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Sample records for active-duty military personnel

  1. Caring for Active Duty Military Personnel in the Civilian Sector

    PubMed Central

    Waitzkin, Howard; Noble, Marylou

    2011-01-01

    Due to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the unmet medical and psychological needs of military personnel are creating major challenges. Increasingly, active duty military personnel are seeking physical and mental health services from civilian professionals. The Civilian Medical Resources Network attempts to address these unmet needs. Participants in the Network include primary care and mental health practitioners in all regions of the country. Network professionals provide independent assessments, clinical interventions in acute situations, and documentation that assists GIs in obtaining reassignment or discharge. Most clients who use Network services come from low-income backgrounds and manifest psychological rather than physical disorders. Qualitative themes in professional-client encounters have focused on ethical conflicts, the impact of violence without meaning (especially violence against civilians), and perceived problems in military health and mental health policies. Unmet needs of active duty military personnel deserve more concerted attention from medical professionals and policy makers. PMID:21339846

  2. Health literacy rates in a sample of active duty military personnel.

    PubMed

    Weld, Konstantine Keian; Padden, Diane; Ricciardi, Richard; Bibb, Sandra C Garmon

    2009-11-01

    The results reported in this article are from a larger descriptive study examining the health literacy rates in active duty military personnel receiving health care within a culture of universal access. The purpose of this article is to describe the health literacy skills among a sample of active duty military personnel with comparison to the national population. Data were collected using the shortened version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) and the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) in a convenience sample of 155 active duty subjects at a major military hospital from January 2007 through May 2007. Results indicate that military personnel have adequate health literacy skills although variations were noted on the basis of health training and race/ethnicity. Although the S-TOFHLA was found to be a practical tool for assessing health literacy in a high-tempo health care setting, additional reliability and validity testing is needed.

  3. Effects of combat deployment on risky and self-destructive behavior among active duty military personnel.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Cynthia J; Stander, Valerie A; McWhorter, Stephanie K; Rabenhorst, Mandy M; Milner, Joel S

    2011-10-01

    Although research has documented negative effects of combat deployment on mental health, few studies have examined whether deployment increases risky or self-destructive behavior. The present study addressed this issue. In addition, we examined whether deployment effects on risky behavior varied depending on history of pre-deployment risky behavior, and assessed whether psychiatric conditions mediated effects of deployment on risky behavior. In an anonymous survey, active duty members of the U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Navy (N = 2116) described their deployment experiences and their participation in risky recreational activities, unprotected sex, illegal drug use, self-injurious behavior, and suicide attempts during three time frames (civilian, military pre-deployment, and military post-deployment). Respondents also reported whether they had problems with depression, anxiety, or PTSD during the same three time frames. Results revealed that risky behavior was much more common in civilian than in military life, with personnel who had not deployed, compared to those who had deployed, reporting more risky behavior and more psychiatric problems as civilians. For the current time period, in contrast, personnel who had deployed (versus never deployed) were significantly more likely to report both risky behavior and psychiatric problems. Importantly, deployment was associated with increases in risky behavior only for personnel with a pre-deployment history of engaging in risky behavior. Although psychiatric conditions were associated with higher levels of risky behavior, psychiatric problems did not mediate associations between deployment and risky behavior. Implications for understanding effects of combat deployment on active duty personnel and directions for future research are discussed.

  4. Sleep Disorders and Associated Medical Comorbidities in Active Duty Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Mysliwiec, Vincent; McGraw, Leigh; Pierce, Roslyn; Smith, Patrick; Trapp, Brandon; Roth, Bernard J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Describe the prevalence of sleep disorders in military personnel referred for polysomnography and identify relationships between demographic characteristics, comorbid diagnoses, and specific sleep disorders. Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Setting: Military medical treatment facility. Participants: Active duty military personnel with diagnostic polysomnogram in 2010. Measurements: Primary sleep disorder rendered by review of polysomnogram and medical record by a board certified sleep medicine physician. Demographic characteristics and conditions of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), anxiety, depression, and pain syndromes determined by medical record review. Results: Primary sleep diagnoses (n = 725) included: mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 207 (27.2%); insomnia, 188 (24.7%); moderate-to-severe OSA, 183 (24.0 %); and paradoxical insomnia,39 (5.1%); behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome, 68 (8.9%) and snoring, 40 (5.3%) comprised our control group. Short sleep duration (< 5 h) was reported by 41.8%. Overall 85.2% had deployed, with 58.1% having one or more comorbid diagnoses. Characteristics associated with moderate-to-severe OSA were age (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.03 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.0–1.05], sex (male) (adjusted OR, 19.97 [95% CI, 2.66–150.05], anxiety (adjusted OR, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.34–0.99]), and body mass index, BMI (adjusted OR 1.19 [95% CI, 1.13–1.25]; for insomnia, characteristics included PTSD (adjusted OR, 2.12 [95% CI, 1.31–3.44]), pain syndromes (adjusted OR, 1.48 [95%CI, 1.01–2.12]), sex (female) (adjusted OR, 0.22 [95% CI, 0.12–0.41]) and lower BMI (adjusted OR, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.87, 0.95]). Conclusions: Service-related illnesses are prevalent in military personnel who undergo polysomnography with significant associations between PTSD, pain syndromes, and insomnia. Despite having sleep disorders, almost half reported short sleep duration

  5. Traumatic Brain Injury among US Active Duty Military Personnel and Negative Drinking-Related Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Rachel Sayko; Larson, Mary Jo; Corrigan, John D.; Ritter, Grant A.; Williams, Thomas V.

    2013-01-01

    This study used the 2008 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors among Active Duty Military Personnel to determine whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with past year drinking-related consequences. The study sample included currently-drinking personnel who had a combat deployment in the past year and were home for ≥6 months (N = 3,350). Negative binomial regression models were used to assess the incidence rate ratios of consequences, by TBI-level. Experiencing a TBI with a loss of consciousness >20 minutes was significantly associated with consequences independent of demographics, combat exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, and binge drinking. The study’s limitations are noted. PMID:23869456

  6. Prevalence of Perceived Stress and Mental Health Indicators Among Reserve-Component and Active-Duty Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Marian E.; Hourani, Laurel L.; Bray, Robert M.; Williams, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined stress levels and other indicators of mental health in reservists and active-duty military personnel by deployment status. Methods. We used data from the Department of Defense Health-Related Behaviors surveys, which collect comprehensive, population-based data for reserve and active-duty forces. Data were collected from 18 342 reservists and 16 146 active-duty personnel. Results. Overall, with adjustment for sociodemographic and service differences, reservists reported similar or less work and family stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms than did active-duty personnel. However, reservists who had been deployed reported higher rates of suicidal ideation and attempts than did active-duty personnel who had been deployed and higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology than did any active-duty personnel and reservists who had not been deployed. The highest rates of suicidal ideation and attempts were among reservists who had served in theaters other than Iraq and Afghanistan. Conclusions. Our results suggest that deployment has a greater impact on reservists than on active-duty members, thus highlighting the urgent need for services addressing reservists’ unique postdeployment mental health issues. Also, deployment to any theater, not only Iraq or Afghanistan, represents unique threats to all service members’ mental well-being. PMID:22571709

  7. Incidence of Norovirus-Associated Medical Encounters among Active Duty United States Military Personnel and Their Dependents

    PubMed Central

    Rha, Brian; Lopman, Benjamin A.; Alcala, Ashley N.; Riddle, Mark S.; Porter, Chad K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Norovirus is a leading cause of gastroenteritis episodes and outbreaks in US military deployments, but estimates of endemic disease burden among military personnel in garrison are lacking. Methods Diagnostic codes from gastroenteritis-associated medical encounters of active duty military personnel and their beneficiaries from July 1998–June 2011 were obtained from the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. Using time-series regression models, cause-unspecified encounters were modeled as a function of encounters for specific enteropathogens. Model residuals (representing unexplained encounters) were used to estimate norovirus-attributable medical encounters. Incidence rates were calculated using population data for both active duty and beneficiary populations. Results The estimated annual mean rate of norovirus-associated medically-attended visits among active duty personnel and their beneficiaries was 292 (95% CI: 258 to 326) and 93 (95% CI: 80 to 105) encounters per 10,000 persons, respectively. Rates were highest among beneficiaries <5 years of age with a median annual rate of 435 (range: 318 to 646) encounters per 10,000 children. Norovirus was estimated to cause 31% and 27% of all-cause gastroenteritis encounters in the active duty and beneficiary populations, respectively, with over 60% occurring between November and April. There was no evidence of any lag effect where norovirus disease occurred in one population before the other, or in one beneficiary age group before the others. Conclusions Norovirus is a major cause of medically-attended gastroenteritis among non-deployed US military active duty members as well as in their beneficiaries. PMID:27115602

  8. A randomized, controlled trial of osteopathic manipulative treatment for acute low back pain in active duty military personnel

    PubMed Central

    Cruser, des Anges; Maurer, Douglas; Hensel, Kendi; Brown, Sarah K; White, Kathryn; Stoll, Scott T

    2012-01-01

    Objective Acute low back pain (ALBP) may limit mobility and impose functional limitations in active duty military personnel. Although some manual therapies have been reported effective for ALBP in military personnel, there have been no published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) in the military. Furthermore, current military ALBP guidelines do not specifically include OMT. Methods This RCT examined the efficacy of OMT in relieving ALBP and improving functioning in military personnel at Fort Lewis, Washington. Sixty-three male and female soldiers ages 18 to 35 were randomly assigned to a group receiving OMT plus usual care or a group receiving usual care only (UCO). Results The primary outcome measures were pain on the quadruple visual analog scale, and functioning on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Outcomes were measured immediately preceding each of four treatment sessions and at four weeks post-trial. Intention to treat analysis found significantly greater post-trial improvement in ‘Pain Now’ for OMT compared to UCO (P = 0·026). Furthermore, the OMT group reported less ‘Pain Now’ and ‘Pain Typical’ at all visits (P = 0·025 and P = 0·020 respectively). Osteopathic manipulative treatment subjects also tended to achieve a clinically meaningful improvement from baseline on ‘Pain at Best’ sooner than the UCO subjects. With similar baseline expectations, OMT subjects reported significantly greater satisfaction with treatment and overall self-reported improvement (P<0·01). Conclusion This study supports the effectiveness of OMT in reducing ALBP pain in active duty military personnel. PMID:23372389

  9. Pilot Study to determine interest of adult civilian dependants of active duty military personnel in participation in a weight control program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult civilian dependents of active duty military personnel (ADMP) may play a central role in influencing the home food environment and the risk of overweight and obesity in American Warfighters and military families. However, there is no information on whether this group would be receptive to weigh...

  10. Spice: a new "legal" herbal mixture abused by young active duty military personnel.

    PubMed

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Ramirez, Sasha; Varney, Shawn M

    2012-01-01

    Spice is an herbal mixture smoked for euphoria and mixed with synthetic cannabinoids that are undetected on urine drug screens. Spice use has increased in the military because it is considered legal and is not detected on urine drug screen. The authors describe 3 cases of Spice use in military members. Case 1: 19-year-old male presented with paranoia, agitation, and visual hallucinations after smoking the "Space" brand of Spice. Urine thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were negative. Case 2: 19-year-old female presented with sedation, amnesia, and agitation. She smoked the "Space" brand. She was alert within 3 hours of arrival. Urine GC-MS detected levorphanol. Case 3: 23-year-old male presented with delusions and paranoia. He complained of "monsters on his back." His symptoms improved in the emergency department (ED). His urine TLC and GC-MS were negative. All cases were admitted and evaluated by a toxicologist; all 3 had their history corroborated by family or friends, or with drug paraphernalia. Spice is a new herbal mixture that is increasingly used in the military. Expected effects are similar to cannabis, but may include more paranoia and hallucinations, and may differ for each brand.

  11. Help-Seeking Behaviors Among Active-Duty Military Personnel: Utilization of Chaplains and Other Mental Health Service Providers

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jessica Kelley; Hourani, Laurel; Lane, Marian E.; Tueller, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Military chaplains not only conduct religious services, but also provide counseling and spiritual support to military service members, operating as liaisons between soldiers and mental health professionals. In this study, active-duty soldiers (N = 889) reported help-seeking behaviors and mental health. Using logistic regressions, we describe the issues for which soldiers reported seeking help, then outline the characteristics of those who are most likely to seek help from a chaplain. Of the soldiers who sought help from a chaplain within the previous year, 29.9% reported high levels of combat exposure, 50.8% screened positive for depression, 39.1% had probable PTSD, and 26.6% screened positive for generalized anxiety disorder. The participant’s unit firing on the enemy, personally firing on the enemy, and seeing dead bodies or human remains predicted seeing a chaplain. Future research should examine ways to engage soldiers who have had more combat experiences with the chaplain community to address spiritual issues. PMID:27191375

  12. The Role of Natural Support Systems in the Post-deployment Adjustment of Active Duty Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Janet A; Olson, Jonathan; Perkins, Daniel F; Travis, Wendy J; Ormsby, LaJuana

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the relations among three different types of naturally occurring social support (from romantic partners, friends and neighbors, and unit leaders) and three indices of service member well-being (self reports of depressive symptoms, satisfaction with military life, and perceptions of unit readiness) for service members who did and did not report negative experiences associated with military deployment. Data were drawn from the 2011 Community Assessment completed anonymously by more than 63,000 USAF personnel. Regression analyses revealed that higher levels of social support was associated with better outcomes regardless of negative deployment experiences. Evidence of moderation was also noted, with all forms of social support moderating the impact of negative deployment experiences on depressive symptoms and support from unit leaders moderating the impact of negative deployment experience on satisfaction with military life. No moderation was found for perceptions of unit readiness. Subgroup analyses revealed slightly different patterns for male and female service members, with support providing fewer moderation effects for women. These findings may have value for military leaders and mental health professionals working to harness the power of naturally occurring relationships to maximize the positive adjustment of service members and their families. Implications for practices related to re-integration of post-deployment military personnel are discussed. PMID:26148977

  13. Chronic pain management in the active-duty military

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamison, David; Cohen, Steven P.

    2012-06-01

    As in the general population, chronic pain is a prevalent and burdensome affliction in active-duty military personnel. Painful conditions in military members can be categorized broadly in terms of whether they arise directly from combat injuries (gunshot, fragmentation wound, blast impact) or whether they result from non-combat injuries (sprains, herniated discs, motor vehicle accidents). Both combat-related and non-combat-related causes of pain can further be classified as either acute or chronic. Here we discuss the state of pain management as it relates to the military population in both deployed and non-deployed settings. The term non-battle injury (NBI) is commonly used to refer to those conditions not directly associated with the combat actions of war. In the history of warfare, NBI have far outstripped battle-related injuries in terms not only of morbidity, but also mortality. It was not until improvements in health care and field medicine were applied in World War I that battle-related deaths finally outnumbered those attributed to disease and pestilence. However, NBI have been the leading cause of morbidity and hospital admission in every major conflict since the Korean War. Pain remains a leading cause of presentation to military medical facilities, both in and out of theater. The absence of pain services is associated with a low return-to-duty rate among the deployed population. The most common pain complaints involve the low-back and neck, and studies have suggested that earlier treatment is associated with more significant improvement and a higher return to duty rate. It is recognized that military medicine is often at the forefront of medical innovation, and that many fields of medicine have reaped benefit from the conduct of war.

  14. Impact of childhood maltreatment on physical health-related quality of life in U.S. active duty military personnel and combat veterans.

    PubMed

    Aversa, Laura H; Lemmer, Jennifer; Nunnink, Sarah; McLay, Robert N; Baker, Dewleen G

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have found an association between childhood maltreatment (CM) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to a lesser extent have considered whether psychiatric symptoms may explain the relationship. This study aimed to further our understanding of the link between CM and HRQoL by testing whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depressive symptoms mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and physical HRQoL. Mediation models were examined in a sample of male Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) active duty and combat veterans (n=249). PTSD and depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between CM and overall physical HRQoL, as well as participation in daily activities due to physical health, bodily pain, and social functioning. Mediation of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and physical and social functioning by depression and PTSD symptoms may lend support to neurobiological hypotheses that childhood maltreatment sensitizes the nervous system and after repeated trauma may lead to the development of psychiatric symptoms, which have a major impact on morbidity and mortality.

  15. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him. Such certificate shall be signed...

  16. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him. Such certificate shall be signed...

  17. 42 CFR 31.5 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Survey and Public Health Service § 31.5 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. (a) An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him....

  18. 42 CFR 31.5 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Survey and Public Health Service § 31.5 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. (a) An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him....

  19. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him. Such certificate shall be signed...

  20. 42 CFR 31.5 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Survey and Public Health Service § 31.5 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. (a) An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him....

  1. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him. Such certificate shall be signed...

  2. 42 CFR 31.5 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Survey and Public Health Service § 31.5 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. (a) An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him....

  3. 42 CFR 31.14 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for treatment; active duty personnel... Lighthouse Service § 31.14 Application for treatment; active duty personnel. An applicant for medical relief who is on active duty shall furnish a certificate identifying him. Such certificate shall be signed...

  4. Caffeine Use among Active Duty Navy and Marine Corps Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Knapik, Joseph J.; Trone, Daniel W.; McGraw, Susan; Steelman, Ryan A.; Austin, Krista G.; Lieberman, Harris R.

    2016-01-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicate 89% of Americans regularly consume caffeine, but these data do not include military personnel. This cross-sectional study examined caffeine use in Navy and Marine Corps personnel, including prevalence, amount of daily consumption, and factors associated with use. A random sample of Navy and Marine Corps personnel was contacted and asked to complete a detailed questionnaire describing their use of caffeine-containing substances, in addition to their demographic, military, and lifestyle characteristics. A total of 1708 service members (SMs) completed the questionnaire. Overall, 87% reported using caffeinated beverages ≥1 time/week, with caffeine users consuming a mean ± standard error of 226 ± 5 mg/day (242 ± 7 mg/day for men, 183 ± 8 mg/day for women). The most commonly consumed caffeinated beverages (% users) were coffee (65%), colas (54%), teas (40%), and energy drinks (28%). Multivariable logistic regression modeling indicated that characteristics independently associated with caffeine use (≥1 time/week) included older age, white race/ethnicity, higher alcohol consumption, and participating in less resistance training. Prevalence of caffeine use in these SMs was similar to that reported in civilian investigations, but daily consumption (mg/day) was higher. PMID:27735834

  5. Suicides in Active-Duty Enlisted Navy Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawahara, Yoshito; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    1991-01-01

    Compared completed suicides among U.S. Navy enlisted personnel from 1974-85 to suicides in U.S. general population and in U.S. Army. Navy suicide rate, lowest of three groups, increased between 1976 and 1983, in contrast to national and Army rates. Young white males in apprentice/recruit and blue-collar occupations had highest rates of suicide in…

  6. Military Beliefs and PTSD in Active Duty U.S. Army Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Loew, Benjamin; Carter, Sarah; Allen, Elizabeth; Markman, Howard; Stanley, Scott; Rhoades, Galena

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic distress after military combat is a major cost of war. One under-investigated factor potentially associated with PTSD symptoms is specific beliefs about one’s military service. This study examined post-deployment self-reports from 272 active-duty U.S. Army soldiers, to investigate potential associations between military-related PTSD symptom severity and three beliefs about the military: the importance and value ascribed to one’s own work in the Army, to current military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, and to military service in general. Higher scores on these three beliefs were negatively correlated with military-related PTSD symptom severity. However, in a combined regression model that controlled for recent combat exposure, only the belief about current military operations had a significant, unique association with PTSD symptom severity. That is, more positive beliefs about the value of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan were associated with lower PTSD symptoms. PMID:25530729

  7. Healing Touch with Guided Imagery for PTSD in returning active duty military: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shamini; McMahon, George F; Hasen, Patricia; Kozub, Madelyn P; Porter, Valencia; King, Rauni; Guarneri, Erminia M

    2012-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains a significant problem in returning military and warrants swift and effective treatment. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine whether a complementary medicine intervention (Healing Touch with Guided Imagery [HT+GI]) reduced PTSD symptoms as compared to treatment as usual (TAU) returning combat-exposed active duty military with significant PTSD symptoms. Active duty military (n = 123) were randomized to 6 sessions (within 3 weeks) of HT+GI vs. TAU. The primary outcome was PTSD symptoms; secondary outcomes were depression, quality of life, and hostility. Repeated measures analysis of covariance with intent-to-treat analyses revealed statistically and clinically significant reduction in PTSD symptoms (p < 0.0005, Cohen's d = 0.85) as well as depression (p < 0.0005, Cohen's d = 0.70) for HT+GI vs. TAU. HT+GI also showed significant improvements in mental quality of life (p = 0.002, Cohen's d = 0.58) and cynicism (p = 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.49) vs. TAU. Participation in a complementary medicine intervention resulted in a clinically significant reduction in PTSD and related symptoms in a returning, combat-exposed active duty military population. Further investigation of GT and biofield therapy approaches for mitigating PTSD in military populations is warranted.

  8. Effectiveness of virtual reality exposure therapy for active duty soldiers in a military mental health clinic.

    PubMed

    Reger, Greg M; Holloway, Kevin M; Candy, Colette; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Difede, JoAnn; Rizzo, Albert A; Gahm, Gregory A

    2011-02-01

    Exposure therapy is an evidence-based treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but research evaluating its effectiveness with active duty service members is limited. This report examines the effectiveness of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRE) for active duty soldiers (N = 24) seeking treatment following a deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. Relative to their pretreatment self-reported symptoms on the PTSD Checklist, Military Version (M = 60.92; SD = 11.03), patients reported a significant reduction at posttreatment (M = 47.08; SD = 12.70; p < .001). Sixty-two percent of patients (n = 15) reported a reliable change of 11 points or more. This study supports the effectiveness of exposure therapy for active duty soldiers and extends previous research on VRE to this population. PMID:21294166

  9. They Self-Ignited: Adult Student Journeys to an Associate's Degree While Active Duty Military or Military Spouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibus, Lindsay Pohl

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study was undertaken in order to gain an understanding of the lived experiences of adult students and how they made meaning of their journey. To that end, through in-depth interviews with twenty participants, the study inquired into the journeys to an associate's degree of adult students who were also active duty military service…

  10. Treatment of active duty military with PTSD in primary care: A follow-up report.

    PubMed

    Cigrang, Jeffrey A; Rauch, Sheila A M; Mintz, Jim; Brundige, Antoinette; Avila, Laura L; Bryan, Craig J; Goodie, Jeffrey L; Peterson, Alan L

    2015-12-01

    First-line trauma-focused therapies offered in specialty mental health clinics do not reach many veterans and active duty service members with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Primary care is an ideal environment to expand access to mental health care. Several promising clinical case series reports of brief PTSD therapies adapted for primary care have shown positive results, but the long-term effectiveness with military members is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term outcome of an open trial of a brief cognitive-behavioral primary care-delivered protocol developed specifically for deployment-related PTSD in a sample of 24 active duty military (15 men, 9 women). Measures of PTSD symptom severity showed statistically and clinically significant reductions from baseline to posttreatment that were maintained at the 6-month and 1-year follow-up assessments. Similar reductions were maintained in depressive symptoms and ratings of global mental health functioning. PMID:26519833

  11. Treatment of active duty military with PTSD in primary care: A follow-up report.

    PubMed

    Cigrang, Jeffrey A; Rauch, Sheila A M; Mintz, Jim; Brundige, Antoinette; Avila, Laura L; Bryan, Craig J; Goodie, Jeffrey L; Peterson, Alan L

    2015-12-01

    First-line trauma-focused therapies offered in specialty mental health clinics do not reach many veterans and active duty service members with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Primary care is an ideal environment to expand access to mental health care. Several promising clinical case series reports of brief PTSD therapies adapted for primary care have shown positive results, but the long-term effectiveness with military members is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term outcome of an open trial of a brief cognitive-behavioral primary care-delivered protocol developed specifically for deployment-related PTSD in a sample of 24 active duty military (15 men, 9 women). Measures of PTSD symptom severity showed statistically and clinically significant reductions from baseline to posttreatment that were maintained at the 6-month and 1-year follow-up assessments. Similar reductions were maintained in depressive symptoms and ratings of global mental health functioning.

  12. 14 CFR 13.21 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Military personnel. 13.21 Section 13.21... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.21 Military personnel. If a report made... civilian employee of the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10...

  13. 49 CFR 1503.407 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Military personnel. 1503.407 Section 1503.407... Assessment of Civil Penalties by TSA § 1503.407 Military personnel. If a report made under this part... the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10 U.S.C. chapter...

  14. 49 CFR 1503.407 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Military personnel. 1503.407 Section 1503.407... Assessment of Civil Penalties by TSA § 1503.407 Military personnel. If a report made under this part... the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10 U.S.C. chapter...

  15. 49 CFR 1503.407 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Military personnel. 1503.407 Section 1503.407... Assessment of Civil Penalties by TSA § 1503.407 Military personnel. If a report made under this part... the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10 U.S.C. chapter...

  16. 14 CFR 13.21 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Military personnel. 13.21 Section 13.21... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.21 Military personnel. If a report made... civilian employee of the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10...

  17. 14 CFR 13.21 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Military personnel. 13.21 Section 13.21... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.21 Military personnel. If a report made... civilian employee of the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10...

  18. 49 CFR 1503.407 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Military personnel. 1503.407 Section 1503.407... Assessment of Civil Penalties by TSA § 1503.407 Military personnel. If a report made under this part... the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10 U.S.C. chapter...

  19. 14 CFR 13.21 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military personnel. 13.21 Section 13.21... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.21 Military personnel. If a report made... civilian employee of the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10...

  20. 49 CFR 1503.407 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Military personnel. 1503.407 Section 1503.407... Assessment of Civil Penalties by TSA § 1503.407 Military personnel. If a report made under this part... the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10 U.S.C. chapter...

  1. 14 CFR 13.21 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Military personnel. 13.21 Section 13.21... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.21 Military personnel. If a report made... civilian employee of the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10...

  2. Precipitating circumstances of suicide among active duty U.S. Army personnel versus U.S. civilians, 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Logan, Joseph E; Skopp, Nancy A; Reger, Mark A; Gladden, Matt; Smolenski, Derek J; Floyd, C Faye; Gahm, Gregory A

    2015-02-01

    To help understand suicide among soldiers, we compared suicide events between active duty U.S. Army versus civilian decedents to identify differences and inform military prevention efforts. We linked 141 Army suicide records from 2005 to 2010 to National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) data. We described the decedents' military background and compared their precipitators of death captured in NVDRS to those of demographically matched civilian suicide decedents. Both groups commonly had mental health and intimate partner precipitating circumstances, but soldier decedents less commonly disclosed suicide intent. PMID:25093259

  3. Precipitating Circumstances of Suicide among Active Duty U.S. Army Personnel Versus U.S. Civilians, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Joseph E; Skopp, Nancy A; Reger, Mark A; Gladden, Matt; Smolenski, Derek J; Floyd, C Faye; Gahm, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    To help understand suicide among soldiers, we compared suicide events between active duty U.S. Army versus civilian decedents to identify differences and inform military prevention efforts. We linked 141 Army suicide records from 2005 to 2010 to National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) data. We described the decedents’ military background and compared their precipitators of death captured in NVDRS to those of demographically matched civilian suicide decedents. Both groups commonly had mental health and intimate partner precipitating circumstances, but soldier decedents less commonly disclosed suicide intent. PMID:25093259

  4. 42 CFR 31.5 - Application for treatment; active duty personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... him. (b) A temporary member of the Coast Guard Reserve except when on active duty or a member of the... responsible superior officer setting forth the facts and circumstances giving rise to the need for medical relief. In emergencies, such statement shall be furnished promptly after the member has received...

  5. Understanding diet and modeling changes in the omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid composition of U.S. garrison foods for active duty personnel.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Bernadette P; Yu, Karina; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon; Johnson, Jeremiah; Hibbeln, Joseph R

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that dietary omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important in reducing the risk of mental illness. We used the DoD Survey of Health Related Behaviors among Active Duty Military Personnel (HRBS) to assess current military dietary patterns and meal locations. We used the Lands Equation to model PUFAs in a sample Garrison diet and the nutritional impact of substitution of foods higher in omega-3 PUFAs and lower in omega-6 PUFAs on tissue composition. The military diet was very poor quality compared to 2010 Healthy People Guidelines. A representative Garrison diet does not meet our estimated healthy n-3 HUFA intake at 3.5 g/d, corresponding with a tissue composition of 60% n-3 in HUFA (i.e., 40% n-6 in HUFA). Substitution of n-3 rich eggs, poultry, pork and other food commodities, combined with use on low linoleic acid oils, may contribute significantly to attaining healthier n-6/n-3 proportions in the tissue.

  6. Understanding diet and modeling changes in the omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid composition of U.S. garrison foods for active duty personnel.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Bernadette P; Yu, Karina; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon; Johnson, Jeremiah; Hibbeln, Joseph R

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that dietary omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important in reducing the risk of mental illness. We used the DoD Survey of Health Related Behaviors among Active Duty Military Personnel (HRBS) to assess current military dietary patterns and meal locations. We used the Lands Equation to model PUFAs in a sample Garrison diet and the nutritional impact of substitution of foods higher in omega-3 PUFAs and lower in omega-6 PUFAs on tissue composition. The military diet was very poor quality compared to 2010 Healthy People Guidelines. A representative Garrison diet does not meet our estimated healthy n-3 HUFA intake at 3.5 g/d, corresponding with a tissue composition of 60% n-3 in HUFA (i.e., 40% n-6 in HUFA). Substitution of n-3 rich eggs, poultry, pork and other food commodities, combined with use on low linoleic acid oils, may contribute significantly to attaining healthier n-6/n-3 proportions in the tissue. PMID:25373102

  7. Optimal Compensating Wages for Military Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrell, Scott E.; West, James E.

    2005-01-01

    The current U.S. military pay structure offers inequitable and inefficient wages across locations. Military personnel are paid less competitive wages in high-cost and/or low-amenity locations compared to low-cost and/or high-amenity locations. This pay system results in unequal reenlistment rates across locations, which leads to production…

  8. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  9. Posttraumatic stress disorder in veterans and military personnel: epidemiology, screening, and case recognition.

    PubMed

    Gates, Margaret A; Holowka, Darren W; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Keane, Terence M; Marx, Brian P; Rosen, Raymond C

    2012-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that affects 7-8% of the general U.S. population at some point during their lifetime; however, the prevalence is much higher among certain subgroups, including active duty military personnel and veterans. In this article, we review the empirical literature on the epidemiology and screening of PTSD in military and veteran populations, including the availability of sensitive and reliable screening tools. Although estimates vary across studies, evidence suggests that the prevalence of PTSD in deployed U.S. military personnel may be as high as 14-16%. Prior studies have identified trauma characteristics and pre- and posttrauma factors that increase risk of PTSD among veterans and military personnel. This information may help to inform prevention and screening efforts, as screening programs could be targeted to high-risk populations. Large-scale screening efforts have recently been implemented by the U.S. Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs. Given the prevalence and potential consequences of PTSD among veterans and active duty military personnel, development and continued evaluation of effective screening methods is an important public health need. PMID:23148803

  10. The Effect of Career Assessments and Follow-Up Counseling on Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy (CDMSE) among Active-Duty Coast Guard Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    This study (a) examined career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE) differences across gender, age, military grade, level of education, previous career assessments, previous career counseling, and currently attending college, and (b) examined the effect of career assessments with follow-up counseling on CDMSE among active-duty Coast Guard…

  11. 78 FR 43796 - Indebtedness of Military Personnel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... is removed, which was established in the Federal Register, March 3, 1986 (51 FR 7268). Rules in the... Department of the Army 32 CFR Part 513 Indebtedness of Military Personnel AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD... procedures for handling debt claims against soldiers. These rules in the Army Regulation have been...

  12. An Exploratory Study of Educational Participation Issues Confronting Active Duty Air Force Personnel Assigned to McConnell Air Force Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Terry L., Sr.

    2012-01-01

    Serving in the military today is a very specialized and intense experience, with the use of technology requiring dedicated training and education. The military provides much of this specialized training, but also recognizes the value of higher education for its personnel. Our military personnel are supporting our country daily and their increased…

  13. Returning from the War Zone: A Guide for Military Personnel

    MedlinePlus

    Hed Returning from the War Zone AGuide for Military Personnel Welcome home! Thank you for your service to ... the death or injury of friends or other military personnel, civilians, or enemy combatants. You may have survived ...

  14. Tropical skin diseases in British military personnel.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    Skin complaints are common in travellers to foreign countries and are responsible for up to 25% of medical consultations by military personnel during deployments in the tropics. They also have relatively high rates of field hospital admission, medical evacuation and referral to UK Role 4 healthcare facilities. Non-infectious tropical skin diseases include sunburn, heat rash, arthropod bites, venomous bites, contact dermatitis and phytophotodermatitis. During tropical deployments skin infections that commonly occur in military personnel may become more frequent, severe and difficult to treat. Several systemic tropical infections have cutaneous features that can be useful in making early diagnoses. Tropical skin infections such as cutaneous larva migrans, cutaneous myiasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis and leprosy do occur in British troops and require specialist clinical management. This illustrated review focuses on the most significant tropical skin diseases that have occurred in British military personnel in recent years. Clinical management of these conditions on deployments would be improved and medical evacuations could be reduced if a military dermatology 'reach-back' service (including a telemedicine facility) was available.

  15. 32 CFR 169a.14 - Military personnel commercial activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Military personnel commercial activity. 169a.14... CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.14 Military personnel commercial activity. Commercial activities performed exclusively by military personnel not subject to deployment in...

  16. 32 CFR 169a.14 - Military personnel commercial activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Military personnel commercial activity. 169a.14... CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.14 Military personnel commercial activity. Commercial activities performed exclusively by military personnel not subject to deployment in...

  17. 7 CFR 1400.213 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... actively engaged in farming, the person may be considered to be actively engaged in farming if the... determined to be, actively engaged in farming if the person would not have been called to active duty. If the person is called to active duty after being determined to be actively engaged in farming,...

  18. 7 CFR 1400.213 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... actively engaged in farming, the person may be considered to be actively engaged in farming if the... determined to be, actively engaged in farming if the person would not have been called to active duty. If the person is called to active duty after being determined to be actively engaged in farming,...

  19. 7 CFR 1400.213 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... actively engaged in farming, the person may be considered to be actively engaged in farming if the... determined to be, actively engaged in farming if the person would not have been called to active duty. If the person is called to active duty after being determined to be actively engaged in farming,...

  20. 7 CFR 1400.213 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... actively engaged in farming, the person may be considered to be actively engaged in farming if the... determined to be, actively engaged in farming if the person would not have been called to active duty. If the person is called to active duty after being determined to be actively engaged in farming,...

  1. 7 CFR 1400.213 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... actively engaged in farming, the person may be considered to be actively engaged in farming if the... determined to be, actively engaged in farming if the person would not have been called to active duty. If the person is called to active duty after being determined to be actively engaged in farming,...

  2. Undifferentiated febrile illnesses in military personnel.

    PubMed

    Burns, Daniel S; Bailey, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    Undifferentiated febrile illnesses (UFIs) present with acute symptoms, objective fever and no specific organ focus on clinical assessment. The term is mostly used in developing and tropical countries where a wide range of infections may be responsible. Laboratory diagnosis often requires specialist microbiology investigations that are not widely available, and serology tests that only become positive during convalescence. Optimal clinical management requires a good travel history, awareness of local endemic diseases, an understanding of the features that may help distinguish different causes and appropriate use of empirical antibiotics. This review describes the most common examples of UFI in military personnel on overseas deployments, and provides a practical approach to their initial management.

  3. Families in the Military

    MedlinePlus

    ... have led to deployment of large numbers of military personnel (active duty, Reserves, National Guard). As a result ... worries and plans for the future. Let your child know that the family member is making a ...

  4. Undifferentiated febrile illnesses in military personnel.

    PubMed

    Burns, Daniel S; Bailey, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    Undifferentiated febrile illnesses (UFIs) present with acute symptoms, objective fever and no specific organ focus on clinical assessment. The term is mostly used in developing and tropical countries where a wide range of infections may be responsible. Laboratory diagnosis often requires specialist microbiology investigations that are not widely available, and serology tests that only become positive during convalescence. Optimal clinical management requires a good travel history, awareness of local endemic diseases, an understanding of the features that may help distinguish different causes and appropriate use of empirical antibiotics. This review describes the most common examples of UFI in military personnel on overseas deployments, and provides a practical approach to their initial management. PMID:24109142

  5. 32 CFR 169a.14 - Military personnel commercial activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military personnel commercial activity. 169a.14 Section 169a.14 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.14 Military personnel...

  6. 32 CFR 169a.14 - Military personnel commercial activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military personnel commercial activity. 169a.14 Section 169a.14 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.14 Military personnel...

  7. 32 CFR 169a.14 - Military personnel commercial activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military personnel commercial activity. 169a.14 Section 169a.14 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.14 Military personnel...

  8. The psychometric properties of the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES) in a clinical sample of active duty military service members.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Damon; Francis, Joseph P; Tafrate, Raymond Chip

    2005-11-01

    The increasing prominence of the construct of readiness to change in the field of substance abuse treatment has led to the development of instruments designed to assess the construct. We examined the psychometric properties of one such instrument, the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES), in a sample of treatment-seeking, active duty, U.S. military service members diagnosed with alcohol and/or drug dependence. A principal components analysis of the items was consistent with the tridimensional structure of the SOCRATES found among treatment-seeking civilians but resulted in a 14-item scale, as opposed to the 19-item version found for civilians. Normative data, in the form of means and decile rankings for the SOCRATES subscales, for substance-dependent military patients are provided to complement those available for civilian patients. Future research should examine the concurrent and predictive validity of the scale.

  9. [Current state and prospects of military personnel health monitoring].

    PubMed

    Rezvantsev, M V; Kuznetsov, S M; Ivanov, V V; Zakurdaev, V V

    2014-01-01

    The current article is dedicated to some features of the Russian Federation Armed Forces military personnel health monitoring such as legal and informational provision, methodological basis of functioning, historical aspect of formation and development of the social and hygienic monitoring in the Russian Federation Armed Forces. The term "military personnel health monitoring" is defined as an analytical system of constant and long-term observation, analysis, assessment, studying of factors determined the military personnel health, these factors correlations, health risk factors management in order to minimize them. The current state of the military personnel health monitoring allows coming to the conclusion that the military health system does have forces and resources for state policy of establishing the population health monitoring system implementation. The following directions of the militarily personnel health monitoring improvement are proposed: the Russian Federation Armed Forces medical service record and report system reorganization bringing it closer to the civilian one, implementation of the integrated approach to the medical service informatisation, namely, military personnel health status and medical service resources monitoring. The leading means in this direction are development and introduction of a military serviceman individual health status monitoring system on the basis of a serviceman electronic medical record card. Also it is proposed the current Russian Federation Armed Forces social and hygienic monitoring improvement at the expense of informational interaction between the two subsystems on the basis of unified military medical service space.

  10. Diagnostic Utility of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist for Identifying Full and Partial PTSD in Active-Duty Military.

    PubMed

    Dickstein, Benjamin D; Weathers, Frank W; Angkaw, Abigail C; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Yurgil, Kate; Nash, William P; Baker, Dewleen G; Litz, Brett T

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine optimally efficient cutoff scores on the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL) for identifying full posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and partial PTSD (P-PTSD) in active-duty Marines and Sailors. Participants were 1,016 Marines and Sailors who were administered the PCL and Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) 3 months after returning from Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom. PCL cutoffs were tested against three CAPS-based classifications: full PTSD, stringent P-PTSD, and lenient P-PTSD. A PCL score of 39 was found to be optimally efficient for identifying full PTSD. Scores of 38 and 33 were found to be optimally efficient for identifying stringent and lenient P-PTSD, respectively. Findings suggest that the PCL cutoff that is optimally efficient for detecting PTSD in active-duty Marines and Sailors is substantially lower than the score of 50 commonly used by researchers. In addition, findings provide scores useful for identifying P-PTSD in returning service members.

  11. Tibial stress fractures in an active duty population: long-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kilcoyne, Kelly G; Dickens, Jonathan F; Rue, John-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Tibial stress fractures are a common overuse injury among military recruits. The purpose of this study was to determine what, if any, long-term effects that tibial stress fractures have on military personnel with respect to physical activity level, completion of military training, recurrence of symptoms, and active duty service. Twenty-six military recruits included in a previous tibial stress fracture study were contacted 10 years after initial injury and asked a series of questions related to any long-term consequences of their tibial stress fracture. Of the 13 patients available for contact, no patients reported any necessary limited duty while on active duty, and no patient reported being separated or discharged from the military as a result of stress fracture. Tibial stress fractures in military recruits are most often an isolated injury and do not affect ability to complete military training or reflect a long-term need for decreased physical activity.

  12. Missed opportunity to screen and diagnose PTSD and depression among deploying shipboard US military personnel

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Braden R.; Michael, Nelson L.; Scott, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are significant risks for suicide and other adverse events among US military personnel, but prevalence data among ship-assigned personnel at the onset of deployment are unknown. Aims To determine the prevalence of shipboard personnel who screen positive for PTSD and/or major depressive disorder (MDD) at the onset of deployment, and also those who reported these diagnoses made by a physician or healthcare professional in the year prior to deployment. Method Active-duty ship-assigned personnel (N = 2078) completed anonymous assessments at the beginning of deployment. Depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; score of ≥22), and PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist–Civilian Version (PCL-C; both score and symptom criteria were used). Results In total, 7.3% (n = 151 of 2076) screened positive for PTSD and 22% (n = 461 of 2078) for MDD at deployment onset. Only 6% and 15% of those who screened positive for PTSD or MDD, respectively, had been diagnosed by a healthcare professional in the past year. Conclusions Missed opportunities for mental healthcare among screen-positive shipboard personnel reduce the benefits associated with early identification and linkage to care. Improved methods of mental health screening that promote early recognition and referral to care may mitigate psychiatric events in theatre. Declaration of interest This work was performed as part of the official duties of the authors as military service members or employees of the US Government. Copyright and usage This work was prepared by military service members or employees of the US Government as part of their official duties. As such, copyright protection is not available for this work (Title 17, USC, §105). PMID:27713833

  13. Operation United Assistance: infectious disease threats to deployed military personnel.

    PubMed

    Murray, Clinton K; Yun, Heather C; Markelz, Ana Elizabeth; Okulicz, Jason F; Vento, Todd J; Burgess, Timothy H; Cardile, Anthony P; Miller, R Scott

    2015-06-01

    As part of the international response to control the recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa, the Department of Defense has deployed military personnel to train Liberians to manage the disease and build treatment units and a hospital for health care volunteers. These steps have assisted in providing a robust medical system and augment Ebola diagnostic capability within the affected nations. In order to prepare for the deployment of U.S. military personnel, the infectious disease risks of the regions must be determined. This evaluation allows for the establishment of appropriate force health protection posture for personnel while deployed, as well as management plans for illnesses presenting after redeployment. Our objective was to detail the epidemiology and infectious disease risks for military personnel in West Africa, particularly for Liberia, along with lessons learned from prior deployments.

  14. Individual and environmental contingencies associated with multiple suicide attempts among U.S. military personnel.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; Rudd, M David; Wertenberger, Evelyn

    2016-08-30

    Suicidal behavior among U.S. military personnel persists as a significant public health issue. Previous research indicates the primary motive for suicide attempts among military personnel is the desire to reduce or alleviate emotional distress, a finding that converges with studies in nonmilitary samples. Much less is understood about the consequences of a first suicide attempt that could influence the occurrence of additional suicide attempts. In order to identify these contingencies, 134 active duty Soldiers who had attempted suicide (n=69 first-time attempters, n=65 multiple attempters) participated in structured interviews focused on their experiences immediately following their first attempt. Soldiers were more likely to have made multiple suicide attempts if they were younger at the time of their first attempt, were not admitted to a hospital or treatment program after their first attempt, or experienced emotional and psychological relief immediately afterwards. Results suggest that Soldiers who experience emotional and/or psychological relief immediately after their first suicide attempt or do not receive treatment are more likely to make additional suicide attempts. PMID:27262267

  15. Achilles tendon ruptures stratified by age, race, and cause of injury among active duty U.S. Military members.

    PubMed

    Davis, J J; Mason, K T; Clark, D A

    1999-12-01

    A total of 865 members of the U.S. military underwent repair of Achilles tendon ruptures at U.S. military hospitals during calendar years 1994, 1995, and 1996. The discharge summaries of these patients were analyzed for patient demographic information, including age, race, and causative activity. Patients were then stratified by age, race, and cause of injury. Blacks were at increased risk for undergoing repair of the Achilles tendon compared with nonblacks (overall relative risk = 4.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.63, 4.74; summary odds ratio controlling for age = 3.69, CI = 3.25, 4.19). Participation in the game of basketball accounted for 64.9% of all injuries in black patients and 34.0% of all injuries in nonblack patients. Among those injured, blacks had a significantly increased risk for injury related to playing basketball than nonblacks (relative risk = 1.82, CI = 1.58, 2.10). This finding suggests that there may be other predisposing factor(s) that result in a higher risk of Achilles tendon ruptures in black individuals.

  16. Epidemiology of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive United States Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Jeff S; Clark, Leslie L; Garges, Eric C; Otto, Jean Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background. Minimal data exist that describe the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive populations across the pre- and post-diagnosis periods for HIV. Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the epidemiology of gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, herpes simplex virus, and human papillomavirus in an HIV-positive population. Methods. All 1,961 HIV seropositive United States active duty military personnel from 2000-2010 were identified. STI diagnoses relative to HIV diagnosis from 1995, which was the earliest electronic medical record available, to 2010 were examined. Results. The incidence diagnosis rates of STI generally increased during the period leading up to eventual HIV diagnosis. The rates of STI during the post-HIV diagnosis period fluctuated, but remained elevated compared to pre-HIV diagnosis period. Approximately 45%-69% with an STI in the HIV seropositive military population were diagnosed with their first STI greater than one year after their HIV diagnosis. Of those who were diagnosed with an STI in the post-HIV diagnosis period, 70.6% had one STI diagnosis, 23.5% had two STI diagnoses, and 5.8% had three or more STI diagnoses. Conclusions. Despite aggressive counseling, high-risk sexual behavior continues to occur in the HIV-positive military population.

  17. [Personal e-cards for military personnel and military-medical information system].

    PubMed

    Kalachev, O V; Stolyar, V P; Kuandykov, M G; Papkov, A Yu

    2015-08-01

    The article presents main directions of activities of the medical service, dealing with implementation of personal electronic cards for military personnel, organizing the process of automation of medical service management, military and medical organizations and health care departments. The given article, reveals the on-going activity, concerning creation of the military-medical information system, which will unite all medical units, organizations, and governments into one information space. PMID:26829864

  18. Fear of radiation in U.S. military medical personnel.

    PubMed

    Pastel, R H; Mulvaney, J

    2001-12-01

    The fear of radiation, even low-level radiation, could significantly impair military operations. To measure knowledge of and attitudes toward radiation, the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute developed a questionnaire that military medical personnel completed both before and after the 3-day Medical Effects of Ionizing Radiation (MEIR) course. Findings included a positive correlation between the resulting increased knowledge and more positive attitudes. No gender effects were observed for knowledge or attitude, but both education level and military rank were related to knowledge and attitude.

  19. Military personnel recognition system using texture, colour, and SURF features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irhebhude, Martins E.; Edirisinghe, Eran A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents an automatic, machine vision based, military personnel identification and classification system. Classification is done using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) on sets of Army, Air Force and Navy camouflage uniform personnel datasets. In the proposed system, the arm of service of personnel is recognised by the camouflage of a persons uniform, type of cap and the type of badge/logo. The detailed analysis done include; camouflage cap and plain cap differentiation using gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture feature; classification on Army, Air Force and Navy camouflaged uniforms using GLCM texture and colour histogram bin features; plain cap badge classification into Army, Air Force and Navy using Speed Up Robust Feature (SURF). The proposed method recognised camouflage personnel arm of service on sets of data retrieved from google images and selected military websites. Correlation-based Feature Selection (CFS) was used to improve recognition and reduce dimensionality, thereby speeding the classification process. With this method success rates recorded during the analysis include 93.8% for camouflage appearance category, 100%, 90% and 100% rates of plain cap and camouflage cap categories for Army, Air Force and Navy categories, respectively. Accurate recognition was recorded using SURF for the plain cap badge category. Substantial analysis has been carried out and results prove that the proposed method can correctly classify military personnel into various arms of service. We show that the proposed method can be integrated into a face recognition system, which will recognise personnel in addition to determining the arm of service which the personnel belong. Such a system can be used to enhance the security of a military base or facility.

  20. Malaria in Tunisian Military Personnel after Returning from External Operation

    PubMed Central

    Ajili, Faïda; Battikh, Riadh; Laabidi, Janet; Abid, Rim; Bousetta, Najeh; Jemli, Bouthaina; Ben abdelhafidh, Nadia; Bassem, Louzir; Gargouri, Saadia; Othmani, Salah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Malaria had been eliminated in Tunisia since 1979, but there are currently 40 to 50 imported cases annually. Soldiers are no exception as the incidence of imported malaria is increasing in Tunisian military personnel after returning from malaria-endemic area, often in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and biological presentations, treatment, and outcomes of 37 Tunisian military personnel hospitalized at the Department of Internal Medicine, the Military Hospital of Tunis, between January 1993 and January 2011, for imported malaria. The clinical and laboratory features were obtained from the medical records and a questionnaire was filled by the patients about the compliance of malaria prophylaxis. Results. Thirty-seven male patients, with a mean age of 41 years, were treated for malaria infection. Twenty-two were due to Plasmodium falciparum. The outcome was favourable for all patients, despite two severe access. The long-term use of chemoprophylaxis has been adopted by only 21 (51%) of expatriate military for daily stresses. Moreover, poor adherence was found in 32 patients. Conclusion. The risk of acquiring malaria infection in Tunisian military personnel can largely be prevented by the regular use of chemoprophylactic drugs combined with protective measures against mosquito bites. PMID:23766922

  1. Protecting military personnel from high risk dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Deuster, Patricia A; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    It is legal tomarketmost naturally occurring substances as dietary supplements in the USA without manufacturers demonstrating they are safe or effective, and an endless variety of ingredients, from esoteric botanicals to unapproved pharmaceuticals, can be found in dietary supplements. Use of certain supplements can pose a risk, but since a robust reporting systemdoes not exist in the USA it is difficult to know which are problematic and the number of adverse events (AE) resulting from their use. Certain populations, includingmilitary personnel, aremore likely to use dietary supplements than the general population. Approximately 70% of military personnel take dietary supplements while about 50% of civilians do. Service members prefer supplements purported to enhance physical performance such as supposedly natural stimulants, protein and amino acids, and combination products. Since some of thesemay be problematic, Servicemembers are probably at higher risk of injury than the general population. Ten percent of military populations appear to be taking potentially risky supplements, and the US Department of Defense (DoD) has taken variousmeasures to protect uniformed personnel including education, policy changes, and restricting sales. Actions taken include launching Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS), introducing a High Risk Supplement list, educating health care professionals on reporting AE thatmight be associated with dietary supplements, recommending policy for reporting AE, and developing an online AE reporting system. OPSS is a DoD-wide effort to educate service members, leaders, health care providers, military families, and retirees on how to safely select supplements PMID:26472157

  2. Protecting military personnel from high risk dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Deuster, Patricia A; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    It is legal tomarketmost naturally occurring substances as dietary supplements in the USA without manufacturers demonstrating they are safe or effective, and an endless variety of ingredients, from esoteric botanicals to unapproved pharmaceuticals, can be found in dietary supplements. Use of certain supplements can pose a risk, but since a robust reporting systemdoes not exist in the USA it is difficult to know which are problematic and the number of adverse events (AE) resulting from their use. Certain populations, includingmilitary personnel, aremore likely to use dietary supplements than the general population. Approximately 70% of military personnel take dietary supplements while about 50% of civilians do. Service members prefer supplements purported to enhance physical performance such as supposedly natural stimulants, protein and amino acids, and combination products. Since some of thesemay be problematic, Servicemembers are probably at higher risk of injury than the general population. Ten percent of military populations appear to be taking potentially risky supplements, and the US Department of Defense (DoD) has taken variousmeasures to protect uniformed personnel including education, policy changes, and restricting sales. Actions taken include launching Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS), introducing a High Risk Supplement list, educating health care professionals on reporting AE thatmight be associated with dietary supplements, recommending policy for reporting AE, and developing an online AE reporting system. OPSS is a DoD-wide effort to educate service members, leaders, health care providers, military families, and retirees on how to safely select supplements

  3. 5 CFR 315.612 - Noncompetitive appointment of certain military spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... military spouses. 315.612 Section 315.612 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... Under Special Authorities § 315.612 Noncompetitive appointment of certain military spouses. (a) Agency... Federal agency exists in the spouse's geographic area. Spouses of active duty military members who are...

  4. 5 CFR 315.612 - Noncompetitive appointment of certain military spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... military spouses. 315.612 Section 315.612 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... Under Special Authorities § 315.612 Noncompetitive appointment of certain military spouses. (a) Agency... Federal agency exists in the spouse's geographic area. Spouses of active duty military members who are...

  5. 5 CFR 315.612 - Noncompetitive appointment of certain military spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... military spouses. 315.612 Section 315.612 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... Under Special Authorities § 315.612 Noncompetitive appointment of certain military spouses. (a) Agency... Federal agency exists in the spouse's geographic area. Spouses of active duty military members who are...

  6. Behavioural activation for the treatment of depression in military personnel.

    PubMed

    Whybrow, Dean

    2013-03-01

    INTRODUCTION: Depression is a common mental health problem in both civilian and military populations. Access to evidence based psychological therapies for treating common mental health problems such as depression may not be adequate at present. Behavioural Activation (BA) represents a National Institute for Clinical Excellence recommended, evidence-based treatment for depression. The aim of this review was to review the literature to determine how BA could work as a therapeutic approach for military personnel with depression. METHOD: Five specialty-specific electronic databases were searched using the key words 'behavioural activation', 'activity scheduling' and 'depression'. Emerging themes were drawn out of the literature using a long table approach to thematic analysis. RESULTS: Seven themes were identified: Clinical Effectiveness, Cultural Competence, Co-morbidity, Cost Effectiveness, Alternatives to Face-to-Face Therapy, Training and Patient Experience. CONCLUSIONS: Group based BA is a cost effective option that may build upon service personnel's cultural affinity to teamwork and peer support. Brief training workshops and supervision could be provided to military mental health nurses to deliver group based BA. However service delivery may also be enhanced by enabling some nurses to specialise as Cognitive Behavioural Psychotherapists. More research is needed to understand whether this pragmatic, two pronged approach to training would result in the sustained dissemination of evidence based practice.

  7. Iron status of military personnel deployed to Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Candy; McClung, James P; Karl, J Philip; Brothers, Michael D

    2011-12-01

    Iron is a micronutrient necessary for energy metabolism and for oxygen transport and delivery. Depletion of iron stores (iron deficiency [ID]) may lead to iron deficiency anemia (IDA), which affects mood, cognitive function, and physical performance. Previous studies indicated that iron status may decline during military training. This study assessed the iron status and prevalence of ID and IDA in military personnel deployed to Bagram Air Base, Afghanistan (1492 m). Within the pool of 294 participants (149 male and 145 female), 2 males (1%) and 8 females (6%) presented with ID. Although IDA was not observed in males, 3 females (2%) met the criteria for IDA. Female sex (p = 0.05) and self-reported history of anemia (p < 0.05) were associated with diminished iron status. Amenorrhea was associated with higher ferritin (p < 0.05) and hemoglobin (p < 0.05) levels. Although ID and IDA did not affect a large portion of the deployed population assessed in this study, findings suggest that risk factors including female sex, history of anemia, and regular menstruation should be considered in the assessment of iron status in military personnel.

  8. Toxoplasmosis in military personnel involved in jungle operations.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Barrios, Patricia; Cardona, Nestor; Álvarez, Catalina; Herrera, Claudia

    2012-04-01

    Tropical diseases, mainly leishmaniasis and malaria, increased among Colombian military personnel due to intensive operations in the jungle in the last ten years; as a result the Colombian army developed important preventive strategies for malaria and leishmaniasis. However, no knowledge exists about toxoplasmosis, an emergent disease in military personnel. We compared the prevalence of IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibodies by ELISA and of parasitaemia by a real time PCR assay, in 500 professional soldiers that operated in the jungle with a group of 501 soldiers working in an urban zone (Bogotá). We found that the prevalence was significantly different between both groups of soldiers (80% in soldiers operating in jungle vs. 45% in urban soldiers, adjusted OR 11.4; CI 95%: 3.8-34; p<0.0001). All soldiers operating in the jungle drink unboiled and chlorine untreated lake or river water. In urban soldiers, these risk factors along with eating wild animal meat or eating tigrillo (little spotted cat) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence. Characteristic toxoplasmic choriorretinal lesions were found in 4 soldiers that operated in the jungle (0.8%) and in one urban soldier (0.19%). All soldiers before being deployed in jungle operations should be tested for Toxoplasma antibodies and to receive adequate health information about the routine use of personnel filters to purify their water for consumption.

  9. 77 FR 23667 - Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... of the Secretary Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing; Notice of Meeting AGENCY... Military Personnel Testing will take place. DATES: Tuesday, May 22, 2012, from 8:30 a.m. to 4 p.m. and...- pencil tests for military enlistment. Agenda: The agenda includes an overview of current enlistment...

  10. 78 FR 21349 - Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... of the Secretary Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing; Notice of Federal Advisory... Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing will take place. DATES: Thursday, May 9, 2013... progress in developing computerized tests for military enlistment. Agenda: The agenda includes an...

  11. 32 CFR 644.550 - Sale to employees or military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Sale to employees or military personnel. 644.550... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.550 Sale to employees or military personnel. The sale of Government real property will not be made to civilian employees or military members of...

  12. 32 CFR 644.550 - Sale to employees or military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sale to employees or military personnel. 644.550... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.550 Sale to employees or military personnel. The sale of Government real property will not be made to civilian employees or military members of...

  13. HIV among military personnel in the Niger Delta of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Azuonwu, O; Erhabor, O; Obire, O

    2012-02-01

    The military community is considered a high-risk environment for HIV transmission. In this study, a total of One hundred and fifty military personnel aged between 20 and 55 years attending the Nigerian army Hospital, Air Force Clinic and Police Clinic in the Niger Delta of Nigeria were randomly recruited for the study. Samples were tested for HIV using an immunochromatographic assay. The CD4 cell count was estimated using the Partec Cyflow Counter (Partec, Germany). Results of the study showed an overall HIV prevalence rate of 14.67%. The prevalence of HIV was significantly higher among subjects in the ≥40 years age group (P = 0.03). The HIV prevalence was higher among female subjects compared to male military personnel (P = 0.05). Also, there was a significant negative correlation between the CD4 count and HIV positivity (r = -0.443, P<0.01). Out of the 22 subjects positive for HIV, 9.1% were severely immune compromised with CD4 count below<200 cells/μL while 72.7 and 18.2% had CD4 count of 200-350 and 350-500 cells/μL respectively. There is need for the development of a strategic plan that integrates HIV/AIDS and other STIs programs into existing systems and structures to foster behavior change through information dissemination. Policies should be instituted to make condoms regularly available and freely distributed, with the goal of achieving a 100%-condom-use rate. There is the need for an effective voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) and sentinel surveillance survey in the Nigerian military. Also critical is the establishment of a fully integrated and comprehensive care and support system including universal access of antiretroviral treatment for infected people.

  14. Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Balazs, George C; Grimm, Patrick D; Donohue, Michael A; Keblish, David J; Rue, John-Paul

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to report the clinical and functional outcomes of revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in a young, active duty military population. Patients undergoing revision ACL reconstruction were enrolled in an institutional clinical database and followed prospectively. The primary outcomes were patients' scores on a timed run, as compared with recorded scores before reinjury. Secondary outcomes included scores on the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), the International Knee Documentation Committee subjective (IKDC subjective), the Short Form - 36 health survey (SF-36) version 2, the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), and the Tegner activity scale. A total of 13 patients were identified who met the inclusion criteria and had complete follow-up. The mean age at revision ACL reconstruction was 20.5 years (range, 19-22 years), and mean follow-up was 40.2 months (range, 13-66 months). All patients underwent a single stage revision ACL reconstruction with ipsilateral bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft, ipsilateral hamstring autograft, or bone-tendon-bone allograft. Mean physical readiness test (PRT) score at final follow-up was not statistically different than documented preinjury PRT score (77.9 vs. 85.5, p > 0.05), nor was the mean run time (7:12 vs. 6:43/mile, p > 0.05). Significant improvements exceeding published minimal clinically important differences were seen in SANE score, SF-36 physical component summary score, KOOS sports and recreation, KOOS quality of life, WOMAC pain score, and WOMAC function score. Patients undergoing revision ACL reconstruction at our facility show good recovery of baseline physical performance as measured by the semiannual PRT and timed run test, and significant improvements in patient-reported outcome scores. Level of Evidence Level IV, case series.

  15. Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Balazs, George C; Grimm, Patrick D; Donohue, Michael A; Keblish, David J; Rue, John-Paul

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to report the clinical and functional outcomes of revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in a young, active duty military population. Patients undergoing revision ACL reconstruction were enrolled in an institutional clinical database and followed prospectively. The primary outcomes were patients' scores on a timed run, as compared with recorded scores before reinjury. Secondary outcomes included scores on the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), the International Knee Documentation Committee subjective (IKDC subjective), the Short Form - 36 health survey (SF-36) version 2, the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), and the Tegner activity scale. A total of 13 patients were identified who met the inclusion criteria and had complete follow-up. The mean age at revision ACL reconstruction was 20.5 years (range, 19-22 years), and mean follow-up was 40.2 months (range, 13-66 months). All patients underwent a single stage revision ACL reconstruction with ipsilateral bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft, ipsilateral hamstring autograft, or bone-tendon-bone allograft. Mean physical readiness test (PRT) score at final follow-up was not statistically different than documented preinjury PRT score (77.9 vs. 85.5, p > 0.05), nor was the mean run time (7:12 vs. 6:43/mile, p > 0.05). Significant improvements exceeding published minimal clinically important differences were seen in SANE score, SF-36 physical component summary score, KOOS sports and recreation, KOOS quality of life, WOMAC pain score, and WOMAC function score. Patients undergoing revision ACL reconstruction at our facility show good recovery of baseline physical performance as measured by the semiannual PRT and timed run test, and significant improvements in patient-reported outcome scores. Level of Evidence Level IV, case series. PMID:26524090

  16. An outbreak of Paederus dermatitis in Thai military personnel.

    PubMed

    Suwannahitatorn, Picha; Jatapai, Anchalee; Rangsin, Ram

    2014-02-01

    An outbreak of Paederus dermatitis in Thai military personnel in 2007 was reported. Approximately ninety-one percent ofmilitary personnel who worked in a battalion located in Bangkok experienced Paederus dermatitis in April-May 2007. The most common clinical manifestations were blisters and erythematous rash. The most affected areas were head, neck, back and groin. "Kissing lesions" were seen in 17.3% of cases and 23.5% had multiple lesions. Compared with other reports, we found a high incidence of lesions in unexposed body parts. This disease should be recognized as a differential diagnosis especially in tropical countries. Awareness of the condition and its clinical features will aid early diagnosis and prompt treatment.

  17. Exploring the Role of Social Connectedness among Military Youth: Perceptions from Youth, Parents, and School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mmari, Kristin N.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Sudhinaraset, May; Blum, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The increased stress on military families during wartime can be particularly difficult for adolescents. The current study employed 11 focus groups with military youth, parents, and school personnel working with military youth to better understand how youth and their families cope with stressors faced as result of living in a military family. An…

  18. Pectoralis major tendon repairs in the active-duty population.

    PubMed

    Antosh, Ivan J; Grassbaugh, Jason A; Parada, Stephen A; Arrington, Edward D

    2009-01-01

    Rupture of the pectoralis major tendon is an uncommon injury that typically occurs in young, active people. Of this injury population, active-duty military personnel represent a unique, athletic subset that is commonly treated with operative repair. For the retrospective case series reported here, we hypothesized that active-duty soldiers with acute and chronic pectoralis major tendon ruptures treated with operative repair would have high levels of patient satisfaction, quick return to work and sports, and few long-term complications. We retrospectively reviewed all pectoralis major tendon rupture repairs performed at our institution between 2000 and 2007. Charts were thoroughly reviewed, and patients were asked to complete DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand) and supplemental questionnaires. Paired Student's t test was performed, and Ps were calculated to analyze statistical differences between immediate- and delayed-treatment groups. Fourteen patients were identified. The most common mechanism of injury was bench-pressing weights. Overall DASH, Work Module, and Sports Module scores were good to excellent. There was a statistically significant difference between outcomes for the immediate- and delayed- treatment groups, with the immediate-treatment group having better overall DASH and Work Module scores. Patients had a 30% to 40% objective loss of strength after surgery. Active-duty soldiers reported acceptable overall outcomes after both immediate and delayed treatment for pectoralis major tendon ruptures, but a statistically significant difference was found in overall DASH and Work Module scores between the treatment groups.

  19. Deployment-Related Insomnia in Military Personnel and Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Bramoweth, Adam D.

    2013-01-01

    Insomnia is a prevalent disorder that greatly impacts military personnel, especially those deployed in support of combat efforts. Deployment-related stressors like combat exposure, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) irregular sleep-wake schedules, and adjustment to the return home all contribute to insomnia. However, insomnia can also exacerbate the deployment experience and is a risk factor for traumatic stress reactions such as PTSD, depression, and suicide. Military personnel with mTBI are significantly impacted by insomnia; the majority experience sleep disruption and this can impede recovery and rehabilitation. As more service members return home from deployment, treatment is vital to reduce the impact of insomnia. Preliminary outcome data, showing positive results for reduction of sleep disruption, has been found with treatments such as combined cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia (CBTI) and imagery rehearsal therapy (IRT), preference-based interventions, as well as efforts to broadly disseminate CBTI. The recent literature on the impact and treatment of deployment-related insomnia is reviewed. PMID:24005883

  20. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus Colonization and Risk Factors for Infection Among Military Personnel in a Shipboard Setting.

    PubMed

    Curry, Jennifer A; Maguire, Jason D; Fraser, Jamie; Tribble, David R; Deiss, Robert G; Bryan, Coleman; Tisdale, Michele D; Crawford, Katrina; Ellis, Michael; Lalani, Tahaniyat

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcal skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), especially those due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are an important public health issue for the military. Limited data exist regarding the prevalence of S. aureus colonization in the shipboard setting. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study to determine the point prevalence of S. aureus colonization among military personnel onboard a naval vessel. Asymptomatic active duty personnel completed a survey for risk factors associated with colonization and SSTIs. Culture specimens were obtained from the anterior nares, pharynx, groin, and perirectal regions. MRSA isolates underwent testing for antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and pulsed-field type. 400 individuals were enrolled, 198 (49.5%) of whom were colonized with S. aureus, with MRSA identified in 14 participants (3.5%). No significant risk factors were associated with MRSA colonization. USA800 was the most common colonizing MRSA strain in the cohort and was detected in 10 participants (71%). Two participants (14%) were colonized with USA300 MRSA. In this first report of S. aureus epidemiology in a shipboard setting, we observed high rates of S. aureus and MRSA colonization. Longitudinal studies are needed to document the incident rates of S. aureus colonization during shipboard deployment and its impact on SSTI risk.

  1. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus Colonization and Risk Factors for Infection Among Military Personnel in a Shipboard Setting.

    PubMed

    Curry, Jennifer A; Maguire, Jason D; Fraser, Jamie; Tribble, David R; Deiss, Robert G; Bryan, Coleman; Tisdale, Michele D; Crawford, Katrina; Ellis, Michael; Lalani, Tahaniyat

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcal skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), especially those due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are an important public health issue for the military. Limited data exist regarding the prevalence of S. aureus colonization in the shipboard setting. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study to determine the point prevalence of S. aureus colonization among military personnel onboard a naval vessel. Asymptomatic active duty personnel completed a survey for risk factors associated with colonization and SSTIs. Culture specimens were obtained from the anterior nares, pharynx, groin, and perirectal regions. MRSA isolates underwent testing for antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and pulsed-field type. 400 individuals were enrolled, 198 (49.5%) of whom were colonized with S. aureus, with MRSA identified in 14 participants (3.5%). No significant risk factors were associated with MRSA colonization. USA800 was the most common colonizing MRSA strain in the cohort and was detected in 10 participants (71%). Two participants (14%) were colonized with USA300 MRSA. In this first report of S. aureus epidemiology in a shipboard setting, we observed high rates of S. aureus and MRSA colonization. Longitudinal studies are needed to document the incident rates of S. aureus colonization during shipboard deployment and its impact on SSTI risk. PMID:27244061

  2. The Associations of Physical and Sexual Assault with Suicide Risk in Nonclinical Military and Undergraduate Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Craig J.; McNaugton-Cassill, Mary; Osman, Augustine; Hernandez, Ann Marie

    2013-01-01

    The associations of various forms of sexual and physical assault with a history of suicide attempts and recent suicide ideation were studied in two distinct samples: active duty military and undergraduate students. A total of 273 active duty Air Force personnel and 309 undergraduate students anonymously completed self-report surveys of assault…

  3. Plasmodium vivax Malaria among military personnel, French Guiana, 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    Queyriaux, Benjamin; Texier, Gaetan; Ollivier, Lenaick; Galoisy-Guibal, Laurent; Michel, Remy; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Decam, Christophe; Verret, Catherine; Pommier de Santi, Vincent; Spiegel, Andre; Boutin, Jean-Paul; Migliani, Rene; Deparis, Xavier

    2011-07-01

    We obtained health surveillance epidemiologic data on malaria among French military personnel deployed to French Guiana during 1998-2008. Incidence of Plasmodium vivax malaria increased and that of P. falciparum remained stable. This new epidemiologic situation has led to modification of malaria treatment for deployed military personnel.

  4. 21 CFR 1301.23 - Exemption of certain military and other personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption of certain military and other personnel. 1301.23 Section 1301.23 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... and Fees § 1301.23 Exemption of certain military and other personnel. (a) The requirement...

  5. 75 FR 63823 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing... Defense announces that the Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing will meet November...

  6. 78 FR 69392 - Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... of the Secretary Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing; Notice of Federal Advisory... advisory committee meeting of the Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing. The purpose of the meeting is to review planned changes and progress in developing computerized tests for...

  7. 75 FR 37410 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel...D announces that the Defense Advisory Committee on Military Personnel Testing will meet on July...

  8. Tobacco Promotion to Military Personnel: “The Plums Are Here to Be Plucked”

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Elizabeth A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    Smoking rates among military personnel are high, damaging health, decreasing short- and long-term troop readiness, and costing the Department of Defense (DOD). The military is an important market for the tobacco industry, which long targeted the military with cigarette promotions. Internal tobacco industry documents were examined to explore tobacco sponsorship of events targeted to military personnel. Evidence was found of more than 1,400 events held between 1980 and 1997. In 1986, the DOD issued a directive forbidding such special promotions; however, with the frequently eager cooperation of military personnel, they continued for more than a decade, apparently ceasing only because of the restrictions of the Master Settlement Agreement. The U.S. military collaborated with the tobacco industry for decades, creating a military culture of smoking. Reversing that process will require strong policy establishing tobacco use as unmilitary. PMID:19743733

  9. State Policymakers: Supporting Military Families with Children. Policy Briefing Series. Issue 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Melissa; Lettieri, Chelsea

    2008-01-01

    Managing work and family responsibilities is particularly difficult for military families with children. While military life has always been demanding, in recent years an increasing number of military personnel in both the Active Duty Force and Selected Reserves have had to confront the additional demands of parenthood. Providing resources to…

  10. Dengue fever among U.S. military personnel--Haiti, September-November, 1994.

    PubMed

    1994-11-25

    Since September 19, 1994, approximately 20,000 U. S. military personnel have been deployed to Haiti as part of Operation Uphold Democracy. To monitor the occurrence of mosquitoborne illnesses (including dengue fever [DF] and malaria) among deployed military personnel, on September 19 the U. S. Army established a surveillance system for febrile illness. Before deployment, all military personnel were instructed to take antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, either chloroquine phosphate (500 mg weekly) or doxycycline (100 mg daily). This report summarizes surveillance findings for September 19-November 4.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Respiratory diseases among U.S. military personnel: countering emerging threats.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, G. C.; Callahan, J. D.; Hawksworth, A. W.; Fisher, C. A.; Gaydos, J. C.

    1999-01-01

    Emerging respiratory disease agents, increased antibiotic resistance, and the loss of effective vaccines threaten to increase the incidence of respiratory disease in military personnel. We examine six respiratory pathogens (adenoviruses, influenza viruses, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis) and review the impact of the diseases they cause, past efforts to control these diseases in U.S. military personnel, as well as current treatment and surveillance strategies, limitations in diagnostic testing, and vaccine needs. PMID:10341174

  12. A Cluster of Three Cases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome among Canadian Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Leighanne O; Nguyen, Trong Tien; Longtin, Jean; Beaudoin, Marie-Claude; Bestman-Smith, Julie; Vinh, Donald C; Boivin, Guy; Loo, Vivian G

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a rare illness in eastern Canada. We present three cases of HPS among military personnel in Quebec. The three cases shared a common exposure to mouse excreta while engaged in military training in Alberta, a western province of Canada. PMID:27366160

  13. A Cluster of Three Cases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome among Canadian Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, Leighanne O.; Nguyen, Trong Tien; Longtin, Jean; Beaudoin, Marie-Claude; Bestman-Smith, Julie; Vinh, Donald C.; Boivin, Guy; Loo, Vivian G.

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a rare illness in eastern Canada. We present three cases of HPS among military personnel in Quebec. The three cases shared a common exposure to mouse excreta while engaged in military training in Alberta, a western province of Canada. PMID:27366160

  14. A Cluster of Three Cases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome among Canadian Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Leighanne O; Nguyen, Trong Tien; Longtin, Jean; Beaudoin, Marie-Claude; Bestman-Smith, Julie; Vinh, Donald C; Boivin, Guy; Loo, Vivian G

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a rare illness in eastern Canada. We present three cases of HPS among military personnel in Quebec. The three cases shared a common exposure to mouse excreta while engaged in military training in Alberta, a western province of Canada.

  15. Introduction to the Special Issue: Drugs, Wars, Military Personnel, and Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Andrew; Bennett, Alexander S.

    2013-01-01

    This special issue examines major structural, sociocultural, and behavioral issues surrounding substance use and misuse among US military personnel and veterans who served in recent military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. This introduction provides a brief historical review of the US’s experiences of the linkages between war and substance use, misuse, and abuse. It then describes how the various topics covered in this issue span the military-veteran life course and explains the significance of each contribution. PMID:23869453

  16. [Influence of work factors on health state in personnel servicing military nuclear technical objects].

    PubMed

    Poluboiarinov, V N; Iusov, I G; Ivanchenko, A V; Turlakov, Iu S

    2014-01-01

    Complex of occupational studies and medical, statistical research helped to reveal climate, geographic and other factors influencing health state of personnel servicing military nuclear technical objects. Considering peculiarities of occupational activities in various specialists, the authors specified measures to improve medical service for nuclear technical military officers directly working with nuclear ammunition. Practical application of the measures helped to gain 1.5-1.7 times improvement in morbidity parameters among nuclear technical military officers. PMID:25069272

  17. Suicidal or Self-Harming Ideation in Military Personnel Transitioning to Civilian Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Alyssa J.; Bender, Randall H.; Hourani, Laurel L.; Larson, Gerald E.

    2011-01-01

    Suicides have markedly increased among military personnel in recent years. We used path analysis to examine factors associated with suicidal/self-harming ideation among male Navy and Marine Corps personnel transitioning to civilian life. Roughly 7% of men (Sailors = 5.3%, Marines = 9.0%) reported ideation during the previous 30 days. Results…

  18. Research on Role Sets and Emotional Relationships in Military Personnel Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtazina, Elmira I.; Minullina, Aida F.

    2016-01-01

    An urgent demand of society to conduct effective work with the family substantiates the relevance of the research. The article provides the investigation of role sets and emotional relationships in marriage through the study of military personnel and nonmilitary personnel families. Practical implementation of psychological ideas represents one of…

  19. Adolescent pregnancy in the U.S. military: what we know and what we need to know.

    PubMed

    Klein, David A; Adelman, William P

    2008-07-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a significant public health problem in the United States, but little is known about this condition in military-affiliated populations. This article reviews what is known about adolescent pregnancy among (1) dependent children of active duty and retired personnel and (2) active duty military personnel. Sparse and conflicting evidence exists regarding the prevalence of, the risk factors for, and the impacts of pregnancy in the dependent child population. Limited evidence regarding active duty service members reveals risky behavior by young military personnel, failure to effectively use contraception, and resulting pregnancies that consume military resources and diminish deployability and retention. We suggest research questions for further study that could lead to interventions targeting unintended adolescent pregnancy and its attendant tolls on health, budgets, military readiness, and fighting strength. PMID:18700600

  20. Adolescent pregnancy in the U.S. military: what we know and what we need to know.

    PubMed

    Klein, David A; Adelman, William P

    2008-07-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a significant public health problem in the United States, but little is known about this condition in military-affiliated populations. This article reviews what is known about adolescent pregnancy among (1) dependent children of active duty and retired personnel and (2) active duty military personnel. Sparse and conflicting evidence exists regarding the prevalence of, the risk factors for, and the impacts of pregnancy in the dependent child population. Limited evidence regarding active duty service members reveals risky behavior by young military personnel, failure to effectively use contraception, and resulting pregnancies that consume military resources and diminish deployability and retention. We suggest research questions for further study that could lead to interventions targeting unintended adolescent pregnancy and its attendant tolls on health, budgets, military readiness, and fighting strength.

  1. Seroconversion for infectious pathogens among UK military personnel deployed to Afghanistan, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Newman, Edmund N C; Johnstone, Penelope; Bridge, Hannah; Wright, Deborah; Jameson, Lisa; Bosworth, Andrew; Hatch, Rebecca; Hayward-Karlsson, Jenny; Osborne, Jane; Bailey, Mark S; Green, Andrew; Ross, David; Brooks, Tim; Hewson, Roger

    2014-12-01

    Military personnel are at high risk of contracting vector-borne and zoonotic infections, particularly during overseas deployments, when they may be exposed to endemic or emerging infections not prevalent in their native countries. We conducted seroprevalence testing of 467 UK military personnel deployed to Helmand Province, Afghanistan, during 2008-2011 and found that up to 3.1% showed seroconversion for infection with Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, sandfly fever virus, or hantavirus; none showed seroconversion for infection with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Most seroconversions occurred in personnel who did not report illness, except for those with hantavirus (70% symptomatic). These results indicate that many exposures to infectious pathogens, and potentially infections resulting from those exposures, may go unreported. Our findings reinforce the need for continued surveillance of military personnel and for education of health care providers to help recognize and prevent illnesses and transmission of pathogens during and after overseas deployments.

  2. Seroconversion for Infectious Pathogens among UK Military Personnel Deployed to Afghanistan, 2008–2011

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Penelope; Bridge, Hannah; Wright, Deborah; Jameson, Lisa; Bosworth, Andrew; Hatch, Rebecca; Hayward-Karlsson, Jenny; Osborne, Jane; Bailey, Mark S.; Green, Andrew; Ross, David; Brooks, Tim; Hewson, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Military personnel are at high risk of contracting vector-borne and zoonotic infections, particularly during overseas deployments, when they may be exposed to endemic or emerging infections not prevalent in their native countries. We conducted seroprevalence testing of 467 UK military personnel deployed to Helmand Province, Afghanistan, during 2008–2011 and found that up to 3.1% showed seroconversion for infection with Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, sandfly fever virus, or hantavirus; none showed seroconversion for infection with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Most seroconversions occurred in personnel who did not report illness, except for those with hantavirus (70% symptomatic). These results indicate that many exposures to infectious pathogens, and potentially infections resulting from those exposures, may go unreported. Our findings reinforce the need for continued surveillance of military personnel and for education of health care providers to help recognize and prevent illnesses and transmission of pathogens during and after overseas deployments. PMID:25418685

  3. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbon monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions Candidate proteins and mi

  4. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Joseph N.; Brewer, Heather M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Weitz, Karl K.; Morris, Michael J.; Skabelund, Andrew J.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.; Cho, Ji -Hoon; Gelinas, Richard

    2014-10-05

    Background: We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods: Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbon monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results: Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions: Candidate proteins and mi

  5. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Joseph N.; Brewer, Heather M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Weitz, Karl K.; Morris, Michael J.; Skabelund, Andrew J.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.; Cho, Ji -Hoon; Gelinas, Richard

    2014-10-05

    Background: We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods: Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbonmore » monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results: Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions: Candidate proteins

  6. Unintended Pregnancy and Contraception Among Active Duty Servicewomen and Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Vinita; Borrero, Sonya; Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla

    2012-01-01

    The number of women of childbearing age who are active duty service members or veterans of the U.S. military is increasing. These women may seek reproductive health care at medical facilities operated by the military, in the civilian sector or through the Department of Veterans Affairs. This article reviews the current data on unintended pregnancy and prevalence of and barriers to contraceptive use among active duty and veteran women. Active duty servicewomen have high rates of unintended pregnancy and low contraceptive use which may be due to official prohibition of sexual activity in the military, logistic difficulties faced by deployed women and limited patient and provider knowledge of available contraceptives. In comparison, little is known about rates of unintended pregnancy and contraceptive use among women veterans. Based on this review, research recommendations to address these issues are provided. PMID:22200252

  7. Description of risk and resilience factors among military medical personnel before deployment to Iraq.

    PubMed

    Maguen, Shira; Turcotte, Diane M; Peterson, Alan L; Dremsa, Theresa L; Garb, Howard N; McNally, Richard J; Litz, Brett T

    2008-01-01

    Military medical personnel preparing for deployment to Iraq (N = 328) participated in a survey concerning predeployment risk and resilience factors. Participants reported exposure to an average of 2.5 potentially traumatic events before deployment and 76% (n = 229) reported at least two current concerns about predeployment stressors. Military personnel also endorsed a series of positive appraisals of the military, the mission, and their unit. Fairly low levels of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms before deployment were reported and positive affect was significantly higher than reported negative affect. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms that were present before deployment were most strongly associated with risk factors, whereas positive affect was most strongly associated with resilience factors. Predeployment negative affect was associated with a combination of risk and resilience factors. These findings have implications for possible interventions and preparation of medical personnel before military deployment. A better understanding of the factors related to risk and resilience in military medical personnel will allow for improved screening, educational, training, and clinical programs aimed at increasing resilience before military deployments.

  8. [Problems and prospects of infectious diseases and HIV-infected military personnel register organization].

    PubMed

    Bolekhan, V N; Zagorodnikov, G G; Gorichnyĭ, V A; Orlova, E S; Nikolaev, P G

    2014-08-01

    An analysis of regulatory documents of the Ministry of Healthcare and the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation related to HIV/AIDS prevention was carried out. The current system of HIV/AIDS detection and registration among military and civil personnel was assessed. Problems and prospects of scientific-and-research laboratory (the register of infectious disease pathology and HIV-infected military personnel) of Scientific-and-research centre at the Kirov Military medical academy were discussed. It is proposed that the main direction of the laboratory activity will be the restoration of up-to-date records of military personnel with HIV/AIDS. This activity will provide the necessary information to responsible specialists of the Main state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance centre and the Main military medical department of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation for the sanitary and epidemiological surveillance for purposeful and economically feasible management decisions in the field of military personnel infection diseases prevention.

  9. Diagnosis and management of chronic lung disease in deployed military personnel.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael J; Lucero, Pedro F; Zanders, Thomas B; Zacher, Lisa L

    2013-08-01

    Military personnel are a unique group of individuals referred to the pulmonary physician for evaluation. Despite accession standards that limit entrance into the military for individuals with various pre-existing lung diseases, the most common disorders found in the general population such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remain frequently diagnosed. Military personnel generally tend to be a more physically fit population who are required to exercise on a regular basis and as such may have earlier presentations of disease than their civilian counterparts. Exertional dyspnea is a common complaint; establishing a diagnosis may be challenging given the subtle nature of symptoms and lack of specificity with pulmonary function testing. The conflicts over the past 10 years in Iraq and Afghanistan have also given rise to new challenges for deployed military. Various respiratory hazards in the deployed environment include suspended geologic dusts, burn pits, vehicle exhaust emissions, industrial air pollution, and isolated exposure incidents and may give rise to both acute respiratory symptoms and chronic lung disease. In the evaluation of deployed military personnel, establishing the presence of actual pulmonary disease and the relationship of existing disease to deployment is an ongoing issue to both military and civilian physicians. This paper reviews the current evidence for chronic lung disease in the deployed military population and addresses any differences in diagnosis and management.

  10. Group Treatment for Wife-Battering Military Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldo, Michael

    Isolation from extended family, frequent geographic relocation, living in foreign countries, prolonged separation of spouses, occupational stress, prevalent cross-cultural marriages, financial problems and dependence of the civilian spouse on the military member have been cited as pressures which could contribute to wife-battering by military…

  11. Soldiering with Substance: Substance and Steroid Use among Military Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The military provides a unique social environment given the organization and culture of the institution. Understanding substance use by those inside this institution provides insight into both the population as well as substance use in general. Using data collected from in-depth interviews, this article explores the nature and extent of substance…

  12. Military Occupational Data Bank (MODB): Personnel Selection and Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    The regulation contains policy guidance, administrative procedures, and responsibilities for the operation and maintenance of the Military Occupational Data Bank (MODB). It revises a former regulation governing the MODB method of operation by revising the list of occupational data collection agencies and by providing expanded information…

  13. Chemical means of protecting US military personnel from mosquito bites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1942, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has examined over 30,000 repellents and insecticides for the U.S. military. The repellent research has focused on discovery of repellents that work on clothing, skin, and at a distance (spatial repellents). Borne out of this research is...

  14. Narrative transformation among military personnel on an adventurous training and sport course.

    PubMed

    Carless, David

    2014-10-01

    In the wake of recent wars, some military personnel face considerable physical and mental health problems. In this article I explore the effects of an adapted sport and inclusive adventurous training course for military personnel who have experienced physical injury and/or psychological trauma. Using a dialogical narrative approach, I analyzed stories shared by six soldiers during the course to explore the effects of involvement. Participation in the course seemed to facilitate a narrative transformation or opening corresponding to a broadening identity and sense of self. Story plots progressed from a failing monological narrative, through a chaos narrative, toward a dialogical quest narrative prioritizing immersion in an intense present, a developing self, and a relational orientation. On the basis of narrative theory, I suggest this transformation holds positive consequences for the health and well-being of military personnel who have experienced injury and/or trauma. PMID:25147220

  15. Mental Health and Substance Use Factors Associated With Unwanted Sexual Contact Among U.S. Active Duty Service Women.

    PubMed

    Stahlman, Shauna; Javanbakht, Marjan; Cochran, Susan; Hamilton, Alison B; Shoptaw, Steven; Gorbach, Pamina M

    2015-06-01

    Many U.S. military women are exposed to unwanted sexual contact during military service, which can have important implications for mental health. Using data from the 2008 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors, we employed multiple logistic regression methods to examine whether unwanted sexual contact was associated with stress, screening positive for mental disorders, or substance use, among active duty service women. The sample included 7,415 female military personnel, of whom 13.4% reported unwanted sexual contact (including any touching of genitals) since entering the military. After adjusting for potentially confounding variables, factors independently associated with unwanted sexual contact included military-related stress (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.44), family/personal life-related stress (AOR = 1.78), and gender-related stress (AOR = 1.98) in the past 12 months. In addition, screening positive for depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, or psychological distress, and suicidal ideation or attempt were associated with unwanted sexual contact (AOR = 1.57-2.11). For drug/alcohol use, only misuse of tranquilizers/muscle relaxers (past 12 months) was associated with report of unwanted sexual contact (AOR = 1.35). Given the prevalence of unwanted sexual contact and corresponding adverse health outcomes in this sample of active duty women, strategies to create military structural/cultural changes and reduce gender-related stress and sexism are needed. PMID:25976935

  16. Mental Health and Substance Use Factors Associated with Unwanted Sexual Contact among U.S. Active Duty Service Women

    PubMed Central

    Stahlman, Shauna; Javanbakht, Marjan; Cochran, Susan; Hamilton, Alison B.; Shoptaw, Steven; Gorbach, Pamina M.

    2015-01-01

    Many U.S. military women are exposed to unwanted sexual contact during military service, which can have important implications for mental health. Using data from the 2008 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors, we employed multiple logistic regression methods to examine whether unwanted sexual contact was associated with stress, screening positive for mental disorders, or substance use, among active duty service women. The sample included 7,415 female military personnel, of whom 13.4% reported unwanted sexual contact (including any touching of genitals) since entering the military. After adjusting for potentially confounding variables, factors independently associated with unwanted sexual contact included military-related stress (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 2.44), family/personal life-related stress (AOR = 1.78), and gender-related stress (AOR = 1.98) in the past 12 months. In addition, screening positive for depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation or attempt were associated with unwanted sexual contact (AOR = 1.57–2.11). For drug/alcohol use, only misuse of tranquilizers/muscle relaxers (past 12 months) was associated with report of unwanted sexual contact (AOR = 1.35). Given the prevalence of unwanted sexual contact and corresponding adverse health outcomes in this sample of active duty women, strategies to create military structural/cultural changes and reduce gender-related stress and sexism are needed. PMID:25976935

  17. Predictors of the Onset of Schizophrenia in US Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Weber, Natalya S; Larsen, Rakel A; Yolken, Robert H; Cowan, David N; Boivin, Michael R; Niebuhr, David W

    2015-05-01

    Alterations in immune response may be an important component in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We examined the associations of pentraxin-3 (PTX3) with the onset of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. We tested preonset serum specimens from 160 US military service members who were later diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and 160 matched controls without psychiatric disorders. Lower serum levels of PTX3 were predictive of schizophrenia but not of bipolar disorder. Subjects with below-median PTX3 levels had a 3.0 odds ratio (confidence interval, 1.6-5.7) for schizophrenia onset in the multivariable logistic regression model controlling for demographic and military variables. The test for trends was significant (p = 0.002), with the likelihood increasing as the levels of PTX3 decreased. Crude and adjusted categorized levels were not predictive of bipolar disorder. A lower level of inflammatory response indicated by PTX3 might be implicated in developing schizophrenia.

  18. Ranking of Stress in Military Personnel in Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad Marzabadi, Es.; Tarkhorani, H.

    In respect of the geographic features of the Persian Gulf (warmth, humidity) and the sensitivity of the region we performed this study to determine the stress of the personnel that works there. This is a cross sectional-descriptive study. The samples of this study are 766 personnel in Persian Gulf. The sampling method was clustering. The instruments of the study were stress self made questionnaire and the Holmes and Rahe questionnaire. The mean score of samples in stress was 204. While the accepted score of Holmes and Rahe questionnaire is 100. Also 34% of samples had scores higher than 250 and 38% had scores from 100 to 250. The mean score of samples was at least double than normal range and in respect to predict of questionnaire norm the persons that have scores between 100-250, have 50% more vulnerability to Psycho-Physiological disorders.

  19. Alcohol and stress in the military.

    PubMed

    Schumm, Jeremiah A; Chard, Kathleen M

    2012-01-01

    Although research has independently linked stress experienced by military personnel to both alcohol use and posttraumatic stress disorder, more recently researchers have noted that there also is a significant overlap between stress reactions and alcohol use in veterans and active-duty service members. This overlap seems to be most understood in individuals who have experienced combat or military sexual trauma. This article will provide a brief review of some potential causal mechanisms underlying this relationship, including self-medication and genetic vulnerability models. It also addresses the possible implications for assessment and treatment of military personnel with co-occurring disorders.

  20. 32 CFR 901.11 - Children of deceased or disabled veterans and children of military or civilian personnel in a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... children of military or civilian personnel in a missing status category. 901.11 Section 901.11 National... deceased or disabled veterans and children of military or civilian personnel in a missing status category... disease aggravated by active service. (b) The child of a parent who is in “missing status” is eligible...

  1. 32 CFR 901.11 - Children of deceased or disabled veterans and children of military or civilian personnel in a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... children of military or civilian personnel in a missing status category. 901.11 Section 901.11 National... deceased or disabled veterans and children of military or civilian personnel in a missing status category... disease aggravated by active service. (b) The child of a parent who is in “missing status” is eligible...

  2. 32 CFR 901.11 - Children of deceased or disabled veterans and children of military or civilian personnel in a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... children of military or civilian personnel in a missing status category. 901.11 Section 901.11 National... deceased or disabled veterans and children of military or civilian personnel in a missing status category... disease aggravated by active service. (b) The child of a parent who is in “missing status” is eligible...

  3. 32 CFR 901.11 - Children of deceased or disabled veterans and children of military or civilian personnel in a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... children of military or civilian personnel in a missing status category. 901.11 Section 901.11 National... deceased or disabled veterans and children of military or civilian personnel in a missing status category... disease aggravated by active service. (b) The child of a parent who is in “missing status” is eligible...

  4. 32 CFR 901.11 - Children of deceased or disabled veterans and children of military or civilian personnel in a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... children of military or civilian personnel in a missing status category. 901.11 Section 901.11 National... deceased or disabled veterans and children of military or civilian personnel in a missing status category... disease aggravated by active service. (b) The child of a parent who is in “missing status” is eligible...

  5. 21 CFR 1301.23 - Exemption of certain military and other personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exemption of certain military and other personnel. 1301.23 Section 1301.23 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... service identification number for a Public Health Service employee is his/her Social...

  6. 21 CFR 1301.23 - Exemption of certain military and other personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemption of certain military and other personnel. 1301.23 Section 1301.23 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... service identification number for a Public Health Service employee is his/her Social...

  7. 21 CFR 1301.23 - Exemption of certain military and other personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain military and other personnel. 1301.23 Section 1301.23 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... service identification number for a Public Health Service employee is his/her Social...

  8. Out of Uniform. A Career Transition Guide for Ex-Military Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drier, Harry N.

    This book is designed to help career military personnel make the transition to civilian life and careers. The first 14 chapters cover targeted issues and include many tips on how to cope with each important aspect of the transition. Topics include the following: psychology of transition, helping the family with the transition, financing the…

  9. All Around the World, U. of Maryland Offers Classes to U.S. Military Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Amy Magaro

    1997-01-01

    The University of Maryland University College is providing degree and continuing education to 20,000 military personnel with 1,000 faculty at 100 locations in Asia, Australia, Europe, the Middle East, Russia, and South America. Distance education is offered in Antarctica and Hong Kong. Almost every subject taught domestically is offered overseas.…

  10. Problems Faced by Military Personnel in Pursuing Higher Education Programs: A Study with Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, David W.; And Others

    This document contains five reports from a study that collected survey data on the practices and state trends affecting military personnel attending proprietary, private, and public postsecondary education institutions in 11 states and on the practices related to student transcript evaluation. The contents include "Introduction, State and…

  11. Effects of Parental Separation on the Academic Achievement of Children of Military Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gauge the effects of parental separation on the academic achievement and social/emotional behavior of children of military personnel. The research design was descriptive-exploratory in nature, utilizing both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The Teacher's Perception of Social Attributes (TPSA)…

  12. Lessons learned from producing health information booklets for deploying U.S. military personnel.

    PubMed

    Huycke, K A; Gambel, J M; Petruccelli, B P; Wasserman, G M

    1997-03-01

    Health information booklets deliver information to large groups quickly and economically. Rapidly deploying soldiers are a group that needs such information. Military personnel responsible for the health of troops should know of the materials produced to meet this need so that they can facilitate booklet distribution. The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research within the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command has produced health information booklets in support of deployments to Southwest Asia, Somalia, Rwanda, Haiti, and the former Republics of Yugoslavia. This article describes these booklets' content, use during military operations, distribution, costs, and benefits. A discussion of lessons learned includes steps to develop and evaluate health information and is followed by an explanation of the current situation. We offer suggestions to improve the booklet development process; our experience may be helpful to others developing health information materials for military personnel or civilians. PMID:9121670

  13. Compliance with Antimalarial Chemoprophylaxis Recommendations for Wounded United States Military Personnel Admitted to a Military Treatment Facility

    PubMed Central

    Rini, Elizabeth A.; Weintrob, Amy C.; Tribble, David R.; Lloyd, Bradley A.; Warkentien, Tyler E.; Shaikh, Faraz; Li, Ping; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M. Leigh; Murray, Clinton K.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria chemoprophylaxis is used as a preventive measure in military personnel deployed to malaria-endemic countries. However, limited information is available on compliance with chemoprophylaxis among trauma patients during hospitalization and after discharge. Therefore, we assessed antimalarial primary chemoprophylaxis and presumptive antirelapse therapy (primaquine) compliance among wounded United States military personnel after medical evacuation from Afghanistan (June 2009–August 2011) to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center in Landstuhl, Germany, and then to three U.S. military hospitals. Among admissions at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, 74% of 2,540 patients were prescribed primary chemoprophylaxis and < 1% were prescribed primaquine. After transfer of 1,331 patients to U.S. hospitals, 93% received primary chemoprophylaxis and 33% received primaquine. Of 751 trauma patients with available post-admission data, 42% received primary chemoprophylaxis for four weeks, 33% received primaquine for 14 days, and 17% received both. These antimalarial chemoprophylaxis prescription rates suggest that improved protocols to continue malaria chemoprophylaxis in accordance with force protection guidelines are needed. PMID:24732457

  14. Compliance with antimalarial chemoprophylaxis recommendations for wounded United States military personnel admitted to a military treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Rini, Elizabeth A; Weintrob, Amy C; Tribble, David R; Lloyd, Bradley A; Warkentien, Tyler E; Shaikh, Faraz; Li, Ping; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M Leigh; Murray, Clinton K

    2014-06-01

    Malaria chemoprophylaxis is used as a preventive measure in military personnel deployed to malaria-endemic countries. However, limited information is available on compliance with chemoprophylaxis among trauma patients during hospitalization and after discharge. Therefore, we assessed antimalarial primary chemoprophylaxis and presumptive antirelapse therapy (primaquine) compliance among wounded United States military personnel after medical evacuation from Afghanistan (June 2009-August 2011) to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center in Landstuhl, Germany, and then to three U.S. military hospitals. Among admissions at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, 74% of 2,540 patients were prescribed primary chemoprophylaxis and < 1% were prescribed primaquine. After transfer of 1,331 patients to U.S. hospitals, 93% received primary chemoprophylaxis and 33% received primaquine. Of 751 trauma patients with available post-admission data, 42% received primary chemoprophylaxis for four weeks, 33% received primaquine for 14 days, and 17% received both. These antimalarial chemoprophylaxis prescription rates suggest that improved protocols to continue malaria chemoprophylaxis in accordance with force protection guidelines are needed.

  15. Job Satisfaction and the Perceived Organizational Culture of U.S. Military and Military Affiliated Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diffenauer, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between demographic characteristics, level of job satisfaction, and current/preferred organizational culture in a sample of 139 off-campus military degree program participants. Responses were received from undergraduate students in the fields of engineering, applied sciences and arts, and education. "The Job…

  16. Correlates of pain symptoms among Iraq and Afghanistan military personnel following combat-related blast exposure.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Kelcey J; Hawn, Sage E; Amstadter, Ananda B; Cifu, David X; Walker, William C

    2014-01-01

    Pain complaints are highly prevalent among military servicemembers and Veterans of the recent combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. The high comorbidity of pain with conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) underscores the importance of a greater understanding of factors associated with complex polytraumatic injuries among military personnel. The present study aimed to identify correlates of current pain among 201 U.S. military personnel who reported at least one blast experience during combat deployment (age [mean +/– standard deviation]: 27.20 +/– 7.58 yr). Theoretically derived subsets of variables were analyzed in successive hierarchical regression models to determine correlates of self-reported pain symptoms. Preliminary models evaluated demographic features, medical and injury characteristics (e.g., TBI classification), psychosocial history (e.g., trauma exposure), and psychiatric variables. A final model was then derived, in which older age, possible or probable mild TBI, depression symptoms, and PTSD re-experiencing symptoms emerged as significant correlates of pain. The findings further the understanding of polytrauma symptoms among military personnel by identifying specific patient characteristics and comorbidity patterns related to pain complaints. Increased awareness of demographic, psychiatric, or medical factors implicated in pain will enhance comprehensive clinical assessment and intervention efforts. PMID:25789376

  17. A Dynamic Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder for Military Personnel and Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffarzadegan, Navid; Ebrahimvandi, Alireza; Jalali, Mohammad S.

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) stands out as a major mental illness; however, little is known about effective policies for mitigating the problem. The importance and complexity of PTSD raise critical questions: What are the trends in the population of PTSD patients among military personnel and veterans in the postwar era? What policies can help mitigate PTSD? To address these questions, we developed a system dynamics simulation model of the population of military personnel and veterans affected by PTSD. The model includes both military personnel and veterans in a “system of systems.” This is a novel aspect of our model, since many policies implemented at the military level will potentially influence (and may have side effects on) veterans and the Department of Veterans Affairs. The model is first validated by replicating the historical data on PTSD prevalence among military personnel and veterans from 2000 to 2014 (datasets from the Department of Defense, the Institute of Medicine, the Department of Veterans Affairs, and other sources). The model is then used for health policy analysis. Our results show that, in an optimistic scenario based on the status quo of deployment to intense/combat zones, estimated PTSD prevalence among veterans will be at least 10% during the next decade. The model postulates that during wars, resiliency-related policies are the most effective for decreasing PTSD. In a postwar period, current health policy interventions (e.g., screening and treatment) have marginal effects on mitigating the problem of PTSD, that is, the current screening and treatment policies must be revolutionized to have any noticeable effect. Furthermore, the simulation results show that it takes a long time, on the order of 40 years, to mitigate the psychiatric consequences of a war. Policy and financial implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:27716776

  18. Relationship between general nutrition knowledge and diet quality in Australian military personnel.

    PubMed

    Kullen, Charina J; Farrugia, Jamie-Lee; Prvan, Tania; O'Connor, Helen T

    2016-04-01

    A balanced diet informed by sound nutrition knowledge is key for operational readiness and the health of military personnel. Unfortunately, research suggests that military personnel have inadequate dietary intakes. This study assessed general nutrition knowledge, diet quality and their association in Australian military personnel. A convenience sample of male military personnel (n 211) including Army soldiers and officers completed a validated general nutrition knowledge questionnaire (GNKQ) and FFQ. The GNKQ assessed knowledge of dietary guidelines (Section A), sources of nutrients (Section B), choosing everyday foods (Section C) and diet-disease relationships (Section D). The Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) was used to assess diet quality from FFQ data. Statistical analyses included the χ 2 test, Spearman's correlation test, t test, median test, ANCOVA and ordinal logistic regression. The mean total GNKQ score was 52·7 %. Participants performed best on Section A (58·5 %) followed by Sections B (57·3 %) and C (57·0 %) and worst on Section D (31·0 %). Overall, officers scored significantly higher than soldiers (58·7 v. 51·9 %, P=0·001). Age was weakly but positively correlated with GNKQ total scores (r 0·307; P<0·0005), with no significant effects seen for level of education (P=0·463) or living arrangement (P=0·167). Overall ARFS was 37·6 (sd 7·7) (50·8 %) with officers scoring significantly higher than soldiers (54·7 v. 50·3 %, P=0·040). No demographic variables influenced total ARFS. The total GNKQ score had a significant, positive but weak relationship with total ARFS (r 0·179; P=0·009). Given the importance of nutrition to personnel health and operational readiness, initiatives to improve nutrition knowledge and diet quality are recommended in this population, especially in soldiers.

  19. Operational Stress and Correlates of Mental Health Among Joint Task Force Guantanamo Bay Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Webb-Murphy, Jennifer A; De La Rosa, Gabriel M; Schmitz, Kimberly J; Vishnyak, Elizabeth J; Raducha, Stephanie C; Roesch, Scott C; Johnston, Scott L

    2015-12-01

    Military personnel deployed to Joint Task Force Guantanamo Bay (JTF-GTMO) faced numerous occupational stressors. As part of a program evaluation, personnel working at JTF-GTMO completed several validated self-report measures. Personnel were at the beginning, middle, or end of their deployment phase. This study presents data regarding symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol abuse, depression, and resilience among 498 U.S. military personnel deployed to JTF-GTMO in 2009. We also investigated individual and organizational correlates of mental health among these personnel. Findings indicated that tenure at JTF-GTMO was positively related to adverse mental health outcomes. Regression models including these variables had R2 values ranging from .02 to .11. Occupation at JTF-GTMO also related to mental health such that guards reported poorer mental health than medical staff. Reluctance to seek out mental health care was also related to mental health outcomes. Those who reported being most reluctant to seek out care tended to report poorer mental health than those who were more willing to seek out care. Results suggested that the JTF-GTMO deployment was associated with significant psychological stress, and that both job-related and attitude-related variables were important to understanding mental health symptoms in this sample.

  20. [Modem information technologies for analysis of health status of military personnel].

    PubMed

    Sivashchenko, P P; Kushnirchuk, I I; Sorokin, S I

    2014-03-01

    Analysis of health status of military personnel is carried out in the interests of optimizing medical support personnel, maintaining a high level of health of servicemen, reducing morbidity. To perform this analysis it is necessary to compile materials about health status and morbidity in servicemen received from medical records. Selected data from medical records produced by mechanical summation of homogeneous diagnoses and time consuming. Today we have an opportunity to use common software for registration and result indices. So, by using the Excel program of Microsoft Office 2010, it is possible to implement the procedure for obtaining summary data from the electronic versions of documents medical records. By using the proposed algorithms allow authors to link the troop significantly optimize the process of accumulation, storage and use for analysis of the military - medical information, make the whole process of analysis of morbidity faster and more efficiently.

  1. Psychological morbidity, quality of life, and self-rated health in the military personnel

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Han-Wei; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Chou, Yu-Ching; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Cheng; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective The mental health of military personnel varies as a result of different cultural, political, and administrative factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychological morbidity and quality of life of military personnel in Taiwan. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study utilized the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, brief version, Taiwan version, the General Health Questionnaire-12, Chinese version, and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) in several military units. Results More than half of the subjects (55.3%) identified themselves as mentally unhealthy on the General Health Questionnaire-12, Chinese version; however, a higher percentage of officers perceived themselves as healthy (57.4%) than did noncommissioned officers (38.5%) or enlisted men (42.2%). Officers also had higher total quality of life (QOL) scores (83.98) than did enlisted men (79.67). Scores on the VAS also varied: officers: 72.5; noncommissioned officers: 67.7; and enlisted men: 66.3. The VAS and QOL were positively correlated with perceived mental health among these military personnel. Conclusion Our subjects had higher rates of perceiving themselves as mentally unhealthy compared to the general population. Those of higher rank perceived themselves as having better mental health and QOL. Improving mental health could result in a better QOL in the military. The VAS may be a useful tool for the rapid screening of self-reported mental health, which may be suitable in cases of stressful missions, such as in disaster rescue; however, more studies are needed to determine the optimal cut-off point of this measurement tool. PMID:24570587

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of Escherichia coli Isolates from Wounded Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Arivett, Brock A; Ream, Dave C; Fiester, Steven E; Kidane, Destaalem; Actis, Luis A

    2016-08-11

    Members of the Escherichia coli bacterial family have been grouped as ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogens because of their extensive drug resistance phenotypes and increasing threat to human health. The genomes of six extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli strains isolated from wounded military personnel were sequenced and annotated.

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates from Wounded Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Arivett, Brock A; Ream, Dave C; Fiester, Steven E; Kidane, Destaalem; Actis, Luis A

    2016-08-25

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative bacterium capable of causing hospital-acquired infections that has been grouped with Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species as ESKAPE pathogens because of their extensive drug resistance phenotypes and increasing risk to human health. Twenty-four multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains isolated from wounded military personnel were sequenced and annotated.

  4. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Wounded Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Arivett, Brock A; Ream, Dave C; Fiester, Steven E; Kidane, Destaalem; Actis, Luis A

    2016-08-11

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium that causes severe hospital-acquired infections, is grouped as an ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogen because of its extensive drug resistance phenotypes and effects on human health worldwide. Five multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa strains isolated from wounded military personnel were sequenced and annotated in this work.

  5. Draft Genome Sequences of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates from Wounded Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Arivett, Brock A; Ream, Dave C; Fiester, Steven E; Kidane, Destaalem; Actis, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative bacterium capable of causing hospital-acquired infections that has been grouped with Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species as ESKAPE pathogens because of their extensive drug resistance phenotypes and increasing risk to human health. Twenty-four multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains isolated from wounded military personnel were sequenced and annotated. PMID:27563036

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates from Wounded Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Arivett, Brock A.; Ream, Dave C.; Fiester, Steven E.; Kidane, Destaalem

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative bacterium capable of causing hospital-acquired infections that has been grouped with Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species as ESKAPE pathogens because of their extensive drug resistance phenotypes and increasing risk to human health. Twenty-four multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains isolated from wounded military personnel were sequenced and annotated. PMID:27563036

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Wounded Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Arivett, Brock A.; Ream, Dave C.; Fiester, Steven E.; Kidane, Destaalem

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium that causes severe hospital-acquired infections, is grouped as an ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogen because of its extensive drug resistance phenotypes and effects on human health worldwide. Five multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa strains isolated from wounded military personnel were sequenced and annotated in this work. PMID:27516516

  8. Draft Genome Sequences of Escherichia coli Isolates from Wounded Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Arivett, Brock A.; Ream, Dave C.; Fiester, Steven E.; Kidane, Destaalem

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Escherichia coli bacterial family have been grouped as ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogens because of their extensive drug resistance phenotypes and increasing threat to human health. The genomes of six extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli strains isolated from wounded military personnel were sequenced and annotated. PMID:27516515

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Wounded Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Arivett, Brock A; Ream, Dave C; Fiester, Steven E; Kidane, Destaalem; Actis, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium that causes severe hospital-acquired infections, is grouped as an ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogen because of its extensive drug resistance phenotypes and effects on human health worldwide. Five multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa strains isolated from wounded military personnel were sequenced and annotated in this work. PMID:27516516

  10. Draft Genome Sequences of Escherichia coli Isolates from Wounded Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Arivett, Brock A; Ream, Dave C; Fiester, Steven E; Kidane, Destaalem; Actis, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Escherichia coli bacterial family have been grouped as ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogens because of their extensive drug resistance phenotypes and increasing threat to human health. The genomes of six extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli strains isolated from wounded military personnel were sequenced and annotated. PMID:27516515

  11. Cognitive changes and dementia risk after traumatic brain injury: implications for aging military personnel.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Andrea S; Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa M; Cernich, Alison

    2014-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is recognized as an important risk factor for the long-term cognitive health of military personnel, particularly in light of growing evidence that TBI increases risk for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. In this article, we review the neurocognitive and neuropathologic changes after TBI with particular focus on the potential risk for cognitive decline across the life span in military service members. Implications for monitoring and surveillance of cognition in the aging military population are discussed. Additional studies are needed to clarify the factors that increase risk for later life cognitive decline, define the mechanistic link between these factors and dementia, and provide empirically supported interventions to mitigate the impact of TBI on cognition across the life span.

  12. [Biostatistical study on health surveillance of Military Navy personnel in Sicilia and Calabria regions].

    PubMed

    Gaudioso, F; Anastasio, G; Truglio, O; Managò, A; Fuda, P; Degano, F; Toscano, A; Iermano, P

    2007-01-01

    The Maritime Military Health submit to periodic medical examination civilian employees exposed to health risks and all military personnel. The latest, because of particular use in operational duties, as well as the characteristic of seafarers employed, undergoes an extensive medical protocol. In 2006 there were around 3200 access to the Service of Medicine Labor Navy Hospital in Augusta (SR). We wanted then to make a collection of data with purpose to highlight the diseases that most often affect the area of military jurisdiction. The illnesses were divided into two main groups: those who did not produce any result on the job because of insignificant impact functional, and those for which they have been taken to unfitness, temporary or permanent. From a statistical evaluation of the acquired data, it results that most affected systems are the skeletical, hematologic, psychic, ENT, heart, the Body Mass Index.

  13. HIV infection among U.S. Army and Air Force military personnel: sociodemographic and genotyping analysis.

    PubMed

    Singer, Darrell E; Bautista, Christian T; O'Connell, Robert J; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Agan, Brian K; Kijak, Gustavo H; Hakre, Shilpa; Sanchez, Jose L; Sateren, Warren B; McCutchan, Francine E; Michael, Nelson L; Scott, Paul T

    2010-08-01

    Since 1985, the U.S. Department of Defense has periodically screened all military personnel for HIV allowing for the monitoring of the infection in this dynamic cohort population. A nested case-control study was performed to study sociodemographics, overseas assignment, and molecular analysis of HIV. Cases were newly identified HIV infections among U.S. Army and Air Force military personnel from 2000 to 2004. Controls were frequency matched to cases by gender and date of case first positive HIV screening test. Genotyping analysis was performed using high-throughput screening assays and partial genome sequencing. HIV was significantly associated with black race [odds ratio (OR) = 6.65], single marital status (OR = 4.45), and age (OR per year = 1.07). Ninety-seven percent were subtype B and 3% were non-B subtypes (A3, CRF01_AE, A/C recombinant, G, CRF02_AG). Among cases, overseas assignment in the period at risk prior to their first HIV-positive test was associated with non-B HIV subtype infection (OR = 8.44). Black and single military personnel remain disproportionately affected by HIV infection. Most non-B HIV subtypes were associated with overseas assignment. Given the increased frequency and length of assignments, and the expanding HIV genetic diversity observed in this population, there is a need for active HIV genotyping surveillance and a need to reinforce primary HIV prevention efforts.

  14. Neurocognitive performance and prior injury among U.S. Department of Defense military personnel.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Susan P; Nieto, Kenneth; Heaton, Kristin J; Dillon, Caitlin C; Schlegel, Robert E; Russell, Michael L; Vincent, Andrea S

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the neurocognitive performance of U.S. military personnel completing the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (version 4) TBI Military (ANAM4 TBI-MIL) battery as part of the Department of Defense Neurocognitive Functional Assessment Program. Descriptive analyses utilizing the ANAM4TBI Military Performance Database were performed. We examined ANAM Composite Score (ACS) differences between five injury subgroups (no injury, brain injury with current symptoms, brain injury without current symptoms, nonbrain injury with current symptoms, and nonbrain injury without current symptoms) using general linear mixed modeling. Almost 11% (70,472/641,285) reported brain injury in the 4 years before assessment. The ACS differed significantly by injury group (p < 0.0001). In comparison to the no injury group, those reporting brain injury with current symptoms (d = -0.44) and nonbrain injury with current symptoms (d = -0.24) demonstrated significantly reduced ACS scores (p < 0.0001) indicative of reduced neurocognitive proficiency. In this population-based study of U.S. military personnel, neurocognitive performance was significantly associated with reported injury within the past 4 years among those experiencing current symptoms. Occupational programs focusing on prospective brain health of injured population groups are warranted.

  15. Prevalence of Tuberculosis among Veterans, Military Personnel and their Families in East Azerbaijan Province Violators of the last 15 Years.

    PubMed

    Azad Aminjan, Maboud; Moaddab, Seyyed Reza; Hosseini Ravandi, Mohammad; Kazemi Haki, Behzad

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays in the world, tuberculosis is the second largest killer of adults after HIV. Due to the location of presidios that is mostly located in hazardous zones soldiers and army personnel are considered high risk, therefore we decided to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis status in this group of people. This was a cross-sectional descriptive research that studied the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in soldiers and military personnel in the last 15 years in tuberculosis and lung disease research center at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The statistical population consisted of all the soldiers and military personnel. The detection method in this study was based on microscopic examination following Ziehl-Neelsen Stain and in Leuven Stein Johnson culturing. Descriptive statistics was used for statistical analysis and statistical values less than 0.05 were considered significant. By review information in this center since the 1988-2013 with 72 military personnel suffering from tuberculosis, it was revealed that among them 30 women, 42 men, 14 soldiers, 29 family members, and 29 military personnel are pointed. A significant correlation was found between TB rates among military personnel and their families. Although in recent years, the national statistics indicate a decline of tuberculosis, but the results of our study showed that TB is still a serious disease that must comply with the first symptoms of tuberculosis in military personnel and their families that should be diagnosed as soon as possible.

  16. Prevalence and incidence of hepatitis C virus infection in the US military: a seroepidemiologic survey of 21,000 troops.

    PubMed

    Hyams, K C; Riddle, J; Rubertone, M; Trump, D; Alter, M J; Cruess, D F; Han, X; Nainam, O V; Seeff, L B; Mazzuchi, J F; Bailey, S

    2001-04-15

    Because of a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (10-20%) among veterans seeking care in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals, current US military forces were evaluated for HCV infection. Banked serum samples were randomly selected from military personnel serving in 1997 and were tested for antibody to HCV (anti-HCV). Overall prevalence of anti-HCV among 10,000 active-duty personnel was 0.48% (5/1,000 troops); prevalence increased with age from 0.1% among military recruits and active-duty personnel aged <30 years to 3.0% among troops aged >/=40 years. Prevalence among 2,000 Reservists and active-duty troops was similar. Based on sequential serum samples from 7,368 active-duty personnel (34,020 person-years of observation), annual incidence of infection was 2/10,000. Of 81 HCV RNA-positive troops for whom genotype was determined, genotypes 1a (63%) and 1b (22%) predominated, as in the civilian population. These data indicate that HCV infection risk among current military forces is lower than in VA studies and the general civilian population aged <40 years. The low level of HCV infection may be attributed to infrequent injection drug use in the military due to mandatory testing for illicit drugs prior to induction and throughout military service.

  17. Occupational exposure of personnel operating military radio equipment: measurements and simulation.

    PubMed

    Paljanos, Annamaria; Miclaus, Simona; Munteanu, Calin

    2015-09-01

    Technical literature provides numerous studies concerning radiofrequency exposure measurements for various radio communication devices, but there are few studies related to exposure of personnel operating military radio equipment. In order to evaluate exposure and identify cases when safety requirements are not entirely met, both measurements and simulations are needed for accurate results. Moreover, given the technical characteristics of the radio devices used in the military, personnel mainly operate in the near-field region so both measurements and simulation becomes more complex. Measurements were made in situ using a broadband personal exposimeter equipped with two isotropic probes for both electric and magnetic components of the field. The experiment was designed for three different operating frequencies of the same radio equipment, while simulations were made in FEKO software using hybrid numerical methods to solve complex electromagnetic field problems. The paper aims to discuss the comparative results of the measurements and simulation, as well as comparing them to reference levels specified in military or civilian radiofrequency exposure standards.

  18. A malaria vaccine for travelers and military personnel: Requirements and top candidates.

    PubMed

    Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Lumsden, Joanne; Villasante, Eileen

    2015-12-22

    Malaria remains an important health threat to non-immune travelers with the explosive growth of global travel. Populations at high risk of acquiring malaria infections include once semi-immune travelers who visit friends and relatives, military forces, business travelers and international tourists with destinations to sub-Saharan Africa, where malaria transmission intensity is high. Most malaria cases have been associated with poor compliance with existing preventive measures, including chemoprophylaxis. High risk groups would benefit immensely from an efficacious vaccine to protect them against malaria infection and together make up a sizable market for such a vaccine. The attributes of an ideal malaria vaccine for non-immune travelers and military personnel include a protective efficacy of 80% or greater, durability for at least 6 months, an acceptable safety profile and compatibility with existing preventive measures. It is very likely that a malaria vaccine designed to effectively prevent infection and clinical disease in the non-immune traveler and military personnel will also protect semi-immune residents of malaria-endemic areas and contribute to malaria elimination by reducing or blocking malaria transmission. The RTS,S vaccine (GlaxoSmithKline) and the PfSPZ Vaccine (Sanaria Inc) are the leading products that would make excellent vaccine candidates for these vulnerable populations.

  19. The relationship between life adjustment and parental bonding in military personnel with adjustment disorder in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    For-Wey, Lung; Fei-Yin, Lee; Bih-Ching, Shu

    2002-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the characteristics of military personnel with adjustment disorder to give them more appropriate treatment. The participants were 36 military personnel who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria of adjustment disorder as diagnosed by a psychiatrist at a teaching hospital in southern Taiwan. Another 24 persons were recruited as an age-matched control group. Each individual completed the clinical interview and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and then completed the questionnaires which included demographic information, the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and the Chinese Health Questionnaire. We found statistically significant differences between the case and control groups in personality and parental bonding attitudes. Soldiers with higher neuroticism, lower extraversion, and maternal overprotection had an increased risk of suffering from adjustment disorder. The inclusion of family function and the military environment and such other factors as cultural variables is recommended for future study. The statistical approach of structural equation modeling also should be considered in future studies to determine competing risk factors and mediating effects.

  20. Hearing Loss and Tinnitus in Military Personnel with Deployment-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Karch, Stephanie J; Capó-Aponte, José E; McIlwain, D Scott; Lo, Michael; Krishnamurti, Sridhar; Staton, Roger N; Jorgensen-Wagers, Kendra

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze differences in incidence and epidemiologic risk factors for significant threshold shift (STS) and tinnitus in deployed military personnel diagnosed with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) due to either a blast exposure or nonblast head injury. A retrospective longitudinal cohort study of electronic health records of 500 military personnel (456 met inclusion criteria) diagnosed with deployment-related mTBI was completed. Chi-square tests and STS incidence rates were calculated to assess differences between blast-exposed and nonblast groups; relative risks and adjusted odds ratios of developing STS or tinnitus were calculated for risk factors. Risk factors included such characteristics as mechanism of injury, age, race, military occupational specialty, concurrent diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and nicotine use. Among blast-exposed and nonblast patients, 67% and 58%, respectively, developed STS, (P=.06); 59% and 40%, respectively, developed tinnitus (P<.001). Incidence of STS was 24% higher in the blast-exposed than nonblast group. Infantry service was associated with STS; Marine Corps service, PTSD, and zolpidem use were associated with tinnitus. Unprotected noise exposure was associated with both STS and tinnitus. This study highlights potential risk factors for STS and tinnitus among blast-exposed and nonblast mTBI patient groups. PMID:27613210

  1. Virtual reality exposure therapy for active duty soldiers.

    PubMed

    Reger, Greg M; Gahm, Gregory A

    2008-08-01

    Virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy is a promising treatment for a variety of anxiety disorders and has recently been extended to the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this article, the authors briefly review the rationale for VRE and its key processes. They illustrate the treatment with an active-duty Army soldier diagnosed with combat-related PTSD. Six sessions of VRE were provided using an immersive simulation of a military convoy in Iraq. Self-reported PTSD symptoms and psychological distress were reduced at posttreatment relative to pretreatment reports, as assessed by the PTSD Checklist-Military Version and the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale-24. The case outcomes parallel those reported in the research with other disorders and suggest the applicability of VRE in treating active duty soldiers with combat-related PTSD. PMID:18612993

  2. PREDICTORS OF POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER IN MILITARY PERSONNEL DEPLOYED TO PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS.

    PubMed

    Sikharulidze, G; Oniani, T; Gugushvili, N

    2016-04-01

    As the empirical evidence suggests PTSD, depression and anxiety represent prevalent and severe problem in armed forces. High co morbidity of these disorders with each other further complicates clinical picture. Georgian military personnel regularly take part in different peacekeeping missions, however there is no existing data regarding associations of mental health problems in Georgian armed forces. Data was collected between 2014 and 2015, after 6 month deployment. Participants were 2810 Georgian military personnel who took part in peacekeeping missions. All participants were male, average age: M=31,2 (SD=6,3). All instruments used in the study were self-report scales. PTSD was measured by PCL-5; Depression and anxiety was measured by PHQ (Patient Health Questionnaire). Both variables - Severity of Anxiety symptoms and severity of depression symptoms independently predicted PTSD, but after being placed together in the same regression model, only depression symptom severity accounted for significant portion of variance. Due to the fact that the participants of our study (n=69) were young (M=29,68 ; SD=5,8) male personnel, our findings cannot be generalized. Also it should be considered, that for PTSD screening we used self-report questionnaires, which reduces liability of participants' answers and increases the tendency of self-biased responses. It is advisable for clinical practitioners and therapists to consider depression symptoms in patients with PTSD and screen for depression additionally, in order to exclude or include co morbidity factors in treatment course. PMID:27249442

  3. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria colonization of healthy US military personnel in the US and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The US military has seen steady increases in multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections in casualties from Iraq and Afghanistan. This study evaluates the prevalence of MDR GNB colonization in US military personnel. Methods GNB colonization surveillance of healthy, asymptomatic military personnel (101 in the US and 100 in Afghanistan) was performed by swabbing 7 anatomical sites. US-based personnel had received no antibiotics within 30 days of specimen collection, and Afghanistan-based personnel were receiving doxycycline for malaria chemoprophylaxis at time of specimen collection. Isolates underwent genotypic and phenotypic characterization. Results The only colonizing MDR GNB recovered in both populations was Escherichia coli (p=0.01), which was seen in 2% of US-based personnel (all perirectal) and 11% of Afghanistan-based personnel (10 perirectal, 1 foot+groin). Individuals with higher off-base exposures in Afghanistan did not show a difference in overall GNB colonization or MDR E. coli colonization, compared with those with limited off-base exposures. Conclusion Healthy US- and Afghanistan-based military personnel have community onset-MDR E. coli colonization, with Afghanistan-based personnel showing a 5.5-fold higher prevalence. The association of doxycycline prophylaxis or other exposures with antimicrobial resistance and increased rates of MDR E. coli colonization needs further evaluation. PMID:23384348

  4. 32 CFR 884.6 - Requests by Federal authorities for military personnel stationed within the United States and its...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requests by Federal authorities for military personnel stationed within the United States and its possessions. 884.6 Section 884.6 National Defense... personnel stationed within the United States and its possessions. (a) When Federal authorities request...

  5. 32 CFR 724.405 - Commandant of the Marine Corps or the Commander, Naval Military Personnel Command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Naval Military Personnel Command. 724.405 Section 724.405 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Principal Elements of the Navy Department Discharge Review System § 724.405 Commandant of the Marine Corps or the Commander, Naval...

  6. 32 CFR 724.405 - Commandant of the Marine Corps or the Commander, Naval Military Personnel Command.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Naval Military Personnel Command. 724.405 Section 724.405 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Principal Elements of the Navy Department Discharge Review System § 724.405 Commandant of the Marine Corps or the Commander, Naval...

  7. Development of a VR therapy application for Iraq war military personnel with PTSD.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Albert; Pair, Jarrell; McNerney, Peter J; Eastlund, Ernie; Manson, Brian; Gratch, Jon; Hill, Randy; Swartout, Bill

    2005-01-01

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is reported to be caused by traumatic events that are outside the range of usual human experiences including (but not limited to) military combat, violent personal assault, being kidnapped or taken hostage and terrorist attacks. Initial data suggests that 1 out of 6 returning Iraq War military personnel are exhibiting symptoms of depression, anxiety and PTSD. Virtual Reality (VR) exposure therapy has been used in previous treatments of PTSD patients with reports of positive outcomes. The aim of the current paper is to specify the rationale, design and development of an Iraq War PTSD VR application that is being created from the virtual assets that were initially developed for theX-Box game entitled Full Spectrum Warrior which was inspired by a combat tactical training simulation, Full Spectrum Command. PMID:15718769

  8. Is there an optimal vitamin D status for immunity in athletes and military personnel?

    PubMed

    He, Cheng-Shiun; Aw Yong, Xin Hui; Walsh, Neil P; Gleeson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is mainly obtained through sunlight ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposure of the skin, with a small amount typically coming from the diet.It is now clear that vitamin D has important roles beyond its well-known effects on calcium and bone homeostasis. Immune cells express the vitamin D receptor, including antigen presenting cells, T cells and B cells, and these cells are all capable of synthesizing the biologically active vitamin D metabolite, 1, 25 hydroxy vitamin D.There has been growing interest in the benefits of supplementing vitamin D as studies report vitamin D insufficiency (circulating 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) in more than half of all athletes and military personnel tested during the winter, when skin sunlight UVB is negligible. The overwhelming evidence supports avoiding vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D< 30 nmol/L)to maintain immunity and prevent upper respiratory illness (URI) in athletes and military personnel.Recent evidence supports an optimal circulating 25(OH)D of 75 nmol/L to prevent URI and enhance innate immunity and mucosal immunity and bring about anti-inflammatory actions through the induction of regulatory T cells and the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We provide practical recommendations for how vitamin D sufficiency can be achieved in most individuals by safe sunlight exposure in the summer and daily 1, 000 IU vitamin D3 supplementation in the winter. Studies are required in athletes and military personnel to determine the impact of these recommendations on immunity and URI; and,to demonstrate the purported benefit of achieving 25(OH)D>75 nmol/L. PMID:26853300

  9. Is there an optimal vitamin D status for immunity in athletes and military personnel?

    PubMed

    He, Cheng-Shiun; Aw Yong, Xin Hui; Walsh, Neil P; Gleeson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is mainly obtained through sunlight ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposure of the skin, with a small amount typically coming from the diet.It is now clear that vitamin D has important roles beyond its well-known effects on calcium and bone homeostasis. Immune cells express the vitamin D receptor, including antigen presenting cells, T cells and B cells, and these cells are all capable of synthesizing the biologically active vitamin D metabolite, 1, 25 hydroxy vitamin D.There has been growing interest in the benefits of supplementing vitamin D as studies report vitamin D insufficiency (circulating 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) in more than half of all athletes and military personnel tested during the winter, when skin sunlight UVB is negligible. The overwhelming evidence supports avoiding vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D< 30 nmol/L)to maintain immunity and prevent upper respiratory illness (URI) in athletes and military personnel.Recent evidence supports an optimal circulating 25(OH)D of 75 nmol/L to prevent URI and enhance innate immunity and mucosal immunity and bring about anti-inflammatory actions through the induction of regulatory T cells and the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We provide practical recommendations for how vitamin D sufficiency can be achieved in most individuals by safe sunlight exposure in the summer and daily 1, 000 IU vitamin D3 supplementation in the winter. Studies are required in athletes and military personnel to determine the impact of these recommendations on immunity and URI; and,to demonstrate the purported benefit of achieving 25(OH)D>75 nmol/L.

  10. The millennium Cohort Study: a 21-year prospective cohort study of 140,000 military personnel.

    PubMed

    Gray, Gregory C; Chesbrough, Karen B; Ryan, Margaret A K; Amoroso, Paul; Boyko, Edward J; Gackstetter, Gary D; Hooper, Tomoko I; Riddle, James R

    2002-06-01

    Does military service, in particular operational deployment, result in a higher risk of chronic illness among military personnel and veterans? The Millennium Cohort Study, the largest Department of Defense prospective cohort study ever conducted, will attempt to answer this question. The probability-based sample of 140,000 military personnel will be surveyed every 3 years during a 21-year period. The first questionnaire, scheduled for release in summer 2001, will be sent to 30,000 veterans who have been deployed to southwest Asia, Bosnia, or Kosovo since August 1997 and 70,000 veterans who have not been deployed to these conflict areas. Twenty thousand new participants will be added to the group in each of the years 2004 and 2007 to complete the study population of 140,000. The participants will have the option of completing the study questionnaire either on the paper copy received in the mail or through the World Wide Web-based version, which is available at www.MillenniumCohort.org. This will be one of the first prospective studies ever to offer such an option. The initial survey instrument will collect data regarding demographic characteristics, self-reported medical conditions and symptoms, and health-related behaviors. Validated instruments will be incorporated to capture self-assessed physical and mental functional status (Short Form for Veterans), psychosocial assessment (Patient Health Questionnaire), and post-traumatic stress disorder (Patient Checklist-17). Information obtained from the survey responses will be linked with other military databases, including data on deployment, occupation, vaccinations, health care utilization, and disability. In addition to revealing changes in veterans' health status over time, the Millennium Cohort Study will serve as a data repository, providing a solid foundation upon which additional epidemiological studies may be constructed.

  11. [Legal regulation of the personnel issues of military medicine during the reign of Paul I].

    PubMed

    Iskhakov, E R

    2015-08-01

    The article describes laws and regulations concerning the Russian army and navy, and accordingly its medical services accepted during the reign of Paul I. During this period different decrees aimed to improve medical personnel training in order to admit students to medical and surgical schools, reorganization of educational medical institutions, improving of professional skills of medical workers. Other decrees, aimed to improvement of recruitment of medical personnel of troops: the best students of had to be sent to troops instead physician assistant, medical staff increase and additional funding, countering the reduce of physicians' social welfare due to the inhumane attitude of the authorities, to regulate of the military medical service rotation order as well as assessment of their professional, moral, and psychological qualities. PMID:26829875

  12. [Current situation and future perspectives for malaria prophylaxis among travellers and military personnel].

    PubMed

    Touze, Jean-Etienne; Debonne, Jean-Marc; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2007-10-01

    Malaria remains a major public health problem, both for travellers and for the 40,000 French soldiers deployed each year to endemic areas. Epidemiological data show that imported malaria (IM) is on the increase, and that migrants account for more than 60% of malaria cases notified each year in France. The increase in IM among French military personnel is explained by prematurely terminated chemoprophylaxis on return, repeated short missions, and more cases of P. vivax and P. ovale infection. The choice of chemoprophylaxis depends mainly on the level of chloroquine resistance in the country visited. The atovaquone-proguanil combination is well tolerated and only requires 7 days of intake on return from the endemic area. Doxycycline monohydrate is cheaper and better-tolerated than mefloquine, and is thus preferred for French military personnel. However, its short half-life necessitates very good compliance. Chemoprophylaxis should be combined with vector control measures and with personal protection (impregnated bednets, protective clothing, repellents, and indoor insecticide spraying). The need for these measures should be clearly explained before departure, during the stay, and after return.

  13. Willingness to receive a hypothetical avian influenza vaccine among US military personnel in mid-deployment.

    PubMed

    Porter, Chad K; Fitamaurice, Gina; Tribble, David R; Armstrong, Adam W; Mostafa, Manal; Riddle, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    Though no avian influenza vaccine currently exists, development efforts have increased. Given recent reports of suboptimal vaccination rates among US military personnel, we sought to assess factors associated with a willingness to receive a hypothetical avian influenza vaccine. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by US military personnel during mid-deployment to Iraq, Afghanistan, and surrounding regions. Respondents were predominately male (86.2%), Army (72.1%), and enlisted (86.3%) with a mean age of 29.6 y. The majority (77.1%) agreed to receive an avian influenza vaccine if available. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) identified two factors, vaccine importance and disease risk, that best described the individual perceptions and both were associated with an increased willingness to receive the hypothetical vaccine (OR: 8.2 and 1.6, respectively). Importantly, after controlling for these factors differences in the willingness to receive this hypothetical vaccine were observed across gender and branch of service. These results indicated that targeted education on vaccine safety and efficacy as well as disease risk may modify vaccination patterns in this population.

  14. Outbreak of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peruvian Military Personnel Undertaking Training Activities in the Amazon Basin, 2010.

    PubMed

    Oré, Marianela; Sáenz, Eliana; Cabrera, Rufino; Sanchez, Juan F; De Los Santos, Maxy B; Lucas, Carmen M; Núñez, Jorge H; Edgel, Kimberly A; Sopan, Justino; Fernández, Jorge; Carnero, Andres M; Baldeviano, G Christian; Arrasco, Juan C; Graf, Paul C F; Lescano, Andres G

    2015-08-01

    Military personnel deployed to the Amazon Basin are at high risk for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). We responded to an outbreak among Peruvian Army personnel returning from short-term training in the Amazon, conducting active case detection, lesion sample collection, and risk factor assessment. The attack rate was 25% (76/303); the incubation period was 2-36 weeks (median = 8). Most cases had one lesion (66%), primarily ulcerative (49%), and in the legs (57%). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (59/61 = 97%) and L. (V.) guyanensis (2/61 = 3%). Being male (risk ratio [RR] = 4.01; P = 0.034), not wearing long-sleeve clothes (RR = 1.71; P = 0.005), and sleeping in open rooms (RR = 1.80; P = 0.009) were associated with CL. Sodium stibogluconate therapy had a 41% cure rate, less than previously reported in Peru (~70%; P < 0.001). After emphasizing pre-deployment education and other basic prevention measures, trainees in the following year had lower incidence (1/278 = 0.4%; P < 0.001). Basic prevention can reduce CL risk in deployed militaries.

  15. Outbreak of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peruvian Military Personnel Undertaking Training Activities in the Amazon Basin, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Oré, Marianela; Sáenz, Eliana; Cabrera, Rufino; Sanchez, Juan F.; De Los Santos, Maxy B.; Lucas, Carmen M.; Núñez, Jorge H.; Edgel, Kimberly A.; Sopan, Justino; Fernández, Jorge; Carnero, Andres M.; Baldeviano, G. Christian; Arrasco, Juan C.; Graf, Paul C. F.; Lescano, Andres G.

    2015-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to the Amazon Basin are at high risk for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). We responded to an outbreak among Peruvian Army personnel returning from short-term training in the Amazon, conducting active case detection, lesion sample collection, and risk factor assessment. The attack rate was 25% (76/303); the incubation period was 2–36 weeks (median = 8). Most cases had one lesion (66%), primarily ulcerative (49%), and in the legs (57%). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (59/61 = 97%) and L. (V.) guyanensis (2/61 = 3%). Being male (risk ratio [RR] = 4.01; P = 0.034), not wearing long-sleeve clothes (RR = 1.71; P = 0.005), and sleeping in open rooms (RR = 1.80; P = 0.009) were associated with CL. Sodium stibogluconate therapy had a 41% cure rate, less than previously reported in Peru (∼ 70%; P < 0.001). After emphasizing pre-deployment education and other basic prevention measures, trainees in the following year had lower incidence (1/278 = 0.4%; P < 0.001). Basic prevention can reduce CL risk in deployed militaries. PMID:26078320

  16. Correlates of HIV knowledge and Sexual risk behaviors among Female Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Essien, E. James; Monjok, Emmanuel; Chen, Hua; Abughosh, Susan; Ekong, Ernest; Peters, Ronald J.; Holmes, Laurens; Holstad, Marcia M.; Mgbere, Osaro

    2010-01-01

    Objective Uniformed services personnel are at an increased risk of HIV infection. We examined the HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual risk behaviors among female military personnel to determine the correlates of HIV risk behaviors in this population. Method The study used a cross-sectional design to examine HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of 346 females drawn from two military cantonments in Southwestern Nigeria. Data was collected between 2006 and 2008. Using bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression, HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual behaviors were described in relation to socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that level of education and knowing someone with HIV/AIDS were significant (p<0.05) predictors of HIV knowledge in this sample. HIV prevention self-efficacy was significantly (P<0.05) predicted by annual income and race/ethnicity. Condom use attitudes were also significantly (P<0.05) associated with number of children, annual income, and number of sexual partners. Conclusion Data indicates the importance of incorporating these predictor variables into intervention designs. PMID:20387111

  17. Effects of personal and occupational stress on injuries in a young, physically active population: a survey of military personnel.

    PubMed

    Bedno, Sheryl; Hauret, Keith; Loringer, Kelly; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Mallon, Timothy; Jones, Bruce

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to document risk factors for any injury and sports- and exercise-related injuries, including personal and occupational stress among active duty service members (SMs) in the Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and Navy. A total of 10,692 SMs completed the April 2008 Status of Forces Survey of Active Duty Members. The survey asked about demographics, personal stress and occupational stress, injuries from any cause, and participation in sports- and exercise- related activities in the past year. The survey used a complex sampling procedure to create a representative sample of SMs. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations of injury outcomes with potential risk factors. 49% of SMs sought medical care for an injury in the past year and 25% sustained a sports- and exercise-related activities injury. Odds of injury were higher for the Army and Marine Corps than for the Air Force or Navy. This survey showed that higher personal and occupational stress was associated with higher risks of injury. SMs who experienced higher levels of personal or occupational stress reported higher risks of injuries. The effects of stress reduction programs on injury risks should be evaluated in military and other young physically active populations.

  18. Repeated concussion among U.S. military personnel during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Andrew J; Dougherty, Amber L; Morrison, Rosemary H; Quinn, Kimberly H; Galarneau, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Concussions are a predominant injury of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The aims of this study were to describe repeated concussive events among U.S. military personnel injured in Operation Iraqi Freedom and examine subsequent healthcare utilization. We reviewed clinical records from the Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database to identify service members with repeat concussions. We abstracted demographic and injury-specific variables, calculated time between events, and identified healthcare utilization from electronic medical databases. Overall, 113 personnel experienced more than one concussion between 2004 and 2008. A majority of these incidents were blast related. The median time between events was 40 days, with 20% experiencing a second event within 2 weeks of the first and 87% within 3 months. Time between events was not associated with severity of the second event. Greater severity of the second concussive event was associated with higher postinjury utilization of mental health and neurology services. This study is one of the first to describe repeated concussions in a combat setting. We found that repeated concussions occur within a short interval among deployed personnel, although the effects of the first event are unclear. Further research is needed to define the effect of repeated concussions on the health of combat veterans.

  19. Risk assessments for exposure of deployed military personnel to insecticides and personal protective measures used for disease-vector management.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Paula A; Peterson, Robert K D; Davis, Ryan S

    2007-10-01

    Infectious diseases are problematic for deployed military forces throughout the world, and, historically, more military service days have been lost to insect-vectored diseases than to combat. Because of the limitations in efficacy and availability of both vaccines and therapeutic drugs, vector management often is the best tool that military personnel have against most vector-borne pathogens. However, the use of insecticides may raise concerns about the safety of their effects on the health of the military personnel exposed to them. Therefore, our objective was to use risk assessment methodologies to evaluate health risks to deployed U.S. military personnel from vector management tactics. Our conservative tier-1, quantitative risk assessment focused on acute, subchronic, and chronic exposures and cancer risks to military personnel after insecticide application and use of personal protective measures in different scenarios. Exposures were estimated for every scenario, chemical, and pathway. Acute, subchronic, and chronic risks were assessed using a margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Our MOE was the ratio of a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) to an estimated exposure. MOEs were greater than the levels of concern (LOCs) for all surface residual and indoor space spraying exposures, except acute dermal exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin. MOEs were greater than the LOCs for all chemicals in the truck-mounted ultra-low-volume (ULV) exposure scenario. The aggregate cancer risk for permethrin exceeded 1 x 10(-6), but more realistic exposure refinements would reduce the cancer risk below that value. Overall, results indicate that health risks from exposures to insecticides and personal protective measures used by military personnel are low.

  20. Risk assessments for exposure of deployed military personnel to insecticides and personal protective measures used for disease-vector management.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Paula A; Peterson, Robert K D; Davis, Ryan S

    2007-10-01

    Infectious diseases are problematic for deployed military forces throughout the world, and, historically, more military service days have been lost to insect-vectored diseases than to combat. Because of the limitations in efficacy and availability of both vaccines and therapeutic drugs, vector management often is the best tool that military personnel have against most vector-borne pathogens. However, the use of insecticides may raise concerns about the safety of their effects on the health of the military personnel exposed to them. Therefore, our objective was to use risk assessment methodologies to evaluate health risks to deployed U.S. military personnel from vector management tactics. Our conservative tier-1, quantitative risk assessment focused on acute, subchronic, and chronic exposures and cancer risks to military personnel after insecticide application and use of personal protective measures in different scenarios. Exposures were estimated for every scenario, chemical, and pathway. Acute, subchronic, and chronic risks were assessed using a margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Our MOE was the ratio of a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) to an estimated exposure. MOEs were greater than the levels of concern (LOCs) for all surface residual and indoor space spraying exposures, except acute dermal exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin. MOEs were greater than the LOCs for all chemicals in the truck-mounted ultra-low-volume (ULV) exposure scenario. The aggregate cancer risk for permethrin exceeded 1 x 10(-6), but more realistic exposure refinements would reduce the cancer risk below that value. Overall, results indicate that health risks from exposures to insecticides and personal protective measures used by military personnel are low. PMID:17885933

  1. Cerebellar white matter abnormalities following primary blast injury in US military personnel.

    PubMed

    Mac Donald, Christine; Johnson, Ann; Cooper, Dana; Malone, Thomas; Sorrell, James; Shimony, Joshua; Parsons, Matthew; Snyder, Abraham; Raichle, Marcus; Fang, Raymond; Flaherty, Stephen; Russell, Michael; Brody, David L

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of blast exposure on the human brain in the absence of head impact. Clinical reports, experimental animal studies, and computational modeling of blast exposure have suggested effects on the cerebellum and brainstem. In US military personnel with isolated, primary blast-related 'mild' traumatic brain injury and no other known insult, we found diffusion tensor MRI abnormalities consistent with cerebellar white matter injury in 3 of 4 subjects. No abnormalities in other brain regions were detected. These findings add to the evidence supporting the hypothesis that primary blast exposure contributes to brain injury in the absence of head impact and that the cerebellum may be particularly vulnerable. However, the clinical effects of these abnormalities cannot be determined with certainty; none of the subjects had ataxia or other detected evidence of cerebellar dysfunction. The details of the blast events themselves cannot be disclosed at this time, thus additional animal and computational modeling will be required to dissect the mechanisms underlying primary blast-related traumatic brain injury. Furthermore, the effects of possible subconcussive impacts and other military-related exposures cannot be determined from the data presented. Thus many aspects of topic will require further investigation.

  2. Condom Use by Partner Type Among Military and Police Personnel in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Villaran, Manuel V.; Bayer, Angela; Konda, Kelika A.; Mendoza, Carlos; Quijandria, Hilda; Ampuero, Julia S.; Apolaya, Moises; Palacios, Oswaldo; Lescano, Andres G.; Vega, Antonio M.; Blazes, David L.; Kochel, Tadeusz; Montano, Silvia M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the rates of condom use among military and police populations in Peru, focusing on differences in use by type of partner. A Knowledge Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted among 6,808 military and police personnel in 18 Peruvian cities between August–September 2006 and September–October 2007. A total of 90.2% of the survey respondents were male; mean age was 37.8 years and 77.9% were married/cohabiting. In all, 99.5% reported having had sex; 89% of the participants had their last sexual contact with their stable partner, 9.7% with a nonstable partner, and 0.8% with a sex worker. Overall, 20.4% used a condom during their most recent sexual contact. Reasons for nonuse of condoms included the following: perception that a condom was not necessary (31.3%) and using another birth control method (26.7%). Prevention efforts against sexually transmitted diseases should focus on strengthening condom use, especially among individuals with nonstable partners. PMID:22398988

  3. Cerebellar White Matter Abnormalities following Primary Blast Injury in US Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Mac Donald, Christine; Johnson, Ann; Cooper, Dana; Malone, Thomas; Sorrell, James; Shimony, Joshua; Parsons, Matthew; Snyder, Abraham; Raichle, Marcus; Fang, Raymond; Flaherty, Stephen; Russell, Michael; Brody, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of blast exposure on the human brain in the absence of head impact. Clinical reports, experimental animal studies, and computational modeling of blast exposure have suggested effects on the cerebellum and brainstem. In US military personnel with isolated, primary blast-related ‘mild’ traumatic brain injury and no other known insult, we found diffusion tensor MRI abnormalities consistent with cerebellar white matter injury in 3 of 4 subjects. No abnormalities in other brain regions were detected. These findings add to the evidence supporting the hypothesis that primary blast exposure contributes to brain injury in the absence of head impact and that the cerebellum may be particularly vulnerable. However, the clinical effects of these abnormalities cannot be determined with certainty; none of the subjects had ataxia or other detected evidence of cerebellar dysfunction. The details of the blast events themselves cannot be disclosed at this time, thus additional animal and computational modeling will be required to dissect the mechanisms underlying primary blast-related traumatic brain injury. Furthermore, the effects of possible subconcussive impacts and other military-related exposures cannot be determined from the data presented. Thus many aspects of topic will require further investigation. PMID:23409052

  4. Protein supplementation for military personnel: a review of the mechanisms and performance outcomes.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Tom M

    2013-11-01

    Protein supplement use is common among athletes, active adults, and military personnel. This review provides a summary of the evidence base that either supports or refutes the ergogenic effects associated with different mechanisms that have been proposed to support protein supplementation. It was clear that if carbohydrate delivery was optimal either during or after an acute bout of exercise that additional protein will not increase exercise capacity. Evidence was also weak to substantiate use of protein supplements to slow the increase in brain serotonin and onset of central fatigue. It was also evident that additional research is warranted to test whether the benefits of protein supplements for enhancing recovery of fluid balance after exercise will affect subsequent work in the heat. In contrast, with repeated exercise, use of protein supplementation was associated with reductions in muscle soreness and often a faster recovery of muscle function due to reductions in protein degradation. There was also good supportive evidence for long-term benefits of protein supplementation for gains in muscle mass and strength through accelerated rates of protein synthesis, as long as the training stimulus was of sufficient intensity, frequency, and duration. However, studies have not examined the impact of protein supplements under the combined stress of a military environment that includes repeated bouts of exercise with little opportunity for feeding and recovery, lack of sleep, and exposure to extreme environments. Both additional laboratory and field research is warranted to help provide evidence-based guidance for the choice of protein supplements to enhance soldier performance.

  5. Effect of Dwell Time on the Mental Health of US Military Personnel With Multiple Combat Tours

    PubMed Central

    Han, Peggy P.; Dougherty, Amber L.; Galarneau, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. We investigated the association of the length of time spent at home between deployments, or dwell time, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health disorders. Methods. We included US Marine Corps personnel identified from military deployment records who deployed to Operation Iraqi Freedom once (n = 49 328) or twice (n = 16 376). New-onset mental health diagnoses from military medical databases were included. We calculated the ratio of dwell-to-deployment time (DDR) as the length of time between deployments divided by the length of the first deployment. Results. Marines with 2 deployments had higher rates of PTSD than did those with 1 deployment (2.1% versus 1.2%; P < .001). A DDR representing longer dwell times at home relative to first deployment length was associated with reduced odds of PTSD (odds ratio [OR] = 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.32, 0.70), PTSD with other mental health disorder (OR = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.33, 0.94), and other mental health disorders (OR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.51, 0.75). Conclusions. Longer dwell times may reduce postdeployment risk of PTSD and other mental health disorders. Future research should focus on the role of dwell time in adverse health outcomes. PMID:22390601

  6. Stigma as a barrier to seeking health care among military personnel with mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Marie-Louise; Fear, Nicola T; Rona, Roberto J; Wessely, Simon; Greenberg, Neil; Jones, Norman; Goodwin, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 60% of military personnel who experience mental health problems do not seek help, yet many of them could benefit from professional treatment. Across military studies, one of the most frequently reported barriers to help-seeking for mental health problems is concerns about stigma. It is, however, less clear how stigma influences mental health service utilization. This review will synthesize existing research on stigma, focusing on those in the military with mental health problems. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies between 2001 and 2014 to examine the prevalence of stigma for seeking help for a mental health problem and its association with help-seeking intentions/mental health service utilization. Twenty papers met the search criteria. Weighted prevalence estimates for the 2 most endorsed stigma concerns were 44.2% (95% confidence interval: 37.1, 51.4) for "My unit leadership might treat me differently" and 42.9% (95% confidence interval: 36.8, 49.0) for "I would be seen as weak." Nine studies found no association between anticipated stigma and help-seeking intentions/mental health service use and 4 studies found a positive association. One study found a negative association between self-stigma and intentions to seek help. Counterintuitively, those that endorsed high anticipated stigma still utilized mental health services or were interested in seeking help. We propose that these findings may be related to intention-behavior gaps or methodological issues in the measurement of stigma. Positive associations may be influenced by modified labeling theory. Additionally, other factors such as self-stigma and negative attitudes toward mental health care may be worth further attention in future investigation.

  7. Stigma as a barrier to seeking health care among military personnel with mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Marie-Louise; Fear, Nicola T; Rona, Roberto J; Wessely, Simon; Greenberg, Neil; Jones, Norman; Goodwin, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 60% of military personnel who experience mental health problems do not seek help, yet many of them could benefit from professional treatment. Across military studies, one of the most frequently reported barriers to help-seeking for mental health problems is concerns about stigma. It is, however, less clear how stigma influences mental health service utilization. This review will synthesize existing research on stigma, focusing on those in the military with mental health problems. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies between 2001 and 2014 to examine the prevalence of stigma for seeking help for a mental health problem and its association with help-seeking intentions/mental health service utilization. Twenty papers met the search criteria. Weighted prevalence estimates for the 2 most endorsed stigma concerns were 44.2% (95% confidence interval: 37.1, 51.4) for "My unit leadership might treat me differently" and 42.9% (95% confidence interval: 36.8, 49.0) for "I would be seen as weak." Nine studies found no association between anticipated stigma and help-seeking intentions/mental health service use and 4 studies found a positive association. One study found a negative association between self-stigma and intentions to seek help. Counterintuitively, those that endorsed high anticipated stigma still utilized mental health services or were interested in seeking help. We propose that these findings may be related to intention-behavior gaps or methodological issues in the measurement of stigma. Positive associations may be influenced by modified labeling theory. Additionally, other factors such as self-stigma and negative attitudes toward mental health care may be worth further attention in future investigation. PMID:25595168

  8. Blast-related ear injuries among U.S. military personnel.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Amber L; MacGregor, Andrew J; Han, Peggy P; Viirre, Erik; Heltemes, Kevin J; Galarneau, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Blast-related ear injuries are a concern during deployment because they can compromise a servicemember's situational awareness and adversely affect operational readiness. The objectives of this study were to describe blast-related ear injuries during Operation Iraqi Freedom, identify the effect of hearing protection worn at the point of injury, and explore hearing loss and tinnitus outcomes within one year after injury. The Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database was used to identify military personnel who survived blast-related injury, and it was linked with outpatient medical databases to obtain diagnoses of hearing loss and tinnitus. The prevalence of ear injuries was 30.7% (1,223 of 3,981). The most common ear injury diagnoses were "inner or middle ear injury involving tinnitus" and tympanic membrane (TM) rupture. Hearing protection reduced the odds of ear injury involving tinnitus. Personnel with TM rupture had higher odds of hearing loss (odds ratio [OR] = 6.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.04-8.78) and tinnitus outcomes (OR = 4.34, 95% CI = 3.12-6.04) than those without TM rupture. Ear injuries and hearing impairment are frequent consequences of blast exposure during combat deployment. Hearing protection is warranted for all servicemembers at risk of blast exposure.

  9. [Malaria in military personnel: the case of the Ivory Coast in 2002-2003].

    PubMed

    Migliani, R; Josse, R; Hovette, P; Keundjian, A; Pages, F; Meynard, J-B; Ollivier, L; Sbai Idrissi, K; Tifratene, K; Orlandi, E; Rogier, C; Boutin, J-P

    2003-01-01

    French troops were sent to the Ivory Coast on September 22, 2002 within the framework of Operation Unicorn in response to the political unrest. From September 22 to October 20, a total of 37 cases of malaria were reported, i.e., 35.7 cases per 1000 man-months. As of October 11, the central headquarters of the Armed Services Health Corps decided to use doxycycline as the exclusive agent for drug prophylaxis in military personnel on duty in the Ivory Coast and to enhance vector control measures. The incidence of malaria decreased to 2 cases per 1000 man-months at the sixth month. A recrudescence of malaria to 15 cases per 1000 man-months was observed with the rainy season in April. During this period one person presenting severe malaria with coma required emergency evacuation to France. In May 2003, several studies were undertaken to determine the factors that caused this recrudescence. These studies included surveys to evaluate awareness concerning malaria and monitor compliance with drug prophylaxis and tolerance of doxycycline, a case-control study to identify factors related to malarious episodes and an entomological study. Awareness of malaria was high with 75% of the 477 respondents stating that malaria could be transmitted by single mosquito bite. The case-control study showed a correlation between occurrence of malarious bouts and non-compliance with drug prophylaxis (p < 10(-5)). The odds-ratio was 3.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.52-6.14) for subjects claiming zero to one incident of non-compliance per week and 7.51 (IC95%, 3.24-17.40) for those claiming more than one incident of non-compliance per week. Tolerance of doxycyline was good since 72% of respondents reported no adverse effects. The main vector was Anopheles gambiae. The number of bites per man per night ranged from 25 to 2 and the number of infected bites ranged from 2 to 3 per week. Treatment was initiated promptly using quinine at a total dose of 25 mg/kg in 3 daily doses for 7 days by the

  10. Cross-sectional prevalence survey of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization in Canadian military personnel

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent and is associated with a broad range of adverse consequences. In military organizations, IPV may have special implications, such as the potential of service-related mental disorders to trigger IPV. However, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) have limited data to guide their prevention and control efforts. Methods Self-reported IPV perpetration, victimization, and their correlates were assessed on a cross-sectional survey of a stratified random sample of currently-serving Canadian Regular Forces personnel (N = 2157). The four primary outcomes were perpetration or victimization of any physical and/or sexual or emotional and/or financial IPV over the lifespan of the current relationship. Results Among the 81% of the population in a current relationship, perpetration of any physical and/or sexual IPV was reported in 9%; victimization was reported in 15%. Any emotional and/or financial abuse was reported by 19% (perpetration) and 22% (victimization). Less physically injurious forms of abuse predominated. Logistic regression modelling showed that relationship dissatisfaction was independently associated with all four outcomes (OR range = 2.3 to 3.7). Probable depression was associated with all outcomes except physical and/or sexual IPV victimization (OR range = 2.5 – 2.7). PTSD symptoms were only associated with physical and/or sexual IPV perpetration (OR = 3.2, CI = 1.4 to 7.9). High-risk drinking was associated with emotional and/or financial abuse. Risk of IPV was lowest in those who had recent deployment experience; remote deployment experience (vs. never having deployed) was an independent risk factor for all IPV outcomes (OR range = 2.0 – 3.4). Conclusions IPV affects an important minority of military families; less severe cases predominate. Mental disorders, high-risk drinking, relationship dissatisfaction, and remote deployment were independently associated with abuse outcomes. The

  11. Navy and Marine Corps active duty mortality patterns for 1995 to 1999.

    PubMed

    Almond, Myron D; Carlton, Jan; Bohnker, Bruce K

    2003-01-01

    The authors analyze all Navy and Marine Corps active duty deaths from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1999 (Navy, N=1231; Marine Corps, N=701). Data were obtained from official Navy and Marine Corps sources, including the Report of Casualty (DD form 1300) and the Navy Personnel Casualty Report (Control Symbol NMPC 1770-4) or the Marine Corps Personnel Casualty Report (MC-3040-02), as appropriate. Overall fatality rates were 68.2 per 100,000 active duty Navy personnel and 84.2 for active duty Marine Corps personnel. Rates were generally lower than those noted in previous studies and lower than comparable civilian groups. The officer fatality rates were strongly affected by aircraft mishap-related deaths. The only subgroup displaying higher rates than their civilian counterparts was mishap-related deaths for enlisted Marines age 17 to 24 years old. PMID:12546243

  12. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 372 - Overseas Military Personnel Charter Operator's Surety Bond Under Part 372 of the Special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR Part 372) A Appendix A to Part 372 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Overseas Military Personnel Charter... Special Regulations of the Department of Transportation (14 CFR Part 372) Know all men by these...

  13. 75 FR 19877 - Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who Are Assigned Outside the United States in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... effective date for the direct final rule that published in the Federal Register on March 4, 2010 (75 FR 9763... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 61, 63, and 65 [Docket No. FAA-2009-0923; Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100- 2] RIN 2120-AJ54 Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who...

  14. 14 CFR 249.21 - Preservation of records by public charter operators and overseas military personnel charter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of records by public charter operators and overseas military personnel charter operators. 249.21 Section 249.21 Aeronautics and Space... of an authorized representative of the DOT. (a) All receipts and statements of travel agents and...

  15. Preparing MSW Students to Provide Mental and Behavioral Health Services to Military Personnel, Veterans, and Their Families in Rural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rishel, Carrie W.; Hartnett, Helen P.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health disorders constitutes a nationwide public health crisis. Estimates suggest that more than 90 million people live in areas designated mental health professional shortage areas, with almost 6,000 additional practitioners needed to meet the service needs in these areas. Military personnel and veterans have greater…

  16. 14 CFR Sfar No. 100 - 2-Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who are Assigned Outside the United States in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2-Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian...-2—Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who are Assigned Outside the United States in... served in a U.S. military or civilian capacity outside the United States in support of the U.S....

  17. The prevalence of smoking and its associated factors among military personnel in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A national study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khashan, Hesham I.; Al Sabaan, Fahad S.; Al Nasser, Hifa S.; Al Buraidi, Ahmed A.; Al Awad, Ahmed D.; Horaib, Ghalib B.; Al Obaikan, AlJoharah H.; Mishriky, Adel M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to measure the prevalence of smoking and identify its potential predictors among military personnel in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among military personnel in the five military regions of KSA between January 2009 and January 2011. The sample of 10,500 military personnel in the Saudi Armed Forces was equally divided among the five regions with a ratio 3:7 for officers and soldiers. A multistage stratified random sampling was used to recruit participants in the four services of the armed forces in the five regions. Information on sociodemographic characteristics with a detailed history of smoking was collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate analysis was used to identify the factors associated with smoking, and multiple logistic regression analysis to discover its potential predictors. Results: About 35% of the sample was current smokers, with higher rates among soldiers. The eastern region had the highest rate (43.0%), and the southern region the lowest (27.5%). Navy personnel had a higher risk of being current smokers (40.6%), and the air defense the lowest risk (31.0%). Multivariate analysis identified working in the navy, and low income as positive predictors of current smoking, while residing in the southern region, older age, years of education, being married, and having an officer rank were negative (protective) factors. Conclusion: Smoking is prevalent among military personnel in KSA, with higher rates in the Navy and Air Force, among privates, younger age group, lower education and income, and divorced/widowed status. Measures should be taken to initiate programs on smoking cessation that involve changes in the environment that is likely to promote this habit. PMID:25374464

  18. Examining the relationship between coping strategies and suicidal desire in a sample of United States military personnel.

    PubMed

    Khazem, Lauren R; Law, Keyne C; Green, Bradley A; Anestis, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    Suicidal desire in the military has been previously examined through the lens of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS). However, no research has examined the impact of specific coping strategies on perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and suicidal ideation in a large population of individuals serving in the US military. Furthermore, the factor structure of previously utilized coping clusters did not apply to our sample of military personnel. Therefore, we found a three-factor solution to be tested in this sample. We hypothesized that specific types of coping behavior clusters (Adaptive and Maladaptive) would predict both IPTS constructs and suicidal ideation. Results indicated that Adaptive and Maladaptive coping clusters predicted the IPTS constructs in the hypothesized directions. However, only the Maladaptive cluster predicted suicidal ideation. These findings implicate the need for further research and suicide prevention efforts focusing on coping strategies, specifically those that are maladaptive in nature, in relation to suicidal ideation in military members. PMID:25480664

  19. Neighborhood and home food environment and children's diet and obesity: Evidence from military personnel's installation assignment.

    PubMed

    Shier, Victoria; Nicosia, Nancy; Datar, Ashlesha

    2016-06-01

    Research and policy initiatives are increasingly focused on the role of neighborhood food environment in children's diet and obesity. However, existing evidence relies on observational data that is limited by neighborhood selection bias. The Military Teenagers' Environments, Exercise, and Nutrition Study (M-TEENS) leverages the quasi-random variation in neighborhood environment generated by military personnel's assignment to installations to examine whether neighborhood food environments are associated with children's dietary behaviors and BMI. Our results suggest that neither the actual nor the perceived availability of particular food outlets in the neighborhood is associated with children's diet or BMI. The availability of supermarkets and convenience stores in the neighborhood was not associated with where families shop for food or children's dietary behaviors. Further, the type of store that families shop at was not associated with the healthiness of food available at home. Similarly, availability of fast food and restaurants was unrelated to children's dietary behaviors or how often children eat fast food or restaurant meals. However, the healthiness of food available at home was associated with healthy dietary behaviors while eating at fast food outlets and restaurants were associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors in children. Further, parental supervision, including limits on snack foods and meals eaten as a family, was associated with dietary behaviors. These findings suggest that focusing only on the neighborhood food environment may ignore important factors that influence children's outcomes. Future research should also consider how families make decisions about what foods to purchase, where to shop for foods and eating out, how closely to monitor their children's food intake, and, ultimately how these decisions collectively impact children's outcomes. PMID:27135542

  20. Acceptability of mental health stigma-reduction training and initial effects on awareness among military personnel.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Suzanne L; Simon-Arndt, Cynthia M; McAnany, Jennifer; Crain, Jenny A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the development of a mental health stigma reduction toolkit and training, and the acceptability and level of stigma awareness following the stigma-reduction training for military personnel. The overall aims of the training were to provide discussion tools highlighting the experiences of Marines seeking help for stress concerns, improve communication between leaders and their Marines around the issue of help seeking, and familiarize Marines with behavioral health treatment. Senior enlisted leaders and officers (N = 52) from a Marine Corps battalion participated in a pretest, 2-h stigma-reduction training and immediate posttest. Acceptability of the training was measured by querying participants about the usefulness and helpfulness of the training among other factors, and stigma awareness was measured with 10 items about mental health stigma. The stigma-reduction training and materials were well accepted by participants. In addition, there was a significant improvement in four of ten stigma-reduction awareness concepts measured before and immediately after the training, which included an increase in agreement that mental health treatments are usually effective in reducing stress reactions [t(51) = -3.35, p = 0.002], and an increase in disagreement that seeking counseling after a deployment will jeopardize future deployments [t(51) = -3.05, p = 0.004]. Level of agreement with several statements including those regarding perceptions of invincibility, and malingering, among others, did not change significantly after the training. The stigma-reduction training containing educational and contact strategies was highly acceptable to the leaders and may have promise for initially dispelling myths associated with seeking help for stress concerns among military service members; however, results indicate that there is clearly more work to be done in combatting stigma.

  1. Respiratory disease among military personnel in Saudi Arabia during Operation Desert Shield.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, A L; Hyams, K C; Watts, D M; Rozmajzl, P J; Woody, J N; Merrell, B R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to determine whether respiratory disease due to crowded living conditions and high levels of suspended and blowing sand had a major adverse impact on US military personnel during Operation Desert Shield. METHODS. A questionnaire survey was administered to 2598 combat troops stationed in Northeast Saudi Arabia for a mean of 102 days. Samples of surface sand from seven different locations were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. RESULTS. Among surveyed troops, 34.4% reported a sore throat, 43.1% complained of a cough, 15.4% complained of chronic rhinorrhea, and 1.8% were unable to perform their routine duties because of upper respiratory symptoms. Evaluation of sleeping accommodations indicated that complaints of a sore throat and cough were most closely associated with sleeping in air-conditioned buildings; in contrast, complaints of rhinorrhea were associated with exposure to the outdoor environment while living in tents. Sand samples consisted mostly of quartz, with just 0.21% by weight of respirable size (< 10 microns in diameter). CONCLUSIONS. These findings indicate that upper respiratory complaints were frequent among Operation Desert Shield troops and were related both to the troops' housing and to their exposure to the outside environment. PMID:8363011

  2. Two cases of visceral leishmaniasis in U.S. military personnel--Afghanistan, 2002-2004.

    PubMed

    2004-04-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a sand fly-borne parasitic disease also known as kala-azar (Hindi, for black sickness or fever), is a risk for persons who travel to or live in areas of the tropics, subtropics, and southern Europe where the disease is endemic. The World Health Organization estimates that approximately 500,000 new cases of this potentially fatal disease occur each year, >90% of which are acquired in parts of the Indian subcontinent, Sudan, and Brazil. A total of 21 cases of VL acquired in Afghanistan, all in the 1980s, have been reported previously. This report provides preliminary data about two cases of VL that have been diagnosed in U.S. military personnel deployed to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom, which began in 2001. U.S. health-care providers should consider VL in persons who were deployed to Southwest/Central Asia (or were in other areas where VL is endemic) who have persistent febrile illnesses, especially if associated with other clinical manifestations suggestive of VL (e.g., splenomegaly and pancytopenia).

  3. Association between an excessive body mass index and coronary heart disease risk factors in military personnel.

    PubMed

    Jetté, M; Sidney, K; Quenneville, J

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the extent of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in military personnel (412 men, 50 women) classified as seriously overweight (body mass index [BMI] 27.0-29.9 kg/m2) or obese (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2) and to evaluate the utility of the BMI to discriminate among individuals with an adverse CHD risk profile. Mean body weight and BMI greatly exceeded Canadian norms, whereas mean heights were average. There were low but significant correlations between BMI and resting and submaximal exercise (stage A of the Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test) heart rates and blood pressures, while the correlation with predicted VO2max was negative. Except for blood glucose level (GLU) in men, there were no significant correlations between BMI and various biochemical indices. Compared to "overweight" men, the percentage of "obese" men with abnormal values for risk factors were higher, particularly for an adverse exercise blood pressure response and low predicted VO2max. In summary, the correlations between BMI and the various CHD risk factors, except for GLU and the exercise parameters, were minimal or moderate at best. It was concluded that in overweight and obese individuals, BMI does not appear to be a particularly sensitive indicator of body fat and risk factors.

  4. Military Personnel: Joint Officer Development Has Improved, But a Strategic Approach Is Needed. Report to the Subcommittee on Military Personnel, Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    In response to the need of military leaders to be better prepared to plan, support, and conduct joint (multi-service and multi-national) operations, Congress enacted the Goldwater- Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986. Positive steps were taken to implement provisions in the Act that address the education, assignment, and…

  5. [Typhus fever morbidity among the military personnel and civilians in the regions around Volga river during World War I].

    PubMed

    Raĭkova, S V; Zav'ialov, A I

    2013-07-01

    The article is concerned to the materials about epidemiologic situation of typhus fever in the regions around Volga river (Saratovsky, Samarsky and others) during World War I (1914-1918) among the military personnel of the Russian army and among the civilians. The main reasons for spread of infection, ways of the transmission, and also measures for decreasing of level of morbidity on the different stages of evacuation of patients with typhus fever in the safer hospitals are shown. The most important methods of fighting against epidemic of typhus fever were: isolation of patients in separate special hospitals, desincection and disinfection measures in the foci of infection and organization appropriate sanitary conditions for military man in the army and among civilians. Acquired valuable experience of territorial and military doctors during the period of epidemic of typhus fever allowed receiving complex effective antiepidemic measures of fighting and prevention from this disease.

  6. Persistence of serogroup C antibody responses following quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccination in United States military personnel.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manisha; Romero-Steiner, Sandra; Broderick, Michael P; Thomas, Cynthia G; Plikaytis, Brian D; Schmidt, Daniel S; Johnson, Scott E; Milton, Andrea S; Carlone, George M; Clark, Thomas A; Messonnier, Nancy E; Cohn, Amanda C; Faix, Dennis J

    2014-06-24

    Serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) disease accounts for one-third of all meningococcal cases and causes meningococcal outbreaks in the U.S. Quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (MenACYWD) was recommended in 2005 for adolescents and high risk groups such as military recruits. We evaluated anti-MenC antibody persistence in U.S. military personnel vaccinated with either MenACYWD or meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4). Twelve hundred subjects vaccinated with MenACYWD from 2006 to 2008 or MPSV4 from 2002 to 2004 were randomly selected from the Defense Medical Surveillance System. Baseline serologic responses to MenC were assessed in all subjects; 100 subjects per vaccine group were tested during one of the following six post-vaccination time-points: 5-7, 11-13, 17-19, 23-25, 29-31, or 35-37 months. Anti-MenC geometric mean titers (GMT) were measured by rabbit complement serum bactericidal assay (rSBA) and geometric mean concentrations (GMC) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Continuous variables were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test and the proportion of subjects with an rSBA titer ≥ 8 by chi-square. Pre-vaccination rSBA GMT was <8 for the MenACWYD group. rSBA GMT increased to 703 at 5-7 months post-vaccination and decreased by 94% to 43 at 3 years post-vaccination. GMT was significantly lower in the MenACWYD group at 5-7 months post-vaccination compared to the MPSV4 group. The percentage of MenACWYD recipients achieving an rSBA titer of ≥ 8 decreased from 87% at 5-7 months to 54% at 3 years. There were no significant differences between vaccine groups in the proportion of subjects with a titer of ≥ 8 at any time-point. GMC for the MenACWYD group was 0.14 μg/mL at baseline, 1.07 μg/mL at 5-7 months, and 0.66 μg/mL at 3 years, and significantly lower than the MPSV4 group at all time-points. Anti-MenC responses wane following vaccination with MenACYWD; a booster dose is needed to maintain protective levels

  7. 16 CFR 613.1 - Duration of active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of active duty alerts. 613.1 Section 613.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT DURATION OF ACTIVE DUTY ALERTS § 613.1 Duration of active duty alerts. The duration of an active duty alert shall...

  8. 16 CFR 613.1 - Duration of active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of active duty alerts. 613.1 Section 613.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT DURATION OF ACTIVE DUTY ALERTS § 613.1 Duration of active duty alerts. The duration of an active duty alert shall...

  9. 16 CFR 613.1 - Duration of active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of active duty alerts. 613.1 Section 613.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT DURATION OF ACTIVE DUTY ALERTS § 613.1 Duration of active duty alerts. The duration of an active duty alert shall...

  10. Dimensionality of military job satisfaction items: an exploratory factor analysis of data from the spring 1996 Sample Survey of Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Schumm, Walter R; Gade, Paul A; Bell, D Bruce

    2003-06-01

    The Sample Survey of Military Personnel in the spring of 1996 asked detailed questions of Army personnel about job satisfaction. Maximum likelihood factor analysis yielded four factors: satisfaction with supervision, with job environment, with the duty specifically, and with opportunity for development, factors similar to those used in Smith's Job Descriptive Index, 1992. Scales developed from these factors showed acceptable internal consistency reliability and correlated as expected with measures of satisfaction with Army life, retention, morale, combat preparedness, and overall job satisfaction. Some divergent validity was established with measures of personal/family stress and with previous job stress. Demographic data suggested that soldiers with higher education found more satisfying job opportunities while those with higher rank, more years of service, and higher age reported greater satisfaction with job fulfillment, perhaps a consequence of selection effects. PMID:12841447

  11. Providing care to military personnel and their families: how we can all contribute.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Todd D; Hemmer, Paul A

    2014-09-01

    Providing medical care to members of the military and their families remains a societal duty carried out not only by military physicians but also, and in large part, by civilian providers. As many military families are geographically dispersed, it is probable that all physicians at some point in their training or careers will care for this unique patient population. Understanding the military culture can help physicians provide the best care possible to our military families, and inclusion of military cultural competency curricula in all medical schools is a first step in advancing this understanding. The authors review the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that all health professionals should acquire to be able to care for those who serve and offer recommendations for developing these among all students and trainees.

  12. A meta-analysis of risk factors for combat-related PTSD among military personnel and veterans.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chen; Ge, Yang; Tang, Bihan; Liu, Yuan; Kang, Peng; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a complex and chronic disorder caused by exposure to a traumatic event, is a common psychological result of current military operations. It causes substantial distress and interferes with personal and social functioning. Consequently, identifying the risk factors that make military personnel and veterans more likely to experience PTSD is of academic, clinical, and social importance. Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and PsycINFO) were used to search for observational studies (cross-sectional, retrospective, and cohort studies) about PTSD after deployment to combat areas. The literature search, study selection, and data extraction were conducted by two of the authors independently. Thirty-two articles were included in this study. Summary estimates were obtained using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses, sensitivity analyses, and publication bias tests were performed. The prevalence of combat-related PTSD ranged from 1.09% to 34.84%. A total of 18 significant predictors of PTSD among military personnel and veterans were found. Risk factors stemming from before the trauma include female gender, ethnic minority status, low education, non-officer ranks, army service, combat specialization, high numbers of deployments, longer cumulative length of deployments, more adverse life events, prior trauma exposure, and prior psychological problems. Various aspects of the trauma period also constituted risk factors. These include increased combat exposure, discharging a weapon, witnessing someone being wounded or killed, severe trauma, and deployment-related stressors. Lastly, lack of post-deployment support during the post-trauma period also increased the risk of PTSD. The current analysis provides evidence of risk factors for combat-related PTSD in military personnel and veterans. More research is needed to determine how these variables interact and how to best protect against susceptibility to PTSD.

  13. A Meta-Analysis of Risk Factors for Combat-Related PTSD among Military Personnel and Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Kang, Peng; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a complex and chronic disorder caused by exposure to a traumatic event, is a common psychological result of current military operations. It causes substantial distress and interferes with personal and social functioning. Consequently, identifying the risk factors that make military personnel and veterans more likely to experience PTSD is of academic, clinical, and social importance. Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and PsycINFO) were used to search for observational studies (cross-sectional, retrospective, and cohort studies) about PTSD after deployment to combat areas. The literature search, study selection, and data extraction were conducted by two of the authors independently. Thirty-two articles were included in this study. Summary estimates were obtained using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses, sensitivity analyses, and publication bias tests were performed. The prevalence of combat-related PTSD ranged from 1.09% to 34.84%. A total of 18 significant predictors of PTSD among military personnel and veterans were found. Risk factors stemming from before the trauma include female gender, ethnic minority status, low education, non-officer ranks, army service, combat specialization, high numbers of deployments, longer cumulative length of deployments, more adverse life events, prior trauma exposure, and prior psychological problems. Various aspects of the trauma period also constituted risk factors. These include increased combat exposure, discharging a weapon, witnessing someone being wounded or killed, severe trauma, and deployment-related stressors. Lastly, lack of post-deployment support during the post-trauma period also increased the risk of PTSD. The current analysis provides evidence of risk factors for combat-related PTSD in military personnel and veterans. More research is needed to determine how these variables interact and how to best protect against susceptibility to PTSD. PMID

  14. Women in the Military. Hearings before the Military Personnel and Compensation Subcommitee of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives. One Hundredth Congress, First and Second Sessions (October 1, November 19, 1987 and February 4, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Armed Services.

    Within this document is the testimony delivered by 15 individuals at congressional hearings. Among the issues spoken to are: the combat exclusion law and its effect on the careers of women in the military; the kinds of jobs open to female armed services personnel; special problems that women in the military face; their promotion and retention…

  15. Depression, anxiety, and stress in partners of Australian combat veterans and military personnel: a comparison with Australian population norms

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Partners of Australian combat veterans are at an increased risk of experiencing mental health problems. The present study provides a comparative analysis of the mental health of partners of veterans with that of the Australian normative data. To compare different types of groups of partners, the study samples comprised: (a) partners of Australian combat veterans (Sample 1: n = 282, age M = 60.79, SD = 5.05), (b) a sub-sample of partners of Australian combat veterans from the previous sample (Sample 2: n = 50; M = 60.06, SD = 4.80), (c) partners of Special Air Services Regiment (SASR) personnel (Sample 3: n = 40, age M = 34.39SD = 7.01), and (d) partners of current serving military (non-SASR) personnel (Sample 4: n = 38, age M = 32.37, SD = 6.20). Respondents completed measures assessing their reported levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. Samples 1 and 2 comprised partners of Australian military veterans who reported significantly greater symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress than the comparative population norms. The sample of SASR personnel partners (Sample 3) reported significantly lower levels of depression and anxiety, whereas the sample with non-SASR personnel partners (Sample 4) reported a significantly greater stress symptomatology than the comparative norms. Number of deployments was found to be associated with depression, anxiety, and stress in partners of non-SASR veterans (Sample 4). Lessons and protective factors can be learnt from groups within the current military as to what may assist partners and families to maintain a better level of psychosocial health.

  16. Depression, anxiety, and stress in partners of Australian combat veterans and military personnel: a comparison with Australian population norms

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Partners of Australian combat veterans are at an increased risk of experiencing mental health problems. The present study provides a comparative analysis of the mental health of partners of veterans with that of the Australian normative data. To compare different types of groups of partners, the study samples comprised: (a) partners of Australian combat veterans (Sample 1: n = 282, age M = 60.79, SD = 5.05), (b) a sub-sample of partners of Australian combat veterans from the previous sample (Sample 2: n = 50; M = 60.06, SD = 4.80), (c) partners of Special Air Services Regiment (SASR) personnel (Sample 3: n = 40, age M = 34.39SD = 7.01), and (d) partners of current serving military (non-SASR) personnel (Sample 4: n = 38, age M = 32.37, SD = 6.20). Respondents completed measures assessing their reported levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. Samples 1 and 2 comprised partners of Australian military veterans who reported significantly greater symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress than the comparative population norms. The sample of SASR personnel partners (Sample 3) reported significantly lower levels of depression and anxiety, whereas the sample with non-SASR personnel partners (Sample 4) reported a significantly greater stress symptomatology than the comparative norms. Number of deployments was found to be associated with depression, anxiety, and stress in partners of non-SASR veterans (Sample 4). Lessons and protective factors can be learnt from groups within the current military as to what may assist partners and families to maintain a better level of psychosocial health. PMID:27635339

  17. Depression, anxiety, and stress in partners of Australian combat veterans and military personnel: a comparison with Australian population norms.

    PubMed

    MacDonell, Gail V; Bhullar, Navjot; Thorsteinsson, Einar B

    2016-01-01

    Partners of Australian combat veterans are at an increased risk of experiencing mental health problems. The present study provides a comparative analysis of the mental health of partners of veterans with that of the Australian normative data. To compare different types of groups of partners, the study samples comprised: (a) partners of Australian combat veterans (Sample 1: n = 282, age M = 60.79, SD = 5.05), (b) a sub-sample of partners of Australian combat veterans from the previous sample (Sample 2: n = 50; M = 60.06, SD = 4.80), (c) partners of Special Air Services Regiment (SASR) personnel (Sample 3: n = 40, age M = 34.39SD = 7.01), and (d) partners of current serving military (non-SASR) personnel (Sample 4: n = 38, age M = 32.37, SD = 6.20). Respondents completed measures assessing their reported levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. Samples 1 and 2 comprised partners of Australian military veterans who reported significantly greater symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress than the comparative population norms. The sample of SASR personnel partners (Sample 3) reported significantly lower levels of depression and anxiety, whereas the sample with non-SASR personnel partners (Sample 4) reported a significantly greater stress symptomatology than the comparative norms. Number of deployments was found to be associated with depression, anxiety, and stress in partners of non-SASR veterans (Sample 4). Lessons and protective factors can be learnt from groups within the current military as to what may assist partners and families to maintain a better level of psychosocial health.

  18. Depression, anxiety, and stress in partners of Australian combat veterans and military personnel: a comparison with Australian population norms.

    PubMed

    MacDonell, Gail V; Bhullar, Navjot; Thorsteinsson, Einar B

    2016-01-01

    Partners of Australian combat veterans are at an increased risk of experiencing mental health problems. The present study provides a comparative analysis of the mental health of partners of veterans with that of the Australian normative data. To compare different types of groups of partners, the study samples comprised: (a) partners of Australian combat veterans (Sample 1: n = 282, age M = 60.79, SD = 5.05), (b) a sub-sample of partners of Australian combat veterans from the previous sample (Sample 2: n = 50; M = 60.06, SD = 4.80), (c) partners of Special Air Services Regiment (SASR) personnel (Sample 3: n = 40, age M = 34.39SD = 7.01), and (d) partners of current serving military (non-SASR) personnel (Sample 4: n = 38, age M = 32.37, SD = 6.20). Respondents completed measures assessing their reported levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. Samples 1 and 2 comprised partners of Australian military veterans who reported significantly greater symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress than the comparative population norms. The sample of SASR personnel partners (Sample 3) reported significantly lower levels of depression and anxiety, whereas the sample with non-SASR personnel partners (Sample 4) reported a significantly greater stress symptomatology than the comparative norms. Number of deployments was found to be associated with depression, anxiety, and stress in partners of non-SASR veterans (Sample 4). Lessons and protective factors can be learnt from groups within the current military as to what may assist partners and families to maintain a better level of psychosocial health. PMID:27635339

  19. Studying the Relation Between Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome and Anatomic and Anthropometric Characteristics of Military Male Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Sobhani, Vahid; Shakibaee, Abolfazl; Khatibi Aghda, Amidoddin; Emami Meybodi, Mohammad Kazem; Delavari, Abbasali; Jahandideh, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (MTSS) is common among military recruits and to our knowledge; the factors that might put the military recruits at higher risk of incidence of MTSS are not well known. Objectives: This study was done to investigate the association between some anthropometric and anatomical factors and the prevalence of MTSS among military recruits. Patients and Methods: One hundred and eighty one randomly selected military recruits were included in this cross sectional study. Using history taking and physical examinations they were tested for MTSS. Accordingly the subjects were assigned to the case (those with MTSS) and control groups (normal healthy subjects). Using standard guidelines, the anthropometric and anatomical criteria of the subjects were measured. The correlation between the measurements and the prevalence of MTSS was tested using statistical analysis. Results: Data of all the 181 subjects with the mean age of 30.7 ± 4.68 years were Included in the final analysis. The prevalence of MTSS was found to be 16.6% (30 people). Internal and external rotation range of motion, iliospinale height, the score of navicular drop test, and the trochanteric tibial lateral length were significantly different between healthy subjects and patients with MTSS (P < 0.05). Discussion: The prevalence of MTSS was relatively lower in this study comparing to other studies on military personnel. It was not probably due to type of military shoes or exercise area surface (none of them were standardized); it could be due to low intensity trainings and the long intervals between training sessions. PMID:26448835

  20. Design and methodology of a randomized clinical trial of home-based telemental health treatment for U.S. military personnel and veterans with depression.

    PubMed

    Luxton, David D; Pruitt, Larry D; O'Brien, Karen; Stanfill, Katherine; Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A; Johnson, Kristine; Wagner, Amy; Thomas, Elissa; Gahm, Gregory A

    2014-05-01

    Home-based telemental health (TMH) treatments have the potential to address current and future health needs of military service members, veterans, and their families, especially for those who live in rural or underserved areas. The use of home-based TMH treatments to address the behavioral health care needs of U.S. military healthcare beneficiaries is not presently considered standard of care in the Military Health System. The feasibility, safety, and clinical efficacy of home-based TMH treatments must be established before broad dissemination of home-based treatment programs can be implemented. This paper describes the design, methodology, and protocol of a clinical trial that compares in-office to home-based Behavioral Activation for Depression (BATD) treatment delivered via web-based video technology for service members and veterans with depression. This grant funded three-year randomized clinical trial is being conducted at the National Center for Telehealth and Technology at Joint-base Lewis-McChord and at the Portland VA Medical Center. Best practice recommendations regarding the implementation of in-home telehealth in the military setting as well as the cultural and contextual factors of providing in-home care to active duty and veteran military populations are also discussed.

  1. The clinical utility of a brief measure of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness for the detection of suicidal military personnel.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J

    2011-10-01

    Perceived burdensomeness (PB) and thwarted belongingness (TB) are important indicators of suicide risk; however, limited research has investigated applicability to military populations, and no efforts have been initiated to translate these constructs into easily implemented clinical tools. The current study examined the structure and validity of a brief self-report survey of PB and TB, the 10-item Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ-10), among a sample of 219 deployed military personnel. Factor analysis confirmed that PB and TB are distinct, and are correlated with psychiatric symptomatology. Receiver operating characteristic analyses indicated the most useful cutoff scores were PB=1 and TB=3.2. Both scales significantly improved the ability to rule-in and rule-out current suicide ideation among deployed service members.

  2. Cross-sectional study of alteration of phantom limb pain with visceral stimulation in military personnel with amputation.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Michael; Bennett Britton, Thomas M; Drew, Benjamin T; Phillip, Rhodri D

    2015-01-01

    While phantom limb pain is a well-recognized phenomenon, clinical experience has suggested that the augmentation of phantom limb pain with visceral stimulation is an issue for many military personnel with amputation (visceral stimulation being the sensation of the bowel or bladder either filling or evacuating). However, the prevalence of this phenomenon is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the alteration in phantom limb pain and the effect that visceral stimulation has on phantom limb pain intensity. A cross-sectional study of 75 military personnel who have lost one or both lower limbs completed a questionnaire to assess the prevalence of the alteration of phantom limb pain with visceral stimulation. Included in the questionnaire was a pain visual analog scale (VAS) graded from 0 to 10. Patients recorded the presence and intensity of phantom limb pain. They also recorded whether and how this pain altered with a need to micturate or micturition, and/or a need to defecate or defecation, again using a pain VAS. Time since amputation, level of amputation, and medications were also recorded. Patients reported a phantom limb pain prevalence of 85% with a mean VAS of 3.6. In all, 56% of patients reported a change in the severity of phantom limb pain with visceral stimuli. The mean increase in VAS for visceral stimulation was 2.5 +/- 1.6 for bladder stimulation and 2.9 +/- 2.0 for bowel stimulation. Of the patients questioned, 65% reported an improvement in symptoms over time. VAS scores were highest in the subgroup less than 6 mo postamputation. An increase in phantom limb pain with visceral stimulation is a common problem for military personnel with amputation. PMID:26360529

  3. Effectiveness of a video-based motivational skills-building HIV risk-reduction intervention for female military personnel.

    PubMed

    Essien, E James; Mgbere, Osaro; Monjok, Emmanuel; Ekong, Ernest; Holstad, Marcia M; Kalichman, Seth C

    2011-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that the HIV/AIDS prevalence rates in several African armed forces are high, with gender inequality rendering female military personnel more vulnerable to the disease. The objective of this study was to replicate a successful videotape-based HIV prevention intervention among Nigerian female military personnel in an effort to establish the cross-cultural stability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of this approach in resource-limited countries. Enlisted women (N346) were recruited from two cantonments in Southwestern Nigeria and randomly assigned to either (a) a 5-session video-based, small group, cognitive-behavioral, HIV prevention intervention, or (b) a 5-session, video-based, contact-matched, HIV education control condition. Participants provided self-report of their HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and sexual behaviors at baseline, 3 and 6 months after completing the intervention. The results indicate that the motivational skills-building intervention did not improve participants' knowledge of HIV/AIDS any better than did the HIV education control condition at each assessment period, but it significantly increased condom use among women in this group by 53.6% at 3-month follow-up. HIV preventive behaviors among women in the motivational skills-building intervention group improved significantly, being 2 and 3 times more, compared to women in the HIV education control group at 3-month and 6-month follow-up assessments. The intervention also significantly improved behavioral intentions of participants as well as reduced alcohol use before sex by 25%, after 3 months; and number of sexual partners by 12% after 6 months. Women in the intervention group were five times more likely than women in HIV education control group to suggest that their new male partners use condom. These findings indicate that a videotape-based, HIV prevention intervention is a feasible and effective approach to HIV prevention among female military personnel from sub

  4. A retrospective analysis of open fractures sustained by U.S. military personnel during Operation Just Cause.

    PubMed

    Jacob, E; Erpelding, J M; Murphy, K P

    1992-10-01

    A retrospective analysis was conducted of 37 open fracture cases sustained by U.S. military personnel during the recent low-intensity conflict in Panama (Operation Just Cause). The etiology, location, classification, and management of open fractures sustained in combat is presented. A significant difference was noted in the infection rate for type III open fractures that were debrided in Panama (22%) as compared to those that were debrided only after transport to CONUS (66%). This study supports the critical importance of adequate battlefield surgical support in low-intensity conflicts, and reemphasizes the crucial role of early surgical debridement for the prevention of wound infection.

  5. [Principles and methods of mental health resource assessment in military personnel under conditions of demographic crisis].

    PubMed

    Vorona, A A; Syrkin, L D

    2011-03-01

    The article is devoted to developing the principles and methods of resource assessment of mental health military contingent in terms of demographic decline and reform of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. From the standpoint of the concept of the mutual influence of the value-semantic components and the level of psychological adaptation resources demonstrates the possibility of evaluating resource capabilities of the psyche of military contingent.

  6. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence of dietary supplement use by military personnel

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although a number of studies have been conducted on the prevalence of dietary supplement (DS) use in military personnel, these investigations have not been previously summarized. This article provides a systematic literature review of this topic. Methods Literature databases, reference lists, and other sources were searched to find studies that quantitatively examined the prevalence of DS use in uniformed military groups. Prevalence data were summarized by gender and military service. Where there were at least two investigations, meta-analysis was performed using a random model and homogeneity of the prevalence values was assessed. Results The prevalence of any DS use for Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps men was 55%, 60%, 60%, and 61%, respectively; for women corresponding values were 65%, 71%, 76%, and 71%, respectively. Prevalence of multivitamin and/or multimineral (MVM) use for Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps men was 32%, 46%, 47%, and 41%, respectively; for women corresponding values were 40%, 55%, 63%, and 53%, respectively. Use prevalence of any individual vitamin or mineral supplement for Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps men was 18%, 27%, 25%, and 24%, respectively; for women corresponding values were 29%, 36%, 40%, and 33%, respectively. Men in elite military groups (Navy Special Operations, Army Rangers, and Army Special Forces) had a use prevalence of 76% for any DS and 37% for MVM, although individual studies were not homogenous. Among Army men, Army women, and elite military men, use prevalence of Vitamin C was 15% for all three groups; for Vitamin E, use prevalence was 8%, 7%, and 9%, respectively; for sport drinks, use prevalence was 22%, 25% and 39%, respectively. Use prevalence of herbal supplements was generally low compared to vitamins, minerals, and sport drinks, ≤5% in most investigations. Conclusions Compared to men, military women had a higher use prevalence of any DS and MVM. Army men and women tended to

  7. Validity and reliability of bioelectrical impedance analysis and skinfold thickness in predicting body fat in military personnel.

    PubMed

    Aandstad, Anders; Holtberget, Kristian; Hageberg, Rune; Holme, Ingar; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies show that body composition is related to injury risk and physical performance in soldiers. Thus, valid methods for measuring body composition in military personnel are needed. The frequently used body mass index method is not a valid measure of body composition in soldiers, but reliability and validity of alternative field methods are less investigated in military personnel. Thus, we carried out test and retest of skinfold (SKF), single frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (SF-BIA), and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis measurements in 65 male and female soldiers. Several validated equations were used to predict percent body fat from these methods. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was also measured, and acted as the criterion method. Results showed that SF-BIA was the most reliable method in both genders. In women, SF-BIA was also the most valid method, whereas SKF or a combination of SKF and SF-BIA produced the highest validity in men. Reliability and validity varied substantially among the equations examined. The best methods and equations produced test-retest 95% limits of agreement below ±1% points, whereas the corresponding validity figures were ±3.5% points. Each investigator and practitioner must consider whether such measurement errors are acceptable for its specific use.

  8. [The role of the vaccine prophylaxis of cervical cancer among female military personnel].

    PubMed

    Shmidt, A A; Alieva, M T; Ivanova, L V; Molchanov, O V

    2015-06-01

    The authors presented results of the study concerning human papillomavirus infecting of military students of higher military educational institutions of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. In the Center for Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Kirov Military-Medical Academy was performed a dynamic examination of 478 female cadets aged 17-25. The high level of high-risk HPV viruses was revealed during the examination what proves the necessity of prophylaxis enhancing with the aim to prevent gynecological diseases and reproductive health promotion. The main ways of cervical cancer prophylaxis are health education, in-depth medical examination of women with the aim to reveal and treat gynecological diseases (this medical examination should be carried out twice a year), primary prevention of cervical cancer by vaccination.

  9. 78 FR 63459 - Notice of Active Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Department of the Air Force Notice of Active Duty Determination AGENCY: Department of the Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Proposed Federal Register Notice of Active Duty Determination Under Public Law 95-202. SUMMARY... not be considered ``active duty'' for purposes of all laws administered by the Department of...

  10. Evidence-based evaluation of potential benefits and safety of beta-alanine supplementation for military personnel.

    PubMed

    Ko, Richard; Low Dog, Tieraona; Gorecki, Dennis K J; Cantilena, Louis R; Costello, Rebecca B; Evans, William J; Hardy, Mary L; Jordan, Scott A; Maughan, Ronald J; Rankin, Janet W; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Valerio, Luis G; Jones, Donnamaria; Deuster, Patricia; Giancaspro, Gabriel I; Sarma, Nandakumara D

    2014-03-01

    This Department of Defense-sponsored evidence-based review evaluates the safety and putative outcomes of enhancement of athletic performance or improved recovery from exhaustion in studies involving beta-alanine alone or in combination with other ingredients. Beta-alanine intervention studies and review articles were collected from 13 databases, and safety information was collected from adverse event reporting portals. Due to the lack of systematic studies involving military populations, all the available literature was assessed with a subgroup analysis of studies on athletes to determine if beta-alanine would be suitable for the military. Available literature provided only limited evidence concerning the benefits of beta-alanine use, and a majority of the studies were not designed to address safety. Overall, the strength of evidence in terms of the potential for risk of bias in the quality of the available literature, consistency, directness, and precision did not support the use of beta-alanine by military personnel. The strength of evidence for a causal relation between beta-alanine and paresthesia was moderate.

  11. 8 CFR 316.6 - Physical presence for certain spouses of military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... union in accordance with 8 CFR 319.1(b). ... REGULATIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR NATURALIZATION § 316.6 Physical presence for certain spouses of military... purposes of naturalization under section 316(a) or 319(a) of the Act if, during the period of time...

  12. 8 CFR 316.6 - Physical presence for certain spouses of military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... union in accordance with 8 CFR 319.1(b). ... REGULATIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR NATURALIZATION § 316.6 Physical presence for certain spouses of military... purposes of naturalization under section 316(a) or 319(a) of the Act if, during the period of time...

  13. 8 CFR 316.6 - Physical presence for certain spouses of military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... union in accordance with 8 CFR 319.1(b). ... REGULATIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR NATURALIZATION § 316.6 Physical presence for certain spouses of military... purposes of naturalization under section 316(a) or 319(a) of the Act if, during the period of time...

  14. Lesions Arising in a Tattoo of an Active Duty US Marine Corps Woman.

    PubMed

    Winn, Aubrey E; Rivard, Shayna C; Green, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Tattoos are ubiquitous in modern society; however, they do not come without risk of medical complications. When complications arise in the military community, a particularly thorough differential diagnosis should be considered based on the increased exposures service members have during deployment and throughout their military career. We present a case of a 38-year-old active duty US Marine Corps woman with worsening skin lesions arising within a tattoo 6 weeks after acquiring the tattoo on her right chest. Given environmental exposures from a recent deployment to the Middle East, a wide differential was considered. Ultimately, a skin biopsy revealed early hypertrophic scar formation responsive to therapy with intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (Kenalog® [ILK]). However, given the Marine had recently deployed and is part of the active duty population, consideration of alternative, albeit rare, etiologies was imperative. PMID:27450611

  15. [Experience of medical backup of military parade on Red Square. Authors showed data about medical backup of military personnel taking part in the parade on Red Square dedicating to anniversary of victory in the Great Patriotic War].

    PubMed

    Malykh, A B; Iakovlev, S V; Valevskiĭ, V V

    2014-03-01

    Authors showed data about medical backup of military personnel taking part in the parade on Red Square dedicating to anniversary of Victory in the Great Patriotic War. Experience of running such events allowed to work out an algorithm for medical service: preparatory stage, training stage, running of parade, stage of move out to permanent base. During the parade on Red Square for medical care asked 18 people (participants of parade and civilians). Authors came to conclusion that as a result of medical backup of military personnel taking part in the parade no infectious and group diseases were registered.

  16. Energy drinks: review of performance benefits, health concerns, and use by military personnel.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lucas A; Foster, David; McDowell, Jackie C

    2014-04-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) are highly caffeinated beverages usually containing herbal ingredients promoted and consumed for purported improvements in attention and athletic performance. The popularity of EDs among adolescents and young adults has steadily increased for more than a decade. Reports suggest U.S. military populations consume EDs with greater frequency as compared to age-matched civilian populations. This article reviews the literature and outlines the current body of evidence evaluating the human performance benefits and potential harms associated with ED use.

  17. Increased vitamin plasma levels in Swedish military personnel treated with nutrients prior to automatic weapon training

    PubMed Central

    Le Prell, C. G.; Johnson, A.-C.; Lindblad, A.-C.; Skjönsberg, Å.; Ulfendahl, M.; Guire, K.; Green, G. E.; Campbell, K. C. M.; Miller, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a significant clinical, social, and economic issue. The development of novel therapeutic agents to reduce NIHL will potentially benefit multiple very large noise-exposed populations. Oxidative stress has been identified as a significant contributor to noise-induced sensory cell death and noise-induced hearing loss, and several antioxidant strategies have now been suggested for potential translation to human subjects. One such strategy is a combination of beta-carotene, vitamins C and E, and magnesium, which has shown promise for protection against NIHL in rodent models, and is being evaluated in a series of international human clinical trials using temporary (military gunfire, audio player use) and permanent (stamping factory, military airbase) threshold shift models (NCT00808470). The noise exposures used in the recently completed Swedish military gunfire study described in this report did not, on average, result in measurable changes in auditory function using conventional pure-tone thresholds and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) amplitudes as metrics. However, analysis of the plasma samples confirmed significant elevations in the bloodstream 2 hours after oral consumption of active clinical supplies, indicating the dose is realistic. The plasma outcomes are encouraging, but clinical acceptance of any novel therapeutic critically depends on demonstration that the agent reduces noise-induced threshold shift in randomized, placebo-controlled, prospective human clinical trials. Although this noise insult did not induce hearing loss, the trial design and study protocol can be applied to other populations exposed to different noise insults. PMID:22122960

  18. Post-traumatic headaches in civilians and military personnel: a comparative, clinical review.

    PubMed

    Theeler, Brett; Lucas, Sylvia; Riechers, Ronald G; Ruff, Robert L

    2013-06-01

    Post-traumatic headache (PTH) is the most frequent symptom after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We review the epidemiology and characterization of PTH in military and civilian settings. PTH appears to be more likely to develop following mild TBI (concussion) compared with moderate or severe TBI. PTH often clinically resembles primary headache disorders, usually migraine. For migraine-like PTH, individuals who had the most severe headache pain had the highest headache frequencies. Based on studies to date in both civilian and military settings, we recommend changes to the current definition of PTH. Anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are frequently associated with TBI, especially in military populations and in combat settings. PTSD can complicate treatment of PTH as a comorbid condition of post-concussion syndrome. PTH should not be treated as an isolated condition. Comorbid conditions such as PTSD and sleep disturbances also need to be treated. Double-blind placebo-controlled trials in PTH population are necessary to see whether similar phenotypes in the primary headache disorders and PTH will respond similarly to treatment. Until blinded treatment trials are completed, we suggest that, when possible, PTH be treated as one would treat the primary headache disorder(s) that the PTH most closely resembles.

  19. Increased vitamin plasma levels in Swedish military personnel treated with nutrients prior to automatic weapon training.

    PubMed

    Le Prell, C G; Johnson, A C; Lindblad, A C; Skjönsberg, A; Ulfendahl, M; Guire, K; Green, G E; Campbell, K C M; Miller, J M

    2011-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a significant clinical, social, and economic issue. The development of novel therapeutic agents to reduce NIHL will potentially benefit multiple very large noise-exposed populations. Oxidative stress has been identified as a significant contributor to noise-induced sensory cell death and NIHL, and several antioxidant strategies have now been suggested for potential translation to human subjects. One such strategy is a combination of beta-carotene, vitamins C and E, and magnesium, which has shown promise for protection against NIHL in rodent models, and is being evaluated in a series of international human clinical trials using temporary (military gunfire, audio player use) and permanent (stamping factory, military airbase) threshold shift models (NCT00808470). The noise exposures used in the recently completed Swedish military gunfire study described in this report did not, on average, result in measurable changes in auditory function using conventional pure-tone thresholds and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) amplitudes as metrics. However, analysis of the plasma samples confirmed significant elevations in the bloodstream 2 hours after oral consumption of active clinical supplies, indicating the dose is realistic. The plasma outcomes are encouraging, but clinical acceptance of any novel therapeutic critically depends on demonstration that the agent reduces noise-induced threshold shift in randomized, placebo-controlled, prospective human clinical trials. Although this noise insult did not induce hearing loss, the trial design and study protocol can be applied to other populations exposed to different noise insults. PMID:22122960

  20. Viral gastroenteritis associated with genogroup II norovirus among U.S. military personnel in Turkey, 2009.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Salwa F; Klena, John D; Mostafa, Manal; Dogantemur, Jessica; Middleton, Tracy; Hanson, James; Sebeny, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The present study demonstrates that multiple NoV genotypes belonging to genogroup II contributed to an acute gastroenteritis outbreak at a US military facility in Turkey that was associated with significant negative operational impact. Norovirus (NoV) is an important pathogen associated with acute gastroenteritis among military populations. We describe the genotypes of NoV outbreak occurred at a United States military facility in Turkey. Stool samples were collected from 37 out of 97 patients presenting to the clinic on base with acute gastroenteritis and evaluated for bacterial and viral pathogens. NoV genogroup II (GII) was identified by RT-PCR in 43% (16/37) stool samples. Phylogenetic analysis of a 260 base pair fragment of the NoV capsid gene from ten stool samples indicated the circulation of multiple and rare genotypes of GII NoV during the outbreak. We detected four GII.8 isolates, three GII.15, two GII.9 and a sole GII.10 NoV. Viral sequences could be grouped into four clusters, three of which have not been previously reported in Turkey. The fact that current NoV outbreak was caused by rare genotypes highlights the importance of norovirus strain typing. While NoV genogroup II is recognized as causative agent of outbreak, circulation of current genotypes has been rarely observed in large number of outbreaks.

  1. Seroepidemiologic survey for Coxiella burnetii among US military personnel deployed to Southwest and Central Asia in 2005.

    PubMed

    Royal, Joseph; Riddle, Mark S; Mohareb, Emad; Monteville, Marshall R; Porter, Chad K; Faix, Dennis J

    2013-11-01

    We used a seroepidemiologic study to estimate Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) seroprevalence, seroincidence, and risk factors for seroconversion in two deployed military populations in 2005. The first study group resided in an area with a known Q fever outbreak history (Al Asad, Iraq). Of this population, 7.2% seroconverted for an incidence rate of 10.6 seroconversions per 1,000 person-months. The second population included personnel transiting through Qatar on mid-deployment leave from southwest/central Asia. In this group, we found 2.1% prevalence with 0.92 seroconversions per 1,000 person-months. However, no significant risk factors for Q fever seroconversion were found in either population.

  2. Heart rate variabilty changes during first week of acclimatization to 3500 m altitude in Indian military personnel.

    PubMed

    Bhaumik, G; Dass, D; Bhattacharyya, D; Sharma, Y K; Singh, S B

    2013-01-01

    Acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia induces the changes in autonomic control of heart rate. Due to emergencies or war like conditions, rapid deployment of Indian military personnel into high altitude frequently occurs. Rapid deployment to high altitude soldiers are at risk of developing high altitude sickness. The present study was conducted to evaluate the acute exposure to high altitude hypobaric hypoxia (3500 m altitude) on the autonomic nervous control of heart rate in Indian military personnel during first week of acclimatization Indices of heart rate variability (viz; R-R interval, total power, low frequency, high frequency, ratio of low to high frequency) and pulse arterial oxygen saturation were measured at sea level and 3500m altitude. Power spectrum of heart rate variability was quantified by low frequency (LF: 0.04-0.15 Hz) and high frequency (HF: 0.15-0.5 Hz) widths. The ratio of LF to HF was also assessed as an index of the sympathovagal balance. Mean R-R interval decreased significantly on day 2 on induction to altitude which tended to increase on day 5. Total power (TP) decreased high altitude and tended to recover within a week. Both HF and LF power showed decrement at 3500m in comparison to sea level. The ratio of LF to HF (LF/HF) at 3500m was significantly higher at 3500m. SpO2 values decreased significantly (P < 0.05) at high altitude on day-2 which increased on day-5. We conclude that autonomic control of the heart rate measured by heart rate variability was altered on acute induction to 3500m which showed a significant decrease in parasympathetic tone and increase in sympathetic tone, then acclimatization seems to be characterized by progressive shift toward a higher parasympathetic tone.

  3. Extreme health sensing: the challenges, technologies, and strategies for active health sustainment of military personnel during training and combat missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buller, Mark; Welles, Alexander; Chadwicke Jenkins, Odest; Hoyt, Reed

    2010-04-01

    Military personnel are often asked to accomplish rigorous missions in extremes of climate, terrain, and terrestrial altitude. Personal protective clothing and individual equipment such as body armor or chemical biological suits and excessive equipment loads, exacerbate the physiological strain. Health, over even short mission durations, can easily be compromised. Measuring and acting upon health information can provide a means to dynamically manage both health and mission goals. However, the measurement of health state in austere military environments is challenging; (1) body worn sensors must be of minimal weight and size, consume little power, and be comfortable and unobtrusive enough for prolonged wear; (2) health states are not directly measureable and must be estimated; (3) sensor measurements are prone to noise, artifact, and failure. Given these constraints we examine current successful ambulatory physiological status monitoring technologies, review maturing sensors that may provide key health state insights in the future, and discuss unconventional analytical techniques that optimize health, mission goals, and doctrine from the perspective of thermal work strain assessment and management.

  4. In vitro characterization of multivalent adhesion molecule 7-based inhibition of multidrug-resistant bacteria isolated from wounded military personnel.

    PubMed

    Krachler, Anne Marie; Mende, Katrin; Murray, Clinton; Orth, Kim

    2012-07-01

    Treatment of wounded military personnel at military medical centers is often complicated by colonization and infection of wounds with pathogenic bacteria. These include nosocomially transmitted, often multidrug-resistant pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We analyzed the efficacy of multivalent adhesion molecule (MAM) 7-based anti-adhesion treatment of host cells against aforementioned pathogens in a tissue culture infection model. Herein, we observed that a correlation between two important hallmarks of virulence, attachment and cytotoxicity, could serve as a useful predictor for the success of MAM7-based inhibition against bacterial infections. Initially, we characterized 20 patient isolates (five from each pathogen mentioned above) in terms of genotypic diversity, antimicrobial susceptibility and important hallmarks of pathogenicity (biofilm formation, attachment to and cytotoxicity toward cultured host cells). All isolates displayed a high degree of genotypic diversity, which was also reflected by large strain-to-strain variability in terms of biofilm formation, attachment and cytotoxicity within each group of pathogen. Using non-pathogenic bacteria expressing MAM7 or latex beads coated with recombinant MAM7 for anti-adhesion treatment, we showed a decrease in cytotoxicity, indicating that MAM7 has potential as a prophylactic agent to attenuate infection by multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens.

  5. Herpes simplex virus type 2 and HIV infection among US military personnel: implications for health prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Bautista, C T; Singer, D E; O'Connell, R J; Crum-Cianflone, N; Agan, B K; Malia, J A; Sanchez, J L; Peel, S A; Michael, N L; Scott, P T

    2009-09-01

    US military personnel are routinely screened for HIV infection. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a risk factor for HIV acquisition. To determine the association between HSV-2 and HIV, a matched case-control study was conducted among US Army and Air Force service members with incident HIV infections (cases) randomly matched with two HIV-uninfected service members (controls) between 2000 and 2004. HSV-2 prevalence was significantly higher among cases (30.3%, 138/456) than among controls (9.7%, 88/912, P < 0.001). HSV-2 was strongly associated with HIV in univariate (odds ratio [OR] = 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.1-5.8) and multiple analyses (adjusted [OR] = 3.9, 95% CI = 2.8-5.6). The population attributable risk percentage of HIV infection due to HSV-2 was 23%. Identifying HSV-2 infections may afford the opportunity to provide targeted behavioural interventions that could decrease the incidence of HIV infections in the US military population; further studies are needed.

  6. Characterization of complete HIV type 1 genomes from non-B subtype infections in U.S. military personnel.

    PubMed

    Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Brodine, Stephanie K; Mascola, John R; Sankale, Jean-Louis; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Kim, Bohye; Birx, Deborah L; McCutchan, Francine E

    2005-05-01

    Infections with non-B HIV-1 subtypes are rare in the United States, but comprise a significant percentage of infections among U.S. military personnel. Risk behavior while on overseas deployment correlates with non-B infection in this population. Extensive genetic characterization will be required to define HIV-1 diversity, and to effectively evaluate requirements for HIV-1 vaccines and other prevention strategies in this group. From 1997 to 2000, 520 recent seroconverters, identified through routine HIV-1 testing in the U.S. active military force, volunteered for a prospective study. V3 loop serology or partial genome sequencing identified 28 non- B subtype infections; 14 were studied by full genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Five strains were CRF01_AE. Four of these clustered with CM240 from Thailand, and one clustered with African CRF01_AE. Four strains were CRF02_AG, prevalent in West and West Central Africa. Two strains were subtype C. One strain was a unique recombinant between CRF01_AE and subtype B, and another was a complex unique recombinant between subtype A and D. The final strain was a member of a complex circulating recombinant first identified in Senegal, CRF09_cpx, incorporating subtypes A, F, G, and an unclassified genome. This diversity of non-B subtype HIV-1 strains, encompassing three globally prevalent non-B strains and including rare or even possibly unique strains, illustrates the breadth of U.S. military exposure while deployed and sets the bar higher for breadth of cross-subtype protection to be afforded by an HIV-1 vaccine.

  7. Alzheimer's Disease prevalence, costs, and prevention for military personnel and veterans.

    PubMed

    Sibener, Leslie; Zaganjor, Ibrahim; Snyder, Heather M; Bain, Lisa J; Egge, Robert; Carrillo, Maria C

    2014-06-01

    By 2050, more than 13 million Americans of all ages are estimated to be living with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the aggregate costs of care will swell to approximately $1.2 trillion. The rapidly climbing number of those affected with AD includes a growing population of aging military veterans affected who may have an added risk for the disease as a consequence of traumatic brain injury, posttraumatic stress disorder, and/or service-related injuries. The increasing number of individuals, the long duration of disability, and the rising cost of care for AD and other dementia to our society are important public health challenges facing many older adults. These challenges are further compounded by a burgeoning military veteran population that is much younger, with an increased risk of AD and other dementia, and who may experience decades-long periods of disability and care. This outlook underscores the critical need for investments in research at the federal and international levels to accelerate the pace of progress in developing breakthrough discoveries that will change the trajectory of AD and related dementia.

  8. Prevalence of DSM-IV major depression among U.S. military personnel: meta-analysis and simulation.

    PubMed

    Gadermann, Anne M; Engel, Charles C; Naifeh, James A; Nock, Matthew K; Petukhova, Maria; Santiago, Patcho N; Wu, Benjamin; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2012-08-01

    A meta-analysis of 25 epidemiological studies estimated the prevalence of recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) major depression (MD) among U.S. military personnel. Best estimates of recent prevalence (standard error) were 12.0% (1.2) among currently deployed, 13.1% (1.8) among previously deployed, and 5.7% (1.2) among never deployed. Consistent correlates of prevalence were being female, enlisted, young (ages 17-25), unmarried, and having less than a college education. Simulation of data from a national general population survey was used to estimate expected lifetime prevalence of MD among respondents with the sociodemographic profile and none of the enlistment exclusions of Army personnel. In this Simulated sample, 16.2% (3.1) of respondents had lifetime MD and 69.7% (8.5) of first onsets occurred before expected age of enlistment. Numerous methodological problems limit the results of the meta-analysis and simulation. The article closes with a discussion of recommendations for correcting these problems in future surveillance and operational stress studies. PMID:22953441

  9. Kinetics of a tuberculosis-specific gamma interferon release assay in military personnel with a positive tuberculin skin test.

    PubMed

    van Brummelen, Sigrid E; Bauwens, Anja M; Schlösser, Noël J; Arend, Sandra M

    2010-06-01

    Treatment of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection on the basis of the tuberculin skin test (TST) result is inaccurate due to the false-positive TST results that occur after Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination or exposure to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Gamma interferon release assays (IGRAs) are based on M. tuberculosis-specific antigens. In a previous study among BCG-naïve military employees, a positive TST result after deployment was mostly associated with a negative IGRA result, suggesting exposure to NTM. Data regarding the kinetics of IGRAs are limited and controversial. The present study aimed to reassess the rate of false-positive TST results and to evaluate the kinetics of the Quantiferon TB Gold In-Tube assay (QFT-Git) in military personnel with a positive TST result. QFT-Git was performed at the time of inclusion in the study and was repeated after 2, 6, 12, and 18 or 24 months. Of 192 participants, 17 were recruits and 175 were screened after deployment (n = 169) or because of travel or health care work. Baseline positive QFT-Git results were observed in 7/17 (41.2%) and 12/174 (6.9%) participants, respectively. During follow-up, a negative QFT-Git result remained negative in 163/165 (98.8%) participants. Of 18 subjects with an initial positive QFT-Git result, reversion to a negative result occurred in 1/6 (16%) recruits, whereas it occurred in 8/12 (66%) subjects after deployment or with other risk factors (P = 0.046). The quantitative result was significantly lower in subjects with reversion than in those with consistent positive results (P = 0.017). This study confirmed a low rate of positive QFT-Git results among military personnel with a positive TST result after deployment, supporting the hypothesis of exposure to NTM. Reversion of the majority of initially low-positive QFT-Git results indicates that QFT-Git may be useful for the diagnosis of later reinfections.

  10. Evaluation of insecticides and repellents for the control of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi to protect deployed U.S. Military personnel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phlebotomine sand flies, including Phlebotomus papatasi, are important blood feeders and vectors that transmit the disease agents (Leishmania) that cause Leishmaniasis. Deployed U.S. Military Personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan suffered from sand fly bites and the disease they transmit. A USDA-DoD joi...

  11. Innovative technologies targeting vector populations to mitigate the risk of exposure to leishmaniasis and protect deployed U.S. Military personnel in the Middle East

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phlebotomine sand flies, including Phlebotomus papatasi, are blood feeders and vectors of significant public health importance because they transmit Leishmania spp., which cause leishmaniasis. Deployed U.S. Military personnel in the Middle East suffer from sand fly bites and are at risk of contract...

  12. Innovative technologies targeting vector populations to mitigate the risk of exposure to leishmaniasis and protect deployed U.S. Military personnel in the Middle East

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phlebotomine sand flies, including Phlebotomus papatasi, are blood feeders and vectors of significant public health importance because they transmit Leishmania spp., which cause leishmaniasis. Deployed U.S. Military personnel in the Middle East suffer from sand fly bites and are at risk of contracti...

  13. [Studies on prenosological diagnostics of health of armed forces personnel on compulsory military service].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Federal budget scientific institution "Nizhny Novgorod research institute for hygiene and occupational pathology", Federal service of supervision in sphere of protection of the rights of consumers and wellbeing of the person. The authors have evaluated physical development of contract military persons divided in following age groups (under 30, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, over 50 years old), according to morphofunctional indices, index of functional measurement in human organism, pathological affection. Obtained data give evidence about presence of health risk factors in all observed groups. Preventive measures are the most necessary in 1 and 2 groups. The highest health risk group is age group of 35-39 years old. PMID:22724351

  14. Death and injury rates of U.S. military personnel in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Matthew S

    2010-04-01

    In the first 6.5 years of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), U.S. military casualties exceeded 3,400 hostile deaths, 800 nonhostile deaths (due to disease, nonbattle injury, and other causes), and over 31,000 troops wounded in action. Casualty rates in Iraq have been considerably lower that during the Vietnam conflict, and a greater proportion of troops wounded in Iraq survive their wounds. Before the surge in troop levels that began in early 2007, the survival rate was 90.4% in Iraq as compared to 86.5% in Vietnam. Wounded-in-action rates increased during the first few months of the surge, but declined below presurge levels after the number of U.S. brigades in Iraq climbed from 15 to its maximum level of 20. Wounds during the surge were somewhat more lethal than previously, but because there were fewer wounding incidents the net effect was a reduction in the hostile death rate.

  15. [Studies on prenosological diagnostics of health of armed forces personnel on compulsory military service].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Federal budget scientific institution "Nizhny Novgorod research institute for hygiene and occupational pathology", Federal service of supervision in sphere of protection of the rights of consumers and wellbeing of the person. The authors have evaluated physical development of contract military persons divided in following age groups (under 30, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, over 50 years old), according to morphofunctional indices, index of functional measurement in human organism, pathological affection. Obtained data give evidence about presence of health risk factors in all observed groups. Preventive measures are the most necessary in 1 and 2 groups. The highest health risk group is age group of 35-39 years old.

  16. Use of hair products containing hormone or placenta by US military personnel.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Chandra M; Ward, John A

    2003-09-01

    We surveyed 2,097 subjects stationed at a US Army School to study the use of commercial hair products whose labeled ingredients included hormone or placenta. Use of some of these products is associated with premature sexual development. Use by demographics is: All = 14.8%, whites = 6.3%, non-whites = 27.0%; males = 8.7%, females = 24.6%; officers = 7.3%, enlisted = 18.7%. Frequency of use was highest among non-white female enlisted personnel (43 +/- 6.4%) and lowest among white male commissioned officers (2.0 +/- 1.7%). Regardless of ethnicity, 13.4% of respondents' children used the hair product. Use is about four times higher for non-whites than for whites. Females and enlisted personnel are more likely to use the hair product than males or officers. The use of hormonal hair products among children parallels use by their parents. In spite of federal regulation, the use of these hair products is still common.

  17. Occupational cocaine exposure of crime laboratory personnel preparing training aids for a military working dog program.

    PubMed

    Gehlhausen, Jay M; Klette, Kevin L; Stout, Peter R; Given, JoAnn

    2003-10-01

    The potential for passive cocaine exposure was evaluated in crime laboratory employees preparing training aids for a military working dog program (MWD). The primary goal of the study was to elucidate the routes of exposure and implement procedural changes that would minimize this risk. Several work environments and laboratory procedures were examined by monitoring personal breathing zones (PBZ), ambient airborne cocaine levels in the laboratory spaces, and urinary levels of the primary cocaine metabolite, benzoylecgonine. The study was performed initially using current laboratory procedures to establish a baseline and to identify potential sources of exposure. A subsequent study was performed to determine the effectiveness of the follow-up procedure in reducing exposure. As a result of the changes, the 8-h time weighted averages (TWAs) were 40 to 80% lower in the follow-up study as compared to the baseline assessment. Dermal absorption and PBZ inhalation of cocaine during manufacture were likely the most significant source of cocaine exposure. Ambient airborne cocaine may have also contributed to the total exposure, but for most observations, the concentrations were significantly less than those determined from PBZ monitoring. The maximum ambient cocaine concentration was 0.0144 mg/m(3) compared to a maximum of 0.4004 mg/m(3) observed during PBZ monitoring. Occupational exposure decreased in the follow-up study because of the proper use of personal protective equipment and improvements in engineering controls.

  18. Death and injury rates of U.S. military personnel in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Matthew S

    2010-04-01

    In the first 6.5 years of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), U.S. military casualties exceeded 3,400 hostile deaths, 800 nonhostile deaths (due to disease, nonbattle injury, and other causes), and over 31,000 troops wounded in action. Casualty rates in Iraq have been considerably lower that during the Vietnam conflict, and a greater proportion of troops wounded in Iraq survive their wounds. Before the surge in troop levels that began in early 2007, the survival rate was 90.4% in Iraq as compared to 86.5% in Vietnam. Wounded-in-action rates increased during the first few months of the surge, but declined below presurge levels after the number of U.S. brigades in Iraq climbed from 15 to its maximum level of 20. Wounds during the surge were somewhat more lethal than previously, but because there were fewer wounding incidents the net effect was a reduction in the hostile death rate. PMID:20446496

  19. Evaluating a prototype device designed to alleviate night vision goggle induced neck strain among military personnel.

    PubMed

    Dibblee, Jenna; Worthy, Portia; Farrell, Philip; Hetzler, Markus; Reid, Susan; Stevenson, Joan; Fischer, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was verify the design of a novel Helmet System Support Device (HSSD) that can be used by military aircrew to help intervene on and reduce the high prevalence of neck trouble. Twelve healthy participants repeated simulated helicopter aircrew tasks on 3 separate days. On each day they wore a different helmet configuration, where measures of performance, perceived demand/preference and muscular demand were recorded. The results showed that vigilance tasks were performed over 10% faster with the HSSD configuration compared to wearing the normal helmet configuration. Participants were able to maintain static (endurance) postures for 28% longer, and use of the HSSD helped to prevent neck muscle fatigue in the most demanding task. The results of this design verification study indicate that the HSSD may be a realistic, feasible near-term solution to intervene on the high prevalence of neck trouble among rotary-wing aircrew. Practitioner Summary: This paper verifies the effectiveness of the Helmet System Support Device (HSSD) as an on-body personal protective device to help control exposures associated with aircrew neck trouble. The HSSD reduced perceived demand, reduced cumulative muscle activity in select muscles and provided improved fatigue resistance, meeting its desired design objectives. PMID:25932658

  20. Functional status after blast-plus-impact complex concussive traumatic brain injury in evacuated United States military personnel.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Christine L; Johnson, Ann M; Nelson, Elliot C; Werner, Nicole J; Fang, Raymond; Flaherty, Stephen F; Brody, David L

    2014-05-15

    Fundamental questions remain unanswered about the longitudinal impact of blast-plus-impact complex traumatic brain injuries (TBI) from wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. This prospective, observational study investigated measures of clinical outcome in US military personnel evacuated to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC) in Germany after such "blast-plus" concussive TBIs. Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended assessments completed 6-12 months after injury indicated a moderate overall disability in 41/47 (87%) blast-plus TBI subjects and a substantial but smaller number (11/18, 61%, p=0.018) of demographically similar US military controls without TBI evacuated for other medical reasons. Cognitive function assessed with a neuropsychological test battery was not different between blast-plus TBI subjects and controls; performance of both groups was generally in the normal range. No subject was found to have focal neurological deficits. However, 29/47 (57%) of blast-plus subjects with TBI met all criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) versus 5/18 (28%) of controls (p=0.014). PTSD was highly associated with overall disability; 31/34 patients with PTSD versus 19/31 patients who did not meet full PTSD criteria had moderate to severe disability (p=0.0003). Symptoms of depression were also more severe in the TBI group (p=0.05), and highly correlated with PTSD severity (r=0.86, p<0.0001). Thus, in summary, high rates of PTSD and depression but not cognitive impairment or focal neurological deficits were observed 6-12 months after concussive blast-plus-impact complex TBI. Overall disability was substantially greater than typically reported in civilian non-blast concussive ("mild") patients with TBI, even with polytrauma. The relationship between these clinical outcomes and specific blast-related aspects of brain injuries versus other combat-related factors remains unknown.

  1. Functional Status after Blast-Plus-Impact Complex Concussive Traumatic Brain Injury in Evacuated United States Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Christine L.; Johnson, Ann M.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Werner, Nicole J.; Fang, Raymond; Flaherty, Stephen F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fundamental questions remain unanswered about the longitudinal impact of blast-plus-impact complex traumatic brain injuries (TBI) from wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. This prospective, observational study investigated measures of clinical outcome in US military personnel evacuated to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC) in Germany after such “blast-plus” concussive TBIs. Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended assessments completed 6–12 months after injury indicated a moderate overall disability in 41/47 (87%) blast-plus TBI subjects and a substantial but smaller number (11/18, 61%, p=0.018) of demographically similar US military controls without TBI evacuated for other medical reasons. Cognitive function assessed with a neuropsychological test battery was not different between blast-plus TBI subjects and controls; performance of both groups was generally in the normal range. No subject was found to have focal neurological deficits. However, 29/47 (57%) of blast-plus subjects with TBI met all criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) versus 5/18 (28%) of controls (p=0.014). PTSD was highly associated with overall disability; 31/34 patients with PTSD versus 19/31 patients who did not meet full PTSD criteria had moderate to severe disability (p=0.0003). Symptoms of depression were also more severe in the TBI group (p=0.05), and highly correlated with PTSD severity (r=0.86, p<0.0001). Thus, in summary, high rates of PTSD and depression but not cognitive impairment or focal neurological deficits were observed 6–12 months after concussive blast-plus-impact complex TBI. Overall disability was substantially greater than typically reported in civilian non-blast concussive (“mild”) patients with TBI, even with polytrauma. The relationship between these clinical outcomes and specific blast-related aspects of brain injuries versus other combat-related factors remains unknown. PMID:24367929

  2. Functional status after blast-plus-impact complex concussive traumatic brain injury in evacuated United States military personnel.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Christine L; Johnson, Ann M; Nelson, Elliot C; Werner, Nicole J; Fang, Raymond; Flaherty, Stephen F; Brody, David L

    2014-05-15

    Fundamental questions remain unanswered about the longitudinal impact of blast-plus-impact complex traumatic brain injuries (TBI) from wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. This prospective, observational study investigated measures of clinical outcome in US military personnel evacuated to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC) in Germany after such "blast-plus" concussive TBIs. Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended assessments completed 6-12 months after injury indicated a moderate overall disability in 41/47 (87%) blast-plus TBI subjects and a substantial but smaller number (11/18, 61%, p=0.018) of demographically similar US military controls without TBI evacuated for other medical reasons. Cognitive function assessed with a neuropsychological test battery was not different between blast-plus TBI subjects and controls; performance of both groups was generally in the normal range. No subject was found to have focal neurological deficits. However, 29/47 (57%) of blast-plus subjects with TBI met all criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) versus 5/18 (28%) of controls (p=0.014). PTSD was highly associated with overall disability; 31/34 patients with PTSD versus 19/31 patients who did not meet full PTSD criteria had moderate to severe disability (p=0.0003). Symptoms of depression were also more severe in the TBI group (p=0.05), and highly correlated with PTSD severity (r=0.86, p<0.0001). Thus, in summary, high rates of PTSD and depression but not cognitive impairment or focal neurological deficits were observed 6-12 months after concussive blast-plus-impact complex TBI. Overall disability was substantially greater than typically reported in civilian non-blast concussive ("mild") patients with TBI, even with polytrauma. The relationship between these clinical outcomes and specific blast-related aspects of brain injuries versus other combat-related factors remains unknown. PMID:24367929

  3. Military Service, Race, and the Transition to Marriage and Cohabitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachman, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth, the author investigates the relationship between military service and the transition to the first intimate union. The author argues that active-duty military service promotes marriage over cohabitation. The results are consistent with this argument, showing that active-duty members of…

  4. Association between bovine casein antibody and new onset schizophrenia among US military personnel.

    PubMed

    Niebuhr, David W; Li, Yuanzhang; Cowan, David N; Weber, Natalya S; Fisher, Jared A; Ford, Glen M; Yolken, Robert

    2011-05-01

    Schizophrenia is a pervasive neuropsychiatric disorder of uncertain etiology. Multiple studies have documented immune activation in individuals with schizophrenia. One antigen capable of inducing a prolonged immune response is bovine casein derived from ingested milk products. Increased levels of casein antibodies have been found in individuals with schizophrenia after diagnosis. This study was directed at determining the potential association between schizophrenia and pre-illness onset levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to bovine casein. Parallel analyses for casein antibody levels with bipolar disorder were included as comparison. Cases were service members who received medical discharges from the military with a schizophrenia diagnosis from 1992 to 2005. Serum specimens were selected for 855 cases and 1165 matched healthy controls. IgG antibodies to bovine whole-casein were measured by solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated to examine the associations of casein IgG level with risk of schizophrenia by time to diagnosis and by subjects' initial level. Increasing casein IgG antibody levels among those with a high initial level, drawn before diagnosis, was associated with an 18% increase in the hazard risk of schizophrenia per unit increase (value of low-positive standard) in IgG antibody levels (HR=1.18; 95% CI 1.04, 1.34). This is the first report to identify an association between the risk of schizophrenia and elevated antibodies to bovine casein prior to disease onset. Additional research is required to elucidate the complex genetic environmental interactions involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and to identify potentially modifiable risk factors.

  5. Height, weight and body mass index (BMI) in psychiatrically ill US Armed Forces personnel

    PubMed Central

    WYATT, R. J.; HENTER, I. D.; MOJTABAI, R.; BARTKO, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background In both psychiatrically ill and psychiatrically healthy adults, the connection between health and individuals’ height and weight has long been examined. Specifically, research on the idea that individuals with certain body types were prone to particular psychiatric diseases has been explored sporadically for centuries. The hypothesis that psychiatrically ill individuals were shorter and weighed less than psychiatrically healthy counterparts would correspond with the neurodevelopmental model of psychiatric disease. Method To evaluate possible links between psychiatric illness and physique, the height, weight and BMI of 7514 patients and 85 940 controls were compared. All subjects were part of the National Collaborative Study of Early Psychosis and Suicide (NCSEPS). Patients were US military active duty personnel hospitalized for either bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, or schizophrenia and controls were psychiatrically-healthy US military active duty personnel matched for date of entry into the service. Results No consistent differences in height, weight or BMI were found between patients and controls, or between patient groups. Some weak ANOVA differences were found between age at the time of entering active duty and weight, as well as BMI, but not height. Conclusions Unlike most previous studies that have looked at the links between height and psychiatric illness, this study of the NCSEPS cohort found that, at entry into the US Armed Forces, there were no consistent decreases in height for patients with bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder or schizophrenia compared with a large control group. Furthermore, there were no consistent differences for weight or BMI. PMID:12622316

  6. 22 CFR 19.11-6 - Death during active duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Death during active duty. 19.11-6 Section 19.11... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.11-6 Death during active duty. (a...-2 computed as if the participant had retired on the date of death unless a court order or...

  7. 22 CFR 19.11-6 - Death during active duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death during active duty. 19.11-6 Section 19.11... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.11-6 Death during active duty. (a...-2 computed as if the participant had retired on the date of death unless a court order or...

  8. 22 CFR 19.11-6 - Death during active duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Death during active duty. 19.11-6 Section 19.11... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.11-6 Death during active duty. (a...-2 computed as if the participant had retired on the date of death unless a court order or...

  9. 22 CFR 19.11-6 - Death during active duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Death during active duty. 19.11-6 Section 19.11... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.11-6 Death during active duty. (a...-2 computed as if the participant had retired on the date of death unless a court order or...

  10. 22 CFR 19.11-6 - Death during active duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Death during active duty. 19.11-6 Section 19.11... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.11-6 Death during active duty. (a...-2 computed as if the participant had retired on the date of death unless a court order or...

  11. 12 CFR 1022.121 - Active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Active duty alerts. 1022.121 Section 1022.121 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Duties of Consumer Reporting Agencies Regarding Identity Theft § 1022.121 Active duty alerts. (a) Duration....

  12. 12 CFR 1022.121 - Active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Active duty alerts. 1022.121 Section 1022.121 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Duties of Consumer Reporting Agencies Regarding Identity Theft § 1022.121 Active duty alerts. (a) Duration....

  13. 12 CFR 1022.121 - Active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Active duty alerts. 1022.121 Section 1022.121 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Duties of Consumer Reporting Agencies Regarding Identity Theft § 1022.121 Active duty alerts. (a) Duration....

  14. Alcohol use and substance use disorders in Gulf War, Afghanistan, and Iraq War veterans compared with nondeployed military personnel.

    PubMed

    Kelsall, Helen Louise; Wijesinghe, Millawage Supun Dilara; Creamer, Mark Christopher; McKenzie, Dean Philip; Forbes, Andrew Benjamin; Page, Matthew James; Sim, Malcolm Ross

    2015-01-01

    Although recent veterans have been found to be at increased risk of psychiatric disorders, limited research has focused on alcohol or substance use disorders. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined whether alcohol or substance use disorders were more common in Gulf War, Afghanistan, and Iraq War veterans compared with military comparison groups nondeployed to the corresponding conflict, including never deployed personnel. Literature was searched (1990-2014) in multiple electronic databases. Studies were assessed for eligibility and quality, including risk of bias. Eighteen studies (1997-2014) met inclusion criteria. Pooled analysis based on a random-effects model yielded a summary odds ratio of 1.33 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 1.46) for alcohol (7 studies) and 2.13 (95% CI: 0.96, 4.72) for substance use (3 studies) disorders among Gulf War veterans, as well as 1.36 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.66) for alcohol (7 studies) and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.25) for substance use (4 studies) disorders among Iraq/Afghanistan veterans; meta-regressions found no statistically significant association between theater of war and alcohol use or substance use disorders. Our findings indicate that Gulf and Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans are at higher alcohol use disorder risk than nondeployed veterans, but further studies with increased power are needed to assess substance use disorder risk in Gulf War veteran populations.

  15. Selection of key stressors to develop virtual environments for practicing stress management skills with military personnel prior to deployment.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Stéphane; Baus, Oliver; Bernier, François; McCreary, Donald R

    2010-02-01

    Virtual environments (VEs) are presently being used to treat military personnel suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In an attempt to reduce the risk of PTSD, VEs may also be useful for stress management training (SMT) to practice skills under stress, but such use necessitates the development of relevant stress-inducing scenarios and storyboards. This article describes the procedures followed to select which VEs could be built for the Canadian Forces. A review and analysis of the available literature and of data collected postdeployment from 1,319 respondents on the frequency of stressors and their association with psychological injuries were pulled together to propose eight potential virtual stressors that can be used to practice SMT: seeing dead bodies or uncovering human remains; knowing someone being seriously injured or killed; receiving artillery fire; being unable to help ill or wounded civilians because of the rules of engagement; seeing destroyed homes and villages; clearing and searching homes, caves, or bunkers; receiving small-arms fire; and participating in demining operations. Information reported in this article could also be useful to document traumatic stressors experienced in theater of operations and their potential impact on psychological injuries. PMID:20528298

  16. Dengue fever in American military personnel in the Philippines: clinical observations on hospitalized patients during a 1984 epidemic.

    PubMed

    Hayes, C G; O'Rourke, T F; Fogelman, V; Leavengood, D D; Crow, G; Albersmeyer, M M

    1989-03-01

    From June - August, 1984, 24 American military personnel were hospitalized with dengue (DEN) at Clark Air Base in the Philippines. Their infections were confirmed by serology using the hemagglutination-inhibition test and/or by virus isolation in Aedes pseudoscutellaris cell cultures. Most of the patients had a secondary type of antibody response probably reflecting prior vaccination against yellow fever. Three serotypes of DEN virus were isolated; 7 isolates of DEN 1, 4 isolates of DEN 3 and 3 isolates of DEN 2. All of the patients were Caucasian males between the ages of 20-43 years. All of the cases were clinically diagnosed as classical dengue fever. A platelet count of less than or equal to 100,000/microliters was a common finding (83.3%); however, hemoconcentration was not documented. Other major findings were the occurrence of mild hypotension (62.5%) and petechiae (37.5%). One patient presented with shock and upper gastrointestinal bleeding, but his diagnosis was complicated by a history of epigastric pain and use of aspirin. Although all of the patients fully recovered, the severity of illness was clearly documented by the average-length of hospitalization (5.9 days) and average time absent from work (8.7 days).

  17. Influence of educational status and other variables on human immunodeficiency virus risk perception among military personnel: a large cohort finding.

    PubMed

    Essien, E James; Ogungbade, Gbadebo O; Ward, Doriel; Ekong, Ernest; Ross, Michael W; Meshack, Angela; Holmes, Laurens

    2007-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk perception remains an effective determinant of HIV transmission. Although higher educational attainment has been associated with increased HIV risk perception, this predictor remains to be assessed among Nigerian military personnel (NMP). In a prospective cohort of 2,213 NMP, the effects of education and other factors on HIV risk perception were assessed at baseline by using the X2 statistic and unconditional logistic regression. There was an inverse correlation between higher educational attainment and HIV risk perception in the univariate model (prevalence odds ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.79). This association persisted after adjustment for relevant covariates in the multivariate model (prevalence odds ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.88). Similarly, there was a direct correlation between use of alcohol and marijuana and HIV risk perception (p < 0.05). In contrast, casual sex and gender were not statistically significantly associated with HIV risk perception (p > 0.05). This study indicates an inverse correlation between educational attainment and HIV risk perception, as well as a direct correlation between alcohol and marijuana use and HIV risk perception, among NMP. Therefore, HIV prevention interventions targeted at NMP need to include multiple factors that may affect risk perception regardless of the educational status of the participants.

  18. Severe neuropsychiatric reaction in a deployed military member after prophylactic mefloquine.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Alan L; Seegmiller, Robert A; Schindler, Libby S

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of military personnel who have deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan have reported a number of combat-related psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and traumatic brain injury. This case report involves a 27-year-old male active-duty US military service member who developed severe depression, psychotic hallucinations, and neuropsychological sequelae following the prophylactic use of the antimalarial medication mefloquine hydrochloride. The patient had a recent history of depression and was taking antidepressant medications at the time of his deployment to the Middle East. Psychiatrists and other health care providers should be aware of the possible neuropsychiatric side effects of mefloquine in deployed military personnel and should consider the use of other medications for malaria prophylaxis in those individuals who may be at increased risk for side effects. PMID:22937403

  19. Secondary and tertiary transfer of vaccinia virus among U.S. military personnel--United States and worldwide, 2002-2004.

    PubMed

    2004-02-13

    In December 2002, the Department of Defense (DoD) began vaccinating military personnel as part of the pre-event vaccination program. Because vaccinia virus is present on the skin at the site of vaccination, it can spread to other parts of the body (i.e., autoinoculation) or to contacts of vaccinees (i.e., contact transfer). To prevent autoinoculation and contact transfer, DoD gave vaccinees printed information that focused on hand washing, covering the vaccination site, and limiting contact with infants (1,2). This report describes cases of contact transfer of vaccinia virus among vaccinated military personnel since December 2002; findings indicate that contact transfer of vaccinia virus is rare. Continued efforts are needed to educate vaccinees about the importance of proper vaccination-site care in preventing contact transmission, especially in household settings.

  20. Effect of deployment on the occurrence of child maltreatment in military and nonmilitary families.

    PubMed

    Rentz, E Danielle; Marshall, Stephen W; Loomis, Dana; Casteel, Carri; Martin, Sandra L; Gibbs, Deborah A

    2007-05-15

    War has a profound emotional impact on military personnel and their families, but little is known about how deployment-related stress impacts the occurrence of child maltreatment in military families. This time-series analysis of Texas child maltreatment data from 2000 to 2003 examined changes in the occurrence of child maltreatment in military and nonmilitary families over time and the impact of recent deployment increases. The rate of occurrence of substantiated maltreatment in military families was twice as high in the period after October 2002 (the 1-year anniversary of the September 11th attacks) compared with the period prior to that date (rate ratio = 2.15, 95% confidence interval: 1.85, 2.50). Among military personnel with at least one dependent, the rate of child maltreatment in military families increased by approximately 30% for each 1% increase in the percentage of active duty personnel departing to (rate ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.20, 1.37) or returning from (rate ratio = 1.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.16, 1.48) operation-related deployment. These findings indicate that both departures to and returns from operational deployment impose stresses on military families and likely increase the rate of child maltreatment. Intervention programs should be implemented to mitigate family dysfunction in times of potential stress.

  1. An outbreak of scrub typhus in military personnel despite protocols for antibiotic prophylaxis: doxycycline resistance excluded by a quantitative PCR-based susceptibility assay.

    PubMed

    Harris, Patrick N A; Oltvolgyi, Csongor; Islam, Aminul; Hussain-Yusuf, Hazizul; Loewenthal, Mark R; Vincent, Gemma; Stenos, John; Graves, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Scrub typhus is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi and is endemic to many countries in the Asia-Pacific region, including tropical Australia. We describe a recent large outbreak amongst military personnel in north Queensland. A total of 45 clinical cases were identified (36% of all potentially exposed individuals). This occurred despite existing military protocols stipulating the provision of doxycycline prophylaxis. Doxycycline resistance in O. tsutsugamushi has been described in South-East Asia, but not Australia. In one case, O. tsutsugamushi was cultured from eschar tissue and blood. Using quantitative real-time PCR to determine susceptibility to doxycycline for the outbreak strain, a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≤0.04 μg/mL was found, indicating susceptibility to this agent. It seems most probable that failure to adhere to adequate prophylaxis over the duration of the military exercise accounted for the large number of cases encountered rather than doxycycline resistance.

  2. Considerations for incorporating eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic omega-3 fatty acids into the military food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Adam; Rice, Harry B

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. military may consider exploring the inclusion of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the diets of active duty military personnel. To be successful, certain challenges must be overcome including determining appropriate dosage, ensuring cost efficiency, and optimizing stability. To increase EPA and DHA intake, the military should consider using one of three strategies, including mandates or recommendations on omega-3 supplement usage, contracts to purchase commercially available foods for distribution in the food supply chain, or direct addition of EPA and DHA into currently consumed foods. This review presents the challenges and strategies and provides potential suggestions to the military to increase the likelihood of success. PMID:25373100

  3. Community-integrated brain injury rehabilitation: Treatment models and challenges for civilian, military, and veteran populations.

    PubMed

    Trudel, Tina M; Nidiffer, F Don; Barth, Jeffrey T

    2007-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health problem in civilian, military, and veteran populations. Individuals experiencing moderate to severe TBI require a continuum of care involving acute hospitalization and postacute rehabilitation, including community reintegration and, one would hope, a return home to function as a productive member of the community. In the military, the goal is to help individuals with TBI return to active duty or make an optimal return to civilian life if the extent of their injuries necessitates a "medical board" discharge. Whether civilian, military, or veteran with TBI, individuals who move beyond the need to live in a facility must be reintegrated back into the community. This article discusses four treatment models for community reintegration, reviews treatment standardization and outcome issues, and describes a manualized rehabilitation pilot program designed to provide community reintegration and return to duty/work for civilians, veterans, and military personnel with TBI.

  4. Considerations for incorporating eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic omega-3 fatty acids into the military food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Adam; Rice, Harry B

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. military may consider exploring the inclusion of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the diets of active duty military personnel. To be successful, certain challenges must be overcome including determining appropriate dosage, ensuring cost efficiency, and optimizing stability. To increase EPA and DHA intake, the military should consider using one of three strategies, including mandates or recommendations on omega-3 supplement usage, contracts to purchase commercially available foods for distribution in the food supply chain, or direct addition of EPA and DHA into currently consumed foods. This review presents the challenges and strategies and provides potential suggestions to the military to increase the likelihood of success.

  5. Seroprevalence for Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis in Austrian adults: a cross-sectional survey among military personnel and civilians.

    PubMed

    Tobudic, Selma; Nedomansky, Klara; Poeppl, Wolfgang; Müller, Maria; Faas, Angelus; Mooseder, Gerhard; Allerberger, Franz; Stanek, Gerold; Burgmann, Heinz

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella melitensis infections in Austria and the exposure risk of military personnel were assessed in an exploratory nationwide cross-sectional seroprevalence survey in 526 healthy adult individuals, 222 of which were soldiers and 304 were civilians. Screening for IgA/IgG antibodies to C. burnetii (Phase I) and IgG/IgM antibodies to C. burnetii (Phase II), and to F. tularensis was done with commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. To detect antibodies against B. abortus and B. melitensis, an in-house complement fixation test was used. Overall, 11 individuals (2.0%) showed antibodies to C. burnetii, 3 individuals (0.5%) were seropositive for F. tularensis, and one (0.3%) individual was borderline positive. All individuals positive or borderline for F. tularensis tested negative for antibodies against C. burnetii. All individuals tested negative for antibodies against B. melitensis/B. abortus. There were no significant differences between the seroprevalence of C. burnetii and F. tularensis among military personnel and civilians. Our data demonstrate serological evidence of a low rate of exposure to C. burnetii and F. tularensis among the Austrian adult population and military personnel.

  6. Current Suicidal Ideation among Treatment-Engaged Active Duty Soldiers and Marines

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Villatte, Jennifer L.; Kerbrat, Amanda H.; Atkins, David C.; Flaster, Aaron; Comtois, Kate A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined suicidal ideation among 399 active duty Soldiers and Marines engaged in mental health treatment. Using a generalized linear model controlling for demographic and military factors, depression, and positive traumatic brain injury screen, we confirmed our hypothesis that self-report measures of current PTSD symptoms uniquely predicted suicidal ideation. The association between PTSD severity and suicidal ideation was moderated by gender with women at higher risk as PTSD severity increased. Female Soldiers and Marines with high levels of PTSD should receive additional monitoring and intervention. Self-report measures may aid with risk assessment and identify symptom-related distress associated with suicide risk. PMID:27170848

  7. Monitoring Exposure to Ebola and Health of U.S. Military Personnel Deployed in Support of Ebola Control Efforts - Liberia, October 25, 2014-February 27, 2015.

    PubMed

    Cardile, Anthony P; Murray, Clinton K; Littell, Christopher T; Shah, Neel J; Fandre, Matthew N; Drinkwater, Dennis C; Markelz, Brian P; Vento, Todd J

    2015-07-01

    In response to the unprecedented Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak in West Africa, the U.S. government deployed approximately 2,500 military personnel to support the government of Liberia. Their primary missions were to construct Ebola treatment units (ETUs), train health care workers to staff ETUs, and provide laboratory testing capacity for Ebola. Service members were explicitly prohibited from engaging in activities that could result in close contact with an Ebola-infected patient or coming in contact with the remains of persons who had died from unknown causes. Military units performed twice-daily monitoring of temperature and review of exposures and symptoms ("unit monitoring") on all persons throughout deployment, exit screening at the time of departure from Liberia, and post-deployment monitoring for 21 days at segregated, controlled monitoring areas on U.S. military installations. A total of 32 persons developed a fever during deployment from October 25, 2014, through February 27, 2015; none had a known Ebola exposure or developed Ebola infection. Monitoring of all deployed service members revealed no Ebola exposures or infections. Given their activity restrictions and comprehensive monitoring while deployed to Liberia, U.S. military personnel constitute a unique population with a lower risk for Ebola exposure compared with those working in the country without such measures.

  8. Occupational needs and intervention strategies for military personnel with mild traumatic brain injury and persistent post-concussion symptoms: a review.

    PubMed

    Cogan, Alison M

    2014-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), also known as concussion, has been labeled the "signature injury" of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. A subset of military personnel with mTBI experience ongoing symptoms well beyond the normal recovery window. While much research has been dedicated to understanding the etiology and severity of the symptoms, very little has assessed how long-term symptoms impact participation in daily life. A scoping study of the occupational science and occupational therapy literature was conducted to ascertain the current state of research on the impact of mTBI on participation in daily life activities, as well as occupational therapy interventions for mTBI. Although the emphasis in this article is on military personnel with mTBI, studies on civilians with mTBI were included in the review as research with military populations is extremely limited. Based on the literature reviewed, the author suggests a role for occupational science research and occupational therapy practice in meeting the occupational needs of military service members with persistent symptoms after mTBI.

  9. Chapter 5 mantram repetition: an evidence-based complementary practice for military personnel and veterans in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Bormann, Jill E; Weinrich, Sally; Allard, Carolyn B; Beck, Danielle; Johnson, Brian D; Holt, Lindsay Cosco

    2014-01-01

    Today in the digital age, with our advances in modern technology and communication, there are additional stressors for our military personnel and Veterans. Constant dangers exist both on and off the battlefield, unlike prior wars that had clearly-defined war zones. In addition, medical advances have assisted in saving the lives of many more gravely injured troops than ever previously possible. As the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan come to an end, large numbers of service men and women are returning home with multiple injuries. This group of Veterans has significantly higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury than ever before reported. Although existing PTSD therapies have been found to be highly effective for many Veterans, there is a substantial minority unsatisfactorily treated. Mantram repetition, an innovative, complementary, evidence-based treatment, is proving to be successful for these new Veterans. When used regularly it helps with "road rage, impatience, anger, frustration, and being out of control." A mantram is a brief, sacred word or phrase that embodies divine power or the greatest positive energy one can imagine (Easwaran, 2008a). Mantram repetition is a simple, quick, personal, portable, and private complementary practice that may be used as an adjunct to current treatments for PTSD. Growing research evidence supports mantram repetition's value for dissemination and adoption in the 21st century. This chapter summarizes Mantram Program research conducted from 2003 to 2014. It describes the health-related benefits of the Mantram Program in various populations. The current research focuses on benefits for managing psychological distress and promoting quality of life in Veterans. Future areas for research are suggested. PMID:25222539

  10. Chapter 5 mantram repetition: an evidence-based complementary practice for military personnel and veterans in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Bormann, Jill E; Weinrich, Sally; Allard, Carolyn B; Beck, Danielle; Johnson, Brian D; Holt, Lindsay Cosco

    2014-01-01

    Today in the digital age, with our advances in modern technology and communication, there are additional stressors for our military personnel and Veterans. Constant dangers exist both on and off the battlefield, unlike prior wars that had clearly-defined war zones. In addition, medical advances have assisted in saving the lives of many more gravely injured troops than ever previously possible. As the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan come to an end, large numbers of service men and women are returning home with multiple injuries. This group of Veterans has significantly higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury than ever before reported. Although existing PTSD therapies have been found to be highly effective for many Veterans, there is a substantial minority unsatisfactorily treated. Mantram repetition, an innovative, complementary, evidence-based treatment, is proving to be successful for these new Veterans. When used regularly it helps with "road rage, impatience, anger, frustration, and being out of control." A mantram is a brief, sacred word or phrase that embodies divine power or the greatest positive energy one can imagine (Easwaran, 2008a). Mantram repetition is a simple, quick, personal, portable, and private complementary practice that may be used as an adjunct to current treatments for PTSD. Growing research evidence supports mantram repetition's value for dissemination and adoption in the 21st century. This chapter summarizes Mantram Program research conducted from 2003 to 2014. It describes the health-related benefits of the Mantram Program in various populations. The current research focuses on benefits for managing psychological distress and promoting quality of life in Veterans. Future areas for research are suggested.

  11. Factors influencing injury severity score regarding Thai military personnel injured in mass casualty incident April 10, 2010: lessons learned from armed conflict casualties: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Political conflicts in Bangkok, Thailand have caused mass casualties, especially the latest event April 10, 2010, in which many military personnel were injured. Most of them were transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital, the largest military hospital in Thailand. The current study aimed to assess factors influencing Injury Severity Score (ISS) regarding Thai military personnel injured in the mass casualty incident (MCI) April 10, 2010. Methods A total of 728 injured soldiers transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital were reviewed. Descriptive statistics was used to display characteristics of the injuries, relationship between mechanism of injury and injured body regions. Multiple logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (adjusted OR) of ISS comparing injured body region categories. Results In all, 153 subjects defined as major data category were enrolled in this study. Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury (90.2%). These victims displayed 276 injured body regions. The most common injured body region was the extremities (48.5%). A total of 18 patients (11.7%) had an ISS revealing more than 16 points. Three victims who died were expected to die due to high Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS). However, one with high TRISS survived. Factors influencing ISS were age (p = 0.04), abdomen injury (adjusted OR = 29.9; 95% CI, 5.8-153.5; P < 0.01), head & neck injury (adjusted OR = 13.8; 95% CI, 2.4-80.4; P < 0.01) and chest injury (adjusted OR = 9.9; 95% CI, 2.1-47.3; P < 0.01). Conclusions Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury among Thai military personnel injured in the MCI April 10, 2010. Age and injured body region such as head & neck, chest and abdomen significantly influenced ISS. These factors should be investigated for effective medical treatment and preparing protective equipment to prevent such injuries in the future. PMID:22214518

  12. Gender Differences in Response to Deployment Among Military Healthcare Providers in Afghanistan and Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Hickling, Edward J.; Barnett, Scott D.; Herbig-Wall, Pamela L.; Watts, Dorraine D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite their growing numbers in the United States military, little has been published on healthcare providers (HCP) or female service members from conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. The purpose of this secondary analysis of data from the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Survey of Health Related Behaviors Among Active Duty Military Personnel was to determine gender differences in reaction to the impact of operational stress in deployed military healthcare providers. Methods The unweighted study sample selected for this data analysis included results from female and male active duty military personnel over the age of 18 years (n=16,146) deployed at least once to Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) within the past 3 years (n=1,425), for a final sample consisting of either officer (healthcare officer) or enlisted (healthcare specialist) personnel (n=455) (weighted n=23,440). Indices of psychologic distress and social relations were explored and compared. Results Enlisted female HCPs were more likely to be African American (42.3%) and single (63.0%) and represented the greater percentage with significant psychologic difficulties, as shown by serious psychologic distress endorsement (11.3%) and positive screen results for depression (32.2%). More harmful drinking patterns (Alcohol Use Disorders Identifications Test [AUDIT] score 8–15) were found in more female HCPs (enlisted 61.8%, officers 76.4%) compared with males (enlisted 41.1%, officers 67.1%). Conclusions Female HCPs serving in the current military conflicts are reporting significant psychologic distress that may adversely impact their performance within the military, in theaters of operations, and in their lives at home. Implications for clinical care of female service members and veterans of current wars are addressed. PMID:22224844

  13. Consortium for Health and Military Performance and American College of Sports Medicine consensus paper on extreme conditioning programs in military personnel.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Michael F; Nindl, Bradley C; Deuster, Patricia A; Baumgartner, Neal; Kane, Shawn F; Kraemer, William J; Sexauer, Lisa R; Thompson, Walter R; O'Connor, Francis G

    2011-01-01

    A potential emerging problem associated with increasingly popularized extreme conditioning programs (ECPs) has been identified by the military and civilian communities. That is, there is an apparent disproportionate musculoskeletal injury risk from these demanding programs, particularly for novice participants, resulting in lost duty time, medical treatment, and extensive rehabilitation. This is a significant and costly concern for the military with regard to effectively maintaining operational readiness of the Force. While there are certain recognized positive aspects of ECPs that address a perceived and/or actual unfulfilled conditioning need for many individuals and military units, these programs have limitations and should be considered carefully. Moreover, certain distinctive characteristics of ECPs appear to violate recognized accepted standards for safely and appropriately developing muscular fitness and are not uniformly aligned with established and accepted training doctrine. Accordingly, practical solutions to improve ECP prescription and implementation and reduce injury risk are of paramount importance.

  14. Sexual Harassment and Assault as Predictors of PTSD Symptomatology among U.S. Female Persian Gulf Military Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Jessica; Sharkansky, Erica J.; Read, Jennifer P.; Dawson, Ree; Ouimette, Paige Crosby; Martin, James A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines sexual harassment and assault of women in a wartime military example. Explores the impacts of these stressors and combat exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. Harassment and assault were higher than in civilian and peacetime military samples. The number of postwar stressful life events mediated the relationship…

  15. Tuition Assistance Usage and First-Term Military Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddin, Richard; Kapur, Kanika

    Tuition Assistance (TA) is a military-sponsored program that reimburses military members for 75% of the tuition costs of college classes while on active duty in the hope of making military service more attractive to young people and encouraging them to remain in the military. TA's effectiveness was examined by using two models--a bivariate probit…

  16. Radiation exposure of U.S. military individuals.

    PubMed

    Blake, Paul K; Komp, Gregory R

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. military consists of five armed services: the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard. It directly employs 1.4 million active duty military, 1.3 million National Guard and reserve military, and 700,000 civilian individuals. This paper describes the military guidance used to preserve and maintain the health of military personnel while they accomplish necessary and purposeful work in areas where they are exposed to radiation. It also discusses military exposure cohorts and associated radiogenic disease compensation programs administered by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, the U.S. Department of Justice, and the U.S. Department of Labor. With a few exceptions, the U.S. military has effectively employed ionizing radiation since it was first introduced during the Spanish-American War in 1898. The U.S military annually monitors 70,000 individuals for occupational radiation exposure: ~2% of its workforce. In recent years, the Departments of the Navy (including the Marine Corps), the Army, and the Air Force all have a low collective dose that remains close to 1 person-Sv annually. Only a few Coast Guard individuals are now routinely monitored for radiation exposure. As with the nuclear industry as a whole, the Naval Reactors program has a higher collective dose than the remainder of the U.S. military. The U.S. military maintains occupational radiation exposure records on over two million individuals from 1945 through the present. These records are controlled in accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974 but are available to affected individuals or their designees and other groups performing sanctioned epidemiology studies.Introduction of Radiation Exposure of U.S. Military Individuals (Video 2:19, http://links.lww.com/HP/A30).

  17. Radiation exposure of U.S. military individuals.

    PubMed

    Blake, Paul K; Komp, Gregory R

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. military consists of five armed services: the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard. It directly employs 1.4 million active duty military, 1.3 million National Guard and reserve military, and 700,000 civilian individuals. This paper describes the military guidance used to preserve and maintain the health of military personnel while they accomplish necessary and purposeful work in areas where they are exposed to radiation. It also discusses military exposure cohorts and associated radiogenic disease compensation programs administered by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, the U.S. Department of Justice, and the U.S. Department of Labor. With a few exceptions, the U.S. military has effectively employed ionizing radiation since it was first introduced during the Spanish-American War in 1898. The U.S military annually monitors 70,000 individuals for occupational radiation exposure: ~2% of its workforce. In recent years, the Departments of the Navy (including the Marine Corps), the Army, and the Air Force all have a low collective dose that remains close to 1 person-Sv annually. Only a few Coast Guard individuals are now routinely monitored for radiation exposure. As with the nuclear industry as a whole, the Naval Reactors program has a higher collective dose than the remainder of the U.S. military. The U.S. military maintains occupational radiation exposure records on over two million individuals from 1945 through the present. These records are controlled in accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974 but are available to affected individuals or their designees and other groups performing sanctioned epidemiology studies.Introduction of Radiation Exposure of U.S. Military Individuals (Video 2:19, http://links.lww.com/HP/A30). PMID:24378502

  18. Suicide risk among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender military personnel and veterans: what does the literature tell us?

    PubMed

    Matarazzo, Bridget B; Barnes, Sean M; Pease, James L; Russell, Leah M; Hanson, Jetta E; Soberay, Kelly A; Gutierrez, Peter M

    2014-04-01

    Research suggests that both the military and veteran and the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations may be at increased risk for suicide. A literature review was conducted to identify research related to suicide risk in the LGBT military and veteran populations. Despite the paucity of research directly addressing this issue, themes are discussed evident in the literature on LGBT identity and suicide risk as well as LGBT military service members and veterans. Factors such as social support and victimization appear to be particularly relevant. Suggestions are made with respect to future research that is needed on this very important and timely topic.

  19. The associations of physical and sexual assault with suicide risk in nonclinical military and undergraduate samples.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; McNaugton-Cassill, Mary; Osman, Augustine; Hernandez, Ann Marie

    2013-04-01

    The associations of various forms of sexual and physical assault with a history of suicide attempts and recent suicide ideation were studied in two distinct samples: active duty military and undergraduate students. A total of 273 active duty Air Force personnel and 309 undergraduate students anonymously completed self-report surveys of assault victimization, emotional distress, belongingness, recent suicide ideation, and previous suicide attempts. Among military personnel, rape, robbery, or violent assault was associated with a nonsignificant trend toward increased risk for suicide attempts, whereas physical abuse or battering as an adult was significantly associated with recent suicide ideation. Among undergraduates, unwanted sexual experiences as an adult and physical or sexual abuse as a child were significantly associated with increased risk for suicide attempt, but only unwanted experiences as an adult was significantly associated with increased risk for suicide ideation. Experiencing multiple forms of assault increased risk for suicide attempts and ideation in both groups. Results suggest that different types of assault contribute differentially to suicide risk in military versus undergraduate populations, but experiencing multiple types of assault is associated with increased risk in both groups.

  20. 38 CFR 3.12a - Minimum active-duty service requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum active-duty... Minimum active-duty service requirement. (a) Definitions. (1) The term minimum period of active duty means... continuous active duty. Non-duty periods that are excludable in determining the Department of...

  1. 38 CFR 3.12a - Minimum active-duty service requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum active-duty... Minimum active-duty service requirement. (a) Definitions. (1) The term minimum period of active duty means... continuous active duty. Non-duty periods that are excludable in determining the Department of...

  2. 38 CFR 3.12a - Minimum active-duty service requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum active-duty... Minimum active-duty service requirement. (a) Definitions. (1) The term minimum period of active duty means... continuous active duty. Non-duty periods that are excludable in determining the Department of...

  3. 38 CFR 3.12a - Minimum active-duty service requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum active-duty... Minimum active-duty service requirement. (a) Definitions. (1) The term minimum period of active duty means... continuous active duty. Non-duty periods that are excludable in determining the Department of...

  4. 38 CFR 3.12a - Minimum active-duty service requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum active-duty... Minimum active-duty service requirement. (a) Definitions. (1) The term minimum period of active duty means... continuous active duty. Non-duty periods that are excludable in determining the Department of...

  5. Chapter 6 impact of deployment on military families.

    PubMed

    Agazio, Janice; Goodman, Petra; Padden, Diane L

    2014-01-01

    To date, approximately 300,000 families including 700,000 children have been affected by the increased and repeated number of deployments in support of the Global War on Terror in Iraq and Afghanistan since 2001. The purpose of this review is to discuss the impact of these deployments on family members of active duty and reserve/guard personnel. A search of literature across the years of military conflicts reveals waves of studies emerging after World War II, the Vietnam conflict, Desert Storm/Shield, and now the most recent wars. Study designs most frequently include qualitative exploratory, survey methods, and program evaluations. The field is limited by small scale projects, service- and facility-specific samples, and knowledge extracted from related topics. More research is needed to achieve a more comprehensive understanding across the trajectory of the deployment experience for both service personnel and family members as well as long-term outcomes. PMID:25222540

  6. Protection of Military Personnel Against Vector-Borne Diseases: A Review of Collaborative Work of the Australian and US Military Over the Last 30 Years.

    PubMed

    Frances, Stephen P; Edstein, Michael D; Debboun, Mustapha; Shanks, G Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Australian and US military medical services have collaborated since World War II to minimize vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, and scrub typhus. In this review, collaboration over the last 30 years is discussed. The collaborative projects and exchange scientist programs have resulted in mutually beneficial outcomes in the fields of drug development and personal protection measures against vector-borne diseases. PMID:27613205

  7. Students Help a Teacher Called to Active Duty: What a Great Feeling to Have a Group of Students Who Are Excited and Want to Help a Teacher in Need so Many Miles from Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuill, Ron

    2005-01-01

    The author shares how his technology education students at Tecumseh Middle School help his former student from a Purdue class, Ryan Smith, who was called to active military duty. Ryan was teaching technology education at Lafayette Jefferson High School when he was called by the military in the fall of 2004 to report to active duty. Before…

  8. Substance Abuse in the Military

    MedlinePlus

    ... Although illicit drug use is lower among U.S. military personnel than among civilians, heavy alcohol and tobacco use, ... in identifying and treating substance use problems in military personnel, as does lack of confidentiality that deters many ...

  9. Concussion in the Military: an Evidence-Base Review of mTBI in US Military Personnel Focused on Posttraumatic Headache.

    PubMed

    Holtkamp, Matthew D; Grimes, Jamie; Ling, Geoffrey

    2016-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as an alteration in brain function caused by an external force. Mild TBI or concussion is now well recognized to be a risk of military service as well as participation in athletic sports such as football. Posttraumatic headache (PTH) is the most common symptom after mTBI in US service members. PTH most commonly presents with migraine-like headache features. The following is an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical course, prognosis, complications, and treatment of mTBI and associated comorbidities with a focus on PTH. There is a particular emphasis on emerging evidence-based clinical practice. One important medical consequence of the recognition that mTBI is a highly prevalent among military service members is that the Department of Defense (DoD) is dedicating significant financial and intellectual resources to better understanding and developing treatments for TBI. The identification of the importance of TBI among the US military population has had the added benefit of increasing awareness of this condition among civilian populations, particularly those engaged in both professional and youth sports. The NIH and NSF are also supporting important TBI research. President Obama's Brain Initiative is also providing additional impetus for these efforts. Unfortunately, the understanding of the acute and chronic effects of mTBI on the brain remains limited. Gratefully, there is hope that through innovative research, there will be advances in elucidating the underlying pathophysiology, which will lead to clinical and prognostic indicators, ultimately resulting in new treatment options for this very complicated set of disorders.

  10. Concussion in the Military: an Evidence-Base Review of mTBI in US Military Personnel Focused on Posttraumatic Headache.

    PubMed

    Holtkamp, Matthew D; Grimes, Jamie; Ling, Geoffrey

    2016-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as an alteration in brain function caused by an external force. Mild TBI or concussion is now well recognized to be a risk of military service as well as participation in athletic sports such as football. Posttraumatic headache (PTH) is the most common symptom after mTBI in US service members. PTH most commonly presents with migraine-like headache features. The following is an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical course, prognosis, complications, and treatment of mTBI and associated comorbidities with a focus on PTH. There is a particular emphasis on emerging evidence-based clinical practice. One important medical consequence of the recognition that mTBI is a highly prevalent among military service members is that the Department of Defense (DoD) is dedicating significant financial and intellectual resources to better understanding and developing treatments for TBI. The identification of the importance of TBI among the US military population has had the added benefit of increasing awareness of this condition among civilian populations, particularly those engaged in both professional and youth sports. The NIH and NSF are also supporting important TBI research. President Obama's Brain Initiative is also providing additional impetus for these efforts. Unfortunately, the understanding of the acute and chronic effects of mTBI on the brain remains limited. Gratefully, there is hope that through innovative research, there will be advances in elucidating the underlying pathophysiology, which will lead to clinical and prognostic indicators, ultimately resulting in new treatment options for this very complicated set of disorders. PMID:27084376

  11. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from U.S. military personnel participating in Operation Bright Star, Egypt, from 2005 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Nada, Rania A; Armstrong, Adam; Shaheen, Hind I; Nakhla, Isabelle; Sanders, John W; Riddle, Mark S; Young, Sylvia; Sebeny, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major health problem for travelers to the Middle East. During the autumn months of 2005, 2007, and 2009, U.S. military personnel participated in Operation Bright Star (OBS) exercises in Egypt. Out of 181 military personnel enrolled in a diarrheal surveillance study, E. coli-like colonies were isolated from 170 patients. Isolates were tested for the detection of ETEC enterotoxins and colonization factors (CFs) using phenotypic and genotypic methods. Additionally, we studied the secular trends of ETEC isolates obtained from OBS studies since 1999. ETEC was isolated from 51.2% and 60.0% of the patients based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Heat stable (ST) was the dominant enterotoxin detected followed by heat labile (LT) and LTST. Additionally, we detected a CF in 59.7% and 67.6% of the ETEC-positive isolates using dot blot and PCR assays, respectively. The predominant CF isolated was CS6 followed by CS3. PMID:23639795

  12. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from U.S. military personnel participating in Operation Bright Star, Egypt, from 2005 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Nada, Rania A; Armstrong, Adam; Shaheen, Hind I; Nakhla, Isabelle; Sanders, John W; Riddle, Mark S; Young, Sylvia; Sebeny, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major health problem for travelers to the Middle East. During the autumn months of 2005, 2007, and 2009, U.S. military personnel participated in Operation Bright Star (OBS) exercises in Egypt. Out of 181 military personnel enrolled in a diarrheal surveillance study, E. coli-like colonies were isolated from 170 patients. Isolates were tested for the detection of ETEC enterotoxins and colonization factors (CFs) using phenotypic and genotypic methods. Additionally, we studied the secular trends of ETEC isolates obtained from OBS studies since 1999. ETEC was isolated from 51.2% and 60.0% of the patients based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Heat stable (ST) was the dominant enterotoxin detected followed by heat labile (LT) and LTST. Additionally, we detected a CF in 59.7% and 67.6% of the ETEC-positive isolates using dot blot and PCR assays, respectively. The predominant CF isolated was CS6 followed by CS3.

  13. Pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies to avian influenza H5N1 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 in US military personnel.

    PubMed

    Pichyangkul, Sathit; Krasaesub, Somporn; Jongkaewwattana, Anan; Thitithanyanont, Arunee; Wiboon-Ut, Suwimon; Yongvanitchit, Kosol; Limsalakpetch, Amporn; Kum-Arb, Utaiwan; Mongkolsirichaikul, Duangrat; Khemnu, Nuanpan; Mahanonda, Rangsini; Garcia, Jean-Michel; Mason, Carl J; Walsh, Douglas S; Saunders, David L

    2014-01-01

    We studied cross-reactive antibodies against avian influenza H5N1 and 2009 pandemic (p) H1N1 in 200 serum samples from US military personnel collected before the H1N1 pandemic. Assays used to measure antibodies against viral proteins involved in protection included a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay and a neuraminidase inhibition (NI) assay. Viral neutralization by antibodies against avian influenza H5N1 and 2009 pH1N1 was assessed by influenza (H5) pseudotyped lentiviral particle-based and H1N1 microneutralization assays. Some US military personnel had cross-neutralizing antibodies against H5N1 (14%) and 2009 pH1N1 (16.5%). The odds of having cross-neutralizing antibodies against 2009 pH1N1 were 4.4 times higher in subjects receiving more than five inactivated whole influenza virus vaccinations than those subjects with no record of vaccination. Although unclear if the result of prior vaccination or disease exposure, these pre-existing antibodies may prevent or reduce disease severity.

  14. "I Serve 2": Meeting the needs of military children in civilian practice.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, Alicia Gill; Dumas, Mary Anne; Wilmoth, Margaret C; Patrician, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    The American Academy of Nursing launched the "Have You Ever Served in the Military?" campaign in 2013 in conjunction with the Joining Forces campaign spearheaded by First Lady Michelle Obama and Dr. Jill Biden. The "Have You Ever Served in the Military?" campaign provides guidance and resources for nurses outside the Military Health System and Veterans Health Administration where upwards of 80% of veterans receive care. However, most military personnel do not serve alone. More than half of the 2.2 million active duty, National Guard, and Reserve service members currently serving in the armed forces have families and many military children experience stress and anxiety secondary to parental military service. Although strides have been made to improve identification and treatment of the visible and invisible wounds of war for service members, little to no information exists regarding the impact parental service has on the physical, psychological, and behavioral health of military children. In addition, there is no mechanism in place to identify military children in civilian practice nor resources providing evidence-based best practices when caring for these children. PMID:27477834

  15. Endorsed and Anticipated Stigma Inventory (EASI): a tool for assessing beliefs about mental illness and mental health treatment among military personnel and veterans.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Dawne; Di Leone, Brooke A L; Wang, Joyce M; Sayer, Nina A; Pineles, Suzanne L; Litz, Brett T

    2014-02-01

    Many military personnel and veterans who would benefit from mental health treatment do not seek care, underscoring the need to identify factors that influence initiation and retention in mental health care. Both endorsed and anticipated mental health stigma may serve as principal barriers to treatment seeking. To date, most research on mental health stigma in military and veteran populations has relied on nonvalidated measures with limited content coverage and confounding in the assessment of different domains of mental health stigma. This article describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the Endorsed and Anticipated Stigma Inventory (EASI), which was designed to assess different dimensions of stigma-related beliefs about mental health among military and veteran populations. Findings based on a national sample of U.S. veterans deployed in support of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) in Iraq suggest that the EASI is a psychometrically sound instrument. Specifically, results revealed evidence for the internal consistency reliability, content validity, convergent and discriminant validity, and discriminative validity of EASI scales. In addition, confirmatory factor analysis results supported the proposed factor structure for this inventory of scales.

  16. Demographic differences in body composition of Navy and Marine Corps personnel: findings from the perception of wellness and readiness assessment.

    PubMed

    Graham, W F; Hourani, L L; Sorenson, D; Yuan, H

    2000-01-01

    With the recent increase in women's representation in the military, baseline physical measurement data are needed to help set appropriate accession and retention standards and to design useful prevention and intervention programs in the areas of physical fitness and health. This study incorporated several body composition indices to obtain anthropometric data for a representative sample of 1,292 active duty Navy and Marine Corps women and men. It also assessed the extent to which personnel met weight-for-height and body fat standards. The prevalence of overweight was considerably lower among Marine Corps women compared with Navy women and was slightly less for Marine Corps men compared with their Navy counterparts. Between one-fifth and one-third of military personnel exceeded Navy/Marine Corps weight-for-height standards. Navy women tended to meet weight standards more often than Navy men. Fewer Marine Corps women than men were overweight, but more exceeded their weight-for-height standards.

  17. Improved resiliency and well-being among military personnel in a Swedish Naval Force after a counter-piracy operation off the coast of Somalia.

    PubMed

    Bäccman, Charlotte; Hjärthag, Fredrik; Almqvist, Kjerstin

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore: (1) how the psychological health of the members of the first European Union Naval Force (ME01) was affected by international deployment off the coast of Somalia; and (2) if and how organizational and personal factors (e.g., type of personnel category, previous experiences, and resilience) affected their psychological health and well-being post-deployment. The study had an exploratory longitudinal design, where the participants were assessed both before and after deployment (i.e., T1 and T2). The participants (n = 129, 120 men, 9 women) were equally distributed between officers (n = 68; 64 men, 4 women) and sailors (n = 61; 56 men, 5 women). The members' average age was 31 years, ranging from 20 to 61. For the majority (78%) ME01 was their first international deployment and officers were, in general, more experienced than sailors. The overall results showed that the members' reported a positive experience with improved resilience and well-being (e.g., sense of coherence). However, the result also showed that type of personnel category (i.e., officer or sailor) affected their psychological health. Why and how these differences among military personnel arise is discussed, but deserves further attention. PMID:27253612

  18. Improved resiliency and well-being among military personnel in a Swedish Naval Force after a counter-piracy operation off the coast of Somalia.

    PubMed

    Bäccman, Charlotte; Hjärthag, Fredrik; Almqvist, Kjerstin

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore: (1) how the psychological health of the members of the first European Union Naval Force (ME01) was affected by international deployment off the coast of Somalia; and (2) if and how organizational and personal factors (e.g., type of personnel category, previous experiences, and resilience) affected their psychological health and well-being post-deployment. The study had an exploratory longitudinal design, where the participants were assessed both before and after deployment (i.e., T1 and T2). The participants (n = 129, 120 men, 9 women) were equally distributed between officers (n = 68; 64 men, 4 women) and sailors (n = 61; 56 men, 5 women). The members' average age was 31 years, ranging from 20 to 61. For the majority (78%) ME01 was their first international deployment and officers were, in general, more experienced than sailors. The overall results showed that the members' reported a positive experience with improved resilience and well-being (e.g., sense of coherence). However, the result also showed that type of personnel category (i.e., officer or sailor) affected their psychological health. Why and how these differences among military personnel arise is discussed, but deserves further attention.

  19. 75 FR 9763 - Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who Are Assigned Outside the United States in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... prepare a written statement assessing the effects of any Federal mandate in a proposed or final agency... expired airman written test reports for certain practical tests from U.S. personnel who are assigned... certificate, inspection authorization, or airman written test report because they are serving outside...

  20. Tick avoidance behaviors associated with a decreased risk of anti-tick salivary gland protein antibody seropositivity in military personnel exposed to Amblyomma americanum in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, B S; Sanchez, J L; Sanders, M L; DeFraites, R F

    1996-10-01

    During April through September 1990, 399 military personnel who originated from either Fort Chaffee, Arkansas (n = 236) or Fort Wainwright, Alaska (n = 163) were studied during maneuvers in tick-infested areas at Fort Chaffee. Study subjects completed a questionnaire and had pre- and post-maneuvers serum specimens analyzed for antibodies to several rickettsial and ehrlichial agents and to Amblyomma americanum (lone star tick) salivary gland proteins (anti-tick saliva antibodies [ATSA], a biologic marker of tick exposure). Military rank/grade and home station were associated with pre-maneuvers ATSA seropositivity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Fort Wainwright personnel were more likely to show at least a 50% increase in ATSA levels, compared with subjects from Fort Chaffee, from the pre- to the post-maneuvers specimen (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-6.1). Subjects from Fort Wainwright who did not report use of bed netting were at an increased risk of post-maneuvers ATSA seropositivity (AOR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.5-11.5). In contrast, subjects from Fort Chaffee who did not report tucking pants into socks were at increased risk of post-maneuvers ATSA seropositivity (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.1-7.1). Subjects from Fort Chaffee who reported an attached tick bite during maneuvers were more likely to be ATSA-seropositive in the post-maneuvers specimen (AOR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.2-5.2). Western blot assays revealed large differences in tick salivary gland proteins that were recognized on the post-maneuvers specimen among three randomly selected individuals, and small differences within a single individual who reported a tick bite during maneuvers, comparing pre- and post-maneuvers specimens. The ATSA ELISA seropositivity was not associated with seroconversion to the tick-borne infectious agents.

  1. Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccinations against laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated infections among Singapore military personnel in 2010–2013

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Hin Peow; Zhao, Xiahong; Pang, Junxiong; Chen, Mark I-C; Lee, Vernon J M; Ang, Li Wei; Lin, Raymond V Tzer Pin; Gao, Christine Q; Hsu, Li Yang; Cook, Alex R

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited information is available about seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in tropical communities. Objectives Virus subtype-specific VE was determined for all military service personnel in the recruit camp and three other non-recruit camp in Singapore's Armed Forces from 1 June 2009 to 30 June 2012. Methods Consenting servicemen underwent nasal washes, which were tested with RT-PCR and subtyped. The test positive case and test negative control design was used to estimate the VE. To estimate the overall effect of the programme on new recruits, we used an ecological time series approach. Results A total of 7016 consultations were collected. The crude estimates for the VE of the triavalent vaccine against both influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B were 84% (95% CI 78–88%, 79–86%, respectively). Vaccine efficacy against influenza A(H3N2) was markedly lower (VE 33%, 95% CI −4% to 57%). An estimated 70% (RR = 0·30; 95% CI 0·11–0·84), 39% (RR = 0·61;0·25–1·43) and 75% (RR = 0·25; 95% CI 0·11–0·50) reduction in the risk of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, influenza A(H3N2) and influenza B infections, respectively, in the recruit camp during the post-vaccination period compared with during the pre-vaccination period was observed. Conclusions Overall, the blanket influenza vaccine programme in Singapore's Armed Forces has had a moderate to high degree of protection against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B, but not against influenza A(H3N2). Blanket influenza vaccination is recommended for all military personnel. PMID:24828687

  2. Nature and Treatment of Comorbid Alcohol Problems and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among American Military Personnel and Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Allen, John P.; Crawford, Eric F.; Kudler, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Many service members and veterans seeking treatment for alcohol problems also have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article considers the effectiveness of treating alcohol problems and PTSD simultaneously. The authors begin by summarizing the extent of excessive alcohol use among military service members and veterans. They then explore the relationship between combat exposure and subsequent alcohol use; identify and briefly describe evidence-based treatments for alcohol problems and PTSD, separately; and review research on the effects of single treatments for both PTSD symptoms and alcohol use. PMID:27159820

  3. Nature and Treatment of Comorbid Alcohol Problems and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Among American Military Personnel and Veterans.

    PubMed

    Allen, John P; Crawford, Eric F; Kudler, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Many service members and veterans seeking treatment for alcohol problems also have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article considers the effectiveness of treating alcohol problems and PTSD simultaneously. The authors begin by summarizing the extent of excessive alcohol use among military service members and veterans. They then explore the relationship between combat exposure and subsequent alcohol use; identify and briefly describe evidence-based treatments for alcohol problems and PTSD, separately; and review research on the effects of single treatments for both PTSD symptoms and alcohol use. PMID:27159820

  4. Nature and Treatment of Comorbid Alcohol Problems and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Among American Military Personnel and Veterans.

    PubMed

    Allen, John P; Crawford, Eric F; Kudler, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Many service members and veterans seeking treatment for alcohol problems also have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article considers the effectiveness of treating alcohol problems and PTSD simultaneously. The authors begin by summarizing the extent of excessive alcohol use among military service members and veterans. They then explore the relationship between combat exposure and subsequent alcohol use; identify and briefly describe evidence-based treatments for alcohol problems and PTSD, separately; and review research on the effects of single treatments for both PTSD symptoms and alcohol use.

  5. Sexual assault training in the military: evaluating efforts to end the "invisible war".

    PubMed

    Holland, Kathryn J; Rabelo, Verónica Caridad; Cortina, Lilia M

    2014-12-01

    Sexual assault is an insidious problem in the United States military. In 2005 the Department of Defense (DoD) created the Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office, which centralizes responsibility for sexual assault training. However, this training initiative has undergone little evaluation by outside researchers. Addressing this need, we analyzed responses from over 24,000 active duty personnel who completed the 2010 DoD Workplace and Gender Relations Survey. We assessed whether sexual assault training exposure (None, Minimal, Partial, or Comprehensive) predicted accurate knowledge of sexual assault resources and protocols. Using a social-ecological framework, we investigated whether institutional and individual factors influenced Service members' training exposure and judgment of training effectiveness. According to our results, exposure to comprehensive training predicted lower sexual assault incidence and superior knowledge. However, comprehensive training differed as a function of military branch, rank, gender, and sexual assault history. Judgments of training effectiveness also varied across these dimensions. Our results highlight the importance of considering context, gender, and victimization history when evaluating institutional efforts to end sexual violence. The DoD's 2010 annual report on military sexual assault concluded that "most Active Duty members receive effective training on sexual assault" (p. 104). Our results cast doubt on that assertion. PMID:25183207

  6. A probabilistic risk assessment for deployed military personnel after the implementation of the "Leishmaniasis Control Program" at Tallil Air Base, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Schleier, Jerome J; Davis, Ryan S; Barber, Loren M; Macedo, Paula A; Peterson, Robert K D

    2009-05-01

    Leishmaniasis has been of concern to the U.S. military and has re-emerged in importance because of recent deployments to the Middle East. We conducted a retrospective probabilistic risk assessment for military personnel potentially exposed to insecticides during the "Leishmaniasis Control Plan" (LCP) undertaken in 2003 at Tallil Air Base, Iraq. We estimated acute and subchronic risks from resmethrin, malathion, piperonyl butoxide (PBO), and pyrethrins applied using a truck-mounted ultra-low-volume (ULV) sprayer and lambda-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin used for residual sprays. We used the risk quotient (RQ) method for our risk assessment (estimated environmental exposure/toxic endpoint) and set the RQ level of concern (LOC) at 1.0. Acute RQs for truck-mounted ULV and residual sprays ranged from 0.00007 to 33.3 at the 95th percentile. Acute exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, and chlorpyrifos exceeded the RQ LOC. Subchronic RQs for truck-mounted ULV and residual sprays ranged from 0.00008 to 32.8 at the 95th percentile. Subchronic exposures to lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos exceeded the LOC. However, estimated exposures to lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, and chlorpyrifos did not exceed their respective no observed adverse effect levels.

  7. Modeling Covariates of Self-Perceived and Epidemiologic Notions of Risk for Acquiring STIs/HIV among Military Personnel: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mgbere, Osaro; Monjok, Emmanuel; Abughosh, Susan; Ekong, Ernest; Holstad, Marcia M.; Essien, E. James

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the socio-demographic and selected behavioral characteristics associated with self-perceived and epidemiologic notions of risk for acquiring STIs/HIV infection using data from a cross-sectional survey involving 346 consenting female military personnel from two cantonments in Southwestern Nigeria. Findings revealed significant discordance in participants’ risk status based on the two assessment methods, with Kappa coefficients ranging from −0.021 to 0.115. Using epidemiologic assessment as the “gold standard”, 45.4% of the study population were able to accurately assessed their risk levels through self-perception with significant (p≤.01) socio-demographic variations. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicate that STIs/HIV risk models using both self-perceived and epidemiologic notions of risk were significantly determined by different set of covariates. It is recommended that STIs/HIV prevention intervention should integrate the identified covariates and be targeted at changing individual risk behaviors and perceptions, as well as the social contexts in which risky behaviors occur in the military population. PMID:22271332

  8. Longitudinal assessment of gender differences in the development of PTSD among US military personnel deployed in support of the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Isabel G; Donoho, Carrie J; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Maguen, Shira

    2015-09-01

    Divergent findings from previous research examining gender differences in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among US military members deployed to the operations in Iraq or Afghanistan (recent operations) prompted this study utilizing a matching approach to examine whether risk for new-onset PTSD and PTSD severity scores differed by gender. US military members from the Millennium Cohort Study deployed in support of the recent operations were followed for approximately 7 years from baseline through 2 follow-up periods between 2001 and 2008. Propensity score matching was used to match 1 male to each female using demographic, military, and behavioral factors including baseline sexual assault. Analyses were stratified by combat experience defined as reporting at least one of five exposures during follow-up. Outcome measures included a positive screen for PTSD and severity scores measured by the PTSD Patient Checklist-Civilian Version. Discrete-time survival analysis quantified the association between gender and incident PTSD. Among 4684 matched subjects (2342 women and men), 6.7% of women and 6.1% of men developed PTSD during follow-up. Results showed no significant gender differences for the likelihood of developing PTSD or for PTSD severity scores among women and men who reported combat experience and among those who did not. This study is the first of its kind to match a large population of male and female service members on important baseline characteristics including sexual assault. Findings suggest that while combat deployed personnel develop PTSD, women do not have a significantly different risk for developing PTSD than men after experiencing combat.

  9. A Prospective Study of Acute Diarrhea in a Cohort of United States Military Personnel on Deployment to the Multinational Force and Observers, Sinai, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Mark S.; Rockabrand, David M.; Schlett, Carey; Monteville, Marshall R.; Frenck, Robert W.; Romine, Marcy; Ahmed, Salwa F.; Sanders, John W.

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the epidemiology of diarrhea in deployed personnel to the Middle East, a prospective cohort study of travelers' diarrhea (TD) was conducted between May 2004 and January 2005 at the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) camp in the southern Sinai. A baseline entry questionnaire and stool specimen was provided on study entry, and volunteers were followed every 6 weeks. Of 211 volunteers, 145 (68.7%) completed one or more follow-up visits. In total, 416 follow-up surveys were completed, which described an overall incidence of 25.2 episodes per 100 person months (95% confidence interval = 21.2–30.0). Additionally, stools were collected in 72 of 77 diarrhea-associated clinic visits, with bacterial pathogens most commonly isolated (enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in 30 [42%] samples and Campylobacter jejuni in 7 [10%] samples) Despite modern preventive methods, diarrhea is still a common problem for deployed US military personnel in Egypt, frequently resulting in diminished ability to work. PMID:21212203

  10. A prospective study of acute diarrhea in a cohort of United States military personnel on deployment to the Multinational Force and Observers, Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Mark S; Rockabrand, David M; Schlett, Carey; Monteville, Marshall R; Frenck, Robert W; Romine, Marcy; Ahmed, Salwa F; Sanders, John W

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the epidemiology of diarrhea in deployed personnel to the Middle East, a prospective cohort study of travelers' diarrhea (TD) was conducted between May 2004 and January 2005 at the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) camp in the southern Sinai. A baseline entry questionnaire and stool specimen was provided on study entry, and volunteers were followed every 6 weeks. Of 211 volunteers, 145 (68.7%) completed one or more follow-up visits. In total, 416 follow-up surveys were completed, which described an overall incidence of 25.2 episodes per 100 person months (95% confidence interval = 21.2-30.0). Additionally, stools were collected in 72 of 77 diarrhea-associated clinic visits, with bacterial pathogens most commonly isolated (enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in 30 [42%] samples and Campylobacter jejuni in 7 [10%] samples) Despite modern preventive methods, diarrhea is still a common problem for deployed US military personnel in Egypt, frequently resulting in diminished ability to work.

  11. 32 CFR 161.10 - Benefits for active duty members of the uniformed services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benefits for active duty members of the..., Their Dependents, and Other Eligible Individuals § 161.10 Benefits for active duty members of the uniformed services. (a) This section describes the benefits for active duty uniformed services members...

  12. Training Australian military health care personnel in the primary care of maxillofacial wounds from improvised explosive devices.

    PubMed

    Reed, B E; Hale, R G

    2010-06-01

    Severe facial wounds frequently result from improvised explosive devices (IEDs) as the face is still vulnerable despite advances in personal protection of soldiers. In contrast to the poor outcomes with civilian maxillofacial trauma management methods initially employed by the US Army for maxillofacial wounds from IEDs, advances in wound management methods for such injuries by the US Army have resulted in significant improvements in appearance and function. This article describes the features of a short course in the primary management of combat related maxillofacial wounds for deployed health care personnel who may not be facial specialists, including contemporary treatment techniques for those confronting wounds from IEDs which are explained in this course.

  13. Occupational outcomes following mild traumatic brain injury in Canadian military personnel deployed in support of the mission in Afghanistan: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Bryan G; Rusu, Corneliu; Zamorski, Mark A; Boulos, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective Deployment-related mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) occurs in a significant number of military personnel but its long-term impacts are unclear. This study explores the impact of deployment-related MTBI on continued fitness-for-duty, with the ultimate intent of identifying potential targets for intervention to attenuate its effects. Participants Consisted of 16 193 Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel who deployed in support of the mission in Afghanistan and completed an enhanced postdeployment screening (EPDS) questionnaire over the period January 2009–July 2012. Primary outcome The primary outcome was development of permanent medical unfitness defined as a ‘career-limiting medical condition’ (CL-MC). The secondary outcome was the diagnostic categories recorded for each individual at the time a CL-MC was established. Design This study used a retrospective cohort design. Linked administrative and health data provided the primary outcome and the diagnoses responsible for it. Survival analysis was used to estimate the risk of a CL-MC and Cox regression provided adjusted HRs (aHRs) for the association between a CL-MC and MTBI, accounting for key covariates and confounders. Diagnostic categories associated with CL-MCs were identified. Results Over a median follow-up period of 3.42 years, 6.57% of the study population developed a CL-MC. MTBI was independently associated with CL-MCs (aHR=1.65, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.03). Mental disorders and musculoskeletal conditions were the primary diagnoses associated with CL-MCs (identified as the primary diagnosis in 55.4% and 25.9%, respectively), and a neurological condition was only documented in 5.8% of those with MTBI who developed a CL-MC Conclusions Deployment-related MTBI was associated with adverse occupational outcome but mental disorders and musculoskeletal conditions primarily drove subsequent medical unfitness. These findings support a diagnostic and treatment approach focusing on these comorbidities as

  14. [Therapeutic morbidity rate among female military personnel, with exposure to occupational hazards in the period of service in the Armed Forces its influence on the course of pregnancy and fetal development].

    PubMed

    Negrusha, N A; Gordienko, A V; Shmidt, A A

    2012-08-01

    The study was made into therapeutic incidence among female military personnel who had contact with various kinds of occupational hazards in the period of military service, its impact on pregnancy and fetal development. Special attention was also paid to long-term consequences of obstetric and therapeutic pathological comorbidity on the development of the child. It has been established, that in the spectrum of therapeutic morbidity among female military personnel chronic gastritis, pyelonephritis and autoimmune thyroiditis prevail and often have a chronic stress as a background for their development. Children born to mothers, who in the period of pregnancy showed the combination of chronic pyelonephritis, autoimmune thyroiditis and late gestosis are a group of high risk for the development of the intracranial hypertension in children and/or infectious diseases.

  15. Newly reported respiratory symptoms and conditions among military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan: a prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Besa; Wong, Charlene A; Smith, Tyler C; Boyko, Edward J; Gackstetter, Gary D

    2009-12-01

    Concerns about respiratory conditions have surfaced among persons deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. Data on 46,077 Millennium Cohort Study participants who completed baseline (July 2001-June 2003) and follow-up (June 2004-February 2006) questionnaires were used to investigate 1) respiratory symptoms (persistent or recurring cough or shortness of breath), 2) chronic bronchitis or emphysema, and 3) asthma. Deployers had a higher rate of newly reported respiratory symptoms than nondeployers (14% vs. 10%), while similar rates of chronic bronchitis or emphysema (1% vs. 1%) and asthma (1% vs. 1%) were observed. Deployment was associated with respiratory symptoms in both Army (adjusted odds ratio = 1.73, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 1.91) and Marine Corps (adjusted odds ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 2.08) personnel, independently of smoking status. Deployment length was linearly associated with increased symptom reporting in Army personnel (P < 0.0001). Among deployers, elevated odds of symptoms were associated with land-based deployment as compared with sea-based deployment. Although respiratory symptoms were associated with deployment, inconsistency in risk with cumulative exposure time suggests that specific exposures rather than deployment in general are determinants of postdeployment respiratory illness. Significant associations seen with land-based deployment also imply that exposures related to ground combat may be important.

  16. Military Report More Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use than Civilians

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, Bernadette P.; Finch, Michael D.; Bray, Robert M.; Williams, Thomas V.; Hourani, Laurel L.; Hadden, Louise S.; Colleran, Heather L.; Jonas, Wayne B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The study objective was to estimate complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among active duty military and compare data with civilian use. Design A global survey on CAM use in the 12 previous months was conducted. Final participants (16,146) were stratified by gender, service, region, and pay grade. Analysis included prevalence of CAM use, demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Results Approximately 45% of respondents reported using at least one type of CAM therapy. Most commonly used therapies were as follows: prayer for one's own health (24.4%), massage therapy (14.1%), and relaxation techniques (10.8%). After exclusion of prayer for one's own health, adjusting to the 2000 U.S. census, overall CAM use in the military (44.5%) was higher than that in comparable civilian surveys (36.0% and 38.3%). Conclusions Military personnel reported using three CAM stress-reduction therapies at 2.5–7 times the rate of civilians. Among the military, high utilization of CAM practices that reduce stress may serve as markers for practitioners assessing an individual's health and well-being. PMID:23323682

  17. A systematic review of post-deployment injury-related mortality among military personnel deployed to conflict zones

    PubMed Central

    Knapik, Joseph J; Marin, Roberto E; Grier, Tyson L; Jones, Bruce H

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper reports on a systematic review of the literature on the post-conflict injury-related mortality of service members who deployed to conflict zones. Methods Literature databases, reference lists of articles, agencies, investigators, and other sources were examined to find studies comparing injury-related mortality of military veterans who had served in conflict zones with that of contemporary veterans who had not served in conflict zones. Injury-related mortality was defined as a cause of death indicated by International Classification of Diseases E-codes E800 to E999 (external causes) or subgroupings within this range of codes. Results Twenty studies met the review criteria; all involved veterans serving during either the Vietnam or Persian Gulf conflict. Meta-analysis indicated that, compared with non-conflict-zone veterans, injury-related mortality was elevated for veterans serving in Vietnam (summary mortality rate ratio (SMRR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.08–1.46) during 9 to 18 years of follow-up. Similarly, injury-related mortality was elevated for veterans serving in the Persian Gulf War (SMRR = 1.26, 95%CI = 1.16–1.37) during 3 to 8 years of follow-up. Much of the excess mortality among conflict-zone veterans was associated with motor vehicle events. The excess mortality decreased over time. Hypotheses to account for the excess mortality in conflict-zone veterans included post-traumatic stress, coping behaviors such as substance abuse, ill-defined diseases and symptoms, lower survivability in injury events due to conflict-zone comorbidities, altered perceptions of risk, and/or selection processes leading to the deployment of individuals who were risk-takers. Conclusion Further research on the etiology of the excess mortality in conflict-zone veterans is warranted to develop appropriate interventions. PMID:19594931

  18. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a spectrum of neuropathological changes following repetitive brain trauma in athletes and military personnel

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that occurs in association with repetitive traumatic brain injury experienced in sport and military service. In most instances, the clinical symptoms of the disease begin after a long period of latency ranging from several years to several decades. The initial symptoms are typically insidious, consisting of irritability, impulsivity, aggression, depression, short-term memory loss and heightened suicidality. The symptoms progress slowly over decades to include cognitive deficits and dementia. The pathology of CTE is characterized by the accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein in neurons and astrocytes in a pattern that is unique from other tauopathies, including Alzheimer’s disease. The hyperphosphorylated tau abnormalities begin focally, as perivascular neurofibrillary tangles and neurites at the depths of the cerebral sulci, and then spread to involve superficial layers of adjacent cortex before becoming a widespread degeneration affecting medial temporal lobe structures, diencephalon and brainstem. Most instances of CTE (>85% of cases) show abnormal accumulations of phosphorylated 43 kDa TAR DNA binding protein that are partially colocalized with phosphorylated tau protein. As CTE is characterized pathologically by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy, by abnormal deposits of phosphorylated tau and by 43 kDa TAR DNA binding protein and is associated clinically with behavioral and personality changes, as well as cognitive impairments, CTE is increasingly categorized as an acquired frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Currently, some of the greatest challenges are that CTE cannot be diagnosed during life and the incidence and prevalence of the disorder remain uncertain. Furthermore, the contribution of age, gender, genetics, stress, alcohol and substance abuse to the development of CTE remains to be determined. PMID:24423082

  19. Effectiveness of Seasonal Influenza Vaccines against Influenza-Associated Illnesses among US Military Personnel in 2010–11: A Case-Control Approach

    PubMed Central

    Eick-Cost, Angelia A.; Tastad, Katie J.; Guerrero, Alicia C.; Johns, Matthew C.; Lee, Seung-eun; MacIntosh, Victor H.; Burke, Ronald L.; Blazes, David L.; Russell, Kevin L.; Sanchez, Jose L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Following the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 (pH1N1) pandemic, both seasonal and pH1N1 viruses circulated in the US during the 2010–2011 influenza season; influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) may vary between live attenuated (LAIV) and trivalent inactivated (TIV) vaccines as well as by virus subtype. Materials and Methods Vaccine type and virus subtype-specific VE were determined for US military active component personnel for the period of September 1, 2010 through April 30, 2011. Laboratory-confirmed influenza-related medical encounters were compared to matched individuals with a non-respiratory illness (healthy controls), and unmatched individuals who experienced a non-influenza respiratory illness (test-negative controls). Odds ratios (OR) and VE estimates were calculated overall, by vaccine type and influenza subtype. Results A total of 603 influenza cases were identified. Overall VE was relatively low and similar regardless of whether healthy controls (VE = 26%, 95% CI: −1 to 45) or test-negative controls (VE = 29%, 95% CI: −6 to 53) were used as comparison groups. Using test-negative controls, vaccine type-specific VE was found to be higher for TIV (53%, 95% CI: 25 to 71) than for LAIV (VE = −13%, 95% CI: −77 to 27). Influenza subtype-specific analyses revealed moderate protection against A/H3 (VE = 58%, 95% CI: 21 to 78), but not against A/H1 (VE = −38%, 95% CI: −211 to 39) or B (VE = 34%, 95% CI: −122 to 80). Conclusion Overall, a low level of protection against clinically-apparent, laboratory-confirmed, influenza was found for the 2010–11 seasonal influenza vaccines. TIV immunization was associated with higher protection than LAIV, however, no protection against A/H1 was noted, despite inclusion of a pandemic influenza strain as a vaccine component for two consecutive years. Vaccine virus mismatch or lower immunogenicity may have contributed to these findings and deserve further examination in controlled

  20. Risk factors for medial tibial stress syndrome in physically active individuals such as runners and military personnel: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hamstra-Wright, Karrie L; Bliven, Kellie C Huxel; Bay, Curt

    2015-03-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common injury in runners and military personnel. There is a lack of agreement on the aetiological factors contributing to MTSS, making treatment challenging and highlighting the importance of preventive efforts. Understanding the risk factors for MTSS is critical for developing preventive measures. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess what factors put physically active individuals at risk to develop MTSS. Selected electronic databases were searched. Studies were included if they contained original research that investigated risk factors associated with MTSS, compared physically active individuals with MTSS and physically active individuals without MTSS, were in the English language and were full papers in peer-reviewed journals. Data on research design, study duration, participant selection, population, groups, MTSS diagnosis, investigated risk factors and risk factor definitions were extracted. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed. When the means and SDs of a particular risk factor were reported three or more times, that risk factor was included in the meta-analysis. There were 21 studies included in the systematic review and nine risk factors qualified for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Increased BMI (weighted mean difference (MD)=0.79, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.20, p<0.001), navicular drop (MD=1.19 mm, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.84, p<0.001), ankle plantarflexion range of motion (ROM; MD=5.94°, 95% CI 3.65 to 8.24, p<0.001) and hip external rotation ROM (MD=3.95°, 95% CI 1.78 to 6.13, p<0.001) were risk factors for MTSS. Dorsiflexion and quadriceps-angle were clearly not risk factors for MTSS. There is a need for high-quality, prospective studies using consistent methodology evaluating MTSS risk factors. Our findings suggest that interventions focused on addressing increased BMI, navicular drop, ankle plantarflexion ROM and hip external rotation ROM may be a good starting point for

  1. Risk factors for medial tibial stress syndrome in physically active individuals such as runners and military personnel: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hamstra-Wright, Karrie L; Bliven, Kellie C Huxel; Bay, Curt

    2015-03-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common injury in runners and military personnel. There is a lack of agreement on the aetiological factors contributing to MTSS, making treatment challenging and highlighting the importance of preventive efforts. Understanding the risk factors for MTSS is critical for developing preventive measures. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess what factors put physically active individuals at risk to develop MTSS. Selected electronic databases were searched. Studies were included if they contained original research that investigated risk factors associated with MTSS, compared physically active individuals with MTSS and physically active individuals without MTSS, were in the English language and were full papers in peer-reviewed journals. Data on research design, study duration, participant selection, population, groups, MTSS diagnosis, investigated risk factors and risk factor definitions were extracted. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed. When the means and SDs of a particular risk factor were reported three or more times, that risk factor was included in the meta-analysis. There were 21 studies included in the systematic review and nine risk factors qualified for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Increased BMI (weighted mean difference (MD)=0.79, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.20, p<0.001), navicular drop (MD=1.19 mm, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.84, p<0.001), ankle plantarflexion range of motion (ROM; MD=5.94°, 95% CI 3.65 to 8.24, p<0.001) and hip external rotation ROM (MD=3.95°, 95% CI 1.78 to 6.13, p<0.001) were risk factors for MTSS. Dorsiflexion and quadriceps-angle were clearly not risk factors for MTSS. There is a need for high-quality, prospective studies using consistent methodology evaluating MTSS risk factors. Our findings suggest that interventions focused on addressing increased BMI, navicular drop, ankle plantarflexion ROM and hip external rotation ROM may be a good starting point for

  2. Kevlar® as a Potential Accident Radiation Dosimeter for First Responders, Law Enforcement and Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Romanyukha, Alexander; Trompier, François; Benevides, Luis A

    2016-08-01

    Today the armed forces and law enforcement personnel wear body armor, helmets, and flak jackets composed substantially of Kevlar® fiber to prevent bodily injury or death resulting from physical, ballistic, stab, and slash attacks. Therefore, there is a high probability that during a radiation accident or its aftermath, the Kevlar®-composed body armor will be irradiated. Preliminary study with samples of Kevlar® foundation fabric obtained from body armor used by the U.S. Marine Corps has shown that all samples evaluated demonstrated an EPR signal, and this signal increased with radiation dose. Based on these results, the authors predict that, with individual calibration, exposure at dose above 1 Gy can be reliably detected in Kevlar® samples obtained from body armor. As a result of these measurements, a post-event reconstruction of exposure dose can be obtained by taking various samples throughout the armor body and helmet worn by the same irradiated individual. The doses can be used to create a whole-body dose map that would be of vital importance in a case of a partial body or heterogeneous exposure.

  3. Relationship between the 2.4-km run and multistage shuttle run test performance in military personnel.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, David M; Blacker, Sam D; Richmond, Victoria L; Rayson, Mark P; Bilzon, James L J

    2014-02-01

    In the United Kingdom, all branches of the armed forces use 2.4-km run time and/or the 20-m multistage shuttle run test (MSRT) to assess the aerobic fitness of their personnel. This study quantified the relationship between these two tests in 156 army recruits and officer cadets (100 men and 56 women) to ensure equivalence in the required aerobic fitness standards. The 2.4-km run was performed on surfaced roads and tracks around the training establishment and the MSRT in a gymnasium. Ordinary least product regression was used to describe the relationship between average 2.4-km running speed (km · h(-1)) and the total number of shuttles completed on the U.K. version of the MSRT (r = 0.91, p < 0.01), showing MSRT shuttles = (9.708×2.4-km run speed) - 52.56, with a standard error of prediction of approximately 8 shuttles or 0.8 km · h(-1). The British Army 2.4-km run biannual fitness assessment standard for young men of 10:30 min:s equates to a MSRT score of 82 shuttles (level 10 and 1 shuttle) and for young women of 13:00 min:s equates to 56 shuttles (level 7 and 6 shuttles), with a standard error of estimate of approximately 8 shuttles. PMID:24491618

  4. Multivitamin and protein supplement use is associated with positive mood states and health behaviors in US Military and Coast Guard personnel.

    PubMed

    Austin, Krista G; McGraw, Susan M; Lieberman, Harris R

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 60% of Armed Forces personnel regularly consume dietary supplements (DSs). We investigated the association of mood and health behaviors with multiple classes of DSs in military and Coast Guard personnel (N = 5536). Participants completed a survey of DS use and the Quick Mood Scale to assess mood domains of wakeful-drowsiness, relaxed-anxious, cheerful-depressed, friendly-aggression, clearheaded-confused, and well coordinated-clumsy. Supplements were categorized as multivitamin/minerals (MVM), individual vitamin/minerals, protein/amino acid supplements (PS), combination products (C), herbals (H), purported steroid analogs, (S) and other (O). One-way analyses of covariance assessed associations of DSs and perceived health behavior with mood controlling for age. Logistic regression determined associations between DS use and health behavior. Users of MVM and PS reported feeling significantly (P < 0.05) more awake, relaxed, cheerful, clearheaded, and coordinated. Participants using PS and S reported feeling less friendly (more aggressive, P < 0.02). Users of MVM and PS were more likely to report their general health, eating habits, and fitness level as excellent/good (P < 0.05). Participants reporting health behaviors as excellent/good were more (P < 0.01) awake, relaxed, cheerful, friendly, clearheaded, and coordinated. As no known biological mechanisms can explain such diverse effects of MVM and PS use on multiple mood states, health, eating habits, and fitness, we hypothesize these associations are not causal, and DS intake does not alter these parameters per se. Preexisting differences in mood and other health-related behaviors and outcomes between users versus nonusers of DSs could be a confounding factor in studies of DSs.

  5. Multivitamin and protein supplement use is associated with positive mood states and health behaviors in US Military and Coast Guard personnel.

    PubMed

    Austin, Krista G; McGraw, Susan M; Lieberman, Harris R

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 60% of Armed Forces personnel regularly consume dietary supplements (DSs). We investigated the association of mood and health behaviors with multiple classes of DSs in military and Coast Guard personnel (N = 5536). Participants completed a survey of DS use and the Quick Mood Scale to assess mood domains of wakeful-drowsiness, relaxed-anxious, cheerful-depressed, friendly-aggression, clearheaded-confused, and well coordinated-clumsy. Supplements were categorized as multivitamin/minerals (MVM), individual vitamin/minerals, protein/amino acid supplements (PS), combination products (C), herbals (H), purported steroid analogs, (S) and other (O). One-way analyses of covariance assessed associations of DSs and perceived health behavior with mood controlling for age. Logistic regression determined associations between DS use and health behavior. Users of MVM and PS reported feeling significantly (P < 0.05) more awake, relaxed, cheerful, clearheaded, and coordinated. Participants using PS and S reported feeling less friendly (more aggressive, P < 0.02). Users of MVM and PS were more likely to report their general health, eating habits, and fitness level as excellent/good (P < 0.05). Participants reporting health behaviors as excellent/good were more (P < 0.01) awake, relaxed, cheerful, friendly, clearheaded, and coordinated. As no known biological mechanisms can explain such diverse effects of MVM and PS use on multiple mood states, health, eating habits, and fitness, we hypothesize these associations are not causal, and DS intake does not alter these parameters per se. Preexisting differences in mood and other health-related behaviors and outcomes between users versus nonusers of DSs could be a confounding factor in studies of DSs. PMID:25122181

  6. Multivitamin and Protein Supplement Use Is Associated With Positive Mood States and Health Behaviors in US Military and Coast Guard Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Krista G.; McGraw, Susan M.; Lieberman, Harris R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Approximately 60% of Armed Forces personnel regularly consume dietary supplements (DSs). We investigated the association of mood and health behaviors with multiple classes of DSs in military and Coast Guard personnel (N = 5536). Participants completed a survey of DS use and the Quick Mood Scale to assess mood domains of wakeful-drowsiness, relaxed-anxious, cheerful-depressed, friendly-aggression, clearheaded-confused, and well coordinated–clumsy. Supplements were categorized as multivitamin/minerals (MVM), individual vitamin/minerals, protein/amino acid supplements (PS), combination products (C), herbals (H), purported steroid analogs, (S) and other (O). One-way analyses of covariance assessed associations of DSs and perceived health behavior with mood controlling for age. Logistic regression determined associations between DS use and health behavior. Users of MVM and PS reported feeling significantly (P < 0.05) more awake, relaxed, cheerful, clearheaded, and coordinated. Participants using PS and S reported feeling less friendly (more aggressive, P < 0.02). Users of MVM and PS were more likely to report their general health, eating habits, and fitness level as excellent/good (P < 0.05). Participants reporting health behaviors as excellent/good were more (P < 0.01) awake, relaxed, cheerful, friendly, clearheaded, and coordinated. As no known biological mechanisms can explain such diverse effects of MVM and PS use on multiple mood states, health, eating habits, and fitness, we hypothesize these associations are not causal, and DS intake does not alter these parameters per se. Preexisting differences in mood and other health-related behaviors and outcomes between users versus nonusers of DSs could be a confounding factor in studies of DSs. PMID:25122181

  7. 78 FR 22252 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; FFEL/Direct Loan/Perkins Military...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... service deferment and/or post-active duty student deferment and provides his or her loan holder with the... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; FFEL/ Direct Loan/Perkins Military Service Deferment/Post-Active Duty Student Deferment Request & SCRA Request AGENCY: Federal Student Aid...

  8. Posttraumatic stress disorder post Iraq and Afghanistan: prevalence among military subgroups.

    PubMed

    Hines, Lindsey A; Sundin, Josefin; Rona, Roberto J; Wessely, Simon; Fear, Nicola T

    2014-09-01

    A large body of research has been produced in recent years investigating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among military personnel following deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan, resulting in apparent differences in PTSD prevalence. We compare prevalence estimates for current PTSD between military subgroups, providing insight into how groups may be differentially affected by deployment. Systematic literature searches using the terms PTSD, stress disorder, and acute stress, combined with terms relating to military personnel, identified 49 relevant papers. Studies with a sample size of less than 100 and studies based on data for treatment seeking or injured populations were excluded. Studies were categorized according to theatre of deployment (Iraq or Afghanistan), combat and noncombat deployed samples, sex, enlistment type (regular or reserve and [or] National Guard), and service branch (for example, army, navy, and air force). Meta-analysis was used to assess PTSD prevalence across subgroups. There was large variability in PTSD prevalence between studies, but, regardless of heterogeneity, prevalence rates of PTSD were higher among studies of Iraq-deployed personnel (12.9%; 95% CI 11.3% to 14.4%), compared with personnel deployed to Afghanistan (7.1%; 95% CI 4.6% to 9.6%), combat deployed personnel, and personnel serving in the Canadian, US, or UK army or the navy or marines (12.4%; 95% CI 10.9% to 13.4%), compared with the other services (4.9%; 95% CI 1.4% to 8.4%). Contrary to findings from within-study comparisons, we did not find a difference in PTSD prevalence for regular active-duty and reserve or National Guard personnel. Categorizing studies according to deployment location and branch of service identified differences among subgroups that provide further support for factors underlying the development of PTSD.

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Post Iraq and Afghanistan: Prevalence Among Military Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Lindsey A; Sundin, Josefin; Rona, Roberto J; FFPH; Wessely, Simon; FMedSci; Fear, Nicola T

    2014-01-01

    A large body of research has been produced in recent years investigating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among military personnel following deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan, resulting in apparent differences in PTSD prevalence. We compare prevalence estimates for current PTSD between military subgroups, providing insight into how groups may be differentially affected by deployment. Systematic literature searches using the terms PTSD, stress disorder, and acute stress, combined with terms relating to military personnel, identified 49 relevant papers. Studies with a sample size of less than 100 and studies based on data for treatment seeking or injured populations were excluded. Studies were categorized according to theatre of deployment (Iraq or Afghanistan), combat and noncombat deployed samples, sex, enlistment type (regular or reserve and [or] National Guard), and service branch (for example, army, navy, and air force). Meta-analysis was used to assess PTSD prevalence across subgroups. There was large variability in PTSD prevalence between studies, but, regardless of heterogeneity, prevalence rates of PTSD were higher among studies of Iraq-deployed personnel (12.9%; 95% CI 11.3% to 14.4%), compared with personnel deployed to Afghanistan (7.1%; 95% CI 4.6% to 9.6%), combat deployed personnel, and personnel serving in the Canadian, US, or UK army or the navy or marines (12.4%; 95% CI 10.9% to 13.4%), compared with the other services (4.9%; 95% CI 1.4% to 8.4%). Contrary to findings from within-study comparisons, we did not find a difference in PTSD prevalence for regular active-duty and reserve or National Guard personnel. Categorizing studies according to deployment location and branch of service identified differences among subgroups that provide further support for factors underlying the development of PTSD. PMID:25569079

  10. New and old risk-factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection: prospective cross-sectional study among military personnel in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kolbekova, P; Kourbatova, E; Novotna, M; Kodym, P; Flegr, J

    2007-10-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate seroprevalence and the importance of various risk-factors for Toxoplasma infection in the Czech Republic. A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted among military personnel in Prague. Consenting subjects (n = 3250) completed a questionnaire concerning demographics and risk-factors, and blood samples were taken to determine anti-Toxoplasma antibody titres according to complement fixation and ELISA IgG and IgM tests. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 23%. In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of Toxoplasma seropositivity were age (OR 1.03 / year), consumption of raw meat (OR 1.35), owning a cat (OR 1.25), owning rabbits (OR 1.47), childhood residence in a town with a population of <10 000 inhabitants (OR 1.63) vs. location of the childhood residence in a town with population of >100 000 inhabitants, and blood group type A (OR 1.28), B (OR 1.33) or AB (OR 1.43) vs. O. These results suggested that horizontal toxoplasmosis transmission in the Czech Republic may occur through consumption of raw meat, contact with cat faeces and farming.

  11. Altered gene expression of the innate immune, neuroendocrine, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) systems is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder in military personnel.

    PubMed

    Guardado, Pedro; Olivera, Anlys; Rusch, Heather L; Roy, Michael; Martin, Christiana; Lejbman, Natasha; Lee, Hwyunhwa; Gill, Jessica M

    2016-03-01

    Whole transcriptome analysis provides an unbiased examination of biological activity, and likely, unique insight into the mechanisms underlying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid depression and traumatic brain injury. This study compared gene-expression profiles in military personnel with PTSD (n=28) and matched controls without PTSD (n=27) using HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays (Affymetrix), which contain 54,675 probe sets representing more than 38,500 genes. Analysis of expression profiles revealed 203 differentially expressed genes in PTSD, of which 72% were upregulated. Using Partek Genomics Suite 6.6, differentially expressed transcription clusters were filtered based on a selection criterion of ≥1.5 relative fold change at a false discovery rate of ≤5%. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (Qiagen) of the differentially expressed genes indicated a dysregulation of genes associated with the innate immune, neuroendocrine, and NF-κB systems. These findings provide novel insights that may lead to new pharmaceutical agents for PTSD treatments and help mitigate mental and physical comorbidity risk.

  12. From exclusion to acceptance: a case history of homosexuality in the U.S. Court of Military Appeals.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Buford, Kellie

    2013-01-01

    Policing the legality and normalcy of service members' sexual lives was a contentious process for military courts throughout the 1950s, 1960s, and early 1970s that resulted in the inconsistent enforcement of the homosexual exclusion policy. Military personnel of all ranks and occupations harbored a variety of attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality that challenged the legitimacy and uniformity of the military's legal assault on sexual deviance. Over half of the active duty personnel originally accused of homosexual tendencies received either sentence reductions or sentence reversals as a result of this highly contested process by which official military policy was translated into practice via courts-martial. Paradoxically, the very policies that discriminated against alleged homosexual service members generated legal avenues through which gays and lesbians exercised their rights to due process, and, ultimately, their rights as American citizens embodied in the repeal of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy. Rather than being an ideologically homophobic monolith, the Cold War American military rocked with contestation over an exclusion policy that attempted--unsuccessfully--to eliminate all gay and lesbian service members.

  13. From exclusion to acceptance: a case history of homosexuality in the U.S. Court of Military Appeals.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Buford, Kellie

    2013-01-01

    Policing the legality and normalcy of service members' sexual lives was a contentious process for military courts throughout the 1950s, 1960s, and early 1970s that resulted in the inconsistent enforcement of the homosexual exclusion policy. Military personnel of all ranks and occupations harbored a variety of attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality that challenged the legitimacy and uniformity of the military's legal assault on sexual deviance. Over half of the active duty personnel originally accused of homosexual tendencies received either sentence reductions or sentence reversals as a result of this highly contested process by which official military policy was translated into practice via courts-martial. Paradoxically, the very policies that discriminated against alleged homosexual service members generated legal avenues through which gays and lesbians exercised their rights to due process, and, ultimately, their rights as American citizens embodied in the repeal of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy. Rather than being an ideologically homophobic monolith, the Cold War American military rocked with contestation over an exclusion policy that attempted--unsuccessfully--to eliminate all gay and lesbian service members. PMID:23414272

  14. Disrupted modular organization of resting-state cortical functional connectivity in U.S. military personnel following concussive 'mild' blast-related traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Han, Kihwan; Mac Donald, Christine L; Johnson, Ann M; Barnes, Yolanda; Wierzechowski, Linda; Zonies, David; Oh, John; Flaherty, Stephen; Fang, Raymond; Raichle, Marcus E; Brody, David L

    2014-01-01

    Blast-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been one of the "signature injuries" of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, neuroimaging studies in concussive 'mild' blast-related TBI have been challenging due to the absence of abnormalities in computed tomography or conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the heterogeneity of the blast-related injury mechanisms. The goal of this study was to address these challenges utilizing single-subject, module-based graph theoretic analysis of resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data. We acquired 20min of resting-state fMRI in 63 U.S. military personnel clinically diagnosed with concussive blast-related TBI and 21 U.S. military controls who had blast exposures but no diagnosis of TBI. All subjects underwent an initial scan within 90days post-injury and 65 subjects underwent a follow-up scan 6 to 12months later. A second independent cohort of 40 U.S. military personnel with concussive blast-related TBI served as a validation dataset. The second independent cohort underwent an initial scan within 30days post-injury. 75% of the scans were of good quality, with exclusions primarily due to excessive subject motion. Network analysis of the subset of these subjects in the first cohort with good quality scans revealed spatially localized reductions in the participation coefficient, a measure of between-module connectivity, in the TBI patients relative to the controls at the time of the initial scan. These group differences were less prominent on the follow-up scans. The 15 brain areas with the most prominent reductions in the participation coefficient were next used as regions of interest (ROIs) for single-subject analyses. In the first TBI cohort, more subjects than would be expected by chance (27/47 versus 2/47 expected, p<0.0001) had 3 or more brain regions with abnormally low between-module connectivity relative to the controls on the initial scans. On the follow-up scans, more subjects than expected by chance (5

  15. Disrupted modular organization of resting-state cortical functional connectivity in U.S. military personnel following concussive 'mild' blast-related traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Han, Kihwan; Mac Donald, Christine L; Johnson, Ann M; Barnes, Yolanda; Wierzechowski, Linda; Zonies, David; Oh, John; Flaherty, Stephen; Fang, Raymond; Raichle, Marcus E; Brody, David L

    2014-01-01

    Blast-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been one of the "signature injuries" of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, neuroimaging studies in concussive 'mild' blast-related TBI have been challenging due to the absence of abnormalities in computed tomography or conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the heterogeneity of the blast-related injury mechanisms. The goal of this study was to address these challenges utilizing single-subject, module-based graph theoretic analysis of resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data. We acquired 20min of resting-state fMRI in 63 U.S. military personnel clinically diagnosed with concussive blast-related TBI and 21 U.S. military controls who had blast exposures but no diagnosis of TBI. All subjects underwent an initial scan within 90days post-injury and 65 subjects underwent a follow-up scan 6 to 12months later. A second independent cohort of 40 U.S. military personnel with concussive blast-related TBI served as a validation dataset. The second independent cohort underwent an initial scan within 30days post-injury. 75% of the scans were of good quality, with exclusions primarily due to excessive subject motion. Network analysis of the subset of these subjects in the first cohort with good quality scans revealed spatially localized reductions in the participation coefficient, a measure of between-module connectivity, in the TBI patients relative to the controls at the time of the initial scan. These group differences were less prominent on the follow-up scans. The 15 brain areas with the most prominent reductions in the participation coefficient were next used as regions of interest (ROIs) for single-subject analyses. In the first TBI cohort, more subjects than would be expected by chance (27/47 versus 2/47 expected, p<0.0001) had 3 or more brain regions with abnormally low between-module connectivity relative to the controls on the initial scans. On the follow-up scans, more subjects than expected by chance (5

  16. Efficacy of a smoking quit line in the military: Baseline design and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Richey, Phyllis A.; Klesges, Robert C.; Talcott, Gerald W.; DeBon, Margaret; Womack, Catherine; Thomas, Fridtjof; Hryshko-Mullen, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Thirty percent of all military personnel smoke cigarettes. Because of the negative health consequences and their impact on physical fitness, overall health, and military readiness, the Department of Defense has identified the reduction of tobacco use as a priority of US military forces. This study aims to evaluate the one-year efficacy of a proactive versus reactive smoking quit line in the US military with adjunctive nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in both groups. This paper reports on the baseline variables of the first 1000 participants randomized, the design, and proposed analysis of the randomized two-arm clinical trial “Efficacy of a Tobacco Quit Line in the Military”. Participants are adult smokers who are Armed Forces Active Duty personnel, retirees, Reservist, National Guard and family member healthcare beneficiaries. All participants are randomized to either the Counselor Initiated (proactive) group, receiving 6 counseling sessions in addition to an 8-week supply of NRT, or the Self-Paced (reactive) group, in which they may call the quit line themselves to receive the same counseling sessions, in addition to a 2-week supply of NRT. The primary outcome measure of the study is self-reported smoking abstinence at 1-year follow-up. Results from this study will be the first to provide evidence for the efficacy of an intensive Counselor Initiated quit line with provided NRT in military personnel and could lead to dissemination throughout the US Air Force, the armed forces population as a whole and ultimately to civilian personnel that do not have ready access to preventive health services. PMID:22561390

  17. Exploration of the influence of childhood trauma, combat exposure, and the resilience construct on depression and suicidal ideation among U.S. Iraq/Afghanistan era military personnel and veterans.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Nagy A; Green, Kimberly T; Dedert, Eric A; Hertzberg, Jeffrey S; Calhoun, Patrick S; Dennis, Michelle F; Beckham, Jean C

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of childhood trauma exposure and the role of resilience on both depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. The study evaluated 1,488 military personnel and veterans, who served after September 2001, for depressive, suicidal, and PTSD symptoms, combat exposure, childhood trauma exposure, and resiliency. Participants were enrolled as part of an ongoing multicenter study. Outcome measures were depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. After controlling for the effects of combat exposure and PTSD, results revealed that childhood trauma exposures were significantly associated with depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. In addition, resilience was negatively associated with depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation, suggesting a potential protective effect. These findings suggest that evaluation of childhood trauma is important in the clinical assessment and treatment of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among military personnel and veterans.

  18. Will Military Reductions Create Shortages of Trained Personnel and Harm the Career Prospects of American Youth? EQW Working Papers WP26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barley, Stephen R.

    Although returns to military service may have been positive prior to Vietnam, since Vietnam the average veteran has neither benefited nor suffered economically from military service. Educational attainment is the primary reason veterans have earned more than nonveterans. Because the population as a whole has become more educated, military service…

  19. 34 CFR 674.59 - Cancellation for military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... balance on an NDSL or Perkins loan for active duty service that ended before August 14, 2008, as a member... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cancellation for military service. 674.59 Section 674... Cancellation for military service. (a) Cancellation on a Defense loan. (1) An institution must cancel up to...

  20. By virtue of their occupation, soldiers and sailors are at greater risk. Special report: the military.

    PubMed

    Miller, N; Yeager, R

    1995-12-01

    AIDS is a major problem for military personnel because they are young and sexually active. The UN has over 70,000 troops deployed in 18 different assignments; since 1980, more of these soldiers died of AIDS than have been killed in combat. National military forces in developing countries are decimated by the epidemic. In some armies, especially those in Africa, HIV rates are over 45%, and for officers in some flying and armored units, 100% positivity has been reported. AIDS strikes mainly at the 20-40 age group, often taking senior officers and high-ranking managers. The prevalence of infection may compromise the safety of the blood supply in military hospitals. Military leaders are also worried about exposing their troops to HIV infection from allies; such exposure could jeopardize their combat readiness. Recently demobilized personnel could contribute to AIDS awareness programs as instructors and role models. One major challenge in prevention programs is to convince troops to practice safe sex. Sexually transmitted disease infection rates in the military are between two and five times higher than the rates in the general population. The key issue is whether to screen new recruits. Screening improves blood safety; however, the issues of privacy, confidentiality, and human rights must be considered. In some nations, HIV-infected persons are automatically excluded from the ranks. The question also arises whether special AIDS clinics should be established for soldiers and their families. The issue of screening senior officers for HIV before promotion to higher ranks is also intricate. Stigmatization of those rejected may lead to fewer candidates seeking military careers. The HIV-positive soldier should not be deprived of active duty, training, deployment, and promotion unless debilitating symptoms emerge. The prevention and care programs must resolve: greater training and sharing of data between civil and military sectors, greater international cooperation, long

  1. Prescription Stimulants and PTSD Among U.S. Military Service Members.

    PubMed

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Frasco, Melissa A; Armenta, Richard F; Phillips, Christopher J; Horton, Jaime; Ryan, Margaret A K; Russell, Dale W; LeardMann, Cynthia

    2015-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent condition among military service members and civilians who have experienced traumatic events. Stimulant use has been postulated to increase the risk of incident PTSD; however, research in this area is lacking. In this study, the association between receipt of prescription stimulants and PTSD was examined in a secondary analysis among active duty U.S. military members (n = 25,971), participating in the Millennium Cohort Study, who completed a baseline (2001-2003) and two follow-up surveys (between 2004-2008). Prescription stimulant data were obtained from the military Pharmacy Data Transaction Service. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version and incident PTSD was defined as meeting the criteria at follow-up among those who did not have a history of PTSD at baseline. Overall, 1,215 (4.7%) persons developed new-onset PTSD during follow-up. Receipt of prescription stimulants were significantly associated with incident PTSD, hazard ratio = 5.09, 95% confidence interval [3.05, 8.50], after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, military characteristics, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, baseline mental and physical health status, deployment experiences, and physical/sexual trauma. Findings suggested that prescription stimulants are associated with incident PTSD among military personnel; these data may inform the underlying pathogenesis of and preventive strategies for PTSD.

  2. The Tuition Assistance Program in the Military.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Clinton L.

    Since May 7, 1947, the Tuition Assistance (TA) Program has been the principal vehicle for helping enlisted active duty servicemembers afford the costs of participating in college programs and courses. Data from recent studies indicate strong and consistent associations between participation in the TA program and retention in the military as well…

  3. VR PTSD exposure therapy results with active duty OIF/OEF combatants.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Albert A; Difede, Joann; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Johnston, Scott; McLay, Robert N; Reger, Greg; Gahm, Greg; Parsons, Thomas; Graap, Ken; Pair, Jarrell

    2009-01-01

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is reported to be caused by traumatic events that are outside the range of usual human experience including military combat, violent personal assault, being kidnapped or taken hostage and terrorist attacks. Reports indicate that at least 1 out of 6 Iraq War veterans are exhibiting symptoms of depression, anxiety and PTSD. Virtual Reality exposure therapy has been previously used for PTSD with reports of positive outcomes. This paper will present a brief description of the USC/ICT Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan PTSD therapy application and present clinical outcome data from active duty patients treated at the Naval Medical Center-San Diego (NMCSD) as of October 2009. Initial outcomes from the first twenty patients to complete treatment indicate that 16 no longer meet diagnostic criteria for PTSD at post treatment. Research and clinical tests using the Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan software are also currently underway at Weill Cornell Medical College, Emory University, Fort Lewis and WRAMC along with 20 other test sites. PMID:19377167

  4. Functional Improvement Following Diastasis Rectus Abdominus Repair in an Active Duty Navy Female.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Katerina M; Golberg, Kathy F; Field, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Return to physical activity following childbirth can be a difficult process complicated by structural changes during pregnancy. A common problem is the development of a diastasis of the rectus abdominus (DRA), defined as a horizontal separation of the abdominus muscles at the linea alba. Recent data indicate that the greater the distance of separation of the muscle, the worse the functional ability. We describe a 24-year-old active duty U.S. Navy female G1P2 with a diagnosis of DRA. At 2 months postpartum, she was referred to physical therapy because of back pain and inability to meet baseline activities of daily living. After 4 months of physical therapy, she was unable to complete curl ups as required by U.S. Navy physical fitness standards. Abdominoplasty with imbrication of the abdominal wall diastasis was performed followed by additional physical therapy, after which she returned to baseline functioning. The restoration of functional ability postoperatively suggests there is a therapeutic indication for surgical correction of DRA. In high-functioning military patients with DRA who fail to return to baseline level of activity following a trial of physical therapy, surgical intervention should be considered to obtain the optimal functional ability. PMID:27483541

  5. A randomized, controlled trial of virtual reality-graded exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in active duty service members with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    McLay, Robert N; Wood, Dennis P; Webb-Murphy, Jennifer A; Spira, James L; Wiederhold, Mark D; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Wiederhold, Brenda K

    2011-04-01

    Abstract Virtual reality (VR)-based therapy has emerged as a potentially useful means to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but randomized studies have been lacking for Service Members from Iraq or Afghanistan. This study documents a small, randomized, controlled trial of VR-graded exposure therapy (VR-GET) versus treatment as usual (TAU) for PTSD in Active Duty military personnel with combat-related PTSD. Success was gauged according to whether treatment resulted in a 30 percent or greater improvement in the PTSD symptom severity as assessed by the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) after 10 weeks of treatment. Seven of 10 participants improved by 30 percent or greater while in VR-GET, whereas only 1 of the 9 returning participants in TAU showed similar improvement. This is a clinically and statistically significant result (χ(2) = 6.74, p < 0.01, relative risk 3.2). Participants in VR-GET improved an average of 35 points on the CAPS, whereas those in TAU averaged a 9-point improvement (p < 0.05). The results are limited by small size, lack of blinding, a single therapist, and comparison to a relatively uncontrolled usual care condition, but did show VR-GET to be a safe and effective treatment for combat-related PTSD. PMID:21332375

  6. 32 CFR 199.16 - Supplemental Health Care Program for active duty members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Supplemental Health Care Program for active duty... (CHAMPUS) § 199.16 Supplemental Health Care Program for active duty members. (a) Purpose and applicability. (1) The purpose of this section is to implement, with respect to health care services provided...

  7. 32 CFR 199.16 - Supplemental Health Care Program for active duty members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental Health Care Program for active duty... (CHAMPUS) § 199.16 Supplemental Health Care Program for active duty members. (a) Purpose and applicability. (1) The purpose of this section is to implement, with respect to health care services provided...

  8. 32 CFR 199.16 - Supplemental Health Care Program for active duty members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental Health Care Program for active duty... (CHAMPUS) § 199.16 Supplemental Health Care Program for active duty members. (a) Purpose and applicability. (1) The purpose of this section is to implement, with respect to health care services provided...

  9. 32 CFR 199.16 - Supplemental Health Care Program for active duty members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Supplemental Health Care Program for active duty... (CHAMPUS) § 199.16 Supplemental Health Care Program for active duty members. (a) Purpose and applicability. (1) The purpose of this section is to implement, with respect to health care services provided...

  10. Decision-Making Styles of Active-Duty Police Officers: A Multiple-Case Occupational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Patrick Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the decision-making styles of active-duty police officers or what the consequences of not understanding those decision-making styles may be. The purpose of the study was to describe the demographics and decision-making profiles of active-duty police officers, as well as any relationships that may exist among these variables,…

  11. Neuropsychiatric morbidity in early HIV disease: implications for military occupational function.

    PubMed

    Brown, G R; Rundell, J R; McManis, S E; Kendall, S N; Jenkins, R A

    1993-01-01

    The Military Medical Consortium for Applied Retroviral Research Program's (MMCARR) Behavioral Medicine Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Research component is conducting a tri-service, comprehensive, and longitudinal research study in military HIV-infected personnel at all stages of infection. Identification of neuropsychiatric and psychosocial outcomes and their determinants will help the military minimize the impact of the HIV epidemic on military readiness and function. Neuropsychiatric and psychosocial findings are among the most common complications seen in early HIV disease and among the most likely to have an adverse impact on military readiness and function. The study has demonstrated that the average HIV-infected service person experiences at least transient military occupational difficulty following notification of HIV status. More than 15% at any given time have levels of clinical or subclinical anxiety or depression that are referrable for mental health intervention. Ten per cent of study subjects have a current major mood disorder and 5% have a psychoactive substance use disorder. Finally, 17% of study subjects have experienced serious suicidal ideation or behaviours at least once since notification of seropositivity. Fortunately, however, data also indicate at least partial effectiveness of current primary, secondary and tertiary preventive efforts. Only about 1% of Air Force HIV-infected persons are discharged for psychiatric reasons prior to eventual medical discharge. Further, a large majority of active-duty patients demonstrate solid military occupational and social performance. Though military HIV neurobehavioural research is still in progress, preliminary data identify social support and pre-HIV psychiatric predisposition as important factors associated with current neuropsychiatric status. PMID:8488711

  12. Environmental factors, immune changes and respiratory diseases in troops during military activities.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Chciałowski, Andrzej; Korsak, Jolanta

    2013-06-01

    Combat operations in contemporary theaters of war, as well as combat training, are carried out in all parts of the world, typically in a harsh environment. Specific environmental conditions, such as heat, cold, high-altitudes, desert climates, as well as chemical and biological pollution of both the atmosphere and soil, together with over-exertion, food restrictions, sleep deprivation, and psychological stress can all result in changes in the immune system and the occurrence of associated diseases. Respiratory diseases are one of the most common health problems among military personnel participating in combat training or deployed to operations in areas characterized by difficult climatic and sanitary conditions. They are, therefore, one of the main reasons for military personnel requiring ambulant and hospital treatment. The aim of the study was to discuss the influence of environmental factors and the conditions in which active duty is performed on changes in the immune system and the occurrence of respiratory tract diseases in a military environment. PMID:23403385

  13. Idiopathic renal infarction in a previously healthy active duty soldier.

    PubMed

    Eickhoff, Christa; Mei, Jian M; Martinez, Jorge; Little, Dustin

    2014-02-01

    Renal infarction (RI) is rare, and usually occurs in patients with associated comorbidities. The majority of reported cases have presented with laboratory abnormalities, most notably leukocytosis and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). A 50-year-old active duty white male nonsmoker without medical history presented with flank pain. Urinalysis, complete blood count, LDH, and serum creatinine were normal. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showed a right-sided RI. The patient was admitted to the hospital and anticoagulated. Laboratory values remained normal, and a comprehensive workup failed to reveal an etiology for his RI. RI is rare, and affected patients often present with symptoms similar to more common conditions such as lumbago or nephrolithiasis. Elevated LDH may be a clue to the diagnosis, but unlike 92% of the reviewed cases, our patient presented with a normal value. This case suggests that clinicians should consider RI in patients with persistent symptoms for whom more common causes of flank pain have been excluded; including in nonsmoking patients without apparent risk factors for infarction who present with a normal LDH and no leukocytosis.

  14. Suicide Attempt Characteristics Among Veterans and Active-Duty Service Members Receiving Mental Health Services: A Pooled Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Villatte, Jennifer L.; O’Connor, Stephen S.; Leitner, Rebecca; Kerbrat, Amanda H.; Johnson, Lora L.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Past suicidal behaviors are among the strongest and most consistent predictors of eventual suicide and may be particularly salient in military suicide. The current study compared characteristics of suicide attempts in veterans (N = 746) and active-duty service members (N = 1,013) receiving treatment for acute suicide risk. Baseline data from six randomized controlled trials were pooled and analyzed using robust regression. Service members had greater odds of having attempted suicide relative to veterans, though there were no differences in number of attempts made. Service members also had higher rates of premilitary suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Veterans disproportionately attempted suicide by means of overdose. In veterans, combat deployment was associated with lower odds of lifetime suicide attempt, while history of NSSI was associated with greater attempt odds. Neither was significantly associated with lifetime suicide attempt in service members. Implications for suicide assessment and treatment are discussed. PMID:26740909

  15. British military forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Turner, Mark A; Neal, Leigh A

    2004-04-01

    Military psychiatry has recently generated a lot of interest. In contrast there is virtually no literature on military forensic psychiatry. The first section of the paper is a brief review of British military psychiatric services and recent data on the prevalence of mental illness in British armed forces personnel. The second section summarizes the relevant aspects of the British military judicial and penal systems including the practice of summary justice, the court martial system, and sentencing and corrective training. The third section of the paper addresses issues which are particular to forensic psychiatry, including mental defences in relation to the military, the military offences of malingering and impersonation, risk assessment in military contexts and the notion of 'temperamental unsuitability' to military service. PMID:15176622

  16. 32 CFR 584.6 - Procedures governing nonactive duty or discharged personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PERSONNEL FAMILY SUPPORT, CHILD CUSTODY, AND PATERNITY § 584.6 Procedures governing nonactive duty or... paternity claims against former soldiers or other not on active duty will be sent to the Commander,...

  17. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli colonization factor types collected from 1997 to 2001 in US military personnel during operation Bright Star in northern Egypt.

    PubMed

    Rockabrand, David M; Shaheen, Hind I; Khalil, Sami B; Peruski, Leonard F; Rozmajzl, Patrick J; Savarino, Stephen J; Monteville, Marshall R; Frenck, Robert W; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Putnam, Shannon D; Sanders, John W

    2006-05-01

    Operation Bright Star (OBS) is a biennial, multinational exercise in Egypt involving 15000 US troops. Consistent with past observations in deployed troops, diarrhea is the most significant cause of morbidity. Focused efforts are ongoing to develop vaccines against the most common pathogens affecting our troops. As part of these efforts, diarrhea surveillance was conducted during OBS to monitor pathogens associated with illness and to identify new vaccine targets. A retrospective review was conducted of prior studies with similar methods. Soldiers with diarrhea presenting to the OBS clinic provided a stool sample that was inoculated into Carey-Blair transport media. Within 3 days, the Cary-Blair tubes were transported to the Naval Medical Research Unit no. 3 in Cairo where bacterial culture was performed. As part of the evaluation, 5 Escherichia coli-like colonies were collected and tested for toxin production using the GM1-ELISA. Toxin-positive isolates were further tested for colonization factors (CF) by a dot-blot assay using a standardized panel of monoclonal antibodies against CFA/I, CS1-CS7, CS17, CS8 (CFA/III), CS12 (PCFO159), and CS14 (PCFO166). Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) was the most frequently isolated pathogen during each OBS from which data were collected. The rate of ETEC-associated diarrhea ranged from 22% to 58%. Over time, there were dramatic shifts in the frequency and distribution of CFs. Over the 5 years of study, an increasing number of ETEC isolates had no known CF identified, and in 2001, only 40% of ETEC was associated with known CFs. The most commonly identified CF was CS6. Diarrheal disease, particularly ETEC, continues to be a common malady among US military personnel deployed to Egypt. We have identified ETEC CF types, especially CS6, which should be considered potential vaccine candidates. However, despite intensive testing, CFs could not be identified in most of the ETEC isolated, highlighting the need for further studies to identify

  18. Prediction of Peaks of Seasonal Influenza in Military Health-Care Data.

    PubMed

    Buczak, Anna L; Baugher, Benjamin; Guven, Erhan; Moniz, Linda; Babin, Steven M; Chretien, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is a highly contagious disease that causes seasonal epidemics with significant morbidity and mortality. The ability to predict influenza peak several weeks in advance would allow for timely preventive public health planning and interventions to be used to mitigate these outbreaks. Because influenza may also impact the operational readiness of active duty personnel, the US military places a high priority on surveillance and preparedness for seasonal outbreaks. A method for creating models for predicting peak influenza visits per total health-care visits (ie, activity) weeks in advance has been developed using advanced data mining techniques on disparate epidemiological and environmental data. The model results are presented and compared with those of other popular data mining classifiers. By rigorously testing the model on data not used in its development, it is shown that this technique can predict the week of highest influenza activity for a specific region with overall better accuracy than other methods examined in this article. PMID:27127415

  19. Prediction of Peaks of Seasonal Influenza in Military Health-Care Data

    PubMed Central

    Buczak, Anna L.; Baugher, Benjamin; Guven, Erhan; Moniz, Linda; Babin, Steven M.; Chretien, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is a highly contagious disease that causes seasonal epidemics with significant morbidity and mortality. The ability to predict influenza peak several weeks in advance would allow for timely preventive public health planning and interventions to be used to mitigate these outbreaks. Because influenza may also impact the operational readiness of active duty personnel, the US military places a high priority on surveillance and preparedness for seasonal outbreaks. A method for creating models for predicting peak influenza visits per total health-care visits (ie, activity) weeks in advance has been developed using advanced data mining techniques on disparate epidemiological and environmental data. The model results are presented and compared with those of other popular data mining classifiers. By rigorously testing the model on data not used in its development, it is shown that this technique can predict the week of highest influenza activity for a specific region with overall better accuracy than other methods examined in this article. PMID:27127415

  20. Respiratory infections in the military.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Matthew K; Wilson, D

    2013-09-01

    Military training facilities and operational theatres, and the stressful activities undertaken in such settings, are unique. Military personnel living and working in these environments are at considerable risk of the acquisition and onward transmission of a variety of respiratory infections. While these generally cause mild illness, severe disease may occur with significant associated morbidity and, occasionally, mortality. Epidemic outbreaks among military personnel may have a significant detrimental impact on training schedules and operational effectiveness. The recognition of the burden of such illness among British military personnel, and the development of strategies required to prevent or limit negative impacts, can only be achieved through the use of comprehensive laboratory-based surveillance programmes.

  1. 32 CFR 728.43 - Members of other foreign military services and their dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the United States. Military personnel of foreign nations not covered in § 728.42 and their dependents... State. (2) Military personnel assigned or attached to United States military units for duty; military... departments; and military personnel on duty in the United States at the invitation of the Secretary of...

  2. Alcohol and Other Risk Factors for Drowning among Male Active Duty U.S. Army Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Nicole S.; Amoroso, Paul J.; Yore, Michelle M.; Senier, Laura; Williams, Jeffrey O.; Smith, Gordon S.; Theriault, Alexis

    2007-01-01

    Background Risk factors for drowning are largely undocumented among military populations. Hypothesis Accident report narratives will provide important information about the role of alcohol use and other behaviors in drownings among active duty male U.S. Army soldiers. Methods Using a case series design, we describe drowning deaths reported to the U.S. Army Safety Center (1980–1997), documenting associated demographic factors, alcohol use, and other risk-taking behaviors. Results Drowning victims (n = 352) were disproportionately young, black, and single, with less time-in-service, and no college experience. Most drownings occurred off-duty (89%). Alcohol use was involved in at least 31% of the cases overall. Alcohol use was also associated with a 10-fold increase in reckless behavior (OR 9.6, 95% CI 4.5–20.7) and was most common among drownings in Europe (OR = 4.3, 95% CI 1.5–13.4). Most drownings occurred where no lifeguard was present (68%), but almost two-thirds occurred in the presence of others, with CPR initiated in less than one-third of these cases. Drownings involving minority victims were less likely to involve alcohol, but more likely to occur in unauthorized swimming areas. While most drownings did not involve violations of safety rules, over one-third of the cases involved some form of reckless behavior, particularly for those under age 21. Conclusions Intervention programs should be tailored to meet the needs of the demographic subgroups at highest risk since behavioral risk factors vary by race and age. CPR training and skills maintenance can improve survival rates. Narrative data are important for developing hypotheses and understanding risk factors for injuries. PMID:11763109

  3. A case of person-to-person transmission of Q fever from an active duty serviceman to his spouse.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Marisa H; Veryser, Andrea Kay; Anderson, Alicia D; Hofinger, Diedre; Lee, Samuel A; Tancik, Corey

    2010-06-01

    Coxiella burnetii has recently gained military relevance given its potential as a bioterrorism agent, and the multiple cases reported among U.S. military personnel deployed to the Middle East. Sexual transmission of Q fever is rare but has been reported in the literature. We describe the possible sexual transmission of Q fever from a returning serviceman from Iraq to his wife. In a recent editorial commentary, Dr. Raoult wrote about the reemergence of Q fever after September 11, 2001 (Raoult 2009). Indeed, C. burnetii has gained military relevance given its potential as a bioterrorism agent and the multiple cases reported among military personnel deployed in Southwest/Central Asia and North Africa (Botros et al. 1995 , Meskini et al. 1995 , Leung-Shea and Danaher 2006 ). Human serosurveys in these geographic areas have reported prevalence rates for Q fever ranging from 10% to 37% in contrast to the United States, which has an estimated Q fever seroprevalence of 3.1% (Botros et al. 1995, Meskini et al. 1995, Anderson et al. 2009). There is no data available for Q fever seroprevalence in Iraq. As a consequence, native populations in these regions may be more likely to possess immunity, and newcomers, such as U.S. military personnel, would be vulnerable to acute infection (Derrick 1973). We report on the possible sexual transmission of C. burnetii from a serviceman in the late recovery of acute Q fever to his wife.

  4. Safety profile of amateur kickboxing among military and civilian competitors.

    PubMed

    Buse, George J; Wood, Robert M

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify match-ending injuries in amateur kickboxing (KB) among military and civilian competitors. A total of 148 competitors, of whom 5 were on active duty in the U.S. Air Force or Marine Corps, participated in amateur KB matches (N = 74) from 1999 to 2001. Match-ending injuries were observed and managed from ringside by one author (G.J.B.). Of all matches, 23 (31.1%) were stopped because of injury. Of the 23 matches, 15 (65.2%) ended because of traumatic brain injury, 4 (17.4%) because of orthopedic trauma, 3 (13.0%) because of thoracoabdominal trauma, and 1 (4.4%) because of ocular trauma. The incidence of traumatic brain injury was greater than that of all other match-ending injuries combined (p < 0.01). Because of the incidence and potentially serious sequelae of injuries associated with competitive KB, military commanders should exercise operational risk management in an attempt to safeguard personnel from unnecessary hazard.

  5. Tuberculosis and the military.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Matthew K; Wilson, D

    2013-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) causes significant morbidity and mortality among the global civilian population. Historically, TB has also been responsible for a considerable burden of disease among military populations during periods of both peace and conflict. TB will continue to be of importance to the military for several reasons. Military units live and work in confined environments, personnel may deploy to areas highly endemic for TB where there is the potential to be exposed to infected local communities, and they undertake physiologically stressful activities during training and operations. These are just a few of the factors that may increase the risk of acquiring, developing and transmitting TB among military personnel. This review examines the military relevance of TB in the modern era within the context of epidemiological, pathological and clinical considerations of this ancient disease.

  6. A Case of Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome in a Healthy Active Duty Marine.

    PubMed

    Thota, Darshan; Portouw, Steven J; Bruner, David I

    2015-10-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is an uncommon disorder that can lead to small bowel obstructions or perforations. Typical populations include young females with anorexia. However, there have been a few reports of healthy males with acute vomiting reported to have SMA syndrome. Our case report highlights an active duty Marine who developed SMA syndrome and the importance of recognizing this disease given the severity in delay of diagnosis in population of young healthy active duty members.

  7. Using a web-based patient-provider messaging system to enhance patient satisfaction among active duty sailors and Marines seen in the psychiatric outpatient clinic: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Abanes, Jane J; Adams, Susie

    2014-03-01

    Patient satisfaction is imperative in providing safe, effective, and quality patient care. Several articles have examined the effect of a secure on-line communication system in the primary care setting to improve the delivery of patient care. This article describes the use of an asynchronous Web-based messaging system in the psychiatric outpatient setting to enhance patient satisfaction among active duty military service members.

  8. Optimizing fitness for duty and post-combat clinical services for military personnel and combat veterans with ADHD—a systematic review of the current literature

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Iliyan; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyper activity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder, most often diagnosed in childhood, and characterized by hyperactivity and inattention that negatively impacts one's ability to function and fulfill social and personal obligations. Individuals with past history of ADHD may enlist in the military under certain conditions, however the full impact of military training and deployment of later in life ADHD symptoms is unclear. It is of particular interest how military experience may affect ADHD in remission and if such individuals might be at elevated risk for relapse of ADHD symptoms. Method We performed a systematic review f the available literature including the Department of Defense (DOD) guidelines for both eligibility to enlist and fitness for deployment based on reported history and current symptomatology of ADHD. Results The after care for veterans with ADHD relapse is inconsistent and presents with number of challenges. We evaluate the DOD policies regarding the implications of ADHD for fitness for military service and post-combat mental health. Conclusion The full extend of the interaction between pre-existing ADHD and post-combat PTSD are not fully understood. The development of comprehensive and clear algorithms for diagnosing and treating ADHD in the military before and after deployment will have a strong positive impact on the quality of care delivered to soldiers and veterans. PMID:25206949

  9. Parenting Stress After Deployment in Navy Active Duty Fathers.

    PubMed

    Yablonsky, Abigail M; Yan, Guofen; Bullock, Linda

    2016-08-01

    Military fathers are being deployed, and leaving their families, for greater lengths of time and more frequently than ever before. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of recent deployment on parenting stress in U.S. Navy fathers with young children. Of the 111 participants who completed the one-time study questionnaire at a large military outpatient clinic on the Eastern seaboard, 67.6% had returned from a ship-based deployment. Regression analyses were performed, using the Parenting Stress Index as the outcome variable, deployment elements (such as time away from home in the past 5 years) as predictors, and adjusting for other factors such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Higher perceived threat and greater warfare exposure were both associated with increased parenting stress (p < 0.05) in the unadjusted model. These associations were greatly attenuated and no longer significant after adjustment for depression. In addition, rates of positive screens for PTSD and depression (17.1%) in this sample were higher than in other recent studies. In summary, these data indicate that various deployment factors are associated with increased parenting stress in Navy fathers back from deployment within the past year; these relationships are largely explained by depressive symptoms. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:27483524

  10. Eating disorder in a young active duty male.

    PubMed

    Staten, Robert A

    2013-07-01

    Eating disorders can have atypical presentations, be challenging to diagnose, and often result in treatment delay, as illustrated here. Bulimia nervosa is characterized by binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behaviors, and is ten times more common in females. Studies show increased prevalence over the past decade, with similar prevalence in young military members and civilians. Risk factors include dieting, gender preference, life-altering events, and history of a psychiatric condition. Relatively little research has focused on eating disorders among military males, but factors unique to this group include rigid weight standards, mandatory semiannual personal fitness assessments, and extended deployments. Bulimia and other eating disorders can have subtle or atypical presentations and are often overlooked in males. Other diagnostic obstacles include career concerns and stigma avoidance, along with provider time constraints, inexperience, or discomfort with the issue. Serious medical complications of bulimia are uncommon, but delayed diagnosis can lead to hospitalization and significant morbidity. This case emphasizes the importance of a thorough history and wide differential when faced with an unusual presentation. Recognizing risk factors and incorporating simple screening tools can aid the timely identification and treatment of service members with disordered eating before unit and mission effectiveness are compromised.

  11. Nutrition research in the military.

    PubMed

    Hill, Neil E; Fallowfield, J L; Delves, S K; Wilson, D R

    2014-06-01

    Military research performed in an operational environment involves mission-specific considerations. The Institute of Naval Medicine was tasked in 2008 by the Surgeon General to investigate the nutritional status of deployed British military personnel, and how this might affect body composition, physical fitness and operational capability. This paper briefly describes the logistic and technical issues specific to military research that were encountered by the study team, how these issues were overcome and how this research has influenced military practice.

  12. Child Protection in Military Communities. The User Manual Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhurst, Diane D.; And Others

    Intended for use by military personnel involved in child advocacy efforts and by Child Protective Services personnel working in conjunction with the military, this manual describes programs, procedures, and regulations developed to facilitate intervention in cases of child abuse and neglect among military personnel. Initially, an overview of child…

  13. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2-Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who are Assigned Outside the United States in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... INSTRUCTORS Pt. 61, SFAR No. 100-2 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100-2—Relief for U.S. Military and... September 11, 2001, to termination of SFAR 100-2. 4. Expiration date. This Special Federal...

  14. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2-Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who are Assigned Outside the United States in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... INSTRUCTORS Pt. 61, SFAR No. 100-2 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100-2—Relief for U.S. Military and... September 11, 2001, to termination of SFAR 100-2. 4. Expiration date. This Special Federal...

  15. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 1-Relief for U.S. Military and Civilian Personnel Who Are Assigned Outside the United States in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... INSTRUCTORS Pt. 61, SFAR 100-1 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100-1—Relief for U.S. Military and.... Expiration date. This Special Federal Aviation Regulation No.100-1 expires June 20, 2010, unless...

  16. Evaluation for a novel methicillin resistance (mecC) homologue in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from injured military personnel.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Anuradha; Crawford, Katrina; Mende, Katrin; Murray, Clinton K; Lloyd, Bradley; Ellis, Michael; Tribble, David R; Weintrob, Amy C

    2013-09-01

    A total of 102 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates collected from 50 injured service members (June 2009 to December 2011) at U.S. military treatment facilities were analyzed for the conventional mecA gene and mecC homologue by using standard PCR-based methods. The prevalence of the mecC homologue was zero.

  17. 32 CFR 538.4 - Convertibility of military payment certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Convertibility of military payment certificates... AND ACCOUNTS MILITARY PAYMENT CERTIFICATES § 538.4 Convertibility of military payment certificates. (a) For authorized personnel. Authorized personnel having in their possession military...

  18. 32 CFR 538.4 - Convertibility of military payment certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Convertibility of military payment certificates... AND ACCOUNTS MILITARY PAYMENT CERTIFICATES § 538.4 Convertibility of military payment certificates. (a) For authorized personnel. Authorized personnel having in their possession military...

  19. 32 CFR 538.4 - Convertibility of military payment certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Convertibility of military payment certificates... AND ACCOUNTS MILITARY PAYMENT CERTIFICATES § 538.4 Convertibility of military payment certificates. (a) For authorized personnel. Authorized personnel having in their possession military...

  20. The Long War and Parental Combat Deployment: Effects on Military Children and At-Home Spouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Patricia; Peterson, Kris; Reeves, James; Knauss, Larry; Glover, Dorie; Mogil, Catherine; Duan, Naihua; Saltzman, William; Pynoos, Robert; Wilt, Katherine; Beardslee, William

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Given the growing number of military service members with families and the multiple combat deployments characterizing current war time duties, the impact of deployments on military children requires clarification. Behavioral and emotional adjustment problems were examined in children (aged 6 through 12) of an active duty Army or Marine…

  1. How to Motivate Military Veterans to Participate in the GI Bill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, some military veterans have been influenced by barriers, preventing them from using their educational benefits. Any active duty member or military veteran could have been exposed to and influenced by these barriers and become unmotivated and not use or discontinue using these benefits. If veterans do not use their educational…

  2. Military return to duty and civilian return to work factors following burns with focus on the hand and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Ted T; Richard, Reg L; Hedman, Travis L; Chisholm, Gary B; Quick, Charles D; Baer, David G; Dewey, William S; Jones, John S; Renz, Evan M; Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopold C; Chung, Kevin K; Holcomb, John B; Wolf, Steven E

    2008-01-01

    Functional recovery and outcome from severe burns is oftentimes judged by the time required for a person to return to work (RTW) in civilian life. The equivalent in military terms is return to active duty. Many factors have been described in the literature as associated with this outcome. Hand function, in particular, is thought to have a great influence on the resumption of preburn activities. The purpose of this investigation was to compare factors associated with civilian RTW with combat injured military personnel. A review of the literature was performed to assimilate the many factors reported as involved with RTW or duty. Additionally, a focus on the influence of hand burns is included. Thirty-four different parameters influencing RTW have been reported inconsistently in the literature. In a military population of combat burns, TBSA burn, length of hospitalization and intensive care and inhalation injury were found as the most significant factors in determining return to duty status. In previous RTW investigations of civilian populations, there exists a scatter of factors reported to influence patient disposition with a mixture of conflicting results. In neither military nor civilian populations was the presence of a hand burn found as a dominant factor. Variety in patient information collected and statistical approaches used to analyze this information were found to influence the results and deter comparisons between patient populations. There is a need for a consensus data set and corresponding statistical approach used to evaluate RTW and duty outcomes after burn injury.

  3. Obesity and the US Military Family

    PubMed Central

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Sbrocco, Tracy; Theim, Kelly R.; Cohen, L. Adelyn; Mackey, Eleanor R.; Stice, Eric; Henderson, Jennifer L.; McCreight, Sarah J.; Bryant, Edny J.; Stephens, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review discusses the current knowledge and future directions regarding obesity within the US military family (i.e., active-duty servicemembers, as well as military spouses, children, retirees, and veterans). The increasing rates of overweight and obesity within the US military adversely impact military readiness, limit recruitment, and place a significant financial burden on the Department of Defense. Design and Methods The following topics are reviewed: 1) The prevalence of and the financial, physical, and psychological costs associated with overweight in military communities; 2) military weight regulations, and challenges faced by the military family related to overweight and disordered eating; 3) the continued need for rigorous program evaluations and new intervention development. Results Overweight and its associated sequelae impact the entire military family. Military families share many similarities with their civilian counterparts, but they face unique challenges (e.g., stress related to deployments and relocations). Although the military has weight management resources, there is an urgent need for rigorous program evaluation and the development of enhanced obesity prevention programs across the lifespan of the military family–several of which are proposed herein. Conclusions Interdisciplinary and collaborative research efforts and team-based interventions will continue to inform understanding of obesity treatment and prevention within military and civilian populations. PMID:23836452

  4. Called to Serve: The Military Mobilization of Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Mark C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to answer the following research question: What is the process by which undergraduate students, recalled for military duty, prepare for mobilization, separate from their institution and then re-enroll upon their release from active duty, and how is this process affected by meaning? Using the grounded theory tradition,…

  5. Examining Child Care Need among Military Families. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Susan M.; Zellman, Gail L.; Moini, Joy S.

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the results of a survey of 1,137 active-duty military families, including activated Reservists, regarding child care use. These survey data were analyzed to estimate the relationship between individual family characteristics and installation characteristics and the probability that the family uses any nonparental child care,…

  6. Academic Advisors of Military and Student Veterans: An Ethnographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of the Post-9/11 GI Bill, there is an influx of active-duty military and student veterans enrolling in postsecondary and graduate-level education. The role of an academic advisor increases significantly with this influx of enrollment. The purpose of this study was to determine how a graduate-level academic advisor perceives…

  7. Do shorter delays to care and mental health system renewal translate into better occupational outcome after mental disorder diagnosis in a cohort of Canadian military personnel who returned from an Afghanistan deployment?

    PubMed Central

    Boulos, David; Zamorski, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Objective Mental disorders in military personnel result in high rates of attrition. Military organisations have strengthened their mental health systems and attempted to overcome barriers to care in order to see better outcomes. This study investigated the roles of mental health services renewal and delay to care in Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel diagnosed with mental disorders. Design Administrative data were used to identify a retrospective cohort of 30 513 CAF personnel who deployed in support of the mission in Afghanistan. Study participants included 508 individuals with a mental disorder diagnosis identified from CAF medical records of a weighted, stratified random sample of 2014 individuals selected from the study cohort. Weighted Cox proportional hazards regression assessed the association of diagnosis era and delay to care with the outcome, after controlling for a broad range of potential confounders (eg, disorder severity, comorbidity). Taylor series linearisation methods and sample design weights were applied in generating descriptive and regression analysis statistics. Primary outcome The outcome was release from military service for medical reasons, assessed using administrative data for the 508 individuals with a mental disorder diagnosis. Results 17.5% (95% CI 16.0% to 19.0%) of the cohort had a mental disorder diagnosis after an Afghanistan-related deployment, of which 21.3% (95% CI 17.2% to 25.5%) had a medical release over a median follow-up of 3.5 years. Medical release risk was elevated for individuals diagnosed before 30 April 2008 relative to those with recent diagnoses (adjusted HR (aHR)=1.77 (95% CI 1.01 to 3.11)) and for individuals with a long delay to care (>21 months after return) relative to those with intermediate delays (8–21 months, aHR 2.47=(95% CI 1.28 to 4.76)). Conclusions Mental health services renewal in the CAF was associated with a better occupational outcome for those diagnosed with mental disorders. Longer

  8. Cranial Capacity Related to Sex, Rank, and Race in a Stratified Random Sample of 6,325 U.S. Military Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, J. Philippe

    1992-01-01

    Cranial capacities were calculated from external head measurements reported for a stratified random sample of 6,325 Army personnel measured in 1988. Data suggest that human populations differ in brain size by race and sex. The major source of variation in data was sex; race was second and rank last. (Author/SLD)

  9. The impact of a situationally focused individual human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease risk-reduction intervention on risk behavior in a 1-year cohort of Nigerian military personnel.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael W; Essien, E James; Ekong, Ernest; James, T Monique; Amos, Charles; Ogungbade, Gbadebo O; Williams, Mark L

    2006-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted disease (STD)-related risks in peacekeeping troops is a concern when they are stationed in areas of high HIV prevalence. We carried out an assessment of a situationally focused individual HIV/STD reduction intervention (where avoidance of risk situations, as well as risk behaviors, are emphasized) in one Nigerian military unit (N = 1,222), with a comparable unit from the same service as a waiting list control (N = 987). The intervention consisted of a possible five modules that were presented to groups of up to 50 personnel. Data were collected on reported sexual behaviors, condom beliefs, sexual risk behaviors with casual partners, and number of interventions attended. Data indicated significant increases in reported condom use with casual partners and positive condom beliefs at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Risk behavior was reduced 30% from baseline at 6 months and 23% from baseline at 12 months. There was also a significant dose-response effect for number of interventions attended. These data suggest that relatively brief situationally focused individual interventions are effective in military and West African contexts in reducing HIV/STD risk behaviors. PMID:17076449

  10. Applications of PCR (real-time and MassTag) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in diagnosis of respiratory infections and diarrheal illness among deployed U.S. military personnel during exercise Balikatan 2009, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Velasco, John Mark S; Yoon, In-Kyu; Mason, Carl J; Jarman, Richard G; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Klungthong, Chonticha; Silapong, Sasikorn; Valderama, Maria Theresa G; Wongstitwilairoong, Tippa; Torres, Arturo G; De Cecchis, Daniel P; Pavlin, Julie A

    2011-10-01

    Laboratory-based surveillance for diarrheal and respiratory illness was conducted at the 2009 Republic of the Philippines-United States Balikatan exercise to determine the presence of specific pathogens endemic in the locations where the military exercises were conducted. Ten stool and 6 respiratory specimens were obtained from individuals meeting case definitions for diarrhea or respiratory illness. Stool specimens were frozen in dry ice and remotely tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Rotavirus, Astrovirus, Adenovirus, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium and polymerase chain reaction for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Shigella, Vibrio, Salmonella, and Norovirus. Eight (4 for Campylobacter jejuni, 2 for Campylobacter coli, 1 for Norovirus genogroup II, and 1 for both Campylobacter coli and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli) of 10 samples were positive for at least 1 enteric pathogen. MassTag polymerase chain reaction for influenza A and B, respiratory syncytial virus groups A and B, human coronavirus-229E and human coronavirus-OC43, human metapneumovirus, enterovirus, human parainfluenza viruses 2,3, and 4a, human adenovirus, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Legionella pneumonia, and Mycoplasma pneumonia was done on respiratory specimens. Out of 6 samples, 3 tested positive for H. influenzae; 1 tested positive for both H. influenzae and human parainfluenza virus 3; and 2 tested negative. Laboratory-based surveillance can be useful in determining etiologies of diarrheal and respiratory illness of deployed military personnel.

  11. 32 CFR 9.4 - Commission personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commission personnel. 9.4 Section 9.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.4 Commission personnel. (a)...

  12. Military R&D Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Ulrich

    1983-01-01

    Military research and development (R&D) in Western countries and the USSR are analyzed in terms of growth; self-perception of R&D personnel; relationships with industry and the state bureaucracy; reproduction schemes which result in war-oriented work; and worker training. Prospects are slim for the conversion of military production to civilian…

  13. Estimated economic impact of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system on unintended pregnancy in active duty women.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Mumford, Sunni L; Hill, Micah J; Armstrong, Alicia Y

    2014-10-01

    Unintended pregnancy is reportedly higher in active duty women; therefore, we sought to estimate the potential impact of the levonorgestrel-containing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) could have on unintended pregnancy in active duty women. A decision tree model with sensitivity analysis was used to estimate the number of unintentional pregnancies in active duty women which could be prevented. A secondary cost analysis was performed to analyze the direct cost savings to the U.S. Government. The total number of Armed Services members is estimated to be over 1.3 million, with an estimated 208,146 being women. Assuming an age-standardized unintended pregnancy rate of 78 per 1,000 women, 16,235 unintended pregnancies occur each year. Using a combined LNG-IUS failure and expulsion rate of 2.2%, a decrease of 794, 1588, and 3970 unintended pregnancies was estimated to occur with 5%, 10% and 25% usage, respectively. Annual cost savings from LNG-IUS use range from $3,387,107 to $47,352,295 with 5% to 25% intrauterine device usage. One-way sensitivity analysis demonstrated LNG-IUS to be cost-effective when the cost associated with pregnancy and delivery exceeded $11,000. Use of LNG-IUS could result in significant reductions in unintended pregnancy among active duty women, resulting in substantial cost savings to the government health care system. PMID:25269131

  14. Risk Factors for Clinically Significant Intimate Partner Violence among Active-Duty Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith Slep, Amy M.; Foran, Heather M.; Heyman, Richard E.; Snarr, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    Hypothesized risk factors for men's and women's clinically significant intimate partner violence (CS-IPV) from four ecological levels (i.e., individual, family, workplace, community) were tested in a representative sample of active-duty U.S. Air Force members (N = 42,744). When considered together, we expected only individual and family factors to…

  15. 75 FR 49913 - Active Duty Service Determinations For Civilian or Contractual Groups

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Active Duty Service Determinations For Civilian or Contractual Groups SUMMARY: On... at Then `American Camp,' Now Named `Burma Camp,' Ghana' '' shall not be considered ``active...

  16. 38 CFR 21.46 - Veteran ordered to active duty; extension of basic period of eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Veteran ordered to active... Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Periods of Eligibility § 21.46 Veteran ordered to active... active duty under 10 U.S.C. 688, 12301(a), 12301(d), 12301(g), 12302, or 12304, the veteran's...

  17. 38 CFR 21.46 - Veteran ordered to active duty; extension of basic period of eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Veteran ordered to active... Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Periods of Eligibility § 21.46 Veteran ordered to active... active duty under 10 U.S.C. 688, 12301(a), 12301(d), 12301(g), 12302, or 12304, the veteran's...

  18. 32 CFR 199.16 - Supplemental Health Care Program for active duty members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... supplemental health care for active duty members—(1) Hospitals covered by DRG-based payment system. For a... the supplemental care program. As a participating provider, each hospital must accept the DRG-based... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental Health Care Program for active...

  19. 13 CFR 123.501 - Under what circumstances is your business eligible to be considered for a Military Reservist...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Military Reservist EIDL if: (a) It is a small business as defined in 13 CFR part 121 when the essential employee was called to active duty, (b) The owner of the business is a military reservist and an essential... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Under what circumstances is...

  20. See Something, Do Something: Predicting Sexual Assault Bystander Intentions in the U.S. Military.

    PubMed

    Holland, Kathryn J; Rabelo, Verónica Caridad; Cortina, Lilia

    2016-09-01

    Sexual assault is a pervasive problem in the U.S. military, especially against women. Bystander intervention is increasingly promoted as important for reducing sexual violence, and it may be particularly helpful in contexts with high rates of sexual violence. Bystander training encourages and enables people to intervene safely and stop sexual violence. In this study, we drew from an ecological model to investigate intrapersonal, microsystem, and exosystem factors that predicted Service members' assumption of personal responsibility to intervene in an alcohol-involved sexual assault. Moreover, we examined how these predictors played a role in decisions about how to intervene: confronting the perpetrator, assisting the victim, or finding someone to help. We analyzed data from 24,610 active duty personnel collected by the Department of Defense. Several factors significantly related to Service members' bystander intentions: gender, rank, morale, attitudes about sexual assault, training, and trust in the military sexual assault system predicted the likelihood and method of bystander intervention. These findings help identify how and why people intervene (or fail to intervene) when they witness situations that could develop into sexual violence. PMID:27539117

  1. Efficacy of Two versus Three-Day Regimens of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for Uncomplicated Malaria in Military Personnel in Northern Cambodia: An Open-Label Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; So, Mary; Sea, Darapiseth; Se, Youry; Gosi, Panita; Lanteri, Charlotte; Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Chann, Soklyda; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Buathong, Nillawan; Nou, Samon; Walsh, Douglas S.; Tyner, Stuart D.; Juliano, Jonathan J.; Lin, Jessica; Spring, Michele; Bethell, Delia; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Tang, Douglas; Chuor, Char Meng; Satharath, Prom; Saunders, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Emerging antimalarial drug resistance in mobile populations remains a significant public health concern. We compared two regimens of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in military and civilians on the Thai-Cambodian border to evaluate national treatment policy. Methods Efficacy and safety of two and three-day regimens of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine were compared as a nested open-label evaluation within a malaria cohort study in 222 otherwise healthy volunteers (18% malaria-infected at baseline). The first 80 volunteers with slide-confirmed Plasmodium falciparum or vivax malaria were randomized 1:1 to receive either regimen (total dose 360mg dihydroartemisinin and 2880mg piperaquine) and followed weekly for up to 6 months. The primary endpoint was malaria recurrence by day 42. Volunteers with vivax infection received primaquine at study discharge with six months follow-up. Results Eighty patients (60 vivax, 15 falciparum, and 5 mixed) were randomized to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. Intention-to-treat all-species efficacy at Day 42 was 85% for the two-day regimen (95% CI 69–94) and 90% for the three-day regimen (95% CI 75–97). PCR-adjusted falciparum efficacy was 75% in both groups with nearly half (45%) still parasitemic at Day 3. Plasma piperaquine levels were comparable to prior published reports, but on the day of recrudescence were below measurable in vitro piperaquine IC50 levels in all falciparum treatment failures. Conclusions In the brief period since introduction of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, there is early evidence suggesting declining efficacy relative to previous reports. Parasite IC50 levels in excess of plasma piperaquine levels seen only in treatment failures raises concern for clinically significant piperaquine resistance in Cambodia. These findings warrant improved monitoring of clinical outcomes and follow-up, given few available alternative drugs. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01280162 PMID:24667662

  2. Returning from the War Zone: A Guide for Families of Military Members

    MedlinePlus

    ... witnessed the death or injury of friends, other military personnel, civilians, or enemy combatants. Your loved one may ... Returning from the War Zone: A Guide for Military Personnel ( PDF) ”. It contains useful resources for service members ...

  3. Incidence and risk factors for acute low back pain in active duty infantry.

    PubMed

    Ernat, Justin; Knox, Jeffrey; Orchowski, Joseph; Owens, Brett

    2012-11-01

    Although much research has been performed on occupational risk factors for low back pain, little has been published on low back pain among infantrymen. This purpose of this study is to evaluate the incidence of acute low back pain amongst active duty infantrymen as compared to a matched control population. The Defense Medical Epidemiology Database was searched and incidence rates were calculated and compared between infantry and noninfantry soldiers. Data was stratified and controlled for age, race, marital status, rank, and branch of service using the Poisson multivariate regression analysis. Significantly lower rates of acute low back pain were discovered in active duty infantrymen when compared to matched controls (32.9 versus 49.5 cases per 1,000 person-years). Additionally, significantly lower rates were identified in the Marines versus the Army, and among junior enlisted compared to senior enlisted service members. PMID:23198512

  4. 5 CFR 846.303 - Crediting military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crediting military service. 846.303... Become Subject to FERS § 846.303 Crediting military service. (a) Military service performed before the... paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. (b) Military service described in paragraph (a) of this section...

  5. 5 CFR 846.303 - Crediting military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crediting military service. 846.303... Become Subject to FERS § 846.303 Crediting military service. (a) Military service performed before the... paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. (b) Military service described in paragraph (a) of this section...

  6. 5 CFR 846.303 - Crediting military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crediting military service. 846.303... Become Subject to FERS § 846.303 Crediting military service. (a) Military service performed before the... paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. (b) Military service described in paragraph (a) of this section...

  7. 5 CFR 846.303 - Crediting military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crediting military service. 846.303... Become Subject to FERS § 846.303 Crediting military service. (a) Military service performed before the... paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. (b) Military service described in paragraph (a) of this section...

  8. 5 CFR 630.504 - Reestablishment of leave account after military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... military service. 630.504 Section 630.504 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... military service. (a) When an employee leaves his or her civilian position to enter the military service... returns to a civilian position following military service, the agency to which the employee returns...

  9. 5 CFR 630.504 - Reestablishment of leave account after military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... military service. 630.504 Section 630.504 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... military service. (a) When an employee leaves his or her civilian position to enter the military service... returns to a civilian position following military service, the agency to which the employee returns...

  10. 5 CFR 630.504 - Reestablishment of leave account after military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... military service. 630.504 Section 630.504 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... military service. (a) When an employee leaves his or her civilian position to enter the military service... returns to a civilian position following military service, the agency to which the employee returns...

  11. 5 CFR 630.504 - Reestablishment of leave account after military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... military service. 630.504 Section 630.504 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... military service. (a) When an employee leaves his or her civilian position to enter the military service... returns to a civilian position following military service, the agency to which the employee returns...

  12. A genomics study of type 2 diabetes mellitus in U.S. Air Force personnel.

    PubMed

    Lott, Lisa

    2009-07-01

    The military community is at high risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D), especially as it relates to military beneficiaries, although preventive measures can be implemented to reduce disease onset. This study evaluates the prevalence of risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in patients diagnosed with T2D within active duty, retired military, and military-dependent populations on Lackland Air Force Base compared to nondiabetic controls. Results will be used as a basis of comparison to analyze risk-conferring genotypes in the young, healthy active duty population to generate the prevalence of T2D risk-associated factors in our current and future war fighters. Identifying genetic markers of T2D prior to abnormal glucose control and insulin resistance may ultimately adjust future risk through early detection, healthy lifestyle modifications, and disease management programs.

  13. The U.S. Army Person-Event Data Environment: A Military-Civilian Big Data Enterprise.

    PubMed

    Vie, Loryana L; Scheier, Lawrence M; Lester, Paul B; Ho, Tiffany E; Labarthe, Darwin R; Seligman, Martin E P

    2015-06-01

    This report describes a groundbreaking military-civilian collaboration that benefits from an Army and Department of Defense (DoD) big data business intelligence platform called the Person-Event Data Environment (PDE). The PDE is a consolidated data repository that contains unclassified but sensitive manpower, training, financial, health, and medical records covering U.S. Army personnel (Active Duty, Reserve, and National Guard), civilian contractors, and military dependents. These unique data assets provide a veridical timeline capturing each soldier's military experience from entry to separation from the armed forces. The PDE was designed to afford unprecedented cost-efficiencies by bringing researchers and military scientists to a single computerized repository rather than porting vast data resources to individual laboratories. With funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, researchers from the University of Pennsylvania Positive Psychology Center joined forces with the U.S. Army Research Facilitation Laboratory, forming the scientific backbone of the military-civilian collaboration. This unparalleled opportunity was necessitated by a growing need to learn more about relations between psychological and health assets and health outcomes, including healthcare utilization and costs-issues of major importance for both military and civilian population health. The PDE represents more than 100 times the population size and many times the number of linked variables covered by the nation's leading sources of population health data (e.g., the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). Following extensive Army vetting procedures, civilian researchers can mine the PDE's trove of information using a suite of statistical packages made available in a Citrix Virtual Desktop. A SharePoint collaboration and governance management environment ensures user compliance with federal and DoD regulations concerning human subjects' protections and also provides a secure

  14. The U.S. Army Person-Event Data Environment: A Military-Civilian Big Data Enterprise.

    PubMed

    Vie, Loryana L; Scheier, Lawrence M; Lester, Paul B; Ho, Tiffany E; Labarthe, Darwin R; Seligman, Martin E P

    2015-06-01

    This report describes a groundbreaking military-civilian collaboration that benefits from an Army and Department of Defense (DoD) big data business intelligence platform called the Person-Event Data Environment (PDE). The PDE is a consolidated data repository that contains unclassified but sensitive manpower, training, financial, health, and medical records covering U.S. Army personnel (Active Duty, Reserve, and National Guard), civilian contractors, and military dependents. These unique data assets provide a veridical timeline capturing each soldier's military experience from entry to separation from the armed forces. The PDE was designed to afford unprecedented cost-efficiencies by bringing researchers and military scientists to a single computerized repository rather than porting vast data resources to individual laboratories. With funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, researchers from the University of Pennsylvania Positive Psychology Center joined forces with the U.S. Army Research Facilitation Laboratory, forming the scientific backbone of the military-civilian collaboration. This unparalleled opportunity was necessitated by a growing need to learn more about relations between psychological and health assets and health outcomes, including healthcare utilization and costs-issues of major importance for both military and civilian population health. The PDE represents more than 100 times the population size and many times the number of linked variables covered by the nation's leading sources of population health data (e.g., the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). Following extensive Army vetting procedures, civilian researchers can mine the PDE's trove of information using a suite of statistical packages made available in a Citrix Virtual Desktop. A SharePoint collaboration and governance management environment ensures user compliance with federal and DoD regulations concerning human subjects' protections and also provides a secure

  15. 49 CFR 382.103 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... part 383 of this subchapter. These individuals include active duty military personnel; members of the... duty, personnel on part-time national guard training and national guard military technicians (civilians who are required to wear military uniforms), and active duty U.S. Coast Guard personnel; or (3) Who...

  16. Divorce, Race, and Military Service: More than Equal Pay and Equal Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachman, Jay D.; Tedrow, Lucky

    2008-01-01

    Several researchers have suggested that the persistently higher rate of divorce among Blacks may be due to hard-to-measure concepts such as culture or norms. To attack this problem, we use data from the NLSY-79 to examine the risk of divorce among enlisted active-duty military servicemen where economic differences and the negative effects of…

  17. Views From the Pacific--Military Base Hospital Libraries in Hawaii and Guam.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Priscilla L; Trafford, Mabel A; Hadley, Alice E

    2016-01-01

    Hospital libraries serving military bases offer a different perspective on library services. Two libraries located on islands in the Pacific Ocean provide services to active duty service men and women, including those deployed to other regions of the world. In addition, these hospital libraries serve service members' families living on the base, and often citizens from the surrounding communities.

  18. Depression and Participation in Athletics among Military-Dependent High School Athletes during War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madler, Gerald L.

    2009-01-01

    This applied research study investigated depressive symptoms in military-dependent high school athletes vs. non-athletes who have a parent on active duty during Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom. The sample consisted of 332 adolescents who either did or did not participate in athletic activities and either did or did not have a…

  19. An Analysis of Supports for Persistence for the Military Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Bruce; Black, Ellen Lowrie; Spohn, R. Terry

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to describe the correlation of academic, financial, and social supports to the persistence of a military student population: veterans, active duty and their families. The study also contrasted these relationships with those of nonmilitary students and looked at the results of both groups together to determine how supports…

  20. Impact of Military Deployment and Distance Learning on Soldier-Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, August T.

    2013-01-01

    Soldiers face complex challenges, issues, and decisions when pursuing distance learning while deployed. These challenges are encountered frequently while completing undergraduate and graduate degree programs on active duty overseas. Many learning programs and benefits are available and utilized by military online learners in a war zone. Education…

  1. SUNY Colleges in the North Country: A Successful Partnership with the Military.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsica, Joanne Y.; Johnson, Donald R.; Lancaster, Wanda Rushing

    2002-01-01

    Describes the SUNY Colleges in the North Country Consortium, which comprises nine higher education institutions committed to working collaboratively and in concert with an Army Education Center at Fort Drum. The consortium provides educational services to active-duty military and their spouses. (EV)

  2. A Case Report of Supplement-Induced Hepatitis in an Active Duty Service Member.

    PubMed

    Brazeau, Michael J; Castaneda, Joni L; Huitron, Sonny S; Wang, James

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of drug-induced hepatic injury has been increasing as a result of more widespread use of workout supplements containing anabolic steroids to increase muscle mass. Synthetic androgenic steroids are shown to cause cholestatic liver injury, but the exact mechanism of injury is not completely understood. We present a case of a healthy, young, active duty Army male soldier who developed pruritis and jaundice shortly after starting to take a body-building supplement containing anabolic steroids, and was subsequently found to have significant biopsy proven drug-induced liver injury. PMID:26126259

  3. 32 CFR 9.4 - Commission personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commission personnel. 9.4 Section 9.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS PROCEDURES FOR TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM §...

  4. High altitude headache and acute mountain sickness at moderate elevations in a military population during battalion-level training exercises.

    PubMed

    Norris, Jacob N; Viirre, Erik; Aralis, Hilary; Sracic, Michael K; Thomas, Darren; Gertsch, Jeffery H

    2012-08-01

    Few studies have evaluated high altitude headache (HAH) and acute mountain sickness (AMS) in military populations training at moderate (1,500-2,500 m) to high altitudes (>2,500 m). In the current study, researchers interviewed active duty personnel training at Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center. Participants were asked about HAH and AMS symptoms, potential risk factors, and medications used. In a sample of 192 U.S. Navy and Marine Corps personnel, 14.6% reported AMS (Lake Louise Criteria > or = 3) and 28.6% reported HAH. Dehydration and recent arrival at altitude (defined as data collected on days 2-3) were significantly associated with AMS; decreased sleep allowance was significantly associated with HAH. Although ibuprofen/Motrin users were more likely to screen positive for AMS, among AMS-positive participants, ibuprofen/Motrin users had decreased likelihood of reporting robust AMS relative to non-ibuprofen/Motrin users (p < 0.01). These results suggest that maintenance of hydration and adequate sleep allowance may be critical performance requirements at altitude. Further, ibuprofen/Motrin may be a reasonable treatment for the symptoms of AMS and HAH, although further study is warranted.

  5. Solar technical assistance provided to Forest City military communities in Hawaii for incorporation of 20-30 MW of solar energy generation to power family housing for US Navy personnel.

    SciTech Connect

    Dominick, Jeff; Merrigan, Tim; Boudra, Will; Miller, Ryan; Cisneros, Gabriela; Rosenthal, Andrew L.; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2010-06-01

    In May 2007, Forest City Military Communities won a US Department of Energy Solar America Showcase Award. As part of this award, executives and staff from Forest City Military Communities worked side-by-side with a DOE technical assistance team to overcome technical obstacles encountered by this large-scale real estate developer and manager. This paper describes the solar technical assistance that was provided and the key solar experiences acquired by Forest City Military Communities over an 18 month period.

  6. Expert systems for personnel assignment

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, J.L.; Liepins, G.

    1986-01-01

    In order to reduce stress on assignment personnel (detailers) and ensure maximum fairness and consistency in the Navy's personnel assignment process, The Navy Military Personnel Command (NMPC) has begun to explore the potential use of expert systems to supplement current manual and computerized distribution methods. The Detailer's Assistant expert system is being developed to improve the detailers' ability to satisfy the needs of their constituents and Navy management. An initial prototype of the Detailer's Assistant is now being evaluated. Numerous upgrades and extensions should lead to an operational system in the near future. Further development to a production system will involve additional research in machine learning, intelligent database methods, and cooperating expert systems.

  7. Service and Joint Training: Lessons Learned from Recent Conflicts. Hearing before the Military Forces and Personnel Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed Services. House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Armed Services.

    This document contains the oral and written statements of persons whose testimony was presented before a Congressional hearing on training lessons learned from recent military conflicts. Principal witness was Mark E. Gebicke, Director of Military Operations and Capabilities Issues, National Security and International Affairs Division, U.S. General…

  8. 32 CFR 724.215 - Military representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military representation. 724.215 Section 724.215 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Authority/Policy for Departmental Discharge Review § 724.215 Military representation....

  9. 32 CFR 724.215 - Military representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Military representation. 724.215 Section 724.215 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Authority/Policy for Departmental Discharge Review § 724.215 Military representation....

  10. 32 CFR 724.215 - Military representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military representation. 724.215 Section 724.215 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Authority/Policy for Departmental Discharge Review § 724.215 Military representation....

  11. 32 CFR 724.215 - Military representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military representation. 724.215 Section 724.215 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Authority/Policy for Departmental Discharge Review § 724.215 Military representation....

  12. 32 CFR 724.215 - Military representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Military representation. 724.215 Section 724.215 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Authority/Policy for Departmental Discharge Review § 724.215 Military representation....

  13. The Demographics of Military Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clever, Molly; Segal, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Since the advent of the all-volunteer force in the 1970s, marriage, parenthood, and family life have become commonplace in the U.S. military among enlisted personnel and officers alike, and military spouses and children now outnumber service members by a ratio of 1.4 to 1. Reviewing data from the government and from academic and nonacademic…

  14. Gender Differences in Physiological Reactivity to Infant Cries and Smiles in Military Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Albert L.; Nelson, John P.; McCanne, Thomas R.; Lucas, D. R.; Milner, Joel S.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty male and 29 female active-duty Air Force personnel viewed and listened to videotapes of a crying infant and a smiling infant while heart rate, skin resistance, and respiration rate were monitored. Males showed a larger increase in skin conductance and heart rate than females during the crying infant stimulus. (Author/CR)

  15. 'Hidden' Brain Injury a Challenge for Military Doctors

    MedlinePlus

    ... researchers analyzed the brain tissue of eight U.S. military personnel who survived blasts but died four to nine ... The Lancet Neurology . More than 300,000 U.S. military personnel in the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts have suffered ...

  16. Hospitalizations for fall-related injuries among active-duty Army soldiers, 1980–1998

    PubMed Central

    Senier, Laura; Bell, Nicole S.; Yore, Michelle M.; Amoroso, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Total Army Injury and Health Outcomes Database (TAIHOD) were used to describe 28,352 fall-related hospitalizations among active-duty Army soldiers between 1980 and 1998. Soldiers who were younger than age 26, single, and had a high school education or less were at greatest risk. Falls from a height were more likely to be fatal than other types of falls, accounting for 88% of all fatalities. In cases where duty status was known, 64% of the falls took place while the soldier was on duty and half of these occurred during training. The most common type of fall during training was fall from a height (37%). Falls on stairs and ladders accounted for 49% of all off-duty falls. Future research should include identification of specific behavioral and occupational risk factors for falls, particularly those occurring during training activities, and falls occurring off duty. PMID:12441580

  17. Permanent press allergy in an active duty U.S. Army soldier.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Shelley L; Murchland, Michael R; Henning, J Scott

    2011-05-01

    Ethylene urea/melamine formaldehyde resin (permanent press) is a common fabric finishing agent added to Army Combat Uniforms for a wrinkle-free appearance and to strengthen the fabric. We describe the case of an active duty U.S. Army soldier with a diffuse eczematous dermatitis in whom patch testing was used to identify an allergy to permanent press, a ubiquitous fabric finishing agent in the Army combat uniform. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a soldier with an allergic contact dermatitis to ethylene urea/melamine formaldehyde resin. This case highlights the importance of considering the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis in patients with a recurrent eczematous dermatitis that does not respond appropriately to therapy and the unique occupational impact of diagnosing an Army soldier with permanent press allergy.

  18. THE TECHNOLOGY OF MILITARY TRAINING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WALLIS, D.

    THIS DOCUMENT IS PART OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE ON OPERATIONAL AND PERSONNEL RESEARCH IN THE MANAGEMENT OF MANPOWER SYSTEMS, HELD IN BRUSSELS IN 1965. A MODEL ILLUSTRATES THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED MILITARY INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM WHICH PROVIDES CONTINUOUS FEEDBACK AND CONTROL OF LEARNING. THE TRAINING COURSE INCLUDES--(1) A CLEAR…

  19. Literacy Instruction in the Military.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Thomas M.

    Despite the fact that military careers require much higher levels of literacy than do comparable civilian careers, the range of literacy levels of enlistees is roughly representative of the abilities found amoung high school graduates. In response to the need to raise the literacy levels of their personnel, the Armed Forces have paid increasing…

  20. Personnel Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    The document serves as a basic text for the indoctrination of all naval officers and as an introductory text for the officer who specializes in personnel administration or manpower management. Chapter 1 contains an introductory summary of the various functions of naval personnel administration and manpower management and describes the processes of…

  1. Military Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Janet L. S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Forging Partnerships into the Twenty-First Century" (Brown); "Uncle Sam Wants You to Go to School!" (Perez); "Maintaining Educational Access" (Kelly); "College on Military Bases" (Anderson); "Air Force Members Set High Goals for Continuing Education" (Hoban); "Post-Secondary Education for Military Students through Contracting" (Erdman);…

  2. Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Congress: Epidemiology and Rehabilitation Report to Congress: Military Personnel TBI in the US: Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations ... a leading cause of TBI for active duty military personnel in war zones. 15 CDC estimates of TBI ...

  3. 5 CFR 842.307 - Deposits for military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deposits for military service. 842.307... Deposits for military service. (a) Eligibility to make a deposit. (1) An employee or Member subject to FERS may make a deposit for any distinct period of military service by filing an application in a...

  4. 5 CFR 842.210 - Military reserve technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Military reserve technicians. 842.210... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.210 Military reserve technicians. (a) A military reserve technician as defined in 5 U.S.C. 8401(30) who is...

  5. 5 CFR 842.210 - Military reserve technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Military reserve technicians. 842.210... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.210 Military reserve technicians. (a) A military reserve technician as defined in 5 U.S.C. 8401(30) who is...

  6. 5 CFR 842.210 - Military reserve technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Military reserve technicians. 842.210... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.210 Military reserve technicians. (a) A military reserve technician as defined in 5 U.S.C. 8401(30) who is...

  7. 5 CFR 842.307 - Deposits for military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deposits for military service. 842.307... Deposits for military service. (a) Eligibility to make a deposit. (1) An employee or Member subject to FERS may make a deposit for any distinct period of military service by filing an application in a...

  8. 5 CFR 842.307 - Deposits for military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deposits for military service. 842.307... Deposits for military service. (a) Eligibility to make a deposit. (1) An employee or Member subject to FERS may make a deposit for any distinct period of military service by filing an application in a...

  9. 5 CFR 842.210 - Military reserve technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military reserve technicians. 842.210... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.210 Military reserve technicians. (a) A military reserve technician as defined in 5 U.S.C. 8401(30) who is...

  10. 5 CFR 842.210 - Military reserve technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Military reserve technicians. 842.210... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.210 Military reserve technicians. (a) A military reserve technician as defined in 5 U.S.C. 8401(30) who is...

  11. 5 CFR 842.307 - Deposits for military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deposits for military service. 842.307... Deposits for military service. (a) Eligibility to make a deposit. (1) An employee or Member subject to FERS may make a deposit for any distinct period of military service by filing an application in a...

  12. Hazardous Drinking and Military Community Functioning: Identifying Mediating Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foran, Heather M.; Heyman, Richard E.; Slep, Amy M. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Hazardous drinking is a serious societal concern in military populations. Efforts to reduce hazardous drinking among military personnel have been limited in effectiveness. There is a need for a deeper understanding of how community-based prevention models apply to hazardous drinking in the military. Community-wide prevention efforts may…

  13. Language Testing in the Military: Problems, Politics and Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Rita; Wall, Dianne

    2005-01-01

    There appears to be little literature available -- either descriptive or research-related -- on language testing in the military. This form of specific purposes assessment affects both military personnel and civilians working within the military structure in terms of posting, promotion and remuneration, and it could be argued that it has serious…

  14. Recent research on permethrin-treated United States military uniforms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    History is replete with examples of arthropod-borne illnesses affecting the outcome of military conflicts. Therefore, protection of our U.S. military is paramount when they are deployed on missions throughout the world. A part of the system to protect military personnel consists of wearing permeth...

  15. Lower extremity stress fractures in the military.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jeremy M; Cameron, Kenneth L; Bojescul, John A

    2014-10-01

    Stress fractures of the lower extremities are common among the military population and, more specifically, military recruits who partake in basic training. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors play a role in the development of these injuries, and it is important to identify those individuals at risk early in their military careers. Some of these factors are modifiable, so they may become preventable injuries. It is important to reiterate that one stress fracture places the soldier at risk for future stress fractures; but the first injury should not be reason enough for separation from the military, as literature would support no long-term deficits from properly treated stress fractures. Early in the process, radiographic analysis is typically normal; continued pain may warrant advanced imaging, such as scintigraphy or MRI. Most stress fractures that are caught early are amendable to nonoperative management consisting of a period of immobilization and NWB followed by progressive rehabilitation to preinjury levels. Complete or displaced fractures may require operative intervention as do tension-sided FNSF. Improving dietary and preaccession physical fitness levels may play a role in reducing the incidence of stress fractures in the active-duty military population. It is important to keep in mind when evaluating soldiers and athletes who present with activity-related pain that stress fractures are not uncommon and should be given significant consideration.

  16. Development and testing of virtual reality exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in active duty service members who served in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    McLay, Robert N; Graap, Kenneth; Spira, James; Perlman, Karen; Johnston, Scott; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Difede, JoAnn; Deal, William; Oliver, David; Baird, Alicia; Bordnick, Patrick S; Spitalnick, Josh; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Rizzo, Albert

    2012-06-01

    This study was an open-label, single-group, treatment-development project aimed at developing and testing a method for applying virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) to active duty service members diagnosed with combat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Forty-two service members with PTSD were enrolled, and 20 participants completed treatment. The PTSD Checklist-Military version, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for depression, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory were used as outcome measures. Of those who completed post-treatment assessment, 75% had experienced at least a 50% reduction in PTSD symptoms and no longer met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD at post treatment. Average PSTD scores decreased by 50.4%, depression scores by 46.6%, and anxiety scores by 36%. Intention-to-treat analyses showed that statistically significant improvements in PTSD, depression, and anxiety occurred over the course of treatment and were maintained at follow up. There were no adverse events associated with VRET treatment. This study provides preliminary support for the use of VRET in combat-related PTSD. Further study will be needed to determine the wider utility of the method and to determine if it offers advantages over other established PTSD treatment modalities. PMID:22730837

  17. The Influence of Family Factors on the Retention Decision Making Process of Military Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Gary L.

    Retention of military personnel has become a top priority to military leadership. Given the investment made in recruiting and training personnel, it is vital that military decision makers understand the factors that influence the career commitments of service members. Research has demonstrated an increased interest in the influence of family…

  18. 5 CFR 841.708 - Special provisions affecting retired military reserve technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... military reserve technicians. 841.708 Section 841.708 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... ADMINISTRATION Cost-of-Living Adjustments § 841.708 Special provisions affecting retired military reserve technicians. (a) Military reserve technicians who retire as a result of a medical disability are excepted...

  19. 5 CFR 841.708 - Special provisions affecting retired military reserve technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... military reserve technicians. 841.708 Section 841.708 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... ADMINISTRATION Cost-of-Living Adjustments § 841.708 Special provisions affecting retired military reserve technicians. (a) Military reserve technicians who retire as a result of a medical disability are excepted...

  20. Multiple Past Concussions Are Associated with Ongoing Post-Concussive Symptoms but Not Cognitive Impairment in Active-Duty Army Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Dretsch, Michael N; Silverberg, Noah D; Iverson, Grant L

    2015-09-01

    The extent to which multiple past concussions are associated with lingering symptoms or mental health problems in military service members is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between lifetime concussion history, cognitive functioning, general health, and psychological health in a large sample of fit-for-duty U.S. Army soldiers preparing for deployment. Data on 458 active-duty soldiers were collected and analyzed. A computerized cognitive screening battery (CNS-Vital Signs(®)) was used to assess complex attention (CA), reaction time (RT), processing speed (PS), cognitive flexibility (CF), and memory. Health questionnaires included the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI), PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M), Zung Depression and Anxiety Scales (ZDS; ZAS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the Alcohol Use and Dependency Identification Test (AUDIT). Soldiers with a history of multiple concussions (i.e., three or more concussions) had significantly greater post-concussive symptom scores compared with those with zero (d=1.83, large effect), one (d=0.64, medium effect), and two (d=0.64, medium effect) prior concussions. Although the group with three or more concussions also reported more traumatic stress symptoms, the results revealed that traumatic stress was a mediator between concussions and post-concussive symptom severity. There were no significant differences on neurocognitive testing between the number of concussions. These results add to the accumulating evidence suggesting that most individuals recover from one or two prior concussions, but there is a greater risk for ongoing symptoms if one exceeds this number of injuries.