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Sample records for active young injection

  1. Gender differences in sexual and injection risk behavior among active young injection drug users in San Francisco (the UFO Study).

    PubMed

    Evans, Jennifer L; Hahn, Judith A; Page-Shafer, Kimberly; Lum, Paula J; Stein, Ellen S; Davidson, Peter J; Moss, Andrew R

    2003-03-01

    Female injection drug users (IDUs) represent a large proportion of persons infected with HIV in the United States, and women who inject drugs have a high incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Therefore, it is important to understand the role of gender in injection risk behavior and the transmission of blood-borne virus. In 2000-2002, 844 young (<30 years old) IDUs were surveyed in San Francisco. We compared self-reported risk behavior between 584 males and 260 female participants from cross-sectional baseline data. We used logistic regression to determine whether demographic, structural, and relationship variables explained increased needle borrowing, drug preparation equipment sharing, and being injected by another IDU among females compared to males. Females were significantly younger than males and were more likely to engage in needle borrowing, ancillary equipment sharing, and being injected by someone else. Females were more likely than males to report recent sexual intercourse and to have IDU sex partners. Females and males were not different with respect to education, race/ethnicity, or housing status. In logistic regression models for borrowing a used needle and sharing drug preparation equipment, increased risk in females was explained by having an injection partner who was also a sexual partner. Injecting risk was greater in the young female compared to male IDUs despite equivalent frequency of injecting. Overlapping sexual and injection partnerships were a key factor in explaining increased injection risk in females. Females were more likely to be injected by another IDU even after adjusting for years injecting, being in a relationship with another IDU, and other potential confounders. Interventions to reduce sexual and injection practices that put women at risk of contracting hepatitis and HIV are needed. PMID:12612103

  2. Gender differences in sexual and injection risk behavior among active young injection drug users in San Francisco (the UFO Study).

    PubMed

    Evans, Jennifer L; Hahn, Judith A; Page-Shafer, Kimberly; Lum, Paula J; Stein, Ellen S; Davidson, Peter J; Moss, Andrew R

    2003-03-01

    Female injection drug users (IDUs) represent a large proportion of persons infected with HIV in the United States, and women who inject drugs have a high incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Therefore, it is important to understand the role of gender in injection risk behavior and the transmission of blood-borne virus. In 2000-2002, 844 young (<30 years old) IDUs were surveyed in San Francisco. We compared self-reported risk behavior between 584 males and 260 female participants from cross-sectional baseline data. We used logistic regression to determine whether demographic, structural, and relationship variables explained increased needle borrowing, drug preparation equipment sharing, and being injected by another IDU among females compared to males. Females were significantly younger than males and were more likely to engage in needle borrowing, ancillary equipment sharing, and being injected by someone else. Females were more likely than males to report recent sexual intercourse and to have IDU sex partners. Females and males were not different with respect to education, race/ethnicity, or housing status. In logistic regression models for borrowing a used needle and sharing drug preparation equipment, increased risk in females was explained by having an injection partner who was also a sexual partner. Injecting risk was greater in the young female compared to male IDUs despite equivalent frequency of injecting. Overlapping sexual and injection partnerships were a key factor in explaining increased injection risk in females. Females were more likely to be injected by another IDU even after adjusting for years injecting, being in a relationship with another IDU, and other potential confounders. Interventions to reduce sexual and injection practices that put women at risk of contracting hepatitis and HIV are needed.

  3. Assessing candidacy for acute hepatitis C treatment among active young injection drug users: a case-series report.

    PubMed

    Asher, Alice; Lum, Paula J; Page, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Treatment for acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has significantly better outcomes than treatment for chronic infection. The short window of the acute period poses challenges for young injection drug users (IDU), who are at highest risk of HCV infection, to demonstrate treatment candidacy. We recruited patients with acute HCV from a prospective cohort study to examine clinical and behavioral issues related to treatment candidacy. We report on outcomes and how nursing case management affected candidacy. All five acutely-infected participants reported daily drug use at baseline. All established primary care and decreased their drug use. None received treatment for their acute infection; one was treated within 12 months of infection. Establishing treatment candidacy for young IDU in the acute phase involves various health domains. An acute infection's short period poses many challenges to establishing candidacy, but it is a window of opportunity to engage young IDU in health care. PMID:21497111

  4. First injection of ketamine among young injection drug users (IDUs) in three U.S. cities

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson; Hathazi, Dodi; Alarcon, Erica; Tortu, Stephanie; Clatts, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    Ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic, has emerged as an increasingly common drug among subgroups of young injection drug users (IDUs) in cities across the United States. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 213 young IDUs aged 16–28 years recruited in New York, New Orleans, and Los Angeles between 2004 and 2006. While some initiated injection drug use with ketamine, the drug was more frequently injected by IDUs with extensive polydrug using histories. IDUs initiating with ketamine commonly self-injected via an intramuscular mode of administration. The injection group provided crucial knowledge and material resources that enabled the injection event to occur, including ketamine, syringes, and injection skills. Injection paraphernalia was commonly shared during the first injection of ketamine, particularly vials of pharmaceutically-packaged liquid ketamine. Injection events infrequently occurred in a rave or club and more typically in a private home, which challenges ketamine’s designation as a ‘club’ drug. The first injection of ketamine was a noteworthy event since it introduced a novel drug or new mode of administration to be further explored by some, or exposed others to a drug to be avoided in the future. Risk reduction messages directed towards young IDUs should be expanded to include ketamine. PMID:16979848

  5. Pregnancy and Sexual Health among Homeless Young Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of…

  6. Individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices among young adult injection drug users in San Diego

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Fátima; Burgos, José Luis; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Teshale, Eyasu; Garfein, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe injection practices significantly increase the risk of hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among injection drug users (IDUs). We examined individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices in young adult IDUs in San Diego, California. Of 494 IDUs, 46.9% reported receptive syringe sharing and 68.8% sharing drug preparation paraphernalia in the last 3 months. Unsafe injection practices were associated with increased odds of having friends who injected drugs with used syringes, injecting with friends, sexual partners, and injecting heroin. Perceived high susceptibility to HIV and perceived barriers to obtaining sterile syringes were associated with increased odds of receptive syringe sharing, but not with sharing injection paraphernalia. Over half IDUs reported unsafe injection practices, and our results suggest that personal relationships might influence IDUs’ perceptions that dictate behavior. Integrated interventions addressing individual and socio-environmental factors are needed to promote safe injection practices in this population. PMID:24920342

  7. Individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices among young adult injection drug users in San Diego.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Fátima; Burgos, José Luis; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Teshale, Eyasu; Garfein, Richard S

    2015-01-01

    Unsafe injection practices significantly increase the risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among injection drug users (IDUs). We examined individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices in young adult IDUs in San Diego, California. Of 494 IDUs, 46.9 % reported receptive syringe sharing and 68.8 % sharing drug preparation paraphernalia in the last 3 months. Unsafe injection practices were associated with increased odds of having friends who injected drugs with used syringes, injecting with friends or sexual partners, and injecting heroin. Perceived high susceptibility to HIV and perceived barriers to obtaining sterile syringes were associated with increased odds of receptive syringe sharing, but not with sharing injection paraphernalia. Over half the IDUs reported unsafe injection practices. Our results suggest that personal relationships might influence IDUs' perceptions that dictate behavior. Integrated interventions addressing individual and socio-environmental factors are needed to promote safe injection practices in this population. PMID:24920342

  8. Control over Drug Acquisition, Preparation, and Injection: Implications for HIV and HCV Risk among Young Female Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karla D.; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer; Hathazi, Susan Dodi; Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    Young female injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for HIV/HCV, and initiating the use of a new drug may confer additional and unexpected risks. While gender differences in the social context of injection drug use have been identified, it is unknown whether those differences persist during the initiation of a new drug. This mixed-methods study examined the accounts of 30 young female IDUs in Los Angeles, CA, USA from 2004 to 2006, who described the social context of initiating injection drug use and initiating ketamine injection. The analysis aimed to understand how the social context of young women's injection events contributes to HIV/HCV risk. Women's initiation into ketamine injection occurred approximately 2 years after their first injection of any drug. Over that time, women experienced changes in some aspects of the social context of drug injection, including the size and composition of the using group. A significant proportion of women described injection events characterized by a lack of control over the acquisition, preparation, and injection of drugs, as well as reliance on friends and sexual partners. Findings suggest that lack of control over drug acquisition, preparation, and injection may elevate women's risk; these phenomena should be considered as a behavioral risk factor when designing interventions. PMID:24364027

  9. Increasing Infectious Endocarditis Admissions Among Young People Who Inject Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Wurcel, Alysse G.; Anderson, Jordan E.; Chui, Kenneth K. H.; Skinner, Sally; Knox, Tamsin A.; Snydman, David R.; Stopka, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are at risk for infective endocarditis (IE). Hospitalization rates related to misuse of prescription opioids and heroin have increased in recent years, but there are no recent investigations into rates of hospitalizations from injection drug use-related IE (IDU-IE). Using the Health Care and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS) dataset, we found that the proportion of IE hospitalizations from IDU-IE increased from 7% to 12.1% between 2000 and 2013. Over this time period, we detected a significant increase in the percentages of IDU-IE hospitalizations among 15- to 34-year-olds (27.1%–42.0%; P < .001) and among whites (40.2%–68.9%; P < .001). Female gender was less common when examining all the IDU-IE (40.9%), but it was more common in the 15- to 34-year-old age group (53%). Our findings suggest that the demographics of inpatients hospitalized with IDU-IE are shifting to reflect younger PWID who are more likely to be white and female than previously reported. Future studies to investigate risk behaviors associated with IDU-IE and targeted harm reduction strategies are needed to avoid further increases in morbidity and mortality in this rapidly growing population of young PWID. PMID:27800528

  10. Active VLF wave injection experiments with DEMETER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inan, U.

    The comprehensive suite of electromagnetic wave receivers as well as the highly sensitive energetic electron detector on DEMETER provide outstanding opportunities for a range of ELF VLF wave-injection experiments These experiments are aimed at understanding physical mechanisms of wave-growth amplification and emission triggering and the loss of energetic radiation belt particles by injected coherent signals of known characteristics One class of experiments involves the use of the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program HAARP HF ionospheric heating facility located in Gakona Alaska which is used to inject signals in the frequency range of few tens of Hz to few kHz for detection on DEMETER during its overpasses of either HAARP or its geomagnetically conjugate region HAARP is the only controlled signal source which can inject signals in the frequency range below 1 2 kHz so that all six components of the injected signals can be simultaneously measured A second class of experiments is carried out with the 21 4 kHz NPM transmitter facility in Hawaii which operates at a radiated power of 464 kW injecting signals of intensity in the several tens of pT in situ over the range of L-shells of 1 5 to 2 0 Using specialized ON OFF patterns to modulate the amplitude of the injected signals the NPM-induced precipitation is detected with the DEMETER IDP instrument both in terms of its temporal and energy spectral signatures Several examples of direct observations of NPM-induced precipitation has been observed so far with the

  11. Providing Rich Art Activities for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahey, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Using works of art with young children is a perfect way to bridge the gap between art activities that are too open or too closed. Teachers of young children sometimes try to find a middle ground by allowing free painting time at an easel in addition to recipe-oriented activities such as putting together precut shapes to create a spider or an apple…

  12. Activities That Build the Young Child's Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellens, Suzanne R.

    This book presents 350 classroom-tested activities for use with children to create an environment that will stimulate young children's brains. Designed to be used by families, classroom teachers, family childcare providers, or others caring for young children, the book includes information on current brain research and describes interest areas in…

  13. Young People's Favorite Leisure Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zvonovskii, Vladimir; Lutseva, Svetlana

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a study based on surveys conducted annually for the past nine years by the Samara Foundation for Social Research, commissioned by the committee for youth affairs of the administration of Samara Oblast. The sample consists of about 800 young people aged fourteen to thirty. In the present study the authors have focused on…

  14. Free-hand ultrasound guidance permits safe and efficient minimally invasive intrathymic injections in both young and aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Tuckett, Andrea Z.; Zakrzewski, Johannes L.; Li, Duan; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.; Thornton, Raymond H.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate whether using an aseptic free-hand approach for ultrasound-guided injection facilitates injection into the thymic gland in mice. We used this interventional radiology technique in young, aged, and immunodeficient mice and found that the thymus was visible in all cases. The mean injection period was 8 s in young mice and 19 s in aged or immunodeficient mice. Injection accuracy was confirmed by intrathymic location of an injected dye, or by in vivo bioluminescence imaging of injected luciferase-expressing cells. Accurate intrathymic injection was confirmed in 97% of cases. No major complications were observed. We conclude that an aseptic free-hand technique for ultrasound-guided intrathymic injection is safe, accurate, and reduces the time required for intrathymic injections. This method facilitates large-scale experiments, injection of individual thymic lobes, and is clinically relevant. PMID:25701534

  15. Learning Activities for the Young Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Don; And Others

    Presented is a collection of learning activities for the young handicapped child covering 295 individual learning objectives in six areas of development: gross motor skills, fine motor skills, social skills, self help skills, cognitive skills, and language skills. Provided for each learning activity are the teaching objective, teaching procedures,…

  16. Cooperative Activities in Young Children and Chimpanzees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warneken, Felix; Chen, Frances; Tomasello, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Human children 18-24 months of age and 3 young chimpanzees interacted in 4 cooperative activities with a human adult partner. The human children successfully participated in cooperative problem-solving activities and social games, whereas the chimpanzees were uninterested in the social games. As an experimental manipulation, in each task the adult…

  17. The role of social networks and geography on risky injection behaviors of young persons who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    Boodram, Basmattee; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary-Ellen; Latkin, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about young persons who inject drugs (PWID), who are increasingly from suburban communities and predominantly non-Hispanic white. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional personal network (egocentric) and geographic study of young PWID and their drug-using, sexual, and support network members in 2012-13 in metropolitan Chicago, Illinois, U.S. Results We enrolled 164 young (median age=26), mostly male (65%), non-Hispanic white PWID (71%), with a self-reported HCV prevalence of 13%. Many (59%) reported multiple residences (i.e., were transient) in the past year, 45% of whom reported living in both urban and suburban places (i.e., were cross-over transients). In multivariable analyses that adjusted for participant and network member characteristics, (1) large injection networks were more common among homeless participants; and (2) syringe sharing was (a) highest among cross-over transients compared to suburban (OR = 4.19 95% CI 1.69 – 10.35) and urban only residents (OR = 2.91 95% CI 1.06 – 8.03), (b) higher among HCV-unknown compared HCV-negative participants (OR = 4.62 95% CI 1.69-10.35), (c) more likely with network members who were cross-over transients compared to urban (OR = 4.94, 95% CI 2.17 – 11.23) and (d) less likely with network members with HCV-unknown compared to HCV-negative status (OR = 0.4 95% CI 0.19 – 0.84). Conclusions We identified homelessness as a significant risk factor for large networks and cross-over transience as a significant risk factor for syringe sharing. Further research is needed to understand the role of geographic factors promoting higher risk among these crossover transient PWID. PMID:26169447

  18. Traveling young injection drug users at high risk for acquisition and transmission of viral infections

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Judith A.; Page-Shafer, Kimberly; Ford, Jamye; Paciorek, Alan; Lum, Paula J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Young injection drug users (IDU) are highly mobile. It is not known how mobility affects their risk of acquiring and transmitting viral infections. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of young (under age 30) IDU in San Francisco (2004-2006). Participants completed a semi-structured interview and testing for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV infection. We examined whether travel was independently associated with drug, alcohol, sexual risk behaviors, and infection status, after adjusting for demographic characteristics and years injecting. Results: Two-thirds (62%) reported past (3 months) travel outside of San Francisco (n=355). Travelers, as compared to non-travelers, were more likely to be under age 20, female, and planned to leave San Francisco in the coming months. Travel was independently associated with heavy alcohol consumption, drinking alcohol until blackout, poly-substance use, more sexual and injecting partners, and receptive needle/syringe sharing, sharing drug preparation equipment, backloading syringes, and pooling money to buy drugs. In an analysis of interactions with travel, younger travelers were more likely to be HCV positive than younger non-travelers. Discussion: Traveling young IDU are at exceptionally high risk for acquiring and transmitting viral infections, while their mobility makes it challenging to effectively deliver interventions. PMID:17980513

  19. Physical Education Waivers and Young Adult Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2010-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the relationship between physical activity of young adults who were granted waivers from high school physical education versus those who completed courses in states requiring physical education teacher certification, with curriculum standards and credit requirements for graduation. University students from three…

  20. Relationship between dose of injected /sup 239/Pu and bone sarcoma mortality in young adult beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, A.V.; Prentice, R.L.; Marek, P.

    1982-04-01

    The effect of /sup 239/Pu on bone sarcoma mortality in young adult beagles is examined using data from a follow-up study conducted at the Radiobiology Laboratory at the University of Utah. A (proportional-hazards) model, which specifies that bone sarcoma mortality depends on both dose of injected plutonium and time since injection as the product of a dose factor and a time factor, is used both for describing the data and for performing inference about the relationship between dose of plutonium and bone sarcoma mortality. Relative bone sarcoma mortality rates are found to be approximately linear as a function of dose. There is evidence that relative bone sarcoma mortality decreases with time since injection.

  1. Towards an Explanation of Subjective Ketamine Experiences among Young Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    LANKENAU, STEPHEN E.; SANDERS, BILL; BLOOM, JENNIFER JACKSON; HATHAZI, DODI

    2008-01-01

    Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic with powerful sedative and hallucinogenic properties. Despite the wide variability in reported subjective experiences, no study has attempted to describe the particular factors that shape these experiences. This manuscript is based upon a sample of 213 young injection drug users recruited in New York, New Orleans, and Los Angeles with histories of ketamine use. Qualitative interviews focused on specific ketamine events, such as first injection of ketamine, most recent injection of ketamine, and most recent experience sniffing ketamine. Findings indicate that six factors impacted both positive and negative ketamine experiences: polydrug use, drug using history, mode of administration, quantity and quality of ketamine, user group, and setting. Most subjective experiences during any given ketamine event were shaped by a combination of these factors. Additionally, subjective ketamine experiences were particularly influenced by a lifestyle characterized by homelessness and traveling. PMID:18941540

  2. Hepatitis C virus risk behaviors within the partnerships of young injecting drug users

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Judith A.; Evans, Jennifer L.; Davidson, Peter J.; Lum, Paula J.; Page, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Aims Young injection drug users (IDU) are at high risk for hepatitis C virus (HCV). We sought to determine whether perceiving one's injecting partner to be HCV positive was associated with decreased odds of engaging in receptive needle/syringe sharing (RNS) or ancillary equipment sharing (AES) with that partner. Design We conducted a cross-sectional study from 2003 to 2007 in San Francisco (n=212 participants) to examine whether perceived partner HCV status was associated with RNS and AES within injecting partnerships (n=492 partnerships) of young (under age 30) IDU who are HCV antibody negative. Findings RNS and AES (in the absence of RNS) occurred in 23% and 66% of injecting partnerships in the prior month. The odds of engaging in RNS were significantly lower for relationships in which the participant reported that his/her partner was HCV positive (odds ratio [OR] 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25-0.95). This association was attenuated when adjusted for reusing one's own needle/syringe (adjusted OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.28-1.15). The odds of engaging in AES were lower for participants who did not know the HCV status of their partner, only among non-sexual partnerships (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.29-0.76). Conclusions Because perceiving one's partner to be HCV positive was associated with decreased RNS, increased HCV testing and partner disclosure may be warranted. AES was common and was decreased only among non-sexual partnerships in which the HCV status of the partner was not known. This suggests that interventions to reduce AES in young IDU must be widespread. PMID:20491725

  3. Changes in the Prevalence of Injection Drug Use Among Adolescents and Young Adults in Large U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sudip; Tempalski, Barbara; Pouget, Enrique R.; Cooper, Hannah L. F.; Cleland, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Young injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for acquiring blood-borne diseases like HIV and Hepatitis C. Little is known about the population prevalence of young IDUs. We (1) estimate annual population prevalence rates of young IDUs (aged 15–29) per 10,000 in 95 large U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) from 1992 to 2002; (2) assess the validity of these estimates; and (3) explore whether injection drug use among youth in these MSAs began to rise after HAART was discovered. A linear mixed model (LMM) estimated the annual population prevalence of young IDUs in each MSA and described trends therein. The population prevalence of IDUs among youths across 95 MSAs increased from 1996 (mean = 95.64) to 2002 (mean = 115.59). Additional analyses of the proportion of young IDUs using health services suggest this increase may have continued after 2002. Harm reduction and prevention research and programs for young IDUs are needed. PMID:21739288

  4. Confronting the Emerging Epidemic of HCV Infection Among Young Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Khalsa, Jag; Dan, Corinna; Holmberg, Scott; Zibbell, Jon; Holtzman, Deborah; Lubran, Robert; Compton, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus infection is a significant public health problem in the United States and an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Recent reports document HCV infection increases among young injection drug users in several US regions, associated with America’s prescription opioid abuse epidemic. Incident HCV infection increases among young injectors who have recently transitioned from oral opioid abuse present an important public health challenge requiring a comprehensive, community-based response. We summarize recommendations from a 2013 Office of HIV/AIDS and Infectious Disease Policy convening of experts in epidemiology, behavioral science, drug prevention and treatment, and other research; community service providers; and federal, state, and local government representatives. Their observations highlight gaps in our surveillance, program, and research portfolios and advocate a syndemic approach to this emerging public health problem. PMID:24625174

  5. Recruiting and Retaining Mobile Young Injection Drug Users in a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Hathazi, Dodi; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal studies that research homeless persons or transient drug users face particular challenges in retaining subjects. Between 2005 and 2006, 101 mobile young injection drug users were recruited in Los Angeles into a 2-year longitudinal study. Several features of ethnographic methodology, including fieldwork and qualitative interviews, and modifications to the original design, such as toll-free calls routed directly to ethnographer cell phones and wiring incentive payments, resulted in retention of 78% of subjects for the first follow-up interview. Longitudinal studies that are flexible and based upon qualitative methodologies are more likely to retain mobile subjects while also uncovering emergent research findings. PMID:20222779

  6. Osteoarthritis in Young, Active, and Athletic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Amoako, Adae O; Pujalte, George Guntur A

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most devastating chronic conditions that affect people around the world. Although the usual population associated with the condition is the elderly, who are mostly inactive, athletes and younger individuals are also susceptible. Depending on the population, the etiology may differ; injuries, occupational activities, and obesity appear to be the most common causes of OA in young and athletic populations. Diagnosing OA in athletes and young individuals is sometimes challenging because of their increased pain tolerance. However, the treatment of OA in these populations does not differ from its management in the general population. Several considerations need to be taken into account when choosing a treatment modality. The purpose of this review is to address OA in athletes and younger individuals and to discuss its presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24899825

  7. Socialization agents and activities of young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Arnon, Sara; Shamai, Shmuel; Ilatov, Zinaida

    2008-01-01

    Research examined the relative importance of peer groups for young adolescents as compared with diverse adult socialization agents--family, school, and community. The factors involved were teenagers' activities, preferences, feelings, and thoughts as to how they spend their leisure time, their preferences for help providers, and their sense of attachment to their community. These comparisons were made with religious and non-religious youngsters, in both rural and urban communities, and in gender subgroups. Questionnaires were administered to teenagers at secondary schools in a northern peripheral region of Israel. Findings showed the primary importance of peer groups and family in leisure activities and support, and the secondary importance of school and community. No evidence was found of a sharp generation gap. Community could also be significant if its organizations accepted youth as a peer group, and not only individually, on an equal and cooperating basis.

  8. Parental Influence on Young Children's Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zecevic, Cheryl A.; Tremblay, Line; Lovsin, Tanya; Michel, Lariviere

    2010-01-01

    Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA) behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys). Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B = .78, P < .10) and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B = .69, P < .05) were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B = −.08, P < .01), having older parents (B = −.26, P < .01), and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B = 1.55, P < .01) reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B = 1.44, P < .05). Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits. PMID:20671967

  9. Young Children: Active Learners in a Technological Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, June L., Ed.; Shade, Daniel D., Ed.

    This book addresses the issues of appropriate use of computers with young children and how children and early childhood educators interact with the computer in early childhood settings. Part 1, "Young Children as Active Learners," contains chapter 1: "Listen to the Children: Observing Young Children's Discoveries with the Microcomputer" (June L.…

  10. The Everyday Violence of Hepatitis C Among Young Women Who Inject Drugs in San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Bourgois, Philippe; Prince, Bridget; Moss, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical understanding of the gendered contours of structural, everyday and symbolic violence suggests that young addicted women are particularly vulnerable to the infectious diseases caused by injection drug use—especially hepatitis C. Participant-observation fieldwork among heroin and speed addicts in San Francisco’s Haight Ashbury neighborhood reveals that extreme levels of violence against women are normalized in the common sense of street-youth drug culture. Physical, sexual and emotional violence, as well as the pragmatics of income generation, including drug and resource sharing in the moral economy of street addicts, oblige most young homeless women to enter into relationships with older men. These relationships are usually abusive and economically parasitical to the women. Sexual objectification and a patriarchal romantic discourse of love and moral worth leads to the misrecognition of gender power inequities by both the men and women who are embroiled in them, as well as by many of the public services and research projects designed to help or control substance abusers. Despite deep epistemological, theoretical and logistical gulfs between quantitative and qualitative methods, applied public health research and the interventions they inform can benefit from the insights provided by a theoretical and cross-methodological focus on how social power contexts shape the spread of infectious disease and promote disproportional levels of social suffering in vulnerable populations. PMID:16685288

  11. Well Researched, Yet Little Understood: Young Adults and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cothran, Donetta; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2005-01-01

    The authors present two beginning studies. One investigated the teaching-style preferences of young adults, and the other looked at physical activity trends within this age group. One key to understanding young adults and physical activity is to recognize the importance of participant cognition on physical activity patterns. From this…

  12. Ideas Exchange: "How Important Is Activity in Young Children (Preschool) to a Lifetime of Physical Activity?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hushman, GLenn; Morrison, Jaime; Mally, Kristi; McCall, Renee; Corso, Marjorie; Kamla, Jim; Magnotta, John; Chase, Melissa A.; Garrahy, Deborah A.; Lorenzi, David G.; Barnd, Sue

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the opinions of several professionals who were asked: "How important is activity in young children (preschool) to a lifetime of physical activity?" These professionals point out the importance of physical activity to young children.

  13. Electron beam injection during active experiments. I - Electromagnetic wave emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.; Kellogg, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    The wave emissions produced in Echo 7 experiment by active injections of electron beams were investigated to determine the properties of the electromagnetic and electrostatic fields for both the field-aligned and cross-field injection in such experiments and to evaluate the sources of free energy and relative efficiencies for the generation of the VLF and HF emissions. It is shown that, for typical beam energies in active experiments, electromagnetic effects do not substantially change the bulk properties of the beam, spacecraft charging, and plasma particle acceleration. Through simulations, beam-generated whistlers; fundamental z-mode and harmonic x-mode radiation; and electrostatic electron-cyclotron, upper-hybrid, Langmuir, and lower-hybrid waves were identified. The characteristics of the observed wave spectra were found to be sensitive to both the ratio of the electron plasma frequency to the cyclotron frequency and the angle of injection relative to the magnetic field.

  14. Activated carbon injection - a mercury control success story

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    Almost 100 full-scale activated carbon injection (ACI) systems have been ordered by US electric utilities. These systems have the potential to remove over 90% of the mercury in flue, at a cost below $10,000 per pound of mercury removal. Field trials of ACI systems arm outlined. 1 fig.

  15. Tests of ionospheric control of young injection events identified from magnetometer observations at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivelson, M.; Jia, X.

    2015-12-01

    Kennelly et al. (2013) reported that young plasma injection events observed in Saturn's nightside magnetosphere and identified from plasma wave signatures are modulated at the period associated with the winter hemisphere. In a system unstable to interchange, radial motion of flux tubes is constrained by the "line-tying" effect of high ionospheric conductance (Southwood and Kivelson, 1989). Slippage of a flux tube would then occur initially in the hemisphere in which the ionospheric conductance is lowest. Saturn's ionospheric conductances vary not only with season, but also with rotation phase because of the presence of a pattern of rotating field-aligned currents that drive "planetary period oscillations" (Jia and Kivelson, 2012). The conductance should minimize near the center of the downward current region and, at this rotation phase in the winter hemisphere, the growth rate of the instability would be largest, accounting for control by the northern period. With motion starting in the winter hemisphere, the flux tube would develop a tilt of predictable sense and the initial inward motion of the interchanging flux tube would occur at a specific rotation phase of the winter ionosphere. For a subset of the Kennelly events, we found that the tilt and phase are consistent with expectations based on the control of displacement by ionospheric conductance. Many additional young interchange events have been identified by K. K. Khurana [personal communication, 2015] whom we thank for making the list available. We examine this more extensive set of events and use them to investigate the proposed mechanism more fully. __________ Jia, X., and M. G. Kivelson (2012), J. Geophys. Res., 117, A11219. Kennelly, T. J., J. S. Leisner, G. B. Hospodarsky, and D. A. Gurnett (2013), J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 118, 832-838. Kivelson, M., and X. Jia (2014), , AGU Fall meeting, 2014, SM51E-4295. Southwood, D. J., and M. G. Kivelson (1989), J. Geophys. Res., 94, 299-308.

  16. Young Age Predicts Poor Antiretroviral Adherence and Viral Load Suppression Among Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Hadland, Scott E.; Milloy, M.-J.; Kerr, Thomas; Zhang, Ruth; Guillemi, Silvia; Hogg, Robert S.; Montaner, Julio S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV among young injection drug users (IDU) have been limited because financial barriers to care disproportionately affect youth, thus confounding results. This study examines adherence among IDU in a unique setting where all medical care is provided free-of-charge. From May 1996 to April 2008, we followed a prospective cohort of 545 HIV-positive IDU of 18 years of age or older in Vancouver, Canada. Using generalized estimating equations (GEE), we studied the association between age and adherence (obtaining ART≥95% of the prescribed time), controlling for potential confounders. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we also studied the effect of age on time to viral load suppression (<500 copies per milliliter), and examined adherence as a mediating variable. Five hundred forty-five participants were followed for a median of 23.8 months (interquartile range [IQR]=8.5–91.6 months). Odds of adherence were significantly lower among younger IDU (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.76 per 10 years younger; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65–0.89). Younger IDU were also less likely to achieve viral load suppression (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]=0.75 per 10 years younger; 95% CI, 0.64–0.88). Adding adherence to the model eliminated this association with age, supporting the role of adherence as a mediating variable. Despite absence of financial barriers, younger IDU remain less likely to adhere to ART, resulting in inferior viral load suppression. Interventions should carefully address the unique needs of young HIV-positive IDU. PMID:22429003

  17. Risk Factors for HCV Infection Among Young Adults in Rural New York Who Inject Prescription Opioid Analgesics

    PubMed Central

    Hart-Malloy, Rachel; Barry, John; Fan, Lillian; Flanigan, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated a cluster of new hepatitis C cases in rural New York among a cohort of young people who inject drugs (PWID) and misuse prescription opioid analgesics (POA). Methods. We recruited a purposive sample of PWID from Cortland County for an in-person survey and HCV rapid antibody test (March–July 2012). We examined sociodemographics, drugs currently injected, and lifetime and recent injection behaviors to ascertain associations with HCV antibody (anti-HCV) positivity. Results. Of 123 PWID, 76 (61.8%) were younger than 30 years, and 100 (81.3%) received HCV rapid testing. Of those tested, 34 (34.0%) were positive. Participants who reported injecting POA in the past 12 months were 5 times more likely to be anti-HCV positive than those who injected drugs other than POA, and participants who reported sharing injection equipment in the past 12 months were roughly 4 times more likely to be anti-HCV positive than those who did not. Conclusions. Our analysis suggests people injecting POA may be at higher risk for HCV infection than people who inject heroin or other drugs but not POA. PMID:25211717

  18. Quality investigation of hydroxyprogesterone caproate active pharmaceutical ingredient and injection

    PubMed Central

    Chollet, John L.; Jozwiakowski, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of hydroxyprogesterone caproate (HPC) active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) sources that may be used by compounding pharmacies, compared to the FDA-approved source of the API; and to investigate the quality of HPC injection samples obtained from compounding pharmacies in the US, compared to the FDA-approved product (Makena®). Samples of API were obtained from every source confirmed to be an original manufacturer of the drug for human use, which were all companies in China that were not registered with FDA. Eight of the ten API samples (80%) did not meet the impurity specifications required by FDA for the API used in the approved product. One API sample was found to not be HPC at all; additional laboratory testing showed that it was glucose. Thirty samples of HPC injection obtained from com pounding pharmacies throughout the US were also tested, and eight of these samples (27%) failed to meet the potency requirement listed in the USP monograph for HPC injection and/or the HPLC assay. Sixteen of the thirty injection samples (53%) exceeded the impurity limit setforthe FDA-approved drug product. These results confirm the inconsistency of compounded HPC Injections and suggest that the risk-benefit ratio of using an unapproved compounded preparation, when an FDA-approved drug product is available, is not favorable. PMID:22329865

  19. Correlates of Lifetime Physical Activity in Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Lorraine Silver

    2003-01-01

    This study retrospectively examined physical activity patterns across three specific age periods (childhood, teenage, and young adulthood) in a cross sectional sample of young Caucasian undergraduate women (N = 44). All women (mean age = 22.27 plus or minus 3.14 years) completed questionnaire packets assessing transtheoretical model of behavior…

  20. Short-term, high-dose administration of corticosterone by injection facilitates trace eyeblink conditioning in young male rats.

    PubMed

    Wentworth-Eidsaune, Christine L; Hennessy, Michael B; Claflin, Dragana I

    2016-02-01

    Glucocorticoids released as part of the physiological response to stress are known to affect cognitive function, presumably via effects on the hippocampus. Trace classical eyeblink conditioning is an associative learning task which depends on the hippocampus and has been used to examine the development of learning processes in young mammals. Previously, we demonstrated deficits in trace eyeblink conditioning associated with postnatal administration of the glucocorticoid corticosterone by creating a sustained elevation with methods such as subcutaneous timed-release pellets and osmotic mini-pumps which were active over several days. In the present study, we examined the effects of an oscillating pattern of corticosterone elevation on subsequent trace eyeblink conditioning. Twice daily corticosterone injections (high, low, or vehicle) were administered over a 3-day period, starting at postnatal day 15. Then, on postnatal day 28, animals underwent trace classical eyeblink conditioning to examine the possible influence of earlier corticosterone elevations on the development of learning and memory. Eyeblink conditioning was affected by corticosterone treatments, but only for males, and only very early in acquisition; Males receiving the high dose of corticosterone exhibited facilitation of learning relative to controls. These data demonstrate that oscillating corticosterone elevations produce opposite effects on this associative learning task than do sustained elevations.

  1. Quasars: Active nuclei of young galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komberg, B. V.

    1980-01-01

    The hypothetical properties of 'young' galaxies and possible methods of observing them are discussed. It is proposed that star formation first takes place in the central regions of protogalaxies which may appear as quasar-like objects. An evolutionary scheme is outlined in which the radio quasars are transformed in time into the nuclei of radio galaxies.

  2. Young

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, jumps up from the lunar surface as he salutes the U.S. Flag at the Descartes landing site during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1). Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this picture. The Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' is on the left. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked beside the LM. The object behind Young in the shade of the LM is the Far Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph. Stone Mountain dominates the background in this lunar scene.

  3. USE OF AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO EVALUATE YOUNG CHILDREN'S ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Linking a young child's activity pattern data with the environmental, biological, and personal samples that are collected during an exposure assessment is important in evaluating potential exposures and dose associated with environmental contaminants. A number of different appro...

  4. Methylphenidate treatment increases Na(+), K (+)-ATPase activity in the cerebrum of young and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Emilene B S; Matté, Cristiane; Ferreira, Andréa G K; Gomes, Karin M; Comim, Clarissa M; Mattos, Cristiane; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L; Wyse, Angela T S

    2009-12-01

    Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is a membrane-bound enzyme necessary to maintain neuronal excitability. Considering that methylphenidate effects on central nervous system metabolism are poorly known and that Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is essential to normal brain function, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of this drug on Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in the cerebrum of young and adult rats. For acute administration, a single injection of methylphenidate (1.0, 2.0, or 10.0 mg/Kg) or saline was given to rats on postnatal day 25 or postnatal day 60, in the young and adult groups, respectively. For chronic administration, methylphenidate (1.0, 2.0, or 10.0 mg/Kg) or saline injections were given to young rats starting at postnatal day 25 once daily for 28 days. In adult rats, the same regimen was performed starting at postnatal day 60. Our results showed that acute methylphenidate administration increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum of young and adult rats. In young rats, chronic administration of methylphenidate also enhanced Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, but not in striatum. When tested in adult rats, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity was increased in all cerebral structures studied. The present findings suggest that increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity may be associated with neuronal excitability caused by methylphenidate.

  5. Injection drug use and hepatitis C virus infection in young adult injectors: using evidence to inform comprehensive prevention.

    PubMed

    Page, Kimberly; Morris, Meghan D; Hahn, Judith A; Maher, Lisa; Prins, Maria

    2013-08-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) virus epidemic is ongoing in the United States and globally. Incidence rates remain high, especially in young adult injection drug users. New outbreaks of HCV in the United States among young adults, in predominantly suburban and rural areas, have emerged and may be fueling an increase in HCV. This paper discusses some key HCV prevention strategies that to date have not been widely researched or implemented, and wherein future HCV prevention efforts may be focused: (1) reducing sharing of drug preparation equipment; (2) HCV screening, and testing and counseling; (3) risk reduction within injecting relationships; (4) injection cessation and "breaks"; (5) scaled-up needle/syringe distribution, HCV treatment, and vaccines, according to suggestions from mathematical models; and (6) "combination prevention." With ongoing and expanding transmission of HCV, there is little doubt that there is a need for implementing what is in the prevention "toolbox" as well as adding to it. Strong advocacy and resources are needed to overcome challenges to providing the multiple and comprehensive programs that could reduce HCV transmission and associated burden of disease worldwide in people who inject drugs. PMID:23884063

  6. Mortality among young injection drug users in San Francisco: a 10-year follow-up of the UFO study.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jennifer L; Tsui, Judith I; Hahn, Judith A; Davidson, Peter J; Lum, Paula J; Page, Kimberly

    2012-02-15

    This study examined associations between mortality and demographic and risk characteristics among young injection drug users in San Francisco, California, and compared the mortality rate with that of the population. A total of 644 young (<30 years) injection drug users completed a baseline interview and were enrolled in a prospective cohort study, known as the UFO ("U Find Out") Study, from November 1997 to December 2007. Using the National Death Index, the authors identified 38 deaths over 4,167 person-years of follow-up, yielding a mortality rate of 9.1 (95% confidence interval: 6.6, 12.5) per 1,000 person-years. This mortality rate was 10 times that of the general population. The leading causes of death were overdose (57.9%), self-inflicted injury (13.2%), trauma/accidents (10.5%), and injection drug user-related medical conditions (13.1%). Mortality incidence was significantly higher among those who reported injecting heroin most days in the past month (adjusted hazard ratio = 5.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 24.3). The leading cause of death in this group was overdose, and primary use of heroin was the only significant risk factor for death observed in the study. These findings highlight the continued need for public health interventions that address the risk of overdose in this population in order to reduce premature deaths. PMID:22227793

  7. Mortality among young injection drug users in San Francisco: a 10-year follow-up of the UFO study.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jennifer L; Tsui, Judith I; Hahn, Judith A; Davidson, Peter J; Lum, Paula J; Page, Kimberly

    2012-02-15

    This study examined associations between mortality and demographic and risk characteristics among young injection drug users in San Francisco, California, and compared the mortality rate with that of the population. A total of 644 young (<30 years) injection drug users completed a baseline interview and were enrolled in a prospective cohort study, known as the UFO ("U Find Out") Study, from November 1997 to December 2007. Using the National Death Index, the authors identified 38 deaths over 4,167 person-years of follow-up, yielding a mortality rate of 9.1 (95% confidence interval: 6.6, 12.5) per 1,000 person-years. This mortality rate was 10 times that of the general population. The leading causes of death were overdose (57.9%), self-inflicted injury (13.2%), trauma/accidents (10.5%), and injection drug user-related medical conditions (13.1%). Mortality incidence was significantly higher among those who reported injecting heroin most days in the past month (adjusted hazard ratio = 5.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 24.3). The leading cause of death in this group was overdose, and primary use of heroin was the only significant risk factor for death observed in the study. These findings highlight the continued need for public health interventions that address the risk of overdose in this population in order to reduce premature deaths.

  8. Elephants and Their Young: Science and Math Activities for Young Children. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echols, Jean C.; Kopp, Jaine; Blinderman, Ellen

    This book contains a series of playful activities in which young children actively learn about the African elephant's body structure, family life, and social behavior. Children make model elephants out of paper and cardboard, then devise elephant puppets with sock trunks as well as create models of elephant's ears, trunks, tusks, make elephant…

  9. Physical Activity Patterns of Young Women Post-College Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

    2008-01-01

    Americans need more physical activity in their daily routines. There are numerous physical as well as psychological benefits that can be credited to regular physical activity. The purpose of this research was to examine the physical activity patterns of young women, post-college graduation. The average woman in this study exercised 22 minutes per…

  10. Out-of-School Science Activities for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, R. A.

    This handbook represents an attempt by UNESCO to give a broad picture of the kinds of out-of-school activities that are designed to engage the participation of young people in different parts of the world. Out-of-school activities, as used in this publication, refers to educational activities undertaken or done outside the formal teaching periods…

  11. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS) for interventional tool guidance.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M

    2014-01-01

    Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking.

  12. Flow-injection-type biosensor system for salivary amylase activity.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Kanemaru, Masashi; Kanemori, Takahiro; Mizuno, Yasufumi

    2003-05-01

    The authors aim to establish a method that can quantitatively evaluate vital reactions to stress. We have been examining the correlation between stress and salivary amylase activity in order to verify its validity as a stress index. In order to quantify human stress, which changes over time, the relationship between stress and salivary amylase activity must be verified by fast and repeated analysis of salivary amylase activity. Standard biosensors are designed such that the enzyme immobilized on an electrode (enzyme electrode) and the substrate-dependent activity is measured. The reverse approach of measuring the alpha-amylase-dependent activity was adopted. We fabricated an amylase activity analytical system. Maltopentaose was selected as a substrate for alpha-amylase and a flow-injection-type device was used to supply maltopentaose continuously. alpha-Glucosidase, having relatively low enzyme activity, was immobilized on a pre-activated membrane so that it could be enclosed in a pre-column, Glucose oxidase, having higher enzyme activity, was immobilized on a working electrode so that it could function as an amperometric biosensor. A saliva-collecting device was fabricated to make saliva pretreatment unnecessary. As a result, an amylase activity analytical system was fabricated that enabled us to measure salivary amylase activity from 0 to 30 kU/l, with an R(2) value of 0.97. The time-course changes in the salivary amylase activities for 1 week were 5.1%, and the initial sensitivity remained nearly constant. Through this study, we were able to verify the possible development of the amylase activity analytical system.

  13. Motion Sensor Reactivity in Physically Active Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether young adults changed their physical activity (PA) behavior when wearing motion sensors. PA patterns of 119 young adults (M age = 20.82 years, SD = 1.50, M body mass index = 23.93 kg/m[superscript 2] , SD = 4.05) were assessed during 2 consecutive weeks. In Week 1, participants wore an accelerometer.…

  14. Cost and performance of activated carbon injection for mercury control

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-15

    Activated carbon injection (ACI) is one technology being developed to absorb mercury from mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants. In 2003/04, the USDOE and NETL selected 14 projects to test and evaluate mercury control technologies. While field testing is still ongoing, DOE/NETL recently completed an economic analysis of mercury control for six test sites spanning three ACI variations - conventional powdered activated carbon (PAC), brominated PAC and conventional PAC combined with a sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) applied to the coal. To evaluate the progress of the field testing program and discern the performance of ACI, a data adjustment methodology was developed to account for baseline methane capture. This data were used to perform economic analyses to achieve low, mid and high levels of mercury control. The costs are given in the article. Full details are available on the DOE/NETL website, www.netl.doe.gov. 2 figs., 1 photo.

  15. Designing Instructional Activities for Young Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaczmarek, Louise A.; Dell, Amy Glasser

    1981-01-01

    Proposed are several new directions that encourage the variety and flexibility of haphazard teaching and the precision of one objective-one activity teaching in the design of activities for handicapped preschoolers. Journal availability: see EC 133 846. (Author)

  16. The measurement of physical activity in young children.

    PubMed

    Noland, M; Danner, F; DeWalt, K; McFadden, M; Kotchen, J M

    1990-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the validity of various measures of physical activity in young children. In Study 1, 21 preschool children were utilized to explore how well measures of children's activity obtained from parents, teachers, and the children predicted observed behavior at school and in the home. Study 2 (n = 51 preschool children) focused on the predictive validity of the Caltrac motion sensor. In both studies, detailed minute-by-minute ratings of children's activity in Study 1 were generally ineffective in predicting observed physical activity. Children's activity preferences, however, were significantly related to the proportion of high intensity physical activity performed. In Study 2, there was a significant relationship (r = .86, p less than .0001) between Caltrac readings and observed physical activity. This correlation was similar for boys and girls, normal and overweight children, and younger and older children. These findings suggest that the Caltrac monitor may provide a valid index of individual differences in physical activity in young children.

  17. Physical Activity among Young People in the Context of Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telama, Risto; Nupponen, Heimo; Pieron, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    The promotion of a healthy lifestyle is the main goal of physical education in many countries. However, very little is known about the relationship between different lifestyles and physical activity patterns among young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lifestyle and physical activity among 12- and…

  18. Investigation of a secondary syringe exchange program for homeless young adult injection drug users in San Francisco, California, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Sears, C; Guydish, J R; Weltzien, E K; Lum, P J

    2001-06-01

    This study investigated an HIV prevention program for homeless young adult injection drug users (IDUs) that combined a secondary syringe exchange program (SEP) with community-level activities. Homeless young IDUs were recruited from street-based settings in San Francisco, and a structured questionnaire was administered. The secondary SEP operated in a circumscribed geographic area, and for analytic purposes respondents were assigned to the intervention site group if they primarily spent time in this area (n = 67), or the comparison site group if they primarily spent time elsewhere (n = 55). Almost all (96%) intervention site youth had used the secondary SEP in the past 30 days and were significantly more likely to regularly use SEP. In bivariate analysis, comparison site IDUs were more likely to share syringes, reuse syringes, share the cotton used to filter drugs, and use condoms with casual sex partners only inconsistently. In multivariate analysis, comparison site remained positively associated with sharing syringes (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.748; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.406-9.988), reusing syringes (AOR, 2.769; 95% CI,1.120-6.847), and inconsistent condom use with casual sex partners (AOR, 4.825; 95% CI, 1.392- 16.721). This suggests that the intervention was effective in delivering SEP services to homeless young adult IDUs, and that IDUs who frequented the intervention site had a lower HIV risk than comparison group IDUs.

  19. Weather Watchers--Activities for Young Meteorologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Fran

    1989-01-01

    Describes science activities which were adapted from a teacher's guide entitled "For Spacious Skies" and contains resources for interdisciplinary weather studies. Includes studying properties of air, gravity, cloud movement, humidity, tornadoes, and weather instruments. (RT)

  20. Daily activities and sleep quality in young adults.

    PubMed

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Pichler-Mowry, Rene

    2011-04-01

    Daily activity levels were investigated as related to sleep quality in young adult college students aged 18 to 30 years. 85 participants (20 men, 65 women) completed the Young Adult Daily Activity Scale (YADAS). This 37-item checklist has 34 items based on focus group discussion points of college students' typical daily activities and three blank items for students to include their daily activities if not in the listing. The tabulation of type and amount of waking daily activities represents a unique measurement of factors that may affect sleep quality. The participants also rated their typical sleep quality using a standard 5-point scale (low indicating poor sleep). Correlations of sleep ratings and activities were not significant. PMID:21667753

  1. Randomised comparison between adrenaline injection alone and adrenaline injection plus heat probe treatment for actively bleeding ulcers.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, S. S.; Lau, J. Y.; Sung, J. J.; Chan, A. C.; Lai, C. W.; Ng, E. K.; Chan, F. K.; Yung, M. Y.; Li, A. K.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare endoscopic adrenaline injection alone and adrenaline injection plus heat probe for the treatment of actively bleeding peptic ulcers. DESIGN: Randomised prospective study of patients admitted with actively bleeding peptic ulcers. SETTING: One university hospital. SUBJECTS: 276 patients with actively bleeding ulcers detected by endoscopy within 24 hours of admission: 136 patients were randomised to endoscopic adrenaline injection alone and 140 to adrenaline injection plus heat probe treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Initial endoscopic haemostasis; clinical rebleeding; requirement for operation; requirement for blood transfusion; hospital stay, ulcer healing at four weeks; and mortality in hospital. RESULTS: Initial haemostasis was achieved in 131/134 patients (98%) who received adrenaline injection alone and 135/136 patients (99%) who received additional heat probe treatment (P = 0.33). Outcome as measured by clinical rebleeding (12 v 5), requirement for emergency operation (14 v 8), blood transfusion (2 v 3 units), hospital stay (4 v 4 days), ulcer healing at four weeks (79.1% v 74%), and in hospital mortality (7 v 8) were not significantly different in the two groups. In the subgroup of patients with spurting haemorrhage 8/27 (29.6%; 14.5% to 50.3%) patients from the adrenaline injection alone group and 2/31 (6.5%; 1.1% to 22.9%) patients from the dual treatment group required operative intervention. The relative risk of this was lower in the dual treatment group (0.17; 0.03 to 0.87). Hospital stay was significantly shorter in the dual treatment group than the adrenaline injection alone group (4 v 6 days, P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: The addition of heat probe treatment after endoscopic adrenaline injection confers an advantage in ulcers with spurting haemorrhage. PMID:9158465

  2. Latent and Active Tuberculosis: Evaluation of Injecting Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Mamani, Mojgan; Majzoobi, Mohammad Mahdi; Torabian, Saadat; Mihan, Ronak; Alizadeh, Kamyab

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a high risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection among injecting drug users (IDUs). Objectives This study aimed to determine the frequency of latent and active TB infection among IDUs. Materials and Methods In a cross-sectional study between 2008 and 2009, IDUs referred to the methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) centers in Hamedan-Iran, undergone tuberculin skin test (PPD; purified protein derivative) were recruited. The participants with positive results for PPD test (> 5 mm and > 10 mm in HIV positive and negative cases), undergone other complementary procedures such as chest-X-ray and sputum smear test. Results Overall, 268 IDUs between 18 and 70 (mean: 34.5 [8.2]) years were included in the study. PPD test had positive findings in 49 cases (18.3%). There was no significant difference of PPD positivity between HIV positive and negative participants (17.7% vs. 18.5%). An active TB was found among IDUs. Conclusions The high prevalence of latent and active TB among IDUs indicates the need for TB screening tests among this population. PMID:24616784

  3. Team Building Activities for Young Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Team building activities are an excellent way to challenge students and teach them the critical communication and problem solving skills that encourage trust, empathy, and ability to work together. They create an atmosphere that enhances the ability to meet fitness and skill goals because students, regardless of skill level, will possess increased…

  4. 474 Science Activities for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Moira D.

    This book uses a child-initiated, whole language approach to help children have fun while exploring the world of science. The activities are divided into 23 units. Each unit begins with an "Attention Getter," the purpose of which is to introduce the unit to children in a way that grabs their attention, stimulates their interest, and creates…

  5. Prevalence of skin problems and leg ulceration in a sample of young injecting drug users

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug users suffer harm from the injecting process, and clinical services are reporting increasing numbers presenting with skin-related problems such as abscesses and leg ulcers. Skin breakdown can lead to long-term health problems and increased service costs and is often the first indication of serious systemic ill health. The extent of skin problems in injecting drug users has not previously been quantified empirically, and there is a dearth of robust topical literature. Where skin problems have been reported, this is often without clear definition and generic terms such as ‘soft tissue infection’ are used which lack specificity. The aim of this study was to identify the range and extent of skin problems including leg ulceration in a sample of injecting drug users. Definitions of skin problems were developed and applied to descriptions from drug users to improve rigour. Methods Data were collected in needle exchanges and methadone clinics across Glasgow, Scotland, from both current and former drug injectors using face-to-face interviews. Results Two hundred participants were recruited, of which 74% (n = 148) were males and 26% (n = 52) were females. The age range was 21–44 years (mean 35 years). Just under two thirds (64%, n = 127) were currently injecting or had injected within the last 6 months, and 36% (n = 73) had previously injected and had not injected for more than 6 months. Sixty per cent (n = 120) of the sample had experienced a skin problem, and the majority reported more than one problem. Most common were abscesses, lumps, track marks and leg ulcers. Fifteen per cent (n = 30) of all participants reported having had a leg ulcer. Conclusions This is an original empirical study which demonstrated unique findings of a high prevalence of skin disease (60%) and surprisingly high rates of leg ulceration (15%). Skin disease in injecting drug users is clearly widespread. Leg ulceration in particular is a chronic recurring

  6. Novel Ideas for Young Readers! Projects and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuta, Katherine Wiesolek; Zernial, Susan

    This book offers 60 stimulating, classroom-tested activities to instill a love of literature and help young learners develop as readers, writers, and speakers. By using picture books, novels, or even nonfiction readings as starting points, the reproducible worksheets in the book can be implemented to strengthen students' entire spectrum of…

  7. The Young Astrophysicist: A Very Inexpensive Activity to Discuss Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockington, Guilherme; Testoni, Leonardo André; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2015-01-01

    The continuing fascination of young people with celestial bodies leads them to pose challenging questions to their science teachers, such as how was the universe born? How were the stars formed? In this paper we present an extremely inexpensive but highly engaging activity to teach the basics of spectroscopy. Guided by the question "how do…

  8. Young Adolescents' Perceptions of Romantic Relationships and Sexual Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Heather R.; Keller, Mary L.; Heidrich, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe young adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationships, ratings of important romantic partner characteristics, and acceptability of sexual activity with romantic relationships. Fifty-seven eighth-grade participants (average age = 13.8 years) from one urban US public middle school completed an anonymous…

  9. Young Asian Women Experiences of the Summer Activities Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Interviews and observations focused on experiences of 15 young Asian women at a 5-day summer adventure program in southern England. Participants seemed bored with presentations about future career options, activities lost their challenge through repetition, and debriefing was weak. However, the women connected with the transferable skills of trust…

  10. Activity and Imagined Activity Can Enhance Young Children's Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenberg, Arthur M.; Gutierrez, Tiana; Levin, Joel R.; Japuntich, Sandra; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    The Indexical Hypothesis suggests a new method for enhancing children's reading comprehension. Young readers may not consistently "index," or map, words to the objects the words represent. Consequently, these readers fail to derive much meaning from the text. The instructional method involves manipulating toy objects referred to in the text (e.g.,…

  11. Similar time restriction for intracytoplasmic sperm injection and round spermatid injection into activated oocytes for efficient offspring production.

    PubMed

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Sayaka; Nguyen, Van Thuan; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2004-06-01

    The injection of male haploid germ cells, such as spermatozoa and round spermatids, into preactivated mouse oocytes can result in the development of viable embryos and offspring. However, it is not clear how the timing of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and round spermatid injection (ROSI) affects the production of offspring. We carried out ICSI and ROSI every 20 min for up to 4 h after the activation of mouse oocytes by Sr(2+) and compared the late-stage development of ICSI- and ROSI- treated oocytes, including the formation of pronuclei, blastocyst formation, and offspring production. The rate of pronucleus formation (RPF) after carrying out ICSI started to decrease from >95% at 100 min following oocyte activation and declined to <20% by 180 min. In comparison, RPF by ROSI decreased gradually from >70% between 0 and 4 h after activation. The RPFs were closely correlated with blastocyst formation. Offspring production for both ICSI and ROSI decreased significantly when injections were conducted after 100 min, a time at which activated oocytes were in the early G1 stage of the cell cycle. These results suggest that spermatozoa and round spermatids have different potentials for inducing the formation of a male pronucleus in activated oocytes, but ICSI and ROSI are both subject to the same time constraint for the efficient production of offspring, which is determined by the cell cycle of the activated oocyte. PMID:14985245

  12. Development of the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort.

    PubMed

    Berg, Christine; McCollum, Mary; Cho, Esther; Jason, Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Emerging adulthood defines transition to employment, higher education, and domestic life. This study describes the development of an assessment of self-reported participation in a range of age-appropriate activities. Item selection was established from literature review, feedback from youth and professionals, the former Adolescent Activity Card Sort (AACS), and the original Activity Card Sort (ACS). Iterative item selection occurred with three separate samples of emerging adults and six professionals. Test-retest reliability was evaluated. The Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) consists of chores (11 items), leisure (13), social (10), health and fitness (9), work (10), education (8), and parenting (9). Test-retest reliability showed significant moderate to substantial Kappa agreement (.48-.85) for all domains except parenting (κ = .15). This preliminary study describes the development of the AYA-ACS to be used with individuals who encounter challenges when transitioning to young adulthood.

  13. Development of the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort.

    PubMed

    Berg, Christine; McCollum, Mary; Cho, Esther; Jason, Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Emerging adulthood defines transition to employment, higher education, and domestic life. This study describes the development of an assessment of self-reported participation in a range of age-appropriate activities. Item selection was established from literature review, feedback from youth and professionals, the former Adolescent Activity Card Sort (AACS), and the original Activity Card Sort (ACS). Iterative item selection occurred with three separate samples of emerging adults and six professionals. Test-retest reliability was evaluated. The Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) consists of chores (11 items), leisure (13), social (10), health and fitness (9), work (10), education (8), and parenting (9). Test-retest reliability showed significant moderate to substantial Kappa agreement (.48-.85) for all domains except parenting (κ = .15). This preliminary study describes the development of the AYA-ACS to be used with individuals who encounter challenges when transitioning to young adulthood. PMID:27505902

  14. Active stabilization of a diode laser injection lock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxberg, Brendan; Plotkin-Swing, Benjamin; Gupta, Subhadeep

    2016-06-01

    We report on a device to electronically stabilize the optical injection lock of a semiconductor diode laser. Our technique uses as discriminator the peak height of the laser's transmission signal on a scanning Fabry-Perot cavity and feeds back to the diode current, thereby maintaining maximum optical power in the injected mode. A two-component feedback algorithm provides constant optimization of the injection lock, keeping it robust to slow thermal drifts and allowing fast recovery from sudden failures such as temporary occlusion of the injection beam. We demonstrate the successful performance of our stabilization method in a diode laser setup at 399 nm used for laser cooling of Yb atoms. The device eases the requirements on passive stabilization and can benefit any diode laser injection lock application, particularly those where several such locks are employed.

  15. Active stabilization of a diode laser injection lock.

    PubMed

    Saxberg, Brendan; Plotkin-Swing, Benjamin; Gupta, Subhadeep

    2016-06-01

    We report on a device to electronically stabilize the optical injection lock of a semiconductor diode laser. Our technique uses as discriminator the peak height of the laser's transmission signal on a scanning Fabry-Perot cavity and feeds back to the diode current, thereby maintaining maximum optical power in the injected mode. A two-component feedback algorithm provides constant optimization of the injection lock, keeping it robust to slow thermal drifts and allowing fast recovery from sudden failures such as temporary occlusion of the injection beam. We demonstrate the successful performance of our stabilization method in a diode laser setup at 399 nm used for laser cooling of Yb atoms. The device eases the requirements on passive stabilization and can benefit any diode laser injection lock application, particularly those where several such locks are employed.

  16. Active stabilization of a diode laser injection lock.

    PubMed

    Saxberg, Brendan; Plotkin-Swing, Benjamin; Gupta, Subhadeep

    2016-06-01

    We report on a device to electronically stabilize the optical injection lock of a semiconductor diode laser. Our technique uses as discriminator the peak height of the laser's transmission signal on a scanning Fabry-Perot cavity and feeds back to the diode current, thereby maintaining maximum optical power in the injected mode. A two-component feedback algorithm provides constant optimization of the injection lock, keeping it robust to slow thermal drifts and allowing fast recovery from sudden failures such as temporary occlusion of the injection beam. We demonstrate the successful performance of our stabilization method in a diode laser setup at 399 nm used for laser cooling of Yb atoms. The device eases the requirements on passive stabilization and can benefit any diode laser injection lock application, particularly those where several such locks are employed. PMID:27370428

  17. Activation of Antioxidant Defenses in Whole Saliva by Psychosocial Stress Is More Manifested in Young Women than in Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Tsuber, Viktoriia; Kadamov, Yunus; Tarasenko, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases oxidative damage in whole saliva of young people. An examination stress caused a significant increase of catalase activity, accompanied by a decrease of levels of oxidized proteins. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances did not increase at stress, indicating that lipid peroxidation was not activated. The stress-induced alterations were more manifested in young women compared to young men. Thus, antioxidant protective mechanisms are more activated by a moderate stressor in young women than in young men. PMID:25525800

  18. Transitions in latent classes of sexual risk behavior among young injection drug users following HIV prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Ouellet, Lawrence J; Finnegan, Lorna; Hagan, Holly; Golub, Elizabeth; Latka, Mary; Wagner, Karla; Garfein, Richard S

    2014-03-01

    We analyzed data from a large randomized HIV/HCV prevention intervention trial with young injection drug users (IDUs). Using categorical latent variable analysis, we identified distinct classes of sexual behavior for men and women. We conducted a latent transition analysis to test the effect of the intervention on transitions from higher to lower risk classes. Men who were in a high-risk class at baseline who received the intervention were 86 % more likely to be in a low-risk class at follow-up compared to those in the control group (p = 0.025). High-risk intervention participants were significantly more likely to transition to the class characterized by unprotected sex with a main partner only, while low-risk intervention participants were significantly less likely to transition to that class. No intervention effect was detected on the sexual risk behavior of women, or of men who at baseline were having unprotected sex with a main partner only.

  19. Motivations associated with physical activity in young breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Voege, Patricia; Bower, Julienne E; Stanton, Annette L; Ganz, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with positive health outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, factors that promote or discourage physical activity in this population are not fully understood. This cross-sectional study was designed to examine approach and avoidance motivations, barriers for exercise, and their association with physical activity in breast cancer survivors younger than 50 years old at time of diagnosis. Current physical activity levels, approach and avoidance motivations, and barriers to exercise were assessed through self-report questionnaires in young breast cancer survivors (N = 156). Results indicated that barriers to exercise were negatively associated with physical activity (p < .01) while approach motivations were positively associated with physical activity (p < .01) and were most relevant in the context of low perceived barriers (p < .05). Avoidance motivations were not associated with physical activity (p = .91).

  20. Young Children's Help-Seeking as Active Information Gathering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vredenburgh, Christopher; Kushnir, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Young children's social learning is a topic of great interest. Here, we examined preschoolers' (M = 52.44 months, SD = 9.7 months) help-seeking as a social information gathering activity that may optimize and support children's opportunities for learning. In a toy assembly task, we assessed each child's competency at assembling toys and the…

  1. Modeling injection molding of net-shape active ceramic components.

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Tomas; Cote, Raymond O.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Yang, Pin; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Noble, David R.; Notz, Patrick K.; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Halbleib, Laura L.; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Burns, George Robert; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-11-01

    To reduce costs and hazardous wastes associated with the production of lead-based active ceramic components, an injection molding process is being investigated to replace the current machining process. Here, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic particles are suspended in a thermoplastic resin and are injected into a mold and allowed to cool. The part is then bisque fired and sintered to complete the densification process. To help design this new process we use a finite element model to describe the injection molding of the ceramic paste. Flow solutions are obtained using a coupled, finite-element based, Newton-Raphson numerical method based on the GOMA/ARIA suite of Sandia flow solvers. The evolution of the free surface is solved with an advanced level set algorithm. This approach incorporates novel methods for representing surface tension and wetting forces that affect the evolution of the free surface. Thermal, rheological, and wetting properties of the PZT paste are measured for use as input to the model. The viscosity of the PZT is highly dependent both on temperature and shear rate. One challenge in modeling the injection process is coming up with appropriate constitutive equations that capture relevant phenomenology without being too computationally complex. For this reason we model the material as a Carreau fluid and a WLF temperature dependence. Two-dimensional (2D) modeling is performed to explore the effects of the shear in isothermal conditions. Results indicate that very low viscosity regions exist near walls and that these results look similar in terms of meniscus shape and fill times to a simple Newtonian constitutive equation at the shear-thinned viscosity for the paste. These results allow us to pick a representative viscosity to use in fully three-dimensional (3D) simulation, which because of numerical complexities are restricted to using a Newtonian constitutive equation. Further 2D modeling at nonisothermal conditions shows that the choice of

  2. The Cedar Project: historical trauma, sexual abuse and HIV risk among young Aboriginal people who use injection and non-injection drugs in two Canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Cedar Project Partnership; Pearce, Margo E; Christian, Wayne M; Patterson, Katharina; Norris, Kat; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Craib, Kevin J P; Schechter, Martin T; Spittal, Patricia M

    2008-06-01

    Recent Indigenist scholarship has situated high rates of traumatic life experiences, including sexual abuse, among Indigenous peoples of North America within the larger context of their status as colonized peoples. Sexual abuse has been linked to many negative health outcomes including mental, sexual and drug-related vulnerabilities. There is a paucity of research in Canada addressing the relationship between antecedent sexual abuse and negative health outcomes among Aboriginal people including elevated risk of HIV infection. The primary objectives of this study were to determine factors associated with sexual abuse among participants of the Cedar Project, a cohort of young Aboriginal people between the ages of 14 and 30 years who use injection and non-injection drugs in two urban centres in British Columbia, Canada; and to locate findings through a lens of historical and intergenerational trauma. We utilized post-colonial perspectives in research design, problem formulation and the interpretation of results. Multivariate modeling was used to determine the extent to which a history of sexual abuse was predictive of negative health outcomes and vulnerability to HIV infection. Of the 543 eligible participants, 48% reported ever having experienced sexual abuse; 69% of sexually abused participants were female. The median age of first sexual abuse was 6 years for both female and male participants. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables and factors of historical trauma, sexually abused participants were more likely to have ever been on the streets for more than three nights, to have ever self-harmed, to have suicide ideation, to have attempted suicide, to have a diagnosis of mental illness, to have been in the emergency department within the previous 6 months, to have had over 20 lifetime sexual partners, to have ever been paid for sex and to have ever overdosed. The prevalence and consequences of sexual abuse among Cedar Project participants are of grave concern

  3. Opioid Use Trajectories, Injection Drug Use, and Hepatitis C Virus Risk Among Young Adult Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union Living in New York City.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Honoria; Marsch, Lisa A; Deren, Sherry; Straussner, Shulamith L A; Teper, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that young former Soviet Union immigrants in New York City have high rates of non-medical prescription opioid and heroin use, drug injection and injection-related risk behavior, making them vulnerable to hepatitis C virus (HCV)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, overdose and associated harms. This group has been the focus of little research, however. This paper presents quantitative and qualitative data from 80 former Soviet immigrants (ages 18-29) to characterize their opioid use trajectories, injection risk behavior, HCV/HIV testing histories and self-reported HCV/HIV serostatus, and provides clinically meaningful data to inform tailored education, prevention and harm reduction interventions.

  4. Activity and Rotation in the Young Cluster h Per

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argiroffi, C.; Caramazza, M.; Micela, G.; Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.

    2014-08-01

    We study the rotation-activity relationship for low-mass members of the young cluster h Persei, a ~13 Myr old cluster. h Per, thanks to its age, allows us to link the rotation-activity relation observed for main-sequence stars to the still unexplained activity levels of very young clusters. We constrained the activity levels of h Per members by analyzing a deep Chandra/ACIS-I observation pointed to the central field of h Per. We combined this X-ray catalog with the catalog of h Per members with measured rotational period, presented by Moraux et al. (2013). We obtained a final catalog of 202 h Per members with measured X-ray luminosity and rotational period. We investigate the rotation-activity relation of h Per members considering different mass ranges. We find that stars with 1.3 M⊙ > M 1.4 M⊙ show significant evidence of supersaturation for short periods. This phenomenon is instead not observed for lower mass stars.

  5. A TYPOLOGY OF DRUG-RELATED OFFENDING AMONG YOUNG HOMELESS INJECTION DRUG USERS

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer; Hathaz, Dodi S.

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates a link between drug use and offending, particularly amongst high-risk individuals, such as homeless youth. The extent to which such youth interpret their offending as being related to their drug use, though, is understudied. This manuscript investigates the interpretations of drug-related offenses offered by 151 primarily white, male, homeless IDUs aged 16–29 years. Youth were asked specific questions about their drug-related offenses during in-depth interviews as part of a larger study investigating health risks surrounding drug injection between 2004 and 2006. The first section of the manuscript outlines offenses youth revealed committing either in pursuit of or after using a variety of substances. The second part of the manuscript examines the overall context (motivation, environment), and provides a seven-tiered typology of drug-related offending based on youth's interpretations, linking certain drugs to specific offenses within particular contexts. From here, some theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21423855

  6. “We don't need services. We have no problems”: exploring the experiences of young people who inject drugs in accessing harm reduction services

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Anita; Hildebrand, Mikaela; Sun, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Evidence suggests that people who inject drugs often begin their drug use and injecting practices in adolescence, yet there are limited data available on the HIV epidemic and the responses for this population. The comprehensive package of interventions for the prevention, treatment and care of HIV infection among people who inject drugs first laid out in 2009 (revised in 2012) by World Health Organization, United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, does not consider the unique needs of adolescent and young people. In order to better understand the values and preferences of young people who inject drugs in accessing harm reduction services and support, we undertook a series of community consultations with young people with experience of injecting drugs during adolescence. Methods Community consultations (4–14 persons) were held in 14 countries. Participants were recruited using a combined criterion and maximum variation sampling strategy. Data were analyzed using collaborative qualitative data analysis. Frequency analysis of themes was conducted. Results Nineteen community consultations were organized with a total of 132 participants. All participants had experienced injecting drugs before the age of 18. They had the following age distribution: 18–20 (37%), 21–25 (48%) and 26–30 (15%). Of the participants, 73.5% were male while 25.7% were female, with one transgender participant. Barriers to accessing the comprehensive package included: lack of information and knowledge of services, age restrictions on services, belief that services were not needed, fear of law enforcement, fear of stigma, lack of concern, high cost, lack of outreach, lack of knowledge of HCV/TB and lack of youth friendly services. Conclusions The consultations provide a rare insight into the lived experiences of adolescents who inject drugs and highlight the dissonance between their reality and current policy and programmatic

  7. Parental Attitudes and Young People's Online Sexual Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorbring, Emma; Hallberg, Jonas; Bohlin, Margareta; Skoog, Therése

    2015-01-01

    Parental attitudes towards young people's sexuality in traditional (i.e. non-online media) settings have been associated with young people's sexual activities. In this study, we explored the association between key parent and youth characteristics and parental attitudes towards young people's online sexual activities. We also…

  8. Association between Pregnancy and Active Injection Drug Use and Sex Work among Women Injection Drug Users in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Girchenko, P; Ompad, D C; Bikmukhametov, D; Gensburg, L

    2015-06-01

    Widespread use of unsafe sexual practices among women injecting drugs both practicing and not practicing sex work leads to high levels of unplanned pregnancies in this population. The goal of this study was to investigate the association between pregnancy and active drug use and sex work. Data were collected using a convenience sample of 500 women in Saint Petersburg, Russia, in 2013. All women had recent experience of drug use, of which 200 were pregnant at the time of the study. The study consisted of a structured interview followed by a rapid HIV test. Pregnancy was protective against both active drug use and sex work. For HIV-positive women, these associations were stronger than for HIV-negative women: drug use prevalence ratio (PR) was 0.59 vs 0.85; for sex work, the PRs were 0.36 vs 0.64. Higher levels of education were associated with a lower prevalence ratio for active drug use and sex work in all models. Having children was not associated with active drug use or sex work. Pregnancy might be an optimal time for conducting interventions aimed at cessation of drug use and sex work among women injecting drugs.

  9. Sulfur dioxide - Episodic injection shows evidence for active Venus volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L. W.

    1984-03-01

    Pioneer Venus ultraviolet spectra from the first 5 years of operation show a decline (by more than a factor of 10) in sulfur dioxide abundance at the cloud tops and in the amount of submicron haze above the clouds. At the time of the Pioneer Venus encounter, the values for both parameters greatly exceeded earlier upper limits. However, Venus had a similar appearance in the late 1950's, implying the episodic injection of sulfur dioxide possibly caused by episodic volcanism. The amount of haze in the Venus middle atmosphere is about ten times that found in earth's stratosphere after the most recent major volcanic eruptions, and the thermal energy required for this injection on Venus is greater by about an order of magnitude than the largest of these recent earth eruptions and about as large as the Krakatoa eruption of 1883. The episodic behavior of sulfur dioxide implies that steady-state models of the chemistry and dynamics of cloud-top regions may be of limited use.

  10. Sulfur dioxide: episodic injection shows evidence for active venus volcanism.

    PubMed

    Esposito, L W

    1984-03-01

    Pioneer Venus ultraviolet spectra from the first 5 years of operation show a decline (by more than a factor of 10) in sulfur dioxide abundance at the cloud tops and in the amount of submicron haze above the clouds. At the time of the Pioneer Venus encounter, the values for both parameters greatly exceeded earlier upper limits. However, Venus had a similar appearance in the late 1950's, implying the episodic injection of sulfur dioxide possibly caused by episodic volcanism. The amount of haze in the Venus middle atmosphere is about ten times that found in Earth's stratosphere after the most recent major volcanic eruptions, and the thermal energy required for this injection on Venus is greater by about an order of magnitude than the largest of these recent Earth eruptions and about as large as the Krakatoa eruption of 1883. The episodic behavior of sulfur dioxide implies that steady-state models of the chemistry and dynamics of cloud-top regions may be of limited use.

  11. 40 CFR 60.2115 - What if I do not use a wet scrubber, fabric filter, activated carbon injection, selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... filter, activated carbon injection, selective noncatalytic reduction, an electrostatic precipitator, or a... electrostatic precipitator, or a dry scrubber or limit emissions in some other manner, including material..., fabric filter, activated carbon injection, selective noncatalytic reduction, an...

  12. Factors associated with prevalent hepatitis C: differences among young adult injection drug users in lower and upper Manhattan, New York City.

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, T; Des Jarlais, D C; Vlahov, D; Perlis, T E; Edwards, V; Friedman, S R; Rockwell, R; Hoover, D; Williams, I T; Monterroso, E R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined correlates of prevalent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among young adult injection drug users in 2 neighborhoods in New York City. METHODS: Injection drug users aged 18 to 29 years were street recruited from the Lower East Side and Harlem. Participants were interviewed about drug use and sex practices; venipuncture was performed for hepatitis B virus (HBV), HCV, and HIV serologies. RESULTS: In both sites, testing positive for HCV antibody (anti-HCV) was associated with having injected for more than 3 years. Additionally, HCV infection was positively associated with injecting with someone known to have had hepatitis (but the association was significant only in the Lower East Side) and with sharing cotton (but the association was statistically significant only in Harlem). Being in drug treatment and older than 24 years were associated with HCV in the Lower East Side but not in Harlem. Receiving money for sex was associated with anti-HCV positivity in Harlem but not in the Lower East Side. CONCLUSIONS: Several differences in factors associated with prevalent HCV infection existed among 2 populations of young injection drug users from the same city. Indirect transmission of HCV may occur. PMID:11189819

  13. The young astrophysicist: a very inexpensive activity to discuss spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockington, Guilherme; André Testoni, Leonardo; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2015-09-01

    The continuing fascination of young people with celestial bodies leads them to pose challenging questions to their science teachers, such as how was the universe born? How were the stars formed? In this paper we present an extremely inexpensive but highly engaging activity to teach the basics of spectroscopy. Guided by the question ‘how do scientists know what a star is made of?’, this simple activity allows a wide range of physical content to be taught, based on the analysis of the emission spectrum of a star’s light. It is possible to see the configuration of lines of each chemical element as a fingerprint, thereby inferring each one’s presence in the composition of the celestial body. As many countries do not have access to even inexpensive technologies, such as simple computers or digital cameras, this alternative could teach and motivate students of different ages to understand and enjoy the beauty of the nature of light.

  14. Young Children as Active Citizens in Local Government: Possibilities and Challenges from an Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomaeus, Clare; Gregoric, Carolyn; Krieg, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable research and discussion regarding children and young people's rights and citizenship, the participation of young children in community decision-making is still limited. In this exploratory research, a case study is reported on how ideas about young children as active citizens are interpreted within one local government…

  15. Ready, Steady, Action: What Enables Young People to Perceive Themselves as Active Agents in Their Lives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Government and educational priorities place importance on young people of secondary school age being active, having their voices heard, and participating in their community. This paper explores an understanding of the role of agency in young people's lives and how the concept is developing. Young people who perceive themselves as having…

  16. Effect of melatonin on 24-hour rhythms of ornithine decarboxylase activity and norepinephrine and acetylcholine synthesis in submaxillary lymph nodes and spleen of young and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Cardinali, D P; Brusco, L I; García Bonacho, M; Esquifìno, A I

    1998-05-01

    Young (50 days old) and old (18 months old) Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with mycobacterial Freund's adjuvant to produce an inflammatory disease of the joints and were studied the day before, and on days 6, 12 and 18 after injection. At every postinjection interval examined, old rats had significantly lower circadian amplitudes of pineal melatonin content. On day 18 of arthritis development, decreased levels of pineal melatonin were also seen in young rats. A second study, carried out 18 days after the injection of Freund's complete adjuvant and after 17 daily injections of 10 or 100 microg of melatonin in the evening, indicated that melatonin treatment restored the inflammatory response in old rats (assessed plethysmographically in hind paws) to the level found in young animals. In young rats, an inflammation-promoting effect of 100 microg melatonin could be demonstrated. As a consequence of the immune reaction, submaxillary lymph node and splenic ornithine decarboxylase activity (an index of lymph cell proliferation) augmented significantly, with acrophases of 24-hour rhythms in the afternoon for lymph nodes or in the morning for spleen. Mesor and amplitude of ornithine decarboxylase rhythm were lowest in old rats, while melatonin injection generally augmented its amplitude. Lymph node and splenic tyrosine hydroxylase activity (a presynaptic adrenergic marker) reached maximal values during early night hours while maximal values of [3H]acetylcholine synthesis (a presynaptic cholinergic marker) occurred during the afternoon in lymph nodes. Amplitude and mesor of these rhythms were lowest in old rats, an effect generally counteracted by melatonin treatment. The results suggest that inflammation is accompanied by an age-dependent, significant depression of pineal melatonin synthesis during adjuvant-induced arthritis and a decreased amplitude of the circadian rhythm of immune cell proliferation and autonomic activity in lymph nodes and spleen. These effects are

  17. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet three requirements: (a) Select a carbon injection system...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  19. Injection and Sexual HIV/HCV Risk Behaviors Associated with Nonmedical Use of Prescription Opioids among Young Adults in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Guarino, Honoria; Jessell, Lauren; Teper, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of nonmedical prescription opioid (PO) use has increased markedly in the U.S. This qualitative study explores the drug-use and sexual experiences of nonmedical PO users as they relate to risk for HIV and HCV transmission. Forty-six New York City young adult nonmedical PO users (ages 18–32) completed in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Despite initial perceptions of POs as less addictive and safer than illegal drugs, PO misuse often led to long-term opioid dependence and transition to heroin use and drug injection. Injectors in the sample reported sporadic syringe-sharing, frequent sharing of non-syringe injection paraphernalia and selective sharing with fellow injectors who are presumed “clean” (uninfected). Participants reported little knowledge of HCV injection-related risks and safer injection practices. They also reported engaging in unprotected sex with casual partners, exchange sex and group sex, and that PO misuse increases the risk of sexual violence. Prevention efforts addressing HIV/HCV risk should be targeted to young nonmedical PO users. PMID:25124258

  20. [Effects of ginkgo diterpene lactones meglumine injection's activated carbon adsorption technology on officinal components].

    PubMed

    Zhou, En-li; Wang, Ren-jie; Li, Miao; Wang, Wei; Xu, Dian-hong; Hu, Yang; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Bi, Yu-an; Xiao, Wei

    2015-10-01

    With the diversion rate of ginkgolide A, B, K as comprehensive evaluation indexes, the amount of activated carbon, ad- sorption time, mix rate, and adsorption temperature were selected as factors, orthogonal design which based on the evaluation method of information entropy was used to optimize activated carbon adsorption technology of ginkgo diterpene lactones meglumine injection. Opti- mized adsorption conditions were as follows: adsorbed 30 min with 0.2% activated carbon in 25 °C, 40 r ·min⁻¹, validation test re- sult display. The optimum extraction condition was stable and feasible, it will provide a basis for ginkgo diterpene lactone meglumine injection' activated carbon adsorption process.

  1. [Effects of ginkgo diterpene lactones meglumine injection's activated carbon adsorption technology on officinal components].

    PubMed

    Zhou, En-li; Wang, Ren-jie; Li, Miao; Wang, Wei; Xu, Dian-hong; Hu, Yang; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Bi, Yu-an; Xiao, Wei

    2015-10-01

    With the diversion rate of ginkgolide A, B, K as comprehensive evaluation indexes, the amount of activated carbon, ad- sorption time, mix rate, and adsorption temperature were selected as factors, orthogonal design which based on the evaluation method of information entropy was used to optimize activated carbon adsorption technology of ginkgo diterpene lactones meglumine injection. Opti- mized adsorption conditions were as follows: adsorbed 30 min with 0.2% activated carbon in 25 °C, 40 r ·min⁻¹, validation test re- sult display. The optimum extraction condition was stable and feasible, it will provide a basis for ginkgo diterpene lactone meglumine injection' activated carbon adsorption process. PMID:27062815

  2. Opioid Use Trajectories, Injection Drug Use and HCV Risk among Young Adult Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union Living in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Guarino, Honoria; Marsch, Lisa A.; Deren, Sherry; Straussner, Shulamith L.A.; Teper, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that young former Soviet Union immigrants in New York City have high rates of non-medical prescription opioid and heroin use, drug injection and injection-related risk behavior, making them vulnerable to hepatitis C virus (HCV)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, overdose and associated harms. This group has been the focus of little research, however. This paper presents quantitative and qualitative data from 80 former Soviet immigrants (ages 18–29) to characterize their opioid use trajectories, injection risk behavior, HCV/HIV testing histories and self-reported HCV/HIV serostatus, and provides clinically meaningful data to inform tailored education, prevention and harm reduction interventions. PMID:26132715

  3. Active control of asymmetric vortical flows around cones using injection and heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Sharaf, Hazem H.; Liu, C. H.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of certain active-control methods for asymmetric flows around circular cones is investigated by using computational solution of the unsteady, compressible full Navier-Stokes equations. Two main methods of active control which include flow injection and surface heating are used. For the flow-injection-control method, flow injection is used either in the normal direction to the surface or in the tangential direction to the surface. For the surface-heating-control method, the temperature of the cone surface is increased. The effectiveness of a hybrid method of flow control which combines normal injection with surface heating has also been studied. The Navier-Stokes equations, subjected to various surface boundary conditions, are solved by using an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme for locally-conical flow solutions.

  4. Electron beam injection during active experiments. II - Collisional effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    During active beam experiments, the presence of high neutral densities at low altitudes and/or during thruster firings has been observed to modify the spacecraft charging and the properties of the beam. Two-dimensional (three-velocity) electromagnetic particle simulations with ionizing collisions incorporated are used to investigate the modification of the beam-plasma interaction as the neutral density is increased. It is shown that when the spacecraft is uniformly immersed in a neutral cloud, most of the ionization is produced by direct ionization by the beam and its secondaries, rather than via vehicle-induced or wave-induced ionization for the neutral densities considered.

  5. [Transgender] Young Men: Gendered Subjectivities and the Physically Active Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudwell, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss [transgender] young men's social, physical and embodied experiences of sport. These discussions draw from interview research with two young people who prefer to self-identify as "male" and not as "trans men", although they do make use of this term. Finn and Ed volunteered to take part in the…

  6. Factors Related to Rural Young Adolescents' Participation in Outdoor, Noncompetitive Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiana, Richard W.; Davis, Marsha; Wilson, Mark G.; McCarty, Frances A.; Green, Gary T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Young adolescents who have little interest in participating in competitive team sports are at an increased risk for physical inactivity. Noncompetitive outdoor physical activity can provide young adolescents with increased opportunities to participate in physical activities that appeal to them and have positive health effects. The purpose…

  7. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…

  8. Brief Report: The Theory of Planned Behaviour Applied to Physical Activity in Young People Who Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Emma S.; Daley, Amanda J.; Ussher, Michael

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that physical activity may be useful as a smoking cessation intervention for young adults. In order to inform such interventions, this study evaluated the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) for understanding physical activity behaviour in young smokers. Regular smokers aged 16-19 years (N=124), self-reported physical…

  9. Showcasing Mathematics for the Young Child: Activities for Three-, Four-, and Five-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copley, Juanita V., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Written for all teachers of young children, this book illustrates activities that promote early mathematics development for children ages three to five and "showcases" mathematics for the young child. The thirty-five activities in this book are distributed into five content areas: number and operations, geometry, algebra, measurement, and data…

  10. Young Adult Follow-Up of Hyperactive Children: Antisocial Activities and Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; Fischer, Mariellen; Smallish, Lori; Fletcher, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Background: Hyperactive/ADHD children are believed to be a greater risk for adolescent and young adult antisocial activity and drug use/abuse, particularly that subset having comorbid conduct problems/disorder. Method: We report on the lifetime antisocial activities and illegal drug use self-reported at young adult follow-up (mean age 20-21 years;…

  11. A comparison of the growth responses following intramuscular GHRH plasmid administration versus daily growth hormone injections in young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of daily porcine growth hormone (GH) injections versus plasmid-driven porcine GH-releasing hormone (pGHRH) production to promote growth was assessed. Ten-day-old piglets were injected intramuscularly with 0.1, 1, or 3 mg pGHRH, or a control plasmid followed by electroporation. Plasmid c...

  12. Anti-tumor activities of active ingredients in Compound Kushen Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; You, Rong-li; Qin, Wen-jie; Hai, Li-na; Fang, Ming-jing; Huang, Guo-hua; Kang, Rui-xia; Li, Ming-hua; Qiao, Yu-feng; Li, Jian-wei; Li, An-ping

    2015-01-01

    Kushen (Radix Sophorae Flavescentis) has a long history of use for the treatment of tumors, inflammation and other diseases in traditional Chinese medicine. Compound Kushen Injection (CKI) is a mixture of natural compounds extracted from Kushen and Baituling (Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae). The main principles of CKI are matrine (MT) and oxymatrine (OMT) that exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-viral, anti-fibrotic and cardiovascular protective effects. Recent evidence shows that these compounds also produce anti-cancer actions, such as inhibiting cancer cell proliferation, inducing cell cycle arrest, accelerating apoptosis, restraining angiogenesis, inducing cell differentiation, inhibiting cancer metastasis and invasion, reversing multidrug resistance, and preventing or reducing chemotherapy- and/or radiotherapy-induced toxicity when combined with chemotherapeutic drugs. In this review, we summarize recent progress in studying the anti-cancer activities of MT, OMT and CKI and their potential molecular targets, which provide clues and references for further study. PMID:25982630

  13. Anti-tumor activities of active ingredients in Compound Kushen Injection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; You, Rong-li; Qin, Wen-jie; Hai, Li-na; Fang, Ming-jing; Huang, Guo-hua; Kang, Rui-xia; Li, Ming-hua; Qiao, Yu-feng; Li, Jian-wei; Li, An-ping

    2015-06-01

    Kushen (Radix Sophorae Flavescentis) has a long history of use for the treatment of tumors, inflammation and other diseases in traditional Chinese medicine. Compound Kushen Injection (CKI) is a mixture of natural compounds extracted from Kushen and Baituling (Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae). The main principles of CKI are matrine (MT) and oxymatrine (OMT) that exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-viral, anti-fibrotic and cardiovascular protective effects. Recent evidence shows that these compounds also produce anti-cancer actions, such as inhibiting cancer cell proliferation, inducing cell cycle arrest, accelerating apoptosis, restraining angiogenesis, inducing cell differentiation, inhibiting cancer metastasis and invasion, reversing multidrug resistance, and preventing or reducing chemotherapy- and/or radiotherapy-induced toxicity when combined with chemotherapeutic drugs. In this review, we summarize recent progress in studying the anti-cancer activities of MT, OMT and CKI and their potential molecular targets, which provide clues and references for further study. PMID:25982630

  14. Photoacoustic imaging to detect rat brain activation after cocaine hydrochloride injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) was employed to detect small animal brain activation after the administration of cocaine hydrochloride. Sprague Dawley rats were injected with different concentrations (2.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mg per kg body) of cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution through tail veins. The brain functional response to the injection was monitored by photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system with horizontal scanning of cerebral cortex of rat brain. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was also used for coronal view images. The modified PAT system used multiple ultrasonic detectors to reduce the scanning time and maintain a good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The measured photoacoustic signal changes confirmed that cocaine hydrochloride injection excited high blood volume in brain. This result shows PAI can be used to monitor drug abuse-induced brain activation.

  15. PRODUCTIVITY OF SOLAR FLARES AND MAGNETIC HELICITY INJECTION IN ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sung-hong; Wang Haimin; Chae, Jongchul

    2010-07-20

    The main objective of this study is to better understand how magnetic helicity injection in an active region (AR) is related to the occurrence and intensity of solar flares. We therefore investigate the magnetic helicity injection rate and unsigned magnetic flux, as a reference. In total, 378 ARs are analyzed using SOHO/MDI magnetograms. The 24 hr averaged helicity injection rate and unsigned magnetic flux are compared with the flare index and the flare-productive probability in the next 24 hr following a measurement. In addition, we study the variation of helicity over a span of several days around the times of the 19 flares above M5.0 which occurred in selected strong flare-productive ARs. The major findings of this study are as follows: (1) for a sub-sample of 91 large ARs with unsigned magnetic fluxes in the range from (3-5) x 10{sup 22} Mx, there is a difference in the magnetic helicity injection rate between flaring ARs and non-flaring ARs by a factor of 2; (2) the GOES C-flare-productive probability as a function of helicity injection displays a sharp boundary between flare-productive ARs and flare-quiet ones; (3) the history of helicity injection before all the 19 major flares displayed a common characteristic: a significant helicity accumulation of (3-45) x 10{sup 42} Mx{sup 2} during a phase of monotonically increasing helicity over 0.5-2 days. Our results support the notion that helicity injection is important in flares, but it is not effective to use it alone for the purpose of flare forecast. It is necessary to find a way to better characterize the time history of helicity injection as well as its spatial distribution inside ARs.

  16. Objectively measured physical activity of young Canadian children using accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Heale, Liane D; Anderson, Laura N; Tremblay, Mark S; Maguire, Jonathon L; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study was to describe objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary time of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers and determine the proportion meeting Canadian age-specific PA guidelines. Ninety children (47 girls, 43 boys; mean age 32 (range, 4-70) months) attending scheduled health supervision visits and in the TARGet Kids! (The Applied Research Group for Kids) cohort wore an Actical accelerometer for 7 days. Participants with 4 or more valid days were included in the analysis. Time, in mean minutes per day (min/day), spent sedentary and in light PA, moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), and total PA was determined using published cut-points; age groups were compared using ANOVA. Twenty-three percent of children <18 months (n = 28) and 76% of children aged 18-59 months (n = 45) met the guideline of 180 min/day of total PA; 13% of children ≥60 months (n = 17) met the guideline of 60 min/day of MVPA. Children <18 months spent more of their waking time per day engaged in sedentary behaviours (79%; ∼7.3 h) compared with children aged 18-59 months (63%; ∼6.6 h) and children ≥60 months (58%; ∼6.6 h). In conclusion, most children aged 18-59 months met the Canadian PA guidelines for children aged 0-4 years, whereas few younger than 18 months met the same guidelines. Only 13% of children ≥5 years met their age-specific PA guidelines. Further research is needed to develop, test, and implement effective strategies to promote PA and reduce sedentary behaviour in very young children.

  17. Objectively measured physical activity of young Canadian children using accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Heale, Liane D; Anderson, Laura N; Tremblay, Mark S; Maguire, Jonathon L; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study was to describe objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary time of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers and determine the proportion meeting Canadian age-specific PA guidelines. Ninety children (47 girls, 43 boys; mean age 32 (range, 4-70) months) attending scheduled health supervision visits and in the TARGet Kids! (The Applied Research Group for Kids) cohort wore an Actical accelerometer for 7 days. Participants with 4 or more valid days were included in the analysis. Time, in mean minutes per day (min/day), spent sedentary and in light PA, moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), and total PA was determined using published cut-points; age groups were compared using ANOVA. Twenty-three percent of children <18 months (n = 28) and 76% of children aged 18-59 months (n = 45) met the guideline of 180 min/day of total PA; 13% of children ≥60 months (n = 17) met the guideline of 60 min/day of MVPA. Children <18 months spent more of their waking time per day engaged in sedentary behaviours (79%; ∼7.3 h) compared with children aged 18-59 months (63%; ∼6.6 h) and children ≥60 months (58%; ∼6.6 h). In conclusion, most children aged 18-59 months met the Canadian PA guidelines for children aged 0-4 years, whereas few younger than 18 months met the same guidelines. Only 13% of children ≥5 years met their age-specific PA guidelines. Further research is needed to develop, test, and implement effective strategies to promote PA and reduce sedentary behaviour in very young children. PMID:26573442

  18. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements...

  19. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small...

  20. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements...

  1. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste...

  3. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small...

  6. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste...

  10. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internationally, young men (aged 18-25 years) have a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and many fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity or dietary guidelines. There is a lack of engagement and understanding of young men's needs in health-related research. Therefore, this study a...

  11. Young adult males' motivators and perceived barrier towards eating healthily and being active: A qualitative study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a lack of understanding of young men's perspectives in obesity-related research. This study aims to: (1) identify young men's perceived motivators and barriers in adopting healthy eating and physical activity behaviors, and (2) explore any differences in responses by weight status categorie...

  12. Participation in Home, Extracurricular, and Community Activities among Children and Young People with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlin, Margo N.; Palisano, Robert J.; Chiarello, Lisa A.; Kang, Lin-Ju; Polansky, Marcia; Almasri, Nihad; Maggs, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Participation in home, extracurricular, and community activities is a desired outcome of rehabilitation services for children and young people with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of age and gross motor function on participation among children and young people with CP. Method: Five hundred…

  13. Shifting Motivations: Young Women's Reflections on Physical Activity over Time and across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Kurzer, Mindy S.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2010-01-01

    This research analyzes motivations expressed by young, healthy, sedentary women before and after an exercise intervention. Young women (aged 18-30, n = 39) participated in focus groups or interviews during a 4-month exercise intervention. Afterward, 22 of these women and 20 controls completed physical activity diaries for 6 months and were…

  14. Efficiency of assisted oocyte activation as a solution for failed intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Heindryckx, Björn; De Gheselle, Stefanie; Gerris, Jan; Dhont, Marc; De Sutter, Petra

    2008-11-01

    Failed fertilization after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can occur due to an oocyte activation defect. In these cases assisted oocyte activation (AOA) may help but efficiency is still unknown. Prior to AOA, the mouse oocyte activation test (MOAT) can be carried out by injecting human spermatozoa into mouse oocytes to evaluate their activating capacity. According to the MOAT activation percentage achieved, patients were classified into three groups: 0-20% (16 patients); 20-85% (seven patients); 85-100% (seven patients). For AOA, CaCl(2) was injected together with spermatozoa followed by a double Ca(2+) ionophore treatment. The fertilization rates before application of AOA in 50 cycles were 6%, 22% and 14% in, respectively, groups 1, 2 and 3 without any pregnancy. Fertilization and pregnancy rates after AOA in 61 cycles were significantly increased to 75% and 34% for group 1, 73% and 43% for group 2, and 75% and 17% for group 3 (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.004, respectively). Application of AOA results in normal fertilization and pregnancy rates in patients whose spermatozoa show deficient activation. When MOAT reveals no activation deficiency in spermatozoa, AOA still allows for high fertilization and acceptable pregnancy rates. The obstetric and neonatal outcomes after AOA were normal as no malformations were observed.

  15. Tracking of physical activity, fitness, body composition and diet from adolescence to young adulthood: The Young Hearts Project, Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Boreham, Colin; Robson, Paula J; Gallagher, Alison M; Cran, Gordon W; Savage, J Maurice; Murray, Liam J

    2004-10-01

    BACKGROUND: The assumption that lifestyles formed early in life track into adulthood has been used to justify the targeting of health promotion programmes towards children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to use data from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project to ascertain the extent of tracking, between adolescence and young adulthood, of physical activity, aerobic fitness, selected anthropometric variables, and diet. METHODS: Males (n 245) and females (n 231) were assessed at age 15 y, and again in young adulthood [mean (SD) age 22 (1.6) y]. At both timepoints, height, weight and skinfold thicknesses were measured, and physical activity and diet were assessed by questionnaire and diet history method respectively. At 15y, fitness was assessed using the 20 metre shuttle run, while at young adulthood, the PWC170 cycle ergometer test was used. For each measurement made at 15y, subjects were ranked into 'low' (L1; lowest 25%), 'medium' (M1; middle 50%) or 'high' (H1; highest 25%) categories. At young adulthood, similar categories (L2, M2, H2) were created. The extent of tracking of each variable over time was calculated using 3 x 3 matrices constructed using these two sets of categories, and summarised using kappa (kappa) statistics. RESULTS: Tracking of diet and fitness was poor (kappa activity in males was fair (kappa 0.202), but was poor in females (kappa 0.021). In contrast, anthropometric variables such as weight, body mass index and sum of skinfolds tracked more strongly in females (kappa 0.540, kappa 0.307, kappa 0.357 respectively) than in males (kappa 0.337, kappa 0.199, kappa 0.216 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The poor tracking of fitness and diet in both sexes, and physical activity in females, suggests that these aspects of adolescent lifestyle are unlikely to be predictive of behaviours in

  16. Active Flow Separation Control of a Stator Vane Using Surface Injection in a Multistage Compressor Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis E.; Bright, Michelle M.; Prahst, Patricia S.; Strazisar, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    Micro-flow control actuation embedded in a stator vane was used to successfully control separation and improve near stall performance in a multistage compressor rig at NASA Glenn. Using specially designed stator vanes configured with internal actuation to deliver pulsating air through slots along the suction surface, a research study was performed to identify performance benefits using this microflow control approach. Pressure profiles and unsteady pressure measurements along the blade surface and at the shroud provided a dynamic look at the compressor during microflow air injection. These pressure measurements lead to a tracking algorithm to identify the onset of separation. The testing included steady air injection at various slot locations along the vane. The research also examined the benefit of pulsed injection and actively controlled air injection along the stator vane. Two types of actuation schemes were studied, including an embedded actuator for on-blade control. Successful application of an online detection and flow control scheme will be discussed. Testing showed dramatic performance benefit for flow reattachment and subsequent improvement in diffusion through the use of pulsed controlled injection. The paper will discuss the experimental setup, the blade configurations, and preliminary CFD results which guided the slot location along the blade. The paper will also show the pressure profiles and unsteady pressure measurements used to track flow control enhancement, and will conclude with the tracking algorithm for adjusting the control.

  17. Insulin pump use in young children in the T1D Exchange clinic registry is associated with lower hemoglobin A1c levels than injection therapy.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Scott M; Raghinaru, Dan; Adi, Saleh; Simmons, Jill H; Ebner-Lyon, Laurie; Chase, H Peter; Tamborlane, William V; Schatz, Desmond A; Block, Jennifer M; Litton, Jean C; Raman, Vandana; Foster, Nicole C; Kollman, Craig R; DuBose, Stephanie N; Miller, Kellee M; Beck, Roy W; DiMeglio, Linda A

    2014-12-01

    Insulin delivery via injection and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) via insulin pump were compared in a cross-sectional study (n = 669) and retrospective longitudinal study (n = 1904) of young children (<6 yr) with type 1 diabetes (T1D) participating in the T1D Exchange clinic registry. Use of CSII correlated with longer T1D duration (p < 0.001), higher parental education (p < 0.001), and annual household income (p < 0.006) but not with race/ethnicity. Wide variation in pump use was observed among T1D Exchange centers even after adjusting for these factors, suggesting that prescriber preference is a substantial determinant of CSII use. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was lower in pump vs. injection users (7.9 vs. 8.5%, adjusted p < 0.001) in the cross-sectional study. In the longitudinal study, HbA1c decreased after initiation of CSII by 0.2%, on average (p < 0.001). Frequency of a severe hypoglycemia (SH) event did not differ in pump vs. injection users (p = 0.2). Frequency of ≥1 parent-reported diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) event in the prior year was greater in pump users than injection users (10 vs. 8%, p = 0.04). No differences between pump and injection users were observed for clinic-reported DKA events. Children below 6 yr have many unique metabolic characteristics, feeding behaviors, and care needs compared with older children and adolescents. These data support the use of insulin pumps in this youngest age group, and suggest that metabolic control may be improved without increasing the frequency of SH, but care should be taken as to the possibly increased risk of DKA. PMID:24494980

  18. Route of nicotine administration influences in vivo dopamine neuron activity: habituation, needle injection, and cannula infusion.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yu; Zhang, Tianxiang; Li, Wei; Doyon, William M; Doyon, William; Dani, John A

    2010-01-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems play a critical role in tobacco addiction driven by nicotine. Nicotine activates midbrain DA neurons and, consequently, elevates DA concentrations in targets, especially in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of the ventral striatum. The route of drug administration influences the impact of addictive drugs. Here, we examine whether the nature of the administration alters DA neuron activity and DA concentrations in the NAc. Using unhabituated naïve freely moving rats, microdialysis measurements showed that nicotine administered via needle injection caused greater DA release in the NAc than the same dose administered via an implanted chronic cannula. After habituation to the needle injections, however, there was no significant difference in DA signaling between the needle and cannula routes of administration. Consistent with these microdialysis results after habituation, our in vivo tetrode unit recordings showed no significant difference in midbrain DA neuron activity in response to nicotine delivered by needle or cannula as long as predictive cues were avoided

  19. Physical Activity Counteracts Tumor Cell Growth in Colon Carcinoma C26-Injected Muscles: An Interim Report

    PubMed Central

    Hiroux, Charlotte; Vandoorne, Tijs; Koppo, Katrien; De Smet, Stefan; Hespel, Peter; Berardi, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue is a rare site of tumor metastasis but is the main target of the degenerative processes occurring in cancer-associated cachexia syndrome. Beneficial effects of physical activity in counteracting cancer-related muscle wasting have been described in the last decades. Recently it has been shown that, in tumor xeno-transplanted mouse models, physical activity is able to directly affect tumor growth by modulating inflammatory responses in the tumor mass microenvironment. Here, we investigated the effect of physical activity on tumor cell growth in colon carcinoma C26 cells injected tibialis anterior muscles of BALB/c mice. Histological analyses revealed that 4 days of voluntary wheel running significantly counteracts tumor cell growth in C26-injected muscles compared to the non-injected sedentary controls. Since striated skeletal muscle tissue is the site of voluntary contraction, our results confirm that physical activity can also directly counteract tumor cell growth in a metabolically active tissue that is usually not a target for metastasis. PMID:27478560

  20. Propacetamol-Induced Injection Pain Is Associated with Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Channels.

    PubMed

    Schillers, Florian; Eberhardt, Esther; Leffler, Andreas; Eberhardt, Mirjam

    2016-10-01

    Propacetamol (PPCM) is a prodrug of paracetamol (PCM), which was generated to increase water solubility of PCM for intravenous delivery. PPCM is rapidly hydrolyzed by plasma esterases to PCM and diethylglycine and shares some structural and metabolic properties with lidocaine. Although PPCM is considered to be comparable to PCM regarding its analgesic properties, injection pain is a common side effect described for PPCM but not PCM. Injection pain is a frequent and unpleasant side effect of numerous drugs in clinical use, and previous reports have indicated that the ligand gated ion channels transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) can mediate this effect on sensory neurons. This study aimed to investigate molecular mechanisms by which PPCM, in contrast to PCM, causes injection pain. Therefore, human TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors were expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and investigated by means of whole-cell patch clamp and ratiometric calcium imaging. PPCM (but not PCM) activated TRPV1, sensitized heat-induced currents, and caused an increase in intracellular calcium. In TRPA1-expressing cells however, both PPCM and PCM evoked calcium responses but failed to induce inward currents. Intracutaneous injection of PPCM, but not of PCM, in human volunteers induced an intense and short-lasting pain and an increase in superficial blood flow, indicating activation of nociceptive C fibers and subsequent neuropeptide release. In conclusion, activation of human TRPV1 by PPCM seems to be a relevant mechanism for induction of pain upon intracutaneous injection and thus also for pain reported as an adverse side effect upon intravenous administration. PMID:27457427

  1. Propacetamol-Induced Injection Pain Is Associated with Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Channels.

    PubMed

    Schillers, Florian; Eberhardt, Esther; Leffler, Andreas; Eberhardt, Mirjam

    2016-10-01

    Propacetamol (PPCM) is a prodrug of paracetamol (PCM), which was generated to increase water solubility of PCM for intravenous delivery. PPCM is rapidly hydrolyzed by plasma esterases to PCM and diethylglycine and shares some structural and metabolic properties with lidocaine. Although PPCM is considered to be comparable to PCM regarding its analgesic properties, injection pain is a common side effect described for PPCM but not PCM. Injection pain is a frequent and unpleasant side effect of numerous drugs in clinical use, and previous reports have indicated that the ligand gated ion channels transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) can mediate this effect on sensory neurons. This study aimed to investigate molecular mechanisms by which PPCM, in contrast to PCM, causes injection pain. Therefore, human TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors were expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and investigated by means of whole-cell patch clamp and ratiometric calcium imaging. PPCM (but not PCM) activated TRPV1, sensitized heat-induced currents, and caused an increase in intracellular calcium. In TRPA1-expressing cells however, both PPCM and PCM evoked calcium responses but failed to induce inward currents. Intracutaneous injection of PPCM, but not of PCM, in human volunteers induced an intense and short-lasting pain and an increase in superficial blood flow, indicating activation of nociceptive C fibers and subsequent neuropeptide release. In conclusion, activation of human TRPV1 by PPCM seems to be a relevant mechanism for induction of pain upon intracutaneous injection and thus also for pain reported as an adverse side effect upon intravenous administration.

  2. Issues Related to Seismic Activity Induced by the Injection of CO2 in Deep Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Sminchak, Joel; Gupta, Neeraj; Byrer, Charles; Bergman, Perry

    2001-05-31

    Case studies, theory, regulation, and special considerations regarding the disposal of carbon dioxide (CO2) into deep saline aquifers were investigated to assess the potential for induced seismic activity. Formations capable of accepting large volumes of CO2 make deep well injection of CO2 an attractive option. While seismic implications must be considered for injection facilities, induced seismic activity may be prevented through proper siting, installation, operation, and monitoring. Instances of induced seismic activity have been documented at hazardous waste disposal wells, oil fields, and other sites. Induced seismic activity usually occurs along previously faulted rocks and may be investigated by analyzing the stress conditions at depth. Seismic events are unlikely to occur due to injection in porous rocks unless very high injection pressures cause hydraulic fracturing. Injection wells in the United States are regulated through the Underground Injection Control (UIC) program. UIC guidance requires an injection facility to perform extensive characterization, testing, and monitoring. Special considerations related to the properties of CO2 may have seismic ramifications to a deep well injection facility. Supercritical CO2 liquid is less dense than water and may cause density-driven stress conditions at depth or interact with formation water and rocks, causing a reduction in permeability and pressure buildup leading to seismic activity. Structural compatibility, historical seismic activity, cases of seismic activity triggered by deep well injection, and formation capacity were considered in evaluating the regional seismic suitability in the United States. Regions in the central, midwestern, and southeastern United States appear best suited for deep well injection. In Ohio, substantial deep well injection at a waste disposal facility has not caused seismic events in a seismically active area. Current

  3. Chromospherically active stars. II - HD 82558, a young single BY Draconis variable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Bopp, Bernard W.; Africano, John L.; Goodrich, Bret D.; Palmer, Leigh Hunter

    1986-01-01

    It is presently noted that the HD 82558 chromospherically active star is a young and rapidly rotating K2 V single BY Draconis variable with very strong far-UV emission features and an H-alpha line filled to the continuum level by emission. HD 82558 has constant velocity and is not a member of the Hyades Supercluster. Its light curve behavior, which appears to have been stable for several hundred rotation cycles, is reminiscent of that of the young, rapidly rotating, single K V variable H II 1883 in the Pleiades; this stability may be characteristic of young, single, chromospherically active stars.

  4. Magnetic activity in the young solar analog LQ Hydrae. I. Active longitudes and cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugina, S. V.; Pelt, J.; Tuominen, I.

    2002-11-01

    We present the first evidence that a single active dwarf of solar type can show a long-lived, nonaxisymmetric spot distribution - active longitudes on opposite hemispheres, similar to evolved, rapidly rotating RS CVn-type binary stars. We analyse new as well as published photometric observations of the young active dwarf LQ Hya, spanning almost 20 years. We find that activity of the star has three activity cycles: a 5.2-yr ``flip-flop'' cycle, a 7.7-yr period in the amplitude modulation of the brightness and an approximately 15-yr period in variations of the mean brightness. The two shorter cycles are related to the alternating active longitudes and are similar to cycles observed in RS CVn-type stars. The 15-yr cycle reflects periodic changes of the mean spottedness of the star and resembles the solar 11-year cycle. The spot rotation period (about 1.6 days) changes during the 15-yr cycle, indicating the presence of small differential rotation. The lengths of the three cycles are related as 3:2:1, with the repetition of the spot configuration after 15 years. We discuss the possibility that the observed spot cycles represent two different magnetic dynamo modes operating in LQ Hya: an axisymmetric mode, as in the Sun, and a nonaxisymmetric higher order mode with two cycles in spot patterns. Our results suggest that young stars exhibit their cycles in spot distribution, as seen in LQ Hya. This is in contrast to the conclusion based on the analysis of Ca Ii H&K emission from plages. The results suggest also that the Vaughan-Preston gap represents a transition from a multiple-mode dynamo to a single-mode dynamo. Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/394/505

  5. Bandwidth enhancement of injection-locked distributed reflector lasers with wirelike active regions.

    PubMed

    Lee, SeungHun; Parekh, Devang; Shindo, Takahiko; Yang, Weijian; Guo, Peng; Takahashi, Daisuke; Nishiyama, Nobuhiko; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J; Arai, Shigehisa

    2010-08-01

    The modulation bandwidth enhancement of distributed reflector (DR) lasers with wirelike active regions utilizing optical injection locking is demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. By the rate equation analysis, it is shown that DR lasers with wirelike active regions realize a low optical injection power and a large bandwidth enhancement under small operation currents. Experimentally, the small-signal bandwidth is increased to >15 GHz at a bias current of 5 mA, which is 4 times smaller than that for conventional edge-emitting lasers. A large signal modulation at 10 Gbps is also performed at the same bias current of 5 mA and voltage swing of 0.4 V(pp), and error-free detection was confirmed under the low-power conditions.

  6. Field Testing of Activated Carbon Injection Options for Mercury Control at TXU's Big Brown Station

    SciTech Connect

    John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Christopher Martin; Mark Musich; Lucinda Hamre

    2009-01-07

    The primary objective of the project was to evaluate the long-term feasibility of using activated carbon injection (ACI) options to effectively reduce mercury emissions from Texas electric generation plants in which a blend of lignite and subbituminous coal is fired. Field testing of ACI options was performed on one-quarter of Unit 2 at TXU's Big Brown Steam Electric Station. Unit 2 has a design output of 600 MW and burns a blend of 70% Texas Gulf Coast lignite and 30% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal. Big Brown employs a COHPAC configuration, i.e., high air-to-cloth baghouses following cold-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), for particulate control. When sorbent injection is added between the ESP and the baghouse, the combined technology is referred to as TOXECON{trademark} and is patented by the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States. Key benefits of the TOXECON configuration include better mass transfer characteristics of a fabric filter compared to an ESP for mercury capture and contamination of only a small percentage of the fly ash with AC. The field testing consisted of a baseline sampling period, a parametric screening of three sorbent injection options, and a month long test with a single mercury control technology. During the baseline sampling, native mercury removal was observed to be less than 10%. Parametric testing was conducted for three sorbent injection options: injection of standard AC alone; injection of an EERC sorbent enhancement additive, SEA4, with ACI; and injection of an EERC enhanced AC. Injection rates were determined for all of the options to achieve the minimum target of 55% mercury removal as well as for higher removals approaching 90%. Some of the higher injection rates were not sustainable because of increased differential pressure across the test baghouse module. After completion of the parametric testing, a month long test was conducted using the enhanced AC at a nominal rate of 1.5 lb/Macf. During the

  7. Velocity-dependent frictional behavior and slip magnitude of a fault affected by fluid injection activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urpi, L.; Rinaldi, A. P.; Spiers, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Fluid injection is performed or planned for various activities, such as CO2 sequestration, gas storage, waste water disposal, and engineered geothermal system. Static stress and pressure perturbation due to the fluid injection may cause different scale earthquake phenomena, from instrumental recorded micro-seismicity to triggering of human-felt events. With this study we present a sensitivity analysis of the slip magnitude for the fluid injection in a reservoir-like structure. The reservoir, confined within impervious rock units, is composed by a porous rock mass laterally bounded by a fault. The fault is hydraulically connected to the fluid hosting unit. The numerical analysis is based on fully explicit sequential coupling between a multiphase fluid flow and a hydromechanical finite element calculation code. When the system conditions approaches failure, the simulation is performed in a fully dynamic mode. The coupling allows simulating change in permeability due to stress/strain change, as well as the slip on the fault due to overpressure and associated stress changes. Interface elements have been used to include the constitutive law characterizing the frictional behaviour of the fault. The change in friction with different slip velocities has been derived from laboratory results. Velocity- and strain-dependent frictional behavior of different patches of the fault influence the system evolution, resulting in larger or smaller slip length for the same injected volume.

  8. A Comparison of the Growth Responses Following Intramuscular GHRH Plasmid Administration Versus Daily Growth Hormone Injections in Young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Amir S; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra; Shypailo, Roman J; Ellis, Kenneth I; Mersmann, Harry; Fiorotto, Marta L

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of daily porcine growth hormone (GH) injections versus plasmid-driven porcine GH-releasing hormone (pGHRH) production to promote growth was assessed. Ten-day-old piglets were injected intramuscularly with 0.1, 1, or 3 mg pGHRH, or a control plasmid followed by electroporation. Plasmid constructs were driven by a synthetic muscle-specific promoter. A fifth group received daily injections of GH [0.15 mg/(kg·day)]. Control and pGHRH-treated pigs were pair-fed to GH-treated pigs. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Weight gains of GH- and pGHRH-treated pigs were greater than of controls (P < 0.001) due to greater lean mass accretion; fat accretion was similar across all treatments. Weight gain of pGHRH- and GH-treated pigs was similar for 6 weeks, but over the final 10 days, only pigs administered the highest plasmid dose maintained higher growth rates. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels were two- to threefold higher in GH- and pGHRH-treated pigs than in controls after 4 weeks (P = 0.05), but subsequently decreased to control levels in the pGHRH-treated group. Organ weights were greater in GH- than pGHRH-treated and control piglets (P < 0.02). These results demonstrate that pGHRH transfer is effective for promoting growth and avoids the need for the frequent injections necessitated with peptide hormone use. PMID:19809401

  9. Young Scientists Explore Rocks & Minerals. Book 11--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of rocks and minerals. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each…

  10. Young Scientists Explore the World Around Them. Book 1--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of scientists. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  11. Young Scientists Explore Nature. Book 10--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of nature. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  12. Young Scientists Explore Inner & Outer Space. Book 6--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of space (inner and outer). Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for…

  13. Young Scientists Explore Animals. Book 2--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of animals. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  14. Sing Me a Story! Tell Me a Song! Creative Curriculum Activities for Teachers of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Hilda L.

    This collection of developmentally appropriate early childhood education curriculum activities uses themes to integrate the curriculum for young children. The activities involve active exploration, problem-solving, and the acquisition of specific concepts or skills. The collection is divided into six broad sections, with individual themes…

  15. Using Antecedent Physical Activity to Increase On-Task Behavior in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Sara; Vail, Cynthia O.; Ayres, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    A withdrawal design was used to investigate how physical activity affects on-task behavior of young children with significant developmental delays in a special education preschool classroom. Five preschool age children with significant developmental delays engaged in either physical activity or seated center activities for 20 min prior to a 15-min…

  16. Interventions to Promote Young People's Physical Activity: Issues, Implications and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo

    2006-01-01

    There has been increased interest in the development and implementation of physical activity interventions designed to increase young people's physical activity participation in recent years. This is perhaps founded on concerns over youngsters' physical activity levels and the possible health consequences. School-based interventions are the most…

  17. Validity of a Self-Administered 3-Day Physical Activity Recall in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jennifer L.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most physical activity recall questionnaires assess activity over a 7-day period. However, questionnaires have been validated in adolescents and adults using shorter recall timeframes. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a self-administered 3-day physical activity recall instrument (3DR) in young adults.…

  18. Young Scientists Explore Light & Color. Book 12--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of light and color. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each…

  19. Young Scientists Explore the Weather. Book 5--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of the weather. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student.…

  20. Un dia en la vida: The Everyday Activities of Young Children from Central American Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denmark, Nicole; Jones Harden, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the everyday activities of young children from low-income Central American (CA) immigrant families. From the perspective that everyday activities propel children's development of culturally and contextually valued behaviours and skills, 48 mothers were interviewed regarding the activities that are available…

  1. Young Scientists Explore the World of Water. Book 9--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of water. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  2. Young Scientists Explore the Five Senses. Book 4--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of the five senses. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each…

  3. The effect of increasing autonomy through choice on young children’s physical activity behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing autonomy by manipulating the choice of available physical activity options in a laboratory setting can increase physical activity in older children and adults. However, the effect of manipulating the number of physically active choices has yet to be examined in young children in a gymnas...

  4. Active suppression of vortex-driven combustion instability using controlled liquid-fuel injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Bin

    Combustion instabilities remain one of the most challenging problems encountered in developing propulsion and power systems. Large amplitude pressure oscillations, driven by unsteady heat release, can produce numerous detrimental effects. Most previous active control studies utilized gaseous fuels to suppress combustion instabilities. However, using liquid fuel to suppress combustion instabilities is more realistic for propulsion applications. Active instability suppression in vortex-driven combustors using a direct liquid fuel injection strategy was theoretically established and experimentally demonstrated in this dissertation work. Droplet size measurements revealed that with pulsed fuel injection management, fuel droplet size could be modulated periodically. Consequently, desired heat release fluctuation could be created. If this oscillatory heat release is coupled with the natural pressure oscillation in an out of phase manner, combustion instabilities can be suppressed. To identify proper locations of supplying additional liquid fuel for the purpose of achieving control, the natural heat release pattern in a vortex-driven combustor was characterized in this study. It was found that at high Damkohler number oscillatory heat release pattern closely followed the evolving vortex front. However, when Damkohler number became close to unity, heat release fluctuation wave no longer coincided with the coherent structures. A heat release deficit area was found near the dump plane when combustor was operated in lean premixed conditions. Active combustion instability suppression experiments were performed in a dump combustor using a controlled liquid fuel injection strategy. High-speed Schlieren results illustrated that vortex shedding plays an important role in maintaining self-sustained combustion instabilities. Complete combustion instability control requires total suppression of these large-scale coherent structures. The sound pressure level at the excited dominant

  5. Young Scientists Explore an Encyclopedia of Energy Activities. Book 8--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of energy. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  6. [Comparative studies of paclitaxel injection "SAWAI" and Taxol® Injection on pharmacokinetics in dogs and in vitro/vivo antitumor activities].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masato; Hosoda, Mitsuchika; Takahashi, Hiromasa; Todo, Satoru

    2010-09-01

    We performed bioequivalent assessments of the generic (Paclitaxel Injection "SAWAI") and branded (Taxol Injection) formulations of paclitaxel injection on pharmacokinetics in dogs and in vitro/vivo antitumor activities. In the pharmacokinetics study in dogs, the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the differences in logarithm of C(max) and AUC(0-48) were log (1.01) to log (1.17) and log (1.01) to log (1.08), respectively. These were within the bioequivalent criteria of log (0.80) to log (1.25). In the in vitro study, both products showed concentration-dependent inhibition of the growth of 5 cultured human cancer cell lines, MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma), A2780 (ovarian carcinoma), A549 (lung carcinoma), MKN45 (gastric adenocarcinoma) and MKN74 (gastric adenocarcinoma). The 90% CIs for the differences in logarithm of half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) were log (0.876) to log (1.110), log (0.856) to log (1.097), log (0.977) to log (1.167), log (0.879) to log (1.093) and log (0.936) to log (1.081), respectively. These were within the bioequivalent criteria. In the in vivo study, both products showed concentration-dependent inhibition of the growth of 3 human cancer cells, A2780 (ovarian carcinoma), A549 (lung carcinoma) and MDA-MB-231 (breast adenocarcinoma), xenografted in nude mice. And there are no significant differences between Paclitaxel Injection "SAWAI" and Taxol Injection. These results showed that Paclitaxel Injection "SAWAI" is bioequivalent to Taxol Injection.

  7. Brief report: the theory of planned behaviour applied to physical activity in young people who smoke.

    PubMed

    Everson, Emma S; Daley, Amanda J; Ussher, Michael

    2007-04-01

    It has been hypothesised that physical activity may be useful as a smoking cessation intervention for young adults. In order to inform such interventions, this study evaluated the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) for understanding physical activity behaviour in young smokers. Regular smokers aged 16-19 years (N=124), self-reported physical activity and all TPB components. Physical activity behaviour was significantly explained by both intention and perceived behavioural control (PBC), with both intention and PBC making significant contributions to the model. Intention was significantly explained by attitude, subjective norm (SN) and PBC, with attitude, SN and PBC all making significant contributions to the model. The TPB may be a useful framework for guiding physical activity interventions among young smokers.

  8. Synergistic anti-tumor activity through combinational intratumoral injection of an in-situ injectable drug depot.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da Yeon; Kwon, Doo Yeon; Kwon, Jin Seon; Park, Ji Hoon; Park, Seung Hun; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jae Ho; Min, Byoung Hyun; Park, Kinam; Kim, Moon Suk

    2016-04-01

    Here, we describe combinational chemotherapy via intratumoral injection of doxorubicin (Dox) and 5-fluorouracil (Fu) to enhance the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of systemically administered Fu and Dox in cancer patients. As the key concept in this work, mixture formulations of Dox-loaded microcapsules (Dox-M) and Fu-loaded Pluronic(®) hydrogels (Fu-HP) or Fu-loaded diblock copolymer hydrogels (Fu-HC) have been employed as drug depots. The in vitro and in vivo drug depot was designed as a formulation of Dox-M dispersed inside an outer shell of Fu-HP or Fu-HC after injection. The Dox-M/Fu-HP and Dox-M/Fu-HC formulations are free flowing at room temperature, indicating injectability, and formed a structural gelatinous depot in vitro and in vivo at body temperature. The Fu-HP, Fu-HC, Dox-M/Fu-HP, Dox-M/Fu-HC, and Dox-M formulations were easily injected into tumor centers in mice using a needle. Dox-M/Fu-HC produced more significant inhibitory effects against tumor growth than that by Dox-M/Fu-HP, while Fu-HP, Fu-HC and Dox-M had the weakest inhibitory effects of the tested treatments. The in vivo study of Dox and Fu biodistribution showed that high Dox and Fu concentrations were maintained in the target tumor only, while distribution to normal tissues was not observed, indicating that Dox and Fu concentrations below their toxic plasma concentrations should not cause significant systemic toxicity. The Dox-M/Fu-HP and Dox-M/Fu-HC drug depots described in this work showed excellent performance as chemotherapeutic delivery systems. The results reported here indicate that intratumoral injection using combination chemotherapy with Dox-M/Fu-HP or Dox-M/Fu-HC could be of translational research by enhancing the synergistic inhibitory effects of Dox and Fu on tumor growth, while reducing their systemic toxicity in cancer patients. PMID:26874285

  9. Plasma effects of active ion beam injections in the ionosphere at rocket altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldy, R. L.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.; Kintner, P. M.; Moore, T. E.; Pollock, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    Data from ARCS rocket ion beam injection experiments are primarily discussed. There are three results from this series of active experiments that are of particular interest in space plasma physics. These are the transverse acceleration of ambient ions in the large beam volume, the scattering of beam ions near the release payload, and the possible acceleration of electrons very close to the plasma generator which produce intense high frequency waves. The ability of 100 ma ion beam injections into the upper E and F regions of the ionosphere to produce these phenomena appear to be related solely to the process by which the plasma release payload and the ion beam are neutralized. Since the electrons in the plasma release do not convect with the plasma ions, the neutralization of both the payload and beam must be accomplished by large field-aligned currents (milliamperes/square meter) which are very unstable to wave growth of various modes.

  10. Evaluation of prostaglandin biosynthetic activity in canine basilar artery following subarachnoid injection of blood.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, T; Murota, S I; Wakai, S; Asano, T; Sano, K

    1981-11-01

    Transformation of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins was investigated in the basilar artery by incubating sections of artery with carbon-14-labeled arachidonic acid. Thin-layer radiochromatography revealed that, in normal canine basilar arteries, 14C-arachidonic acid was transformed mainly to 6-keto-prostaglandin (PG)F1 alpha, a spontaneous metabolite of prostacyclin (PGI2). Among other prostaglandins, only a small amount of PGF2 alpha was detected, whereas PGD2, PGE2, and thromboxane B2 were not. Arteries removed on Days 3 and 8 after subarachnoid blood injection showed a prostaglandin synthesis profile similar to that in the normal cerebral artery. In borate-buffered saline (0.1M borate buffer, pH 9.0/0.15M NaCl = 1:9, vol/vol), canine basilar artery produced a PGI2-like substance that inhibited adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation. Its anti-aggregatory activity was completely abolished by acidification. Aspirin likewise inhibited production of the anti-aggregatory substance. From these results, it was concluded that the anti-aggregatory activity was due solely to the production of PGI2 by the arterial specimen. Based on the above results, PGI2 biosynthetic activity in the cerebral artery exposed to subarachnoid blood injection was bioassayed by measuring the inhibitory activity of the incubation product upon ADP-induced platelet aggregation following incubation of the arteries in borate-buffered saline for 5 to 30 minutes at 20 degrees C, using synthetic PGI2-Na as a standard. The synthetic activity of PGI2 in the artery exposed to subarachnoid blood injection had diminished remarkably by Days 3 and 8. This diminution of PGI2 synthesis in the cerebral artery may be involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm.

  11. Synthesis of In-situ Aluminum Matrix Composite Using a New Activated Powder Injection Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, A.; Meratian, M.; Niroumand, B.; Gupta, M.

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, in-situ Al matrix composites containing alumina particles were synthesized by a new method that involved injection of an activated powder mixture into the molten aluminum, which was subsequently squeeze cast to minimize its porosity. The activated powder mixture was prepared by milling of powders of commercially pure aluminum and zinc oxide for a predetermined time. Milling for 60 minutes led to optimum activation of the reactant powders. Such activation reduced the reaction temperature from above 1000 °C to about 640 °C. Microstructural characterization studies revealed the formation of submicron size alumina particles with near equiaxed morphology and good particle/matrix interface. The composite specimen synthesized using the activated powder injection (API) method exhibited higher hardness, greater yield and tensile strengths, and lower elongation when compared to the monolithic specimen of similar composition. This article places particular emphasis on explaining the uniqueness of the processing methodology used in this study for synthesis of in-situ Al/Al2O3 composites.

  12. Young Adult Hip: Reactivation of dormant, previously undiagnosed Mycobacterium Tuberculosis infection following intra-articular steroid injection

    PubMed Central

    B.J, Tadros; G.H, Stafford

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) still remains a common problem in the UK and, with the increasing number of patients being offered arthroplasties; periprosthetic involvement is not uncommon anymore. However, the diagnosis of TB infected arthroplasties still remains difficult and misdiagnosis is common, therefore delaying treatment. Case Report: We describe a 36-years old Caucasian female with no known history of TB who presented with hip pain thought to be due to femoro-acetabular impingement (FAI). In the course of 18 months, the patient had been investigated extensively; including steroid injection, hip arthroscopy (including synovial biopsies), and eventually a total hip arthroplasty. During arthroplasty, further extensive biopsies were performed which raised the suspicion of TB on histology. Further synovial biopsies obtained arthroscopically were microbiologically positive for TB (PCR). The patient was sent to an infectious disease specialist. It appeared that the patient had TB in the past, of which she was unaware. Conclusion: We hypothesise that the immunosuppressant effects of the steroid injections she received reactivated her TB. PMID:27299119

  13. Physical Activity and Play Behaviours in Children and Young People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boddy, Lynne M.; Downs, Samantha J.; Knowles, Zoe R.; Fairclough, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of physical activity and active play for children and young people are well established. However, there is a lack of physical activity research involving children and young people with intellectual disabilities. This study investigated habitual physical activity and recess play behaviour in 70 5- to 15-year-old participants with…

  14. Young People's Perceptions of the Mathematics Involved in Everyday Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Amanda; Ruthven, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    English secondary students were shown pictures of everyday activities and interviewed about whether math was involved. They were aware of daily math and did not have difficulties identifying math in practical or traditionally female activities. However, they restricted math to activities involving single-solution problems and formal rather than…

  15. Young Urban African American Adolescents' Experience of Discretionary Time Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnert, Amy M.; Richards, Maryse H.; Kolmodin, Karen E.; Lakin, Brittany L.

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the daily discretionary time experiences of 246 (107 boys, 139 girls) fifth through eighth grade urban African American adolescents using the Experience Sampling Method. Relations between the types of activities (i.e., active structured, active unstructured, passive unstructured) engaged in during discretionary…

  16. Curriculum Diversity and Young Adult Physical Activity: Reflections from High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2008-01-01

    This study was to evaluate if exposure to a diverse curriculum in high school physical education had an impact on young adult physical activity. Students from two universities were surveyed concerning high school physical education content exposure and physical activity in four areas. By investigating relationships between content exposure and…

  17. Activities for Improving Language and Communication Skills in Young Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Joann

    Presented are 29 activities for teachers to use in helping young mentally retarded children increase language skills, and included is a language assessment chart. The goal for language development is given to be increase in effectiveness and accuracy in handling both receptive and expressive language. Activities are presented by name or purpose,…

  18. Factors Associated with Leisure Activity among Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Lollar, Donald

    2006-01-01

    The framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) was applied to examine the factors associated with childhood impairment and leisure activity. Information on leisure activity was obtained using a structured questionnaire from a population-based cohort of young adults with childhood impairment. The…

  19. The Effects of Physical Education Requirements on Physical Activity of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if requiring multiple credits of high school physical education for graduation has an impact on promoting physical activity in young adults. Participants in this study (N=361) were surveyed concerning their high school physical education experiences and current performance of physical activity. Results…

  20. Understanding How Young People Do Activism: Youth Strategies on Sexual Health in Ecuador and Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Anna-Britt; Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    While social movement research employs "tactical repertoire" to emphasize protest tactics directed at the state, literature on youth activism globally indicates that young people do politics outside the realm of formal political spheres. Youth activism on body politics in Latin America offers evidence that enhances conceptual tools…

  1. Young School-Aged Children's Behaviour and Their Participation in Extra-Curricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoncini, Kym; Caltabiono, Nerina

    2012-01-01

    While research has repeatedly shown the benefits of participation in extracurricular activities for adolescents, few studies have focused on very young children. Extra-curricular activities afford children opportunities for development and can also influence their behaviour. Children's behaviour is an important predictor of their future successes…

  2. The Effects of Teacher Facilitation on the Social Interactions of Young Children during Computer Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Cynthia; Higgins, Kyle; Gelfer, Jeff; Hong, Eunsook; Miller, Susan

    2005-01-01

    This group study investigated the impact of teacher facilitation on the social interactions of young children during computer activities. The study compared 18 dyads comprised of children with and without disabilities who received teacher facilitation during computer activities to a group of children who did not receive teacher facilitation. The…

  3. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  4. Family gym: a model to promote physical activity for families with young children.

    PubMed

    Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen; Hoffman, Jessica A; Thomas, Jordan; DuBois, Matthew; Agrawal, Tara; Griffin, Daphne; Bhaumik, Urmi; Healey, Christine Locke; Dickerson, Deborah; Nethersole, Shari; Wirth, Catherine

    2014-08-01

    This report describes Family Gym, a family-centered model that (1) provides free access to physical activity for low-income families in the inner city; (2) targets young children (3-8 years) and their families; (3) engages families together in physical activity; and (4) stimulates social interaction among families.

  5. Flow injection catalase activity measurement based on gold nanoparticles/carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    El Nashar, Rasha Mohamed

    2012-07-15

    Amperometric flow injection method of hydrogen peroxide analysis was developed based on catalase enzyme (CAT) immobilization on a glassy carbon electrode (GC) modified with electrochemically deposited gold nanoparticles on a multiwalled carbon nanotubes/chitosan film. The resulting biosensor was applied to detect hydrogen peroxide with a linear response range 1.0×10(-7)-2.5×10(-3)M with a correlation coefficient 0.998 and response time less than 10s. The optimum conditions of film deposition such as potential applied, deposition time and pH were tested and the flow injection conditions were optimized to be: flow rate of 3ml/min, sample volume 75μl and saline phosphate buffer of pH 6.89. Catalase enzyme activity was successfully determined in liver homogenate samples of rats, raised under controlled dietary plan, using a flow injection analysis system involving the developed biosensor simultaneously with spectrophotometric detection, which is the common method of enzymatic assay.

  6. Flow injection catalase activity measurement based on gold nanoparticles/carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    El Nashar, Rasha Mohamed

    2012-07-15

    Amperometric flow injection method of hydrogen peroxide analysis was developed based on catalase enzyme (CAT) immobilization on a glassy carbon electrode (GC) modified with electrochemically deposited gold nanoparticles on a multiwalled carbon nanotubes/chitosan film. The resulting biosensor was applied to detect hydrogen peroxide with a linear response range 1.0×10(-7)-2.5×10(-3)M with a correlation coefficient 0.998 and response time less than 10s. The optimum conditions of film deposition such as potential applied, deposition time and pH were tested and the flow injection conditions were optimized to be: flow rate of 3ml/min, sample volume 75μl and saline phosphate buffer of pH 6.89. Catalase enzyme activity was successfully determined in liver homogenate samples of rats, raised under controlled dietary plan, using a flow injection analysis system involving the developed biosensor simultaneously with spectrophotometric detection, which is the common method of enzymatic assay. PMID:22817944

  7. Physical Activity Experiences of Young People in an Area of Disadvantage: "There's Nothing There for Big Kids, Like Us"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvoy, Eileen; MacPhail, Ann; Enright, Eimear

    2016-01-01

    Through an examination of the experiences of young people in one disadvantaged area, this paper adds to an emerging body of knowledge focused on what place physical activity occupies in the lives of young people in areas of disadvantage. A total of 40 young people (21 males, 19 females) participated in focus group interviews. The research question…

  8. Acute injection of ASP in the third ventricle inhibits food intake and locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, Christian; Roy, Marie-Claude; Gauvreau, Danny; Poulin, Anne-Marie; Tom, Fun-Qun; Timofeeva, Elena; Richard, Denis; Cianflone, Katherine

    2011-07-01

    Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP; also known as C3adesArg) stimulates triglyceride synthesis and glucose transport via interaction with its receptor C5L2, which is expressed peripherally (adipose tissue, muscle) and centrally. Previous studies have shown that ASP-deficient mice (C3KO) and C5L2-deficient mice (C5L2KO) are hyperphagic (59 to 229% increase, P < 0.0001), which is counterbalanced by increased energy expenditure measured as oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) and a lower RQ. The aim of the present study was to evaluate ASP's effect on food intake, energy expenditure, and neuropeptide expression. Male rats were surgically implanted with intracerebroventricular (icv) cannulas directed toward the third ventricle. After a 5-h fast, rats were injected, and food intake was assessed at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 16, 24, and 48 h, with a 5- to 7-day washout period between each injection. Acute icv injections of ASP (0.3-1,065 pmol) had a time-dependent effect on decreasing food intake by 20 to 57% (P < 0.05). Decreases were detected by 30 min (maximum 57%, P < 0.01) and at the highest dose effects extended to 48 h (19%, P < 0.05, 24- to 48-h period). Daily body weight gain was decreased by 131% over the first 24 h and 29% over the second 24 h (P < 0.05). A conditioned taste aversion test indicated that there was no malaise. Furthermore, acute ASP injection affected energy substrate usage, demonstrated by decreased Vo(2) and RQ (P < 0.05; implicating greater fatty acid usage), with a 49% decrease in total activity over 24 h (P < 0.05). ASP administration also increased anorexic neuropeptide POMC expression (44%) in the arcuate nucleus, with no change in NPY. Altogether ASP may have central in addition to peripheral effects.

  9. Differences in lower-extremity muscular activation during walking between healthy older and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Anne; Silder, Amy; Heiderscheit, Bryan; Mahoney, Jane; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have identified differences in gait kinetics between healthy older and young adults. However, the underlying factors that cause these changes are not well understood. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of age and speed on the activation of lower-extremity muscles during human walking. We recorded electromyography (EMG) signals of the soleus, gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, medial hamstrings, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris as healthy young and older adults walked over ground at slow, preferred and fast walking speeds. Nineteen healthy older adults (age, 73 ± 5 years) and 18 healthy young adults (age, 26 ± 3 years) participated. Rectified EMG signals were normalized to mean activities over a gait cycle at the preferred speed, allowing for an assessment of how the activity was distributed over the gait cycle and modulated with speed. Compared to the young adults, the older adults exhibited greater activation of the tibialis anterior and soleus during mid-stance at all walking speeds and greater activation of the vastus lateralis and medial hamstrings during loading and mid-stance at the fast walking speed, suggesting increased coactivation across the ankle and knee. In addition, older adults depend less on soleus muscle activation to push off at faster walking speeds. We conclude that age-related changes in neuromuscular activity reflect a strategy of stiffening the limb during single support and likely contribute to reduced push off power at fast walking speeds. PMID:19081734

  10. Volume of Physical Activity and Injury Occurrence in Young Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Gianoudis, Jenny; Webster, Kate E.; Cook, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Participation in organised, competitive physical activity by young athletes is increasing rapidly. This is concurrent with an increase in sporting injuries in the young population. This pilot study aimed to compare the weekly volume and types of physical activity in young basketball players injured and not injured during the season. Detailed physical activity and injury data were prospectively collected in 46 school-level basketball players aged 14 to 18 years. Participants completed physical activity logs which documented the type of physical activity undertaken, what the activity consisted of (i.e. training, competition) and the level at which it was played on a daily basis. Allied health staff completed a weekly injury form. Results showed that injured and uninjured athletes participated in a similar volume of total weekly physical activity over the season. However, injured athletes (p = 0.04) and athletes who specifically sustained overuse injuries (p = 0.01) participated in a greater amount of basketball refereeing than uninjured athletes. Based on these findings it was concluded that greater participation in running-type physical activity such as refereeing, as an addition to training and competition, may predispose the young basketball player to increased injury risk. Future research using larger sample sizes are required to further investigate the role of participation volume and type on injury occurrence in adolescent athletes. Key points Basketball players participating in larger amounts of running-type physical activity, in addition to regular training and competition, may be predisposed to overuse injury Future studies using larger sample sizes are required to investigate the precise volumes of physical activity that increase injury risk This would assist in the development of participation guidelines to decrease the current injury rates observed in the young athletic population. PMID:24150146

  11. Volume of physical activity and injury occurrence in young basketball players.

    PubMed

    Gianoudis, Jenny; Webster, Kate E; Cook, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Participation in organised, competitive physical activity by young athletes is increasing rapidly. This is concurrent with an increase in sporting injuries in the young population. This pilot study aimed to compare the weekly volume and types of physical activity in young basketball players injured and not injured during the season. Detailed physical activity and injury data were prospectively collected in 46 school-level basketball players aged 14 to 18 years. Participants completed physical activity logs which documented the type of physical activity undertaken, what the activity consisted of (i.e. training, competition) and the level at which it was played on a daily basis. Allied health staff completed a weekly injury form. Results showed that injured and uninjured athletes participated in a similar volume of total weekly physical activity over the season. However, injured athletes (p = 0.04) and athletes who specifically sustained overuse injuries (p = 0.01) participated in a greater amount of basketball refereeing than uninjured athletes. Based on these findings it was concluded that greater participation in running-type physical activity such as refereeing, as an addition to training and competition, may predispose the young basketball player to increased injury risk. Future research using larger sample sizes are required to further investigate the role of participation volume and type on injury occurrence in adolescent athletes. Key pointsBasketball players participating in larger amounts of running-type physical activity, in addition to regular training and competition, may be predisposed to overuse injuryFuture studies using larger sample sizes are required to investigate the precise volumes of physical activity that increase injury riskThis would assist in the development of participation guidelines to decrease the current injury rates observed in the young athletic population.

  12. Eating disorder in a young active duty male.

    PubMed

    Staten, Robert A

    2013-07-01

    Eating disorders can have atypical presentations, be challenging to diagnose, and often result in treatment delay, as illustrated here. Bulimia nervosa is characterized by binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behaviors, and is ten times more common in females. Studies show increased prevalence over the past decade, with similar prevalence in young military members and civilians. Risk factors include dieting, gender preference, life-altering events, and history of a psychiatric condition. Relatively little research has focused on eating disorders among military males, but factors unique to this group include rigid weight standards, mandatory semiannual personal fitness assessments, and extended deployments. Bulimia and other eating disorders can have subtle or atypical presentations and are often overlooked in males. Other diagnostic obstacles include career concerns and stigma avoidance, along with provider time constraints, inexperience, or discomfort with the issue. Serious medical complications of bulimia are uncommon, but delayed diagnosis can lead to hospitalization and significant morbidity. This case emphasizes the importance of a thorough history and wide differential when faced with an unusual presentation. Recognizing risk factors and incorporating simple screening tools can aid the timely identification and treatment of service members with disordered eating before unit and mission effectiveness are compromised.

  13. Diurnal rhythms in ornithine decarboxylase activity and norepinephrine and acetylcholine synthesis in submaxillary lymph nodes and spleen of young and aged rats during Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cardinali, D P; Brusco, L I; Selgas, L; Esquifino, A I

    1998-04-13

    Aging has been associated with attenuation of amplitude and changes in period of many circadian rhythms. The present study was carried out to examine, in young (50 days old) and old (18 months old) rats, whether 24-h rhythms of cell proliferation (as assessed by measuring ornithine decarboxylase activity) and of presynaptic adrenergic and cholinergic markers change in lymph nodes and spleen during Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis. Groups of young and old Sprague-Dawley rats were studied the day before, and on days 6, 12 and 18 after Freund's adjuvant injection. On day 16 after adjuvant injection, inflammation of hind paws, mainly in the ankle joints, was less marked in old than in young rats. Lymph node and splenic ornithine decarboxylase activity exhibited significant 24-h variations with maximal activity during daily hours. Before treatment, enzyme activity values were significantly lower in old rats in both tissues examined. During the immune reaction, lymph node and splenic ornithine decarboxylase augmented 8-10-fold, with progressively smaller amplitude of daily variations as arthritis developed. In every case, mesor and amplitude of ornithine decarboxylase activity were lowest in old rats. Submaxillary lymph node and splenic tyrosine hydroxylase activity attained maximal values at night. At every time interval after mycobacterium adjuvant injection, amplitude and mesor of tyrosine hydroxylase activity rhythm were lowest in old rats. A maximum in submaxillary lymph node 3H-acetylcholine synthesis occurred at the afternoon. On day 6 and 12 after Freund's adjuvant injection, lymph node 3H-acetylcholine synthesis was significantly smaller in old rats. Day-night differences in submaxillary lymph node or splenic ornithine decarboxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase activities, or in submaxillary lymph node 3H-acetylcholine synthesis, of rats treated with the adjuvant's vehicle, did not differ significantly from those seen in untreated controls. The results are

  14. Young School Children's Recess Physical Activity: Movement Patterns and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Amelia M.; Graber, Kim C.; Daum, David N.; Gentry, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study examined physical activity (PA) variables related to recess PA patterns of kindergarten, first and second grade children, and the social preferences and individuals influencing their PA. Data collected (N = 147) used the System of Observing Children's Activity and Relationships during Play (SOCARP) instrument. Children were interviewed.…

  15. How Young Children Spend Their Time: Television and Other Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston, Aletha C.; Wright, John C.; Marquis, Janet; Green, Samuel B.

    1999-01-01

    Examined television viewing over three years among two cohorts of 2- and 4-year olds. Found that viewing declined with age. With age, time in reading and educational activities increased on weekdays but declined on weekends, and sex differences in time-use patterns increased. Increased time in educational activities, social interaction, and video…

  16. The Very Young and Education: 1974 State Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayas, Denise Kale; Ross, Doris M.

    This booklet contains more than 100 brief descriptions of early childhood projects, activities, studies, and legislation obtained from newsletters, bulletins, and the Education Commission of the States' (ECS) 1974 Annual Survey. Only legislation and activities that have been validated or newly reported are included. Bills which failed or were…

  17. Sharing a Small World: Environmental Activities for Young Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains a collection of activities developed for pre-K through second grade students. All of the activities in this teacher's guide use an interdisciplinary approach and explore the human connection with all living things and their environment. Contents include: (1) "Sharing Space and Working Together"; (2) "Sharing Resources and…

  18. [Evoked potentials and brainstem reflex activity in patients of young and middle age with chronic headache].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, E A; Iakupov, E Z

    2011-01-01

    Neurophysiological peculiarities of functional state of afferent systems, including brain evoked potentials of different modalities and brainstem reflex activity, in patients of young and middle age with chronic headaches have been studied. In young patients, there was the increased reflex activity of visual and trigeminal systems, somatosensory cortex and brainstem structures that indicated the main role of the generator of pathologically increased excitation (GPIE) of different levels in the pathogenesis of chronic pain. In patients of middle age, we observed the predominant role of conduction delay on the supraspinal level. The revealed age-related neurophysiological peculiarities determine the pathogenetic therapy of chronic headaches.

  19. Antitumor activity of TNF-α after intratumoral injection using an in situ thermosensitive hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yourui; Shen, Yan; Ouahab, Ammar; Li, Chang; Xiong, Yerong; Tu, Jiasheng

    2015-03-01

    Local drug delivery strategies based on nanoparticles, gels, polymeric films, rods and wafers are increasingly used in cancer chemotherapy in order to enhance therapeutic effect and reduce systemic toxicity. Herein, a biodegradable and biocompatible in situ thermosensitive hydrogel was designed and employed to deliver tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) locally by intratumoral injection. The triblock copolymer was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of β-butyrolactone (β-BL) and lactide (LA) in bulk using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as an initiator and Sn(Oct)2 as the catalyst, the polymer was characterized by NMR, gel permeation chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry. Blood and tumor pharmacokinetics and in vivo antitumor activity of TNF-α after intratumoral administration in hydrogel or solution with the same dose were evaluated on S180 tumor-bearing mice. Compared with TNF-α solution, TNF-α hydrogel exhibited a longer T1/2 (4-fold) and higher AUCtumor (19-fold), but Cmax was lower (0.5-fold), which means that the hydrogel formulation improved the efficacy with a lower systhemic exposure than the solution formation. In addition, TNF-α hydrogel improved the antitumor activity and survival due to lower systemic exposure than the solution. These results demonstrate that the in situ thermosensitive hydrogel-based local delivery system by intratumoral injection is well suited for the administration of TNF-α.

  20. Cardiovascular activity in blood-injection-injury phobia during exposure: evidence for diphasic response patterns?

    PubMed

    Ritz, Thomas; Meuret, Alicia E; Simon, Erica

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to feared stimuli in blood-injection-injury (BII)-phobia is thought to elicit a diphasic response pattern, with an initial fight-flight-like cardiovascular activation followed by a marked deactivation and possible fainting (vasovagal syncope). However, studies have remained equivocal on the importance of such patterns. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence and clinical relevance of diphasic responses using criteria that require a true diphasic response to exceed cardiovascular activation of an emotional episode of a negative valence and to exceed deactivation of an emotionally neutral episode. Sixty BII-phobia participants and 20 healthy controls were exposed to surgery, anger and neutral films while measuring heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory pattern, and end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (as indicator of hyperventilation). Diphasic response patterns were observed in up to 20% of BII-phobia participants and 26.6% of healthy controls for individual cardiovascular parameters. BII-phobia participants with diphasic patterns across multiple parameters showed more fear of injections and blood draws, reported the strongest physical symptoms during the surgery film, and showed the strongest tendency to hyperventilate. Thus, although only a minority of individuals with BII phobia shows diphasic responses, their occurrence indicates significant distress. Respiratory training may add to the treatment of BII phobia patients that show diphasic response patterns.

  1. INJECTION AND ACCELERATION OF ELECTRONS AT A STRONG SHOCK: RADIO AND X-RAY STUDY OF YOUNG SUPERNOVA 2011dh

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Keiichi

    2012-10-20

    In this paper, we develop a model for the radio and X-ray emissions from the Type IIb supernova (SN IIb) 2011dh in the first 100 days after the explosion, and investigate a spectrum of relativistic electrons accelerated at a strong shock wave. The widely accepted theory of particle acceleration, the so-called diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) or Fermi mechanism, requires seed electrons with modest energy with {gamma} {approx} 1-100, and little is known about this pre-acceleration mechanism. We derive the energy distribution of relativistic electrons in this pre-accelerated energy regime. We find that the efficiency of the electron acceleration must be low, i.e., {epsilon}{sub e} {approx}< 10{sup -2} as compared to the conventionally assumed value of {epsilon}{sub e} {approx} 0.1. Furthermore, independent of the low value of {epsilon}{sub e}, we find that the X-ray luminosity cannot be attributed to any emission mechanisms suggested as long as these electrons follow the conventionally assumed single power-law distribution. A consistent view between the radio and X-ray can only be obtained if the pre-acceleration injection spectrum peaks at {gamma} {approx} 20-30 and then only a fraction of these electrons eventually experience the DSA-like acceleration toward the higher energy-then the radio and X-ray properties are explained through the synchrotron and inverse Compton mechanisms, respectively. Our findings support the idea that the pre-acceleration of the electrons is coupled with the generation/amplification of the magnetic field.

  2. Social Justice Storytelling and Young Children's Active Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Louise G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines empirical data with regard to recent theorizing and conceptualizing of children's citizenship. It draws on a doctoral study where the author told social justice stories to one class of children aged five to six years to investigate the active citizenship that the stories set in motion. By imagining this action research study…

  3. Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity in Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flohr, Judith A.; Todd, M. Kent; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) patterns of children. Forty-four 7th-grade students (19 boys, 25 girls) recorded pedometer data for 2 consecutive weeks. Separate 2 x 3 repeated measures analyses of variance were used to examine differences in total steps/day between boys and girls and between after-school…

  4. Small Wonders. Hands-On Science Activities for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdue, Peggy K.

    Children are natural scientists and are constantly questioning and challenging the world around them. This book is designed to help preschool and primary teachers see the science in common things. It is a book of manipulative activities that are designed to nurture a child's natural curiosity as well as integrate science with other areas.…

  5. Cross-Language Activation of Phonology in Young Bilingual Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether children who were learning to read simultaneously in English and French activate phonological representations from only the language in which they are reading or from both of their languages. Children in French Immersion programs in Grade 3 were asked to name aloud cognates, interlingual homographs, interlingual homophones,…

  6. Music Preferences and Civic Activism of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Ambrose; Kier, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between music preferences and civic activism among 182 participants aged 14-24 years. Our analyses show that participants who regularly listened to certain music genres such as classical, opera, musicals, new age, easy listening, house, world music, heavy metal, punk, and ska were significantly more likely to…

  7. Cardio-respiratory effects of systemic neurotensin injection are mediated through activation of neurotensin NTS₁ receptors.

    PubMed

    Kaczyńska, Katarzyna; Szereda-Przestaszewska, Małgorzata

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of our study was to determine the cardio-respiratory pattern exerted by the systemic injection of neurotensin, contribution of neurotensin NTS(1) receptors and the neural pathways mediating the responses. The effects of an intravenous injection (i.v.) of neurotensin were investigated in anaesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats in following experimental schemes: (i) control animals before and after midcervical vagotomy; (ii) in three separate subgroups of rats: neurally intact, vagotomized at supranodosal level and initially midcervically vagotomized exposed to section of the carotid sinus nerves (CSNs); (iii) in the intact rats 2 minutes after blockade of neurotensin NTS(1) receptors with SR 142948. Intravenous injection of 10 μg/kg of neurotensin in the intact rats evoked prompt increase in the respiratory rate followed by a prolonged slowing down coupled with augmented tidal volume. Midcervical vagotomy precluded the effects of neurotensin on the frequency of breathing, while CSNs section reduced the increase in tidal volume. In all the neural states neurotensin caused significant fall in mean arterial blood pressure preceded by prompt hypertensive response. The cardio-respiratory effects of neurotensin were blocked by pre-treatment with NTS(1) receptor antagonist. The results of this study showed that neurotensin acting through NTS(1) receptors augments the tidal component of the breathing pattern in a large portion via carotid body afferentation whereas the respiratory timing response to neurotensin depends entirely on the intact midcervical vagi. Blood pressure effects evoked by an intravenous neurotensin occur outside vagal and CSNs pathways and might result from activation of the peripheral vascular NTS(1) receptors.

  8. What do parents and preschool staff tell us about young children's physical activity: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Genevieve M; Higgs, Joy; Hardy, Louise L; Baur, Louise A

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical activity and small screen recreation are two modifiable behaviours associated with childhood obesity and the development of chronic health problems. Parents and preschool staff shape behaviour habits in young children. The aims of this qualitative study were to explore the attitudes, values, knowledge and understanding of parents and carers of preschool-age children in relation to physical activity and small screen recreation and to identify influences upon these behaviours. Methods This research involved a focus group study with parents and carers of the target population. A purposive sample of 39 participants (22 parents, 17 carers) participated in 9 focus groups. Participants were drawn from three populations of interest: those from lower socioeconomic status, and Middle-Eastern and Chinese communities in the Sydney (Australia) metropolitan region. Results All participants understood the value of physical activity and the impact of excessive small screen recreation but were unfamiliar with national guidelines for these behaviours. Participants described the nature and activity patterns of young children; however, the concept of activity 'intensity' in this age group was not a meaningful term. Factors which influenced young children's physical activity behaviour included the child's personality, the physical activity facilities available, and the perceived safety of their community. Factors facilitating physical activity included a child's preference for being active, positive parent or peer modelling, access to safe play areas, organised activities, preschool programs and a sense of social connectedness. Barriers to physical activity included safety concerns exacerbated by negative media stories, time restraints, financial constraints, cultural values favouring educational achievement, and safety regulations about equipment design and use within the preschool environment. Parents considered that young children are naturally 'programmed' to be

  9. Physical activity and movement skills proficiency of young Filipino children.

    PubMed

    Capio, Catherine M; Sit, Cindy H P; Eguia, Kathlynne F; Abernethy, Bruce

    2014-08-01

    Recent reports indicate an increasing prevalence of overweight among Filipino children. Considering the known association of physical activity (PA) with obesity, this study reports the findings of an objective monitoring of PA in a sample of Filipino children. The study also explores the relationship of PA with fundamental movement skills (FMS) proficiency. Thirty-two children (6.54 ± 2.45 years old) wore an accelerometer for 7 days of PA monitoring and were assessed on five FMS (throw, catch, kick, run, jump). The children met the World Health Organization's recommendation of 60 min of PA per day, with more active time being accrued during weekdays than weekends. Children with greater FMS proficiency were found to spend more time in PA than those who were less skillful during weekends. Further research is recommended to examine PA and FMS proficiency associations, exploring the role of social interactions on weekends and weekdays.

  10. Does Participation in Youth Sport Influence Sport and Physical Activity in Young Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provence, Jeremy E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of Russell and Limle's (2013) study was to determine whether youth-sport specialization and retrospective recall of youth-sport experiences were related to participants' perceptions of and participation in sport and physical activity as young adults. A significant number of participants (76 percent) reported specializing in…

  11. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most recent Australian Health survey identified that young men (18-24yrs) have numerous health concerns including: 42% overweight/obese, 48% not meeting national physical activity recommendations and 97% failing to consume adequate intakes of fruit and vegetables. There is a lack of engagement a...

  12. Young Children at Home and in School: 212 Educational Activities for Their Parents, Teachers, and Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Philip S.; Brand, Lillian B.

    This source book is designed to give parents, teachers, and other caregivers of young children more than 200 sample activities for children that are fun, easy, and educationally sound. Chapter 1 introduces principles of early childhood programs, the "home-school connection," and tips on how to communicate with children. This chapter also gives an…

  13. Young Adult Outcomes of Children with Hyperactivity: Leisure, Financial, and Social Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Mariellen; Barkley, Russell

    2006-01-01

    This study reports on the leisure time, financial, gambling, and social activities of a large sample of children with hyperactivity (H group, N = 149) and children who served as a control group (CC group, N = 72) from the Southeastern Wisconsin (Milwaukee) region tracked for 13-15 years to young adulthood (ages 19--25, M = 20 years). Participant…

  14. Approaches to Programs of Motor Development and Activities for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    This teaching guide for motor development in the primary grades describes various areas of concern in motor development and suggests activities for the development of young children in each area. Section I discusses the importance of motor development. The next six sections define and describe particular areas of motor development and suggest…

  15. Promoting an "Active Start" for Young Children: Developing Competent and Confident Early Movers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Wall, Sarah; Getchell, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    With childhood obesity and physical inactivity at an all-time high, parents and physical educators alike must look to the early years to promote competent and confident young movers. Popular opinion believes that children are naturally active and motor skill development progresses as a normal function of getting older. However, if one looks at…

  16. An Evaluation of a Program to Increase Physical Activity for Young Children in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Marco, Allison C.; Zeisel, Susan; Odom, Samuel L.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: In the past 20 years, obesity rates among U.S. children have skyrocketed. In fact, 15.4% of 2- to 4-year-olds in North Carolina, where this study takes place, are obese, making it the 5th worst obesity rate in the nation. Research indicates that young children in preschool settings largely engage in sedentary activities,…

  17. That's Not Fair! A Teacher's Guide to Activism with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelo, Ann; Davidson, Fran

    Noting that young children have a natural sense of what is and is not fair, this guide is intended to help teachers develop an anti-bias curriculum using children's sense of fairness to guide them toward social activism. The book provides stories of children's experiences as activists, coupled with first-person accounts of teachers' experiences…

  18. Physical Activity and Diet Relative to Socio-Economic Status and Gender in British Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study considers the physical activity (PA) and dietary habits of British young people according to socio-economic status (SES). Methods: The PA and dietary habits of 98 boys and 101 girls (12.9 0.3 years) from two Welsh secondary schools (school 1 and school 2) were examined. Free school meal eligibility and Census 2001 data were…

  19. Young Children's Literacy in the Activity Space of the Library: A Geosemiotic Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sue

    2011-01-01

    An ecological approach, emphasizing the importance of understanding multiple contexts for learning, underpins this study of libraries as activity spaces for young children's literacy participation. Five libraries serving a diversity of communities were the subject of ethnographic investigation incorporating participant observation, visual…

  20. Self-Control Is Associated with Physical Activity and Fitness among Young Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnunen, Marja Ilona; Suihko, Johanna; Hankonen, Nelli; Absetz, Pilvikki; Jallinoja, Piia

    2012-01-01

    The personality trait self-control has been associated with various adaptive outcomes. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to explore whether self-control is associated with self-reported leisure time physical activity (LTPA), Body Mass Index (BMI), muscle-fitness and aerobic fitness among young men. Participants (482 male conscripts;…

  1. Young People, Physical Activity and the Everyday. Routledge Studies in Physical Education and Youth Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Jan, Ed.; Macdonald, Doune, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Despite society's current preoccupation with interrelated issues such as obesity, increasingly sedentary lifestyles and children's health, there has until now been little published research that directly addresses the place and meaning of physical activity in young people's lives. In this important new collection, leading international scholars…

  2. Initiating Sexual Experiences: How Do Young Adolescents Make Decisions Regarding Early Sexual Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michels, Tricia M.; Kropp, Rhonda Y.; Eyre, Stephen L.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding how young adolescents make decisions to engage in early sexual activities is vital for intervention efforts aimed at fostering positive youth development and reducing the negative outcomes of adolescent sexual behavior. In-depth interviews with 42 suburban, mostly White, ninth-grade adolescents (52% females, mean age=14.1, SD=.45)…

  3. Access to highly active antiretroviral therapy for injection drug users: adherence, resistance, and death.

    PubMed

    Vlahov, David; Celentano, David D

    2006-04-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) continue to comprise a major risk group for HIV infection throughout the world and represent the focal population for HIV epidemics in Asia and Eastern Europe/Russia. HIV prevention programs have ranged from HIV testing and counseling, education, behavioral and network interventions, drug abuse treatment, bleach disinfection of needles, needle exchange and expanded syringe access, as well as reducing transition to injection and primary substance abuse prevention. With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996, dramatic clinical improvements have been seen. In addition, the treatment's impact on reducing HIV viral load (and therefore transmission by all routes) provides a stronger rationale for an expansion of the focus on prevention to emphasize early identification and treatment of HIV infected individuals. However, treatment of IDUs has many challenges including adherence, resistance and relapse to high risk behaviors, all of which impact issues of access and ultimately effectiveness of potent antiretroviral treatment. A major current challenge in addressing the HIV epidemic revolves around an appropriate approach to HIV treatment for IDUs.

  4. Specific inflammatory response of Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria) after bacterial injection causes tissue reaction and enzymatic activity alteration.

    PubMed

    Trapani, M R; Parisi, M G; Parrinello, D; Sanfratello, M A; Benenati, G; Palla, F; Cammarata, M

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of multicellular organisms was marked by adaptations to protect against pathogens. The mechanisms for discriminating the ''self'' from ''non-self" have evolved into a long history of cellular and molecular strategies, from damage repair to the co-evolution of host-pathogen interactions. We investigated the inflammatory response in Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) following injection of substances that varied in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reactions, especially after injection of Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus. Moreover, we analyzed enzymatic activity of protease, phosphatase and esterase, showing how the injection of different bacterial strains alters the expression of these enzymes and suggesting a correlation between the appearance of the inflammatory reaction and the modification of enzymatic activities. Our study shows for the first time, a specific reaction and enzymatic responses following injection of bacteria in a cnidarian.

  5. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Health-related physical activity levels in Spanish youth and young adults.

    PubMed

    Cocca, Armando; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Viciana-Ramírez, Jesús

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the current physical activity (PA) levels in youth and young adults from Granada, Spain, and to assess if they accomplish the recommendations for healthy PA. A sample of 1,832 boys and 1,840 girls was administered the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results showed that most of the children (72.2%) and adolescents (56.4%) reached the recommended PA levels, whereas only 40% of young adults achieved recommended levels of PA. The most active were students from Primary schools, whereas university students were the least active. Youth of college and university ages were found to be at higher risk for engagement in PA. PMID:24724525

  7. Mitogen-activated protein kinase is required for the behavioural desensitization that occurs after repeated injections of angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Vento, Peter J; Daniels, Derek

    2012-12-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) acts on central angiotensin type 1 (AT(1)) receptors to increase water and saline intake. Prolonged exposure to Ang II in cell culture models results in a desensitization of the AT(1) receptor that is thought to involve receptor internalization, and a behavioural correlate of this desensitization has been shown in rats after repeated central injections of Ang II. Specifically, rats given repeated injections of Ang II drink less water than control animals after a subsequent test injection of Ang II. In the same conditions, however, repeated injections of Ang II have no effect on Ang II-induced saline intake. Given earlier studies indicating that separate intracellular signalling pathways mediate Ang II-induced water and saline intake, we hypothesized that the desensitization observed in rats may be incomplete, leaving the receptor able to activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (ERK1/2), which play a role in Ang II-induced saline intake without affecting water intake. In support of this hypothesis, we found no difference in MAP kinase phosphorylation after an Ang II test injection in rats given prior treatment with repeated injections of vehicle, Ang II or Sar(1),Ile(4),Ile(8)-Ang II (SII), an Ang II analogue that activates MAP kinase without G protein coupling. In addition, we found that pretreatment with the MAP kinase inhibitor U0126 completely blocked the desensitizing effect of repeated Ang II injections on water intake. Furthermore, Ang II-induced water intake was reduced to a similar extent by repeated injections of Ang II or SII. The results suggest that G protein-independent signalling is sufficient to produce behavioural desensitization of the angiotensin system and that the desensitization requires MAP kinase activation.

  8. Employment and Post-Secondary Educational Activities for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders during the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the post-high school educational and occupational activities for 66 young adults with autism spectrum disorders who had recently exited the secondary school system. Analyses indicated low rates of employment in the community, with the majority of young adults (56%) spending time in sheltered workshops or day activity centers.…

  9. Sympathetic Activity Assessed During Exercise Recovery in Young Obese Females

    PubMed Central

    Franco, R. Lee; Privett, Stacey H.; Bowen, Mary K.; Acevedo, Edmund O.; Arrowood, James A.; Wickham, Edmond P.; Evans, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate differences in sympathetic activity, as assessed by an exercise recovery index (ERI; heart rate/VO2 plateau), between black and white obese female adolescents. An additional aim was to determine the association of ERI with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), cardiovascular fitness per fat-free mass (VO2FFM), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and percent body fat (%FAT) in both black and white obese adolescents. Study design Sixty-one females volunteered to participate in this study. HOMA-IR, SBP and %FAT were assessed during resting conditions in black (n=49, 13.7±1.6 yrs, 38.1±6.1 kg/m2) and white (n=12, 13.3±2.2 yrs, 34.3±4.9 kg/m2) obese adolescents. An ERI was calculated during a 5-minute passive recovery period immediately following a graded treadmill exercise test to exhaustion. Results The ERI was significantly greater in black compared with white obese adolescent females (29.8 ± 6.4 vs. 24.1 ± 3.1 bpm·mLO2−1 ·min−1, P = 0.004). Using multiple linear regression modeling, there was a significant independent association between ERI and VO2FFM (r = −0.310, P = 0.027) and %FAT (r = 0.326, P = 0.020) in black obese adolescents after controlling for HOMA-IR and SBP. Conclusions These results suggest that black obese adolescent females have greater sympathetic activity, as assessed by an ERI, than white obese adolescent females. These findings support the need for weight management efforts aimed at both reducing %FAT and improving fitness in obese adolescents, specifically black females. Trial registration Registered with Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00562293 PMID:26003997

  10. Differential effects of stimulatory factors on natural killer cell activities of young and aged mice.

    PubMed

    Nogusa, Shoko; Murasko, Donna M; Gardner, Elizabeth M

    2012-09-01

    Age-associated influences on natural killer (NK) cell functions following cytokine stimulation were examined in splenocytes from C57BL/6 mice. NK cells of both young and aged mice exhibited significantly increased: interferon-γ production after interleukin (IL)-12 or IL-15 alone or any combination of IL-12, IL-18, and IL-2; cytotoxicity after IL-2 or IL-15; and granzyme B expression after IL-15. The only significant age-associated differences were observed in interferon-γ production after IL-15 or IL-12 + 18 + 2 and in granzyme B expression following IL-2 or IL-15. Perforin expression did not increase following stimulation; however, NK cells from aged mice expressed significantly higher levels than young mice. These results underscore the complexity of the cytokine-induced functional activities of NK cells and illustrate the differential response of NK cells from young and aged mice to cytokine stimulation.

  11. Popularization activities for young children of the scientific activity in the field of environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gires, Auguste; Le Gueut, Marie-Agathe; Schertzer, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Research projects now rely on various pillars which include of course high level science and equipments, and also communication, outreach and educational activities. This paper focuses on education for young children and present activities that aim at helping them (and their parents!) to grasp some of the complex underlying scientific issues in the field of environment. More generally it helps children to get familiarized with science and scientists, with the hope of enhancing scientific culture and promoting careers in this field. The activities which are part of the popularization effort of the NEW Interreg IV RainGain project (www.raingain.eu) : - Experiments led in classrooms of kinder garden to design and test a disdrometer made of a plate and flour or oil to observe the diversity of rain drop sizes. It simply consists in putting a bit (roughly 1 mm depth) of flour or oil in a plate. The features of the devices based either flour or oil were first studied inside with artificial drops. Then it was tested outside under actual rain. - The writing of scientific book with and for children aged 8-9 years with the help of the editor of the collection. The process leading to the final book is splat in three main successive steps: (i) A 1.5 h interactive session with the researcher and a class of 8-9 year children. They are simply given the general topic of the book few hours before and ask all the questions they have on it and get some answers; (ii) The researcher writes a book in which all the questions raised by children are answered (at least partially). The scientific elements should be inserted in a lively story with few characters. The story should be more than a simple dialogue; a genuine fiction should take place and come first so that children do not even notice they are understanding and learning; (iii) Once children have read the book, there is a second session to get some feedback and possibly edit the manuscript (altering a character, adding some

  12. Activities of Asian Students and Young Scientists on Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, H.; Lo, C.-Y.; Cho, K.

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports a history and future prospects of the activities by Asian students and young scientists on photogrammetry and remote sensing. For future growths of academic fields, active communications among students and young scientists are indispensable. In some countries and regions in Asia, local communities are already established by youths and playing important roles of building networks among various schools and institutes. The networks are expected to evolve innovative cooperations after the youths achieve their professions. Although local communities are getting solid growth, Asian youths had had little opportunities to make contacts with youths of other countries and regions. To promote youth activities among Asian regions, in 2007, Asian Association on Remote Sensing (AARS) started a series of programs involving students and young scientists within the annual conferences, the Asian Conference on Remote Sensing (ACRS). The programs have provided opportunities and motivations to create networks among students and young scientists. As a result of the achievements, the number of youth interested and involved in the programs is on growing. In addition, through the events held in Asian region by ISPRS Student Consortium (ISPRSSC) and WG VI/5, the Asian youths have built friendly partnership with ISPRSSC. Currently, many Asian youth are keeping contacts with ACRS friends via internet even when they are away from ACRS. To keep and expand the network, they are planning to establish an Asian youth organization on remote sensing. This paper describes about the proposals and future prospects on the Asian youth organization.

  13. Farm Activities and Agricultural Injuries in Youth and Young Adult Workers.

    PubMed

    DeWit, Yvonne; Pickett, William; Lawson, Joshua; Dosman, James

    2015-01-01

    Youth and young adults who work in the agricultural sector experience high rates of injury. This study aimed to investigate relations between high-risk farm activities and the occurrence of agricultural injuries in these vulnerable groups. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using written questionnaire data from 1135 youth and young adults from the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort. The prevalence of agricultural injury was estimated at 4.9%/year (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7, 6.2). After adjustment for important covariates, duration of farm work was strongly associated with the occurrence of injury (risk ratio [RR] = 8.0 [95% CI: 1.7, 36.7] for 10-34 vs. <10 hours/week; RR = 10.3 [95% CI: 2.2, 47.5] for those working 35+ hours/week). Tractor maintenance, tractor operation, chores with large animals, herd maintenance activities, and veterinary activities were identified as risk factors for agricultural injury. Risks for agricultural injury among youth and young adults on farms relate directly to the amounts and types of farm work exposures that young people engage in. PMID:26237722

  14. Sequential injection spectrophotometric system for evaluation of mushroom tyrosinase-inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Moonrungsee, Nuntaporn; Shimamura, Tomoko; Kashiwagi, Takehiro; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Higuchi, Keiro; Ukeda, Hiroyuki

    2012-11-15

    A sequential injection (SI) spectrophotometric method with absorbance detection at 475 nm has been developed for evaluating activity of some compounds on an inhibition of the mushroom tyrosinase. The method involved a reaction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and mushroom tyrosinase to form the o-dopaquinone. The decrease of the o-dopaquinone was related to an increase of tyrosinase-inhibitory activity. Under the optimum conditions (concentration and volume of L-DOPA and mushroom tyrosinase of 2.0 mM, 60 μL and 142 U mL(-1), 15 μL, respectively), some antioxidant compounds were examined for the tyrosinase-inhibitory activity. A batch enzymatic assay of tyrosinase-inhibitory activity was applied as the reference method for comparison. The results of IC(50) values obtained from the proposed method and the batch method were correlated well, with r(2) of 0.969. The SIA provides higher precision and degrees of automation, consumes smaller amounts of chemicals and it is simpler and faster than the batch method.

  15. Impaired anterior insular activation during risky decision making in young adults with internet gaming disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deokjong; Lee, Junghan; Yoon, Kang Joon; Kee, Namkoong; Jung, Young-Chul

    2016-05-25

    Internet gaming disorder is defined as excessive and compulsive use of the internet to engage in games that leads to clinically significant psychosocial impairment. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with internet gaming disorder would be less sensitive to high-risk situations and show aberrant brain activation related to risk prediction processing. Young adults with internet gaming disorder underwent functional MRI while performing a risky decision-making task. The healthy control group showed stronger activations within the dorsal attention network and the anterior insular cortex, which were not found in the internet gaming disorder group. Our findings imply that young adults with internet gaming disorder show impaired anterior insular activation during risky decision making, which might make them vulnerable when they need to adapt new behavioral strategies in high-risk situations. PMID:27092470

  16. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-03-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging adults with an ASD and that reported by their caring adult; (2) examining the barriers to participation reported. Preliminary results demonstrate that the AYA-ACS appears to be a reliable and valid method of identifying emerging adults' participation strengths as well as personal and environmental challenges in a variety of age-appropriate activities. The AYA-ACS could assist service providers by providing an understanding of the challenges to participation faced by this population and aid in developing client centered interventions.

  17. Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Differ According to Education Level in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Kantomaa, Marko T; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kankaanpää, Anna; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (2009-2011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays. PMID:27403958

  18. Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Differ According to Education Level in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kankaanpää, Anna; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (2009–2011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays. PMID:27403958

  19. Prefrontal Cortex Activation and Young Driver Behaviour: A fNIRS Study

    PubMed Central

    Foy, Hannah J.; Runham, Patrick; Chapman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic accidents consistently show a significant over-representation for young, novice and particularly male drivers. This research examines the prefrontal cortex activation of young drivers and the changes in activation associated with manipulations of mental workload and inhibitory control. It also considers the explanation that a lack of prefrontal cortex maturation is a contributing factor to the higher accident risk in this young driver population. The prefrontal cortex is associated with a number of factors including mental workload and inhibitory control, both of which are also related to road traffic accidents. This experiment used functional near infrared spectroscopy to measure prefrontal cortex activity during five simulated driving tasks: one following task and four overtaking tasks at varying traffic densities which aimed to dissociate workload and inhibitory control. Age, experience and gender were controlled for throughout the experiment. The results showed that younger drivers had reduced prefrontal cortex activity compared to older drivers. When both mental workload and inhibitory control increased prefrontal cortex activity also increased, however when inhibitory control alone increased there were no changes in activity. Along with an increase in activity during overtaking manoeuvres, these results suggest that prefrontal cortex activation is more indicative of workload in the current task. There were no differences in the number of overtakes completed by younger and older drivers but males overtook significantly more than females. We conclude that prefrontal cortex activity is associated with the mental workload required for overtaking. We additionally suggest that the reduced activation in younger drivers may be related to a lack of prefrontal maturation which could contribute to the increased crash risk seen in this population. PMID:27227990

  20. The activity intensities reached when playing active tennis gaming relative to sedentary gaming, tennis game-play, and current activity recommendations in young adults.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Arkinstall, Hayley; Dalbo, Vincent J; Humphries, Brendan J; Jennings, Cameron T; Kingsley, Michael I C

    2013-09-01

    Although active gaming is popular and can increase energy expenditure in young adults, its efficacy as a prescriptive exercise tool is not well understood. This study aimed to: (a) compare the activity intensities experienced by young adults while playing active tennis gaming with conventional sedentary gaming, tennis game-play, and current activity recommendations for health; and (b) identify changes in activity intensities across playing time. After habitualization, 10 active young adults (age: 20.2 ± 0.4 years; stature: 1.74 ± 0.03 m; body mass: 67.7 ± 3.3 kg) completed 3 experimental trials (sedentary gaming, active tennis gaming, and tennis game-play) on separate days in a randomized order. Heart rate (HR) and metabolic equivalents (METs) were averaged across 5 minutes and 10 minutes intervals, and the entire 20 minutes bout within each condition. Active gaming produced greater intensities across 5-10, 10-15, and 15-20 minutes time intervals compared with sedentary gaming (p < 0.01). Tennis game-play elicited greater HR (67 ± 5% HR(max)) and METs (5.0 ± 0.2) responses than both sedentary (40 ± 2% HR(max), 1.1 ± 0.1 METs) and active gaming (45 ± 2% HR(max), 1.4 ± 0.1 METs) (p < 0.001). Only tennis game-play produced activity intensities meeting current recommendations for health benefit. Lower HR intensities were reached across 0-5 minutes than during later time intervals during active gaming (6%) and tennis game-play (9%) (p < 0.01). Activity intensities elicited by active gaming were greater than sedentary gaming but less than tennis game-play and insufficient to contribute toward promoting and maintaining good health in young adults. These data suggest that active tennis gaming should not be recommended by exercise professionals as a substitute for actual sports participation in young adults.

  1. Effects of Activation on Functional Aster Formation, Microtubule Assembly, and Blastocyst Development of Goat Oocytes Injected with Round Spermatids

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin-Yong; Miao, Yi-Long; Zhang, Jie; Qiu, Jian-Hua; Cui, Xiang-Zhong; Gao, Wei-Qiang; Luo, Ming-Jiu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A systematic study was conducted on round spermatids (ROS) injection (ROSI) using the goat model. After ROSI, the oocytes were treated or not with ionomycin (ROSI+I and ROSI−I, respectively) and compared with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). After ROSI−I, most oocytes were arrested with premature chromatin condensation and few oocytes formed pronuclei. In contrast, most oocytes formed pronuclei after ROSI+I. Some ROS were observed to form asters that organized a dense microtubule network after ROSI+I, but after ROSI−I, no ROS asters were observed. Whereas most of the oocytes showed Ca2+ rises and a significant decline in maturation-promoting factor (MPF) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities after ROSI+I, no such changes were observed after ROSI−I. Due to the lack of Ca2+ oscillations after ROSI−I, oocytes were injected with more ROS. Interestingly, different from the results observed in a single ROS injection, injection with four ROS effectively activated oocytes by inducing typical Ca2+ oscillations. Whereas ROSI+I oocytes and ICSI oocytes both showed extensive microtubule networks, no such a network was observed in parthenogenetic oocytes. Together, the results suggest that goat ROS is not able to trigger intracellular Ca2+ rises and thus to inhibit MPF and MAPK activities, but artificial activation improved fertilization and development of ROSI goat oocytes. Goat ROS can organize functional microtubular asters in activated oocytes. A ROS-derived factor(s) may be essential for organization of a functional microtubule network to unite pronuclei. Goat centrosome is of paternal origin because both ROS and sperm asters organized an extensive microtubule network after intra-oocyte injection. PMID:22908906

  2. Alteration of rare earth element distribution as a result of microbial activity and empirical methane injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, D. J.; Davies, N. W.; Thurber, A. R.; Haley, B. A.; Colwell, F. S.

    2014-12-01

    As a result of warming, methane is being released into the marine environment in areas that have not historically experienced methane input. While methane is a potent greenhouse gas, microbial oxidation of methane within the sediment greatly limits the role of marine methane sources on atmospheric forcing. However, in these areas of new methane release, consumption of methane prior to its release into the atmosphere is a result of the response of the microbial community to this new input of methane. Further, rare earth elements (REEs) are not currently thought to be involved with microbial activity, but this assumption has not been rigorously tested. Here we test that: (1) microbial communities will rapidly respond to the onset of methane emission, and (2) the microbial response to this methane input will impact the distribution of REEs within the sediment. Undisturbed cores sampled from a tidal flat at Yaquina Bay, OR, were brought back to a lab and injected with anoxic seawater (as a control) or anoxic sea water saturated with methane gas for a total of 2 weeks. Aerobic methanotrophs proliferated over this short time period, becoming an abundant member of the microbial community as identified using fatty acid biomarkers. Excitingly, the experimental injection of methane also shifted the distribution of REEs within the sediment, a trend that appeared to follow the microbial response and that was different from the control cores. Further, the lightest REEs appeared to be used more than the heavier ones, supporting that the REEs are being actively used by the microbes. While we focused on identifying the response of those microbes responsible in methane-cycling, we also identified how the entire microbial community shifts as a result of methane input, and correlating with shifts in REE distribution. Here we have empirically demonstrated the rapid response of methanotrophs to the onset of methane emission and that REE distribution within the sediment is likely

  3. Effects of injectable anticholinergic drugs on soman-induced lethality and convulsant/subconvulsant activity

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, L.W.; Anderson, D.R.; Lennox, W.J.; Bowersox, S.L.; Anders, J.C.

    1993-05-13

    FDA approved, injectable preparations of candidate compounds BENZTROPINE (BZT), 1.0 mg/ml; biperiden (BIP), 5.0 mg/ml; dicyclomine (DCL), 10 mg/ml; 1-hyoscyamine (HYO), 0.5 mg/ml; orphenadrine (ORP), 30 mg/ml; scopolamine (SCP), 1.0 mg/ml were tested in parallel with diazepam (DZ, the standard) in male guinea pigs against ongoing soman induced convulsive (CV)/sub-CV activity. Three trained graders concurrently assigned CV/sub-CV scores (12 - convulsions; 0 normal) to each animal. Animals received (im) pyridostigmine (PYR; 26 ug/kg) 30 min before soman (56 ug/kg; 2 LD50), atropine (2 mg/kg) admixed with 2-PAM (25 mg/kg) at one min after soman, and the candidate drug preparation at 5.67 min post soman, a time when CV activity is assured. BIP and SCP demonstrated efficacy over dosage ranges between 10 and 0.3 and 1.0 and 0.13 mg/kg, respectively, while the other preparations were less effective at their respective maximum dosages. At optimal dosages of SCP (0.5 mg/kg) and BIP (10 mg/kg), the CV/sub-CV scores were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those of DZ.

  4. Simulation of mercury capture by activated carbon injection in incinerator flue gas. 2. Fabric filter removal.

    PubMed

    Scala, F

    2001-11-01

    Following a companion paper focused on the in-duct mercury capture in incinerator flue gas by powdered activated carbon injection, this paper is concerned with the additional mercury capture on the fabric filter cake, relevant to baghouse equipped facilities. A detailed model is presented for this process, based on material balances on mercury in both gaseous and adsorbed phases along the growing filter cake and inside the activated carbon particles,taking into account mass transfer resistances and adsorption kinetics. Several sorbents of practical interest have been considered, whose parameters have been evaluated from available literature data. The values and range of the operating variables have been chosen in order to simulate typical incinerators operating conditions. Results of simulations indicate that, contrary to the in-duct removal process, high mercury removal efficiencies can be obtained with moderate sorbent consumption, as a consequence of the effective gas/sorbent contacting on the filter. Satisfactory utilization of the sorbents is predicted, especially at long filtration times. The sorbent feed rate can be minimized by using a reactive sorbent and by lowering the filter temperature as much as possible. Minor benefits can be obtained also by decreasing the sorbent particle size and by increasing the cleaning cycle time of the baghouse compartments. Reverse-flow baghouses were more efficient than pulse-jet baghouses, while smoother operation can be obtained by increasing the number of baghouse compartments. Model results are compared with available relevant full scale data. PMID:11718360

  5. Simulation of mercury capture by activated carbon injection in incinerator flue gas. 2. Fabric filter removal.

    PubMed

    Scala, F

    2001-11-01

    Following a companion paper focused on the in-duct mercury capture in incinerator flue gas by powdered activated carbon injection, this paper is concerned with the additional mercury capture on the fabric filter cake, relevant to baghouse equipped facilities. A detailed model is presented for this process, based on material balances on mercury in both gaseous and adsorbed phases along the growing filter cake and inside the activated carbon particles,taking into account mass transfer resistances and adsorption kinetics. Several sorbents of practical interest have been considered, whose parameters have been evaluated from available literature data. The values and range of the operating variables have been chosen in order to simulate typical incinerators operating conditions. Results of simulations indicate that, contrary to the in-duct removal process, high mercury removal efficiencies can be obtained with moderate sorbent consumption, as a consequence of the effective gas/sorbent contacting on the filter. Satisfactory utilization of the sorbents is predicted, especially at long filtration times. The sorbent feed rate can be minimized by using a reactive sorbent and by lowering the filter temperature as much as possible. Minor benefits can be obtained also by decreasing the sorbent particle size and by increasing the cleaning cycle time of the baghouse compartments. Reverse-flow baghouses were more efficient than pulse-jet baghouses, while smoother operation can be obtained by increasing the number of baghouse compartments. Model results are compared with available relevant full scale data.

  6. Predictors and effects of alcohol use on liver function among young HCV-infected injection drug users in a behavioral intervention

    PubMed Central

    Drumright, Lydia N.; Hagan, Holly; Thomas, David L.; Latka, Mary H.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Garfein, Richard S.; Clapp, John D.; Campbell, Jennifer V.; Bonner, Sebastian; Kapadia, Farzana; Thiel, Thelma King; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening can provide opportunities to reduce disease progression through counseling against alcohol use, but empirical data on this issue are sparse. We determined the efficacy of a behavioral intervention in reducing alcohol use among young, HCV-infected injection drug users (IDUs) (n=355) and assessed whether changes in liver enzymes were associated with changes in alcohol consumption. Methods Both the intervention and attention-control groups were counseled to avoid alcohol use, but the intervention group received enhanced counseling. Logistic regression, ANOVA, and continuous time Markov models were used to identify factors associated with alcohol use, changes in mean ALT and AST levels and change in alcohol use post-intervention. Results Six months post-intervention, alcohol abstinence increased 22.7% in both groups, with no difference by intervention arm. Transition from alcohol use to abstinence was associated with a decrease in liver enzymes, with a marginally greater decrease in the intervention group (p=0.05 for ALT; p=0.06 for AST). In multivariate Markov models, those who used marijuana transitioned from alcohol abstinence to consumption more rapidly than non-users (RR=3.11); those who were homeless transitioned more slowly to alcohol abstinence (RR=0.47); and those who had ever received a clinical diagnosis of liver disease transitioned more rapidly to abstinence (RR=1.88). Conclusions Although, behavioral counseling to reduce alcohol consumption among HCV-infected IDUs had a modest effect, reductions in alcohol consumption were associated with marked improvements in liver function. Interventions to reduce alcohol use among HCV-infected IDUs may benefit from being integrated into clinical care and monitoring of HCV infection. PMID:21145862

  7. Injecting and HIV prevalence among young heroin users in three Spanish cities and their association with the delayed implementation of harm reduction programmes

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Luis; Bravo, María José; Toro, Carlos; Brugal, M Teresa; Barrio, Gregorio; Soriano, Vicente; Vallejo, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate changes in the prevalence of HIV infection among young heroin users in three Spanish cities, and their association with harm reduction programmes (HRPs). Methods Two cross sectional studies. The 1995 study included 596 users; half were street recruited and half were recruited at drug treatment centres. The 2001–03 study included 981 street recruited users. Face to face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire. Samples for HIV testing (saliva in 1995 and dried blood spot in 2001–03) were collected. Results The proportion who had ever injected (IDUs) decreased in all three cities. HIV prevalence in IDUs decreased by half in Barcelona (44.1% to 20.8%) and Seville (44.2% to 22.2%), but remained constant in Madrid (36.8% and 34.9%). This difference was attributable to a decrease in HIV prevalence in long term IDUs in Barcelona and Seville, but not in Madrid. The crude odds ratio for HIV prevalence in Madrid compared with Barcelona in long term IDUs was 2.3 (95%CI 1.4 to 3.7), increasing to 3.1 (95%CI 1.5 to 6.2) after adjusting for sociodemographic and risk factors. HIV prevalence in short term IDUs was similar in all cities. In 1992 Barcelona already had 20 heroin users in methadone maintenance programmes (MMPs) per 10 000 population aged 15–49 years; Seville reached this rate in 1994, and Madrid, not until 1998. Conclusions The prevalence of HIV infection did not decrease in long term injectors in Madrid. The delayed implementation of HRPs, especially MMPs, may be the most plausible hypothesis. This finding should shed light on decision making in countries in a similar epidemiological and sociological situation. PMID:16698987

  8. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE ASYMMETRIC HELICITY INJECTION IN EMERGING ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Y.; Alexander, D.; Tian, L.

    2009-12-10

    To explore the possible causes of the observed asymmetric helicity flux in emerging active regions between the leading and following polarities reported in a recent study by Tian and Alexander, we examine the subsurface evolution of buoyantly rising OMEGA-shaped flux tubes using three-dimensional, spherical-shell anelastic MHD simulations. We find that due to the asymmetric stretching of the OMEGA-shaped tube by the Coriolis force, the leading side of the emerging tube has a greater field strength, is more buoyant, and remains more cohesive compared to the following side. As a result, the magnetic field lines in the leading leg show more coherent values of local twist alpha ident to (nabla x B) centre dot B/B {sup 2}, whereas the values in the following leg show large fluctuations and are of mixed sign. On average, however, the field lines in the leading leg do not show a systematically greater mean twist compared to the following leg. Due to the higher rise velocity of the leading leg, the upward helicity flux through a horizontal cross section at each depth in the upper half of the convection zone is significantly greater in the leading polarity region than that in the following leg. This may contribute to the observed asymmetric helicity flux in emerging active regions. Furthermore, based on a simplified model of active region flux emergence into the corona by Longcope and Welsch, we show that a stronger field strength in the leading tube can result in a faster rotation of the leading polarity sunspot driven by torsional Alfven waves during flux emergence into the corona, contributing to a greater helicity injection rate in the leading polarity of an emerging active region.

  9. Factors associated with physical activity among young adults with a disability.

    PubMed

    Saebu, M; Sørensen, M

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine: (1) total physical activity and (2) the relative importance of functioning and disability, environmental and personal factors for total physical activity among young adults with a disability. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health developed by the World Health Organization was used as a structural framework for a cross-sectional survey, based on a questionnaire. The population studied was 327 young adults (age 18-30) with a disability who were members of interest organizations for persons with disabilities. Using an adapted version of the self-administered short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the sample reported some differences in physical activity related to the type and the onset of disability. Linear regression analyses revealed that personal factors demonstrated more power in explaining the variance in physical activity than both the environmental factors and factors related to functioning and disability. As for the able-bodied, intrinsic motivation and identity as an active person were the factors most strongly associated with physical activity behavior. This should have important consequences for how professionals try to motivate people with disabilities for physical activity, and how they plan and implement rehabilitation.

  10. Determinants of Developmental Gain in Daily Activities in Young Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Kruijsen-Terpstra, Anne J A; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Verschuren, Olaf; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Jongmans, Marian J; Gorter, Jan Willem

    2014-09-18

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to examine which child and family characteristics at the child's age of 2 years are determinants of development of self-care and mobility activities over a period of 2 years in young children with cerebral palsy (CP). Longitudinal data of 92 children, representing all levels of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), were analyzed. Children's self-care and mobility activities were assessed with the Functional Skills Scale of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory. Development of self-care and mobility activities was related to several child determinants but no family determinants. GMFCS, type of CP, intellectual capacity, and epilepsy were related to the development of self-care and mobility activities, while manual ability and spasticity were related to development of mobility activities. Multivariate analysis indicated that GMFCS and intellectual capacity were the strongest determinants of development of self-care activities, and GMFCS was the strongest determinant of development of mobility activities. The change in self-care and mobility activities was less favorable in severely affected children with severe disability. Knowledge of GMFCS level and intellectual capacity is important in anticipating change over time and goal setting in young children with CP.

  11. Young asteroidal fluid activity revealed by absolute age from apatite in carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ai-Cheng; Li, Qiu-Li; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Li, Xian-Hua; Hu, Sen; Lin, Yang-Ting; Wang, Ru-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Chondritic meteorites, consisting of the materials that have formed in the early solar system (ESS), have been affected by late thermal events and fluid activity to various degrees. Determining the timing of fluid activity in ESS is of fundamental importance for understanding the nature, formation, evolution and significance of fluid activity in ESS. Previous investigations have determined the relative ages of fluid activity with short-lived isotope systematics. Here we report an absolute 207Pb/206Pb isochron age (4,450+/-50 Ma) of apatite from Dar al Gani (DaG) 978, a type ~3.5, ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite. The petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical features suggest that the apatite in DaG 978 should have formed during metamorphism in the presence of a fluid. Therefore, the apatite age represents an absolute age for fluid activity in an asteroidal setting. An impact event could have provided the heat to activate this young fluid activity in ESS.

  12. Layer V Perirhinal Cortical Ensemble Activity during Object Exploration: A Comparison between Young and Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Burke, S.N.; Hartzell, A.L.; Lister, J.P.; Hoang, L.T.; Barnes, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Object recognition memory requires the perirhinal cortex (PRC) and this cognitive function declines during normal aging. Recent electrophysiological recordings from young rats have shown that neurons in layer V of the PRC are activated by 3-dimensional objects. Thus, it is possible that age-related object recognition deficits result from alterations in PRC neuron activity in older animals. To examine this, the present study used cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity by fluorescence in situ hybridization (catFISH) with confocal microscopy to monitor cellular distributions of activity-induced Arc RNA in layer V of the PRC. Activity was monitored during two distinct epochs of object exploration. In one group of rats (6 young/6 aged) animals were placed in a familiar testing arena and allowed to explore five different 3-dimensional objects for two 5-min sessions separated by a 20-min rest (AA). The second group of animals (6 young/6 aged) also explored the same objects for two 5-min sessions, but the environment was changed between the first and the second epoch (AB). Behavioral data showed that both age groups spent less time exploring objects during the second epoch, even when the environment changed, indicating successful recognition. Although the proportion of active neurons between epochs did not change in the AA group, in the AB group more neurons were active during epoch 2 of object exploration. This recruitment of neurons into the active neural ensemble could serve to signal that familiar stimuli are being encountered in a new context. When numbers of Arc positive neurons were compared between age groups, the old rats had significantly lower proportions of Arc-positive PRC neurons in both the AA and AB behavioral conditions. These data support the hypothesis that age-associated functional alterations in the PRC contribute to declines in stimulus recognition over the lifespan. PMID:22987683

  13. Layer V perirhinal cortical ensemble activity during object exploration: a comparison between young and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Burke, S N; Hartzell, A L; Lister, J P; Hoang, L T; Barnes, C A

    2012-10-01

    Object recognition memory requires the perirhinal cortex (PRC) and this cognitive function declines during normal aging. Recent electrophysiological recordings from young rats have shown that neurons in Layer V of the PRC are activated by three-dimensional objects. Thus, it is possible that age-related object recognition deficits result from alterations in PRC neuron activity in older animals. To examine this, the present study used cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity by fluorescence in situ hybridization (catFISH) with confocal microscopy to monitor cellular distributions of activity-induced Arc RNA in layer V of the PRC. Activity was monitored during two distinct epochs of object exploration. In one group of rats (6 young/6 aged) animals were placed in a familiar testing arena and allowed to explore five different three-dimensional objects for two 5-min sessions separated by a 20-min rest (AA). The second group of animals (6 young/6 aged) also explored the same objects for two 5-min sessions, but the environment was changed between the first and the second epoch (AB). Behavioral data showed that both age groups spent less time exploring objects during the second epoch, even when the environment changed, indicating successful recognition. Although the proportion of active neurons between epochs did not change in the AA group, in the AB group more neurons were active during epoch 2 of object exploration. This recruitment of neurons into the active neural ensemble could serve to signal that familiar stimuli are being encountered in a new context. When numbers of Arc positive neurons were compared between age groups, the old rats had significantly lower proportions of Arc-positive PRC neurons in both the AA and AB behavioral conditions. These data support the hypothesis that age-associated functional alterations in the PRC contribute to declines in stimulus recognition over the lifespan.

  14. Two-year survey comparing earthquake activity and injection-well locations in the Barnett Shale, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Frohlich, Cliff

    2012-01-01

    Between November 2009 and September 2011, temporary seismographs deployed under the EarthScope USArray program were situated on a 70-km grid covering the Barnett Shale in Texas, recording data that allowed sensing and locating regional earthquakes with magnitudes 1.5 and larger. I analyzed these data and located 67 earthquakes, more than eight times as many as reported by the National Earthquake Information Center. All 24 of the most reliably located epicenters occurred in eight groups within 3.2 km of one or more injection wells. These included wells near Dallas–Fort Worth and Cleburne, Texas, where earthquakes near injection wells were reported by the media in 2008 and 2009, as well as wells in six other locations, including several where no earthquakes have been reported previously. This suggests injection-triggered earthquakes are more common than is generally recognized. All the wells nearest to the earthquake groups reported maximum monthly injection rates exceeding 150,000 barrels of water per month (24,000 m3/mo) since October 2006. However, while 9 of 27 such wells in Johnson County were near earthquakes, elsewhere no earthquakes occurred near wells with similar injection rates. A plausible hypothesis to explain these observations is that injection only triggers earthquakes if injected fluids reach and relieve friction on a suitably oriented, nearby fault that is experiencing regional tectonic stress. Testing this hypothesis would require identifying geographic regions where there is interpreted subsurface structure information available to determine whether there are faults near seismically active and seismically quiescent injection wells. PMID:22869701

  15. Two-year survey comparing earthquake activity and injection-well locations in the Barnett Shale, Texas.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, Cliff

    2012-08-28

    Between November 2009 and September 2011, temporary seismographs deployed under the EarthScope USArray program were situated on a 70-km grid covering the Barnett Shale in Texas, recording data that allowed sensing and locating regional earthquakes with magnitudes 1.5 and larger. I analyzed these data and located 67 earthquakes, more than eight times as many as reported by the National Earthquake Information Center. All 24 of the most reliably located epicenters occurred in eight groups within 3.2 km of one or more injection wells. These included wells near Dallas-Fort Worth and Cleburne, Texas, where earthquakes near injection wells were reported by the media in 2008 and 2009, as well as wells in six other locations, including several where no earthquakes have been reported previously. This suggests injection-triggered earthquakes are more common than is generally recognized. All the wells nearest to the earthquake groups reported maximum monthly injection rates exceeding 150,000 barrels of water per month (24,000 m(3)/mo) since October 2006. However, while 9 of 27 such wells in Johnson County were near earthquakes, elsewhere no earthquakes occurred near wells with similar injection rates. A plausible hypothesis to explain these observations is that injection only triggers earthquakes if injected fluids reach and relieve friction on a suitably oriented, nearby fault that is experiencing regional tectonic stress. Testing this hypothesis would require identifying geographic regions where there is interpreted subsurface structure information available to determine whether there are faults near seismically active and seismically quiescent injection wells.

  16. Two-year survey comparing earthquake activity and injection-well locations in the Barnett Shale, Texas.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, Cliff

    2012-08-28

    Between November 2009 and September 2011, temporary seismographs deployed under the EarthScope USArray program were situated on a 70-km grid covering the Barnett Shale in Texas, recording data that allowed sensing and locating regional earthquakes with magnitudes 1.5 and larger. I analyzed these data and located 67 earthquakes, more than eight times as many as reported by the National Earthquake Information Center. All 24 of the most reliably located epicenters occurred in eight groups within 3.2 km of one or more injection wells. These included wells near Dallas-Fort Worth and Cleburne, Texas, where earthquakes near injection wells were reported by the media in 2008 and 2009, as well as wells in six other locations, including several where no earthquakes have been reported previously. This suggests injection-triggered earthquakes are more common than is generally recognized. All the wells nearest to the earthquake groups reported maximum monthly injection rates exceeding 150,000 barrels of water per month (24,000 m(3)/mo) since October 2006. However, while 9 of 27 such wells in Johnson County were near earthquakes, elsewhere no earthquakes occurred near wells with similar injection rates. A plausible hypothesis to explain these observations is that injection only triggers earthquakes if injected fluids reach and relieve friction on a suitably oriented, nearby fault that is experiencing regional tectonic stress. Testing this hypothesis would require identifying geographic regions where there is interpreted subsurface structure information available to determine whether there are faults near seismically active and seismically quiescent injection wells. PMID:22869701

  17. The Place of Sport and Physical Activity in Young People's Lives and Its Implications for Health: Some Sociological Comments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew; Green, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory paper seeks, first, to offer some critical sociological comments on the common-sense, or rather ideological, claims surrounding two supposedly emerging "crises": namely, the alleged poor health and declining sport and physical activity participation levels of young people. In this regard, it is suggested that while young people…

  18. Effects of Green Tea Extract on Learning, Memory, Behavior and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Young and Old Male Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Tranum; Pathak, C. M.; Pandhi, P.; Khanduja, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of green tea extract administration on age-related cognition in young and old male Wistar rats. Methods: Young and old rats were orally administered 0.5% green tea extract for a period of eight weeks and were evaluated by passive avoidance, elevated maze plus paradigm and changes in acetylcholinesterase activity.…

  19. Anatomical gradients of adult neurogenesis and activity: young neurons in the ventral dentate gyrus are activated by water maze training

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Jason S.; Radik, Ruvim; Wojtowicz, J. Martin; Cameron, Heather A.

    2009-01-01

    Hippocampal function varies in a subregion-specific fashion: spatial processing is thought to rely on the dorsal hippocampus, while anxiety-related behavior relies more on the ventral hippocampus. During development, neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus proceeds along ventral to dorsal as well as suprapyramidal to infrapyramidal gradients, but it is unclear whether regional differences in neurogenesis are maintained in adulthood. Moreover, it is unknown whether young neurons in the adult exhibit subregion-specific patterns of activation. We therefore examined the magnitude of neurogenesis and the activation of young and mature granule cells in dentate gyrus subregions in adult rats that learned a spatial water maze task, swam with no platform, or were left untouched. We found that both adult neurogenesis and granule cell activation, as defined by c-fos expression in the granule cell population as a whole, were higher in the dorsal than the ventral dentate gyrus. In contrast, c-fos expression in adult-born granule cells, identified by PSA-NCAM or location in the subgranular zone, occurred at a higher rate in the opposite subregion, the ventral dentate gyrus. Interestingly, c-fos expression in the entire granule cell population was equivalent in water maze-trained rats and swim control rats, but was increased in the young granule cells only in the learning condition. These results provide new evidence that hippocampally-relevant experience activates young and mature neurons in different dentate gyrus subregions and with different experiential specificity, and suggest that adult-born neurons may play a specific role in anxiety-related behavior or other non-spatial aspects of hippocampal function. PMID:19004012

  20. Leisure-time physical activity and aerobic fitness in African-American young adults.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, B E; Berry, C B; Schnyder, V N; Vickers, S R

    1992-11-01

    This cross-sectional study identified the leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and aerobic fitness levels of 189 African-American young adult college freshmen. LTPA was measured with the Lipid Research Clinics (LRC), Godin Leisure-Time Exercise, and the College Alumnus physical activity questionnaires. The Physical Activity Index (PAI), an index of walking, stair climbing, and recreational sports participation, was obtained from the College Alumnus questionnaire. Aerobic fitness was measured indirectly with the Cooper 12-Minute Walking/Running Test. More women (82%) than men (53%) were classified as inactive (strenuous exercise or labor < 3 days/week and much less active than peers) or low active (strenuous exercise or labor < 3 days/week and as active or more active than peers) on the LRC Questionnaire. The PAI scores were moderately low in men (1,521 +/- 1,634 kcal.week-1) and very low in women (706 +/- 868 kcal.week-1). The majority of men (71%) and women (82%) were classified as 'very poor' in aerobic fitness levels. Body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fatness, was classified as 'overweight' or 'obese' for 39% of men and 37% of women (BMI = 25.9 +/- 5.7 kg/m2), reflecting inactive LTPA habits. These findings are consistent with studies showing low LTPA in middle-age African-American adults. School and community-level interventions are recommended to increase LTPA and aerobic fitness in adolescent and young adult African-Americans.

  1. Solar flare injection as analog of active experiment in an ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzhin, Yu.; Sinelnikov, V.; Shagimuratov, I.; Kanonidi, Kh.

    At realization of active experiment are always known precisely both localization and amplitude of an entered disturbance (whether at a beam particles or mass injection, whether at heating of an ionosphere by EM wave radiation). The nuclear explosion in atmosphere was the maiden active experiment, but the action source was instant and very multicomponent (shock wave, energetic particles and EM radiation with a broadband spectrum) or, in other words, effect was too complex. The solar flare renders mixed action on near Earth space too, but it is clear separated in time (the short pulse of electromagnetic radiation reaches the Earth behind some minutes, then the solar cosmic rays and after one day (or two) the high-velocity flow of plasma arrive) and space of each components action: ionosphere, polar cap or magnitosphere. Analysis of form and dynamics of the X-ray pulse radiation (data of GOES satellites) from a solar flare (class X17) 28.10.03 shows, that there are all basis to consider it as reference source for active experiment in an ionosphere. For this short pulse of EM radiation the investigation of disturbances (SFE, SID or Crochet) of ionosphere Sq currents system and dynamics of the integral plasma contents (or TEC, the data of GPS constellation) in an ionosphere for a network of Europe midlatitude stations (IGS and INTERMAGNET) are conducted. The availability of a maximum gradient (up to 15 A/km) of loop currents and sharp increase in TEC on a narrow range of Sun zenith angles (Z0=60°-75°) is shown. The observed spatial dependence of intensity of such localized disturbance generated in an ionosphere by short EM pulse from a solar flare is discussed.

  2. Early Years Education: Are Young Students Intrinsically or Extrinsically Motivated Towards School Activities? A Discussion about the Effects of Rewards on Young Children's Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodotou, Evgenia

    2014-01-01

    Rewards can reinforce and at the same time forestall young children's willingness to learn. However, they are broadly used in the field of education, especially in early years settings, to stimulate children towards learning activities. This paper reviews the theoretical and research literature related to intrinsic and extrinsic motivational…

  3. Sensitive and simple flow injection analysis of formaldehyde using an activated barrel plating nickel electrode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yen; Yangi, Hsueh-Hui; Zen, Jyh-Myng; Shih, Ying

    2011-01-01

    A flow injection analysis coupled with electrochemical detection at an activated barrel plating nickel electrode (Ni-BPE) was developed as a sensitive, simple, and low-cost formaldehyde sensor. The mechanism of Ni-BPE toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde in alkaline medium at ambient temperature was proposed to be based on the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde by Ni(III)O(OH) species. Under the optimized conditions (flow rate = 1.2 mL/min; detection potential = +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl), a good linearity in the window of 0.037 to 10 microg/mL formaldehyde was observed, and the LOD of 0.23 microg/L was calculated. The RSDs of intraday (n = 10) and interday (n = 6) replicate measurements of 0.185-5 microg/mL formaldehyde ranged from 1.45 to 3.60%, indicating good reproducibility of the proposed method. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of formaldehyde in commercial nail polish samples and a drinking water sample. PMID:22165025

  4. A Design Methodology for Rapid Implementation of Active Control Systems Across Lean Direct Injection Combustor Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, William T.; Saunders, William R.; Vandsburger, Uri; Saus, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The VACCG team is comprised of engineers at Virginia Tech who specialize in the subject areas of combustion physics, chemical kinetics, dynamics and controls, and signal processing. Currently, the team's work on this NRA research grant is designed to determine key factors that influence combustion control performance through a blend of theoretical and experimental investigations targeting design and demonstration of active control for three different combustors. To validiate the accuracy of conclusions about control effectiveness, a sequence of experimental verifications on increasingly complex lean, direct injection combustors is underway. During the work period January 1, 2002 through October 15, 2002, work has focused on two different laboratory-scale combustors that allow access for a wide variety of measurements. As the grant work proceeds, one key goal will be to obtain certain knowledge about a particular combustor process using a minimum of sophisticated measurements, due to the practical limitations of measurements on full-scale combustors. In the second year, results obtained in the first year will be validated on test combustors to be identified in the first quarter of that year. In the third year, it is proposed to validate the results at more realistic pressure and power levels by utilizing the facilities at the Glenn Research Center.

  5. Sensitive and simple flow injection analysis of formaldehyde using an activated barrel plating nickel electrode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yen; Yangi, Hsueh-Hui; Zen, Jyh-Myng; Shih, Ying

    2011-01-01

    A flow injection analysis coupled with electrochemical detection at an activated barrel plating nickel electrode (Ni-BPE) was developed as a sensitive, simple, and low-cost formaldehyde sensor. The mechanism of Ni-BPE toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde in alkaline medium at ambient temperature was proposed to be based on the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde by Ni(III)O(OH) species. Under the optimized conditions (flow rate = 1.2 mL/min; detection potential = +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl), a good linearity in the window of 0.037 to 10 microg/mL formaldehyde was observed, and the LOD of 0.23 microg/L was calculated. The RSDs of intraday (n = 10) and interday (n = 6) replicate measurements of 0.185-5 microg/mL formaldehyde ranged from 1.45 to 3.60%, indicating good reproducibility of the proposed method. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of formaldehyde in commercial nail polish samples and a drinking water sample.

  6. Experimental study on the removal of PAHs using in-duct activated carbon injection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong-Cang; Zhong, Zhao-Ping; Jin, Bao-Sheng; Huang, Ya-Ji; Xiao, Rui

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the incineration tests of municipal solid waste (MSW) in a fluidized bed and the adsorption of activated carbon (AC) on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). An extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique was used to analyze the concentrations of the 16 US EPA specified PAHs contained in raw MSW, flue gas, fly ash, and bottom ash. The aim of this work was to decide the influence of AC on the distribution of PAHs during the incineration of MSW. Experimental researches show that there were a few PAHs in MSW and bottom ash. With the increase of AC feeding rate, the concentrations of three- to six-ring PAHs in fly ash increased, and the concentration of two-ring PAH decreased. The total-PAHs in flue gas were dominated by three-, and four-ring PAHs, but a few two-, five-ring PAHs and no six-ring PAHs were found. PAHs could be removed effectively from flue gas by using in-duct AC injection and the removal efficiencies of PAHs were about 76-91%. In addition, the total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of PAH in raw MSW, bottom ash, fly ash, and flue gas were 1.24 mg TEQ kg-1, 0.25 mg TEQ kg-1, 6.89-9.67 mg TEQ kg-1, and 0.36-1.50 microg TEQ Nm-3, respectively.

  7. Clinical NECR in 18F-FDG PET scans: optimization of injected activity and variable acquisition time. Relationship with SNR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlier, T.; Ferrer, L.; Necib, H.; Bodet-Milin, C.; Rousseau, C.; Kraeber-Bodéré, F.

    2014-10-01

    The injected activity and the acquisition time per bed position for 18F-FDG PET scans are usually optimized by using metrics obtained from phantom experiments. However, optimal activity and time duration can significantly vary from a phantom set-up and from patient to patient. An approach using a patient-specific noise equivalent count rate (NECR) modelling has been previously proposed for optimizing clinical scanning protocols. We propose using the clinical NECR on a large population as a function of the body mass index (BMI) for deriving the optimal injected activity and acquisition duration per bed position. The relationship between the NEC and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was assessed both in a phantom and in a clinical setting. 491 consecutive patients were retrospectively evaluated and divided into 4 BMI subgroups. Two criteria were used to optimize the injected activity and the time per bed position was adjusted using the NECR value while keeping the total acquisition time constant. Finally, the relationship between NEC and SNR was investigated using an anthropomorphic phantom and a population of 507 other patients. While the first dose regimen suggested a unique injected activity (665 MBq) regardless of the BMI, the second dose regimen proposed a variable activity and a total acquisition time according to the BMI. The NEC improvement was around 35% as compared with the local current injection rule. Variable time per bed position was derived according to BMI and anatomical region. NEC and number of true events were found to be highly correlated with SNR for the phantom set-up and partially confirmed in the patient study for the BMI subgroup under 28 kg m-2 suggesting that for the scanner, the nonlinear reconstruction algorithm used in this study and BMI < 28 kg m-2, NEC, or the number of true events linearly correlated with SNR2.

  8. Active lifestyle in childhood and adolescence prevents obesity development in young adulthood: Iowa Bone Development Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soyang; Janz, Kathleen F.; Letuchy, Elena M.; Burns, Trudy L.; Levy, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that individuals who are active but who decrease physical activity (PA) over time have a higher risk of becoming obese in young adulthood, when compared to individuals who are consistently active throughout childhood and adolescence. Methods Iowa Bone Development Study cohort members (242 males and 251 females) participated in accelerometry assessments, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, and dietary questionnaire surveys at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 years. Group-based trajectory analyses identified distinct trajectory patterns of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA), percentage of body fat (%BF), and energy intake. A multivariable logistic regression model was fit to estimate the odds of “becoming obese” based on the MVPA trajectories, adjusted for mother’s education, somatic maturation, and energy intake. Results Among males, 74.7% had a “normal” body fat pattern, 14.6% had a “becoming obese” pattern, and 10.7% had a “consistently obese” pattern, while among females, the percentages were 58.6%, 28.6% and 12.8%, respectively. Participants who were active (≥45 minutes MVPA) as children but decreased MVPA with age were more likely to become obese, compared to consistently active participants (adjusted OR=2.77; 95% CI=1.16, 6.58). Conclusions An active lifestyle throughout childhood and adolescence could prevent obesity development in young adulthood. PMID:26538514

  9. Active vision task and postural control in healthy, young adults: Synergy and probably not duality.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Cédrick T; Baudry, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    In upright stance, individuals sway continuously and the sway pattern in dual tasks (e.g., a cognitive task performed in upright stance) differs significantly from that observed during the control quiet stance task. The cognitive approach has generated models (limited attentional resources, U-shaped nonlinear interaction) to explain such patterns based on competitive sharing of attentional resources. The objective of the current manuscript was to review these cognitive models in the specific context of visual tasks involving gaze shifts toward precise targets (here called active vision tasks). The selection excluded the effects of early and late stages of life or disease, external perturbations, active vision tasks requiring head and body motions and the combination of two tasks performed together (e.g., a visual task in addition to a computation in one's head). The selection included studies performed by healthy, young adults with control and active - difficult - vision tasks. Over 174 studies found in Pubmed and Mendeley databases, nine were selected. In these studies, young adults exhibited significantly lower amplitude of body displacement (center of pressure and/or body marker) under active vision tasks than under the control task. Furthermore, the more difficult the active vision tasks were, the better the postural control was. This underscores that postural control during active vision tasks may rely on synergistic relations between the postural and visual systems rather than on competitive or dual relations. In contrast, in the control task, there would not be any synergistic or competitive relations.

  10. Relationships Between Weight, Physical Activity, and Back Pain in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Sharmayne R.E.; Hussain, Sultana Monira; Brown, Wendy J.; Heritier, Stephane; Billah, Baki; Wang, Yuanyuan; Teede, Helena; Urquhart, Donna M.; Cicuttini, Flavia M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Back pain causes enormous financial and disability burden worldwide, which could potentially be reduced by understanding its determinants to develop effective prevention strategies. Our aim was to identify whether modifiable risk factors, weight and physical activity, are predictive of back pain in young adult women. Women born between 1973 and 1978 were randomly selected from the national health insurance scheme database to participate in The Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. Self-reported data on back pain in the last 12 months, weight, height, age, education status, physical activity, and depression were collected in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012. In 2000, 9688 women completed the questionnaire and 83% completed follow-up 12 years later. At baseline, median age was 24.6 years and 41% had self-reported back pain. For every 5 kg higher weight at baseline, there was a 5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4%–6%) increased risk of back pain over the next 12 years. Higher weight at each survey also predicted back pain risk 3 years later (P < 0.001). The effects of weight on back pain were most significant in those with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and were observed at all levels of physical activity. Inadequate physical activity and depression were independent predictors of back pain over the following 12 years (both P < 0.001), after adjusting for age, weight, height, and education status. Back pain is common in community-based young adult women. Higher weight, inadequate levels of physical activity, and depression were all independent predictors of back pain over the following decade. Furthermore, the adverse effects of weight on back pain were not mitigated by physical activity. Our findings highlight the role of both higher weight and physical inactivity in back pain among young women and suggest potential opportunities for future prevention. PMID:27175634

  11. Relationships Between Weight, Physical Activity, and Back Pain in Young Adult Women.

    PubMed

    Brady, Sharmayne R E; Hussain, Sultana Monira; Brown, Wendy J; Heritier, Stephane; Billah, Baki; Wang, Yuanyuan; Teede, Helena; Urquhart, Donna M; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2016-05-01

    Back pain causes enormous financial and disability burden worldwide, which could potentially be reduced by understanding its determinants to develop effective prevention strategies. Our aim was to identify whether modifiable risk factors, weight and physical activity, are predictive of back pain in young adult women.Women born between 1973 and 1978 were randomly selected from the national health insurance scheme database to participate in The Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. Self-reported data on back pain in the last 12 months, weight, height, age, education status, physical activity, and depression were collected in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012. In 2000, 9688 women completed the questionnaire and 83% completed follow-up 12 years later.At baseline, median age was 24.6 years and 41% had self-reported back pain. For every 5 kg higher weight at baseline, there was a 5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4%-6%) increased risk of back pain over the next 12 years. Higher weight at each survey also predicted back pain risk 3 years later (P < 0.001). The effects of weight on back pain were most significant in those with BMI ≥25 kg/m and were observed at all levels of physical activity. Inadequate physical activity and depression were independent predictors of back pain over the following 12 years (both P < 0.001), after adjusting for age, weight, height, and education status.Back pain is common in community-based young adult women. Higher weight, inadequate levels of physical activity, and depression were all independent predictors of back pain over the following decade. Furthermore, the adverse effects of weight on back pain were not mitigated by physical activity. Our findings highlight the role of both higher weight and physical inactivity in back pain among young women and suggest potential opportunities for future prevention. PMID:27175634

  12. Can 8-weeks of Training Affect Active Drag in Young Swimmers?

    PubMed Central

    Marinho, Daniel A.; Barbosa, Tiago M.; Costa, Mário J.; Figueiredo, Catarina; Reis, Victor M.; Silva, António J.; Marques, Mário C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 8-weeks of training on active drag in young swimmers of both genders. Eight girls and twelve boys’ belonging to the same swimming team and with regular competitive participation in national and regional events for the previous two seasons participated in this study. Active drag measurements were conducted in two different evaluation moments: at the beginning of the season and after 8 weeks of training (6.0 ± 0.15 training units per week, 21.00 ± 3.23 km per week and 3.50 ± 0.23 km per training unit). The maximal swimming velocity at the distance of 13 m, active drag and drag coefficient were measured on both trials by the method of small perturbations with the help of an additional hydrodynamic body. After 8 weeks of training, mean active drag (drag force and drag coefficient) decreased in girls and boys, although no significant differences were found between the two trials. It seems that 8 weeks of swimming training were not sufficient to allow significant improvements on swimming technique. Key points The velocity perturbation method seems to be a good, simple and reliable approach to assess active drag in young swimmers. Eight weeks of swimming training were not sufficient to allow significant improvements on swimming hydrodynamics. There were no differences between boys and girls concerning active drag. A possible explanation may be related to the similar values of body mass and height in boys and girls found in this study. Specific training sets concerning technique correction and improvement in young swimmers might be a main aim during training planning. PMID:24149388

  13. The Activity-Integrated Method for Quality Assessment of Reduning Injection by On-Line DPPH-CE-DAD

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yang; Li, Jin; Liu, Er-wei; He, Jun; Jiao, Xiu-cheng; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Bo-li; Xiao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive on-line DPPH-CE-DAD method was developed and validated for both screening and determining the concentration of seven antioxidants of Reduning injection. The pH and concentrations of buffer solution, SDS, β-CD and organic modifier were studied for the detection of DPPH and seven antioxidants. By on-line mixing DPPH and sample solution, a DPPH-CE method for testing the antioxidant activity of the complex matrix was successfully established and used to screen the antioxidant components of Reduning injection. Then, antioxidant components including caffeic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid C, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid were quantified by the newly established CE–DAD method. Finally, the total antioxidant activity and the multiple active components were selected as markers to evaluate the quality of Reduning injection. The results demonstrated that the on-line DPPH-CE-DAD method was reagent-saving, rapid and feasible for on-line simultaneous determination of total pharmacological activity and contents of multi-components samples. It was also a powerful method for evaluating the quality control and mechanism of action of TCM injection. PMID:25181475

  14. 40 CFR 60.2680 - What if I do not use a wet scrubber, fabric filter, activated carbon injection, selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... electrostatic precipitator, or a dry scrubber to comply with the emission limitations? (a) If you use an air... reduction, fabric filter, an electrostatic precipitator, or a dry scrubber or limit emissions in some other..., fabric filter, activated carbon injection, selective noncatalytic reduction, an...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2680 - What if I do not use a wet scrubber, fabric filter, activated carbon injection, selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... electrostatic precipitator, or a dry scrubber to comply with the emission limitations? (a) If you use an air... reduction, fabric filter, an electrostatic precipitator, or a dry scrubber or limit emissions in some other..., fabric filter, activated carbon injection, selective noncatalytic reduction, an...

  16. Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity in Children and Young Adults with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Akber, Aalia; Portale, Anthony A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Data on physical activity are limited in children with CKD. The objectives of this study were to measure the level and correlates of physical activity in children and young adults with CKD and to determine the association of physical activity with physical performance and physical functioning. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Physical activity was measured for 7 days using pedometers; physical performance was measured by the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and physical functioning with the PedsQL 4.0. Results Study participants were 44 patients 7–20 years of age who had CKD stage 1–4 (n=12), had ESRD and were undergoing dialysis (n=7), or had undergone kidney transplantation (n=25). Participants were very sedentary; they walked 6218 (interquartile range, 3637, 9829) steps per day, considerably less than recommended. Physical activity did not differ among participants in the CKD stage 1–4, ESRD, and transplant groups. Females were less active than males (P<0.01), and physical activity was 44% lower among young adults (18–20 years) than younger participants (P<0.05). Physical activity was associated positively with maternal education and hemoglobin concentration and inversely with body mass index. Respective 6MWD in males and females was 2 and approximately 4 SDs below expected. Low levels of physical activity were associated with poor physical performance and physical functioning, after adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index. Conclusions In most participants with CKD, physical activity was considerably below recommended levels. Future studies are needed to determine whether increasing physical activity can improve physical performance and physical functioning. PMID:22422539

  17. Gyrochronology of Low-mass Stars - Age-Rotation-Activity Relations for Young M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidder, Benjamin; Shkolnik, E.; Skiff, B.

    2014-01-01

    New rotation periods for 34 young <300 Myr), early-M dwarfs within 25 parsecs were measured using photometric data collected with telescopes at Lowell Observatory during 2012 and 2013. An additional 25 rotation periods for members of the same sample were found in the literature. Ages were derived from Hα and X-ray emission, lithium absorption, surface gravity, and kinematic association of members of known young moving groups (YMGs). We compared rotation periods with the estimated ages as well as indicators of magnetic activity, with the intention of strengthening age-rotation-activity relations and assessing the possible use of gyrochronology in young, low-mass stars. We compared ages and rotation periods of our target stars to cluster members spanning 1-600 Myr. Rotation periods at every age exhibit a large scatter, with values typically ranging from 0.2 to 15 days. This suggests that gyrochronology for individual field stars will not be possible without a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that govern angular momentum evolution. Yet, on average, the data still support the predicted trends for spin-up during contraction and spin-down on the main sequence, with the turnover occurring at around 150 Myr for early Ms. This suggests that rotation period distributions can be helpful in evaluating the ages of coeval groups of stars. Many thanks to the National Science Foundation for their support through the Research Experience for Undergraduates Grant AST- 1004107.

  18. Wildlife, Snow, Coffee, and Video: The IPY Activities of the University of Alaska Young Researchers' Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, D.; Alvarez-Aviles, L.; Carlson, D.; Harbeck, J.; Druckenmiller, M.; Newman, K.; Mueller, D.; Petrich, C.; Roberts, A.; Wang, Y.

    2007-12-01

    The University of Alaska International Polar Year (IPY) Young Researchers' Network is a group of graduate students and postdoctoral fellows. Our interdisciplinary group operates as a volunteer network to promote the International Polar Year through education and outreach aimed at the general public and Alaskan students of all ages. The Young Researchers' Network sponsors and organizes science talks or Science Cafés by guest speakers in public venues such as coffee shops and bookstores. We actively engage high school students in IPY research concerning the ionic concentrations and isotopic ratios of precipitation through Project Snowball. Our network provides hands-on science activities to encourage environmental awareness and initiate community wildlife monitoring programs such as Wildlife Day by Day. We mentor individual high school students pursuing their own research projects related to IPY through the Alaska High School Science Symposium. Our group also interacts with the general public at community events and festivals to share the excitement of IPY for example at the World Ice Art Championship and Alaska State Fair. The UA IPY Young Researchers' Network continues to explore new partnerships with educators and students in an effort to enhance science and education related to Alaska and the polar regions in general. For more information please visit: http://ipy-youth.uaf.edu or e-mail: ipy-youth@alaska.edu

  19. Further evaluation of a functional analysis of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in young children.

    PubMed

    Larson, Tracy A; Normand, Matthew P; Morley, Allison J; Miller, Bryon G

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate physical activity increases the risks related to several health problems in children; however, increasing physical activity mitigates these risks. In this study, we examined the relations between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and several environmental conditions (attention, interactive play, alone, escape) with 4 preschool children. We compared the experimental conditions to a control condition and a naturalistic baseline according to a combined multielement and reversal design. Results indicated that all participants were most active in the interactive play condition and that the percentage of MVPA varied across experimental and control conditions. In addition, the frequency and duration of bouts of MVPA were greatest in the interactive play condition. The current study presents a methodology for the identification of environmental contingencies that support increased levels of MVPA in young children, and it holds promise for improving our understanding of the variables related to physical activity.

  20. Differential effects of osteopontin on the cytotoxic activity of macrophages from young and old mice.

    PubMed Central

    Rollo, E E; Denhardt, D T

    1996-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted phosphoprotein found in body fluids (e.g. plasma, urine, milk) and in mineralized tissues. Its expression is increased in many transformed cells and in normal cells exposed to various cytokines. When stimulated with the inflammatory mediators lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma, mouse macrophages secrete nitric oxide (NO) as a cytotoxic agent effective against microbial invaders and tumour cells. This report documents (1) that thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages, activated with the inflammatory mediators, produced less NO and exhibited reduced cytotoxicity towards target cells when they were obtained from old animals than when they were obtained from young animals; and (2) that OPN was able to inhibit both the induced NO synthesis and cytotoxicity, but more effectively in macrophages from the young animals than those from the old animals. This may be due to the observed higher level of OPN expression in macrophages from old animals. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8881770

  1. Physical activity and lifestyle effects on bone mineral density among young adults: sociodemographic and biochemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the possible role of physical activities, calcium consumption and lifestyle factors in both bone mineral density and bone metabolism indices in 350 young adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] All volunteers were recruited for the assessment of lifestyle behaviors and physical activity traits using validated questioners, and bone mineral density (BMD), serum osteocalcin (s-OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and calcium were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis, and immunoassay techniques. [Results] Male participants showed a significant increase in BMD along with an increase in bone metabolism markers compared with females in all groups. However, younger subjects showed a significant increase in BMD, OC, BAP, and calcium compared with older subjects. Osteoporosis was more common in older subjects linked with abnormal body mass index and waist circumference. Bone metabolism markers correlated positively with BMD, physically activity and negatively with osteoporosis in all stages. Also, moderate to higher calcium and milk intake correlated positively with higher BMD. However, low calcium and milk intake along with higher caffeine, and carbonated beverage consumption, and heavy cigarette smoking showed a negative effect on the status of bone mineral density. Stepwise regression analysis showed that life style factors including physical activity and demographic parameters explained around 58–69.8% of the bone mineral density variation in young adults especially females. [Conclusion] body mass index, physical activity, low calcium consumption, and abnormal lifestyle have role in bone mineral density and prognosis of osteoporosis in young adults. PMID:26311965

  2. Physical activity and lifestyle effects on bone mineral density among young adults: sociodemographic and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the possible role of physical activities, calcium consumption and lifestyle factors in both bone mineral density and bone metabolism indices in 350 young adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] All volunteers were recruited for the assessment of lifestyle behaviors and physical activity traits using validated questioners, and bone mineral density (BMD), serum osteocalcin (s-OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and calcium were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis, and immunoassay techniques. [Results] Male participants showed a significant increase in BMD along with an increase in bone metabolism markers compared with females in all groups. However, younger subjects showed a significant increase in BMD, OC, BAP, and calcium compared with older subjects. Osteoporosis was more common in older subjects linked with abnormal body mass index and waist circumference. Bone metabolism markers correlated positively with BMD, physically activity and negatively with osteoporosis in all stages. Also, moderate to higher calcium and milk intake correlated positively with higher BMD. However, low calcium and milk intake along with higher caffeine, and carbonated beverage consumption, and heavy cigarette smoking showed a negative effect on the status of bone mineral density. Stepwise regression analysis showed that life style factors including physical activity and demographic parameters explained around 58-69.8% of the bone mineral density variation in young adults especially females. [Conclusion] body mass index, physical activity, low calcium consumption, and abnormal lifestyle have role in bone mineral density and prognosis of osteoporosis in young adults. PMID:26311965

  3. Efficacy of injectable anticholinergic drugs against soman-induced convulsive/subconvulsive activity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D R; Harris, L W; Bowersox, S L; Lennox, W J; Anders, J C

    1994-01-01

    Six FDA approved, injectable compounds [benztropine (BZT); biperiden (BIP); dicyclomine (DCL); l-hyoscyamine (HYO); orphenadrine (ORP); scopolamine (SCP)] were each compared to diazepam (DZ, the standard) in male guinea pigs against ongoing soman-induced convulsive or sub-CV (CV/sub-CV) activity. Three trained graders concurrently assigned CV/sub-CV scores to each animal based on signs of intoxication at various times post-soman. Animals received (im) pyridostigmine (26 micrograms/kg) 30 min before soman (56 micrograms/kg; 2 x LD50), atropine (2 mg/kg) admixed with 2-PAM (25 mg/kg) at one min after soman, and the candidate drug preparation at 5.67 min post soman, a time when CV activity was assured. BIP and SCP were effective over dosage ranges between 10 and 0.3, and 1.0 and 0.13 mg/kg, respectively, while the other preparations were less effective at their respective maximum dosages. At the most effective dosages of SCP (1.0 mg/kg) and BIP (10 mg/kg), the CV/sub-CV scores were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those of DZ. Only 33% survival was observed at each of two doses of ORP and one dose of HYO; therefore, no further testing was done with these compounds. Using freshly prepared solutions, DCL (up to 40 mg/kg) and BZT (up to 96 mg/kg) were tested with mixed results; DCL lowered lethality while BZT increased lethality. CV/sub-CV scores for the most effective dose of DCL and BZT were, however, lower than those of DZ. SCP is an antimuscarinic drug devoid of antinicotinic activity, while BIP possesses antimuscarinic, antinicotinic, antispasmodic and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate activity. Recent evidence suggests that, in late stages of intoxication by nerve agents, noncholinergic, excitatory amino acid receptors may become involved and necessitate the use of a multi-action drug like BIP. The findings herein suggest that SCP and BIP are superior to DZ, but further studies are needed to determine which drug or drug class should be pursued in more advanced testing.

  4. Changes in cellular degradation activity in young and old worker honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chin-Yuan; Chuang, Yu-Lung; Chan, Yu-Pei

    2014-02-01

    The trophocytes and fat cells of honeybees (Apis mellifera) have been used in cellular senescence studies, but the changes of cellular degradation activity with aging in workers are unknown. In this study, cellular degradation activity was evaluated in the trophocytes and fat cells of young and old workers reared in a field hive. The results showed the following: (1) 20S proteosome activity decreased with aging, whereas its expression increased with aging; (2) the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II) and the 70 kD heat shock cognate protein (Hsc70) decreased with aging; (3) the size and number of autophagic vacuoles decreased with aging; (4) p62/SQSTM1 and polyubiquitin aggregate expression decreased with aging; (5) lysosomal efficiency decreased with aging; and (6) molecular target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression increased with aging. These results indicate that young workers have higher levels of cellular degradation activity than old workers and that aging results in a decline in the cellular degradation activity in worker honeybees.

  5. Clinical Outcomes of Anatomical Total Shoulder Arthroplasty in a Young, Active Population.

    PubMed

    Kusnezov, Nicholas; Dunn, John C; Parada, Stephen A; Kilcoyne, Kelly; Waterman, Brian R

    2016-01-01

    Glenohumeral arthritis in young, active patients poses many treatment challenges, and significant concerns about component loosening and failure limit the available surgical options. We conducted a study of the clinical outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) for glenohumeral arthritis in a young, high-demand population. We searched the Military Health System Management Analysis and Reporting Tool database to retrospectively review the cases of all US military service members who had undergone anatomical TSA (Current Procedural Terminology code 23472) between 2007 and 2014. Demographic information, occupational parameters, and clinical outcomes were extracted from electronic medical records. Twenty-four service members (26 shoulders) met the inclusion criteria. The cohort was predominantly male (n = 25). Mean age was 45.8 years (range, 35-54 years). The most common etiology of glenohumeral arthritis was post-instability arthropathy (50.0%). At mean follow-up of 41 months, 9 patients had a total of 12 complications (46.2%), including 6 component failures caused by neurologic injury (2 cases), adhesive capsulitis (2), and venous thrombosis (2). The reoperation rate for all component failures was 23.1% (6 cases, 5 patients). Ten patients (41.7%) remained on active duty at 2 years, and 5 (20.8%) were subsequently deployed. Ultimately, 9 patients (37.5%) underwent medical discharge for persistent shoulder disability. TSA in young, active patients provides reliable improvements in range of motion and pain. However, roughly one-third of patients in this study were unable to continue high-demand activities by 2 years after surgery. The short-term complication profile (46.2%) and reoperation rate for component failure (23.1%) should be emphasized during preoperative counseling. PMID:27552465

  6. Trunk and upper limb muscle activation during flat and topspin forehand drives in young tennis players.

    PubMed

    Rogowski, Isabelle; Rouffet, David; Lambalot, Frederic; Brosseau, Olivier; Hautier, Christophe

    2011-02-01

    This study compared EMG activity of young tennis players' muscles during forehand drives in two groups, GD-those able to raise by more than 150% the vertical velocity of racket-face at impact from flat to topspin forehand drives, and GND, those not able to increase their vertical velocity to the same extent. Upper limb joint angles, racket-face velocities, and average EMGrms values, were studied. At similar joint angles, a fall in horizontal velocity and a rise in racket-face vertical velocity from flat to topspin forehand drives were observed. Shoulder muscle activity rose from flat to topspin forehand drives in GND, but not for drives in GD. Forearm muscle activity reduced from flat to topspin forehand drives in GD, but muscle activation was similar in GND. The results show that radial deviation increased racket-face vertical velocity more at impact from the flat to topspin forehand drives than shoulder abduction.

  7. Variability in HOMA-IR, lipoprotein profile and selected hormones in young active men.

    PubMed

    Keska, Anna; Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Czajkowska, Anna; Tkaczyk, Joanna; Mazurek, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to insulin actions is contributing to many metabolic disturbances. Such factors as age, sex, nutrition, body fat, and physical activity determine body insulin resistance. Present study attempted to asses insulin resistance and its metabolic effects with respect to energy intake in young, lean, and active men. A total of 87 men aged 18-23 participated in the study. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipoproteins, cortisol, and TSH were determined. Insulin resistance was expressed as Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and calculated using homeostatic model. The median value of HOMA-IR (1.344) was used to divide subjects into two groups. Men did not differ in anthropometric parameters, daily physical activity, and plasma TSH and cortisol levels. However, in men with higher HOMA-IR significantly lower daily energy intake was observed concomitantly with higher TG, TC, and HDL-C concentrations in plasma versus their counterparts with lower HOMA-IR. Exclusively in subjects with higher HOMA-IR significant and positive correlation was noted between HOMA-IR and TC and LDL-C. We concluded that despite a normal body weight and physical activity, a subset of young men displayed unfavorable changes in insulin sensitivity and lipid profile, probably due to insufficient energy intake.

  8. Shifting Motivations: Young Women’s Reflections on Physical Activity Over Time and Across Contexts

    PubMed Central

    O’Dougherty, Maureen; Kurzer, Mindy S.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2012-01-01

    This research analyzes motivations expressed by young, healthy, sedentary women before and after an exercise intervention. Young women (aged 18–30, n = 39) participated in focus groups or interviews during a 4-month exercise intervention. Afterward, 22 of these women and 20 controls completed physical activity diaries for 6 months and were interviewed. For the majority of women (n = 24), obligation to the study prevailed as the motivator during the intervention. Some (n = 15) became physically active for their own benefit. Afterward, exercisers and controls said they were physically active to feel better and/or healthy (n = 20), for body image and/or weight loss (n = 20), or both. Women expressed motivations for physical activity in ways that resonated with self-determination theory. Their commentaries expand on theory to include experiencing multiple motivations simultaneously and motivations shifting over time and in differing contexts. Social motivations were compelling, both those associated with societal values (research, health) and cultural trends (body image). PMID:20530640

  9. The development of a unique physical activity self-report for young children: challenges and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Anne-Maree; Iverson, Don; Russell, Ken; Yeatman, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The number of overweight and obese children in the Western world is alarming. Efforts to impact this problem at an individual level have had little effect. Interventions that focus on the whole population may prove more successful. This study reports the development of a unique self-report picture questionnaire designed to assess playground physical activity preferences in young children (4-9 years, N = 1,881) at 14 regional Australian primary schools. Children's picture preferences were compared with observational data using the Children's Activity Scanning tool (CAST2). Results indicate that 62% to 89% of children preferred activities that were moderate or highly active; however, CAST2 data indicated that children spent only 50% to 70% of play time being active. The findings confirm that young children are able to indicate their preferences for physical activity. Important considerations in future attempts to develop a measure of physical activity in young children are discussed.

  10. Intrathecal Injection of Resveratrol Attenuates Burn Injury Pain by Activating Spinal Sirtuin 1

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wei; Wang, Jin-Feng; Yang, Cong-Xian; Wu, Liang; Yin, Qin; Liu, He; Fu, Zhi-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study sought to detect spinal sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and acetylation of histone H3 (Ac-H3) expression in rats with burn injury pain (BIP model). Procedures and Results: A BIP model was first established. BIP rats showed lower paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) from day 1, which persisted for 21 days following the burn injury. Spinal SIRT1/Ac-H3 expression increased following burn injury. The intrathecal use of resveratrol increased PWT and SIRT1 expression but induced down-regulation of Ac-H3 expression. We first demonstrated that the inhibition of SIRT1 significantly induced mechanical allodynia in naïve rats. The preinjection of SIRT1 inhibitor partly antagonized the analgesic effects of resveratrol in BIP rats. Conclusion: Inhibition of SIRT1 produces pain facilitation in the naïve rats. The expression of spinal SIRT1 increased after burn injury in the BIP model. The activation of spinal SIRT1 might mediate the resveratrol-induced analgesic effects. SUMMARY Burn injury resulted in pain facilitationResveratrol attenuates pain facilitation induced by burn injuryIntrathecal injection of resveratrol attenuates burn injury pain by increasing spinal sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expressionInhibition of SIRT1 by selisistat, an SIRT1 inhibitor attenuated analgesic effects of resveratrol Abbreviations used: SIRT1: Sirtuin 1, Ac-H3: Acetylation of histone H3, SD: Sprague-Dawley, EX527: Selisistat, an SIRT1 inhibitor, BIP: Burn injury pain, DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide, PWTs: Paw withdrawal thresholds PMID:27279707

  11. The effect of calcium chloride injection on shear force and caspase activities in bovine longissimus muscles during postmortem conditioning.

    PubMed

    Cao, J; Yu, X; Khan, M A; Shao, J; Xiang, Y; Zhou, G

    2012-06-01

    Tenderness is considered as the most important quality determinant of meat. Calcium chloride application has been shown to improve tenderness by regulating endogenous proteinases. This study was designed to determine the effect of 300 mM calcium chloride injection on myofibrillar structures, caspase activities and shear force in longissimus muscles of bulls during postmortem storage of 7 days. Myofibrillar fragmentation index was determined as an index of proteolysis occurring in muscle fibers and associated proteins. Maximum tenderness was observed at days 4 and 7 in both treated and control samples. The injection of calcium chloride significantly increased myofibrillar proteolysis and improved tenderness at postmortem days 4 and 7. The treatment reduced caspase-9 activity at 4 h and day 4, whereas those of caspase-8 and -3 activities at days 1 and 4 with respect to control. The improved tenderness and increased myofibril fragmentation with decreased caspase activities suggested that the proteolytic systems activated with calcium chloride injection possibly behave independent of the caspase system.

  12. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    PubMed

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-01

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions. PMID:22663136

  13. Technical and Physical Activities of Small-Sided Games in Young Korean Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Joo, Chang H; Hwang-Bo, Kwan; Jee, Haemi

    2016-08-01

    Joo, CH, Hwang-Bo, K, and Jee, H. Technical and physical activities of small-sided games in young Korean soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2164-2173, 2016-The aim of this study was to examine the technical aspects and physical demands during small-sided games (SSGs) with different sized pitches in young Korean soccer players. Participants were randomly selected during a nationally held youth competition. Three different game formats were used: SSG8 (8 vs. 8 played on a small-sized field [68 × 47 m]), RSG8 (8 vs. 8 played on a regular-sized field [75 × 47 m]), and RSG11 (11 vs. 11 played on a regular-sized field). Eleven technical (ball touches, passes, and shots) and 6 physical demand variables (exercise frequency by intensity) were observed and analyzed. Same variables were also analyzed for the goalkeepers. As a result, SSG8 and RSG8 showed significantly greater numbers of technical plays in 5 and 4 variables in comparison to RSG11, respectively. In addition, although the exercise intensities increased slightly in both SSG formats, the amount was within the similar range as previous reports. In conclusion, the SSGs with reduced number of players may be referred in young players to effectively train them in technical aspects of the game by allowing greater ball exposure time without excessive physical demands. Various confounding factors such as pitch dimension should be carefully considered for training specific technical and physical variables in young Korean players.

  14. A Comparison of Self-Reported and Objective Physical Activity Measures in Young Australian Women

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Stefanie; Young, Elisa; Bennell, Kim Louise; Tay, Ilona; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Background The evidence for beneficial effects of recommended levels of physical activity is overwhelming. However, 70% of Australians fail to meet these levels. In particular, physical activity participation by women falls sharply between ages 16 to 25 years. Further information about physical activity measures in young women is needed. Self-administered questionnaires are often used to measure physical activity given their ease of application, but known limitations, including recall bias, compromise the accuracy of data. Alternatives such as objective measures are commonly used to overcome this problem, but are more costly and time consuming. Objective To compare the output between the Modified Active Australia Survey (MAAS), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and an objective physical activity measure—the SenseWear Armband (SWA)—to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the MAAS and to determine the acceptability of the SWA among young women. Methods Young women from Victoria, Australia, aged 18 to 25 years who had participated in previous studies via Facebook advertising were recruited. Participants completed the two physical activity questionnaires online, immediately before and after wearing the armband for 7 consecutive days. Data from the SWA was blocked into 10-minute activity times. Follow-up IPAQ, MAAS, and SWA data were analyzed by comparing the total continuous and categorical activity scores, while concurrent validity of IPAQ and MAAS were analyzed by comparing follow-up scores. Test-retest reliability of MAAS was analyzed by comparing MAAS total physical activity scores at baseline and follow-up. Participants provided feedback in the follow-up questionnaire about their experience of wearing the armband to determine acceptability of the SWA. Data analyses included graphical (ie, Bland-Altman plot, scatterplot) and analytical (ie, canonical correlation, kappa statistic) methods to determine agreement between MAAS, IPAQ, and

  15. Modeling of fluid injection and withdrawal induced fault activation using discrete element based hydro-mechanical and dynamic coupled simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jeoung Seok; Zang, Arno; Zimmermann, Günter; Stephansson, Ove

    2016-04-01

    Operation of fluid injection into and withdrawal from the subsurface for various purposes has been known to induce earthquakes. Such operations include hydraulic fracturing for shale gas extraction, hydraulic stimulation for Enhanced Geothermal System development and waste water disposal. Among these, several damaging earthquakes have been reported in the USA in particular in the areas of high-rate massive amount of wastewater injection [1] mostly with natural fault systems. Oil and gas production have been known to induce earthquake where pore fluid pressure decreases in some cases by several tens of Mega Pascal. One recent seismic event occurred in November 2013 near Azle, Texas where a series of earthquakes began along a mapped ancient fault system [2]. It was studied that a combination of brine production and waste water injection near the fault generated subsurface pressures sufficient to induced earthquakes on near-critically stressed faults. This numerical study aims at investigating the occurrence mechanisms of such earthquakes induced by fluid injection [3] and withdrawal by using hydro-geomechanical coupled dynamic simulator (Itasca's Particle Flow Code 2D). Generic models are setup to investigate the sensitivity of several parameters which include fault orientation, frictional properties, distance from the injection well to the fault, amount of fluid withdrawal around the injection well, to the response of the fault systems and the activation magnitude. Fault slip movement over time in relation to the diffusion of pore pressure is analyzed in detail. Moreover, correlations between the spatial distribution of pore pressure change and the locations of induced seismic events and fault slip rate are investigated. References [1] Keranen KM, Weingarten M, Albers GA, Bekins BA, Ge S, 2014. Sharp increase in central Oklahoma seismicity since 2008 induced by massive wastewater injection, Science 345, 448, DOI: 10.1126/science.1255802. [2] Hornbach MJ, DeShon HR

  16. Activity/inactivity circadian rhythm shows high similarities between young obesity-induced rats and old rats.

    PubMed

    Bravo Santos, R; Delgado, J; Cubero, J; Franco, L; Ruiz-Moyano, S; Mesa, M; Rodríguez, A B; Uguz, C; Barriga, C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare differences between elderly rats and young obesity-induced rats in their activity/inactivity circadian rhythm. The investigation was motivated by the differences reported previously for the circadian rhythms of both obese and elderly humans (and other animals), and those of healthy, young or mature individuals. Three groups of rats were formed: a young control group which was fed a standard chow for rodents; a young obesity-induced group which was fed a high-fat diet for four months; and an elderly control group with rats aged 2.5 years that was fed a standard chow for rodents. Activity/inactivity data were registered through actimetry using infrared actimeter systems in each cage to detect activity. Data were logged on a computer and chronobiological analysis were performed. The results showed diurnal activity (sleep time), nocturnal activity (awake time), amplitude, acrophase, and interdaily stability to be similar between the young obesity-induced group and the elderly control group, but different in the young control group. We have concluded that obesity leads to a chronodisruption status in the body similar to the circadian rhythm degradation observed in the elderly. PMID:27030628

  17. Activity/inactivity circadian rhythm shows high similarities between young obesity-induced rats and old rats.

    PubMed

    Bravo Santos, R; Delgado, J; Cubero, J; Franco, L; Ruiz-Moyano, S; Mesa, M; Rodríguez, A B; Uguz, C; Barriga, C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare differences between elderly rats and young obesity-induced rats in their activity/inactivity circadian rhythm. The investigation was motivated by the differences reported previously for the circadian rhythms of both obese and elderly humans (and other animals), and those of healthy, young or mature individuals. Three groups of rats were formed: a young control group which was fed a standard chow for rodents; a young obesity-induced group which was fed a high-fat diet for four months; and an elderly control group with rats aged 2.5 years that was fed a standard chow for rodents. Activity/inactivity data were registered through actimetry using infrared actimeter systems in each cage to detect activity. Data were logged on a computer and chronobiological analysis were performed. The results showed diurnal activity (sleep time), nocturnal activity (awake time), amplitude, acrophase, and interdaily stability to be similar between the young obesity-induced group and the elderly control group, but different in the young control group. We have concluded that obesity leads to a chronodisruption status in the body similar to the circadian rhythm degradation observed in the elderly.

  18. Purification, characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from thinned-young apple.

    PubMed

    Dou, Jiao; Meng, Yonghong; Liu, Lei; Li, Jie; Ren, Daoyuan; Guo, Yurong

    2015-01-01

    Purification, characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from thinned-young apple (TYA) were investigated in the study. A water-soluble polysaccharide (TYAP) was obtained with hot water extraction, which was further purified by chromatography of Cellulose DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-150 to get three purified fractions of TYAP-1, TYAP-2 and TYAP-3. HPLC analysis showed that the three fractions were mainly composed of galactose and arabinose with the average molecular weights of 115 kDa, 479 kDa and 403 kDa, respectively and the monosaccharide compositions of TYAP-2 and TYAP-3 were more complicated than that of TYAP-1. Moreover, TYAP fractions of three had no absorptions at 260 nm and 280 nm in the UV spectrum, indicating the absence of protein and nucleic acid. Their structure properties were further confirmed by FT-IR. In vitro antioxidant activities of three fractions were characterized by DPPH(•), HO(•), O2(•-) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power systems. The results indicated that TYAP-1, TYAP-2 and TYAP-3 possessed significant antioxidant effects in a concentration-dependant manner in the tested concentration range of 0.25-5.0mg/mL. Among the fractions tested, TYAP-3 showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than that of TYAP-1 and TYAP-2. All of these findings provide a scientific basis for the further use of polysaccharides from thinned-young apple. PMID:25109456

  19. Media multitasking is associated with distractibility and increased prefrontal activity in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Moisala, M; Salmela, V; Hietajärvi, L; Salo, E; Carlson, S; Salonen, O; Lonka, K; Hakkarainen, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Alho, K

    2016-07-01

    The current generation of young people indulges in more media multitasking behavior (e.g., instant messaging while watching videos) in their everyday lives than older generations. Concerns have been raised about how this might affect their attentional functioning, as previous studies have indicated that extensive media multitasking in everyday life may be associated with decreased attentional control. In the current study, 149 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24years) performed speech-listening and reading tasks that required maintaining attention in the presence of distractor stimuli in the other modality or dividing attention between two concurrent tasks. Brain activity during task performance was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We studied the relationship between self-reported daily media multitasking (MMT), task performance and brain activity during task performance. The results showed that in the presence of distractor stimuli, a higher MMT score was associated with worse performance and increased brain activity in right prefrontal regions. The level of performance during divided attention did not depend on MMT. This suggests that daily media multitasking is associated with behavioral distractibility and increased recruitment of brain areas involved in attentional and inhibitory control, and that media multitasking in everyday life does not translate to performance benefits in multitasking in laboratory settings. PMID:27063068

  20. Media multitasking is associated with distractibility and increased prefrontal activity in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Moisala, M; Salmela, V; Hietajärvi, L; Salo, E; Carlson, S; Salonen, O; Lonka, K; Hakkarainen, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Alho, K

    2016-07-01

    The current generation of young people indulges in more media multitasking behavior (e.g., instant messaging while watching videos) in their everyday lives than older generations. Concerns have been raised about how this might affect their attentional functioning, as previous studies have indicated that extensive media multitasking in everyday life may be associated with decreased attentional control. In the current study, 149 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24years) performed speech-listening and reading tasks that required maintaining attention in the presence of distractor stimuli in the other modality or dividing attention between two concurrent tasks. Brain activity during task performance was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We studied the relationship between self-reported daily media multitasking (MMT), task performance and brain activity during task performance. The results showed that in the presence of distractor stimuli, a higher MMT score was associated with worse performance and increased brain activity in right prefrontal regions. The level of performance during divided attention did not depend on MMT. This suggests that daily media multitasking is associated with behavioral distractibility and increased recruitment of brain areas involved in attentional and inhibitory control, and that media multitasking in everyday life does not translate to performance benefits in multitasking in laboratory settings.

  1. Load release balance test under unstable conditions effectively discriminates between physically active and sedentary young adults.

    PubMed

    Zemková, E; Štefániková, G; Muyor, J M

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates test-retest reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the load release balance test under four varied conditions. Young, early and late middle-aged physically active and sedentary subjects performed the test over 2 testing sessions spaced 1week apart while standing on either (1) a stable or (2) an unstable surface with (3) eyes open (EO) and (4) eyes closed (EC), respectively. Results identified that test-retest reliability of parameters of the load release balance test was good to excellent, with high values of ICC (0.78-0.92) and low SEM (7.1%-10.7%). The peak and the time to peak posterior center of pressure (CoP) displacement were significantly lower in physically active as compared to sedentary young adults (21.6% and 21.0%) and early middle-aged adults (22.0% and 20.9%) while standing on a foam surface with EO, and in late middle-aged adults on both unstable (25.6% and 24.5%) and stable support surfaces with EO (20.4% and 20.0%). The area under the ROC curve >0.80 for these variables indicates good discriminatory accuracy. Thus, these variables of the load release balance test measured under unstable conditions have the ability to differentiate between groups of physically active and sedentary adults as early as from 19years of age. PMID:27203382

  2. High-Dose Vitamin C Injection to Cancer Patients May Promote Thrombosis Through Procoagulant Activation of Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keunyoung; Bae, Ok-Nam; Koh, Sung-Hee; Kang, Seojin; Lim, Kyung-Min; Noh, Ji-Yoon; Shin, Sue; Kim, Inho; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2015-10-01

    Potential risk of high-dose vitamin C consumption is often ignored. Recently, gram-dose vitamin C is being intravenously injected for the treatment of cancer, which can expose circulating blood cells to extremely high concentrations of vitamin C. As well as platelets, red blood cells (RBCs) can actively participate in thrombosis through procoagulant activation. Here, we examined the procoagulant and prothrombotic risks associated with the intravenous injection of gram-dose vitamin C. Vitamin C (0.5-5 mM) increased procoagulant activity of freshly isolated human RBCs via the externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) to outer cellular membrane and the formation of PS-bearing microvesicles. PS exposure was induced by the dysregulation of key enzymes for the maintenance of membrane phospholipid asymmetry, which was from vitamin C-induced oxidative stress, and resultant disruption of calcium and thiol homeostasis. Indeed, the intravenous injection of vitamin C (0.5-1.0 g/kg) in rats in vivo significantly increased thrombosis. Notably, the prothrombotic effects of vitamin C were more prominent in RBCs isolated from cancer patients, who are at increased risks of thrombotic events. Vitamin C-induced procoagulant and prothrombotic activation of RBCs, and increased thrombosis in vivo. RBCs from cancer patients exhibited increased sensitivity to the prothrombotic effects of vitamin C, reflecting that intravenous gram-dose vitamin C therapy needs to be carefully revisited.

  3. High-Dose Vitamin C Injection to Cancer Patients May Promote Thrombosis Through Procoagulant Activation of Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keunyoung; Bae, Ok-Nam; Koh, Sung-Hee; Kang, Seojin; Lim, Kyung-Min; Noh, Ji-Yoon; Shin, Sue; Kim, Inho; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2015-10-01

    Potential risk of high-dose vitamin C consumption is often ignored. Recently, gram-dose vitamin C is being intravenously injected for the treatment of cancer, which can expose circulating blood cells to extremely high concentrations of vitamin C. As well as platelets, red blood cells (RBCs) can actively participate in thrombosis through procoagulant activation. Here, we examined the procoagulant and prothrombotic risks associated with the intravenous injection of gram-dose vitamin C. Vitamin C (0.5-5 mM) increased procoagulant activity of freshly isolated human RBCs via the externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) to outer cellular membrane and the formation of PS-bearing microvesicles. PS exposure was induced by the dysregulation of key enzymes for the maintenance of membrane phospholipid asymmetry, which was from vitamin C-induced oxidative stress, and resultant disruption of calcium and thiol homeostasis. Indeed, the intravenous injection of vitamin C (0.5-1.0 g/kg) in rats in vivo significantly increased thrombosis. Notably, the prothrombotic effects of vitamin C were more prominent in RBCs isolated from cancer patients, who are at increased risks of thrombotic events. Vitamin C-induced procoagulant and prothrombotic activation of RBCs, and increased thrombosis in vivo. RBCs from cancer patients exhibited increased sensitivity to the prothrombotic effects of vitamin C, reflecting that intravenous gram-dose vitamin C therapy needs to be carefully revisited. PMID:26139164

  4. Use of solid phase extraction for the sequential injection determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in dynamic water systems.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2012-08-30

    In this work, a solid phase extraction sequential injection methodology for the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in dynamic water systems was developed. The determination of the enzymatic activity was based on the spectrophotometric detection of a coloured product, p-nitrophenol, at 405 nm. The p-nitrophenol is the product of the catalytic decomposition of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, a non-coloured substrate. Considering the low levels expected in natural waters and exploiting the fact of alkaline phosphatase being a metalloprotein, the enzyme was pre-concentrated in-line using a NTA Superflow resin charged with Zn(2+) ions. The developed sequential injection method enabled a quantification range of 0.044-0.441 unit mL(-1) of enzyme activity with a detection limit of 0.0082 unit mL(-1) enzyme activity (1.9 μmol L(-1) of pNP) and a determination rate of 17 h(-1). Recovery tests confirmed the accuracy of the developed sequential injection method and it was effectively applied to different natural waters and to plant root extracts. PMID:22939148

  5. The Effect of Activity Type on the Engagement and Interaction of Young Children with Disabilities in Inclusive Childcare Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Coral; Kishida, Yuriko; Carter, Mark; Sweller, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    The engagement and adult and peer interaction of 37 young children with a range of disabilities was measured in free play, group, and meal-routine activities in inclusive childcare settings. A significant effect for activity type was found for total engagement, active engagement, and passive engagement, with the children being more engaged in…

  6. Analysis of the oocyte activating capacity and chromosomal complement of round-headed human spermatozoa by their injection into mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Rybouchkin, A; Dozortsev, D; Pelinck, M J; De Sutter, P; Dhont, M

    1996-10-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in the human is a very effective procedure which allows the fertilization of the majority of oocytes even in cases of extreme oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. Round-headed acrosomeless human spermatozoa, however, form an exception to this rule, because in about half of the couples with globozoospermia all oocytes remain unfertilized after injection. The incapacity of the spermatozoon to activate the oocyte following injection of round-headed spermatozoa could be the underlying mechanism. To investigate this hypothesis, activation rates of mouse oocytes injected with spermatozoa from a patient with globozoospermia were compared with those obtained after injection with normal spermatozoa. Of mouse oocytes surviving the injection with donor spermatozoa, 95% underwent activation, compared to none of the 88 mouse oocytes surviving the injection with round-headed spermatozoa. After fixation, prematurely condensed sperm chromosomes were found in these oocytes. Parthenogenetic activation of mouse oocytes (8% ethanol at 40 min after injection) injected with round-headed spermatozoa led to the activation of 96% of oocytes. These oocytes developed normally to the first mitosis and were fixed for analysis of the sperm karyotypes. The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities of round-headed spermatozoa (6%) was similar to that in spermatozoa from a fertile donor (9%). These data provide further information on the basic defect in cases of globozoospermia and demonstrate that globozoospermia is not associated with sperm karyotype abnormalities.

  7. Effect of Chronic Athletic Activity on Brown Fat in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Vibha; Maffazioli, Giovana D.; Ackerman, Kate E.; Lee, Hang; Elia, Elisa F.; Woolley, Ryan; Kolodny, Gerald; Cypess, Aaron M.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2016-01-01

    Background The effect of chronic exercise activity on brown adipose tissue (BAT) is not clear, with some studies showing positive and others showing negative associations. Chronic exercise is associated with increased resting energy expenditure (REE) secondary to increased lean mass and a probable increase in BAT. Many athletes are in a state of relative energy deficit suggested by lower fat mass and hypothalamic amenorrhea. States of severe energy deficit such as anorexia nervosa are associated with reduced BAT. There are no data regarding the impact of chronic exercise activity on BAT volume or activity in young women and it is unclear whether relative energy deficiency modifies the effects of exercise on BAT. Purpose We assessed cold induced BAT volume and activity in young female athletes compared with non-athletes, and further evaluated associations of BAT with measures of REE, body composition and menstrual status. Methods The protocol was approved by our Institutional Review Board. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to study initiation. This was a cross-sectional study of 24 women (16 athletes and8 non-athletes) between 18–25 years of age. Athletes were either oligo-amenorrheic (n = 8) or eumenorrheic (n = 8).We used PET/CT scans to determine cold induced BAT activity, VMAX Encore 29 metabolic cart to obtain measures of REE, and DXA for body composition. Results Athletes and non-athletes did not differ for age or BMI. Compared with non-athletes, athletes had lower percent body fat (p = 0.002), higher percent lean mass (p = 0.01) and trended higher in REE (p = 0.09). BAT volume and activity in athletes trended lower than in non-athletes (p = 0.06; p = 0.07, respectively). We found negative associations of BAT activity with duration of amenorrhea (r = -0.46, p = 0.02).BAT volume correlated inversely with lean mass (r = -0.46, p = 0.02), and positively with percent body fat, irisin and thyroid hormones. Conclusions Our study

  8. Reference Values for the Marx Activity Rating Scale in a Young Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Kenneth L.; Peck, Karen Y.; Thompson, Brandon S.; Svoboda, Steven J.; Owens, Brett D.; Marshall, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Activity-related patient-reported outcome measures are an important component of assessment after knee ligament injury in young and physically active patients; however, normative data for most activity scales are limited. Objective: To present reference values by sex for the Marx Activity Rating Scale (MARS) within a young and physically active population while accounting for knee ligament injury history and sex. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Methods: All incoming freshman entering a US Service Academy in June of 2011 were recruited to participate in this study. MARS was administered to 1169 incoming freshmen (203 women) who consented to participate within the first week of matriculation. All subjects were deemed healthy and medically fit for military service on admission. Subjects also completed a baseline questionnaire that asked for basic demographic information and injury history. We calculated means with standard deviations, medians with interquartile ranges, and percentiles for ordinal and continuous variables, and frequencies and proportions for dichotomous variables. We also compared median scores by sex and history of knee ligament injury using the Kruskal-Wallis test. MARS was the primary outcome of interest. Results: The median MARS score was significantly higher for men when compared with women (χ2 = 13.22, df = 1, P < 0.001) with no prior history of knee ligament injury. In contrast, there was no significant difference in median MARS scores between men and women (χ2 = 0.47, df = 1, P = 0.493) who reported a history of injury. Overall, median MARS scores were significantly higher among those who reported a history of knee ligament injury when compared with those who did not (χ2 = 9.06, df = 1, P = 0.003). Conclusion: Assessing activity as a patient-reported outcome after knee ligament injury is important, and reference values for these instruments need to account for the influence of prior injury and sex

  9. Microbial Biomass, Activity, and Community Structure of Water and Particulates Retrieved by Backflow from a Waterflood Injection Well

    PubMed Central

    McKinley, Vicky L.; Costerton, J. William; White, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Oil field injection water was allowed to back flow from two wells at the Packard drill site in Los Angeles, Calif., and was sampled at various times to obtain information about the biomass, potential activity, and community structure of the microbiota in the reservoir formation and in the injection water. Biomass was greatest in water samples that came from the zone near the injection site and dropped off sharply in subsequent samples, which were assumed to come from zones farther away from the well. Samples obtained from near the well also had visible exopolysaccharide blankets, as seen in scanning electron microscopic preparations. In one of the wells that was sampled, rates of glucose or acetate incorporation into microbial lipids correlated with biomass; but in the other well, activities correlated with the sampling time (volume of water that back flowed). Transmission electron micrographs showed a diverse, gram-negative bacterial population in a variety of physiological states. The analysis of the phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profiles of the samples revealed consistently large proportions of 18:1ω7c fatty acids, indicating the presence of many anaerobes, facultative organisms, or both. Proportions of cyclopropyl fatty acids and ratios of trans/cis monoenoic compounds increased with the volume of water that back flowed (analogous with the distance into the formation), while the ratio of unsaturated/saturated compounds decreased, possibly indicating higher levels of stress or starvation in the microbial communities farthest from the injection well. Greater than 90% of the total biomass was trapped on glass fiber filters, indicating that the microbiota were largely attached to particles or were clumped. These sampling techniques and analytical methods may prove useful in monitoring for problems with microbes (e.g., plugging) in waterflood operations and in the preparation of water injection wells for enhanced oil recovery by the use of microbes. Images

  10. Microbial biomass, activity, and community structure of water and particulates retrieved by backflow from a waterflood injection well.

    PubMed

    McKinley, V L; Costerton, J W; White, D C

    1988-06-01

    Oil field injection water was allowed to back flow from two wells at the Packard drill site in Los Angeles, Calif., and was sampled at various times to obtain information about the biomass, potential activity, and community structure of the microbiota in the reservoir formation and in the injection water. Biomass was greatest in water samples that came from the zone near the injection site and dropped off sharply in subsequent samples, which were assumed to come from zones farther away from the well. Samples obtained from near the well also had visible exopolysaccharide blankets, as seen in scanning electron microscopic preparations. In one of the wells that was sampled, rates of glucose or acetate incorporation into microbial lipids correlated with biomass; but in the other well, activities correlated with the sampling time (volume of water that back flowed). Transmission electron micrographs showed a diverse, gram-negative bacterial population in a variety of physiological states. The analysis of the phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profiles of the samples revealed consistently large proportions of 18:1omega7c fatty acids, indicating the presence of many anaerobes, facultative organisms, or both. Proportions of cyclopropyl fatty acids and ratios of trans/cis monoenoic compounds increased with the volume of water that back flowed (analogous with the distance into the formation), while the ratio of unsaturated/saturated compounds decreased, possibly indicating higher levels of stress or starvation in the microbial communities farthest from the injection well. Greater than 90% of the total biomass was trapped on glass fiber filters, indicating that the microbiota were largely attached to particles or were clumped. These sampling techniques and analytical methods may prove useful in monitoring for problems with microbes (e.g., plugging) in waterflood operations and in the preparation of water injection wells for enhanced oil recovery by the use of microbes. PMID

  11. An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis Study of Simple Motor Movements in Older and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Turesky, Ted K.; Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Eden, Guinevere F.

    2016-01-01

    The functional neuroanatomy of finger movements has been characterized with neuroimaging in young adults. However, less is known about the aging motor system. Several studies have contrasted movement-related activity in older versus young adults, but there is inconsistency among their findings. To address this, we conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on within-group data from older adults and young adults performing regularly paced right-hand finger movement tasks in response to external stimuli. We hypothesized that older adults would show a greater likelihood of activation in right cortical motor areas (i.e., ipsilateral to the side of movement) compared to young adults. ALE maps were examined for conjunction and between-group differences. Older adults showed overlapping likelihoods of activation with young adults in left primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1), bilateral supplementary motor area, bilateral insula, left thalamus, and right anterior cerebellum. Their ALE map differed from that of the young adults in right SM1 (extending into dorsal premotor cortex), right supramarginal gyrus, medial premotor cortex, and right posterior cerebellum. The finding that older adults uniquely use ipsilateral regions for right-hand finger movements and show age-dependent modulations in regions recruited by both age groups provides a foundation by which to understand age-related motor decline and motor disorders. PMID:27799910

  12. Supersaturation and activity-rotation relation in PMS stars: the young cluster h Persei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argiroffi, C.; Caramazza, M.; Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Flaccomio, E.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Several studies showed that the magnetic activity of late-type main-sequence (MS) stars is characterized by different regimes and that their activity levels are well described by the Rossby number, Ro, defined as the ratio between the rotational period Prot and the convective turnover time. Very young pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars show, similarly to MS stars, intense magnetic activity. However, they do not show clear activity-rotation trends, and it still debated which stellar parameters determine their magnetic activity levels. Aims: To bridge the gap between MS and PMS stars, we studied the activity-rotation relation in the young cluster h Persei, a ~13 Myr old cluster, that contains both fast and slow rotators. The cluster members have ended their accretion phase and have developed a radiative core. It therefore offers us the opportunity of studying the activity level of intermediate-age PMS stars with different rotational velocities, excluding any interactions with the circumstellar environment. Methods: We constrained the magnetic activity levels of h Per members by measuring their X-ray emission from a Chandra observation, while rotational periods were obtained previously in the framework of the MONITOR project. By cross-correlating these data, we collected a final catalog of 414 h Per members with known rotational period, effective temperature, and mass. In 169 of these, X-ray emission has also been detected. Results: We found that h Per members with 1.0 M⊙activity regimes: fast rotators clearly show supersaturation, while slower rotators have activity levels compatible to the non-saturated regime. At 13 Myr, h Per is therefore the youngest cluster showing activity-rotation regimes analogous to those of MS stars, indicating that at this age, magnetic field production is most likely regulated by the αΩ type dynamo. Moreover, we observed that supersaturation is better described by Prot than Ro, and that the

  13. Energy Expenditures for Activities of Daily Living in Korean Young Adults: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the energy expenditure (EE) of Korean young adults based on activities refined to a deskbound lifestyle. Methods Sixty-four healthy office workers aged between 25 and 46 years participated in this study. EE was expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET). Participants were evaluated in terms of their EE during physical activities of sleeping (n=22), typing (n=37), folding laundry (n=34), dishwashing (n=32), studying (n=18), mopping (n=35), walking (n=33), stair climbing (n=23), and running (n=29). Volume of oxygen consumption was measured by indirect calorimetry K4b2 (COSMED). The results were compared to the established Compendium MET. Results The MET of activities were: sleeping, 1.24±0.43; typing, 1.35±0.25; folding laundry, 1.58±0.51; dishwashing, 2.20±0.51; studying, 2.11±0.90; mopping, 2.72±0.69; walking at 4 km/hr, 3.48±0.65; stair climbing of five stories, 6.18±1.08; and running at 8 km/hr, 7.57±0.57. The values of typing and mopping were similar to those in the Compendium, whereas those of sleeping, folding laundry, dishwashing, studying, walking, stair climbing and running were different. Conclusion To our knowledge, this estimation of EE in MET during activities of daily living is the first data of young adults in Korea. These data could be used as a reference to modify the guidelines of physical activities for the age group examined in this study. PMID:27606280

  14. Energy Expenditures for Activities of Daily Living in Korean Young Adults: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the energy expenditure (EE) of Korean young adults based on activities refined to a deskbound lifestyle. Methods Sixty-four healthy office workers aged between 25 and 46 years participated in this study. EE was expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET). Participants were evaluated in terms of their EE during physical activities of sleeping (n=22), typing (n=37), folding laundry (n=34), dishwashing (n=32), studying (n=18), mopping (n=35), walking (n=33), stair climbing (n=23), and running (n=29). Volume of oxygen consumption was measured by indirect calorimetry K4b2 (COSMED). The results were compared to the established Compendium MET. Results The MET of activities were: sleeping, 1.24±0.43; typing, 1.35±0.25; folding laundry, 1.58±0.51; dishwashing, 2.20±0.51; studying, 2.11±0.90; mopping, 2.72±0.69; walking at 4 km/hr, 3.48±0.65; stair climbing of five stories, 6.18±1.08; and running at 8 km/hr, 7.57±0.57. The values of typing and mopping were similar to those in the Compendium, whereas those of sleeping, folding laundry, dishwashing, studying, walking, stair climbing and running were different. Conclusion To our knowledge, this estimation of EE in MET during activities of daily living is the first data of young adults in Korea. These data could be used as a reference to modify the guidelines of physical activities for the age group examined in this study.

  15. Mass Accretion Processes in Young Stellar Objects: Role of Intense Flaring Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Salvatore; Reale, Fabio; Peres, Giovanni; Mignone, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    According to the magnetospheric accretion scenario, young low-mass stars are surrounded by circumstellar disks which they interact with through accretion of mass. The accretion builds up the star to its final mass and is also believed to power the mass outflows, which may in turn have a signicant role in removing the excess angular momentum from the star-disk system. Although the process of mass accretion is a critical aspect of star formation, some of its mechanisms are still to be fully understood. On the other hand, strong flaring activity is a common feature of young stellar objects (YSOs). In the Sun, such events give rise to perturbations of the interplanetary medium. Similar but more energetic phenomena occur in YSOs and may influence the circumstellar environment. In fact, a recent study has shown that an intense flaring activity close to the disk may strongly perturb the stability of circumstellar disks, thus inducing mass accretion episodes (Orlando et al. 2011). Here we review the main results obtained in the field and the future perspectives.

  16. Young asteroidal fluid activity revealed by absolute age from apatite in carbonaceous chondrite

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ai-Cheng; Li, Qiu-Li; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Li, Xian-Hua; Hu, Sen; Lin, Yang-Ting; Wang, Ru-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Chondritic meteorites, consisting of the materials that have formed in the early solar system (ESS), have been affected by late thermal events and fluid activity to various degrees. Determining the timing of fluid activity in ESS is of fundamental importance for understanding the nature, formation, evolution and significance of fluid activity in ESS. Previous investigations have determined the relative ages of fluid activity with short-lived isotope systematics. Here we report an absolute 207Pb/206Pb isochron age (4,450±50 Ma) of apatite from Dar al Gani (DaG) 978, a type ∼3.5, ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite. The petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical features suggest that the apatite in DaG 978 should have formed during metamorphism in the presence of a fluid. Therefore, the apatite age represents an absolute age for fluid activity in an asteroidal setting. An impact event could have provided the heat to activate this young fluid activity in ESS. PMID:27682449

  17. Bilateral injection of fasciculin into the amygdala of rats: effects on two avoidance tasks, acetylcholinesterase activity, and cholinergic muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Quillfeldt, J; Raskovsky, S; Dalmaz, C; Dias, M; Huang, C; Netto, C A; Schneider, F; Izquierdo, I; Medina, J H; Silveira, R

    1990-11-01

    These experiments examined the effects of the bilateral injection of fasciculin-2 (FAS), a natural acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory peptide, into the amygdala of rats on acquisition and retention of two avoidance behaviors. Intraamygdala injection of FAS (150 ng/amygdala) produced a pronounced and long-lasting inhibition of AChE activity: 85% and 74% on day 2 and day 5, respectively. After 48 hr, FAS-treated animals showed no changes in training or test session performance in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task (training-test interval was 24 hr). In a 2-way shuttle avoidance task, intraamygdala FAS slightly reduced retention test performance without modifying training session scores. Two and five days after FAS injections into the amygdala, the density of muscarinic receptor decreased about 50% as measured by the specific bindings of 3H-quinuclidinyl benzilate and 3H-oxotremorine. No alterations were observed in the apparent dissociation constants. On the other hand, the central-type benzodiazepine receptor population of the amygdala remained unchanged, suggesting that FAS microinjection did not produce damage to neuronal components of these nuclei. In conclusion, the results presented have indicated that a clear-cut and long-lasting inhibition of AChE activity in the amygdala is not accompanied by a facilitation of learning and memory of two different avoidance tasks. Compensation of the increased cholinergic activity by a down-regulation of muscarinic receptors could account for these findings.

  18. Leisure time physical activity of young women from the Carpathian Euroregion in relation to the Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Zadarko, Emilian; Barabasz, Zbigniew; Nizioł-Babiarz, Edyta; Zadarko Domaradzka, Maraia; Barabasz, Monika; Sobolewski, Marek; Palanska, Andrea; Bergier, Józef; Junger, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Carpathian Euroregion gathers the population of 5 countries, including Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania- the European Union members, as well as Ukraine. Young women are statistically less involved in high-intensity physical activity than young men. The objective of this work was to assess the relation between physical activity of young women aged 18-21 years old and BMI and conditioning factors. The study was conducted between 2010 and 2011 among 2339 women. The Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnarie (MLTPAQ) was applied. It results from the study that 74,2% of young women is considered to have the proper BMI rate (18,5-24,9). As many as 16,2% is considered underweight and almost 10% have higher BMI rate and are overweight. More than one third of respondents did not gain the level of physical activity of 1000 kcal/week, and that is the minimum recommended amount of leisure physical activity time per week. In case of women with low level of physical activity (<1000 kcal), as many as 52% of week activity considered low-intensity activity EEPAlight. The character of changes of the BMI index with reference to the level of physical activity is very similar in the women from towns/cities and the women from villages. An increase of BMI along with the total physical activity was related among all to the increase of free fat mass FFM despite of the level of physical.

  19. Leisure time physical activity of young women from the Carpathian Euroregion in relation to the Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Zadarko, Emilian; Barabasz, Zbigniew; Nizioł-Babiarz, Edyta; Zadarko Domaradzka, Maraia; Barabasz, Monika; Sobolewski, Marek; Palanska, Andrea; Bergier, Józef; Junger, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Carpathian Euroregion gathers the population of 5 countries, including Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania- the European Union members, as well as Ukraine. Young women are statistically less involved in high-intensity physical activity than young men. The objective of this work was to assess the relation between physical activity of young women aged 18-21 years old and BMI and conditioning factors. The study was conducted between 2010 and 2011 among 2339 women. The Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnarie (MLTPAQ) was applied. It results from the study that 74,2% of young women is considered to have the proper BMI rate (18,5-24,9). As many as 16,2% is considered underweight and almost 10% have higher BMI rate and are overweight. More than one third of respondents did not gain the level of physical activity of 1000 kcal/week, and that is the minimum recommended amount of leisure physical activity time per week. In case of women with low level of physical activity (<1000 kcal), as many as 52% of week activity considered low-intensity activity EEPAlight. The character of changes of the BMI index with reference to the level of physical activity is very similar in the women from towns/cities and the women from villages. An increase of BMI along with the total physical activity was related among all to the increase of free fat mass FFM despite of the level of physical. PMID:25292141

  20. The activation of the tissue plasminogen activator-plasmin system induced in the mouse hippocampus after injection of trimethyltin: possible proteolysis of highly polysialylated NCAM.

    PubMed

    Endo, A; Hashimoto, K; Takada, Y; Takada, A

    1999-10-01

    Trimethyltin (TMT) is a neurotoxicant that causes the death of granule cells and degrades highly polysialylated NCAM (PSA-NCAM) in the dentate gyrus. To investigate the role of the tPA-plasmin system in the degradation of PSA-NCAM, we injected trimethyltin (TMT) into mice. As a result, tPA activity was significantly increased in CA1-CA4 and the dentate gyrus after TMT injection. These results suggest that up-regulated tPA may contribute to the degradation of PSA-NCAM.

  1. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Mali.

    PubMed

    Wuehler, Sara E; Coulibaly, Mouctar

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children <5 years of age has been less than needed to achieve related Millennium Development Goals. Therefore, several international agencies joined to 'Reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel', starting with a situational analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The main objectives of the situational analysis are to compile, analyse and interpret available information on infant and young child feeding, and the nutrition situation of children <2 years of age in Mali, as one of the six targeted countries. Between June and September 2008, key informants responsible for conducting IYCN-related activities in Mali were interviewed, and 117 documents were examined on the following themes: optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, screening and management of acute malnutrition, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, food security, and hygienic practices. Most of the key IYCN topics were addressed in national policies, training materials, and programme documents. Information on the national coverage and impact of these programmes is generally not available. Exclusive breastfeeding (<6 months) has increased in Mali, but no studies identified the contributors to this increase. Despite improvements in breastfeeding practices, optimal infant, and young child feeding is still practiced among too few young children in Mali. Several research articles were identified, but few of these were linked to programme development. Some programme monitoring and evaluation reports were available, but few of these were rigorous enough to identify whether IYCN-specific programme components were implemented as designed or were achieving desired outcomes. Therefore, we could not confirm which programmes contributed to reported improvements. Monitoring of programmes managing malnutrition identified gaps

  2. In vitro development of vitrified buffalo oocytes following parthenogenetic activation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Liang, Y Y; Phermthai, T; Nagai, T; Somfai, T; Parnpai, R

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of swamp buffalo oocytes vitrified-warmed at the metaphase of the second meiotic cell division (M-II) stage to develop to the blastocyst stage after parthenogenetic activation (PA) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In Experiment 1, we examined the effects of exposure time of oocytes to cryoprotectants (CPA) on their in vitro development after PA. In vitro matured (IVM) oocytes were placed in 10% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) + 10% ethylene glycol (EG) for 1 min and then exposed to 20% DMSO + 20% EG + 0.5 M sucrose for 30 s, 45 s or 60 s (1 min + 30 s, 1 min + 45 s and 1 min + 60 s groups, respectively). The oocytes were then exposed to warming solution (TCM199 HEPES + 20% FBS and 0.5M sucrose) for 5 min and then washed in TCM199 HEPES + 20% FBS for 5 min. IVM oocytes without CPA treatments served as a control group. The viability assessed by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) staining was 100% in all groups. The developmental rates after PA to the blastocyst stage between 1min+30s (16%) and control (26%) groups did not differ significantly, but they were significantly higher than those in 1 min + 45 s (10%) and 1 min + 60 s (2%) groups. In Experiment 2, we examined the effect of two CPA exposure times, 1 min + 30 s and 1 min + 45 s on the in vitro development after PA of oocytes vitrified by the microdrop method. The viabilities in vitrified 1 min + 30 s, 1 min + 45 s and the control (without CPA treatments) groups were not different (97%, 95% and 100%, respectively). The development of surviving oocytes to the blastocyst stage in the vitrified 1 min + 30 s group (8%) was significantly higher than that in the vitrified 1 min + 45 s group (4%) and significantly lower than those in control group (26%). In Experiment 3, we examined the effect of two CPA exposure times, 1 min + 30 s and 1 min + 45 s on in vitro development after ICSI of vitrified oocytes. Viabilities in vitrified oocytes among 1 min + 30 s, 1

  3. Virtual reality as a leisure activity for young adults with physical and intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar

    2008-01-01

    Participation in leisure activities is a fundamental human right and an important factor of quality of life. Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and physical disabilities often experience limited opportunities to participate in leisure activities, virtual reality (VR) technologies may serve to broaden their repertoire of accessible leisure activities. Although the use of VR in rehabilitation has grown over the past decade, few applications have been reported for people with ID. Thirty-three men and women with moderate ID and severe cerebral palsy participated in the study. Each participant in the experimental group (n=17) took part in VR activity two to three times weekly for 12 weeks. Virtual games were provided via GestureTek's Gesture Xtreme video capture VR system. The VR-based activities were perceived by the participants to be enjoyable and successful. Moreover, participants demonstrated clear preferences, initiation and learning. They performed consistently and maintained a high level of interest throughout the intervention period. VR appears to provide varied and motivating opportunities for leisure activities among young adults with intellectual and physical disabilities. Its ease of use and adaptability make it a feasible option for this population.

  4. Monitoring Lipase/Esterase Activity by Stopped Flow in a Sequential Injection Analysis System Using p-Nitrophenyl Butyrate

    PubMed Central

    Pliego, Jorge; Mateos, Juan Carlos; Rodriguez, Jorge; Valero, Francisco; Baeza, Mireia; Femat, Ricardo; Camacho, Rosa; Sandoval, Georgina; Herrera-López, Enrique J.

    2015-01-01

    Lipases and esterases are biocatalysts used at the laboratory and industrial level. To obtain the maximum yield in a bioprocess, it is important to measure key variables, such as enzymatic activity. The conventional method for monitoring hydrolytic activity is to take out a sample from the bioreactor to be analyzed off-line at the laboratory. The disadvantage of this approach is the long time required to recover the information from the process, hindering the possibility to develop control systems. New strategies to monitor lipase/esterase activity are necessary. In this context and in the first approach, we proposed a lab-made sequential injection analysis system to analyze off-line samples from shake flasks. Lipase/esterase activity was determined using p-nitrophenyl butyrate as the substrate. The sequential injection analysis allowed us to measure the hydrolytic activity from a sample without dilution in a linear range from 0.05–1.60 U/mL, with the capability to reach sample dilutions up to 1000 times, a sampling frequency of five samples/h, with a kinetic reaction of 5 min and a relative standard deviation of 8.75%. The results are promising to monitor lipase/esterase activity in real time, in which optimization and control strategies can be designed. PMID:25633600

  5. Monitoring lipase/esterase activity by stopped flow in a sequential injection analysis system using p-nitrophenyl butyrate.

    PubMed

    Pliego, Jorge; Mateos, Juan Carlos; Rodriguez, Jorge; Valero, Francisco; Baeza, Mireia; Femat, Ricardo; Camacho, Rosa; Sandoval, Georgina; Herrera-López, Enrique J

    2015-01-01

    Lipases and esterases are biocatalysts used at the laboratory and industrial level. To obtain the maximum yield in a bioprocess, it is important to measure key variables, such as enzymatic activity. The conventional method for monitoring hydrolytic activity is to take out a sample from the bioreactor to be analyzed off-line at the laboratory. The disadvantage of this approach is the long time required to recover the information from the process, hindering the possibility to develop control systems. New strategies to monitor lipase/esterase activity are necessary. In this context and in the first approach, we proposed a lab-made sequential injection analysis system to analyze off-line samples from shake flasks. Lipase/esterase activity was determined using p-nitrophenyl butyrate as the substrate. The sequential injection analysis allowed us to measure the hydrolytic activity from a sample without dilution in a linear range from 0.05-1.60 U/mL, with the capability to reach sample dilutions up to 1000 times, a sampling frequency of five samples/h, with a kinetic reaction of 5 min and a relative standard deviation of 8.75%. The results are promising to monitor lipase/esterase activity in real time, in which optimization and control strategies can be designed. PMID:25633600

  6. Employment and post-secondary educational activities for young adults with autism spectrum disorders during the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the post-high school educational and occupational activities for 66 young adults with autism spectrum disorders who had recently exited the secondary school system. Analyses indicated low rates of employment in the community, with the majority of young adults (56%) spending time in sheltered workshops or day activity centers. Young adults with ASD without an intellectual disability were three times more likely to have no daytime activities compared to adults with ASD who had an intellectual disability. Differences in behavioral functioning were observed by employment/day activity group. Our findings suggest that the current service system may be inadequate to accommodate the needs of youths with ASD who do not have intellectual disabilities during the transition to adulthood.

  7. Zeeman-Doppler imaging of active young solar-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackman, T.; Lehtinen, J.; Rosén, L.; Kochukhov, O.; Käpylä, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Context. By studying young magnetically active late-type stars, i.e. analogues to the young Sun, we can draw conclusions on the evolution of the solar dynamo. Aims: We determine the topology of the surface magnetic field and study the relation between the magnetic field and cool photospheric spots in three young late-type stars. Methods: High-resolution spectropolarimetry of the targets was obtained with the HARPSpol instrument mounted at the ESO 3.6 m telescope. The signal-to-noise ratios of the Stokes IV measurements were boosted by combining the signal from a large number of spectroscopic absorption lines through the least squares deconvolution technique. Surface brightness and magnetic field maps were calculated using the Zeeman-Doppler imaging technique. Results: All three targets show clear signs of magnetic fields and cool spots. Only one of the targets, V1358 Ori, shows evidence of the dominance of non-axisymmetric modes. In two of the targets, the poloidal field is significantly stronger than the toroidal one, indicative of an α2-type dynamo, in which convective turbulence effects dominate over the weak differential rotation. In two of the cases there is a slight anti-correlation between the cool spots and the strength of the radial magnetic field. However, even in these cases the correlation is much weaker than in the case of sunspots. Conclusions: The weak correlation between the measured radial magnetic field and cool spots may indicate a more complex magnetic field structure in the spots or spot groups involving mixed magnetic polarities. Comparison with a previously published magnetic field map shows that on one of the stars, HD 29615, the underlying magnetic field changed its polarity between 2009 and 2013. Based on observations made with the HARPSpol instrument on the ESO 3.6 m telescope at La Silla (Chile), under the program ID 091.D-0836.

  8. What Young People Say about Physical Activity: The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannehill, Deborah; MacPhail, Ann; Walsh, Julia; Woods, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) study is a unique multi-centre/discipline study undertaken by three Irish institutions, Dublin City University, University of Limerick and University College Cork. The study sought to assess participation in physical activity, physical education and sport (PAPES) among 10-18 year…

  9. Promoting active lifestyles in young children: investigating mothers' decisions about their child's physical activity and screen time behaviours.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kyra; Thomson, Courtney E; White, Katherine M

    2013-07-01

    Given increasing trends of obesity being noted from early in life and that active lifestyles track across time, it is important that children at a very young age be active to combat a foundation of unhealthy behaviours forming. This study investigated, within a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) framework, factors which influence mothers' decisions about their child's (1) adequate physical activity (PA) and (2) limited screen time behaviours. Mothers (N = 162) completed a main questionnaire, via on-line or paper-based administration, which comprised standard TPB items in addition to measures of planning and background demographic variables. One week later, consenting mothers completed a follow-up telephone questionnaire which assessed the decisions they had made regarding their child's PA and screen time behaviours during the previous week. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed support for the predictive model, explaining an overall 73 and 78 % of the variance in mothers' intention and 38 and 53 % of the variance in mothers' decisions to ensure their child engages in adequate PA and limited screen time, respectively. Attitude and subjective norms predicted intention in both target behaviours, as did intentions with behaviour. Contrary to predictions, perceived behavioural control (PBC) in PA behaviour and planning in screen time behaviour were not significant predictors of intention, neither was PBC a predictor of either behaviour. The findings illustrate the various roles that psycho-social factors play in mothers' decisions to ensure their child engages in active lifestyle behaviours which can help to inform future intervention programs aimed at combating very young children's inactivity. PMID:22833334

  10. Age-related differences in enhancement and suppression of neural activity underlying selective attention in matched young and old adults.

    PubMed

    Haring, A E; Zhuravleva, T Y; Alperin, B R; Rentz, D M; Holcomb, P J; Daffner, K R

    2013-03-01

    Selective attention reflects the top-down control of sensory processing that is mediated by enhancement or inhibition of neural activity. ERPs were used to investigate age-related differences in neural activity in an experiment examining selective attention to color under Attend and Ignore conditions, as well as under a Neutral condition in which color was task-irrelevant. We sought to determine whether differences in neural activity between old and young adult subjects were due to differences in age rather than executive capacity. Old subjects were matched to two groups of young subjects on the basis of neuropsychological test performance: one using age-appropriate norms and the other using test scores not adjusted for age. We found that old and young subject groups did not differ in the overall modulation of selective attention between Attend and Ignore conditions, as indexed by the size of the anterior Selection Positivity. However, in contrast to either young adult group, old subjects did not exhibit reduced neural activity under the Ignore relative to Neutral condition, but showed enhanced activity under the Attend condition. The onset and peak of the Selection Positivity occurred later for old than young subjects. In summary, older adults execute selective attention less efficiently than matched younger subjects, with slowed processing and failed suppression under Ignore. Increased enhancement under Attend may serve as a compensatory mechanism.

  11. The effects of adrenalectomy and corticsteroid injection on the fibrinolytic activity of complex heparin compounds in the blood during immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudryashov, B. A.; Lomovskaya, E. G.; Shapiro, F. B.; Lyapina, L. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Total non-enzymatic fibrinolytic activity in the blood of rats increased three times in response to stress caused by 30 minute immobilization, and the activity of epinephrine-heparin complex increased nine times. In adrenalectomized animals, which showed a weak response to the same stress, intraperitoneal injection of hydrocortisone 30 minutes prior to immobilization normalized the response. Obtained results indicate that adrenalectomy leads to sharp reduction of heparin complexing with thromogenic proteins and epinephrine, while substitution therapy with hydrocortisone restores anticoagulation system function.

  12. A Window into Different Cultural Worlds: Young Children's Everyday Activities in the United States, Brazil, and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudge, Jonathan R. H.; Doucet, Fabienne; Odero, Dolphine; Sperb, Tania M.; Piccinini, Cesar A.; Lopes, Rita S.

    2006-01-01

    A powerful means to understand young children's normative development in context is to examine their everyday activities. The daily activities of 79 children (3 years old) were observed, for 20 hr each, in their usual settings. Children were selected from 4 cultural groups: European American and African American (Greensboro, United States), Luo…

  13. The Seeds of Learning: Young Children Develop Important Skills through Their Gardening Activities at a Midwestern Early Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Dana L.

    2007-01-01

    Using teachers as co-researchers to collect and analyze data, this case study explored preschool and kindergarteners' learning when they were engaged in hands-on activities in the garden and greenhouse areas of a model outdoor classroom. Key findings suggest that when young children are participating in garden and greenhouse activities they are:…

  14. The Influence of Whole-Body Vibration on Creatine Kinase Activity and Jumping Performance in Young Basketball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fachina, Rafael; da Silva, Antônio; Falcão, William; Montagner, Paulo; Borin, João; Minozzo, Fábio; Falcão, Diego; Vancini, Rodrigo; Poston, Brach; de Lira, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify creatine kinase (CK) activity changes across time following an acute bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) and determine the association between changes in CK activity and jumping performance. Method: Twenty-six elite young basketball players were assigned to 3 groups: 36-Hz and 46-Hz vibration groups (G36 and G46, respectively)…

  15. Associations between physical activity and risk factors for coronary heart disease: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    PubMed

    Raitakari, O T; Taimela, S; Porkka, K V; Telama, R; Välimäki, I; Akerblom, H K; Viikari, J S

    1997-08-01

    Risk factors such as high serum cholesterol concentration measured in young adulthood predict premature coronary heart disease (CHD) in the middle-aged. The objective of this study was to analyze the associations between physical activity and CHD risk factors--body composition, blood pressure, serum lipids, apolipoproteins, and insulin--in children and young adults. The design was a cross-sectional study of atherosclerosis precursors in children and young adults using a cohort of children and young adults (N = 2,358) aged 9 to 24 years to determine indices of physical activity, measurements of anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, serum lipids, apolipoproteins A-I and B, and insulin. The results show that a high level of physical activity was associated with high serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL2-C concentrations, and low levels of serum triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein B and insulin in males. However, in females, the influence of physical activity was evident only on TG level. In both genders, physical activity was inversely associated with obesity. In all these associations, a significant dose-related relationship was observed. We found no association between physical activity and blood pressure. In conclusion, physical activity is associated with a favorable serum lipid profile already during childhood and early adulthood in a dose-related manner, particularly in males. The promotion of physical activity is important in childhood in preventing obesity and premature cardiovascular disease.

  16. It's More Fun than It Sounds--Enhancing Science Concepts through Hands-on Activities for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guha, Smita

    2012-01-01

    To teach young children, teachers choose topics in science that children are curious about. Children's inquisitive nature is reflected through the activities as they make repetitive sounds to find the cause and effect relationship. Teachers can make best use of those invaluable moments by incorporating those activities into science lessons on…

  17. Effects of the intra-arterial injection of bradykinin into the limbs, upon the activity of mesencephalic reticular units.

    PubMed

    Lombard, M C; Guilbaud, G; Besson, J M

    1975-02-01

    The changes in firing rate of mesencephalic reticular units after intra-arterial injection into the limbs of a potent nociceptive agent, bradykinin, were studied in cats (unanesthetized, immobilized with flaxedil and hyperventilated). 30 per cent of the d35 studied cells were affected, 56 per cent were excited, 23 per cent inhibited and 5 per cent had mixed effects. Among the 75 excited cells, the activation of 16 of them seemed to related to the arousa- processes (group A); for 56 cells the increase seemed dire-tly dependent on the nociceptive stimulation itself (group B). The changes of firing rate were repruducible; their latencies and durations were of the same order as the latencies and duration of the nociceptive reactions and painful sensation s, which have been obtained in animals and men after bradykinin injections. The modifications induced by bradykinin administration were suppressed by Ketamin and Thiopental.

  18. Assessment of visiting activities for young children using the UNAWE Evaluation Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Akihiko

    2015-08-01

    When the target is young children and the activity type is play, the assessment of the activity is not easy. The table of domains of active learning shown in the EU Universe Awareness Programme Evaluation Guide is useful for the assessment; the Guide shows the four domains; motivation, scientific skills, universe knowledge, and intercultural attitudes, and many items of objectives in each domains. The Guide can be a basic format and the items can be modified so as to fit each activity. Taking my activity as an example, I will present an assessment using the Guide. The activity I will present is "Uchu no O-hanashi," a visiting activity which includeds slide show, story telling, and enjoying pictures on large sheets for children at nursery, kindergarten, preschool and other sites. In order to obtain the data, I have recorded the voice of children. The analysis method is a kind of qualitative one. I picked up "motivation" and "scientific skills" words from the record when they muttered about and asked each other what they felt, what they found, and what they got excited about. Among the items in the "scientific skills domain," looking at carefully, asking, exchanging opinions, interpreting or trying to interpret, and trying were frequently appeared. Other skills such as devising and confirming were not frequently appeared but they would sometimes appear later at home or at school after the activity. I also picked up the words of children obtaining scientific way of view and attitude through the activity. One example is "It seems that stars float in the sky and do not move. Do they really set like the Sun, our nearest star? I never saw stars set!" A boy was trying to make a new framework for his understanding. This kind of thinking will enrich his or her future "universe knowledge" and "intercultural attitudes."

  19. Physical activity and associated factors among young adults in Malaysia: an online exploratory survey.

    PubMed

    Sreeramareddy, C T; Majeed Kutty, N A; Razzaq Jabbar, M A; Boo, N Y

    2012-06-01

    The burden of non-communicable diseases is increasing in Malaysia. Insufficient Physical Activity, which is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases, is less researched in Malaysia. We aimed to assess the level of physical activity and identify its correlates. An online survey was carried out during October, 2011 in the University Tunku Abdul Rahman by the opinion poll research committee. Young adults answered the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a questionnaire about factors according to a socio-ecological model which was adapted from published studies. Metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours and MET-minutes were calculated. Physical activity was classified as sufficient when MET-minutes were > 840. The mean age of the 474 participants was 22.4 years (S.D. = 4.7), and 253 (53.4%) were females. Their mean and median of MET-hours of PA done during the previous seven days were 31.36 (S.D., 52.19) and 14.7 (IQR, 5.77-32.07), respectively. Physical activity done was sufficient among 242 (51.1%) participants. Using univariate analysis, being male, good self-rated health, positive intention, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, social support, and availability of facilities were associated with sufficient physical activity. Using multivariate analysis sufficient physical activity was associated with participants' intention (OR 0.75, 95% CIs 0.64, 0.88), self-efficacy (OR 0.91, 95% CIs 0.85, 0.97) and facility availability (OR 0.81, 95% CIs 0.73, 0.91). The proportion of participants with sufficient physical activity was low. Positive intention and self-efficacy associated with sufficient physical activity should be supported by availability of facilities and a safely-built environment. A nationwide survey about physical and associated socialecological factors is needed to design rational health promotion strategies.

  20. Spontaneous regional brain activity links restrained eating to later weight gain among young women.

    PubMed

    Dong, Debo; Jackson, Todd; Wang, Yulin; Chen, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Theory and prospective studies have linked restrained eating (RE) to risk for future weight gain and the onset of obesity, but little is known about resting state neural activity that may underlie this association. To address this gap, resting fMRI was used to test the extent to which spontaneous neural activity in regions associated with inhibitory control and food reward account for potential relations between baseline RE levels and changes in body weight among dieters over a one-year interval. Spontaneous regional activity patterns corresponding to RE were assessed among 50 young women using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis, which measured temporal synchronization of spontaneous fluctuations within a food deprivation condition. Analyses indicated higher baseline RE scores predicted more weight gain at a one-year follow-up. Furthermore, food-deprived dieting women with high dietary restraint scores exhibited more spontaneous local activity in brain regions associated with the expectation and valuation for food reward [i.e., orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC)] and reduced spontaneous local activity in inhibitory control regions [i.e., bilateral dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)] at baseline. Notably, the association between baseline RE and follow-up weight gain was mediated by decreased local synchronization of the right DLPFC in particular and, to a lesser degree, increased local synchronization of the right VMPFC. In conjunction with previous research, these findings highlight possible neural mechanisms underlying the relation between RE and risk for weight gain. PMID:26004091

  1. Spontaneous regional brain activity links restrained eating to later weight gain among young women.

    PubMed

    Dong, Debo; Jackson, Todd; Wang, Yulin; Chen, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Theory and prospective studies have linked restrained eating (RE) to risk for future weight gain and the onset of obesity, but little is known about resting state neural activity that may underlie this association. To address this gap, resting fMRI was used to test the extent to which spontaneous neural activity in regions associated with inhibitory control and food reward account for potential relations between baseline RE levels and changes in body weight among dieters over a one-year interval. Spontaneous regional activity patterns corresponding to RE were assessed among 50 young women using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis, which measured temporal synchronization of spontaneous fluctuations within a food deprivation condition. Analyses indicated higher baseline RE scores predicted more weight gain at a one-year follow-up. Furthermore, food-deprived dieting women with high dietary restraint scores exhibited more spontaneous local activity in brain regions associated with the expectation and valuation for food reward [i.e., orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC)] and reduced spontaneous local activity in inhibitory control regions [i.e., bilateral dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)] at baseline. Notably, the association between baseline RE and follow-up weight gain was mediated by decreased local synchronization of the right DLPFC in particular and, to a lesser degree, increased local synchronization of the right VMPFC. In conjunction with previous research, these findings highlight possible neural mechanisms underlying the relation between RE and risk for weight gain.

  2. Associations of parental influences with physical activity and screen time among young children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Parents play a critical role in developing and shaping their children's physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours, particularly in the early years of life. The aim of this systematic review is to identify current literature investigating associations of parental influences with both PA and screen time in young children. This systematic review was conducted in November 2013 using 6 electronic databases covering research literature from January 1998 to November 2013. Thirty articles that met inclusion criteria were identified. These studies covered five important aspects of parenting: (1) parenting practices; (2) parents' role modelling; (3) parental perceptions of children's PA and screen viewing behaviours; (4) parental self-efficacy; and (5) general parenting style. Findings suggest that parents' encouragement and support can increase children's PA, and reducing parents' own screen time can lead to decreased child screen time. Improving parenting practices, parental self-efficacy or changing parenting style may also be promising approaches to increasing PA time and decreasing screen time of young children.

  3. Physical activity, and not fat mass is a primary predictor of circadian parameters in young men

    PubMed Central

    Tranel, Hannah R.; Schroder, Elizabeth A.; England, Jonathan; Black, W. Scott; Bush, Heather; Hughes, Michael E.; Esser, Karyn A.; Clasey, Jody L.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are ≈ 24 h oscillations in physiology and behavior, and disruptions have been shown to have negative effects on health. Wrist skin temperature has been used by several groups as a valid method of assessing circadian rhythms in humans. We tested the hypothesis that circadian temperature amplitude (TempAmp) and stability (TempStab) would significantly differ among groups of healthy young men of varying adiposities, and that we could identify physiological and behavioral measures that were significantly associated with these temperature parameters. Wrist skin temperatures taken at 10 min intervals for 7 consecutive days were determined in 18 optimal (OGroup), 20 fair (FGroup) and 21 poor (PGroup) %Fat grouped young men and subsequently analyzed using available validated software. Body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, actigraphy, daily nutritional and sleep data, and fasting lipid, insulin and glucose concentration measures were also determined. Significant changes in TempAmp and TempStab parameters in subjects with a single metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factor compared to those with no MetS factors was observed. In addition, stepwise multivariate regression analyses showed that 50% of the variance in TempAmp was explained by actigraphy (mean steps taken per day; MSTPD), cardiorespiratory fitness, and late night eating per week (#LNE); and 57% in TempStab by MSTPD, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity per day, fat mass, and #LNE. Overwhelmingly, physical activity was the most important measure associated with the differences in circadian rhythm parameters. Further research is warranted to determine the effects of increasing the amount and timing of physical activity on the status of the circadian system in a variety of populations. PMID:26101893

  4. Childhood Sexual Violence and Consistent, Effective Contraception Use among Young, Sexually Active Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Deborah B.; Lepore, Stephen J.; Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios S.

    2015-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy (UP) is a significant public health problem. The consistent use of effective contraception is the primary method to prevent UP. We examined the role of childhood sexual and physical violence and current interpersonal violence on the risk of unintended pregnancy among young, urban, sexually active women. In particular, we were interested in examining the role of childhood violence and interpersonal violence while recognizing the psychological correlates of experiencing violence (i.e., high depressive symptoms and low self-esteem) and consistent use of contraception. For this assessment, 315 sexually active women living in Philadelphia PA were recruited from family planning clinics in 2013. A self-administered, computer-assisted interview was used to collect data on method of contraception use in the past month, consistency of use, experiences with violence, levels of depressive symptoms, self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy, substance use and health services utilization. Fifty percent of young sexually active women reported inconsistent or no contraception use in the past month. Inconsistent users were significantly more likely to report at least one prior episode of childhood sexual violence and were significantly less likely to have received a prescription for contraception from a health care provider. Inconsistent contraception users also reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and significantly lower levels of self-esteem. The relation between childhood sexual violence and UP remained unchanged in the multivariate models adjusting for self-esteem or depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the long-term consequences of childhood sexual violence, independent of current depressive symptoms and low self-esteem, on consistent use of contraception. PMID:26010318

  5. Physical activity, and not fat mass is a primary predictor of circadian parameters in young men.

    PubMed

    Tranel, Hannah R; Schroder, Elizabeth A; England, Jonathan; Black, W Scott; Bush, Heather; Hughes, Michael E; Esser, Karyn A; Clasey, Jody L

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are ≈24 h oscillations in physiology and behavior, and disruptions have been shown to have negative effects on health. Wrist skin temperature has been used by several groups as a valid method of assessing circadian rhythms in humans. We tested the hypothesis that circadian temperature amplitude (TempAmp) and stability (TempStab) would significantly differ among groups of healthy young men of varying adiposities, and that we could identify physiological and behavioral measures that were significantly associated with these temperature parameters. Wrist skin temperatures taken at 10 min intervals for 7 consecutive days were determined in 18 optimal (OGroup), 20 fair (FGroup) and 21 poor (PGroup) %Fat grouped young men and subsequently analyzed using available validated software. Body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, actigraphy, daily nutritional and sleep data, and fasting lipid, insulin and glucose concentration measures were also determined. Significant changes in TempAmp and TempStab parameters in subjects with a single metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factor compared to those with no MetS factors was observed. In addition, stepwise multivariate regression analyses showed that 50% of the variance in TempAmp was explained by actigraphy (mean steps taken per day; MSTPD), cardiorespiratory fitness, and late night eating per week (#LNE); and 57% in TempStab by MSTPD, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity per day, fat mass, and #LNE. Overwhelmingly, physical activity was the most important measure associated with the differences in circadian rhythm parameters. Further research is warranted to determine the effects of increasing the amount and timing of physical activity on the status of the circadian system in a variety of populations.

  6. Validity and reliability of the activPAL3 for measuring posture and stepping in adults and young people.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Ceri; Dall, Philippa; Grant, Margaret; Stansfield, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Characterisation of free-living physical activity requires the use of validated and reliable monitors. This study reports an evaluation of the validity and reliability of the activPAL3 monitor for the detection of posture and stepping in both adults and young people. Twenty adults (median 27.6y; IQR22.6y) and 8 young people (12.0y; IQR4.1y) performed standardised activities and activities of daily living (ADL) incorporating sedentary, upright and stepping activity. Agreement, specificity and positive predictive value were calculated between activPAL3 outcomes and the gold-standard of video observation. Inter-device reliability was calculated between 4 monitors. Sedentary and upright times for standardised activities were within ±5% of video observation as was step count (excluding jogging) for both adults and young people. Jogging step detection accuracy reduced with increasing cadence >150stepsmin(-1). For ADLs, sensitivity to stepping was very low for adults (40.4%) but higher for young people (76.1%). Inter-device reliability was either good (ICC(1,1)>0.75) or excellent (ICC(1,1)>0.90) for all outcomes. An excellent level of detection of standardised postures was demonstrated by the activPAL3. Postures such as seat-perching, kneeling and crouching were misclassified when compared to video observation. The activPAL3 appeared to accurately detect 'purposeful' stepping during ADL, but detection of smaller stepping movements was poor. Small variations in outcomes between monitors indicated that differences in monitor placement or hardware may affect outcomes. In general, the detection of posture and purposeful stepping with the activPAL3 was excellent indicating that it is a suitable monitor for characterising free-living posture and purposeful stepping activity in healthy adults and young people.

  7. The social and environmental context of cross-border drug use in Mexico: findings from a mixed methods study of young injection drug users living in San Diego, CA.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Karla D; Moynihan, Matthew J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Clark, Maureen; Zúñiga, María Luisa; Volkmann, Tyson A; Teshale, Eyasu; Garfein, Richard S

    2012-01-01

    The authors report the results of qualitative (n = 19) and quantitative (n = 545) interviews with young injection drug users (IDUs) in San Diego, California about their experiences using drugs in Tijuana, Mexico, and associated risks for HIV infection. Young IDUs who have ever traveled to Mexico (n = 365) used a variety of injection (54%) and noninjection (30%) drugs there and appear to be heavier users than those who have never traveled to Mexico. Sociocultural themes influencing drug use in Mexico included interactions among the purpose of travel, drug preference, and route of administration; familiarity with the border region; evolving relationships with the United States and Mexican drug markets; and the experience of crossing the U.S.-Mexico border. Interventions for IDUs in border regions need to be sensitive to the ethnicity, familiarity with the border region, and life history of participants, as well as differences in national policies that could influence drug use and risk for HIV on both sides of the border. PMID:23216441

  8. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Niger.

    PubMed

    Wuehler, Sara E; Biga Hassoumi, Abdoulazize

    2011-04-01

    Due to limited progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children <5 years of age, an alliance of international agencies joined to 'Reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel,' starting with a situational analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The main objectives of this analysis are to compile, analyse, and interpret available information on infant and child feeding and the nutrition situation of children <2 years of age in Niger, as one of the six targeted countries. Between August and November 2008, key informants responsible for conducting IYCN-related activities in Niger were interviewed, and 90 documents were examined on: optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, management of acute malnutrition, food security, and hygienic practices. The results reported are limited by the availability of documents for review. Mortality rates are on track to reaching the Millennium Development Goal to reduce mortality among young children by two-thirds by 2015, but there has been no change in undernutrition, and total mortality rates are still high among young children. Nearly all of the key IYCN topics were addressed, specifically or generally, in national policy documents, training materials, and programmes. A national nutrition council meets regularly to coordinate programme activities nationally. Many of the IYCN-related programmes are intended for national coverage, but few reach this coverage. Monitoring and impact evaluations were conducted on some programmes, but few of these reported on whether the specific IYCN components of the programme were implemented as designed or compared outcomes with non-intervention sites. Human resources have been identified as inadequate to fully carry out nutrition programmes in Niger. Due to these limitations, we could not confirm whether the lack

  9. Subcutaneous injection of water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes in tumor-bearing mice boosts the host immune activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jie; Yang, Man; Jia, Fumin; Kong, Hua; Zhang, Weiqi; Wang, Chaoying; Xing, Jianmin; Xie, Sishen; Xu, Haiyan

    2010-04-01

    The immunological responses induced by oxidized water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes on a hepatocarcinoma tumor-bearing mice model via a local administration of subcutaneous injection were investigated. Experimental results show that the subcutaneously injected carbon nanotubes induced significant activation of the complement system, promoted inflammatory cytokines' production and stimulated macrophages' phagocytosis and activation. All of these responses increased the general activity of the host immune system and inhibited the progression of tumor growth.

  10. Gamified physical activation of young men – a Multidisciplinary Population-Based Randomized Controlled Trial (MOPO study)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inactive and unhealthy lifestyles are common among adolescent men. The planned intervention examines the effectiveness of an interactive, gamified activation method, based on tailored health information, peer networks and participation, on physical activity, health and wellbeing in young men. We hypothesize that following the intervention the physical activation group will have an improved physical activity, as well as self-determined and measured health compared with the controls. Methods/design Conscription-aged men (18 years) attending compulsory annual call-ups for military service in the city of Oulu in Finland (n = 1500) will be randomized to a 6-months intervention (n = 640) or a control group (n = 640) during the fall 2013. A questionnaire on health, health behaviour, diet and wellbeing is administered in the beginning and end of the intervention. In addition, anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference), body composition, grip strength, heart rate variability and aerobic fitness will be measured. The activation group utilizes an online gamified activation method in combination with communal youth services, objective physical activity measurement, social networking, tailored health information and exercise programs according to baseline activity level and the readiness of changes of each individual. Daily physical activity of the participants is monitored in both the activation and control groups. The activation service rewards improvements in physical activity or reductions in sedentary behaviour. The performance and completion of the military service of the participants will also be followed. Discussion The study will provide new information of physical activity, health and health behaviour of young men. Furthermore, a novel model including methods for increasing physical activity among young people is developed and its effects tested through an intervention. This unique gamified service for activating young men

  11. Type 1 Diabetes Modifies Brain Activation in Young Patients While Performing Visuospatial Working Memory Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo-Moreno, Geisa B.; González-Garrido, Andrés A.; Gudayol-Ferré, Esteban; Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the effects of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) on cognitive functions. T1D onset usually occurs during childhood, so it is possible that the brain could be affected during neurodevelopment. We selected young patients of normal intelligence with T1D onset during neurodevelopment, no complications from diabetes, and adequate glycemic control. The purpose of this study was to compare the neural BOLD activation pattern in a group of patients with T1D versus healthy control subjects while performing a visuospatial working memory task. Sixteen patients and 16 matched healthy control subjects participated. There was no significant statistical difference in behavioral performance between the groups, but, in accordance with our hypothesis, results showed distinct brain activation patterns. Control subjects presented the expected activations related to the task, whereas the patients had greater activation in the prefrontal inferior cortex, basal ganglia, posterior cerebellum, and substantia nigra. These different patterns could be due to compensation mechanisms that allow them to maintain a behavioral performance similar to that of control subjects. PMID:26266268

  12. Sublingual Nucleotides Prolong Run Time to Exhaustion in Young Physically Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Ostojic, Sergej M.; Idrizovic, Kemal; Stojanovic, Marko D.

    2013-01-01

    Although dietary nucleotides have been determined to be required for normal immune function, there is limited direct interventional evidence confirming performance-enhancing effects of sublingual nucleotides in humans. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of sublingual nucleotides (50 mg/day) administered for 14 days in thirty young healthy physically active males, on endurance performance and immune responses. Fasting white blood cell count, natural killer cells (NKC) number, NKC cytotoxic activity, and serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgM, IgG), and time to exhaustion, peak rate of perceived exertion, peak heart rate, and peak running speed during the exercise test were measured at baseline (day 0) and post-intervention (day 14). Time to exhaustion, as well as serum immunoglobulin A and NKC cytotoxic activity, were significantly higher at day 14 (p < 0.05) in participants supplemented with nucleotides compared with those who consumed placebo. No significant differences in other parameters were observed between groups at post-intervention. No volunteers withdrew before the end of the study nor reported any vexatious side effects of supplementation. The results of the present study suggest that sublingual nucleotides may provide pertinent benefit as both an ergogenic and immunostimulatory additive in active males. PMID:24284618

  13. Childhood interparental conflict and HPA axis activity in young adulthood: examining nonlinear relations.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Melissa J; Roubinov, Danielle S; Purdom Marreiro, Catherine L; Luecken, Linda J

    2014-05-01

    Relations between early adversity and the neuroendocrine stress response are most often tested in a linear framework. Findings from studies of nonlinear relations between early stress and reactivity in childhood are suggestive, but curvilinear associations between childhood family stress and stress reactivity at later developmental stages remain unexplored. The current study examined curvilinear relations between childhood interparental conflict (IPC) and cortisol reactivity in young adulthood. Participants (n = 91; Mean age = 18.7, SD = .97; 59% White, 25% Hispanic) reported on the frequency and intensity of childhood exposure to IPC and salivary cortisol was sampled before and after a challenging interpersonal role-play task. Significant curvilinear relations were found such that higher total cortisol and cortisol reactivity during the task was observed among youth reporting lower and higher frequency of IPC, suggesting that moderate IPC exposure may be associated with lower cortisol activity at a later developmental stage.

  14. Assessment of a pilot video's effect on physical activity and heart health for young children.

    PubMed

    Levin, Sarah; Martin, Maurice W; McKenzie, Thomas L; DeLouise, Amy C

    2002-10-01

    This article assessed the effects of a video, "Dynamotion," on children's knowledge, self-efficacy, and attitude about physical activity and heart health. A quasi-experimental design was used; 12 classrooms (grades K-2) were assigned to intervention (N = 116) or comparison (N = 92) groups. Students completed a 9-item pre- and posttest; only the intervention group was exposed to the video, during which qualitative assessments were made. Repeated measures analyses were used to detect changes. Overall, the intervention group had greater gains in knowledge and self-efficacy than did the comparison group (p < 0.001), and they seemed to enjoy the video. The results suggest that exposure to a short, interactive, educational video may promote health among young children. PMID:12802138

  15. Default Mode Network Activity Predicts Early Memory Decline in Healthy Young Adults Aged 18-31.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Steven M; Savalia, Neil K; Fishell, Andrew K; Gilmore, Adrian W; Zou, Fan; Balota, David A; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2016-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research conducted in healthy young adults is typically done with the assumption that this sample is largely homogeneous. However, studies from cognitive psychology suggest that long-term memory and attentional control begin to diminish in the third decade of life. Here, 100 participants between the ages of 18 and 31 learned Lithuanian translations of English words in an individual differences study using fMRI. Long-term memory ability was operationalized for each participant by deriving a memory score from 3 convergent measures. Age of participant predicted memory score in this cohort. In addition, degree of deactivation during initial encoding in a set of regions occurring largely in the default mode network (DMN) predicted both age and memory score. The current study demonstrates that early memory decline may partially be accounted for by failure to modulate activity in the DMN.

  16. Local retention of antibodies in vivo with an injectable film embedded with a fluorogen-activating protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Saunders, Matthew J; Bagia, Christina; Freeman, Eric C; Fan, Yong; Gawalt, Ellen S; Waggoner, Alan S; Meng, Wilson S

    2016-05-28

    Herein we report an injectable film by which antibodies can be localized in vivo. The system builds upon a bifunctional polypeptide consisting of a fluorogen-activating protein (FAP) and a β-fibrillizing peptide (βFP). The FAP domain generates fluorescence that reflects IgG binding sites conferred by Protein A/G (pAG) conjugated with the fluorogen malachite green (MG). A film is generated by mixing these proteins with molar excess of EAK16-II, a βFP that forms β-sheet fibrils at high salt concentrations. The IgG-binding, fluorogenic film can be injected in vivo through conventional needled syringes. Confocal microscopic images and dose-response titration experiments showed that loading of IgG into the film was mediated by pAG(MG) bound to the FAP. Release of IgG in vitro was significantly delayed by the bioaffinity mechanism; 26% of the IgG were released from films embedded with pAG(MG) after five days, compared to close to 90% in films without pAG(MG). Computational simulations indicated that the release rate of IgG is governed by positive cooperativity due to pAG(MG). When injected into the subcutaneous space of mouse footpads, film-embedded IgG were retained locally, with distribution through the lymphatics impeded. The ability to track IgG binding sites and distribution simultaneously will aid the optimization of local antibody delivery systems.

  17. Simultaneous determination of eight active components in Houttuynia cordata injection and its quality control in productive process.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wei; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Qianqian; Jiang, Lingyan; Liang, Ke; Li, Qing

    2011-11-01

    A simple, reliable and effective gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection method was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight components (α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, limonene, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, bornyl acetate and methyl-n-nonylketone) in Chinese medicine Houttuynia cordata and its injection. The chromatographic separation of all eight components, including undecylene as internal standard was performed on a DB-1 column (30 m×0.25 mm, 0.25 μm). Excellent linear behaviors including herb and injection over the investigated concentration ranges were observed with the values of r(2) higher than 0.9990 for all analytes. Satisfactory intra-day and inter-day precisions were achieved with RSD less than 2% and the average recoveries for all analytes at three different concentrations obtained were in the range of 93.4-104.4%, with RSD ranging from 1.3 to 4.1%. The proposed method was successfully applied in the simultaneous determination of these active components in H. cordata and H. cordata injection (HCI), including the intermediate product of HCI in productive process, from different pharmaceutical factories and different production batches, indicating that the method in this paper was particularly suitable for the routine analysis of HCI and its quality control in productive process. PMID:21972174

  18. Local retention of antibodies in vivo with an injectable film embedded with a fluorogen-activating protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Saunders, Matthew J; Bagia, Christina; Freeman, Eric C; Fan, Yong; Gawalt, Ellen S; Waggoner, Alan S; Meng, Wilson S

    2016-05-28

    Herein we report an injectable film by which antibodies can be localized in vivo. The system builds upon a bifunctional polypeptide consisting of a fluorogen-activating protein (FAP) and a β-fibrillizing peptide (βFP). The FAP domain generates fluorescence that reflects IgG binding sites conferred by Protein A/G (pAG) conjugated with the fluorogen malachite green (MG). A film is generated by mixing these proteins with molar excess of EAK16-II, a βFP that forms β-sheet fibrils at high salt concentrations. The IgG-binding, fluorogenic film can be injected in vivo through conventional needled syringes. Confocal microscopic images and dose-response titration experiments showed that loading of IgG into the film was mediated by pAG(MG) bound to the FAP. Release of IgG in vitro was significantly delayed by the bioaffinity mechanism; 26% of the IgG were released from films embedded with pAG(MG) after five days, compared to close to 90% in films without pAG(MG). Computational simulations indicated that the release rate of IgG is governed by positive cooperativity due to pAG(MG). When injected into the subcutaneous space of mouse footpads, film-embedded IgG were retained locally, with distribution through the lymphatics impeded. The ability to track IgG binding sites and distribution simultaneously will aid the optimization of local antibody delivery systems. PMID:27038493

  19. Pegfilgrastim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a pre-filled automatic injection device (On-body Injector) to inject subcutaneously (under the skin). If you ... a pre-filled automatic injection device (On-body Injector), the device will usually be applied to your ...

  20. Cabazitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used along with prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has ... cabazitaxel injection is usually used in men with prostate cancer. If used by pregnant women, cabazitaxel injection can ...

  1. Morphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Morphine injection is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Morphine is in a class of medications called opiate ( ... Morphine injection comes as a solution (liquid) to inject intramuscularly (into a muscle) or intravenously (into a ...

  2. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romidepsin injection is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL; a group of cancers of the ... other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications called ...

  3. Mineralocorticoid receptor activation: a major contributor to salt-induced renal injury and hypertension in young rats.

    PubMed

    Kawarazaki, Hiroo; Ando, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Megumi; Matsui, Hiromitsu; Nagae, Ai; Muraoka, Kazuhiko; Kawarasaki, Chiaki; Fujita, Toshiro

    2011-06-01

    Excessive salt intake is known to preferentially increase blood pressure (BP) and promote kidney damage in young, salt-sensitive hypertensive human and animal models. We have suggested that mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation plays a major role in kidney injury in young rats. BP and urinary protein were compared in young (3-wk-old) and adult (10-wk-old) uninephrectomized (UNx) Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high (8.0%)-salt diet for 4 wk. The effects of the MR blocker eplerenone on BP and renal injury were examined in the high-salt diet-fed young UNx rats. Renal expression of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system components and of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers was also measured. The effects of the angiotensin receptor blocker olmesartan with or without low-dose aldosterone infusion, the aldosterone synthase inhibitor FAD286, and the antioxidant tempol were also studied. Excessive salt intake induced greater hypertension and proteinuria in young rats than in adult rats. The kidneys of young salt-loaded rats showed marked histological injury, overexpression of RAA system components, and an increase in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. These changes were markedly ameliorated by eplerenone treatment. Olmesartan also ameliorated salt-induced renal injury but failed to do so when combined with low-dose aldosterone infusion. FAD286 and tempol also markedly reduced urinary protein. UNx rats exposed to excessive salt at a young age showed severe hypertension and renal injury, likely primarily due to MR activation and secondarily due to angiotensin receptor activation, which may be mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress.

  4. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Wuehler, Sara E; Ly Wane, Coudy Thierno

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children <5 years of age has been less than needed to achieve related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Therefore, several international agencies joined to 'Reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel', starting with an analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The main objectives of the situational analysis are to compile, analyse and interpret available information on infant and child feeding and the nutrition situation of children <2 years of age in Senegal, as one of the six targeted countries. These findings will be used to assist in identifying inconsistencies and filling gaps in current programming. Between August and December 2008, key informants responsible for conducting IYCN-related activities in Senegal were interviewed, and 157 documents were examined on the following themes: optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, management of acute malnutrition, food security and hygienic practices. Nearly all of the key IYCN topics were addressed, specifically or generally, in national policy documents. Senegal reported substantial improvements since the 1990s towards reducing infant and young child mortality and underweight, and increasing exclusive breastfeeding among infants <6 months of age (34%). Senegal is one of the few countries in the region that is nearly on track for reaching related MDGs. Notable activities that may have played a role include: (1) vitamin A supplementation was expanded to nearly semi-annual national campaigns starting in 1994; (2) the Ministry of Health partnered with several national and international agencies to scale up child survival activities under the umbrella of the Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival (1994-2006); (3) a national nutrition division was developed to support a national

  5. Developmental Trajectories of Physical Activity, Sports, and Television Viewing During Childhood to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soyang; Janz, Kathleen F.; Letuchy, Elena M.; Burns, Trudy L.; Levy, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The diverse developmental patterns of obesogenic behaviors during childhood and adolescence can be better understood by using new analytic approaches to assess the heterogeneity in variation during growth and development and to map the clustering of behavior patterns. OBJECTIVES To identify distinct trajectories of daily time spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) from ages 5 to 19 years and to examine the associations of MVPA trajectories with sports participation and television viewing trajectories. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cohort members in the prospective population-based Iowa Bone Development Study participated in MVPA assessments via accelerometry from September 16, 1998, to December 9, 2013, at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 years and completed a questionnaire every 6 months on sports participation and daily time spent in television viewing. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Trajectories of MVPA (minutes per day), participation in organized sports (yes or no), and television viewing time (hours per day). RESULTS Based on the data from 537 participants (50.1% females; 94.6% white), we identified 4 MVPA trajectories: consistently inactive (14.9%), consistently active (18.1%), decreasing moderate physical activity (52.9%), and substantially decreasing high physical activity (14.1%). All participants in the consistently inactive trajectory also followed a trajectory of no participation in sports. The consistently active trajectory was associated with decreasing an already low television viewing trajectory (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This study provided a nuanced look at the known decrease in MVPA during childhood and adolescence. Sports participation could be a critical way to avoid the consistently inactive pattern. Most important, we identified a subset of participants who maintained a seemingly healthy level of MVPA from childhood to young adulthood. The developmental pathways of physical activity and

  6. Sun protection preferences and behaviors among young adult males during maximum ultraviolet radiation exposure activities.

    PubMed

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K

    2013-07-31

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population.

  7. Active surveillance of sudden cardiac death in young athletes by periodic Internet searches.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kristal; Pan, Yann Ping; Pock, Michelle; Chang, Ruey-Kang R

    2013-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that prospective, systematic Internet searches could identify occurrences of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes and would be useful for establishing a system of active surveillance. Weekly advanced Google searches of the Internet were conducted for cases of SCD in young athletes during a 12-month period (2007-2008). Athletes ages 11-30 years who collapsed during a game, practice, or within an hour of exercise were included in the study. Individuals with known histories of cardiac issues and events occurring outside the United States were excluded. Verification of SCD was by autopsy reports and death certificates from county coroner offices and vital record agencies. Initially, 71 events were identified. Verification for the cause of death by coroner reports was possible in 45 cases, 43 (96 %) of which were confirmed to be SCDs. A total of 69 individuals 11-30 years of age (mean 17 ± 5 years) died suddenly of cardiovascular causes while participating in 15 different organized sports and a variety of nonorganized physical activities. The most common cause of death was hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (30 %), followed by coronary artery anomalies (9 %), and myocarditis (9 %). The incidence of athlete SCD, the types of sports involved, and the cardiac causes of death in our study were comparable with those of previous reports. Readily available Internet searches have the potential to be a powerful tool for identifying occurrences of athlete SCD. An active surveillance system using Google searches followed by coroner report verification can provide important epidemiologic and clinical information.

  8. Sun protection preferences and behaviors among young adult males during maximum ultraviolet radiation exposure activities.

    PubMed

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K

    2013-08-01

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population. PMID:23912201

  9. Active Surveillance of Sudden Cardiac Death in Young Athletes by Periodic Internet Searches

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kristal; Pan, Yann Ping; Pock, Michelle; Chang, Ruey-Kang R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We hypothesized that prospective, systematic Internet searches could identify occurrences of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes, and would be useful to establish a system of active surveillance. Methods Weekly advanced Google searches of the Internet were conducted for cases of SCD in young athletes over a 12-month period (2007–8). Athletes aged 11 to 30 years who collapsed during a game, practice, or within an hour of exercise were included. Individuals with known histories of cardiac issues and events occurring outside the United States were excluded. Verification of SCD was by autopsy reports and death certificates from county coroner offices and vital record agencies. Results A total of 71 events were initially identified. Verification of the cause of death by coroner reports was possible in 45 cases, of which 43 (96%) were confirmed to be SCDs. Sixty-nine individuals, 11 to 30 years of age (mean 17 ± 5), died suddenly from cardiovascular causes while participating in 15 different organized sports and a variety of non-organized physical activities. The most common cause of death was hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (30%), followed by coronary artery anomalies (9%), and myocarditis (9%). The incidence of athlete SCD, types of sports involved, and cardiac causes of death in our study were comparable to previous reports. Conclusions Readily available Internet searches have the potential to be a powerful tool for identifying occurrences of athlete SCD. An active surveillance system using Google searches followed by coroner report verification can provide important epidemiologic and clinical information. PMID:23681420

  10. Different outcomes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection without oocyte activation in two patients with different types of globozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z-Q; Long, S-G; Huang, Z-H; Xin, C-L; Wu, Q-F

    2016-02-01

    Different outcomes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) without oocyte activation in two patients with different types of round-headed spermatozoa (globozoospermia) are reported. After controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and oocyte pick-up, retrieved oocytes were underwent ICSI without oocyte activation and a 33.33% (4/12) fertilisation rate was obtained in the first case, whereas an abnormal fertilisation was achieved in the second case. The transfer of two grade II embryos in the first couple resulted in clinical pregnancy with a healthy livebirth. It was concluded that the main problem of cases with globozoospermia was a low fertilisation rate or failure fertilisation, and even though ICSI and artificial oocyte activation have been employed to increase this rate, it is not necessarily needed to achieve a pregnancy.

  11. Changes in lipophorins are related to the activation of phenoloxidase in the haemolymph of Locusta migratoria in response to injection of immunogens.

    PubMed

    Mullen, L; Goldsworthy, G

    2003-07-01

    In Locusta migratoria, activation of phenoloxidase in the haemolymph in response to injection of laminarin is age-dependent: being absent in fifth instar nymphs and newly emerged adults, and only becoming evident four days after the final moult. This pattern of change in phenoloxidase activation correlates with the pattern of change in the concentration of apolipophorin-III (apoLp-III) in the haemolymph. Injection of a conspecific adipokinetic hormone (Lom-AKH-I) has no effect on the phenoloxidase response in nymphs or newly emerged adults but, in adults older than four days, co-injection of the hormone with laminarin prolongs the activation of phenoloxidase in the haemolymph: a similar enhancement of the response to laminarin is observed in locusts that have been starved for 48 h but not injected with AKH-I. During most of the fifth stadium, injection of laminarin results in a decrease in the level of prophenoloxidase in the haemolymph; an effect that is not observed in adults of any age. Marked changes in the concentration of apoLp-III, and the formation of LDLp in the haemolymph, are observed after injection of laminarin (or LPS) and these are remarkably similar, at least qualitatively, to those that occur after injection of AKH-I. The involvement of lipophorins in the activation of locust prophenoloxidase in response to immunogens is discussed. PMID:12826093

  12. Strength training reduces arterial blood pressure but not sympathetic neural activity in young normotensive subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Downs, Emily M.; Cooke, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of resistance training on arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest have not been established. Although endurance training is commonly recommended to lower arterial blood pressure, it is not known whether similar adaptations occur with resistance training. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that whole body resistance training reduces arterial blood pressure at rest, with concomitant reductions in MSNA. Twelve young [21 +/- 0.3 (SE) yr] subjects underwent a program of whole body resistance training 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Resting arterial blood pressure (n = 12; automated sphygmomanometer) and MSNA (n = 8; peroneal nerve microneurography) were measured during a 5-min period of supine rest before and after exercise training. Thirteen additional young (21 +/- 0.8 yr) subjects served as controls. Resistance training significantly increased one-repetition maximum values in all trained muscle groups (P < 0.001), and it significantly decreased systolic (130 +/- 3 to 121 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01), diastolic (69 +/- 3 to 61 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.04), and mean (89 +/- 2 to 81 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01) arterial blood pressures at rest. Resistance training did not affect MSNA or heart rate. Arterial blood pressures and MSNA were unchanged, but heart rate increased after 8 wk of relative inactivity for subjects in the control group (61 +/- 2 to 67 +/- 3 beats/min; P = 0.01). These results indicate that whole body resistance exercise training might decrease the risk for development of cardiovascular disease by lowering arterial blood pressure but that reductions of pressure are not coupled to resistance exercise-induced decreases of sympathetic tone.

  13. Neighborhood socioeconomic status predictors of physical activity through young to middle adulthood: The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Lewis, Cora E; Guilkey, David K.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2011-01-01

    Neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) is related to a wide range of health outcomes, but existing research is dominated by cross-sectional study designs, which are particularly vulnerable to bias by unmeasured characteristics related to both residential location decisions and health-related outcomes. Further, little is known about the mechanisms by which neighborhood SES might influence health. Therefore, we estimated longitudinal relationships between neighborhood SES and physical activity (PA), a theorized mediator of the neighborhood SES-health association. We used data from four years of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (n=5,115, 18–30 years at baseline, 1985–86), a cohort of U.S. young adults followed over 15 years, and a time-varying geographic information system. Using two longitudinal modeling strategies, this is the first study to explicitly examine how the estimated association between neighborhood SES (deprivation) and PA is biased by (a) measured characteristics theorized to influence residential decisions (e.g., controlling for individual SES, marriage, and children in random effects models), and (b) time-invariant, unmeasured characteristics (e.g., controlling for unmeasured motivation to exercise that is constant over time using repeated measures regression modeling, conditioned on the individual). After controlling for sociodemographics (age, sex, race) and individual SES, associations between higher neighborhood deprivation and lower PA were strong and incremental in blacks, but less consistent in whites. Furthermore, adjustment for measured characteristics beyond sociodemographics and individual SES had little influence on the estimated associations; adjustment for unmeasured characteristics attenuated negative associations more strongly in whites than in blacks. PMID:21316829

  14. Study of magnetic helicity injection in the active region NOAA 9236 producing multiple flare-associated coronal mass ejection events

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sung-Hong; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Bong, Su-Chan; Kumar, Pankaj; Kim, Yeon-Han; Park, Young-Deuk; Kusano, Kanya; Chae, Jongchul; Park, So-Young

    2013-11-20

    To better understand a preferred magnetic field configuration and its evolution during coronal mass ejection (CME) events, we investigated the spatial and temporal evolution of photospheric magnetic fields in the active region NOAA 9236 that produced eight flare-associated CMEs during the time period of 2000 November 23-26. The time variations of the total magnetic helicity injection rate and the total unsigned magnetic flux are determined and examined not only in the entire active region but also in some local regions such as the main sunspots and the CME-associated flaring regions using SOHO/MDI magnetogram data. As a result, we found that (1) in the sunspots, a large amount of positive (right-handed) magnetic helicity was injected during most of the examined time period, (2) in the flare region, there was a continuous injection of negative (left-handed) magnetic helicity during the entire period, accompanied by a large increase of the unsigned magnetic flux, and (3) the flaring regions were mainly composed of emerging bipoles of magnetic fragments in which magnetic field lines have substantially favorable conditions for making reconnection with large-scale, overlying, and oppositely directed magnetic field lines connecting the main sunspots. These observational findings can also be well explained by some MHD numerical simulations for CME initiation (e.g., reconnection-favored emerging flux models). We therefore conclude that reconnection-favored magnetic fields in the flaring emerging flux regions play a crucial role in producing the multiple flare-associated CMEs in NOAA 9236.

  15. Effects of sperm pretreatment and embryo activation methods on the development of bovine embryos produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jai-Wei; Chang, Hsun-Chung; Wu, Hung-Yi; Liu, Shyh-Shyan; Wang, Chih-Hua; Chu, Chun-Yen; Shen, Perng-Chih

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of different embryo activation methods and sperm pretreatments on the activation and development of bovine embryos produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Four activation agents, i.e., calcium ionophore (A23187), ionomycin (Ion), electric pulse (EP) and ethanol (Eth) were used in various combinations to activate bovine ICSI embryos. The normal fertilization rate was similar in bovine ICSI embryos activated by A23187+Eth, Ion+Eth, Ion+EP+Eth, and 2-Ion (Ion administered two times)+Eth. Increasing the frequency of ionomycin stimulation from two (2-Ion+Eth) to three times (3-Ion+Eth) significantly (p<0.05) increased the cell number per embryo at the blastocyst stage. In addition, spermatozoa were pretreated with dithiothreitol (DTT), glutathione (GSH) or GSH+lysolecithin (LL) and used for producing bovine ICSI embryos. The blastocyst rate of bovine ICSI embryos produced from sperm pretreated with GSH was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of embryos produced from sperm pretreated with DTT and GSH+LL. In conclusion, the embryo activation methods and sperm pretreatments examined in the present study did not affect the normal fertilization rate of bovine ICSI embryos. However, activation with 3-Ion+Eth and sperm pretreatment with GSH increased the cell number per embryo at blastocyst stage and the blastocyst rate, respectively, in bovine ICSI embryos.

  16. Young Children's Engagement and Learning Opportunities in a Cooking Activity with Parents and Older Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Lauren; Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Parents teach their children through informal social interactions in a process known as guided participation (Rogoff, 1990). Although most research focuses on parent-child dyads, young children also learn from older siblings and parents through shared participation in daily activities. Utilizing a structured observational design, the authors…

  17. Effects of Participation in High School Sports and Nonsport Extracurricular Activities on Political Engagement among Black Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddock, Jomills Henry; Hua, Lv; Dawkins, Marvin P.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of involvement in high school athletics and nonsport extracurricular activities on political engagement among young Black adults was examined. We developed a conceptual model to identify school engagement factors and assess their influence on political participation (i.e., voter registration and voting behavior) of Blacks in early…

  18. The Impact of Media Sport Events on the Active Participation of Young People and Some Implications for PE Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lines, Gill

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the impact of selected sports media events on the active participation of a group of young people aged 14/15. Its particular focus is on an intense period of media sport coverage during the European Soccer Championships (Euro '96), the Wimbledon Lawn Tennis Championships and the Atlanta Olympics and on how a group of British…

  19. Butterfly Girls; promoting healthy diet and physical activity to young African American girls online: Rationale and design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally ...

  20. "Now You See Me, Now You Do Not": Dialogic Loopholes in Authorship Activity with the Very Young

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, E. J.

    2011-01-01

    The genesis for this paper lies in the problematic nature of assessment practice, as a central authorship activity, for early childhood education teachers. This paper draws on dialogic philosophy to explore this challenge based on a doctoral investigation of a very young child (White, 2009) and the strategic means by which she reveals and conceals…

  1. The Meanings of Outdoor Physical Activity for Parentally Bereaved Young People in the United Kingdom: Insights from an Ethnographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Joanne; Sparkes, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the meanings of outdoor physical activity in the natural environment for parentally-bereaved young people. It draws on data generated from a two-year ethnographic study that focused on the experiences of those involved with the Rocky Centre, a childhood bereavement service in the UK. Data was collected via…

  2. What Are Men Afraid Of: The Whys and Hows of Helping Men Become Active Caretakers of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Brent A.

    Participants in the Dad's Day at the Center for Young Children program meet on Saturday mornings for a series of 12 sessions which combine play and discussion group activities. The first hour of each session is structured so that fathers and their 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children can spend time together experiencing new toys, foods, arts, and games…

  3. The evolving activity of the dynamically young comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd)

    SciTech Connect

    Bodewits, D.; Farnham, T. L.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Feaga, L. M.; Sunshine, J. M.; McKay, A.; Schleicher, D. G.

    2014-05-01

    We used the Ultraviolet-Optical Telescope on board Swift to observe the dynamically young comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) from a heliocentric distance of 3.5 AU pre-perihelion until 4.0 AU outbound. At 3.5 AU pre-perihelion, comet Garradd had one of the highest dust-to-gas ratios ever observed, matched only by comet Hale-Bopp. The evolving morphology of the dust in its coma suggests an outburst that ended around 2.2 AU pre-perihelion. Comparing slit-based measurements and observations acquired with larger fields of view indicated that between 3 AU and 2 AU pre-perihelion a significant extended source started producing water in the coma. We demonstrate that this source, which could be due to icy grains, disappeared quickly around perihelion. Water production by the nucleus may be attributed to a constantly active source of at least 75 km{sup 2}, estimated to be >20% of the surface. Based on our measurements, the comet lost 4 × 10{sup 11} kg of ice and dust during this apparition, corresponding to at most a few meters of its surface. Even though this was likely not the comet's first passage through the inner solar system, the activity of Garradd was complex and changed significantly during the time it was observed.

  4. The Evolving Activity of the Dynamically Young Comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodewits, D.; Farnham, T. L.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Feaga, L. M.; McKay, A.; Schleicher, D. G.; Sunshine, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    We used the Ultraviolet-Optical Telescope on board Swift to observe the dynamically young comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) from a heliocentric distance of 3.5 AU pre-perihelion until 4.0 AU outbound. At 3.5 AU pre-perihelion, comet Garradd had one of the highest dust-to-gas ratios ever observed, matched only by comet Hale-Bopp. The evolving morphology of the dust in its coma suggests an outburst that ended around 2.2 AU pre-perihelion. Comparing slit-based measurements and observations acquired with larger fields of view indicated that between 3 AU and 2 AU pre-perihelion a significant extended source started producing water in the coma. We demonstrate that this source, which could be due to icy grains, disappeared quickly around perihelion. Water production by the nucleus may be attributed to a constantly active source of at least 75 km2, estimated to be >20% of the surface. Based on our measurements, the comet lost 4 × 1011 kg of ice and dust during this apparition, corresponding to at most a few meters of its surface. Even though this was likely not the comet's first passage through the inner solar system, the activity of Garradd was complex and changed significantly during the time it was observed.

  5. Iterative development of MobileMums: a physical activity intervention for women with young children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To describe the iterative development process and final version of ‘MobileMums’: a physical activity intervention for women with young children (<5 years) delivered primarily via mobile telephone (mHealth) short messaging service (SMS). Methods MobileMums development followed the five steps outlined in the mHealth development and evaluation framework: 1) conceptualization (critique of literature and theory); 2) formative research (focus groups, n= 48); 3) pre-testing (qualitative pilot of intervention components, n= 12); 4) pilot testing (pilot RCT, n= 88); and, 5) qualitative evaluation of the refined intervention (n= 6). Results Key findings identified throughout the development process that shaped the MobileMums program were the need for: behaviour change techniques to be grounded in Social Cognitive Theory; tailored SMS content; two-way SMS interaction; rapport between SMS sender and recipient; an automated software platform to generate and send SMS; and, flexibility in location of a face-to-face delivered component. Conclusions The final version of MobileMums is flexible and adaptive to individual participant’s physical activity goals, expectations and environment. MobileMums is being evaluated in a community-based randomised controlled efficacy trial (ACTRN12611000481976). PMID:23256730

  6. Fishbone activity in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak neutral beam injection plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Liqing; Zhang, Jizong; Chen, Kaiyun E-mail: lqhu@ipp.cas.cn; Hu, Liqun E-mail: lqhu@ipp.cas.cn; Li, Erzhong; Lin, Shiyao; Shi, Tonghui; Duan, Yanmin; Zhu, Yubao

    2015-12-15

    Repetitive fishbones near the trapped ion procession frequency were observed for the first time in the neutral beam injection high confinement plasmas in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) tokamak, and diagnosed using a solid-state neutral particle analyzer based on a compact silicon photodiode together with an upgraded high spatial-temporal-resolution multi-arrays soft X-ray (SX) system. This 1/1 typical internal kink mode propagates in the ion-diamagnetism direction with a rotation speed faster than the bulk plasma in the plasma frame. From the SX measurements, this mode frequency is typical of chirping down and the energetic particle effect related to the twisting mode structure. This ion fishbone was found able to trigger a multiple core sawtooth crashes with edge-2/1 sideband modes, as well as to lead to a transition from fishbone to long lived saturated kink mode to fishbone. Furthermore, using SX tomography, a correlation between mode amplitude and mode frequency was found. Finally, a phenomenological prey–predator model was found to reproduce the fishbone nonlinear process well.

  7. Artemisinin nanoformulation suitable for intravenous injection: Preparation, characterization and antimalarial activities.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Nehal; Ibrahim, Hany; Sabater, Alicia Moreno; Mazier, Dominique; Valentin, Alexis; Nepveu, Françoise

    2015-11-30

    More than 40 years after its discovery, artemisinin has become the most promising antimalarial agent. However, no intravenous formulation is available due to its poor aqueous solubility. Here, we report the preparation, characterization, and in vitro and in vivo biological evaluation of biodegradable albumin-bound artemisinin nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were prepared by a combination of a bottom-up and a top-down processes and characterized by different spectroscopic techniques. The preparation process was optimized to develop a nanoformulation with the smallest possible diameter and good homogeneity suitable for intravenous injection enabling direct contact of artemisinin with infected erythrocytes. Chemically and physically stable artemisinin nanoparticles were obtained with excellent entrapment efficiency. In in vitro experiments, the artemisinin nanoformulation was interestingly more effective than non-formulated artemisinin. In Plasmodiumm falciparum-infected 'humanized' mice, the nanoparticles proved to be highly effective with 96% parasitemia inhibition at 10mg/kg/day, prolonging mean survival time without recrudescence. This nanoparticulate albumin-bound system allows the intravenous administration of artemisinin for the first time without harsh organic solvents or cosolvents with 100% bioavailability.

  8. Fishbone activity in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak neutral beam injection plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liqing; Zhang, Jizong; Chen, Kaiyun; Hu, Liqun; Li, Erzhong; Lin, Shiyao; Shi, Tonghui; Duan, Yanmin; Zhu, Yubao

    2015-12-01

    Repetitive fishbones near the trapped ion procession frequency were observed for the first time in the neutral beam injection high confinement plasmas in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) tokamak, and diagnosed using a solid-state neutral particle analyzer based on a compact silicon photodiode together with an upgraded high spatial-temporal-resolution multi-arrays soft X-ray (SX) system. This 1/1 typical internal kink mode propagates in the ion-diamagnetism direction with a rotation speed faster than the bulk plasma in the plasma frame. From the SX measurements, this mode frequency is typical of chirping down and the energetic particle effect related to the twisting mode structure. This ion fishbone was found able to trigger a multiple core sawtooth crashes with edge-2/1 sideband modes, as well as to lead to a transition from fishbone to long lived saturated kink mode to fishbone. Furthermore, using SX tomography, a correlation between mode amplitude and mode frequency was found. Finally, a phenomenological prey-predator model was found to reproduce the fishbone nonlinear process well.

  9. The activity of mouse Kupffer cells following intravenous injection of T4 bacteriophage

    PubMed Central

    Inchley, C. J.

    1969-01-01

    The response of macrophages from the livers and spleens of mice given a single immunizing dose of T4 bacteriophage has been studied. Following their rapid removal from the circulation, phage particles were found to be concentrated in the liver to a level twelve times that for the spleen. Investigation of the fate of ingested phage showed that it was disposed of more rapidly in the liver than in the spleen, as measured by the disappearance of viable T4 particles and by the loss of radioactive label following injection of [131I]T4. It was also found that antigen-containing Kupffer cells could elicit little or no antibody synthesis on transfer into normal syngeneic recipients, or on incubation with lymphoid cells in vitro. It is suggested that these macrophages differ from other components of the reticulo-endothelial system in their treatment of T4 antigen, and may be concerned mainly with its breakdown and disposal rather than with providing a stimulus for the initiation of antibody synthesis. PMID:5370053

  10. Artemisinin nanoformulation suitable for intravenous injection: Preparation, characterization and antimalarial activities.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Nehal; Ibrahim, Hany; Sabater, Alicia Moreno; Mazier, Dominique; Valentin, Alexis; Nepveu, Françoise

    2015-11-30

    More than 40 years after its discovery, artemisinin has become the most promising antimalarial agent. However, no intravenous formulation is available due to its poor aqueous solubility. Here, we report the preparation, characterization, and in vitro and in vivo biological evaluation of biodegradable albumin-bound artemisinin nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were prepared by a combination of a bottom-up and a top-down processes and characterized by different spectroscopic techniques. The preparation process was optimized to develop a nanoformulation with the smallest possible diameter and good homogeneity suitable for intravenous injection enabling direct contact of artemisinin with infected erythrocytes. Chemically and physically stable artemisinin nanoparticles were obtained with excellent entrapment efficiency. In in vitro experiments, the artemisinin nanoformulation was interestingly more effective than non-formulated artemisinin. In Plasmodiumm falciparum-infected 'humanized' mice, the nanoparticles proved to be highly effective with 96% parasitemia inhibition at 10mg/kg/day, prolonging mean survival time without recrudescence. This nanoparticulate albumin-bound system allows the intravenous administration of artemisinin for the first time without harsh organic solvents or cosolvents with 100% bioavailability. PMID:26383839

  11. Intraventricular injections of mesenchymal stem cells activate endogenous functional remyelination in a chronic demyelinating murine model

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Martinez, P; González-Granero, S; Molina-Navarro, M M; Pacheco-Torres, J; García-Verdugo, J M; Geijo-Barrientos, E; Jones, J; Martinez, S

    2016-01-01

    Current treatments for demyelinating diseases are generally only capable of ameliorating the symptoms, with little to no effect in decreasing myelin loss nor promoting functional recovery. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown by many researchers to be a potential therapeutic tool in treating various neurodegenerative diseases, including demyelinating disorders. However, in the majority of the cases, the effect was only observed locally, in the area surrounding the graft. Thus, in order to achieve general remyelination in various brain structures simultaneously, bone marrow-derived MSCs were transplanted into the lateral ventricles (LVs) of the cuprizone murine model. In this manner, the cells may secrete soluble factors into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and boost the endogenous oligodendrogenic potential of the subventricular zone (SVZ). As a result, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) were recruited within the corpus callosum (CC) over time, correlating with an increased myelin content. Electrophysiological studies, together with electron microscopy (EM) analysis, indicated that the newly formed myelin correctly enveloped the demyelinated axons and increased signal transduction through the CC. Moreover, increased neural stem progenitor cell (NSPC) proliferation was observed in the SVZ, possibly due to the tropic factors released by the MSCs. In conclusion, the findings of this study revealed that intraventricular injections of MSCs is a feasible method to elicit a paracrine effect in the oligodendrogenic niche of the SVZ, which is prone to respond to the factors secreted into the CSF and therefore promoting oligodendrogenesis and functional remyelination. PMID:27171265

  12. The independent prospective associations of activity intensity and dietary energy density with adiposity in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    van Sluijs, Esther M F; Sharp, Stephen J; Ambrosini, Gina L; Cassidy, Aedin; Griffin, Simon J; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-03-14

    There is limited evidence on the prospective association of time spent in activity intensity (sedentary (SED), moderate (MPA) or vigorous (VPA) physical activity) and dietary intake with adiposity indicators in young people. This study aimed to assess associations between (1) baseline objectively measured activity intensity, dietary energy density (DED) and 4-year change in adiposity and (2) 4-year change in activity intensity/DED and adiposity at follow-up. We conducted cohort analyses including 367 participants (10 years at baseline, 14 years at follow-up) with valid data for objectively measured activity (Actigraph), DED (4-d food diary), anthropometry (waist circumference (WC), %body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), weight status) and covariates. Linear and logistic regression models were fit, including adjustment for DED and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results showed that baseline DED was associated with change in WC (β for 1kJ/g difference: 0·71; 95% CI 0·26, 1·17), particularly in boys (1·26; 95% CI 0·41, 2·16 v. girls: 0·26; 95% CI -0·34, 0·87), but not with %BF, FMI or weight status. In contrast, baseline SED, MPA or VPA were not associated with any of the outcomes. Change in DED was negatively associated with FMI (β for 1kJ/g increase: -0·86; 95% CI -1·59, -0·12) and %BF (-0·86; 95% CI -1·25, -0·11) but not WC (-0·27; 95% CI -1·02, 0·48). Change in SED, MPA and VPA did not predict adiposity at follow-up. In conclusion, activity intensity was not prospectively associated with adiposity, whereas the directions of associations with DED were inconsistent. To inform public health efforts, future studies should continue to analyse longitudinal data to further understand the independent role of different energy-balance behaviours in changes in adiposity in early adolescence. PMID:26758859

  13. ιHorologi, the first coronal activity cycle in a young solar-like star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Forcada, J.; Stelzer, B.; Metcalfe, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Context. The shortest chromospheric (Ca ii H&K) activity cycle (1.6 yr) has been recently discovered in the young (~600 Myr) solar-like star ι Hor. Coronal X-ray activity cycles have only been discovered in a few stars other than the Sun, all of them with an older age and a lower activity level than ι Hor. Aims: We intended to find the X-ray coronal counterpart of the chromospheric cycle for ι Hor. This represents the first X-ray cycle observed in an active star, as well as the paradigm of the first coronal cycles in the life of a solar-like star. Methods: We monitored ι Hor with XMM-Newton observations spanning almost two years. The spectra of each observation are fit with two-temperature coronal models to study the long-term variability of the star. Results: We find a cyclic behavior in X-rays very similar to the contemporaneous chromospheric cycle. The continuous chromospheric monitoring for more than three cycle lengths shows a trend toward decreasing amplitude, apparently modulated by a longer term trend. The second cycle is disrupted prior to reaching its maximum, followed by a brief episode of chaotic variability before the cyclic behavior resumes, only to be disrupted again after slightly more than one cycle. Conclusions: We confirm the presence of an activity cycle of ~1.6 yr in ι Hor both in X-rays and Ca ii H&K. It is likely subject to the modulation of a longer, not yet constrained second cycle. The 1.6 yr cycle is the shortest coronal one observed to date, and ι Hor represents the most active star for which a coronal activity cycle has been found. This cycle is probably representative of the first coronal cycles in the life of a solar-like star, at the age when life started on Earth. Table 2 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Sexual Activity of Young Adults Who Are Visually Impaired and the Need for Effective Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Stacy M.; Kapperman, Gaylen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Little research has been reported on all aspects of sexuality as it pertains to individuals with visual impairments. This article analyzes data on the sexual experiences of young adults who are visually impaired and young adults without disabilities. Methods: The authors conducted a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal…

  15. Active Citizens or Passive Recipients: How Australian Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy Define Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Polly H. Y.; Passmore, Anne E.; Packer, Tanya L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Citizenship participation by young adults has reciprocal benefits both for the individual and for society. This paper provides an insight into the ways young people with cerebral palsy (CP) perceive their citizenship experiences, and also examines factors which may influence citizenship participation for this group. Method: Qualitative…

  16. Anti-staphylococcal Activity of Injectable Nano Tigecycline/Chitosan-PRP Composite Hydrogel Using Drosophila melanogaster Model for Infectious Wounds.

    PubMed

    Nimal, T R; Baranwal, Gaurav; Bavya, M C; Biswas, Raja; Jayakumar, R

    2016-08-31

    Compared to the current treatment modalities, the use of an injectable hydrogel system, loaded with antibiotic encapsulated nanoparticles for the purpose of treating Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) chronic wound infections have several advantages. These include adhesiveness to infection site, reduced frequency of dressings, sustained drug release, inhibition of bacterial growth, and increased healing. In the present work tigecycline nanoparticles were loaded into chitosan-platelet-rich plasma (PRP) hydrogel. The tigecycline nanoparticles (95 ± 13 nm) were synthesized through ionic cross-linking method using chitosan, tripolyphosphate, and tigecycline and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The synthesized nanoparticles and activated PRP powder were mixed with chitosan hydrogel to form a homogeneous gel. Rheology studies have confirmed the shear thinning property, thermal stability, and injectability of the prepared gel systems. The gel system was further assessed for its drug release property and found that it was released in a sustained manner. Hemolysis and blood-clotting assays demonstrated that the gel system was neither a hemolysin nor a hamper to the clotting cascade. Cell viability results showed that these nanoparticles were cyto-compatible. The bioactivity of PRP loaded chitosan gel toward fibroblast cell line was studied using cell proliferation and migration assay. In vitro antibacterial studies revealed that the gel system inhibited bacterial growth to a great extent. The antibacterial activity was further analyzed using ex vivo porcine skin assay. In vivo anti-Staphylococcal activity of the prepared hydrogels was studied using a Drosophila melanogaster infection model. The tigecycline and tigecycline nanoparticle incorporated chitosan gel showed a significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus. Thus, the gel system is an effective medium for

  17. Variability of cytochrome P450 1A2 activity over time in young and elderly healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Simon, T; Becquemont, L; Hamon, B; Nouyrigat, E; Chodjania, Y; Poirier, J M; Funck-Brentano, C; Jaillon, P

    2001-01-01

    Aims To assess the age-associated changes over time of plasma paraxanthine/caffeine (PAX/CAF) ratios used as a probe for CYP1A2 activity. Methods Intraindividual and interindividual variabilities in PAX/CAF ratio were compared by phenotyping with caffeine, 16 young and 16 elderly healthy subjects on five occasions. Results PAX/CAF ratio variability was comparable regardless of age (intraindividual CV: 17.6 ± 6% and 16.2 ± 5.9%, interindividual CV: 48.1 ± 2.9% and 42.7 ± 3.6% in young and elderly, respectively). The PAX/CAF ratio was lower in elderly than in young subjects (95% CI for the difference: 0.004, 0.32) but the difference was not significant in nonsmokers compared separately. Conclusions The variability over time of the PAX/CAF ratio is not influenced by age. PMID:11736870

  18. The evolving activity of the Dynamically Young Comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodewits, Dennis; Farnham, T. L.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Feaga, L. M.; McKay, A.; Schleicher, D. G.; Sunshine, J.

    2013-10-01

    Comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) was a dynamically young comet that was bright and well-observable from a heliocentric distance of 3.5 AU pre-perihelion until 4.5 AU outbound. The development of its activity was observed by many different observatories and instruments, both on the ground and in space (Deep Impact, Swift, SOHO-SWAN, VLT-UVES, IRTF, and many more). Because of this observing campaign, Garradd is the first comet for which production rates of all three main volatiles (H2O, CO, and CO2) were measured during a significant part of its passage through the inner solar system. These observations provide an invaluable key to how comets work. At -3.5 AU, Garradd had one of the highest dust-to-gas ratios ever observed, matched only by Hale-Bopp. Comparing slit-based measurements and observations acquired with larger fields of view indicated that between -3 AU and -2 AU a significant extended source started producing water in the coma (Combi et al. 2013, Paganini et al. 2012, Villanueva et al. 2012). This source, likely icy grains, disappeared quickly around perihelion (Bodewits et al. in prep.). The other volatiles observed in Garradd’s coma indicate an even more complex story. Relative abundances measured with large apertures were lowered significantly by the extended water source, indicating that these icy grains were depleted of ices more volatile than water. Differences in the volatility of cometary ices may further explain the observed trends in the abundances of CN and CO2 (mostly observed through [OI]; Decock et al. 2013). These effects do not explain the strange behavior of CO, whose production rate increased monotonically from -2 AU to +2AU (Feaga et al. submitted, and references therein). The activity of Garradd was complex and changed significantly during the time it was observed. We will discuss how these different sublimation processes fit into our understanding of cometary activity and evolution in general.

  19. The effects of carbonated water upon gastric and cardiac activities and fullness in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Wakisaka, Shiori; Nagai, Hajime; Mura, Emi; Matsumoto, Takehiro; Moritani, Toshio; Nagai, Narumi

    2012-01-01

    Although previous reports suggested that carbonated water drinking was effective against gastrointestinal symptoms, there is little information about the effects of carbonated water on gastric and appetite sensation. We therefore investigated the effect of carbonated water on short-term fullness with respect to gastric and cardiac responses in 19 healthy young women. Each subject was tested on three separate days at approximately 9 a.m. after an overnight fast. Gastric motility, evaluated by electrogastrography (EGG) and heart rate (HR), was measured for 20 min in the fasting state and 40 min after ingestion of water. Preloads consisted of an equivalent amount (250 mL) of water (W) or carbonated water (CW) and no drinking (blank). Fullness scores were measured using visual analog scales. To determine gastric motility, we assessed the component of bradygastria (1-2 cycles/min [cpm]), normogastria (2-4 cpm), tachygastria (4-9 cpm), and dominant frequency of the EGG power spectrum. After ingestion of CW, significant increases in fullness scores were observed compared with W. All postprandial EGG powers were significantly greater than preprandial, but no group difference was found. However, a dominant frequency tended to shift toward a lower band after ingestion of W. A significantly higher HR was found following consumption of CW as opposed to W. Multiple regression analysis revealed that increased HR was a significant variable contributing to the variances in fullness after ingestion of CW at 40 min. Our data suggest that CW may induce a short-term, but significant, satiating effect through enhanced postprandial gastric and cardiac activities due possibly to the increased sympathetic activity and/or withdrawal of parasympathetic activity.

  20. Antioxidant activities, total phenolics and flavonoids content in two varieties of Malaysia young ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).

    PubMed

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2010-06-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a well known and widely used herb, especially in Asia, which contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from the leaves, stems and rhizomes of two Zingiber officinale varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) were assessed in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. The antioxidant activity and phenolic contents of the leaves as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the total amounts of phenolics and flavonoids were higher than those of the rhizomes and stems. On the other hand, the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves. At low concentration the values of the leaves' inhibition activity in both varieties were significantly higher than or comparable to those of the young rhizomes. Halia Bara had higher antioxidant activities as well as total contents of phenolic and flavonoid in comparison with Halia Bentong. This study validated the medicinal potential of the leaves and young rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Halia Bara) and the positive relationship between total phenolics content and antioxidant activities in Zingiber officinale. PMID:20657444

  1. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or... dioxins/furans and mercury stack test, determine the average carbon feed rate in kilograms (or pounds)...

  2. Tyrosine inhibits creatine kinase activity in cerebral cortex of young rats.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Rodrigo Binkowski; Gemelli, Tanise; Rojas, Denise Bertin; Funchal, Cláudia; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo; Wannmacher, Clovis Milton Duval

    2011-09-01

    Tyrosine accumulates in inborn errors of tyrosine catabolism, especially in tyrosinemia type II, where tyrosine levels are highly elevated in tissues and physiological fluids of affected patients. Tyrosinemia type II is a disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance characterized by neurological symptoms similar to those observed in patients with creatine deficiency syndromes. Considering that the mechanisms of brain damage in these disorders are poorly known, in the present study our main objective was to investigate the in vivo and in vitro effects of different concentrations and preincubation times of tyrosine on cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinase activities of the cerebral cortex from 14-day-old Wistar rats. The cytosolic CK was reduced by 15% at 1 mM and 32% at 2 mM tyrosine. Similarly, the mitochondrial CK was inhibited by 15% at 1 mM and 22% at 2 mM tyrosine. We observed that the inhibition caused by tyrosine was concentration-dependent and was prevented by reduced glutathione. Results also indicated that mitochondrial, but not cytosolic creatine kinase activity was inhibited by tyrosine in a time-dependent way. Finally, a single injection of L-Tyrosine methyl ester administered i.p. decreased cytosolic (31%) and mitochondrial (18%) creatine kinase activities of brain cortex from rats. Considering that creatine kinase is an enzyme dependent of thiol residues for its function and tyrosine induces oxidative stress, the results suggest that the inhibition caused by tyrosine might occur by oxidation of essential sulfhydryl groups of the enzyme. In case this also occurs in patients with tyrosinemia, it is possible that creatine kinase inhibition may contribute to the neurological dysfunction characteristic of tyrosinemia.

  3. 40 CFR 60.2115 - What if I do not use a wet scrubber, fabric filter, activated carbon injection, selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carbon injection, selective noncatalytic reduction, or an electrostatic precipitator to comply with the... carbon injection, selective noncatalytic reduction, fabric filter, or an electrostatic precipitator or... filter, an electrostatic precipitator, or a dry scrubber or limit emissions in some other...

  4. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men.

    PubMed

    Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners.

  5. The roles of behavioural activation and inhibition among young adults engaging in self-injury.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Abigail L; Seelbach, Abigail C; Conner, Bradley T; Alloy, Lauren B

    2013-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent behaviour, particularly among young adults. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms underlying NSSI or the personality correlates of these behaviours. The goal of this study was to examine the roles of the behavioural activation and inhibition systems (BAS and BIS) in NSSI. A total of 604 undergraduates completed two self-report measures of BAS and BIS, as well as NSSI history. Logistic and negative binomial linear regressions were used to examine the relationships between measures of BAS and BIS and the presence and course characteristics of NSSI. Approximately 30% of participants reported a history of NSSI. High scores on BAS (drive, reward and fun seeking), combined with low scores on BIS total, predicted NSSI history. However, the opposite was also true, with high levels of BIS total, combined with low levels of BAS (drive, reward and fun seeking), also predicting NSSI history. In addition, several BAS by BIS interactions predicted an NSSI course characterized by more acts and methods used. This study supports the roles of both BAS and BIS in NSSI and takes the first step in identifying how these personality correlates may help identify individuals at risk for NSSI.

  6. The roles of behavioural activation and inhibition among young adults engaging in self-injury

    PubMed Central

    JENKINS, ABIGAIL L.; SEELBACH, ABIGAIL C.; CONNER, BRADLEY T.; ALLOY, LAUREN B.

    2014-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent behaviour, particularly among young adults. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms underlying NSSI or the personality correlates of these behaviours. The goal of this study was to examine the roles of the behavioural activation and inhibition systems (BAS and BIS) in NSSI. A total of 604 undergraduates completed two self-report measures of BAS and BIS, as well as NSSI history. Logistic and negative binomial linear regressions were used to examine the relationships between measures of BAS and BIS and the presence and course characteristics of NSSI. Approximately 30% of participants reported a history of NSSI. High scores on BAS (drive, reward and fun seeking), combined with low scores on BIS total, predicted NSSI history. However, the opposite was also true, with high levels of BIS total, combined with low levels of BAS (drive, reward and fun seeking), also predicting NSSI history. In addition, several BAS by BIS interactions predicted an NSSI course characterized by more acts and methods used. This study supports the roles of both BAS and BIS in NSSI and takes the first step in identifying how these personality correlates may help identify individuals at risk for NSSI. PMID:24343924

  7. EVIDENCE FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS DRIVEN OUTFLOWS IN YOUNG RADIO QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Minjin; Ho, Luis C.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Lacy, Mark; Kimball, Amy E.; Blain, Andrew W.

    2013-05-01

    We present near-infrared spectra of young radio quasars (P{sub 1.4GHz} Almost-Equal-To 26-27 W Hz{sup -1}) selected from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer. The detected objects have typical redshifts of z Almost-Equal-To 1.6-2.5 and bolometric luminosities {approx}10{sup 47} erg s{sup -1}. Based on the intensity ratios of narrow emission lines, we find that these objects are mainly powered by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), although star formation contribution cannot be completely ruled out. The host galaxies experience moderate levels of extinction, A{sub V} Almost-Equal-To 0-1.3 mag. The observed [O III] {lambda}5007 luminosities and rest-frame J-band magnitudes constrain the black hole masses to lie in the range {approx}10{sup 8.9}-10{sup 9.7} M{sub Sun }. From the empirical correlation between black hole mass and host galaxy mass, we infer stellar masses of {approx}10{sup 11.3}-10{sup 12.2} M{sub Sun }. The [O III] line is exceptionally broad, with FWHM {approx}1300-2100 km s{sup -1}, significantly larger than that of ordinary distant quasars. We argue that these large line widths can be explained by jet-induced outflows, as predicted by theoretical models of AGN feedback.

  8. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N. Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk–related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners. PMID:26158212

  9. Sexual scripts among young heterosexually active men and women: Continuity and change

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    While gendered sexual scripts are hegemonic at the cultural level, research suggests they may be less so at dyadic and individual levels. Understanding “disjunctures” between sexual scripts at different levels holds promise for illuminating mechanisms through which sexual scripts can change. Through interviews with 44 heterosexually active men and women aged 18-25, we delineated ways young people grappled with culture-level scripts for sexuality and relationships. Findings suggest that although most participants’ culture-level gender scripts for behavior in sexual relationships were congruent with descriptions of traditional masculine and feminine sexuality, there was heterogeneity in how or whether these scripts were incorporated into individual relationships. Specifically, we found three styles of working with sexual scripts: Conforming, in which personal gender scripts for sexual behavior overlapped with traditional scripts; exception-finding, in which interviewees accepted culture-level gender scripts as a reality, but created exceptions to gender rules for themselves; and transforming, in which participants either attempted to remake culture-level gender scripts, or interpreted their own non-traditional styles as equally normative. Changing sexual scripts can potentially contribute to decreased gender inequity in the sexual realm and to increased opportunities for sexual satisfaction, safety, and wellbeing, particularly for women, but for men as well. PMID:22489683

  10. The Association of Physical Activity during Weekdays and Weekend with Body Composition in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gribben, Nicole; Wirth, Michael D.; Hand, Gregory A.; Shook, Robin P.; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is a key contributor in long-term weight management but there remains limited research on the association between weekly PA patterns and weight change. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prospective association between weekly PA patterns and weight change in generally healthy young adults. Anthropometric measurements, including dual X-ray absorptiometry, were obtained every 3 months over a period of one year in 338 adults (53% male). At each measurement time, participants wore a multisensor device for a minimum of 10 days to determine total daily energy expenditure and time spent sleeping, sedentary, in light PA (LPA), in moderate PA (MPA), and in vigorous PA (VPA). PA did not differ between weekdays and the weekend at baseline. Twenty-four-hour sleep time, however, was significantly longer during weekends compared to weekdays, which was associated with less time spent sedentary. Weight loss was associated with a significant increase in LPA at the expense of sedentary time during the weekend but not during weekdays. Regression analyses further revealed an inverse association between change in VPA during the weekend and body composition at 12-month follow-up. Taken together, these results suggest that weekend PA plays an important role in long-term weight management. PMID:27200185

  11. The Intrinsic Eddington Ratio Distribution of Active Galactic Nuclei in Young Galaxies from SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Mackenzie L.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Black, Christine; Hainline, Kevin Nicholas; DiPompeo, Michael A.

    2016-04-01

    An important question in extragalactic astronomy concerns the distribution of black hole accretion rates, i.e. the Eddington ratio distribution, of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Specifically, it is matter of debate whether AGN follow a broad distribution in accretion rates, or if the distribution is more strongly peaked at characteristic Eddington ratios. Using a sample of galaxies from SDSS DR7, we test whether an intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution that takes the form of a broad Schechter function is in fact consistent with previous work that suggests instead that young galaxies in optical surveys have a more strongly peaked lognormal Eddington ratio distribution. Furthermore, we present an improved method for extracting the AGN distribution using BPT diagnostics that allows us to probe over one order of magnitude lower in Eddington ratio, counteracting the effects of dilution by star formation. We conclude that the intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution of optically selected AGN is consistent with a power law with an exponential cutoff, as is observed in the X-rays. This work was supported in part by a NASA Jenkins Fellowship.

  12. Induction of Shock After Intravenous Injection of Adenovirus Vectors: A Critical Role for Platelet-activating Factor

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhili; Smith, Jeffrey S.; Tian, Jie; Byrnes, Andrew P.

    2009-01-01

    Innate immune responses are a major barrier to safe systemic gene therapy with adenovirus (Ad) vectors. We show that intravenous (IV) injection of rats with Ad5 vectors causes a novel rapid shock reaction that involves hypotension, hemoconcentration, tissue edema, and vasocongestion, with notable pathology in the pancreas and the gastrointestinal system. We show for the first time that this reaction is dependent on platelet-activating factor (PAF), a lipid signaling molecule that is a known shock inducer. Ad upregulated PAF within 5 minutes in vivo, and antagonists of the PAF receptor were able to prevent Ad-induced shock. Ad upregulated PAF via the reticuloendothelial system (RES), because splenectomy or depletion of phagocytes blocked the ability of Ad to induce both PAF and shock. Rats were considerably more sensitive to Ad-induced shock than were mice, but PAF mediated shock in both species. Other Ad-induced innate immune responses such as cytokine induction and thrombocytopenia were not mediated by PAF. In summary, systemic IV injection of Ad stimulates the RES to upregulate PAF within a matter of minutes, which results in shock. The identification of this novel pathway suggests strategies to improve the safety of systemic gene therapy with Ad vectors. PMID:19953082

  13. Methods to monitor distribution and metabolic activity of mesenchymal stem cells following in vivo injection into nucleotomized porcine intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Omlor, G W; Bertram, H; Kleinschmidt, K; Fischer, J; Brohm, K; Guehring, T; Anton, M; Richter, Wiltrud

    2010-04-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration involves a series of biochemical and morphological changes leading to loss of spinal stability and flexibility. Cell therapy is promising to reconstitute IVDs with new cells, however, sustained metabolic activity seems crucial for an active contribution to regeneration. The aim of the present study was to establish methods for separate follow up of persistence and activity of autologous porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pMSC) after implantation into IVDs of Goettingen minipigs in vivo in order to conclude about the potential of such an intervention strategy. For quantitative follow up, the transfer matrix was supplemented with Al(2)O(3) particles and pMSC which were retrovirally labeled with firefly luciferase (pMSC-Luc). Six mature Goettingen minipigs underwent matrix based cell transfer after partial nucleotomy of lumbar IVDs (n = 24). Day 0 and day 3 segments were analyzed for retained volume of Al(2)O(3) particles by micro-computed-tomography (muCT) and for cell activity by luciferase enzyme assessment. Three days after injection a reduction of Al(2)O(3) particles (P = 0.028) to about 9% and of pMSC-Luc activity to about 7% of initial values (P = 0.003) was detected, which suggests loss of 90% of the implant material under in vivo conditions without evidence for reduced pMSC-Luc metabolic activity (P = 0.887). In conclusion, separate follow up of implant material and cell activity was possible and unravels problems with in vivo implant persistence after annular puncture rather than quick loss of cell activity. Therefore, IVD-regeneration-strategies should increasingly focus on annulus reconstruction in order to reduce implant loss due to annular failure.

  14. Neuronal degeneration and a decrease in laminin-like immunoreactivity is associated with elevated tissue-type plasminogen activator in the rat hippocampus after kainic acid injection.

    PubMed

    Nagai, N; Urano, T; Endo, A; Takahashi, H; Takada, Y; Takada, A

    1999-02-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease that converts the inactive precursor plasminogen to the active protease plasmin. In the central nervous system, tPA has been suggested to participate in plasticity, memory and the neuronal degeneration caused by excitotoxins, but its precise functions during these processes are still unclear. We show in this report that tPA antigen level and extracellular tPA activity increased in the hippocampus during the early stages of neuronal degeneration in the CA3 region following the injection of kainic acid (KA) into the lateral cerebral ventricles. The increase in tPA antigen level was transient and its peak was at 4 h after the injection. tPA activity was also increased 4 h after the injection, but it remained at a high level for more than 8 h. Histological zymography showed that the increase in tPA activity was mainly localized in the CA3 region. In the same region, the disappearance of interneuronal laminin-like immunoreactivity and atrophic changes in pyramidal neurons were observed 4 h after the injection of KA. These results suggested that such focal and transient increases in tPA synthesis and release, which result in the proteolysis of laminin through plasminogen activation, could be involved in the neuronal degeneration in the CA3 region after the injection of KA.

  15. Promoting Physical Activity in Hong Kong Chinese Young People: Factors Influencing Their Subjective Task Values and Expectancy Beliefs in Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    According to Eccles et al.'s (1983) Expectancy Value Model, the two major constructs that influence young people's activity choice are subjective task value and expectancy beliefs (Eccles et al., 1983). Eccles et al. (1983) conceptually distinguished four dimensions of subjective task value: attainment value, intrinsic value, utility…

  16. Psychosocial Effects of Reverse-Integrated Basketball Activity Compared to Separate and No Physical Activity in Young People with Physical Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Chacham-Guber, Anat; Reiter, Shunit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of participation in different sport modalities on quality of life (QOL) and perceived social competence (PSC) in young people with physical disability. Ninety participants (33 females and 57 males) were monitored across four conditions: competitive separate physical activity (COSPA), recreational…

  17. Covalent incorporation and controlled release of active dexamethasone from injectable polyethylene glycol hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bezuidenhout, Deon; Oosthuysen, Anel; Davies, Neil; Ahrenstedt, Lage; Dobner, Stephan; Roberts, Peter; Zilla, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Dexamethasone (Dex) is used in a wide range of applications, but may have undesirable systemic side effects. A number of techniques have thus been developed to deliver the substance locally. In this study, dexamethasone was acrylated, pegylated, and tethered to hydrolytically degradable (acrylate based) and nondegradable (vinyl sulfone based) polyethylene glycol hydrogels by nucleophilic addition. Hydrogel swelling, drug elution and drug activity were followed over an extended period in vitro. Nondegradable gels were stable for more than a year, while degradable gels showed increasing swelling ratios due to degradation that resulted in disintegration after ~12 days. Near-linear (zero order) release could be achieved in some cases with the degradable gels, while release from the nondegradable gels approximated first order initial release kinetics. Significantly delayed release was observed in all cases where the Dex was linked to the gels, when compared with controls where the drug was merely physically incorporated. Eluates from the gels containing the tethered drug showed high levels of activity for extended time periods, while the activity of the eluates from gels containing nonbound dexamethasone decreased rapidly within the first few days. Dexamethasone can thus be incorporated using nucleophilic addition chemistry to produce gels that are capable of sustained release of the active drug. The methodology is applicable to a variety of drugs that contain hydroxyl groups.

  18. Active case finding for tuberculosis among people who inject drugs on methadone treatment in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, A.; Mbwambo, J.; Mteza, I.; Shenoi, S.; Lambdin, B.; Nyandindi, C.; Doula, B. I.; Mfaume, S.; Bruce, R. D.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY SETTING Active case finding is a World Health Organization (WHO) endorsed strategy for improving tuberculosis (TB) case detection. Despite WHO recommendations for active case finding among people who inject drugs (PWID), few studies have been published. The historical focus of case finding has been in populations that are human immunodeficiency virus-positive, incarcerated or at higher occupational risk. OBJECTIVE We sought to examine the yield of active case finding among PWID newly started on methadone in Tanzania. DESIGN Of 222 methadone clients, 156 (70%) met with study administrators; 150 consented to participate, 139 (93%) of whom were male. The median age was 34 years. A symptom-based questionnaire was developed by the investigators and administered to every consenting patient by a native Swahili speaker. RESULTS Of the 150 patients surveyed, 16 (11%) had one or more TB symptoms and were referred for laboratory testing. Six new TB cases were identified in this active case finding program, with a prevalence of 4%. CONCLUSION This study presents the first data on TB prevalence in a population of PWID in Tanzania. This prevalence is 23 times that of the general Tanzanian TB prevalence of 0.2%. These results have significant implications for TB control. PMID:24902554

  19. Fabrication of catalytically active Au/Pt/Pd trimetallic nanoparticles by rapid injection of NaBH{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haijun; Lu, Lilin; Cao, Yingnan; Du, Shuang; Cheng, Zhong; Zhang, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The synthesis and characterization of 2.0 nm-diameter Au/Pt/Pd nanoparticles are reported. The catalytic activity for glucose oxidation of the nanoparticles is several times higher than that of Au nanoparticles with nearly same size. - Highlights: • PVP-protected Au/Pt/Pd trimetallic nanoparticles (TNPs) of 2.0 nm in diameter were prepared. • The catalytic activity of TNPs is several times higher than that of Au nanoparticles. • Negatively charged Au atoms in the TNPs were confirmed by DFT calculation. - Abstract: Au/Pt/Pd trimetallic nanoparticles (TNPs) with an alloyed structure and an average diameter of about 2.0 nm were prepared via reducing the corresponding ions with rapidly injected NaBH{sub 4}, and characterized by UV–vis, TEM and HR-TEM. The catalytic activity of as-prepared TNPs for the aerobic glucose oxidation is several times higher than that of Au monometallic nanoparticles with about the same average size, which could be attributed to the catalytically active sites provided by the negatively charged Au atoms as a result of the electron donation from the neighboring Pd atoms. This was well supported by the electron density calculations based on the density functional theory.

  20. Adalimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... not improved when treated with other medications, ulcerative colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in ... adalimumab injection to treat Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, your doctor may tell you to inject the ...

  1. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Denosumab injection (Prolia) is also used to treat bone loss in men with prostate cancer and in women with breast cancer who are receiving certain treatments that increase their risk for fractures. Denosumab injection ( ...

  2. Diphenhydramine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the nervous system that causes difficulties with movement, muscle control, and balance). Diphenhydramine injection should not be ... solution (liquid) to be injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) or intravenously (into a vein). Your dosing schedule ...

  3. Leucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... red blood cells) caused by low levels of folic acid in the body. Leucovorin injection is also used ... injection is in a class of medications called folic acid analogs. It treats people who are receiving methotrexate ...

  4. Glatiramer Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... to inject glatiramer, inject it around the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription ...

  5. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large ... injection is also used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped abusing opiate ...

  6. Estrogen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to ...

  7. Cefazolin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cefazolin injection is also sometimes used for certain penicillin allergic patients who have a heart condition and ... injection is also sometimes used to treat certain penicillin allergic women who are in labor in order ...

  8. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  9. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... aripiprazole injection and aripiprazole extended-release injection developed gambling problems or other intense urges or behaviors that ... even if you do not realize that your gambling or any other intense urges or unusual behaviors ...

  10. Testosterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Testopel) are also used to stimulate puberty in males with delayed puberty. Testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl) injection may ... to the growth, development, and functioning of the male sexual organs and typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection ...

  11. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  12. Naloxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection device.The automatic injection device has an electronic voice system that provides step by step directions ... of opiate withdrawal such as body aches, diarrhea, fast heart beat, fever, runny nose, sneezing, sweating, yawning, ...

  13. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  14. Doripenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract, kidney, and abdomen that are caused by bacteria. Doripenem injection is not approved by the Food ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work ...

  15. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  16. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which the type of tissue ... parts of the body in women who have endometriosis. Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of ...

  17. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of ... people who have accidentally received an overdose of methotrexate or similar medications. Levoleucovorin injection is in a ...

  18. Vancomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Vancomycin injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat certain serious infections such ... infections of the lungs, skin, blood, and bones. Vancomycin injection is in a class of medications called ...

  19. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Chad.

    PubMed

    Wuehler, Sara E; Nadjilem, Djasndibye

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children <5 years of age has been less than needed to achieve related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Therefore, several international agencies joined to 'reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel', starting with an analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The main objectives of the situational analysis are to compile, analyse, and interpret available information on infant and child feeding, and the nutrition situation of children <2 years of age in Chad, as one of the six targeted countries. These findings are available to assist in identifying inconsistencies and filling gaps in current programming. Between June and October of 2008, key informants responsible for IYCN-related activities in Chad were interviewed, and 53 documents were examined on the following themes: the promotion of optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, management of acute malnutrition, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), food security, and promotion of good hygienic practices. Chad is not on track to reaching the MDGs of reducing mortality by two-thirds and malnutrition by half among children <5 years of age between 1990 and 2015. Most of the key IYCN topics were addressed in a national policy to combat malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. No national nutrition policy was yet ratified in Chad, so the target of many documents reviewed was the malnourished child. Researchers have identified some barriers to optimal feeding practices. However, the majority of these surveys were small scale, so they do not necessarily provide information relevant to the general population. Expanded surveys would be needed for developing evidence-based educational messages targeted to local needs. Reviewed training materials and related programmes being implemented in Chad

  20. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Chad.

    PubMed

    Wuehler, Sara E; Nadjilem, Djasndibye

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children <5 years of age has been less than needed to achieve related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Therefore, several international agencies joined to 'reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel', starting with an analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The main objectives of the situational analysis are to compile, analyse, and interpret available information on infant and child feeding, and the nutrition situation of children <2 years of age in Chad, as one of the six targeted countries. These findings are available to assist in identifying inconsistencies and filling gaps in current programming. Between June and October of 2008, key informants responsible for IYCN-related activities in Chad were interviewed, and 53 documents were examined on the following themes: the promotion of optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, management of acute malnutrition, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), food security, and promotion of good hygienic practices. Chad is not on track to reaching the MDGs of reducing mortality by two-thirds and malnutrition by half among children <5 years of age between 1990 and 2015. Most of the key IYCN topics were addressed in a national policy to combat malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. No national nutrition policy was yet ratified in Chad, so the target of many documents reviewed was the malnourished child. Researchers have identified some barriers to optimal feeding practices. However, the majority of these surveys were small scale, so they do not necessarily provide information relevant to the general population. Expanded surveys would be needed for developing evidence-based educational messages targeted to local needs. Reviewed training materials and related programmes being implemented in Chad

  1. Mechanism of enhanced antipseudomonal activity of BO-2727, a new injectable 1-beta-methyl carbapenem.

    PubMed Central

    Hazumi, N; Fuse, A; Matsuda, K; Hashizume, T; Sanada, M

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of the enhanced activity of BO-2727 against imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied by using a set of four isogenic strains derived from beta-lactamase-deficient P. aeruginosa PAO4089 (blaJ blaP). Complementation of the blaJ and blaP mutations conferred greater resistance to biapenem, panipenem, and imipenem than to BO-2727 and meropenem, most notably in the outer membrane protein D2-deficient strain. The higher levels of resistance to biapenem, panipenem, and imipenem can be explained by the slow but significant hydrolysis by beta-lactamase, whereas the reduced levels of resistance to BO-2727 and meropenem would be attributable to their stability in the presence of high levels of beta-lactamase and the fact that they cause only low induction of beta-lactamase. It is also noted that the activity of BO-2727 against the beta-lactamase-deficient strain was less affected by the loss of the D2 porin than was that of meropenem, indicating that BO-2727 in comparison with meropenem can overcome an intrinsic resistance caused by the loss of D2. Moreover, comparative in vitro resistance studies have shown that BO-2727 and meropenem selected fewer resistant cells than other carbapenems. In conclusion, BO-2727 exhibited improved activity against imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa, probably because of its ability to overcome loss of the D2 porin and beta-lactamase hydrolysis. PMID:7793876

  2. Trunk and Hip Muscle Activation Patterns Are Different During Walking in Young Children With and Without Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Samuel C.K.; VanSant, Ann F.; Barbe, Mary F.; Lauer, Richard T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Poor control of postural muscles is a primary impairment in people with cerebral palsy (CP). Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the timing characteristics of trunk and hip muscle activity during walking in young children with CP compared with children with typical development (TD). Methods Thirty-one children (16 with TD, 15 with CP) with an average of 28.5 months of walking experience participated in this observational study. Electromyographic data were collected from 16 trunk and hip muscles as participants walked at a self-selected pace. A custom-written computer program determined onset and offset of activity. Activation and coactivation data were analyzed for group differences. Results The children with CP had greater total activation and coactivation for all muscles except the external oblique muscle and differences in the timing of activation for all muscles compared with the TD group. The implications of the observed muscle activation patterns are discussed in reference to existing postural control literature. Limitations The potential influence of recording activity from adjacent deep trunk muscles is discussed, as well as the influence of the use of an assistive device by some children with CP. Conclusions Young children with CP demonstrate excessive, nonreciprocal trunk and hip muscle activation during walking compared with children with TD. Future studies should investigate the efficacy of treatments to reduce excessive muscle activity and improve coordination of postural muscles in CP. PMID:20430948

  3. Exploring and explaining low participation in physical activity among children and young people with asthma: a review

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Brian; Powell, Alison; Hoskins, Gaylor; Neville, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Background Asthma is the most common chronic illness among children and accounts for 1 in 5 of all child GP consultations. This paper reviews and discusses recent literature outlining the growing problem of physical inactivity among young people with asthma and explores the psychosocial dimensions that may explain inactivity levels and potentially relevant interventions and strategies, and the principles that should underpin them. Methods A narrative review based on an extensive and documented search of search of CinAHL, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library. Results & Discussion Children and young people with asthma are generally less active than their non-asthmatic peers. Reduced participation may be influenced by organisational policies, family illness beliefs and behaviours, health care advice, and inaccurate symptom perception and attribution. Schools can be reluctant to encourage children to take part in physical education or normal play activity due to misunderstanding and a lack of clear corporate guidance. Families may accept a child's low level of activity if it is perceived that breathlessness or the need to take extra inhalers is harmful. Many young people themselves appear to accept sub-optimal control of symptoms and frequently misinterpret healthy shortness of breath on exercising with the symptoms of an impending asthma attack. Conclusion A multi-faceted approach is needed to translate the rhetoric of increasing activity levels in young people to the reality of improved fitness. Physical activity leading to improved fitness should become part of a goal orientated management strategy by schools, families, health care professionals and individuals. Exercise induced asthma should be regarded as a marker of poor control and a need to increase fitness rather as an excuse for inactivity. Individuals' perceptual accuracy deserves further research attention. PMID:18590558

  4. Joint positioning sense, perceived force level and two-point discrimination tests of young and active elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Priscila G.; Santos, Karini B.; Rodacki, André L. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in the proprioceptive system are associated with aging. Proprioception is important to maintaining and/or recovering balance and to reducing the risk of falls. Objective: To compare the performance of young and active elderly adults in three proprioceptive tests. Method: Twenty-one active elderly participants (66.9±5.5 years) and 21 healthy young participants (24.6±3.9 years) were evaluated in the following tests: perception of position of the ankle and hip joints, perceived force level of the ankle joint, and two-point discrimination of the sole of the foot. Results: No differences (p>0.05) were found between groups for the joint position and perceived force level. On the other hand, the elderly participants showed lower sensitivity in the two-point discrimination (higher threshold) when compared to the young participants (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Except for the cutaneous plantar sensitivity, the active elderly participants had maintained proprioception. Their physical activity status may explain similarities between groups for the joint position sense and perceived force level, however it may not be sufficient to prevent sensory degeneration with aging. PMID:26443978

  5. Acute genital ulcers in nonsexually active young girls: case series, review of the literature, and evaluation and management recommendations.

    PubMed

    Rosman, Ilana S; Berk, David R; Bayliss, Susan J; White, Andrew J; Merritt, Diane F

    2012-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers rarely occur in nonsexually active young girls. When present, they can cause significant physical and emotional distress for the patient and her parents, and prompt an evaluation for sexual abuse and sexually transmitted diseases. With this review, we aim to further characterize acute genital ulcers in nonsexually active young girls by reviewing the medical records of patients with this disorder and to offer an approach to the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of acute genital ulcers based on our understanding and knowledge of this condition. We retrospectively review our understanding and knowledge of acute genital ulcers in nonsexually active girls at a pediatric hospital. A review of the recent literature on acute genital ulcers and a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of acute genital ulcers are also presented. Twelve patients presented with acute genital ulcers, 11 of which were hospitalized for evaluation and pain management. Extensive work-up failed to reveal a specific infectious or autoimmune etiology in all but one patient, who was diagnosed with acute mycoplasma pneumonia. Acute genital ulcers in nonsexually active young girls likely represent a form of idiopathic vulvar aphthosis. Evaluation of a first episode of acute genital ulcers with mild prodromal symptoms should be limited. Treatment consists primarily of supportive care and symptom relief.

  6. Effect of cadmium injected in ovo on hatching results and the activity of plasma hydrolytic enzymes in newly hatched chicks.

    PubMed

    Dżugan, Małgorzata; Lis, Marcin; Droba, Maria; Niedziółka, Jerzy W

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the toxicity of cadmium ions in chick embryos, using plasma hydrolytic enzyme as its biomarker. Hatching eggs (n = 300) from Ross 308 broilers were incubated under standard conditions. On day 4 of incubation, 50 μl of saline solution, containing Cd ions at a concentration from 0 (control group) to 24 μg, was injected in ovo into the egg albumen. The results indicate that the administration of cadmium at doses exceeding 1 μg/egg caused a gradual decrease in hatchability, with an LD50 of 3.9 μg/egg. The greatest differences between the groups in the enzymatic activities studied were found for N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), β-D-mannosidase (β-MAN) and arylsulphatase (ARYL). Compared to the control group, in the blood serum of chicks from the groups receiving 3, 6 and 12 μg Cd/egg the NAG activity increased by 79, 108 and 54% and β-MAN activity by 33, 119 and 108%, respectively. Exposure to cadmium at a dose of 1 to 6 μg per egg caused an about 60% increase in ARYL activity while a dose of 12 μg decreased the activity by about 35% below the level observed in the control group. These findings show that cadmium has a similar toxicity mechanism in mammals and birds, which opens the possibility of using NAG activity as a biomarker of the cytotoxic effect of cadmium in birds.

  7. Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 (PIC1) Rapidly Inhibits Complement Activation after Intravascular Injection in Rats.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Julia A; Hair, Pamela S; Pallera, Haree K; Kumar, Parvathi S; Mauriello, Clifford T; Nyalwidhe, Julius O; Phelps, Cody A; Park, Dalnam; Thielens, Nicole M; Pascal, Stephen M; Chen, Waldon; Duffy, Diane M; Lattanzio, Frank A; Cunnion, Kenji M; Krishna, Neel K

    2015-01-01

    The complement system has been increasingly recognized to play a pivotal role in a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Consequently, therapeutic modulators of the classical, lectin and alternative pathways of the complement system are currently in pre-clinical and clinical development. Our laboratory has identified a peptide that specifically inhibits the classical and lectin pathways of complement and is referred to as Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 (PIC1). In this study, we determined that the lead PIC1 variant demonstrates a salt-dependent binding to C1q, the initiator molecule of the classical pathway. Additionally, this peptide bound to the lectin pathway initiator molecule MBL as well as the ficolins H, M and L, suggesting a common mechanism of PIC1 inhibitory activity occurs via binding to the collagen-like tails of these collectin molecules. We further analyzed the effect of arginine and glutamic acid residue substitution on the complement inhibitory activity of our lead derivative in a hemolytic assay and found that the original sequence demonstrated superior inhibitory activity. To improve upon the solubility of the lead derivative, a pegylated, water soluble variant was developed, structurally characterized and demonstrated to inhibit complement activation in mouse plasma, as well as rat, non-human primate and human serum in vitro. After intravenous injection in rats, the pegylated derivative inhibited complement activation in the blood by 90% after 30 seconds, demonstrating extremely rapid function. Additionally, no adverse toxicological effects were observed in limited testing. Together these results show that PIC1 rapidly inhibits classical complement activation in vitro and in vivo and is functional for a variety of animal species, suggesting its utility in animal models of classical complement-mediated diseases. PMID:26196285

  8. Observations of the plasma environment during an active ionospheric ion beam injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldy, R. L.; Pollock, C. J.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.; Erlandson, R. E.; Kintner, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    Several sounding rocket flights have been used to clarify the electrodynamics of neutral beam releases of Ar ions in the upper ionosphere, by varying the Ar's point of release with respect to the diagnostic payload. A volume of 10-m radius centered on the Ar release payload is measured for broadband wave activity; the superthermal neutralizing beam electrons become magnetized in this volume for across-field plasma releases, and ambient electrons are accelerated to energies of several hundred eV. This is speculated to be due to wave turbulence rather than payload-neutralization.

  9. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Wuehler, Sara E; Ouedraogo, Albertine Wendpagnagdé

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children < 5 years of age has been less than needed to achieve related Millennium Development Goals. Therefore, several international agencies joined to 'Reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel', starting with an analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The objectives of the present paper are to compare relevant national policies, training materials, programmes, and monitoring and evaluation activities with internationally accepted IYCN recommendations. These findings are available to assist countries in identifying inconsistencies and filling gaps in current programming. Between August and November 2008, key informants responsible for conducting IYCN-related activities in Burkina Faso were interviewed, and 153 documents were examined on the following themes: optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, screening and treatment of acute malnutrition, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, food security and hygienic practices. National policy documents addressed nearly all of the key IYCN topics, specifically or generally. Formative research has identified some local barriers and beliefs related to general breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, and other formative research addressed about half of the IYCN topics included in this review. However, there was little evidence that this formative research was being utilized in developing training materials and designing programme interventions. Nevertheless, the training materials that were reviewed do provide specific guidance for nearly all of the key IYCN topics. Although many of the IYCN programmes are intended for national coverage, we could only confirm with available reports that programme coverage extended to certain regions. Some programme monitoring and evaluation were conducted, but few of these provided

  10. Hepatitis C Virus Quasispecies in HIV-Infected Women: Role of Injecting Drug Use and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)

    PubMed Central

    Laskus, Tomasz; Wilkinson, Jeffrey; Karim, Roksana; Mack, Wendy; Radkowski, Marek; deGiacomo, Marina; Nasseri, Jonathan; Chen, Zhi; Xu, Jiaao; Kovacs, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Despite the high frequency of HCV and HIV coinfection, little is known about HCV quasispecies in HIV-positive patients. The current analysis included 236 HIV+/anti-HCV+ women enrolled in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Hypervariable region 1 of the second envelope gene was analyzed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). The relationship between the HCV quasispecies and clinical and demographic features were analyzed in multivariate models. Age over 40 years and high HCV RNA load were the only factors significantly associated with quasispecies complexity, assessed as the number of SSCP bands. High HIV and HCV plasma loads were associated with quasispecies stability over time, as reflected by stable SSCP band patterns. However, women who were actively injecting drugs were 3 times more likely to experience quasispecies changes than their noninjecting counterparts. No affect on HCV quasi-species dynamics was noted in relation to CD4 count or highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Conclusion: among HIV/HCV coinfected patients, HCV quasispecies complexity and dynamics correlate more closely with HIV and HCV plasma loads than with CD4+ cell counts. Active drug use is associated with quasispecies changes probably due to repeated superinfections with new HCV strains. This needs to be considered when planning treatment and prevention strategies for HCV in coinfected individuals. PMID:17659581

  11. The Impact of Injections of Different Nutrients on the Bacterial Community and Its Dechlorination Activity in Chloroethene-Contaminated Groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Takamasa; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Ito, Masako; Ohji, Shoko; Hosoyama, Akira; Takahata, Yoh; Fujita, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Dehalococcoides spp. are currently the only organisms known to completely reduce cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) to non-toxic ethene. However, the activation of fermenting bacteria that generate acetate, hydrogen, and CO2 is considered necessary to enhance the dechlorination activity of Dehalococcoides and enable the complete dechlorination of chloroethenes. In the present study, we stimulated chloroethene-contaminated groundwater by injecting different nutrients prepared from yeast extract or polylactate ester using a semicontinuous culture system. We then evaluated changes in the bacterial community structure and their relationship with dechlorination activity during the biostimulation. The populations of Dehalococcoides and the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Spirochaetes increased in the yeast extract-amended cultures and chloroethenes were completely dechlorinated. However, the phylum Proteobacteria was dominant in polylactate ester-amended cultures, in which almost no cis-DCE and VC were dechlorinated. These results provide fundamental information regarding possible interactions among bacterial community members involved in the dechlorination process and support the design of successful biostimulation strategies. PMID:25877696

  12. Precueing time but not direction of postural perturbation induces early muscular activation: comparison between young and elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marina Brito; Coelho, Daniel Boari; de Lima-Pardini, Andrea Cristina; Martinelli, Alessandra Rezende; Baptista, Thais da Silva; Ramos, Renato Teodoro; Teixeira, Luis Augusto

    2015-02-19

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of precueing characteristics of an impending perturbation to upright stance on reactive responses of distal leg muscles. Young and older individuals were compared in a task of recovering stable upright stance following rotation of the supporting platform to induce anterior or posterior body sway. Directions of the supporting platform rotation were randomized across trials. Immediately before postural perturbation participants were cued about direction and/or time of platform rotation, or performed the task under directional and temporal uncertainty of the impending perturbation. Results showed that precueing time of perturbation led to earlier muscular activation onset, while precueing perturbation direction did not modulate either latency or magnitude of muscular activation. Those effects were similar between age groups. Our findings suggest that awareness of the perturbation time favored shorter response latencies in both the young and older individuals.

  13. Youth characteristics and contextual variables influencing physical activity in young adolescents of parents with premature coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Gilmer, Mary Jo; Harrell, Joanne S; Miles, Margaret Shandor; Hepworth, Joseph T

    2003-06-01

    This study examined influences on physical activity of young adolescents whose parents have premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Consistent with Bronfenbrenner's theory, the influences examined were personal characteristics of the subjects and selected contextual variables (peers, family, and community). Subjects were 113 youths, aged 11 to 14, 53% boys, 73% Caucasian, all with parents with premature CHD. Children were most likely to be active if their fathers were active, and those living in the coastal region were less likely to be active than other children. Peer influence interacted with both pubertal status and geographic region in its effect on children's activity. Children were more active when they had active peers only when the youth were midpubertal or when they were in the coastal region. Results emphasize the importance of nursing interventions to influence behaviors of these vulnerable children.

  14. Strength of the Archean geomagnetic field and effectiveness of magnetic shielding from the young active Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarduno, J. A.

    2008-05-01

    The strength of Earth's early magnetic field is important for understanding the evolution of the core, surface environment, atmosphere and life. Paleointensity analyses of single silicate crystals indicate that the strength of the geomagnetic field 3.2 billion years ago was within 50% of the modern value (Tarduno et al., 2007), but for even earlier times it is unknown. Two ideas have been offered: (1) the geomagnetic field started shortly after core formation, and the subsequent field strength has been within a factor of 2-3 of the modern value since its initiation; (2) the field was at null values ~3.9 billion years ago and commenced thereafter. The latter scenario relies on a hypothesis to explain the amount and isotopic composition of nitrogen found in soils of the Moon; this lunar nitrogen may have been derived from Earth's atmosphere via the solar wind (Ozima et al., 2005) in the absence of geomagnetic field that would otherwise shield atmospheric erosion. The possibility of a delayed dynamo onset (Labrosse et al., 2007) will be discussed, as will our efforts to address the presence/absence of the geomagnetic field between 3.2 and 3.9 billion years ago using the terrestrial rock record. The available constraints on ancient magnetic shielding will be reviewed in light of the radiation and particle flux associated with the active young Sun. (References: Labrosse et al., A crystallizing dense magma ocean at the base of the Earth's mantle, Nature, 450, 866-868, 2007; Ozima, M., et al., Terrestrial nitrogen and noble gases in lunar soils, Nature, 436, 655-659, 2005; Tarduno, J.A. et al., Geomagnetic field strength 3.2 billion years ago recorded by single silicate crystals, Nature, 446, 657-660, 2007.)

  15. Temperature fluctuations in the lower limbs of young and elderly individuals during activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Borisov, Vladimir V; Lin, David C

    2014-09-01

    Age-related deficiencies in thermoregulation diminish the capacity to defend against heat loss under conditions often encountered during activities of daily living (ADL). A potential consequence of these deficiencies is that elderly individuals could have colder lower limbs, which would exacerbate the age-related decline in plantarflexor contractile properties and compromise recovery from a tripping incident. Moreover, a common self-perception among the elderly is that their limbs are cold. However, this impression has never been documented, especially under ADL conditions. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that elderly individuals have lower plantarflexor temperatures than their younger counterparts. Skin temperatures above the plantarflexors of elderly and young individuals were continuously recorded during ADL in the winter months and compared under three conditions: quiescent indoor temperature, during a cold challenge, and the recovery period subsequent to the cold challenge. For quiescent indoor periods, differences in skin temperature between the two groups were not statistically significant. During cold exposures, both age and exposure duration were statistically significant factors related to the decrease in skin temperature, with the elderly group maintaining warmer temperatures. In the recovery period following short duration cold exposures, a statistically significant difference between the two groups for the decrease in skin temperature persisted for the first 9min of recovery. The results do not support the hypothesis that the lower limbs of elderly participants are colder. Higher limb temperatures observed in elderly participants were consistent with previous studies of age-related thermoregulatory changes, indicating that deficiencies in vasoconstriction are persistent in ADL.

  16. Impact of Inertial Training on Strength and Power Performance in Young Active Men.

    PubMed

    Naczk, Mariusz; Naczk, Alicja; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Adach, Zdzisław

    2016-08-01

    Naczk, M, Naczk, A, Brzenczek-Owczarzak, W, Arlet, J, and Adach, Z. Impact of inertial training on strength and power performance in young active men. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2107-2113, 2016-This study evaluated how 5 weeks of inertial training using 2 different loads influenced strength and power performance. Fifty-eight male physical education students were randomly divided into training and control groups. The 2 training groups (T0 and T10) performed inertial training 3 times per week for 5 weeks using the new Inertial Training and Measurement System (ITMS). Each training session included 3 exercise sets involving the knee extensors muscles. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), whereas the T10 group had an additional 10 kg on the flywheel. Before and after training, we evaluated maximum force and power of knee extensors muscles, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), maximal power output achieved during ergometer test PVT, electromyography of quadriceps, and muscle mass. In T0 and T10, respectively, ITMS training induced significant increases in muscle force (25.2 and 23.3%), muscle power (33.2 and 27%), CMJ (3.8 and 6.7%), SJ (2.2 and 6.1%), PVT (8 and 7.4%), and muscle mass (9.8 and 15%). The changes did not significantly differ between T0 and T10. A 16% significant increase of electromyography amplitude (quadriceps muscle) was noted only in T0. The novel ITMS training method is effective for improving muscular strength and power. Improvements in PVT, CMJ, and SJ indicate that the increased strength and power elicited by ITMS training can translate to improvements in sport performance. The ITMS training can also be useful for building muscle mass. PMID:27457914

  17. Remembering the past and foreseeing the future while dealing with the present: a comparison of young adult and elderly cohorts on a multitask simulation of occupational activities.

    PubMed

    Guimond, Anik; Braun, Claude M J; Rouleau, Isabelle; Bélanger, Francois; Godbout, Lucie

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-five young adult and 38 elderly cybernauts, matched for education, sex, alcohol consumption, and time/day of computer use were compared on a computerized simulation of professional activities of daily living (ADLs). The program quantified performance in terms of speed and accuracy on four major constructs: (1) planning (a 30-item office party script); (2) prospective memory (injections, sleep, phone); (3) working memory (PASAT, D2, and CES analogs); and (4) retrospective memory. Participants had to organize an office party, self inject insulin and go to bed at requisite times of day, do "office work" at unpredictable times of day, and answer the phone that blinked but did not ring (near threshold stimulus). The elderly were markedly and equally impaired on all four constructs (F = 24.3, p < .000). The elderly were also equally and markedly impaired on slave and central executive systems (c.f. Baddeley's model) and on event-based and time-based prospective memory (c.f. McDaniel's model)-findings arguing against a "frontal" model of cognitive decline. This supports Salthouse's concept of a "general factors" decline in normal aging due to diffuse deterioration of the brain. On the other hand, as expected from previous findings, the balance of omissiveness/commissiveness was significantly increased in the elderly sample's error profile. Furthermore, the balance of speed and accuracy was significantly increased in the elderly. This defines limits of the "general factors" model. The elderly also markedly underused a clock icon which had to be clicked on to get the virtual time of day necessary for integrating all the required actions. Prospective memory explained 11% of the aging variance despite partialing out of the three other constructs, making it appear as a golden standard of sensititivity to normal aging-though perhaps provided it be implemented in a distracting, multitask, strategically demanding context.

  18. Recombination activity of light-activated copper defects in p-type silicon studied by injection- and temperature-dependent lifetime spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglese, Alessandro; Lindroos, Jeanette; Vahlman, Henri; Savin, Hele

    2016-09-01

    The presence of copper contamination is known to cause strong light-induced degradation (Cu-LID) in silicon. In this paper, we parametrize the recombination activity of light-activated copper defects in terms of Shockley—Read—Hall recombination statistics through injection- and temperature dependent lifetime spectroscopy (TDLS) performed on deliberately contaminated float zone silicon wafers. We obtain an accurate fit of the experimental data via two non-interacting energy levels, i.e., a deep recombination center featuring an energy level at Ec-Et=0.48 -0.62 eV with a moderate donor-like capture asymmetry ( k =1.7 -2.6 ) and an additional shallow energy state located at Ec-Et=0.1 -0.2 eV , which mostly affects the carrier lifetime only at high-injection conditions. Besides confirming these defect parameters, TDLS measurements also indicate a power-law temperature dependence of the capture cross sections associated with the deep energy state. Eventually, we compare these results with the available literature data, and we find that the formation of copper precipitates is the probable root cause behind Cu-LID.

  19. Hemodynamic actions of systemically injected pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide-27 in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, E. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Lewis, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to characterize the hemodynamic mechanisms underlying the hypotensive effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide-27 (PACAP-27 0.1-2.0 nmol/kg, i.v.) in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, and (2) to determine the roles of the autonomic nervous system, adrenal catecholamines and endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) in the expression of PACAP-27-mediated effects on hemodynamic function. PACAP-27 produced dose-dependent decreases in mean arterial blood pressure and hindquarter and mesenteric vascular resistances in saline-treated rats. PACAP-27 also produced pronounced falls in mean arterial blood pressure in rats treated with the ganglion blocker, chlorisondamine (5 mg/kg, i.v.). The hypotensive and vasodilator actions of PACAP-27 were not attenuated by the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, propranolol (1 mg/kg, i.v.), or the NO synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME 50 micromol/kg, i.v.). PACAP-27 produced dose-dependent increases in heart rate whereas the hypotensive response produced by the nitrovasodilator, sodium nitroprusside (10 microg/kg, i.v.), was associated with a minimal tachycardia. The PACAP-27-induced tachycardia was unaffected by chlorisondamine, but was virtually abolished by propranolol. These results suggest that the vasodilator effects of PACAP-27 are due to actions in the microcirculation rather than to the release of adrenal catecholamines and that this vasodilation may not involve the release of endothelium-derived NO. These results also suggest that PACAP-27 produces tachycardia by directly releasing norepinephrine from cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals rather than by direct or baroreceptor reflex-mediated increases in sympathetic nerve activity.

  20. "Speech in remote areas and inspiration to young students"—An outreach activity for women in physics in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Man-Ling; Guo, Xia; Gu, Dong-Mei; Sun, Xiu-Dong; Feng, Ya-Qing; Zhu, Shao-Ping

    2015-12-01

    The Working Group on Women in Physics of the Chinese Physical Society in Beijing has worked since 2002 to improve the situation of women in physics in China. Because development is not balanced in vast mainland China—remote areas lag behind in education—a new outreach activity, "Speech in Remote Areas and Inspiration to Young Students," was launched in 2013. This program aims to broaden the horizons of students in remote areas and to inspire their exploration and enterprise.

  1. The effect of Clostridium botulinum toxin type A injections on motor unit activity of the deep digital flexor muscle in healthy sound Royal Dutch sport horses.

    PubMed

    Wijnberg, Inge D; Hardeman, Lotte C; van der Meij, Bram R; Veraa, Stefanie; Back, Willem; van der Kolk, Johannes H

    2013-12-01

    Therapeutic reduction of the activity of the deep digital flexor (DDF) muscle may play a role in treatment of laminitic horses. Clostridium botulinum toxin type A induces reduced muscle activity and has a spasmolytic effect in horses. In this study, the effectiveness of 200 IU C. botulinum toxin type A on reduction of DDF muscle activity was measured in seven healthy, sound, adult Royal Dutch sport horses. C. botulinum toxin type A was injected using ultrasound and electromyographic (EMG) guidance. The effectiveness was assessed by interference pattern analysis (IPA) and motor unit action potential (MUAP) analysis. All needle EMG MUAP variables, along with IPA amplitude/turn and turns/s, were significantly reduced after C. botulinum toxin type A injections. The strongest effect occurred within the first 3 days after injection. The reduced muscle induced by C. botulinum toxin type A may have benefits in the treatment of horses with laminitis. PMID:24360760

  2. Factors Associated with Interest in Initiating Treatment for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection among Young HCV-Infected Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Latka, M.; Campbell, J.; O’Driscoll, P. T.; Golub, E. T.; Kapadia, F.; Pollini, R. A.; Garfein, R. S.; Thomas, D. L.; Hagan, H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective We sought to identify factors associated with interest in receiving therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among HCV-infected injection drug users (IDUs) in 3 United States cities. Methods IDUs aged 18–35 years who were HCV-infected and seronegative for human immunodeficiency virus underwent surveys on behaviors, experience, and interest in treatment for HCV infection and readiness to quit drug use. Results Among treatment-naive IDUs (n = 216), 81.5% were interested in treatment for HCV infection, but only 27.3% had seen a health-care provider since receiving a diagnosis of HCV infection. Interest in treatment for HCV infection was greater among IDUs with a high perceived threat of progressive liver disease, those with a usual source of care, those without evidence of alcohol dependence, and those with higher readiness scores for quitting drug use. Interest in treatment for HCV infection was 7-fold higher among IDUs who were told by their health-care provider that they were at risk for cirrhosis or liver cancer. Conclusions Improving provider-patient communication and integrating treatments for substance abuse and HCV may increase the proportion of IDUs who initiate treatment for HCV infection. PMID:15768339

  3. Long-term Results of a First-Generation Annealed Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene in Young, Active Patients.

    PubMed

    Ranawat, Chitranjan S; Ranawat, Amar S; Ramteke, Alankar A; Nawabi, Danyal; Meftah, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    The survivorship of total hip arthroplasty in younger patients is dependent on the wear characteristics of the bearing surfaces. Long-term results with conventional polyethylene in young patients show a high failure rate. This study assessed the long-term results of a first-generation annealed highly cross-linked polyethylene (HCLPE) in uncemented total hip arthroplasty in young, active patients. Between 1999 and 2003, 112 total hip arthroplasty procedures performed in 91 patients with an average University of California Los Angeles activity score of 8 and mean age of 53 years (range, 24-65 years) were included from a prospective database. In all patients, a 28-mm metal femoral head on annealed HCLPE (Crossfire; Stryker, Mahwah, New Jersey) was used. At minimum 10-year follow-up (11.5±0.94 years), Kaplan-Meier survivorship was 97% for all failures (1 periprosthetic infection and 1 late dislocation) and 100% for mechanical failure (no revisions for osteolysis or loosening). This study showed low revision rates for wear-related failure and superior survivorship in young, active patients. Oxidation causing failure of the locking mechanism has not been a problem with Crossfire for up to 10 years. PMID:26811959

  4. A Systematic Review of the Clinimetric Properties of Habitual Physical Activity Measures in Young Children with a Motor Disability

    PubMed Central

    Oftedal, Stina; Bell, Kristie L.; Mitchell, Louise E.; Davies, Peter S. W.; Ware, Robert S.; Boyd, Roslyn N.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To identify and systematically review the clinimetric properties of habitual physical activity (HPA) measures in young children with a motor disability. Method. Five databases were searched for measures of HPA including: children aged <6.0 years with a neuromuscular disorder, physical activity defined as “bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles causing caloric expenditure”, reported HPA as duration, frequency, intensity, mode or energy expenditure, and evaluated clinimetric properties. The quality of papers was assessed using the COSMIN-checklist. A targeted search of identified measures found additional studies of typically developing young children (TDC). Results. Seven papers assessing four activity monitors met inclusion criteria. Four studies were of good methodological quality. The Minimod had good ability to measure continuous walking but the demonstrated poor ability to measure steps during free-living activities. The Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity and Ambulatory Monitoring Pod showed poor ability to measure activity during both continuous walking and free-living activities. The StepWatch showed good ability to measure steps during continuous walking in TDC. Interpretation. Studies assessing the clinimetric properties of measures of HPA in this population are urgently needed to allow assessment of the relationship between HPA and health outcomes in this group. PMID:22927865

  5. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK AND ENTROPY INJECTION IN GALAXY CLUSTER CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, Anya; Majumdar, Subhabrata; Nath, Biman B. E-mail: subha@tifr.res.in

    2013-10-20

    We make the first estimate of non-gravitational energy profiles in galaxy cluster cores (and beyond) based on observational data. Comparing the observed entropy profiles within r{sub 500}, from the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey to simulated base entropy profiles without feedback from both adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) and smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) non-radiative simulations, we estimate the amount of additional non-gravitational energy, E{sub ICM}, contained in the intracluster medium (ICM), as well as the total energy feedback, E{sub Feedback}, from active galactic nuclei (AGNs; the central AGNs in most cases) into the clusters. The total feedback energy scales with the mean spectroscopic temperature as E{sub Feedback}∝T{sub sp}{sup 2.52±0.08} and E{sub Feedback}∝T{sub sp}{sup 2.17±0.11} for the SPH and AMR baseline profiles. The mean non-gravitational energy per particle within r{sub 500} remaining in the ICM after energy lost during cooling is ε{sub ICM} = 2.8 ± 0.8 keV for the SPH theoretical relation and ε{sub ICM} = 1.7 ± 0.9 keV for the AMR theoretical relation. We use the NRAO/VLA Sky Survey source catalog to determine the radio luminosity, L{sub R} , at 1.4 GHz of the central source(s) of our sample. For T{sub sp} > 3 keV, the E{sub Feedback} correlates with L{sub R} , although with different normalization for cool-core and non-cool-core clusters. We show that AGNs could provide a significant portion of the feedback.

  6. Paper 58714 - Exploring activated faults hydromechanical processes from semi-controled field injection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, Y.; Cappa, F.; Nussbaum, C.

    2015-12-01

    The appreciation of the sensitivity of fractures and fault zones to fluid-induced-deformations in the subsurface is a key question in predicting the reservoir/caprock system integrity around fluid manipulations with applications to reservoir leakage and induced seismicity. It is also a question of interest in understanding earthquakes source, and recently the hydraulic behavior of clay faults under a potential reactivation around nuclear underground depository sites. Fault and fractures dynamics studies face two key problems (1) the up-scaling of laboratory determined properties and constitutive laws to the reservoir scale which is not straightforward when considering faults and fractures heterogeneities, (2) the difficulties to control both the induced seismicity and the stimulated zone geometry when a fault is reactivated. Using instruments dedicated to measuring coupled pore pressures and deformations downhole, we conducted field academic experiments to characterize fractures and fault zones hydromechanical properties as a function of their multi-scale architecture, and to monitor their dynamic behavior during the earthquake nucleation process. We show experiments on reservoir or cover rocks analogues in underground research laboratories where experimental conditions can be optimized. Key result of these experiments is to highlight how important the aseismic fault activation is compared to the induced seismicity. We show that about 80% of the fault kinematic moment is aseismic and discuss the complex associated fault friction coefficient variations. We identify that the slip stability and the slip velocity are mainly controlled by the rate of the permeability/porosity increase, and discuss the conditions for slip nucleation leading to seismic instability.

  7. Treatment with protein kinase C activator is effective for improvement of male pronucleus formation and further embryonic development of sperm-injected oocytes in pigs.

    PubMed

    Nakai, M; Ito, J; Kashiwazaki, N; Men, N T; Tanihara, F; Noguchi, J; Kaneko, H; Onishi, A; Kikuchi, K

    2016-03-01

    To assist the process of oocyte activation, which is essential for promotion of fertilization events, i.e., resumption of meiosis, extrusion of the second polar body and formation of the pronucleus (PN), artificial stimuli such as an electrical pulse have been applied to porcine oocytes after injection of sperm. However, the efficiency of fertilization and embryonic development remains low. It is well known that in vertebrates, inactivation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase is required for oocyte activation. We have hypothesized that even after electrical stimulation of sperm-injected oocytes, MAP kinase may not be inactivated. As it has been reported that MAP kinase activity is regulated by protein kinase C, we examined the effectiveness of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a protein kinase C activator, for improvement of fertilization and embryonic development of sperm-injected porcine oocytes. First, we examined the concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 μM) and durations (0, 1, 3, 5 hours) of PMA treatment that were efficient for the extrusion of two polar bodies and formation of two PNs (2PB+2PN) and embryonic development. When the sperm-injected oocytes were treated with 0.01-μM PMA for 3 hours after electrical stimulation, the rates of 2PB+2PN and embryonic development were higher than those in the other treatment groups. We then examined the effect of PMA treatment (0.01 μM, 3 hours) on MAP kinase activity. Unexpectedly, after electrical stimulation, the activity remained low until PN formation, irrespective of whether or not the oocytes had been treated with PMA. On the other hand, transformation of the injected sperm nucleus into the male PN was accelerated after the PMA treatment. Our present results suggest that the low efficiency of fertilization and embryonic development in sperm-injected oocytes is not due to high activity of MAP kinase but due to poor transformation of the injected sperm nucleus into the male PN. Furthermore, a

  8. Storage stability and antibacterial activity of eugenol nanoliposomes prepared by an ethanol injection-dynamic high-pressure microfluidization method.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shengfeng; Zou, Liqiang; Liu, Wei; Gan, Lu; Liu, Weilin; Liang, Ruihong; Liu, Chengmei; Niu, Jing; Cao, Yanlin; Liu, Zhen; Chen, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Eugenol is a major phenolic component with diverse biological activities. However, it is difficult to formulate into an aqueous solution due to poor water solubility, and this limits its application. In the present study, eugenol nanoliposomes (EN) were prepared by combining the ethanol injection method with the dynamic high-pressure microfluidization method. Good physicochemical characterizations of EN were obtained. The successful encapsulation of eugenol in nanoliposomes was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A good storage stability of EN was confirmed by its low variation of average particle diameter and encapsulation efficiency after 8 weeks of storage. No oil drops were found in EN after 8 weeks of storage at 4°C and at room temperature, which suggested that the poor water solubility of eugenol was overcome by nanoliposome encapsulation. Compared with that of eugenol solution, a relatively good sustained release property was observed in EN. The antibacterial activity of EN against four common foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes) was evaluated in both Luria broth and milk medium.

  9. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Gerber, Markus; Kalak, Nadeem; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Calabrese, Pasquale; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA) at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT) as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD), and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females), 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females), and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females) took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy adolescents and healthy young adults, and equivalent levels of moderate-intensity PA and SD as young adults. MS patients reported lower levels of vigorous PA compared to both healthy adolescents and young adults. Conclusion The pattern of the results of the present study suggests that the onset of MS is not associated with poor MT, poor sleep, or reduced moderate-intensity PA. Lower levels of vigorous PA were observed in MS patients. Low levels of vigorous PA may lead to decreased cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with MS and, in the long run, to reduced cardiovascular health and degraded psychological functioning. PMID:27390520

  10. Young Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoogd, Glenn, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers focusing on contexts and activities in which teachers can use technology to promote learning with young children: (1) "Read, Write and Click: Using Digital Camera Technology in a Language Arts and Literacy K-5 Classroom" (Judith F. Robbins and Jacqueline Bedell); (2) "Technology for the Tiny: Educational…

  11. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity.

  12. Muscle fiber conduction velocity and fractal dimension of EMG during fatiguing contraction of young and elderly active men.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Gennaro; Dardanello, Davide; Beretta-Piccoli, Matteo; Cescon, Corrado; Coratella, Giuseppe; Rinaldo, Nicoletta; Barbero, Marco; Lanza, Massimo; Schena, Federico; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, linear and nonlinear surface electromyography (EMG) variables highlighting different components of fatigue have been developed. In this study, we tested fractal dimension (FD) and conduction velocity (CV) rate of changes as descriptors, respectively, of motor unit synchronization and peripheral manifestations of fatigue. Sixteen elderly (69  ±  4 years) and seventeen young (23  ±  2 years) physically active men (almost 3-5 h of physical activity per week) executed one knee extensor contraction at 70% of a maximal voluntary contraction for 30 s. Muscle fiber CV and FD were calculated from the multichannel surface EMG signal recorded from the vastus lateralis and medialis muscles. The main findings were that the two groups showed a similar rate of change of CV, whereas FD rate of change was higher in the young than in the elderly group. The trends were the same for both muscles. CV findings highlighted a non-different extent of peripheral manifestations of fatigue between groups. Nevertheless, FD rate of change was found to be steeper in the elderly than in the young, suggesting a greater increase in motor unit synchronization with ageing. These findings suggest that FD analysis could be used as a complementary variable providing further information on central mechanisms with respect to CV in fatiguing contractions.

  13. Glutathione S-transferase activities in African catfish injected with β-naphthoflavone: effects of ploidy, gender, dose, and sampling time.

    PubMed

    Karami, A; Courtenay, S C

    2015-11-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are considered among the most controversial biomarkers of water pollutants in fish with little known about factors influencing their activities. The objective of this study was to investigate how gender, dose, ploidy, and sampling time alter hepatic GST activities in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) following β-naphthoflavone (β-NF) injection. Newly matured male and female diploid and triploid fish were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 0, 15, or 75 mg/kg of β-NF, and livers were excised 24, 48, and 72 h post-injection. Results showed that hepatic GST activities were significantly inhibited by both doses of β-NF. Inhibition was greater in females than males, but no significant differences were observed between diploid and triploid fish. Enzymatic activities differed over time with lowest levels 72 h post-injection. These results extend our understanding of GST activity in fish and highlight the necessity of considering confounding factors when comparing different studies.

  14. Glutathione S-transferase activities in African catfish injected with β-naphthoflavone: effects of ploidy, gender, dose, and sampling time.

    PubMed

    Karami, A; Courtenay, S C

    2015-11-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are considered among the most controversial biomarkers of water pollutants in fish with little known about factors influencing their activities. The objective of this study was to investigate how gender, dose, ploidy, and sampling time alter hepatic GST activities in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) following β-naphthoflavone (β-NF) injection. Newly matured male and female diploid and triploid fish were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 0, 15, or 75 mg/kg of β-NF, and livers were excised 24, 48, and 72 h post-injection. Results showed that hepatic GST activities were significantly inhibited by both doses of β-NF. Inhibition was greater in females than males, but no significant differences were observed between diploid and triploid fish. Enzymatic activities differed over time with lowest levels 72 h post-injection. These results extend our understanding of GST activity in fish and highlight the necessity of considering confounding factors when comparing different studies. PMID:26452505

  15. 1-2-3 Blocks: Beginning Block Activities for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Evelyn

    This book discusses ways that blocks can be used with young children to help them develop different intellectual, motor, and social skills. The book is divided into four sections organized by block type: (1) unit blocks; (2) hollow blocks; (3) table blocks; and (4) homemade blocks. Each section describes the block type, gives reasons for using the…

  16. Inventing Songs, Inventing Worlds: The "Genesis" of Creative Thought and Activity in Young Children's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Margaret S.

    2006-01-01

    This article draws on systems views of creativity and their application in music education, to argue that young children's independent invented song making evolves from their early musico-communicative interaction with others, is evidential of their capacity for "elaboration," and is foundational in the development of creative thought and activity…

  17. Taking Science Home: Connecting Schools and Families through Science Activity Packs for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhart, Meredith; Bloomquist, Debra; Strickler-Eppard, Lacey; Czerniak, Charlene M.; Gilbert, Amanda; Kaderavek, Joan; Molitor, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    A Framework for K-12 Science Education indicates that introducing young children to scientific and engineering practices, core disciplinary ideas, and crosscutting concepts during the early years is essential for the development of conceptual understanding in science. Unfortunately, science is infrequently included in preschool and primary…

  18. MEASURING EXCESS DIETARY EXPOSURES CAUSED BY EATING ACTIVITIES OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A small, pilot field study was conducted to measure dietary exposures of young children which included contamination of foods while eating. Samples were collected to estimate the amount of a pesticide recently applied within the home which was transferred from contaminated surfa...

  19. OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... onabotulinumtoxinA injection may cause loss of strength or muscle weakness all over the body or impaired vision. If you have any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.

  20. AbobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... abobotulinumtoxinA injection may cause loss of strength or muscle weakness all over the body; blurred vision; or drooping eyelids. If you have any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.

  1. IncobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... incobotulinumtoxinA injection may cause loss of strength or muscle weakness all over the body or impaired vision. If you have any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.if ...

  2. RimabotulinumtoxinB Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... rimabotulinumtoxinB injection may cause loss of strength or muscle weakness all over the body or impaired vision. If you have any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.

  3. Supplementation of Bifidobacterium longum to a high-fat, low-calcium diet lowers cytolytic activity of fecal water in rats injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Oda, T; Seto, Y; Hashiba, H

    1998-02-01

    The effects of supplementing Bifidobacterium longum SBT 2928 and Lactobacillus acidophilus SBT 2062 to a high-fat, low-calcium diet on bile acid concentration, fatty acid concentration, cytolytic activity and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of fecal water in rats injected with and without 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were examined. Male Wistar rats at 8 weeks of age were fed a diet containing 18% coconut oil, 2% corn oil and 0.1% calcium for 15 d. Lyophilized cultures were supplemented to test diets at a concentration of 1%. The feeding of a high-fat, low-calcium diet elevated the bile acid concentration, cytolytic activity and ALP activity of fecal water as compared to the AIN-76A diet, whereas the fatty acid concentration was not changed. None of the cultures had any effect on these parameters. Furthermore, 8 week-old rats were given a single subcutaneous injection of DMH at 40 mg/kg body weight, and fed the same diets for 15 d. The DMH injection had no effect on the bile acid concentration but increased the fatty acid concentration and cytolytic activity of fecal water. In contrast, ALP activity was lower in the DMH-treated rats than in the non-treated rats. The ingestion of B. longum lowered cytolytic activity but had no effect on the bile acids, fatty acids and ALP activity of fecal water. L. acidophilus had no effect on these parameters. PMID:9591245

  4. Report on the activities of the ESHRE Task Force on intracytoplasmic sperm injection. European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    PubMed

    Tarlatzis, B C

    1996-12-01

    The application of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is rapidly becoming more popular around the world. The European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) Task Force is aiming to collect annually the clinical results and the pregnancy outcomes of ICSI using ejaculated, epididymal and testicular spermatozoa to enable the provision of reliable information on the efficacy and safety of this novel technique. This review summarizes the activities of the ESHRE Task Force on ICSI during the last 2 years. The number of centres performing ICSI as well as the number of ICSI cycles increased significantly from 1993 to 1994. The incidence of oocytes damaged by the procedure was low (7.2-10.6%), whereas the fertilization rate achieved with ejaculated, epididymal and testicular spermatozoa was high (51.1-60.8%), even with extremely impaired semen quality. Thus, 89-93% of patients had an embryo transfer and 21-31% of them achieved a viable pregnancy, irrespective of the origin of the spermatozoon. ICSI results were similar in 1993 and 1994. The follow-up of children born after ICSI revealed no increase in the incidence of major congenital malformations or chromosomal aberrations. These findings are quite reassuring, although the numbers are still too few. Therefore, efforts need to be continued to enhance the database and thus provide a reliable assessment of this new treatment modality.

  5. Vasorelaxant activities of Danhong injection and their differential effects on the rat abdominal aorta and mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Su, Xianming; Zhi, Xiaowen; Cui, Ting; Zheng, Qiaowei; Wang, Shixiang; Cao, Yongxiao; Cui, Changcong; Feng, Weiyi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have found that Danhong injection (DHI), an extensively used herbal extract preparation in China, might be a powerful vasodilator. The aims of this study were to determine the vascular activity of DHI and its effects on arteries of different sizes. The results showed that DHI significantly inhibited rat-hindquarters and rabbit-ear vasoconstriction elicited by norepinephrine (NE) perfusion and markedly relaxed KCl-contracted and NE-contracted rat abdominal aortic and mesenteric artery rings. The endothelium made only a minor contribution to the vasorelaxant effect of DHI on artery segments. The vasorelaxant effect of DHI varied with the artery size, with larger arteries exhibiting a more sensitive and potent vasodilator response. DHI relaxed NE-induced vasoconstriction probably through inhibition of the intracellular Ca2+ release through the inositol triphosphate receptor system in the abdominal aorta and mesenteric artery, along with blockage of extracellular Ca2+ influx through the receptor-linked Ca2+ channels in the mesenteric artery. In addition, DHI completely relaxed KCl-induced contraction in both of the arteries, suggesting that inhibition of Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is involved in the vasorelaxant effect of DHI. This elucidation of the vascular effects of DHI and the underlying mechanisms could lead to improved clinical applications.

  6. Successful childbirth after intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection without assisted oocyte activation in a patient with globozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Sermondade, N; Hafhouf, E; Dupont, C; Bechoua, S; Palacios, C; Eustache, F; Poncelet, C; Benzacken, B; Lévy, R; Sifer, C

    2011-11-01

    We here report a successful pregnancy and healthy childbirth obtained in a case of total globozoospermia after intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) without assisted oocyte activation (AOA). Two semen analyses showed 100% globozoospermia on classic spermocytogram. Motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) analysis at ×10,000 magnification confirmed the round-headed aspect for 100% of sperm cells, but 1% of the spermatozoa seemed to present a small bud of acrosome. This particular aspect was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and anti-CD46 staining analysis. Results from sperm DNA fragmentation and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses were normal. The karyotype was 46XY, and no mutations or deletions in SPATA16 and DPY19L2 genes were detected. Considering these results, a single IMSI cycle was performed, and spermatozoa were selected for the absence of vacuoles and the presence of a small bud of acrosome. A comparable fertilization rate with or without calcium-ionophore AOA was observed. Two fresh top-quality embryos obtained without AOA were transferred at Day 2 after IMSI, leading to pregnancy and birth of a healthy baby boy. This successful outcome suggests that MSOME may be useful in cases of globozoospermia in order to carefully evaluate sperm morphology and to maximize the benefit of ICSI/IMSI.

  7. DOE/NETL's phase II mercury control technology field testing program: preliminary economic analysis of activated carbon injection.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew P; Hoffmann, Jeffrey W; Smith, Dennis N; Feeley, Thomas J; Murphy, James T

    2007-02-15

    Based on results of field testing conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), this article provides preliminary costs for mercury control via conventional activated carbon injection (ACI), brominated ACI, and conventional ACI coupled with the application of a sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) to coal prior to combustion. The economic analyses are reported on a plant-specific basis in terms of the cost required to achieve low (50%), mid (70%), and high (90%) levels of mercury removal "above and beyond" the baseline mercury removal achieved by existing emission control equipment. In other words, the levels of mercury control are directly attributable to ACI. Mercury control costs via ACI have been amortized on a current dollar basis. Using a 20-year book life, levelized costs for the incremental increase in cost of electricity (COE), expressed in mills per kilowatt-hour (mills/kWh), and the incremental cost of mercury control, expressed in dollars per pound of mercury removed ($/lb Hg removed), have been calculated for each level of ACI mercury control. For this analysis, the increase in COE varied from 0.14 mills/kWh to 3.92 mills/kWh. Meanwhile, the incremental cost of mercury control ranged from $3810/lb Hg removed to $166000/lb Hg removed.

  8. DOE/NETL's phase II mercury control technology field testing program: preliminary economic analysis of activated carbon injection.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew P; Hoffmann, Jeffrey W; Smith, Dennis N; Feeley, Thomas J; Murphy, James T

    2007-02-15

    Based on results of field testing conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), this article provides preliminary costs for mercury control via conventional activated carbon injection (ACI), brominated ACI, and conventional ACI coupled with the application of a sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) to coal prior to combustion. The economic analyses are reported on a plant-specific basis in terms of the cost required to achieve low (50%), mid (70%), and high (90%) levels of mercury removal "above and beyond" the baseline mercury removal achieved by existing emission control equipment. In other words, the levels of mercury control are directly attributable to ACI. Mercury control costs via ACI have been amortized on a current dollar basis. Using a 20-year book life, levelized costs for the incremental increase in cost of electricity (COE), expressed in mills per kilowatt-hour (mills/kWh), and the incremental cost of mercury control, expressed in dollars per pound of mercury removed ($/lb Hg removed), have been calculated for each level of ACI mercury control. For this analysis, the increase in COE varied from 0.14 mills/kWh to 3.92 mills/kWh. Meanwhile, the incremental cost of mercury control ranged from $3810/lb Hg removed to $166000/lb Hg removed. PMID:17593743

  9. Modified constraint-induced movement therapy or bimanual occupational therapy following injection of Botulinum toxin-A to improve bimanual performance in young children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a randomised controlled trial methods paper

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Use of Botulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A) for treatment of upper limb spasticity in children with cerebral palsy has become routine clinical practice in many paediatric treatment centres worldwide. There is now high-level evidence that upper limb BoNT-A injection, in combination with occupational therapy, improves outcomes in children with cerebral palsy at both the body function/structure and activity level domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Investigation is now required to establish what amount and specific type of occupational therapy will further enhance functional outcomes and prolong the beneficial effects of BoNT-A. Methods/Design A randomised, controlled, evaluator blinded, prospective parallel-group trial. Eligible participants were children aged 18 months to 6 years, diagnosed with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy and who were able to demonstrate selective motor control of the affected upper limb. Both groups received upper limb injections of BoNT-A. Children were randomised to either the modified constraint-induced movement therapy group (experimental) or bimanual occupational therapy group (control). Outcome assessments were undertaken at pre-injection and 1, 3 and 6 months following injection of BoNT-A. The primary outcome measure was the Assisting Hand Assessment. Secondary outcomes included: the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test; Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory; Canadian Occupational Performance Measure; Goal Attainment Scaling; Pediatric Motor Activity Log; modified Ashworth Scale and; the modified Tardieu Scale. Discussion The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology of a randomised controlled trial comparing the effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (a uni-manual therapy) versus bimanual occupational therapy (a bimanual therapy) on improving bimanual upper limb performance of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy following upper limb injection of Bo

  10. The Healing Effects of Aquatic Activities and Allogenic Injection of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) on Injuries of Achilles Tendon in Experimental Rat

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Hamid; Sheikhani Shahin, Homa; Norouzian, Manijeh; Mehrabani, Davood; Dehghani Nazhvani, Seifollah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Clinical tendon injuries represent serious and unresolved issues of the case on how the injured tendons could be improved based on natural structure and mechanical strength. The aim of this studies the effect of aquatic activities and alogenic platelet rich plasma (PRP) injection in healing Achilles tendons of rats. METHODS Forty rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups. Seventy two hours after a crush lesion on Achilles tendon, group 1 underwent aquatic activity for 8 weeks (five sessions per week), group 2 received intra-articular PRP (1 ml), group 3 had aquatic activity together with injection PRP injection after an experimental tendon injury, group 4 did not receive any treatment after tendon injury and the control group with no tendon injuries. of 32 rats. After 8 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the tendons were transferred in 10% formalin for histological evaluation. RESULTS There was a significant increase in number of fibroblast and cellular density, and collagen deposition in group 3 comparing to other groups denoting to an effective healing in injured tendons. However, there was no significant difference among the studied groups based on their tendons diameter. CONCLUSION Based on our findings on the number of fibroblast, cellular density, collagen deposition, and tendon diameter, it was shown that aquatic activity together with PRP injection was the therapeutic measure of choice enhance healing in tendon injuries that can open a window in treatment of damages to tendons. PMID:25606479

  11. Intra-Amygdala ZIP Injections Impair the Memory of Learned Active Avoidance Responses and Attenuate Conditioned Taste-Aversion Acquisition in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of protein kinase Mzeta (PKM[zeta]) inhibition in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) upon the retention of a nonspatial learned active avoidance response and conditioned taste-aversion (CTA) acquisition in rats. ZIP (10 nmol/[mu]L) injected into the BLA 24 h after training impaired retention of a learned…

  12. Assessment of PCDD/F and PBDD/F Emissions from Coal-fired Power Plants during Injection of Brominated Activated Carbon for Mercury Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of the injection of brominated powdered activated carbon (Br-PAC) on the emission of brominated and chlorinated dioxins and furans in coal combustion flue gas has been evaluated. The tests were performed at two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) demonstration sites where ...

  13. Peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst prevents matrix metalloproteinase-9 activation and neurovascular injury after hemoglobin injection into the caudate nucleus of rats.

    PubMed

    Ding, R; Feng, L; He, L; Chen, Y; Wen, P; Fu, Z; Lin, C; Yang, S; Deng, X; Zeng, J; Sun, G

    2015-06-25

    Hemoglobin (Hb) is a major constituent of blood and a potent mediator of oxidative or nitrative stress after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Our previous study demonstrated that Hb could induce abundant peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) formation in vivo, which may be involved in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, however, the drug intervention is absent and also the underlying mechanism. Using an experimental stroke model by injecting Hb into the caudate nucleus of male Sprague-Dawley rats, we assessed the role of ONOO(-) decomposition catalyst, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrinato iron(III) [FeTPPS] in the activation of MMP-9 and Hb-induced neurovascular injuries. 3-Nitrotyrosine (3-NT, as an index of ONOO(-) formation) and NF-κB expression was measured by western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC)/immunofluorescence (IF). Activity of MMP was evaluated by in situ zymography. Neurovascular injury was assessed using zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) by WB and IF, fibronectin (FN) and neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN) IHC. Perihematomal cell death was determined by TUNEL assay. Behavioral outcome was measured by modified neurological severity score (mNSS) test. At the injured striata, profuse 3-NT was produced and mainly expressed in neutrophils and microglia/macrophages. 3-NT formation significantly colocalized with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression. In situ zymography showed that gelatinase activity was mostly co-localized with neurons and blood vessel walls and partly with neutrophils and microglia/macrophages. Enhanced 3-NT production, NF-κB induction and MMP-9 activation were obviously reduced after FeTPPS treatment. Hb-induced injury to tight junction protein (ZO-1), basal lamina of FN-immunopositive microvasculature and neural cells was evidently ameliorated by FeTPPS. In addition, apoptotic cell numbers as well as behavioral deficits were also improved. The present study shows that the administration of the ONOO(-) decomposition

  14. Triptorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... response to triptorelin injection. Your blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) should be checked regularly.Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about triptorelin injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and ...

  15. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... response to leuprolide injection. Your blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) should be checked regularly.Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about leuprolide injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and ...

  16. Acute Carnosine Administration Increases Respiratory Chain Complexes and Citric Acid Cycle Enzyme Activities in Cerebral Cortex of Young Rats.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Levy W; Cararo, José H; Maravai, Soliany G; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Guerra Martinez, Camila; Kurtenbach, Eleonora; Bogo, Maurício R; Hipkiss, Alan R; Streck, Emilio L; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C

    2016-10-01

    Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is an imidazole dipeptide synthesized in excitable tissues of many animals, whose biochemical properties include carbonyl scavenger, anti-oxidant, bivalent metal ion chelator, proton buffer, and immunomodulating agent, although its precise physiological role(s) in skeletal muscle and brain tissues in vivo remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo effects of acute carnosine administration on various aspects of brain bioenergetics of young Wistar rats. The activity of mitochondrial enzymes in cerebral cortex was assessed using a spectrophotometer, and it was found that there was an increase in the activities of complexes I-III and II-III and succinate dehydrogenase in carnosine-treated rats, as compared to vehicle-treated animals. However, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) data on mRNA levels of mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins (nuclear respiratory factor 1 (Nrf1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α (Ppargc1α), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam)) were not altered significantly and therefore suggest that short-term carnosine administration does not affect mitochondrial biogenesis. It was in agreement with the finding that immunocontent of respiratory chain complexes was not altered in animals receiving carnosine. These observations indicate that acute carnosine administration increases the respiratory chain and citric acid cycle enzyme activities in cerebral cortex of young rats, substantiating, at least in part, a neuroprotector effect assigned to carnosine against oxidative-driven disorders. PMID:26476839

  17. Acute Carnosine Administration Increases Respiratory Chain Complexes and Citric Acid Cycle Enzyme Activities in Cerebral Cortex of Young Rats.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Levy W; Cararo, José H; Maravai, Soliany G; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Guerra Martinez, Camila; Kurtenbach, Eleonora; Bogo, Maurício R; Hipkiss, Alan R; Streck, Emilio L; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C

    2016-10-01

    Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is an imidazole dipeptide synthesized in excitable tissues of many animals, whose biochemical properties include carbonyl scavenger, anti-oxidant, bivalent metal ion chelator, proton buffer, and immunomodulating agent, although its precise physiological role(s) in skeletal muscle and brain tissues in vivo remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo effects of acute carnosine administration on various aspects of brain bioenergetics of young Wistar rats. The activity of mitochondrial enzymes in cerebral cortex was assessed using a spectrophotometer, and it was found that there was an increase in the activities of complexes I-III and II-III and succinate dehydrogenase in carnosine-treated rats, as compared to vehicle-treated animals. However, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) data on mRNA levels of mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins (nuclear respiratory factor 1 (Nrf1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α (Ppargc1α), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam)) were not altered significantly and therefore suggest that short-term carnosine administration does not affect mitochondrial biogenesis. It was in agreement with the finding that immunocontent of respiratory chain complexes was not altered in animals receiving carnosine. These observations indicate that acute carnosine administration increases the respiratory chain and citric acid cycle enzyme activities in cerebral cortex of young rats, substantiating, at least in part, a neuroprotector effect assigned to carnosine against oxidative-driven disorders.

  18. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  19. Electrochemical flow injection analysis of hydrazine in an excess of an active pharmaceutical ingredient: achieving pharmaceutical detection limits electrochemically.

    PubMed

    Channon, Robert B; Joseph, Maxim B; Bitziou, Eleni; Bristow, Anthony W T; Ray, Andrew D; Macpherson, Julie V

    2015-10-01

    The quantification of genotoxic impurities (GIs) such as hydrazine (HZ) is of critical importance in the pharmaceutical industry in order to uphold drug safety. HZ is a particularly intractable GI and its detection represents a significant technical challenge. Here, we present, for the first time, the use of electrochemical analysis to achieve the required detection limits by the pharmaceutical industry for the detection of HZ in the presence of a large excess of a common active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), acetaminophen (ACM) which itself is redox active, typical of many APIs. A flow injection analysis approach with electrochemical detection (FIA-EC) is utilized, in conjunction with a coplanar boron doped diamond (BDD) microband electrode, insulated in an insulating diamond platform for durability and integrated into a two piece flow cell. In order to separate the electrochemical signature for HZ such that it is not obscured by that of the ACM (present in excess), the BDD electrode is functionalized with Pt nanoparticles (NPs) to significantly shift the half wave potential for HZ oxidation to less positive potentials. Microstereolithography was used to fabricate flow cells with defined hydrodynamics which minimize dispersion of the analyte and optimize detection sensitivity. Importantly, the Pt NPs were shown to be stable under flow, and a limit of detection of 64.5 nM or 0.274 ppm for HZ with respect to the ACM, present in excess, was achieved. This represents the first electrochemical approach which surpasses the required detection limits set by the pharmaceutical industry for HZ detection in the presence of an API and paves the wave for online analysis and application to other GI and API systems. PMID:26302058

  20. Formal and informal organizational activities of people who inject drugs in New York City: Description and correlates

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Samuel R.; Pouget, Enrique R.; Sandoval, Milagros; Jones, Yolanda; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about group memberships of people who inject drugs. Methods We interviewed 300 injectors about formal and informal group participation and risk behaviors. Results Many took part in groups related to problems and resources associated with injecting drugs, religion, sports or gender. Harm reduction group and support group participation was associated with less risk behavior; sports groups participation with more risk behavior. Discussion Group involvement by people who inject drugs may be important to their lives and/or affect prevention or infectious disease transmission. More research is needed about determinants and consequences of their and other drug users’ group memberships. PMID:25774744