fabric filter, activated carbon injection, selective noncatalytic reduction, an electrostatic... filter, activated carbon injection, selective noncatalytic reduction, an electrostatic precipitator, or a... than a wet scrubber, activated carbon injection, selective noncatalytic reduction, fabric filter,...

  6. Activity and Imagined Activity Can Enhance Young Children's Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenberg, Arthur M.; Gutierrez, Tiana; Levin, Joel R.; Japuntich, Sandra; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    The Indexical Hypothesis suggests a new method for enhancing children's reading comprehension. Young readers may not consistently "index," or map, words to the objects the words represent. Consequently, these readers fail to derive much meaning from the text. The instructional method involves manipulating toy objects referred to in the text (e.g.,…

  7. Development of the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort.

    PubMed

    Berg, Christine; McCollum, Mary; Cho, Esther; Jason, Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Emerging adulthood defines transition to employment, higher education, and domestic life. This study describes the development of an assessment of self-reported participation in a range of age-appropriate activities. Item selection was established from literature review, feedback from youth and professionals, the former Adolescent Activity Card Sort (AACS), and the original Activity Card Sort (ACS). Iterative item selection occurred with three separate samples of emerging adults and six professionals. Test-retest reliability was evaluated. The Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) consists of chores (11 items), leisure (13), social (10), health and fitness (9), work (10), education (8), and parenting (9). Test-retest reliability showed significant moderate to substantial Kappa agreement (.48-.85) for all domains except parenting (κ = .15). This preliminary study describes the development of the AYA-ACS to be used with individuals who encounter challenges when transitioning to young adulthood. PMID:27505902

  8. Social Provisions and Young Women's Health-Related Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Ulvick, Jocelyn D; Spink, Kevin S

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors involved in being active enough for health benefits is necessary to promote health-related physical activity. Given the documented role of social support in women's activity (Molloy et al. 2010), this study examined the relationship between Weiss's (1974) social provisions and health-related physical activity in young women. College undergraduate women (N = 136) from a kinesiology course completed a modified Social Provisions Scale (Cutrona and Russell 1987) and reported on the physical activity they engaged in with others over a 4-week period in the fall of 2011. We used average daily energy expenditure, calculated based on participants' reported activity involvement, to classify participants as either sufficiently or insufficiently active (Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Research Institute 1999). A logistic regression using sufficient/insufficient activity levels for health as the dependent variable revealed that the six provisions reliably differentiated between those who were active enough for health benefits versus not. Of the six, two provisions were significantly associated with health-related physical activity--specifically, those who held higher perceptions of reassurance of worth and social integration were more likely to be in the sufficiently-active group. These results provide an initial indication of the specific social provisions associated with young women who are active enough to achieve health benefits. PMID:26086201

  9. Randomised comparison between adrenaline injection alone and adrenaline injection plus heat probe treatment for actively bleeding ulcers.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, S. S.; Lau, J. Y.; Sung, J. J.; Chan, A. C.; Lai, C. W.; Ng, E. K.; Chan, F. K.; Yung, M. Y.; Li, A. K.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare endoscopic adrenaline injection alone and adrenaline injection plus heat probe for the treatment of actively bleeding peptic ulcers. DESIGN: Randomised prospective study of patients admitted with actively bleeding peptic ulcers. SETTING: One university hospital. SUBJECTS: 276 patients with actively bleeding ulcers detected by endoscopy within 24 hours of admission: 136 patients were randomised to endoscopic adrenaline injection alone and 140 to adrenaline injection plus heat probe treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Initial endoscopic haemostasis; clinical rebleeding; requirement for operation; requirement for blood transfusion; hospital stay, ulcer healing at four weeks; and mortality in hospital. RESULTS: Initial haemostasis was achieved in 131/134 patients (98%) who received adrenaline injection alone and 135/136 patients (99%) who received additional heat probe treatment (P = 0.33). Outcome as measured by clinical rebleeding (12 v 5), requirement for emergency operation (14 v 8), blood transfusion (2 v 3 units), hospital stay (4 v 4 days), ulcer healing at four weeks (79.1% v 74%), and in hospital mortality (7 v 8) were not significantly different in the two groups. In the subgroup of patients with spurting haemorrhage 8/27 (29.6%; 14.5% to 50.3%) patients from the adrenaline injection alone group and 2/31 (6.5%; 1.1% to 22.9%) patients from the dual treatment group required operative intervention. The relative risk of this was lower in the dual treatment group (0.17; 0.03 to 0.87). Hospital stay was significantly shorter in the dual treatment group than the adrenaline injection alone group (4 v 6 days, P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: The addition of heat probe treatment after endoscopic adrenaline injection confers an advantage in ulcers with spurting haemorrhage. PMID:9158465

  10. Prevalence of skin problems and leg ulceration in a sample of young injecting drug users

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug users suffer harm from the injecting process, and clinical services are reporting increasing numbers presenting with skin-related problems such as abscesses and leg ulcers. Skin breakdown can lead to long-term health problems and increased service costs and is often the first indication of serious systemic ill health. The extent of skin problems in injecting drug users has not previously been quantified empirically, and there is a dearth of robust topical literature. Where skin problems have been reported, this is often without clear definition and generic terms such as ‘soft tissue infection’ are used which lack specificity. The aim of this study was to identify the range and extent of skin problems including leg ulceration in a sample of injecting drug users. Definitions of skin problems were developed and applied to descriptions from drug users to improve rigour. Methods Data were collected in needle exchanges and methadone clinics across Glasgow, Scotland, from both current and former drug injectors using face-to-face interviews. Results Two hundred participants were recruited, of which 74% (n = 148) were males and 26% (n = 52) were females. The age range was 21–44 years (mean 35 years). Just under two thirds (64%, n = 127) were currently injecting or had injected within the last 6 months, and 36% (n = 73) had previously injected and had not injected for more than 6 months. Sixty per cent (n = 120) of the sample had experienced a skin problem, and the majority reported more than one problem. Most common were abscesses, lumps, track marks and leg ulcers. Fifteen per cent (n = 30) of all participants reported having had a leg ulcer. Conclusions This is an original empirical study which demonstrated unique findings of a high prevalence of skin disease (60%) and surprisingly high rates of leg ulceration (15%). Skin disease in injecting drug users is clearly widespread. Leg ulceration in particular is a chronic recurring

  11. Circulating thymic hormone activity in young cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Consolini, R; Cei, B; Cini, P; Bottone, E; Casarosa, L

    1986-01-01

    We measured serum levels of Facteur Thymique Sérique (FTS) in 56 young cancer patients compared to normal controls. All patients who received immunosuppressive therapy had low age-corrected titres of FTS. Low levels were also found at diagnosis and off therapy. Plasma from 22 patients contained factors capable of inhibiting biological activity of FTS in vitro. The nature of this inhibitor has not been elucidated. No zinc deficiency was found in the patients studied, suggesting that FTS is secreted in its active form. Our study points out the importance of monitoring FTS activity in young cancer patients for its implications on immunological surveillance. The practical applications of thymic hormone therapy in cancer patients are discussed. PMID:3802571

  12. Activation of Antioxidant Defenses in Whole Saliva by Psychosocial Stress Is More Manifested in Young Women than in Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Tsuber, Viktoriia; Kadamov, Yunus; Tarasenko, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases oxidative damage in whole saliva of young people. An examination stress caused a significant increase of catalase activity, accompanied by a decrease of levels of oxidized proteins. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances did not increase at stress, indicating that lipid peroxidation was not activated. The stress-induced alterations were more manifested in young women compared to young men. Thus, antioxidant protective mechanisms are more activated by a moderate stressor in young women than in young men. PMID:25525800

  13. ASYMMETRY OF HELICITY INJECTION FLUX IN EMERGING ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Tian Lirong; Alexander, David

    2009-04-20

    Observational and modeling results indicate that typically the leading magnetic field of bipolar active regions (ARs) is often spatially more compact, while more dispersed and fragmented in following polarity. In this paper, we address the origin of this morphological asymmetry, which is not well understood. Although it may be assumed that, in an emerging {omega}-shaped flux tube, those portions of the flux tube in which the magnetic field has a higher twist may maintain its coherence more readily, this has not been tested observationally. To assess this possibility, it is important to characterize the nature of the fragmentation and asymmetry in solar ARs and this provides the motivation for this paper. We separately calculate the distribution of the helicity flux injected in the leading and following polarities of 15 emerging bipolar ARs, using the Michelson Doppler Image 96 minute line-of-sight magnetograms and a local correlation tracking technique. We find from this statistical study that the leading (compact) polarity injects several times more helicity flux than the following (fragmented) one (typically 3-10 times). This result suggests that the leading polarity of the {omega}-shaped flux tube possesses a much larger amount of twist than the following field prior to emergence. We argue that the helicity asymmetry between the leading and following magnetic field for the ARs studied here results in the observed magnetic field asymmetry of the two polarities due to an imbalance in the magnetic tension of the emerging flux tube. We suggest that the observed imbalance in the helicity distribution results from a difference in the speed of emergence between the leading and following legs of an inclined {omega}-shaped flux tube. In addition, there is also the effect of magnetic flux imbalance between the two polarities with the fragmented following polarity displaying spatial fluctuation in both the magnitude and sign of helicity measured.

  14. Active waste-injection systems in Florida, 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchioli, John; McKenzie, D.J.; Pascale, C.A.; Wilson, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    As of the end of 1976, seven systems were injecting liquid wastes into Florida 's subsurface environment at a combined average rate of 15 million gallons per day. This report presents for each of these systems information on the kind and amount of waste injected and type of pretreatment, construction characteristics of the injection and monitor wells, type of test and monitoring data available, and brief discussion of any operational problems experienced. (Kosco-USGS)

  15. Similar time restriction for intracytoplasmic sperm injection and round spermatid injection into activated oocytes for efficient offspring production.

    PubMed

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Sayaka; Nguyen, Van Thuan; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2004-06-01

    The injection of male haploid germ cells, such as spermatozoa and round spermatids, into preactivated mouse oocytes can result in the development of viable embryos and offspring. However, it is not clear how the timing of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and round spermatid injection (ROSI) affects the production of offspring. We carried out ICSI and ROSI every 20 min for up to 4 h after the activation of mouse oocytes by Sr(2+) and compared the late-stage development of ICSI- and ROSI- treated oocytes, including the formation of pronuclei, blastocyst formation, and offspring production. The rate of pronucleus formation (RPF) after carrying out ICSI started to decrease from >95% at 100 min following oocyte activation and declined to <20% by 180 min. In comparison, RPF by ROSI decreased gradually from >70% between 0 and 4 h after activation. The RPFs were closely correlated with blastocyst formation. Offspring production for both ICSI and ROSI decreased significantly when injections were conducted after 100 min, a time at which activated oocytes were in the early G1 stage of the cell cycle. These results suggest that spermatozoa and round spermatids have different potentials for inducing the formation of a male pronucleus in activated oocytes, but ICSI and ROSI are both subject to the same time constraint for the efficient production of offspring, which is determined by the cell cycle of the activated oocyte. PMID:14985245

  16. Modeling injection molding of net-shape active ceramic components.

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Tomas; Cote, Raymond O.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Yang, Pin; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Noble, David R.; Notz, Patrick K.; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Halbleib, Laura L.; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Burns, George Robert; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-11-01

    To reduce costs and hazardous wastes associated with the production of lead-based active ceramic components, an injection molding process is being investigated to replace the current machining process. Here, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic particles are suspended in a thermoplastic resin and are injected into a mold and allowed to cool. The part is then bisque fired and sintered to complete the densification process. To help design this new process we use a finite element model to describe the injection molding of the ceramic paste. Flow solutions are obtained using a coupled, finite-element based, Newton-Raphson numerical method based on the GOMA/ARIA suite of Sandia flow solvers. The evolution of the free surface is solved with an advanced level set algorithm. This approach incorporates novel methods for representing surface tension and wetting forces that affect the evolution of the free surface. Thermal, rheological, and wetting properties of the PZT paste are measured for use as input to the model. The viscosity of the PZT is highly dependent both on temperature and shear rate. One challenge in modeling the injection process is coming up with appropriate constitutive equations that capture relevant phenomenology without being too computationally complex. For this reason we model the material as a Carreau fluid and a WLF temperature dependence. Two-dimensional (2D) modeling is performed to explore the effects of the shear in isothermal conditions. Results indicate that very low viscosity regions exist near walls and that these results look similar in terms of meniscus shape and fill times to a simple Newtonian constitutive equation at the shear-thinned viscosity for the paste. These results allow us to pick a representative viscosity to use in fully three-dimensional (3D) simulation, which because of numerical complexities are restricted to using a Newtonian constitutive equation. Further 2D modeling at nonisothermal conditions shows that the choice of

  17. High tibial osteotomies in the young active patient

    PubMed Central

    Traub, Shaun; Efird, Chad

    2010-01-01

    Unicompartmental changes in the knee of a young athlete remains a difficult and controversial problem in orthopaedics. Excessive premature loading of articular cartilage, most often the result of a knee injury, has been shown to result in increased degenerative changes and pain in the younger patient. Instability may also contribute to the degeneration of cartilage and must therefore be considered in the treatment of osteoarthritis in the young adult. High tibial osteotomy has been described as a treatment option for malalignment in the older, less active adult and has shown promising results in a younger, more active population. Osteotomies for instability are more controversial and should be considered in more complex injury patterns. PMID:20076957

  18. Young Children's Help-Seeking as Active Information Gathering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vredenburgh, Christopher; Kushnir, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Young children's social learning is a topic of great interest. Here, we examined preschoolers' (M = 52.44 months, SD = 9.7 months) help-seeking as a social information gathering activity that may optimize and support children's opportunities for learning. In a toy assembly task, we assessed each child's competency at assembling toys and the…

  19. Active stabilization of a diode laser injection lock.

    PubMed

    Saxberg, Brendan; Plotkin-Swing, Benjamin; Gupta, Subhadeep

    2016-06-01

    We report on a device to electronically stabilize the optical injection lock of a semiconductor diode laser. Our technique uses as discriminator the peak height of the laser's transmission signal on a scanning Fabry-Perot cavity and feeds back to the diode current, thereby maintaining maximum optical power in the injected mode. A two-component feedback algorithm provides constant optimization of the injection lock, keeping it robust to slow thermal drifts and allowing fast recovery from sudden failures such as temporary occlusion of the injection beam. We demonstrate the successful performance of our stabilization method in a diode laser setup at 399 nm used for laser cooling of Yb atoms. The device eases the requirements on passive stabilization and can benefit any diode laser injection lock application, particularly those where several such locks are employed. PMID:27370428

  20. Active stabilization of a diode laser injection lock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxberg, Brendan; Plotkin-Swing, Benjamin; Gupta, Subhadeep

    2016-06-01

    We report on a device to electronically stabilize the optical injection lock of a semiconductor diode laser. Our technique uses as discriminator the peak height of the laser's transmission signal on a scanning Fabry-Perot cavity and feeds back to the diode current, thereby maintaining maximum optical power in the injected mode. A two-component feedback algorithm provides constant optimization of the injection lock, keeping it robust to slow thermal drifts and allowing fast recovery from sudden failures such as temporary occlusion of the injection beam. We demonstrate the successful performance of our stabilization method in a diode laser setup at 399 nm used for laser cooling of Yb atoms. The device eases the requirements on passive stabilization and can benefit any diode laser injection lock application, particularly those where several such locks are employed.

  1. Parental Attitudes and Young People's Online Sexual Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorbring, Emma; Hallberg, Jonas; Bohlin, Margareta; Skoog, Therése

    2015-01-01

    Parental attitudes towards young people's sexuality in traditional (i.e. non-online media) settings have been associated with young people's sexual activities. In this study, we explored the association between key parent and youth characteristics and parental attitudes towards young people's online sexual activities. We also…

  2. Modulation of Young Injection Events at Saturn at the Rotation Period of Perturbations in the Winter Hemisphere: A Proposed Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivelson, M.; Jia, X.

    2014-12-01

    Non-dispersive or "young" plasma injection events observed near midnight at Saturn are modulated at the period associated with the winter hemisphere [Kennelly et al., 2013]. Most other periodic dynamics of the magnetosphere are dominated by responses at the period of the summer hemisphere. The anomalous periodicity of plasma injection has not been explained. We present a theoretical explanation of ionospheric control, noting (as do Kennelly et al.) that the growth rate of the interchange instability is controlled by ionospheric conductance although the instability condition does not involve the ionosphere [Southwood and Kivelson, 1989]. The motion of the foot of a flux tube through the ionosphere is impeded by high conductance (line tying). Low conductance allows slippage and rapid growth of the instability. When the ionospheres have very different conductances, flux tube motion may be asymmetrical, with rapid displacement occurring only in the low conductance, winter hemisphere. A rotationally modulated low conductivity in that hemisphere would impose periodicity on injections. Pre-equinox (2009) at Saturn, the northern hemisphere conductance was low but probably varied with rotation phase because of the pattern of field-aligned currents (FACs) thought to rotate about the pole at the northern period, TN[Jia and Kivelson, 2012]. The upward current region in the ionosphere was probably more highly ionized than the downward current region because of electron precipitation. Two predictions follow. (1) The probability of an injection event in the midnight sector should maximize when the downward FAC in the winter hemisphere (conductivity minimum) has rotated into the midnight sector and (2) in northern winter, the tilt of the interchanging flux tube should produce positive radial field perturbations at and above the equator for inward-moving flux tubes and negative radial field perturbations for outward-moving flux tubes. Tests of these predictions will be reported

  3. A TYPOLOGY OF DRUG-RELATED OFFENDING AMONG YOUNG HOMELESS INJECTION DRUG USERS

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer; Hathaz, Dodi S.

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates a link between drug use and offending, particularly amongst high-risk individuals, such as homeless youth. The extent to which such youth interpret their offending as being related to their drug use, though, is understudied. This manuscript investigates the interpretations of drug-related offenses offered by 151 primarily white, male, homeless IDUs aged 16–29 years. Youth were asked specific questions about their drug-related offenses during in-depth interviews as part of a larger study investigating health risks surrounding drug injection between 2004 and 2006. The first section of the manuscript outlines offenses youth revealed committing either in pursuit of or after using a variety of substances. The second part of the manuscript examines the overall context (motivation, environment), and provides a seven-tiered typology of drug-related offending based on youth's interpretations, linking certain drugs to specific offenses within particular contexts. From here, some theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21423855

  4. “We don't need services. We have no problems”: exploring the experiences of young people who inject drugs in accessing harm reduction services

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Anita; Hildebrand, Mikaela; Sun, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Evidence suggests that people who inject drugs often begin their drug use and injecting practices in adolescence, yet there are limited data available on the HIV epidemic and the responses for this population. The comprehensive package of interventions for the prevention, treatment and care of HIV infection among people who inject drugs first laid out in 2009 (revised in 2012) by World Health Organization, United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, does not consider the unique needs of adolescent and young people. In order to better understand the values and preferences of young people who inject drugs in accessing harm reduction services and support, we undertook a series of community consultations with young people with experience of injecting drugs during adolescence. Methods Community consultations (4–14 persons) were held in 14 countries. Participants were recruited using a combined criterion and maximum variation sampling strategy. Data were analyzed using collaborative qualitative data analysis. Frequency analysis of themes was conducted. Results Nineteen community consultations were organized with a total of 132 participants. All participants had experienced injecting drugs before the age of 18. They had the following age distribution: 18–20 (37%), 21–25 (48%) and 26–30 (15%). Of the participants, 73.5% were male while 25.7% were female, with one transgender participant. Barriers to accessing the comprehensive package included: lack of information and knowledge of services, age restrictions on services, belief that services were not needed, fear of law enforcement, fear of stigma, lack of concern, high cost, lack of outreach, lack of knowledge of HCV/TB and lack of youth friendly services. Conclusions The consultations provide a rare insight into the lived experiences of adolescents who inject drugs and highlight the dissonance between their reality and current policy and programmatic

  5. Nitroxynil. Anthelmintic activity in cattle following subcutaneous injection.

    PubMed

    Wellington, A C

    1978-07-01

    Nitroxynil injected subcutaneously at 10 mg/kg live mass achieved Class A efficacy when evaluated by the non parametric method against adult Fasciola gigantica. Haemonchus placei, Bonustomum phlebotomum and Oesophagostomum radiatum in cattle. The compound was not effective against adult Cooperia spp. at the same dosage. PMID:569707

  6. The young astrophysicist: a very inexpensive activity to discuss spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockington, Guilherme; André Testoni, Leonardo; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2015-09-01

    The continuing fascination of young people with celestial bodies leads them to pose challenging questions to their science teachers, such as how was the universe born? How were the stars formed? In this paper we present an extremely inexpensive but highly engaging activity to teach the basics of spectroscopy. Guided by the question ‘how do scientists know what a star is made of?’, this simple activity allows a wide range of physical content to be taught, based on the analysis of the emission spectrum of a star’s light. It is possible to see the configuration of lines of each chemical element as a fingerprint, thereby inferring each one’s presence in the composition of the celestial body. As many countries do not have access to even inexpensive technologies, such as simple computers or digital cameras, this alternative could teach and motivate students of different ages to understand and enjoy the beauty of the nature of light.

  7. Young Children as Active Citizens in Local Government: Possibilities and Challenges from an Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomaeus, Clare; Gregoric, Carolyn; Krieg, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable research and discussion regarding children and young people's rights and citizenship, the participation of young children in community decision-making is still limited. In this exploratory research, a case study is reported on how ideas about young children as active citizens are interpreted within one local government…

  8. Ready, Steady, Action: What Enables Young People to Perceive Themselves as Active Agents in Their Lives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Government and educational priorities place importance on young people of secondary school age being active, having their voices heard, and participating in their community. This paper explores an understanding of the role of agency in young people's lives and how the concept is developing. Young people who perceive themselves as having…

  9. Differential induction and spread of tau pathology in young PS19 tau transgenic mice following intracerebral injections of pathological tau from Alzheimer's disease or corticobasal degeneration brains.

    PubMed

    Boluda, Susana; Iba, Michiyo; Zhang, Bin; Raible, Kevin M; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Trojanowski, John Q

    2015-02-01

    Filamentous tau pathologies are hallmark lesions of several neurodegenerative tauopathies including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) which show cell type-specific and topographically distinct tau inclusions. Growing evidence supports templated transmission of tauopathies through functionally interconnected neuroanatomical pathways suggesting that different self-propagating strains of pathological tau could account for the diverse manifestations of neurodegenerative tauopathies. Here, we describe the rapid and distinct cell type-specific spread of pathological tau following intracerebral injections of CBD or AD brain extracts enriched in pathological tau (designated CBD-Tau and AD-Tau, respectively) in young human mutant P301S tau transgenic (Tg) mice (line PS19) ~6-9 months before they show onset of mutant tau transgene-induced tau pathology. At 1 month post-injection of CBD-Tau, tau inclusions developed predominantly in oligodendrocytes of the fimbria and white matter near the injection sites with infrequent intraneuronal tau aggregates. In contrast, injections of AD-Tau in young PS19 mice induced tau pathology predominantly in neuronal perikarya with little or no oligodendrocyte involvement 1 month post-injection. With longer post-injection survival intervals of up to 6 months, CBD-Tau- and AD-Tau-induced tau pathology spread to different brain regions distant from the injection sites while maintaining the cell type-specific pattern noted above. Finally, CA3 neuron loss was detected 3 months post-injection of AD-Tau but not CBD-Tau. Thus, AD-Tau and CBD-Tau represent specific pathological tau strains that spread differentially and may underlie distinct clinical and pathological features of these two tauopathies. Hence, these strains could become targets to develop disease-modifying therapies for CBD and AD. PMID:25534024

  10. Physical Activity, Body Composition and Metabolic Syndrome in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Salonen, Minna K.; Wasenius, Niko; Kajantie, Eero; Lano, Aulikki; Lahti, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low physical activity (PA) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS), its components and body composition among young Finnish adults. Research Design and Methods The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband) five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET). Results The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours) or intensity (MET) were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS. Conclusions MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS. PMID:25992848

  11. From Ambivalence to Activism: Young People's Environmental Views and Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partridge, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Do young people really take a particular interest in environmental issues, or are they apathetic? This paper considers what young people really think about the environment by drawing together and reviewing attitudinal polling and other research into young people's views. It seeks to challenge simplistic assumptions, and instead acknowledges the…

  12. Energy Expenditure during Sexual Activity in Young Healthy Couples

    PubMed Central

    Frappier, Julie; Toupin, Isabelle; Levy, Joseph J.; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylene; Karelis, Antony D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine energy expenditure in kilocalories (kcal) during sexual activity in young healthy couples in their natural environment and compare it to a session of endurance exercise. Methods The study population consisted of twenty one heterosexual couples (age: 22.6 ± 2.8 years old) from the Montreal region. Free living energy expenditure during sexual activity and the endurance exercise was measured using the portable mini SenseWear armband. Perceived energy expenditure, perception of effort, fatigue and pleasure were also assessed after sexual activity. All participants completed a 30 min endurance exercise session on a treadmill at a moderate intensity. Results Mean energy expenditure during sexual activity was 101 kCal or 4.2 kCal/min in men and 69.1 kCal or 3.1 kCal/min in women. In addition, mean intensity was 6.0 METS in men and 5.6 METS in women, which represents a moderate intensity. Moreover, the energy expenditure and intensity during the 30 min exercise session in men was 276 kCal or 9.2 kCal/min and 8.5 METS, respectively and in women 213 kCal or 7.1 kCal/min and 8.4 METS, respectively. Interestingly, the highest range value achieved by men for absolute energy expenditure can potentially be higher than that of the mean energy expenditure of the 30 min exercise session (i.e. 306.1 vs. 276 kCal, respectively) whereas this was not observed in women. Finally, perceived energy expenditure during sexual activity was similar in men (100 kCal) and in women (76.2 kCal) when compared to measured energy expenditure. Conclusion The present study indicates that energy expenditure during sexual activity appears to be approximately 85 kCal or 3.6 kCal/min and seems to be performed at a moderate intensity (5.8 METS) in young healthy men and women. These results suggest that sexual activity may potentially be considered, at times, as a significant exercise. PMID:24205382

  13. Association between Pregnancy and Active Injection Drug Use and Sex Work among Women Injection Drug Users in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Girchenko, P; Ompad, D C; Bikmukhametov, D; Gensburg, L

    2015-06-01

    Widespread use of unsafe sexual practices among women injecting drugs both practicing and not practicing sex work leads to high levels of unplanned pregnancies in this population. The goal of this study was to investigate the association between pregnancy and active drug use and sex work. Data were collected using a convenience sample of 500 women in Saint Petersburg, Russia, in 2013. All women had recent experience of drug use, of which 200 were pregnant at the time of the study. The study consisted of a structured interview followed by a rapid HIV test. Pregnancy was protective against both active drug use and sex work. For HIV-positive women, these associations were stronger than for HIV-negative women: drug use prevalence ratio (PR) was 0.59 vs 0.85; for sex work, the PRs were 0.36 vs 0.64. Higher levels of education were associated with a lower prevalence ratio for active drug use and sex work in all models. Having children was not associated with active drug use or sex work. Pregnancy might be an optimal time for conducting interventions aimed at cessation of drug use and sex work among women injecting drugs. PMID:25835324

  14. Factors associated with prevalent hepatitis C: differences among young adult injection drug users in lower and upper Manhattan, New York City.

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, T; Des Jarlais, D C; Vlahov, D; Perlis, T E; Edwards, V; Friedman, S R; Rockwell, R; Hoover, D; Williams, I T; Monterroso, E R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined correlates of prevalent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among young adult injection drug users in 2 neighborhoods in New York City. METHODS: Injection drug users aged 18 to 29 years were street recruited from the Lower East Side and Harlem. Participants were interviewed about drug use and sex practices; venipuncture was performed for hepatitis B virus (HBV), HCV, and HIV serologies. RESULTS: In both sites, testing positive for HCV antibody (anti-HCV) was associated with having injected for more than 3 years. Additionally, HCV infection was positively associated with injecting with someone known to have had hepatitis (but the association was significant only in the Lower East Side) and with sharing cotton (but the association was statistically significant only in Harlem). Being in drug treatment and older than 24 years were associated with HCV in the Lower East Side but not in Harlem. Receiving money for sex was associated with anti-HCV positivity in Harlem but not in the Lower East Side. CONCLUSIONS: Several differences in factors associated with prevalent HCV infection existed among 2 populations of young injection drug users from the same city. Indirect transmission of HCV may occur. PMID:11189819

  15. Sulfur dioxide - Episodic injection shows evidence for active Venus volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, L. W.

    1984-01-01

    Pioneer Venus ultraviolet spectra from the first 5 years of operation show a decline (by more than a factor of 10) in sulfur dioxide abundance at the cloud tops and in the amount of submicron haze above the clouds. At the time of the Pioneer Venus encounter, the values for both parameters greatly exceeded earlier upper limits. However, Venus had a similar appearance in the late 1950's, implying the episodic injection of sulfur dioxide possibly caused by episodic volcanism. The amount of haze in the Venus middle atmosphere is about ten times that found in earth's stratosphere after the most recent major volcanic eruptions, and the thermal energy required for this injection on Venus is greater by about an order of magnitude than the largest of these recent earth eruptions and about as large as the Krakatoa eruption of 1883. The episodic behavior of sulfur dioxide implies that steady-state models of the chemistry and dynamics of cloud-top regions may be of limited use.

  16. 40 CFR 60.2680 - What if I do not use a wet scrubber, fabric filter, activated carbon injection, selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., fabric filter, activated carbon injection, selective noncatalytic reduction, an electrostatic... use a wet scrubber, fabric filter, activated carbon injection, selective noncatalytic reduction, an... reduction, fabric filter, an electrostatic precipitator, or a dry scrubber or limit emissions in some...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2680 - What if I do not use a wet scrubber, fabric filter, activated carbon injection, selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., fabric filter, activated carbon injection, selective noncatalytic reduction, an electrostatic... use a wet scrubber, fabric filter, activated carbon injection, selective noncatalytic reduction, an... reduction, fabric filter, an electrostatic precipitator, or a dry scrubber or limit emissions in some...

  18. Injection and Sexual HIV/HCV Risk Behaviors Associated with Nonmedical Use of Prescription Opioids among Young Adults in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Guarino, Honoria; Jessell, Lauren; Teper, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of nonmedical prescription opioid (PO) use has increased markedly in the U.S. This qualitative study explores the drug-use and sexual experiences of nonmedical PO users as they relate to risk for HIV and HCV transmission. Forty-six New York City young adult nonmedical PO users (ages 18–32) completed in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Despite initial perceptions of POs as less addictive and safer than illegal drugs, PO misuse often led to long-term opioid dependence and transition to heroin use and drug injection. Injectors in the sample reported sporadic syringe-sharing, frequent sharing of non-syringe injection paraphernalia and selective sharing with fellow injectors who are presumed “clean” (uninfected). Participants reported little knowledge of HCV injection-related risks and safer injection practices. They also reported engaging in unprotected sex with casual partners, exchange sex and group sex, and that PO misuse increases the risk of sexual violence. Prevention efforts addressing HIV/HCV risk should be targeted to young nonmedical PO users. PMID:25124258

  19. Injection and sexual HIV/HCV risk behaviors associated with nonmedical use of prescription opioids among young adults in New York City.

    PubMed

    Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Guarino, Honoria; Jessell, Lauren; Teper, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of nonmedical prescription opioid (PO) use has increased markedly in the U.S. This qualitative study explores the drug-use and sexual experiences of nonmedical PO users as they relate to risk for HIV and HCV transmission. Forty-six New York City young adult nonmedical PO users (ages 18-32) completed in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Despite initial perceptions of POs as less addictive and safer than illegal drugs, PO misuse often led to long-term opioid dependence and transition to heroin use and drug injection. Injectors in the sample reported sporadic syringe-sharing, frequent sharing of non-syringe injection paraphernalia and selective sharing with fellow injectors who are presumed "clean" (uninfected). Participants reported little knowledge of HCV injection-related risks and safer injection practices. They also reported engaging in unprotected sex with casual partners, exchange sex and group sex, and that PO misuse increases the risk of sexual violence. Prevention efforts addressing HIV/HCV risk should be targeted to young nonmedical PO users. PMID:25124258

  20. High physical activity in young children suggests positive effects by altering autoantigen-induced immune activity.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, E; Ludvigsson, J; Huus, K; Faresjö, M

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity in children is associated with several positive health outcomes such as decreased cardiovascular risk factors, improved lung function, enhanced motor skill development, healthier body composition, and also improved defense against inflammatory diseases. We examined how high physical activity vs a sedentary lifestyle in young children influences the immune response with focus on autoimmunity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, collected from 55 5-year-old children with either high physical activity (n = 14), average physical activity (n = 27), or low physical activity (n = 14), from the All Babies In Southeast Sweden (ABIS) cohort, were stimulated with antigens (tetanus toxoid and beta-lactoglobulin) and autoantigens (GAD65 , insulin, HSP60, and IA-2). Immune markers (cytokines and chemokines), C-peptide and proinsulin were analyzed. Children with high physical activity showed decreased immune activity toward the autoantigens GAD65 (IL-5, P < 0.05), HSP60 and IA-2 (IL-10, P < 0.05) and also low spontaneous pro-inflammatory immune activity (IL-6, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and CCL2 (P < 0.05)) compared with children with an average or low physical activity. High physical activity in young children seems to have positive effects on the immune system by altering autoantigen-induced immune activity. PMID:25892449

  1. Sensitivity of the active fracture model parameter to fracture network orientation and injection scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Başağaoğlu, Hakan; Succi, Sauro; Manepally, Chandrika; Fedors, Randall; Wyrick, Danielle Y.

    2009-09-01

    Active fractures refer to the portions of unsaturated, connected fractures that actively conduct water. The active fracture model parameter accounts for the reduction in the number of fractures carrying water and in the fracture-matrix interface area in field-scale simulations of flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rocks. One example includes the numerical analyses of the fault test results at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada (USA). In such applications, the active fracture model parameter is commonly used as a calibration parameter without relating it to fracture network orientations and infiltration rates. A two-dimensional, multiphase lattice-Boltzmann model was used in this study to investigate the sensitivity of the active fracture model parameter to fracture network orientation and injection scenarios for an unsaturated, variable dipping, and geometrically simple fracture network. The active fracture model parameter differed by as much as 0.11-0.44 when the effects of fracture network orientation, injection rate, and injection mode were included in the simulations. Hence, the numerical results suggest that the sensitivity of the active fracture model parameter to fracture network orientation, injection rates, and injection modes should be explored at the field-scale to strengthen the technical basis and range of applicability of the active fracture model.

  2. Opioid Use Trajectories, Injection Drug Use and HCV Risk among Young Adult Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union Living in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Guarino, Honoria; Marsch, Lisa A.; Deren, Sherry; Straussner, Shulamith L.A.; Teper, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that young former Soviet Union immigrants in New York City have high rates of non-medical prescription opioid and heroin use, drug injection and injection-related risk behavior, making them vulnerable to hepatitis C virus (HCV)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, overdose and associated harms. This group has been the focus of little research, however. This paper presents quantitative and qualitative data from 80 former Soviet immigrants (ages 18–29) to characterize their opioid use trajectories, injection risk behavior, HCV/HIV testing histories and self-reported HCV/HIV serostatus, and provides clinically meaningful data to inform tailored education, prevention and harm reduction interventions. PMID:26132715

  3. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet three requirements: (a) Select a carbon injection system...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  6. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  10. Activity trends in young solar-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtinen, J.; Jetsu, L.; Hackman, T.; Kajatkari, P.; Henry, G. W.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We study a sample of 21 young and active solar-type stars with spectral types ranging from late F to mid K and characterize the behaviour of their activity. Methods: We apply the continuous period search (CPS) time series analysis method on Johnson B- and V-band photometry of the sample stars, collected over a period of 16 to 27 years. Using the CPS method, we estimate the surface differential rotation and determine the existence and behaviour of active longitudes and activity cycles on the stars. We supplement the time series results by calculating new log R'HK = log F'HK/σTeff4 emission indices for the stars from high resolution spectroscopy. Results: The measurements of the photometric rotation period variations reveal a positive correlation between the relative differential rotation coefficient and the rotation period as k ∝ Prot1.36, but do not reveal any dependence of the differential rotation on the effective temperature of the stars. Secondary period searches reveal activity cycles in 18 of the stars and temporary or persistent active longitudes in 11 of them. The activity cycles fall into specific activity branches when examined in the log Prot/Pcyc vs. log Ro-1, where Ro-1 = 2Ωτc, or log Prot/Pcyc vs. log R'HK diagram. We find a new split into sub-branches within this diagram, indicating multiple simultaneously present cycle modes. Active longitudes appear to be present only on the more active stars. There is a sharp break at approximately log R'HK = -4.46 separating the less active stars with long-term axisymmetric spot distributions from the more active ones with non-axisymmetric configurations. In seven out of eleven of our stars with clearly detected long-term non-axisymmetric spot activity the estimated active longitude periods are significantly shorter than the mean photometric rotation periods. This systematic trend can be interpreted either as a sign of the active longitudes being sustained from a deeper level in the stellar interior

  11. Peer stress-related coping activities in young adolescents' asthma management.

    PubMed

    Yang, TienYu Owen; Lunt, Ingrid; Sylva, Kathy

    2009-08-01

    Managing asthma around peers can be stressful for young adolescents (age 9-14). However, the contexualised coping activities under asthma management-related peer stress is under-investigated. The study aims to explore the peer stress-related coping strategies young adolescents adopt in asthma management. Thirty-four young adolescents were interviewed with semi-structured storytelling protocols. Young adolescents expressed their opinions about four scenarios where the characters had difficulties managing asthma among peers. Interviews were transcribed, and qualitative data were analysed with analytical induction and constant comparison to generate themes that described the coping activities young adolescents adopted in four asthma management scenarios. Young adolescents' responses in each scenario were summarised. The coping activities adolescents adopted were cognitive justifying, explaining, outsourcing and undisclosing. Despite the limitations in a scenario-based qualitative study, the results may be useful for teachers and health professionals in social skill interventions for asthma management in early adolescence. PMID:19657905

  12. [Effects of ginkgo diterpene lactones meglumine injection's activated carbon adsorption technology on officinal components].

    PubMed

    Zhou, En-li; Wang, Ren-jie; Li, Miao; Wang, Wei; Xu, Dian-hong; Hu, Yang; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Bi, Yu-an; Xiao, Wei

    2015-10-01

    With the diversion rate of ginkgolide A, B, K as comprehensive evaluation indexes, the amount of activated carbon, ad- sorption time, mix rate, and adsorption temperature were selected as factors, orthogonal design which based on the evaluation method of information entropy was used to optimize activated carbon adsorption technology of ginkgo diterpene lactones meglumine injection. Opti- mized adsorption conditions were as follows: adsorbed 30 min with 0.2% activated carbon in 25 °C, 40 r ·min⁻¹, validation test re- sult display. The optimum extraction condition was stable and feasible, it will provide a basis for ginkgo diterpene lactone meglumine injection' activated carbon adsorption process. PMID:27062815

  13. [Transgender] Young Men: Gendered Subjectivities and the Physically Active Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudwell, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss [transgender] young men's social, physical and embodied experiences of sport. These discussions draw from interview research with two young people who prefer to self-identify as "male" and not as "trans men", although they do make use of this term. Finn and Ed volunteered to take part in the…

  14. Brief Report: The Theory of Planned Behaviour Applied to Physical Activity in Young People Who Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Emma S.; Daley, Amanda J.; Ussher, Michael

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that physical activity may be useful as a smoking cessation intervention for young adults. In order to inform such interventions, this study evaluated the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) for understanding physical activity behaviour in young smokers. Regular smokers aged 16-19 years (N=124), self-reported physical…

  15. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…

  16. Showcasing Mathematics for the Young Child: Activities for Three-, Four-, and Five-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copley, Juanita V., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Written for all teachers of young children, this book illustrates activities that promote early mathematics development for children ages three to five and "showcases" mathematics for the young child. The thirty-five activities in this book are distributed into five content areas: number and operations, geometry, algebra, measurement, and data…

  17. Factors Related to Rural Young Adolescents' Participation in Outdoor, Noncompetitive Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiana, Richard W.; Davis, Marsha; Wilson, Mark G.; McCarty, Frances A.; Green, Gary T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Young adolescents who have little interest in participating in competitive team sports are at an increased risk for physical inactivity. Noncompetitive outdoor physical activity can provide young adolescents with increased opportunities to participate in physical activities that appeal to them and have positive health effects. The purpose…

  18. Young Adult Follow-Up of Hyperactive Children: Antisocial Activities and Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; Fischer, Mariellen; Smallish, Lori; Fletcher, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Background: Hyperactive/ADHD children are believed to be a greater risk for adolescent and young adult antisocial activity and drug use/abuse, particularly that subset having comorbid conduct problems/disorder. Method: We report on the lifetime antisocial activities and illegal drug use self-reported at young adult follow-up (mean age 20-21 years;…

  19. Young People's Voluntary and Campaigning Activities as Sources of Political Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roker, Debi; Player, Katie; Coleman, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses political apathy and alienation among youth, challenging this negative image. Describes empirical research that demonstrates a high level of engagement by young people in social activism and community activities, focuses on factors influencing young people's participation, and demonstrates that volunteering and campaigning affect young…

  20. SIMPLIFIED INJECTION OF OXYGEN GAS INTO AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Las Virgenes Municipal Water District conducted a pilot investigation of the Simplox process at their Tapia Water Reclamation Facility in Calabasas, California. The Simplox process, developed by the Cosmodyne Division of Cordon International, involves covering an activated sl...

  1. Safe relief of rest pain that eases with activity in achillodynia by intrabursal or peritendinous steroid injection: the rupture rate was not increased by these steroid injections.

    PubMed

    Read, M T

    1999-04-01

    A history of morning and rest pain that eases with activity was found to improve after anti-inflammatory injections around the paratenon or within the Achilles bursae. The reduction in pain morbidity was significant, and the peritendinous steroid injections did not increase the rupture rate. PMID:10205700

  2. Surgical Treatment Options for the Young and Active Middle-Aged Patient with Glenohumeral Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Sanjeev; Hsu, Andrew; Lin, Emery C.; Chalmers, Peter; Ellman, Michael; Cole, Brian J.; Verma, Nikhil N.

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic chondral lesions in young and active middle-aged patients continues to be a challenging issue. Surgeons must differentiate between incidental chondral lesions from symptomatic pathology that is responsible for the patient's pain. A thorough history, physical examination, and imaging work up is necessary and often results in a diagnosis of exclusion that is verified on arthroscopy. Treatment of symptomatic glenohumeral chondral lesions depends on several factors including the patient's age, occupation, comorbidities, activity level, degree of injury and concomitant shoulder pathology. Furthermore, the size, depth, and location of symptomatic cartilaginous injury should be carefully considered. Patients with lower functional demands may experience success with nonoperative measures such as injection or anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapy. When conservative management fails, surgical options are broadly classified into palliative, reparative, restorative, and reconstructive techniques. Patients with lower functional demands and smaller lesions are best suited for simpler, lower morbidity palliative procedures such as debridement (chondroplasty) and cartilage reparative techniques (microfracture). Those with higher functional demands and large glenohumeral defects will usually benefit more from restorative techniques including autograft or allograft osteochondral transfers and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). Reconstructive surgical options are best suited for patients with bipolar lesions. PMID:22536515

  3. [Activity of Ca(2+)-dependent neutral proteinases in rat organs under cobalt and mercury chloride injection].

    PubMed

    Kaliman, P A; Samokhin, A A; Samokhina, L M

    2003-01-01

    The activity of Ca(2+)-dependent neutral proteinases in rats under cobalt and mercury chloride injection was investigated. The calpains activity increase in the lungs, heart, liver and kidneys was revealed after 2 h cobalt chloride action. The mercury chloride gives a reliable increase of calcium-dependent neutral proteinases only in the kidneys. PMID:14574747

  4. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet three requirements: (a) Select a carbon injection system...

  5. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet three requirements: (a) Select a carbon injection system...

  6. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet three requirements: (a) Select a carbon injection system...

  7. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet three requirements: (a) Select a carbon injection system...

  8. Electron beam injection during active experiments. II - Collisional effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    During active beam experiments, the presence of high neutral densities at low altitudes and/or during thruster firings has been observed to modify the spacecraft charging and the properties of the beam. Two-dimensional (three-velocity) electromagnetic particle simulations with ionizing collisions incorporated are used to investigate the modification of the beam-plasma interaction as the neutral density is increased. It is shown that when the spacecraft is uniformly immersed in a neutral cloud, most of the ionization is produced by direct ionization by the beam and its secondaries, rather than via vehicle-induced or wave-induced ionization for the neutral densities considered.

  9. Orexin A (hypocretin 1) injected into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and spontaneous physical activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kiwaki, Kohji; Kotz, Catherine M; Wang, Chuanfeng; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine; Levine, James A

    2004-04-01

    In humans, nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) increases with positive energy balance. The mediator of the interaction between positive energy balance and physical activity is unknown. In this study, we address the hypothesis that orexin A acts in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) to increase nonfeeding-associated physical activity. PVN-cannulated rats were injected with either orexin A or vehicle during the light and dark cycle. Spontaneous physical activity (SPA) was measured using arrays of infrared activity sensors and night vision videotaped recording (VTR). O(2) consumption and CO(2) production were measured by indirect calorimetry. Feeding behavior was assessed by VTR. Regardless of the time point of injection, orexin A (1 nmol) was associated with dramatic increases in SPA for 2 h after injection (orexin A: 6.27 +/- 1.95 x 10(3) beam break count, n = 24; vehicle: 1.85 +/- 1.13 x 10(3), n = 38). This increase in SPA was accompanied by compatible increase in O(2) consumption. Duration of feeding was increased only when orexin A was injected in the early light phase and accounted for only 3.5 +/- 2.5% of the increased physical activity. In a dose-response experiment, increases in SPA were correlated with dose of orexin A linearly up to 2 nmol. PVN injections of orexin receptor antagonist SB-334867 were associated with decreases in SPA and attenuated the effects of PVN-injected orexin A. Thus orexin A can act in PVN to increase nonfeeding-associated physical activity, suggesting that this neuropeptide might be a mediator of NEAT. PMID:14656716

  10. A comparison of the growth responses following intramuscular GHRH plasmid administration versus daily growth hormone injections in young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of daily porcine growth hormone (GH) injections versus plasmid-driven porcine GH-releasing hormone (pGHRH) production to promote growth was assessed. Ten-day-old piglets were injected intramuscularly with 0.1, 1, or 3 mg pGHRH, or a control plasmid followed by electroporation. Plasmid c...

  11. Objectively measured physical activity of young Canadian children using accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Heale, Liane D; Anderson, Laura N; Tremblay, Mark S; Maguire, Jonathon L; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study was to describe objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary time of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers and determine the proportion meeting Canadian age-specific PA guidelines. Ninety children (47 girls, 43 boys; mean age 32 (range, 4-70) months) attending scheduled health supervision visits and in the TARGet Kids! (The Applied Research Group for Kids) cohort wore an Actical accelerometer for 7 days. Participants with 4 or more valid days were included in the analysis. Time, in mean minutes per day (min/day), spent sedentary and in light PA, moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), and total PA was determined using published cut-points; age groups were compared using ANOVA. Twenty-three percent of children <18 months (n = 28) and 76% of children aged 18-59 months (n = 45) met the guideline of 180 min/day of total PA; 13% of children ≥60 months (n = 17) met the guideline of 60 min/day of MVPA. Children <18 months spent more of their waking time per day engaged in sedentary behaviours (79%; ∼7.3 h) compared with children aged 18-59 months (63%; ∼6.6 h) and children ≥60 months (58%; ∼6.6 h). In conclusion, most children aged 18-59 months met the Canadian PA guidelines for children aged 0-4 years, whereas few younger than 18 months met the same guidelines. Only 13% of children ≥5 years met their age-specific PA guidelines. Further research is needed to develop, test, and implement effective strategies to promote PA and reduce sedentary behaviour in very young children. PMID:26573442

  12. Shifting Motivations: Young Women's Reflections on Physical Activity over Time and across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Kurzer, Mindy S.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2010-01-01

    This research analyzes motivations expressed by young, healthy, sedentary women before and after an exercise intervention. Young women (aged 18-30, n = 39) participated in focus groups or interviews during a 4-month exercise intervention. Afterward, 22 of these women and 20 controls completed physical activity diaries for 6 months and were…

  13. Young Adult Outcome of Hyperactive Children: Adaptive Functioning in Major Life Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; Fischer, Mariellen; Smallish, Lori; Fletcher, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors report the adaptive functioning of hyperactive and control children in southeastern Wisconsin (Milwaukee) followed to young adulthood. Method: Interviews with participants concerning major life activities were collected between 1992 and 1996 and used along with employer ratings and high school records at the young adult…

  14. Young adult males' motivators and perceived barrier towards eating healthily and being active: A qualitative study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a lack of understanding of young men's perspectives in obesity-related research. This study aims to: (1) identify young men's perceived motivators and barriers in adopting healthy eating and physical activity behaviors, and (2) explore any differences in responses by weight status categorie...

  15. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internationally, young men (aged 18-25 years) have a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and many fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity or dietary guidelines. There is a lack of engagement and understanding of young men's needs in health-related research. Therefore, this study a...

  16. Toward Broader Perspectives of Young Children's Mathematics: Recognizing and Comparing Olivia's Beliefs and Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernet, Jamie L; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists on young children's beliefs about mathematics, and current research perspectives on early mathematical activity may overlook a great deal of young children's sophisticated mathematical thinking. We argue this is attributable, in part, to a need for a broader view of what mathematics is, including cultural practices that are…

  17. Focal Activation of Cells by Plasmon Resonance Assisted Optical Injection of Signaling Molecules

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Experimental methods for single cell intracellular delivery are essential for probing cell signaling dynamics within complex cellular networks, such as those making up the tumor microenvironment. Here, we show a quantitative and general method of interrogation of signaling pathways. We applied highly focused near-infrared laser light to optically inject gold-coated liposomes encapsulating bioactive molecules into single cells for focal activation of cell signaling. For this demonstration, we encapsulated either inositol trisphosphate (IP3), an endogenous cell signaling second messenger, or adenophostin A (AdA), a potent analogue of IP, within 100 nm gold-coated liposomes, and injected these gold-coated liposomes and their contents into the cytosol of single ovarian carcinoma cells to initiate calcium (Ca2+) release from intracellular stores. Upon optical injection of IP3 or AdA at doses above the activation threshold, we observed increases in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration within the injected cell initiating the propagation of a Ca2+ wave throughout nearby cells. As confirmed by octanol-induced inhibition, the intercellular Ca2+ wave traveled via gap junctions. Optical injection of gold-coated liposomes represents a quantitative method of focal activation of signaling cascades of broad interest in biomedical research. PMID:24877558

  18. The effect of intimate partner violence on receptive syringe sharing among young female injection drug users: an analysis of mediation effects.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Karla D; Hudson, Sharon M; Latka, Mary H; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Thiede, Hanne; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Garfein, Richard S

    2009-04-01

    This study sought to explore the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and receptive syringe sharing (RSS) among young female injection drug users (IDUs) and to examine mediating variables. Cross-sectional behavioral assessments were completed by 797 female IDUs in five U.S. cities who reported having at least one main sexual partner in the past three months. Linear regression was used to estimate direct and mediated effects. The product of coefficients method was used to statistically evaluate mediation. Respondents were predominantly white (70%) and mean age was 23 years. Sixty percent reported RSS in the past three months and 33% reported IPV in the past year. The association between IPV and RSS was independently mediated by self-esteem and depression, but not by self-efficacy for safer drug injection. Findings suggest that interventions focused on improving victimized women's self-esteem and depression may help mitigate some of the negative health effects of IPV. PMID:17876699

  19. Tracking of physical activity, fitness, body composition and diet from adolescence to young adulthood: The Young Hearts Project, Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Boreham, Colin; Robson, Paula J; Gallagher, Alison M; Cran, Gordon W; Savage, J Maurice; Murray, Liam J

    2004-10-01

    BACKGROUND: The assumption that lifestyles formed early in life track into adulthood has been used to justify the targeting of health promotion programmes towards children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to use data from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project to ascertain the extent of tracking, between adolescence and young adulthood, of physical activity, aerobic fitness, selected anthropometric variables, and diet. METHODS: Males (n 245) and females (n 231) were assessed at age 15 y, and again in young adulthood [mean (SD) age 22 (1.6) y]. At both timepoints, height, weight and skinfold thicknesses were measured, and physical activity and diet were assessed by questionnaire and diet history method respectively. At 15y, fitness was assessed using the 20 metre shuttle run, while at young adulthood, the PWC170 cycle ergometer test was used. For each measurement made at 15y, subjects were ranked into 'low' (L1; lowest 25%), 'medium' (M1; middle 50%) or 'high' (H1; highest 25%) categories. At young adulthood, similar categories (L2, M2, H2) were created. The extent of tracking of each variable over time was calculated using 3 x 3 matrices constructed using these two sets of categories, and summarised using kappa (kappa) statistics. RESULTS: Tracking of diet and fitness was poor (kappa activity in males was fair (kappa 0.202), but was poor in females (kappa 0.021). In contrast, anthropometric variables such as weight, body mass index and sum of skinfolds tracked more strongly in females (kappa 0.540, kappa 0.307, kappa 0.357 respectively) than in males (kappa 0.337, kappa 0.199, kappa 0.216 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The poor tracking of fitness and diet in both sexes, and physical activity in females, suggests that these aspects of adolescent lifestyle are unlikely to be predictive of behaviours in

  20. Photoacoustic imaging to detect rat brain activation after cocaine hydrochloride injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) was employed to detect small animal brain activation after the administration of cocaine hydrochloride. Sprague Dawley rats were injected with different concentrations (2.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mg per kg body) of cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution through tail veins. The brain functional response to the injection was monitored by photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system with horizontal scanning of cerebral cortex of rat brain. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was also used for coronal view images. The modified PAT system used multiple ultrasonic detectors to reduce the scanning time and maintain a good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The measured photoacoustic signal changes confirmed that cocaine hydrochloride injection excited high blood volume in brain. This result shows PAI can be used to monitor drug abuse-induced brain activation.

  1. [Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of etofenamate after intramuscular injection in laboratory animals].

    PubMed

    Pelster, B; Dell, H D

    1990-03-01

    Antiphlogistic and Analgetic Activity of Etofenamate in Laboratory Animals after Intramuscular Administration by injection of an oily solution of 10.5; 15; 19.5 mg etofenamate/kg body weight it was possible to inhibit the development of the carrageenan edema in the rat paw. Even four days after the single i.m. injection of etofenamate (active substance of Rheumon i.m.) the swelling of the rat paw is effectively prevented. By the Randall-Selitto-analgesia test it was possible to demonstrate the fast onset. Already 1 h after the injection of 15 mg/kg the pain threshold is increased to about 60%. Even in this testsystem the prolonged efficacy of oil diluted etofenamate can be found. PMID:2346539

  2. PRODUCTIVITY OF SOLAR FLARES AND MAGNETIC HELICITY INJECTION IN ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sung-hong; Wang Haimin; Chae, Jongchul

    2010-07-20

    The main objective of this study is to better understand how magnetic helicity injection in an active region (AR) is related to the occurrence and intensity of solar flares. We therefore investigate the magnetic helicity injection rate and unsigned magnetic flux, as a reference. In total, 378 ARs are analyzed using SOHO/MDI magnetograms. The 24 hr averaged helicity injection rate and unsigned magnetic flux are compared with the flare index and the flare-productive probability in the next 24 hr following a measurement. In addition, we study the variation of helicity over a span of several days around the times of the 19 flares above M5.0 which occurred in selected strong flare-productive ARs. The major findings of this study are as follows: (1) for a sub-sample of 91 large ARs with unsigned magnetic fluxes in the range from (3-5) x 10{sup 22} Mx, there is a difference in the magnetic helicity injection rate between flaring ARs and non-flaring ARs by a factor of 2; (2) the GOES C-flare-productive probability as a function of helicity injection displays a sharp boundary between flare-productive ARs and flare-quiet ones; (3) the history of helicity injection before all the 19 major flares displayed a common characteristic: a significant helicity accumulation of (3-45) x 10{sup 42} Mx{sup 2} during a phase of monotonically increasing helicity over 0.5-2 days. Our results support the notion that helicity injection is important in flares, but it is not effective to use it alone for the purpose of flare forecast. It is necessary to find a way to better characterize the time history of helicity injection as well as its spatial distribution inside ARs.

  3. Injection of Xenopus eggs before activation, achieved by control of extracellular factors, improves plasmid DNA replication after activation.

    PubMed

    Wangh, L J

    1989-05-01

    Injection of molecular probes into unfertilized Xenopus eggs requires suppression of activation. But the unfertilized egg is poised for activity, and pricking, like sperm penetration, triggers the start of the first cell cycle. Methods of suppressing activation generally rely on introduction of drugs into the cell, but some of these techniques are irreversible. I report here that injection without activation can also be accomplished by simply limiting extracellular free Ca2+ to 1-2 microM. The site of injection heals, but the cortex does not contract. Gentle modification of the vitelline envelope, which causes it to become tougher, improves the rate of healing to about 100%. Healed eggs are stable for hours and can be activated when needed. Injection of a plasmid derived from type 1 bovine papilloma virus revealed that replication occurs only after activation, but preloading the DNA markedly increased the efficiency of first-round replication. DNA interaction with the unactivated egg cytoplasm may therefore be required for efficient replication of exogenous DNA. The new procedures described here are likely to be of general utility. PMID:2559091

  4. Chromospherically active stars. II - HD 82558, a young single BY Draconis variable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Bopp, Bernard W.; Africano, John L.; Goodrich, Bret D.; Palmer, Leigh Hunter

    1986-01-01

    It is presently noted that the HD 82558 chromospherically active star is a young and rapidly rotating K2 V single BY Draconis variable with very strong far-UV emission features and an H-alpha line filled to the continuum level by emission. HD 82558 has constant velocity and is not a member of the Hyades Supercluster. Its light curve behavior, which appears to have been stable for several hundred rotation cycles, is reminiscent of that of the young, rapidly rotating, single K V variable H II 1883 in the Pleiades; this stability may be characteristic of young, single, chromospherically active stars.

  5. Active Flow Separation Control of a Stator Vane Using Surface Injection in a Multistage Compressor Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis E.; Bright, Michelle M.; Prahst, Patricia S.; Strazisar, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    Micro-flow control actuation embedded in a stator vane was used to successfully control separation and improve near stall performance in a multistage compressor rig at NASA Glenn. Using specially designed stator vanes configured with internal actuation to deliver pulsating air through slots along the suction surface, a research study was performed to identify performance benefits using this microflow control approach. Pressure profiles and unsteady pressure measurements along the blade surface and at the shroud provided a dynamic look at the compressor during microflow air injection. These pressure measurements lead to a tracking algorithm to identify the onset of separation. The testing included steady air injection at various slot locations along the vane. The research also examined the benefit of pulsed injection and actively controlled air injection along the stator vane. Two types of actuation schemes were studied, including an embedded actuator for on-blade control. Successful application of an online detection and flow control scheme will be discussed. Testing showed dramatic performance benefit for flow reattachment and subsequent improvement in diffusion through the use of pulsed controlled injection. The paper will discuss the experimental setup, the blade configurations, and preliminary CFD results which guided the slot location along the blade. The paper will also show the pressure profiles and unsteady pressure measurements used to track flow control enhancement, and will conclude with the tracking algorithm for adjusting the control.

  6. Physical Activity Counteracts Tumor Cell Growth in Colon Carcinoma C26-Injected Muscles: An Interim Report

    PubMed Central

    Hiroux, Charlotte; Vandoorne, Tijs; Koppo, Katrien; De Smet, Stefan; Hespel, Peter; Berardi, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue is a rare site of tumor metastasis but is the main target of the degenerative processes occurring in cancer-associated cachexia syndrome. Beneficial effects of physical activity in counteracting cancer-related muscle wasting have been described in the last decades. Recently it has been shown that, in tumor xeno-transplanted mouse models, physical activity is able to directly affect tumor growth by modulating inflammatory responses in the tumor mass microenvironment. Here, we investigated the effect of physical activity on tumor cell growth in colon carcinoma C26 cells injected tibialis anterior muscles of BALB/c mice. Histological analyses revealed that 4 days of voluntary wheel running significantly counteracts tumor cell growth in C26-injected muscles compared to the non-injected sedentary controls. Since striated skeletal muscle tissue is the site of voluntary contraction, our results confirm that physical activity can also directly counteract tumor cell growth in a metabolically active tissue that is usually not a target for metastasis. PMID:27478560

  7. Physical Activity Counteracts Tumor Cell Growth in Colon Carcinoma C26-Injected Muscles: An Interim Report.

    PubMed

    Hiroux, Charlotte; Vandoorne, Tijs; Koppo, Katrien; De Smet, Stefan; Hespel, Peter; Berardi, Emanuele

    2016-06-13

    Skeletal muscle tissue is a rare site of tumor metastasis but is the main target of the degenerative processes occurring in cancer-associated cachexia syndrome. Beneficial effects of physical activity in counteracting cancer-related muscle wasting have been described in the last decades. Recently it has been shown that, in tumor xeno-transplanted mouse models, physical activity is able to directly affect tumor growth by modulating inflammatory responses in the tumor mass microenvironment. Here, we investigated the effect of physical activity on tumor cell growth in colon carcinoma C26 cells injected tibialis anterior muscles of BALB/c mice. Histological analyses revealed that 4 days of voluntary wheel running significantly counteracts tumor cell growth in C26-injected muscles compared to the non-injected sedentary controls. Since striated skeletal muscle tissue is the site of voluntary contraction, our results confirm that physical activity can also directly counteract tumor cell growth in a metabolically active tissue that is usually not a target for metastasis. PMID:27478560

  8. Young Scientists Explore the World of Water. Book 9--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of water. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  9. The effect of increasing autonomy through choice on young children’s physical activity behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing autonomy by manipulating the choice of available physical activity options in a laboratory setting can increase physical activity in older children and adults. However, the effect of manipulating the number of physically active choices has yet to be examined in young children in a gymnas...

  10. Young Scientists Explore Nature. Book 10--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of nature. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  11. Young Scientists Explore Inner & Outer Space. Book 6--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of space (inner and outer). Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for…

  12. Un dia en la vida: The Everyday Activities of Young Children from Central American Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denmark, Nicole; Jones Harden, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the everyday activities of young children from low-income Central American (CA) immigrant families. From the perspective that everyday activities propel children's development of culturally and contextually valued behaviours and skills, 48 mothers were interviewed regarding the activities that are available…

  13. Validity of a Self-Administered 3-Day Physical Activity Recall in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jennifer L.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most physical activity recall questionnaires assess activity over a 7-day period. However, questionnaires have been validated in adolescents and adults using shorter recall timeframes. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a self-administered 3-day physical activity recall instrument (3DR) in young adults.…

  14. Young Scientists Explore Light & Color. Book 12--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of light and color. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each…

  15. Young Scientists Explore Electricity & Magnetism. Book 7--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of electricity and magnetism. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for…

  16. Young Scientists Explore Rocks & Minerals. Book 11--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of rocks and minerals. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each…

  17. Young Scientists Explore the Five Senses. Book 4--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of the five senses. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each…

  18. Using Antecedent Physical Activity to Increase On-Task Behavior in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Sara; Vail, Cynthia O.; Ayres, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    A withdrawal design was used to investigate how physical activity affects on-task behavior of young children with significant developmental delays in a special education preschool classroom. Five preschool age children with significant developmental delays engaged in either physical activity or seated center activities for 20 min prior to a 15-min…

  19. The Treasure in Leisure Activities: Fostering Resilience in Young People Who Are Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup, Glenda M.; Cornell, Elaine; Bundy, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    Because leisure activities are often viewed as optional, their value to people with disabilities may not be recognized. This study explored the benefits of leisure activities for eight young people who are blind. These activities provided them with supportive relationships, a desirable identity, experiences of power and control, and experiences of…

  20. Interventions to Promote Young People's Physical Activity: Issues, Implications and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo

    2006-01-01

    There has been increased interest in the development and implementation of physical activity interventions designed to increase young people's physical activity participation in recent years. This is perhaps founded on concerns over youngsters' physical activity levels and the possible health consequences. School-based interventions are the most…

  1. Young Scientists Explore Animals. Book 2--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of animals. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  2. Young Scientists Explore the World Around Them. Book 1--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of scientists. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  3. Propacetamol-Induced Injection Pain Is Associated with Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Channels.

    PubMed

    Schillers, Florian; Eberhardt, Esther; Leffler, Andreas; Eberhardt, Mirjam

    2016-10-01

    Propacetamol (PPCM) is a prodrug of paracetamol (PCM), which was generated to increase water solubility of PCM for intravenous delivery. PPCM is rapidly hydrolyzed by plasma esterases to PCM and diethylglycine and shares some structural and metabolic properties with lidocaine. Although PPCM is considered to be comparable to PCM regarding its analgesic properties, injection pain is a common side effect described for PPCM but not PCM. Injection pain is a frequent and unpleasant side effect of numerous drugs in clinical use, and previous reports have indicated that the ligand gated ion channels transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) can mediate this effect on sensory neurons. This study aimed to investigate molecular mechanisms by which PPCM, in contrast to PCM, causes injection pain. Therefore, human TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors were expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and investigated by means of whole-cell patch clamp and ratiometric calcium imaging. PPCM (but not PCM) activated TRPV1, sensitized heat-induced currents, and caused an increase in intracellular calcium. In TRPA1-expressing cells however, both PPCM and PCM evoked calcium responses but failed to induce inward currents. Intracutaneous injection of PPCM, but not of PCM, in human volunteers induced an intense and short-lasting pain and an increase in superficial blood flow, indicating activation of nociceptive C fibers and subsequent neuropeptide release. In conclusion, activation of human TRPV1 by PPCM seems to be a relevant mechanism for induction of pain upon intracutaneous injection and thus also for pain reported as an adverse side effect upon intravenous administration. PMID:27457427

  4. Young Scientists Explore an Encyclopedia of Energy Activities. Book 8--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of energy. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  5. Issues Related to Seismic Activity Induced by the Injection of CO2 in Deep Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Sminchak, Joel; Gupta, Neeraj; Byrer, Charles; Bergman, Perry

    2001-05-31

    Case studies, theory, regulation, and special considerations regarding the disposal of carbon dioxide (CO2) into deep saline aquifers were investigated to assess the potential for induced seismic activity. Formations capable of accepting large volumes of CO2 make deep well injection of CO2 an attractive option. While seismic implications must be considered for injection facilities, induced seismic activity may be prevented through proper siting, installation, operation, and monitoring. Instances of induced seismic activity have been documented at hazardous waste disposal wells, oil fields, and other sites. Induced seismic activity usually occurs along previously faulted rocks and may be investigated by analyzing the stress conditions at depth. Seismic events are unlikely to occur due to injection in porous rocks unless very high injection pressures cause hydraulic fracturing. Injection wells in the United States are regulated through the Underground Injection Control (UIC) program. UIC guidance requires an injection facility to perform extensive characterization, testing, and monitoring. Special considerations related to the properties of CO2 may have seismic ramifications to a deep well injection facility. Supercritical CO2 liquid is less dense than water and may cause density-driven stress conditions at depth or interact with formation water and rocks, causing a reduction in permeability and pressure buildup leading to seismic activity. Structural compatibility, historical seismic activity, cases of seismic activity triggered by deep well injection, and formation capacity were considered in evaluating the regional seismic suitability in the United States. Regions in the central, midwestern, and southeastern United States appear best suited for deep well injection. In Ohio, substantial deep well injection at a waste disposal facility has not caused seismic events in a seismically active area. Current

  6. 40 CFR 60.2115 - What if I do not use a wet scrubber, fabric filter, activated carbon injection, selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., fabric filter, activated carbon injection, selective noncatalytic reduction, or an electrostatic... Limitations and Operating Limits § 60.2115 What if I do not use a wet scrubber, fabric filter, activated... carbon injection, selective noncatalytic reduction, fabric filter, or an electrostatic precipitator...

  7. Catalog of programs, activities, assistance, and materials for young inventors

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, N.E. . Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.)

    1990-01-01

    An important issue to Americans during the 1990s will be improving the country's economic health by nurturing creative problem-solving in today's youth. The Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) at the US Department of Energy is contributing to this important effort by funding the development and annual revision of this catalog. The purpose of the catalog is to act as a springboard for involving educators and inventor organizations in programs for young inventors by describing existing programs in the US and Canada, including names, addresses, and telephone numbers. We especially encourage collaboration between educators and inventors in developing local programs. The first part of the catalog describes how 39 inventor organizations have acted as catalysts in statewide programs, developed special programs for young inventors outside the classroom, and written curriculum materials. The second part of the catalog describes local, statewide, and national programs and contests developed by a variety of organizations, individuals, and school systems. Program types are located by geographic region, and entries are indexed by state/province, program name, and grade level. 1 fig.

  8. Field Testing of Activated Carbon Injection Options for Mercury Control at TXU's Big Brown Station

    SciTech Connect

    John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Christopher Martin; Mark Musich; Lucinda Hamre

    2009-01-07

    The primary objective of the project was to evaluate the long-term feasibility of using activated carbon injection (ACI) options to effectively reduce mercury emissions from Texas electric generation plants in which a blend of lignite and subbituminous coal is fired. Field testing of ACI options was performed on one-quarter of Unit 2 at TXU's Big Brown Steam Electric Station. Unit 2 has a design output of 600 MW and burns a blend of 70% Texas Gulf Coast lignite and 30% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal. Big Brown employs a COHPAC configuration, i.e., high air-to-cloth baghouses following cold-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), for particulate control. When sorbent injection is added between the ESP and the baghouse, the combined technology is referred to as TOXECON{trademark} and is patented by the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States. Key benefits of the TOXECON configuration include better mass transfer characteristics of a fabric filter compared to an ESP for mercury capture and contamination of only a small percentage of the fly ash with AC. The field testing consisted of a baseline sampling period, a parametric screening of three sorbent injection options, and a month long test with a single mercury control technology. During the baseline sampling, native mercury removal was observed to be less than 10%. Parametric testing was conducted for three sorbent injection options: injection of standard AC alone; injection of an EERC sorbent enhancement additive, SEA4, with ACI; and injection of an EERC enhanced AC. Injection rates were determined for all of the options to achieve the minimum target of 55% mercury removal as well as for higher removals approaching 90%. Some of the higher injection rates were not sustainable because of increased differential pressure across the test baghouse module. After completion of the parametric testing, a month long test was conducted using the enhanced AC at a nominal rate of 1.5 lb/Macf. During the

  9. Physical activity in aging: Comparison among young, aged, and nonagenarian individuals

    PubMed Central

    Johannsen, Darcy L.; DeLany, James P.; Frisard, Madlyn I.; Welsch, Michael A.; Rowley, Christina K.; Fang, Xiaobing; Jazwinski, S. Michal; Ravussin, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is known to decline with age; however, there is a paucity of data on activity in persons who are in their nineties and beyond. We used objective and reliable methods to measure PA in nonagenarians (≥90 yr; n = 98) and hypothesized that activity would be similar to that of aged (60–74 yr; n = 58) subjects but less than in young (20–34 yr; n = 53) volunteers. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured by doubly labeled water over 14 days and resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry. Measures of PA included activity energy expenditure adjusted for body composition, TEE adjusted for RMR, physical activity level (PAL), and activity over 14 days by accelerometry expressed as average daily durations of light and moderate activity. RMR and TEE were lower with increasing age group (P < 0.01); however, RMR was not different between aged and nonagenarian subjects after adjusting for fat-free mass, fat mass, and sex. Nonagenarians had a lower PAL and were more sedentary than the aged and young groups (P < 0.01); however, the nonagenarians who were more active on a daily basis walked further during a timed test, indicating higher physical functionality. For all measures of activity, no differences were found between young and aged volunteers. PA was markedly lower in nonagenarians compared with young and aged adults. Interestingly, PA was similar between young volunteers and those who were in their 60s and 70s, likely due to the sedentary nature of our society, particularly in young adults. PMID:18556430

  10. Physical Activity and Play Behaviours in Children and Young People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boddy, Lynne M.; Downs, Samantha J.; Knowles, Zoe R.; Fairclough, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of physical activity and active play for children and young people are well established. However, there is a lack of physical activity research involving children and young people with intellectual disabilities. This study investigated habitual physical activity and recess play behaviour in 70 5- to 15-year-old participants with…

  11. Active suppression of vortex-driven combustion instability using controlled liquid-fuel injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Bin

    Combustion instabilities remain one of the most challenging problems encountered in developing propulsion and power systems. Large amplitude pressure oscillations, driven by unsteady heat release, can produce numerous detrimental effects. Most previous active control studies utilized gaseous fuels to suppress combustion instabilities. However, using liquid fuel to suppress combustion instabilities is more realistic for propulsion applications. Active instability suppression in vortex-driven combustors using a direct liquid fuel injection strategy was theoretically established and experimentally demonstrated in this dissertation work. Droplet size measurements revealed that with pulsed fuel injection management, fuel droplet size could be modulated periodically. Consequently, desired heat release fluctuation could be created. If this oscillatory heat release is coupled with the natural pressure oscillation in an out of phase manner, combustion instabilities can be suppressed. To identify proper locations of supplying additional liquid fuel for the purpose of achieving control, the natural heat release pattern in a vortex-driven combustor was characterized in this study. It was found that at high Damkohler number oscillatory heat release pattern closely followed the evolving vortex front. However, when Damkohler number became close to unity, heat release fluctuation wave no longer coincided with the coherent structures. A heat release deficit area was found near the dump plane when combustor was operated in lean premixed conditions. Active combustion instability suppression experiments were performed in a dump combustor using a controlled liquid fuel injection strategy. High-speed Schlieren results illustrated that vortex shedding plays an important role in maintaining self-sustained combustion instabilities. Complete combustion instability control requires total suppression of these large-scale coherent structures. The sound pressure level at the excited dominant

  12. Factors Associated with Leisure Activity among Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Lollar, Donald

    2006-01-01

    The framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) was applied to examine the factors associated with childhood impairment and leisure activity. Information on leisure activity was obtained using a structured questionnaire from a population-based cohort of young adults with childhood impairment. The…

  13. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  14. Understanding How Young People Do Activism: Youth Strategies on Sexual Health in Ecuador and Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Anna-Britt; Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    While social movement research employs "tactical repertoire" to emphasize protest tactics directed at the state, literature on youth activism globally indicates that young people do politics outside the realm of formal political spheres. Youth activism on body politics in Latin America offers evidence that enhances conceptual tools…

  15. Curriculum Diversity and Young Adult Physical Activity: Reflections from High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2008-01-01

    This study was to evaluate if exposure to a diverse curriculum in high school physical education had an impact on young adult physical activity. Students from two universities were surveyed concerning high school physical education content exposure and physical activity in four areas. By investigating relationships between content exposure and…

  16. Youth and young adult physical activity and body composition of young adult women: findings from the dietary intervention study in children.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Melissa G; Hovinga, Mary; Shepherd, John A; Egleston, Brian; Gabriel, Kelley; Van Horn, Linda; Robson, Alan; Snetselaar, Linda; Stevens, Victor K; Jung, Seungyoun; Dorgan, Joanne

    2015-02-01

    This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend = 0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (β=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p = .02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women. PMID:25387239

  17. Spatial distribution and antitumor activities after intratumoral injection of fragmented fibers with loaded hydroxycamptothecin.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiaojun; Luo, Xiaoming; Chen, Maohua; Lu, Jinfu; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-09-01

    There was only a small percentage of drug delivered to tumors after systemic administration, and solid tumors also have many barriers to prevent drug penetration within tumors. In the current study, intratumoral injection of drug-loaded fiber fragments was proposed to overcome these barriers, allowing drug accumulation at the target site to realize the therapeutic efficacy. Fragmented fibers with hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) loaded were constructed by cryocutting of aligned electrospun fibers, and the fiber lengths of 5 (FF-5), 20 (FF-20), and 50μm (FF-50) could be easily controlled by adjusting the slice thickness. Fragmented fibers were homogeneously dispersed into 2% sodium alginate solution, and could be smoothly injected through 26G1/2 syringe needles. FF-5, FF-20 and FF-50 fiber fragments indicated similar release profiles except a lower burst release from FF-50. In vitro viability tests showed that FF-5 and FF-20 fiber fragments caused higher cytotoxicity and apoptosis rates than FF-50. After intratumoral injection into murine H22 subcutaneous tumors, fragmented fibers with longer lengths indicated a higher accumulation into tumors and a better retention at the injection site, but showed less apparent diffusion within tumor tissues. In addition to the elimination of invasive surgery, HCPT-loaded fiber fragments showed superior in vivo antitumor activities and fewer side effects than intratumoral implantation of drug-loaded fiber mats. Compared with FF-5 and FF-50, FF-20 fiber fragments indicated optimal spatial distribution of HCPT within tumors and achieved the most significant effects on the animal survival, tumor growth inhibition and tumor cell apoptosis induction. It is suggested that the intratumoral injection of drug-loaded fiber fragments provided an efficient strategy to improve patient compliance, allow the retention of fragmented fibers and spatial distribution of drugs within tumor tissues to achieve a low systemic toxicity and an optimal

  18. Differences in lower-extremity muscular activation during walking between healthy older and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Anne; Silder, Amy; Heiderscheit, Bryan; Mahoney, Jane; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have identified differences in gait kinetics between healthy older and young adults. However, the underlying factors that cause these changes are not well understood. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of age and speed on the activation of lower-extremity muscles during human walking. We recorded electromyography (EMG) signals of the soleus, gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, medial hamstrings, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris as healthy young and older adults walked over ground at slow, preferred and fast walking speeds. Nineteen healthy older adults (age, 73 ± 5 years) and 18 healthy young adults (age, 26 ± 3 years) participated. Rectified EMG signals were normalized to mean activities over a gait cycle at the preferred speed, allowing for an assessment of how the activity was distributed over the gait cycle and modulated with speed. Compared to the young adults, the older adults exhibited greater activation of the tibialis anterior and soleus during mid-stance at all walking speeds and greater activation of the vastus lateralis and medial hamstrings during loading and mid-stance at the fast walking speed, suggesting increased coactivation across the ankle and knee. In addition, older adults depend less on soleus muscle activation to push off at faster walking speeds. We conclude that age-related changes in neuromuscular activity reflect a strategy of stiffening the limb during single support and likely contribute to reduced push off power at fast walking speeds. PMID:19081734

  19. Young Adult Hip: Reactivation of dormant, previously undiagnosed Mycobacterium Tuberculosis infection following intra-articular steroid injection

    PubMed Central

    B.J, Tadros; G.H, Stafford

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) still remains a common problem in the UK and, with the increasing number of patients being offered arthroplasties; periprosthetic involvement is not uncommon anymore. However, the diagnosis of TB infected arthroplasties still remains difficult and misdiagnosis is common, therefore delaying treatment. Case Report: We describe a 36-years old Caucasian female with no known history of TB who presented with hip pain thought to be due to femoro-acetabular impingement (FAI). In the course of 18 months, the patient had been investigated extensively; including steroid injection, hip arthroscopy (including synovial biopsies), and eventually a total hip arthroplasty. During arthroplasty, further extensive biopsies were performed which raised the suspicion of TB on histology. Further synovial biopsies obtained arthroscopically were microbiologically positive for TB (PCR). The patient was sent to an infectious disease specialist. It appeared that the patient had TB in the past, of which she was unaware. Conclusion: We hypothesise that the immunosuppressant effects of the steroid injections she received reactivated her TB. PMID:27299119

  20. Plasma effects of active ion beam injections in the ionosphere at rocket altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldy, R. L.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.; Kintner, P. M.; Moore, T. E.; Pollock, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    Data from ARCS rocket ion beam injection experiments are primarily discussed. There are three results from this series of active experiments that are of particular interest in space plasma physics. These are the transverse acceleration of ambient ions in the large beam volume, the scattering of beam ions near the release payload, and the possible acceleration of electrons very close to the plasma generator which produce intense high frequency waves. The ability of 100 ma ion beam injections into the upper E and F regions of the ionosphere to produce these phenomena appear to be related solely to the process by which the plasma release payload and the ion beam are neutralized. Since the electrons in the plasma release do not convect with the plasma ions, the neutralization of both the payload and beam must be accomplished by large field-aligned currents (milliamperes/square meter) which are very unstable to wave growth of various modes.

  1. Predictors of Active Injection Drug Use in a Cohort of Patients Infected With Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Carrie; Bliss, Caleb; Heeren, Timothy; Tumilty, Sheila; Horsburgh, C. Robert; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Cotton, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated potential risk factors for active injection drug use (IDU) in an inner-city cohort of patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Methods. We used log-binomial regression to identify factors independently associated with active IDU during the first 3 years of follow-up for the 289 participants who reported ever having injected drugs at baseline. Results. Overall, 142 (49.1%) of the 289 participants reported active IDU at some point during the follow-up period. In a multivariate model, being unemployed (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24, 3.03) and hazardous alcohol drinking (PR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.34, 2.08) were associated with active IDU. Smoking was associated with IDU but this association was not statistically significant. Patients with all 3 of those factors were 3 times as likely to report IDU during follow-up as those with 0 or 1 factor (PR = 3.3; 95% CI = 2.2, 4.9). Neither HIV coinfection nor history of psychiatric disease was independently associated with active IDU. Conclusions. Optimal treatment of persons with HCV infection will require attention to unemployment, alcohol use, and smoking in conjunction with IDU treatment and prevention. PMID:23153145

  2. Synergistic anti-tumor activity through combinational intratumoral injection of an in-situ injectable drug depot.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da Yeon; Kwon, Doo Yeon; Kwon, Jin Seon; Park, Ji Hoon; Park, Seung Hun; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jae Ho; Min, Byoung Hyun; Park, Kinam; Kim, Moon Suk

    2016-04-01

    Here, we describe combinational chemotherapy via intratumoral injection of doxorubicin (Dox) and 5-fluorouracil (Fu) to enhance the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of systemically administered Fu and Dox in cancer patients. As the key concept in this work, mixture formulations of Dox-loaded microcapsules (Dox-M) and Fu-loaded Pluronic(®) hydrogels (Fu-HP) or Fu-loaded diblock copolymer hydrogels (Fu-HC) have been employed as drug depots. The in vitro and in vivo drug depot was designed as a formulation of Dox-M dispersed inside an outer shell of Fu-HP or Fu-HC after injection. The Dox-M/Fu-HP and Dox-M/Fu-HC formulations are free flowing at room temperature, indicating injectability, and formed a structural gelatinous depot in vitro and in vivo at body temperature. The Fu-HP, Fu-HC, Dox-M/Fu-HP, Dox-M/Fu-HC, and Dox-M formulations were easily injected into tumor centers in mice using a needle. Dox-M/Fu-HC produced more significant inhibitory effects against tumor growth than that by Dox-M/Fu-HP, while Fu-HP, Fu-HC and Dox-M had the weakest inhibitory effects of the tested treatments. The in vivo study of Dox and Fu biodistribution showed that high Dox and Fu concentrations were maintained in the target tumor only, while distribution to normal tissues was not observed, indicating that Dox and Fu concentrations below their toxic plasma concentrations should not cause significant systemic toxicity. The Dox-M/Fu-HP and Dox-M/Fu-HC drug depots described in this work showed excellent performance as chemotherapeutic delivery systems. The results reported here indicate that intratumoral injection using combination chemotherapy with Dox-M/Fu-HP or Dox-M/Fu-HC could be of translational research by enhancing the synergistic inhibitory effects of Dox and Fu on tumor growth, while reducing their systemic toxicity in cancer patients. PMID:26874285

  3. The Measurement of Physical Activity in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Melody; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents data from two studies determining the validity of various measures of physical activity in preschool children. One explored how certain measures of activity predicted observed behavior. The other examined the Caltrac motion sensor's predictive validity. Results indicate the Caltrac monitor is sensitive to children's individual differences…

  4. How Young Children Spend Their Time: Television and Other Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston, Aletha C.; Wright, John C.; Marquis, Janet; Green, Samuel B.

    1999-01-01

    Examined television viewing over three years among two cohorts of 2- and 4-year olds. Found that viewing declined with age. With age, time in reading and educational activities increased on weekdays but declined on weekends, and sex differences in time-use patterns increased. Increased time in educational activities, social interaction, and video…

  5. Young School Children's Recess Physical Activity: Movement Patterns and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Amelia M.; Graber, Kim C.; Daum, David N.; Gentry, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study examined physical activity (PA) variables related to recess PA patterns of kindergarten, first and second grade children, and the social preferences and individuals influencing their PA. Data collected (N = 147) used the System of Observing Children's Activity and Relationships during Play (SOCARP) instrument. Children were interviewed.…

  6. The Very Young and Education: 1974 State Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayas, Denise Kale; Ross, Doris M.

    This booklet contains more than 100 brief descriptions of early childhood projects, activities, studies, and legislation obtained from newsletters, bulletins, and the Education Commission of the States' (ECS) 1974 Annual Survey. Only legislation and activities that have been validated or newly reported are included. Bills which failed or were…

  7. Sharing a Small World: Environmental Activities for Young Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains a collection of activities developed for pre-K through second grade students. All of the activities in this teacher's guide use an interdisciplinary approach and explore the human connection with all living things and their environment. Contents include: (1) "Sharing Space and Working Together"; (2) "Sharing Resources and…

  8. Intravitreal injection

    MedlinePlus

    Retinal vein occlusion-intravitreal injection; Triamcinolone-intravitreal injection; Dexamethasone-intravitreal injection; Lucentis-intravitreal injection; Avastin-intravitreal injection; Bevacizumab-intravitreal injection; Ranibizumab- ...

  9. Labor force activities and income among young Guatemalan adults.

    PubMed

    Hoddinott, John; Behrman, Jere R; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2005-06-01

    This paper considers labor force activities among adults (26 to 41 years of age in 2003) who participated as children in a nutrition supplementation trial in Guatemala. The vast majority of men are engaged in some type of income-generating activity in 2002-04. However, unlike their fathers, these men are much more likely to be engaged in wage labor, even if they remain in the original study villages. Those engaged in wage employment appear to do so steadily. Women are much more likely to be engaged in some type of income-generating activity than their mothers. For both men and women, there appears to be considerable movement in and out of own business activities. In Guatemala City, wage work is the predominant economic activity with more than half of the women interviewed working for wages; elsewhere operating non-farm businesses is the most often cited activity. For both men and women, agriculture now appears to be very much a secondary activity. PMID:16060216

  10. Flow injection catalase activity measurement based on gold nanoparticles/carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    El Nashar, Rasha Mohamed

    2012-07-15

    Amperometric flow injection method of hydrogen peroxide analysis was developed based on catalase enzyme (CAT) immobilization on a glassy carbon electrode (GC) modified with electrochemically deposited gold nanoparticles on a multiwalled carbon nanotubes/chitosan film. The resulting biosensor was applied to detect hydrogen peroxide with a linear response range 1.0×10(-7)-2.5×10(-3)M with a correlation coefficient 0.998 and response time less than 10s. The optimum conditions of film deposition such as potential applied, deposition time and pH were tested and the flow injection conditions were optimized to be: flow rate of 3ml/min, sample volume 75μl and saline phosphate buffer of pH 6.89. Catalase enzyme activity was successfully determined in liver homogenate samples of rats, raised under controlled dietary plan, using a flow injection analysis system involving the developed biosensor simultaneously with spectrophotometric detection, which is the common method of enzymatic assay. PMID:22817944

  11. Sustained release of active chemotherapeutics from injectable-solid β-hairpin peptide hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jessie E P; Stewart, Brandon; Litan, Alisa; Lee, Seung Joon; Schneider, Joel P; Langhans, Sigrid A; Pochan, Darrin J

    2016-05-26

    MAX8 β-hairpin peptide hydrogel is a solid, preformed gel that can be syringe injected due to shear-thinning properties and can recover solid gel properties immediately after injection. This behavior makes the hydrogel an excellent candidate as a local drug delivery vehicle. In this study, vincristine, a hydrophobic and commonly used chemotherapeutic, is encapsulated within MAX8 hydrogel and shown to release constantly over the course of one month. Vincristine was observed to be cytotoxic in vitro at picomolar to nanomolar concentrations. The amounts of drug released from the hydrogels over the entire time-course were in this concentration range. After encapsulation, release of vincristine from the hydrogel was observed for four weeks. Further characterization showed the vincristine released during the 28 days remained biologically active, well beyond its half-life in bulk aqueous solution. This study shows that vincristine-loaded MAX8 hydrogels are excellent candidates as drug delivery vehicles, through sustained, low, local and effective release of vincristine to a specific target. Oscillatory rheology was employed to show that the shear-thinning and re-healing, injectable-solid properties that make MAX8 a desirable drug delivery vehicle are unaffected by vincristine encapsulation. Rheology measurements also were used to monitor hydrogel nanostructure before and after drug encapsulation. PMID:26906463

  12. Evaluation of a foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analyser in highly active, moderately active and less active young men.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Ann M; Swartz, Ann M; Jeremy Evans, M; King, George A; Thompson, Dixie L

    2002-08-01

    The Tanita TBF-305 (Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan) is a commercially available foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) system. The manufacturer-supplied equations incorporate gender, mass, height, activity category and a measured impedance value to determine % body fat (BF). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the manufacturer-supplied 'adult' and 'athlete' equations provided an accurate estimate of % BF for a group of young men with varying activity levels. Fifty-seven men (18-35 years old) were categorized into the following groups: (1) highly active (HA) (> or = 10.0 h aerobic activity/week); (2) moderately active (MA) (2.5-10.0 h aerobic activity/week); (3) less active (LA) (<2.5 h aerobic activity/week). The % BF was measured using the BIA 'athlete' and 'adult' modes. After BIA measurements, residual volume was measured and hydrostatic weighing (HW) was performed. The amount of activity performed by each group was significantly different (P<0.001). No significant differences were found between the % BF determined by the 'athlete' mode and HW for HA (P=0.309) and MA (P=0.091). However, a significant difference was found for LA (P=0.001). The % BF determined by the 'adult' mode and HW was not different for LA (P=0.395), but was significantly different for MA (P<0.001) and HA (P<0.001). The choice of activity mode on the foot-to-foot BIA significantly alters prediction of % BF. With careful selection of activity mode, there was no statistical difference between % BF determined by HW and the BIA, but the range of individual error scores was large. PMID:12144724

  13. Route of Nicotine Administration Influences In Vivo Dopamine Neuron Activity: Habituation, Needle Injection, and Cannula Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yu; Zhang, Tianxiang; Li, Wei; Doyon, William; Dani, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems play a critical role in tobacco addiction driven by nicotine. Nicotine activates midbrain DA neurons and, consequently, elevates DA concentrations in targets, especially in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of the ventral striatum. The route of drug administration influences the impact of addictive drugs. Here, we examine whether the nature of the administration alters DA neuron activity and DA concentrations in the NAc. Using unhabituated naïve freely moving rats, microdialysis measurements showed that nicotine administered via needle injection caused greater DA release in the NAc than the same dose administered via an implanted chronic cannula. After habituation to the needle injections, however, there was no significant difference in DA signaling between the needle and cannula routes of administration. Consistent with these microdialysis results after habituation, our in vivo tetrode unit recordings showed no significant difference in midbrain DA neuron activity in response to nicotine delivered by needle or cannula as long as predictive cues were avoided. PMID:19714495

  14. Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity in Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flohr, Judith A.; Todd, M. Kent; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) patterns of children. Forty-four 7th-grade students (19 boys, 25 girls) recorded pedometer data for 2 consecutive weeks. Separate 2 x 3 repeated measures analyses of variance were used to examine differences in total steps/day between boys and girls and between after-school…

  15. Cross-Language Activation of Phonology in Young Bilingual Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether children who were learning to read simultaneously in English and French activate phonological representations from only the language in which they are reading or from both of their languages. Children in French Immersion programs in Grade 3 were asked to name aloud cognates, interlingual homographs, interlingual homophones,…

  16. Small Wonders. Hands-On Science Activities for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdue, Peggy K.

    Children are natural scientists and are constantly questioning and challenging the world around them. This book is designed to help preschool and primary teachers see the science in common things. It is a book of manipulative activities that are designed to nurture a child's natural curiosity as well as integrate science with other areas.…

  17. Music Preferences and Civic Activism of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Ambrose; Kier, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between music preferences and civic activism among 182 participants aged 14-24 years. Our analyses show that participants who regularly listened to certain music genres such as classical, opera, musicals, new age, easy listening, house, world music, heavy metal, punk, and ska were significantly more likely to…

  18. Effects of Physical Activity on Mathematical Computation among Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl; Barton, Joel

    1979-01-01

    When 106 second-grade children were tested for simple computation ability in various conditions of induced physical exertion (no exertion v 20, 30, 40, or 50 minutes of activity), significantly higher scores were observed after the 50-minute treatment, and no significant differences were noted between male and female scores. (Author/RL)

  19. Social Justice Storytelling and Young Children's Active Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Louise G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines empirical data with regard to recent theorizing and conceptualizing of children's citizenship. It draws on a doctoral study where the author told social justice stories to one class of children aged five to six years to investigate the active citizenship that the stories set in motion. By imagining this action research study…

  20. Analysis of active components in Salvia miltiorrhiza injection based on vascular endothelial cell protection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Yang, Kai; Sun, Caihua; Zheng, Minxia

    2014-09-01

    Correlation analysis based on chromatograms and pharmacological activities is essential for understanding the effective components in complex herbal medicines. In this report, HPLC and measurement of antioxidant properties were used to describe the active ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza injection (SMI). HPLC results showed that tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, protocatechuic acid and their metabolites in rat serum may contribute to the efficacy of SMI. Assessment of antioxidant properties indicated that differences in the composition of serum powder of SMI caused differences in vascular endothelial cell protection. When bivariate correlation was carried out it was found that salvianolic acid B, tanshinol and protocatechuic aldehyde were active components of SMI because they were correlated to antioxidant properties. PMID:25296678

  1. What do parents and preschool staff tell us about young children's physical activity: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Genevieve M; Higgs, Joy; Hardy, Louise L; Baur, Louise A

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical activity and small screen recreation are two modifiable behaviours associated with childhood obesity and the development of chronic health problems. Parents and preschool staff shape behaviour habits in young children. The aims of this qualitative study were to explore the attitudes, values, knowledge and understanding of parents and carers of preschool-age children in relation to physical activity and small screen recreation and to identify influences upon these behaviours. Methods This research involved a focus group study with parents and carers of the target population. A purposive sample of 39 participants (22 parents, 17 carers) participated in 9 focus groups. Participants were drawn from three populations of interest: those from lower socioeconomic status, and Middle-Eastern and Chinese communities in the Sydney (Australia) metropolitan region. Results All participants understood the value of physical activity and the impact of excessive small screen recreation but were unfamiliar with national guidelines for these behaviours. Participants described the nature and activity patterns of young children; however, the concept of activity 'intensity' in this age group was not a meaningful term. Factors which influenced young children's physical activity behaviour included the child's personality, the physical activity facilities available, and the perceived safety of their community. Factors facilitating physical activity included a child's preference for being active, positive parent or peer modelling, access to safe play areas, organised activities, preschool programs and a sense of social connectedness. Barriers to physical activity included safety concerns exacerbated by negative media stories, time restraints, financial constraints, cultural values favouring educational achievement, and safety regulations about equipment design and use within the preschool environment. Parents considered that young children are naturally 'programmed' to be

  2. Why Do Some Teachers Resist Offering Appropriate, Open-Ended Art Activities for Young Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szyba, Chris Mulcahey

    1999-01-01

    Describes the types of classroom art experiences that should be provided for young children and discusses reasons teachers continue to rely on recipe art lessons. Suggests learning center activities and materials, as well as ways that teachers can facilitate creativity. Considers how coloring books dampen children's motivation to draw. (KB)

  3. Does Participation in Youth Sport Influence Sport and Physical Activity in Young Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provence, Jeremy E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of Russell and Limle's (2013) study was to determine whether youth-sport specialization and retrospective recall of youth-sport experiences were related to participants' perceptions of and participation in sport and physical activity as young adults. A significant number of participants (76 percent) reported specializing in…

  4. That's Not Fair! A Teacher's Guide to Activism with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelo, Ann; Davidson, Fran

    Noting that young children have a natural sense of what is and is not fair, this guide is intended to help teachers develop an anti-bias curriculum using children's sense of fairness to guide them toward social activism. The book provides stories of children's experiences as activists, coupled with first-person accounts of teachers' experiences…

  5. The Improvement of Thinking Skills in Young Children Using Computer Activities: A Replication and Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riding, R. J.; Powell, S. D.

    1986-01-01

    Replicates and extends Riding and Powells' study of four-year-olds' problem-solving abilities using computer activities. Achieves similar results, namely significantly greater improvement between the pretest and posttest scores for the treatment group. Suggests that computers could aid worthwhile improvement in young children's thinking…

  6. Young Women's Career and Educational Development through Extracurricular Activity Participation: A Qualitative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkerson, Annette H.

    The effects of participation in extracurricular activities on young women's career and educational development were examined. A constant comparative method was used to analyze the open-ended responses to questionnaires completed by 156 high school girls and the transcripts from semi-structured interviews with 5 female college freshmen and 2 young…

  7. Promoting an "Active Start" for Young Children: Developing Competent and Confident Early Movers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Wall, Sarah; Getchell, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    With childhood obesity and physical inactivity at an all-time high, parents and physical educators alike must look to the early years to promote competent and confident young movers. Popular opinion believes that children are naturally active and motor skill development progresses as a normal function of getting older. However, if one looks at…

  8. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most recent Australian Health survey identified that young men (18-24yrs) have numerous health concerns including: 42% overweight/obese, 48% not meeting national physical activity recommendations and 97% failing to consume adequate intakes of fruit and vegetables. There is a lack of engagement a...

  9. Initiating Sexual Experiences: How Do Young Adolescents Make Decisions Regarding Early Sexual Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michels, Tricia M.; Kropp, Rhonda Y.; Eyre, Stephen L.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding how young adolescents make decisions to engage in early sexual activities is vital for intervention efforts aimed at fostering positive youth development and reducing the negative outcomes of adolescent sexual behavior. In-depth interviews with 42 suburban, mostly White, ninth-grade adolescents (52% females, mean age=14.1, SD=.45)…

  10. Physical Activity and Diet Relative to Socio-Economic Status and Gender in British Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study considers the physical activity (PA) and dietary habits of British young people according to socio-economic status (SES). Methods: The PA and dietary habits of 98 boys and 101 girls (12.9 0.3 years) from two Welsh secondary schools (school 1 and school 2) were examined. Free school meal eligibility and Census 2001 data were…

  11. Young Children at Home and in School: 212 Educational Activities for Their Parents, Teachers, and Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Philip S.; Brand, Lillian B.

    This source book is designed to give parents, teachers, and other caregivers of young children more than 200 sample activities for children that are fun, easy, and educationally sound. Chapter 1 introduces principles of early childhood programs, the "home-school connection," and tips on how to communicate with children. This chapter also gives an…

  12. Young Children's Literacy in the Activity Space of the Library: A Geosemiotic Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sue

    2011-01-01

    An ecological approach, emphasizing the importance of understanding multiple contexts for learning, underpins this study of libraries as activity spaces for young children's literacy participation. Five libraries serving a diversity of communities were the subject of ethnographic investigation incorporating participant observation, visual…

  13. Young Adult Outcomes of Children with Hyperactivity: Leisure, Financial, and Social Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Mariellen; Barkley, Russell

    2006-01-01

    This study reports on the leisure time, financial, gambling, and social activities of a large sample of children with hyperactivity (H group, N = 149) and children who served as a control group (CC group, N = 72) from the Southeastern Wisconsin (Milwaukee) region tracked for 13-15 years to young adulthood (ages 19--25, M = 20 years). Participant…

  14. Self-Control Is Associated with Physical Activity and Fitness among Young Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnunen, Marja Ilona; Suihko, Johanna; Hankonen, Nelli; Absetz, Pilvikki; Jallinoja, Piia

    2012-01-01

    The personality trait self-control has been associated with various adaptive outcomes. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to explore whether self-control is associated with self-reported leisure time physical activity (LTPA), Body Mass Index (BMI), muscle-fitness and aerobic fitness among young men. Participants (482 male conscripts;…

  15. An Evaluation of a Program to Increase Physical Activity for Young Children in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Marco, Allison C.; Zeisel, Susan; Odom, Samuel L.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: In the past 20 years, obesity rates among U.S. children have skyrocketed. In fact, 15.4% of 2- to 4-year-olds in North Carolina, where this study takes place, are obese, making it the 5th worst obesity rate in the nation. Research indicates that young children in preschool settings largely engage in sedentary activities,…

  16. Young People, Physical Activity and the Everyday. Routledge Studies in Physical Education and Youth Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Jan, Ed.; Macdonald, Doune, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Despite society's current preoccupation with interrelated issues such as obesity, increasingly sedentary lifestyles and children's health, there has until now been little published research that directly addresses the place and meaning of physical activity in young people's lives. In this important new collection, leading international scholars…

  17. Activation of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos by PLCZ cRNA injection.

    PubMed

    Ross, Pablo J; Rodriguez, Ramon M; Iager, Amy E; Beyhan, Zeki; Wang, Kai; Ragina, Neli P; Yoon, Sook-Young; Fissore, Rafael A; Cibelli, Jose B

    2009-03-01

    The production of cloned animals by the transfer of a differentiated somatic cell into an enucleated oocyte circumvents fertilization. During fertilization, the sperm delivers a sperm-specific phospholipase C (PLCZ) that is responsible for triggering Ca(2)(+) oscillations and oocyte activation. During bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), oocyte activation is artificially achieved by combined chemical treatments that induce a monotonic rise in intracellular Ca(2)(+) and inhibit either phosphorylation or protein synthesis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that activation of bovine nuclear transfer embryos by PLCZ improves nuclear reprogramming. Injection of PLCZ cRNA into bovine SCNT units induced Ca(2)(+) oscillations similar to those observed after fertilization and supported high rates of blastocyst development similar to that seen in embryos produced by IVF. Furthermore, gene expression analysis at the eight-cell and blastocyst stages revealed a similar expression pattern for a number of genes in both groups of embryos. Lastly, levels of trimethylated lysine 27 at histone H3 in blastocysts were higher in bovine nuclear transfer embryos activated using cycloheximide and 6-dimethylaminopurine (DMAP) than in those activated using PLCZ or derived from IVF. These results demonstrate that exogenous PLCZ can be used to activate bovine SCNT-derived embryos and support the hypothesis that a fertilization-like activation response can enhance some aspects of nuclear reprogramming. PMID:19074500

  18. Incidence of Sudden Cardiac Death in a Young Active Population

    PubMed Central

    Farioli, Andrea; Christophi, Costas A; Quarta, Candida Cristina; Kales, Stefanos N

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the burden of sudden cardiac death (SCD) among active, presumably healthy persons. We investigated the incidence of SCD among US male career firefighters. Methods and Results All on-duty SCDs among US male career firefighters between 1998 and 2012 were identified from the US Fire Administration and the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health databases. Age-specific incidence rates (IRs) of SCD with 95% CIs were computed. A joinpoint model was fitted to analyze the trend in IR and to help estimate the annual percentage change of SCD rates over the years. The effects of seasonality were assessed through a Poisson regression model. We identified 182 SCDs; based on 99 available autopsy reports, the leading underlying cause of death was coronary heart disease (79%). The overall IR was 18.1 SCDs per 100 000 person-years. The age-specific IRs of SCD ranged between 3.8 (for those aged 18 to 24 years) and 45.2 (for those aged 55 to 64 years) per 100 000 person-years. The annual rate of SCD steadily declined over time (annual percentage change −3.9%, 95% CI −5.8 to −2.0). SCD events were more frequent during January (peak-to-low ratio 1.70; 95% CI 1.09 to 2.65). In addition, the IR was 3 times higher during high-risk duties compared with low-risk duties. IRs among firefighters were lower than those observed among the US general population and US military personnel. Conclusions SCD risk in this active working population is overestimated using statistics from the general population. To address public health questions among these subpopulations, more specific studies of active adults should be conducted. PMID:26066031

  19. Employment and Post-Secondary Educational Activities for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders during the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the post-high school educational and occupational activities for 66 young adults with autism spectrum disorders who had recently exited the secondary school system. Analyses indicated low rates of employment in the community, with the majority of young adults (56%) spending time in sheltered workshops or day activity centers.…

  20. Cardiovascular activity in blood-injection-injury phobia during exposure: evidence for diphasic response patterns?

    PubMed

    Ritz, Thomas; Meuret, Alicia E; Simon, Erica

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to feared stimuli in blood-injection-injury (BII)-phobia is thought to elicit a diphasic response pattern, with an initial fight-flight-like cardiovascular activation followed by a marked deactivation and possible fainting (vasovagal syncope). However, studies have remained equivocal on the importance of such patterns. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence and clinical relevance of diphasic responses using criteria that require a true diphasic response to exceed cardiovascular activation of an emotional episode of a negative valence and to exceed deactivation of an emotionally neutral episode. Sixty BII-phobia participants and 20 healthy controls were exposed to surgery, anger and neutral films while measuring heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory pattern, and end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (as indicator of hyperventilation). Diphasic response patterns were observed in up to 20% of BII-phobia participants and 26.6% of healthy controls for individual cardiovascular parameters. BII-phobia participants with diphasic patterns across multiple parameters showed more fear of injections and blood draws, reported the strongest physical symptoms during the surgery film, and showed the strongest tendency to hyperventilate. Thus, although only a minority of individuals with BII phobia shows diphasic responses, their occurrence indicates significant distress. Respiratory training may add to the treatment of BII phobia patients that show diphasic response patterns. PMID:23747585

  1. Brain activity during source memory retrieval in young, middle-aged and old adults.

    PubMed

    Cansino, Selene; Trejo-Morales, Patricia; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Pasaye-Alcaraz, Erick Humberto; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika; Salgado-Lujambio, Perla; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa

    2015-08-27

    We investigated neurofunctional changes associated with source memory decline across the adult life span using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Young, middle-aged and old adults carried out a natural/artificial judgment of images of common objects that were randomly presented in one of the quadrants of the screen. At retrieval, the images were displayed at the center of the screen and the participants judged whether each image was new or old and, if old, they indicated in which quadrant of the screen the image had originally been presented. Comparing the items associated with correct versus incorrect source judgments revealed that no regions showed greater activity in young adults than in middle-aged adults; however, in young and middle-aged adults the activity in the left hippocampus and left anterior temporal cortex was of greater magnitude than in the older adults. Several regions also exhibited greater activity in young adults than in old adults. These results suggest that in middle age the recollection neural network, assessable by fMRI, is still preserved. PMID:26054305

  2. Farm Activities and Agricultural Injuries in Youth and Young Adult Workers.

    PubMed

    DeWit, Yvonne; Pickett, William; Lawson, Joshua; Dosman, James

    2015-01-01

    Youth and young adults who work in the agricultural sector experience high rates of injury. This study aimed to investigate relations between high-risk farm activities and the occurrence of agricultural injuries in these vulnerable groups. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using written questionnaire data from 1135 youth and young adults from the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort. The prevalence of agricultural injury was estimated at 4.9%/year (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7, 6.2). After adjustment for important covariates, duration of farm work was strongly associated with the occurrence of injury (risk ratio [RR] = 8.0 [95% CI: 1.7, 36.7] for 10-34 vs. <10 hours/week; RR = 10.3 [95% CI: 2.2, 47.5] for those working 35+ hours/week). Tractor maintenance, tractor operation, chores with large animals, herd maintenance activities, and veterinary activities were identified as risk factors for agricultural injury. Risks for agricultural injury among youth and young adults on farms relate directly to the amounts and types of farm work exposures that young people engage in. PMID:26237722

  3. Activities of Asian Students and Young Scientists on Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, H.; Lo, C.-Y.; Cho, K.

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports a history and future prospects of the activities by Asian students and young scientists on photogrammetry and remote sensing. For future growths of academic fields, active communications among students and young scientists are indispensable. In some countries and regions in Asia, local communities are already established by youths and playing important roles of building networks among various schools and institutes. The networks are expected to evolve innovative cooperations after the youths achieve their professions. Although local communities are getting solid growth, Asian youths had had little opportunities to make contacts with youths of other countries and regions. To promote youth activities among Asian regions, in 2007, Asian Association on Remote Sensing (AARS) started a series of programs involving students and young scientists within the annual conferences, the Asian Conference on Remote Sensing (ACRS). The programs have provided opportunities and motivations to create networks among students and young scientists. As a result of the achievements, the number of youth interested and involved in the programs is on growing. In addition, through the events held in Asian region by ISPRS Student Consortium (ISPRSSC) and WG VI/5, the Asian youths have built friendly partnership with ISPRSSC. Currently, many Asian youth are keeping contacts with ACRS friends via internet even when they are away from ACRS. To keep and expand the network, they are planning to establish an Asian youth organization on remote sensing. This paper describes about the proposals and future prospects on the Asian youth organization.

  4. Vision of the active limb impairs bimanual motor tracking in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P.; Van Halewyck, Florian; Corporaal, Sharissa H. A.; Willacker, Lina; Van Den Bergh, Veerle; Beets, Iseult A. M.; Levin, Oron; Swinnen, Stephan P.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the intensive investigation of bimanual coordination, it remains unclear how directing vision toward either limb influences performance, and whether this influence is affected by age. To examine these questions, we assessed the performance of young and older adults on a bimanual tracking task in which they matched motor-driven movements of their right hand (passive limb) with their left hand (active limb) according to in-phase and anti-phase patterns. Performance in six visual conditions involving central vision, and/or peripheral vision of the active and/or passive limb was compared to performance in a no vision condition. Results indicated that directing central vision to the active limb consistently impaired performance, with higher impairment in older than young adults. Conversely, directing central vision to the passive limb improved performance in young adults, but less consistently in older adults. In conditions involving central vision of one limb and peripheral vision of the other limb, similar effects were found to those for conditions involving central vision of one limb only. Peripheral vision alone resulted in similar or impaired performance compared to the no vision (NV) condition. These results indicate that the locus of visual attention is critical for bimanual motor control in young and older adults, with older adults being either more impaired or less able to benefit from a given visual condition. PMID:25452727

  5. Popularization activities for young children of the scientific activity in the field of environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gires, Auguste; Le Gueut, Marie-Agathe; Schertzer, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Research projects now rely on various pillars which include of course high level science and equipments, and also communication, outreach and educational activities. This paper focuses on education for young children and present activities that aim at helping them (and their parents!) to grasp some of the complex underlying scientific issues in the field of environment. More generally it helps children to get familiarized with science and scientists, with the hope of enhancing scientific culture and promoting careers in this field. The activities which are part of the popularization effort of the NEW Interreg IV RainGain project (www.raingain.eu) : - Experiments led in classrooms of kinder garden to design and test a disdrometer made of a plate and flour or oil to observe the diversity of rain drop sizes. It simply consists in putting a bit (roughly 1 mm depth) of flour or oil in a plate. The features of the devices based either flour or oil were first studied inside with artificial drops. Then it was tested outside under actual rain. - The writing of scientific book with and for children aged 8-9 years with the help of the editor of the collection. The process leading to the final book is splat in three main successive steps: (i) A 1.5 h interactive session with the researcher and a class of 8-9 year children. They are simply given the general topic of the book few hours before and ask all the questions they have on it and get some answers; (ii) The researcher writes a book in which all the questions raised by children are answered (at least partially). The scientific elements should be inserted in a lively story with few characters. The story should be more than a simple dialogue; a genuine fiction should take place and come first so that children do not even notice they are understanding and learning; (iii) Once children have read the book, there is a second session to get some feedback and possibly edit the manuscript (altering a character, adding some

  6. Control of microbial activity by flow injection analysis during high cell density cultivation of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ding, T; Bilitewski, U; Schmid, R D; Korz, D J; Sanders, E A

    1993-01-01

    The application of an automated flow injection analysis (FIA) system for on-line determination of microbial activity, during high cell density cultivations of Escherichia coli is reported. Based on a bioelectrochemical principle, the FIA method used a redox mediator (potassium hexacyanoferrate(III)) to facilitate electron transfer from the microorganisms to an electrochemical detector. Assays were carried out using a new sampling device which provided aseptic operation by use of a valve and chemical sterilisation. No sample dilution or pretreatment was necessary for biomass concentrations up to approx. 40 g l-1. The sample volume was 0.5 ml and the overall analysis time was 5 min. FIA signals were found to correlate well with the oxygen uptake rate (OUR). Changes in metabolic activity due to low substrate levels or high inhibitor concentrations in the cultivation medium became obvious from the FIA signals. PMID:7763463

  7. Young orogenic gold mineralisation in active collisional mountains, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craw, Dave; Upton, Phaedra; Yu, Bing-Sheng; Horton, Travis; Chen, Yue-Gau

    2010-10-01

    Gold-bearing vein systems in the high mountains of Taiwan are part of the youngest tectonic-hydrothermal system on Earth. Tectonic collision initiated in the Pliocene has stacked Eocene-Miocene marine sedimentary rocks to form steep mountains nearly 4 km high. Thinner portions of the sedimentary pile (˜5 km) are currently producing hydrocarbons in a fold and thrust belt, and orogenic gold occurs in quartz veins in thicker parts of the pile (˜10 km) in the Slate Belt that underlies the mountains. Metamorphic fluids (2-5 wt.% NaCl equivalent) are rising from the active greenschist facies metamorphic zone and transporting gold released during rock recrystallisation. Metamorphic fluid flow at the Pingfengshan historic gold mine was focussed in well-defined (4 km3) fracture zones with networks of quartz veins, whereas large surrounding volumes of rock are largely unveined. Gold and arsenopyrite occur in several superimposed vein generations, with ankeritic alteration of host rocks superimposed on chlorite-calcite alteration zones as fluids cooled and became out of equilibrium with the host rocks. Mineralising fluids had δ18O near +10‰, δ13C was between -1‰ and -6‰ and these fluids were in isotopic equilibrium with host rocks at ˜350°C. Ankeritic veins were emplaced in extensional sites in kink fold axial surfaces, formed as the rock mass was transported laterally from compressional to extensional regimes in the orogen. Rapid exhumation (>2 mm/year) of the Slate Belt is causing a widespread shallow conductive thermal anomaly without igneous intrusions. Meteoric water is penetrating into the conductive thermal anomaly to contribute to crustal fluid flow and generate shallow boiling fluids (˜250°C) with fluid temperature greater than rock temperature. The meteoric-hydrothermal system impinges on, but causes only minor dilution of, the gold mineralisation system at depth.

  8. Impaired anterior insular activation during risky decision making in young adults with internet gaming disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deokjong; Lee, Junghan; Yoon, Kang Joon; Kee, Namkoong; Jung, Young-Chul

    2016-05-25

    Internet gaming disorder is defined as excessive and compulsive use of the internet to engage in games that leads to clinically significant psychosocial impairment. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with internet gaming disorder would be less sensitive to high-risk situations and show aberrant brain activation related to risk prediction processing. Young adults with internet gaming disorder underwent functional MRI while performing a risky decision-making task. The healthy control group showed stronger activations within the dorsal attention network and the anterior insular cortex, which were not found in the internet gaming disorder group. Our findings imply that young adults with internet gaming disorder show impaired anterior insular activation during risky decision making, which might make them vulnerable when they need to adapt new behavioral strategies in high-risk situations. PMID:27092470

  9. Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Differ According to Education Level in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kankaanpää, Anna; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (2009–2011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays. PMID:27403958

  10. Specific inflammatory response of Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria) after bacterial injection causes tissue reaction and enzymatic activity alteration.

    PubMed

    Trapani, M R; Parisi, M G; Parrinello, D; Sanfratello, M A; Benenati, G; Palla, F; Cammarata, M

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of multicellular organisms was marked by adaptations to protect against pathogens. The mechanisms for discriminating the ''self'' from ''non-self" have evolved into a long history of cellular and molecular strategies, from damage repair to the co-evolution of host-pathogen interactions. We investigated the inflammatory response in Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) following injection of substances that varied in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reactions, especially after injection of Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus. Moreover, we analyzed enzymatic activity of protease, phosphatase and esterase, showing how the injection of different bacterial strains alters the expression of these enzymes and suggesting a correlation between the appearance of the inflammatory reaction and the modification of enzymatic activities. Our study shows for the first time, a specific reaction and enzymatic responses following injection of bacteria in a cnidarian. PMID:26836977

  11. Prefrontal Cortex Activation and Young Driver Behaviour: A fNIRS Study

    PubMed Central

    Foy, Hannah J.; Runham, Patrick; Chapman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic accidents consistently show a significant over-representation for young, novice and particularly male drivers. This research examines the prefrontal cortex activation of young drivers and the changes in activation associated with manipulations of mental workload and inhibitory control. It also considers the explanation that a lack of prefrontal cortex maturation is a contributing factor to the higher accident risk in this young driver population. The prefrontal cortex is associated with a number of factors including mental workload and inhibitory control, both of which are also related to road traffic accidents. This experiment used functional near infrared spectroscopy to measure prefrontal cortex activity during five simulated driving tasks: one following task and four overtaking tasks at varying traffic densities which aimed to dissociate workload and inhibitory control. Age, experience and gender were controlled for throughout the experiment. The results showed that younger drivers had reduced prefrontal cortex activity compared to older drivers. When both mental workload and inhibitory control increased prefrontal cortex activity also increased, however when inhibitory control alone increased there were no changes in activity. Along with an increase in activity during overtaking manoeuvres, these results suggest that prefrontal cortex activation is more indicative of workload in the current task. There were no differences in the number of overtakes completed by younger and older drivers but males overtook significantly more than females. We conclude that prefrontal cortex activity is associated with the mental workload required for overtaking. We additionally suggest that the reduced activation in younger drivers may be related to a lack of prefrontal maturation which could contribute to the increased crash risk seen in this population. PMID:27227990

  12. The activity intensities reached when playing active tennis gaming relative to sedentary gaming, tennis game-play, and current activity recommendations in young adults.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Arkinstall, Hayley; Dalbo, Vincent J; Humphries, Brendan J; Jennings, Cameron T; Kingsley, Michael I C

    2013-09-01

    Although active gaming is popular and can increase energy expenditure in young adults, its efficacy as a prescriptive exercise tool is not well understood. This study aimed to: (a) compare the activity intensities experienced by young adults while playing active tennis gaming with conventional sedentary gaming, tennis game-play, and current activity recommendations for health; and (b) identify changes in activity intensities across playing time. After habitualization, 10 active young adults (age: 20.2 ± 0.4 years; stature: 1.74 ± 0.03 m; body mass: 67.7 ± 3.3 kg) completed 3 experimental trials (sedentary gaming, active tennis gaming, and tennis game-play) on separate days in a randomized order. Heart rate (HR) and metabolic equivalents (METs) were averaged across 5 minutes and 10 minutes intervals, and the entire 20 minutes bout within each condition. Active gaming produced greater intensities across 5-10, 10-15, and 15-20 minutes time intervals compared with sedentary gaming (p < 0.01). Tennis game-play elicited greater HR (67 ± 5% HR(max)) and METs (5.0 ± 0.2) responses than both sedentary (40 ± 2% HR(max), 1.1 ± 0.1 METs) and active gaming (45 ± 2% HR(max), 1.4 ± 0.1 METs) (p < 0.001). Only tennis game-play produced activity intensities meeting current recommendations for health benefit. Lower HR intensities were reached across 0-5 minutes than during later time intervals during active gaming (6%) and tennis game-play (9%) (p < 0.01). Activity intensities elicited by active gaming were greater than sedentary gaming but less than tennis game-play and insufficient to contribute toward promoting and maintaining good health in young adults. These data suggest that active tennis gaming should not be recommended by exercise professionals as a substitute for actual sports participation in young adults. PMID:23238089

  13. Long-term physical activity modulates brain processing of somatosensory stimuli: Evidence from young male twins.

    PubMed

    Tarkka, Ina M; Savić, Andrej; Pekkola, Elina; Rottensteiner, Mirva; Leskinen, Tuija; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M

    2016-05-01

    Leisure-time physical activity is a key contributor to physical and mental health. Yet the role of physical activity in modulating cortical function is poorly known. We investigated whether precognitive sensory brain functions are associated with the level of physical activity. Physical activity history (3-yr-LTMET), physiological measures and somatosensory mismatch response (sMMR) in EEG were recorded in 32 young healthy twins. In all participants, 3-yr-LTMET correlated negatively with body fat%, r=-0.77 and positively with VO2max, r=0.82. The fat% and VO2max differed between 15 physically active and 17 inactive participants. Trend toward larger sMMR was seen in inactive compared to active participants. This finding was significant in a pairwise comparison of 9 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for physical activity. Larger sMMR reflecting stronger synchronous neural activity may reveal diminished gating of precognitive somatosensory information in physically inactive healthy young men compared to the active ones possibly rendering them more vulnerable to somatosensory distractions from their surroundings. PMID:26860901

  14. Incidence and Location of Pain in Young, Active Patients Following Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Nam, Denis; Nunley, Ryan M; Sauber, Timothy J; Johnson, Staci R; Brooks, Peter J; Barrack, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Persistent pain following hip arthroplasty remains a concern, especially in young, active patients. Four hundred twenty patients less than 60 years of age with a pre-symptomatic UCLA score ≥ 6 (196 total hip arthroplasty [THA]; 224 surface replacement arthroplasty [SRA]) completed a pain-drawing questionnaire investigating the location, severity, and frequency of pain around the hip. At a mean of 2.9 years of follow-up, 40% reported pain in at least one location around the hip. There was no difference in the incidence of groin pain between SRA and THA patients (32% vs. 29%, P=0.6), but THA patients had a greater incidence of anterior (25% vs. 8%, P<0.001) and lateral (20% vs. 10%, P=0.01) thigh pain. A high percentage of young, active patients experience persistent pain following hip arthroplasty. PMID:26067707

  15. Young adult stimulant users' increased striatal activation during uncertainty is related to impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Leland, David S.; Arce, Estibaliz; Feinstein, Justin S.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2006-01-01

    Background Young adults who use stimulants (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines) are at particular risk of transitioning to dependence. Previously, we demonstrated increased risk-taking in young adults who had used stimulants (Leland and Paulus, 2005). Since outcome uncertainty is a critical element of risk, we investigated whether such individuals have different neural responses to uncertainty than their stimulant-naïve peers. Method Eleven young adults (age 18–25) who had used stimulants were compared with 11 age- and education-matched stimulant-naïve controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a card prediction task with relatively certain/uncertain outcome conditions. Results The caudate, an area involved in processing salient events, was among those regions more active in users than controls in response to uncertainty. Personality measures revealed that users were more impulsive than controls, and that neural response to uncertainty in a number of areas including the thalamus/caudate was positively correlated with impulsivity. Conclusions These results are consistent with the idea that young adults who have used stimulant find uncertainty particularly salient, due in part to preexisting differences in impulsivity, and may be subject to more “action pressure” when making decisions under uncertainty. This neural and personality profile may constitute a marker for increased risk of stimulant use. PMID:16959497

  16. Effects of Green Tea Extract on Learning, Memory, Behavior and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Young and Old Male Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Tranum; Pathak, C. M.; Pandhi, P.; Khanduja, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of green tea extract administration on age-related cognition in young and old male Wistar rats. Methods: Young and old rats were orally administered 0.5% green tea extract for a period of eight weeks and were evaluated by passive avoidance, elevated maze plus paradigm and changes in acetylcholinesterase activity.…

  17. The Place of Sport and Physical Activity in Young People's Lives and Its Implications for Health: Some Sociological Comments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew; Green, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory paper seeks, first, to offer some critical sociological comments on the common-sense, or rather ideological, claims surrounding two supposedly emerging "crises": namely, the alleged poor health and declining sport and physical activity participation levels of young people. In this regard, it is suggested that while young people…

  18. Active and latent tuberculosis among HIV-positive injecting drug users in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Meijerink, Hinta; Wisaksana, Rudi; Lestari, Mery; Meilana, Intan; Chaidir, Lydia; van der Ven, Andre JAM; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van Crevel, Reinout

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Injecting drug use (IDU) is associated with tuberculosis but few data are available from low-income settings. We examined IDU in relation to active and latent tuberculosis (LTBI) among HIV-positive individuals in Indonesia, which has a high burden of tuberculosis and a rapidly growing HIV epidemic strongly driven by IDU. Methods Active tuberculosis was measured prospectively among 1900 consecutive antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve adult patients entering care in a clinic in West Java. Prevalence of LTBI was determined cross-sectionally in a subset of 518 ART-experienced patients using an interferon-gamma release assay. Results Patients with a history of IDU (53.1%) more often reported a history of tuberculosis treatment (34.8% vs. 21.9%, p<0.001), more often received tuberculosis treatment during follow-up (adjusted HR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.25–2.35) and more often had bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (OR=1.67; 95% CI: 0.94–2.96). LTBI was equally prevalent among people with and without a history of IDU (29.1 vs. 30.4%, NS). The risk estimates did not change after adjustment for CD4 cell count or ART. Conclusions HIV-positive individuals with a history of IDU in Indonesia have more active tuberculosis, with similar rates of LTBI. Within the HIV clinic, LTBI screening and isoniazid preventive therapy may be prioritized to patients with a history of IDU. PMID:25690530

  19. Anatomical gradients of adult neurogenesis and activity: young neurons in the ventral dentate gyrus are activated by water maze training

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Jason S.; Radik, Ruvim; Wojtowicz, J. Martin; Cameron, Heather A.

    2009-01-01

    Hippocampal function varies in a subregion-specific fashion: spatial processing is thought to rely on the dorsal hippocampus, while anxiety-related behavior relies more on the ventral hippocampus. During development, neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus proceeds along ventral to dorsal as well as suprapyramidal to infrapyramidal gradients, but it is unclear whether regional differences in neurogenesis are maintained in adulthood. Moreover, it is unknown whether young neurons in the adult exhibit subregion-specific patterns of activation. We therefore examined the magnitude of neurogenesis and the activation of young and mature granule cells in dentate gyrus subregions in adult rats that learned a spatial water maze task, swam with no platform, or were left untouched. We found that both adult neurogenesis and granule cell activation, as defined by c-fos expression in the granule cell population as a whole, were higher in the dorsal than the ventral dentate gyrus. In contrast, c-fos expression in adult-born granule cells, identified by PSA-NCAM or location in the subgranular zone, occurred at a higher rate in the opposite subregion, the ventral dentate gyrus. Interestingly, c-fos expression in the entire granule cell population was equivalent in water maze-trained rats and swim control rats, but was increased in the young granule cells only in the learning condition. These results provide new evidence that hippocampally-relevant experience activates young and mature neurons in different dentate gyrus subregions and with different experiential specificity, and suggest that adult-born neurons may play a specific role in anxiety-related behavior or other non-spatial aspects of hippocampal function. PMID:19004012

  20. Perceived Expectations for Active Aging, Formal Productive Roles, and Psychological Adjustment Among the Young-Old.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Maria K; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how older adults' perceptions of societal expectations for active aging, or activation demands (e.g., to stay fit and to contribute to the public good), relate to their involvement in paid work and formal volunteering and psychological adjustment. We used two waves of survey data on young-old Germans (aged 56-75, N(T1) = 1,508, N(T2) = 602). With the exception of several items on perceived activation demands, paid work and volunteering were not significant longitudinal predictors of such demands. In females, perceived activation demands increased the likelihood to work for pay a year later. Finally, among nonworking individuals, perceived activation demands predicted a better physical self-concept and a higher positive affect, whereas among nonvolunteers, such demands predicted fewer depressive symptoms a year later. We conclude that the policy debate on active aging may benefit some older German adults but is of little consequence for most of them. PMID:25721885

  1. Early Years Education: Are Young Students Intrinsically or Extrinsically Motivated Towards School Activities? A Discussion about the Effects of Rewards on Young Children's Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodotou, Evgenia

    2014-01-01

    Rewards can reinforce and at the same time forestall young children's willingness to learn. However, they are broadly used in the field of education, especially in early years settings, to stimulate children towards learning activities. This paper reviews the theoretical and research literature related to intrinsic and extrinsic motivational…

  2. Injecting and HIV prevalence among young heroin users in three Spanish cities and their association with the delayed implementation of harm reduction programmes

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Luis; Bravo, María José; Toro, Carlos; Brugal, M Teresa; Barrio, Gregorio; Soriano, Vicente; Vallejo, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate changes in the prevalence of HIV infection among young heroin users in three Spanish cities, and their association with harm reduction programmes (HRPs). Methods Two cross sectional studies. The 1995 study included 596 users; half were street recruited and half were recruited at drug treatment centres. The 2001–03 study included 981 street recruited users. Face to face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire. Samples for HIV testing (saliva in 1995 and dried blood spot in 2001–03) were collected. Results The proportion who had ever injected (IDUs) decreased in all three cities. HIV prevalence in IDUs decreased by half in Barcelona (44.1% to 20.8%) and Seville (44.2% to 22.2%), but remained constant in Madrid (36.8% and 34.9%). This difference was attributable to a decrease in HIV prevalence in long term IDUs in Barcelona and Seville, but not in Madrid. The crude odds ratio for HIV prevalence in Madrid compared with Barcelona in long term IDUs was 2.3 (95%CI 1.4 to 3.7), increasing to 3.1 (95%CI 1.5 to 6.2) after adjusting for sociodemographic and risk factors. HIV prevalence in short term IDUs was similar in all cities. In 1992 Barcelona already had 20 heroin users in methadone maintenance programmes (MMPs) per 10 000 population aged 15–49 years; Seville reached this rate in 1994, and Madrid, not until 1998. Conclusions The prevalence of HIV infection did not decrease in long term injectors in Madrid. The delayed implementation of HRPs, especially MMPs, may be the most plausible hypothesis. This finding should shed light on decision making in countries in a similar epidemiological and sociological situation. PMID:16698987

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Prescription Drug Misuse among Socially Active Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C.; Wells, Brooke E.; LeClair, Amy; Tracy, Daniel; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Golub, Sarit A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Prescription drug misuse represents an emerging global drug trend. Data indicate that young adults are misusing prescription drugs at high rates. As such, continued surveillance of the patterns of prescription drug misuse among young adults is critical, particularly for those engaged in social scenes known to accommodate drug use. Methods Prevalence and correlates of lifetime and recent prescription drug misuse among urban young adults recruited at nightlife venues using time-space sampling are assessed via prevalence estimates and logistic regression analyses. Results In a diverse sample of 1,207 young adults, 44.1% reported lifetime prescription drug misuse, and 20.3% reported misuse during the past three months. Stimulants were the most common class of drug respondents misused within the past six months (16.7%), followed by pain killers (16.5%) and sedatives (14.5%). While no gender or sexual orientation differences in misuse prevalence existed, Black youth reported the lowest prevalence of misuse. In multivariate analyses, increased age was associated with lower odds of recent misuse, females report lower odds of recent use, and Black, Asian, and Latino individuals had lower odds of recent misuse than Whites. These odds varied by prescription drug type. Negative binomial regression analyses indicate that, among prescription drug misusers, women misuse prescription drugs less frequently. Younger individuals more frequently misuse stimulants and older individuals more frequently misuse sedatives. Racial variation existed with frequency of use across classes. Conclusions This study illustrates the need for health promotion efforts targeting prescription drug misuse among young adults who are highly socially active. Future research should focus on motivations for and factors associated with prescription drug misuse within youth cultures. Further research may provide a fuller sense of how to reduce the impact of prescription drug misuse for nations whose

  4. Active lifestyle in childhood and adolescence prevents obesity development in young adulthood: Iowa Bone Development Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soyang; Janz, Kathleen F.; Letuchy, Elena M.; Burns, Trudy L.; Levy, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that individuals who are active but who decrease physical activity (PA) over time have a higher risk of becoming obese in young adulthood, when compared to individuals who are consistently active throughout childhood and adolescence. Methods Iowa Bone Development Study cohort members (242 males and 251 females) participated in accelerometry assessments, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, and dietary questionnaire surveys at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 years. Group-based trajectory analyses identified distinct trajectory patterns of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA), percentage of body fat (%BF), and energy intake. A multivariable logistic regression model was fit to estimate the odds of “becoming obese” based on the MVPA trajectories, adjusted for mother’s education, somatic maturation, and energy intake. Results Among males, 74.7% had a “normal” body fat pattern, 14.6% had a “becoming obese” pattern, and 10.7% had a “consistently obese” pattern, while among females, the percentages were 58.6%, 28.6% and 12.8%, respectively. Participants who were active (≥45 minutes MVPA) as children but decreased MVPA with age were more likely to become obese, compared to consistently active participants (adjusted OR=2.77; 95% CI=1.16, 6.58). Conclusions An active lifestyle throughout childhood and adolescence could prevent obesity development in young adulthood. PMID:26538514

  5. Relationships Between Weight, Physical Activity, and Back Pain in Young Adult Women.

    PubMed

    Brady, Sharmayne R E; Hussain, Sultana Monira; Brown, Wendy J; Heritier, Stephane; Billah, Baki; Wang, Yuanyuan; Teede, Helena; Urquhart, Donna M; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2016-05-01

    Back pain causes enormous financial and disability burden worldwide, which could potentially be reduced by understanding its determinants to develop effective prevention strategies. Our aim was to identify whether modifiable risk factors, weight and physical activity, are predictive of back pain in young adult women.Women born between 1973 and 1978 were randomly selected from the national health insurance scheme database to participate in The Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. Self-reported data on back pain in the last 12 months, weight, height, age, education status, physical activity, and depression were collected in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012. In 2000, 9688 women completed the questionnaire and 83% completed follow-up 12 years later.At baseline, median age was 24.6 years and 41% had self-reported back pain. For every 5 kg higher weight at baseline, there was a 5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4%-6%) increased risk of back pain over the next 12 years. Higher weight at each survey also predicted back pain risk 3 years later (P < 0.001). The effects of weight on back pain were most significant in those with BMI ≥25 kg/m and were observed at all levels of physical activity. Inadequate physical activity and depression were independent predictors of back pain over the following 12 years (both P < 0.001), after adjusting for age, weight, height, and education status.Back pain is common in community-based young adult women. Higher weight, inadequate levels of physical activity, and depression were all independent predictors of back pain over the following decade. Furthermore, the adverse effects of weight on back pain were not mitigated by physical activity. Our findings highlight the role of both higher weight and physical inactivity in back pain among young women and suggest potential opportunities for future prevention. PMID:27175634

  6. Relationships Between Weight, Physical Activity, and Back Pain in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Sharmayne R.E.; Hussain, Sultana Monira; Brown, Wendy J.; Heritier, Stephane; Billah, Baki; Wang, Yuanyuan; Teede, Helena; Urquhart, Donna M.; Cicuttini, Flavia M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Back pain causes enormous financial and disability burden worldwide, which could potentially be reduced by understanding its determinants to develop effective prevention strategies. Our aim was to identify whether modifiable risk factors, weight and physical activity, are predictive of back pain in young adult women. Women born between 1973 and 1978 were randomly selected from the national health insurance scheme database to participate in The Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. Self-reported data on back pain in the last 12 months, weight, height, age, education status, physical activity, and depression were collected in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012. In 2000, 9688 women completed the questionnaire and 83% completed follow-up 12 years later. At baseline, median age was 24.6 years and 41% had self-reported back pain. For every 5 kg higher weight at baseline, there was a 5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4%–6%) increased risk of back pain over the next 12 years. Higher weight at each survey also predicted back pain risk 3 years later (P < 0.001). The effects of weight on back pain were most significant in those with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and were observed at all levels of physical activity. Inadequate physical activity and depression were independent predictors of back pain over the following 12 years (both P < 0.001), after adjusting for age, weight, height, and education status. Back pain is common in community-based young adult women. Higher weight, inadequate levels of physical activity, and depression were all independent predictors of back pain over the following decade. Furthermore, the adverse effects of weight on back pain were not mitigated by physical activity. Our findings highlight the role of both higher weight and physical inactivity in back pain among young women and suggest potential opportunities for future prevention. PMID:27175634

  7. Alteration of rare earth element distribution as a result of microbial activity and empirical methane injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, D. J.; Davies, N. W.; Thurber, A. R.; Haley, B. A.; Colwell, F. S.

    2014-12-01

    As a result of warming, methane is being released into the marine environment in areas that have not historically experienced methane input. While methane is a potent greenhouse gas, microbial oxidation of methane within the sediment greatly limits the role of marine methane sources on atmospheric forcing. However, in these areas of new methane release, consumption of methane prior to its release into the atmosphere is a result of the response of the microbial community to this new input of methane. Further, rare earth elements (REEs) are not currently thought to be involved with microbial activity, but this assumption has not been rigorously tested. Here we test that: (1) microbial communities will rapidly respond to the onset of methane emission, and (2) the microbial response to this methane input will impact the distribution of REEs within the sediment. Undisturbed cores sampled from a tidal flat at Yaquina Bay, OR, were brought back to a lab and injected with anoxic seawater (as a control) or anoxic sea water saturated with methane gas for a total of 2 weeks. Aerobic methanotrophs proliferated over this short time period, becoming an abundant member of the microbial community as identified using fatty acid biomarkers. Excitingly, the experimental injection of methane also shifted the distribution of REEs within the sediment, a trend that appeared to follow the microbial response and that was different from the control cores. Further, the lightest REEs appeared to be used more than the heavier ones, supporting that the REEs are being actively used by the microbes. While we focused on identifying the response of those microbes responsible in methane-cycling, we also identified how the entire microbial community shifts as a result of methane input, and correlating with shifts in REE distribution. Here we have empirically demonstrated the rapid response of methanotrophs to the onset of methane emission and that REE distribution within the sediment is likely

  8. Wildlife, Snow, Coffee, and Video: The IPY Activities of the University of Alaska Young Researchers' Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, D.; Alvarez-Aviles, L.; Carlson, D.; Harbeck, J.; Druckenmiller, M.; Newman, K.; Mueller, D.; Petrich, C.; Roberts, A.; Wang, Y.

    2007-12-01

    The University of Alaska International Polar Year (IPY) Young Researchers' Network is a group of graduate students and postdoctoral fellows. Our interdisciplinary group operates as a volunteer network to promote the International Polar Year through education and outreach aimed at the general public and Alaskan students of all ages. The Young Researchers' Network sponsors and organizes science talks or Science Cafés by guest speakers in public venues such as coffee shops and bookstores. We actively engage high school students in IPY research concerning the ionic concentrations and isotopic ratios of precipitation through Project Snowball. Our network provides hands-on science activities to encourage environmental awareness and initiate community wildlife monitoring programs such as Wildlife Day by Day. We mentor individual high school students pursuing their own research projects related to IPY through the Alaska High School Science Symposium. Our group also interacts with the general public at community events and festivals to share the excitement of IPY for example at the World Ice Art Championship and Alaska State Fair. The UA IPY Young Researchers' Network continues to explore new partnerships with educators and students in an effort to enhance science and education related to Alaska and the polar regions in general. For more information please visit: http://ipy-youth.uaf.edu or e-mail: ipy-youth@alaska.edu

  9. Gyrochronology of Low-mass Stars - Age-Rotation-Activity Relations for Young M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidder, Benjamin; Shkolnik, E.; Skiff, B.

    2014-01-01

    New rotation periods for 34 young <300 Myr), early-M dwarfs within 25 parsecs were measured using photometric data collected with telescopes at Lowell Observatory during 2012 and 2013. An additional 25 rotation periods for members of the same sample were found in the literature. Ages were derived from Hα and X-ray emission, lithium absorption, surface gravity, and kinematic association of members of known young moving groups (YMGs). We compared rotation periods with the estimated ages as well as indicators of magnetic activity, with the intention of strengthening age-rotation-activity relations and assessing the possible use of gyrochronology in young, low-mass stars. We compared ages and rotation periods of our target stars to cluster members spanning 1-600 Myr. Rotation periods at every age exhibit a large scatter, with values typically ranging from 0.2 to 15 days. This suggests that gyrochronology for individual field stars will not be possible without a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that govern angular momentum evolution. Yet, on average, the data still support the predicted trends for spin-up during contraction and spin-down on the main sequence, with the turnover occurring at around 150 Myr for early Ms. This suggests that rotation period distributions can be helpful in evaluating the ages of coeval groups of stars. Many thanks to the National Science Foundation for their support through the Research Experience for Undergraduates Grant AST- 1004107.

  10. [Effects of intravenous injection of sulphated galactomannan on anticoagulant activity of rat plasma].

    PubMed

    Drozd, N N; Makarov, V A; Tolstenkov, A S; Lapikova, E S; Miftakhova, N T; Mestechkina, N M; Shcherbukhin, V D; Il'ina, A V; Varlamov, V P

    2008-01-01

    We studied anticoagulant activity in vitro and in vivo of sulfate depolymerisation galactomannan guar with the following characteristics: Man:Gal 1.64, molecular mass 127 kDa, sulfation degree 1.46. We found the ability of galactomannan-HSO3Na (GM) to increase the time of blood coagulation in the test aPTT with an increase of its concentration and to decrease velocity of chromogenic substrate on the factor Xa hydrolysis. Specific antithrombin and anti-factor Xa activities of GM were 35.8 +/- 1.8 IU/mg and 6.6 +/- 0.5 IU/mg, respectively. In biospecific electrophoresis complexes arise between GM and protamine sulfate. Intravenous injection of GM to rats prolonged plasma coagulation time in the aPTT test with dose reduction from 1 to 3 mg/kg. In rat thrombosis model a dose of 3 Mg/kg produced a 100% inhibition of blood clot. PMID:18946908

  11. Effects of injectable anticholinergic drugs on soman-induced lethality and convulsant/subconvulsant activity

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, L.W.; Anderson, D.R.; Lennox, W.J.; Bowersox, S.L.; Anders, J.C.

    1993-05-13

    FDA approved, injectable preparations of candidate compounds BENZTROPINE (BZT), 1.0 mg/ml; biperiden (BIP), 5.0 mg/ml; dicyclomine (DCL), 10 mg/ml; 1-hyoscyamine (HYO), 0.5 mg/ml; orphenadrine (ORP), 30 mg/ml; scopolamine (SCP), 1.0 mg/ml were tested in parallel with diazepam (DZ, the standard) in male guinea pigs against ongoing soman induced convulsive (CV)/sub-CV activity. Three trained graders concurrently assigned CV/sub-CV scores (12 - convulsions; 0 normal) to each animal. Animals received (im) pyridostigmine (PYR; 26 ug/kg) 30 min before soman (56 ug/kg; 2 LD50), atropine (2 mg/kg) admixed with 2-PAM (25 mg/kg) at one min after soman, and the candidate drug preparation at 5.67 min post soman, a time when CV activity is assured. BIP and SCP demonstrated efficacy over dosage ranges between 10 and 0.3 and 1.0 and 0.13 mg/kg, respectively, while the other preparations were less effective at their respective maximum dosages. At optimal dosages of SCP (0.5 mg/kg) and BIP (10 mg/kg), the CV/sub-CV scores were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those of DZ.

  12. Simulation of mercury capture by activated carbon injection in incinerator flue gas. 2. Fabric filter removal.

    PubMed

    Scala, F

    2001-11-01

    Following a companion paper focused on the in-duct mercury capture in incinerator flue gas by powdered activated carbon injection, this paper is concerned with the additional mercury capture on the fabric filter cake, relevant to baghouse equipped facilities. A detailed model is presented for this process, based on material balances on mercury in both gaseous and adsorbed phases along the growing filter cake and inside the activated carbon particles,taking into account mass transfer resistances and adsorption kinetics. Several sorbents of practical interest have been considered, whose parameters have been evaluated from available literature data. The values and range of the operating variables have been chosen in order to simulate typical incinerators operating conditions. Results of simulations indicate that, contrary to the in-duct removal process, high mercury removal efficiencies can be obtained with moderate sorbent consumption, as a consequence of the effective gas/sorbent contacting on the filter. Satisfactory utilization of the sorbents is predicted, especially at long filtration times. The sorbent feed rate can be minimized by using a reactive sorbent and by lowering the filter temperature as much as possible. Minor benefits can be obtained also by decreasing the sorbent particle size and by increasing the cleaning cycle time of the baghouse compartments. Reverse-flow baghouses were more efficient than pulse-jet baghouses, while smoother operation can be obtained by increasing the number of baghouse compartments. Model results are compared with available relevant full scale data. PMID:11718360

  13. On the Origin of the Asymmetric Helicity Injection in Emerging Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Y.; Alexander, D.; Tian, L.

    2009-12-01

    To explore the possible causes of the observed asymmetric helicity flux in emerging active regions between the leading and following polarities reported in a recent study by Tian & Alexander, we examine the subsurface evolution of buoyantly rising Ω-shaped flux tubes using three-dimensional, spherical-shell anelastic MHD simulations. We find that due to the asymmetric stretching of the Ω-shaped tube by the Coriolis force, the leading side of the emerging tube has a greater field strength, is more buoyant, and remains more cohesive compared to the following side. As a result, the magnetic field lines in the leading leg show more coherent values of local twist α ≡ (∇ × B) · B/B 2, whereas the values in the following leg show large fluctuations and are of mixed sign. On average, however, the field lines in the leading leg do not show a systematically greater mean twist compared to the following leg. Due to the higher rise velocity of the leading leg, the upward helicity flux through a horizontal cross section at each depth in the upper half of the convection zone is significantly greater in the leading polarity region than that in the following leg. This may contribute to the observed asymmetric helicity flux in emerging active regions. Furthermore, based on a simplified model of active region flux emergence into the corona by Longcope & Welsch, we show that a stronger field strength in the leading tube can result in a faster rotation of the leading polarity sunspot driven by torsional Alfvén waves during flux emergence into the corona, contributing to a greater helicity injection rate in the leading polarity of an emerging active region.

  14. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE ASYMMETRIC HELICITY INJECTION IN EMERGING ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Y.; Alexander, D.; Tian, L.

    2009-12-10

    To explore the possible causes of the observed asymmetric helicity flux in emerging active regions between the leading and following polarities reported in a recent study by Tian and Alexander, we examine the subsurface evolution of buoyantly rising OMEGA-shaped flux tubes using three-dimensional, spherical-shell anelastic MHD simulations. We find that due to the asymmetric stretching of the OMEGA-shaped tube by the Coriolis force, the leading side of the emerging tube has a greater field strength, is more buoyant, and remains more cohesive compared to the following side. As a result, the magnetic field lines in the leading leg show more coherent values of local twist alpha ident to (nabla x B) centre dot B/B {sup 2}, whereas the values in the following leg show large fluctuations and are of mixed sign. On average, however, the field lines in the leading leg do not show a systematically greater mean twist compared to the following leg. Due to the higher rise velocity of the leading leg, the upward helicity flux through a horizontal cross section at each depth in the upper half of the convection zone is significantly greater in the leading polarity region than that in the following leg. This may contribute to the observed asymmetric helicity flux in emerging active regions. Furthermore, based on a simplified model of active region flux emergence into the corona by Longcope and Welsch, we show that a stronger field strength in the leading tube can result in a faster rotation of the leading polarity sunspot driven by torsional Alfven waves during flux emergence into the corona, contributing to a greater helicity injection rate in the leading polarity of an emerging active region.

  15. Physical activity and lifestyle effects on bone mineral density among young adults: sociodemographic and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the possible role of physical activities, calcium consumption and lifestyle factors in both bone mineral density and bone metabolism indices in 350 young adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] All volunteers were recruited for the assessment of lifestyle behaviors and physical activity traits using validated questioners, and bone mineral density (BMD), serum osteocalcin (s-OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and calcium were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis, and immunoassay techniques. [Results] Male participants showed a significant increase in BMD along with an increase in bone metabolism markers compared with females in all groups. However, younger subjects showed a significant increase in BMD, OC, BAP, and calcium compared with older subjects. Osteoporosis was more common in older subjects linked with abnormal body mass index and waist circumference. Bone metabolism markers correlated positively with BMD, physically activity and negatively with osteoporosis in all stages. Also, moderate to higher calcium and milk intake correlated positively with higher BMD. However, low calcium and milk intake along with higher caffeine, and carbonated beverage consumption, and heavy cigarette smoking showed a negative effect on the status of bone mineral density. Stepwise regression analysis showed that life style factors including physical activity and demographic parameters explained around 58-69.8% of the bone mineral density variation in young adults especially females. [Conclusion] body mass index, physical activity, low calcium consumption, and abnormal lifestyle have role in bone mineral density and prognosis of osteoporosis in young adults. PMID:26311965

  16. Maternal coordination of the daily rhythm of malate dehydrogenase activity in testes from young rats: effect of maternal sympathetic denervation of the pineal gland and administration of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Vermouth, N T; Carriazo, C S; Gallará, R V; Carpentieri, A R; Bellavía, S L

    1995-02-01

    Chronic sympathetic denervation of the pineal gland by bilateral removal of the superior cervical ganglia (SCG) was performed on female rats 30 days before impregnation. The offspring, maintained in the dark from birth, had disruption of the malate dehydrogenase circadian rhythm in the testes at 25 days of age. A daily injection of melatonin (1 mg/kg s.c. at 10:00 or 18:00 h) to denervated mothers from the 14th day of pregnancy up to the 10th day postpartum produced one daily phase in the enzyme activity of tests in the offspring. Entrainment of daily enzyme activity also was obtained when the hormone was administered orally to the pups during the postnatal period or when pups were reared by intact (not denervated) foster mothers. The results indicate the involvement of the maternal pineal gland in the maternal transfer of photoperiodic information necessary for the coordination of the circadian system in young rats. PMID:7750160

  17. Two-year survey comparing earthquake activity and injection-well locations in the Barnett Shale, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Frohlich, Cliff

    2012-01-01

    Between November 2009 and September 2011, temporary seismographs deployed under the EarthScope USArray program were situated on a 70-km grid covering the Barnett Shale in Texas, recording data that allowed sensing and locating regional earthquakes with magnitudes 1.5 and larger. I analyzed these data and located 67 earthquakes, more than eight times as many as reported by the National Earthquake Information Center. All 24 of the most reliably located epicenters occurred in eight groups within 3.2 km of one or more injection wells. These included wells near Dallas–Fort Worth and Cleburne, Texas, where earthquakes near injection wells were reported by the media in 2008 and 2009, as well as wells in six other locations, including several where no earthquakes have been reported previously. This suggests injection-triggered earthquakes are more common than is generally recognized. All the wells nearest to the earthquake groups reported maximum monthly injection rates exceeding 150,000 barrels of water per month (24,000 m3/mo) since October 2006. However, while 9 of 27 such wells in Johnson County were near earthquakes, elsewhere no earthquakes occurred near wells with similar injection rates. A plausible hypothesis to explain these observations is that injection only triggers earthquakes if injected fluids reach and relieve friction on a suitably oriented, nearby fault that is experiencing regional tectonic stress. Testing this hypothesis would require identifying geographic regions where there is interpreted subsurface structure information available to determine whether there are faults near seismically active and seismically quiescent injection wells. PMID:22869701

  18. Two-year survey comparing earthquake activity and injection-well locations in the Barnett Shale, Texas.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, Cliff

    2012-08-28

    Between November 2009 and September 2011, temporary seismographs deployed under the EarthScope USArray program were situated on a 70-km grid covering the Barnett Shale in Texas, recording data that allowed sensing and locating regional earthquakes with magnitudes 1.5 and larger. I analyzed these data and located 67 earthquakes, more than eight times as many as reported by the National Earthquake Information Center. All 24 of the most reliably located epicenters occurred in eight groups within 3.2 km of one or more injection wells. These included wells near Dallas-Fort Worth and Cleburne, Texas, where earthquakes near injection wells were reported by the media in 2008 and 2009, as well as wells in six other locations, including several where no earthquakes have been reported previously. This suggests injection-triggered earthquakes are more common than is generally recognized. All the wells nearest to the earthquake groups reported maximum monthly injection rates exceeding 150,000 barrels of water per month (24,000 m(3)/mo) since October 2006. However, while 9 of 27 such wells in Johnson County were near earthquakes, elsewhere no earthquakes occurred near wells with similar injection rates. A plausible hypothesis to explain these observations is that injection only triggers earthquakes if injected fluids reach and relieve friction on a suitably oriented, nearby fault that is experiencing regional tectonic stress. Testing this hypothesis would require identifying geographic regions where there is interpreted subsurface structure information available to determine whether there are faults near seismically active and seismically quiescent injection wells. PMID:22869701

  19. Clinical Outcomes of Anatomical Total Shoulder Arthroplasty in a Young, Active Population.

    PubMed

    Kusnezov, Nicholas; Dunn, John C; Parada, Stephen A; Kilcoyne, Kelly; Waterman, Brian R

    2016-01-01

    Glenohumeral arthritis in young, active patients poses many treatment challenges, and significant concerns about component loosening and failure limit the available surgical options. We conducted a study of the clinical outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) for glenohumeral arthritis in a young, high-demand population. We searched the Military Health System Management Analysis and Reporting Tool database to retrospectively review the cases of all US military service members who had undergone anatomical TSA (Current Procedural Terminology code 23472) between 2007 and 2014. Demographic information, occupational parameters, and clinical outcomes were extracted from electronic medical records. Twenty-four service members (26 shoulders) met the inclusion criteria. The cohort was predominantly male (n = 25). Mean age was 45.8 years (range, 35-54 years). The most common etiology of glenohumeral arthritis was post-instability arthropathy (50.0%). At mean follow-up of 41 months, 9 patients had a total of 12 complications (46.2%), including 6 component failures caused by neurologic injury (2 cases), adhesive capsulitis (2), and venous thrombosis (2). The reoperation rate for all component failures was 23.1% (6 cases, 5 patients). Ten patients (41.7%) remained on active duty at 2 years, and 5 (20.8%) were subsequently deployed. Ultimately, 9 patients (37.5%) underwent medical discharge for persistent shoulder disability. TSA in young, active patients provides reliable improvements in range of motion and pain. However, roughly one-third of patients in this study were unable to continue high-demand activities by 2 years after surgery. The short-term complication profile (46.2%) and reoperation rate for component failure (23.1%) should be emphasized during preoperative counseling. PMID:27552465

  20. Fenugreek potent activity against nitrate-induced diabetes in young and adult male rats.

    PubMed

    El-Wakf, Azza M; Hassan, Hanaa A; Mahmoud, Ashraf Z; Habza, Marwa N

    2015-05-01

    Nitrate has described as an endocrine disruptor that promotes onset of diabetes. This study was undertaken to evaluate diabetic effect of high nitrate intake in young and adult male rats and its amelioration by fenugreek administration. The study revealed significant increase in serum glucose and blood glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c%), while serum insulin and liver glycogen were decreased among nitrate exposed animals, in particular the young group. A significant reduction in the body weight gain and serum thyroid hormones (T4 & T3) was also recorded. Further reduction in serum levels of urea and creatinine, as well as total protein in serum, liver and pancreas was demonstrated, with elevation in their levels in the urine of all nitrate exposed groups. Meanwhile, the activity of serum transaminases (ALT and AST) was increased, with decline in their activity in the liver tissue. In addition, an elevation in serum total bilirubin, tissues (liver and pancreas) nitric oxide and lipid profile, as well as liver activity of glucose-6-phosphatase was recorded. Fenugreek administration to nitrate exposed rats was found to be effective in alleviating hyperglycemia and other biochemical changes characterizing nitrate-induced diabetes. So, fenugreek can be considered to possess potent activity against onset of nitrate induced-diabetes. PMID:24615531

  1. Young People's Views on Accelerometer Use in Physical Activity Research: Findings from a User Involvement Investigation.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Joanna; Tibbins, Carly; Callens, Claire; Lang, Beckie; Thorogood, Margaret; Tigbe, William; Robertson, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    The use of accelerometers to objectively measure physical activity is important in understanding young people's behaviours, as physical activity plays a key part in obesity prevention and treatment. A user-involvement qualitative study with young people aged 7-18 years (n = 35) was carried out to investigate views on accelerometer use to inform an obesity treatment research study. First impressions were often negative, with issues related to size and comfort reported. Unwanted attention from wearing an accelerometer and bullying risk were also noted. Other disadvantages included feeling embarrassed and not being able to wear the device for certain activities. Positive aspects included feeling "special" and having increased attention from friends. Views on the best time to wear accelerometers were mixed. Advice was offered on how to make accelerometers more appealing, including presenting them in a positive way, using a clip rather than elastic belt to attach, personalising the device, and having feedback on activity levels. Judgements over the way in which accelerometers are used should be made at the study development stage and based on the individual population. In particular, introducing accelerometers in a clear and positive way is important. Including a trial wearing period, considering practical issues, and providing incentives may help increase compliance. PMID:24533214

  2. Well-being and engagement in valued activities: experiences of young people with psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lal, Shalini; Ungar, Michael; Leggo, Carl; Malla, Ashok; Frankish, James; Suto, Melinda J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how engagement in valued activities contributes to the well-being of young people diagnosed as having psychosis within the past 3 years. Using a qualitative approach, the authors conducted semi-structured interviews and photography-elicited focus groups with 17 participants between the ages of 18 and 24 years who were recruited from an early intervention program for psychoses and a psychiatric service specializing in providing care to street youth. Analysis combined the methods of constructivist grounded theory and narrative inquiry. Participants derived six well-being enhancing experiences from engaging in highly valued activities: making meaning; expressing thoughts and emotions; changing physical, emotional, and cognitive states; cultivating skills, strengths, and virtues; connecting and belonging; and making a contribution. These findings highlight the importance of identifying activities that young people perceive as being valuable to their well-being, the meanings and experiences derived from these activities, and how best to support engagement in them. [OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health. 2013;33(4):190-197.]. PMID:24652027

  3. Associations between arterial stiffness and platelet activation in normotensive overweight and obese young adults.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jennifer N; Evans, Rhobert W; Mori Brooks, Maria; Fried, Linda; Holmes, Chris; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Obese individuals have elevated platelet activation and arterial stiffness, but the strength and temporality of the relationship between these factors remain unclear. We aimed to determine the effect of increased arterial stiffness on circulating platelet activity in overweight/obese young adults. This analysis included 92 participants (mean age 40 years, 60 women) in the Slow Adverse Vascular Effects of excess weight (SAVE) trial, a clinical trial examining the effects of a lifestyle intervention with or without sodium restriction on vascular health in normotensive overweight/obese young adults. Carotid-femoral (cf), brachial-ankle (ba) and femoral-ankle (fa) pulse wave velocity (PWV) served as measures of arterial stiffness and were measured at baseline and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Platelet activity was measured as plasma β-thromboglobulin (β-TG) at 24 months. Higher plasma β-TG was correlated with greater exposure to elevated cfPWV (p = 0.02) and baPWV (p = 0.04) during the preceding two years. After adjustment for serum leptin, greater exposure to elevated baPWV remained significant (p = 0.03) and exposure to elevated cfPWV marginally significant (p = 0.054) in predicting greater plasma β-TG. Greater arterial stiffness, particularly central arterial stiffness, predicts greater platelet activation in overweight/obese individuals. This relationship might partly explain the association between increased arterial stiffness and incident atherothrombotic events. PMID:23654212

  4. Variability in HOMA-IR, Lipoprotein Profile and Selected Hormones in Young Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Czajkowska, Anna; Tkaczyk, Joanna; Mazurek, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to insulin actions is contributing to many metabolic disturbances. Such factors as age, sex, nutrition, body fat, and physical activity determine body insulin resistance. Present study attempted to asses insulin resistance and its metabolic effects with respect to energy intake in young, lean, and active men. A total of 87 men aged 18–23 participated in the study. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipoproteins, cortisol, and TSH were determined. Insulin resistance was expressed as Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and calculated using homeostatic model. The median value of HOMA-IR (1.344) was used to divide subjects into two groups. Men did not differ in anthropometric parameters, daily physical activity, and plasma TSH and cortisol levels. However, in men with higher HOMA-IR significantly lower daily energy intake was observed concomitantly with higher TG, TC, and HDL-C concentrations in plasma versus their counterparts with lower HOMA-IR. Exclusively in subjects with higher HOMA-IR significant and positive correlation was noted between HOMA-IR and TC and LDL-C. We concluded that despite a normal body weight and physical activity, a subset of young men displayed unfavorable changes in insulin sensitivity and lipid profile, probably due to insufficient energy intake. PMID:24348155

  5. Shifting Motivations: Young Women’s Reflections on Physical Activity Over Time and Across Contexts

    PubMed Central

    O’Dougherty, Maureen; Kurzer, Mindy S.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2012-01-01

    This research analyzes motivations expressed by young, healthy, sedentary women before and after an exercise intervention. Young women (aged 18–30, n = 39) participated in focus groups or interviews during a 4-month exercise intervention. Afterward, 22 of these women and 20 controls completed physical activity diaries for 6 months and were interviewed. For the majority of women (n = 24), obligation to the study prevailed as the motivator during the intervention. Some (n = 15) became physically active for their own benefit. Afterward, exercisers and controls said they were physically active to feel better and/or healthy (n = 20), for body image and/or weight loss (n = 20), or both. Women expressed motivations for physical activity in ways that resonated with self-determination theory. Their commentaries expand on theory to include experiencing multiple motivations simultaneously and motivations shifting over time and in differing contexts. Social motivations were compelling, both those associated with societal values (research, health) and cultural trends (body image). PMID:20530640

  6. Clinical NECR in 18F-FDG PET scans: optimization of injected activity and variable acquisition time. Relationship with SNR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlier, T.; Ferrer, L.; Necib, H.; Bodet-Milin, C.; Rousseau, C.; Kraeber-Bodéré, F.

    2014-10-01

    The injected activity and the acquisition time per bed position for 18F-FDG PET scans are usually optimized by using metrics obtained from phantom experiments. However, optimal activity and time duration can significantly vary from a phantom set-up and from patient to patient. An approach using a patient-specific noise equivalent count rate (NECR) modelling has been previously proposed for optimizing clinical scanning protocols. We propose using the clinical NECR on a large population as a function of the body mass index (BMI) for deriving the optimal injected activity and acquisition duration per bed position. The relationship between the NEC and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was assessed both in a phantom and in a clinical setting. 491 consecutive patients were retrospectively evaluated and divided into 4 BMI subgroups. Two criteria were used to optimize the injected activity and the time per bed position was adjusted using the NECR value while keeping the total acquisition time constant. Finally, the relationship between NEC and SNR was investigated using an anthropomorphic phantom and a population of 507 other patients. While the first dose regimen suggested a unique injected activity (665 MBq) regardless of the BMI, the second dose regimen proposed a variable activity and a total acquisition time according to the BMI. The NEC improvement was around 35% as compared with the local current injection rule. Variable time per bed position was derived according to BMI and anatomical region. NEC and number of true events were found to be highly correlated with SNR for the phantom set-up and partially confirmed in the patient study for the BMI subgroup under 28 kg m-2 suggesting that for the scanner, the nonlinear reconstruction algorithm used in this study and BMI < 28 kg m-2, NEC, or the number of true events linearly correlated with SNR2.

  7. A Design Methodology for Rapid Implementation of Active Control Systems Across Lean Direct Injection Combustor Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, William T.; Saunders, William R.; Vandsburger, Uri; Saus, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The VACCG team is comprised of engineers at Virginia Tech who specialize in the subject areas of combustion physics, chemical kinetics, dynamics and controls, and signal processing. Currently, the team's work on this NRA research grant is designed to determine key factors that influence combustion control performance through a blend of theoretical and experimental investigations targeting design and demonstration of active control for three different combustors. To validiate the accuracy of conclusions about control effectiveness, a sequence of experimental verifications on increasingly complex lean, direct injection combustors is underway. During the work period January 1, 2002 through October 15, 2002, work has focused on two different laboratory-scale combustors that allow access for a wide variety of measurements. As the grant work proceeds, one key goal will be to obtain certain knowledge about a particular combustor process using a minimum of sophisticated measurements, due to the practical limitations of measurements on full-scale combustors. In the second year, results obtained in the first year will be validated on test combustors to be identified in the first quarter of that year. In the third year, it is proposed to validate the results at more realistic pressure and power levels by utilizing the facilities at the Glenn Research Center.

  8. ACOUSTICALLY ACTIVE INJECTION CATHETER GUIDED BY ULTRASOUND: NAVIGATION TESTS IN ACUTELY ISCHEMIC PORCINE HEARTS

    PubMed Central

    Belohlavek, Marek; Katayama, Minako; Zarbatany, David; Fortuin, F. David; Fatemi, Mostafa; Nenadic, Ivan Z.; McMahon, Eileen M.

    2014-01-01

    Catheters are increasingly used therapeutically and investigatively. With complex usage comes a need for more accurate intracardiac localization than traditional guidance can provide. An injection catheter navigated by ultrasound was designed and then tested in an open-chest model of acute ischemia in eight pigs. The catheter is made “acoustically active” by a piezoelectric crystal near its tip, electronically controlled, vibrating in the acoustic frequency range, and uniquely identifiable using pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler. Another “target” crystal was sutured to the epicardium within the ischemic region. Sonomicrometry was used to measure distances between the two crystals and then compared to measurements from 2D echocardiographic images. Complete data were obtained from 7 pigs, and the correlation between sonomicrometry and ultrasound measurements was excellent (p < 0.0001, ρ = 0.9820), as was the intraclass correlation coefficient (0.96) between 2 observers. These initial experimental results suggest high accuracy of ultrasound navigation of the acoustically active catheter prototype located inside the beating left ventricle. PMID:24785441

  9. Degradation of dyes by active species injected from a gas phase surface discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Wang, Tiecheng; Lu, Na; Zhang, Dandan; Wu, Yan; Wang, Tianwei; Sato, Masayuki

    2011-06-01

    A reactor, based on the traditional gas phase surface discharge (GPSD), is designed for degradation of dye wastewater in this study. The reactor is characterized by using the dye wastewater as a ground electrode. A spiral discharge electrode of stainless steel wire attached on the inside wall of a cylindrical insulating medium and the wastewater surrounding the insulating medium for simultaneous cooling of the discharge electrode constitute the reactor. The active chemical radicals generated by the discharge of the spiral electrode are injected into the water with the carrier gas. The removal of three organic dyes (including methyl red (MR), reactive brilliant blue (RBB) and cationic red (CR)) in aqueous solution is investigated. The effects of electrode configuration, discharge voltage and solution pH value on the decoloration efficiency of MR are discussed. The experimental results show that over 95% of decoloration efficiencies for all the dyes are obtained after several minutes of plasma treatment. 40% of chemical oxygen demand removal of MR is obtained after 8 min of discharge treatment. Furthermore, it is found that ozone mainly affects the removal of dyes and several aliphatic compounds are identified as the oxidation products of MR. The possible degradation pathways of MR by GPSD are proposed.

  10. Sensitive and simple flow injection analysis of formaldehyde using an activated barrel plating nickel electrode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yen; Yangi, Hsueh-Hui; Zen, Jyh-Myng; Shih, Ying

    2011-01-01

    A flow injection analysis coupled with electrochemical detection at an activated barrel plating nickel electrode (Ni-BPE) was developed as a sensitive, simple, and low-cost formaldehyde sensor. The mechanism of Ni-BPE toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde in alkaline medium at ambient temperature was proposed to be based on the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde by Ni(III)O(OH) species. Under the optimized conditions (flow rate = 1.2 mL/min; detection potential = +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl), a good linearity in the window of 0.037 to 10 microg/mL formaldehyde was observed, and the LOD of 0.23 microg/L was calculated. The RSDs of intraday (n = 10) and interday (n = 6) replicate measurements of 0.185-5 microg/mL formaldehyde ranged from 1.45 to 3.60%, indicating good reproducibility of the proposed method. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of formaldehyde in commercial nail polish samples and a drinking water sample. PMID:22165025

  11. The Activity-Integrated Method for Quality Assessment of Reduning Injection by On-Line DPPH-CE-DAD

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yang; Li, Jin; Liu, Er-wei; He, Jun; Jiao, Xiu-cheng; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Bo-li; Xiao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive on-line DPPH-CE-DAD method was developed and validated for both screening and determining the concentration of seven antioxidants of Reduning injection. The pH and concentrations of buffer solution, SDS, β-CD and organic modifier were studied for the detection of DPPH and seven antioxidants. By on-line mixing DPPH and sample solution, a DPPH-CE method for testing the antioxidant activity of the complex matrix was successfully established and used to screen the antioxidant components of Reduning injection. Then, antioxidant components including caffeic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid C, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid were quantified by the newly established CE–DAD method. Finally, the total antioxidant activity and the multiple active components were selected as markers to evaluate the quality of Reduning injection. The results demonstrated that the on-line DPPH-CE-DAD method was reagent-saving, rapid and feasible for on-line simultaneous determination of total pharmacological activity and contents of multi-components samples. It was also a powerful method for evaluating the quality control and mechanism of action of TCM injection. PMID:25181475

  12. Porcine pituitary peptides with opiate-like activity: partial purification and effects in the rat after intraventricular injection.

    PubMed

    Teschemacher, H; Bläsig, J; Kromer, W

    1976-09-01

    A peptide material with opiate-like activity in the guinea-pig ileum was extracted from porcine pituitaries using a hot glacial acetic acid extraction method and was partially purified by gel filtration. When injected intraventricularly in rats, these purified peptides induced strong analgesia, catelepsy, respiratory depression and other opiate-like effects, which lasted for several hours. PMID:1034219

  13. Technical and Physical Activities of Small-Sided Games in Young Korean Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Joo, Chang H; Hwang-Bo, Kwan; Jee, Haemi

    2016-08-01

    Joo, CH, Hwang-Bo, K, and Jee, H. Technical and physical activities of small-sided games in young Korean soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2164-2173, 2016-The aim of this study was to examine the technical aspects and physical demands during small-sided games (SSGs) with different sized pitches in young Korean soccer players. Participants were randomly selected during a nationally held youth competition. Three different game formats were used: SSG8 (8 vs. 8 played on a small-sized field [68 × 47 m]), RSG8 (8 vs. 8 played on a regular-sized field [75 × 47 m]), and RSG11 (11 vs. 11 played on a regular-sized field). Eleven technical (ball touches, passes, and shots) and 6 physical demand variables (exercise frequency by intensity) were observed and analyzed. Same variables were also analyzed for the goalkeepers. As a result, SSG8 and RSG8 showed significantly greater numbers of technical plays in 5 and 4 variables in comparison to RSG11, respectively. In addition, although the exercise intensities increased slightly in both SSG formats, the amount was within the similar range as previous reports. In conclusion, the SSGs with reduced number of players may be referred in young players to effectively train them in technical aspects of the game by allowing greater ball exposure time without excessive physical demands. Various confounding factors such as pitch dimension should be carefully considered for training specific technical and physical variables in young Korean players. PMID:26808851

  14. A Comparison of Self-Reported and Objective Physical Activity Measures in Young Australian Women

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Stefanie; Young, Elisa; Bennell, Kim Louise; Tay, Ilona; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Background The evidence for beneficial effects of recommended levels of physical activity is overwhelming. However, 70% of Australians fail to meet these levels. In particular, physical activity participation by women falls sharply between ages 16 to 25 years. Further information about physical activity measures in young women is needed. Self-administered questionnaires are often used to measure physical activity given their ease of application, but known limitations, including recall bias, compromise the accuracy of data. Alternatives such as objective measures are commonly used to overcome this problem, but are more costly and time consuming. Objective To compare the output between the Modified Active Australia Survey (MAAS), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and an objective physical activity measure—the SenseWear Armband (SWA)—to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the MAAS and to determine the acceptability of the SWA among young women. Methods Young women from Victoria, Australia, aged 18 to 25 years who had participated in previous studies via Facebook advertising were recruited. Participants completed the two physical activity questionnaires online, immediately before and after wearing the armband for 7 consecutive days. Data from the SWA was blocked into 10-minute activity times. Follow-up IPAQ, MAAS, and SWA data were analyzed by comparing the total continuous and categorical activity scores, while concurrent validity of IPAQ and MAAS were analyzed by comparing follow-up scores. Test-retest reliability of MAAS was analyzed by comparing MAAS total physical activity scores at baseline and follow-up. Participants provided feedback in the follow-up questionnaire about their experience of wearing the armband to determine acceptability of the SWA. Data analyses included graphical (ie, Bland-Altman plot, scatterplot) and analytical (ie, canonical correlation, kappa statistic) methods to determine agreement between MAAS, IPAQ, and

  15. Minocycline and Risperidone Prevent Microglia Activation and Rescue Behavioral Deficits Induced by Neonatal Intrahippocampal Injection of Lipopolysaccharide in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yu-qiang; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Xianghui; Wu, Renrong; Guo, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jingping

    2014-01-01

    Background Various signs of activation of microglia have been reported in schizophrenia, and it is hypothesized that microglia activation is closely associated with the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Methods Neonatal intrahippocampal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an activator of microglia, was performed in rats at postnatal day 7 (P7), and they were separately given saline, risperidone (0.5 mg/kg), minocycline (40 mg/kg) or a combination of both of them at P42 for consecutive 14 days. Behavioral changes (locomotion activity, social interaction, novel object recognition and prepulse inhibition) were examined and the number of microglia was assessed by using immunohistochemistry in adulthood. Results The adult rats in LPS-injected group showed obvious behavioral alteration (e. g. deficits in social interaction, novel object recognition and prepulse inhibition) and a dramatic increase of number of activated microglial cells in the hippocampus and other brain regions such as cerebral cortex and thalamus compared to those in saline-injected group. Interestingly, application of either minocycline, risperidone or both of them significantly rescued behavioral deficits and attenuated microglia activation. Conclusion Our results suggest that inhibition of microglia activation may be one of mechanisms underlying the antipsychotic effect of minocycline and risperidone. PMID:24705495

  16. Activity/inactivity circadian rhythm shows high similarities between young obesity-induced rats and old rats.

    PubMed

    Bravo Santos, R; Delgado, J; Cubero, J; Franco, L; Ruiz-Moyano, S; Mesa, M; Rodríguez, A B; Uguz, C; Barriga, C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare differences between elderly rats and young obesity-induced rats in their activity/inactivity circadian rhythm. The investigation was motivated by the differences reported previously for the circadian rhythms of both obese and elderly humans (and other animals), and those of healthy, young or mature individuals. Three groups of rats were formed: a young control group which was fed a standard chow for rodents; a young obesity-induced group which was fed a high-fat diet for four months; and an elderly control group with rats aged 2.5 years that was fed a standard chow for rodents. Activity/inactivity data were registered through actimetry using infrared actimeter systems in each cage to detect activity. Data were logged on a computer and chronobiological analysis were performed. The results showed diurnal activity (sleep time), nocturnal activity (awake time), amplitude, acrophase, and interdaily stability to be similar between the young obesity-induced group and the elderly control group, but different in the young control group. We have concluded that obesity leads to a chronodisruption status in the body similar to the circadian rhythm degradation observed in the elderly. PMID:27030628

  17. The Effect of Fish Oil, Vitamin D and Protein on URTI Incidence in Young Active People.

    PubMed

    Da Boit, M; Gabriel, B M; Gray, P; Gray, S R

    2015-05-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) are a frequent illness among athletes. We investigated the effect of a multi-nutrient supplement (vitamin D, fish oil and protein) on the occurrence of URTI in young active people. 42 young recreational athletes were randomly assigned to receive either supplementation (550 mg DHA, 550 mg EPA, 10 µg vitamin D3 and 8 g whey protein) or placebo for 16 weeks. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected by passive drool. Samples were analysed for IgA (sIgA) concentration and the secretion rate extrapolated by multiplying concentration by saliva flow rate. Physical activity levels and URTI incidence were monitored by questionnaire. Training status was not different between the 2 groups. There were no differences in the incidence, severity and duration of URTI. However the number of symptom days was lower in the supplemented compared to the control group (1.72±1.67 vs. 2.79±1.76; P<0.05). sIgA concentration and secretion rate did not differ between groups. This study demonstrates that 16 weeks of supplementation with fish oil, vitamin D and protein did not modify the incidence, severity and duration of URTI, although the total number of symptom days was reduced, in a healthy active population. PMID:25664999

  18. Load release balance test under unstable conditions effectively discriminates between physically active and sedentary young adults.

    PubMed

    Zemková, E; Štefániková, G; Muyor, J M

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates test-retest reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the load release balance test under four varied conditions. Young, early and late middle-aged physically active and sedentary subjects performed the test over 2 testing sessions spaced 1week apart while standing on either (1) a stable or (2) an unstable surface with (3) eyes open (EO) and (4) eyes closed (EC), respectively. Results identified that test-retest reliability of parameters of the load release balance test was good to excellent, with high values of ICC (0.78-0.92) and low SEM (7.1%-10.7%). The peak and the time to peak posterior center of pressure (CoP) displacement were significantly lower in physically active as compared to sedentary young adults (21.6% and 21.0%) and early middle-aged adults (22.0% and 20.9%) while standing on a foam surface with EO, and in late middle-aged adults on both unstable (25.6% and 24.5%) and stable support surfaces with EO (20.4% and 20.0%). The area under the ROC curve >0.80 for these variables indicates good discriminatory accuracy. Thus, these variables of the load release balance test measured under unstable conditions have the ability to differentiate between groups of physically active and sedentary adults as early as from 19years of age. PMID:27203382

  19. Media multitasking is associated with distractibility and increased prefrontal activity in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Moisala, M; Salmela, V; Hietajärvi, L; Salo, E; Carlson, S; Salonen, O; Lonka, K; Hakkarainen, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Alho, K

    2016-07-01

    The current generation of young people indulges in more media multitasking behavior (e.g., instant messaging while watching videos) in their everyday lives than older generations. Concerns have been raised about how this might affect their attentional functioning, as previous studies have indicated that extensive media multitasking in everyday life may be associated with decreased attentional control. In the current study, 149 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24years) performed speech-listening and reading tasks that required maintaining attention in the presence of distractor stimuli in the other modality or dividing attention between two concurrent tasks. Brain activity during task performance was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We studied the relationship between self-reported daily media multitasking (MMT), task performance and brain activity during task performance. The results showed that in the presence of distractor stimuli, a higher MMT score was associated with worse performance and increased brain activity in right prefrontal regions. The level of performance during divided attention did not depend on MMT. This suggests that daily media multitasking is associated with behavioral distractibility and increased recruitment of brain areas involved in attentional and inhibitory control, and that media multitasking in everyday life does not translate to performance benefits in multitasking in laboratory settings. PMID:27063068

  20. The Effect of Activity Type on the Engagement and Interaction of Young Children with Disabilities in Inclusive Childcare Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Coral; Kishida, Yuriko; Carter, Mark; Sweller, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    The engagement and adult and peer interaction of 37 young children with a range of disabilities was measured in free play, group, and meal-routine activities in inclusive childcare settings. A significant effect for activity type was found for total engagement, active engagement, and passive engagement, with the children being more engaged in…

  1. [NADPH-diaphorase activity and Fos expression in brainstem nuclei involved in cardiovascular regulation following intracarotid injection of capsaicin].

    PubMed

    Xue, B J; Zhang, X X; Ding, Y F; Shi, G M; He, R R

    2001-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to define whether intracarotid injection of capsaicin induces Fos expression associated with the activation of NOS-containing neurons in brainstem nuclei by combining the immunocytochemical method for Fos with NADPH-d histochemical technique for NOS. The results obtained are as follows: (1) Intracarotid injection of capsaicin caused a significant increase of Fos-like immunoreactive neurons in area postrema (AP), nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), paragigantocellularis lateralis (PGL) and locus coeruleus (LC), without influence upon the neurons of raphe nuclei (RN) and periaqueductal gray (PAG). (2) NO-containing neurons in PGL and NTS and the double-labeled neurons in PGL were also increased significantly following intracarotid injection of capsaicin. Small numbers of NO-containing neurons were found in LC, but there was no change in the number of NO-containing neurons in RN and PAG. No NADPH-d histochemical activity could be found in AP. (3) The above responses to capsaicin were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with either a capsaicin receptor antagonist ruthenium red or a NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. The above results indicate that intracarotid injection of capsaicin may activate the neurons in brainstem nuclei involved in cardiovascular regulation, and that NO only plays an indirect role in the modulation of the responses of brainstem nuclei to capsaicin. These effects of capsaicin are mediated by capsaicin receptors with involvement of glutamate. PMID:11354801

  2. Effect of Chronic Athletic Activity on Brown Fat in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Vibha; Maffazioli, Giovana D.; Ackerman, Kate E.; Lee, Hang; Elia, Elisa F.; Woolley, Ryan; Kolodny, Gerald; Cypess, Aaron M.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2016-01-01

    Background The effect of chronic exercise activity on brown adipose tissue (BAT) is not clear, with some studies showing positive and others showing negative associations. Chronic exercise is associated with increased resting energy expenditure (REE) secondary to increased lean mass and a probable increase in BAT. Many athletes are in a state of relative energy deficit suggested by lower fat mass and hypothalamic amenorrhea. States of severe energy deficit such as anorexia nervosa are associated with reduced BAT. There are no data regarding the impact of chronic exercise activity on BAT volume or activity in young women and it is unclear whether relative energy deficiency modifies the effects of exercise on BAT. Purpose We assessed cold induced BAT volume and activity in young female athletes compared with non-athletes, and further evaluated associations of BAT with measures of REE, body composition and menstrual status. Methods The protocol was approved by our Institutional Review Board. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to study initiation. This was a cross-sectional study of 24 women (16 athletes and8 non-athletes) between 18–25 years of age. Athletes were either oligo-amenorrheic (n = 8) or eumenorrheic (n = 8).We used PET/CT scans to determine cold induced BAT activity, VMAX Encore 29 metabolic cart to obtain measures of REE, and DXA for body composition. Results Athletes and non-athletes did not differ for age or BMI. Compared with non-athletes, athletes had lower percent body fat (p = 0.002), higher percent lean mass (p = 0.01) and trended higher in REE (p = 0.09). BAT volume and activity in athletes trended lower than in non-athletes (p = 0.06; p = 0.07, respectively). We found negative associations of BAT activity with duration of amenorrhea (r = -0.46, p = 0.02).BAT volume correlated inversely with lean mass (r = -0.46, p = 0.02), and positively with percent body fat, irisin and thyroid hormones. Conclusions Our study

  3. Reference Values for the Marx Activity Rating Scale in a Young Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Kenneth L.; Peck, Karen Y.; Thompson, Brandon S.; Svoboda, Steven J.; Owens, Brett D.; Marshall, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Activity-related patient-reported outcome measures are an important component of assessment after knee ligament injury in young and physically active patients; however, normative data for most activity scales are limited. Objective: To present reference values by sex for the Marx Activity Rating Scale (MARS) within a young and physically active population while accounting for knee ligament injury history and sex. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Methods: All incoming freshman entering a US Service Academy in June of 2011 were recruited to participate in this study. MARS was administered to 1169 incoming freshmen (203 women) who consented to participate within the first week of matriculation. All subjects were deemed healthy and medically fit for military service on admission. Subjects also completed a baseline questionnaire that asked for basic demographic information and injury history. We calculated means with standard deviations, medians with interquartile ranges, and percentiles for ordinal and continuous variables, and frequencies and proportions for dichotomous variables. We also compared median scores by sex and history of knee ligament injury using the Kruskal-Wallis test. MARS was the primary outcome of interest. Results: The median MARS score was significantly higher for men when compared with women (χ2 = 13.22, df = 1, P < 0.001) with no prior history of knee ligament injury. In contrast, there was no significant difference in median MARS scores between men and women (χ2 = 0.47, df = 1, P = 0.493) who reported a history of injury. Overall, median MARS scores were significantly higher among those who reported a history of knee ligament injury when compared with those who did not (χ2 = 9.06, df = 1, P = 0.003). Conclusion: Assessing activity as a patient-reported outcome after knee ligament injury is important, and reference values for these instruments need to account for the influence of prior injury and sex

  4. Impact of total activity variation in 18F-FDG injected with the overall PET image quality in oncology patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hishar, H.; Fathinul Fikri, A. S.; Salasiah, M.; Noramaliza, M. N.; Abdul Jalil, N.

    2013-05-01

    The preliminary study aims to investigate whether variation on dose activity 18F-FDG will influence the overall PET image quality in oncology patients. This is a retrospective analysis of 10 oncology patients who were injected with an average of 337.40 ± 38.43 MBq of 18F-FDG for PET/CT whole body examination. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on total activity of 18F-FDG injected: less than 333 MBq (302.96±12.65 MBq) (group 1) and more than 333 MBq (371.85±14.00 MBq) (group 2). Multiple Image Projection (MIP) PET images were scored visually by two qualified nuclear radiologists using a two-point scoring scale (poor and excellent). The agreement between radiologists was analysed using kappa measure of agreement (K). The prediction on poor-to-excellent PET image by the total activity of 18F-FDG injected was analysed using a Chi-squared test (x2). A p value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Agreement on PET image scoring was substantial, with a kappa value of 0.737. However, the prediction of the PET image quality by the total activity injected has been found to be insignificant (p > 0.05). Therefore, there is no strong evidence suggest that the dose injected will influence the PET image quality. Hence, it is recommended to use low-dosed of 18F-FDG technique as it also potentially yields a comparable PET image and reduces radiation burden to the patients.

  5. The relation between brain activity during memory tasks and years of education in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Springer, Mellanie V; McIntosh, Anthony R; Winocur, Gordon; Grady, Cheryl L

    2005-03-01

    Higher education is associated with less age-related decline in cognitive function, but the mechanism of this protective effect is unknown. The authors examined the effect of age on the relation between education and brain activity by correlating years of education with activity measured using functional MRI during memory tasks in young and older adults. In young adults, education was negatively correlated with frontal activity, whereas in older adults, education was positively correlated with frontal activity. Medial temporal activity was associated with more education in young adults but less education in older adults. This suggests that the frontal cortex is engaged by older adults, particularly by the highly educated, as an alternative network that may be engaged to aid cognitive function. PMID:15769202

  6. Intrathecal Injection of Resveratrol Attenuates Burn Injury Pain by Activating Spinal Sirtuin 1

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wei; Wang, Jin-Feng; Yang, Cong-Xian; Wu, Liang; Yin, Qin; Liu, He; Fu, Zhi-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study sought to detect spinal sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and acetylation of histone H3 (Ac-H3) expression in rats with burn injury pain (BIP model). Procedures and Results: A BIP model was first established. BIP rats showed lower paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) from day 1, which persisted for 21 days following the burn injury. Spinal SIRT1/Ac-H3 expression increased following burn injury. The intrathecal use of resveratrol increased PWT and SIRT1 expression but induced down-regulation of Ac-H3 expression. We first demonstrated that the inhibition of SIRT1 significantly induced mechanical allodynia in naïve rats. The preinjection of SIRT1 inhibitor partly antagonized the analgesic effects of resveratrol in BIP rats. Conclusion: Inhibition of SIRT1 produces pain facilitation in the naïve rats. The expression of spinal SIRT1 increased after burn injury in the BIP model. The activation of spinal SIRT1 might mediate the resveratrol-induced analgesic effects. SUMMARY Burn injury resulted in pain facilitationResveratrol attenuates pain facilitation induced by burn injuryIntrathecal injection of resveratrol attenuates burn injury pain by increasing spinal sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expressionInhibition of SIRT1 by selisistat, an SIRT1 inhibitor attenuated analgesic effects of resveratrol Abbreviations used: SIRT1: Sirtuin 1, Ac-H3: Acetylation of histone H3, SD: Sprague-Dawley, EX527: Selisistat, an SIRT1 inhibitor, BIP: Burn injury pain, DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide, PWTs: Paw withdrawal thresholds PMID:27279707

  7. Supersaturation and activity-rotation relation in PMS stars: the young cluster h Persei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argiroffi, C.; Caramazza, M.; Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Flaccomio, E.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Several studies showed that the magnetic activity of late-type main-sequence (MS) stars is characterized by different regimes and that their activity levels are well described by the Rossby number, Ro, defined as the ratio between the rotational period Prot and the convective turnover time. Very young pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars show, similarly to MS stars, intense magnetic activity. However, they do not show clear activity-rotation trends, and it still debated which stellar parameters determine their magnetic activity levels. Aims: To bridge the gap between MS and PMS stars, we studied the activity-rotation relation in the young cluster h Persei, a ~13 Myr old cluster, that contains both fast and slow rotators. The cluster members have ended their accretion phase and have developed a radiative core. It therefore offers us the opportunity of studying the activity level of intermediate-age PMS stars with different rotational velocities, excluding any interactions with the circumstellar environment. Methods: We constrained the magnetic activity levels of h Per members by measuring their X-ray emission from a Chandra observation, while rotational periods were obtained previously in the framework of the MONITOR project. By cross-correlating these data, we collected a final catalog of 414 h Per members with known rotational period, effective temperature, and mass. In 169 of these, X-ray emission has also been detected. Results: We found that h Per members with 1.0 M⊙activity regimes: fast rotators clearly show supersaturation, while slower rotators have activity levels compatible to the non-saturated regime. At 13 Myr, h Per is therefore the youngest cluster showing activity-rotation regimes analogous to those of MS stars, indicating that at this age, magnetic field production is most likely regulated by the αΩ type dynamo. Moreover, we observed that supersaturation is better described by Prot than Ro, and that the

  8. Supersaturation and activity-rotation relation in PMS stars: the young cluster h Persei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argiroffi, C.; Caramazza, M.; Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Flaccomio, E.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Several studies showed that the magnetic activity of late-type main-sequence (MS) stars is characterized by different regimes and that their activity levels are well described by the Rossby number, Ro, defined as the ratio between the rotational period Prot and the convective turnover time. Very young pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars show, similarly to MS stars, intense magnetic activity. However, they do not show clear activity-rotation trends, and it still debated which stellar parameters determine their magnetic activity levels. Aims: To bridge the gap between MS and PMS stars, we studied the activity-rotation relation in the young cluster h Persei, a ~13 Myr old cluster, that contains both fast and slow rotators. The cluster members have ended their accretion phase and have developed a radiative core. It therefore offers us the opportunity of studying the activity level of intermediate-age PMS stars with different rotational velocities, excluding any interactions with the circumstellar environment. Methods: We constrained the magnetic activity levels of h Per members by measuring their X-ray emission from a Chandra observation, while rotational periods were obtained previously in the framework of the MONITOR project. By cross-correlating these data, we collected a final catalog of 414 h Per members with known rotational period, effective temperature, and mass. In 169 of these, X-ray emission has also been detected. Results: We found that h Per members with 1.0 M⊙activity regimes: fast rotators clearly show supersaturation, while slower rotators have activity levels compatible to the non-saturated regime. At 13 Myr, h Per is therefore the youngest cluster showing activity-rotation regimes analogous to those of MS stars, indicating that at this age, magnetic field production is most likely regulated by the αΩ type dynamo. Moreover, we observed that supersaturation is better described by Prot than Ro, and that the

  9. Energy Expenditures for Activities of Daily Living in Korean Young Adults: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the energy expenditure (EE) of Korean young adults based on activities refined to a deskbound lifestyle. Methods Sixty-four healthy office workers aged between 25 and 46 years participated in this study. EE was expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET). Participants were evaluated in terms of their EE during physical activities of sleeping (n=22), typing (n=37), folding laundry (n=34), dishwashing (n=32), studying (n=18), mopping (n=35), walking (n=33), stair climbing (n=23), and running (n=29). Volume of oxygen consumption was measured by indirect calorimetry K4b2 (COSMED). The results were compared to the established Compendium MET. Results The MET of activities were: sleeping, 1.24±0.43; typing, 1.35±0.25; folding laundry, 1.58±0.51; dishwashing, 2.20±0.51; studying, 2.11±0.90; mopping, 2.72±0.69; walking at 4 km/hr, 3.48±0.65; stair climbing of five stories, 6.18±1.08; and running at 8 km/hr, 7.57±0.57. The values of typing and mopping were similar to those in the Compendium, whereas those of sleeping, folding laundry, dishwashing, studying, walking, stair climbing and running were different. Conclusion To our knowledge, this estimation of EE in MET during activities of daily living is the first data of young adults in Korea. These data could be used as a reference to modify the guidelines of physical activities for the age group examined in this study. PMID:27606280

  10. Comparison of diltiazem and atenolol in young, physically active men with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, D P; Gordon, N F

    1987-11-01

    The antihypertensive efficacy and effect on maximal exercise performance of diltiazem was evaluated and compared with atenolol in patients specifically selected on the basis of their being young and physically active. Diltiazem (sustained-release preparation, 90 mg twice daily) was administered to 14 patients (aged 33 +/- 2 years) and atenolol (50 mg once daily) to 13 patients (aged 30 +/- 2 years) with essential hypertension in a 16-week randomized, double-blind, parallel study. The 2 drugs had comparable antihypertensive effects at rest, with mean decreases of 18 and 17 mm Hg (p less than 0.001) for supine and standing diastolic blood pressure (BP), respectively, during diltiazem treatment, and mean decreases of 21 and 18 mm Hg (p less than 0.001) during atenolol treatment. During maximal graded exercise testing, systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate and heart rate-BP product were significantly reduced by both drugs. However, the reductions in systolic BP, heart rate and heart rate-BP product during exercise were considerably greater (p less than 0.001) with atenolol than with diltiazem. Maximal exercise performance was essentially unchanged with diltiazem and slightly (3%, p less than 0.05) reduced with atenolol. Thus, diltiazem is effective and well-tolerated single therapy for young patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension who lead a physically active life style and compares favorably with atenolol. PMID:3314458

  11. Mass Accretion Processes in Young Stellar Objects: Role of Intense Flaring Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Salvatore; Reale, Fabio; Peres, Giovanni; Mignone, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    According to the magnetospheric accretion scenario, young low-mass stars are surrounded by circumstellar disks which they interact with through accretion of mass. The accretion builds up the star to its final mass and is also believed to power the mass outflows, which may in turn have a signicant role in removing the excess angular momentum from the star-disk system. Although the process of mass accretion is a critical aspect of star formation, some of its mechanisms are still to be fully understood. On the other hand, strong flaring activity is a common feature of young stellar objects (YSOs). In the Sun, such events give rise to perturbations of the interplanetary medium. Similar but more energetic phenomena occur in YSOs and may influence the circumstellar environment. In fact, a recent study has shown that an intense flaring activity close to the disk may strongly perturb the stability of circumstellar disks, thus inducing mass accretion episodes (Orlando et al. 2011). Here we review the main results obtained in the field and the future perspectives.

  12. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    PubMed

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-01

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions. PMID:22663136

  13. Development of a Detailed Stress Map of Oklahoma for Avoidance of Potentially Active Faults When Siting Wastewater Injection Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alt, R. C., II; Zoback, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    We report progress on a project to create a detailed map of in situ stress orientations and relative magnitudes throughout the state of Oklahoma. It is well known that the past 5 years has seen a remarkable increase in seismicity in much of the state, potentially related to waste water injection. The purpose of this project is to attempt to utilize detailed knowledge of the stress field to identify which pre-existing faults could be potentially active in response to injection-related pore pressure increases. Over 50 new stress orientations have been obtained, principally utilizing wellbore image data provided by the oil and gas industry. These data reveal a very uniform ENE direction of maximum compressive stress through much of the state. As earthquake focal plane mechanisms indicate strike-slip faulting, the stress orientation data indicate which pre-existing faults are potentially active. The data are consistent with slip on the near-vertical, NE-trending fault associated with at least one of the M 5+ earthquakes in the Prague, OK sequence in 2011. If successful, it would demonstrate that combining detailed information about pre-existing faults and the current stress field could be used to guide the siting of injection wells so as to decrease the potential for injection-related seismicity.

  14. Modeling of fluid injection and withdrawal induced fault activation using discrete element based hydro-mechanical and dynamic coupled simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jeoung Seok; Zang, Arno; Zimmermann, Günter; Stephansson, Ove

    2016-04-01

    Operation of fluid injection into and withdrawal from the subsurface for various purposes has been known to induce earthquakes. Such operations include hydraulic fracturing for shale gas extraction, hydraulic stimulation for Enhanced Geothermal System development and waste water disposal. Among these, several damaging earthquakes have been reported in the USA in particular in the areas of high-rate massive amount of wastewater injection [1] mostly with natural fault systems. Oil and gas production have been known to induce earthquake where pore fluid pressure decreases in some cases by several tens of Mega Pascal. One recent seismic event occurred in November 2013 near Azle, Texas where a series of earthquakes began along a mapped ancient fault system [2]. It was studied that a combination of brine production and waste water injection near the fault generated subsurface pressures sufficient to induced earthquakes on near-critically stressed faults. This numerical study aims at investigating the occurrence mechanisms of such earthquakes induced by fluid injection [3] and withdrawal by using hydro-geomechanical coupled dynamic simulator (Itasca's Particle Flow Code 2D). Generic models are setup to investigate the sensitivity of several parameters which include fault orientation, frictional properties, distance from the injection well to the fault, amount of fluid withdrawal around the injection well, to the response of the fault systems and the activation magnitude. Fault slip movement over time in relation to the diffusion of pore pressure is analyzed in detail. Moreover, correlations between the spatial distribution of pore pressure change and the locations of induced seismic events and fault slip rate are investigated. References [1] Keranen KM, Weingarten M, Albers GA, Bekins BA, Ge S, 2014. Sharp increase in central Oklahoma seismicity since 2008 induced by massive wastewater injection, Science 345, 448, DOI: 10.1126/science.1255802. [2] Hornbach MJ, DeShon HR

  15. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Mali.

    PubMed

    Wuehler, Sara E; Coulibaly, Mouctar

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children <5 years of age has been less than needed to achieve related Millennium Development Goals. Therefore, several international agencies joined to 'Reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel', starting with a situational analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The main objectives of the situational analysis are to compile, analyse and interpret available information on infant and young child feeding, and the nutrition situation of children <2 years of age in Mali, as one of the six targeted countries. Between June and September 2008, key informants responsible for conducting IYCN-related activities in Mali were interviewed, and 117 documents were examined on the following themes: optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, screening and management of acute malnutrition, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, food security, and hygienic practices. Most of the key IYCN topics were addressed in national policies, training materials, and programme documents. Information on the national coverage and impact of these programmes is generally not available. Exclusive breastfeeding (<6 months) has increased in Mali, but no studies identified the contributors to this increase. Despite improvements in breastfeeding practices, optimal infant, and young child feeding is still practiced among too few young children in Mali. Several research articles were identified, but few of these were linked to programme development. Some programme monitoring and evaluation reports were available, but few of these were rigorous enough to identify whether IYCN-specific programme components were implemented as designed or were achieving desired outcomes. Therefore, we could not confirm which programmes contributed to reported improvements. Monitoring of programmes managing malnutrition identified gaps

  16. Dental erosive wear and salivary flow rate in physically active young adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little attention has been directed towards identifying the relationship between physical exercise, dental erosive wear and salivary secretion. The study aimed i) to describe the prevalence and severity of dental erosive wear among a group of physically active young adults, ii) to describe the patterns of dietary consumption and lifestyle among these individuals and iii) to study possible effect of exercise on salivary flow rate. Methods Young members (age range 18-32 years) of a fitness-centre were invited to participate in the study. Inclusion criteria were healthy young adults training hard at least twice a week. A non-exercising comparison group was selected from an ongoing study among 18-year-olds. Two hundred and twenty participants accepted an intraoral examination and completed a questionnaire. Seventy of the exercising participants provided saliva samples. The examination was performed at the fitness-centre or at a dental clinic (comparison group), using tested erosive wear system (VEDE). Saliva sampling (unstimulated and stimulated) was performed before and after exercise. Occlusal surfaces of the first molars in both jaws and the labial and palatal surfaces of the upper incisors and canines were selected as index teeth. Results Dental erosive wear was registered in 64% of the exercising participants, more often in the older age group, and in 20% of the comparison group. Enamel lesions were most observed in the upper central incisors (33%); dentine lesions in lower first molar (27%). One fourth of the participants had erosive wear into dentine, significantly more in males than in females (p = 0.047). More participants with erosive wear had decreased salivary flow during exercise compared with the non-erosion group (p < 0.01). The stimulated salivary flow rate was in the lower rage (≤ 1 ml/min) among more than one third of the participants, and more erosive lesions were registered than in subjects with higher flow rates (p < 0.01). Conclusion

  17. Physical activity in young adults: a signal detection analysis of Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2007 data.

    PubMed

    Valle, Carmina G; Tate, Deborah F; Mayer, Deborah K; Allicock, Marlyn; Cai, Jianwen; Campbell, Marci K

    2015-01-01

    Many young adults are insufficiently active to achieve the health benefits of regular physical activity. Using signal detection analysis of data from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey, the authors examined distinct subgroups of 18-39 year-old adults who vary in their likelihood of not meeting physical activity recommendations. We randomly split the sample and conducted signal detection analysis on the exploratory half to identify subgroups and interactions among sociodemographic and health communication variables that predicted engaging in less than 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activity (low physical activity). We compared rates of low physical activity among subgroups with similarly defined subgroups in the validation sample. Overall, 62% of participants did not meet physical activity recommendations. Among 8 subgroups identified, low physical activity rates ranged from 31% to 90%. Predictors of low physical activity were general health, body mass index (BMI), perceived cancer risk, health-related Internet use, and trust in information sources. The least active subgroup (90% low physical activity) included young adults in poor to good health with a BMI of 30.8 or more (obese). The most active subgroup (31% low physical activity) comprised those in very good to excellent health, who used a website to help with diet, weight, or physical activity, and had little to no trust in health information on television. Findings suggest potential intervention communication channels and can inform targeted physical activity interventions for young adults. PMID:25375396

  18. Glenohumeral Joint Preservation: A Review of Management Options for Young, Active Patients with Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    van der Meijden, Olivier A.; Gaskill, Trevor R.; Millett, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The management of osteoarthritis of the shoulder in young, active patients is a challenge, and the optimal treatment has yet to be completely established. Many of these patients wish to maintain a high level of activity, and arthroplasty may not be a practical treatment option. It is these patients who may be excellent candidates for joint-preservation procedures in an effort to avoid or delay joint replacement. Several palliative and restorative techniques are currently optional. Joint debridement has shown good results and a combination of arthroscopic debridement with a capsular release, humeral osteoplasty, and transcapsular axillary nerve decompression seems promising when humeral osteophytes are present. Currently, microfracture seems the most studied reparative treatment modality available. Other techniques, such as autologous chondrocyte implantation and osteochondral transfers, have reportedly shown potential but are currently mainly still investigational procedures. This paper gives an overview of the currently available joint preserving surgical techniques for glenohumeral osteoarthritis. PMID:22536514

  19. Virtual reality as a leisure activity for young adults with physical and intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar

    2008-01-01

    Participation in leisure activities is a fundamental human right and an important factor of quality of life. Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and physical disabilities often experience limited opportunities to participate in leisure activities, virtual reality (VR) technologies may serve to broaden their repertoire of accessible leisure activities. Although the use of VR in rehabilitation has grown over the past decade, few applications have been reported for people with ID. Thirty-three men and women with moderate ID and severe cerebral palsy participated in the study. Each participant in the experimental group (n=17) took part in VR activity two to three times weekly for 12 weeks. Virtual games were provided via GestureTek's Gesture Xtreme video capture VR system. The VR-based activities were perceived by the participants to be enjoyable and successful. Moreover, participants demonstrated clear preferences, initiation and learning. They performed consistently and maintained a high level of interest throughout the intervention period. VR appears to provide varied and motivating opportunities for leisure activities among young adults with intellectual and physical disabilities. Its ease of use and adaptability make it a feasible option for this population. PMID:17590313

  20. Quantitation of eleven active compounds of Aidi injection in rat plasma and its application to comparative pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran; Ma, Ran; Yu, Chunyu; Bi, Cathy Wenchuan; Yin, Yidi; Xu, Huarong; Shang, Hongwei; Bi, Kaishun; Li, Qing

    2016-07-15

    Aidi injection has been widely used for the treatment of colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive and reliable method for simultaneous quantitation of 11 main active ingredients in Aidi injection and to compare the pharmacokinetics of these ingredients in normal and colorectal model cancer rats after tail vein injection. After being extracted by isopropanol-ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v), the plasma samples were analyzed with domperidone as internal standard. Then the analytes were separated on a Venusil MP C18 column with 0.15% formic acid and methanol. The detection was performed on HPLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in the positive ion and multiple reaction-monitoring mode. The assay was shown to be linear over the range of 0.004-4.0μgmL(-1) of syringin B, astragaloside II and isofraxidin; 0.01-10.0μgmL(-1) of calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside and astragaloside IV; 0.02-20.0μgmL(-1) of ginsenoside Rg1, Rb1, Rc and Rd; 0.04-40.0μgmL(-1) of syringin E; 0.06-60.0μgmL(-1) of ginsenoside Re. And the validated method has been successfully applied to compare pharmacokinetic profiles of the 11 ingredients in plasma. The pharmacokinetic results showed here were significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters for eight analytes between two groups after injection, while no significant differences for astragaloside II, astragaloside IV and ginsenoside Rc. The present study has the advantages of short analysis time and easy sample preparation, which could more comprehensively reflect the quality of Aidi injection in single run. The method proposed could be of great use for pharmacokinetics, bioavailability or bioequivalence studies of Aidi injection in biological samples. PMID:26277443

  1. Zeeman-Doppler imaging of active young solar-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackman, T.; Lehtinen, J.; Rosén, L.; Kochukhov, O.; Käpylä, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Context. By studying young magnetically active late-type stars, i.e. analogues to the young Sun, we can draw conclusions on the evolution of the solar dynamo. Aims: We determine the topology of the surface magnetic field and study the relation between the magnetic field and cool photospheric spots in three young late-type stars. Methods: High-resolution spectropolarimetry of the targets was obtained with the HARPSpol instrument mounted at the ESO 3.6 m telescope. The signal-to-noise ratios of the Stokes IV measurements were boosted by combining the signal from a large number of spectroscopic absorption lines through the least squares deconvolution technique. Surface brightness and magnetic field maps were calculated using the Zeeman-Doppler imaging technique. Results: All three targets show clear signs of magnetic fields and cool spots. Only one of the targets, V1358 Ori, shows evidence of the dominance of non-axisymmetric modes. In two of the targets, the poloidal field is significantly stronger than the toroidal one, indicative of an α2-type dynamo, in which convective turbulence effects dominate over the weak differential rotation. In two of the cases there is a slight anti-correlation between the cool spots and the strength of the radial magnetic field. However, even in these cases the correlation is much weaker than in the case of sunspots. Conclusions: The weak correlation between the measured radial magnetic field and cool spots may indicate a more complex magnetic field structure in the spots or spot groups involving mixed magnetic polarities. Comparison with a previously published magnetic field map shows that on one of the stars, HD 29615, the underlying magnetic field changed its polarity between 2009 and 2013. Based on observations made with the HARPSpol instrument on the ESO 3.6 m telescope at La Silla (Chile), under the program ID 091.D-0836.

  2. High-Dose Vitamin C Injection to Cancer Patients May Promote Thrombosis Through Procoagulant Activation of Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keunyoung; Bae, Ok-Nam; Koh, Sung-Hee; Kang, Seojin; Lim, Kyung-Min; Noh, Ji-Yoon; Shin, Sue; Kim, Inho; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2015-10-01

    Potential risk of high-dose vitamin C consumption is often ignored. Recently, gram-dose vitamin C is being intravenously injected for the treatment of cancer, which can expose circulating blood cells to extremely high concentrations of vitamin C. As well as platelets, red blood cells (RBCs) can actively participate in thrombosis through procoagulant activation. Here, we examined the procoagulant and prothrombotic risks associated with the intravenous injection of gram-dose vitamin C. Vitamin C (0.5-5 mM) increased procoagulant activity of freshly isolated human RBCs via the externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) to outer cellular membrane and the formation of PS-bearing microvesicles. PS exposure was induced by the dysregulation of key enzymes for the maintenance of membrane phospholipid asymmetry, which was from vitamin C-induced oxidative stress, and resultant disruption of calcium and thiol homeostasis. Indeed, the intravenous injection of vitamin C (0.5-1.0 g/kg) in rats in vivo significantly increased thrombosis. Notably, the prothrombotic effects of vitamin C were more prominent in RBCs isolated from cancer patients, who are at increased risks of thrombotic events. Vitamin C-induced procoagulant and prothrombotic activation of RBCs, and increased thrombosis in vivo. RBCs from cancer patients exhibited increased sensitivity to the prothrombotic effects of vitamin C, reflecting that intravenous gram-dose vitamin C therapy needs to be carefully revisited. PMID:26139164

  3. Use of solid phase extraction for the sequential injection determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in dynamic water systems.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2012-08-30

    In this work, a solid phase extraction sequential injection methodology for the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in dynamic water systems was developed. The determination of the enzymatic activity was based on the spectrophotometric detection of a coloured product, p-nitrophenol, at 405 nm. The p-nitrophenol is the product of the catalytic decomposition of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, a non-coloured substrate. Considering the low levels expected in natural waters and exploiting the fact of alkaline phosphatase being a metalloprotein, the enzyme was pre-concentrated in-line using a NTA Superflow resin charged with Zn(2+) ions. The developed sequential injection method enabled a quantification range of 0.044-0.441 unit mL(-1) of enzyme activity with a detection limit of 0.0082 unit mL(-1) enzyme activity (1.9 μmol L(-1) of pNP) and a determination rate of 17 h(-1). Recovery tests confirmed the accuracy of the developed sequential injection method and it was effectively applied to different natural waters and to plant root extracts. PMID:22939148

  4. DN Tauri - coronal activity and accretion in a young low-mass CTTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robrade, J.; Güdel, M.; Günther, H. M.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) are young, accreting low-mass stars; their X-ray emission differs from that of their main-sequence counterparts in a number of aspects. Aims: We study the specific case of DN Tau, a young M0-type accreting CTTS, to extend the range of young CTTSs studied with high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy at lower masses and to compare its high-energy properties with those of similar objects. Methods: We use a deep XMM-Newton observation of DN Tau to investigate its X-ray properties and X-ray generating mechanisms. Specifically, we examine the presence of X-ray emission from magnetic activity and accretion shocks. We also compare our new X-ray data with UV data taken simultaneously and with X-ray/UV observations performed before. Results: We find that the X-ray emission from DN Tau is dominated by coronal plasma generated via magnetic activity, but also clearly detect a contribution of the accretion shocks to the cool plasma component at ≲2 MK as consistently inferred from density and temperature analysis. Typical phenomena of active coronae, such as flaring, the presence of very hot plasma at 30 MK, and an abundance pattern showing the inverse FIP effect, are seen on DN Tau. Strong variations in the emission measure of the cooler plasma components between the 2005 and 2010 data point to accretion related changes; in contrast, the hotter coronal plasma component is virtually unchanged. The UV light curve taken simultaneously is in general not related to the X-ray brightness, but exhibits clear counterparts during the observed X-ray flares. Conclusions: The X-ray properties of DN Tau are similar to those of more massive CTTSs, but its low mass and large radius associated with its youth shift the accretion shocks to lower temperatures, reducing their imprint in the X-ray regime. DN Tau's overall X-ray properties are dominated by strong magnetic activity.

  5. Promoting active lifestyles in young children: investigating mothers' decisions about their child's physical activity and screen time behaviours.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kyra; Thomson, Courtney E; White, Katherine M

    2013-07-01

    Given increasing trends of obesity being noted from early in life and that active lifestyles track across time, it is important that children at a very young age be active to combat a foundation of unhealthy behaviours forming. This study investigated, within a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) framework, factors which influence mothers' decisions about their child's (1) adequate physical activity (PA) and (2) limited screen time behaviours. Mothers (N = 162) completed a main questionnaire, via on-line or paper-based administration, which comprised standard TPB items in addition to measures of planning and background demographic variables. One week later, consenting mothers completed a follow-up telephone questionnaire which assessed the decisions they had made regarding their child's PA and screen time behaviours during the previous week. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed support for the predictive model, explaining an overall 73 and 78 % of the variance in mothers' intention and 38 and 53 % of the variance in mothers' decisions to ensure their child engages in adequate PA and limited screen time, respectively. Attitude and subjective norms predicted intention in both target behaviours, as did intentions with behaviour. Contrary to predictions, perceived behavioural control (PBC) in PA behaviour and planning in screen time behaviour were not significant predictors of intention, neither was PBC a predictor of either behaviour. The findings illustrate the various roles that psycho-social factors play in mothers' decisions to ensure their child engages in active lifestyle behaviours which can help to inform future intervention programs aimed at combating very young children's inactivity. PMID:22833334

  6. What Young People Say about Physical Activity: The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannehill, Deborah; MacPhail, Ann; Walsh, Julia; Woods, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) study is a unique multi-centre/discipline study undertaken by three Irish institutions, Dublin City University, University of Limerick and University College Cork. The study sought to assess participation in physical activity, physical education and sport (PAPES) among 10-18 year…

  7. The Seeds of Learning: Young Children Develop Important Skills through Their Gardening Activities at a Midwestern Early Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Dana L.

    2007-01-01

    Using teachers as co-researchers to collect and analyze data, this case study explored preschool and kindergarteners' learning when they were engaged in hands-on activities in the garden and greenhouse areas of a model outdoor classroom. Key findings suggest that when young children are participating in garden and greenhouse activities they are:…

  8. It's More Fun than It Sounds--Enhancing Science Concepts through Hands-on Activities for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guha, Smita

    2012-01-01

    To teach young children, teachers choose topics in science that children are curious about. Children's inquisitive nature is reflected through the activities as they make repetitive sounds to find the cause and effect relationship. Teachers can make best use of those invaluable moments by incorporating those activities into science lessons on…

  9. The Influence of Whole-Body Vibration on Creatine Kinase Activity and Jumping Performance in Young Basketball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fachina, Rafael; da Silva, Antônio; Falcão, William; Montagner, Paulo; Borin, João; Minozzo, Fábio; Falcão, Diego; Vancini, Rodrigo; Poston, Brach; de Lira, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify creatine kinase (CK) activity changes across time following an acute bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) and determine the association between changes in CK activity and jumping performance. Method: Twenty-six elite young basketball players were assigned to 3 groups: 36-Hz and 46-Hz vibration groups (G36 and G46, respectively)…

  10. A Window into Different Cultural Worlds: Young Children's Everyday Activities in the United States, Brazil, and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudge, Jonathan R. H.; Doucet, Fabienne; Odero, Dolphine; Sperb, Tania M.; Piccinini, Cesar A.; Lopes, Rita S.

    2006-01-01

    A powerful means to understand young children's normative development in context is to examine their everyday activities. The daily activities of 79 children (3 years old) were observed, for 20 hr each, in their usual settings. Children were selected from 4 cultural groups: European American and African American (Greensboro, United States), Luo…

  11. Microbial biomass, activity, and community structure of water and particulates retrieved by backflow from a waterflood injection well.

    PubMed

    McKinley, V L; Costerton, J W; White, D C

    1988-06-01

    Oil field injection water was allowed to back flow from two wells at the Packard drill site in Los Angeles, Calif., and was sampled at various times to obtain information about the biomass, potential activity, and community structure of the microbiota in the reservoir formation and in the injection water. Biomass was greatest in water samples that came from the zone near the injection site and dropped off sharply in subsequent samples, which were assumed to come from zones farther away from the well. Samples obtained from near the well also had visible exopolysaccharide blankets, as seen in scanning electron microscopic preparations. In one of the wells that was sampled, rates of glucose or acetate incorporation into microbial lipids correlated with biomass; but in the other well, activities correlated with the sampling time (volume of water that back flowed). Transmission electron micrographs showed a diverse, gram-negative bacterial population in a variety of physiological states. The analysis of the phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profiles of the samples revealed consistently large proportions of 18:1omega7c fatty acids, indicating the presence of many anaerobes, facultative organisms, or both. Proportions of cyclopropyl fatty acids and ratios of trans/cis monoenoic compounds increased with the volume of water that back flowed (analogous with the distance into the formation), while the ratio of unsaturated/saturated compounds decreased, possibly indicating higher levels of stress or starvation in the microbial communities farthest from the injection well. Greater than 90% of the total biomass was trapped on glass fiber filters, indicating that the microbiota were largely attached to particles or were clumped. These sampling techniques and analytical methods may prove useful in monitoring for problems with microbes (e.g., plugging) in waterflood operations and in the preparation of water injection wells for enhanced oil recovery by the use of microbes. PMID

  12. Microbial Biomass, Activity, and Community Structure of Water and Particulates Retrieved by Backflow from a Waterflood Injection Well

    PubMed Central

    McKinley, Vicky L.; Costerton, J. William; White, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Oil field injection water was allowed to back flow from two wells at the Packard drill site in Los Angeles, Calif., and was sampled at various times to obtain information about the biomass, potential activity, and community structure of the microbiota in the reservoir formation and in the injection water. Biomass was greatest in water samples that came from the zone near the injection site and dropped off sharply in subsequent samples, which were assumed to come from zones farther away from the well. Samples obtained from near the well also had visible exopolysaccharide blankets, as seen in scanning electron microscopic preparations. In one of the wells that was sampled, rates of glucose or acetate incorporation into microbial lipids correlated with biomass; but in the other well, activities correlated with the sampling time (volume of water that back flowed). Transmission electron micrographs showed a diverse, gram-negative bacterial population in a variety of physiological states. The analysis of the phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profiles of the samples revealed consistently large proportions of 18:1ω7c fatty acids, indicating the presence of many anaerobes, facultative organisms, or both. Proportions of cyclopropyl fatty acids and ratios of trans/cis monoenoic compounds increased with the volume of water that back flowed (analogous with the distance into the formation), while the ratio of unsaturated/saturated compounds decreased, possibly indicating higher levels of stress or starvation in the microbial communities farthest from the injection well. Greater than 90% of the total biomass was trapped on glass fiber filters, indicating that the microbiota were largely attached to particles or were clumped. These sampling techniques and analytical methods may prove useful in monitoring for problems with microbes (e.g., plugging) in waterflood operations and in the preparation of water injection wells for enhanced oil recovery by the use of microbes. Images

  13. Assessment of visiting activities for young children using the UNAWE Evaluation Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Akihiko

    2015-08-01

    When the target is young children and the activity type is play, the assessment of the activity is not easy. The table of domains of active learning shown in the EU Universe Awareness Programme Evaluation Guide is useful for the assessment; the Guide shows the four domains; motivation, scientific skills, universe knowledge, and intercultural attitudes, and many items of objectives in each domains. The Guide can be a basic format and the items can be modified so as to fit each activity. Taking my activity as an example, I will present an assessment using the Guide. The activity I will present is "Uchu no O-hanashi," a visiting activity which includeds slide show, story telling, and enjoying pictures on large sheets for children at nursery, kindergarten, preschool and other sites. In order to obtain the data, I have recorded the voice of children. The analysis method is a kind of qualitative one. I picked up "motivation" and "scientific skills" words from the record when they muttered about and asked each other what they felt, what they found, and what they got excited about. Among the items in the "scientific skills domain," looking at carefully, asking, exchanging opinions, interpreting or trying to interpret, and trying were frequently appeared. Other skills such as devising and confirming were not frequently appeared but they would sometimes appear later at home or at school after the activity. I also picked up the words of children obtaining scientific way of view and attitude through the activity. One example is "It seems that stars float in the sky and do not move. Do they really set like the Sun, our nearest star? I never saw stars set!" A boy was trying to make a new framework for his understanding. This kind of thinking will enrich his or her future "universe knowledge" and "intercultural attitudes."

  14. Physical activity and associated factors among young adults in Malaysia: an online exploratory survey.

    PubMed

    Sreeramareddy, C T; Majeed Kutty, N A; Razzaq Jabbar, M A; Boo, N Y

    2012-06-01

    The burden of non-communicable diseases is increasing in Malaysia. Insufficient Physical Activity, which is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases, is less researched in Malaysia. We aimed to assess the level of physical activity and identify its correlates. An online survey was carried out during October, 2011 in the University Tunku Abdul Rahman by the opinion poll research committee. Young adults answered the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a questionnaire about factors according to a socio-ecological model which was adapted from published studies. Metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours and MET-minutes were calculated. Physical activity was classified as sufficient when MET-minutes were > 840. The mean age of the 474 participants was 22.4 years (S.D. = 4.7), and 253 (53.4%) were females. Their mean and median of MET-hours of PA done during the previous seven days were 31.36 (S.D., 52.19) and 14.7 (IQR, 5.77-32.07), respectively. Physical activity done was sufficient among 242 (51.1%) participants. Using univariate analysis, being male, good self-rated health, positive intention, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, social support, and availability of facilities were associated with sufficient physical activity. Using multivariate analysis sufficient physical activity was associated with participants' intention (OR 0.75, 95% CIs 0.64, 0.88), self-efficacy (OR 0.91, 95% CIs 0.85, 0.97) and facility availability (OR 0.81, 95% CIs 0.73, 0.91). The proportion of participants with sufficient physical activity was low. Positive intention and self-efficacy associated with sufficient physical activity should be supported by availability of facilities and a safely-built environment. A nationwide survey about physical and associated socialecological factors is needed to design rational health promotion strategies. PMID:22890157

  15. Associations of Parental Influences with Physical Activity and Screen Time among Young Children: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Parents play a critical role in developing and shaping their children's physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours, particularly in the early years of life. The aim of this systematic review is to identify current literature investigating associations of parental influences with both PA and screen time in young children. This systematic review was conducted in November 2013 using 6 electronic databases covering research literature from January 1998 to November 2013. Thirty articles that met inclusion criteria were identified. These studies covered five important aspects of parenting: (1) parenting practices; (2) parents' role modelling; (3) parental perceptions of children's PA and screen viewing behaviours; (4) parental self-efficacy; and (5) general parenting style. Findings suggest that parents' encouragement and support can increase children's PA, and reducing parents' own screen time can lead to decreased child screen time. Improving parenting practices, parental self-efficacy or changing parenting style may also be promising approaches to increasing PA time and decreasing screen time of young children. PMID:25874123

  16. Spontaneous regional brain activity links restrained eating to later weight gain among young women.

    PubMed

    Dong, Debo; Jackson, Todd; Wang, Yulin; Chen, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Theory and prospective studies have linked restrained eating (RE) to risk for future weight gain and the onset of obesity, but little is known about resting state neural activity that may underlie this association. To address this gap, resting fMRI was used to test the extent to which spontaneous neural activity in regions associated with inhibitory control and food reward account for potential relations between baseline RE levels and changes in body weight among dieters over a one-year interval. Spontaneous regional activity patterns corresponding to RE were assessed among 50 young women using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis, which measured temporal synchronization of spontaneous fluctuations within a food deprivation condition. Analyses indicated higher baseline RE scores predicted more weight gain at a one-year follow-up. Furthermore, food-deprived dieting women with high dietary restraint scores exhibited more spontaneous local activity in brain regions associated with the expectation and valuation for food reward [i.e., orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC)] and reduced spontaneous local activity in inhibitory control regions [i.e., bilateral dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)] at baseline. Notably, the association between baseline RE and follow-up weight gain was mediated by decreased local synchronization of the right DLPFC in particular and, to a lesser degree, increased local synchronization of the right VMPFC. In conjunction with previous research, these findings highlight possible neural mechanisms underlying the relation between RE and risk for weight gain. PMID:26004091

  17. Validity and reliability of the activPAL3 for measuring posture and stepping in adults and young people.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Ceri; Dall, Philippa; Grant, Margaret; Stansfield, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Characterisation of free-living physical activity requires the use of validated and reliable monitors. This study reports an evaluation of the validity and reliability of the activPAL3 monitor for the detection of posture and stepping in both adults and young people. Twenty adults (median 27.6y; IQR22.6y) and 8 young people (12.0y; IQR4.1y) performed standardised activities and activities of daily living (ADL) incorporating sedentary, upright and stepping activity. Agreement, specificity and positive predictive value were calculated between activPAL3 outcomes and the gold-standard of video observation. Inter-device reliability was calculated between 4 monitors. Sedentary and upright times for standardised activities were within ±5% of video observation as was step count (excluding jogging) for both adults and young people. Jogging step detection accuracy reduced with increasing cadence >150stepsmin(-1). For ADLs, sensitivity to stepping was very low for adults (40.4%) but higher for young people (76.1%). Inter-device reliability was either good (ICC(1,1)>0.75) or excellent (ICC(1,1)>0.90) for all outcomes. An excellent level of detection of standardised postures was demonstrated by the activPAL3. Postures such as seat-perching, kneeling and crouching were misclassified when compared to video observation. The activPAL3 appeared to accurately detect 'purposeful' stepping during ADL, but detection of smaller stepping movements was poor. Small variations in outcomes between monitors indicated that differences in monitor placement or hardware may affect outcomes. In general, the detection of posture and purposeful stepping with the activPAL3 was excellent indicating that it is a suitable monitor for characterising free-living posture and purposeful stepping activity in healthy adults and young people. PMID:26669950

  18. Childhood Sexual Violence and Consistent, Effective Contraception Use among Young, Sexually Active Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Deborah B.; Lepore, Stephen J.; Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios S.

    2015-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy (UP) is a significant public health problem. The consistent use of effective contraception is the primary method to prevent UP. We examined the role of childhood sexual and physical violence and current interpersonal violence on the risk of unintended pregnancy among young, urban, sexually active women. In particular, we were interested in examining the role of childhood violence and interpersonal violence while recognizing the psychological correlates of experiencing violence (i.e., high depressive symptoms and low self-esteem) and consistent use of contraception. For this assessment, 315 sexually active women living in Philadelphia PA were recruited from family planning clinics in 2013. A self-administered, computer-assisted interview was used to collect data on method of contraception use in the past month, consistency of use, experiences with violence, levels of depressive symptoms, self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy, substance use and health services utilization. Fifty percent of young sexually active women reported inconsistent or no contraception use in the past month. Inconsistent users were significantly more likely to report at least one prior episode of childhood sexual violence and were significantly less likely to have received a prescription for contraception from a health care provider. Inconsistent contraception users also reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and significantly lower levels of self-esteem. The relation between childhood sexual violence and UP remained unchanged in the multivariate models adjusting for self-esteem or depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the long-term consequences of childhood sexual violence, independent of current depressive symptoms and low self-esteem, on consistent use of contraception. PMID:26010318

  19. Physical activity, and not fat mass is a primary predictor of circadian parameters in young men.

    PubMed

    Tranel, Hannah R; Schroder, Elizabeth A; England, Jonathan; Black, W Scott; Bush, Heather; Hughes, Michael E; Esser, Karyn A; Clasey, Jody L

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are ≈24 h oscillations in physiology and behavior, and disruptions have been shown to have negative effects on health. Wrist skin temperature has been used by several groups as a valid method of assessing circadian rhythms in humans. We tested the hypothesis that circadian temperature amplitude (TempAmp) and stability (TempStab) would significantly differ among groups of healthy young men of varying adiposities, and that we could identify physiological and behavioral measures that were significantly associated with these temperature parameters. Wrist skin temperatures taken at 10 min intervals for 7 consecutive days were determined in 18 optimal (OGroup), 20 fair (FGroup) and 21 poor (PGroup) %Fat grouped young men and subsequently analyzed using available validated software. Body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, actigraphy, daily nutritional and sleep data, and fasting lipid, insulin and glucose concentration measures were also determined. Significant changes in TempAmp and TempStab parameters in subjects with a single metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factor compared to those with no MetS factors was observed. In addition, stepwise multivariate regression analyses showed that 50% of the variance in TempAmp was explained by actigraphy (mean steps taken per day; MSTPD), cardiorespiratory fitness, and late night eating per week (#LNE); and 57% in TempStab by MSTPD, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity per day, fat mass, and #LNE. Overwhelmingly, physical activity was the most important measure associated with the differences in circadian rhythm parameters. Further research is warranted to determine the effects of increasing the amount and timing of physical activity on the status of the circadian system in a variety of populations. PMID:26101893

  20. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Niger.

    PubMed

    Wuehler, Sara E; Biga Hassoumi, Abdoulazize

    2011-04-01

    Due to limited progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children <5 years of age, an alliance of international agencies joined to 'Reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel,' starting with a situational analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The main objectives of this analysis are to compile, analyse, and interpret available information on infant and child feeding and the nutrition situation of children <2 years of age in Niger, as one of the six targeted countries. Between August and November 2008, key informants responsible for conducting IYCN-related activities in Niger were interviewed, and 90 documents were examined on: optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, management of acute malnutrition, food security, and hygienic practices. The results reported are limited by the availability of documents for review. Mortality rates are on track to reaching the Millennium Development Goal to reduce mortality among young children by two-thirds by 2015, but there has been no change in undernutrition, and total mortality rates are still high among young children. Nearly all of the key IYCN topics were addressed, specifically or generally, in national policy documents, training materials, and programmes. A national nutrition council meets regularly to coordinate programme activities nationally. Many of the IYCN-related programmes are intended for national coverage, but few reach this coverage. Monitoring and impact evaluations were conducted on some programmes, but few of these reported on whether the specific IYCN components of the programme were implemented as designed or compared outcomes with non-intervention sites. Human resources have been identified as inadequate to fully carry out nutrition programmes in Niger. Due to these limitations, we could not confirm whether the lack

  1. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... it.Golimumab injection comes in prefilled syringes and auto-injection devices for subcutaneous injection. Use each syringe ... method.Do not remove the cap from the auto-injection device or the cover from the prefilled ...

  2. Gamified physical activation of young men – a Multidisciplinary Population-Based Randomized Controlled Trial (MOPO study)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inactive and unhealthy lifestyles are common among adolescent men. The planned intervention examines the effectiveness of an interactive, gamified activation method, based on tailored health information, peer networks and participation, on physical activity, health and wellbeing in young men. We hypothesize that following the intervention the physical activation group will have an improved physical activity, as well as self-determined and measured health compared with the controls. Methods/design Conscription-aged men (18 years) attending compulsory annual call-ups for military service in the city of Oulu in Finland (n = 1500) will be randomized to a 6-months intervention (n = 640) or a control group (n = 640) during the fall 2013. A questionnaire on health, health behaviour, diet and wellbeing is administered in the beginning and end of the intervention. In addition, anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference), body composition, grip strength, heart rate variability and aerobic fitness will be measured. The activation group utilizes an online gamified activation method in combination with communal youth services, objective physical activity measurement, social networking, tailored health information and exercise programs according to baseline activity level and the readiness of changes of each individual. Daily physical activity of the participants is monitored in both the activation and control groups. The activation service rewards improvements in physical activity or reductions in sedentary behaviour. The performance and completion of the military service of the participants will also be followed. Discussion The study will provide new information of physical activity, health and health behaviour of young men. Furthermore, a novel model including methods for increasing physical activity among young people is developed and its effects tested through an intervention. This unique gamified service for activating young men

  3. Effect of wrist-worn activity monitor feedback on physical activity behavior: A randomized controlled trial in Finnish young men

    PubMed Central

    Jauho, Anna-Maiju; Pyky, Riitta; Ahola, Riikka; Kangas, Maarit; Virtanen, Paula; Korpelainen, Raija; Jämsä, Timo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the use of an activity monitor providing feedback has an effect on physical activity (PA) in young men. A population-based sample of 276 conscription-aged (mean = 17.9, SD = 0.7 years) men participated in a 3-month randomized controlled trial in Oulu in 2012. Participants were randomized to an intervention group (INT, N = 137) and a control group (CON, N = 139). INT received a wrist-worn monitor (Polar Active) showing daily activity, and CON received identical monitors without feedback. Main outcome was the change from baseline in objectively measured weekly time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary activity (SED), as assessed by generalized estimation equations (GEE). Other lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire at baseline and at 3 months. Weekly physical activity data (≥ 4 days with ≥ 8 h each) were obtained from 72 (53%) and 90 (65%) men in the INT and CON, respectively. Based on GEE, time spent in MVPA increased (p = 0.012) and SED decreased (p = 0.032) in the INT compared with the CON. During the first 7 weeks, the INT spent on average 1 h less sedentary than the CON (t-test, p < 0.05). During the first week, the INT showed 12 minutes more MVPA compared to the CON (t-test, p = 0.034). Based on questionnaire data, the proportion of the most sedentary men decreased in the INT (Wilcoxon test, 28% vs. 10%, p = 0.029), with no change in the CON (20% vs. 19%, p = 0.546). To conclude, a wrist-worn activity monitor providing feedback had a short-term positive effect on PA and SED in young men. Trial registration This is a pilot study for a larger randomized controlled trial registered to the clinical trials register NCT01376986. PMID:26844128

  4. Sublingual Nucleotides Prolong Run Time to Exhaustion in Young Physically Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Ostojic, Sergej M.; Idrizovic, Kemal; Stojanovic, Marko D.

    2013-01-01

    Although dietary nucleotides have been determined to be required for normal immune function, there is limited direct interventional evidence confirming performance-enhancing effects of sublingual nucleotides in humans. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of sublingual nucleotides (50 mg/day) administered for 14 days in thirty young healthy physically active males, on endurance performance and immune responses. Fasting white blood cell count, natural killer cells (NKC) number, NKC cytotoxic activity, and serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgM, IgG), and time to exhaustion, peak rate of perceived exertion, peak heart rate, and peak running speed during the exercise test were measured at baseline (day 0) and post-intervention (day 14). Time to exhaustion, as well as serum immunoglobulin A and NKC cytotoxic activity, were significantly higher at day 14 (p < 0.05) in participants supplemented with nucleotides compared with those who consumed placebo. No significant differences in other parameters were observed between groups at post-intervention. No volunteers withdrew before the end of the study nor reported any vexatious side effects of supplementation. The results of the present study suggest that sublingual nucleotides may provide pertinent benefit as both an ergogenic and immunostimulatory additive in active males. PMID:24284618

  5. Type 1 Diabetes Modifies Brain Activation in Young Patients While Performing Visuospatial Working Memory Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo-Moreno, Geisa B.; González-Garrido, Andrés A.; Gudayol-Ferré, Esteban; Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the effects of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) on cognitive functions. T1D onset usually occurs during childhood, so it is possible that the brain could be affected during neurodevelopment. We selected young patients of normal intelligence with T1D onset during neurodevelopment, no complications from diabetes, and adequate glycemic control. The purpose of this study was to compare the neural BOLD activation pattern in a group of patients with T1D versus healthy control subjects while performing a visuospatial working memory task. Sixteen patients and 16 matched healthy control subjects participated. There was no significant statistical difference in behavioral performance between the groups, but, in accordance with our hypothesis, results showed distinct brain activation patterns. Control subjects presented the expected activations related to the task, whereas the patients had greater activation in the prefrontal inferior cortex, basal ganglia, posterior cerebellum, and substantia nigra. These different patterns could be due to compensation mechanisms that allow them to maintain a behavioral performance similar to that of control subjects. PMID:26266268

  6. Default Mode Network Activity Predicts Early Memory Decline in Healthy Young Adults Aged 18-31.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Steven M; Savalia, Neil K; Fishell, Andrew K; Gilmore, Adrian W; Zou, Fan; Balota, David A; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2016-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research conducted in healthy young adults is typically done with the assumption that this sample is largely homogeneous. However, studies from cognitive psychology suggest that long-term memory and attentional control begin to diminish in the third decade of life. Here, 100 participants between the ages of 18 and 31 learned Lithuanian translations of English words in an individual differences study using fMRI. Long-term memory ability was operationalized for each participant by deriving a memory score from 3 convergent measures. Age of participant predicted memory score in this cohort. In addition, degree of deactivation during initial encoding in a set of regions occurring largely in the default mode network (DMN) predicted both age and memory score. The current study demonstrates that early memory decline may partially be accounted for by failure to modulate activity in the DMN. PMID:26209847

  7. Monitoring Lipase/Esterase Activity by Stopped Flow in a Sequential Injection Analysis System Using p-Nitrophenyl Butyrate

    PubMed Central

    Pliego, Jorge; Mateos, Juan Carlos; Rodriguez, Jorge; Valero, Francisco; Baeza, Mireia; Femat, Ricardo; Camacho, Rosa; Sandoval, Georgina; Herrera-López, Enrique J.

    2015-01-01

    Lipases and esterases are biocatalysts used at the laboratory and industrial level. To obtain the maximum yield in a bioprocess, it is important to measure key variables, such as enzymatic activity. The conventional method for monitoring hydrolytic activity is to take out a sample from the bioreactor to be analyzed off-line at the laboratory. The disadvantage of this approach is the long time required to recover the information from the process, hindering the possibility to develop control systems. New strategies to monitor lipase/esterase activity are necessary. In this context and in the first approach, we proposed a lab-made sequential injection analysis system to analyze off-line samples from shake flasks. Lipase/esterase activity was determined using p-nitrophenyl butyrate as the substrate. The sequential injection analysis allowed us to measure the hydrolytic activity from a sample without dilution in a linear range from 0.05–1.60 U/mL, with the capability to reach sample dilutions up to 1000 times, a sampling frequency of five samples/h, with a kinetic reaction of 5 min and a relative standard deviation of 8.75%. The results are promising to monitor lipase/esterase activity in real time, in which optimization and control strategies can be designed. PMID:25633600

  8. The influence of electrolyte composition on the in vitro charge-injection limits of activated iridium oxide (AIROF) stimulation electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Troyk, Philip R.; Ehrlich, Julia; Gasbarro, Christina M.; Plante, Timothy D.

    2007-06-01

    The effects of ionic conductivity and buffer concentration of electrolytes used for in vitro measurement of the charge-injection limits of activated iridium oxide (AIROF) neural stimulation electrodes have been investigated. Charge-injection limits of AIROF microelectrodes were measured in saline with a range of phosphate buffer concentrations from [PO43-] = 0 to [PO43-] = 103 mM and ionic conductivities from 2-28 mS cm-1. The charge-injection limits were insensitive to the buffer concentration, but varied significantly with ionic conductivity. Using 0.4 ms cathodal current pulses at 50 Hz, the charge-injection limit increased from 0.5 mC cm-2 to 2.1 mC cm-2 as the conductivity was increased from 2 mS cm-1 to 28 mS cm-1. An explanation is proposed in which the observed dependence on ionic conductivity arises from non-uniform reduction and oxidation within the porous AIROF and from uncorrected iR-drops that result in an overestimation of the redox potential during pulsing. Conversely, slow-sweep-rate cyclic voltammograms (CVs) were sensitive to buffer concentration with the potentials of the primary Ir3+/Ir4+ reduction and oxidation reactions shifting ~300 mV as the buffer concentration decreased from [PO43-] = 103 mM to [PO43-] = 0 mM. The CV response was insensitive to ionic conductivity. A comparison of in vitro AIROF charge-injection limits in commonly employed electrolyte models of extracellular fluid revealed a significant dependence on the electrolyte, with more than a factor of 4 difference under some pulsing conditions, emphasizing the need to select an electrolyte model that closely matches the conductivity and ionic composition of the in vivo environment.

  9. The effects of adrenalectomy and corticsteroid injection on the fibrinolytic activity of complex heparin compounds in the blood during immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudryashov, B. A.; Lomovskaya, E. G.; Shapiro, F. B.; Lyapina, L. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Total non-enzymatic fibrinolytic activity in the blood of rats increased three times in response to stress caused by 30 minute immobilization, and the activity of epinephrine-heparin complex increased nine times. In adrenalectomized animals, which showed a weak response to the same stress, intraperitoneal injection of hydrocortisone 30 minutes prior to immobilization normalized the response. Obtained results indicate that adrenalectomy leads to sharp reduction of heparin complexing with thromogenic proteins and epinephrine, while substitution therapy with hydrocortisone restores anticoagulation system function.

  10. The social and environmental context of cross-border drug use in Mexico: findings from a mixed methods study of young injection drug users living in San Diego, CA.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Karla D; Moynihan, Matthew J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Clark, Maureen; Zúñiga, María Luisa; Volkmann, Tyson A; Teshale, Eyasu; Garfein, Richard S

    2012-01-01

    The authors report the results of qualitative (n = 19) and quantitative (n = 545) interviews with young injection drug users (IDUs) in San Diego, California about their experiences using drugs in Tijuana, Mexico, and associated risks for HIV infection. Young IDUs who have ever traveled to Mexico (n = 365) used a variety of injection (54%) and noninjection (30%) drugs there and appear to be heavier users than those who have never traveled to Mexico. Sociocultural themes influencing drug use in Mexico included interactions among the purpose of travel, drug preference, and route of administration; familiarity with the border region; evolving relationships with the United States and Mexican drug markets; and the experience of crossing the U.S.-Mexico border. Interventions for IDUs in border regions need to be sensitive to the ethnicity, familiarity with the border region, and life history of participants, as well as differences in national policies that could influence drug use and risk for HIV on both sides of the border. PMID:23216441

  11. Physical activity of Polish adolescents and young adults according to IPAQ: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Bergier, Józef; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Biliński, Przemysław; Paprzycki, Piotr; Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The alarming problem of a decline in physical activity among children and adolescents and its detrimental effects on public health has been well recognised worldwide. Low physical activity is responsible for 6% of deaths worldwide and 5-10% of deaths in the countries of the WHO European Region, according to country. Within the last decade, many initiatives have been launched to counteract this phenomenon. The objective of presented study was analysis of the level of physical activity among adolescents and young adults in Poland, according to the IPAQ questionnaire. The study group covered 7,716 adolescents: 5,086 children attending high school and secondary schools and 2,630 university students. Low physical activity was noted among 57% of schoolchildren and 20.84% of students. Analysis of the level of physical activity according to the IPAQ indicated that it was lower among girls, compared to boys. An additional analysis, with the consideration of the place of residence, showed that the highest percentage of the population with low physical activity was noted in the rural areas (29.30%), while among the urban inhabitants of cities with a population above 100,000 it was on the level of 23.69% and 20.57%. Median for weekly physical activity by respondents" gender was on the level of 1,554.00 MET*min. weekly among females, and 2,611.00 MET*min. weekly among males (p<0.000). The highest weekly physical activity expressed in MET*min. was observed among the inhabitants of towns with a population less than 100,000, whereas among the rural population and inhabitants of large cities with a population of over 100,000 the weekly physical activity was on a similar level (1,830.50 and 1,962.00 respectively). An extended analysis of respondents' physical activity showed that during the day students spend significantly more time in a sedentary position, compared to schoolchildren. The presented results of studies indicate the necessity to continue and intensify actions to

  12. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Wuehler, Sara E; Ly Wane, Coudy Thierno

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children <5 years of age has been less than needed to achieve related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Therefore, several international agencies joined to 'Reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel', starting with an analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The main objectives of the situational analysis are to compile, analyse and interpret available information on infant and child feeding and the nutrition situation of children <2 years of age in Senegal, as one of the six targeted countries. These findings will be used to assist in identifying inconsistencies and filling gaps in current programming. Between August and December 2008, key informants responsible for conducting IYCN-related activities in Senegal were interviewed, and 157 documents were examined on the following themes: optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, management of acute malnutrition, food security and hygienic practices. Nearly all of the key IYCN topics were addressed, specifically or generally, in national policy documents. Senegal reported substantial improvements since the 1990s towards reducing infant and young child mortality and underweight, and increasing exclusive breastfeeding among infants <6 months of age (34%). Senegal is one of the few countries in the region that is nearly on track for reaching related MDGs. Notable activities that may have played a role include: (1) vitamin A supplementation was expanded to nearly semi-annual national campaigns starting in 1994; (2) the Ministry of Health partnered with several national and international agencies to scale up child survival activities under the umbrella of the Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival (1994-2006); (3) a national nutrition division was developed to support a national

  13. Developmental Trajectories of Physical Activity, Sports, and Television Viewing During Childhood to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soyang; Janz, Kathleen F.; Letuchy, Elena M.; Burns, Trudy L.; Levy, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The diverse developmental patterns of obesogenic behaviors during childhood and adolescence can be better understood by using new analytic approaches to assess the heterogeneity in variation during growth and development and to map the clustering of behavior patterns. OBJECTIVES To identify distinct trajectories of daily time spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) from ages 5 to 19 years and to examine the associations of MVPA trajectories with sports participation and television viewing trajectories. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cohort members in the prospective population-based Iowa Bone Development Study participated in MVPA assessments via accelerometry from September 16, 1998, to December 9, 2013, at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 years and completed a questionnaire every 6 months on sports participation and daily time spent in television viewing. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Trajectories of MVPA (minutes per day), participation in organized sports (yes or no), and television viewing time (hours per day). RESULTS Based on the data from 537 participants (50.1% females; 94.6% white), we identified 4 MVPA trajectories: consistently inactive (14.9%), consistently active (18.1%), decreasing moderate physical activity (52.9%), and substantially decreasing high physical activity (14.1%). All participants in the consistently inactive trajectory also followed a trajectory of no participation in sports. The consistently active trajectory was associated with decreasing an already low television viewing trajectory (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This study provided a nuanced look at the known decrease in MVPA during childhood and adolescence. Sports participation could be a critical way to avoid the consistently inactive pattern. Most important, we identified a subset of participants who maintained a seemingly healthy level of MVPA from childhood to young adulthood. The developmental pathways of physical activity and

  14. Evaluation of activation treatments for blastocyst production and birth of viable calves following bovine intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, T; Takada, N; Kikuchi, T; Numabe, T; Takenaka, M; Horiuchi, T

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different methods of bovine oocyte activation following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in terms of oocyte cleavage and blastocyst rates, and calf production. Oocytes were harvested, post mortem, from the ovaries of Japanese Black heifers or cows. ICSI was carried out using a piezo-electric actuator. The injected or sham-injected oocytes that were assigned to three activation treatments, each replicated three times, were studied: (1) exposure to 5 microM ionomycin for 5 min (ionomycin); (2) exposure to 5 microM ionomycin for 5 min followed by culture in TCM199 for 3 h and a further 3h culture in 1.9 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine (DMAP-ionomycin+DMAP); (3) exposure to 7% ethanol in TCM199 for 5 min, 4 h after ICSI (ethanol). One or two blastocysts from the ionomycin+DMAP (8 recipients) and ethanol (17 recipients) oocyte activation treatments were non-surgically transferred into Holsteins for the study of calf production. The highest cleavage and blastocyst production rates were observed in the ionomycin+DMAP treatment (83.9% and 40.1%) by the ICSI. These rates were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those for the ionomycin oocyte activation treatment (57.6% and 18.2%) but did not differ from the ethanol treatment (75.6% and 29.4%). In the sham-injected, the highest blastocyst production rates were observed for the ionomycin+DMAP and ethanol treatments (10.7% and 11.3%). Pregnancy and birth rates for blastocysts derived from the ethanol oocyte activation treatment (58.8% and 47.4%) were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the ionomycin+DMAP treatment (12.5% and 9.2%). The results showed that post-ICSI oocyte activation with ethanol is more effective than activation with ionomycin alone or with ionomycin+DMAP for the production of viable blastocysts and calves. PMID:15766799

  15. Sun protection preferences and behaviors among young adult males during maximum ultraviolet radiation exposure activities.

    PubMed

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K

    2013-08-01

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population. PMID:23912201

  16. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activity of Tryptophan Metabolites in Young Adult Mouse Colonocytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yating; Jin, Un-Ho; Allred, Clint D; Jayaraman, Arul; Chapkin, Robert S; Safe, Stephen

    2015-10-01

    The tryptophan microbiota metabolites indole-3-acetate, indole-3-aldehyde, indole, and tryptamine are aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands, and in this study we investigated their AhR agonist and antagonist activities in nontransformed young adult mouse colonocyte (YAMC) cells. Using Cyp1a1 mRNA as an Ah-responsive end point, we observed that the tryptophan metabolites were weak AhR agonists and partial antagonists in YAMC cells, and the pattern of activity was different from that previously observed in CaCo2 colon cancer cells. However, expansion of the end points to other Ah-responsive genes including the Cyp1b1, the AhR repressor (Ahrr), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-inducible poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (TiParp) revealed a highly complex pattern of AhR agonist/antagonist activities that were both ligand- and gene-dependent. For example, the magnitude of induction of Cyp1b1 mRNA was similar for TCDD, tryptamine, and indole-3-acetate, whereas lower induction was observed for indole and indole-3-aldehyde was inactive. These results suggest that the tryptophan metabolites identified in microbiota are selective AhR modulators. PMID:25873348

  17. The temporal evolution of electron distributions and associated wave activity following substorm injections in the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, Nigel P.; Horne, Richard B.; Johnstone, Alan D.; Anderson, Roger R.

    2000-06-01

    The temporal evolution of electron distributions and associated wave activity following substorm injections in the inner magnetosphere are investigated using data from the CRRES satellite. Equatorial electron distributions and concomitant wave spectra outside the plasmapause on the nightside of the Earth are studied as a function of time since injection determined from the auroral-electrojet index (AE). The electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) wave amplitudes are shown to be very sensitive to small modeling errors in the location of the magnetic equator. They are best understood at the ECH equator, defined by the local maximum in the ECH wave activity in the vicinity of the nominal magnetic equator, suggesting that the ECH equator is a better measure of the location of the true equator. Strong ECH and whistler mode wave amplitudes are associated with the injected distributions and at the ECH equator, in the region 6.0<=L<7.0, exponential fits reveal wave amplitude decay time constants of 6.3+/-1.2 and 4.6+/-0.7 hours, respectively. Pancake electron distributions are seen to develop from injected distributions that are nearly isotropic in velocity space and, in this region, are seen to form on a similar timescale of approximately 4 hours suggesting that both wave types are involved in their production. The timescale for pancake production and wave decay is comparable with the average time interval between substorm events so that the wave-particle interactions are almost continually present in this region leading to a continual supply of electrons to power the diffuse aurora. In the region 3.8<=L<6.0 the timescale for wave decay at the ECH equator is 2.3+/-0.6 and 1.1+/-0.2 hours for ECH waves and whistler mode waves respectively, although the pancakes in this region show no clear evolution as a function of time.

  18. Strength training reduces arterial blood pressure but not sympathetic neural activity in young normotensive subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Downs, Emily M.; Cooke, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of resistance training on arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest have not been established. Although endurance training is commonly recommended to lower arterial blood pressure, it is not known whether similar adaptations occur with resistance training. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that whole body resistance training reduces arterial blood pressure at rest, with concomitant reductions in MSNA. Twelve young [21 +/- 0.3 (SE) yr] subjects underwent a program of whole body resistance training 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Resting arterial blood pressure (n = 12; automated sphygmomanometer) and MSNA (n = 8; peroneal nerve microneurography) were measured during a 5-min period of supine rest before and after exercise training. Thirteen additional young (21 +/- 0.8 yr) subjects served as controls. Resistance training significantly increased one-repetition maximum values in all trained muscle groups (P < 0.001), and it significantly decreased systolic (130 +/- 3 to 121 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01), diastolic (69 +/- 3 to 61 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.04), and mean (89 +/- 2 to 81 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01) arterial blood pressures at rest. Resistance training did not affect MSNA or heart rate. Arterial blood pressures and MSNA were unchanged, but heart rate increased after 8 wk of relative inactivity for subjects in the control group (61 +/- 2 to 67 +/- 3 beats/min; P = 0.01). These results indicate that whole body resistance exercise training might decrease the risk for development of cardiovascular disease by lowering arterial blood pressure but that reductions of pressure are not coupled to resistance exercise-induced decreases of sympathetic tone.

  19. Vigorous physical activity and carotid distensibility in young and mid-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Quan L; Blizzard, Christopher L; Raitakari, Olli; Sharman, James E; Magnussen, Costan G; Dwyer, Terence; Juonala, Markus; Kähönen, Mika; Venn, Alison J

    2015-05-01

    Although physical activity (PA) improves arterial distensibility, it is unclear which type of activity is most beneficial. We aimed to examine the association of different types of PA with carotid distensibility (CD) and the mechanisms involved. Data included 4503 Australians and Finns aged 26-45 years. Physical activity was measured by pedometers and was self-reported. CD was measured using ultrasound. Other measurements included resting heart rate (RHR), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), blood pressure, biomarkers and anthropometry. Steps/day were correlated with RHR (Australian men r = -0.10, women r = - 0.14; Finnish men r = -0.15, women r = -0.11; P<0.01), CRF and biochemical markers, but not with CD. Self-reported vigorous leisure-time activity was more strongly correlated with RHR (Australian men r = -0.23, women r = -0.19; Finnish men r = -0.20, women r = -0.13; P < 0.001) and CRF, and was correlated with CD (Australian men r = 0.07; Finnish men r = 0.07, women r = 0.08; P < 0.05). This relationship of vigorous leisure-time activity with CD was mediated by RHR independently of potential confounders. In summary, vigorous leisure-time PA but not total or less intensive PA was associated with arterial distensibility in young to mid-aged adults. Promotion of vigorous PA is therefore recommended among this population. RHR was a key intermediary factor explaining the relationship between vigorous PA and arterial distensibility. PMID:25693850

  20. Aerosol palladium activation for electroless copper deposition and heat treatment with NO injection to fabricate Cu oxide/carbon fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byeon, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Ryang Hwa; Hwang, Jungho

    2009-03-01

    This paper introduces a novel method for fabricating copper (Cu) oxide/activated carbon fibre (ACF) through the aerosol palladium (Pd) activation for use in electroless Cu deposition and heat treatment of Cu deposited ACF with nitric monoxide (NO) gas injection. Electroless Cu deposition was initiated by catalytically activating the ACF surface with spark generated Pd aerosol nanoparticles. The catalytically activated ACF was placed into a solution used for the electroless Cu deposition. Subjecting the Cu deposited ACF to a heat treatment in a NO/nitrogen (N2) gas injection (1000 ppm NO) resulted in changes to the morphology of the Cu particles. As the temperature increased from 100 to 500 °C, the relative mass fraction of oxygen in the Cu particles increased from 3.6% to 14.2% and the fraction of Cu decreased from 41.2% to 34.1%, which was caused by the formation of Cu oxides (Cu2O and CuO). The corresponding surface area and pore volume of the ACF decreased from 1019 m2 g-1 to 401 m2 g-1 and from 0.40 cm3 g-1 to 0.18 cm3 g-1, respectively. The morphological evolution and decrease in porosity were attributed to volume expansion of Cu particles during oxidation.

  1. No Acceleration of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration after a Single Injection of Bupivacaine in Young Age Group with Follow-Up of 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Gen; Orita, Sumihisa; Eguchi, Yawara; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Nakamura, Junichi; Aoki, Yasuchika; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Suzuki, Miyako; Takaso, Masashi; Toyone, Tomoaki; Kubota, Gou; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Prospective study of changes in intervertebral disc degeneration after injection of bupivacaine. Purpose To examine whether injection of bupivacaine into human intervertebral discs accelerates their degeneration. Overview of Literature Bupivacaine is commonly used for therapy and diagnosis of discogenic low back pain. However, several in vitro studies have reported toxic effects of bupivacaine to disc cells. We sought to evaluate whether this finding is clinically relevant. Methods We selected 46 patients with low back pain who showed disc degeneration at only one level (L4-L5 or L5-S1) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (discography group, n=18), discoblock group (injection of bupivacaine, n=18), and a control group, n=10). There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics across the 3 groups. The two experimental groups underwent either discography or anesthetic discoblock, respectively. All three groups were followed up 5 years after the examination. Results At 5 years follow-up, there was no significant difference in the rate of disc degeneration among the 3 groups (p>0.1). Moreover, X-ray images showed that there was no significant difference in disc height, range of motion, or translation between flex and extension position (p>0.1). Conclusions In conclusion, radiologic and MRI findings did not show acceleration of intervertebral disc degeneration at 5 years after a single injection of bupivacaine into human discs. PMID:24066217

  2. "Now You See Me, Now You Do Not": Dialogic Loopholes in Authorship Activity with the Very Young

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, E. J.

    2011-01-01

    The genesis for this paper lies in the problematic nature of assessment practice, as a central authorship activity, for early childhood education teachers. This paper draws on dialogic philosophy to explore this challenge based on a doctoral investigation of a very young child (White, 2009) and the strategic means by which she reveals and conceals…

  3. Effects of Participation in High School Sports and Nonsport Extracurricular Activities on Political Engagement among Black Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddock, Jomills Henry; Hua, Lv; Dawkins, Marvin P.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of involvement in high school athletics and nonsport extracurricular activities on political engagement among young Black adults was examined. We developed a conceptual model to identify school engagement factors and assess their influence on political participation (i.e., voter registration and voting behavior) of Blacks in early…

  4. Butterfly Girls; promoting healthy diet and physical activity to young African American girls online: Rationale and design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally ...

  5. Young Children's Engagement and Learning Opportunities in a Cooking Activity with Parents and Older Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Lauren; Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Parents teach their children through informal social interactions in a process known as guided participation (Rogoff, 1990). Although most research focuses on parent-child dyads, young children also learn from older siblings and parents through shared participation in daily activities. Utilizing a structured observational design, the authors…

  6. Childhood and Adolescent Sports Participation as Predictors of Participation in Sports and Physical Fitness Activities during Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Jacobs, Janis E.; Barber, Bonnie L.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether organized sports participation during childhood and adolescence was related to participation in sports and physical fitness activities in young adulthood. The data were from the Michigan Study of Adolescent Life Transitions. The analyses include more than 600 respondents from three waves of data (age 12, age 17, and age…

  7. The evolving activity of the dynamically young comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd)

    SciTech Connect

    Bodewits, D.; Farnham, T. L.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Feaga, L. M.; Sunshine, J. M.; McKay, A.; Schleicher, D. G.

    2014-05-01

    We used the Ultraviolet-Optical Telescope on board Swift to observe the dynamically young comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) from a heliocentric distance of 3.5 AU pre-perihelion until 4.0 AU outbound. At 3.5 AU pre-perihelion, comet Garradd had one of the highest dust-to-gas ratios ever observed, matched only by comet Hale-Bopp. The evolving morphology of the dust in its coma suggests an outburst that ended around 2.2 AU pre-perihelion. Comparing slit-based measurements and observations acquired with larger fields of view indicated that between 3 AU and 2 AU pre-perihelion a significant extended source started producing water in the coma. We demonstrate that this source, which could be due to icy grains, disappeared quickly around perihelion. Water production by the nucleus may be attributed to a constantly active source of at least 75 km{sup 2}, estimated to be >20% of the surface. Based on our measurements, the comet lost 4 × 10{sup 11} kg of ice and dust during this apparition, corresponding to at most a few meters of its surface. Even though this was likely not the comet's first passage through the inner solar system, the activity of Garradd was complex and changed significantly during the time it was observed.

  8. Establishment of a rat model of lumbar facet joint osteoarthritis using intraarticular injection of urinary plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Shuang, Feng; Hou, Shu-Xun; Zhu, Jia-Liang; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Chun-Li; Tang, Jia-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar facet joint (LFJ) osteoarthritis (OA) is an important etiology of low back pain. Several animal models of LFJ OA have been established using intraarticular injection of various chemicals. This study aimed to establish a rat model of LFJ OA using urinary plasminogen activator (uPA). Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with intraarticular injection in the L5-L6 facet joints with uPA (OA group, n = 40) or normal saline (vehicle group, n = 40). Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in the ipsilateral hind paws were evaluated using von Frey hairs and a thermoalgesia instrument, respectively. Toluidine blue staining, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunohistochemical examination of the LFJ was performed. Treatment with uPA induced cartilage damage, synovitis, and proliferation of synovial cells in the fact joints. The OA group showed significantly higher hyperalgesia in the hind paws in comparison with the vehicle group and normal controls (P < 0.05). Expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS in the LFJ cartilage in the OA group was significantly increased (P < 0.05). A rat model of LFJ OA was successfully established using intraarticular injection of uPA. This animal model is convenient and shows good resemblance to human OA pathology. PMID:25892493

  9. Simultaneous determination of eight active components in Houttuynia cordata injection and its quality control in productive process.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wei; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Qianqian; Jiang, Lingyan; Liang, Ke; Li, Qing

    2011-11-01

    A simple, reliable and effective gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection method was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight components (α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, limonene, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, bornyl acetate and methyl-n-nonylketone) in Chinese medicine Houttuynia cordata and its injection. The chromatographic separation of all eight components, including undecylene as internal standard was performed on a DB-1 column (30 m×0.25 mm, 0.25 μm). Excellent linear behaviors including herb and injection over the investigated concentration ranges were observed with the values of r(2) higher than 0.9990 for all analytes. Satisfactory intra-day and inter-day precisions were achieved with RSD less than 2% and the average recoveries for all analytes at three different concentrations obtained were in the range of 93.4-104.4%, with RSD ranging from 1.3 to 4.1%. The proposed method was successfully applied in the simultaneous determination of these active components in H. cordata and H. cordata injection (HCI), including the intermediate product of HCI in productive process, from different pharmaceutical factories and different production batches, indicating that the method in this paper was particularly suitable for the routine analysis of HCI and its quality control in productive process. PMID:21972174

  10. Local retention of antibodies in vivo with an injectable film embedded with a fluorogen-activating protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Saunders, Matthew J; Bagia, Christina; Freeman, Eric C; Fan, Yong; Gawalt, Ellen S; Waggoner, Alan S; Meng, Wilson S

    2016-05-28

    Herein we report an injectable film by which antibodies can be localized in vivo. The system builds upon a bifunctional polypeptide consisting of a fluorogen-activating protein (FAP) and a β-fibrillizing peptide (βFP). The FAP domain generates fluorescence that reflects IgG binding sites conferred by Protein A/G (pAG) conjugated with the fluorogen malachite green (MG). A film is generated by mixing these proteins with molar excess of EAK16-II, a βFP that forms β-sheet fibrils at high salt concentrations. The IgG-binding, fluorogenic film can be injected in vivo through conventional needled syringes. Confocal microscopic images and dose-response titration experiments showed that loading of IgG into the film was mediated by pAG(MG) bound to the FAP. Release of IgG in vitro was significantly delayed by the bioaffinity mechanism; 26% of the IgG were released from films embedded with pAG(MG) after five days, compared to close to 90% in films without pAG(MG). Computational simulations indicated that the release rate of IgG is governed by positive cooperativity due to pAG(MG). When injected into the subcutaneous space of mouse footpads, film-embedded IgG were retained locally, with distribution through the lymphatics impeded. The ability to track IgG binding sites and distribution simultaneously will aid the optimization of local antibody delivery systems. PMID:27038493

  11. In vitro antioxidant and anticancer activity of young Zingiber officinale against human breast carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ginger is one of the most important spice crops and traditionally has been used as medicinal plant in Bangladesh. The present work is aimed to find out antioxidant and anticancer activities of two Bangladeshi ginger varieties (Fulbaria and Syedpuri) at young age grown under ambient (400 μmol/mol) and elevated (800 μmol/mol) CO2 concentrations against two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). Methods The effects of ginger on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines were determined using TBA (thiobarbituric acid) and MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide] assays. Reversed-phase HPLC was used to assay flavonoids composition among Fulbaria and Syedpuri ginger varieties grown under increasing CO2 concentration from 400 to 800 μmol/mol. Results Antioxidant activities in both varieties found increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) with increasing CO2 concentration from 400 to 800 μmol/mol. High antioxidant activities were observed in the rhizomes of Syedpuri grown under elevated CO2 concentration. The results showed that enriched ginger extract (rhizomes) exhibited the highest anticancer activity on MCF-7 cancer cells with IC50 values of 34.8 and 25.7 μg/ml for Fulbaria and Syedpuri respectively. IC50 values for MDA-MB-231 exhibition were 32.53 and 30.20 μg/ml for rhizomes extract of Fulbaria and Syedpuri accordingly. Conclusions Fulbaria and Syedpuri possess antioxidant and anticancer properties especially when grown under elevated CO2 concentration. The use of ginger grown under elevated CO2 concentration may have potential in the treatment and prevention of cancer. PMID:21933433

  12. Lipid peroxidation, erythrocyte superoxide-dismutase activity and trace metals in young male footballers.

    PubMed

    Metin, Gokhan; Atukeren, Pinar; Alturfan, A Ata; Gulyasar, Tevfik; Kaya, Mehmet; Gumustas, M Koray

    2003-12-30

    Physical training is known to induce oxidative stress in individuals subjected to intense exercise. In this study, we investigated plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of 25 young male footballers and a control group of similar age. Red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct) values, and copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) levels were also examined. The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) of all subjects was determined in order to establish their functional capacity. The main finding of the present study was that plasma MDA levels, one of the most commonly used markers of lipid peroxidation, of this group of footballers aged under 21 decreased slightly when compared with those of the control group (p < 0.001). In contrast, erythrocyte SOD activity was higher in the footballer group than in the controls (p < 0.001). Footballers who are under regular training showed an improved antioxidant activity in comparison to sedentary controls. Plasma copper concentration, RBC count and Hb concentration of the footballer group were all significantly lower than those of the control group, (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, p < 0.01, respectively). Investigating the footballers' data with Spearman's correlation analyses, the correlation coefficients (r) between Zn/Cu ratio and SOD was positive (r=0.44; p < 0.05); and between VO2max and SOD (r=0.42; p < 0.05) were both positive. On the basis of statistical analysis, we suggest that regular exercise may be beneficial in cases of oxidative damage by reducing the amount of lipid peroxidation and increasing the activity of the antioxidant enzyme SOD. PMID:14703604

  13. Post-injection transmission scans in a PET camera operating without septa with simultaneous measurement of emission activity contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.J.; Karp, J.S.

    1996-08-01

    The authors report here on methods developed to reliably perform attenuation correction by post-injection transmission in a volume imaging PET scanner. The method directly measures the emission contamination during the transmission study, using a virtual transmission source position offset by 20{degree} from the actual {sup 68}Ge transmission source. Events are recorded only if they meet a co-linearity requirement with either the real or virtual source position. The simultaneous measurements of the emission contamination and transmission data remove the need for complex corrections to the emission data and are not subject to activity redistributions between emission and transmission scans performed sequentially. Correction is necessary, however, for the extra deadtime that varies with the amount of emission activity in the FOV. The extra deadtime is determined from a lookup table of deadtime as a function of detector countrates, which are recorded during the study. The lookup table is based upon phantom measurements. Using patient and phantom data, with both pre- and post-injection transmission measurements, this method is shown to be reliable for attenuation correction in the body. In addition, it enables the calculation of Standardized Uptake Values for analyzing tumor activity.

  14. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... at golimumab injection before injecting it. Check the expiration date printed on the auto-injection device or carton and do not use the medication if the expiration date has passed. Do not use a prefilled syringe ...

  15. New Developments in the Education and Professional Activity of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherednichenko, G. A.

    2010-01-01

    The younger generation of Russians is entering adult life at a time in which the information society is being formed, where education, knowledge, and the possession of information are coming to be key resources to ensure success. As previous studies have shown, most young people place a high value on getting a good education. Young Russians also…

  16. Active Citizens or Passive Recipients: How Australian Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy Define Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Polly H. Y.; Passmore, Anne E.; Packer, Tanya L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Citizenship participation by young adults has reciprocal benefits both for the individual and for society. This paper provides an insight into the ways young people with cerebral palsy (CP) perceive their citizenship experiences, and also examines factors which may influence citizenship participation for this group. Method: Qualitative…

  17. Sexual Activity of Young Adults Who Are Visually Impaired and the Need for Effective Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Stacy M.; Kapperman, Gaylen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Little research has been reported on all aspects of sexuality as it pertains to individuals with visual impairments. This article analyzes data on the sexual experiences of young adults who are visually impaired and young adults without disabilities. Methods: The authors conducted a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal…

  18. The independent prospective associations of activity intensity and dietary energy density with adiposity in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    van Sluijs, Esther M F; Sharp, Stephen J; Ambrosini, Gina L; Cassidy, Aedin; Griffin, Simon J; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-03-14

    There is limited evidence on the prospective association of time spent in activity intensity (sedentary (SED), moderate (MPA) or vigorous (VPA) physical activity) and dietary intake with adiposity indicators in young people. This study aimed to assess associations between (1) baseline objectively measured activity intensity, dietary energy density (DED) and 4-year change in adiposity and (2) 4-year change in activity intensity/DED and adiposity at follow-up. We conducted cohort analyses including 367 participants (10 years at baseline, 14 years at follow-up) with valid data for objectively measured activity (Actigraph), DED (4-d food diary), anthropometry (waist circumference (WC), %body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), weight status) and covariates. Linear and logistic regression models were fit, including adjustment for DED and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results showed that baseline DED was associated with change in WC (β for 1kJ/g difference: 0·71; 95% CI 0·26, 1·17), particularly in boys (1·26; 95% CI 0·41, 2·16 v. girls: 0·26; 95% CI -0·34, 0·87), but not with %BF, FMI or weight status. In contrast, baseline SED, MPA or VPA were not associated with any of the outcomes. Change in DED was negatively associated with FMI (β for 1kJ/g increase: -0·86; 95% CI -1·59, -0·12) and %BF (-0·86; 95% CI -1·25, -0·11) but not WC (-0·27; 95% CI -1·02, 0·48). Change in SED, MPA and VPA did not predict adiposity at follow-up. In conclusion, activity intensity was not prospectively associated with adiposity, whereas the directions of associations with DED were inconsistent. To inform public health efforts, future studies should continue to analyse longitudinal data to further understand the independent role of different energy-balance behaviours in changes in adiposity in early adolescence. PMID:26758859

  19. Variability of cytochrome P450 1A2 activity over time in young and elderly healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Simon, T; Becquemont, L; Hamon, B; Nouyrigat, E; Chodjania, Y; Poirier, J M; Funck-Brentano, C; Jaillon, P

    2001-01-01

    Aims To assess the age-associated changes over time of plasma paraxanthine/caffeine (PAX/CAF) ratios used as a probe for CYP1A2 activity. Methods Intraindividual and interindividual variabilities in PAX/CAF ratio were compared by phenotyping with caffeine, 16 young and 16 elderly healthy subjects on five occasions. Results PAX/CAF ratio variability was comparable regardless of age (intraindividual CV: 17.6 ± 6% and 16.2 ± 5.9%, interindividual CV: 48.1 ± 2.9% and 42.7 ± 3.6% in young and elderly, respectively). The PAX/CAF ratio was lower in elderly than in young subjects (95% CI for the difference: 0.004, 0.32) but the difference was not significant in nonsmokers compared separately. Conclusions The variability over time of the PAX/CAF ratio is not influenced by age. PMID:11736870

  20. Changes in lipophorins are related to the activation of phenoloxidase in the haemolymph of Locusta migratoria in response to injection of immunogens.

    PubMed

    Mullen, L; Goldsworthy, G

    2003-07-01

    In Locusta migratoria, activation of phenoloxidase in the haemolymph in response to injection of laminarin is age-dependent: being absent in fifth instar nymphs and newly emerged adults, and only becoming evident four days after the final moult. This pattern of change in phenoloxidase activation correlates with the pattern of change in the concentration of apolipophorin-III (apoLp-III) in the haemolymph. Injection of a conspecific adipokinetic hormone (Lom-AKH-I) has no effect on the phenoloxidase response in nymphs or newly emerged adults but, in adults older than four days, co-injection of the hormone with laminarin prolongs the activation of phenoloxidase in the haemolymph: a similar enhancement of the response to laminarin is observed in locusts that have been starved for 48 h but not injected with AKH-I. During most of the fifth stadium, injection of laminarin results in a decrease in the level of prophenoloxidase in the haemolymph; an effect that is not observed in adults of any age. Marked changes in the concentration of apoLp-III, and the formation of LDLp in the haemolymph, are observed after injection of laminarin (or LPS) and these are remarkably similar, at least qualitatively, to those that occur after injection of AKH-I. The involvement of lipophorins in the activation of locust prophenoloxidase in response to immunogens is discussed. PMID:12826093

  1. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines... activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines... activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines... activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines... activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  5. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men.

    PubMed

    Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners. PMID:26158212

  6. The Intrinsic Eddington Ratio Distribution of Active Galactic Nuclei in Young Galaxies from SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Mackenzie L.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Black, Christine; Hainline, Kevin Nicholas; DiPompeo, Michael A.

    2016-04-01

    An important question in extragalactic astronomy concerns the distribution of black hole accretion rates, i.e. the Eddington ratio distribution, of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Specifically, it is matter of debate whether AGN follow a broad distribution in accretion rates, or if the distribution is more strongly peaked at characteristic Eddington ratios. Using a sample of galaxies from SDSS DR7, we test whether an intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution that takes the form of a broad Schechter function is in fact consistent with previous work that suggests instead that young galaxies in optical surveys have a more strongly peaked lognormal Eddington ratio distribution. Furthermore, we present an improved method for extracting the AGN distribution using BPT diagnostics that allows us to probe over one order of magnitude lower in Eddington ratio, counteracting the effects of dilution by star formation. We conclude that the intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution of optically selected AGN is consistent with a power law with an exponential cutoff, as is observed in the X-rays. This work was supported in part by a NASA Jenkins Fellowship.

  7. The Association of Physical Activity during Weekdays and Weekend with Body Composition in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gribben, Nicole; Wirth, Michael D.; Hand, Gregory A.; Shook, Robin P.; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is a key contributor in long-term weight management but there remains limited research on the association between weekly PA patterns and weight change. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prospective association between weekly PA patterns and weight change in generally healthy young adults. Anthropometric measurements, including dual X-ray absorptiometry, were obtained every 3 months over a period of one year in 338 adults (53% male). At each measurement time, participants wore a multisensor device for a minimum of 10 days to determine total daily energy expenditure and time spent sleeping, sedentary, in light PA (LPA), in moderate PA (MPA), and in vigorous PA (VPA). PA did not differ between weekdays and the weekend at baseline. Twenty-four-hour sleep time, however, was significantly longer during weekends compared to weekdays, which was associated with less time spent sedentary. Weight loss was associated with a significant increase in LPA at the expense of sedentary time during the weekend but not during weekdays. Regression analyses further revealed an inverse association between change in VPA during the weekend and body composition at 12-month follow-up. Taken together, these results suggest that weekend PA plays an important role in long-term weight management. PMID:27200185

  8. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N. Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk–related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners. PMID:26158212

  9. The roles of behavioural activation and inhibition among young adults engaging in self-injury.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Abigail L; Seelbach, Abigail C; Conner, Bradley T; Alloy, Lauren B

    2013-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent behaviour, particularly among young adults. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms underlying NSSI or the personality correlates of these behaviours. The goal of this study was to examine the roles of the behavioural activation and inhibition systems (BAS and BIS) in NSSI. A total of 604 undergraduates completed two self-report measures of BAS and BIS, as well as NSSI history. Logistic and negative binomial linear regressions were used to examine the relationships between measures of BAS and BIS and the presence and course characteristics of NSSI. Approximately 30% of participants reported a history of NSSI. High scores on BAS (drive, reward and fun seeking), combined with low scores on BIS total, predicted NSSI history. However, the opposite was also true, with high levels of BIS total, combined with low levels of BAS (drive, reward and fun seeking), also predicting NSSI history. In addition, several BAS by BIS interactions predicted an NSSI course characterized by more acts and methods used. This study supports the roles of both BAS and BIS in NSSI and takes the first step in identifying how these personality correlates may help identify individuals at risk for NSSI. PMID:24343924

  10. EVIDENCE FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS DRIVEN OUTFLOWS IN YOUNG RADIO QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Minjin; Ho, Luis C.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Lacy, Mark; Kimball, Amy E.; Blain, Andrew W.

    2013-05-01

    We present near-infrared spectra of young radio quasars (P{sub 1.4GHz} Almost-Equal-To 26-27 W Hz{sup -1}) selected from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer. The detected objects have typical redshifts of z Almost-Equal-To 1.6-2.5 and bolometric luminosities {approx}10{sup 47} erg s{sup -1}. Based on the intensity ratios of narrow emission lines, we find that these objects are mainly powered by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), although star formation contribution cannot be completely ruled out. The host galaxies experience moderate levels of extinction, A{sub V} Almost-Equal-To 0-1.3 mag. The observed [O III] {lambda}5007 luminosities and rest-frame J-band magnitudes constrain the black hole masses to lie in the range {approx}10{sup 8.9}-10{sup 9.7} M{sub Sun }. From the empirical correlation between black hole mass and host galaxy mass, we infer stellar masses of {approx}10{sup 11.3}-10{sup 12.2} M{sub Sun }. The [O III] line is exceptionally broad, with FWHM {approx}1300-2100 km s{sup -1}, significantly larger than that of ordinary distant quasars. We argue that these large line widths can be explained by jet-induced outflows, as predicted by theoretical models of AGN feedback.

  11. Sexual scripts among young heterosexually active men and women: Continuity and change

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    While gendered sexual scripts are hegemonic at the cultural level, research suggests they may be less so at dyadic and individual levels. Understanding “disjunctures” between sexual scripts at different levels holds promise for illuminating mechanisms through which sexual scripts can change. Through interviews with 44 heterosexually active men and women aged 18-25, we delineated ways young people grappled with culture-level scripts for sexuality and relationships. Findings suggest that although most participants’ culture-level gender scripts for behavior in sexual relationships were congruent with descriptions of traditional masculine and feminine sexuality, there was heterogeneity in how or whether these scripts were incorporated into individual relationships. Specifically, we found three styles of working with sexual scripts: Conforming, in which personal gender scripts for sexual behavior overlapped with traditional scripts; exception-finding, in which interviewees accepted culture-level gender scripts as a reality, but created exceptions to gender rules for themselves; and transforming, in which participants either attempted to remake culture-level gender scripts, or interpreted their own non-traditional styles as equally normative. Changing sexual scripts can potentially contribute to decreased gender inequity in the sexual realm and to increased opportunities for sexual satisfaction, safety, and wellbeing, particularly for women, but for men as well. PMID:22489683

  12. The roles of behavioural activation and inhibition among young adults engaging in self-injury

    PubMed Central

    JENKINS, ABIGAIL L.; SEELBACH, ABIGAIL C.; CONNER, BRADLEY T.; ALLOY, LAUREN B.

    2014-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent behaviour, particularly among young adults. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms underlying NSSI or the personality correlates of these behaviours. The goal of this study was to examine the roles of the behavioural activation and inhibition systems (BAS and BIS) in NSSI. A total of 604 undergraduates completed two self-report measures of BAS and BIS, as well as NSSI history. Logistic and negative binomial linear regressions were used to examine the relationships between measures of BAS and BIS and the presence and course characteristics of NSSI. Approximately 30% of participants reported a history of NSSI. High scores on BAS (drive, reward and fun seeking), combined with low scores on BIS total, predicted NSSI history. However, the opposite was also true, with high levels of BIS total, combined with low levels of BAS (drive, reward and fun seeking), also predicting NSSI history. In addition, several BAS by BIS interactions predicted an NSSI course characterized by more acts and methods used. This study supports the roles of both BAS and BIS in NSSI and takes the first step in identifying how these personality correlates may help identify individuals at risk for NSSI. PMID:24343924

  13. Evidence for Active Galactic Nucleus Driven Outflows in Young Radio Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minjin; Ho, Luis C.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Lacy, Mark; Blain, Andrew W.; Kimball, Amy E.

    2013-05-01

    We present near-infrared spectra of young radio quasars (P 1.4 GHz ≈ 26-27 W Hz-1) selected from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer. The detected objects have typical redshifts of z ≈ 1.6-2.5 and bolometric luminosities ~1047 erg s-1. Based on the intensity ratios of narrow emission lines, we find that these objects are mainly powered by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), although star formation contribution cannot be completely ruled out. The host galaxies experience moderate levels of extinction, AV ≈ 0-1.3 mag. The observed [O III] λ5007 luminosities and rest-frame J-band magnitudes constrain the black hole masses to lie in the range ~108.9-109.7 M ⊙. From the empirical correlation between black hole mass and host galaxy mass, we infer stellar masses of ~1011.3-1012.2 M ⊙. The [O III] line is exceptionally broad, with FWHM ~1300-2100 km s-1, significantly larger than that of ordinary distant quasars. We argue that these large line widths can be explained by jet-induced outflows, as predicted by theoretical models of AGN feedback. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  14. Does an activity based remuneration system attract young doctors to general practice?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of increasingly complex payment schemes in primary care may represent a barrier to recruiting general practitioners (GP). The existing Norwegian remuneration system is fully activity based - 2/3 fee-for-service and 1/3 capitation. Given that the system has been designed and revised in close collaborations with the medical association, it is likely to correspond - at least to some degree - with the preferences of current GPs (men in majority). The objective of this paper was to study which preferences that young doctors (women in majority), who are the potential entrants to general practice have for activity based vs. salary based payment systems. Methods In November-December 2010 all last year medical students and all interns in Norway (n = 1.562) were invited to participate in an online survey. The respondents were asked their opinion on systems of remuneration for GPs; inclination to work as a GP; risk attitude; income preferences; work pace tolerance. The data was analysed using one-way ANOVA and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 831 (53%) responded. Nearly half the sample (47%) did not consider the remuneration system to be important for their inclination to work as GP; 36% considered the current system to make general practice more attractive, while 17% considered it to make general practice less attractive. Those who are attracted by the existing system were men and those who think high income is important, while those who are deterred by the system are risk averse and less happy with a high work pace. On the question of preferred remuneration system, half the sample preferred a mix of salary and activity based remuneration (the median respondent would prefer a 50/50 mix). Only 20% preferred a fully activity based system like the existing one. A salary system was preferred by women, and those less concerned with high income, while a fully activity based system was preferred by men, and those happy with a high work

  15. Magnetic activity of six young solar analogues II. Surface Differential Rotation from long-term photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, S.; Guinan, E. F.

    2003-10-01

    The present paper is the second of a series dedicated to the study of the magnetic activity in a selected sample of young solar analogues. The sample includes five single G0-G5V stars with ages between =~ 130 Myr and 700 Myr: EK Dra, pi 1 UMa, HN Peg, k1 Cet and BE Cet. In this study we also include the Pleiades-age ( =~ 130 Myr) K0V star DX Leo. Our analysis is based on high precision photometric observations carried out as part of The Sun in Time project, aimed at a multiwavelength study of stars with solar-like global properties, but with different ages and thus at different stages of evolution. In the first paper of this series we presented the photometric observations and determined the existence of starspot cycles and their correlation with the global stellar properties. In the present paper we investigate the surface differential rotation (SDR). The periodogram analysis of the photometric data time series has allowed us to determine the rotational periods and to derive the following results: i) all the selected stars show variations of the rotational period. Such variations are definitely periodic and in phase with the starspot cycle for BE Cet and DX Leo. They are likely periodic and in phase also for pi 1 UMa, EK Dra and HN Peg, but still need confirmation. By analogy with the solar butterfly diagram, the rotational period variations are interpretable in terms of surface differential rotation, that is, they are attributable to the existence of active latitude belts migrating during the activity cycle on a differentially rotating star; ii) BE Cet, pi 1 UMa and EK Dra show a solar-like pattern of SDR, that is the rotational period steadily decreases along the activity cycle, jumping back to higher values at the beginning of the next cycle; on the contrary, DX Leo, k1 Cet and HN Peg show an antisolar pattern; iii) the amplitude of the rotational period variations shows a power law dependence on the rotational period similar to that found in previous studies

  16. Promoting Physical Activity in Hong Kong Chinese Young People: Factors Influencing Their Subjective Task Values and Expectancy Beliefs in Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    According to Eccles et al.'s (1983) Expectancy Value Model, the two major constructs that influence young people's activity choice are subjective task value and expectancy beliefs (Eccles et al., 1983). Eccles et al. (1983) conceptually distinguished four dimensions of subjective task value: attainment value, intrinsic value, utility…

  17. Psychosocial Effects of Reverse-Integrated Basketball Activity Compared to Separate and No Physical Activity in Young People with Physical Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Chacham-Guber, Anat; Reiter, Shunit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of participation in different sport modalities on quality of life (QOL) and perceived social competence (PSC) in young people with physical disability. Ninety participants (33 females and 57 males) were monitored across four conditions: competitive separate physical activity (COSPA), recreational…

  18. Inconsistencies in Self-Reporting of Sexual Activity Among Young People in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Beguy, Donatien; Kabiru, Caroline W.; Nderu, Evangeline N.; Ngware, Moses W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Accurate and reliable data on the prevalence of adolescents' sexual behavior are paramount for effective sexual and reproductive health intervention. Adolescents' sexual behavior has been widely studied. However, scholars have raised concerns about the accuracy and reliability of self-reported sexual behavior by adolescents. Previous research shows high levels of adolescent sexual activity in urban informal settlements; yet, the accuracy of self-reported sexual experience in these settings is understudied. Methods The objective of this article is to assess consistency of self-reported sexual activity among 2324 adolescents living in slum and nonslum settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. We examine two forms of inconsistencies, namely, what we term “reborn virgins” and inconsistent timing of sexual debut, during two rounds of survey. Factors influencing inconsistent reporting are explored through logistic regression. Results A total of 469 (20%) adolescents gave inconsistent information on whether they have ever had sex (n = 190) or timing of first intercourse (n = 279). Males, slum residents, and adolescents attending school were more likely to give inconsistent sexual information. Among inconsistent reporters, slum residents, adolescents reporting substance use, and those with secondary (vs. primary) education were more likely to reclaim virginity status than to misreport the timing of first sex. However, older adolescents were less likely to reclaim virginity status. Conclusions We found significant differences between adolescents who provide consistent reports and those who misreport sexual behavior data. We argue that researchers should account for biases stemming from misreporting of sensitive information among young people and, in particular, should be cognizant of how reporting quality may vary across demographic groups. PMID:19931832

  19. Signatures of Young Star Formation Activity within Two Parsecs of Sgr A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Wardle, M.; Sewilo, M.; Roberts, D. A.; Smith, I.; Arendt, R.; Cotton, W.; Lacy, J.; Martin, S.; Pound, M. W.; Rickert, M.; Royster, M.

    2015-07-01

    We present radio and infrared observations indicating ongoing star formation activity inside the ˜2-5 pc circumnuclear ring at the Galactic center. Collectively these measurements suggest a continued disk-based mode of ongoing star formation has taken place near Sgr A* over the last few million years. First, Very Large Array observations with spatial resolution 2.″17 × 0.″81 reveal 13 water masers, several of which have multiple velocity components. The presence of interstellar water masers suggests gas densities that are sufficient for self-gravity to overcome the tidal shear of the 4× {10}6 {M}⊙ black hole. Second, spectral energy distribution modeling of stellar sources indicates massive young stellar object (YSO) candidates interior to the molecular ring, supporting in situ star formation near Sgr A* and appear to show a distribution similar to that of the counter-rotating disks of ˜100 OB stars orbiting Sgr A*. Some YSO candidates (e.g., IRS 5) have bow shock structures, suggesting that they have gaseous disks that are phototoevaporated and photoionized by the strong radiation field. Third, we detect clumps of SiO (2-1) and (5-4) line emission in the ring based on Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy and Sub-Millimeter Array observations. The FWHM and luminosity of the SiO emission is consistent with shocked protostellar outflows. Fourth, two linear ionized features with an extent of ˜0.8 pc show blue and redshifted velocities between +50 and -40 km s-1, suggesting protostellar jet driven outflows with mass-loss rates of ˜ 5× {10}-5 {M}⊙ yr-1. Finally, we present the imprint of radio dark clouds at 44 GHz, representing a reservoir of molecular gas that feeds star formation activity close to Sgr A*.

  20. Fishbone activity in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak neutral beam injection plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Liqing; Zhang, Jizong; Chen, Kaiyun E-mail: lqhu@ipp.cas.cn; Hu, Liqun E-mail: lqhu@ipp.cas.cn; Li, Erzhong; Lin, Shiyao; Shi, Tonghui; Duan, Yanmin; Zhu, Yubao

    2015-12-15

    Repetitive fishbones near the trapped ion procession frequency were observed for the first time in the neutral beam injection high confinement plasmas in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) tokamak, and diagnosed using a solid-state neutral particle analyzer based on a compact silicon photodiode together with an upgraded high spatial-temporal-resolution multi-arrays soft X-ray (SX) system. This 1/1 typical internal kink mode propagates in the ion-diamagnetism direction with a rotation speed faster than the bulk plasma in the plasma frame. From the SX measurements, this mode frequency is typical of chirping down and the energetic particle effect related to the twisting mode structure. This ion fishbone was found able to trigger a multiple core sawtooth crashes with edge-2/1 sideband modes, as well as to lead to a transition from fishbone to long lived saturated kink mode to fishbone. Furthermore, using SX tomography, a correlation between mode amplitude and mode frequency was found. Finally, a phenomenological prey–predator model was found to reproduce the fishbone nonlinear process well.

  1. Artemisinin nanoformulation suitable for intravenous injection: Preparation, characterization and antimalarial activities.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Nehal; Ibrahim, Hany; Sabater, Alicia Moreno; Mazier, Dominique; Valentin, Alexis; Nepveu, Françoise

    2015-11-30

    More than 40 years after its discovery, artemisinin has become the most promising antimalarial agent. However, no intravenous formulation is available due to its poor aqueous solubility. Here, we report the preparation, characterization, and in vitro and in vivo biological evaluation of biodegradable albumin-bound artemisinin nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were prepared by a combination of a bottom-up and a top-down processes and characterized by different spectroscopic techniques. The preparation process was optimized to develop a nanoformulation with the smallest possible diameter and good homogeneity suitable for intravenous injection enabling direct contact of artemisinin with infected erythrocytes. Chemically and physically stable artemisinin nanoparticles were obtained with excellent entrapment efficiency. In in vitro experiments, the artemisinin nanoformulation was interestingly more effective than non-formulated artemisinin. In Plasmodiumm falciparum-infected 'humanized' mice, the nanoparticles proved to be highly effective with 96% parasitemia inhibition at 10mg/kg/day, prolonging mean survival time without recrudescence. This nanoparticulate albumin-bound system allows the intravenous administration of artemisinin for the first time without harsh organic solvents or cosolvents with 100% bioavailability. PMID:26383839

  2. Intraventricular injections of mesenchymal stem cells activate endogenous functional remyelination in a chronic demyelinating murine model

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Martinez, P; González-Granero, S; Molina-Navarro, M M; Pacheco-Torres, J; García-Verdugo, J M; Geijo-Barrientos, E; Jones, J; Martinez, S

    2016-01-01

    Current treatments for demyelinating diseases are generally only capable of ameliorating the symptoms, with little to no effect in decreasing myelin loss nor promoting functional recovery. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown by many researchers to be a potential therapeutic tool in treating various neurodegenerative diseases, including demyelinating disorders. However, in the majority of the cases, the effect was only observed locally, in the area surrounding the graft. Thus, in order to achieve general remyelination in various brain structures simultaneously, bone marrow-derived MSCs were transplanted into the lateral ventricles (LVs) of the cuprizone murine model. In this manner, the cells may secrete soluble factors into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and boost the endogenous oligodendrogenic potential of the subventricular zone (SVZ). As a result, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) were recruited within the corpus callosum (CC) over time, correlating with an increased myelin content. Electrophysiological studies, together with electron microscopy (EM) analysis, indicated that the newly formed myelin correctly enveloped the demyelinated axons and increased signal transduction through the CC. Moreover, increased neural stem progenitor cell (NSPC) proliferation was observed in the SVZ, possibly due to the tropic factors released by the MSCs. In conclusion, the findings of this study revealed that intraventricular injections of MSCs is a feasible method to elicit a paracrine effect in the oligodendrogenic niche of the SVZ, which is prone to respond to the factors secreted into the CSF and therefore promoting oligodendrogenesis and functional remyelination. PMID:27171265

  3. Anti-staphylococcal Activity of Injectable Nano Tigecycline/Chitosan-PRP Composite Hydrogel Using Drosophila melanogaster Model for Infectious Wounds.

    PubMed

    Nimal, T R; Baranwal, Gaurav; Bavya, M C; Biswas, Raja; Jayakumar, R

    2016-08-31

    Compared to the current treatment modalities, the use of an injectable hydrogel system, loaded with antibiotic encapsulated nanoparticles for the purpose of treating Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) chronic wound infections have several advantages. These include adhesiveness to infection site, reduced frequency of dressings, sustained drug release, inhibition of bacterial growth, and increased healing. In the present work tigecycline nanoparticles were loaded into chitosan-platelet-rich plasma (PRP) hydrogel. The tigecycline nanoparticles (95 ± 13 nm) were synthesized through ionic cross-linking method using chitosan, tripolyphosphate, and tigecycline and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The synthesized nanoparticles and activated PRP powder were mixed with chitosan hydrogel to form a homogeneous gel. Rheology studies have confirmed the shear thinning property, thermal stability, and injectability of the prepared gel systems. The gel system was further assessed for its drug release property and found that it was released in a sustained manner. Hemolysis and blood-clotting assays demonstrated that the gel system was neither a hemolysin nor a hamper to the clotting cascade. Cell viability results showed that these nanoparticles were cyto-compatible. The bioactivity of PRP loaded chitosan gel toward fibroblast cell line was studied using cell proliferation and migration assay. In vitro antibacterial studies revealed that the gel system inhibited bacterial growth to a great extent. The antibacterial activity was further analyzed using ex vivo porcine skin assay. In vivo anti-Staphylococcal activity of the prepared hydrogels was studied using a Drosophila melanogaster infection model. The tigecycline and tigecycline nanoparticle incorporated chitosan gel showed a significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus. Thus, the gel system is an effective medium for

  4. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Chad.

    PubMed

    Wuehler, Sara E; Nadjilem, Djasndibye

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children <5 years of age has been less than needed to achieve related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Therefore, several international agencies joined to 'reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel', starting with an analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The main objectives of the situational analysis are to compile, analyse, and interpret available information on infant and child feeding, and the nutrition situation of children <2 years of age in Chad, as one of the six targeted countries. These findings are available to assist in identifying inconsistencies and filling gaps in current programming. Between June and October of 2008, key informants responsible for IYCN-related activities in Chad were interviewed, and 53 documents were examined on the following themes: the promotion of optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, management of acute malnutrition, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), food security, and promotion of good hygienic practices. Chad is not on track to reaching the MDGs of reducing mortality by two-thirds and malnutrition by half among children <5 years of age between 1990 and 2015. Most of the key IYCN topics were addressed in a national policy to combat malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. No national nutrition policy was yet ratified in Chad, so the target of many documents reviewed was the malnourished child. Researchers have identified some barriers to optimal feeding practices. However, the majority of these surveys were small scale, so they do not necessarily provide information relevant to the general population. Expanded surveys would be needed for developing evidence-based educational messages targeted to local needs. Reviewed training materials and related programmes being implemented in Chad

  5. Young, active and well-connected: adult-born neurons in the zebra finch are activated during singing.

    PubMed

    Tokarev, Kirill; Boender, Arjen J; Claßen, Gala A E; Scharff, Constance

    2016-05-01

    Neuronal replacement in the pallial song control nucleus HVC of adult zebra finches constitutes an interesting case of homeostatic plasticity; in spite of continuous addition and attrition of neurons in ensembles that code song elements, adult song remains remarkably invariant. New neurons migrate into HVC and later synapse with their target, arcopallial song nucleus RA (HVCRA). New HVCRA neurons respond to auditory stimuli (in anaesthetised animals), but whether and when they become functionally active during singing is unknown. We studied this, using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine to birth-date neurons, combined with immunohistochemical detection of immediate-early gene (IEG) expression and retrograde tracer injections into RA to track connectivity. Interestingly, singing was followed by IEG expression in a substantial fraction of new neurons that were not retrogradely labelled from RA, suggesting a possible role in HVC-intrinsic network function. As new HVC neurons matured, the proportion of HVCRA neurons that expressed IEGs after singing increased significantly. Since it was previously shown that singing induces IEG expression in HVC also in deaf birds and that hearing song does not induce IEG expression in HVC, our data provide the first direct evidence that new HVC neurons are engaged in song motor behaviour. PMID:25687260

  6. Development and validation of a variance model for dynamic PET: uses in fitting kinetic data and optimizing the injected activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, M. D.; Matthews, J. C.; Asselin, M.-C.; Watson, C. C.; Saleem, A.; Dickinson, C.; Charnley, N.; Julyan, P. J.; Price, P. M.; Jones, T.

    2010-11-01

    The precision of biological parameter estimates derived from dynamic PET data can be limited by the number of acquired coincidence events (prompts and randoms). These numbers are affected by the injected activity (A0). The benefits of optimizing A0 were assessed using a new model of data variance which is formulated as a function of A0. Seven cancer patients underwent dynamic [15O]H2O PET scans (32 scans) using a Biograph PET-CT scanner (Siemens), with A0 varied (142-839 MBq). These data were combined with simulations to (1) determine the accuracy of the new variance model, (2) estimate the improvements in parameter estimate precision gained by optimizing A0, and (3) examine changes in precision for different size regions of interest (ROIs). The new variance model provided a good estimate of the relative variance in dynamic PET data across a wide range of A0s and time frames for FBP reconstruction. Patient data showed that relative changes in estimate precision with A0 were in reasonable agreement with the changes predicted by the model: Pearson's correlation coefficients were 0.73 and 0.62 for perfusion (F) and the volume of distribution (VT), respectively. The between-scan variability in the parameter estimates agreed with the estimated precision for small ROIs (<5 mL). An A0 of 500-700 MBq was near optimal for estimating F and VT from abdominal [15O]H2O scans on this scanner. This optimization improved the precision of parameter estimates for small ROIs (<5 mL), with an injection of 600 MBq reducing the standard error on F by a factor of 1.13 as compared to the injection of 250 MBq, but by the more modest factor of 1.03 as compared to A0 = 400 MBq.

  7. Exploring and explaining low participation in physical activity among children and young people with asthma: a review

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Brian; Powell, Alison; Hoskins, Gaylor; Neville, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Background Asthma is the most common chronic illness among children and accounts for 1 in 5 of all child GP consultations. This paper reviews and discusses recent literature outlining the growing problem of physical inactivity among young people with asthma and explores the psychosocial dimensions that may explain inactivity levels and potentially relevant interventions and strategies, and the principles that should underpin them. Methods A narrative review based on an extensive and documented search of search of CinAHL, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library. Results & Discussion Children and young people with asthma are generally less active than their non-asthmatic peers. Reduced participation may be influenced by organisational policies, family illness beliefs and behaviours, health care advice, and inaccurate symptom perception and attribution. Schools can be reluctant to encourage children to take part in physical education or normal play activity due to misunderstanding and a lack of clear corporate guidance. Families may accept a child's low level of activity if it is perceived that breathlessness or the need to take extra inhalers is harmful. Many young people themselves appear to accept sub-optimal control of symptoms and frequently misinterpret healthy shortness of breath on exercising with the symptoms of an impending asthma attack. Conclusion A multi-faceted approach is needed to translate the rhetoric of increasing activity levels in young people to the reality of improved fitness. Physical activity leading to improved fitness should become part of a goal orientated management strategy by schools, families, health care professionals and individuals. Exercise induced asthma should be regarded as a marker of poor control and a need to increase fitness rather as an excuse for inactivity. Individuals' perceptual accuracy deserves further research attention. PMID:18590558

  8. Joint positioning sense, perceived force level and two-point discrimination tests of young and active elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Priscila G.; Santos, Karini B.; Rodacki, André L. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in the proprioceptive system are associated with aging. Proprioception is important to maintaining and/or recovering balance and to reducing the risk of falls. Objective: To compare the performance of young and active elderly adults in three proprioceptive tests. Method: Twenty-one active elderly participants (66.9±5.5 years) and 21 healthy young participants (24.6±3.9 years) were evaluated in the following tests: perception of position of the ankle and hip joints, perceived force level of the ankle joint, and two-point discrimination of the sole of the foot. Results: No differences (p>0.05) were found between groups for the joint position and perceived force level. On the other hand, the elderly participants showed lower sensitivity in the two-point discrimination (higher threshold) when compared to the young participants (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Except for the cutaneous plantar sensitivity, the active elderly participants had maintained proprioception. Their physical activity status may explain similarities between groups for the joint position sense and perceived force level, however it may not be sufficient to prevent sensory degeneration with aging. PMID:26443978

  9. An objective method for the assessment of fluid injection-induced seismicity and application to tectonically active regions in central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, T. H. W.; Hauksson, E.; Aminzadeh, F.; Ampuero, J.-P.

    2015-10-01

    Changes in seismicity rates, whether of tectonic or of induced origin, can readily be identified in regions where background rates are low but are difficult to detect in seismically active regions. We present a novel method to identify likely induced seismicity in tectonically active regions based on short-range spatiotemporal correlations between changes in fluid injection and seismicity rates. The method searches through the entire parameter space of injection rate thresholds and determines the statistical significance of correlated changes in injection and seismicity rates. Applying our method to Kern County, central California, we find that most earthquakes within the region are tectonic; however, fluid injection contributes to seismicity in four different cases. Three of these are connected to earthquake sequences with events above M4. Each of these sequences followed an abrupt increase in monthly injection rates of at least 15,000 m3. The probability that the seismicity sequences and the abrupt changes in injection rates in Kern County coincide by chance is only 4%. The identified earthquake sequences display low Gutenberg-Richter b values of ˜0.6-0.7 and at times systematic migration patterns characteristic for a diffusive process. Our results show that injection-induced pressure perturbations can influence seismic activity at distances of 10 km or more. Triggering of earthquakes at these large distances may be facilitated by complex local geology and faults in tectonically active regions. Our study provides the first comprehensive, statistically robust assessment of likely injection-induced seismicity within a large, tectonically active region.

  10. Effects of Resveratrol on Daily Rhythms of Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature in Young and Aged Grey Mouse Lemurs

    PubMed Central

    Dal-Pan, Alexandre; Languille, Solène; Aujard, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    In several species, resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound, activates sirtuin proteins implicated in the regulation of energy balance and biological clock processes. To demonstrate the effect of resveratrol on clock function in an aged primate, young and aged mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) were studied over a 4-week dietary supplementation with resveratrol. Spontaneous locomotor activity and daily variations in body temperature were continuously recorded. Reduction in locomotor activity onset and changes in body temperature rhythm in resveratrol-supplemented aged animals suggest an improved synchronisation on the light-dark cycle. Resveratrol could be a good candidate to restore the circadian rhythms in the elderly. PMID:23983895

  11. High Interest in a Long-Acting Injectable Formulation of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in NYC: A P18 Cohort Substudy

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Kathrine; Rodriguez, Kristina; Moeller, Robert W.; Gratch, Ilana; Markowitz, Martin; Halkitis, Perry N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In the context of continued high rates of condomless anal intercourse and HIV-1 infection, young men who have sex with men (YMSM) need additional effective and desirable HIV prevention tools. This study reports on the willingness of a racially-ethnically diverse cohort of YMSM to use a new biomedical prevention approach, a long-acting injectable pre-exposure prophylaxis (LAI-PrEP) agent. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted between June-August 2013 recruited participants from an ongoing cohort study of YMSM in NYC. Participants included 197 YMSM, of whom 72.6% (n = 143) identified as men of color. Two outcomes were measured through computer-assisted self-interviews: 1) willingness to use long-acting injectable PrEP and 2) preference for route of administration of PrEP. In addition, concerns about perceived impacts of PrEP on health and risk behavior, access to health services, and stigma were investigated. Results Over 80% (n = 159/197, p<0.001) of participants stated they would be willing to use LAI-PrEP. With regards to preference for mode of delivery 79.2% (n = 156/197, p<0.001) stated they would prefer an injection administered every three months over a daily pill or neither one. Conclusions This study is the first to explore acceptability of LAI-PrEP in the US. A significant majority of participants expressed willingness to use LAI and the majority preferred LAI-PrEP. LAI-PrEP holds great promise in that it could circumvent the adherence challenges associated with daily dosing, especially if nested within appropriate psycho-behavioral support. Medical providers whose patients include YMSM at high risk for HIV infection should note the positive attitudes toward PrEP, and specifically LAI-PrEP. PMID:25502768

  12. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Wuehler, Sara E; Ouedraogo, Albertine Wendpagnagdé

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children < 5 years of age has been less than needed to achieve related Millennium Development Goals. Therefore, several international agencies joined to 'Reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel', starting with an analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The objectives of the present paper are to compare relevant national policies, training materials, programmes, and monitoring and evaluation activities with internationally accepted IYCN recommendations. These findings are available to assist countries in identifying inconsistencies and filling gaps in current programming. Between August and November 2008, key informants responsible for conducting IYCN-related activities in Burkina Faso were interviewed, and 153 documents were examined on the following themes: optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, screening and treatment of acute malnutrition, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, food security and hygienic practices. National policy documents addressed nearly all of the key IYCN topics, specifically or generally. Formative research has identified some local barriers and beliefs related to general breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, and other formative research addressed about half of the IYCN topics included in this review. However, there was little evidence that this formative research was being utilized in developing training materials and designing programme interventions. Nevertheless, the training materials that were reviewed do provide specific guidance for nearly all of the key IYCN topics. Although many of the IYCN programmes are intended for national coverage, we could only confirm with available reports that programme coverage extended to certain regions. Some programme monitoring and evaluation were conducted, but few of these provided

  13. Metal Ion Concentrations in Young, Active Patients Following Total Hip Arthroplasty with the Use of Modern Bearing Couples.

    PubMed

    Nam, Denis; Keeney, James A; Nunley, Ryan M; Johnson, Staci R; Clohisy, John C; Barrack, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare whole blood metal ion levels in young, active patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty with the use of a cobalt-alloy (ten patients), ceramic (15 patients), or oxinium (11 patients) femoral head and highly crosslinked polyethylene acetabular liner. At 2 years postoperatively, mean cobalt concentrations were 3.0 times higher in the cobalt-alloy cohort versus the ceramic cohort, and 2.3 times higher versus the oxinium cohort (P=0.3-0.5). Titanium levels were consistently elevated at all postoperative time points versus preoperatively in all cohorts. Young, active patients following THA demonstrate elevated cobalt and titanium concentrations. Use of a ceramic or oxinium femoral head decreased the degree of cobalt elevation versus a cobalt-alloy femoral head, but did not reach statistical significance. PMID:26164561

  14. Impact of Inertial Training on Strength and Power Performance in Young Active Men.

    PubMed

    Naczk, Mariusz; Naczk, Alicja; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Adach, Zdzisław

    2016-08-01

    Naczk, M, Naczk, A, Brzenczek-Owczarzak, W, Arlet, J, and Adach, Z. Impact of inertial training on strength and power performance in young active men. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2107-2113, 2016-This study evaluated how 5 weeks of inertial training using 2 different loads influenced strength and power performance. Fifty-eight male physical education students were randomly divided into training and control groups. The 2 training groups (T0 and T10) performed inertial training 3 times per week for 5 weeks using the new Inertial Training and Measurement System (ITMS). Each training session included 3 exercise sets involving the knee extensors muscles. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), whereas the T10 group had an additional 10 kg on the flywheel. Before and after training, we evaluated maximum force and power of knee extensors muscles, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), maximal power output achieved during ergometer test PVT, electromyography of quadriceps, and muscle mass. In T0 and T10, respectively, ITMS training induced significant increases in muscle force (25.2 and 23.3%), muscle power (33.2 and 27%), CMJ (3.8 and 6.7%), SJ (2.2 and 6.1%), PVT (8 and 7.4%), and muscle mass (9.8 and 15%). The changes did not significantly differ between T0 and T10. A 16% significant increase of electromyography amplitude (quadriceps muscle) was noted only in T0. The novel ITMS training method is effective for improving muscular strength and power. Improvements in PVT, CMJ, and SJ indicate that the increased strength and power elicited by ITMS training can translate to improvements in sport performance. The ITMS training can also be useful for building muscle mass. PMID:27457914

  15. Temperature fluctuations in the lower limbs of young and elderly individuals during activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Borisov, Vladimir V; Lin, David C

    2014-09-01

    Age-related deficiencies in thermoregulation diminish the capacity to defend against heat loss under conditions often encountered during activities of daily living (ADL). A potential consequence of these deficiencies is that elderly individuals could have colder lower limbs, which would exacerbate the age-related decline in plantarflexor contractile properties and compromise recovery from a tripping incident. Moreover, a common self-perception among the elderly is that their limbs are cold. However, this impression has never been documented, especially under ADL conditions. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that elderly individuals have lower plantarflexor temperatures than their younger counterparts. Skin temperatures above the plantarflexors of elderly and young individuals were continuously recorded during ADL in the winter months and compared under three conditions: quiescent indoor temperature, during a cold challenge, and the recovery period subsequent to the cold challenge. For quiescent indoor periods, differences in skin temperature between the two groups were not statistically significant. During cold exposures, both age and exposure duration were statistically significant factors related to the decrease in skin temperature, with the elderly group maintaining warmer temperatures. In the recovery period following short duration cold exposures, a statistically significant difference between the two groups for the decrease in skin temperature persisted for the first 9min of recovery. The results do not support the hypothesis that the lower limbs of elderly participants are colder. Higher limb temperatures observed in elderly participants were consistent with previous studies of age-related thermoregulatory changes, indicating that deficiencies in vasoconstriction are persistent in ADL. PMID:24909351

  16. Strength of the Archean geomagnetic field and effectiveness of magnetic shielding from the young active Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarduno, J. A.

    2008-05-01

    The strength of Earth's early magnetic field is important for understanding the evolution of the core, surface environment, atmosphere and life. Paleointensity analyses of single silicate crystals indicate that the strength of the geomagnetic field 3.2 billion years ago was within 50% of the modern value (Tarduno et al., 2007), but for even earlier times it is unknown. Two ideas have been offered: (1) the geomagnetic field started shortly after core formation, and the subsequent field strength has been within a factor of 2-3 of the modern value since its initiation; (2) the field was at null values ~3.9 billion years ago and commenced thereafter. The latter scenario relies on a hypothesis to explain the amount and isotopic composition of nitrogen found in soils of the Moon; this lunar nitrogen may have been derived from Earth's atmosphere via the solar wind (Ozima et al., 2005) in the absence of geomagnetic field that would otherwise shield atmospheric erosion. The possibility of a delayed dynamo onset (Labrosse et al., 2007) will be discussed, as will our efforts to address the presence/absence of the geomagnetic field between 3.2 and 3.9 billion years ago using the terrestrial rock record. The available constraints on ancient magnetic shielding will be reviewed in light of the radiation and particle flux associated with the active young Sun. (References: Labrosse et al., A crystallizing dense magma ocean at the base of the Earth's mantle, Nature, 450, 866-868, 2007; Ozima, M., et al., Terrestrial nitrogen and noble gases in lunar soils, Nature, 436, 655-659, 2005; Tarduno, J.A. et al., Geomagnetic field strength 3.2 billion years ago recorded by single silicate crystals, Nature, 446, 657-660, 2007.)

  17. Sex differences in the intensity and qualitative dimensions of exertional dyspnea in physically active young adults.

    PubMed

    Cory, Julia M; Schaeffer, Michele R; Wilkie, Sabrina S; Ramsook, Andrew H; Puyat, Joseph H; Arbour, Brandon; Basran, Robbi; Lam, Michael; Les, Christian; MacDonald, Benjamin; Jensen, Dennis; Guenette, Jordan A

    2015-11-01

    Understanding sex differences in the qualitative dimensions of exertional dyspnea may provide insight into why women are more affected by this symptom than men. This study explored the evolution of the qualitative dimensions of dyspnea in 70 healthy, young, physically active adults (35 M and 35 F). Participants rated the intensity of their breathing discomfort (Borg 0-10 scale) and selected phrases that best described their breathing from a standardized list (work/effort, unsatisfied inspiration, and unsatisfied expiration) throughout each stage of a symptom-limited incremental-cycle exercise test. Following exercise, participants selected phrases that described their breathing at maximal exercise from a list of 15 standardized phrases. Intensity of breathing discomfort was significantly higher in women for a given ventilation, but differences disappeared when ventilation was expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary ventilation. The dominant qualitative descriptor in both sexes throughout exercise was increased work/effort of breathing. At peak exercise, women were significantly more likely to select the following phrases: "my breathing feels shallow," "I cannot get enough air in," "I cannot take a deep breath in," and "my breath does not go in all the way." Women adopted a more rapid and shallow breathing pattern and had significantly higher end-inspiratory lung volumes relative to total lung capacity throughout exercise relative to men. These findings suggest that men and women do not differ in their perceived quality of dyspnea during submaximal exercise, but subjective differences appear at maximal exercise and may be related, at least in part, to underlying sex differences in breathing patterns and operating lung volumes during exercise. PMID:26338458

  18. "Speech in remote areas and inspiration to young students"—An outreach activity for women in physics in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Man-Ling; Guo, Xia; Gu, Dong-Mei; Sun, Xiu-Dong; Feng, Ya-Qing; Zhu, Shao-Ping

    2015-12-01

    The Working Group on Women in Physics of the Chinese Physical Society in Beijing has worked since 2002 to improve the situation of women in physics in China. Because development is not balanced in vast mainland China—remote areas lag behind in education—a new outreach activity, "Speech in Remote Areas and Inspiration to Young Students," was launched in 2013. This program aims to broaden the horizons of students in remote areas and to inspire their exploration and enterprise.

  19. Remembering the past and foreseeing the future while dealing with the present: a comparison of young adult and elderly cohorts on a multitask simulation of occupational activities.

    PubMed

    Guimond, Anik; Braun, Claude M J; Rouleau, Isabelle; Bélanger, Francois; Godbout, Lucie

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-five young adult and 38 elderly cybernauts, matched for education, sex, alcohol consumption, and time/day of computer use were compared on a computerized simulation of professional activities of daily living (ADLs). The program quantified performance in terms of speed and accuracy on four major constructs: (1) planning (a 30-item office party script); (2) prospective memory (injections, sleep, phone); (3) working memory (PASAT, D2, and CES analogs); and (4) retrospective memory. Participants had to organize an office party, self inject insulin and go to bed at requisite times of day, do "office work" at unpredictable times of day, and answer the phone that blinked but did not ring (near threshold stimulus). The elderly were markedly and equally impaired on all four constructs (F = 24.3, p < .000). The elderly were also equally and markedly impaired on slave and central executive systems (c.f. Baddeley's model) and on event-based and time-based prospective memory (c.f. McDaniel's model)-findings arguing against a "frontal" model of cognitive decline. This supports Salthouse's concept of a "general factors" decline in normal aging due to diffuse deterioration of the brain. On the other hand, as expected from previous findings, the balance of omissiveness/commissiveness was significantly increased in the elderly sample's error profile. Furthermore, the balance of speed and accuracy was significantly increased in the elderly. This defines limits of the "general factors" model. The elderly also markedly underused a clock icon which had to be clicked on to get the virtual time of day necessary for integrating all the required actions. Prospective memory explained 11% of the aging variance despite partialing out of the three other constructs, making it appear as a golden standard of sensititivity to normal aging-though perhaps provided it be implemented in a distracting, multitask, strategically demanding context. PMID:16754472

  20. Long-term Results of a First-Generation Annealed Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene in Young, Active Patients.

    PubMed

    Ranawat, Chitranjan S; Ranawat, Amar S; Ramteke, Alankar A; Nawabi, Danyal; Meftah, Morteza

    2016-03-01

    The survivorship of total hip arthroplasty in younger patients is dependent on the wear characteristics of the bearing surfaces. Long-term results with conventional polyethylene in young patients show a high failure rate. This study assessed the long-term results of a first-generation annealed highly cross-linked polyethylene (HCLPE) in uncemented total hip arthroplasty in young, active patients. Between 1999 and 2003, 112 total hip arthroplasty procedures performed in 91 patients with an average University of California Los Angeles activity score of 8 and mean age of 53 years (range, 24-65 years) were included from a prospective database. In all patients, a 28-mm metal femoral head on annealed HCLPE (Crossfire; Stryker, Mahwah, New Jersey) was used. At minimum 10-year follow-up (11.5±0.94 years), Kaplan-Meier survivorship was 97% for all failures (1 periprosthetic infection and 1 late dislocation) and 100% for mechanical failure (no revisions for osteolysis or loosening). This study showed low revision rates for wear-related failure and superior survivorship in young, active patients. Oxidation causing failure of the locking mechanism has not been a problem with Crossfire for up to 10 years. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(2):e225-e229.]. PMID:26811959

  1. Fabrication of catalytically active Au/Pt/Pd trimetallic nanoparticles by rapid injection of NaBH{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haijun; Lu, Lilin; Cao, Yingnan; Du, Shuang; Cheng, Zhong; Zhang, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The synthesis and characterization of 2.0 nm-diameter Au/Pt/Pd nanoparticles are reported. The catalytic activity for glucose oxidation of the nanoparticles is several times higher than that of Au nanoparticles with nearly same size. - Highlights: • PVP-protected Au/Pt/Pd trimetallic nanoparticles (TNPs) of 2.0 nm in diameter were prepared. • The catalytic activity of TNPs is several times higher than that of Au nanoparticles. • Negatively charged Au atoms in the TNPs were confirmed by DFT calculation. - Abstract: Au/Pt/Pd trimetallic nanoparticles (TNPs) with an alloyed structure and an average diameter of about 2.0 nm were prepared via reducing the corresponding ions with rapidly injected NaBH{sub 4}, and characterized by UV–vis, TEM and HR-TEM. The catalytic activity of as-prepared TNPs for the aerobic glucose oxidation is several times higher than that of Au monometallic nanoparticles with about the same average size, which could be attributed to the catalytically active sites provided by the negatively charged Au atoms as a result of the electron donation from the neighboring Pd atoms. This was well supported by the electron density calculations based on the density functional theory.

  2. Active case finding for tuberculosis among people who inject drugs on methadone treatment in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, A.; Mbwambo, J.; Mteza, I.; Shenoi, S.; Lambdin, B.; Nyandindi, C.; Doula, B. I.; Mfaume, S.; Bruce, R. D.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY SETTING Active case finding is a World Health Organization (WHO) endorsed strategy for improving tuberculosis (TB) case detection. Despite WHO recommendations for active case finding among people who inject drugs (PWID), few studies have been published. The historical focus of case finding has been in populations that are human immunodeficiency virus-positive, incarcerated or at higher occupational risk. OBJECTIVE We sought to examine the yield of active case finding among PWID newly started on methadone in Tanzania. DESIGN Of 222 methadone clients, 156 (70%) met with study administrators; 150 consented to participate, 139 (93%) of whom were male. The median age was 34 years. A symptom-based questionnaire was developed by the investigators and administered to every consenting patient by a native Swahili speaker. RESULTS Of the 150 patients surveyed, 16 (11%) had one or more TB symptoms and were referred for laboratory testing. Six new TB cases were identified in this active case finding program, with a prevalence of 4%. CONCLUSION This study presents the first data on TB prevalence in a population of PWID in Tanzania. This prevalence is 23 times that of the general Tanzanian TB prevalence of 0.2%. These results have significant implications for TB control. PMID:24902554

  3. Interleukin-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Activities Partially Account for Calvarial Bone Resorption Induced by Local Injection of Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Cheng-Yang; Kyritsis, George; Graves, Dana T.; Amar, Salomon

    1999-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and/or interleukin-1 (IL-1) activity mediates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone resorption in vivo. To test this hypothesis, Escherichia coli LPS or Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS was injected into the subcutaneous tissues overlying mouse calvariae. Histological sections, prepared from the center of the lesion, were stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and histomorphometric analysis was performed to quantify the osteoclast number and the area of bone resorption. In time course experiments using normal mice, a peak of bone resorption occurred 5 days after endotoxin stimulation. In dose-response experiments, IL-1 receptor type 1 deletion (IL-1R−/−), TNF double-receptor p55/p75 deletion (TNF p55−/−/p75−/−), combined TNF p55 and IL-1 receptor type 1 deletion (TNF p55−/−/IL-1R−/−), and IL-1β-converting enzyme-deficient (ICE−/−) mice and the respective wild-type mice were injected with 500, 100, or 20 μg of P. gingivalis LPS and sacrificed 5 days after LPS injection. At the highest dose (500 μg), significant decreases in osteoclast number occurred in mutant mice compared to wild-type mice: (i) a 64% reduction for the TNF p55−/−/IL-1R−/− mice, (ii) a 57% reduction for the IL-1R−/− mice, (iii) a 41% reduction for the TNF p55−/−/p75−/− mice, and (iv) a 38% reduction for the ICE−/− mice. At the two lower doses, bone resorption was apparent but no significant differences between mutant and wild-type animals were observed. The present data indicate that at higher doses, LPS-induced bone resorption is substantially mediated by IL-1 and TNF receptor signaling. Furthermore, IL-1 receptor signaling appears to be slightly more important than TNF receptor signaling. At lower LPS doses, other pathways leading to osteoclast activity that are independent of TNF and IL-1 are involved. PMID:10417196

  4. Evaluation of flow injection analysis for determination of cholinesterase activities in biological material.

    PubMed

    Cabal, Jiri; Bajgar, Jiri; Kassa, Jiri

    2010-09-01

    The method for automatic continual monitoring of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in biological material is described. It is based on flexible system of plastic pipes mixing samples of biological material with reagents for enzyme determination; reaction product penetrates through the semipermeable membrane and it is spectrophotometrically determined (Ellman's method). It consists of sampling (either in vitro or in vivo), adding the substrate and flowing to dialyzer; reaction product (thiocholine) is dialyzed and mixed with 5,5'-dithio-bis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) transported to flow spectrophotometer. Flowing of all materials is realised using peristaltic pump. The method was validated: time for optimal hydratation of the cellophane membrane; type of the membrane; type of dialyzer; conditions for optimal permeation of reaction components; optimization of substrate and DTNB concentrations (linear dependence); efficacy of peristaltic pump; calibration of analytes after permeation through the membrane; excluding of the blood permeation through the membrane. Some examples of the evaluation of the effects of AChE inhibitors are described. It was demonstrated very good uniformity of peaks representing the enzyme activity (good reproducibility); time dependence of AChE inhibition caused by VX in vitro in the rat blood allowing to determine the half life of inhibition and thus, bimolecular rate constants of inhibition; reactivation of inhibited AChE by some reactivators, and continual monitoring of the activity in the whole blood in vivo in intact and VX-intoxicated rats. The method is simple and not expensive, allowing automatic determination of AChE activity in discrete or continual samples in vitro or in vivo. It will be evaluated for further research of cholinesterase inhibitors. PMID:20188079

  5. Mechanism of enhanced antipseudomonal activity of BO-2727, a new injectable 1-beta-methyl carbapenem.

    PubMed Central

    Hazumi, N; Fuse, A; Matsuda, K; Hashizume, T; Sanada, M

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of the enhanced activity of BO-2727 against imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied by using a set of four isogenic strains derived from beta-lactamase-deficient P. aeruginosa PAO4089 (blaJ blaP). Complementation of the blaJ and blaP mutations conferred greater resistance to biapenem, panipenem, and imipenem than to BO-2727 and meropenem, most notably in the outer membrane protein D2-deficient strain. The higher levels of resistance to biapenem, panipenem, and imipenem can be explained by the slow but significant hydrolysis by beta-lactamase, whereas the reduced levels of resistance to BO-2727 and meropenem would be attributable to their stability in the presence of high levels of beta-lactamase and the fact that they cause only low induction of beta-lactamase. It is also noted that the activity of BO-2727 against the beta-lactamase-deficient strain was less affected by the loss of the D2 porin than was that of meropenem, indicating that BO-2727 in comparison with meropenem can overcome an intrinsic resistance caused by the loss of D2. Moreover, comparative in vitro resistance studies have shown that BO-2727 and meropenem selected fewer resistant cells than other carbapenems. In conclusion, BO-2727 exhibited improved activity against imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa, probably because of its ability to overcome loss of the D2 porin and beta-lactamase hydrolysis. PMID:7793876

  6. The effect of active immunization against vasoactive intestinal peptide and inhibin on reproductive performance of young White Leghorn roosters.

    PubMed

    Avital-Cohen, N; Heiblum, R; Argov, N; Rosenstrauch, A; Chaiseha, Y; Mobarkey, N; Rozenboim, I

    2011-10-01

    The neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and gonadal inhibin have long been considered putative regulators of reproduction in hens. However, their role in young roosters remains unclear. We studied the effect of active immunization against VIP, inhibin, and a combination of both hormones on reproduction in young White Leghorn roosters. At 13 wk of age, White Leghorn roosters (n = 60) were split into 4 groups (n = 15). One group was actively immunized against VIP, the second against inhibin, the third against both VIP and inhibin, and the fourth, untreated, served as a control. Active immunization against VIP enhanced reproductive parameters as manifested by increased semen quality, plasma steroid levels, and mRNA gene expression of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I, pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH), and decreased mRNA gene expression of hypothalamic VIP, pituitary prolactin, and testicular LH receptor. In contrast, immunization against inhibin decreased reproductive parameters such as semen quality, plasma steroid levels, mRNA gene expression of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone and testicular inhibin. The combined treatment showed the greatest increase in semen quality parameters, plasma steroid levels, and mRNA gene expression of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I, pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone, pituitary LH, and testicular LH receptor. Moreover, it significantly reduced mRNA gene expression of hypothalamic VIP and pituitary prolactin and mildly reduced that of testicular inhibin. These results suggest that VIP plays a negative role, at a young age, in reproduction of roosters that is similar to that in hens and that inhibin is as important in reproductive function in young roosters as in mammals. PMID:21934016

  7. A cross-sectional study of the environment, physical activity, and screen time among young children and their parents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To develop evidence-based interventions promoting healthy active lifestyles among young children and their parents, a greater understanding is needed of the correlates of physical activity and screen time in these dyads. Physical environment features within neighborhoods may have important influences on both children and their parents. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between several features of the physical environment with physical activity and screen time among 511 young children (≤5 years old) and their parents, after adjusting for socio-demographic factors. Methods From May to September, 2011, parents of 0–5 year old children from Kingston, Canada completed a questionnaire that assessed socio-demographic characteristics, their physical activity and screen time, and their child’s physical activity and screen time. Guided by a previously developed conceptual framework, several physical environment features were assessed using Geographic Information Systems including, function (walkability), safety (road speed), aesthetics (streetscape), and destination (outdoor play/activity space, recreation facilities, distance to closest park, yard at home). Multilevel linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationships while adjusting for several socio-demographic factors. Results The only independent association observed for the physical environment features was between higher outdoor play/activity space and higher screen time levels among parents. Several associations were observed with socio-demographic variables. For physical activity, child age, child care status, and family socioeconomic status (SES) were independent correlates for children while sex was an independent correlate for parents. For screen time, child age and family SES were independent correlates for children while neighborhood SES was an independent correlate for parents. Conclusions The findings suggest that socio-demographic factors, including

  8. Tracking of leisure-time physical activity during adolescence and young adulthood: a 10-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Kjønniksen, Lise; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Wold, Bente

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to show how participation in leisure-time physical activity changes between ages 13 to 23, and to what extent engaging in specific types of sports tracks into young adulthood. Methods The sample comprised 630 subjects who responded to questionnaires at age 13, with seven follow-ups over a 10-year period in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study. The associations between adolescent participation in global and specific types of leisure-time physical activity were examined by analyses of variance, regression analysis and growth curve analysis. Results The findings suggest that the transition from adolescence to adulthood is, on average, a period of decline in physical activity, but with the decline levelling off into adulthood. The decline was significantly greater among males than females. There were substantial individual differences in the amount of change, in particular among males. Jogging alone and cycling, recreational activities such as skiing and hiking, and ball games, showed a high degree of tracking from age 15 to 23. The findings indicate low associations between participation in specific types of activities during adolescence and global leisure-time physical activity in young adulthood, while participation in several adolescent physical activities simultaneously was moderately related to later activity. Thus, being involved in various types of physical activity may offer good opportunities for establishing lifelong involvement in physical activity, independent of the specific type of activity. Conclusion The observed variation in change might suggest a need for a more targeted approach, with a focus on subgroups of individuals. The group of inactive youth may be considered as a high risk group, and the findings suggest that adolescent males who are inactive early seem likely to continue to be inactive later. The observed heterogeneity in change highlights the limitation of previous approaches to

  9. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Gerber, Markus; Kalak, Nadeem; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Calabrese, Pasquale; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA) at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT) as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD), and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females), 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females), and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females) took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy adolescents and healthy young adults, and equivalent levels of moderate-intensity PA and SD as young adults. MS patients reported lower levels of vigorous PA compared to both healthy adolescents and young adults. Conclusion The pattern of the results of the present study suggests that the onset of MS is not associated with poor MT, poor sleep, or reduced moderate-intensity PA. Lower levels of vigorous PA were observed in MS patients. Low levels of vigorous PA may lead to decreased cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with MS and, in the long run, to reduced cardiovascular health and degraded psychological functioning. PMID:27390520

  10. Young Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoogd, Glenn, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers focusing on contexts and activities in which teachers can use technology to promote learning with young children: (1) "Read, Write and Click: Using Digital Camera Technology in a Language Arts and Literacy K-5 Classroom" (Judith F. Robbins and Jacqueline Bedell); (2) "Technology for the Tiny: Educational…

  11. Disturbance of energy and redox homeostasis and reduction of Na+,K+-ATPase activity provoked by in vivo intracerebral administration of ethylmalonic acid to young rats.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Luciana; Kleemann, Daniele; Hickmann, Fernanda Hermes; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Sitta, Ângela; Wajner, Moacir; Ribeiro, César Augusto João

    2015-05-01

    Ethylmalonic acid (EMA) accumulation occurs in various metabolic diseases with neurological manifestation, including short acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) and ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE). Since pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for brain damage in these disorders are still poorly understood, we investigated the ex vivo effects of acute intrastriatal administration of EMA on important parameters of energy and redox homeostasis in striatum from young rats. We evaluated CO(2) production from glucose, glucose utilization and lactate production, as well as the activities of the citric acid cycle (CAC) enzymes, the electron transfer chain (ETC) complexes II-IV (oxidative phosphorylation, OXPHOS) and synaptic Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. We also tested the effect of EMA on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (marker of lipid oxidation) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. EMA significantly reduced CO(2) production, increased glucose utilization and lactate production, and reduced the activities of citrate synthase and of complexes II and II-III of the ETC, suggesting an impairment of CAC and OXPHOS. EMA injection also reduced Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and GSH concentrations, whereas MDA levels were increased. Furthermore, EMA-induced diminution of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and reduction of GSH levels were prevented, respectively, by the antioxidants melatonin and N-acetylcysteine, indicating that reactive species were involved in these effects. Considering the importance of CAC and ETC for energy production and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase for the maintenance of the cell membrane potential, the present data indicate that EMA compromises mitochondrial homeostasis and neurotransmission in striatum. We presume that these pathomechanisms may be involved to a certain extent in the neurological damage found in patients affected by SCADD and EE. PMID:25583115

  12. Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 (PIC1) Rapidly Inhibits Complement Activation after Intravascular Injection in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Julia A.; Hair, Pamela S.; Pallera, Haree K.; Kumar, Parvathi S.; Mauriello, Clifford T.; Nyalwidhe, Julius O.; Phelps, Cody A.; Park, Dalnam; Thielens, Nicole M.; Pascal, Stephen M.; Chen, Waldon; Duffy, Diane M.; Lattanzio, Frank A.; Cunnion, Kenji M.; Krishna, Neel K.

    2015-01-01

    The complement system has been increasingly recognized to play a pivotal role in a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Consequently, therapeutic modulators of the classical, lectin and alternative pathways of the complement system are currently in pre-clinical and clinical development. Our laboratory has identified a peptide that specifically inhibits the classical and lectin pathways of complement and is referred to as Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 (PIC1). In this study, we determined that the lead PIC1 variant demonstrates a salt-dependent binding to C1q, the initiator molecule of the classical pathway. Additionally, this peptide bound to the lectin pathway initiator molecule MBL as well as the ficolins H, M and L, suggesting a common mechanism of PIC1 inhibitory activity occurs via binding to the collagen-like tails of these collectin molecules. We further analyzed the effect of arginine and glutamic acid residue substitution on the complement inhibitory activity of our lead derivative in a hemolytic assay and found that the original sequence demonstrated superior inhibitory activity. To improve upon the solubility of the lead derivative, a pegylated, water soluble variant was developed, structurally characterized and demonstrated to inhibit complement activation in mouse plasma, as well as rat, non-human primate and human serum in vitro. After intravenous injection in rats, the pegylated derivative inhibited complement activation in the blood by 90% after 30 seconds, demonstrating extremely rapid function. Additionally, no adverse toxicological effects were observed in limited testing. Together these results show that PIC1 rapidly inhibits classical complement activation in vitro and in vivo and is functional for a variety of animal species, suggesting its utility in animal models of classical complement-mediated diseases. PMID:26196285

  13. Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 (PIC1) Rapidly Inhibits Complement Activation after Intravascular Injection in Rats.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Julia A; Hair, Pamela S; Pallera, Haree K; Kumar, Parvathi S; Mauriello, Clifford T; Nyalwidhe, Julius O; Phelps, Cody A; Park, Dalnam; Thielens, Nicole M; Pascal, Stephen M; Chen, Waldon; Duffy, Diane M; Lattanzio, Frank A; Cunnion, Kenji M; Krishna, Neel K

    2015-01-01

    The complement system has been increasingly recognized to play a pivotal role in a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Consequently, therapeutic modulators of the classical, lectin and alternative pathways of the complement system are currently in pre-clinical and clinical development. Our laboratory has identified a peptide that specifically inhibits the classical and lectin pathways of complement and is referred to as Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 (PIC1). In this study, we determined that the lead PIC1 variant demonstrates a salt-dependent binding to C1q, the initiator molecule of the classical pathway. Additionally, this peptide bound to the lectin pathway initiator molecule MBL as well as the ficolins H, M and L, suggesting a common mechanism of PIC1 inhibitory activity occurs via binding to the collagen-like tails of these collectin molecules. We further analyzed the effect of arginine and glutamic acid residue substitution on the complement inhibitory activity of our lead derivative in a hemolytic assay and found that the original sequence demonstrated superior inhibitory activity. To improve upon the solubility of the lead derivative, a pegylated, water soluble variant was developed, structurally characterized and demonstrated to inhibit complement activation in mouse plasma, as well as rat, non-human primate and human serum in vitro. After intravenous injection in rats, the pegylated derivative inhibited complement activation in the blood by 90% after 30 seconds, demonstrating extremely rapid function. Additionally, no adverse toxicological effects were observed in limited testing. Together these results show that PIC1 rapidly inhibits classical complement activation in vitro and in vivo and is functional for a variety of animal species, suggesting its utility in animal models of classical complement-mediated diseases. PMID:26196285

  14. Observations of the plasma environment during an active ionospheric ion beam injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldy, R. L.; Pollock, C. J.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.; Erlandson, R. E.; Kintner, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    Several sounding rocket flights have been used to clarify the electrodynamics of neutral beam releases of Ar ions in the upper ionosphere, by varying the Ar's point of release with respect to the diagnostic payload. A volume of 10-m radius centered on the Ar release payload is measured for broadband wave activity; the superthermal neutralizing beam electrons become magnetized in this volume for across-field plasma releases, and ambient electrons are accelerated to energies of several hundred eV. This is speculated to be due to wave turbulence rather than payload-neutralization.

  15. Isoconversion effective activation energies derived from repetitive injection fast gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Robert L.

    2009-10-01

    Evolved gas analysis by using fast temperature programmed gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is described. A small volume gas chromatograph oven is used to permit rapid heating and cooling of a capillary gas chromatography column, resulting in short analysis cycle times. This capability permits automated sampling and analysis of a purge gas effluent stream generated during thermal analysis of a solid sample. Species-specific mass spectral information extracted from successively acquired chromatograms can be used to generate concentration profiles for volatile products produced during sample heating. These species-specific profiles can be used for calculation of isoconversion effective activation energies that are useful for characterizing the thermal reaction processes.

  16. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  17. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... become pregnant during your treatment, stop using mipomersen injection and call your doctor immediately. ... Mipomersen injection may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these ... and tiredness that are most likely to occur during the first 2 days ...

  18. Levofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections. Levofloxacin injection is also used to prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. Levofloxacin injection is in ...

  19. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is also used to prevent or treat anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. Ciprofloxacin injection is in ...

  20. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with at least one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a ... antifungals such as itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), and voriconazole (Vfend); cisapride (Propulsid) (not available in the U.S.); ...

  1. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  2. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  3. Glatiramer Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... to inject glatiramer, inject it around the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription ...

  4. Daratumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... any laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are receiving or received daratumumab injection. ... a blood transfusion, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are receiving or received daratumumab injection. ...

  5. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... will need to take folic acid and vitamin B12 during your treatment with pralatrexate injection to help ... that you will need to receive a vitamin B12 injection no more than 10 weeks before your ...

  6. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  7. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  8. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria. Oxacillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work ...

  9. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Nafcillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as nafcillin injection will not work ...

  10. Doripenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract, kidney, and abdomen that are caused by bacteria. Doripenem injection is not approved by the Food ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work ...

  11. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of birth control but does not prevent the spread of human ... you have been using a different method of birth control and are switching to medroxyprogesterone injection, your doctor ...

  12. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Chloramphenicol injection is used to treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  13. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of ... people who have accidentally received an overdose of methotrexate or similar medications. Levoleucovorin injection is in a ...

  14. Estrogen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to ...

  15. Palonosetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Palonosetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting that may occur within 24 hours after receiving ... occur several days after receiving certain chemotherapy medications. Palonosetron injection is in a class of medications called ...

  16. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal number of red blood cells) caused by uterine fibroids (noncancerous growths in the uterus). Leuprolide injection is ... Your doctor will tell you how long your treatment with leuprolide injection will last. When used in ...

  17. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large ... injection is also used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped abusing opiate ...

  18. Posaconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Posaconazole injection is used to prevent fungal infections in people with a weakened ability to fight infection. Posaconazole injection is in a class of medications called azole antifungals. It works ...

  19. Epinephrine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Adrenalin® Chloride Solution ... a pre-filled automatic injection device containing a solution (liquid) to inject under the skin or into ... device when this date passes. Look at the solution in the device from time to time. If ...

  20. Trastuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Trastuzumab injection is used along with other medications or after other medications have been used to treat ... has spread to other parts of the body. Trastuzumab injection is also used during and after treatment ...

  1. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... using fondaparinux injection while you are in the hospital at least 6 to 8 hours after your ... you will continue to use fondaparinux after your hospital stay, you can inject fondaparinux yourself or have ...

  2. Doxycycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxycycline injection is used to treat or prevent bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. ... certain skin, genital, intestine, and urinary system infections. Doxycycline injection may be used to treat or prevent ...

  3. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which the type of tissue ... parts of the body in women who have endometriosis. Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of ...

  4. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Ferumoxytol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  5. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... aripiprazole injection and aripiprazole extended-release injection developed gambling problems or other intense urges or behaviors that ... even if you do not realize that your gambling or any other intense urges or unusual behaviors ...

  6. The Impact of Injections of Different Nutrients on the Bacterial Community and Its Dechlorination Activity in Chloroethene-Contaminated Groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Takamasa; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Ito, Masako; Ohji, Shoko; Hosoyama, Akira; Takahata, Yoh; Fujita, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Dehalococcoides spp. are currently the only organisms known to completely reduce cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) to non-toxic ethene. However, the activation of fermenting bacteria that generate acetate, hydrogen, and CO2 is considered necessary to enhance the dechlorination activity of Dehalococcoides and enable the complete dechlorination of chloroethenes. In the present study, we stimulated chloroethene-contaminated groundwater by injecting different nutrients prepared from yeast extract or polylactate ester using a semicontinuous culture system. We then evaluated changes in the bacterial community structure and their relationship with dechlorination activity during the biostimulation. The populations of Dehalococcoides and the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Spirochaetes increased in the yeast extract-amended cultures and chloroethenes were completely dechlorinated. However, the phylum Proteobacteria was dominant in polylactate ester-amended cultures, in which almost no cis-DCE and VC were dechlorinated. These results provide fundamental information regarding possible interactions among bacterial community members involved in the dechlorination process and support the design of successful biostimulation strategies. PMID:25877696

  7. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:26020354

  8. The Over-Scheduling Hypothesis Revisited: Intensity of Organized Activity Participation During Adolescence and Young Adult Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Joseph L; Vest, Andrea E

    2012-09-01

    Concern exists that youth who spend a lot of time participating in organized out-of-school activities (e.g., sports) are at-risk for poor developmental outcomes. This concern - called the over-scheduling hypothesis - has primarily been assessed in terms of adolescent adjustment. This longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of 1,115 youth (ages 12-18) assessed long-term relations between intensity of participation during adolescence and adjustment at young adulthood (ages 18-24). Time diaries measured intensity as hours per week of participation. Results showed that, controlling for demographic factors and baseline adjustment, intensity was a significant predictor of positive outcomes (e.g., psychological flourishing, civic engagement, educational attainment) and unrelated to indicators of problematic adjustment (e.g., psychological distress, substance use, antisocial behavior) at young adulthood. PMID:23066336

  9. Development of a tool to describe overall health, social independence and activity limitation of adolescents and young adults with disability.

    PubMed

    Deroche, Chelsea B; Holland, Margaret M; McDermott, Suzanne; Royer, Julie A; Hardin, James W; Mann, Joshua R; Salzberg, Deborah; Ozturk, Orgul; Ouyang, Lijing

    2015-03-01

    There is a need for research that focuses on the correlation between self-perceived quality of life (QoL) and the health outcomes of adolescents with disability transitioning to adulthood. To better understand the transition experience of adolescents and young adults with disability, we developed a questionnaire to assess the impact of disability on QoL. We recruited 174 participants who were 15-24 years old and diagnosed with Fragile X syndrome (FXS), spina bifida (SB) or muscular dystrophy (MD) and conducted an exploratory factor analysis to identify factors that characterize QoL. Five factors emerged: emotional health, physical health, independence, activity limitation, and community participation. To validate the tool, we linked medical claims and other administrative data records and examined the association of the factor scores with health care utilization and found the questionnaire can be utilized among diverse groups of young people with disability. PMID:25577179

  10. Schematising Activities as a Means for Encouraging Young Children to Think Abstractly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oers, Bert; Poland, Marielle

    2007-01-01

    One of the missions of education is to prepare children for complex tasks that occur in their cultural environment. By means of abstracting, the effects of this complexity can be reduced. Recent research and theoretical development show us that young children already seem to be able to think abstractly. The acknowledgement of this potential in…

  11. A DRIED BLOOD SPOT METHOD TO EVALUATE CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field methods are needed to detect and monitor anticholinesterase pesticide exposure of young children. Twenty children, aged 11-18 months, living in an agricultural community along the US/Mexico border were enrolled in a pilot study investigating methods to detect pesticide expo...

  12. Inventing Songs, Inventing Worlds: The "Genesis" of Creative Thought and Activity in Young Children's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Margaret S.

    2006-01-01

    This article draws on systems views of creativity and their application in music education, to argue that young children's independent invented song making evolves from their early musico-communicative interaction with others, is evidential of their capacity for "elaboration," and is foundational in the development of creative thought and activity…

  13. MEASURING EXCESS DIETARY EXPOSURES CAUSED BY EATING ACTIVITIES OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A small, pilot field study was conducted to measure dietary exposures of young children which included contamination of foods while eating. Samples were collected to estimate the amount of a pesticide recently applied within the home which was transferred from contaminated surfa...

  14. Taking Science Home: Connecting Schools and Families through Science Activity Packs for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhart, Meredith; Bloomquist, Debra; Strickler-Eppard, Lacey; Czerniak, Charlene M.; Gilbert, Amanda; Kaderavek, Joan; Molitor, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    A Framework for K-12 Science Education indicates that introducing young children to scientific and engineering practices, core disciplinary ideas, and crosscutting concepts during the early years is essential for the development of conceptual understanding in science. Unfortunately, science is infrequently included in preschool and primary…

  15. Hemodynamic actions of systemically injected pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide-27 in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, E. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Lewis, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to characterize the hemodynamic mechanisms underlying the hypotensive effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide-27 (PACAP-27 0.1-2.0 nmol/kg, i.v.) in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, and (2) to determine the roles of the autonomic nervous system, adrenal catecholamines and endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) in the expression of PACAP-27-mediated effects on hemodynamic function. PACAP-27 produced dose-dependent decreases in mean arterial blood pressure and hindquarter and mesenteric vascular resistances in saline-treated rats. PACAP-27 also produced pronounced falls in mean arterial blood pressure in rats treated with the ganglion blocker, chlorisondamine (5 mg/kg, i.v.). The hypotensive and vasodilator actions of PACAP-27 were not attenuated by the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, propranolol (1 mg/kg, i.v.), or the NO synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME 50 micromol/kg, i.v.). PACAP-27 produced dose-dependent increases in heart rate whereas the hypotensive response produced by the nitrovasodilator, sodium nitroprusside (10 microg/kg, i.v.), was associated with a minimal tachycardia. The PACAP-27-induced tachycardia was unaffected by chlorisondamine, but was virtually abolished by propranolol. These results suggest that the vasodilator effects of PACAP-27 are due to actions in the microcirculation rather than to the release of adrenal catecholamines and that this vasodilation may not involve the release of endothelium-derived NO. These results also suggest that PACAP-27 produces tachycardia by directly releasing norepinephrine from cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals rather than by direct or baroreceptor reflex-mediated increases in sympathetic nerve activity.

  16. Injections of Algesic Solutions into Muscle Activate the Lateral Reticular Formation: A Nociceptive Relay of the Spinoreticulothalamic Tract

    PubMed Central

    Panneton, W. Michael; Gan, Qi; Ariel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Although musculoskeletal pain disorders are common clinically, the central processing of muscle pain is little understood. The present study reports on central neurons activated by injections of algesic solutions into the gastrocnemius muscle of the rat, and their subsequent localization by c-Fos immunohistochemistry in the spinal cord and brainstem. An injection (300μl) of an algesic solution (6% hypertonic saline, pH 4.0 acetate buffer, or 0.05% capsaicin) was made into the gastrocnemius muscle and the distribution of immunolabeled neurons compared to that obtained after control injections of phosphate buffered saline [pH 7.0]. Most labeled neurons in the spinal cord were found in laminae IV-V, VI, VII and X, comparing favorably with other studies, with fewer labeled neurons in laminae I and II. This finding is consistent with the diffuse pain perception due to noxious stimuli to muscles mediated by sensory fibers to deep spinal neurons as compared to more restricted pain localization during noxious stimuli to skin mediated by sensory fibers to superficial laminae. Numerous neurons were immunolabeled in the brainstem, predominantly in the lateral reticular formation (LRF). Labeled neurons were found bilaterally in the caudalmost ventrolateral medulla, where neurons responsive to noxious stimulation of cutaneous and visceral structures lie. Immunolabeled neurons in the LRF continued rostrally and dorsally along the intermediate reticular nucleus in the medulla, including the subnucleus reticularis dorsalis caudally and the parvicellular reticular nucleus more rostrally, and through the pons medial and lateral to the motor trigeminal nucleus, including the subcoerulear network. Immunolabeled neurons, many of them catecholaminergic, were found bilaterally in the nucleus tractus solitarii, the gracile nucleus, the A1 area, the CVLM and RVLM, the superior salivatory nucleus, the nucleus locus coeruleus, the A5 area, and the nucleus raphe magnus in the pons. The

  17. Paper 58714 - Exploring activated faults hydromechanical processes from semi-controled field injection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, Y.; Cappa, F.; Nussbaum, C.

    2015-12-01

    The appreciation of the sensitivity of fractures and fault zones to fluid-induced-deformations in the subsurface is a key question in predicting the reservoir/caprock system integrity around fluid manipulations with applications to reservoir leakage and induced seismicity. It is also a question of interest in understanding earthquakes source, and recently the hydraulic behavior of clay faults under a potential reactivation around nuclear underground depository sites. Fault and fractures dynamics studies face two key problems (1) the up-scaling of laboratory determined properties and constitutive laws to the reservoir scale which is not straightforward when considering faults and fractures heterogeneities, (2) the difficulties to control both the induced seismicity and the stimulated zone geometry when a fault is reactivated. Using instruments dedicated to measuring coupled pore pressures and deformations downhole, we conducted field academic experiments to characterize fractures and fault zones hydromechanical properties as a function of their multi-scale architecture, and to monitor their dynamic behavior during the earthquake nucleation process. We show experiments on reservoir or cover rocks analogues in underground research laboratories where experimental conditions can be optimized. Key result of these experiments is to highlight how important the aseismic fault activation is compared to the induced seismicity. We show that about 80% of the fault kinematic moment is aseismic and discuss the complex associated fault friction coefficient variations. We identify that the slip stability and the slip velocity are mainly controlled by the rate of the permeability/porosity increase, and discuss the conditions for slip nucleation leading to seismic instability.

  18. Treatment with protein kinase C activator is effective for improvement of male pronucleus formation and further embryonic development of sperm-injected oocytes in pigs.

    PubMed

    Nakai, M; Ito, J; Kashiwazaki, N; Men, N T; Tanihara, F; Noguchi, J; Kaneko, H; Onishi, A; Kikuchi, K

    2016-03-01

    To assist the process of oocyte activation, which is essential for promotion of fertilization events, i.e., resumption of meiosis, extrusion of the second polar body and formation of the pronucleus (PN), artificial stimuli such as an electrical pulse have been applied to porcine oocytes after injection of sperm. However, the efficiency of fertilization and embryonic development remains low. It is well known that in vertebrates, inactivation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase is required for oocyte activation. We have hypothesized that even after electrical stimulation of sperm-injected oocytes, MAP kinase may not be inactivated. As it has been reported that MAP kinase activity is regulated by protein kinase C, we examined the effectiveness of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a protein kinase C activator, for improvement of fertilization and embryonic development of sperm-injected porcine oocytes. First, we examined the concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 μM) and durations (0, 1, 3, 5 hours) of PMA treatment that were efficient for the extrusion of two polar bodies and formation of two PNs (2PB+2PN) and embryonic development. When the sperm-injected oocytes were treated with 0.01-μM PMA for 3 hours after electrical stimulation, the rates of 2PB+2PN and embryonic development were higher than those in the other treatment groups. We then examined the effect of PMA treatment (0.01 μM, 3 hours) on MAP kinase activity. Unexpectedly, after electrical stimulation, the activity remained low until PN formation, irrespective of whether or not the oocytes had been treated with PMA. On the other hand, transformation of the injected sperm nucleus into the male PN was accelerated after the PMA treatment. Our present results suggest that the low efficiency of fertilization and embryonic development in sperm-injected oocytes is not due to high activity of MAP kinase but due to poor transformation of the injected sperm nucleus into the male PN. Furthermore, a

  19. Investigation on Immunomodulatory Activity of Calf Spleen Extractive Injection in Cyclophosphamide-induced Immunosuppressed Mice and Underlying Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jia, D; Lu, W; Wang, C; Sun, S; Cai, G; Li, Y; Wang, G; Liu, Y; Zhang, M; Wang, D

    2016-07-01

    Calf spleen extractive injection (CSEI), extracted from the spleen of healthy cows (within 24 h of birth), is a small peptides enriched extraction while the ratio between peptide and ribose is 76 ± 15.2 mg/μg. CSEI is usually used as an ancillary agent to assist cancer patients with immune dysfunction. The present study aims to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of CSEI in cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced mice model of immunosuppression and its underlying mechanisms. During the experiment, thymosin ɑ1 (0.16 mg/kg) was served as the positive control drug. In CTX-induced immunosuppressed mice, CSEI significantly increased bodyweights and spleen indexes, and upgraded the natural killer activity together with lymphocytes proliferation. CSEI regulated the production of IgG and IgA, and the levels of IL-2, 6, 10, 12 and IFN-ɑ, γ and TNF-ɑ in serum of CTX-induced immunosuppressed mice. Furthermore, CSEI markedly downregulated nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) expression which was controlled by IKKβ. Taken together, CSEI effectively improved immune function in CTX-induced immunosuppression related to NF-κB signalling pathway via regulating the production of immunoglobulins, interleukins and some inflammatory factors. PMID:27104480

  20. Medial gastrocnemius muscle fascicle active torque-length and Achilles tendon properties in young adults with spastic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Barber, Lee; Barrett, Rod; Lichtwark, Glen

    2012-10-11

    Individuals with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) typically experience muscle weakness. The mechanisms responsible for muscle weakness in spastic CP are complex and may be influenced by the intrinsic mechanical properties of the muscle and tendon. The purpose of this study was to investigate the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle fascicle active torque-length and Achilles tendon properties in young adults with spastic CP. Nine relatively high functioning young adults with spastic CP (GMFCS I, 17±2 years) and 10 typically developing individuals (18±2 years) participated in the study. Active MG torque-length and Achilles tendon properties were assessed under controlled conditions on a dynamometer. EMG was recorded from leg muscles and ultrasound was used to measure MG fascicle length and Achilles tendon length during maximal isometric contractions at five ankle angles throughout the available range of motion and during passive rotations imposed by the dynamometer. Compared to the typically developing group, the spastic CP group had 33% lower active ankle plantarflexion torque across the available range of ankle joint motion, partially explained by 37% smaller MG muscle and 4% greater antagonistic co-contraction. The Achilles tendon slack length was also 10% longer in the spastic CP group. This study confirms young adults with mild spastic CP have altered muscle-tendon mechanical properties. The adaptation of a longer Achilles tendon may facilitate a greater storage and recovery of elastic energy and partially compensate for decreased force and work production by the small muscles of the triceps surae during activities such as locomotion. PMID:22867763

  1. A cross-sectional, comparative study of pain and activity in persons with and without injection-related venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Barbara; DiNardo, Ellen; Nordstrom, Cheryl K

    2013-05-01

    Persons with leg ulcers, including venous ulcers, often report pain. A cross-sectional, comparative study was conducted among 61 patients receiving care in an urban clinic (31 with and 30 without a venous ulcer, mean age 54 years [range 40 to 65 years], 93% African American) to examine pain and its relation to activity and walking in persons with injectionrelated venous ulcers. The questionnaire included items about pain and its treatment, as well as activity and walking (ie, Brief Pain Inventory [BPI] Short Form, Self-Treatment of Pain, Pain and Narcotic Use, Difficulty with Activities, and Walking Scale questionnaires). Among those with a venous ulcer (VU+), worst pain significantly related to total interference (r = 0.65, P <0.0001) and total difficulty (r = 0.42, P = 0.02) BPI scores. The common pain sites for those VU+ involved the legs (24, 36.4%), wound sites (13, 19.7%), back (eight, 12.1%), general body (five, 7.6%), shoulder and knee (four, 6.1% each), and other (eight, 12.1%). Persons VU+ were more likely than those without a venous ulcer (VU-) to have received a prescription for narcotics in the past year (96% versus 41%, X(2) = 21.3, P <0.0001). Persons VU+ versus VU- were significantly (X(2) = 8.89, P = 0.003) more likely to resort to street drug use and relapse to addiction if pain was not adequately treated. They were also twice as likely to have decreased walking over the past 5 years (67% versus 33%, X(2) = 5.93, P <0.02). Among those VU+, venous ulcers added to chronic pain and decreased walking. These findings highlight the negative effects of injection-related venous ulcers on pain, activity, and walking, as well as the propensity of this groupto resort to illicit drug use for pain control. Persons VU+ should have pain assessed and treated. PMID:23669257

  2. Temperature dependent investigation of carrier transport, injection, and densities in 808 nm AlGaAs multi-quantum-well active layers for VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Andreas P.; Kolb, Johanna S.; Römer, Friedhard; Weichmann, Ulrich; Moench, Holger; Witzigmann, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    The electro-optical efficiency of semiconductor vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) strongly depends on the efficient carrier injection into the quantum wells (QWs) in the laser active region. However, carrier injection degrades with increasing temperature which limits the VCSEL performance particularly in high power applications where self heating imposes high temperatures in operation. By simulation we investigate the transport of charge carriers in 808 nm AlGaAs multi-quantum-well active layers with special attention to the temperature dependence of carrier injection into the QWs. Experimental reference data was extracted from oxide-confined, top-emitting VCSELs. The transport simulations follow a drift-diffusion-model complemented by a customized, energy-resolved, semi-classical carrier capture theory. QW gain was calculated in the screened Hartree-Fock approximation with band structures from 8x8 k.p-theory. Using the gain data and by setting losses and the optical confinement factor according to experimental reference results, the appropriate threshold condition and threshold carrier densities in the QWs for a VCSEL are established in simulation for all transport considerations. With the combination of gain and transport model, we can explain experimental reference data for the injection efficiency and threshold current density. Our simulations show that the decreasing injection efficiency with temperature is not solely due to increased thermionic escape of carriers from the QWs. Carrier injection is also hampered by state filling in the QWs initiated from higher threshold carrier densities with temperature. Consequently, VCSEL properties not directly related to the active layer design like optical out-coupling or internal losses link the temperature dependent carrier injection to VCSEL mirror design.

  3. Acute Carnosine Administration Increases Respiratory Chain Complexes and Citric Acid Cycle Enzyme Activities in Cerebral Cortex of Young Rats.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Levy W; Cararo, José H; Maravai, Soliany G; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Guerra Martinez, Camila; Kurtenbach, Eleonora; Bogo, Maurício R; Hipkiss, Alan R; Streck, Emilio L; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C

    2016-10-01

    Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is an imidazole dipeptide synthesized in excitable tissues of many animals, whose biochemical properties include carbonyl scavenger, anti-oxidant, bivalent metal ion chelator, proton buffer, and immunomodulating agent, although its precise physiological role(s) in skeletal muscle and brain tissues in vivo remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo effects of acute carnosine administration on various aspects of brain bioenergetics of young Wistar rats. The activity of mitochondrial enzymes in cerebral cortex was assessed using a spectrophotometer, and it was found that there was an increase in the activities of complexes I-III and II-III and succinate dehydrogenase in carnosine-treated rats, as compared to vehicle-treated animals. However, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) data on mRNA levels of mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins (nuclear respiratory factor 1 (Nrf1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α (Ppargc1α), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam)) were not altered significantly and therefore suggest that short-term carnosine administration does not affect mitochondrial biogenesis. It was in agreement with the finding that immunocontent of respiratory chain complexes was not altered in animals receiving carnosine. These observations indicate that acute carnosine administration increases the respiratory chain and citric acid cycle enzyme activities in cerebral cortex of young rats, substantiating, at least in part, a neuroprotector effect assigned to carnosine against oxidative-driven disorders. PMID:26476839

  4. Gamma Activation in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically-Developing Controls When Viewing Emotions on Faces

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Barry; Alderson-Day, Ben; Prendergast, Garreth; Bennett, Sophie; Jordan, Jo; Whitton, Clare; Gouws, Andre; Jones, Nick; Attur, Ram; Tomlinson, Heather; Green, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Background Behavioural studies have highlighted irregularities in recognition of facial affect in children and young people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Recent findings from studies utilising electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) have identified abnormal activation and irregular maintenance of gamma (>30 Hz) range oscillations when ASD individuals attempt basic visual and auditory tasks. Methodology/Principal Fndings The pilot study reported here is the first study to use spatial filtering techniques in MEG to explore face processing in children with ASD. We set out to examine theoretical suggestions that gamma activation underlying face processing may be different in a group of children and young people with ASD (n = 13) compared to typically developing (TD) age, gender and IQ matched controls. Beamforming and virtual electrode techniques were used to assess spatially localised induced and evoked activity. While lower-band (3–30 Hz) responses to faces were similar between groups, the ASD gamma response in occipital areas was observed to be largely absent when viewing emotions on faces. Virtual electrode analysis indicated the presence of intact evoked responses but abnormal induced activity in ASD participants. Conclusions/Significance These findings lend weight to previous suggestions that specific components of the early visual response to emotional faces is abnormal in ASD. Elucidation of the nature and specificity of these findings is worthy of further research. PMID:22859975

  5. Neonatal intrahippocampal HIV-1 protein Tat1-86 injection: Neurobehavioral alterations in the absence of increased inflammatory cytokine activation

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Landhing M.; Fitting, Sylvia; Booze, Rosemarie M.; Webb, Katy M.; Mactutus, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric AIDS caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains one of the leading worldwide causes of childhood morbidity and mortality. HIV-1 proteins, such as Tat and gp120, are believed to play a crucial role in the neurotoxicity of pediatric HIV-1 infection. Detrimental effects on development, behavior, and neuroanatomy follow neonatal exposure to the HIV-1 viral toxins Tat1-72 and gp120. The present study investigated the neurobehavioral effects induced by the HIV-1 neurotoxic protein Tat1-86, which encodes the first and second exons of the Tat protein. In addition, the potential effects of HIV-1 toxic proteins Tat1-86 and gp120 on inflammatory pathways were examined in neonatal brains. Vehicle, 25 μg Tat1-86 or 100 ng gp120 was injected into the hippocampus of male Sprague-Dawley pups on postnatal day 1 (PD1). Tat1-86 induced developmental neurotoxic effects, as witnessed by delays in eye opening, delays in early reflex development and alterations in prepulse inhibition (PPI) and between-session habituation of locomotor activity. Overall, the neurotoxic profile of Tat1-86 appeared more profound in the developing nervous system in vivo relative to that seen with the first exon encoded Tat1-72 (Fitting et al., 2008b), as noted on measures of eye opening, righting reflex, and PPI. Neither the direct PD1 CNS injection of the viral HIV-1 protein variant Tat1-86, nor the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120, at doses sufficient to induce neurotoxicity, necessarily induced significant expression of the inflammatory cytokine IL-1β or inflammatory factors NFκ-β and Iκ-β. The findings agree well with clinical observations that indicate delays in developmental milestones of pediatric HIV-1 patients, and suggest that activation of inflammatory pathways is not an obligatory response to viral protein-induced neurotoxicity that is detectable with behavioral assessments. Moreover, the amino acids encoded by the second tat exon may have unique actions on the

  6. Glutathione S-transferase activities in African catfish injected with β-naphthoflavone: effects of ploidy, gender, dose, and sampling time.

    PubMed

    Karami, A; Courtenay, S C

    2015-11-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are considered among the most controversial biomarkers of water pollutants in fish with little known about factors influencing their activities. The objective of this study was to investigate how gender, dose, ploidy, and sampling time alter hepatic GST activities in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) following β-naphthoflavone (β-NF) injection. Newly matured male and female diploid and triploid fish were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 0, 15, or 75 mg/kg of β-NF, and livers were excised 24, 48, and 72 h post-injection. Results showed that hepatic GST activities were significantly inhibited by both doses of β-NF. Inhibition was greater in females than males, but no significant differences were observed between diploid and triploid fish. Enzymatic activities differed over time with lowest levels 72 h post-injection. These results extend our understanding of GST activity in fish and highlight the necessity of considering confounding factors when comparing different studies. PMID:26452505

  7. Adolescent physical activity and inactivity: a prospective study of risk of benign breast disease in young women.

    PubMed

    Berkey, Catherine S; Tamimi, Rulla M; Willett, Walter C; Rosner, Bernard; Lindsay Frazier, A; Colditz, Graham A

    2014-08-01

    In previous investigations of adolescent activity recalled in adulthood, modest reductions in risk of benign breast disease (BBD) and premenopausal breast cancer were seen with moderate-strenuous activity during high school. We therefore investigated physical activity, walking, and recreational inactivity (watching TV-videos, playing computer-videogames) reported by adolescent girls in relation to their subsequent risk for BBD as young women. The Growing Up Today Study includes 9,039 females, 9-15 years at study initiation (1996), who completed questionnaires annually through 2001, then in 2003, 2005, 2007, 2010 and 2013. Annual surveys (1996-2001) obtained data on physical and sedentary activities during the past year. Beginning in 2005, women (≥18 years) reported whether they had ever been diagnosed with BBD confirmed by breast biopsy (n = 133 cases, to 11/01/2013). Logistic regression (adjusted for baseline adiposity and age; additional factors in multivariable-adjusted models) estimated associations between adolescent activities (moderate-vigorous, walking, METS, inactivity) and biopsy-confirmed BBD in young women. Girls who walked the most had significantly lower risk of BBD (multivariable-adjusted OR = 0.61, ≥30 vs ≤15 min/day; p = .049). We observed no evidence that inactivity (≥3 vs <2 h/day OR = 1.02, p = .92) or METS (top vs bottom tertile OR = 1.19, p = .42) were associated with BBD. Accounting for factors including family history, childhood adiposity, and other activities and inactivities, adolescent girls who walked the most were at lower risk for BBD. We found no evidence that high moderate-vigorous activity might reduce risk, nor did we observe any association with inactivity. Continued follow-up will re-evaluate these findings as more BBD cases, and ultimately breast cancer, are diagnosed. PMID:25034340

  8. Adolescent Physical Activity and Inactivity: A Prospective Study of Risk of Benign Breast Disease in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Berkey, Catherine S.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Willett, Walter C.; Rosner, Bernard; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Colditz, Graham A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In previous investigations of adolescent activity recalled in adulthood, modest reductions in risk of benign breast disease (BBD) and premenopausal breast cancer were seen with moderate-strenuous activity during high school. We therefore investigated physical activity, walking, and recreational inactivity (watching TV-videos, playing computer-videogames) reported by adolescent girls in relation to their subsequent risk for BBD as young women. Methods The Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) includes 9039 females, 9–15yrs at study initiation (1996), who completed questionnaires annually through 2001, then 2003, 2005, 2007, 2010 and 2013. Annual surveys (1996–2001) obtained data on physical and sedentary activities during the past year. Beginning in 2005, women (≥18yr) reported whether they had been diagnosed with BBD confirmed by breast biopsy (n=133 cases, to 11/01/2013). Logistic regression (adjusted for baseline adiposity and age; additional factors in multivariable-adjusted models) estimated associations between adolescent activities (moderate-vigorous, walking, METS, inactivity) and biopsy-confirmed BBD in young women. Results Girls who walked the most had significantly lower risk of BBD (multivariable-adjusted OR=0.61,p=.049, ≥30min/day vs ≤15min/day). We observed no evidence that inactivity (≥3 hrs/day vs <2hr/day OR=1.02,p=.92) or METS (top vs bottom tertile OR=1.19,p=.42) were associated with BBD. Conclusion Accounting for factors including family history, childhood adiposity, other activities and inactivities, adolescent girls who walked the most were at lower risk for BBD. We found no evidence that high moderate-vigorous activity might reduce risk, nor did we observe any association with inactivity. Continued follow-up will re-evaluate these findings as more BBD cases, and ultimately breast cancer, are diagnosed. PMID:25034340

  9. Extracurricular activities in young applicants' résumés: what are the motives behind their involvement?

    PubMed

    Roulin, Nicolas; Bangerter, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Applicants use résumés to demonstrate their knowledge, skills, abilities, and other personal characteristics (KSAOs) to recruiters, through education and job-related or non-job-related experiences. But research suggests that the situation for young applicants is especially competitive, since they increasingly enter the labour market with similar educational credentials and limited job-related experience. They may thus use non-job-related experiences, such as participation in extracurricular activities (ECAs) during their studies, to demonstrate KSAOs to recruiters, but also to add distinction and value to their credentials. ECAs may therefore become more important in the selection of young applicants. Yet few studies have undertaken a comprehensive and systematic analysis of the relationships students have with these activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent students' involvement in ECAs is due to internal (e.g., passion) or external (e.g., résumé-building) motives, and what factors influence these motives. Results from a study with 197 students suggest that students engage in ECAs mainly out of internal motives. But external motives are stronger for activities started closer to entering the labour market, for students active in associative or volunteering activities (as compared to sports or artistic activities), and for students holding leadership positions in their activities. Our results suggest that labour market pressure may be a key component of applicants' involvement in ECAs. Also, organizations and recruiters may want to consider that students tend not to engage in ECAs purely out of internal motives, but also to add value to their credentials and match employers' expectations. The authors thank Anna Ambrosetti for her help with the data collection. PMID:22823060

  10. Modified constraint-induced movement therapy or bimanual occupational therapy following injection of Botulinum toxin-A to improve bimanual performance in young children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a randomised controlled trial methods paper

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Use of Botulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A) for treatment of upper limb spasticity in children with cerebral palsy has become routine clinical practice in many paediatric treatment centres worldwide. There is now high-level evidence that upper limb BoNT-A injection, in combination with occupational therapy, improves outcomes in children with cerebral palsy at both the body function/structure and activity level domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Investigation is now required to establish what amount and specific type of occupational therapy will further enhance functional outcomes and prolong the beneficial effects of BoNT-A. Methods/Design A randomised, controlled, evaluator blinded, prospective parallel-group trial. Eligible participants were children aged 18 months to 6 years, diagnosed with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy and who were able to demonstrate selective motor control of the affected upper limb. Both groups received upper limb injections of BoNT-A. Children were randomised to either the modified constraint-induced movement therapy group (experimental) or bimanual occupational therapy group (control). Outcome assessments were undertaken at pre-injection and 1, 3 and 6 months following injection of BoNT-A. The primary outcome measure was the Assisting Hand Assessment. Secondary outcomes included: the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test; Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory; Canadian Occupational Performance Measure; Goal Attainment Scaling; Pediatric Motor Activity Log; modified Ashworth Scale and; the modified Tardieu Scale. Discussion The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology of a randomised controlled trial comparing the effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (a uni-manual therapy) versus bimanual occupational therapy (a bimanual therapy) on improving bimanual upper limb performance of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy following upper limb injection of Bo

  11. The effect of an internet-based, stage-matched message intervention on young Taiwanese women's physical activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheu-Jen; Hung, Wen-Chi; Chang, Maiga; Chang, Janie

    2009-01-01

    A web-based, stage-matched message intervention was designed in order to see the effect on the physical activity of young Taiwanese women with regard to several variables. The intervention was guided by the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) and was evaluated using a pre-post-test control group design. One hundred thirty female freshmen, enrolled in a nursing class in a university in Taipei, completed the survey at three different points in time. They were assigned to three groups: an experimental group with stage-matched messages on the website, a generic group with non-stage-matched messages on the website, and a control group that was given only lectures but had no access to the website. Results indicated that the subjects in the stage-matched group improved most in terms of stage-of-exercise and amount of physical activity, followed by the generic group at immediate post-test; meanwhile, the control group had a tendency toward downward change. The effect did not persist, however, for the first two groups. A significantly higher level of exercise self-efficacy was found in the stage-matched group than in the other two groups immediately after the intervention. The results suggested that a website conveying theory-based messages can serve as a useful tool for improving young females' physical activity and exercise self-efficacy. Additionally, we need research that explores different degrees and dimensions of tailoring in order to find the optimal degree of audience segmentation. PMID:19440906

  12. Metabolic Thresholds and Validated Accelerometer Cutoff Points for the Actigraph GT1M in Young Children Based on Measurements of Locomotion and Play Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimmy, Gerda; Dossegger, Alain; Seiler, Roland; Mader, Urs

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine metabolic thresholds and subsequent activity intensity cutoff points for the ActiGraph GT1M with various epochs spanning from 5 to 60 sec in young children. Twenty-two children, aged 4 to 9 years, performed 10 different activities including locomotion and play activities. Energy expenditure was…

  13. Guidelines for School and Community Programs To Promote Lifelong Physical Activity among Young People. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Recommendations and Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MMWR, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes recommendations for encouraging physical activity among young people so they will continue to engage in physical activity in adulthood and obtain the benefits of physical activity throughout life. The guidelines are based on an in-depth review of research, theory, and current practice in physical education, exercise science,…

  14. Vasorelaxant activities of Danhong injection and their differential effects on the rat abdominal aorta and mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Su, Xianming; Zhi, Xiaowen; Cui, Ting; Zheng, Qiaowei; Wang, Shixiang; Cao, Yongxiao; Cui, Changcong; Feng, Weiyi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have found that Danhong injection (DHI), an extensively used herbal extract preparation in China, might be a powerful vasodilator. The aims of this study were to determine the vascular activity of DHI and its effects on arteries of different sizes. The results showed that DHI significantly inhibited rat-hindquarters and rabbit-ear vasoconstriction elicited by norepinephrine (NE) perfusion and markedly relaxed KCl-contracted and NE-contracted rat abdominal aortic and mesenteric artery rings. The endothelium made only a minor contribution to the vasorelaxant effect of DHI on artery segments. The vasorelaxant effect of DHI varied with the artery size, with larger arteries exhibiting a more sensitive and potent vasodilator response. DHI relaxed NE-induced vasoconstriction probably through inhibition of the intracellular Ca2+ release through the inositol triphosphate receptor system in the abdominal aorta and mesenteric artery, along with blockage of extracellular Ca2+ influx through the receptor-linked Ca2+ channels in the mesenteric artery. In addition, DHI completely relaxed KCl-induced contraction in both of the arteries, suggesting that inhibition of Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is involved in the vasorelaxant effect of DHI. This elucidation of the vascular effects of DHI and the underlying mechanisms could lead to improved clinical applications. PMID:25264751

  15. In vitro performance of an injectable hydrogel/microsphere based immunocyte delivery system for localised anti-tumour activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunming; Adrianus, Gerard N; Sheng, Nan; Toh, Shikai; Gong, Yihong; Wang, Dong-An

    2009-12-01

    The current practice of cell immunotherapy against cancer has encountered a substantial challenge, that is, targeted delivery of therapeutic cells to tumour sites is not favourably managed. In this study, we aimed to provide an engineering solution to govern the cell targeting and actions, for which a biomaterial model is developed to mediate the conveyance and accommodation of activated immunocytes with anti-cancer potentials. We fabricated a dual-layered hydrogel/microsphere (GS) composite, which preserves all advantageous features of hydrogel such as injectability and favourable permeability, to achieve genuine localisation and physical immobilisation of the executing immunocytes-macrophages. According to our presented in vitro investigations, the GS immunoconstruct exhibited effective elimination of carcinoma cells as well as high safety free of gene alteration or cell leakage. Notably, unwanted long-term proliferation of the delivered cells was restrained by physical encapsulation in the bio-inert 3D hydrogel frameworks. By these efforts, we have provided an immunocyte delivery platform with which cell-based immunotherapy can be initiated at a desired location and implemented in a controlled manner. PMID:19783044

  16. Assessment of PCDD/F and PBDD/F Emissions from Coal-fired Power Plants during Injection of Brominated Activated Carbon for Mercury Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of the injection of brominated powdered activated carbon (Br-PAC) on the emission of brominated and chlorinated dioxins and furans in coal combustion flue gas has been evaluated. The tests were performed at two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) demonstration sites where ...

  17. Intra-Amygdala ZIP Injections Impair the Memory of Learned Active Avoidance Responses and Attenuate Conditioned Taste-Aversion Acquisition in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of protein kinase Mzeta (PKM[zeta]) inhibition in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) upon the retention of a nonspatial learned active avoidance response and conditioned taste-aversion (CTA) acquisition in rats. ZIP (10 nmol/[mu]L) injected into the BLA 24 h after training impaired retention of a learned…

  18. Feasibility of activity-promoting video games among obese adolescents and young adults in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Radon, Katja; Fürbeck, Barbara; Thomas, Silke; Siegfried, Wolfgang; Nowak, Dennis; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    One component of the recent obesity epidemic is the sedentary behaviour of children and adolescents e.g., use of video games consoles. The new generation of video games requires body movements and might thus increase activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether such games could have an effect on physical activity in obese adolescents in a clinical setting. Between March and May 2007 activity-promoting video games ("apvg") were offered to all 84 inpatients (aged 13-28 years) registered in a long-term rehabilitation programme on a voluntary base. Reasons for (non-)attendance were assessed. Frequency and duration of use of the activity-promoting video game sessions were documented. Furthermore, heart rate and activity counts during use of "apvg", endurance training, and strength training were measured. Of 84 inpatients, 51 used the "apvg" at least once (69%) over the study period. The median weekly use of the intervention was 27 min during the first week (range 0-182 min), declining to zero (range 0-74 min) in week four. Mean heart rate during the sessions (mean 115 bpm; 95% confidence interval 108-122 bpm) was similar to the heart rate during strength training (106 bpm; 101-112 bpm). The results indicate that the video games could have an impact on the activity of obese adolescents and young adults. However, as the interest in the devices seems to be too low the suitability of them for weight reduction programmes in young people cannot be ensured. PMID:20837400

  19. Association of High Blood Pressure with Body Mass Index, Smoking and Physical Activity in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasiou, George; Zerva, Efthimia; Zacharis, Ioannis; Papandreou, Maria; Papageorgiou, Effie; Tzima, Christina; Georgakopoulos, Dimitris; Evangelou, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between resting blood pressure (BP), smoking, physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in Greek young adults. Materials and Methodology: A standardised questionnaire and the Greek version of IPAQ-short were given to 1500 randomly selected health science students, in order to record smoking behaviour, PA status, BMI and resting BP. All healthy young adults aged 19-30 years old were eligible. The final size of the study cohort was 1249 students (522 men). Results: Males’ BP was 129.2/77.0 mmHg, significantly higher than the females’ values of 119.9/73.4 mmHg. Approximately 17% of the total population were classified as overweight and 3% as obese. In the overall population, smoking prevalence was 35.2%, with 15.3% being heavy smokers (≥21 cigs/d). Smoking prevalence did not differ significantly between sexes. The prevalence of health-enhancing PA (high PAclass) was only 14.0%, while 42.8% of the study population were classified as insufficiently active (low PAclass). Of the three lifestyle risk factors examined, only BMI was significantly and directly associated with systolic and diastolic BP levels. The prevalence of hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) was significantly higher in men compared to women, and in obese and overweight participants compared to normal-weight subjects. Smoking and categorical PA (PAclass) were not correlated with BP. Continuous vigorous PAscore was significantly and directly associated with systolic BP, but only in males. Conclusion: BMI was significantly and directly associated with resting BP in both sexes. Smoking prevalence and PA status were not associated with BP in this sample of Greek young adults. PMID:25834651

  20. Electrochemical flow injection analysis of hydrazine in an excess of an active pharmaceutical ingredient: achieving pharmaceutical detection limits electrochemically.

    PubMed

    Channon, Robert B; Joseph, Maxim B; Bitziou, Eleni; Bristow, Anthony W T; Ray, Andrew D; Macpherson, Julie V

    2015-10-01

    The quantification of genotoxic impurities (GIs) such as hydrazine (HZ) is of critical importance in the pharmaceutical industry in order to uphold drug safety. HZ is a particularly intractable GI and its detection represents a significant technical challenge. Here, we present, for the first time, the use of electrochemical analysis to achieve the required detection limits by the pharmaceutical industry for the detection of HZ in the presence of a large excess of a common active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), acetaminophen (ACM) which itself is redox active, typical of many APIs. A flow injection analysis approach with electrochemical detection (FIA-EC) is utilized, in conjunction with a coplanar boron doped diamond (BDD) microband electrode, insulated in an insulating diamond platform for durability and integrated into a two piece flow cell. In order to separate the electrochemical signature for HZ such that it is not obscured by that of the ACM (present in excess), the BDD electrode is functionalized with Pt nanoparticles (NPs) to significantly shift the half wave potential for HZ oxidation to less positive potentials. Microstereolithography was used to fabricate flow cells with defined hydrodynamics which minimize dispersion of the analyte and optimize detection sensitivity. Importantly, the Pt NPs were shown to be stable under flow, and a limit of detection of 64.5 nM or 0.274 ppm for HZ with respect to the ACM, present in excess, was achieved. This represents the first electrochemical approach which surpasses the required detection limits set by the pharmaceutical industry for HZ detection in the presence of an API and paves the wave for online analysis and application to other GI and API systems. PMID:26302058

  1. Perceptions of Physical Activity and Influences of Participation in Young African-American Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shannon; Knight, Candace; Crew-Gooden, Annette

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore African-American adolescent girls' perceptions of physical activity participation, examine how physical activity is defined and identify the most preferred forms of physical activity. Qualitative focus group interviews of a convenience sample (N = 30; Mean age = 14.3 years) were used to identifyfactors that influence African-American girls' physical activity participation as well as to explore how physical activity is defined within this population. Four themes emerged: (a) benefits and motivation to engage in physical activity, (b) behaviors consistent with perceived physical activity, (c) most enjoyable physical activity/activities, and (d) barriers to physical activity. Physical activities that promoted normative adolescent development (i.e., autonomy) were perceived as most beneficial, desirable, and most likely to be sustained. Implications of these findings highlight the importance of the incorporation of socialization and peer engagement in physical activity programs designed for African-American adolescent girls. PMID:27045157

  2. Lacosamide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information. ... Before using lacosamide injection,tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to lacosamide, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in lacosamide injection. Ask your pharmacist for a ...

  3. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... lines under the skin skin depressions at the injection site increased body fat or movement to different areas of your body inappropriate happiness difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep extreme ... increased appetite injection site pain or redness Some side effects can ...

  4. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... you that you will need to receive a vitamin B12 injection no more than 10 weeks before your first ... tests to check your body's response to pralatrexate injection.Ask your ... such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  5. Leucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... lack of vitamin B12 or inability to absorb vitamin B12. Your doctor will not prescribe leucovorin injection to treat this type of anemia.tell your ... tests to check your body's response to leucovorin injection.It is ... such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  6. Etanercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and colorless. The liquid may contain small white particles, but should not contain large or colored particles. Do not use a syringe or dosing pen ... liquid is cloudy or contains large or colored particles.The best place to inject etanercept injection is ...

  7. Error-monitoring brain activity is associated with affective behaviors in young children☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent evidence that neural correlates of error monitoring such as the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) are visible in children sooner than previously thought, little is known about these components early in life. Error-monitoring components can be noninvasively recorded from a very early age and have been proposed as biological markers of risk for psychopathology. Therefore, the current study represents an attempt to examine the presence of these components in a sample of very young children and explore their associations with affect and attentional control. Fifteen children between ages 4 and 8 participated in two laboratory episodes: interacting with a stranger and completing a computerized flanker task. Shy and bold behaviors were scored during the stranger interaction and parents reported on temperament-based affective behaviors. Both ERN and Pe were visible in children as young as age 4. A trend-level interaction was observed between age and gender in association with ERN amplitudes. Age and gender were unrelated to the Pe. Greater ERN and Pe were associated with better poorer orienting and greater attentional focusing, respectively. Greater Pe was also linked to less observed boldness. Implications for studies of the development of performance monitoring in children are discussed. PMID:21572941

  8. Low diversity and low frequency of participation in leisure activities compromise working memory efficiency in young adults.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Contreras, Alejandra E; Soria-Rodríguez, Gerardo; Almeida-Rosas, Georgina A; García-Vaca, Paola A; Delgado-Herrera, Maribel; Méndez-Díaz, Mónica; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    People perform leisure activities (LA) every day; pursuits that entail applying cognitive, physical and social abilities. As in old age, doing LA during early and middle adulthood is related to a reduced risk of dementias, probably by generating a cognitive reserve. As it is possible that a relation between doing LA and working memory (WM) efficiency exists in young adults, we assessed whether the diversity and frequency of LA are related to WM efficiency in this population. Ninety-three healthy young subjects solved the n-back task at two levels of difficulty (2, 3), and answered an LA questionnaire on the activities in which they had participated in the month prior to the experiment. Subjects were classified separately on their scores for (1) diversity (high/low) and (2) frequency (high/low) in order to test the relation between each variable and WM efficiency. Though no differences were found, a subsequent analysis of the average of diversity and frequency ratios of LA performance taken together-the diversity/frequency index-showed that low diversity plus low frequency was significantly associated with reduced WM efficiency at this age; results that suggest that frequent participation in diverse LA during youth is related to WM efficiency. PMID:22093383

  9. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A.; de Groot, Renate H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ2/df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA < 0.001, SRMR = 0.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ2/df = 2.75, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA < 0.056, SRMR = 0.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults. PMID:27199867

  10. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J M; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A; de Groot, Renate H M

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ(2) /df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA < 0.001, SRMR = 0.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ(2) /df = 2.75, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA < 0.056, SRMR = 0.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults. PMID:27199867

  11. Physical activity in young children and their parents–An Early STOPP Sweden–China comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Elin; Mei, Hong; Xiu, Lijuan; Svensson, Viktoria; Xiong, Yueling; Marcus, Claude; Zhang, Jianduan; Hagströmer, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Understanding about socio-cultural differences in physical activity in children with high and low risk for obesity can help tailor intervention programs in different settings. This study aimed to compare objectively measured physical activity in two-year-olds and their parents, living in Stockholm, Sweden, and Wuhan, China. Data from Early STOPP was used. Children and parents wore an accelerometer in connection with the child’s second birthday. Weekly and hourly patterns were examined. Correlation between child and parental physical activity was assessed. Data on 146 Swedish and 79 Chinese children and their parents was available. Children, mothers and fathers in Stockholm were significantly more active than their counterparts in Wuhan (children; 2989 (SD 702) vs. 1997 (SD 899) counts per minute (CPM), mothers 2625 (SD 752) vs. 2042 (SD 821) CPM; fathers 2233 (SD 749) vs. 1588 (SD 754) CPM). Activity levels were similar over a week for children and parents within both countries. No parental-child correlations, except for a paternal-son correlation in Stockholm, were found. Children, mothers and fathers in Stockholm are more active compared with their counterparts in Wuhan. Interventions to increase physical activity needs to take cultural aspects into account, also when targeting very young children. PMID:27404563

  12. Physical activity in young children and their parents-An Early STOPP Sweden-China comparison study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Elin; Mei, Hong; Xiu, Lijuan; Svensson, Viktoria; Xiong, Yueling; Marcus, Claude; Zhang, Jianduan; Hagströmer, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Understanding about socio-cultural differences in physical activity in children with high and low risk for obesity can help tailor intervention programs in different settings. This study aimed to compare objectively measured physical activity in two-year-olds and their parents, living in Stockholm, Sweden, and Wuhan, China. Data from Early STOPP was used. Children and parents wore an accelerometer in connection with the child's second birthday. Weekly and hourly patterns were examined. Correlation between child and parental physical activity was assessed. Data on 146 Swedish and 79 Chinese children and their parents was available. Children, mothers and fathers in Stockholm were significantly more active than their counterparts in Wuhan (children; 2989 (SD 702) vs. 1997 (SD 899) counts per minute (CPM), mothers 2625 (SD 752) vs. 2042 (SD 821) CPM; fathers 2233 (SD 749) vs. 1588 (SD 754) CPM). Activity levels were similar over a week for children and parents within both countries. No parental-child correlations, except for a paternal-son correlation in Stockholm, were found. Children, mothers and fathers in Stockholm are more active compared with their counterparts in Wuhan. Interventions to increase physical activity needs to take cultural aspects into account, also when targeting very young children. PMID:27404563

  13. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  14. Effect of injected yeast glucan on the activity of macrophages in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., as evaluated by in vitro hydrogen peroxide production and phagocytic capacity.

    PubMed Central

    Brattgjerd, S; Evensen, O; Lauve, A

    1994-01-01

    A prepared polysaccharide from the cell wall of yeast, M-Glucan, has previously been demonstrated to have immunostimulatory effects in salmonids as observed by enhanced in vivo non-specific disease resistance in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., and increased in vitro bactericidal activity of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), macrophages. In the present study M-Glucan was injected intraperitoneally into Atlantic salmon and the effect on core components in the non-specific part of the immune system was observed. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production of isolated head kidney macrophages from glucan-injected fish was measured 3 and 6 weeks after M-Glucan treatment and was increased at both time-points upon phorbol myristate acetate-(PMA) triggering. Without PMA triggering the difference was only significant 3 weeks after glucan injection when compared to a control group injected with saline. In a phagocytic assay with macrophages and Vibrio salmonicida the initial uptake of bacteria was elevated at both 3 and 6 weeks after glucan treatment. There was no significant difference when uptake of another fish pathogenic bacteria, Renibacterium salmoninarum, was studied. Treatment of Atlantic salmon with M-Glucan also resulted in enhanced serum lysozyme activity in week 3 of the experimental period. The results indicate that M-Glucan elevates the activity of the non-specific part of the immune system and the use of M-Glucan as an immunostimulant is discussed. PMID:7835949

  15. [Post-marketing clinical safety assessment of Shenmai injection based on active monitoring and passive monitoring in large data background].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian-xin; Xie, Yan-ming; Ai, Qing-hua; Song, Nian-bin

    2015-12-01

    This paper adopted a series of related analysis methods to comprehensively analyze post-marketing clinical safety data of Shenmai injection from 4,220 cases of SRS and 32,358 cases of multicenter, prospective, registered hospital centralized monitoring in large data background, calculated ADR incidence rate was 0.93 per 1,000, main symptoms of ADR includes chest pain, chills, skin itching, palpitations, fever, nausea, dizziness, vomiting, flushing, numbness, allergic reaction, cyanosis, rash, low back pain, and "breath", "anaphylactoid reaction" and "flush" were the safety warning signals of Shenmai injection. Primary disease for chronic pulmonary heart disease, thyroid disease, and combined with cerebral vascular disease, prior to the injection and continuous use of alprostadil, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, combined with quinolones, penicillins were suspicious influence factors of ADR of Shenmai injection, these promot the clinical safety. PMID:27245017

  16. Self-Healing Conductive Injectable Hydrogels with Antibacterial Activity as Cell Delivery Carrier for Cardiac Cell Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ruonan; Zhao, Xin; Guo, Baolin; Ma, Peter X

    2016-07-13

    Cell therapy is a promising strategy to regenerate cardiac tissue for myocardial infarction. Injectable hydrogels with conductivity and self-healing ability are highly desirable as cell delivery vehicles for cardiac regeneration. Here, we developed self-healable conductive injectable hydrogels based on chitosan-graft-aniline tetramer (CS-AT) and dibenzaldehyde-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-DA) as cell delivery vehicles for myocardial infarction. Self-healed electroactive hydrogels were obtained after mixing CS-AT and PEG-DA solutions at physiological conditions. Rapid self-healing behavior was investigated by rheometer. Swelling behavior, morphology, mechanical strength, electrochemistry, conductivity, adhesiveness to host tissue and antibacterial property of the injectable hydrogels were fully studied. Conductivity of the hydrogels is ∼10(-3) S·cm(-1), which is quite close to native cardiac tissue. Proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts in the hydrogel showed its good biocompatibility. After injection, viability of C2C12 cells in the hydrogels showed no significant difference with that before injection. Two different cell types were successfully encapsulated in the hydrogels by self-healing effect. Cell delivery profile of C2C12 myoblasts and H9c2 cardiac cells showed a tunable release rate, and in vivo cell retention in the conductive hydrogels was also studied. Subcutaneous injection and in vivo degradation of the hydrogels demonstrated their injectability and biodegradability. Together, these self-healing conductive biodegradable injectable hydrogels are excellent candidates as cell delivery vehicle for cardiac repair. PMID:27311127

  17. Validity of an activity monitor in young people with cerebral palsy gross motor function classification system level I.

    PubMed

    O' Donoghue, Deirdre; Kennedy, Norelee

    2014-11-01

    The activPAL™ activity monitor has potential for use in youth with Cerebral Palsy (CP) as it has demonstrated acceptable validity for the assessment of sedentary and physical activity in other populations. This study determined the validity of the activPAL™ activity monitor for the measurement of sitting, standing, walking time, transitions and step count for both legs in young people with hemiplegic and asymmetric diplegic CP. Seventeen participants with CP Gross Motor Function Classification System level I completed two video recorded test protocols that involved wearing an activPAL™ activity monitor on alternate legs. Agreement between observed video recorded data and activPAL™ activity monitor data was assessed using the Bland and Altman (BA) method and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 3,1). There was perfect agreement for transitions and high agreement for sitting (BA mean differences (MD): -1.8 and -1.8 s; ICCs: 0.49 and 0.95) standing (MD: 0.8 and 0.1 s; ICCs: 0.59 and 0.98) walking (MD: 1 and 1.1 s; ICCs: 0.99 and 0.94) timings and low agreement for step count (MD: 4.1 and 2.8 steps; ICCs: 0.96 and 0.95) for both legs. This study found clinically acceptable agreement with direct observation for all activPAL™ activity monitor functions, except for step count measurement with respect to the range of measurement values obtained for both legs in this study population. PMID:25340990

  18. Development of a long-acting, protein-loaded, redox-active, injectable gel formed by a polyion complex for local protein therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Shiro; Kaneko, Junya; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2016-04-01

    Although cancer immunotherapies are attracting much attention, it is difficult to develop bioactive proteins owing to the severe systemic toxicity. To overcome the issue, we designed new local protein delivery system by using a protein-loaded, redox-active, injectable gel (RIG), which is formed by a polyion complex (PIC) comprising three components, viz., cationic polyamine-poly(ethylene glycol)-polyamine triblock copolymer possessing ROS-scavenging moieties as side chains; anionic poly(acrylic acid); and a protein. The mixture formed the protein-loaded PIC flower micelles at room temperature, which immediately converted to a gel with high mechanical strength upon exposure to physiological conditions. Because the protein electrostatically interacts with the PIC gel network, RIG provided a sustained release of the protein without a significant initial burst, regardless of the types of proteins in vitro, and much longer retention of the protein at the local injection site in mice than that of the naked protein. Subcutaneous injections of IL-12@RIG in the vicinity of tumor tissue showed remarkable tumor growth inhibition in tumor-bearing mice, compared to that observed with injection of IL-12 alone, suppressing adverse events caused by IL-12-induced ROS. Our results indicate that RIG has potential as a platform technology for an injectable sustained-release carrier for proteins. PMID:26828685

  19. The effect of long-term nitrate treatment on SRB activity, corrosion rate and bacterial community composition in offshore water injection systems.

    PubMed

    Bødtker, Gunhild; Thorstenson, Tore; Lillebø, Bente-Lise P; Thorbjørnsen, Bente E; Ulvøen, Rikke Helen; Sunde, Egil; Torsvik, Terje

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic production of hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a problem for the oil industry as it leads to corrosion and reservoir souring. Continuous injection of a low nitrate concentration (0.25-0.33 mM) replaced glutaraldehyde as corrosion and souring control at the Veslefrikk and Gullfaks oil field (North Sea) in 1999. The response to nitrate treatment was a rapid reduction in number and activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water injection system biofilm at both fields. The present long-term study shows that SRB activity has remained low at < or =0.3 and < or =0.9 microg H(2)S/cm(2)/day at Veslefrikk and Gullfaks respectively, during the 7-8 years with continuous nitrate injection. At Veslefrikk, 16S rRNA gene based community analysis by PCR-DGGE showed that bacteria affiliated to nitrate-reducing sulphide-oxidizing Sulfurimonas (NR-SOB) formed major populations at the injection well head throughout the treatment period. Downstream of deaerator the presence of Sulfurimonas like bacteria was less pronounced, and were no longer observed 40 months into the treatment period. The biofilm community during nitrate treatment was highly diverse and relative stable for long periods of time. At the Gullfaks field, a reduction in corrosion of up to 40% was observed after switch to nitrate treatment. The present study show that nitrate injection may provide a stable long-term inhibition of SRB in sea water injection systems, and that corrosion may be significantly reduced when compared to traditional biocide treatment. PMID:18752014

  20. Intragastric injection of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota suppressed spleen sympathetic activation by central corticotrophin-releasing factor or peripheral 2-deoxy-d-glucose in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Tanida, Mamoru; Takada, Mai; Kato-Kataoka, Akito; Kawai, Mitsuhisa; Miyazaki, Kouji; Shibamoto, Toshishige

    2016-04-21

    Intragastric (IG) administration of probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) decreases the sympathetic nerve outflow of anesthetized rats in a tissue-specific manner. In the present study, we examined the effects of IG administration of LcS on sympathetic activation induced by an intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and an intravenous (IV) injection of 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG) or interleukin (IL)-1β in urethane-anesthetized rats. The IG administration of LcS differently affected the stimulatory responses of sympathetic nerve outflow to CRF. LcS suppressed the increase in splenic sympathetic nerve activity (Spleen-SNA), induced by central CRF, in a dose-dependent manner; however, it did not alter adrenal sympathetic nervous activity (ASNA). In contrast, LcS did not affect spleen-SNA and ASNA following an IV injection of IL-1β. On the other hand, IG administration of LcS suppressed the activation of ASNA following an IV injection of 2DG. These findings suggest that the suppression of central CRF-induced sympathetic activation by LcS is tissue-specific. Moreover, it can suppress the 2DG-induced sympathetic activation. Furthermore, we found that stomach-specific vagotomy attenuates the suppressive effect of LcS on CRF-mediated spleen-SNA activation. Thus, the present study suggests that LcS administered to the stomach may act on the afferent vagal nerve and send afferent signals to the brain to regulate efferent SNA induced by sympathetic stimulators. PMID:26971699