Sorbring, Emma; Hallberg, Jonas; Bohlin, Margareta; Skoog, Therése
Parental attitudes towards young people's sexuality in traditional (i.e. non-online media) settings have been associated with young people's sexual activities. In this study, we explored the association between key parent and youth characteristics and parental attitudes towards young people's online sexual activities. We also examined the…
Do young people really take a particular interest in environmental issues, or are they apathetic? This paper considers what young people really think about the environment by drawing together and reviewing attitudinal polling and other research into young people's views. It seeks to challenge simplistic assumptions, and instead acknowledges the…
Gibson, Barbara E; King, Gillian; Teachman, Gail; Mistry, Bhavnita; Hamdani, Yani
Rehabilitation research investigating activity participation has been largely conducted in a realist tradition that under-theorises the relationship between persons, technologies, and socio-material places. In this Canadian study we used a post-critical approach to explore activity/setting participation with 19 young people aged 14 to 23 years with complex communication and/or mobility impairments. Methods included integrated photo-elicitation, interviews, and participant observations of community-based activities. We present our results using the conceptual lens of assemblages to surface how different combinations of bodies, social meanings, and technologies enabled or constrained particular activities. Assemblages were analysed in terms of how they organised what was possible and practical for participants and their families in different contexts. The results illuminate how young people negotiated activity needs and desires in particular 'spacings' each with its own material, temporal, and social constraints and affordances. The focus on assemblages provides a dynamic analysis of how dis/abilities are enacted in and across geotemporal spaces, and avoids a reductive focus on evaluating the accessibility of static environmental features. In doing so the study reveals possible 'lines of flight' for healthcare, rehabilitation, and social care practices.
Government and educational priorities place importance on young people of secondary school age being active, having their voices heard, and participating in their community. This paper explores an understanding of the role of agency in young people's lives and how the concept is developing. Young people who perceive themselves as having agency may…
Orlin, Margo N.; Palisano, Robert J.; Chiarello, Lisa A.; Kang, Lin-Ju; Polansky, Marcia; Almasri, Nihad; Maggs, Jill
Aim: Participation in home, extracurricular, and community activities is a desired outcome of rehabilitation services for children and young people with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of age and gross motor function on participation among children and young people with CP. Method: Five hundred…
Jessup, Glenda M.; Cornell, Elaine; Bundy, Anita C.
Because leisure activities are often viewed as optional, their value to people with disabilities may not be recognized. This study explored the benefits of leisure activities for eight young people who are blind. These activities provided them with supportive relationships, a desirable identity, experiences of power and control, and experiences of…
Alesi, Marianna; Pepi, Annamaria
Background: Despite the wide documentation of the physical/psychological benefits derived from regular physical activity (PA), high levels of inactivity are reported among people with Down syndrome. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 parents of young people with Down syndrome. Results Three facilitation themes were…
McEvoy, Eileen; MacPhail, Ann; Enright, Eimear
Through an examination of the experiences of young people in one disadvantaged area, this paper adds to an emerging body of knowledge focused on what place physical activity occupies in the lives of young people in areas of disadvantage. A total of 40 young people (21 males, 19 females) participated in focus group interviews. The research question…
Coe, Anna-Britt; Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastian, Miguel
While social movement research employs "tactical repertoire" to emphasize protest tactics directed at the state, literature on youth activism globally indicates that young people do politics outside the realm of formal political spheres. Youth activism on body politics in Latin America offers evidence that enhances conceptual tools…
Boddy, Lynne M.; Downs, Samantha J.; Knowles, Zoe R.; Fairclough, Stuart J.
The benefits of physical activity and active play for children and young people are well established. However, there is a lack of physical activity research involving children and young people with intellectual disabilities. This study investigated habitual physical activity and recess play behaviour in 70 5- to 15-year-old participants with…
Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce
Objective: This study considers the physical activity (PA) and dietary habits of British young people according to socio-economic status (SES). Methods: The PA and dietary habits of 98 boys and 101 girls (12.9 0.3 years) from two Welsh secondary schools (school 1 and school 2) were examined. Free school meal eligibility and Census 2001 data were…
Wright, Jan, Ed.; Macdonald, Doune, Ed.
Despite society's current preoccupation with interrelated issues such as obesity, increasingly sedentary lifestyles and children's health, there has until now been little published research that directly addresses the place and meaning of physical activity in young people's lives. In this important new collection, leading international scholars…
Leung, Ambrose; Kier, Cheryl
This study examines the relationship between music preferences and civic activism among 182 participants aged 14-24 years. Our analyses show that participants who regularly listened to certain music genres such as classical, opera, musicals, new age, easy listening, house, world music, heavy metal, punk, and ska were significantly more likely to…
Stresses that symphony orchestras and other professional arts organizations need to improve young people's concerts by accounting for student learning and becoming partners with music educators. Provides an experience hierarchy that helps artists and arts organizations benefit from music teachers' knowledge and a list of five elements to consider…
Drug abuse is a serious public health problem. It affects almost every community and family in some way. Drug abuse in children and teenagers may pose a ... of young people may be more susceptible to drug abuse and addiction than adult brains. Abused drugs ...
Man'shin, R. V.; Timoshenko, O. V.; Pis'mennaia, E. E.
Russia's young people have become active participants in processes of migration. After the fall of the USSR, young people began to travel outside Russia in substantially greater numbers. At the present time, young Russians can be found in all kinds of regions and countries of the world. They are getting an education in foreign universities and…
Cherednichenko, G. A.
The younger generation of Russians is entering adult life at a time in which the information society is being formed, where education, knowledge, and the possession of information are coming to be key resources to ensure success. As previous studies have shown, most young people place a high value on getting a good education. Young Russians also…
Cline, Tony; Crafter, Sarah; O'Dell, Lindsay; de Abreu, Guida
In recently arrived immigrant families, children and young people often act as language brokers for their parents and other adults. In public and academic debate, this activity is sometimes portrayed negatively as imposing excessive burdens of responsibility on the young people. This paper reports an analysis of qualitative data from a broader…
Kirby, Joanna; Levin, Kate A; Inchley, Jo
This multi-methods qualitative study aimed to identify environmental factors that influence physical activity participation among young people in Edinburgh, Scotland. School pupils (aged 11-13 years) took part using photography, computer blogs, maps and focus group discussions (FGDs). Eleven computer sessions (n = 131) and 14 FGDs (n = 63) took place. Factors influencing physical activity behaviour included proximity and access to local facilities, family and peers and the school physical activity environment. A variety of facilitators and barriers to participation were also reported. Most notable was the importance of cost and value for money when choosing physical activities which, although more evident among pupils attending schools in areas of low socio-economic status (SES), was relevant across all SES groups. Reporting easy access to sports facilities was more common among pupils attending schools from high/medium SES. Use of greenspace for physical activity was reported among pupils from all schools, but was more common among those from low SES schools. Pupils were, in general, satisfied with the facilities available at school, but felt time for physical education could be increased. Findings may help inform interventions, aimed at promoting physical activity at local level.
Shanahan, Patrick; Elliott, David
The Australian Government established the Office for Youth (the Office) in September 2008 in an effort to engage with the young people of Australia. The Office will work with other government agencies to help young people reach their full potential; make effective transitions to adulthood as they continue to learn, start work, make decisions that…
In this article empirical examples are used to connect theories about young people, contemporary art forms and learning. The first part of the article introduces the new forms of consciousness which, according to the youth researchers Birgitte Simonsen and Thomas Ziehe, characterize young people of today. In the second part, the qualities of…
Harrison, Roger, Ed.; Benjamin, Cathy, Ed.; Curran, Sheila, Ed.; Hunter, Rob, Ed.
"Leading Work with Young People" provides a selection of writing from a complex and dynamic field of work. The editors bring together key readings and newly commissioned material to present a variety of theoretical and practical perspectives on leading and managing work with young people. The book will equip students with the knowledge, skills,…
Considers young peoples' views of infinity prior to instruction in the methods mathematicians use in addressing the subject of infinity. Presents a partially historical account of studies examining young peoples' ideas of infinity. Four sections address potential pitfalls for research in this area and the work of Piaget, issues concerning the…
Sellers, Ceri; Dall, Philippa; Grant, Margaret; Stansfield, Ben
Characterisation of free-living physical activity requires the use of validated and reliable monitors. This study reports an evaluation of the validity and reliability of the activPAL3 monitor for the detection of posture and stepping in both adults and young people. Twenty adults (median 27.6y; IQR22.6y) and 8 young people (12.0y; IQR4.1y) performed standardised activities and activities of daily living (ADL) incorporating sedentary, upright and stepping activity. Agreement, specificity and positive predictive value were calculated between activPAL3 outcomes and the gold-standard of video observation. Inter-device reliability was calculated between 4 monitors. Sedentary and upright times for standardised activities were within ±5% of video observation as was step count (excluding jogging) for both adults and young people. Jogging step detection accuracy reduced with increasing cadence >150stepsmin(-1). For ADLs, sensitivity to stepping was very low for adults (40.4%) but higher for young people (76.1%). Inter-device reliability was either good (ICC(1,1)>0.75) or excellent (ICC(1,1)>0.90) for all outcomes. An excellent level of detection of standardised postures was demonstrated by the activPAL3. Postures such as seat-perching, kneeling and crouching were misclassified when compared to video observation. The activPAL3 appeared to accurately detect 'purposeful' stepping during ADL, but detection of smaller stepping movements was poor. Small variations in outcomes between monitors indicated that differences in monitor placement or hardware may affect outcomes. In general, the detection of posture and purposeful stepping with the activPAL3 was excellent indicating that it is a suitable monitor for characterising free-living posture and purposeful stepping activity in healthy adults and young people.
Everson, Emma S.; Daley, Amanda J.; Ussher, Michael
It has been hypothesised that physical activity may be useful as a smoking cessation intervention for young adults. In order to inform such interventions, this study evaluated the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) for understanding physical activity behaviour in young smokers. Regular smokers aged 16-19 years (N=124), self-reported physical…
van der Lugt, Arie H; Banfield, Jane F; Osinsky, Roman; Münte, Thomas F
While previous behavioural research suggests that attitudes, for example towards elderly people, may be activated automatically, this type of research does not provide information about the detailed time-course of such processing in the brain. We investigated the impact of age related attitude information in a Go/NoGo association task that paired photographs of elderly or young faces with positive or negative words. Event related brain potentials showed an N200 (NoGo) component, which appeared earlier in runs which required similar responses for congruent stimulus pairings (e.g. respond to pictures of elderly faces or negative words) than for incongruent pairings (e.g. respond to elderly faces or positive words). As information processing leading to a certain attitude must precede differential brain activity according to the congruence of the paired words and faces, we show that this type of information is activated almost immediately following the structural encoding of the face, between 170 and 230 ms after onset of the face.
This article addresses the impact of selected sports media events on the active participation of a group of young people aged 14/15. Its particular focus is on an intense period of media sport coverage during the European Soccer Championships (Euro '96), the Wimbledon Lawn Tennis Championships and the Atlanta Olympics and on how a group of British…
'The use of technology to support communication in therapy is an exciting development, particularly the use of mobile device emojis to help young people express, and practitioners to assess, their mental distress'.
This article explores the contradictions and complexities of young people's management of their health and wellbeing. It argues that it is important to understand how young people actively produce health outcomes, drawing substantially on themes developed in my recent book on young people and wellbeing (Wyn, 2009). The background to this…
Tannehill, Deborah; MacPhail, Ann; Walsh, Julia; Woods, Catherine
The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) study is a unique multi-centre/discipline study undertaken by three Irish institutions, Dublin City University, University of Limerick and University College Cork. The study sought to assess participation in physical activity, physical education and sport (PAPES) among 10-18 year…
Bell, Stephen A
This paper offers an analysis of young people's sexual agency in rural Uganda. Drawing on definitions of agency from within the international development literature, it focuses on: decision-making processes leading to young people's involvement in relationships; actions undertaken to maintain 'secret' relationships in contexts where young people's sexual agency is generally prohibited; transactional and gendered negotiations between young people involved within a relationship; and a range of outcomes arising from young people's sexual activity. An understanding of the dynamics and temporal nature of young people's sexual agency, and the consequences that follow from it, challenges the widely held view that young people do not know what they are doing in relation to their sexual health. This should enable practitioners to identify avenues for developing HIV prevention and sexual health programmes that are more fully based in, and driven by, the realities of young people's sexual lives.
International Child Development Initiatives (NJ1), 2006
This annual report describes the activities of the International Child Development Initiatives (ICDI) in improving youth welfare in a wide range of countries as well as its plans for the upcoming year. ICDI is a non-profit organization that is practice, research and policy-oriented and works globally to address violations of the rights of children…
Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Chacham-Guber, Anat; Reiter, Shunit
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of participation in different sport modalities on quality of life (QOL) and perceived social competence (PSC) in young people with physical disability. Ninety participants (33 females and 57 males) were monitored across four conditions: competitive separate physical activity (COSPA), recreational…
According to Eccles et al.'s (1983) Expectancy Value Model, the two major constructs that influence young people's activity choice are subjective task value and expectancy beliefs (Eccles et al., 1983). Eccles et al. (1983) conceptually distinguished four dimensions of subjective task value: attainment value, intrinsic value, utility value and…
Walker, Shelley; Sanci, Lena; Temple-Smith, Meredith
Young people's "sexting"--defined by the "Macquarie Dictionary Online" (2010) as the sending and receiving of sexually explicit images via mobile phones--has become a focus of much media reporting; however, research regarding the phenomenon is in its infancy. This paper reports on the first phase of a study to understand this activity more…
The newly formed national group, Young People in Recovery, is comprised of young people, roughly 17-28 years old, who are in long term recovery. Their goal is to increase awareness amongst social service providers about the needs of youth in recovery, increase services, and facilitate partnerships which support young people in finding and…
Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris
To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain…
Leggett, Maggie; Sykes, Kathy
There can be multiple benefits of scientists engaging with young people, including motivation and inspiration for all involved. But there are risks, particularly if scientists do not consider the interests and needs of young people or listen to what they have to say. We argue that "dialogue" between scientists, young people and teachers…
Collins, Peter; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Nevill, Alan; Lyons, Mark
The built environment in which young people live has a significant influence on their physical activity (PA). However, little is known regarding how youth from suburban and rural settings utilise their surrounding environments to participate in free-living PA. 50 adolescents aged 13-14 years old (22 rural; 28 suburban) wore an integrated GPS and heart rate device during non-school hours and completed a daily PA diary over 7 days. Descriptive statistics and analyses of variance were used to explore differences in the amount and location of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) between genders and youth from different geographical settings. Suburban youth participated in significantly (p = 0.004) more daily PA (52.14 minutes MVPA) and were more extensive in their utilisation of their surroundings, compared to rural youth (26.61 minutes MVPA). Suburban youth visited more public recreational facilities and spent significantly more time outdoors and on local streets (109.71 minutes and 44.62 minutes, respectively) compared to rural youth (55.98 minutes and 17.15 minutes, respectively) during weekdays. Rural youth on average spent significantly more time within the home (350.69 minutes) during weekends compared to suburban youth (214.82 minutes). Rural females were the least active group of adolescents, participating in the least amount of daily PA (20.14 minutes MVPA) and spending the least amount of time outdoors (31.37 minutes) during weekdays. Time spent outdoors was positively associated with PA. The findings highlight the disparity in PA levels and the utilisation of the surrounding built environment between youth from two different geographical settings and possible environmental causes are discussed. The study supports the use of GPS (combined with other methods) in investigating geographical differences in young people's PA and movement patterns. This method provides a wealth of information that may assist future policies and interventions in identifying
Prutchenkov, A.; Teriukova, T.
Under the economic conditions that are new to Russia, young people are subjected to the influence of many factors. On the one hand, they are compelled to put up opposition to the economic system, while on the other hand they are compelled to be actively involved in it. In either case they have to solve the problem of how to survive in the system.…
McCrorie, Paul R W; Fenton, Candida; Ellaway, Anne
The environment has long been associated with physical activity engagement, and recent developments in technology have resulted in the ability to objectively quantify activity behaviours and activity context. This paper reviews studies that have combined Global Positioning Systems (GPS), Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and accelerometry to investigate the PA-environment relationship in children and young people (5-18 years old). Literature searches of the following bibliographic databases were undertaken: Sportdiscus, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Psychinfo and Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA). Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria, and covered topics including greenspace use, general land use, active travel, and the built environment. Studies were largely cross-sectional and took place across developed countries (UK, USA, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia). Findings suggest that roads and streets, school grounds, and the home location are important locations for total PA, and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). The relationship between greenspace was positive, however, multiple definitions and outcome measures add complexity to the results. MVPA was more likely in those exposed to higher levels of greenspace compared to sedentary individuals. Total MVPA time in greenspace is low, but when framed as a proportion of the total can be quite high. Domestic gardens may be an important area for higher intensity activity.
Purpose: Research to date has identified young people's perspectives on a number of health-related topics such as smoking, alcohol, sexual health, physical activity and healthy eating. Whilst this body of research draws important attention towards young people's views on topical health concerns, it arguably remains located within a pre-defined…
Gardner, Sally May; Komesaroff, Paul; Fensham, Rachel
Dance classes in urban settings may have a role in health-promotion programmes seeking to increase physical activity amongst young people. However, little is so far known about the motivations, experiences or health outcomes of those participating in dance classes. This qualitative study of young people attending recreational dance classes…
In recent years, education and family policy in the UK has sought to incorporate the views of children and young people through an active participation agenda, in the fulfilment of children's rights under the obligations of the UN Convention for the Rights of the Child. Drawing on empirical evidence, this paper suggests that this aspiration is…
Public schools historically have been the primary institution responsible for preparing young people for participation in a democratic society. However, the almost exclusive focus by today's schools on knowledge and skills hinders their ability to be environments that support overall development and to produce the kinds of flexible, creative, and…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.
This report discusses health promotion for young people, focusing on 10 strategies for facilitating physical activity and sports for children and youth. A background section discusses the benefits of physical activity, how much physical activity and fitness young people need, how active and fit America's children and adolescents are, and how…
Mozgot, V. G.
Data from a longitudinal survey of the musical tastes of young people distinguish five basic vectors of its development: an orientation toward the Western paradigm; young people's unlimited amount of time spent in the consumption of music; the indiscriminate nature of their music interests; the influence that a person's membership in a particular…
Lopez, Mark Hugo; Marcelo, Karlo Barrios
This fact sheet presents information on the frequency of volunteering, trends in volunteering, and the organizations for which young people volunteer, utilizing data from multiple sources. Unlike many surveys, it shows that volunteering rates among young people are generally higher than they are among adults 26 and older. Findings of the Civic and…
Furlong, Andy; Cartmel, Fred; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart
This report presents the results of an 18-month research project that studied the effectiveness of youth work with vulnerable young people. The research, representing six distinct geographical areas of Scotland characterized by disadvantage, focused on young people aged 13 to 16. In each neighborhood, the project examined the experiences of young…
Barker, Justin David
This article examines the ways in which homeless young people find a sense of self-worth and dignity within the conditions of youth homelessness. It notes that, while homeless young people seek a space where they do not feel marginalised and can attain a form of social status and cultural competence, they also engage in practices and acts of…
Boonaert, Tom; Vettenburg, Nicole
This article critically analyses research on young people's internet use. Based on a literature analysis, it examines which young people do what on the internet. These results invite a reflection on the dominant discourse on the digital divide. Within this discourse, there is a strong focus on the use of the internet for information purposes only,…
Jiang, Yannan; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph
Background Given the global prevalence of insufficient physical activity (PA), effective interventions that attenuate age-related decline in PA levels are needed. Mobile phone interventions that positively affect health (mHealth) show promise; however, their impact on PA levels and fitness in young people is unclear and little is known about what makes a good mHealth app. Objective The aim was to determine the effects of two commercially available smartphone apps (Zombies, Run and Get Running) on cardiorespiratory fitness and PA levels in insufficiently active healthy young people. A second aim was to identify the features of the app design that may contribute to improved fitness and PA levels. Methods Apps for IMproving FITness (AIMFIT) was a 3-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial conducted in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants were recruited through advertisements in electronic mailing lists, local newspapers, flyers posted in community locations, and presentations at schools. Eligible young people aged 14-17 years were allocated at random to 1 of 3 conditions: (1) use of an immersive app (Zombies, Run), (2) use of a nonimmersive app (Get Running), or (3) usual behavior (control). Both smartphone apps consisted of a fully automated 8-week training program designed to improve fitness and ability to run 5 km; however, the immersive app featured a game-themed design and narrative. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed using data collected face-to-face at baseline and 8 weeks, and all regression models were adjusted for baseline outcome value and gender. The primary outcome was cardiorespiratory fitness, objectively assessed as time to complete the 1-mile run/walk test at 8 weeks. Secondary outcomes were PA levels (accelerometry and self-reported), enjoyment, psychological need satisfaction, self-efficacy, and acceptability and usability of the apps. Results A total of 51 participants were randomized to the immersive app intervention (n=17), nonimmersive
Jones, Alasdair; Steinbach, Rebecca; Roberts, Helen; Goodman, Anna; Green, Judith
Much recent public health research has emphasised the health impacts for young people of 'active travel' modes, typically defined as walking and cycling. Less research has focused on public transport modes. Drawing on qualitative data, we examine the links between bus travel and wellbeing in London, where young people currently have free bus travel. Our findings indicate that bus travel can be both a physically and socially active experience for young people. We suggest a more nuanced understanding of 'active travel' is now needed, alongside greater attention to urban public transport networks as key sites that impact on important determinants of wellbeing such as independent mobility and social inclusion.
Pang, Bonnie; Macdonald, Doune; Hay, Peter
This paper examines Chinese migrant young people's lifestyles and physical activity experiences in relation to the values and cultural investments of their families in Australia. The data in this paper were taken from a larger-scale study underpinned by a critical and interpretive ethnographic method conducted in two school sites. The young…
This paper defines the concept of personal learning and development (PLD) group work as a guidance activity in both career counselling and youth support practice. It introduces the FAAST model-a framework for planning, preparing and delivering PLD group sessions (Westergaard in Effective group work with young people. Open University, Maidenhead,…
Goldman, Juliette D. G.
Modern Health Education in primary schools is increasingly using computer technologies in a variety of ways to enhance teaching and learning. Here, a Constructivist approach for a web-based educational activity for Grade 7 is discussed using an example of designing a healthy Food Handling Manual in the food industry. The Constructivist principles…
Otto, Luther B.; Call, Vaughn R. A.
Describes theory and research on parental influence on young people's career development and highlights an important implication of this relationship for career counseling. The authors discuss a seminar that helps parents help their children choose careers. (CT)
Young Polish migrants to the UK are often portrayed as being highly educated and mobile: willing nomads who are privileged to be able to take advantage of new opportunities for travel and work abroad offered by European Union membership. However, there are also less well-educated young people who adopt migration as a livelihood strategy in…
This feature introduces you to theories of control and power and invites you to relate these to your own practice with children and young people and the values of your work place. Rights-based approaches to care are outlined and through reading and Time Out activities, you will explore ways of challenging disempowering behaviours and make a personal action plan to empower children and young people.
Edgecombe, Julie; O'Rourke, Barbara
Camden & Islington Healthbus has been providing a mobile advice and information outreach service to young people aged 12-25 years in a deprived area of London since 1996. Advantages of this service include that it is free and confidential, it enables young people to access advice from adult professionals who are not part of their daily lives, and opening hours are flexible and convenient with a friendly and informal setting. The service focuses mainly on sexual health, but will also cover relationships, drugs, growing up, diet and nutrition, and self-esteem. The Healthbus does not offer a comprehensive range of services, but encourages young people to use other providers effectively. Initially, the Healthbus offered emergency and oral contraception and pregnancy testing, but these services have ceased due to limited use and data-protection requirements. The focus has since shifted to health education and risk awareness. Facilities include 1-1 counselling, a touch screen computer, leaflets and condoms. Informal evaluation has shown that young people feel comfortable and confident in using the Healthbus service. A notable success has been that the Healthbus attracts as many young men as young women. A number of practical issues should be taken into consideration when planning and managing a mobile outreach service.
Wójcik, Alicja; Brzeski, Zdzisław; Pajak, Agnieszka; Krakowska, Agnieszka; Borzecki, Andrzej
The research, carried out among young people of selected groups from different environments estimated the occurrence of addictions, the degree of danger of nicotine addiction, alcoholism and pharmacomania. A questionnaire of the interview standardized into smokers and non-smokers was used among students. Evaluation of addiction to alcohol, drugs and nicotine among young people treated at the Toxicology Ward was done on the basis of clinical material of toxemias. Addiction to psychoactive substances among students amounts to on average of 30%. Most of the smokers would like to drop the habit. Frequency of addictions among young people hospitalized in the clinic is much higher in comparison with the group occupationally passive or working, especially in big cities. Acute toxemias among addicts, especially in the group of alcohols, drugs and psychotropic drugs were quite serious. Toxic coma accompanying toxemia is a danger to health and life.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the complexities involved in young people's attempts to move away from criminal activity. This paper draws on qualitative data from a study that aimed to identify how young people negotiate transitions away from offending. The paper argues that an analysis of the subtle shifts in young people's perceptions…
Sudden death in young people: Heart problems often blamed Sudden death in young people is rare, but those at ... causes and treatments. By Mayo Clinic Staff Sudden death in people younger than 35, often due to ...
Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Chacham-Guber, Anat; Reiter, Shunit
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of participation in different sport modalities on quality of life (QOL) and perceived social competence (PSC) in young people with physical disability. Ninety participants (33 females and 57 males) were monitored across four conditions: competitive separate physical activity (COSPA), recreational separate physical activity (RESPA), reverse-integrated basketball activity (RIBA), and no physical activity (NOPA). QOL and PSC questionnaires were administered at the beginning and the end of the study's duration of six months. ANCOVA corrected for functional independence and gender revealed significant group effects for pre to post change values of QOL and PSC, with greater positive change in the RIBA compared to all other groups. In addition, one-way ANOVA on pre to post change values with LSD post hoc revealed significant differences. RIBA change values for QOL with 8.77%, and for PSC with 9.98% change were significantly higher (p<.001) than in all other groups (ranges -0.18 through 1.36% for QOL, and -2.31 through 2.34% for PSC). These outcomes demonstrate a favorable outcome of the RIBA on participants. Low functional ability did not constrain the effects of sport participation.
Peer led focus groups, a qualitative social science research method, and their use with young people are examined. The paper outlines three developments that have contributed to their emergence, namely: traditional focus groups, peer education and participatory research. Drawing on a study in progress, the advantages and challenges associated with…
This article investigates the impact of the relationship between learning providers and young people who have experienced Not being in Education, Employment or Training (NEET) on the latters' agency development. Agency is defined as not only bounded but generated by intra-action with relations of force, including learning providers themselves.…
The diminished educational opportunities and subsequent life chances of many marginalized young people have been dramatic, even to the point of being catastrophic. But they are not hapless victims, nor are they passive recipients of deficit categories like "at riskness", placed upon them by the media, politicians, agencies, and some…
Two music programs were developed specifically to meet therapeutic objectives for newly arrived immigrant and refugee students and for adolescent boys in a residential care facility. The author's observations justify further research to establish whether music can support and nurture the social, physical and mental wellbeing of young people,…
Cohen, Anjalee; Medlow, Sharon; Kelk, Norm; Hickie, Ian; Whitwell, Bradley
Fifteen in-depth interviews were conducted to explore young people's experiences of mental health care in Australia with the aim of informing the headspace National Youth Mental Health Foundation. The interviews revealed that significant numbers of respondents had been aware of their mental health problems for several years before seeking help and…
Drawing from an ethnographically grounded longitudinal study on educational transitions, the aim of this article is to analyse young people's reflections about their educational choices at different ages. Consistencies and breaks in their plans and actual choices are explored and reflected in relation to the economic, social, cultural and…
In this research, 300 doctors in Victoria were asked to make decisions about a hypothetical patient's competence and confidentiality. It appears that assumptions embedded in relevant law, the vague nature of existing legal criteria and the diversity in assessment practices all have the potential to act as obstacles to young people's claim to…
This paper uses Sizer and Sizer's concept of "shoving" to examine the school experiences of a group of young people who left mainstream school early and some time later enrolled in an alternative educational setting designed to reengage early school leavers in formal learning. "Shoving" is a way to explain why so many young…
Zvonovskii, V.; Belousova, R.
The phrase "secondary employment" has been familiar to the majority of Russians since back in the Soviet era, and can reasonably be viewed as part of a broader process of adaptation to new economic conditions since the end of the late 1980s. With young people, however, this approach to the phenomenon of secondary employment is not…
Lopez, Mark Hugo
Volunteering rates among young people are generally higher than they are among adults 26 and older. However, measuring volunteer rates among all adults is a difficult task. In recent years, efforts at measuring volunteering have produced widely different estimates, largely because of the methods employed to measure volunteering. For example, the…
Part of the "Teaching Young People to be Critical Series," this booklet defines and analyzes humor for children in light of theories of philosophers Ludwig Wittenstein and John Dewey. Intended for individual or small group work, the objectives are threefold: reading improvement, reading enjoyment, and student involvement in making the leap from…
Across Europe children's nurses today face many challenges, including rising childhood obesity, the soaring incidence of issues with the mental health of children and young people, the effects of social media, child maltreatment and the impact of poverty, war and conflict on children and families. There are opportunities for children's nurses to undertake new roles and to influence both policy and practice to improve the health outcomes of children and young people, and thereby the future health of the population.
Neely, Eva; Walton, Mat; Stephens, Christine
Food practices are embedded in everyday life and social relationships. In youth nutrition promotion little attention is awarded to this centrality of food practices, yet it may play a pivotal role for young people's overall health and wellbeing beyond the calories food provides. Limited research is available explicitly investigating how food practices affect social relationships. The aim of this synthesis was therefore to find out how young people use everyday food practices to build, strengthen, and negotiate their social relationships. Using a thematic synthesis approach, we analysed 26 qualitative studies exploring young people's food practices. Eight themes provided insight into the ways food practices affected social relationships: caring, talking, sharing, integrating, trusting, reciprocating, negotiating, and belonging. The results showed that young people use food actively to foster connections, show their agency, and manage relationships. This synthesis provides insight into the settings of significance for young people where more research could explore the use of food in everyday life as important for their social relationships. A focus on social relationships could broaden the scope of nutrition interventions to promote health in physical and psychosocial dimensions. Areas for future research are discussed.
Calatrava, María; López-Del Burgo, Cristina; de Irala, Jokin
The sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) in Europe are still rising. In order to prioritize STI prevention strategies in Europe, it is important to describe the prevalence of different sexual risk factors for STIs among European young people. We carried out a systematic review of published articles and studies performed by European institutions. A total of 21 articles and 10 studies were identified. The data shows an increase in early sexual initiation and the number of sexual partners. Young people who use condoms inconsistently ranged from 15 to 20%. The observed risk factors are: unawareness about other STIs different from HIV, being in favour of casual sex, wrongly believing that some measures are effective in avoiding HIV, not being aware of the risks from having multiple sexual partners and unawareness about the sexual transmission of HIV. The data suggests the need to improve the information addressed to youth.
Alexander, Leslie M.; Currie, Candace
Increasing numbers of young people use Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for education, work and leisure activities. Research on ICT and Upper Limb Disorders (ULDs) in adults has shown that functional impairment, pain and discomfort in the upper limbs, neck and shoulder increases with frequency and duration of exposure to computer…
Aujla, Imogen J.; Redding, Emma
Dance is a viable and enjoyable activity -- and potential career -- for young people with disabilities, yet they face several barriers to participation and training. The aim of this article, by Imogen J. Aujla of the University of Bedfordshire and Emma Redding of Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance, is to review the literature on…
Wilks, Judith; Rudner, Julie
A major challenge for researchers and urban planning practitioners is how to obtain meaningful and influential contributions on urban and environmental planning activities from children and young people within the constraints of adult policy and practice. The key elements of this challenge concern traditional methods of communication between…
Wight, Daniel; Williamson, Lisa; Henderson, Marion
Both family structure and processes have been associated with young people's sexual behaviour, but most studies are cross-sectional and focus on only one outcome: age at first intercourse. This paper uses longitudinal data from a survey of Scottish teenagers (N=5041) to show how low parental monitoring predicts early sexual activity for both sexes…
Eynon, Rebecca; Malmberg, Lars-Erik
Using data from a nationally representative survey of over a 1000 young people in the UK this paper proposes a typology of the ways young people are using the Internet outside formal educational settings; and examines the individual and contextual factors that help to explain why young people are using the Internet in this way. Specifically, this…
Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Kyttälä, Minna
This study investigated Finnish young people's experiences of supportive housing. Supportive housing is an after-care programme that should support the transition from foster care to independent adulthood. It is directed mainly at young people who have been taken into foster care by social workers. The sample consisted of 39 young people (23…
Vaughan, Karen; Roberts, Josie
This article draws on the first two years of a longitudinal study of young people's pathway and career-related experiences and perspectives. It argues for a richer conceptualisation of young people's transition to study, training and employment than what simple school-to-labour market models allow. We present four clusters of young people's…
The Disabled Children and Young Peoples Participation Project (DCYPPP) was established by Barnardos (Northern Ireland) in 2002 to explore ways of involving children and young people with disabilities in decision-making processes within Children's Services Planning of the Health and Social Services Board. Over 200 young people have participated in…
Jones, Tiffany; Mitchell, Anne
Australia has not seen a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic among young people. However, early research in the Australian context had indicated that the degree of unprotected sexual activity, partner change, and STI infection in this cohort would fuel a young people's epidemic if HIV ever reached a tipping point in the country. The difficulty of reaching young people outside school for HIV prevention has been no more successfully addressed in Australia than elsewhere. Therefore, the investment of Australian HIV prevention funds for youth has had an emphasis on school-based programs. This emphasis on formal schooling has led to a history of engagement with the ad hoc and unreliable nature of sexuality education in Australian schools. It has particularly been the catalyst for a struggle to construct young people as sexually active and as possessing a right to appropriate education, against tides of both secular and religiously-motivated resistance. The eight state and territory education sectors, along with the independent sectors, have had differing and sometimes troubled histories with HIV prevention. This paper discusses the differing HIV education policies and programs that have emerged in Australian schooling historically, and in some cases been abandoned altogether, amid strong public debates. It also considers current approaches, the new national curriculum, and future challenges. Additionally, the particular case of same sex attracted young men, who have a heightened level of vulnerability to HIV, is explored. Australian schools have struggled to address both the imperative for relevant sexuality education for same-sex-attracted young people and the broader issue of combating homophobia, which research has linked directly to this vulnerability.
Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Carmichael, Gordon; Banwell, Cathy; Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani; Sleigh, Adrian
This study draws together survey and qualitative data on sexual practices among more than 1,750 young Northern Thai people aged 17-20 years. The survey data indicate that sexually active young people frequently engage in, or are subjected to, risk-taking behaviours that may expose them to sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies. These include having multiple sexual partners and quite frequent partner turnover. High percentages also engage in unprotected sexual intercourse with various types of sexual partner (steady, casual and paid), and young women especially had often experienced sexual coercion. Qualitative data revealed a mixture of perceptions and practices affecting sexual intercourse among the young, such as having unplanned sex, engaging in sexual relations to display love or cement committed relationships, and having serial relationships, both monogamous and non-monogamous. We conclude that condom use should be a central focus of activities aimed at preventing adverse sexual health outcomes, but that new intervention approaches to encourage use of other contraceptives are also needed. Changes in sexual norms among young people also need to be acknowledged and accepted by older Thai generations in order for programs and interventions to combat negative sexual and reproductive health consequences to be more effective. PMID:22319025
Stackpool-Moore, Lucy; Bajpai, Divya; Caswell, Georgina; Crone, Tyler; Dewar, Fleur; Gray, Greg; Kyendikuwa, Allen; Mellin, Julie; Miller, Andrew; Morgan, Felicity; Orza, Luisa; Stevenson, Jacqui; Westerhof, Nienke; Wong, Felicia; Yam, Eileen; Zieman, Brady
Sexual health and access to services are a pressing need for young people. This article introduces Link Up, a 3-year project in three African and two Asian countries, to enable and scale up access to integrated HIV services and sexual and reproductive health and rights for marginalized young people. The young people we worked with in this project included young men who have sex with men, young sex workers, young people who use drugs, young transgender people, young homeless people, and other vulnerable young people. The research and programmatic activities of Link Up, as illustrated in this Supplement, have highlighted the importance of recognizing and engaging with diversity among young people to improve access to services and outcomes protecting their health and human rights.
Pound, Pandora; Langford, Rebecca; Campbell, Rona
Objectives Although sex and relationship education (SRE) represents a key strand in policies to safeguard young people and improve their sexual health, it currently lacks statutory status, government guidance is outdated and a third of UK schools has poor-quality SRE. We aimed to investigate whether current provision meets young people's needs. Design Synthesis of qualitative studies of young people's views of their school-based SRE. Setting Eligible studies originated from the UK, Ireland, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Japan, Iran, Brazil and Sweden. Participants Studies of students aged 4–19 in full-time education, young adults ≤19 (not necessarily in full-time education) or adults ≤25 if recalling their experiences of school-based SRE. Results –69 publications were identified, with 55 remaining after quality appraisal (representing 48 studies). The synthesis found that although sex is a potent and potentially embarrassing topic, schools appear reluctant to acknowledge this and attempt to teach SRE in the same way as other subjects. Young people report feeling vulnerable in SRE, with young men anxious to conceal sexual ignorance and young women risking sexual harassment if they participate. Schools appear to have difficulty accepting that some young people are sexually active, leading to SRE that is out of touch with many young people's lives. Young people report that SRE can be negative, gendered and heterosexist. They expressed dislike of their own teachers delivering SRE due to blurred boundaries, lack of anonymity, embarrassment and poor training. Conclusions SRE should be ‘sex-positive’ and delivered by experts who maintain clear boundaries with students. Schools should acknowledge that sex is a special subject with unique challenges, as well as the fact and range of young people's sexual activity, otherwise young people will continue to disengage from SRE and opportunities for safeguarding and improving their sexual health will be
Many initiatives relating to young people's sexual health have focused on under 16s. Yet, most young people become sexually active between the ages of 16 and 19 and 80 per cent of under-18 conceptions are to 16- and 17-year-olds. The shift from school to further education marks a time of transition in young people's lives. It is a time when…
White, K. M.; Robinson, N. G.; Young, R. McD.; Anderson, P. J.; Hyde, M. K.; Greenbank, S.; Keane, J.; Rolfe, T.; Vardon, P.; Baskerville, D.
To understand young people's low levels of sun protection behaviour, 145 young people (aged 12 to 20 years) were recruited from Queensland, to participate in a one-hour focus group where they discussed issues related to sun protection and images of tanned and non-tanned people. Responses were content analysed to identify common sun protection…
Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción; Fernández-Monroy, Margarita
This social marketing study focuses on street drinking behavior among young people. The objective is to divide the market of young people who engage in this activity into segments according to their motivations. For the three segments identified, a behavior model is created using the beliefs, attitudes, behavior, and social belonging of young people who engage in street drinking. The methodology used individual questionnaires filled in by a representative sample of young people. The results show that the behavior model follows the sequence of attitudes-beliefs-behavior and that social belonging influences these three variables. Similarly, differences are observed in the behavior model depending on the segment individuals belong to.
Opper, E; Worth, A; Wagner, M; Bös, K
Motor fitness and physical activity are important aspects of a healthy development in childhood and adolescence. However, the assessment of motor fitness and physical activity is not subject to standardized criteria; furthermore, the samples investigated do not provide a representative image of the whole population. Therefore, the existing data only allow very limited statements on the state and development of motor fitness and physical activity. The "Motorik" module, as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), offers nationwide representative data on the motor fitness and physical activity of children and adolescents for the first time. Besides the baseline-analysis, another aim is to analyse the complex relationship between motor fitness, physical activity and health. Motor fitness, based on the systematisation of motor abilities, was assessed using a test profile. The test profile consists of 11 items measuring cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, coordination and mobility. Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire containing 51 items on the duration, intensity and frequency of physical activity in everyday life, during leisure time, at school and in sports clubs. The above-mentioned questionnaire subtopics were supplemented by questions on the weekly prevalence of at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity, on material and local conditions, as well as on cognition and motivation for physical activity. In the years 2004 to 2006, the motor fitness and physical activity of 4,529 children and young people between the ages of 4 and 17 years was investigated on 168 sample points in the context of the "Motorik" module. Half of the children and adolescents investigated belong to the middle class, approximately 15% have a background of migration. The majority of the subjects come from small towns, about a quarter live in the city, less than 20% are settled in rural areas.
Muir, Kristy; Mullan, Killian; Powell, Abigail; Flaxman, Saul; Thompson, Denise; Griffiths, Megan
This report presents a comprehensive picture of how young Australians are faring by bringing together data from a variety of sources and drawing on the comments of young people themselves. Overall the report presents a positive picture, showing how important young people are to this country and why it makes good economic and social sense for…
Phetla, Godfrey; Busza, Joanna; Hargreaves, James R.; Pronyk, Paul M.; Kim, Julia C.; Morison, Linda A.; Watts, Charlotte; Porter, John D. H.
Communication between parents and young people about sex has been identified as a positive influence on young people's sexual behavior. This article presents findings from South Africa, where a social intervention to reduce levels of HIV and intimate partner violence actively promoted sexual communication between adults and young people. We…
This report looks at the online activities of London's young people. The report highlights that children and young people use technology to have fun, study and communicate with others. Most children and young people have positive experiences online. On the whole they are sensible online and do not put themselves "at risk". However, the…
This report focuses on a group of young people who are not involved in full-time education or the labour force, that is, they are not studying full-time, nor are they working or looking for work. The data used in this report are drawn from the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY), which studies the progress of cohorts of young…
This article engages with current debates in New Zealand over the legitimacy of various young people's activities within a transition-to-work framework based around the metaphor of "pathways". The article argues for a more complex understanding of the imperatives young people now face in choosing careers within a deregulated, seamless…
Craig, Gary; Stanley, Nicky
Teenage pregnancy has become a major policy issue, for which young people are often publicly held solely responsible. However, a combination of factors substantially increases the risks of conception faced by young people engaging in early sexual activity. This article reports the main findings of a study of teenage pregnancy in linked seaside and…
Little contemporary research has examined young people's experiences of violence and homelessness in detail within the Australian context. This article draws upon qualitative research with 33 homeless youth in Melbourne and seeks to enhance understanding of the impact of violence on young people. It argues that everyday experiences of violence…
Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013
Too many young people leave education (including vocational education) too soon. Yet early leavers are at greater risk of long-term unemployment, poverty and crime, and now cost the European economy 1.25% of GDP. This brief report looks at the reasons why young people leave and what could be done to end this trend. Considerations for policy-makers…
Free tuition in Scotland is frequently linked to principles of equal access and fairness. But just how "fair" do young people think access to higher education is? And what concepts of fairness are their views based on? This article reports the findings of semi-structured interviews with 121 young people aged 15-18 in Scotland. The paper…
Svensson, Maria; Zetterqvist, Ann; Ingerman, Ake
Immersed in a technologically complex world, young people make sense of a multi-faceted set of events in everyday life. This article investigates the variation in how Swedish young people experience technological systems and is based on interviews focusing three systems concerning transport, energy and communication--contextualised in relation to…
Inge, Katherine J., Ed.
This newsletter issue provides rehabilitation professionals with various information pieces concerning transition from school to adulthood for young people with disabilities. An introduction identifies specific challenges in transition programming and stresses the goal of fully integrating young people with disabilities as interdependent parts of…
Matthews, Susan; Sykes, Susie
Care-leavers are considered amongst the most vulnerable and disadvantaged group of young people with worse health outcomes than their peers. However, there is limited evidence to suggest how this can be improved, particularly from the perspective of the young people themselves. The aim of this study was to explore the health priorities of young…
The article deals with the formation of the social biographies of young people through the interplay of structure and agency. The aim is to provide a grounded typology of patterns of young people's agency within the process of shaping social biographies. The structural context addressed in the article consists of family resources and habitus. The…
The Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA) was designed to encourage more young people from lower-income households to participate in post-compulsory education. This has been extended to other groups of young people, most notably those who are not in education, employment or training (NEET) or in jobs without training (JWT). This paper presents…
Wallmyr, Gudrun; Welin, Catharina
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of and attitudes among young people toward pornography and their sources of information about sexuality. Eight hundred and seventy-six young people ages 15-25 years (555 females and 321 males) who visited a youth center in Sweden for a period of 1 year answered a questionnaire about their use of…
Bagley, Christopher; Hallam, Susan
The current research aimed to increase understanding of the experiences of young people and their parents of managed moves, what contributed to success and the nature of the challenges experienced. The study was conducted in one English Local Authority, where five young people and their parents were interviewed. Five superordinate themes emerged…
How do young people conceptualise "effective" sexuality education? This paper explores 16-year-old to 19-year-old New Zealanders' vision of effective sexuality education as it emerges in answers to a survey question about improving programmes at secondary school. Young people's responses suggest that their view of what makes sexuality…
Civic participation of young people around the world is routinely described in deficit terms, as they are labelled apathetic, devoid of political knowledge, disengaged from the community and self-absorbed. This paper argues that the connectivity of time, space and social values are integral to understanding the performances of young people as…
Zorkaia, Nataliia; Diuk, Nadia M.
Numerous surveys by the Russian Center for Public-Opinion Research [VTsIOM] have shown that young people, in contrast to members of the middle and, especially, the older generations, typically have a high degree of satisfaction with their lives: more than three-fifths of young people (66 percent) are satisfied, just over one-quarter (27 percent)…
Libby, Sarah; Reynolds, Shirley; Derisley, Jo; Clark, Sarah
Background: A number of cognitive appraisals have been identified as important in the manifestation of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in adults. There have, however, been few attempts to explore these cognitive appraisals in clinical groups of young people. Method: This study compared young people aged between 11 and 18 years with OCD (N =…
Gur'ianova, M. P.
Rural young people in today's Russia have the ability to contribute to Russia's development, but conditions in the Russian countryside do not provide opportunities for them to do so. Potentially, rural young people represent an innovative resource of social, economic, and cultural development, a vital factor of the material and intellectual…
China's reform and opening up have been implemented for more than thirty years now. The "fifth generation" of young people, born between 1978 and 1988, has gradually grown up to become a backbone force for the advancement of social development. This article takes young people living or working in the Xuhui district as a sample and uses…
Beccaria, Franca; Prina, Franco
In Italy, commonly held opinions and interpretations about the relationship between young people and alcohol are often expressed as generalizations and approximations. In order to further understanding of the relationship between young people and alcohol in contemporary Italy, we have gathered, compared and discussed all the available data, both…
In Australia, there is a growing expectation that sexuality education should reduce the risks associated with youth sex by providing young people with information on protecting their sexual health. However, this information may be insufficient to ensure that young people make choices that support their sexual safety and autonomy. This paper…
Clark, Christina; Formby, Susie
Using secondary sources as well as National Literacy Trust survey data, this short report outlines how important young people think literacy skills are to their employment prospects and what skills they believe are particularly important. It also briefly outlines the important role that technology plays in the lives of young people and the degree…
Mackie, Alan; Tett, Lyn
The last three decades have witnessed significant changes in the social and economic context of young people's lives. There is increasing evidence that for young people growing up in the UK, this is fuelling a disparity between those with resources and those without. What this means in terms of social justice, however, is difficult to discern. In…
The aim of the study was to obtain adolescents' perspectives about why young people offend. Twenty-four Australian male and female offenders and non-offenders offered insights about what, according to them, motivates young people to become involved in crime. Without the use of sophisticated language, participants offered explanations that were…
Donoghue, Christopher; Bonillas, Consuelo; Moreno, Jeniffer; Cardoza, Omara; Cheung, Melissa
Sexual and reproductive health indicators for young people in the USA have improved in recent decades, but teenage pregnancies remain high, and large differences between Whites and non-Whites persist in teenage births, abortions, and the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Prior research shows that young people are receptive to…
Aston, Hermione J.; Lambert, Nathan
This paper reports on research conducted over a two-year period in a large Educational Psychology Service (EPS) in England. Researchers were keen to ascertain the views of young people and EPS members about young people being directly involved in educational decision-making and how their "genuine" involvement in such decision-making…
This paper asks, what more can we think in relation to debates around young people's use of mobile phones at school? Rather than attempting to answer the question of whether mobile phones are "good" or "bad" for young people, this paper recasts the debate's ontological underpinnings. To do this feminist appropriations of the…
Gur'ianova, M. P.
Research on rural youth in Russia shows that keeping qualified and ambitious young people in the rural economy will require creating conditions for young people to exercise initiative in the rural economy and diminishing the gap in quality of life between rural and urban environments. Only in this way can the pessimism of rural youth be overcome.
Le Surf, Anne; Lynch, Gordon
Presents findings from a qualitative study exploring young people's perceptions about the provision of a youth-counseling service. Study reveals factors that hinder willingness to seek counseling and factors that encourage young people to make use of counseling. (Author/GCP)
Allen, Kim; Mendick, Heather
In this article, we explore the question of how celebrity operates in young people's everyday lives, thus contributing to the urgent need to address celebrity's social function. Drawing on data from three studies in England on young people's perspectives on their educational and work futures, we show how celebrity operates as a classed and…
Harris, Alma; Allen, Tracey
This article outlines the findings from an Economic and Social Research Council funded research project that investigated the impact of multi-agency working on children and their families. It explored the ways in which young people experience multi-agency working and it investigated whether young people perceive any benefits from a coordinated…
Duffy, J. F.; Dijk, D. J.; Hall, E. F.; Czeisler, C. A.
BACKGROUND: Morningness-eveningness refers to interindividual differences in preferred timing of behavior (i.e., bed and wake times). Older people have earlier wake times and rate themselves as more morning-like than young adults. It has been reported that the phase of circadian rhythms is earlier in morning-types than in evening types, and that older people have earlier phases than young adults. These changes in phase have been considered to be the chronobiological basis of differences in preferred bed and wake times and age-related changes therein. Whether such differences in phase are associated with changes in the phase relationship between endogenous circadian rhythms and the sleep-wake cycle has not been investigated previously. METHODS: We investigated the association between circadian phase, the phase relationship between the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms, and morningness-eveningness, and their interaction with aging. In this circadian rhythm study, 68 young and 40 older subjects participated. RESULTS: Among the young subjects, the phase of the melatonin and core temperature rhythms occurred earlier in morning than in evening types and the interval between circadian phase and usual wake time was longer in morning types. Thus, while evening types woke at a later clock hour than morning types, morning types actually woke at a later circadian phase. Comparing young and older morning types we found that older morning types had an earlier circadian phase and a shorter phase-wake time interval. The shorter phase-waketime interval in older "morning types" is opposite to the change associated with morningness in young people, and is more similar to young evening types. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate an association between circadian phase, the relationship between the sleep-wake cycle and circadian phase, and morningness-eveningness in young adults. Furthermore, they demonstrate that age-related changes in phase angle cannot be attributed fully to
O'Brien, Thomas D; Noyes, Jane; Spencer, Llinos Haf; Kubis, Hans-Peter; Hastings, Richard P; Whitaker, Rhiannon
Aim To perform a systematic review establishing the current evidence base for physical activity and exercise interventions that promote health, fitness and well-being, rather than specific functional improvements, for children who use wheelchairs. Design A systematic review using a mixed methods design. Data sources A wide range of databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, BMJ Best Practice, NHS EED, CINAHL, AMED, NICAN, PsychINFO, were searched for quantitative, qualitative and health economics evidence. Eligibility participants: children/young people aged >25 years who use a wheelchair, or parents and therapists/carers. Intervention: home-based or community-based physical activity to improve health, fitness and well-being. Results Thirty quantitative studies that measured indicators of health, fitness and well-being and one qualitative study were included. Studies were very heterogeneous preventing a meta-analysis, and the risk of bias was generally high. Most studies focused on children with cerebral palsy and used an outcome measure of walking or standing, indicating that they were generally designed for children with already good motor function and mobility. Improvements in health, fitness and well-being were found across the range of outcome types. There were no reports of negative changes. No economics evidence was found. Conclusions It was found that children who use wheelchairs can participate in physical activity interventions safely. The paucity of robust studies evaluating interventions to improve health and fitness is concerning. This hinders adequate policymaking and guidance for practitioners, and requires urgent attention. However, the evidence that does exist suggests that children who use wheelchairs are able to experience the positive benefits associated with appropriately designed exercise. Trial registration number CRD42013003939. PMID:27900176
Dean, Linda; Black, Sharon
This paper reports on a study of experiences of young people aged 14 to 18 years who were nursed on acute adult hospital wards in NHS hospitals in England. In spite of British government guidelines, young people from 14 years of age continue to be admitted to adult wards in the UK. Although much has been written about the transition of the young person to adult services, there is little research about the experiences of young people who are nursed on adult wards. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to explore the lived experiences of eight young people who had been nursed on adult wards between 2004 and 2010. Data were collected in 2010. In-depth interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Colaizzi's framework ( Colaizzi, 1978 ). Themes explored included expectations of what the experience may be like, young people's first impressions of the ward environment, the feelings of the young person while in hospital, the attitudes of people towards them including, both staff and other patients, and future admissions and how they would cope with readmissions. Better provision needs to be made for young people including appropriately trained staff, adolescent-friendly environments and areas in adult wards that are dedicated to adolescents.
Haug, Severin; Castro, Raquel Paz; Kwon, Min; Filler, Andreas; Kowatsch, Tobias; Schaub, Michael P.
Background and Aims Smartphone addiction, its association with smartphone use, and its predictors have not yet been studied in a European sample. This study investigated indicators of smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and their associations with demographic and health behaviour-related variables in young people. Methods A convenience sample of 1,519 students from 127 Swiss vocational school classes participated in a survey assessing demographic and health-related characteristics as well as indicators of smartphone use and addiction. Smartphone addiction was assessed using a short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SAS-SV). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate demographic and health-related predictors of smartphone addiction. Results Smartphone addiction occurred in 256 (16.9%) of the 1,519 students. Longer duration of smartphone use on a typical day, a shorter time period until first smartphone use in the morning, and reporting that social networking was the most personally relevant smartphone function were associated with smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction was more prevalent in younger adolescents (15–16 years) compared with young adults (19 years and older), students with both parents born outside Switzerland, persons reporting lower physical activity, and those reporting higher stress. Alcohol and tobacco consumption were unrelated to smartphone addiction. Discussion Different indicators of smartphone use are associated with smartphone addiction and subgroups of young people have a higher prevalence of smartphone addiction. Conclusions The study provides the first insights into smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and predictors of smartphone addiction in young people from a European country, which should be extended in further studies. PMID:26690625
Bellis, M; Hughes, K; Thomson, R; Bennett, A
Background/objectives: Increasingly, young people travel abroad to experience nightlife in international resorts. Although media coverage of such resorts suggests high levels of sexual activity, little empirical data are currently available. We have measured: 3 year trends in sexual behaviour of young people visiting Ibiza, levels of sexual risk taking, and their relation to substance use. Additionally, in 2002 we identified levels of homosexual sex and sexual interactions between UK residents and individuals from other countries. Methods: Data were collected from visitors to Ibiza between 2000 and 2002 just before they left the island. Information on sexual health was surveyed using a short anonymous questionnaire. Results: Over half of individuals (56.0%) visiting Ibiza had sex with at least one person, with 26.2% of males and 14.5% of females having sex with more than one individual. However, of those arriving without sexual partners (75.5%) just under half (47.5%) have sex in Ibiza and most of these (62.4%) always used condoms. Having any sex abroad was associated with using illicit drugs and having more sexual partners in the 6 months before visiting Ibiza. However, having unprotected sex or sex with more than one person was associated with smoking as well as having higher numbers of sexual partners before their visit. Overall, 8.6% of individuals had sex with a non-UK resident in Ibiza although such individuals were no more likely to have sex without condoms. Conclusions: Substantial numbers of individuals visiting international nightlife resorts have unprotected sex with people they meet while abroad. This poses an increasing threat to the sexual health of UK residents but as yet little attention has been paid to developing interventions that might reduce sexual risk taking among young people holidaying abroad. PMID:14755035
Hunt, Geoffrey; Fazio, Adam; MacKenzie, Kathleen; Moloney, Molly
This article analyzes eating and beliefs about family meals in the qualitative interview narratives of 30 “at-risk” gang-involved young women in the San Francisco Bay Area. We begin our examination of consumption practices with a study of households and identify three major types–extended, single-parent and blended. Within these households, food purchasing and consumption activities are varied, and in many cases, our respondents rely upon extended family members and non-kin relations for support. In examining eating within the family, we identify two sets of practices and meanings: eating alone, and eating with others. Eating alone is symbolic of independence from one’s family of origin, or is the result of familial conflict at the dinner table; however, it does not necessarily change our respondents’ eating patterns. Eating with others in the family remains important, and many of the young women value family meals, although there are significant obstacles to eating regularly with the entire nuclear family. Many of these young women play an important role in the purchasing and preparation of food for family members as well. This paper highlights the importance of understanding family eating practices from the perspective of young people in the family, whose contribution to family ingestive practices has tended to be underestimated in much of available research literature. PMID:21219948
Coad, Jane; Plumridge, Gill; Metcalfe, Alison
In this article, the authors describe how they worked with children and young people to develop art-based techniques and activities for use in a study exploring family communication about genetic conditions. It highlights key methodological issues about children and young people's participation in research, the concept of what constitutes an art-based activity and how this was applied to developing art-based data collection tools.
Nwokolo, N; McOwan, A; Hennebry, G; Chislett, L; Mandalia, S
Methods: A peer designed questionnaire piloted to a small group of young people was followed by a more widely distributed, amended questionnaire. The questionnaire survey was delivered to 744 pupils aged 11–18 years in six secondary schools and a pupil exclusion unit in central London. Factors encouraging or discouraging the use of young people's sexual health services were measured. Results: Several findings challenged existing models of care for young people's sexual health services. Notably, pupils wanted clinics to run more frequently than the usual once a week; the staff attributes that were most important were attitudinal rather than to do with sex, age, or physical appearance; and they did not mind if the waiting room contained older people. Many findings, however, agreed with existing data—young people wanted the clinic to be open after school; girls preferred to attend with a friend; a confidential, walk-in service was preferred. Conclusions: Large financial outlays are not necessary for the establishment of effective sexual health services for young people. Existing facilities and staff may be utilised with training of these staff to be sensitive to, and aware of, the needs of young people. Clinic opening times should coincide with school closing times. Although pupils stated a preference for female staff, this was not a high priority. More important was feeling that staff would listen to them and take their problems seriously, and that confidentiality would be maintained. PMID:12407236
Kalachikova, O. N.
Research on reproductive preferences of young people in Russia shows that their attitudes regarding the number of children they may have differs by gender and by urban-rural origins. (Contains 4 tables, 1 figure, and 1 note.)
Jackson, Angela M.
Abstract Objective The project aims were to enable young people to contribute their views about health services, to encourage professionals and policy makers to listen to the young people and to stimulate action to address the issues raised. Design Peer interviews were undertaken by a team of five young people to identify the experience and views of young people of various ages about health services. Drama workshop sessions were conducted with 10–15 young people, encompassing initial issue‐identifying activities and group discussion about their own experience of, and views about health services, followed by role‐play and improvisation to construct drama scenarios about the issues gathered from the interviews and discussions. Setting and participants Twenty young people aged 12–16 years from the Mayfield and Gorebridge areas of Midlothian were recruited from Newbattle Community High school. The project was conducted as a voluntary after‐school activity for 12 weeks. Results A drama was constructed from research conducted by young people into the experiences and views of their peer group about health services. A cast of young people performed the drama to an invited audience of 30 health and education professionals and held a post‐performance question and answer session with the audience to explore the issues raised. The drama engendered a number of practical outcomes related to improving the usage and experience of health services of young people. Conclusions Drama can offer a means to encourage participation, facilitate participants’ self‐expression and explore health/health service themes and issues. In conjunction with conventional techniques such as interviews and group discussions, a drama project can also be used to communicate the experience, views and needs of the wider client group to service providers and planners. Such initiatives can generate outcomes to improve service users’ experience of health services. PMID
This paper examines how young people's friendships influence safer sexual practices. Through a thematic discourse analysis, interviews with Sydney-based young people (aged 18-25 years) and Australian-based sexual health websites for young people are considered. Interview data illustrate how friendships can support young people's sexual experiences, concerns and safeties beyond the practice of 'safe sex' (condom use). This is evident in friends' practices of sex and relationship advice, open dialogue, trust and sharing experiential knowledge, as well as friend-based sex. Meanwhile, friendship discourse from selected Australian sexual health websites fails to engage with the support offered by friendship, or its value to a sexual health agenda. Foucault's account of friendship as a space of self-invention is considered in light of these data, along with his argument that friendship poses a threat to formal systems of knowing and regulating sex. Whether sexual or not, many close friendships are sexually intimate given the knowledge, support and influence these offer to one's sexual practices and relations. This paper argues that greater attention to friendship among sexual health promoters and researchers would improve professional engagements with young people's contemporary sexual cultures, and better inform their attempts to engage young people through social media.
Olander, Michael; Kirby, Emily Hoban; Schmitt, Krista
This fact sheet summarizes young people's attitudes toward three groups that are sometimes targets of intolerance: gays, immigrants, and racial minorities. In general, the data show that young Americans are the most tolerant age group and are growing more tolerant over time. However, their social circles and voluntary associations (such as…
Cherednichenko, G. A.
Young Russians are facing a work career that is very different from that of previous generations, and matching education with the job market is especially difficult. Their chances of finding a job are very affected by the factor of unemployment. In spite of a relatively high level of unemployment, young people in Russia are being flexible in their…
Duncan, Rony E; Gillam, Lynn; Savulescu, Julian; Williamson, Robert; Rogers, John G; Delatycki, Martin B
Predictive genetic tests for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) are routinely offered to young people during early adolescence. While this is not controversial, due to the medical benefit conferred by the test, it is nonetheless challenging as a consequence of the stage of life of the young people, and the simultaneous involvement of multiple family members. Despite these challenges, it is possible to ensure that the test is offered in such a way that it actively acknowledges and facilitates young people's developing autonomy and psychosocial well-being. In this paper we present findings from ten in-depth interviews with young people who have undergone predictive genetic testing for FAP (four male, six female; five gene-positive, five gene-negative; aged 10-17 years at the time of their predictive test; aged 12-25 years at the time of their research interview). We present five themes that emerged from the interviews which highlight key ethical challenges associated with such testing. These are: (1) the significance of the test; (2) young people's lack of involvement in the decision to be tested; (3) young people's limited understanding; (4) provision of the blood test at the first visit; and (5) group testing of family members. We draw on these themes to make eight recommendations for future practice. Together, these recommendations highlight the importance of providing developmentally appropriate care to young people undergoing predictive genetic testing for FAP.
Clark, Christina; Dugdale, George
Writing is an important issue in the UK today. While children's and young people's writing standards steadily improved until 2006, levels have not increased in recent years. Writing is much more than just an educational issue--it is an essential skill that allows people to participate fully in today's society and to contribute to the economy.…
Merkinaite, Simona; Grund, Jean Paul; Frimpong, Allen
Globally, young people under 25 accounted for an estimated 45% of all new HIV infections in 2007. Across the Eastern Europe and Central Asia region as many as 25% of injecting drug users (IDUs) are younger than 20. The Eurasian Harm Reduction assessment of young peoples' (under 25) drug use, risk behaviours and service availability and accessibility confirms, young people at risk of injecting, or those already experimenting with injecting drugs, find themselves isolated from health and prevention services, which increases the risks for health and social harms, while the approach towards young peoples' use rely heavily on law enforcement. Denying young drug users' access to life-saving drug treatment and other harm reduction services contributes to the risk environment surrounding their use and violates their right to health and well-being as identified in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Governments, health care providers and harm reduction services should work together to create an environment in which young people can access needed services, including non-judgmental and low-threshold approaches offered by harm reduction programs.
Eid, Fatima H.
Preparing young people to be active citizens has to be a core value of schools and higher education institutions. Thus, education for citizenship is important because every society needs people who can contribute effectively to the future health of their communities locally, nationally and globally. The field of citizenship education is one that…
In recent years, there has been increasing interest within the media and in government about young people who are spending more time in front of the television or computer than in physical activities. A 1996 conference examined these issues and addressed concerns that young people's lack of activity has a detrimental effect upon their health and…
Hansen, I. V., Ed.
This book is an anthology of unedited verse and prose written by 14- and 15-year-old students. The book is intended for teachers in training, for their tutors, and for all teachers of English. The verses are classified as undirected and directed poems about nature, places, war, the Egyptian Tomb, up and back again, and people. The prose is…
Barker, Gary; Olukoya, Adepeju; Aggleton, Peter
This paper contributes to understanding of young people's help-seeking behaviour. A conceptual framework is proposed that seeks to integrate differing sources of influence and their implications for policy and programme development. Data was collected by means of an international literature review followed by a purposive international survey of expert informants. Findings suggest that it is important to distinguish between individual and structural determinants of young people's help-seeking behaviour. Policy and programme influences also impact upon the demand for help and the supply of social support that is available. It is important to focus on the normative needs of young people as well as specific health needs and problems. Creating trust, rethinking adult attitudes toward young people, and reducing the stigma associated with seeking help are key to promoting help-seeking behaviour. Many young people are hindered from seeking help, or are not offered help because of social exclusion, violence, poverty, prejudice (including homophobia) and gender inequalities. Future actions to promote help-seeking and enhance social support must consider these structural barriers, making special efforts to reach and work with excluded populations.
Day, David M.; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Ruck, Martin D.
Relations between maternal socio-political attitudes and parenting style and young people's and mothers' attitudes toward young people's nurturance and self-determination rights were examined. Both young people (n=121) and mothers (n=67) were more supportive of nurturance than self-determination rights, although young people were more supportive…
Callery, Peter; Milnes, Linda; Verduyn, Chrissie; Couriel, Jonathan
BACKGROUND: Asthma continues to be a common childhood chronic illness managed principally in primary care. Self-management requires co-ordinated efforts of young people, carers and health professionals. Non-compliance occurs even when parents are supervising care, suggesting that decisions are made on the basis of beliefs that contrast with professional advice. Health professionals therefore need to understand the views of parents (or other carers) and patients to promote good self-management. Little attention has been given to carers' and young people's perspectives on asthma. AIM: To gain insights into the beliefs of a group of 25 young people aged nine to 16 years old and their carers about asthma and its management. DESIGN OF STUDY: Qualitative study using conversational-style interviews. SETTING: Generally deprived urban areas of Greater Manchester. METHOD: Interviews were conducted with 25 young people with asthma and separately with their carers. The interviews were analysed using the principles and procedures of grounded theory. RESULTS: Carers reported assessing asthma symptoms through observed effects on the child and other family members, including emotions and behaviours that disrupted family life. Young people emphasised the effect of asthma on their everyday lives and in particular the extent to which they appeared different to their peers. Some young people reported continuing symptoms and restrictions of activity that differed widely from the reports of their carers. CONCLUSION: Differences between young people's and carers' criteria for assessment suggest explanations for some 'non-compliant' behaviour. Carers' assessment of asthma severity through the absence of acute attacks is consistent with managing asthma as intermittent acute episodes. Professionals should take account of differences between young people's, carers' and professionals' perceptions of asthma. PMID:14694693
Situating the contemporary medical treatment of transgender young people--children and adolescents--in the longer history of engagement between transgender activists and the medical community, this article analyzes the World Professional Association for Transgender Health's (WPATH) Standards of Care (SOC) concerning the medical treatment of transgender young people. It traces how the SOC both achieves medical treatment for children and adolescents and reinforces a normative gender system by cleaving to a developmental approach. Without rejecting the value of developmentally-based medical treatment for now, it offers some preliminary thoughts on queer theory's valuation of developmental failure as a potential future alternative to an emergent medico-technological transgender normativity.
"Tobacco industry strategies: marketing cigarettes to young people" describres how tobacco manufacturers through their internal documents and litigation have been forced to admit or found to deliberately target young people in their marketing strategies to recruit new smokers, despite having denied it publicly for years. Given that most smokers start and get hooked on tobacco in their ealy years and that the link between advertising, promotion and tobacco initiation is well documented, countries should adopt a complete ban on advertising and promotion. The FCTC is the best avenue for a global ban.
Transitioning to adulthood is challenging for young people who have a mental illness or substance use disorder, especially those who are transitioning from institutional care. For young people with serious mental illnesses to succeed in the adult world, they need more than treatment.These youth need to be truly integrated into their communities. They need jobs that offer skills, dignity, independence, and peers. They need a responsible and caring older adult who can help them to make better choices, learn from their mistakes, and applaud their successes, no matter how small. Community providers can create these opportunities through their own programs or appropriate community collaborations.
Gil, Amelia Ortiz
With this contribution we would like to share our experiences in organizing astronomical activities addressed to people with disabilities. The goal is twofold: we would like to invite all those with similar experiences to contribute to the compilation of a document to guide other astronomers who might be interested in carrying out these kind of activities aimed at groups of people with special needs. We also want to persuade public outreach officers that working with disabled people is not as difficult as it may seem at first, as long as they are provided with adequate educational material and guidelines about how to do it. The final goal is to build a repository that can be used by educators and public outreach officers as a guide when working with disabled people, specially during the International Year of Astronomy.
Fawkner, Samantha G.; Armstrong, Neil
The study of VO2 kinetics offers the potential to non-invasively examine the cardiorespiratory and metabolic response to dynamic exercise and limitations to every day physical activity. Its non-invasive nature makes it hugely attractive for use with young people, both healthy and those with disease, and yet the literature, whilst growing with respect to adults, remains confined to a cluster of studies with these special populations. It is most likely that this is partly due to the methodological difficulties involved in studying VO2 kinetics in young people which are not present, or present to a lesser degree, with adults. This article reviews these methodological issues, and explains the main procedures that might be used to overcome them. Key pointsThe VO2 kinetic response to exercise represents the combined efficiency of the cardiovascular, pulmonary and metabolic systems, and an accurate assessment of the response potentially provides a great deal of useful information via non-invasive methodology.An accurate assessment of the VO2 kinetic response is however inherently difficult with children and especially those with reduced exercise tolerance, due primarily to the apparent breath-by-breath noise which masks the true underlying physiological response, and the small amplitudes of the response signal.Despite this, it is possible to assess and quantify the VO2 kinetic response with children if appropriate steps are taken to apply carefully selected methodologies and report response variables with confidence intervals. In this way, both the researcher and the reader can be confident that the data reported is meaningful. PMID:24149413
Martin, Kerry; Hart, Ruth; MacLeod, Shona; Kinder, Kay
The aim of this research was to investigate the approaches being taken by local authorities (LAs) and partner organisations to improve how young people are perceived, especially in relation to crime and antisocial behaviour. The study also looked at the challenges for and benefits of activities aiming to improve public perceptions of young people,…
Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Kane, Roslyn; Wellings, Kaye
Concern about the sexual and reproductive health of young people has been mounting recently in Thailand. Unequal gender relations have a considerable influence on the lives of young people, especially young women, yet few studies have explored the ways in which they have impacted on provision of sexual health care. Drawing upon data from a qualitative study in Northern Thailand, this paper explores the views and experiences of young people in seeking health care, highlighting the kinds of gender double standards and power imbalances that may pose obstacles to their use of sexual and reproductive health services. Findings reveal the vulnerability of sexually active young women in seeking support and care from partners, parents, and service providers. Those who experience adverse outcomes of sexual activity, such as unwanted pregnancy or infection, report facing indifference, victim blaming, or the threat of abandonment by their partners. Because of their fear of disclosure to their parents and communities, of their sexual activity, they opt for clandestine and unsafe abortion and seek the counsel of peers and drugstores rather than parents and providers. At the service provider level, young women report facing threatening and judgemental attitudes, indifferent counselling, and possible violation of confidentiality. This is in marked contrast to the treatment of young men, who generally meet with a more sympathetic and accepting response.
Turner, S.; Alborz, A.; Gayle, V.
Background: Earlier studies of young people with Down's syndrome have investigated a relatively limited range of variables which may influence their academic attainment. The relative strength of such influences and how they may vary during the school career, has also been under-researched. Aims: The aim of the paper is to identify the contemporary…
Wood, Bronwyn Elisabeth
This paper reports on a research study which drew attention to the constitutive nature of the everyday world in young people's subjectivities and practices of citizenship. Central to the aim of this research was a need for alignment between the focus of the research ("everyday" citizenship), with methods which could illuminate the…
Hamilton, Mary Agnes; Hamilton, Stephen F.; Bianchi, Lucia; Bran, Jacqui
New and improved institutions are needed to support the transition to adulthood of vulnerable young people. Existing institutions that should provide that support demonstrate structural lag: they have not adapted to changing circumstances. Action research was conducted in Por un Manana, an employment training program for low-income youth and young…
Sinclair, S.; McKendrick, J. H.; Scott, G.
Recent UK government statements and education policies have emphasized the need to instil a "culture of aspiration" among young people in deprived communities to address social exclusion. Specific proposals include raising the school leaving age to 18 and extending compulsory employment training. These statements and measures express the…
Beitz, Steffen; Stahl, Klaus, Ed.
This paper examines the definition of "young people" and asserts there is no clear-cut social description of this group with societal expectations differing from culture to culture. The article analyzes the changes affecting the lives of "youth" in Germany and assesses their social attitudes and values. The contents include…
A survey of recruitment officers in England and Wales concerning the entry to employment of young people who leave school with no formal qualifications or with qualifications below the GCE A level is discussed. Findings suggest that employers are not dissatisfied with their recruits. (Author/MLW)
Bernstein, Joanne E.
Literature for young people that allows issues related to death and suicide to be addressed openly included nonfiction material from various vantage points: anthropology, biology, ecology, theology, thanatology, and more. Exploration of grief and mourning are accomplished in a manner that is scholarly and compassionate. (Author)
Bell, Stephen; Aggleton, Peter
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of social context on young people's sexual lives and sexual health, and to highlight the need for HIV prevention and sexual health programmes which better take into account these contextual influences. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on findings from a multi-method,…
Reeves, C.; Whitaker, R.; Parsonage, R. K.; Robinson, C. A.; Swale, K.; Bayley, L.
Objective: To examine young people's requirements and perceptions of sexual health services and education in the context of their experience of sexual relationships and knowledge of sexual health. Design: A questionnaire based cohort study. Setting: Three hundred and sixty Year 11 students (aged 15-16 years) surveyed in three Secondary Schools.…
van den Beemt, Antoine; Akkerman, Sanne; Simons, Robert-Jan
Young people's increasing use of interactive media has led to assertions about possible consequences for education. Rather than following assertions, we argue for theory-driven empirical research as a basis for education renewal. First, we review the existing empirical research, concluding that there is almost no theory-driven research available.…
New York State Dept. of Labor, Albany.
This booklet provides advice to young people seeking their first jobs on how to avoid the pitfalls that have caused others to lose jobs or fail to be hired. Topics discussed in short, one-page sections include appearance, attitude and behavior, ignorance of labor market facts, misrepresentation, sensitivity about a physical defect, unrealistic…
Dixon, Joyce K.
Describes the development of the Young People's Library in Las Vegas (Nevada) as a symbolic and literal bridge to the Lied Discovery Children's Museum. The roles in the design process of library administration, library personnel, and the architect are explored, and how this project addressed differences between the architect's artistic vision and…
Kuh, D.; And Others
The study compared the past and current work and work alternatives experienced by 383 disabled young people (aged 16-25 years) and 152 able-bodied controls in East Devon, United Kingdom. Also compared were the aspirations and expectations of the disabled with those of their families and service providers. (Author/DB)
There are counter-narratives of youth as at risk and as buoyant and agentive. The article maps the conceptual terrain concerning resilience, well-being, buoyancy, enjoyment and happiness and selects factors related to the successful navigation of schooling. It analyses data from a subset of a national data set, from 65 young people considered to…
This paper introduces the context for young people in the United Kingdom today, identifies some of the key factors associated with well-being, and then focuses on ways spiritual well-being can be promoted through informal education. Informal education is the widely acknowledged primary pedagogical approach for professional youth workers. Using…
Sampson, Alice; Themelis, Spyros
This paper discusses how the "at risk" and "what works" approach that drives the management of youth criminal justice systems produces little knowledge that informs practitioners how best to work with young people who offend and how to design effective crime prevention programmes. An alternative approach that is more informative for the…
Hughes, K.; MacKintosh, A. M.; Hastings, G.; Wheeler, C.; Watson, J.; Inglis, J.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the appeal of "designer drinks" to young people. DESIGN: Qualitative and quantitative research comprising group discussions and questionnaire led interviews with young people accompanied by a self completion questionnaire. SETTINGS: Argyll and Clyde Health Board area, west Scotland. SUBJECTS: Eight groups aged 12-17 years; 824 aged 12-17 recruited by multistage cluster probability sample from the community health index. RESULTS: Young people were familiar with designer drinks, especially MD 20/20 and leading brands of strong white cider. Attitudes towards these drinks varied quite distinctly with age, clearly reflecting their attitudes towards and motivations for drinking in general. The brand imagery of designer drinks-in contrast with that of more mainstream drinks-matched many 14 and 15 year olds' perceptions and expectations of drinking. Popularity of designer drinks peaked between the ages of 13 and 16 while more conventional drinks showed a consistent increase in popularity with age. Consumption of designer drinks tended to be in less controlled circumstances and was associated with heavier alcohol intake and greater drunkenness. CONCLUSIONS: Designer drinks are a cause for concern. They appeal to young people, often more so than conventional drinks, and are particularly attractive to 14-16 year olds. Consumption of designer drinks is also associated with drinking in less controlled environments, heavier drinking, and greater drunkenness. There is a need for policy debate to assess the desirability of these drinks and the extent to which further controls on their marketing are required. PMID:9040387
Holdridge, Barbara, Ed.
This illustrated collection of poetic excerpts from the plays and sonnets of William Shakespeare is designed to be read and appreciated by young people. The 39 excerpts in the collection follow the "7 ages of man" pattern from childhood to old age. The collection's introduction by the famous Shakespearean scholar, A.L. Rowse, recounts…
McCrystal, Patrick; Winning, Kerry
Drug misuse in Northern Ireland, like many parts of the world, is becoming one of the major issues facing society today. A first stage to addressing this problem is effective drugs education and prevention strategies to school-aged young people. A survey of a range of education providers including mainstream and special needs schools, and school…
This practical guide demonstrates how to sponsor a successful, student-led book club for grades K through 12 that is fun, easy-to-implement, and encourages reading. Establishing a book club for children and young people that's self-sustaining and successful long-term is a challenge that this book addresses and conquers. According to recent…
Nuksunova, A. M.
In the past 10 years, there has been a tendency in Kalmykia to drift away from traditional culture, the foundation of which has been the Buddhist teaching adopted by the Kalmyks in the 17th century, and also, most directly, the Kalmyk language, which has lost its definitive importance in Kalmyk society. Young people of Kalmykia today express…
Ayre, Patrick; Barrett, David
Examines some reasons for the failure to protect young people in England and Wales from sexual abuse inherent in prostitution. Identifies characteristics of the child protection system which fit poorly for work with these youth. Argues that lasting improvement of these children's well-being depends on the creation of "joined-up,"…
Broadbent, Robyn; Papadopoulos, Theo
Advance is a flexible, school-based program that provides young people with the opportunity to volunteer or implement a project of benefit to their communities. An evaluation of this partnership between a state government office for youth, government secondary schools and community organisations found that a universal program such as Advance could…
Penning, Nick; Hunter, Bruce, Ed.
Changing demographic trends and the economy's need for well-educated young people to take entry level positions in the work force make businesses more eager to cooperate with schools to ensure the availability of adequate programs for developing prepared workers. (PGD)
Zubok, Iuliia Al'bertovna
In this article, the researchers examine a number of methodological problems involved in the study of risk among young people as a social demographic group, and they analyze the tendencies of social-development of the younger generation of Russians under conditions of risk. The analysis is based on data from a national sociological monitoring…
Pittman, Karen; Martin, Shanetta; Williams, Anderson
Engaging young people as partners in community change is a compelling idea, but translating that idea into effective practice requires focused attention to a range of issues. The principles described in this paper emerged from the commingling of research and practice that occurred when the Forum for Youth Investment merged with Community IMPACT!…
Atkinson, Mary, Ed.
This report presents the findings of an analysis of the new or updated Children and Young People's Plan (CYPP) published in 2007. The documents analysed, known variously as plans, reviews or refreshes, are collectively referred to throughout the report as CYPPs. Attendees at the Planning for Excellence (PFE) network workshops suggested that…
Sailing expeditions have played an important role in adventure provision for young people in Great Britain over many years. Adventure experiences under sail can achieve social and personal development goals similar to those of land-based adventure education programs. In addition, participants can earn certification in sailing skills. Most voyages…
Lopes, Joana; Benton, Thomas; Cleaver, Elizabeth
Citizenship education was introduced as a statutory subject in England in September 2002 with the aim of promoting civic and political engagement. However, whilst education is undoubtedly a powerful socialisation force, it is not the only factor that is likely to influence young people's civic and political participation. Political science…
This ethnography, completed by the classroom teacher in a publicly funded secondary school in Mississauga, Canada, explores issues of conflict and sabotage that affected a devising project with suburban young people. The processes of devising generated ethnographic data that included a play script and videotaped rehearsals and performances. As…
This article revisits debates about inclusive education from the perspective of the "Keeping Connected" project, a qualitative longitudinal research project focusing on young people with health-related disrupted experiences of schooling. Drawing on findings from this project, three main arguments are advanced and illustrated in relation…
Herne, Steve; Adams, Jeff; Atkinson, Dennis; Dash, Paul; Jessel, John
The "Future Something Project" ("FSP"), a two-year action research project, was devised to nurture the creative and technological talent of small groups of young people at risk by creating a structured network, mentored and driven by creative professionals exploring innovative ways for the two distinct target groups to work…
The book was designed to be a reference material as part of a comprehensive sex education program or as a family resource book. The language and syntax of the book as well as the line drawing illustrations are geared specifically for hearing impaired young people and others whose need for information on human sexuality may be more advanced than…
The present study focuses on the counseling interventions for adolescents and young people held in custody. The study analyses the social effects of imprisonment, the incapacitation effects of custody, the need for delivering counseling in custody. In addition it reviews evidence regarding the effects of delivering counseling interventions in…
Children & Society, 2004
This paper was prepared collectively by participants of the third seminar in a series with the title Challenging ""Social Inclusion": Perspectives for and from Children and Young People". Three 3-day seminars took place at the Universities of Edinburgh, Glasgow and Stirling in 2002-3 attended by academics, professionals from…
Shay, Marnee; Heck, Deborah
This article will discuss some of the findings from a qualitative research project that explored the connections between alternative education and Indigenous learners. This study investigated how flexi school leaders reported they were supporting Indigenous young people to remain engaged in education. The results of the survey provide demographic…
This report presents baseline information about the degree to which children and young people in Middlesbrough enjoy reading and writing, how often then engage in reading and writing, what types of materials they read and write and how they feel about reading and writing. It also outlines baseline information about their confidence in their own…
Renton, Zoe; Butcher, Joanne
This article outlines why sustainable development matters for children and young people, and explores the relevant policy context in England and the UK. It asks whether enough is being carried out by central government to secure a more sustainable future for, and with, today's children. More is needed at the national policy level to: embed…
Walker, Melanie; Mkwananzi, Faith
This paper sketches an innovative conceptualisation of disadvantaged youth, shaped dialogically by the interactions of theorising and data from a case study at Orange Farm informal settlement in South Africa in 2013. The study focused on the challenges for the young people in this area in accessing higher education. Drawing on Sen's and Nussbaum's…
Rasmussen, Mary Lou; Sanjakdar, Fida; Allen, Louisa; Quinlivan, Kathleen; Bromdal, Annette
Young people may face conflicting and confusing messages about what it means to respond well in relation to homophobia and transphobia. Consequently, we ask--What might it mean to respond well to homophobia and transphobia? This strategy, inspired by Anika Thiem and Judith Butler, is recognition of the ambivalent conditions which structure…
Bigger, Stephen; Webb, Jean
This article explores the extent to which stories for young people encourage environmental engagement and a sense of agency. Our discussion is informed by the work of Paul Ricoeur (on hermeneutics and narrative), John Dewey (on primacy of experience) and John Macmurray (on personal agency in society). We understand fiction reading about place as…
Some of the world's best children's book artists got together to help Amnesty International celebrate the Universal Declaration of Human Rights' 60th anniversary in "We Are All Born Free," one of the 42 titles recommended by the fourth annual United States Board on Books for Young People's (USBBY) Outstanding International Books…
This article highlights the lack of human rights recognition for arguably one of the most vulnerable groups in our society, children and young people in the care of the state. Currently under New Zealand legislation and policy frameworks these children do not have their rights upheld, as per New Zealand's obligations under the United Nations…
Cherednichenko, G. A.
The dynamism of social processes, the development of technologies, and the modernization of industrial production require raising the education and qualifications of blue-collar workers, particularly working young people. This accounts for the focus on problems of that group's formation, their integration into society, their acquisition and…
Phoenix, Ann; Pattman, Rob; Croghan, Rosaleen; Griffin, Christine
Gender inequalities in schools have implications for life chances, emotional well-being and educational policies and practices, but are apparently resistant to change. This paper employs Judith Butler's conceptualisation of performativity in a study of young people and consumption to provide insights into gendered inequities. It argues that how…
This report presents second year information about the degree to which children and young people in Middlesbrough enjoy reading and writing, how often then engage in reading and writing, what types of materials they read and write and how they feel about reading and writing. It also outlines information about their confidence in their own…
At the beginning of the 1990s, the potential for change in society, the modernization of society, was associated with the younger generations' entering into a "new life." This article focuses on what the younger generations bring with them to the socialization process, and the characteristics of the socialization of young people in the…
Holligan, Christopher Peter; Deuchar, Ross
This paper presents the results of an exploratory, small-scale qualitative research enquiry into the perceptions and experiences of young people in communities afflicted by deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland's largest city. The context within which we address this focus contains a culture reputed to involve sectarianism, territoriality and gangs.…
Burns, Jane; Birrell, Emma
International studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness, and the fundamental contribution it make to the overall disease burden, is greatest in children and young people. Despite this high burden, adolescents and young adults are the least likely population group to seek help or to access professional care for mental health problems. This issue is particularly problematic given that untreated, or poorly treated, mental disorders are associated with both short- and long-term functional impairment, including poorer education and employment opportunities, potential comorbidity, including drug and alcohol problems, and a greater risk for antisocial behavior, including violence and aggression. This cycle of poor mental health creates a significant burden for the young person, their family and friends, and society as a whole. Australia is enviably positioned to substantially enhance the well-being of young people, to improve their engagement with mental health services, and – ultimately – to improve mental health. High prevalence but potentially debilitating disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are targeted by the specialized youth mental health service, headspace: the National Youth Mental Health Foundation and a series of Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centres, will provide early intervention specialist services for low prevalence, complex illnesses. Online services, such as ReachOut.com by Inspire Foundation, Youthbeyondblue, Kids Helpline, and Lifeline Australia, and evidence-based online interventions, such as MoodGYM, are also freely available, yet a major challenge still exists in ensuring that young people receive effective evidence-based care at the right time. This article describes Australian innovation in shaping a comprehensive youth mental health system, which is informed by an evidence-based approach, dedicated advocacy and, critically, the inclusion of young people in service design, development, and ongoing
Burns, Jane; Birrell, Emma
International studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness, and the fundamental contribution it make to the overall disease burden, is greatest in children and young people. Despite this high burden, adolescents and young adults are the least likely population group to seek help or to access professional care for mental health problems. This issue is particularly problematic given that untreated, or poorly treated, mental disorders are associated with both short- and long-term functional impairment, including poorer education and employment opportunities, potential comorbidity, including drug and alcohol problems, and a greater risk for antisocial behavior, including violence and aggression. This cycle of poor mental health creates a significant burden for the young person, their family and friends, and society as a whole. Australia is enviably positioned to substantially enhance the well-being of young people, to improve their engagement with mental health services, and - ultimately - to improve mental health. High prevalence but potentially debilitating disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are targeted by the specialized youth mental health service, headspace: the National Youth Mental Health Foundation and a series of Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centres, will provide early intervention specialist services for low prevalence, complex illnesses. Online services, such as ReachOut.com by Inspire Foundation, Youthbeyondblue, Kids Helpline, and Lifeline Australia, and evidence-based online interventions, such as MoodGYM, are also freely available, yet a major challenge still exists in ensuring that young people receive effective evidence-based care at the right time. This article describes Australian innovation in shaping a comprehensive youth mental health system, which is informed by an evidence-based approach, dedicated advocacy and, critically, the inclusion of young people in service design, development, and ongoing evaluation to
Cooper, Simon B; Dring, Karah J; Nevill, Mary E
With only a quarter of young people currently meeting physical activity guidelines, two key areas of concern are the effects of exercise on cardiometabolic health and cognition. Despite the fact that physical activity in young people is typically high intensity and intermittent in nature, much of the literature examines traditional endurance-type exercise. This review provides an update on the effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise on young people's cardiometabolic health and cognition. High-intensity intermittent exercise has acute beneficial effects on endothelial function and postprandial lipemia and chronic positive effects on weight management. In addition, there is emerging evidence regarding chronic benefits on the blood lipid profile, blood pressure, and proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, emerging evidence suggests beneficial acute and chronic effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise on cognition. However, further research is required in both cardiometabolic health and cognition, particularly regarding the impact of school-based interventions in adolescents.
Dyson, Simon M; Atkin, Karl; Culley, Lorraine A; Dyson, Sue E; Evans, Hala
The experiences of young people living with a sickle cell disorder in schools in England are reported through a thematic analysis of forty interviews, using Bourdieu’s notions of field, capital and habitus. Young people with sickle cell are found to be habitually dys-positioned between the demands of the clinic for health maintenance through self-care and the field of the school, with its emphases on routines, consistent attendance and contextual demands for active and passive pupil behaviour. The tactics or dispositions that young people living with sickle cell can then employ, during strategy and struggle at school, are therefore fragile: they work only contingently, transiently or have the unintended consequences of displacing other valued social relations. The dispositions of the young people with sickle cell are framed by other social struggles: innovations in school procedures merely address aspects of sickle cell in isolation and are not consolidated into comprehensive policies; mothers inform, liaise, negotiate and advocate in support of a child with sickle cell but with limited success. Reactions of teachers and peers to sickle cell have the enduring potential to drain the somatic, cultural and social capital of young people living with sickle cell. PMID:21375541
This study analyses what motivates older people to attend "day centres" in Malta and what they believe that they derive from young people who carry out their placements at these day "centres" These young people, who are aged 16-17, attend a vocational college in Malta and are studying health and social care. The study is based…
Undie, Chi-Chi; Crichton, Joanna; Zulu, Eliya
This paper explores how young people in Malawi conceptualize sex and sexual relations through an analysis of their personal narratives about these phenomena. Eleven focus group discussions were conducted with 114 youth aged 14-19 years. Participants were asked to describe behaviors, attitudes, and motivations to reduce unplanned pregnancies and the spread of HIV/AIDS, with appropriate probes to illuminate their sexual world-views. The various metaphors that emanated from the discussions suggest that young people in this study take a utilitarian approach to sex, and conceive it as a natural and routine activity of which pleasure and passion are essential components. Future research and prevention efforts (around sexuality education in particular) would do well to incorporate adolescents' language in programming as this can enhance understanding of the world of young people as well as the effectiveness of interventions addressing problems related to early sexual behavior.
Godfrey, Cath; Devine-Wright, Hannah; Taylor, Joe
Involvement in positive leisure activities is a key way for young people to develop resilience and social and emotional skills. This paper outlines the evaluation of a six-week surfing intervention, the Wave Project, which aimed to boost wellbeing and confidence among 84 young people aged eight to 18, all of whom faced mental health issues or social exclusion. The intervention resulted in a significant and sustained increase in wellbeing. One year later, 70% of clients regularly attend a surf club and many have become trained as session volunteers. Parents and referrers noticed an increase in positive attitude and better communication, as well as improved self-management and behaviour at both home and school It is concluded that the Wave Project provides a demonstrable and cost-effective way to deliver mental health care, mentoring and social integration of young people. Further service evaluation of accessibility and long-term outcomes is also recommended.
Wallmyr, Gudrun; Welin, Catharina
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of and attitudes among young people toward pornography and their sources of information about sexuality. Eight hundred and seventy-six young people ages 15-25 years (555 females and 321 males) who visited a youth center in Sweden for a period of 1 year answered a questionnaire about their use of pornography, their attitudes toward pornography, and sources of information about sexuality. Although most had seen pornographic movies, the youngest boys reported viewing the most pornography. The male participants reported that the most common reason they viewed pornography was to get aroused and to masturbate, whereas the female participants stated that they viewed pornography out of curiosity. The most frequent source of information about sexuality was peers. These results illustrate the importance of sex education to give factual information about sexuality and to counteract the messages about sexuality presented in pornography.
Rogers, Katherine D.; Young, Alys M.
The experiences of being a deaf role model have been little explored in the literature. This paper explores the role of the deaf role model as perceived by d/Deaf adults who carried out this role, when working with deaf young people, parents of deaf children, and professionals who work with them. The data were collected from part of the evaluation…
This year’s Women Deliver conference made a strong call for investing in the health and development of adolescents and young people. It highlighted the unique problems faced by adolescent girls and young women–some of the most vulnerable and neglected individuals in the world–and stressed the importance of addressing their needs and rights, not only for their individual benefit, but also to achieve global goals such as reducing maternal mortality and HIV infection. In response to an invitation from the editors of Reproductive Health, we-the sixteen coauthors of this commentary–put together key themes that reverberated throughout the conference, on the health and development needs of adolescents and young people, and promising solutions to meet them. 1. Investing in adolescents and young people is crucial for ensuring health, creating prosperity and fulfilling human rights. 2. Gender inequality contributes to many health and social problems. Adolescent girls and boys, and their families and communities, should be challenged and supported to change inequitable gender norms. – Child marriage utterly disempowers girls. It is one of the most devastating manifestations of gender discrimination. – Negative social and cultural attitudes towards menstruation constrain the lives of millions of girls. This may well establish the foundation for lifelong discomfort felt by girls about their bodies and reticence in seeking help when problems arise. 3. Adolescents need comprehensive, accurate and developmentally appropriate sexuality education. This will provide the bedrock for attitude formation and decision making. 4. Adolescent-centered health services can prevent sexual and reproductive health problems and detect and treat them if and when they occur. 5. National governments have the authority and the responsibility to address social and cultural barriers to the provision of sexual and reproductive health education and services for adolescents and young people
Russian Education and Society, 2007
This article presents a roundtable discussion on the risk in the education of young people in Russia. Participants were as follows: (1) Iu.A. Zubok; (2) A.I. Kovaleva; (3) D.L. Konstantinovskii; (4) V.A. Lukov; (5) V.Ia. Nechaev; (6) N.L. Smakotina; (7) V.I. Chuprov; (8) V.I. Zubkov; (9) Iu.V. Goliusova; (10) E.G. Panteleev; (11) I.A. Seleznev;…
Crawford, Belinda; Rissel, Chris; Yamazaki, Rowena; Franke, Elise; Amanatidis, Sue; Ravulo, Jioji; Bindon, Jenni; Torvaldsen, Siranda
Participation in sporting or recreational programs can be unattainable for many disadvantaged young people. Encouraging regular cycling is an important public health strategy to increase participation in physical activity and expand personal transport options for marginalised youth. Perceptions and attitudes toward cycling were explored in eight…
Kaehne, Axel; Beyer, Stephen
The article reports the evaluation of a small-scale-supported employment project in a local authority in England. The study examined whether or not the peer support model could be used to deliver supported employment to a group of young people with intellectual disabilities. We utilised a mixed-method approach involving activity data, family…
Health promotion and community building strategies are increasingly using the arts as a basis for engaging young people. Through involvement in arts activity, participants have been shown to develop supportive social networks and report increased feelings of well-being (Jermyn, 2001). In particular, drama strategies and programs have been used as…
Petrov, A. V.
One of the most important factors to ensure young people's active involvement in the implementation of the reforms that are being carried out and the emergence of an economically strong and politically stable Russia is their social and psychological mood, their willingness to take action in accordance with definite civic attitudes and value…
Demirok, Mukaddes; Ozdamli, Fezile; Hursen, Cigdem; Ozcinar, Zehra; Kutguner, Muge; Uzunboylu, Huseyin
Playing computer games is a routine activity for most young people today. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of time spent playing computer games, the violence of the game, and self-reported anger of students in North Cyprus. Four hundred participants between the ages of 15-18 completed the State-Trait Anger and the Anger…
The study investigated vocational activities of 274 English young people between the ages of 15 and 21. Two-thirds entered occupational centers for disabled adults; only 5% found a job in open employment. The physically impaired experienced a more difficult transition but the mentally impaired faced a more limited range of vocational choices.…
Behtoui, Alireza; Neergaard, Anders
Based on Bourdieu's conceptualization of social capital (the social stratification perspective), this study examines the impact of social capital on the educational outcomes of young people in Sweden, with a focus on the extra-familial aspect of social capital -- that is, social capital generated by parental networks and active membership in…
Eynon, R.; Malmberg, L.-E.
Information seeking is one of the most popular online activities for young people and can provide an additional information channel, which may enhance learning. In this study, we propose and test a model that adds to the existing literature by examining the ways in which parents, schools, and friends (what we call networks of support) effect young…
Vannier, Sarah A.; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.
Surprisingly little is known about oral sex experiences among emerging adults, including the motives behind their participation in this sexual activity. The current study examined the characteristics of emerging adults' most recent oral sex experience. A total of 431 young people (M age = 21.7 years; 71.7% female) completed an on-line survey…
Ellenberg, Norman L.
This document presents a variety of creative activities for young people to help them not only understand some of the principles of economics but, further, enjoy the study of economics. The book, while not a comprehensive or in-depth view of the science of economics, comprises a quick survey of some important aspects of understanding the system.…
Powney, Janet; Lowden, Kevin; Hall, Stuart
A study investigated what Scottish and English young people consider important life skills, how they believe they develop them, and how necessary they see them to their future lives. More than 200 16-21-year-olds examined photographs of events related to basic life tasks, family, close relationships, work or school and leisure activities and then…
Miró, Jordi; Castarlenas, Elena; de la Vega, Rocío; Roy, Rubén; Solé, Ester; Tomé-Pires, Catarina; Jensen, Mark P
The treatment of young people with chronic pain is a complex endeavor. Many of these youth do not obtain adequate relief from available interventions. Psychological neuromodulatory treatments have been shown to have potential benefit for adults with chronic pain. Here, we review and summarize the available information about the efficacy of three promising psychological neuromodulatory treatments-neurofeedback, meditation and hypnosis-when provided to young people with chronic pain. A total of 16 articles were identified and reviewed. The findings from these studies show that hypnotic treatments are effective in reducing pain intensity for a variety of pediatric chronic pain problems, although research suggests variability in outcomes as a function of the specific pain problem treated. There are too few studies evaluating the efficacy of neurofeedback or meditation training in young people with chronic pain to draw firm conclusions regarding their efficacy. However, preliminary data indicate that these treatments could potentially have positive effects on a variety of outcomes (e.g., pain intensity, frequency of pain episodes, physical and psychological function), at least in the short term. Clinical trials are needed to evaluate the effects of neurofeedback and meditation training, and research is needed to identify the moderators of treatment benefits as well as better understand the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of all three of these treatments. The findings from such research could enhance overall treatment efficacy by: (1) providing an empirical basis for better patient-treatment matching; and (2) identifying specific mechanisms that could be targeted with treatment.
Miró, Jordi; Castarlenas, Elena; de la Vega, Rocío; Roy, Rubén; Solé, Ester; Tomé-Pires, Catarina; Jensen, Mark P.
The treatment of young people with chronic pain is a complex endeavor. Many of these youth do not obtain adequate relief from available interventions. Psychological neuromodulatory treatments have been shown to have potential benefit for adults with chronic pain. Here, we review and summarize the available information about the efficacy of three promising psychological neuromodulatory treatments—neurofeedback, meditation and hypnosis—when provided to young people with chronic pain. A total of 16 articles were identified and reviewed. The findings from these studies show that hypnotic treatments are effective in reducing pain intensity for a variety of pediatric chronic pain problems, although research suggests variability in outcomes as a function of the specific pain problem treated. There are too few studies evaluating the efficacy of neurofeedback or meditation training in young people with chronic pain to draw firm conclusions regarding their efficacy. However, preliminary data indicate that these treatments could potentially have positive effects on a variety of outcomes (e.g., pain intensity, frequency of pain episodes, physical and psychological function), at least in the short term. Clinical trials are needed to evaluate the effects of neurofeedback and meditation training, and research is needed to identify the moderators of treatment benefits as well as better understand the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of all three of these treatments. The findings from such research could enhance overall treatment efficacy by: (1) providing an empirical basis for better patient-treatment matching; and (2) identifying specific mechanisms that could be targeted with treatment. PMID:27929419
Whitehouse, William P; Agrawal, Shakti
Headache is very common in children and young people. The correct advice and treatment requires consideration of a wide differential diagnosis between primary and secondary headaches, and also of the different types of primary headache. The International Classification of Headache Disorders gives useful descriptions and diagnostic criteria that are especially useful for primary headaches. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Clinical Guideline 150 provides evidence-based recommendations on treatments for adults and young people from age 12 years. However, the same principles can be applied to younger children when a specific diagnosis can be made. Key recommendations from the NICE Quality Standards include, establishing a precise diagnosis if possible, avoiding, diagnosing and treating medication overuse headache, and combining a triptan with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug or paracetamol as the first-line acute/rescue treatment for migraine with or without aura. Although rare in children and young people, it is important to diagnose new daily persistent headache, as it responds poorly or not at all to medication; and paroxysmal hemicrania as it responds very well to indomethacin but not to other commonly used analgesics. When faced with difficulties in reaching a precise diagnosis or in finding effective therapies, further advice should be sought from a children's headache clinic or specialist.
Morgan, Sue; Soanes, Louise
Nursing Adolescents and Young Adults (AYA) with cancer is a relatively new specialty, with much work having been undertaken across Europe. As this evolving specialty develops, nurses are required to develop networks, learn from each other and help to shape services across countries. Describing the cancer journey, this paper looks at the literature and, merging it with over 20years of experience, describes 'what is different' about looking after this group of young people. Looking at the specific issues about caring for AYA, including those issues that are pertinent in this age range: i.e. education/employment, fertility, body image, peers, family relationships, it discusses the development of specific services for this cohort of patients; one that is centred around the young person and their friends and families. Taking into account the need to develop multidisciplinary teams, it also highlights the needs of nurses who work in these teams, the education, skills and attributes needed to develop gold standard services for these challenging young people. The further development of nursing networks internationally is urged in order to share practice and expertise, nurture teams and bring the AYA with cancer into sharp focus.
In this interview Gabriela Moita, a psychologist from the regional directorate of the Porto chapter of the Association of Family Planning, was optimistic about the immediate prospects of the centers serving young people. These centers function on a voluntary basis using staff engaged in psychology and psychiatry. A course was organized with the participation of 27 staff psychologists in order to improve the education of adolescents. In Batalha the lack of physical space was improved and facilities were provided for young people. At present a protocol is reviewed which aims at social mobilization involving a technical training school in the center of Batalha. A group of people who need such help perform psychodrama weekly at regular hours. This group is affiliated with the center where people have diverse interests; some of them have problems with interpersonal relationships, while others are pent up with energy which can be put to good use at the center. The idea of establishing these centers occurred at a workshop for adolescents arranged by the International Planned Parenthood Federation in 1985. The center of Batalha was the start. Since January 1987 a number successes have resulted after initial obstacles that had to do with legal matters. Conservative parents' associations maintained that such an initiative would result in the distribution of condoms and oral contraceptives among young people, therefore they opposed the opening of these centers. But over the years these same parents realized that this was not the case and they became thankful for the existence of the centers. One of the problems is the voluntarism implicit in this effort, particularly with relation to psychologists and social workers. With respect to psychologists this problem has been partially resolved: a protocol has been arranged with Life Line whose psychologists help the centers during their regular working hours.
18,141 young people aged 8 to 17 participated in this online survey in November/December 2010. While the survey focuses on young people's attitudes towards reading, writing, communication skills as well as technology use, this report focuses exclusively on the reading aspect of the survey. More specifically, it explores how much young people enjoy…
Bourke, Lisa; Geldens, Paula M.
In Australia, wellbeing has been used as an assessment of how young people are doing by health researchers, youth researchers and psychologists. The concept "wellbeing" is increasingly applied to young people in their late teens and early twenties with little discussion of young people's perspectives. Using quantitative measures of…
Moya, Tatiana; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Goodman, Robert
A representative sample of 7-14-year-old young people in southeast Brazil (N=1251) was assessed using standardized parent and youth interviews, thereby identifying an "at-risk" group of young people who met one or more DSM-IV criteria for anorexia and/or bulimia nervosa. These young people were compared with an age and gender matched…
Ferrero Camoletto, Raffaella
Based on survey data of 1000 young people aged 18-29 and semi-structured interviews with 51 young people aged 18-34 living in a north-western Italian region, the article explores how they account for their first heterosexual intercourse. Young people describe and make sense of their experiences by referring to sexual scripts; narrative sequences…
Young people's experience of education in a "risk society" is characterised by a terrain of "initiative overload" which appears to make the routes through which young people are seeking to plot a path evermore perilous. This article is concerned with the impact of creative learning on young people, as represented by the UK…
With the recognition that improving access to advice and support on sex and relationships is vital in helping young people make positive healthy choices, the present paper explores how young people gain such information and advice. Drawing on the analysis of questionnaire and interview data collected for a local study of 401 young people from…
O'Hanlon, Anne; Kosky, Robert; Martin, Graham; Dundas, Pauline; Davis, Cathy
The Australian Early Intervention Network for Mental Health in Young People (AusEinet) was established to coordinate a national approach to early intervention for mental health in young people. The approach has three streams: (1) development and maintenance of a national early intervention network for mental health in young people; (2)…
National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).
These two documents consist of a statistical compilation and a summary of Australian young people (aged 14-24 years) who were enrolled in vocational education and training (VET) in 1997. In 1997, 18.6% of Australian young people were enrolled in VET, approximately the same percentage as in 1996. Young people accounted for slightly more than…
Young people with autism were involved in a study examining the participation of young people with autism in drama education. This study considers the approaches devised to obtain consent from ten young people with autism who communicated in different ways. The process of obtaining consent and monitoring assent is outlined and evaluated. The…
Russell, Lisa; Simmons, Robin; Thompson, Ron
This paper discusses the findings from a one-year ethnographic study of young people attending Entry to Employment (E2E) programmes in two local authorities in the north of England. The paper locates E2E within the broader context of provision for low-achieving young people and of UK government policy on reducing the proportion of young people who…
Daniunaite, Akvile; Ahmad Ali, Zenib; Cooper, Mick
The aim of this article is to explore self-healing processes in young people, and to develop an understanding of the effects of school-based counselling (SBC), by analysing changes in young people who did not receive this intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 young people on a waiting list for SBC. Participants…
Wasserman, Pamela; Scullard, Anne
This activity book serves as a primer on population dynamics and environmental impacts. It is designed to show young students their connections to other people, all living things, and the environment that surrounds them. While the kit is designed for use with students in grades 1-6, many of the activities are more appropriate for upper elementary…
Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, 2011
An August 2010 Harris Interactive[R] survey, commissioned by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, posed questions about entrepreneurship to 5,077 U.S. young people ages eight to twenty-four. The results show that business ownership continues to capture the imaginations of America's youth, particularly for those who know a successful entrepreneur…
van de Walle, Robert; Picavet, Charles; van Berlo, Willy; Verhoeff, Arnoud
In recent years, the subject of transactional sex among young Dutch people has generated a heated social debate in the Netherlands. However, accurate data on this phenomenon are scarce. This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on young Dutch people's experiences of having sex in return for money or a material reward. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with young Dutch men and women aged 14 to 24. Participants came from diverse backgrounds in terms of gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic status. Experiences of trading sex differed in terms of the motivation to trade sex, the presence or absence of coercion, and the availability of other options for earning money. Participants' feelings about their experiences varied. For most participants, the sex itself was unpleasant and required considerable emotion management. Still, some felt adequately compensated by the reward or felt trading sex was preferable to other jobs. Gender played an important role, with feelings of disgust or shame reported especially by female participants, whereas male participants reported more positive experiences. Interactions involving coercion or financial dependence on trading sex generally had a negative emotional impact. Participants stressed the differences between their own experiences and professional prostitution.
Bugge, Annechen Bahr
Despite the fact that no studies have been carried out to map the amount of unhealthy food advertising aimed at Norwegian children and adolescents, it is still widely held belief that this type of advertising is disproportionately common. As a consequence, one of the issues high on the agenda in Norway in the 2000s was the possibility of imposing restrictions on advertising for unhealthy foods to children. The purpose of this study is to contribute with a research-based foundation for implementing this health initiative by mapping food marketing in media channels widely used by children and adolescents. In sum, the study shows that the food industry spends a lot of resources to influence young consumers' eating and drinking habits. Compared with studies from USA, UK and Australia, however, there are, strong indications that there is significantly less unhealthy food advertising in Scandinavian countries. Similar to a previous Swedish study, this study shows that Norwegian children and young people were exposed to little advertising for unhealthy food products through media channels such as TV, the Internet, magazines, comics and cinemas. The study also supports critical remarks from some researchers that the extensive use of the international discourse as a political argument and recommendation for Norwegian conditions is not accurate. For the future it may be beneficial to look more closely at the relationship between advertising and health policy, and how this relationship can be further developed to improve children and young people's diet.
Lewis, Ruth; Marston, Cicely
Young people in many countries report gender differences in giving and receiving oral sex, yet examination of young people's own perspectives on gender dynamics in oral heterosex are relatively rare. We explored the constructs and discourses 16- to 18-year-old men and women in England used in their accounts of oral sex during in-depth interviews. Two contrasting constructs were in circulation in the accounts: on one hand, oral sex on men and women was narrated as equivalent, while on the other, oral sex on women was seen as "a bigger deal" than oral sex on men. Young men and women used a "give and take" discourse, which constructed the mutual exchange of oral sex as "fair." Appeals to an ethic of reciprocity in oral sex enabled women to present themselves as demanding equality in their sexual interactions, and men as supporting mutuality. However, we show how these ostensibly positive discourses about equality also worked in narratives to obscure women's constrained agency and work with respect to giving oral sex.
Harris, Courtenay; Straker, Leon; Pollock, Clare
Government initiatives have tried to ensure uniform computer access for young people; however a divide related to socioeconomic status (SES) may still exist in the nature of information technology (IT) use. This study aimed to investigate this relationship in 1,351 Western Australian children between 6 and 17 years of age. All participants had computer access at school and 98.9% at home. Neighbourhood SES was related to computer use, IT activities, playing musical instruments, and participating in vigorous physical activity. Participants from higher SES neighbourhoods were more exposed to school computers, reading, playing musical instruments, and vigorous physical activity. Participants from lower SES neighbourhoods were more exposed to TV, electronic games, mobile phones, and non-academic computer activities at home. These patterns may impact future economic, academic, and health outcomes. Better insight into neighbourhood SES influences will assist in understanding and managing the impact of computer use on young people's health and development.
The future of the world is greatly depends on space. Through space sciences education programs with the main focus is on young people, the society, as a whole will gain in the years to come. The Weizmann Institute of Science is the leading scientific research center in Israel. After the need for science education programs for young students was recognized, the institute established its Youth Activities Section, which serves as the institute's outreach for the general population of school children nation-wide. The youth activities section holds courses, seminars, science camps etc. for almost 40 years. As an instructor in the youth activities section since 1990, my focus is space sciences programs, such as rocketry courses, planetarium demonstrations, astronomical observations and special events - all in the creed of bringing the space science to everyone, in a enjoyable, innovative and creative way. Two of the courses conducted combines' scientific knowledge, hands-on experience and a glimpse into the work of space programs: the rocketry courses offered a unique chance of design, build and fly actual rockets, to height of about 800 meters. The students conduct research on the rockets, such as aerial photography, environmental measurements and aerodynamic research - using student built wind tunnel. The space engineering course extend the high frontier of the students into space: the objective of a two year course is to design, build an launch an experiments package to space, using one of NASA's GAS programs. These courses, combined with special guest lectures by Weizmann institute's senior researchers, tours to facilities like satellite control center, clean rooms, the aeronautical industry, give the students a chance to meet with "the real world" of space sciences applications and industry, and this - in turn - will have payback effect on the society as a whole in years to come. The activities of space sciences education include two portable planetariums, 4
Alexandrescu, R; Tuchendria, E
Family planning was for a long time prohibited in Romania. This has reduced the demand for contraceptives. Even though contraceptives were made accessible and their use promoted since the beginning of December 1989, abortion has still been the preferred form of fertility regulation, as the people of Romania are unaware of the advantages of contraception. The purpose of the present survey was to assess the level of sexual knowledge, attitudes and practice of teenagers and young people from urban areas of Romania and to identify if there was any significant difference in terms of age, education and sexual activity. A baseline examination was undertaken in which data were collected from 279 students who attended five high schools and six post high schools from the Moldavia cities, Iassy, Piatra-Neamt and Bîrlad. Students were asked to complete a self administered questionnaire, and a 97.5% response rate for the whole survey was achieved. Difference between answers were tested using chi-square test from 2x2 table and median test, average. A P-value <0.05 was considered to be significant. The study established that knowledge, attitudes and practice vary by age (adolescents (< or =19y) vs young people (>19y)) and education (high school vs post high school) in some regards. At the aggregate level, regarding knowledge, a statistically significant difference was found between adolescents and young people; but no statistically significant difference was found between high school and post high school students. Apart from lack of basic knowledge the study confirmed that many false beliefs regarding contraceptives are held by the survey participants. People who were sexually active were no better informed than the rest of survey participants, but they had a significantly higher percentage of positive attitudes regarding effectiveness of pills and withdrawal. Both, the knowledge and attitudes of students necessarily required appropriate sex education which, ideally should be
Baker, Karen Elizabeth
The Internet has made sexually explicit media more accessible to young people. Online pornography is diverse, can be very graphic, and a large amount is available free of charge with restrictions varying by country. Many young people are accessing online pornography, intentionally or unintentionally, and there are fears that this could impact on…
Tasmania's Rural and Isolated Young People: Issues, Solutions and Strategies. Report of a Community Consultation with Young People, Government, Youth and Organisations, in Rural and Isolated Communities.
Tasmanian Office of Youth Affairs, Hobart (Australia).
The Tasmanian (Australia) Office of Youth Affairs and Family conducted consultations concerning issues impacting young people living in rural and isolated areas. Eight workshops specifically for youth were attended by 123 young people. Five community forums were attended by 25-30 participants each. The difficulties of living in isolated situations…
Hastings, Gerard; Anderson, Susan; Cooke, Emma; Gordon, Ross
The influence of alcohol advertising on young people continues to be the subject of much debate. This paper presents a review of the literature showing that, while many econometric studies suggest little effect, more focused consumer studies, especially recent ones with sophisticated designs, do show clear links between advertising and behaviour. Furthermore, these effects have to be viewed in combination with the possible impact of other marketing activities such as price promotions, distribution, point of sale activity and new product development. Here, the evidence base is less well developed, but there are indications of effects. It must be acknowledged that categorical statements of cause and effect are always difficult in the social sciences; marketing is a complex phenomenon involving the active participation of consumers as well as marketers and more research is needed on its cumulative impact. Nonetheless, the literature presents an increasingly compelling picture that alcohol marketing is having an effect on young people's drinking.
Ortiz-Gil, Amelia; Blay, Pere; Gallego Calvente, A. Teresa; Gómez, Miquel; Guirado, José Carlos; Lanzara, Mariana; Martínez Núñez, Silvia
As we celebrate the International Year of Astronomy, we have been working on four different projects with the goal of making astronomy more accessible to people with special needs. These projects are 1) an astronomy book and web site for blind people, 2) an open source software for people with motor disabilities, 3) a planetarium program for the visually impaired and 4) educational material for intellectually disabled people.
Oxley, Cristal; Roberts, Jane E; Kraemer, Sebastian; Armstrong, Giles
Punch injuries are a form of self-harm characterised by the intentional act of striking an object with a closed fist. We aimed to describe the characteristics and trends in young people presenting with injuries sustained via the punch mechanism. A comprehensive retrospective review of medical records was completed of all young people aged 10-18 years presenting to our Central London Emergency Department over a 12-month period. A subset of the total group was identified as the punch injury subgroup. A total of 78 punch injury presentations were identified. In this subgroup, the male:female ratio is 4.57:1; 37.18% of presentations were associated with a fracture ( n = 29) and 35.90% ( n = 28) of patients re-presented following another punch injury, as a victim of violence, or by other psychiatric presentation. In conclusion, a male preponderance was observed, with frequent re-presentations, often in high-risk circumstances. An opportunity for screening, including mental health, social and substance misuse, was identified. Further research is needed to enable targeted effective interventions in this group.
Felson, Richard B; Cundiff, Patrick R
Evidence based on almost 300,000 sexual assaults from the National Incident-Based Reporting System showed that the modal age of victims was 15 years, regardless of the age of the offender, the gender of the offender, or the gender of the victim. We suggest that adolescents have the highest risk of victimization because of their sexual attractiveness, vulnerability, and exposure to motivated offenders. As a result of these factors, sexual assault is as much an offense against young people as it is against women. The sexual attractiveness of young people also has implications for the age of offenders. Older men have much higher rates of offending than one would expect, given the age-desistance relationship. Thus, we found that older men have much higher rates of sexual assault than physical assault. Finally, evidence suggested that homosexual men were at least as likely as heterosexual men to commit sexual assault. The pattern suggests that the tendency for sexual assaults to involve male offenders and female victims reflects male sexuality rather than attitudes toward women.
Lewis, Ruth; Marston, Cicely
Young people in many countries report gender differences in giving and receiving oral sex, yet examination of young people’s own perspectives on gender dynamics in oral heterosex are relatively rare. We explored the constructs and discourses 16- to 18-year-old men and women in England used in their accounts of oral sex during in-depth interviews. Two contrasting constructs were in circulation in the accounts: on one hand, oral sex on men and women was narrated as equivalent, while on the other, oral sex on women was seen as “a bigger deal” than oral sex on men. Young men and women used a “give and take” discourse, which constructed the mutual exchange of oral sex as “fair.” Appeals to an ethic of reciprocity in oral sex enabled women to present themselves as demanding equality in their sexual interactions, and men as supporting mutuality. However, we show how these ostensibly positive discourses about equality also worked in narratives to obscure women’s constrained agency and work with respect to giving oral sex. PMID:26849152
Carmann, Christina; Lilienthal, Eggert; Weigt-Usinger, Katharina; Schmidt-Choudhury, Anjona; Hörster, Irina; Kayacelebi, Arslan Arinc; Beckmann, Bibiana; Chobanyan-Jürgens, Kristine; Tsikas, Dimitrios; Lücke, Thomas
High circulating levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and low circulating levels of homoarginine (hArg) are known cardiovascular risk factors in adults. While in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) circulating ADMA is significantly elevated, in children and adolescents the reported ADMA data are contradictory. In 102 children with T1DM and 95 healthy controls (HC) serving as controls, we investigated the L-arginine (Arg)/nitric oxide (NO) pathway. Children with T1DM were divided into two groups, i.e., in children with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus [T1DM-ND; n = 10; age, 8.8 (4.4-11.2) years; HbA1c, 13 (8.9-13.9) %] and in those with long-term treatment [T1DM-T; n = 92; age, 12.5 (10.5-15.4) years; HbA1c, 8.0 (7.2-8.6) %]. The age of the HC was 11.3 (8-13.3) years. Amino acids and NO metabolites of the Arg/NO pathway, creatinine and the oxidative stress biomarker malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by GC-MS or GC-MS/MS. Plasma hArg, ADMA and the hArg/ADMA molar ratio did not differ between the T1DM and HC groups. There was a significant difference between T1DM-T and HC with regard to plasma nitrite [0.53 (0.48-0.61) vs 2.05 (0.86-2.36) µM, P < 0.0001] as well as to urinary nitrite [0.09 (0.06-0.17) vs 0.22 (0.13-0.37) μmol/mmol creatinine, P < 0.0001]. Plasma, but not urinary nitrite, differed between T1DM-ND and HC [0.55 (0.50-0.66) vs 2.05 (0.86-2.36) µM, P < 0.0001]. Plasma MDA did not differ between the groups. The urinary nitrate-to-nitrite molar ratio (UNOXR), a measure of nitrite-dependent renal carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity, was higher in T1DM-T [1173 (738-1481), P < 0.0001] and T1DM-ND [1341 (1117-1615), P = 0.0007] compared to HC [540 (324-962)], but did not differ between T1DM-T and T1DM-ND (P = 0.272). The lower nitrite excretion in the children with T1DM may indicate enhanced renal CA-dependent nitrite reabsorption compared with healthy children. Yet, lower plasma nitrite concentration in the T1DM patients may have also
Opium and to a certain extent cannabis were the only drugs of abuse in Burma until the early 1970s when heroin addiction spread rapidly among young people, reaching epidemic proportions. Heroin addiction has caused serious social and health problems that prompted the authorities to adopt new legislation in 1974, the Narcotic and Dangerous Drugs Law, which provided for compulsory treatment and severe penalties for drug-related infractions, including the death sentence for certain categories of drug trafficking. The authorities in Burma consider that legislation, drug-law enforcement, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation, and community measures are important and interrelated strategies in combating drug abuse among young people. Various forms of drug-abuse preventive programmes are carried out for such groups as youths, parents, community leaders and professionals dealing with the problems of the young. Preventive school programmes include lectures and discussions; exhibitions; essay writing and other forms of competition for students; in-service training for teachers; healthy alternatives to drug use; a scheme for talented students; and participation in a national mass movement for literacy. Young people are also encouraged to take active part in various community programmes such as the "Red Cross" and voluntary fire brigades as well as in specially designed programmes that are carried out at the local level to prevent and reduce drug abuse. As the extended family still prevails in Burma, with parents and elders being respected by the young, this important resource is utilized in coping with drug abuse among young people.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
What does it mean to be young in El Alto, a Bolivian shantytown? Based on ethnographic research, this article looks at cultural resilience among young people in a vulnerable urban context. It emphasises how young people value informal youth groups as a tool to valorise their own indigenous culture. This is echoed in the world of adults, implying…
Blanchard, Michele; Metcalf, Atari; Degney, Jo; Herrman, Helen; Burns, Jane
This paper presents findings from a study that investigated young people's ICT use and the capacity of service providers to utilise these technologies in their practice. The results suggest that ICT may be an important resource for mental health promotion, particularly in relation to engaging young people. It was found that young people…
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to present evidence on the impact of enterprise education on young people still at school in London, UK. The study was designed to measure the effect of participation in a Young Enterprise (YE) Company Program on young people's attitudes toward starting a business, and on their enterprise potential.…
Drawing upon ethnographic data, this article explores how young Koreans appropriate mobile phones. By examining the role of local norms of sociality among young people, the study shows that this "individualizing" technology is articulated through "traditionalizing" forces. Despite dominant representations of young people's…
In 1993, the national radio station of Zambia launched a popular music show on the fight against AIDS. Support of the national AIDS control program put information on HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, and sexuality at the disposal of thousands of youth. Radio is an effective medium to distribute information, to stimulate an awareness that AIDS is bad, and to influence public opinion. The Saturday Beat radio show is broadcast for 45 minutes every Saturday morning when most Zambians are at home. It has jingles about condom use and questions about AIDS with show listeners responding via the telephone, and discussions on HIV prevention. The show also has interviews with HIV-positive people, and with physicians, music stars, and government officials such as the Vice Minister of Health. Saturday Beat is very popular and well praised. Listeners call in from around the country and are encouraged to write and submit questions. The show host answers listeners' letters during the show. The show can organize demonstrations for loyal listeners where youth lead debates and discussions that can be taped and broadcast. Another popular medium is a photo-story (comic book with photographs rather than drawings) about a young woman named Roxy and her friends. The characters of the photo-story have different attitudes about AIDS and sex and offer different options to prevent HIV infection. Young people helped create this photo-story through a series of discussions and an examination of their feelings, their experiences, and their relationships with boy/girl friends. They were also involved in test marketing the photo story. The public appreciates Roxy. Readers can recognize themselves easily in the characters, and those with little education can understand the story. Some parents and teachers found the story too sexually explicit, but many people now agree that the story provides educational benefits.
Heled, Edna; Read, John
In response to an open-ended question about the causes of New Zealand's high youth suicide rate, 384 young adults most commonly cited pressure to conform and perform, followed by financial worries, abuse and neglect, problems with alcohol or drugs, and boredom. Depression was cited by 5 percent and mental illness by only 1 percent. Recommended solutions included crisis support services located in schools and youth centers, youth activities, educational programs to assist young people to discuss feelings and to bolster self-esteem, and financial aid. Neither increasing mental health services, nor reducing media coverage of suicides, was considered to be a solution.
Cooke, Emma; Hastings, Gerard; Wheeler, Colin; Eadie, Douglas; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Dabrowska, Katarzyna
This paper takes an international perspective on the marketing of alcohol to young people by examining case studies of the marketing of alcohol in the UK and Poland. It is suggested that marketing is a powerful mechanism for attracting young consumers. The alcohol industry is an innovative industry able to use a wide variety of marketing tools to achieve success in the market-place. It is important to recognise that the marketing activities of the industry are becoming increasingly transnational and that policy response has to be equally transnational.
Amoako, Adae O; Pujalte, George Guntur A
Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most devastating chronic conditions that affect people around the world. Although the usual population associated with the condition is the elderly, who are mostly inactive, athletes and younger individuals are also susceptible. Depending on the population, the etiology may differ; injuries, occupational activities, and obesity appear to be the most common causes of OA in young and athletic populations. Diagnosing OA in athletes and young individuals is sometimes challenging because of their increased pain tolerance. However, the treatment of OA in these populations does not differ from its management in the general population. Several considerations need to be taken into account when choosing a treatment modality. The purpose of this review is to address OA in athletes and younger individuals and to discuss its presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24899825
Audrey, Suzanne; Batista-Ferrer, Harriet
This systematic review collates, and presents as a narrative synthesis, evidence from interventions which included changes to the urban environment and reported at least one health behaviour or outcome for children and young people. Following a comprehensive search of six databases, 33 primary studies relating to 27 urban environment interventions were included. The majority of interventions related to active travel. Others included park and playground renovations, road traffic safety, and multi-component community-based initiatives. Public health evidence for effectiveness of such interventions is often weak because study designs tend to be opportunistic, non-randomised, use subjective outcome measures, and do not incorporate follow-up of study participants. However, there is some evidence of potential health benefits to children and young people from urban environment interventions relating to road safety and active travel, with evidence of promise for a multi-component obesity prevention initiative. Future research requires more robust study designs incorporating objective outcome measures. PMID:26457624
Stewart-Knox, Barbara J; Sittlington, Julie; Rugkåsa, Jorun; Harrisson, Sheila; Treacy, Margaret; Abaunza, Pilar Santos
Previous research has indicated that young people are under considerable social pressure to take up smoking. This study has therefore sought to explore and better understand the mechanisms through which peer-related social factors operate to encourage young people to smoke. Individual qualitative interviews were held with adolescent children aged 11-12 years (N = 102) within youth clubs based in economically deprived areas of Northern Ireland, and then followed up on two occasions during the subsequent 3 years (N = 51/39). The data implied that, although peers influence smoking uptake, this seldom happens through direct persuasion, but rather as the result of the young person striving to conform to the normative behaviour of the peer group with which they identify. The findings are consistent with social identity theory and self-categorization theory in that for both smoking and nonsmoking 14-year-olds smoking activity appears to provide a means through which to define social groups, to accentuate similarity within groups and differences between groups. In-group favouritism was expressed in the sharing of cigarettes within the in-group and in the negative stereotyping of out-group members. There was some evidence that group affiliation may be negotiated differently for boys and girls. These findings imply that successful intervention needs to reconsider the normative processes that encourage young people to smoke.
This paper is based on a recently published book, Educating Against Extremism (Davies, Educating Against Extremism, 2008), which explores the potential role of schools in averting the more negative and violent forms of extremism in a country. It examines the nature of extremism; identity formation and radicalisation; religious belief, faith schools and the myth of equal value; justice, revenge and honour; and free speech, humour and satire. The paper argues that religious fundamentalism, as well as state terrorism, needs to be addressed in schools. The argument in the book is for a greater politicisation of young people through the forging of critical (dis)respect and the use of a secular basis of human rights. Specific forms of citizenship education are needed, which provide skills to analyse the media and political or religious messages, but also enable critical idealism to be fostered.
Saunders, John B; Kypri, Kypros; Walters, Scott T; Laforge, Robert G; Larimer, Mary E
This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 joint conference of the Research Society on Alcoholism and the International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism in San Francisco. The chair was John B. Saunders. The focus of the symposium was on brief intervention approaches for hazardous drinking among young people. The presentations were (1) Evidence for the effectiveness of brief intervention as an approach to reducing hazardous alcohol use, by John B. Saunders; (2) College student hazardous drinking in New Zealand, the USA, UK, and Australia: implications for research, policy, and intervention, by Kypros Kypri; (3) Applications of motivational feedback on the college campus, by Scott T. Walters; (4) A population based individualized alcohol harm reduction feedback intervention: preliminary results from the college-based alcohol risk reduction (CBARR) trial, by Robert G. Laforge; and (5) Brief interventions: conclusions and future directions, by Mary E. Larimer.
Karvonen, S.; Rimpela, A. H.; Rimpela, M. K.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the influences related to social mobility, particularly health related behaviours, as one potential explanation for the social class variation in health among adults. DESIGN: The study is based on questionnaire data from the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Surveys of 1985, 1987, and 1989. SETTING: The whole of Finland. PARTICIPANTS: A representative sample of 8355 adolescents. The response rate was 79%. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: The relation between social mobility and health related behaviours among 16 and 18 year old young people was studied. The measure of social mobility was based on a combination of the social class of origin and achieved social position measured by the present educational status, educational attainment, and labour market position. Three mobility groups were constructed: the downwardly mobile, the upwardly mobile and the stable. Health related behaviours in an upwardly or downwardly mobile group were compared with a stable group from the same social class of origin by calculating relative risks (RR). RRs were assessed by calculating age and sex adjusted rate ratios approximating a Mantel-Haenszel estimate. In logistic regression analyses the independent effects of the social class of origin and the achieved social position were investigated. Most of the nine behaviours studied (smoking, alcohol use, heavy intoxication, coffee drinking, tooth brushing, consumption of sweets, lack of physical exercise, choice of bread spread, and consumption of milk) were related to the direction of mobility so that health compromising behaviours were more frequent among downwardly mobile and less frequent among upwardly mobile young people than their stable peers. Achieved social position proved to determine health related behaviours more strongly than class of origin, thus emphasising the way education facilitates both health values and behaviours as well as the future social position. CONCLUSIONS: The close relation between
This research was funded by law firm Slaughter and May and carried out with 21,000 children and young people across the UK. One of its key findings is that children and young people are reading less as their lives get more crowded. In 2005 the researchers found that four young people in 10 read daily outside of class. This research carried out at…
Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.; Somers, Carlijn; de Graaf, Hanneke; Meijer, Suzanne; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.
Background Non-volitional sex (NVS) in young people continues to be a major public health problem with long-term negative health outcomes. For the first time, the prevalence of different types of NVS and associated factors are compared between young people with same-sex sexual activities and those who have not. Methods We obtained data from 10,401 young women and men (aged 12 to 25 years) who participated in a population study on sexual health, the Netherlands. We calculated and compared the prevalence of six types of NVS between women who had sex with men (yWSM) or women (yWSW), and men who had sex with women (yMSW) or men (yMSM). In sexually experienced participants (n = 5986) logistic regression analyses were applied to assess associations with NVS by assault or penetration. Analyses were weighted to represent the Dutch population. Results The prevalence of NVS ranged from 1% to 61%, depending on type. Prevalence was higher for young women (any: 40.6%) than men (any: 20.4%), and highest for yMSM and yWSW. Prevalence of NVS by assault or penetration was related to a range of socio-demographic, behavioral and social factors, which were largely similar regardless of sex or same-sex-experiences. The NVS perpetrators were in over 70% of cases known to the victim; 1 in 4 cases of NVS by penetration were accompanied by violence. Conclusion A substantial proportion of young people in the Netherlands have experienced NVS. Medical professionals, educators and caregivers should integrate services to continue to address NVS by targeting young people’s multifaceted risk profiles and evidenced based interventions for doing so are needed. PMID:26214829
This article addresses the challenges faced by youth in developing countries. Using India as an example of a fast-globalizing country, this article highlights the experience and challenges faced by adolescents and emerging adults as they search for their interpersonal and professional identities. The difficulties of defining identity in the context of rapid globalization where people are exposed to diverse cultural forces that may conflict with each other are particularly salient when dealing with anger. Anger frequently results from thwarted wants and needs. In globalizing developing economies, young people often face inequitable access and opportunities that may be cause for distress-anger and depression. However, the skills to deal with anger are frequently culturally determined and may not be effective in situations where multiple cultural rules are operational. For example, India being a collectivist culture traditionally encourages the suppression of anger. However, situations and rules of conduct in a global economic order require the assertive expression of anger and the confrontation of conflict. Research that is methodologically and culturally appropriate is needed in exploring these issues and ameliorating distress associated with inequity, conflicts, and challenges.
Mcloughlin, Leigh; Fryazinov, Oleg; Moseley, Mark; Sanchez, Mathieu; Adzhiev, Valery; Comninos, Peter; Pasko, Alexander
The SHIVA project was designed to provide virtual sculpting tools for young people with complex disabilities, allowing them to engage with artistic and creative activities that they might otherwise never be able to access. Their creations are then physically built using 3D printing. To achieve this, the authors built a generic, accessible GUI and a suitable geometric modeling system and used these to produce two prototype modeling exercises. These tools were deployed in a school for students with complex disabilities and are now being used for a variety of educational and developmental purposes. This article presents the project's motivations, approach, and implementation details together with initial results, including 3D printed objects designed by young people with disabilities.
Murphy, Deirdre; Jenkinson, Hilary
This article explores the mutual benefits for social workers and young people of active listening within a collaborative partnership incorporating foster carers, allowing the possibility to create a virtuous circle. The benefits for young people of increased self-esteem, positive identity and resilience among others are explored. The benefits for…
Government initiatives have tried to ensure uniform computer access for young people; however a divide related to socioeconomic status (SES) may still exist in the nature of information technology (IT) use. This study aimed to investigate this relationship in 1,351 Western Australian children between 6 and 17 years of age. All participants had computer access at school and 98.9% at home. Neighbourhood SES was related to computer use, IT activities, playing musical instruments, and participating in vigorous physical activity. Participants from higher SES neighbourhoods were more exposed to school computers, reading, playing musical instruments, and vigorous physical activity. Participants from lower SES neighbourhoods were more exposed to TV, electronic games, mobile phones, and non-academic computer activities at home. These patterns may impact future economic, academic, and health outcomes. Better insight into neighbourhood SES influences will assist in understanding and managing the impact of computer use on young people’s health and development. PMID:28362868
Gray, Nicola J; Smith, Felicity J; McDonagh, Janet E
Background The development of services that are responsive to the needs of users is a health policy priority. Finding ways of engaging young people in research to gain insights into their particular experiences, perspectives, and needs is vital but challenging. These data are critical to improving services in ways that meet the needs of young people. Objective Our aim was to evaluate Web-based blogging as a viable method for understanding the daily experiences and condition management strategies of young people with juvenile arthritis. Methods To meet the objectives of the study, a qualitative approach was required to gather information on the experiences and perspectives of young people regarding the management of their condition and its daily impact. In collaboration with a group of young people with arthritis, a custom website was developed. This website provided the opportunity for young people (aged 11-19) with arthritis from a United Kingdom pediatric hospital to contribute blogs. It was designed so that young people were free to write about whatever was important to them, but the site also included some structure and prompts to facilitate the writing of blogs. Qualitative analytical procedures were employed, supported by NVivo software. Results Engagement in the study by young people was variable in terms of their participation rates, frequency of website visits, and the length of their blogs. Young people used the site in different ways, some responding to the website categories and prompts that the team created, while others used it as a diary to record their experiences and thoughts. In line with principles of qualitative inquiry, the data collection was participant-led. Young people were in control of what, how much, and how often they wrote. However, some young people expressed difficulty regarding knowing what they should blog about. For a number of reasons, discussed here, the blogs may also not be fully reflective of experiences and perspectives of
The realization that well designed graphs and clearly worded summaries were not enough to spur the public and policy makers towards an appropriate understanding of our planet encouraged me to search for other ways to share climate stories with the general public. After co-authoring a popular book on food and climate change and giving many talks to the general public, it struck me that young people were largely missing from the dialogue, and little meaningful progress was being made to design effective solutions. I then started working with faculty and students from the Film and Animation Departments at San Jose State University to develop stories about climate change that would be engaging to younger audiences. The result was the Green Ninja Project, based around the Green Ninja, a superhero who focuses on solutions to climate change using humor and silliness to soften what can be a somewhat challenging topic. The Project includes a) The Green Ninja Show - a series of YouTube videos (over 1,000,000 views) highlighting actions young people can take to reduce climate change, b) The Green Ninja Film Festival where students tell their own climate solutions stories, and c) a collection of educational resources that help teachers bring climate science topics into their classroom using hands-on activities. A key component to this work is promoting social action experiences, so that young people can understand how their actions can make a difference. Based on these experiences, I will provide my own reflections on the challenges and opportunities of communicating climate change with young people.
Senior, Kate; Helmer, Janet; Chenhall, Richard; Burbank, Victoria
This paper examines young people's perceived vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and their efforts to create a sense of personal safety within an environment in which risks may be high and where STIs are highly stigmatised. The paper reports on findings from research involving both Indigenous and non-Indigenous 16- to 25-year-olds from remote, rural and regional Australia, including communities in the Northern Territory, Western Australia and South Australia. The study used qualitative methods, including body mapping and scenario based interviewing, to explore how young people made decisions about potential sexual partners and how STIs were understood within the context of young people's everyday social worlds. The paper has important implications for the design and implementation of sexual-health education programmes by documenting the stigmatisation of young people with STIs and the protective mechanisms peer groups employ to create perceptions of personal safety.
Hislop, Jenni; Mason, Helen; Parr, Jeremy R.; Vale, Luke; Colver, Allan
Purpose This study sought to identify and describe the views of young people with chronic conditions about the transition from pediatric to adult services. Methods Q methodology was used to identify young people’s views on transition. A set of 39 statements about transition was developed from an existing literature review and refined in consultation with local groups of young people. Statements were printed onto cards and a purposive sample of 44 young people with chronic health conditions was recruited, 41 remaining in the study. The young people were asked to sort the statement cards onto a Q-sort grid, according to their opinions from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree.” Factor analysis was used to identify shared points of view (patterns of similarity between individual’s Q-sorts). Results Four distinct views on transition were identified from young people: (1) “a laid-back view of transition;” (2) “anxiety about transition;” (3) “wanting independence and autonomy during transition;” and (4) “valuing social interaction with family, peers, and professionals to assist transition.” Conclusions Successful transition is likely to be influenced by how young people view the process. Discussing and understanding young people’s views and preferences about transition should help clinicians and young people develop personalized planning for transition as a whole, and more specifically the point of transfer, leading to effective and efficient engagement with adult care. PMID:27287962
Janssen, Marty; Davis, Jackie
Sexual health promotion is of primary importance for young people in Australia, especially for vulnerable and at-risk young people. The authors first identify the important role of youth workers in engaging clients proactively around a broad range of sexual health issues, and then discuss real and perceived barriers that youth workers face in…
Oduro, Georgina Yaa; Otsin, Mercy
This paper examines Ghanaian young people's perceptions of the determinants of HIV- and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination, and how these perceptions may influence the de-stigmatisation process. Drawing on findings from an in-depth, multi-method qualitative study involving 104 school and street young people aged between 14 and 19 years, the…
Durkin, Kevin; Fraser, Jill; Conti-Ramsden, Gina
Young people with specific language impairment (SLI) are at risk for poorer outcomes with respect to employment in adulthood, yet little is known of how early school-age prework experiences prepare them for the job market. This study examined whether young people with SLI engage in similar types of early work experiences as their typically…
Smith, Andy; Parr, Michael
Amid the long-standing debate about the nature and purposes of physical education (PE) in schools, comparatively little research has examined the ways in which PE is viewed by young people themselves. This study set out, therefore, to explore young people's views on the nature and purposes of PE from a sociological perspective in the belief that a…
Ravenna, Jean; Cleaver, Karen
Prevalence of mental health disorder is increasing among young people. It is recognized that early intervention is essential in supporting young people, and care provided within schools to support emotional well-being is recommended as part of this process. A scoping review was undertaken examining school nurses' experiences of supporting the…
McKendrick, John; Scott, Gill; Sinclair, Stephen
This article examines whether young people in a deprived area are disaffected with education, training and employment, or disengaged from participation in their community. It draws upon evidence from the Drumchapel Aspirations Survey, a study of the attitudes, aspirations and skills of young people from one of the most deprived areas of Glasgow.…
Freathy, R. J. K.
This article discusses the outcomes of a questionnaire survey which sought to ascertain the attitudes of young people towards the Bible. One thousand and sixty-six pupils from Years 6, 9 and 12 in nine English schools participated. The young people's attitudes are discussed in relation to gender, age and attendance at a place of worship. The…
Chamberlain, Tamsin; Easton, Claire; Morris, Marian; Riggall, Anna
The National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) was commissioned by Kent County Council (KCC) to conduct an independent survey of children and young people in Kent. The council and its partner agencies wanted to find out what children and young people thought about a range of issues related to the five Every Child Matters (ECM) outcomes.…
This report outlines findings that relate to writing, taken from the third annual literacy survey, which was conducted in November/December 2012. 34,910 young people aged 8 to 16 participated. Key findings include: (1) 44.1% of children and young people enjoy writing either "very much" or "quite a lot"; 14.8% of children and…
Di Ceglie, Domenico
Gender identity disorders (GID) in young people are complex and often distressing conditions. The paper starts by examining the experience of the professional worker resulting from the interaction with this group of young people and their families. This is frequently characterised by a sense of being under pressure and in danger. The view put…
Connell, Sharon; Fien, John; Sykes, Helen; Yencken, David
There is a paucity of research in Australia on the nature of young people's attitudes, knowledge and actions. This paper reports on the findings from one such study of Australian high school students. The research was based on a survey of 5,688 students form Melbourne and Brisbane. These young people identified protection of the environment as the…
Griffiths, Megan; Sawrikar, Pooja; Muir, Kristy
Little is known about how to appropriately adapt mentoring programs for young people from the Horn of Africa, even though they have been arriving in Australia in significantly increasing numbers. These young people face unique challenges as a result of their age, ethnicity, migration and direct/indirect trauma experiences. The results of this…
Kelly, Elish; McGuinness, Seamus; O'Connell, Philip J.
Many young people have short spells of unemployment during their transition from school to work; however, some often get trapped in unemployment and risk becoming long-term unemployed. Much research has been undertaken on the factors that influence unemployment risk for young people during their school-to-work transition. However, very little is…
Rome, Aidan; Hardy, Jessica; Richardson, Jamie; Shenton, Felicity
At the beginning of the 2000s there was little evidence of outcomes from the participation of disabled children and young people in decision-making within public services. In the 15 years that have followed, advances have been made in participatory research and in outcome-led research. This paper, written with young people, will present evidence…
Almond, Louise; Giles, Susan
The study examines 102 young people with Learning Disabilities (n = 51) and without a learning disability (NLD; n = 51) to explore ways in which LD young people with harmful sexual behaviours (HSB) should be recognized as a subgroup requiring specialized treatment and intervention. Throughout this comparison of perpetrator, victim and abuse…
Spiranovic, Caroline; Briggs, Kate; Kirkby, Kenneth; Mobsby, Caroline; Daniels, Brett
The yshareit project aims to increase awareness of and access to reputable e-mental health resources among young people. This is achieved by developing peer support networks, supported by e-mental health resources including the triage website, http://www.yshareit.com. Young people involved in the evaluation of the project described in this paper…
Ellis, Katie; France, Alan
Research from the Economic and Social Research Council programme on Pathways Into and Out of Crime prioritised young people's "voices" in exploring experiences of crime and a range of intervention services. Drawing on data from interviews with 110 young people, this paper explores their perspectives of professional assessment. Embedded…
Shepherd, J.; Harden, A.; Rees, R.; Brunton, G.; Garcia, J.; Oliver, S.; Oakley, A.
A systematic review was conducted to examine the barriers to, and facilitators of, healthy eating among young people (11-16 years). The review focused on the wider determinants of health, examining community- and society-level interventions. Seven outcome evaluations and eight studies of young people's views were included. The effectiveness of the…
Collis, Sue M.
The hermeneutical analysis of the stories of young people who have experienced domestic violence is described as multi-layered having been developed from a voice centred relational methodology. The purpose was to uncover the complexity of lived experience. As the analysis proceeded, the young people's voices emerged as "feeling" voices,…
Bannerman, Anne Morris
This paper describes the laying of a foundation for transformation of the inner world and the emergence of "self" in young people using the Conversational Model. The author works with young people in a technical college in a remote part of Victoria Australia. Some of the clients have experienced extreme trauma as children and live in an…
This article explores the implementation of the Victorian Youth Employment, Education and Training Initiative (YEETI). This statewide initiative delivered brokerage funds to homeless young people through their housing advocates. One of the findings of the project was that the main barrier to young people achieving a stable continuum in their lives…
The first stage of research into the impact of part-time employment on young people in full-time education analyzed questionnaires from 555 young people aged 14-19 in 7 secondary schools and in 7 further education sector colleges in Britain. A literature review focused on issues involved in combining part-time employment and full-time education.…
The purpose of this paper was to conduct a scan of the current state of the evidence regarding what works in helping disconnected young people, defined as the population of young people ages 16 to 24 who are not connected to work or school. The following four main research questions were investigated: (1) What local, state, and federal policies…
Niens, Ulrike; Mawhinney, Alison; Richardson, Norman; Chiba, Yuko
This paper aims to explore the relationship between religious identity, acculturation strategies and perceptions of acculturation orientation in the school context amongst young people from minority belief backgrounds. Based on a qualitative study including interviews with 26 young people from religious minority belief backgrounds in Northern…
This report only outlines findings that relate to writing, taken from the author's second annual literacy survey, which she conducted in November/December 2011. Nearly 21,000 young people aged 8 to 16 participated. Writing is an important issue in the UK today. While children's and young people's writing standards had plateaued between 2006 and…
McCrystal, Patrick; Percy, Andrew
Aims: Substance use and misuse amongst young people attending colleges of further education (FE) has received little attention in the drug use literature in the UK. This article aims to explore the patterns of drug use amongst young people attending colleges of further education in Northern Ireland. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey…
Foyer Foundation, London (England).
Homelessness in the United Kingdom has very wide ramifications. Young homeless people face a difficult transition into adult life as poverty, low self-esteem, lack of family support, and lack of qualifications reinforce each others' effects. Homeless young people start behind their peers in educational achievement. Government policies put up…
Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2015
The Jim Casey Youth Opportunities Initiative has spent 14 years working with young people with foster care experience, engaging them to help identify what they need to transition successfully to adulthood. Consistently, young people have emphasized that their foster care experiences are far from normal. What they need--but too often do not…
This article explores a hitherto neglected issue: the significance of nature in the learning lives of marginalised young people. Drawing on both post-human and sociocultural perspectives, it develops a theoretical analysis of this important subject. It uses research with 114 young people in jobs without training in rural South-west England to…
Monks, Helen; Cardoso, Patricia; Papageorgiou, Alana; Carolan, Catherine; Costello, Leesa; Thomas, Laura
Social media is a central component in the lives of many young people, and provides innovative potential to conduct research among this population. Ethical issues around online research have been subject to much debate, yet young people have seldom been consulted to provide a youth perspective and voice. Eight (8) focus groups involving 48 Grade 9…
Dezuanni, Michael Luigi; Miles, Prue
The 5th World Summit on Media for Children and Youth held in Karlstad, Sweden in June 2010 provided a unique media literacy experience for approximately thirty young people from diverse backgrounds through participation in the Global Youth Media Council. This article focuses on the Summit's aim to give young people a "voice" through…
Xiaoqi, Shan; Zhanxin, Guo
The authors of this article analyze the expressions of extreme patriotism and promotion of nationalism on the Internet by some young people (the kind of young people frequently referred to as "angry youth") during the popularization of network technology and the rapid development of popular culture in the new century. Proceeding from…
Skutneva, S. V.
The labor market for young people can be seen as an independent, integral segment of the overall labor market, one that can be singled out on the basis of the way that young people function in society as a special social and demographic group characterized by the needs and interests that are typical of it, a group that occupies a specific place in…
Purpose: This paper aims to identify the preferences towards sex education and information from a religiously diverse sample of young people. The research builds on growing evidence towards religious affiliation having a strong influence on sexual attitudes and behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 3,007 young people aged 15-18…
Michelmore, Lisa; Hindley, Peter
There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that only a minority of young people experiencing suicidal thoughts or self-harm present to any health services. This is of concern given that young people with suicidal thoughts or self-harm often require treatment for mental illness as well as to reduce their risk of completed suicide. We reviewed…
McAleavy, Gerry; McCrystal, Patrick
In Northern Ireland, young people exist in a health environment where the experience of social disadvantage is translated into serious risks to health and personal development. The years of political conflict have tended to obscure these health problems, and it is important that the difficulties faced by young people are examined and…
Clyde, Laurel A.; Lobban, Marjorie
This annotated bibliography focuses on the issue of homosexuality in books for young people. The 120 books listed represent a period of great change in the depiction of homosexuality in children's literature by indicating the way sexual preference and sexuality is presented to young people. The recognition that homosexuality is an inherent part of…
McCrystal, Patrick; Higgins, Kathryn; Percy, Andrew; Thornton, Maeve
The lifestyles of young people excluded from school have received much attention recently, particularly in relation to illicit drug use. Commentators have acknowledged that they constitute a high-risk group to social disaffection and substance abuse. This paper reports on a group of 48 young people living in Belfast aged 13-14 years who are…
Pascoe, C. J.
A lack of good information about what youth are doing with new media stimulates fears and hopes about the relationship between young people and digital technologies. This article focuses on new modes of inquiry into youth new media use, highlighting the challenges, complexities, and opportunities inherent in studying young people's digital…
Murphy, Elizabeth; Clegg, Jennifer; Almack, Kathryn
Background: This study examines how those planning futures for young people with moderate-profound intellectual disabilities invoke, deploy and interpret contrasting definitions of adulthood and perceived capacity for autonomy and self-determination. Methods: Twenty-eight young people were followed through transition from children: s to adult…
Keil, Sue; Crews, Nicola
This article gives an overview of a three-year qualitative study following the transition pathways of one blind and four partially sighted young people in Wales, beginning with the transition from compulsory to post-compulsory education at the age of 16. The study highlighted the inequity in provision for young people who remain in school sixth…
This report outlines findings about children's and young people's reading from our fourth annual literacy survey conducted in November/December 2013. 29,422 young people aged eight to 16 participated. Some of the key findings for 2013 include: (1) Levels of reading enjoyment have improved for the first time since 2005 (see Figure 2, p. 9); (2)…
This report reveals that children and young people are reading less and more are embarrassed to be seen reading, while many also believe that their parents don't care if they spend time reading. However, not only are children and young people reading less and developing more negative attitudes towards reading, but there is also a clear correlation…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of recent changes in young people's consumption of alcohol in Britain before then charting emerging academic perspectives and some of the recent regulatory and legislative changes. Design/methodology/approach: The approach takes the form of a selective narrative review of young people's…
Malvaso, Catia; Delfabbro, Paul; Hackett, Louisa; Mills, Hayley
Although leaving statutory out-of-home care can be a challenging time for many young people, it is recognised that young people who have multiple or complex needs find this transition particularly difficult. This study aims to gain a deeper understanding of the challenges faced by care leavers who have complex needs, as well as to identify some of…
Helmer, Janet; Senior, Kate; Davison, Belinda; Vodic, Andrew
How well do young people understand their developing sexuality and what this means? This paper reports on findings from the Our Lives: Culture, Context and Risk project, which investigated sexual behaviour and decision-making in the context of the everyday life experience and aspirations of Indigenous and non-Indigenous young people (16-25 years)…
Davies, Jill; Burke, Christine; Mattingly, Molly
This booklet is for young people and their families, friends and supporters to read and talk about together. It is based on the stories of four young people. Big changes happened for some of them; others are still waiting for things to change. The goal of the booklet is to give students ideas about how they may want to plan or change things when…
This article reports a study of the experiences of school leavers with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD), which identified supportive relationships as key elements in young people demonstrating resilience through this transitional period. Almost all the young people involved in the study had access to potential helpers, but few…
The article considers challenges faced in undertaking research work that examines issues of abuse and neglect, with young people acting in the role of co-inquirer. Based on a research process devised to support a qualitative study exploring why young people think they are frequently not believed when they report abuse and neglect, consideration is…
Khotkina, Z. A.
Survey data comparing the life aspirations of three generations of Russians show an increase from the level of the Soviet generation of young people to the perestroika generation, followed by a decline in the generation of young people who were born and grew up in today's "market" Russia. One chief cause of the downward dynamic of their…
Quinn, Jocey; Lawy, Robert; Diment, Kim
Young people who are in "jobs without training" (JWT) are commonly seen as "dead end kids in dead end jobs". They have been identified as a problem group who need to be encouraged back into formal education and training. Following the Leitch report and the new policy goal to involve all young people in education and training up…
Rudd, Peter; Walker, Matthew
Web 2.0 technologies are online tools that allow users to share, collaborate and interact with one another. This small-scale project focused on young people's personal use of social media, and on the potential to use these tools to collect the views of young people and involve them in democracy in communities and local authorities. The main…
This essay is an attempt to come to terms with the Young Lords' popular liberation rhetoric in the church offensive. Building from Michael Calvin McGee's observation that ""the people" are more process than phenomenon," I explore the ways in which the Young Lords' craft "the people's repertory of convictions" from…
Arweck, Elisabeth; Nesbitt, Eleanor
On the basis of a recent ethnographic study at the University of Warwick of the religious identity formation of young people in "mixed-faith" families, this article focuses on their (and their parents') experiences and perceptions of religious education (RE) and of religious nurture in the community. The young people's experience of RE…
Wilson, Kimberley; Stemp, Kellie; McGinty, Sue
Alternative education programs are one way of responding to the disengagement of young people from mainstream schools. While there are a great variety of programs, those where young people experience success have incorporated a number of elements of best practice (Mills & McGregor 2010). This article reviews the attributes of effective…
Robinson, Janean; Smyth, John
This paper invokes the voices of young people who had been separated from mainstream schooling because they were positioned as "disengaged" and "at risk of failing". The authors argue that streaming students out of schooling needs serious questioning as an escalating number of young people are framed as non-performers within a…
McLaughlin, Colleen; Swartz, Sharlene
Despite recent progress in meeting the goals of the Education for All agenda, certain groups of young people are particularly vulnerable to exclusion and underachievement, including children with HIV/AIDS, children living in poverty, and children with disabilities. HIV/AIDS has reduced many young people's rights to access education, to live a full…
Phillips, Rosemary F.
This paper is based on findings from ethnographic research which explored the impact of the Connexions initiative on the lives of young people. The fieldwork took place in three drop-in centres for young people, all of which were delivery sites for Connexions. Utilising the theoretical concepts of identity and self-esteem, it grounded this…
The levels of drug use amongst school-aged young people have risen over the past decade. Prevention initiatives have been developed using empirical evidence obtained from school-based surveys. The empirical evidence base of drug use amongst young people with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) attending special education…
Hamilton, David J.; Taylor, Brian J.; Killick, Campbell; Bickerstaff, David
Self-harming and suicide amongst adolescents are reported to be increasing in Europe and internationally. For young people in state care, this aspect of mental well-being is of particular concern. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence of suicidal ideation and behaviour amongst young people (age 16-21 years) leaving state care in one…
This article responds to intermediality through a case study of an intermedial applied performance for young people. "Heterophobia," a hybrid fusion of live performance, digital technology, social media and urban street art, aimed to challenge homophobia in schools and online. Intermediality was used as a tool to enhance young people's…
Stokes, Helen; Wyn, Johanna
This article argues that "transition" offers a limited and outmoded conceptual frame for understanding young people's engagement with work and learning. It draws on two studies of young people to provide insights into the study and work experiences of older and school-aged youth. Our analysis suggests that rather than focussing narrowly…
Mrnjaus, Kornelija; Vrcelj, Sofija; Zlokovic, Jasminka
In this paper, the authors address the youth as a research phenomenon and present the current position of young people in the Croatian society. The authors exhibit interesting results of a recent study of youth in Croatia and present the results of their research conducted among Croatian students aiming to explore the attitudes of young people and…
Wilks, Leigh; Harris, Neil
Objective: Young people's environmental views are typically conflicted, with little recognition of the links between environmental issues or between environmental responsibility and action. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether young people's understanding of the environment is in conflict or whether they are forming interconnections…
Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne
Aims: This paper explores young people's own opinions about how the "drinking to get drunk" culture can be changed. More precisely, the two objectives of this study were to explore: (1) whether young people viewed binge drinking as a real "problem"; and (2) what they thought could be done to reduce binge drinking. Methods:…
Humphrey, Neil; Kalambouka, Afroditi; Wigelsworth, Michael; Lendrum, Ann; Deighton, Jessica; Wolpert, Miranda
This study presents the findings of a systematic review of measures of social and emotional skills for children and young people. The growing attention to this area in recent years has resulted in the development of a large number of measures to aid in the assessment of children and young people. These measures vary on a number of variables…
This article reports on excluded young people's experiences with and management of e-safety and risk. It has importance in exploring these concerns given that excluded young people's voices are very often absent in education and technology research and yet they are potentially more at risk when using Information and Communication Technologies than…
Counselling is increasingly seen as a way of addressing the psychological needs of young people with emotional, behavioural and academic problems. This paper explores the existing counselling landscape regarding inclusion of young people with learning disabilities in counselling. The research findings are based on data collected from an empirical…
Hamilton, Lorna; Brown, Jane
There is mounting evidence to suggest that the examination process is assuming greater importance in young people's lives. Economic change has intensified demand for academic qualifications. An emphasis on viewing young people in terms of outcomes related to future identity and their success or failure within this context involves substantial…
Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Wedderburn, Maxine; McCarraher, Donna; Cuthbertson, Carmen; Pottinger, Audrey
A secondary analysis of data collected from 1,130 young people ages 15 to 24 in a population-based household survey to assess the reproductive health needs of young people in three communities in Jamaica was conducted to determine the relationships among three measures of sexual violence, background variables, three measures of sexual risk taking…
Leigh, Lauraine, Ed.; Gersch, Irvine, Ed.; Dix, Ann, Ed.; Haythorne, Deborah, Ed.
"Dramatherapy with Children, Young People and Schools" is the first book to specifically evaluate the unique value of dramatherapy in the educational environment. A variety of highly experienced dramatherapists, educational psychologists and childhood experts discuss the benefits to the children and young people, and also in relation to…
Morgan, Kirsten; Schlumpp, Arianne
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people are substantially over-represented in the juvenile justice system in Australia, and this over-representation is highest in the most serious processes and outcomes--particularly in detention. This bulletin examines the numbers and characteristics of Indigenous young people in the juvenile justice…
This paper focuses on appropriate responses to the unique challenges faced by young people at risk who are transitioning out of state care in South Africa. Specific lessons are drawn from Project Lungisela, a youth leaving care programme created to assist young people leaving state care in Khayelitsha, Cape Town. Project Lungisela was initiated by…
Furlong, John; Davies, Chris
The paper presents findings from a large-scale mixed methods study of young people's uses of new technologies at home to address a number of key conceptual issues in understanding the home as context for learning. First it is argued that young people's engagement with new technologies is fundamentally bound up with their own identity. It then goes…
Hampden-Thompson, Gillian; Galindo, Claudia
Families' perceptions of, and interactions with, schools and teachers can play an essential role in young people's educational outcomes. According to Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory, young people grow within multiple nested systems of influence interacting with each other. Thus, their development is affected by persons, processes, and…
Arches, Joan; Fleming, Jennie
Toward the end of the of the twentieth century, the idea that young people are social actors gained increasing predominance. Since then, there has been a growing recognition of young people's ability to understand and contribute to forming their environments. In this article, the authors discuss the state of youth participation in the United…
Michels, Peg; And Others
Intended to be used by groups of young people under the supervision of adults, this workbook is for young people who want to learn about public affairs and to become involved in their communities. There are exercises that may be completed independently by each person, and exercises that may be used by the entire group. The guide can be used by…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse and summarise the Australian research on the impact of vocational education and training (VET) on transitions to work for young people aged 15 to 24 years. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology involved the compilation of statistics on VET participation by young people and a review of…
O'Connor, Christopher D.
In recent decades, young people's transitions from school to work have undergone substantial changes. As young people make their way from compulsory schooling to employment, they find themselves having to navigate an increasingly complex, technologically innovative and globalised world. These social changes have prompted youth researchers to…
This paper examines the sexual and social practices of young people in contemporary Iran. Young people in urban areas live under the rubric of a fundamentalist, Islamist regime which restricts social freedoms such as premarital heterosexual contact, homosexual encounters, dancing, alcohol consumption and large group gatherings. Drawing on close focus research and individual and group inteviews, this paper seeks to analyse young people's responses to these constraints. Findings suggest that many young adults use their 'rebellious' social behaviour to make political statements against a regime that dissatisfies them; saying, in their own words, that they are enacting and bringing about a 'sexual revolution'.
Deakin, Julia; Lennox, Belinda
There is a worse prognosis for psychosis and schizophrenia when onset is in childhood or adolescence. However, outcomes are improved with early detection and treatment. Psychotic symptoms can be associated with a variety of disorders including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, drug-induced psychosis, personality disorder, epilepsy and autistic spectrum disorder. Positive symptoms include hallucinations and delusions. Negative symptoms include apathy, lack of drive, poverty of speech, social withdrawal and self-neglect. The DSM IV criteria for schizophrenia include two or more of the following: hallucinations, delusions, disorganised speech, grossly disorganised or catatonic behaviour and negative symptoms. Adults may raise concerns about social withdrawal, bizarre ideas, a change in behaviour or a decline in achievement. Most children and young people with psychotic symptoms will not go on to develop psychosis or schizophrenia. Direct enquiry may be needed to elicit suspected unusual beliefs or hallucinations. To distinguish unusual ideas from delusions the ideas should be tested for fixity. For example by asking: 'Are you sure? Could there be another explanation?' Mood and anxiety symptoms should be explored. The assessment should include a developmental history with particular attention to premorbid functioning. Failure to make expected progress whether personal, social or academic is significant. Better outcomes in terms of symptoms and social function are associated with a shorter duration of untreated psychosis. The detection of psychotic symptoms in primary care therefore warrants an urgent referral to secondary care mental health services for assessment and treatment.
Green, Judith; Free, Caroline; Bhavnani, Vanita; Newman, Tony
The interpreting work bilingual young people do in health care settings has largely been seen as a social problem, indicating deficiencies either in parents' language skills or in the provision of professional interpreting services. Little research has addressed this contribution young people make to health care work from their perspectives. This study explored the accounts of bilingual young people from four linguistic groups in London, including those from established minority groups and those more recently arrived. Young people reported extensive experience of interpreting in a number of settings, and identified a range of benefits to themselves and their families arising from their contributions, as well as some problems faced in achieving successful encounters. Focusing on young people's own accounts enabled their work to be conceptualised not as merely 'inappropriate and inadequate interpreting' but as a varied contribution to the informal economy of health care that ranged from simple translation to complex mediation between families, the wider community and the health care system.
Harris, Laurie Lanzen, Ed.; Abbey, Cherie D., Ed.
This document is the eighth volume of a series designed and written for the young reader aged 9 and above. It contains three issues and covers individuals whom young people want to know about most: entertainers, athletes, writers, illustrators, cartoonists, and political leaders. The publication was created to appeal to young readers in a format…
Harris, Laurie Lanzen, Ed.
This document is the third volume of a series designed and written for the young reader aged 9 and above. It contains three issues and covers individuals that young people want to know about most: entertainers, athletes, writers, illustrators, cartoonists, and political leaders. The publication was created to appeal to young readers in a format…
Harris, Laurie Lanzen, Ed.; Abbey, Cherie D., Ed.
This is the ninth volume of a series designed and written for young readers ages 9 and above. It contains three issues and profiles individuals whom young people want to know about most: entertainers, athletes, writers, illustrators, cartoonists, and political leaders. The publication was created to appeal to young readers in a format they can…
Ahmad, Waqar I U; Atkin, Karl; Jones, Lesley
This paper explores how Asian deaf young people negotiate identity claims against the backdrop of deaf politics, ethnicity, religion, gender and age. The paper is based on a qualitative study of Asian (mainly Pakistani Muslim) deaf young people and their parents in the UK. The findings provide little support for notions of singular or primary identities (as, for example, 'Deaf' people or 'Muslims') which may make other identity claims irrelevant. Instead, young people's identifications were multiple, complex and contingent. However, resources and structures remained important for identifications to be cultivated and gaining legitimisation.
Brockington, Guilherme; Testoni, Leonardo André; Pietrocola, Maurício
The continuing fascination of young people with celestial bodies leads them to pose challenging questions to their science teachers, such as how was the universe born? How were the stars formed? In this paper we present an extremely inexpensive but highly engaging activity to teach the basics of spectroscopy. Guided by the question "how do…
Fergie, Gillian; Hunt, Kate; Hilton, Shona
The growth of the Internet as an information source about health, particularly amongst young people, is well established. The aim of this study was to explore young people's perceptions and experiences of engaging with health-related online content, particularly through social media websites. Between February and July 2011 nine focus groups were facilitated across Scotland with young people aged between 14 and 18 years. Health-related user-generated content seems to be appreciated by young people as a useful, if not always trustworthy, source of accounts of other people's experiences. The reliability and quality of both user-generated content and official factual content about health appear to be concerns for young people, and they employ specialised strategies for negotiating both areas of the online environment. Young people's engagement with health online is a dynamic area for research. Their perceptions and experiences of health-related content seem based on their wider familiarity with the online environment and, as the online environment develops, so too do young people's strategies and conventions for accessing it.
This paper reports on Birmingham City Council's Streets Ahead on Safety project which aims to improve road safety and quality of life in an area of multiple deprivation where 87 000 people from largely Asian, immigrant backgrounds live. A third of residents are under 16 years old and 58% self-define their religion as Muslim. The area has a poor traffic accident record leading to high levels of killed or seriously injured children. Child accidental injury in Europe is reaching 'epidemic' proportions, requiring innovative, ameliorative approaches to redress. Existing UK school-based road safety initiatives rarely extend beyond the 'tokenistic', but this project endeavoured to encourage a highway authority, engineers and road safety officers to provide local young people with opportunities to participate in decision-making in the belief that the active engagement of young service users would lead to more effective and sustainable solutions to accident prevention. Embracing the city's ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), this project promoted young people's participation in decision-making around engineering plans for their local community. The project included 405 young people aged 9-11 years who conducted environmental audits, interactive road safety awareness and citizenship training, and engaged as decision-makers. Successful outcomes include increased knowledge of road and community safety issues, and the establishment of young people as stakeholders in the development of their own safety and active engagement with service providers in the development of engineering proposals. This paper highlights the potential dynamics of participation and the dilemmas it poses for relationships between service users and providers, and outlines some of the barriers confronted by young people in learning to be active participants.
Bentley, Sarah; Nicholls, Rickie; Price, Maxine; Wilkinson, Aaron; Purcell, Matthew; Woodhall, Martin; Walmsley, Jan
We are five young people with learning disabilities who found out about the history of hospitals for people with learning disabilities in our area, and made a film about the project. The project taught us what life had been like for some people with learning disabilities only 30 years ago. It was very different to our lives; we have more choice,…
Bartholomaeus, Clare; Gregoric, Carolyn; Krieg, Susan
Despite considerable research and discussion regarding children and young people's rights and citizenship, the participation of young children in community decision-making is still limited. In this exploratory research, a case study is reported on how ideas about young children as active citizens are interpreted within one local government…
Guliaikhin, V. N.; Galkin, A. P.; Vasil'eva, E. N.
A survey of opinions on the activity of young people's and children's social associations as agents of secondary socialization in Russia shows that socialization processes need to be more oriented toward coordinating personal and societal goals and interests. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)
This paper reviews the empirical evidence relating to the effects of active engagement with music on the intellectual, social and personal development of children and young people. It draws on research using the most advanced technologies to study the brain, in addition to quantitative and qualitative psychological and educational studies. It…
Mulcahey, M J; Smith, B T; Betz, R R; Triolo, R J; Peckham, P H
Percutaneous intramuscular functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) systems were fitted to the forearms of five adolescents with tetraplegia in an effort to provide active grasp and release. Two assessments designed at Case Western Reserve University to evaluate functional outcomes of FNS in adults were employed. The common object test (COT) was used to assess hand function during five activities of daily living (ADLs): eating, drinking, writing, brushing teeth and applying toothpaste. A usage survey provided information on the frequency of FNS use in environments outside of the laboratory. In addition, interviews were employed using open-ended questions to gain a deeper understanding of the perceptions of FNS in the adolescents' own environments. Based on the COT results, each adolescent was able to perform ADLs with and without FNS. However, FNS allowed unilateral function so that the extremity without FNS was freed to assist in balance or participate in bilateral tasks. Also, FNS reduced the need for multiple devices, providing users with the potential to perform activities in a variety of environments without transporting adaptive equipment. Those who reported using FNS most often obtained hard-bound school books, held pens during classroom and homework assignments, engaged in leisure activities and performed hygiene tasks. FNS was also used as a means to communicate and socialize through hand gestures. Well-known factors that influence the independence of people with tetraplegia also appeared to affect FNS use.
Background Sedentary behaviour has been linked with adverse health outcomes in young people; however, the nature and context of being sedentary is poorly understood. Accurate quantification and description of sedentary behaviour using population-level data is required. The aim of this research was to describe sedentary behaviour among New Zealand (NZ) youth and examine whether sedentary behaviour differs by Body Mass Index (BMI) status in this population. Methods A national representative cross-sectional survey of young people aged 5-24 years (n = 2,503) was conducted in 2008-2009. Data from this survey, which included subjectively (recall diary; n = 1,309) and objectively (accelerometry; n = 960) measured sedentary behaviour for participants aged 10-18 years were analysed using survey weighted methods. Results Participants self-reported spending on average 521 minutes per day (standard error [SE] 5.29) in total sedentary behaviour, 181 minutes per day (SE 3.91) in screen-based sedentary activities (e.g., television and video games), and 340 minutes per day (SE 5.22) in other non-screen sedentary behaviours (e.g., school, passive transport and self-care). Accelerometer-measured total sedentary behaviour was on average 420 minutes per day (SE 4.26), or 53% (SE 0.42%) of monitored time. There were no statistically significant differences in time spent in sedentary behaviour among overweight, obese and healthy/underweight young people. Conclusions Both subjective and objective methods indicate that NZ youth spend much of their waking time being sedentary. No relationships were found between sedentary behaviour and BMI status. These findings extend previous research by describing engagement in specific sedentary activities, as well as quantifying the behaviour using an objective method. Differences in what aspects of sedentary behaviour the two methods are capturing are discussed. This research highlights the potential for future interventions to target specific
Larsen, Kristine; Slater, K.; Drew, B.
More than any other science, astronomy has benefited from the work of well-trained, enthusiastic and dedicated amateurs. In an online survey of more than 1100 amateur astronomers conducted by Storksdieck et al., 63% of respondents reported being engaged in educational outreach. Such activities aid in the recruitment of young members to amateur associations in an attempt to stem the well-known "graying” of the field. One of the activities utilized by amateur astronomy groups to excite both young people and the general public about astronomy is mirror and telescope making. In 1925, Arctic explorer, architect, and optical and mechanical designer Russell Porter asked an interviewer, "Why not make your own telescope? Astronomy would mean a lot more to you if you did.” Today, the Springfield Telescope Makers of Vermont carry on their founder's tradition of promoting amateur telescope making and the enjoyment of the night sky through regular mirror making classes. Among the target groups included in these classes are young people, some still in elementary school. In doing so, the STMs capitalize on research which demonstrates that interest in astronomy not only peaks around the transition between elementary and middle school, but also that the widely-reported gender gap in achievement and interest in science begins at this crucial juncture. This poster reports on the results of a study of mirror making classes conducted by the STMs and nine other amateur astronomy groups in the Northeast U.S., including class organizers’ reflections on their successes and challenges in recruiting and retaining young men and women through the completion of a workable telescope mirror.
Bonell, Chris; Fletcher, Adam; Jamal, Farah; Aveyard, Paul; Markham, Wolfgang
Substance use (smoking, drinking and illicit drug use) remains, a serious problem for young people living in industrialised countries. There is increasing interest in interventions to modify the school, environment, addressing the multiple upstream determinants of young, people's health. This article provides an overview of current theory, about how secondary school environments influence young people's, substance use before focusing on the Theory of Human Functioning and, School Organisation. It critically examines the extent to which this, theory is substantiated by quantitative and qualitative evidence and, considers how the theory might be elaborated to better inform future, empirical research.
Paul, Mandira; Näsström, Sara B.; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie; Kiggundu, Charles; Larsson, Elin C.
Background Pregnancies among young women force girls to compromise education, resulting in low educational attainment with subsequent poverty and vulnerability. A pronounced focus is needed on contraceptive use, pregnancy, and unsafe abortion among young women. Objective This study aims to explore healthcare providers’ (HCPs) perceptions and practices regarding contraceptive counselling to young people. Design We conducted 27 in-depth interviews with doctors and midwives working in seven health facilities in central Uganda. Interviews were open-ended and allowed the participant to speak freely on certain topics. We used a topic guide to cover areas topics of interest focusing on post-abortion care (PAC) but also covering contraceptive counselling. Transcripts were transcribed verbatim and data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results The main theme, HCPs' ambivalence to providing contraceptive counselling to sexually active young people is based on two sub-themes describing the challenges of contraceptive counselling: A) HCPs echo the societal norms regarding sexual practice among young people, while at the same time our findings B) highlights the opportunities resulting from providers pragmatic approach to contraceptive counselling to young women. Providers expressed a self-identified lack of skill, limited resources, and inadequate support from the health system to successfully provide appropriate services to young people. They felt frustrated with the consultations, especially when meeting young women seeking PAC. Conclusions Despite existing policies for young people's sexual and reproductive health in Uganda, HCPs are not sufficiently equipped to provide adequate contraceptive counselling to young people. Instead, HCPs are left in between the negative influence of social norms and their pragmatic approach to address the needs of young people, especially those seeking PAC. We argue that a clear policy supported by a clear strategy with practical
Foster, Liam; Boxall, Kathy
Background: People (with and without learning disabilities) are living longer. Demographic ageing creates challenges and the leading policy response to these challenges is "active ageing". "Active" does not just refer to the ability to be physically and economically active, but also includes ongoing social and civic engagement…
National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.
This book informs parents and families of children and young adults with cancer about the most common types of cancer in the young, treatments and their side effects, and common issues that arise with a cancer diagnosis. Aspects of the disease, including characteristics of leukemia and solid tumors, are described. Treatment issues discussed…
Marteleto, Letícia; Lam, David; Ranchhod, Vimal
This study examines transitions in schooling, sexual activity, and pregnancy among adolescents and young adults in urban South Africa. Data are analyzed from the Cape Area Panel Study (CAPS), a recently collected longitudinal survey of young adults and their families in metropolitan Cape Town. We find that teen pregnancy is not entirely inconsistent with continued schooling, especially for African (black) women. More than 50 percent of African women who were pregnant at age 16 or 17 were enrolled in school the following year. We estimate probit regressions to identify the impact of individual and household characteristics on sexual debut, pregnancy, and school dropout between 2002 and 2005. We find that male and female students who performed well on a literacy and numeracy exam administered in 2002 were less likely than those who performed more poorly to become sexually active and less likely to drop out of school by 2005. Surprisingly, 14-16-year-olds who had completed more grades in school in 2002, conditional on their age, were more likely than those who had completed fewer grades to have become sexually active by 2005, a potential indicator of peer effects resulting from the wide dispersion in age per grade in South African schools. Overall, this study shows the importance of accounting for a measure that reflects the knowledge and skills of young people in an examination of their transitions to adulthood.
Lees, Janet; Horwath, Jan
Challenging some of the current predominantly negative representations of the effects of religion on young people requires further research into faith and family life, particularly from the perspective of young people themselves. This article presents a preliminary report of a study of 40 young people, mostly Christians and Muslims, aged 13-15…
Brown, Graham; Sorenson, Anne; Hildebrand, Janina
Young people in Australia are at greatest risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections, and priority actions are necessary for this population group. This study of marginalised and at-risk young people in out-of-school environments was conducted in Western Australia with the aim of obtaining young people's perceptions about their experience…
Bryce, Jennifer; Anderson, Michelle
This project investigated the interrelationships between family expectations and young people's post-school plans. All of the participants were from financially disadvantaged families. The research used interviews to understand these young people's perspectives of their transition experiences: the ways in which young people's school experiences…
Bessant, Judith, Ed.; Hil, Richard, Ed.
The 24 essays in this collection explore the ways in which young people are represented in the media in Australia. Australia's media are full of bad news about young people as perpetrators or victims of crime. The first six chapters explore a range of theoretical issues that connect media reports of young people with processes of governance in…
Kime, Nicola; McKenna, Jim; Webster, Liz
The poor outcomes of young people with chronic health conditions indicate that current services and self-care programmes are not meeting the needs of young people. How young people self-manage their condition impacts on long-term health outcomes, but there is little published evidence that details the development of self-care programmes and their…
Gilchrist, Heidi; Sullivan, Gerard
The suicide rate among young people in Australia has caused considerable concern and been the focus of research and intervention. Issues related to sexuality and gender can be the source of conflict for young people within their communities, and have been implicated in suicide attempts. This paper examines the cultural context of youth suicide, and asks how youth suicide may be related to emerging sexual identity, which all young people must negotiate through the customs, discourse and taboos of their society. In particular, it focuses on the situation of young heterosexual women. The findings are based on interviews with 41 young people, parents and youth service providers regarding youth suicide. Interviews were semi-structured and open-ended, and conducted in a suburban community. They included the use of scenarios or vignettes. Finding, suggest that traditional constructions of gender remain widespread, and that these are often disadvantageous to both young women and young men. Parents may be unaware that they have little control over, or even knowledge about, their teenagers' behaviour. Young people are more inclined to confide in their friends, who may not be equipped to deal with crises.
Baquet, Georges; van Praagh, Emmanuel; Berthoin, Serge
Training-induced adaptations in aerobic fitness have been extensively studied in adults, and some exercise scientists have recommended similar training programmes for young people. However, the subject of the response to aerobic training of children and adolescents is controversial. The effects of exercise training on prepubertal children are particularly debatable. The latter may be partly explained by different training designs, which make comparisons between studies very problematic. We have analysed the procedures applied to protocol design and training methods to highlight the real impact of aerobic training on the peak oxygen uptake (V-dotO2) of healthy children and adolescents. In accordance with previously published reviews on trainability in youngsters, research papers were rejected from the final analysis according to criteria such as the lack of a control group, an unclear training protocol, inappropriate statistical procedures, small sample size, studies with trained or special populations, or with no peak V-dotO2 data. Factors such as maturity, group constitution, consistency between training and testing procedures, drop out rates, or attendance were considered, and possible associations with changes in peak V-dotO2 with training are discussed. From 51 studies reviewed, 22 were finally retained. In most of the studies, there was a considerable lack of research regarding circumpubertal individuals in general, and particularly in girls. The results suggest that methodologically listed parameters will exert a potential influence on the magnitude of peak V-dotO2 improvement. Even if little difference is reported for each parameter, it is suggested that the sum of errors will result in a significant bias in the assessment of training effects. The characteristics of each training protocol were also analysed to establish their respective potential influence on peak V-dotO2 changes. In general, aerobic training leads to a mean improvement of 5-6% in the peak V
Using works of art with young children is a perfect way to bridge the gap between art activities that are too open or too closed. Teachers of young children sometimes try to find a middle ground by allowing free painting time at an easel in addition to recipe-oriented activities such as putting together precut shapes to create a spider or an apple…
Bond, Lyndal; Giddens, Anne; Cosentino, Anne; Cook, Margaret; Hoban, Paul; Haynes, Ann; Scaffidi, Louise; Dimovski, Mary; Cini, Eileen; Glover, Sara
Many refugee people and others entering Australia under the Humanitarian Program, have experienced extremely stressful and disrupted lives prior to arrival. A major difficulty experienced by a significant number of refugee young people is their lack of formal education before arrival. It directly affects their ability to start connecting to their new society and constructing a new life. The level of ease with which young people can move into the education and training system and begin to establish a meaningful career pathway has a huge impact on their successful settlement and stable mental health. This paper describes the Changing Cultures Project, a three-year project, which explored models of appropriate and accessible education and training for refugee and newly arrived young people that would enhance their mental health. The Changing Cultures Project was a partnership between the education, health and settlement sectors. This paper describes the program and system response to the health, settlement, education and vocational issues facing refugee young people using a mental health promotion framework and reflective practice. We discuss how the refugee youth programs met a broad range of needs as well as providing language, literacy and basic education to newly arrived young people. While working in an environment of changing policy and public opinion regarding refugee issues, the Project delivered successful outcomes at the program and organisational levels for refugee young people by addressing issues of program development and delivery, organisational development and capacity building and community development and evaluation.
Chico-Jarillo, Tara M; Crozier, Athena; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I; Hutchens, Theresa; George, Miranda
Young people can be valuable motivational resources for health promotion. A project implemented from 2009 through 2013 in a small American Indian community in northwest Arizona recruited American Indian young people aged 10 to 21 as agents of change for health promotion through radio programming. Thirty-seven participants were recruited and trained in broadcasting and creative writing techniques; they produced and aired 3 radio dramas. In post-project evaluation, participants were confident they could influence community behaviors but thought that training techniques were too similar to those used in school activities and thus reduced their drive to engage. Effective engagement of young people requires creativity to enhance recruitment, retention, and impact.
Bumgarner, Kelly Feist; Pharr, Jennifer; Buttner, Mark; Ezeanolue, Echezona
Young people 15-24 years old represent 39% of new HIV infections globally. However, they are the least likely age demographic to seek HIV testing and the most likely to be unaware of their HIV status. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to identify interventions that increase either rates of HIV testing or intentions to seek HIV testing in young people 10-24 years old. In total, 1601 manuscripts were systematically examined and five manuscripts were included in the final review. Two common themes identified in the interventions were education and test delivery methods. Educational programs were found to be effective when delivered in classroom or entertainment-based formats. Health providers offering testing and home testing increased the rate of testing. Additional research is needed on programs aimed at young people not enrolled in schools, interventions that measure testing rates, and educating healthcare providers about offering HIV tests to young people.
Al-Serouri, A W; Anaam, M; Al-Iryani, B; Al Deram, A; Ramaroson, S
Despite te low rate of infection in Yemen, there are concerns about the possible spread of HIV among high-risk and vulnerable groups. A community-based study was made in 2005 of AIDS awareness and attitudes among 601 young people aged 15-24 years from low-income, high-risk neighbourhoods in Aden. Young people lacked proper information about HIV/AIDS. Although 89% had heard of AIDS, fewer (46%) could name 3 ways of transmission or 3 ways to avoid infection (28%). Misconceptions about modes of transmissions were prevalent and many young people believed that they faced little or no risk. There were intolerant attitudes towards AIDS patients. About half the young people knew that prostitution and homosexuality existed in their area.
Ngo, Anh D; Ross, Michael W; Ratliff, Eric A
While the influences of the Internet on adult sexuality are well recognized, research on the potential connection between the Internet and young people's sexuality is still limited. We conducted a qualitative study to examine how young people (aged 15-19 years) in Hanoi, Vietnam used the Internet to develop sexual practices and identities. Our analysis of texts from focus groups, in-depth interviews, chat scripts and field notes reveals how the Internet is used to assemble sexual information that was not available from other sources such as the family and school. Young people's narratives also show how they use the Internet as a medium for expressing sexual identities and desires. In the light of these findings, we suggest expanding sex education to include issues that are important to young people such as emotions and relationships, rather than simply focusing more narrowly on reproduction, public health and other interests of the state.
Points out a great preference for Western-style rock music among young people (ages 14-25) in East Germany despite social, political, and cultural differences, suggesting the global nature of music as communication. (PD)
Luchtenberg, Malou; Maeckelberghe, Els; Locock, Louise; Powell, Lesley; Verhagen, A A Eduard
Given the lack of knowledge about safety and efficacy of many treatments for children, pediatric clinical trials are important, but recruitment for pediatric research is difficult. Little is known about children's perspective on participating in trials. The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences and motivations of young people who took part in clinical trials. This is a qualitative interview study of 25 young people aged 10-23 who were invited to take part in clinical trials. Interviews were audio or video recorded and analyzed using framework analysis. Young peoples' motivations were both personal benefit and helping others. Both incentives appeared to be more complex than expected. We introduce the terms "network of exchange" and "intergenerational solidarity" to describe these motivations. To improve recruitment, professionals should be more open about research opportunities, provide better information, and give young people feedback after the trial has ended.
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163558.html Tougher Alcohol Laws Mean Fewer Young People Killed on the ... teens in the United States are fueled by alcohol, the researchers noted. Of the nearly 85,000 ...
Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Banwell, Cathy; Carmichael, Gordon; Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Kelly, Matthew; Sleigh, Adrian
This study sheds light on obstacles to safe sexual health for young Thais and their need for appropriate sexual and reproductive health services. The study population was 1,745 unmarried adolescents aged 17-20 who resided or worked in Chiang Mai, the major city in northern Thailand. The study used quantitative and qualitative methods to explore the vulnerability of sexually active adolescents as well as the lack of support and care for them from parents and health providers. We found that young Thais still prefer pharmacies for self-medication and use government health care facilities as a last resort. Current health services are not suitable for young people in northern Thailand because they lack privacy and impose judgemental attitudes, especially towards sexually active adolescent females. Current programs for adolescent sexual and reproductive health focus on education and counselling and do not provide appropriate privacy or clinical care. There is a pressing need for advocacy, policy support for the development of youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services in Thailand. PMID:23082599
Nininahazwe, Cédric; Alesi, Jacquelyne; Caswell, Georgina; Lumumba, Musah; Mellin, Julie; Ndayizeye, Nicholas-Monalisa; Orza, Luisa; Rahimi, Michaela; Westerhof, Nienke
This commentary describes young people's leadership from the perspective of a youth-led organization in the Link Up project in Burundi, Réseau National des Jeunes vivant avec le VIH. It describes processes that enable young people to guide, influence, deliver, and improve health service provision; the challenges faced by Réseau National des Jeunes vivant avec le VIH and how they are addressing these challenges.
Spratt, Jennifer; Shucksmith, Janet; Philip, Kate; Watson, Cate
Concerns about the mental health and well-being of children and young people have been articulated in health and education policy fields as a call for closer working between schools and providers of mental health support services. Drawing from a Scottish study, this article explores issues of access, when mental health initiatives are sited in…
Andrews, Justin P; Andrews, Gavin J
Sport is used widely in the rehabilitation of British young people who are resident in secure facilities following criminal sentencing, during remand or for welfare reasons. The research uses a quasi-longitudinal observational study in a secure unit, located in Southern England, and questions the suitability of sporting activities used as a primary vehicle for, and mechanism of, rehabilitation. Through the analysis of experiences at the unit, the paper supports the use of those sporting activities which de-emphasise regulations and winning, and argues for an emphasis on choice for participants, the tailoring of programmes to suit individual needs, and on positive feedback. Sport evidently has an important role in youth rehabilitation. However, it should be used selectively because, if unsuitable activities and programmes are used, they may have a detrimental effect on participants. The paper demonstrates the usefulness of qualitative research methods in rehabilitation studies.
Manno, Michelle S.; Yang, Edith; Bangser, Michael
Educational attainment and early work experience provide a crucial foundation for future success. However, many young adults are disconnected from both school and the job market. Neglecting these young people can exact a heavy toll on not only the individuals but also society as a whole, for example, through lost productivity and tax…
This article reports on an empirical study of young Russians' participation in political life and how they view the influence of politics on their lives. This study investigates, first, the extent to which young people are interested in politics compared to other spheres of public life. Second, it looks at the extent to which political…
Price, Megan; Dalgleish, John
Cyberbullying impacts on the wellbeing, schooling, family and peer relationships of many young people. The current study of 548 young Australians revealed that cyberbullying is a group phenomenon most prevalent during the transitional ages between primary and secondary school. It takes on many forms and shows an overlap in roles between…
Wyckoff, Laura; Cooney, Siobhan M.; Djakovic, Danijela Korom; McClanahan, Wendy S.
This report, the first in a series relating to disconnected young adults commissioned by JobsFirst NYC, examines what is known about New York City's disconnected youth--16 to 24 year-olds who are not working and not in school. The report explores the roots of disconnection and identifies five priority populations of young people who are at high…
Butterworth, Thomas W.; Hodge, M. Antoinette; Sofronoff, Kate; Beaumont, Renae; Gray, Kylie M.; Roberts, Jacqueline; Horstead, Siân K.; Clarke, Kristina S.; Howlin, Patricia; Taffe, John R.; Einfeld, Stewart L.
The current study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Emotion Regulation and Social Skills Questionnaire (ERSSQ), a rating scale designed specifically to assess the social skills of young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The participants were 84 children and young adolescents with ASD, aged between 7.97 and 14.16 years…
Harris, Laurie Lanzen, Ed.; Abbey, Cherie D., Ed.
Comprising the sixth volume of a series, this document contains short biographies written for the young reader aged 9 and older. The series covers individuals who are of particular interest to young people: entertainers, athletes, authors, cartoonists, and political leaders. Each issue contains 10 to 12 entries that include photographs and…
Major, Jae; Wilkinson, Jane; Langat, Kip; Santoro, Ninetta
This article discusses literature pertaining to the settlement of African refugees in regional and rural Australia, particularly focusing on the specific challenges and opportunities faced by Sudanese young people of refugee background in education. Drawing on a pilot study of the out-of-school resources of regionally located young Sudanese…
Andresen, William; Dallapiazza, Margaret; Calvert, Matthew
This chapter focuses on two remote rural communities that engaged young people in meaningful community development efforts to build social capital. One community connected youth to the assets of the community and created opportunities for young adults to strengthen social networks. The other created partnerships and networks to build…
This article seeks to explore how the myth of the "rural idyll" can be detrimental to those who currently experience some of the greatest social exclusion in rural areas--children and young people. The research explores the views and experiences of the young residents of a small town in the south-west of England (n = 157, ages 12-18…
Confidentiality presents particular challenges to practitioners working with young people, on account of the latter's vulnerability and emotional immaturity. Ethical codes place a key importance on confidentiality, from deontological and teleological perspectives. However, young clients may rely on a more pragmatic approach in deciding whether to…
Iudin, V. V.
In the past twenty years a generation has grown up that, unlike previous generations, was not the object of atheistic upbringing. In this article, based on sociological surveys of young people in Mogilev and Mogilev Oblast conducted in 2002 and 2004, the author examines the religious behavior of young believers and analyze the level and degree of…
Samsonova, E. A.; Efimova, E. Iu.
In 2005, the Laboratory of Sociological Research of the municipal office of the social service Shans Center for Social and Psychological Assistance for Young People carried out a sociological survey titled "Current Problems of Today's Young Person," for the purpose of studying the most urgent problems affecting the social development of…
Mather, Julie; Archbold, Sue; Gregory, Sue
A semi-structured interview format was used to explore the experiences and attitudes of twelve parents and twelve teachers of young people, aged 11-18 years, who had received sequential bilateral cochlear implants. The parents stressed the importance of involving the young person in the decision to go ahead with the second implant. Although all…
Santoro, Ninetta; Wilkinson, Jane
This article draws on an ethnographic study that consisted of in-depth case studies of eight Sudanese young people of refugee background living in rural Australia. Prompted by concern over deficit views of young refugees that pervade educational literature, we aimed to understand what facilitates their successful resettlement into Australian rural…
Harrison, Jeremy; McLeish, Henry
Written for practitioners rather than policymakers, this document is intended for those who seek to relate educational and training opportunities to local and individual needs; use fresh approaches to integrated services for young people trapped by unemployment, social and economic change, and poor living conditions; and achieve high quality…
Battistoni, Allegra; Canichella, Flaminia; Pignatelli, Giulia; Ferrucci, Andrea; Tocci, Giuliano; Volpe, Massimo
High blood pressure (BP) still remains one of the most relevant cardiovascular risk factors, also due to its persistently high prevalence and growing incidence in the general adult and elderly population. Since almost all hypertension-related cardiovascular complications, mostly including coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and congestive heart failure, occurred in adult and elderly individuals, evidence on both prevalence and clinical management of hypertension in young individuals are lacking. Therefore, the clinical impact of high BP levels in young populations remains to be explored. In the recent years, the attitude of the scientific community has changed and more attention was devoted to young individuals with hypertension, also in view of the fact that early identification of these subjects may prevent developing of established hypertension in adulthood. In addition, unhealthy lifestyle habits have progressively involved children and adolescents worldwide, thus contributing to further increase the risk of developing hypertension in young individuals. On the basis of these considerations, the present review is aimed at providing a brief reappraisal of the major aspects of hypertension in the young age, as well as at promoting interest and discussion on this important issue.
Pilatti, Angelina; Tuzinkievich, Francisco Benjamín
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate, in a sample of young people and adults from the general community, the psychometric properties of two models developed for assessing gambling motives (Gambling Motives Questionnaire and Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Financial; GMQ and GMQ-F). Specifically, a confirmatory factor analysis was carried out to assess the fit of the two models to the data. Internal consistency of the scales was then analyzed. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to analyze the utility of gambling motives for predicting levels of gambling problem severity. The final sample was made up of 341 young people and adults, aged 18 to 60, who reported any gambling activity during the last six months. The maximum likelihood (ML) method with robust Satorra-Bentler correction was used to evaluate the fit of the models to the data. The results indicated that both the GMQ and the GMQ-F models show a reasonable fit to the data. All scales have adequate internal consistency values. Enhancement, coping and financial gambling motives were associated with greater severity of gambling problems. Overall, the results indicate that both models have adequate psychometric properties, though the GMQ-F appears to provide a more comprehensive alternative for assessing gambling motives in the general community.
Gellens, Suzanne R.
This book presents 350 classroom-tested activities for use with children to create an environment that will stimulate young children's brains. Designed to be used by families, classroom teachers, family childcare providers, or others caring for young children, the book includes information on current brain research and describes interest areas in…
This study examines if, and how, the size of the community in which people live may contribute to explaining differences in traffic safety behaviour (self-reported behaviour regarding the use of seat belts, bicycle helmets and reflectors) among young people in Sweden. The study is based on a Swedish nationwide traffic safety survey with a net sample of 2854 respondents aged 16-25. Ordered logit regressions were performed, and place of residence is shown to have an impact on traffic safety behaviour. The results are presented and discussed in relation to risk exposure and traffic safety facilities in different settings. The implications of the study are considered, and the importance of investigating the way in which young people see traffic safety behaviour is emphasised.
Chen, Chih-Hsuan; Shu, Bih-Ching
Background: There is a dearth of studies about the causes of stigmatization in people with intellectual disability. This study is aimed at gaining an understanding of how feelings of stigmatization are formed and perceived among young people with intellectual disability in Taiwanese cultural and social contexts. Materials and Methods: Fourteen…
Khrienko, Andrei Pavlovich
In spite of the renaissance of the religious worldview, practical experience provides evidence that the level of morality and spiritual life in society is not rising. Quite the contrary, in fact: people are witnessing the extensive spread of various forms of deviant behavior, especially among young people. In the sociology of religion a great deal…
Harris, Laurie Lanzen, Ed.
This publication presents biographical profiles of people of interest to young readers. The concept is unique in that the subjects profiled are not necessarily people of great or lasting stature. Many are noted writers or public figures who have made important contributions to the current world, but a goodly number of entries are biographies of…
Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid
We all have mental health. Mental health relates to how we think, feel, behave and interact with other people. At its simplest, good mental health is the absence of a mental disorder or mental health problem. Adults, children and young people with good mental health are likely to have high levels of mental wellbeing. The World Health Organisation…
Jamieson, Margaret; Peterson, John
For a number of years, studies have reported that people with disabilities have lower work force participation rates than the general public. One factor may be a lack of transitional, vocational programs for young people with disabilities. This digest describes "Thresholds," a career development program created with a basis on the unique…
Aikens, Curtis G., Sr.
It is not what one has in life; rather, what is left as the legacy. Personally I have received many awards. However, I feel so much better when I help people receive their own awards. Now, I want to use positive language and positive action to help motivate young people, encouraging them to achieve their own success, as well as foster success in…
Papen, Uta; Thériault, Virginie
This article examines the role of youth workers as literacy mediators: people who help others with written texts. Drawing on a secondary analysis of data from a qualitative study conducted in Quebec, Canada, the authors discuss situations in which staff from a community-based organization helped young people with written texts, such as…
de Germond-Burquier, V; Haller, D M; Narring, F
Substance use among young people is an important issue for educational, social and medical providers. More than 75% young people have had a medical visit in the last 12 months, making primary care settings ideal for screening and early intervention programs. The prevalence of substance misuse was assessed with the DEP-ADO screen test among young patients attending the primary care consultation of Geneva University Hospitals. The screen was well accepted by both patients and providers and only took about 10 minutes to complete. One in five screened positive for problematic substance use, supporting the current guidelines recommending annual screening for substance misuse in adolescent primary care outpatients.
It has been reported that professional baseball players whose first names begin with the letter "D" tend to die relatively young (E. L. Abel & M. L. Kruger, 2010). However, the statistical evidence for this claim is based on selective data and a statistical test that ignores important confounding influences. A valid test applied to more comprehensive data from the same source does not show a statistically significant relationship between initials and longevity. In addition, data for the years 1960 through 2004 for 6.7 million White, non-Hispanic California decedents do not replicate the claim that D's die young.
... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ...
Kuo, Wen-Hung; St Lawrence, Janet S
This study examined the sexual behaviour and self-reported incidence of STDs of White and Chinese American young people in a nationally representative US sample. 10,419 White and 340 self-identified Chinese American young people in grade 7 through 12 were selected from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Prevalence of sex initiation, ever having casual sex partners, number of lifetime sex partners, age of first sexual intercourse, and history of self-reported STD diagnoses were compared between these two groups. Chinese American young people reported significantly lower rates of sexual intercourse than Whites. Among sexually active young people, Chinese Americans were also less likely to report non-regular sexual partners and to report having a lower number of such sexual partners in the past year. There was no difference in self-reported STDs between the two groups. Ever having been romantically involved, older age, not living in a two-parent household, having more relaxed attitudes about sex, and reported substance use were associated with a higher likelihood of sexual intercourse in both groups. Being native-born was not associated with patterns of sexual behaviour among Chinese Americans.
Tucker-Raymond, Eli; Lewis, Naama; Moses, Maisha; Milner, Chad
Access to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields serves as a key entry point to economic mobility and civic enfranchisement. Such access must take seriously the intellectual power of the knowledge and practices of non-dominant youth. In our case, this has meant to shift epistemic authority in mathematics from academic institutions to young people themselves. This article is about why high school-aged students, from underrepresented groups, choose to participate in an out-of-school time program in which they teach younger children in the domains of mathematics and computer science. It argues for programmatic principles based on access, identity engagement, relationship building, and connections to community to support underrepresented youth as learners, teachers, leaders, and organizers in mathematics-related activities using game design as the focus of activity.
Stanley, Nicky; Barter, Christine; Wood, Marsha; Aghtaie, Nadia; Larkins, Cath; Lanau, Alba; Överlien, Carolina
New technology has made pornography increasingly accessible to young people, and a growing evidence base has identified a relationship between viewing pornography and violent or abusive behavior in young men. This article reports findings from a large survey of 4,564 young people aged 14 to 17 in five European countries which illuminate the relationship between regular viewing of online pornography, sexual coercion and abuse and the sending and receiving of sexual images and messages, known as "sexting." In addition to the survey, which was completed in schools, 91 interviews were undertaken with young people who had direct experience of interpersonal violence and abuse in their own relationships. Rates for regularly viewing online pornography were very much higher among boys and most had chosen to watch pornography. Boys' perpetration of sexual coercion and abuse was significantly associated with regular viewing of online pornography. Viewing online pornography was also associated with a significantly increased probability of having sent sexual images/messages for boys in nearly all countries. In addition, boys who regularly watched online pornography were significantly more likely to hold negative gender attitudes. The qualitative interviews illustrated that, although sexting is normalized and perceived positively by most young people, it has the potential to reproduce sexist features of pornography such as control and humiliation. Sex and relationships education should aim to promote a critical understanding of pornography among young people that recognizes its abusive and gendered values.
McDermott, Elizabeth; Roen, Katrina; Scourfield, Jonathan
This paper reports on findings from qualitative research conducted in the UK that sought to explore the connections between sexual identities and self-destructive behaviours in young people. International evidence demonstrates that there are elevated rates of suicide and alcohol abuse amongst lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth. Rarely included in this body of research are investigations into young LGBT people's views and experiences of self-destructive behaviours. Data from interviews and focus groups with young LGBT participants suggest a strong link between homophobia and self-destructive behaviours. Utilising a discourse analytic approach, we argue that homophobia works to punish at a deep individual level and requires young LGBT people to manage being positioned, because of their sexual desire or gendered ways of being, as abnormal, dirty and disgusting. At the centre of the complex and multiple ways in which young LGBT people negotiate homophobia are 'modalities of shame-avoidance' such as: the routinization and minimizing of homophobia; maintaining individual 'adult' responsibility; and constructing 'proud' identities. The paper argues that these strategies of shame-avoidance suggest young LGBT people manage homophobia individually, without expectation of support and, as such, may make them vulnerable to self-destructive behaviours.
Kamndaya, Mphatso; Thomas, Liz; Vearey, Jo; Sartorius, Benn; Kazembe, Lawrence
Young people in urban slums adopt HIV risk behaviors influenced by their neighborhood factors. Three critical factors in urban slums of Southern and Eastern Africa--the region most affected by the HIV epidemic in the world--are unmet needs of housing, food, and health care, which are associated with HIV sexual risks. Yet, there has been limited attention on how the combination of unmet needs of housing, food, and health care--i.e., material deprivation-relates to sexual risk behavior among young people in urban slums. Cross-sectional data were extracted from the LoveLife survey in South African four provinces--KwaZulu Natal, Mpumalanga, Eastern Cape, and Gauteng, to examine the association between material deprivation and sexual risk behavior among young people aged 18-23 years (263 males, 267 females) in urban slums. Adjusted logistic regression models showed that material deprivation was significantly associated with increased odds of high sexual risk taking for young men (adjusted OR = 1.20; 95 % CI = 1.10, 5.58) and young women (adjusted OR = 1.43; 95 % CI = 1.35, 3.28). Financial difficulty--a proxy for other deprivations--was the most salient influence on young women's high sexual risk taking (adjusted OR = 2.11; 95 % CI = 1.66, 2.70). Localized behavioral HIV prevention interventions should target young people in deprived households.
Richards, Deborah; Caldwell, Patrina H Y; Go, Henry
This paper reviews the literature on the impact of social media on the health of children and young people. Relevant papers were identified from Medline, Embase and PsycINFO databases. The studies identified that the health impact of social media on children and young people was greatest on mental health and specifically in the areas of self-esteem and well-being, with related issues around cyberbullying and 'Facebook Depression', with an association between the use of social media and self-esteem and body image. However, it is difficult to determine the cause and effect, which is likely to be related to the nature of the young person. There is little work on the impact of social media on younger children. More research is needed to identify those most at risk of harm from social media and risk mitigation strategies to assist health-care professionals to provide essential education for parents and young people.
Cunha, Flavio; Heckman, James J.
This paper reviews the recent literature on the production of skills of young persons. The literature features the multiplicity of skills that explain success in a variety of life outcomes. Noncognitive skills play a fundamental role in successful lives. The dynamics of skill formation reveal the interplay of cognitive and noncognitive skills, and…
Ziebertz, Hans-Georg; Kalbheim, Boris; Riegel, Ulrich
Issues like faith and Church, religion and religiousness are not valued particularly highly among the young. At the same time a search for the meaning of life and an orientation in one's own behaviour still seem to be significant and transcendent focal points are being sought to deal with these issues. This article questions the value that…
The purpose of this article is twofold. The first is to introduce the theme: "Responding to the educational needs of the young to bring about globalization with a human face," which formed part of the discussions at the 47th session of the International Conference on Education, Geneva, Switzerland, 8-11 September 2004. The second is to provide a…
National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.
The book presents information for parents of children and young adults with cancer. The first section outlines aspects of the disease itself and considers characteristics of leukemia and solid tumors. Hospitalization and such treatments as chemotherapy and radiation are considered. Common health issues (including diet, dental care, bleeding, and…
Tam, Kai Yung; Heng, Mary Anne; Bullock, Lyndal M.
In this article, the authors address correctional education and juvenile delinquency. The authors examined the case files of 54 juvenile offenders incarcerated in the Kaki Bukit Center Prison School in Singapore to analyze the antecedents that provoked these young offenders to commit the offenses. The juveniles reported that peer influence and…
Remix is the practice of recombining music, sound, images, and words from sources such as film, television, video, online games, advertising, and novels into new kinds of creative blends. It is a process of re-assembling, recontextualizing, and creating new meanings, and a practice at which young, media-savvy creators excel. Increasingly, youth…
It has been reported that professional baseball players whose first names begin with the letter "D" tend to die relatively young (E. L. Abel & M. L. Kruger, 2010). However, the statistical evidence for this claim is based on selective data and a statistical test that ignores important confounding influences. A valid test applied to…
Thomas, Michael, Ed.
There have been many attempts to define the generation of students who emerged with the Web and new digital technologies in the early 1990s. The term "digital native" refers to the generation born after 1980, which has grown up in a world where digital technologies and the internet are a normal part of everyday life. Young people…
Gray, Debra; Manning, Rachel
Social psychologists have become increasingly concerned with examining the ways in which social practices are interrelated with their location. Critical perspectives have highlighted the traditional lack of attention given to both the collective aspects of spatial identities, together with the discursive practices that construct the relationships between people and places. In this article, we draw together the developing discursive work on place with work on children's geographies, in order to examine young people's accounts of spatial regulation. Adopting a discursive approach to the analysis of focus group discussion, we illustrate a variety of concerns managed in relation to spatial practices by 41 young people living in a large city in the South of England. Our findings suggest that everyday use of public space by young people is constructed at a nexus of competing concerns around childhood/adulthood, freedom, and citizenship, and illustrate the dynamic nature of place, and its regulation, as a resource for constructing identities.
Ahern, Elizabeth C; Sadler, Leslie A; Lamb, Michael E; Gariglietti, Gianna M
Young people suspected of being sexually exploited are unlikely to have made prior disclosures before being approached by authorities, and this can make them especially uncomfortable when involved in investigations. Semistructured interviews were conducted with frontline social workers and law enforcement practitioners about their experiences interacting with youth during child sexual exploitation investigations. The findings provided some tentative insights into the processes by which practitioners sought to establish rapport with young people who have been exploited and establish themselves as trustworthy abuse disclosure recipients. Practitioners reported that rapport building in child sexual exploitation cases not only occurred over lengthy periods of time (e.g., months or years) but also required repeated contacts between the practitioners and young people, during which practitioners minimized their roles as authorities and maximized their authenticity as caring people. Practitioners mentioned the importance of dependability, lightheartedness, and having a casual demeanor. Findings have implications for managing reluctance and understanding rapport building when working with possible victims.
Bernays, Sarah; Paparini, Sara; Seeley, Janet; Namukwaya Kihika, Stella; Gibb, Diana; Rhodes, Tim
Objectives A qualitative study of the BREATHER (PENTA 16) randomised clinical trial, which compared virological control of Short Cycle Therapy (SCT) (5 days on: 2 days off) with continuous efavirenz (EFV)-based antiretroviral therapy (CT) in children and young people (aged 8–24) living with HIV with viral load <50 c/mL to examine adaptation, acceptability and experience of SCT to inform intervention development. Setting Paediatric HIV clinics in the UK (2), Ireland (1), the USA (1) and Uganda (1). Participants All BREATHER trial participants who were over the age of 10 and aware of their HIV diagnosis were invited to participate. 49 young people from both arms of the BREATHER trial (31 females and 18 males; 40% of the total trial population in the respective sites; age range 11–24) gave additional consent to participate in the qualitative study. Results Young people from both trial arms had initial concerns about the impact of SCT on their health and adherence, but these decreased over the early months in the trial. Young people randomised to SCT reported preference for SCT compared with CT pre-trial. Attitudes to SCT did not vary greatly by gender or country. Once short-term adaptation challenges were overcome, SCT was positively described as reducing impact of side effects, easing the pressure to carry and remember medication and enabling more weekend social activities. Young people on both arms reported frequent medication side effects and occasional missed doses that they had rarely voiced to clinical staff. Participants liked SCT by trial end but were concerned that peers who had most problems adhering could find SCT disruptive and difficult to manage. Conclusions To realise the potential of SCT (and mitigate possible risks of longer interruptions), careful dissemination and communication post-trial is needed. SCT should be provided alongside a package of monitoring, support and education over 3 months to allow adaptation. Trial registration number
Jivanjee, Pauline; Kruzich, Jean M.; Gordon, Lynwood J.
For young people aged 16-24, the transition from adolescence to young adulthood involves predictable and unpredictable changes and they may encounter challenges in their roles, relationships, and responsibilities. Young people with mental health difficulties face additional challenges as they and their families navigate this transition. As a…
Luk'ianova, E. L.; Sabirova, G. A.
Research shows the importance of methodological issues in the study of young Russians during the current economic slump. A critical analysis of the indicators of the social and economic situation of young people in Russia shows the need to include the concept of lifestyle and its influence of the choices made by young people and their parents.
Sheffield, Caroline C.; Cruz, Barbara C.
Using literature in the social studies classroom is a useful pedagogy that is particularly well-suited in human rights education. Literature can give voice to people who cannot speak for themselves and gives students an opportunity to consider perspectives that are often foreign to them. When used with delicacy and care, these literary…
Samsonova, Ekaterina Anatol'evna; Iudina, Ekaterina Iur'evna
In the ethnosociological literature, the term "ethnic tolerance" is interpreted as a specific trait of the national character of some particular people, its mentality, a trait that is oriented toward tolerance, harmony, and a willingness to deal constructively with any problems that arise in interethnic relations. The variegated…
Come Yélian Adohinzin, Clétus; Meda, Nicolas; Anicet Ouédraogo, Georges; Gaston Belem, Adrien Marie; Sombié, Issiaka; Berthé, Abdramane; Bakwin Kandala, Ngianga; Damienne Avimadjenon, Georgette; Fond-Harmant, Laurence
Introduction: Despite health education efforts, young people are still faced with major health problems. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding HIV prevention and unwanted pregnancy among young people in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Methods: Based on two-level sampling, representing 94,947 households in the Bobo-Dioulasso municipality, 573 young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years were interviewed. This data collection was conducted from September 2014 to January 2015 in the three districts of the municipality. A questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and attitudes of young people. Results: The interviewees had a poor knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention and contraception Very few young people (9%) had complete knowledge about the modes of transmission and 5% had no knowledge. Persistent misperceptions about the effectiveness of condoms (25%) and contraception (32%) did not prevent some young people from using them (79% used condoms and 46% used contraceptives). Knowledge and attitudes of young people regarding HIV and contraception varied according to age, sex, education level and type of parental supervision. Conclusion: A significant proportion of young people still has incomplete knowledge about HIV/AIDS and contraception. Actions designed to reinforce the knowledge of young people are of paramount importance. The capacities of parents and healthcare providers also need to be reinforced to improve the quality of relationship with young people.
This study examines gender and class differences in young people's beliefs about sexuality and HIV/AIDS risk-taking behaviours in Thailand. Sixty young people aged 15-19, divided equally by gender and socioeconomic background, participated in focus groups and in-depth interviews. Four topics were explored: the differences between 'good' and 'bad' girls/boys; young people's perceptions of sexuality; social class variations in young people's knowledge of HIV/AIDS and perceptions of risk; and the most influential institutions shaping young people's sexual attitudes. Results showed that young people screened potential sexual partners utilizing an image of 'good girls/boys' as potential HIV/AIDS-free partners; young people defined sexuality in terms of love/sexual relationships, premarital sex, promiscuity, and virginity; and HIV/AIDS awareness varied according to class. Young people of all classes failed to demonstrate an in-depth understanding of how they can contract AIDS. They neither viewed themselves as being in an at-risk group, nor considered their sexual behaviours to be at-risk behaviours. Finally, family, friends, and mass media were reported to be among the most influential institutions shaping young people's sexual attitudes. In the struggle against HIV/AIDS, these institutions together with health education not only protect but also can empower young people in Thailand.
Background Adolescents and young adults often suffer from depression, but tend to avoid seeking professional help. The aim of this study was to explore the reasons for non-professional-help-seeking in a sample of young adults resident in Catalonia with depressive symptoms through a qualitative study. In addition, the subjects were invited to offer their recommendations for making mental health care services more accessible. Methods We recruited 105 young persons (17–21 years of age) who had participated in a national survey on adolescents. The sample was divided into thirds, with 37 who had a previous diagnosis of depression, 33 who had self-perceived emotional distress, and 35 controls. The participants were interviewed in depth about their reasons for avoiding professional mental health care services, and the interview results were analyzed using both qualitative and cultural domain techniques and corroborated through comparison with the results of three focus groups. Results Participants’ reasons for avoidance varied both by gender and according to prior experience with health services. Male study participants and female controls mainly understood depressive symptoms as normal and therefore not requiring treatment. Female participants with self-perceived distress were more likely to cite problems of access to treatment and fear of speaking to an unknown person about their problems. Females with a diagnosis expressed lack of trust in the benefits of treatment and fear of the social consequences of help-seeking. In their recommendations for best practices, the study participants suggested educational initiatives, as well as changes in the organization of mental health care services. Conclusions A better understanding of the views of young people and a greater effort to involve them as active participants is important for facilitating help-seeking in this age group, and for adapting mental health care services to adolescent users and their social context. PMID
Mangan, Cheryl; Sanci, Lena
Background Young people regularly use online services to seek help and look for information about mental health problems. Yet little is known about the effects that online services have on mental health and whether these services facilitate help-seeking in young people. Objective This systematic review investigates the effectiveness of online services in facilitating mental health help-seeking in young people. Methods Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, literature searches were conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane library. Out of 608 publications identified, 18 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria of investigating online mental health services and help-seeking in young people aged 14-25 years. Results Two qualitative, 12 cross-sectional, one quasi-experimental, and three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were reviewed. There was no change in help-seeking behavior found in the RCTs, while the quasi-experimental study found a slight but significant increase in help-seeking. The cross-sectional studies reported that online services facilitated seeking help from a professional source for an average of 35% of users. The majority of the studies included small sample sizes and a high proportion of young women. Help-seeking was often a secondary outcome, with only 22% (4/18) of studies using adequate measures of help-seeking. The majority of studies identified in this review were of low quality and likely to be biased. Across all studies, young people regularly used and were generally satisfied with online mental health resources. Facilitators and barriers to help-seeking were also identified. Conclusions Few studies examine the effects of online services on mental health help-seeking. Further research is needed to determine whether online mental health services effectively facilitate help-seeking for young people. PMID:24594922
Dallos, Rudi; Morgan-West, Kate; Denman, Katie
This article reports on a 1-year follow-up study exploring changes in attachment security of children placed in long-term therapeutic foster care over three data collection time points. A group of eight children (age 14 to 17) were assessed over a period of 1 year using a modified version of the Separation Anxiety Test (SAT). Interviews were also conducted to explore the young people's and the carers' experiences of the placements and their personal perspectives of changes. The findings indicated some positive changes in the young people's attachment security over time, for example, a reduction in extreme reactions and a trust that adults could understand their feelings (PAE - parental accurate empathy). However, despite this PAE, the young people did not expect adults to enact this by offering them support, and this lack of expectation persisted over the 1-year period. Specific differences in relation to placement success were suggested in that young people for whom their placements broke down indicated more initial fearful and aggressive representations of adults. Overall, young people emphasised positive aspects of their placements as including being treated as adults, listened to and made to feel safe.
McCreanor, Tim; Barnes, Helen Moewaka; Kaiwai, Hector; Borell, Suaree; Gregory, Amanda
Alcohol consumption among young people in New Zealand is on the rise. Given the broad array of acute and chronic harms that arise from this trend, it is a major cause for alarm and it is imperative that we improve our knowledge of key drivers of youth drinking. Changes wrought by the neoliberal political climate of deregulation that characterised the last two decades in many countries including Aotearoa (Aotearoa is a Maori name for New Zealand) New Zealand have transformed the availability of alcohol to young people. Commercial development of youth alcohol markets has seen the emergence of new environments, cultures and practices around drinking and intoxication but the ways in which these changes are interpreted and taken up are not well understood. This paper reports findings from a qualitative research project investigating the meaning-making practices of young people in New Zealand in response to alcohol marketing. Research data included group interviews with a range of Maori and Pakeha young people at three time periods. Thematic analyses of the youth data on usages of marketing materials indicate naturalisation of tropes of alcohol intoxication. We show how marketing is used and enjoyed in youth discourses creating and maintaining what we refer to as intoxigenic social environments. The implications are considered in light of the growing exposure of young people to alcohol marketing in a discussion of strategies to manage and mitigate its impacts on behaviour and consumption.
Rice, Simon; Robinson, Jo; Bendall, Sarah; Hetrick, Sarah; Cox, Georgina; Bailey, Eleanor; Gleeson, John; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario
Objective: Suicide remains a major global public health issue for young people. The reach and accessibility of online and social media-based interventions herald a unique opportunity for suicide prevention. To date, the large body of research into suicide prevention has been undertaken atheoretically. This paper provides a rationale and theoretical framework (based on the interpersonal theory of suicide), and draws on our experiences of developing and testing online and social media-based interventions. Method: The implementation of three distinct online and social media-based intervention studies, undertaken with young people at risk of suicide, are discussed. We highlight the ways that these interventions can serve to bolster social connectedness in young people, and outline key aspects of intervention implementation and moderation. Results: Insights regarding the implementation of these studies include careful protocol development mindful of risk and ethical issues, establishment of suitably qualified teams to oversee development and delivery of the intervention, and utilisation of key aspects of human support (i.e., moderation) to encourage longer-term intervention engagement. Conclusions: Online and social media-based interventions provide an opportunity to enhance feelings of connectedness in young people, a key component of the interpersonal theory of suicide. Our experience has shown that such interventions can be feasibly and safely conducted with young people at risk of suicide. Further studies, with controlled designs, are required to demonstrate intervention efficacy. PMID:27274743
Social media is a huge force in the lives of young people with wide ranging effects on their development; given the importance of adolescence in the genesis of mental illness, social media is a factor in the mental health of young people. Despite the role that social media obviously plays in the development of mental illness, little research has been done into the impact that social media has on in the mental illness of young people. In general, what research there is points towards social media having a large impact on young people in both positive and negative ways. In particular, certain studies show a greater incidence and severity of bullying online compared to offline which may contribute to the development of depression. This contrasts with the positive impact that social media seems to have for young people in minority groups (ethnic minorities and those with chronic disease or disability) by allowing them to connect with others who live similar lives despite geographical separation. This acts as a positive influence in these people's lives though a direct link to mental illness was not shown. Overall, several important issues are raised: firstly, the lack of research that has been conducted in the area; secondly, the gulf that exists between the generation of younger, 'digital native' generations and the older generations who are not as engaged with social media; and finally, the huge potential that exists for the use of social media as a protective influence for adolescents. With proper engagement, policy makers and health professionals could use social media to connect with young people on issues like mental health.
Choudhry, Vikas; Ambresin, Anne-Emmanuelle; Nyakato, Viola Nilah; Agardh, Anette
Background Transactional sex is associated with the HIV epidemic among young people in Uganda. Few quantitative studies based on nationally representative survey data explored the relationship between sexual behaviors, HIV infection, and transactional sex. Objective This study aimed to determine the associations between risky sexual behaviors, participation in transactional sex, and HIV sero-status among men and women aged 15-24 in Uganda. Design The study uses data from the Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey, a cross-sectional national HIV serological study conducted in 2011. We analyzed data on 1,516 men and 2,824 women aged 15-24 who had been sexually active in the 12 months preceding the survey. Private, face-to-face interviews were also conducted to record the sociodemographics, sexual history, and experiences of sexual coercion. Logistic regression analysis was performed to measure associations between sexual behaviors and transactional sex, and associations between HIV sero-status and transactional sex. Results Among young people who had been sexually active in the 12 months prior to the survey, 5.2% of young men reported paying for sex while 3.7% of young women reported receiving gifts, favors, or money for sex. Lower educational attainment (ORadjusted 3.25, CI 1.10-9.60) and experience of sexual coercion (ORadjusted 2.83, CI 1.07-7.47) were significantly associated with paying for sex among men. Multiple concurrent sexual relationships were significantly associated with paying for sex among young men (ORadjusted 5.60, CI 2.08-14.95) and receiving something for sex among young women (ORadjusted 8.04, CI 2.55-25.37). Paying for sex among young men and having three to five lifetime sexual partners among young women were associated with increased odds of testing positive for HIV. Conclusions Transactional sex is associated with sexual coercion and HIV risk behaviors such as multiple concurrent sexual partnerships among young people in Uganda. In addition
Small, Neil; Raghavan, Raghu; Pawson, Nicole
Transition planning using a person-centred approach has, in the main, failed to shape service provision. We offer an alternative based on an ecological understanding of human development linked to public health approaches that prioritise whole system planning. A total of 43 young people with intellectual disabilities, in Bradford, England, who were approaching transition from school or college were recruited to a qualitative study. Their ethnic breakdown was as follows: 16 white British, 24 Pakistani, 2 Bangladeshi and 1 Black African. Each young person was interviewed twice, at recruitment and a year later, to observe any changes in their social networks during transition. Interviews were undertaken with a semi-structured interview schedule and with the pictorial approach of Talking Mats. Both the networks the young people live within, and their sense of what the future might hold for them, are described and linked to Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of human development. The importance of the family and school is emphasised, as is the absence of engagement in leisure activities and work. Transition planning needs to start with mapping the systems individuals live within, areas of strength should be supported and parts of the system, which are not fit for purpose for these young people, should be prioritised for interventions.
Cancer nursing care across the UK has dramatically improved for children and young people with cancer over the past 20 years (Department of Health, 2007). Around 70% of young people diagnosed with cancer survive into adulthood, albeit with long-term health complications (Scottish Government, 2012). This raises the contemporary concern of how best to transition these patients to an adult-focused care regime (National Cancer Survivorship Initiative, 2012). With support from a Florence Nightingale Foundation Travel Scholarship in 2012, this study compared the various transition models currently in use across the UK, Finland and the USA with a clear focus on individual patient choice, staff education and preparation to care for this group of patients and their families. The findings revealed wide discrepancy in current nursing practices across the globe. This article presents a series of findings and recommendations to improve further the overall cancer experience for young people living with and beyond a cancer diagnosis.
Colucci, Erminia; Minas, Harry; Szwarc, Josef; Guerra, Carmel; Paxton, Georgia
Refugee young people have been identified as a group with high risk for mental health problems, due to their experience of trauma, forced migration, and stressors associated with settlement. A high prevalence of mental health problems is reported in this group, however some research suggests refugee young people have low rates of mental health service access. There is little information available on barriers and facilitators to mental service delivery for this group. Using data from 15 focus groups and five key informant interviews with a total of 115 service providers from 12 agencies in Melbourne, Australia, this paper explores barriers and facilitators to engaging young people from refugee backgrounds with mental health services. Eight key themes emerged: cultural concepts of mental health, illness, and treatment; service accessibility; trust; working with interpreters; engaging family and community; the style and approach of mental health providers; advocacy; and continuity of care.
Aim This study explores the effects of improvised somatic dance (ISD) on children and young people experiencing acute pain following orthopaedic or cardiac surgery, or post-acquired brain injury. Methods The study involved 25 children and young people and adopted a mixed methods approach. This included a descriptive qualitative approach to help the participants and witnesses verbalise their experience of ISD, and pain scores were assessed before and after ISD using validated pain assessment tools. Data were analysed using descriptive statistical analysis. Findings A total of 92% of participants experienced a reduction in pain, with 80% experiencing a >50% reduction. There was an improved sense of well-being for all. Conclusion Although not a replacement for pharmacological treatments, a multidimensional, child-centred and inclusive approach with ISD can be a useful complementary, non-pharmacological method of pain management in children and young people.
Franck, Linda S; Noble, Genevieve
Use of the internet to provide health information to young people is a relatively recent development. Few studies have explored young people's views on how they use internet health websites. This study investigated the navigation, design and content preferences of young people using the Children First for Health (CFfH) website. Young people from five secondary schools completed an internet site navigation exercise, website evaluation questionnaire and participated in informal discussions. Of the participants, 45 percent visited the website section aimed at older adolescents within their first two clicks, regardless of their age. There were conflicting preferences for design and strong preference for gender-specific information on topics such as appearance, relationships, fitness and sexual health. The findings indicate the importance of gaining young people's views to ensure that health information websites meet the needs of their intended audience. Cooperation from schools can facilitate the process of gaining young people's views on internet website navigation, design and content.
Leavey, Gerard; Rothi, Despina; Paul, Rini
Help-seeking among young people is complicated, often determined vicariously by the ability of adults, family or professionals, to recognize, and respond to, their difficulties. We know very little about the complex concerns of teenage young people and how they impact on help-seeking preferences. We aimed to ascertain the help-seeking preferences for a range of mental health problems among adolescents attending schools in an inner-city area of London. In particular we sought to examine the relationship between such adolescents and their family doctor. Using a mixed methods approach we explored help-seeking attitudes of young people. Emotional and mental health problems are not seen by young people as the domain of General practitioners. Moreover, there is a worrying lack of confidence and trust placed in family doctor and other professionals by young people. Young people do not tend easily to trust adults to help them with emotional difficulties.
Bradford, Sally; Rickwood, Debra
Adolescence and young adulthood are often turbulent periods in a person’s life. There are high rates of accidental deaths, suicide, mental health concerns, substance use, and sexual experimentation. Health care professionals need to conduct holistic assessments of clients in these developmental life stages to identify psychosocial risks and provide targeted early intervention and implement prevention strategies. The most useful psychosocial assessments for most health care professionals are those that can provide a complete picture of the young person’s life and circumstances. This article identifies psychosocial assessment instruments that can be used as an initial assessment and engagement tool with the general population of young people presenting for health care. We review the psychometric properties of each of the instruments, determining what type of instrument is most acceptable to young people, whether any can increase disclosure and improve engagement between young people and health professionals, and whether they have predictive utility. The search strategy complied with the relevant sections of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. A total of 89 published articles were identified, covering 31 different assessment instruments. Results indicated that those that were self-administered were most acceptable to young people, although it is unclear whether pen-and-paper or computer formats were preferred. Most psychosocial assessments can improve rates of disclosure and enhance engagement between young people and health professionals; however, worryingly, we found evidence that clinicians did not always respond to some of the most serious identified risks. Only for one instrument was there any mention of predictive utility. Future research should employ longitudinal approaches to determine the predictive utility of psychosocial assessments and focus on whether the use of new technologies can improve rates
Stanley, Nicky; Ellis, Jane; Farrelly, Nicola; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Downe, Soo
Schools provide the setting in which interventions aimed at preventing intimate partner violence and abuse (IPVA) are delivered to young people in the general population and a range of programmes have been designed and evaluated. To date, most rigorous studies have been undertaken in North America and the extent to which programmes are transferable to other settings and cultures is uncertain. This paper reports on a mixed methods review, aimed at informing UK practise and policy, which included a systematic review of the international literature, a review of the UK grey literature and consultation with young people as well as experts to address the question of what works for whom in what circumstances. The context in which an intervention was delivered was found to be crucial. Context included: the wider policy setting; the national or regional level, where the local culture shaped understandings of IPVA, and the readiness of an individual school. The programmes included in the systematic review provided stronger evidence for changing knowledge and attitudes than for behavioural change and those young people who were at higher risk at baseline may have exerted a strong influence on study outcomes. Shifting social norms in the peer group emerged as a key mechanism of change and the young people consulted emphasised the importance of authenticity which could be achieved through the use of drama and which required those delivering programmes to have relevant expertise. While the consultation identified increasing interest in targeting interventions on boys, there was an identified lack of materials designed for minority groups of young people, especially Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender young people. Increased responsivity to the local context can be achieved by involving those who will deliver and receive these preventive programmes in their development. Schools need to be better prepared and supported in the task of delivering these interventions and this is
Godwin, John; Szabo, Gabrielle; Sass, Justine; Sauvarin, Josephine
The context of sexual relations is changing in the Asia-Pacific. While the age of sexual debut remains the same, young people are generally marrying later and sex outside of marriage is increasing. The first systematic review of how laws and policies govern young people's access to sexual and reproductive health services was conducted in 2013. The study considered >400 national documents and held focus group discussions with >60 young people across three countries in the region. This paper examines the study findings in light of epidemiological data on young people's sexual behaviour and health, exposing a critical mismatch between the onset of sexual activity and laws and policies governing consent (to sex and medical treatment), and the restriction and orientation of services to married persons. An enabling legal and policy environment is an essential foundation for efforts to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health. This paper argues that international guidance and commitments (including the widely ratified Convention on the Rights of the Child) provide a framework for recognising young people's evolving capacity for independent decision-making, including in the realm of sexual and reproductive health. A number of countries in the region are using these frameworks to expand access to services, providing valuable examples for others to build on.
Tomes, Caroline; Jones, Kyle G; Glasier, Anna; Macdowall, Wendy; Datta, Jessica; Sonnenberg, Pam; Wellings, Kaye; French, Rebecca S; Mercer, Catherine H; Johnson, Anne M
Objective To describe actual and preferred contraceptive sources among young people in Britain and whether discordance between these is associated with markers of sexual risk behaviour or poor sexual health. Design Cross-sectional probability sample survey. Setting British general population. Participants 3869 men and women aged 16–24 years interviewed for the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) between 2010 and 2012. Main outcome measures Reported source of contraceptive method(s) and preferred source if all were available and easily accessible. Results Of the 75% of young people (aged 16–24) who were heterosexually active (1619 women, 1233 men), >86% reported obtaining contraceptives in the past year. Most common sources were general practice (women, 63%) and retail (men, 60%): using multiple sources was common (women 40%, men 45%). Healthcare sources were preferred by 81% of women and 57% of men. Overall, 32% of women and 39% of men had not used their preferred source. This discordance was most common among men who preferred general practice (69%) and women who preferred retail (52%). Likelihood of discordance was higher among women who usually used a less effective contraceptive method or had an abortion. It was less likely among men who usually used a less effective method of contraception and men who were not in a steady relationship. Conclusions Most young people in Britain obtained contraception in the past year but one-third had not used their preferred source. Healthcare sources were preferred. Discordance was associated with using less effective contraception and abortion among young women. Meeting young people's preference for obtaining contraception from healthcare sources could improve uptake of effective contraception to reduce unwanted pregnancies. PMID:27678537
Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Gil-Llario, María Dolores; Castro-Calvo, Jesús; Giménez-García, Cristina
The prevalence of HIV risk behaviors among young people facilitates the spread of HIV, in particular regarding unsafe sex behavior, although this trend is different within this population. For this reason, identifying the riskier young population is required to prevent HIV infection. The main purpose of this study was to develop and validate a risk index to assess the different sexual HIV risk exposure among Hispanic Young people. For this purpose, 9861 Spanish young people were randomly distributed into two groups (derivation and validation group). According to the results, the factor analyses grouped the nine items of the HIV- risk index into two factors (factor 1, direct sexual risk indicators and factor 2, indirect sexual risk indicators) with an equal structure for men and women by a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis. The variance explained was 54.26 %. Moreover, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient revealed high internal reliability (α = .79) and the convergent validity supported its evidence based on different HIV risk indexes. Therefore, the HIV-risk index seem to be a rigorous and valid measure to estimate HIV risk exposure among young people.
In recent times, empowerment has become the focus of much work with young people amidst increasing concerns about their health. Empowerment is often offered as a 'solution' to such concerns, with the uncritical assumption being made that empowerment unproblematically results in positive health outcomes. While much of the health promotion literature advocates 'empowerment', it often does so without offering a clear conceptualisation of the word itself or indeed addressing the thorny theoretical tensions surrounding the concept's root word of power. In light of this omission, this article offers a more theoretically informed conceptualisation of empowerment and considers the relationship to young people's health. This article outlines a more dynamic and generative conceptualisation of empowerment than hitherto articulated in the literature, informed by Lukes' multidimensional perspective of power. Drawing on findings from an ethnographic study on empowerment and young people's health, this article develops six conceptually distinct forms of empowerment (impositional, dispositional, concessional, oppositional, normative and transformative). Data were collected from 55 young men and women aged 15-16 years through group discussions, individual interviews and observational work in a school and surrounding community settings in England. Crucially, these six new forms of empowerment capture and synthesise individual, structural and ideological elements of power that differentially, and sometimes inconsistently, shape the possibilities for young people's empowerment. Of significance is the way in which these different forms of empowerment intersect to (re)produce relations of power and may offer different possibilities for health promotion.
Harris, Jennifer L.; Graff, Samantha K.
In the United States, one third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, yet food and beverage companies continue to target them with advertising for products that contribute to this obesity crisis. When government restrictions on such advertising are proposed, the constitutional commercial speech doctrine is often invoked as a barrier to action. We explore incongruities between the legal justifications for the commercial speech doctrine and the psychological research on how food advertising affects young people. A proper interpretation of the First Amendment should leave room for regulations to protect young people from advertising featuring calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. PMID:22390435
Harris, Jennifer L; Graff, Samantha K
In the United States, one third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, yet food and beverage companies continue to target them with advertising for products that contribute to this obesity crisis. When government restrictions on such advertising are proposed, the constitutional commercial speech doctrine is often invoked as a barrier to action. We explore incongruities between the legal justifications for the commercial speech doctrine and the psychological research on how food advertising affects young people. A proper interpretation of the First Amendment should leave room for regulations to protect young people from advertising featuring calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages.
Macafee, Timothy; De Simone, J J
In spring 2011, thousands of Wisconsin residents protested a controversial bill spearheaded by Governor Scott Walker. Protest engagement via social media was popular, especially among young people. The current study examines the relationship between young people's informational and expressive uses of four social media-Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, and Blogs-and their offline protest engagement. Survey results reveal that although college students used these social media to obtain information about the budget repair bill protests, only expressive uses related to offline protest engagement. We move research forward by examining the implications of multiple uses of political social media surrounding a compelling case study.
Sargeant, Stephanie; Chamley, Carol
This is the first part of two articles exploring oral health problems and treatments for children receiving palliative care, successful management of which can improve considerably the quality of life for this group of children and young people. Part one includes an adapted oral health assessment tool for use in children and young people with complex and palliative healthcare needs that has the potential to help nurses identify and monitor oral health problems and prevent or minimise oral problems from developing. Part two--to be published next month--focuses on basic oral hygiene and the management of specific oral health problems.
Harkess-Murphy, E; Macdonald, J; Ramsay, J
Children and young people who are classed as "looked after" and "looked after and accommodated", have been identified as being especially at risk of self-harm, however there is little research that has assessed self-harm among these groups. This study investigates self-harm rates, distinguishing between cognitions and behaviours with non-suicidal and suicidal intent among the looked after and looked after and accommodated population of young people educated within mainstream institutions in West Central Scotland. Looked after young people who self-harmed were compared with looked after young people who had never self-harmed on reasons for living, self-critical style, common life problems and academic self-esteem. An anonymous self-report questionnaire was used to survey 102 looked after (LAC) and looked after and accommodated (LAAC) children and young people across 10 schools within 6 local authority regions in West Central Scotland that compared self-harmers (n = 32) with those who never self-harmed (n = 70). Thirty-two per cent of the looked after sample reported they had either thought about harming themselves or had actually engaged in self-harm behaviour. Self-harmers (including those who either thought about harming themselves and/or engaged in self-harm) differed from those who had never thought about harming themselves or engaged in self-harm behaviour, with significantly fewer reasons for living (RFL-A) and a more maladaptive self-critical style. The self-critical form of self-hate was found to be particularly important in predicting self-harm (thoughts and behaviours) among this sample of looked after and looked after and accommodated young people. Understanding the factors associated with self-harm and suicide risk is especially important given the already existing vulnerabilities to adverse outcomes associated with being looked after and looked after and accommodated. Strategies for the early identification of maladaptive behaviours among risk
Timor-Shlevin, Shachar; Krumer-Nevo, Michal
The recent literature concerning partnership between professionals and young people reveals important developments regarding the nature of partnership: from short-term partnerships with young people's parents intended to improve decision-making in the context of critical life decisions, to a growing interest in direct partnership between professionals and young people as a core principle of long-term relationships. Although it is widely acknowledged among health and social service professionals that partnerships can have positive outcomes for young people, the concept and implementation of partnership remain vague. This article examines the meanings of partnership for people involved in a community youth centre for marginalised youth. Data were collected during the year 2011 using multiple-methods including focus groups (with eight youth workers), participant observations (in assembly meetings and 'partnership meetings') and semi-structured interviews (with 10 principal stakeholders, including youth, youth workers and the Center's founders). Data were analysed using principles of grounded theory to articulate partnership as an ongoing experience, combining both structural-technical and content-experiential components. Our findings present partnership as existing simultaneously in the practice of decision-making and in the realm of self-experience and interpersonal relationships, and explore the relationship between both spheres. The findings also shed light on the importance of the specific characteristics of shared decision-making (atmosphere, content and duration) in the creation of partnership. We discuss our findings in the light of possibilities for partnership-based practice with marginalised youth.
Bailey, Don; And Others
Presented is a collection of learning activities for the young handicapped child covering 295 individual learning objectives in six areas of development: gross motor skills, fine motor skills, social skills, self help skills, cognitive skills, and language skills. Provided for each learning activity are the teaching objective, teaching procedures,…
Warneken, Felix; Chen, Frances; Tomasello, Michael
Human children 18-24 months of age and 3 young chimpanzees interacted in 4 cooperative activities with a human adult partner. The human children successfully participated in cooperative problem-solving activities and social games, whereas the chimpanzees were uninterested in the social games. As an experimental manipulation, in each task the adult…
Jankowicz-Szymanska, A; Mikolajczyk, E; Wojtanowski, W
Intellectual disability affects all spheres of people's lives who suffer from it. It lowers the level of intellectual functioning, often stigmatizes, characteristically changing features, and decreases motor performance. Unfortunately, modern medicine cannot cure intellectual disability; however, there is a chance to improve the quality of life of people with mental retardation by means of physical exercises and by enhancing coordination, the quality of gait and efficiency in performing everyday activities. This paper deals with observations of static balance in 40 young females and males with mild Down syndrome, out of which 20 were subjected to a three-month sensorimotor training programme. The participants performed exercises with rehabilitation balls and air pillows twice a week, and the remaining persons constituted a control group. The balance platform test conducted at the beginning of the experiment revealed that the level of static one-legged balance was similar in both groups. A significant difference was noted in the length of the path of the general centre of gravity (COG) and the time frame in which the vertical projection of COG remained within the 13 mm radius circle, between the result of the test conducted under visual control and with the eyes closed, both in the group of the participants performing exercises and the ones who did not do them. After the training sessions the results of both tests improved in the group of the persons subjected to the training programme, however differences between the groups were not statistically significant, apart from the comparison of the time of keeping COG within the 13 mm radius circle at the beginning and at the end of the experiment by the participants who were physically active. Our results lead to a conclusion that exercises with the use of unstable surfaces improve deep sensibility in people with mild mental retardation.
Clemens, Franziska; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Morgenstern, Matthis
A cross-sectional survey of 4617 adolescents and young adults from 38 schools in two German states was conducted in 2014 to assess the association between gambling advertisements and gambling behavior. Exposure to ten gambling advertisements was measured with masked ad images; students indicated contact frequency and brand recall. Main outcomes were several gambling behaviors including probable pathological gambling assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS ≥ 5). A total of 65.4 % of the students reported gambling at least once in their life; 42.2 % gambled in the last 12 months; 6.9 % gambled in the last week, and 2.8 % reported probable pathological gambling. The average frequency that one of the selected ads had been seen at least once was 29.5 %, the average brand recall rate was 9.4 %. After adjustment for confounding, multilevel mixed-effects logistic regressions revealed that high gambling ad exposure was positively related to all assessed gambling outcomes, with the strongest association for weekly gambling. Future studies need to clarify the temporal sequence and specificity of these associations.
Designed for intermediate and junior high level students, the handbook gives 11 lessons using newspaper activities for teaching consumer education. The activities help students (1) define consumer education terms and distinguish between wants and needs; (2) define the term "caveat emptor" and understand the concept of consumer…
OBJECTIVE To review the basic principles underlying treatment of injuries in active people. SOURCES OF INFORMATION Basic science texts and reports of observational and randomized trials on treatment of musculoskeletal injuries were retrieved during previous exhaustive systematic reviews published by the author on a variety of musculoskeletal injury topics. MAIN MESSAGE After an injury, further damage or re-injury can be prevented either by decreasing the stress on the tissue or increasing the stress the tissue can withstand. Regardless of the type of injury, clinicians should aim to restore function; aim to increase activity without increasing pain; recommend that patients start slowly and increase activity gradually; revisit diagnosis and treatment if patients are not responding; and treat the patient, not the condition. CONCLUSION Most musculoskeletal injuries in the general population can be managed effectively by family physicians. Management should follow the basic principles of exercise training. PMID:16812964
Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities (NJ1), 2007
The Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities was fortunate to receive a legacy to improve the lives of people with Down's syndrome. The foundation looked at recent research and talked to people with Down's syndrome, their family members and professionals. One of their greatest concerns was what happens to young people when they leave…
The hope that young people would accept and quickly learn Western ideas and democratic principles rather than just economic and technological achievements occupied a key place in the conceptions of the liberal and democratic parties in Russia. The possibilities of the modernization of Russian society and its economy were associated directly with…
Van der Stege, Heleen A.; Hilberink, Sander R.; Visser, Adriaan P.; Van Staa, AnneLoes
The objective of this study was to identify determinants of professionals' intention to use the new board game SeCZ TaLK to facilitate sexual health discussions with young people with chronic health conditions and disabilities, and to gauge whether intention led to actual use. A cross-sectional web-based survey of 336 professionals before they…
Byrne, Jonny; Jarman, Neil
Through a comprehensive review of existing literature, this article documents young people's experiences of policing during the period of political transition and extensive reform of the structures of policing in Northern Ireland since the publication of the Independent Commission on Policing for Northern Ireland (The Patten Report) in 1999. The…
Schmidt, Sandra J.
Same-sex marriage is part of a global civil rights struggle for LGBQ rights. How this movement is framed, advanced, and critiqued across the globe can be linked to how young people in schools are prepared to deliberate social issues in the political sphere. This article examines national history books as cultural artifacts that present what is…
This paper examines the importance of "self-determination" and "hard work" found within interviews with a group of young people in Manchester, England. The author suggests that moments of apparent contradiction within the interviews have much to offer, particularly when analysed in relation to discussions of inequality and…
Entry to Employment (E2E) is a work-based learning programme aimed at 16-19 year-olds in England deemed not yet ready for employment, an apprenticeship or further education and training. Taking into account educational, social and personal circumstances which are often severely disadvantaged, it aspires to provide these young people with training…
Wasiak, Edwin B.
This study explored alternative approaches to young people's concerts aimed at extending musical appreciations and cultural understandings while promoting interest in concert attendance among upper elementary students. The project, an artistic and cross-cultural collaboration grounded in a spirit of mutual respect, consisted of three components:…
Spencer, Grace; Doull, Marion; Shoveller, Jean A.
Concepts of choice are often drawn upon within sexual health promotion discourses to encourage young people to take "responsibility" for and promote their own sexual health and reproductive control. A systematic literature search using predefined inclusion criteria identified peer-reviewed articles focusing on sexual health interventions…
Weiss, Eduardo; Ramirez, Irene Guerra; Salinas, Elsa Guerrero; Hernandez, Joaquin Gonzalez; Martinez, Olga Grijalva; Romero, Job Avalos
This article is based on the finding that for many students, high school is a place for young people's life and living together, a place for subjectivisation. The process of subjectivisation is approached through a discussion that questions conceptions of students as strategists of their school trajectory, as well as conceptions of youth life as…
Buseh, Aaron G.; Park, Chang Gi; Stevens, Patricia E.; McElmurry, Beverly J.; Kelber, Sheryl T.
A major shortcoming to the understanding and development of HIV/AIDS programs to mitigate social stigma is the paucity of research pertaining to how young people in sub-Saharan African countries perceive those infected with HIV, and how these stigmatizing attitudes are formed, projected and reinforced. The purpose of this study was to examine…
Whilst public awareness campaigns, interventions and legal reforms have done much to challenge gendered interpersonal violence, the incidence and prevalence of this violence is not decreasing. Furthermore, research with young people reveals significant acceptance and tolerance of interpersonal violence if perpetrated by men within the parameters…
Valentine, Gill; Holloway, Sarah; Knell, Charlotte; Jayne, Mark
This paper focuses on the contemporary British moral panic about young people and the consumption of alcohol in public space. Most of this public debate has focused on binge drinking in urban areas as a social problem. Here, we consider instead the role of alcohol in rural communities, and in particular alcohol consumption in domestic and informal…