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Sample records for active-pixel sensor aps

  1. CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) Imager for Scientific Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ay, Suat U.; Lesser, Michael P.; Fossum, Eric R.

    2002-12-01

    A 512×512 CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) imager has been designed, fabricate, and tested for frontside illumination suitable for use in astronomy specifically in telescope guider systems as a replacement of CCD chips. The imager features a high-speed differential analog readout, 15 μm pixel pitch, 75 % fill factor (FF), 62 dB dynamic range, 315Ke- pixel capacity, less than 0.25% fixed pattern noise (FPN), 45 dB signal to noise ratio (SNR) and frame rate of up to 40 FPS. Design was implemented in a standard 0.5 μm CMOS process technology consuming less than 200mWatts on a single 5 Volt power supply. CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) imager was developed with pixel structure suitable for both frontside and backside illumination holding large number of electron in relatively small pixel pitch of 15 μm. High-speed readout and signal processing circuits were designed to achieve low fixed pattern noise (FPN) and non-uniformity to provide CCD-like analog outputs. Target spectrum range of operation for the imager is in near ultraviolet (300-400 nm) with high quantum efficiency. This device is going to be used as a test vehicle to develop backside-thinning process.

  2. Autonomous star tracker based on active pixel sensors (APS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, U.

    2004-06-01

    Star trackers are opto-electronic sensors used onboard of satellites for the autonomous inertial attitude determination. During the last years, star trackers became more and more important in the field of the attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) sensors. High performance star trackers are based up today on charge coupled device (CCD) optical camera heads. The Jena-Optronik GmbH is active in the field of opto-electronic sensors like star trackers since the early 80-ties. Today, with the product family ASTRO5, ASTRO10 and ASTRO15, all marked segments like earth observation, scientific applications and geo-telecom are supplied to European and Overseas customers. A new generation of star trackers can be designed based on the APS detector technical features. The measurement performance of the current CCD based star trackers can be maintained, the star tracker functionality, reliability and robustness can be increased while the unit costs are saved.

  3. Active Pixel Sensors: Are CCD's Dinosaurs?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    Charge-coupled devices (CCD's) are presently the technology of choice for most imaging applications. In the 23 years since their invention in 1970, they have evolved to a sophisticated level of performance. However, as with all technologies, we can be certain that they will be supplanted someday. In this paper, the Active Pixel Sensor (APS) technology is explored as a possible successor to the CCD. An active pixel is defined as a detector array technology that has at least one active transistor within the pixel unit cell. The APS eliminates the need for nearly perfect charge transfer -- the Achilles' heel of CCDs. This perfect charge transfer makes CCD's radiation 'soft,' difficult to use under low light conditions, difficult to manufacture in large array sizes, difficult to integrate with on-chip electronics, difficult to use at low temperatures, difficult to use at high frame rates, and difficult to manufacture in non-silicon materials that extend wavelength response.

  4. Active pixel sensors with substantially planarized color filtering elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A semiconductor imaging system preferably having an active pixel sensor array compatible with a CMOS fabrication process. Color-filtering elements such as polymer filters and wavelength-converting phosphors can be integrated with the image sensor.

  5. CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Technology and Reliability Characterization Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yuan; Guertin, Steven M.; Pain, Bedabrata; Kayaii, Sammy

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the technology, design features and reliability characterization methodology of a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. Both overall chip reliability and pixel reliability are projected for the imagers.

  6. A CMOS Active Pixel Sensor for Charged Particle Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Matis, Howard S.; Bieser, Fred; Kleinfelder, Stuart; Rai, Gulshan; Retiere, Fabrice; Ritter, Hans George; Singh, Kunal; Wurzel, Samuel E.; Wieman, Howard; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2002-12-02

    Active Pixel Sensor (APS) technology has shown promise for next-generation vertex detectors. This paper discusses the design and testing of two generations of APS chips. Both are arrays of 128 by 128 pixels, each 20 by 20 {micro}m. Each array is divided into sub-arrays in which different sensor structures (4 in the first version and 16 in the second) and/or readout circuits are employed. Measurements of several of these structures under Fe{sup 55} exposure are reported. The sensors have also been irradiated by 55 MeV protons to test for radiation damage. The radiation increased the noise and reduced the signal. The noise can be explained by shot noise from the increased leakage current and the reduction in signal is due to charge being trapped in the epi layer. Nevertheless, the radiation effect is small for the expected exposures at RHIC and RHIC II. Finally, we describe our concept for mechanically supporting a thin silicon wafer in an actual detector.

  7. Active pixel sensor array with electronic shuttering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An active pixel cell includes electronic shuttering capability. The cell can be shuttered to prevent additional charge accumulation. One mode transfers the current charge to a storage node that is blocked against accumulation of optical radiation. The charge is sampled from a floating node. Since the charge is stored, the node can be sampled at the beginning and the end of every cycle. Another aspect allows charge to spill out of the well whenever the charge amount gets higher than some amount, thereby providing anti blooming.

  8. Transversal-readout CMOS active pixel image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyatake, Shigehiro; Ishida, Kouichi; Morimoto, Takashi; Masaki, Yasuo; Tanabe, Hideki

    2001-05-01

    This paper presents a CMOS active pixel image sensor (APS) with a transversal readout architecture that eliminates the vertically striped fixed pattern noise (FPN). There are two kinds of FPNs for CMOS APSs. One originates form the pixel- to-pixel variation in dark current and source-follower threshold voltage, and the other from the column-to-column variation in column readout structures. The former may become invisible in the future due to process improvements. However, the latter, which result sin a vertically striped FPN, is and will be conspicuous without some subtraction because of the correlation in the vertical direction. The pixel consists of a photodiode, a row- and a column-reset transistor, a source follower input transistor, and a column-select transistor instead of the row-select transistor in conventional CMOS APSs. The column-select transistor is connected to a signal line, which runs horizontally instead of vertically. Every horizontal signal line is merged into a single vertical signal line via a row- select transistor, which can be made large enough to make its on-resistence variation negligible because of its low driving frequency. Therefore, the sensor has neither a vertical nor horizontal stripe FPN.

  9. Active-Pixel Cosmic-Ray Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Holtzman, Melinda J.

    1994-01-01

    Cosmic-ray sensor comprises planar rectangular array of lateral bipolar npn floating-base transistors each of which defines pixel. Collector contacts of all transistors in each row connected to same X (column) line conductor; emitter contacts of all transistors in each column connected to same Y (row) line conductor; and current in each row and column line sensed by amplifier, output of which fed to signal-processing circuits.

  10. CMOS VLSI Active-Pixel Sensor for Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Sun, Chao; Yang, Guang; Heynssens, Julie

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for a proposed active-pixel sensor (APS) and a design to implement the architecture in a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit provide for some advanced features that are expected to be especially desirable for tracking pointlike features of stars. The architecture would also make this APS suitable for robotic- vision and general pointing and tracking applications. CMOS imagers in general are well suited for pointing and tracking because they can be configured for random access to selected pixels and to provide readout from windows of interest within their fields of view. However, until now, the architectures of CMOS imagers have not supported multiwindow operation or low-noise data collection. Moreover, smearing and motion artifacts in collected images have made prior CMOS imagers unsuitable for tracking applications. The proposed CMOS imager (see figure) would include an array of 1,024 by 1,024 pixels containing high-performance photodiode-based APS circuitry. The pixel pitch would be 9 m. The operations of the pixel circuits would be sequenced and otherwise controlled by an on-chip timing and control block, which would enable the collection of image data, during a single frame period, from either the full frame (that is, all 1,024 1,024 pixels) or from within as many as 8 different arbitrarily placed windows as large as 8 by 8 pixels each. A typical prior CMOS APS operates in a row-at-a-time ( grolling-shutter h) readout mode, which gives rise to exposure skew. In contrast, the proposed APS would operate in a sample-first/readlater mode, suppressing rolling-shutter effects. In this mode, the analog readout signals from the pixels corresponding to the windows of the interest (which windows, in the star-tracking application, would presumably contain guide stars) would be sampled rapidly by routing them through a programmable diagonal switch array to an on-chip parallel analog memory array. The

  11. Development of CMOS Active Pixel Image Sensors for Low Cost Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, R.; Kemeny, S.; Kim, Q.; Mendis, S.; Nakamura, J.; Nixon, R.; Ortiz, M.; Pain, B.; Staller, C.; Zhou, Z; Fossum, E.

    1994-01-01

    JPL, under sponsorship from the NASA Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology, has been developing a second-generation solid-state image sensor technology. Charge-coupled devices (CCD) are a well-established first generation image sensor technology. For both commercial and NASA applications, CCDs have numerous shortcomings. In response, the active pixel sensor (APS) technology has been under research. The major advantages of APS technology are the ability to integrate on-chip timing, control, signal-processing and analog-to-digital converter functions, reduced sensitivity to radiation effects, low power operation, and random access readout.

  12. Optical and electrical characterization of a back-thinned CMOS active pixel sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blue, Andrew; Clark, A.; Houston, S.; Laing, A.; Maneuski, D.; Prydderch, M.; Turchetta, R.; O'Shea, V.

    2009-06-01

    This work will report on the first work on the characterization of a back-thinned Vanilla-a 512×512 (25 μm squared) active pixel sensor (APS). Characterization of the detectors was carried out through the analysis of photon transfer curves to yield a measurement of full well capacity, noise levels, gain constants and linearity. Spectral characterization of the sensors was also performed in the visible and UV regions. A full comparison against non-back-thinned front illuminated Vanilla sensors is included. Such measurements suggest that the Vanilla APS will be suitable for a wide range of applications, including particle physics and biomedical imaging.

  13. 3D monolithically stacked CMOS Active Pixel Sensors for particle position and direction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servoli, L.; Passeri, D.; Morozzi, A.; Magalotti, D.; Piperku, L.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we propose a 3D monolithically stacked, multi-layer detectors based on CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS) layers which allows at the same time accurate estimation of the impact point and of the incidence angle an ionizing particle. The whole system features two fully-functional CMOS APS matrix detectors, including both sensing area and control/signal elaboration circuitry, stacked in a monolithic device by means of Through Silicon Via (TSV) connections thanks to the capabilities of the CMOS vertical scale integration (3D-IC) 130 nm Chartered/Tezzaron technology. In order to evaluate the suitability of the two layer monolithic active pixel sensor system to reconstruct particle tracks, tests with proton beams have been carried out at the INFN LABEC laboratories in Florence (Italy) with 3 MeV proton beam.

  14. Bonding techniques for hybrid active pixel sensors (HAPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigas, M.; Cabruja, E.; Lozano, M.

    2007-05-01

    A hybrid active pixel sensor (HAPS) consists of an array of sensing elements which is connected to an electronic read-out unit. The most used way to connect these two different devices is bump bonding. This interconnection technique is very suitable for these systems because it allows a very fine pitch and a high number of I/Os. However, there are other interconnection techniques available such as direct bonding. This paper, as a continuation of a review [M. Lozano, E. Cabruja, A. Collado, J. Santander, M. Ullan, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 473 (1-2) (2001) 95-101] published in 2001, presents an update of the different advanced bonding techniques available for manufacturing a hybrid active pixel detector.

  15. CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS): Developments and future outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchetta, R.; Fant, A.; Gasiorek, P.; Esbrand, C.; Griffiths, J. A.; Metaxas, M. G.; Royle, G. J.; Speller, R.; Venanzi, C.; van der Stelt, P. F.; Verheij, H.; Li, G.; Theodoridis, S.; Georgiou, H.; Cavouras, D.; Hall, G.; Noy, M.; Jones, J.; Leaver, J.; Machin, D.; Greenwood, S.; Khaleeq, M.; Schulerud, H.; Østby, J. M.; Triantis, F.; Asimidis, A.; Bolanakis, D.; Manthos, N.; Longo, R.; Bergamaschi, A.

    2007-12-01

    Re-invented in the early 1990s, on both sides of the Atlantic, Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in a CMOS technology are today the most sold solid-state imaging devices, overtaking the traditional technology of Charge-Coupled Devices (CCD). The slow uptake of CMOS MAPS started with low-end applications, for example web-cams, and is slowly pervading the high-end applications, for example in prosumer digital cameras. Higher specifications are required for scientific applications: very low noise, high speed, high dynamic range, large format and radiation hardness are some of these requirements. This paper will present a brief overview of the CMOS Image Sensor technology and of the requirements for scientific applications. As an example, a sensor for X-ray imaging will be presented. This sensor was developed within a European FP6 Consortium, intelligent imaging sensors (I-ImaS).

  16. Using an Active Pixel Sensor In A Vertex Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Matis, Howard S.; Bieser, Fred; Chen, Yandong; Gareus, Robin; Kleinfelder, Stuart; Oldenburg, Markus; Retiere, Fabrice; Ritter, HansGeorg; Wieman, Howard H.; Wurzel, Samuel E.; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2004-04-22

    Research has shown that Active Pixel CMOS sensors can detect charged particles. We have been studying whether this process can be used in a collider environment. In particular, we studied the effect of radiation with 55 MeV protons. These results show that a fluence of about 2 x 10{sup 12} protons/cm{sup 2} reduces the signal by a factor of two while the noise increases by 25%. A measurement 6 months after exposure shows that the silicon lattice naturally repairs itself. Heating the silicon to 100 C reduced the shot noise and increased the collected charge. CMOS sensors have a reduced signal to noise ratio per pixel because charge diffuses to neighboring pixels. We have constructed a photogate to see if this structure can collect more charge per pixel. Results show that a photogate does collect charge in fewer pixels, but it takes about 15 ms to collect all of the electrons produced by a pulse of light.

  17. Preliminary investigations of active pixel sensors in Nuclear Medicine imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Robert; Evans, Noel; Evans, Phil; Osmond, J.; Clark, A.; Turchetta, R.

    2009-06-01

    Three CMOS active pixel sensors have been investigated for their application to Nuclear Medicine imaging. Startracker with 525×525 25 μm square pixels has been coupled via a fibre optic stud to a 2 mm thick segmented CsI(Tl) crystal. Imaging tests were performed using 99mTc sources, which emit 140 keV gamma rays. The system was interfaced to a PC via FPGA-based DAQ and optical link enabling imaging rates of 10 f/s. System noise was measured to be >100e and it was shown that the majority of this noise was fixed pattern in nature. The intrinsic spatial resolution was measured to be ˜80 μm and the system spatial resolution measured with a slit was ˜450 μm. The second sensor, On Pixel Intelligent CMOS (OPIC), had 64×72 40 μm pixels and was used to evaluate noise characteristics and to develop a method of differentiation between fixed pattern and statistical noise. The third sensor, Vanilla, had 520×520 25 μm pixels and a measured system noise of ˜25e. This sensor was coupled directly to the segmented phosphor. Imaging results show that even at this lower level of noise the signal from 140 keV gamma rays is small as the light from the phosphor is spread over a large number of pixels. Suggestions for the 'ideal' sensor are made.

  18. Monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) in a VLSI CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchetta, R.; French, M.; Manolopoulos, S.; Tyndel, M.; Allport, P.; Bates, R.; O'Shea, V.; Hall, G.; Raymond, M.

    2003-03-01

    Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) designed in a standard VLSI CMOS technology have recently been proposed as a compact pixel detector for the detection of high-energy charged particle in vertex/tracking applications. MAPS, also named CMOS sensors, are already extensively used in visible light applications. With respect to other competing imaging technologies, CMOS sensors have several potential advantages in terms of low cost, low power, lower noise at higher speed, random access of pixels which allows windowing of region of interest, ability to integrate several functions on the same chip. This brings altogether to the concept of 'camera-on-a-chip'. In this paper, we review the use of CMOS sensors for particle physics and we analyse their performances in term of the efficiency (fill factor), signal generation, noise, readout speed and sensor area. In most of high-energy physics applications, data reduction is needed in the sensor at an early stage of the data processing before transfer of the data to tape. Because of the large number of pixels, data reduction is needed on the sensor itself or just outside. This brings in stringent requirements on the temporal noise as well as to the sensor uniformity, expressed as a Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN). A pixel architecture with an additional transistor is proposed. This architecture, coupled to correlated double sampling of the signal will allow cancellation of the two dominant noise sources, namely the reset or kTC noise and the FPN. A prototype has been designed in a standard 0.25 μm CMOS technology. It has also a structure for electrical calibration of the sensor. The prototype is functional and detailed tests are under way.

  19. Intelligent error correction method applied on an active pixel sensor based star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Uwe

    2005-10-01

    Star trackers are opto-electronic sensors used on-board of satellites for the autonomous inertial attitude determination. During the last years star trackers became more and more important in the field of the attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) sensors. High performance star trackers are based up today on charge coupled device (CCD) optical camera heads. The active pixel sensor (APS) technology, introduced in the early 90-ties, allows now the beneficial replacement of CCD detectors by APS detectors with respect to performance, reliability, power, mass and cost. The company's heritage in star tracker design started in the early 80-ties with the launch of the worldwide first fully autonomous star tracker system ASTRO1 to the Russian MIR space station. Jena-Optronik recently developed an active pixel sensor based autonomous star tracker "ASTRO APS" as successor of the CCD based star tracker product series ASTRO1, ASTRO5, ASTRO10 and ASTRO15. Key features of the APS detector technology are, a true xy-address random access, the multiple windowing read out and the on-chip signal processing including the analogue to digital conversion. These features can be used for robust star tracking at high slew rates and under worse conditions like stray light and solar flare induced single event upsets. A special algorithm have been developed to manage the typical APS detector error contributors like fixed pattern noise (FPN), dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU) and white spots. The algorithm works fully autonomous and adapts to e.g. increasing DSNU and up-coming white spots automatically without ground maintenance or re-calibration. In contrast to conventional correction methods the described algorithm does not need calibration data memory like full image sized calibration data sets. The application of the presented algorithm managing the typical APS detector error contributors is a key element for the design of star trackers for long term satellite applications like

  20. Integrated imaging sensor systems with CMOS active pixel sensor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, G.; Cunningham, T.; Ortiz, M.; Heynssens, J.; Sun, C.; Hancock, B.; Seshadri, S.; Wrigley, C.; McCarty, K.; Pain, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses common approaches to CMOS APS technology, as well as specific results on the five-wire programmable digital camera-on-a-chip developed at JPL. The paper also reports recent research in the design, operation, and performance of APS imagers for several imager applications.

  1. Impact of Substrate Bias on Fixed-Pattern-Noise in Active Pixel Sensor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terauchi, Mamoru

    2007-11-01

    The effect of substrate (body) bias on fixed-pattern-noise (FPN) in active pixel sensor (APS) cells is studied. Through measuring test devices consisting of two metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) connected in series with each of the transistors located in the same well region, it has been revealed that substrate bias, which is inevitably applied in a normal circuit configuration in conventional APS cells, worsens the characteristics fluctuation in source-follower amplifiers in APS cells, leading to FPN that cannot be mitigated by conventional correction methods such as correlated double sampling. In addition it has been confirmed that the current-voltage characteristics of logarithmic converters, each of which is realized using a MOSFET with gate and drain terminals connected together, are also affected by substrate bias, resulting in increased characteristics fluctuation as compared with the case with no substrate bias.

  2. Spectral characterisation and noise performance of Vanilla—an active pixel sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blue, Andrew; Bates, R.; Bohndiek, S. E.; Clark, A.; Arvanitis, Costas D.; Greenshaw, T.; Laing, A.; Maneuski, D.; Turchetta, R.; O'Shea, V.

    2008-06-01

    This work will report on the characterisation of a new active pixel sensor, Vanilla. The Vanilla comprises of 512×512 (25μm 2) pixels. The sensor has a 12 bit digital output for full-frame mode, although it can also be readout in analogue mode, whereby it can also be read in a fully programmable region-of-interest (ROI) mode. In full frame, the sensor can operate at a readout rate of more than 100 frames per second (fps), while in ROI mode, the speed depends on the size, shape and number of ROIs. For example, an ROI of 6×6 pixels can be read at 20,000 fps in analogue mode. Using photon transfer curve (PTC) measurements allowed for the calculation of the read noise, shot noise, full-well capacity and camera gain constant of the sensor. Spectral response measurements detailed the quantum efficiency (QE) of the detector through the UV and visible region. Analysis of the ROI readout mode was also performed. Such measurements suggest that the Vanilla APS (active pixel sensor) will be suitable for a wide range of applications including particle physics and medical imaging.

  3. Characterization of a photon-counting intensified active pixel sensor (PC-IAPS): preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uslenghi, Michela C.; Bonanno, Giovanni; Belluso, Massimiliano; Modica, Angelo; Bergamini, Paolo

    2001-12-01

    We report about preliminary results of the characterization of a new kind of MCP-based detector: a Photon Counting Intensified Active Pixel Sensor (APS). PC-IAPS appears as the natural evolution of the Intensified CCD, maintaining the basic characteristics, but with improved performance in terms of dynamic range, along with some other appealing properties: higher radiation hardness, more compact design, lower requirements on the external electronics, low power consumption. The prototype we realized is currently in an early stage of development. Nevertheless, it allows us to demonstrate the feasibility of the photon counter and to measure some of the basic parameters. Some of the characteristics of the APS, relevant to the use in intensified systems, are analyzed and compared with the CCD ones, demonstrating the potentiality of the new device and allowing us to set the basis of future development.

  4. Towards real-time VMAT verification using a prototype, high-speed CMOS active pixel sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, Hafiz M.; Harris, Emma J.; Osmond, John P. F.; Allinson, Nigel M.; Evans, Philip M.

    2013-05-01

    This work investigates the feasibility of using a prototype complementary metal oxide semiconductor active pixel sensor (CMOS APS) for real-time verification of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment. The prototype CMOS APS used region of interest read out on the chip to allow fast imaging of up to 403.6 frames per second (f/s). The sensor was made larger (5.4 cm × 5.4 cm) using recent advances in photolithographic technique but retains fast imaging speed with the sensor's regional read out. There is a paradigm shift in radiotherapy treatment verification with the advent of advanced treatment techniques such as VMAT. This work has demonstrated that the APS can track multi leaf collimator (MLC) leaves moving at 18 mm s-1 with an automatic edge tracking algorithm at accuracy better than 1.0 mm even at the fastest imaging speed. Evaluation of the measured fluence distribution for an example VMAT delivery sampled at 50.4 f/s was shown to agree well with the planned fluence distribution, with an average gamma pass rate of 96% at 3%/3 mm. The MLC leaves motion and linac pulse rate variation delivered throughout the VMAT treatment can also be measured. The results demonstrate the potential of CMOS APS technology as a real-time radiotherapy dosimeter for delivery of complex treatments such as VMAT.

  5. Characterization study of an intensified complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor active pixel sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, J. A.; Chen, D.; Turchetta, R.; Royle, G. J.

    2011-03-01

    An intensified CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) has been constructed for operation in low-light-level applications: a high-gain, fast-light decay image intensifier has been coupled via a fiber optic stud to a prototype "VANILLA" APS, developed by the UK based MI3 consortium. The sensor is capable of high frame rates and sparse readout. This paper presents a study of the performance parameters of the intensified VANILLA APS system over a range of image intensifier gain levels when uniformly illuminated with 520 nm green light. Mean-variance analysis shows the APS saturating around 3050 Digital Units (DU), with the maximum variance increasing with increasing image intensifier gain. The system's quantum efficiency varies in an exponential manner from 260 at an intensifier gain of 7.45 × 103 to 1.6 at a gain of 3.93 × 101. The usable dynamic range of the system is 60 dB for intensifier gains below 1.8 × 103, dropping to around 40 dB at high gains. The conclusion is that the system shows suitability for the desired application.

  6. Heavy Ion Transient Characterization of a Photobit Hardened-by-Design Active Pixel Sensor Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Paul W.; Byers, Wheaton B.; Conger, Christopher; Eid, El-Sayed; Gee, George; Jones, Michael R.; Marshall, Cheryl J.; Reed, Robert; Pickel, Jim; Kniffin, Scott

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents heavy ion data on the single event transient (SET) response of a Photobit active pixel sensor (APS) four quadrant test chip with different radiation tolerant designs in a standard 0.35 micron CMOS process. The physical design techniques of enclosed geometry and P-channel guard rings are used to design the four N-type active photodiode pixels as described in a previous paper. Argon transient measurements on the 256 x 256 chip array as a function of incident angle show a significant variation in the amount of charge collected as well as the charge spreading dependent on the pixel type. The results are correlated with processing and design information provided by Photobit. In addition, there is a large degree of statistical variability between individual ion strikes. No latch-up is observed up to an LET of 106 MeV/mg/sq cm.

  7. Improved Design of Active Pixel CMOS Sensors for Charged Particle Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz

    2007-11-12

    The Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear physics program requires developments in detector instrumentation electronics with improved energy, position and timing resolution, sensitivity, rate capability, stability, dynamic range, and background suppression. The current Phase-I project was focused on analysis of standard-CMOS photogate Active Pixel Sensors (APS) as an efficient solution to this challenge. The advantages of the CMOS APS over traditional hybrid approaches (i.e., separate detection regions bump-bonded to readout circuits) include greatly reduced cost, low power and the potential for vastly larger pixel counts and densities. However, challenges remain in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and readout speed (currently on the order of milliseconds), which is the major problem for this technology. Recent work has shown that the long readout time for photogate APS is due to the presence of (interface) traps at the semiconductor-oxide interface. This Phase-I work yielded useful results in two areas: (a) Advanced three-dimensional (3D) physics-based simulation models and simulation-based analysis of the impact of interface trap density on the transient charge collection characteristics of existing APS structures; and (b) Preliminary analysis of the feasibility of an improved photogate pixel structure (i.e., new APS design) with an induced electric field under the charge collecting electrode to enhance charge collection. Significant effort was dedicated in Phase-I to the critical task of implementing accurate interface trap models in CFDRC's NanoTCAD 3D semiconductor device-physics simulator. This resulted in validation of the new NanoTCAD models and simulation results against experimental (published) data, within the margin of uncertainty associated with obtaining device geometry, material properties, and experimentation details. Analyses of the new, proposed photogate APS design demonstrated several promising trends.

  8. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Esposito, M; Anaxagoras, T; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Speller, R D; Evans, P M; Allinson, N M; Wells, K

    2014-07-01

    Recently CMOS active pixels sensors (APSs) have become a valuable alternative to amorphous silicon and selenium flat panel imagers (FPIs) in bio-medical imaging applications. CMOS APSs can now be scaled up to the standard 20 cm diameter wafer size by means of a reticle stitching block process. However, despite wafer scale CMOS APS being monolithic, sources of non-uniformity of response and regional variations can persist representing a significant challenge for wafer scale sensor response. Non-uniformity of stitched sensors can arise from a number of factors related to the manufacturing process, including variation of amplification, variation between readout components, wafer defects and process variations across the wafer due to manufacturing processes. This paper reports on an investigation into the spatial non-uniformity and regional variations of a wafer scale stitched CMOS APS. For the first time a per-pixel analysis of the electro-optical performance of a wafer CMOS APS is presented, to address inhomogeneity issues arising from the stitching techniques used to manufacture wafer scale sensors. A complete model of the signal generation in the pixel array has been provided and proved capable of accounting for noise and gain variations across the pixel array. This novel analysis leads to readout noise and conversion gain being evaluated at pixel level, stitching block level and in regions of interest, resulting in a coefficient of variation ⩽1.9%. The uniformity of the image quality performance has been further investigated in a typical x-ray application, i.e. mammography, showing a uniformity in terms of CNR among the highest when compared with mammography detectors commonly used in clinical practice. Finally, in order to compare the detection capability of this novel APS with the technology currently used (i.e. FPIs), theoretical evaluation of the detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at zero-frequency has been performed, resulting in a higher DQE for this

  9. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, M.; Anaxagoras, T.; Konstantinidis, A. C.; Zheng, Y.; Speller, R. D.; Evans, P. M.; Allinson, N. M.; Wells, K.

    2014-07-01

    Recently CMOS active pixels sensors (APSs) have become a valuable alternative to amorphous silicon and selenium flat panel imagers (FPIs) in bio-medical imaging applications. CMOS APSs can now be scaled up to the standard 20 cm diameter wafer size by means of a reticle stitching block process. However, despite wafer scale CMOS APS being monolithic, sources of non-uniformity of response and regional variations can persist representing a significant challenge for wafer scale sensor response. Non-uniformity of stitched sensors can arise from a number of factors related to the manufacturing process, including variation of amplification, variation between readout components, wafer defects and process variations across the wafer due to manufacturing processes. This paper reports on an investigation into the spatial non-uniformity and regional variations of a wafer scale stitched CMOS APS. For the first time a per-pixel analysis of the electro-optical performance of a wafer CMOS APS is presented, to address inhomogeneity issues arising from the stitching techniques used to manufacture wafer scale sensors. A complete model of the signal generation in the pixel array has been provided and proved capable of accounting for noise and gain variations across the pixel array. This novel analysis leads to readout noise and conversion gain being evaluated at pixel level, stitching block level and in regions of interest, resulting in a coefficient of variation ⩽1.9%. The uniformity of the image quality performance has been further investigated in a typical x-ray application, i.e. mammography, showing a uniformity in terms of CNR among the highest when compared with mammography detectors commonly used in clinical practice. Finally, in order to compare the detection capability of this novel APS with the technology currently used (i.e. FPIs), theoretical evaluation of the detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at zero-frequency has been performed, resulting in a higher DQE for this

  10. TFT-Based Active Pixel Sensors for Large Area Thermal Neutron Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunnen, George

    Due to diminishing availability of 3He, which is the critical component of neutron detecting proportional counters, large area flexible arrays are being considered as a potential replacement for neutron detection. A large area flexible array, utilizing semiconductors for both charged particle detection and pixel readout, ensures a large detection surface area in a light weight rugged form. Such a neutron detector could be suitable for deployment at ports of entry. The specific approach used in this research, uses a neutron converter layer which captures incident thermal neutrons, and then emits ionizing charged particles. These ionizing particles cause electron-hole pair generation within a single pixel's integrated sensing diode. The resulting charge is then amplified via a low-noise amplifier. This document begins by discussing the current state of the art in neutron detection and the associated challenges. Then, for the purpose of resolving some of these issues, recent design and modeling efforts towards developing an improved neutron detection system are described. Also presented is a low-noise active pixel sensor (APS) design capable of being implemented in low temperature indium gallium zinc oxide (InGaZnO) or amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistor process compatible with plastic substrates. The low gain and limited scalability of this design are improved upon by implementing a new multi-stage self-resetting APS. For each APS design, successful radiation measurements are also presented using PiN diodes for charged particle detection. Next, detection array readout methodologies are modeled and analyzed, and use of a matched filter readout circuit is described as well. Finally, this document discusses detection diode integration with the designed TFT-based APSs.

  11. [High-Performance Active Pixel X-Ray Sensors for X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautz, Mark; Suntharalingam, Vyshnavi

    2005-01-01

    The subject grants support development of High-Performance Active Pixel Sensors for X-ray Astronomy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Center for Space Research and at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory. This memo reports our progress in the second year of the project, from April, 2004 through the present.

  12. Imaging of moving fiducial markers during radiotherapy using a fast, efficient active pixel sensor based EPID

    SciTech Connect

    Osmond, John P. F.; Zin, Hafiz M.; Harris, Emma J.; Lupica, Giovanni; Allinson, Nigel M.; Evans, Philip M.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the use of an experimental complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) for tracking of moving fiducial markers during radiotherapy. Methods: The APS has an active area of 5.4 x 5.4 cm and maximum full frame read-out rate of 20 frame s{sup -1}, with the option to read out a region-of-interest (ROI) at an increased rate. It was coupled to a 4 mm thick ZnWO4 scintillator which provided a quantum efficiency (QE) of 8% for a 6 MV x-ray treatment beam. The APS was compared with a standard iViewGT flat panel amorphous Silicon (a-Si) electronic portal imaging device (EPID), with a QE of 0.34% and a frame-rate of 2.5 frame s{sup -1}. To investigate the ability of the two systems to image markers, four gold cylinders of length 8 mm and diameter 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, and 2 mm were placed on a motion-platform. Images of the stationary markers were acquired using the APS at a frame-rate of 20 frame s{sup -1}, and a dose-rate of 143 MU min{sup -1} to avoid saturation. EPID images were acquired at the maximum frame-rate of 2.5 frame s{sup -1}, and a reduced dose-rate of 19 MU min{sup -1} to provide a similar dose per frame to the APS. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the background signal and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the marker signal relative to the background were evaluated for both imagers at doses of 0.125 to 2 MU. Results: Image quality and marker visibility was found to be greater in the APS with SNR {approx}5 times greater than in the EPID and CNR up to an order of magnitude greater for all four markers. To investigate the ability to image and track moving markers the motion-platform was moved to simulate a breathing cycle with period 6 s, amplitude 20 mm and maximum speed 13.2 mm s{sup -1}. At the minimum integration time of 50 ms a tracking algorithm applied to the APS data found all four markers with a success rate of {>=}92% and positional error {<=}90 {mu}m. At an integration time of 400

  13. First use of a high-sensitivity active pixel sensor array as a detector for electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuong, Nguyen-Huu; Milazzo, Anna-Clare; LeBlanc, Philippe; Duttweiler, Fred; Bouwer, James; Peltier, Steve; Ellisman, Mark; Denes, Peter; Bieser, Fred; Matis, Howard S.; Wieman, Howard; Kleinfelder, Stuart

    2004-06-01

    There is an urgent need to replace film and CCD cameras as recording instruments for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Film is too cumbersome to process and CCD cameras have low resolution, marginal to poor signal-to-noise ratio for single electron detection and high spatial distortion. To find a replacement device, we have tested a high sensitivity active pixel sensor (APS) array currently being developed for nuclear physics. The tests were done at 120 keV in a JEOL 1200 electron microscope. At this energy, each electron produced on average a signal-tonoise ratio about 20/1. The spatial resolution was also excellent with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) about 20 microns. Since it is very radiation tolerant and has almost no spatial distortion, the above tests showed that a high sensitivity CMOS APS array holds great promise as a direct detection device for electron microscopy.

  14. A Real-time Auto-detection Method for Random Telegraph Signal (RTS) Noise Detection in CMOS Active pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, R.; Zhao, R.; Ma, Y.; Li, B.; Wei, X.; Wang, J.; Gao, W.; Wei, T.; Gao, D.; Hu, Y.

    2015-07-01

    CMOS Active pixel sensors (CMOS APS) are attractive for use in the innermost layers of charged particle trackers, due to their good tradeoffs among the key performances. However, CMOS APS can be greatly influenced by random telegraph signal (RTS) noise, which can cause particle tracking or energy calculation failures. In-depth research of pixels' RTS behavior stimulates the interest of the methods for RTS noise detection, reconstruction and parameters extraction. In this paper, a real-time auto-detection method is proposed, using real-time Gaussian noise standard deviation as the detection threshold. Experimental results show that, compared with current methods using signal standard deviation as the thresholds, the proposed method is more sensitive in multi-level RTS detection and more effective in the case of RTS noise degradation.

  15. Front end optimization for the monolithic active pixel sensor of the ALICE Inner Tracking System upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Degerli, Y.; Dorokhov, A.; Flouzat, C.; Gajanana, D.; Gao, C.; Guilloux, F.; Hillemanns, H.; Hristozkov, S.; Junique, A.; Keil, M.; Kofarago, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kwon, Y.; Lattuca, A.; Mager, M.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Pham, T. H.; Puggioni, C.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Rousset, J.; Siddhanta, S.; Snoeys, W.; Song, M.; Usai, G.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; Yang, P.

    2016-02-01

    ALICE plans to replace its Inner Tracking System during the second long shut down of the LHC in 2019 with a new 10 m2 tracker constructed entirely with monolithic active pixel sensors. The TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging Sensor process has been selected to produce the sensor as it offers a deep pwell allowing full CMOS in-pixel circuitry and different starting materials. First full-scale prototypes have been fabricated and tested. Radiation tolerance has also been verified. In this paper the development of the charge sensitive front end and in particular its optimization for uniformity of charge threshold and time response will be presented.

  16. Development of CMOS Active Pixel Image Sensors for Low Cost Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, E.; Gee, R.; Kemeny, S.; Kim, Q.; Mendis, S.; Nakamura, J.; Nixon, R.; Ortiz, M.; Pain, B.; Zhou, Z.; Ackland, B.; Dickinson, A.; Eid, E.; Inglis, D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes ongoing research and development of CMOS active pixel image sensors for low cost commercial applications. A number of sensor designs have been fabricated and tested in both p-well and n-well technologies. Major elements in the development of the sensor include on-chip analog signal processing circuits for the reduction of fixed pattern noise, on-chip timing and control circuits and on-chip analog-to-digital conversion (ADC). Recent results and continuing efforts in these areas will be presented.

  17. Next-generation CMOS active pixel sensors for satellite hybrid optical communications/imaging sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirbl, Robert C.; Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Hancock, Bruce R.; McCarty, Kenneth P.

    1998-12-01

    Given the current choices of (1) an ever increasing population of large numbers of satellites in low-earth orbit (LEO) constellations for commercial and military global coverage systems, or (2) the alternative of smaller count geosynchronous satellite system constellations in high-earth (HEO), of higher cost and complexity, a number of commercial communications and military operations satellite systems designers are investigating the potential advantages and issues of operating in the mid-earth orbit altitudes (MEO) (between LEO and HEO). At these MEO altitudes both total dose and displacement damage can be traded against the system advantages of fewer satellites required. With growing demand for higher bandwidth communication for real-time earth observing satellite sensor systems, and NASA's interplanetary and deep space virtual unmanned exploration missions in stressing radiation environments, JPL is developing the next generation of smart sensors to address these new requirements of: low-cost, high bandwidth, miniaturization, ultra low-power and mission environment ruggedness. Radiation hardened/tolerant Active Pixel Sensor CMOS imagers that can be adaptively windowed with low power, on-chip control, timing, digital output and provide data-channel efficient on-chip compression, high bandwidth optical communications links are being designed and investigated to reduce size, weight and cost for common optics/hybrid architectures.

  18. Characterisation of Vanilla—A novel active pixel sensor for radiation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Laing, A.; Maneuski, D.; O'Shea, V.; Clark, A.; Prydderch, M.; Turchetta, R.; Arvanitis, C.; Bohndiek, S.

    2007-10-01

    Novel features of a new monolithic active pixel sensor, Vanilla, with 520×520 pixels ( 25 μm square) has been characterised for the first time. Optimisation of the sensor operation was made through variation of frame rates, integration times and on-chip biases and voltages. Features such as flushed reset operation, ROI capturing and readout modes have been fully tested. Stability measurements were performed to test its suitablility for long-term applications. These results suggest the Vanilla sensor—along with bio-medical and space applications—is suitable for use in particle physics experiments.

  19. Integrated X-ray and charged particle active pixel CMOS sensor arrays using an epitaxial silicon sensitive region

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinfelder, Stuart; Bichsel, Hans; Bieser, Fred; Matis, Howard S.; Rai, Gulshan; Retiere, Fabrice; Weiman, Howard; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2002-07-01

    Integrated CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) arrays have been fabricated and tested using X-ray and electron sources. The 128 by 128 pixel arrays, designed in a standard 0.25 micron process, use a {approx}10 micron epitaxial silicon layer as a deep detection region. The epitaxial layer has a much greater thickness than the surface features used by standard CMOS APS, leading to stronger signals and potentially better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). On the other hand, minority carriers confined within the epitaxial region may diffuse to neighboring pixels, blur images and reduce peak signal intensity. But for low-rate, sparse-event images, centroid analysis of this diffusion may be used to increase position resolution. Careful trade-offs involving pixel size and sense-node area verses capacitance must be made to optimize overall performance. The prototype sensor arrays, therefore, include a range of different pixel designs, including different APS circuits and a range of different epitaxial layer contact structures. The fabricated arrays were tested with 1.5 GeV electrons and Fe-55 X-ray sources, yielding a measured noise of 13 electrons RMS and an SNR for single Fe-55 X-rays of greater than 38.

  20. Development of radiation hard CMOS active pixel sensors for HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernegger, Heinz

    2016-07-01

    New pixel detectors, based on commercial high voltage and/or high resistivity full CMOS processes, hold promise as next-generation active pixel sensors for inner and intermediate layers of the upgraded ATLAS tracker. The use of commercial CMOS processes allow cost-effective detector construction and simpler hybridisation techniques. The paper gives an overview of the results obtained on AMS-produced CMOS sensors coupled to the ATLAS Pixel FE-I4 readout chips. The SOI (silicon-on-insulator) produced sensors by XFAB hold great promise as radiation hard SOI-CMOS sensors due to their combination of partially depleted SOI transistors reducing back-gate effects. The test results include pre-/post-irradiation comparison, measurements of charge collection regions as well as test beam results.

  1. Interpixel crosstalk in a 3D-integrated active pixel sensor for x-ray detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMarr, Beverly; Bautz, Mark; Foster, Rick; Kissel, Steve; Prigozhin, Gregory; Suntharalingam, Vyshnavi

    2010-07-01

    MIT Lincoln Laboratories and MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research have developed an active pixel sensor for use as a photon counting device for imaging spectroscopy in the soft X-ray band. A silicon-on-insulator (SOI) readout circuit was integrated with a high-resistivity silicon diode detector array using a per-pixel 3D integration technique developed at Lincoln Laboratory. We have tested these devices at 5.9 keV and 1.5 keV. Here we examine the interpixel cross-talk measured with 5.9 keV X-rays.

  2. Monolithic active pixel sensor development for the upgrade of the ALICE inner tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Giubilato, P.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Keil, M.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Kugathasan, T.; Lattuca, A.; Mager, M.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Martinengo, P.; Mattiazzo, S.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Pantano, D.; Puggioni, C.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Siddhanta, S.; Snoeys, W.; Usai, G.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Yang, P.; Yi, J.

    2013-12-01

    ALICE plans an upgrade of its Inner Tracking System for 2018. The development of a monolithic active pixel sensor for this upgrade is described. The TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging sensor process has been chosen as it is possible to use full CMOS in the pixel due to the offering of a deep pwell and also to use different starting materials. The ALPIDE development is an alternative to approaches based on a rolling shutter architecture, and aims to reduce power consumption and integration time by an order of magnitude below the ALICE specifications, which would be quite beneficial in terms of material budget and background. The approach is based on an in-pixel binary front-end combined with a hit-driven architecture. Several prototypes have already been designed, submitted for fabrication and some of them tested with X-ray sources and particles in a beam. Analog power consumption has been limited by optimizing the Q/C of the sensor using Explorer chips. Promising but preliminary first results have also been obtained with a prototype ALPIDE. Radiation tolerance up to the ALICE requirements has also been verified.

  3. Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS) implemented in LF-150 nm CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishishita, T.; Hemperek, T.; Krüger, H.; Wermes, N.

    2015-03-01

    We present the recent development of Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS), implemented with an LFoundry (LF) 150 nm CMOS process. MAPS detectors based on an epi-layer have been matured in recent years and have attractive features in terms of reducing material budget and handling cost compared to conventional hybrid pixel detectors. However, the obtained signal is relatively small (~1000 e-) due to the thin epi-layer, and charge collection time is relatively slow, e.g., in the order of 100 ns, because charges are mainly collected by diffusion. Modern commercial CMOS technology, however, offers advanced process options to overcome such difficulties and enable truly monolithic devices as an alternative to hybrid pixel sensors and charge coupled devices. Unlike in the case of the standard MAPS technologies with epi-layers, the LF process provides a high-resistivity substrate that enables large signal and fast charge collection by drift in a ~50 μm thick depleted layer. Since this process also enables the use of deep n- and p-wells to isolate the collection electrode from the thin active device layer, PMOS and NMOS transistors are available for the readout electronics in each pixel cell. In order to evaluate the sensor and transistor characteristics, several collection electrodes variants and readout architectures have been implemented. In this report, we focus on its design aspect of the LF-DMAPS prototype chip.

  4. ALPIDE, the Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mager, M.

    2016-07-01

    A new 10 m2 inner tracking system based on seven concentric layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors will be installed in the ALICE experiment during the second long shutdown of LHC in 2019-2020. The monolithic pixel sensors will be fabricated in the 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor process of TowerJazz. The ALPIDE design takes full advantage of a particular process feature, the deep p-well, which allows for full CMOS circuitry within the pixel matrix, while at the same time retaining the full charge collection efficiency. Together with the small feature size and the availability of six metal layers, this allowed a continuously active low-power front-end to be placed into each pixel and an in-matrix sparsification circuit to be used that sends only the addresses of hit pixels to the periphery. This approach led to a power consumption of less than 40 mWcm-2, a spatial resolution of around 5 μm, a peaking time of around 2 μs, while being radiation hard to some 1013 1 MeVneq /cm2, fulfilling or exceeding the ALICE requirements. Over the last years of R & D, several prototype circuits have been used to verify radiation hardness, and to optimize pixel geometry and in-pixel front-end circuitry. The positive results led to a submission of full-scale (3 cm×1.5 cm) sensor prototypes in 2014. They are being characterized in a comprehensive campaign that also involves several irradiation and beam tests. A summary of the results obtained and prospects towards the final sensor to instrument the ALICE Inner Tracking System are given.

  5. First evidence of phase-contrast imaging with laboratory sources and active pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivo, A.; Arvanitis, C. D.; Bohndiek, S. E.; Clark, A. T.; Prydderch, M.; Turchetta, R.; Speller, R. D.

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the present work is to achieve a first step towards combining the advantages of an innovative X-ray imaging technique—phase-contrast imaging (XPCi)—with those of a new class of sensors, i.e. CMOS-based active pixel sensors (APSs). The advantages of XPCi are well known and include increased image quality and detection of details invisible to conventional techniques, with potential application fields encompassing the medical, biological, industrial and security areas. Vanilla, one of the APSs developed by the MI-3 collaboration (see http://mi3.shef.ac.uk), was thoroughly characterised and an appropriate scintillator was selected to provide X-ray sensitivity. During this process, a set of phase-contrast images of different biological samples was acquired by means of the well-established free-space propagation XPCi technique. The obtained results are very encouraging and are in optimum agreement with the predictions of a simulation recently developed by some of the authors thus further supporting its reliability. This paper presents these preliminary results in detail and discusses in brief both the background to this work and its future developments.

  6. Synchrotron based planar imaging and digital tomosynthesis of breast and biopsy phantoms using a CMOS active pixel sensor.

    PubMed

    Szafraniec, Magdalena B; Konstantinidis, Anastasios C; Tromba, Giuliana; Dreossi, Diego; Vecchio, Sara; Rigon, Luigi; Sodini, Nicola; Naday, Steve; Gunn, Spencer; McArthur, Alan; Olivo, Alessandro

    2015-03-01

    The SYRMEP (SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) beamline at Elettra is performing the first mammography study on human patients using free-space propagation phase contrast imaging. The stricter spatial resolution requirements of this method currently force the use of conventional films or specialized computed radiography (CR) systems. This also prevents the implementation of three-dimensional (3D) approaches. This paper explores the use of an X-ray detector based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology as a possible alternative, for acquisitions both in planar and tomosynthesis geometry. Results indicate higher quality of the images acquired with the synchrotron set-up in both geometries. This improvement can be partly ascribed to the use of parallel, collimated and monochromatic synchrotron radiation (resulting in scatter rejection, no penumbra-induced blurring and optimized X-ray energy), and partly to phase contrast effects. Even though the pixel size of the used detector is still too large - and thus suboptimal - for free-space propagation phase contrast imaging, a degree of phase-induced edge enhancement can clearly be observed in the images. PMID:25498332

  7. Pixel response function experimental techniques and analysis of active pixel sensor star cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumo, Patrick; Waldron, Erik; Laine, Juha-Pekka; Evans, Gary

    2015-04-01

    The pixel response function (PRF) of a pixel within a focal plane is defined as the pixel intensity with respect to the position of a point source within the pixel. One of its main applications is in the field of astrometry, which is a branch of astronomy that deals with positioning data of a celestial body for tracking movement or adjusting the attitude of a spacecraft. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors generally offer better radiation tolerance to protons and heavy ions than CCDs making them ideal candidates for space applications aboard satellites, but like all image sensors they are limited by their spatial frequency response, better known as the modulation transfer function. Having a well-calibrated PRF allows us to eliminate some of the uncertainty in the spatial response of the system providing better resolution and a more accurate centroid estimation. This paper describes the experimental setup for determining the PRF of a CMOS image sensor and analyzes the effect on the oversampled point spread function (PSF) of an image intensifier, as well as the effects due to the wavelength of light used as a point source. It was found that using electron bombarded active pixel sensor (EBAPS) intensification technology had a significant impact on the PRF of the camera being tested as a result of an increase in the amount of carrier diffusion between collection sites generated by the intensification process. Taking the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the resulting data, it was found that the intensified version of a CMOS camera exhibited a PSF roughly 16.42% larger than its nonintensified counterpart.

  8. A High-Speed, Event-Driven, Active Pixel Sensor Readout for Photon-Counting Microchannel Plate Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Pain, Bedabrata; Norton, Timothy J.; Haas, J. Patrick; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon array readouts for microchannel plate intensifiers offer several attractive features. In this class of detector, the electron cloud output of the MCP intensifier is converted to visible light by a phosphor; that light is then fiber-optically coupled to the silicon array. In photon-counting mode, the resulting light splashes on the silicon array are recognized and centroided to fractional pixel accuracy by off-chip electronics. This process can result in very high (MCP-limited) spatial resolution while operating at a modest MCP gain (desirable for dynamic range and long term stability). The principal limitation of intensified CCD systems of this type is their severely limited local dynamic range, as accurate photon counting is achieved only if there are not overlapping event splashes within the frame time of the device. This problem can be ameliorated somewhat by processing events only in pre-selected windows of interest of by using an addressable charge injection device (CID) for the readout array. We are currently pursuing the development of an intriguing alternative readout concept based on using an event-driven CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. APS technology permits the incorporation of discriminator circuitry within each pixel. When coupled with suitable CMOS logic outside the array area, the discriminator circuitry can be used to trigger the readout of small sub-array windows only when and where an event splash has been detected, completely eliminating the local dynamic range problem, while achieving a high global count rate capability and maintaining high spatial resolution. We elaborate on this concept and present our progress toward implementing an event-driven APS readout.

  9. A High-Speed, Event-Driven, Active Pixel Sensor Readout for Photon-Counting Microchannel Plate Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Pain, B.; Norton, T. J.; Haas, P.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Silicon array readouts for microchannel plate intensifiers offer several attractive features. In this class of detector, the electron cloud output of the MCP intensifier is converted to visible light by a phosphor; that light is then fiber-optically coupled to the silicon array. In photon-counting mode, the resulting light splashes on the silicon array are recognized and centroided to fractional pixel accuracy by off-chip electronics. This process can result in very high (MCP-limited) spatial resolution for the readout while operating at a modest MCP gain (desirable for dynamic range and long term stability). The principal limitation of intensified CCD systems of this type is their severely limited local dynamic range, as accurate photon counting is achieved only if there are not overlapping event splashes within the frame time of the device. This problem can be ameliorated somewhat by processing events only in pre-selected windows of interest or by using an addressable charge injection device (CID) for the readout array. We are currently pursuing the development of an intriguing alternative readout concept based on using an event-driven CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. APS technology permits the incorporation of discriminator circuitry within each pixel. When coupled with suitable CMOS logic outside the array area, the discriminator circuitry can be used to trigger the readout of small sub-array windows only when and where an event splash has been detected, completely eliminating the local dynamic range problem, while achieving a high global count rate capability and maintaining high spatial resolution. We elaborate on this concept and present our progress toward implementing an event-driven APS readout.

  10. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) active pixel sensors with the photosite implemented in the substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Zheng, Xinyu (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Active pixel sensors for a high quality imager are fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process by integrating the photodetectors on the SOI substrate and forming pixel readout transistors on the SOI thin-film. The technique can include forming silicon islands on a buried insulator layer disposed on a silicon substrate and selectively etching away the buried insulator layer over a region of the substrate to define a photodetector area. Dopants of a first conductivity type are implanted to form a signal node in the photodetector area and to form simultaneously drain/source regions for a first transistor in at least a first one of the silicon islands. Dopants of a second conductivity type are implanted to form drain/source regions for a second transistor in at least a second one of the silicon islands. Isolation rings around the photodetector also can be formed when dopants of the second conductivity type are implanted. Interconnections among the transistors and the photodetector are provided to allow signals sensed by the photodetector to be read out via the transistors formed on the silicon islands.

  11. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) active pixel sensors with the photosite implemented in the substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Xinyu (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Active pixel sensors for a high quality imager are fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process by integrating the photodetectors on the SOI substrate and forming pixel readout transistors on the SOI thin-film. The technique can include forming silicon islands on a buried insulator layer disposed on a silicon substrate and selectively etching away the buried insulator layer over a region of the substrate to define a photodetector area. Dopants of a first conductivity type are implanted to form a signal node in the photodetector area and to form simultaneously drain/source regions for a first transistor in at least a first one of the silicon islands. Dopants of a second conductivity type are implanted to form drain/source regions for a second transistor in at least a second one of the silicon islands. Isolation rings around the photodetector also can be formed when dopants of the second conductivity type are implanted. Interconnections among the transistors and the photodetector are provided to allow signals sensed by the photodetector to be read out via the transistors formed on the silicon islands.

  12. A Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor for ionizing radiation using a 180 nm HV-SOI process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemperek, Tomasz; Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Krüger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    An improved SOI-MAPS (Silicon On Insulator Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor) for ionizing radiation based on thick-film High Voltage SOI technology (HV-SOI) has been developed. Similar to existing Fully Depleted SOI-based (FD-SOI) MAPS, a buried silicon oxide inter-dielectric (BOX) layer is used to separate the CMOS electronics from the handle wafer which is used as a depleted charge collection layer. FD-SOI MAPS suffers from radiation damage such as transistor threshold voltage shifts due to charge traps in the oxide layers and charge states created at the silicon oxide boundaries (back gate effect). The X-FAB 180-nm HV-SOI technology offers an additional isolation by deep non-depleted implant between the BOX layer and the active circuitry which mitigates this problem. Therefore we see in this technology a high potential to implement radiation-tolerant MAPS with fast charge collection property. The design and measurement results from a first prototype are presented including charge collection in neutron irradiated samples.

  13. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors as energy-range detectors for proton Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, M.; Anaxagoras, T.; Evans, P. M.; Green, S.; Manolopoulos, S.; Nieto-Camero, J.; Parker, D. J.; Poludniowski, G.; Price, T.; Waltham, C.; Allinson, N. M.

    2015-06-01

    Since the first proof of concept in the early 70s, a number of technologies has been proposed to perform proton CT (pCT), as a means of mapping tissue stopping power for accurate treatment planning in proton therapy. Previous prototypes of energy-range detectors for pCT have been mainly based on the use of scintillator-based calorimeters, to measure proton residual energy after passing through the patient. However, such an approach is limited by the need for only a single proton passing through the energy-range detector in a read-out cycle. A novel approach to this problem could be the use of pixelated detectors, where the independent read-out of each pixel allows to measure simultaneously the residual energy of a number of protons in the same read-out cycle, facilitating a faster and more efficient pCT scan. This paper investigates the suitability of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) to track individual protons as they go through a number of CMOS layers, forming an energy-range telescope. Measurements performed at the iThemba Laboratories will be presented and analysed in terms of correlation, to confirm capability of proton tracking for CMOS APSs.

  14. Characterisation of a CMOS active pixel sensor for use in the TEAM microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, Marco; Contarato, Devis; Denes, Peter; Doering, Dionisio; Duden, Thomas; Krieger, Brad; Giubilato, Piero; Gnani, Dario; Radmilovic, Velimir

    2010-10-01

    A 1M- and a 4M-pixel monolithic CMOS active pixel sensor with 9.5×9.5 μm2 pixels have been developed for direct imaging in transmission electron microscopy as part of the TEAM project. We present the design and a full characterisation of the detector. Data collected with electron beams at various energies of interest in electron microscopy are used to determine the detector response. Data are compared to predictions of simulation. The line spread function measured with 80 and 300 keV electrons is (12.1±0.7) and (7.4±0.6) μm, respectively, in good agreement with our simulation. We measure the detection quantum efficiency to be 0.78±0.04 at 80 keV and 0.74±0.03 at 300 keV. Using a new imaging technique, based on single electron reconstruction, the line spread function for 80 and 300 keV electrons becomes (6.7±0.3) and (2.4±0.2) μm, respectively. The radiation tolerance of the pixels has been tested up to 5 Mrad and the detector is still functional with a decrease of dynamic range by ≃30%, corresponding to a reduction in full-well depth from ˜39 to ˜27 primary 300 keV electrons, due to leakage current increase, but identical line spread function performance.

  15. Direct electron imaging in electron microscopy with monolithic active pixel sensors.

    PubMed

    Deptuch, G; Besson, A; Rehak, P; Szelezniak, M; Wall, J; Winter, M; Zhu, Y

    2007-08-01

    A new imaging device for dynamic electron microscopy is in great demand. The detector should provide the experimenter with images having sufficient spatial resolution at high speed. Immunity to radiation damage, accumulated during exposures, is critical. Photographic film, a traditional medium, is not adequate for studies that require large volumes of data or rapid recording and charge coupled device (CCD) cameras have limited resolution, due to phosphor screen coupling. CCD chips are not suitable for direct recording due to their extreme sensitivity to radiation damage. This paper discusses characterization of monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) as well as in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The tested devices were two versions of the MIMOSA V (MV) chip. This 1M pixel device features pixel size of 17 x 17 microm(2) and was designed in a 0.6 microm CMOS process. The active layer for detection is a thin (less than 20 microm) epitaxial layer, limiting the broadening of the electron beam. The first version of the detector was a standard imager with electronics, passivation and interconnection layers on top of the active region; the second one was bottom-thinned, reaching the epitaxial layer from the bottom. The electron energies used range from a few keV to 30 keV for SEM and from 40 to 400 keV for TEM. Deterioration of the image resolution due to backscattering was quantified for different energies and both detector versions. PMID:17346890

  16. A novel source-drain follower for monolithic active pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, C.; Aglieri, G.; Hillemanns, H.; Huang, G.; Junique, A.; Keil, M.; Kim, D.; Kofarago, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Mager, M.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Martinengo, P.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Lee, S.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Rousset, J.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Snoeys, W.; Sun, X.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; Yang, P.

    2016-09-01

    Monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) receive interest in tracking applications in high energy physics as they integrate sensor and readout electronics in one silicon die with potential for lower material budget and cost, and better performance. Source followers (SFs) are widely used for MAPS readout: they increase charge conversion gain 1/Ceff or decrease the effective sensing node capacitance Ceff because the follower action compensates part of the input capacitance. Charge conversion gain is critical for analog power consumption and therefore for material budget in tracking applications, and also has direct system impact. This paper presents a novel source-drain follower (SDF), where both source and drain follow the gate potential improving charge conversion gain. For the inner tracking system (ITS) upgrade of the ALICE experiment at CERN, low material budget is a primary requirement. The SDF circuit was studied as part of the effort to optimize the effective capacitance of the sensing node. The collection electrode, input transistor and routing metal all contribute to Ceff. Reverse sensor bias reduces the collection electrode capacitance. The novel SDF circuit eliminates the contribution of the input transistor to Ceff, reduces the routing contribution if additional shielding is introduced, provides a way to estimate the capacitance of the sensor itself, and has a voltage gain closer to unity than the standard SF. The SDF circuit has a somewhat larger area with a somewhat smaller bandwidth, but this is acceptable in most cases. A test chip, manufactured in a 180 nm CMOS image sensor process, implements small prototype pixel matrices in different flavors to compare the standard SF to the novel SF and to the novel SF with additional shielding. The effective sensing node capacitance was measured using a 55Fe source. Increasing reverse substrate bias from -1 V to -6 V reduces Ceff by 38% and the equivalent noise charge (ENC) by 22% for the standard SF. The SDF

  17. Large area CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray imager for digital breast tomosynthesis: Analysis, modeling, and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Chumin; Kanicki, Jerzy; Konstantinidis, Anastasios C.; Patel, Tushita

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Large area x-ray imagers based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been proposed for various medical imaging applications including digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). The low electronic noise (50–300 e{sup −}) of CMOS APS x-ray imagers provides a possible route to shrink the pixel pitch to smaller than 75 μm for microcalcification detection and possible reduction of the DBT mean glandular dose (MGD). Methods: In this study, imaging performance of a large area (29 × 23 cm{sup 2}) CMOS APS x-ray imager [Dexela 2923 MAM (PerkinElmer, London)] with a pixel pitch of 75 μm was characterized and modeled. The authors developed a cascaded system model for CMOS APS x-ray imagers using both a broadband x-ray radiation and monochromatic synchrotron radiation. The experimental data including modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were theoretically described using the proposed cascaded system model with satisfactory consistency to experimental results. Both high full well and low full well (LFW) modes of the Dexela 2923 MAM CMOS APS x-ray imager were characterized and modeled. The cascaded system analysis results were further used to extract the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for microcalcifications with sizes of 165–400 μm at various MGDs. The impact of electronic noise on CNR was also evaluated. Results: The LFW mode shows better DQE at low air kerma (K{sub a} < 10 μGy) and should be used for DBT. At current DBT applications, air kerma (K{sub a} ∼ 10 μGy, broadband radiation of 28 kVp), DQE of more than 0.7 and ∼0.3 was achieved using the LFW mode at spatial frequency of 0.5 line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) and Nyquist frequency ∼6.7 lp/mm, respectively. It is shown that microcalcifications of 165–400 μm in size can be resolved using a MGD range of 0.3–1 mGy, respectively. In comparison to a General Electric GEN2 prototype DBT system (at

  18. A data parallel digitizer for a time-based simulation of CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors with FairRoot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitzmann, P.; Amar-Youcef, S.; Doering, D.; Deveaux, M.; Fröhlich, I.; Koziel, M.; Krebs, E.; Linnik, B.; Michel, J.; Milanovic, B.; Müntz, C.; Li, Q.; Stroth, J.; Tischler, T.

    2014-06-01

    CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) demonstrated excellent performances in the field of charged particle tracking. They feature an excellent single point resolution of few μm, a light material budget of 0.05% Xo in combination with a good radiation tolerance and time resolution. This makes the sensors a valuable technology for micro vertex detectors (MVD) of various experiments in heavy ion and particle physics like STAR and CBM. State of the art MAPS are equipped with a rolling shutter readout. Therefore, the data of one individual event is typically found in more than one data train generated by the sensor. This paper presents a concept to introduce this feature in both simulation and data analysis, taking profit of the sensor topology of the MVD. This topology allows to use for massive parallel data streaming and handling strategies within the FairRoot framework.

  19. Active pixel sensors in AMS H18/H35 HV-CMOS technology for the ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristic, Branislav

    2016-09-01

    Deep sub micron HV-CMOS processes offer the opportunity for sensors built by industry standard techniques while being HV tolerant, making them good candidates for drift-based, fast collecting, thus radiation-hard pixel detectors. For the upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector towards the HL-LHC requirements, active pixel sensors in HV-CMOS technology were investigated. These implement signal processing electronics in deep n-wells, which also act as collecting electrodes. The deep n-wells allow for bias voltages up to 150 V leading to a depletion depth of several 10 μm. Prototype sensors in the AMS H18 180 nm and H35 350 nm HV-CMOS processes were thoroughly tested in lab measurements as well as in testbeam experiments. Irradiations with X-rays and protons revealed a tolerance to ionizing doses of 1 Grad while Edge-TCT studies assessed the effects of radiation on the charge collection. The sensors showed high detection efficiencies after neutron irradiation to 1015neq cm-2 in testbeam experiments. A full reticle size demonstrator chip, implemented in the H35 process is being submitted to prove the large scale feasibility of the HV-CMOS concept.

  20. 50 μm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.; Konstantinidis, A. C.; Zheng, Y.; Anaxagoras, T.; Speller, R. D.; Kanicki, J.

    2015-12-01

    Wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensors (APSs) have been developed recently for x-ray imaging applications. The small pixel pitch and low noise are very promising properties for medical imaging applications such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this work, we evaluated experimentally and through modeling the imaging properties of a 50 μm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). A modified cascaded system model was developed for CMOS APS x-ray detectors by taking into account the device nonlinear signal and noise properties. The imaging properties such as modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were extracted from both measurements and the nonlinear cascaded system analysis. The results show that the DynAMITe x-ray detector achieves a high spatial resolution of 10 mm-1 and a DQE of around 0.5 at spatial frequencies  <1 mm-1. In addition, the modeling results were used to calculate the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNRi) of microcalcifications at various mean glandular dose (MGD). For an average breast (5 cm thickness, 50% glandular fraction), 165 μm microcalcifications can be distinguished at a MGD of 27% lower than the clinical value (~1.3 mGy). To detect 100 μm microcalcifications, further optimizations of the CMOS APS x-ray detector, image aquisition geometry and image reconstruction techniques should be considered.

  1. 50 μm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, C; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Anaxagoras, T; Speller, R D; Kanicki, J

    2015-12-01

    Wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensors (APSs) have been developed recently for x-ray imaging applications. The small pixel pitch and low noise are very promising properties for medical imaging applications such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this work, we evaluated experimentally and through modeling the imaging properties of a 50 μm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). A modified cascaded system model was developed for CMOS APS x-ray detectors by taking into account the device nonlinear signal and noise properties. The imaging properties such as modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were extracted from both measurements and the nonlinear cascaded system analysis. The results show that the DynAMITe x-ray detector achieves a high spatial resolution of 10 mm(-1) and a DQE of around 0.5 at spatial frequencies  <1 mm(-1). In addition, the modeling results were used to calculate the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNRi) of microcalcifications at various mean glandular dose (MGD). For an average breast (5 cm thickness, 50% glandular fraction), 165 μm microcalcifications can be distinguished at a MGD of 27% lower than the clinical value (~1.3 mGy). To detect 100 μm microcalcifications, further optimizations of the CMOS APS x-ray detector, image aquisition geometry and image reconstruction techniques should be considered. PMID:26540090

  2. Non-linear responsivity characterisation of a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor for high resolution imaging of the Jovian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soman, M.; Stefanov, K.; Weatherill, D.; Holland, A.; Gow, J.; Leese, M.

    2015-02-01

    The Jovian system is the subject of study for the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE), an ESA mission which is planned to launch in 2022. The scientific payload is designed for both characterisation of the magnetosphere and radiation environment local to the spacecraft, as well as remote characterisation of Jupiter and its satellites. A key instrument on JUICE is the high resolution and wide angle camera, JANUS, whose main science goals include detailed characterisation and study phases of three of the Galilean satellites, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa, as well as studies of other moons, the ring system, and irregular satellites. The CIS115 is a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor from e2v technologies selected for the JANUS camera. It is fabricated using 0.18 μ m CMOS imaging sensor process, with an imaging area of 2000 × 1504 pixels, each 7 μ m square. A 4T pixel architecture allows for efficient correlated double sampling, improving the readout noise to better than 8 electrons rms, whilst the sensor is operated in a rolling shutter mode, sampling at up to 10 Mpixel/s at each of the four parallel outputs.A primary parameter to characterise for an imaging device is the relationship that converts the sensor's voltage output back to the corresponding number of electrons that were detected in a pixel, known as the Charge to Voltage Factor (CVF). In modern CMOS sensors with small feature sizes, the CVF is known to be non-linear with signal level, therefore a signal-dependent measurement of the CIS115's CVF has been undertaken and is presented here. The CVF is well modelled as a quadratic function leading to a measurement of the maximum charge handling capacity of the CIS115 to be 3.4 × 104 electrons. If the CIS115's response is assumed linear, its CVF is 21.1 electrons per mV (1/47.5 μ V per electron).

  3. Performance of a-Si:H photodiode technology-based advanced CMOS active pixel sensor imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theil, Jeremy A.; Haddad, Homayoon; Snyder, Rick D.; Zelman, Mike; Hula, David; Lindahl, Kirk A.

    2001-12-01

    Amorphous silicon photodiode technology is a very attractive option for image array integrated circuits because it enables large die-size reduction and higher light collection efficiency than c-Si arrays. The concept behind the technology is to place the photosensing element directly above the rest of the circuit, thus eliminating the need to make areal tradeoffs between photodiode and pixel circuit. We have developed an photodiode array technology that is fully compatible with a 0.35 um CMOS process to produce image sensors arrays with 10-bit dynamic range that are 30% smaller than comparable c-Si photodiode arrays. The work presented here will discuss performance issues and solutions to lend itself to cost-effective high-volume manufacturing. The various methods of interconnection of the diode to the array and their advantages will be presented. The effect of doped layer thickness and concentration on quantum efficiency, and the effect of a-Si:H defect concentration on diode performance will be discussed. The photodiode dark leakage current density is about 80 pA/cm2, and its absolute quantum efficiency peaks about 85% at 550 nm. These sensors have 50% higher sensitivity, and 2x lower dark current when compared to bulk silicon sensors of the same design. The cell utilizes a 3 FET design, but allows for 100% photodiode area due to the elevated nature of the design. The VGA (640 X 480), array demonstrated here uses common intrinsic and p-type contact layers, and makes reliable contact to those layers by use of a monolithic transparent conductor strap tied to vias in the interconnect.

  4. A 70μm × 70μm CMOS digital active pixel sensor for digital mammography and X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabadell, J.; Figueras, R.; Margarit, J. M.; Martín, E.; Terès, L.; Serra-Graells, F.

    2011-03-01

    This work presents an architecture for CMOS active pixel sensors (APS) based on a novel lossless charge integration method, proposed for X-ray imagers in general but specifically optimized for full-field digital mammography. The objective is to provide all the required functionality inside the pixel, so to use full digital control and read-out signals only, therefore avoiding crosstalk between analog lines over large pixel arrays. It includes a novel lossless A/D conversion scheme besides a self-calibrating dark current cancellation circuit, a self-biasing circuitry, biphasic current sensing for the collection of electrons (e-) or holes (h+) and built-in test. Furthermore, FPN compensation is available by individually addressing the pixel's internal DAC controlling the gain. Implemented in a 0.18μm 1P6M CMOS technology with MiM capacitors, everything fits into a 70μm by 70μm due to the extensive reuse of available blocks and aggressive layout techniques. Also, thanks to the MOSFET subthreshold operation, the average power consumption is as low as 8μW/pixel.

  5. Evaluation of a single-pixel one-transistor active pixel sensor for fingerprint imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Man; Ou, Hai; Chen, Jun; Wang, Kai

    2015-08-01

    Since it first appeared in iPhone 5S in 2013, fingerprint identification (ID) has rapidly gained popularity among consumers. Current fingerprint-enabled smartphones unanimously consists of a discrete sensor to perform fingerprint ID. This architecture not only incurs higher material and manufacturing cost, but also provides only static identification and limited authentication. Hence as the demand for a thinner, lighter, and more secure handset grows, we propose a novel pixel architecture that is a photosensitive device embedded in a display pixel and detects the reflected light from the finger touch for high resolution, high fidelity and dynamic biometrics. To this purpose, an amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) dual-gate photo TFT working in both fingerprint-imaging mode and display-driving mode will be developed.

  6. Amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistor active pixel sensor x-ray imager for digital breast tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Chumin; Kanicki, Jerzy

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The breast cancer detection rate for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is limited by the x-ray image quality. The limiting Nyquist frequency for current DBT systems is around 5 lp/mm, while the fine image details contained in the high spatial frequency region (>5 lp/mm) are lost. Also today the tomosynthesis patient dose is high (0.67–3.52 mGy). To address current issues, in this paper, for the first time, a high-resolution low-dose organic photodetector/amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistor (a-IGZO TFT) active pixel sensor (APS) x-ray imager is proposed for next generation DBT systems. Methods: The indirect x-ray detector is based on a combination of a novel low-cost organic photodiode (OPD) and a cesium iodide-based (CsI:Tl) scintillator. The proposed APS x-ray imager overcomes the difficulty of weak signal detection, when small pixel size and low exposure conditions are used, by an on-pixel signal amplification with a significant charge gain. The electrical performance of a-IGZO TFT APS pixel circuit is investigated by SPICE simulation using modified Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFT model. Finally, the noise, detective quantum efficiency (DQE), and resolvability of the complete system are modeled using the cascaded system formalism. Results: The result demonstrates that a large charge gain of 31–122 is achieved for the proposed high-mobility (5–20 cm{sup 2}/V s) amorphous metal-oxide TFT APS. The charge gain is sufficient to eliminate the TFT thermal noise, flicker noise as well as the external readout circuit noise. Moreover, the low TFT (<10{sup −13} A) and OPD (<10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2}) leakage currents can further reduce the APS noise. Cascaded system analysis shows that the proposed APS imager with a 75 μm pixel pitch can effectively resolve the Nyquist frequency of 6.67 lp/mm, which can be further improved to ∼10 lp/mm if the pixel pitch is reduced to 50 μm. Moreover, the

  7. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, P.; Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Gao, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kofarago, M.; Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Lattuca, A.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Mager, M.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Puggioni, C.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W.; Siddhanta, S.; Usai, G.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Yi, J.

    2015-06-01

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented.

  8. Fluence measurement of fast neutron fields with a highly efficient recoil proton telescope using active pixel sensors.

    PubMed

    Taforeau, J; Higueret, S; Husson, D; Kachel, M; Lebreton, L

    2014-10-01

    The spectrometer ATHENA (Accurate Telescope for High-Energy Neutron metrology Applications) is being developed at the LNE-IRSN and aims at characterising energy and fluence of fast neutron fields. The detector is a recoil proton telescope and measures neutron fields in the range of 5-20 MeV. This telescope is intended to become a primary standard for both energy and fluence measurements. The neutron detection is achieved by a polyethylene radiator for n-p conversion, three 50-µm-thick silicon sensors that use CMOS technology for proton tracking and a 3-mm-thick silicon diode to measure the residual proton energy. The use of CMOS sensors and silicon diode, owing to a large detection solid angle, increases the intrinsic efficiency of the detector by a factor of 10 compared with conventional designs. The ability of the spectrometer to determine the neutron energy was demonstrated and reported elsewhere. This paper focuses on the fluence measurement of monoenergetic neutron fields in the range of 5-20 MeV. Experimental investigations, performed at the AMANDE facility, indicate a good estimation of neutron fluence at various energies. In addition, a complete description of uncertainties budget is presented in this paper and a Monte Carlo propagation of uncertainty sources leads to a fluence measurement with a precision ∼3-5 % depending on the neutron energy.

  9. Measurements and simulations of MAPS (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors) response to charged particles - a study towards a vertex detector at the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maczewski, Lukasz

    2010-05-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a project of an electron-positron (e+e-) linear collider with the centre-of-mass energy of 200-500 GeV. Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are one of the proposed silicon pixel detector concepts for the ILC vertex detector (VTX). Basic characteristics of two MAPS pixel matrices MIMOSA-5 (17 μm pixel pitch) and MIMOSA-18 (10 μm pixel pitch) are studied and compared (pedestals, noises, calibration of the ADC-to-electron conversion gain, detector efficiency and charge collection properties). The e+e- collisions at the ILC will be accompanied by intense beamsstrahlung background of electrons and positrons hitting inner planes of the vertex detector. Tracks of this origin leave elongated clusters contrary to those of secondary hadrons. Cluster characteristics and orientation with respect to the pixels netting are studied for perpendicular and inclined tracks. Elongation and precision of determining the cluster orientation as a function of the angle of incidence were measured. A simple model of signal formation (based on charge diffusion) is proposed and tested using the collected data.

  10. Performance of capacitively coupled active pixel sensors in 180 nm HV-CMOS technology after irradiation to HL-LHC fluences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigl, S.

    2014-03-01

    In this ATLAS upgrade R&D project, we explore the concept of using a deep-submicron HV-CMOS process to produce a drop-in replacement for traditional radiation-hard silicon sensors. Such active sensors contain simple circuits, e.g. amplifiers and discriminators, but still require a traditional (pixel or strip) readout chip. This approach yields most advantages of MAPS (improved resolution, reduced cost and material budget, etc.), without the complication of full integration on a single chip. After outlining the basic design of the HV2FEI4 test ASIC, results after irradiation with X-rays to 862 Mrad and neutrons up to 1016(1 MeV neq)/cm2 will be presented. Finally, a brief outlook on further development plans is given.

  11. Combined reactor neutron beam and {sup 60}Co γ-ray radiation effects on CMOS APS image sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zujun Chen, Wei; Sheng, Jiangkun; Liu, Yan; Xiao, Zhigang; Huang, Shaoyan; Liu, Minbo

    2015-02-15

    The combined reactor neutron beam and {sup 60}Co γ-ray radiation effects on complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors (APS) have been discussed and some new experimental phenomena are presented. The samples are manufactured in the standard 0.35-μm CMOS technology. Two samples were first exposed to {sup 60}Co γ-rays up to the total ionizing dose (TID) level of 200 krad(Si) at the dose rates of 50.0 and 0.2 rad(Si)/s, and then exposed to neutron fluence up to 1 × 10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} (1-MeV equivalent neutron fluence). One sample was first exposed to neutron fluence up to 1 × 10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} (1-MeV equivalent neutron fluence), and then exposed to {sup 60}Co γ-rays up to the TID level of 200 krad(Si) at the dose rate of 0.2 rad(Si)/s. The mean dark signal (K{sub D}), the dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU), and the noise (V{sub N}) versus the total dose and neutron fluence has been investigated. The degradation mechanisms of CMOS APS image sensors have been analyzed, especially for the interaction induced by neutron displacement damage and TID damage.

  12. Active pixel sensor array with multiresolution readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node. There is also a readout circuit, part of which can be disposed at the bottom of each column of cells and be common to all the cells in the column. The imaging device can also include an electronic shutter formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate, and/or a storage section to allow for simultaneous integration. In addition, the imaging device can include a multiresolution imaging circuit to provide images of varying resolution. The multiresolution circuit could also be employed in an array where the photosensitive portion of each pixel cell is a photodiode. This latter embodiment could further be modified to facilitate low light imaging.

  13. Single chip camera active pixel sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Timothy (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Olson, Brita (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Panicacci, Roger A. (Inventor); Mansoorian, Barmak (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A totally digital single chip camera includes communications to operate most of its structure in serial communication mode. The digital single chip camera include a D/A converter for converting an input digital word into an analog reference signal. The chip includes all of the necessary circuitry for operating the chip using a single pin.

  14. Active Pixel Sensors for electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denes, P.; Bussat, J.-M.; Lee, Z.; Radmillovic, V.

    2007-09-01

    The technology used for monolithic CMOS imagers, popular for cell phone cameras and other photographic applications, has been explored for charged particle tracking by the high-energy physics community for several years. This technology also lends itself to certain imaging detector applications in electron microscopy. We have been developing such detectors for several years at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and we and others have shown that this technology can offer excellent point-spread function, direct detection and high readout speed. In this paper, we describe some of the design constraints peculiar to electron microscopy and summarize where such detectors could play a useful role.

  15. Characteristics of Monolithically Integrated InGaAs Active Pixel Image Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Q.; Cunningham, T. J.; Pain, B.; Lange, M. J.; Olsen, G. H.

    1999-01-01

    Switching and amplifying characteristics of a newly developed monolithic InGaAs Active Pixel Imager Array are presented. The sensor array is fabricated from InGaAs material epitaxially deposited on an InP substrate.

  16. Displacement damage effects on CMOS APS image sensors induced by neutron irradiation from a nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zujun Huang, Shaoyan; Liu, Minbo; Xiao, Zhigang; He, Baoping; Yao, Zhibin; Sheng, Jiangkun

    2014-07-15

    The experiments of displacement damage effects on CMOS APS image sensors induced by neutron irradiation from a nuclear reactor are presented. The CMOS APS image sensors are manufactured in the standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The flux of neutron beams was about 1.33 × 10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}s. The three samples were exposed by 1 MeV neutron equivalent-fluence of 1 × 10{sup 11}, 5 × 10{sup 11}, and 1 × 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The mean dark signal (K{sub D}), dark signal spike, dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU), noise (V{sub N}), saturation output signal voltage (V{sub S}), and dynamic range (DR) versus neutron fluence are investigated. The degradation mechanisms of CMOS APS image sensors are analyzed. The mean dark signal increase due to neutron displacement damage appears to be proportional to displacement damage dose. The dark images from CMOS APS image sensors irradiated by neutrons are presented to investigate the generation of dark signal spike.

  17. Characteristics of Monolithically Integrated InGaAs Active Pixel Imager Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Q.; Cunningham, T. J.; Pain, B.; Lange, M. J.; Olsen, G. H.

    2000-01-01

    Switching and amplifying characteristics of a newly developed monolithic InGaAs Active Pixel Imager Array are presented. The sensor array is fabricated from InGaAs material epitaxially deposited on an InP substrate. It consists of an InGaAs photodiode connected to InP depletion-mode junction field effect transistors (JFETs) for low leakage, low power, and fast control of circuit signal amplifying, buffering, selection, and reset. This monolithically integrated active pixel sensor configuration eliminates the need for hybridization with silicon multiplexer. In addition, the configuration allows the sensor to be front illuminated, making it sensitive to visible as well as near infrared signal radiation. Adapting the existing 1.55 micrometer fiber optical communication technology, this integration will be an ideal system of optoelectronic integration for dual band (Visible/IR) applications near room temperature, for use in atmospheric gas sensing in space, and for target identification on earth. In this paper, two different types of small 4 x 1 test arrays will be described. The effectiveness of switching and amplifying circuits will be discussed in terms of circuit effectiveness (leakage, operating frequency, and temperature) in preparation for the second phase demonstration of integrated, two-dimensional monolithic InGaAs active pixel sensor arrays for applications in transportable shipboard surveillance, night vision, and emission spectroscopy.

  18. Active pixel sensor with intra-pixel charge transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node.

  19. Active pixel sensor with intra-pixel charge transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node.

  20. Center of mass detection via an active pixel sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly (Inventor); Minch, Brad (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Fossum, Eric (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An imaging system for identifying the location of the center of mass (COM) in an image. In one aspect, an imaging system includes a plurality of photosensitive elements arranged in a matrix. A center of mass circuit coupled to the photosensitive elements includes a resistive network and a normalization circuit including at least one bipolar transistor. The center of mass circuit identifies a center of mass location in the matrix and includes: a row circuit, where the row circuit identifies a center of mass row value in each row of the matrix and identifies a row intensity for each row; a horizontal circuit, where the horizontal circuit identifies a center of mass horizontal value; and a vertical circuit, where the vertical circuit identifies a center of mass vertical value. The horizontal and vertical center of mass values indicate the coordinates of the center of mass location for the image.

  1. Center of mass detection via an active pixel sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly (Inventor); Minch, Brad (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrara (Inventor); Fossum, Eric (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An imaging system for identifying the location of the center of mass (COM) in an image. In one aspect, an imaging system includes a plurality of photosensitive elements arranged in a matrix. A center of mass circuit coupled to the photosensitive elements includes a resistive network and a normalization circuit including at least one bipolar transistor. The center of mass circuit identifies a center of mass location in the matrix and includes: a row circuit, where the row circuit identifies a center of mass row value in each row of the matrix and identifies a row intensity for each row; a horizontal circuit, where the horizontal circuit identifies a center of mass horizontal value; and a vertical circuit, where the vertical circuit identifies a center of mass vertical value. The horizontal and vertical center of mass values indicate the coordinates of the center of mass location for the image.

  2. Center of mass detection via an active pixel sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly (Inventor); Minch, Brad (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Fossum, Eric (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An imaging system for identifying the location of the center of mass (COM) in an image. In one aspect, an imaging system includes a plurality of photosensitive elements arranged in a matrix. A center of mass circuit coupled to the photosensitive elements includes a resistive network and a normalization circuit including at least one bipolar transistor. The center of mass circuit identifies a center of mass location in the matrix and includes: a row circuit, where the row circuit identifies a center of mass row value in each row of the matrix and identifies a row intensity for each row; a horizontal circuit, where the horizontal circuit identifies a center of mass horizontal value; and a vertical circuit, where the vertical circuit identifies a center of mass vertical value. The horizontal and vertical center of mass values indicate the coordinates of the center of mass location for the image.

  3. Active pixel sensor with intra-pixel charge transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node.

  4. CMOS active pixel sensor type imaging system on a chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Nixon, Robert (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A single chip camera which includes an .[.intergrated.]. .Iadd.integrated .Iaddend.image acquisition portion and control portion and which has double sampling/noise reduction capabilities thereon. Part of the .[.intergrated.]. .Iadd.integrated .Iaddend.structure reduces the noise that is picked up during imaging.

  5. Monte Carlo Techniques for Calculations of Charge Deposition and Displacement Damage from Protons in Visible and Infrared Sensor Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Paul; Reed, Robert; Fodness, Bryan; Jordan, Tom; Pickel, Jim; Xapsos, Michael; Burke, Ed

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation examines motivation for Monte Carlo methods, charge deposition in sensor arrays, displacement damage calculations, and future work. The discussion of charge deposition sensor arrays includes Si active pixel sensor APS arrays and LWIR HgCdTe FPAs. The discussion of displacement damage calculations includes nonionizing energy loss (NIEL), HgCdTe NIEL calculation results including variance, and implications for damage in HgCdTe detector arrays.

  6. A Proxy Design to Leverage the Interconnection of CoAP Wireless Sensor Networks with Web Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ludovici, Alessandro; Calveras, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design of a Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) proxy able to interconnect Web applications based on Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and WebSocket with CoAP based Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensor networks are commonly used to monitor and control physical objects or environments. Smart Cities represent applications of such a nature. Wireless Sensor Networks gather data from their surroundings and send them to a remote application. This data flow may be short or long lived. The traditional HTTP long-polling used by Web applications may not be adequate in long-term communications. To overcome this problem, we include the WebSocket protocol in the design of the CoAP proxy. We evaluate the performance of the CoAP proxy in terms of latency and memory consumption. The tests consider long and short-lived communications. In both cases, we evaluate the performance obtained by the CoAP proxy according to the use of WebSocket and HTTP long-polling. PMID:25585107

  7. A proxy design to leverage the interconnection of CoAP Wireless Sensor Networks with Web applications.

    PubMed

    Ludovici, Alessandro; Calveras, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design of a Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) proxy able to interconnect Web applications based on Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and WebSocket with CoAP based Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensor networks are commonly used to monitor and control physical objects or environments. Smart Cities represent applications of such a nature. Wireless Sensor Networks gather data from their surroundings and send them to a remote application. This data flow may be short or long lived. The traditional HTTP long-polling used by Web applications may not be adequate in long-term communications. To overcome this problem, we include the WebSocket protocol in the design of the CoAP proxy. We evaluate the performance of the CoAP proxy in terms of latency and memory consumption. The tests consider long and short-lived communications. In both cases, we evaluate the performance obtained by the CoAP proxy according to the use of WebSocket and HTTP long-polling.

  8. Monolithic active pixel radiation detector with shielding techniques

    DOEpatents

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W.

    2016-09-06

    A monolithic active pixel radiation detector including a method of fabricating thereof. The disclosed radiation detector can include a substrate comprising a silicon layer upon which electronics are configured. A plurality of channels can be formed on the silicon layer, wherein the plurality of channels are connected to sources of signals located in a bulk part of the substrate, and wherein the signals flow through electrically conducting vias established in an isolation oxide on the substrate. One or more nested wells can be configured from the substrate, wherein the nested wells assist in collecting charge carriers released in interaction with radiation and wherein the nested wells further separate the electronics from the sensing portion of the detector substrate. The detector can also be configured according to a thick SOA method of fabrication.

  9. Analysis and Enhancement of Low-Light-Level Performance of Photodiode-Type CMOS Active Pixel Images Operated with Sub-Threshold Reset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Yang, Guang; Ortiz, Monico; Wrigley, Christopher; Hancock, Bruce; Cunningham, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Noise in photodiode-type CMOS active pixel sensors (APS) is primarily due to the reset (kTC) noise at the sense node, since it is difficult to implement in-pixel correlated double sampling for a 2-D array. Signal integrated on the photodiode sense node (SENSE) is calculated by measuring difference between the voltage on the column bus (COL) - before and after the reset (RST) is pulsed. Lower than kTC noise can be achieved with photodiode-type pixels by employing "softreset" technique. Soft-reset refers to resetting with both drain and gate of the n-channel reset transistor kept at the same potential, causing the sense node to be reset using sub-threshold MOSFET current. However, lowering of noise is achieved only at the expense higher image lag and low-light-level non-linearity. In this paper, we present an analysis to explain the noise behavior, show evidence of degraded performance under low-light levels, and describe new pixels that eliminate non-linearity and lag without compromising noise.

  10. Recent progress in the development of a B-factory monolithic active pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanič, S.; Aihara, H.; Barbero, M.; Bozek, A.; Browder, T.; Hazumi, M.; Kennedy, J.; Kent, N.; Olsen, S.; Palka, H.; Rosen, M.; Ruckman, L.; Trabelsi, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uchida, K.; Varner, G.; Yang, Q.

    2006-11-01

    Due to the need for precise vertexing at future higher luminosity B-factories with the expectedly increasing track densities and radiation exposures, upgrade of present silicon strip detectors with thin, radiation resistant pixel detectors is highly desired. Considerable progress in the technological development of thin CMOS based Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in the last years makes them a realistic upgrade option and the feasibility studies of their application in Belle are actively pursued. The most serious concerns are their radiation hardness and their read-out speed. To address them, several prototypes denoted as Continuous Acquisition Pixel (CAP) sensors have been developed and tested. The latest of the CAP sensor prototypes is CAP3, designed in the TSMC 0.25 μm process with a 5-deep sample pair pipeline in each pixel. A setup with several CAP3 sensors will be used to assess the performance of a full scale pixel read-out system running at realistic read-out speed. The results and plans for the next stages of R&D towards a full Pixel Vertex Detector (PVD) are presented.

  11. Large area CMOS image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchetta, R.; Guerrini, N.; Sedgwick, I.

    2011-01-01

    CMOS image sensors, also known as CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS) or Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), are today the dominant imaging devices. They are omnipresent in our daily life, as image sensors in cellular phones, web cams, digital cameras, ... In these applications, the pixels can be very small, in the micron range, and the sensors themselves tend to be limited in size. However, many scientific applications, like particle or X-ray detection, require large format, often with large pixels, as well as other specific performance, like low noise, radiation hardness or very fast readout. The sensors are also required to be sensitive to a broad spectrum of radiation: photons from the silicon cut-off in the IR down to UV and X- and gamma-rays through the visible spectrum as well as charged particles. This requirement calls for modifications to the substrate to be introduced to provide optimized sensitivity. This paper will review existing CMOS image sensors, whose size can be as large as a single CMOS wafer, and analyse the technical requirements and specific challenges of large format CMOS image sensors.

  12. Characterisation of a PERCIVAL monolithic active pixel prototype using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, J.; Bayer, M.; Göttlicher, P.; Lange, S.; Marras, A.; Niemann, M.; Reza, S.; Shevyakov, I.; Smoljanin, S.; Tennert, M.; Xia, Q.; Viti, M.; Wunderer, C. B.; Zimmer, M.; Dipayan, D.; Guerrini, N.; Marsh, B.; Sedgwick, I.; Turchetta, R.; Cautero, G.; Giuressi, D.; Khromova, A.; Pinaroli, G.; Menk, R.; Stebel, L.; Fan, R.; Marchal, J.; Pedersen, U.; Rees, N.; Steadman, P.; Sussmuth, M.; Tartoni, N.; Yousef, H.; Hyun, H. J.; Kim, K.; Rah, S.; Graafsma, H.

    2016-02-01

    PERCIVAL ("Pixelated Energy Resolving CMOS Imager, Versatile And Large") is a monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) based on CMOS technology. Is being developed by DESY, RAL/STFC, Elettra, DLS, and PAL to address the various requirements of detectors at synchrotron radiation sources and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) in the soft X-ray regime. These requirements include high frame rates and FELs base-rate compatibility, large dynamic range, single-photon counting capability with low probability of false positives, high quantum efficiency (QE), and (multi-)megapixel arrangements with good spatial resolution. Small-scale back-side-illuminated (BSI) prototype systems are undergoing detailed testing with X-rays and optical photons, in preparation of submission of a larger sensor. A first BSI processed prototype was tested in 2014 and a preliminary result—first detection of 350eV photons with some pixel types of PERCIVAL—reported at this meeting a year ago. Subsequent more detailed analysis revealed a very low QE and pointed to contamination as a possible cause. In the past year, BSI-processed chips on two more wafers were tested and their response to soft X-ray evaluated. We report here the improved charge collection efficiency (CCE) of different PERCIVAL pixel types for 400eV soft X-rays together with Airy patterns, response to a flat field, and noise performance for such a newly BSI-processed prototype sensor.

  13. Intensified solid state sensor cameras: ICCD and IAPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhle, Udo

    We describe the general design of intensified charge coupled devices and intensified active pixel sensors: cameras using microchannel plate intensifiers in combination with imaging arrays, like CCDs or CMOS-APS sensors. Several design options are compared and the capabilities and shortcomings of these devices will be highlighted and discussed. We describe, in particular, the properties of the intensifiers, phosphor anodes, and coupling schemes. The coupling between the intensifier and the image sensor is a special technological step that adds to this type of camera a great amount of flexibility and design options.

  14. Photon counting system based on intensified CMOS-APS: PC-IAPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanno, Giovanni; Belluso, Massimiliano; Cali, Antonio; Timpanaro, Maria C.; Uslenghi, Michela C.; Fiorini, Mauro; Modica, Angelo

    2001-12-01

    A progress report on the work, started ten months ago, aimed to evaluate the use of a new type of position sensor (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Active Pixel Sensor or CMOS-APS) as readout system in MCP-based intensified photon counting systems, is presented in this paper. The main differences respect to the more classical Photon Counting Intensified CCDs (PC-ICCD), the advantages and the disadvantages of their use as image photon counters, the adopted solutions to acquire the images and compute the photon event center, are described. The adopted optics and the designed mechanical assembly are also shown. The selected CMOS-APS, heart of the system, is treated in detail, as well as the electronics designed to drive the detector, to compute the center of the luminous spot on the MCP phosphor screen, and to send and receive data from a host computer. Finally we present preliminary results and achieved performances.

  15. Characterization of Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel detectors implemented with a high-resistive CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishishita, T.; Hemperek, T.; Rymaszewski, P.; Hirono, T.; Krüger, H.; Wermes, N.

    2016-07-01

    We present the recent development of DMAPS (Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor), implemented with a Toshiba 130 nm CMOS process. Unlike in the case of standard MAPS technologies which are based on an epi-layer, this process provides a high-resistive substrate that enables larger signal and faster charge collection by drift in a 50 - 300 μm thick depleted layer. Since this process also enables the use of deep n-wells to isolate the collection electrodes from the thin active device layer, NMOS and PMOS transistors are available for the readout electronics in each pixel cell. In order to characterize the technology, we implemented a simple three transistor readout with a variety of pixel pitches and input FET sizes. This layout variety gives us a clue on sensor characteristics for future optimization, such as the input detector capacitance or leakage current. In the initial measurement, the radiation spectra were obtained from 55Fe with an energy resolution of 770 eV (FWHM) and 90Sr with the MVP of 4165 e-.

  16. Comparison of a CCD and an APS for soft X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Graeme; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Clark, A.; Dhesi, S. S.; Maneuski, D.; Marchal, J.; Steadman, P.; Tartoni, N.; Turchetta, R.

    2011-12-01

    We compare a new CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) to a Princeton Instruments PIXIS-XO: 2048B Charge Coupled Device (CCD) with soft X-rays tested in a synchrotron beam line at the Diamond Light Source (DLS). Despite CCDs being established in the field of scientific imaging, APS are an innovative technology that offers advantages over CCDs. These include faster readout, higher operational temperature, in-pixel electronics for advanced image processing and reduced manufacturing cost. The APS employed was the Vanilla sensor designed by the MI3 collaboration and funded by an RCUK Basic technology grant. This sensor has 520 x 520 square pixels, of size 25 μm on each side. The sensor can operate at a full frame readout of up to 20 Hz. The sensor had been back-thinned, to the epitaxial layer. This was the first time that a back-thinned APS had been demonstrated at a beam line at DLS. In the synchrotron experiment soft X-rays with an energy of approximately 708 eV were used to produce a diffraction pattern from a permalloy sample. The pattern was imaged at a range of integration times with both sensors. The CCD had to be operated at a temperature of -55°C whereas the Vanilla was operated over a temperature range from 20°C to -10°C. We show that the APS detector can operate with frame rates up to two hundred times faster than the CCD, without excessive degradation of image quality. The signal to noise of the APS is shown to be the same as that of the CCD at identical integration times and the response is shown to be linear, with no charge blooming effects. The experiment has allowed a direct comparison of back thinned APS and CCDs in a real soft x-ray synchrotron experiment.

  17. Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosol and cloud microphysics from the NASA Glory Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, B.; Chowdhary, J.; Knobelspiesse, K.; Sato, M.; Mishchenko, M.; Travis, L.

    2005-12-01

    Tropospheric aerosols play a crucial role in climate and can cause a climate forcing directly by absorbing and reflecting sunlight, thereby cooling or heating the atmosphere, and indirectly by modifying cloud properties. The indirect aerosol effect may include increased cloud brightness, as aerosols lead to a larger number of smaller cloud droplets (the so-called Twomey effect), and increased cloud cover, as smaller droplets inhibit rainfall and increase cloud lifetime. Both forcings are poorly understood and may represent the largest source of uncertainty about future climate change. In this paper we present results from various field experiments demonstrating the contribution that the multi-angle multi-spectral photopolarimetric remote sensing measurements of the NASA Glory APS will make to the determination of the direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols. Remote sensing of aerosols from satellites is plagued by the need to make prior assumptions about the composition and size of the aerosols that are present, whether this is to calculate the phase functions of the aerosols for passive remote sensing, or the extinction to backscatter ratio for elastic backscatter lidar measurements. Measurements made by the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) have demonstrated that many of these assumptions can be eliminated using polarimetric remote sensing and that it is possible to retrieve the optical depth, single scattering albedo, refractive index and the location and width of a bimodal size distribution. Moreover, polarimetric remote sensing provides this capability over both land and water surfaces. Measurements from the CLAMS and IHOP field experiments and over smoke from fires in Southern California have been used to demonstrate these capabilities and the ability to estimate the height of the aerosol layer if sufficient aerosol is present. In passive remote sensing of clouds it is generally the case that for water clouds the effective variance of the droplet

  18. CCD and APS/CMOS technology for smart pixels and image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, Peter; Blanc, Nicolas

    2004-02-01

    The relentless progress of semiconductor technology makes it possible to provide image sensors and pixels with additional analog and digital functionality. Growing experience with such photosensor functionality leads to the development of modular building blocks that can be employed for smart pixels, single-chip digital cameras and functional image sensors. Examples given include a non-linear pixel response circuit for high-dynamic range imaging offering a dynamic range of more than 180 dB, low-noise amplifiers and avalanche-effect pixels for high-sensitivity detection performance that approaches single-photoelectron resolution, lock-in pixels for optical time-of-flight range cameras with sub-centimeter distance resolution and in-pixel demodulation circuits for optical coherence tomography imaging. The future is seen in even higher levels of integration, such as system-on-a-chip machine vision cameras ("seeing chips"), post-processing with non-silicon materials for the extension of the detection range to the X-ray, ultraviolet and infrared spectrum, the exploitation of all properties of the incident light and imaging of fields other than electromagnetic radiation

  19. Micro Sun Sensor for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobasser, Sohrab; Liebe, Carl; Bae, Youngsam; Schroeder, Jeffrey; Wrigley, Chris

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the development of a compact micro Sun sensor for use as a part of the attitude determination subsystem aboard future miniature spacecraft and planetary robotic vehicles. The prototype unit has a mass of only 9 g, a volume of only 4.2 cm(sup 3), a power consumption of only 30 mW, and a 120 degree field of view. The unit has demonstrated an accuracy of 1 arcminute. The unit consists of a multiple pinhole camera: A micromachined mask containing a rectangular array of microscopic pinholes, machined utilizing the microectromechanical systems (MEMS), is mounted in front of an active-pixel sensor (APS) image detector. The APS consists of a 512 x 512-pixel array, on-chip 10-bit analog to digital converter (ADC), on-chip bias generation, and on-chip timing control for self-sequencing and easy programmability. The digitized output of the APS is processed to compute the centroids of the pinhole Sun images on the APS. The Sun angle, relative to a coordinate system fixed to the sensor unit, is then computed from the positions of the centroids.

  20. Image sensor with high dynamic range linear output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly (Inventor); Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Designs and operational methods to increase the dynamic range of image sensors and APS devices in particular by achieving more than one integration times for each pixel thereof. An APS system with more than one column-parallel signal chains for readout are described for maintaining a high frame rate in readout. Each active pixel is sampled for multiple times during a single frame readout, thus resulting in multiple integration times. The operation methods can also be used to obtain multiple integration times for each pixel with an APS design having a single column-parallel signal chain for readout. Furthermore, analog-to-digital conversion of high speed and high resolution can be implemented.

  1. Design of a Low-Light-Level Image Sensor with On-Chip Sigma-Delta Analog-to- Digital Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendis, Sunetra K.; Pain, Bedabrata; Nixon, Robert H.; Fossum, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    The design and projected performance of a low-light-level active-pixel-sensor (APS) chip with semi-parallel analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion is presented. The individual elements have been fabricated and tested using MOSIS* 2 micrometer CMOS technology, although the integrated system has not yet been fabricated. The imager consists of a 128 x 128 array of active pixels at a 50 micrometer pitch. Each column of pixels shares a 10-bit A/D converter based on first-order oversampled sigma-delta (Sigma-Delta) modulation. The 10-bit outputs of each converter are multiplexed and read out through a single set of outputs. A semi-parallel architecture is chosen to achieve 30 frames/second operation even at low light levels. The sensor is designed for less than 12 e^- rms noise performance.

  2. Active pixel imagers incorporating pixel-level amplifiers based on polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    El-Mohri, Youcef; Antonuk, Larry E; Koniczek, Martin; Zhao, Qihua; Li, Yixin; Street, Robert A; Lu, Jeng-Ping

    2009-07-01

    Active matrix, flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) employing a 2D matrix of a-Si addressing TFTs have become ubiquitous in many x-ray imaging applications due to their numerous advantages. However, under conditions of low exposures and/or high spatial resolution, their signal-to-noise performance is constrained by the modest system gain relative to the electronic additive noise. In this article, a strategy for overcoming this limitation through the incorporation of in-pixel amplification circuits, referred to as active pixel (AP) architectures, using polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) TFTs is reported. Compared to a-Si, poly-Si offers substantially higher mobilities, enabling higher TFT currents and the possibility of sophisticated AP designs based on both n- and p-channel TFTs. Three prototype indirect detection arrays employing poly-Si TFTs and a continuous a-Si photodiode structure were characterized. The prototypes consist of an array (PSI-1) that employs a pixel architecture with a single TFT, as well as two arrays (PSI-2 and PSI-3) that employ AP architectures based on three and five TFTs, respectively. While PSI-1 serves as a reference with a design similar to that of conventional AMFPI arrays, PSI-2 and PSI-3 incorporate additional in-pixel amplification circuitry. Compared to PSI-1, results of x-ray sensitivity demonstrate signal gains of approximately 10.7 and 20.9 for PSI-2 and PSI-3, respectively. These values are in reasonable agreement with design expectations, demonstrating that poly-Si AP circuits can be tailored to provide a desired level of signal gain. PSI-2 exhibits the same high levels of charge trapping as those observed for PSI-1 and other conventional arrays employing a continuous photodiode structure. For PSI-3, charge trapping was found to be significantly lower and largely independent of the bias voltage applied across the photodiode. MTF results indicate that the use of a continuous photodiode structure in PSI-1, PSI-2, and PSI-3 results in

  3. Active pixel imagers incorporating pixel-level amplifiers based on polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    El-Mohri, Youcef; Antonuk, Larry E.; Koniczek, Martin; Zhao Qihua; Li Yixin; Street, Robert A.; Lu Jengping

    2009-07-15

    Active matrix, flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) employing a 2D matrix of a-Si addressing TFTs have become ubiquitous in many x-ray imaging applications due to their numerous advantages. However, under conditions of low exposures and/or high spatial resolution, their signal-to-noise performance is constrained by the modest system gain relative to the electronic additive noise. In this article, a strategy for overcoming this limitation through the incorporation of in-pixel amplification circuits, referred to as active pixel (AP) architectures, using polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) TFTs is reported. Compared to a-Si, poly-Si offers substantially higher mobilities, enabling higher TFT currents and the possibility of sophisticated AP designs based on both n- and p-channel TFTs. Three prototype indirect detection arrays employing poly-Si TFTs and a continuous a-Si photodiode structure were characterized. The prototypes consist of an array (PSI-1) that employs a pixel architecture with a single TFT, as well as two arrays (PSI-2 and PSI-3) that employ AP architectures based on three and five TFTs, respectively. While PSI-1 serves as a reference with a design similar to that of conventional AMFPI arrays, PSI-2 and PSI-3 incorporate additional in-pixel amplification circuitry. Compared to PSI-1, results of x-ray sensitivity demonstrate signal gains of {approx}10.7 and 20.9 for PSI-2 and PSI-3, respectively. These values are in reasonable agreement with design expectations, demonstrating that poly-Si AP circuits can be tailored to provide a desired level of signal gain. PSI-2 exhibits the same high levels of charge trapping as those observed for PSI-1 and other conventional arrays employing a continuous photodiode structure. For PSI-3, charge trapping was found to be significantly lower and largely independent of the bias voltage applied across the photodiode. MTF results indicate that the use of a continuous photodiode structure in PSI-1, PSI-2, and PSI-3 results in optical

  4. Active pixel imagers incorporating pixel-level amplifiers based on polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors

    PubMed Central

    El-Mohri, Youcef; Antonuk, Larry E.; Koniczek, Martin; Zhao, Qihua; Li, Yixin; Street, Robert A.; Lu, Jeng-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Active matrix, flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) employing a 2D matrix of a-Si addressing TFTs have become ubiquitous in many x-ray imaging applications due to their numerous advantages. However, under conditions of low exposures and∕or high spatial resolution, their signal-to-noise performance is constrained by the modest system gain relative to the electronic additive noise. In this article, a strategy for overcoming this limitation through the incorporation of in-pixel amplification circuits, referred to as active pixel (AP) architectures, using polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) TFTs is reported. Compared to a-Si, poly-Si offers substantially higher mobilities, enabling higher TFT currents and the possibility of sophisticated AP designs based on both n- and p-channel TFTs. Three prototype indirect detection arrays employing poly-Si TFTs and a continuous a-Si photodiode structure were characterized. The prototypes consist of an array (PSI-1) that employs a pixel architecture with a single TFT, as well as two arrays (PSI-2 and PSI-3) that employ AP architectures based on three and five TFTs, respectively. While PSI-1 serves as a reference with a design similar to that of conventional AMFPI arrays, PSI-2 and PSI-3 incorporate additional in-pixel amplification circuitry. Compared to PSI-1, results of x-ray sensitivity demonstrate signal gains of ∼10.7 and 20.9 for PSI-2 and PSI-3, respectively. These values are in reasonable agreement with design expectations, demonstrating that poly-Si AP circuits can be tailored to provide a desired level of signal gain. PSI-2 exhibits the same high levels of charge trapping as those observed for PSI-1 and other conventional arrays employing a continuous photodiode structure. For PSI-3, charge trapping was found to be significantly lower and largely independent of the bias voltage applied across the photodiode. MTF results indicate that the use of a continuous photodiode structure in PSI-1, PSI-2, and PSI-3 results in optical fill

  5. Active pixel sensor pixel having a photodetector whose output is coupled to an output transistor gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Nakamura, Junichi (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node. There is also a readout circuit, part of which can be disposed at the bottom of each column of cells and be common to all the cells in the column. A Simple Floating Gate (SFG) pixel structure could also be employed in the imager to provide a non-destructive readout and smaller pixel sizes.

  6. Active pixel sensor having intra-pixel charge transfer with analog-to-digital converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra K. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Zhou, Zhimin (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node and an analog-to-digital converter formed in the substrate connected to the output of the readout circuit.

  7. Active pixel sensor having intra-pixel charge transfer with analog-to-digital converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra K. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Zhou, Zhimin (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor Integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node and an analog-to-digital converter formed in the substrate connected to the output of the readout circuit.

  8. Active pixel image sensor with a winner-take-all mode of operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly (Inventor); Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mead, Carver (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An integrated CMOS semiconductor imaging device having two modes of operation that can be performed simultaneously to produce an output image and provide information of a brightest or darkest pixel in the image.

  9. DynAMITe: a prototype large area CMOS APS for breast cancer diagnosis using x-ray diffraction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinidis, A.; Anaxagoras, T.; Esposito, M.; Allinson, N.; Speller, R.

    2012-03-01

    X-ray diffraction studies are used to identify specific materials. Several laboratory-based x-ray diffraction studies were made for breast cancer diagnosis. Ideally a large area, low noise, linear and wide dynamic range digital x-ray detector is required to perform x-ray diffraction measurements. Recently, digital detectors based on Complementary Metal-Oxide- Semiconductor (CMOS) Active Pixel Sensor (APS) technology have been used in x-ray diffraction studies. Two APS detectors, namely Vanilla and Large Area Sensor (LAS), were developed by the Multidimensional Integrated Intelligent Imaging (MI-3) consortium to cover a range of scientific applications including x-ray diffraction. The MI-3 Plus consortium developed a novel large area APS, named as Dynamically Adjustable Medical Imaging Technology (DynAMITe), to combine the key characteristics of Vanilla and LAS with a number of extra features. The active area (12.8 × 13.1 cm2) of DynaMITe offers the ability of angle dispersive x-ray diffraction (ADXRD). The current study demonstrates the feasibility of using DynaMITe for breast cancer diagnosis by identifying six breast-equivalent plastics. Further work will be done to optimize the system in order to perform ADXRD for identification of suspicious areas of breast tissue following a conventional mammogram taken with the same sensor.

  10. Using a large area CMOS APS for direct chemiluminescence detection in Western blotting electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Michela; Newcombe, Jane; Anaxagoras, Thalis; Allinson, Nigel M.; Wells, Kevin

    2012-03-01

    Western blotting electrophoretic sequencing is an analytical technique widely used in Functional Proteomics to detect, recognize and quantify specific labelled proteins in biological samples. A commonly used label for western blotting is Enhanced ChemiLuminescence (ECL) reagents based on fluorescent light emission of Luminol at 425nm. Film emulsion is the conventional detection medium, but is characterized by non-linear response and limited dynamic range. Several western blotting digital imaging systems have being developed, mainly based on the use of cooled Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) and single avalanche diodes that address these issues. Even so these systems present key drawbacks, such as a low frame rate and require operation at low temperature. Direct optical detection using Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Active Pixel Sensors (APS)could represent a suitable digital alternative for this application. In this paper the authors demonstrate the viability of direct chemiluminescent light detection in western blotting electrophoresis using a CMOS APS at room temperature. Furthermore, in recent years, improvements in fabrication techniques have made available reliable processes for very large imagers, which can be now scaled up to wafer size, allowing direct contact imaging of full size western blotting samples. We propose using a novel wafer scale APS (12.8 cm×13.2 cm), with an array architecture using two different pixel geometries that can deliver an inherently low noise and high dynamic range image at the same time representing a dramatic improvement with respect to the current western blotting imaging systems.

  11. A Brightness-Referenced Star Identification Algorithm for APS Star Trackers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan; Liu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Star trackers are currently the most accurate spacecraft attitude sensors. As a result, they are widely used in remote sensing satellites. Since traditional charge-coupled device (CCD)-based star trackers have a limited sensitivity range and dynamic range, the matching process for a star tracker is typically not very sensitive to star brightness. For active pixel sensor (APS) star trackers, the intensity of an imaged star is valuable information that can be used in star identification process. In this paper an improved brightness referenced star identification algorithm is presented. This algorithm utilizes the k-vector search theory and adds imaged stars' intensities to narrow the search scope and therefore increase the efficiency of the matching process. Based on different imaging conditions (slew, bright bodies, etc.) the developed matching algorithm operates in one of two identification modes: a three-star mode, and a four-star mode. If the reference bright stars (the stars brighter than three magnitude) show up, the algorithm runs the three-star mode and efficiency is further improved. The proposed method was compared with other two distinctive methods the pyramid and geometric voting methods. All three methods were tested with simulation data and actual in orbit data from the APS star tracker of ZY-3. Using a catalog composed of 1500 stars, the results show that without false stars the efficiency of this new method is 4∼5 times that of the pyramid method and 35∼37 times that of the geometric method. PMID:25299950

  12. A brightness-referenced star identification algorithm for APS star trackers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan; Liu, Ning

    2014-10-08

    Star trackers are currently the most accurate spacecraft attitude sensors. As a result, they are widely used in remote sensing satellites. Since traditional charge-coupled device (CCD)-based star trackers have a limited sensitivity range and dynamic range, the matching process for a star tracker is typically not very sensitive to star brightness. For active pixel sensor (APS) star trackers, the intensity of an imaged star is valuable information that can be used in star identification process. In this paper an improved brightness referenced star identification algorithm is presented. This algorithm utilizes the k-vector search theory and adds imaged stars' intensities to narrow the search scope and therefore increase the efficiency of the matching process. Based on different imaging conditions (slew, bright bodies, etc.) the developed matching algorithm operates in one of two identification modes: a three-star mode, and a four-star mode. If the reference bright stars (the stars brighter than three magnitude) show up, the algorithm runs the three-star mode and efficiency is further improved. The proposed method was compared with other two distinctive methods the pyramid and geometric voting methods. All three methods were tested with simulation data and actual in orbit data from the APS star tracker of ZY-3. Using a catalog composed of 1500 stars, the results show that without false stars the efficiency of this new method is 4~5 times that of the pyramid method and 35~37 times that of the geometric method.

  13. Complement-mediated opsonization of invasive group A Streptococcus pyogenes strain AP53 is regulated by the bacterial two-component cluster of virulence responder/sensor (CovRS) system.

    PubMed

    Agrahari, Garima; Liang, Zhong; Mayfield, Jeffrey A; Balsara, Rashna D; Ploplis, Victoria A; Castellino, Francis J

    2013-09-20

    Group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) strain AP53 is a primary isolate from a patient with necrotizing fasciitis. These AP53 cells contain an inactivating mutation in the sensor component of the cluster of virulence (cov) responder (R)/sensor (S) two-component gene regulatory system (covRS), which enhances the virulence of the primary strain, AP53/covR(+)S(-). However, specific mechanisms by which the covRS system regulates the survival of GAS in humans are incomplete. Here, we show a key role for covRS in the regulation of opsonophagocytosis of AP53 by human neutrophils. AP53/covR(+)S(-) cells displayed potent binding of host complement inhibitors of C3 convertase, viz. Factor H (FH) and C4-binding protein (C4BP), which concomitantly led to minimal C3b deposition on AP53 cells, further showing that these plasma protein inhibitors are active on GAS cells. This resulted in weak killing of the bacteria by human neutrophils and a corresponding high death rate of mice after injection of these cells. After targeted allelic alteration of covS(-) to wild-type covS (covS(+)), a dramatic loss of FH and C4BP binding to the AP53/covR(+)S(+) cells was observed. This resulted in elevated C3b deposition on AP53/covR(+)S(+) cells, a high level of opsonophagocytosis by human neutrophils, and a very low death rate of mice infected with AP53/covR(+)S(+). We show that covRS is a critical transcriptional regulator of genes directing AP53 killing by neutrophils and regulates the levels of the receptors for FH and C4BP, which we identify as the products of the fba and enn genes, respectively.

  14. Proton-counting radiography for proton therapy: a proof of principle using CMOS APS technology

    PubMed Central

    Poludniowski, G; Allinson, N M; Anaxagoras, T; Esposito, M; Green, S; Manolopoulos, S; Nieto-Camero, J; Parker, D J; Price, T; Evans, P M

    2014-01-01

    Despite the early recognition of the potential of proton imaging to assist proton therapy the modality is still removed from clinical practice, with various approaches in development. For proton-counting radiography applications such as Computed Tomography (CT), the Water-Equivalent-Path-Length (WEPL) that each proton has travelled through an imaged object must be inferred. Typically, scintillator-based technology has been used in various energy/range telescope designs. Here we propose a very different alternative of using radiation-hard CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) technology. The ability of such a sensor to resolve the passage of individual protons in a therapy beam has not been previously shown. Here, such capability is demonstrated using a 36 MeV cyclotron beam (University of Birmingham Cyclotron, Birmingham, UK) and a 200 MeV clinical radiotherapy beam (iThemba LABS, Cape Town, SA). The feasibility of tracking individual protons through multiple CMOS layers is also demonstrated using a two-layer stack of sensors. The chief advantages of this solution are the spatial discrimination of events intrinsic to pixelated sensors, combined with the potential provision of information on both the range and residual energy of a proton. The challenges in developing a practical system are discussed. PMID:24785680

  15. MONOLITHIC ACTIVE PIXEL MATRIX WITH BINARY COUNTERS IN AN SOI PROCESS.

    SciTech Connect

    DUPTUCH,G.; YAREMA, R.

    2007-06-07

    The design of a Prototype monolithic active pixel matrix, designed in a 0.15 {micro}m CMOS SOI Process, is presented. The process allowed connection between the electronics and the silicon volume under the layer of buried oxide (BOX). The small size vias traversing through the BOX and implantation of small p-type islands in the n-type bulk result in a monolithic imager. During the acquisition time, all pixels register individual radiation events incrementing the counters. The counting rate is up to 1 MHz per pixel. The contents of counters are shifted out during the readout phase. The designed prototype is an array of 64 x 64 pixels and the pixel size is 26 x 26 {micro}m{sup 2}.

  16. Flight Qualified Micro Sun Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Mobasser, Sohrab; Wrigley, Chris; Schroeder, Jeffrey; Bae, Youngsam; Naegle, James; Katanyoutanant, Sunant; Jerebets, Sergei; Schatzel, Donald; Lee, Choonsup

    2007-01-01

    A prototype small, lightweight micro Sun sensor (MSS) has been flight qualified as part of the attitude-determination system of a spacecraft or for Mars surface operations. The MSS has previously been reported at a very early stage of development in NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 1 (January 2004). An MSS is essentially a miniature multiple-pinhole electronic camera combined with digital processing electronics that functions analogously to a sundial. A micromachined mask containing a number of microscopic pinholes is mounted in front of an active-pixel sensor (APS). Electronic circuits for controlling the operation of the APS, readout from the pixel photodetectors, and analog-to-digital conversion are all integrated onto the same chip along with the APS. The digital processing includes computation of the centroids of the pinhole Sun images on the APS. The spacecraft computer has the task of converting the Sun centroids into Sun angles utilizing a calibration polynomial. The micromachined mask comprises a 500-micron-thick silicon wafer, onto which is deposited a 57-nm-thick chromium adhesion- promotion layer followed by a 200-nm-thick gold light-absorption layer. The pinholes, 50 microns in diameter, are formed in the gold layer by photolithography. The chromium layer is thin enough to be penetrable by an amount of Sunlight adequate to form measurable pinhole images. A spacer frame between the mask and the APS maintains a gap of .1 mm between the pinhole plane and the photodetector plane of the APS. To minimize data volume, mass, and power consumption, the digital processing of the APS readouts takes place in a single field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The particular FPGA is a radiation- tolerant unit that contains .32,000 gates. No external memory is used so the FPGA calculates the centroids in real time as pixels are read off the APS with minimal internal memory. To enable the MSS to fit into a small package, the APS, the FPGA, and other components are mounted

  17. High-speed binary CMOS image sensor using a high-responsivity MOSFET-type photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byoung-Soo; Jo, Sung-Hyun; Bae, Myunghan; Choi, Pyung; Shin, Jang-Kyoo

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) binary image sensor based on a gate/body-tied (GBT) MOSFET-type photodetector is proposed. The proposed CMOS binary image sensor was simulated and measured using a standard CMOS 0.18-μm process. The GBT MOSFET-type photodetector is composed of a floating gate (n+- polysilicon) tied to the body (n-well) of the p-type MOSFET. The size of the active pixel sensor (APS) using GBT photodetector is smaller than that of APS using the photodiode. This means that the resolution of the image can be increased. The high-gain GBT photodetector has a higher photosensitivity compared to the p-n junction photodiode that is used in a conventional APS. Because GBT has a high sensitivity, fast operation of the binary processing is possible. A CMOS image sensor with the binary processing can be designed with simple circuits composed of a comparator and a Dflip- flop while a complex analog to digital converter (ADC) is not required. In addition, the binary image sensor has low power consumption and high speed operation with the ability to switch back and forth between a binary mode and an analog mode.

  18. Vision Sensors and Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Silicon charge-coupled-device (CCD) imagers have been and are a specialty market ruled by a few companies for decades. Based on CMOS technologies, active-pixel sensors (APS) began to appear in 1990 at the 1 μm technology node. These pixels allow random access, global shutters, and they are compatible with focal-plane imaging systems combining sensing and first-level image processing. The progress towards smaller features and towards ultra-low leakage currents has provided reduced dark currents and μm-size pixels. All chips offer Mega-pixel resolution, and many have very high sensitivities equivalent to ASA 12.800. As a result, HDTV video cameras will become a commodity. Because charge-integration sensors suffer from a limited dynamic range, significant processing effort is spent on multiple exposure and piece-wise analog-digital conversion to reach ranges >10,000:1. The fundamental alternative is log-converting pixels with an eye-like response. This offers a range of almost a million to 1, constant contrast sensitivity and constant colors, important features in professional, technical and medical applications. 3D retino-morphic stacking of sensing and processing on top of each other is being revisited with sub-100 nm CMOS circuits and with TSV technology. With sensor outputs directly on top of neurons, neural focal-plane processing will regain momentum, and new levels of intelligent vision will be achieved. The industry push towards thinned wafers and TSV enables backside-illuminated and other pixels with a 100% fill-factor. 3D vision, which relies on stereo or on time-of-flight, high-speed circuitry, will also benefit from scaled-down CMOS technologies both because of their size as well as their higher speed.

  19. Predicted image quality of a CMOS APS X-ray detector across a range of mammographic beam qualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinidis, A.

    2015-09-01

    Digital X-ray detectors based on Complementary Metal-Oxide- Semiconductor (CMOS) Active Pixel Sensor (APS) technology have been introduced in the early 2000s in medical imaging applications. In a previous study the X-ray performance (i.e. presampling Modulation Transfer Function (pMTF), Normalized Noise Power Spectrum (NNPS), Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE)) of the Dexela 2923MAM CMOS APS X-ray detector was evaluated within the mammographic energy range using monochromatic synchrotron radiation (i.e. 17-35 keV). In this study image simulation was used to predict how the mammographic beam quality affects image quality. In particular, the experimentally measured monochromatic pMTF, NNPS and SNR parameters were combined with various mammographic spectral shapes (i.e. Molybdenum/Molybdenum (Mo/Mo), Rhodium/Rhodium (Rh/Rh), Tungsten/Aluminium (W/Al) and Tungsten/Rhodium (W/Rh) anode/filtration combinations at 28 kV). The image quality was measured in terms of Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR) using a synthetic breast phantom (4 cm thick with 50% glandularity). The results can be used to optimize the imaging conditions in order to minimize patient's Mean Glandular Dose (MGD).

  20. A Low-Power High-Speed Smart Sensor Design for Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Wai-Chi

    1997-01-01

    A low-power high-speed smart sensor system based on a large format active pixel sensor (APS) integrated with a programmable neural processor for space exploration missions is presented. The concept of building an advanced smart sensing system is demonstrated by a system-level microchip design that is composed with an APS sensor, a programmable neural processor, and an embedded microprocessor in a SOI CMOS technology. This ultra-fast smart sensor system-on-a-chip design mimics what is inherent in biological vision systems. Moreover, it is programmable and capable of performing ultra-fast machine vision processing in all levels such as image acquisition, image fusion, image analysis, scene interpretation, and control functions. The system provides about one tera-operation-per-second computing power which is a two order-of-magnitude increase over that of state-of-the-art microcomputers. Its high performance is due to massively parallel computing structures, high data throughput rates, fast learning capabilities, and advanced VLSI system-on-a-chip implementation.

  1. Design, optimization and evaluation of a "smart" pixel sensor array for low-dose digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Xinghui; Ou, Hai; Chen, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been widely used to build flat-panel X-ray detectors for digital radiography (DR). As the demand for low-dose X-ray imaging grows, a detector with high signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) pixel architecture emerges. "Smart" pixel is intended to use a dual-gate photosensitive TFT for sensing, storage, and switch. It differs from a conventional passive pixel sensor (PPS) and active pixel sensor (APS) in that all these three functions are combined into one device instead of three separate units in a pixel. Thus, it is expected to have high fill factor and high spatial resolution. In addition, it utilizes the amplification effect of the dual-gate photosensitive TFT to form a one-transistor APS that leads to a potentially high SNR. This paper addresses the design, optimization and evaluation of the smart pixel sensor and array for low-dose DR. We will design and optimize the smart pixel from the scintillator to TFT levels and validate it through optical and electrical simulation and experiments of a 4x4 sensor array.

  2. The DEPFET Sensor-Amplifier Structure: A Method to Beat 1/f Noise and Reach Sub-Electron Noise in Pixel Detectors.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Gerhard; Porro, Matteo; Aschauer, Stefan; Wölfel, Stefan; Strüder, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    Depleted field effect transistors (DEPFET) are used to achieve very low noise signal charge readout with sub-electron measurement precision. This is accomplished by repeatedly reading an identical charge, thereby suppressing not only the white serial noise but also the usually constant 1/f noise. The repetitive non-destructive readout (RNDR) DEPFET is an ideal central element for an active pixel sensor (APS) pixel. The theory has been derived thoroughly and results have been verified on RNDR-DEPFET prototypes. A charge measurement precision of 0.18 electrons has been achieved. The device is well-suited for spectroscopic X-ray imaging and for optical photon counting in pixel sensors, even at high photon numbers in the same cell. PMID:27136549

  3. The DEPFET Sensor-Amplifier Structure: A Method to Beat 1/f Noise and Reach Sub-Electron Noise in Pixel Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Gerhard; Porro, Matteo; Aschauer, Stefan; Wölfel, Stefan; Strüder, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    Depleted field effect transistors (DEPFET) are used to achieve very low noise signal charge readout with sub-electron measurement precision. This is accomplished by repeatedly reading an identical charge, thereby suppressing not only the white serial noise but also the usually constant 1/f noise. The repetitive non-destructive readout (RNDR) DEPFET is an ideal central element for an active pixel sensor (APS) pixel. The theory has been derived thoroughly and results have been verified on RNDR-DEPFET prototypes. A charge measurement precision of 0.18 electrons has been achieved. The device is well-suited for spectroscopic X-ray imaging and for optical photon counting in pixel sensors, even at high photon numbers in the same cell. PMID:27136549

  4. Carrier Plus: A sensor payload for Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed (LWS/SET)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Cheryl J.; Moss, Steven; Howard, Regan; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Grycewicz, Tom; Barth, Janet L.; Brewer, Dana

    2003-01-01

    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTR4) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center are collaborating to develop the Carrier Plus sensor experiment platform as a capability of the Space Environments Testbed (SET). The Space Environment Testbed (SET) provides flight opportunities for technology experiments as part of NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) program. The Carrier Plus will provide new capability to characterize sensor technologies such as state-of-the-art visible focal plane arrays (FPAs) in a natural space radiation environment. The technical objectives include on-orbit validation of recently developed FPA technologies and performance prediction methodologies, as well as characterization of the FPA radiation response to total ionizing dose damage, displacement damage and transients. It is expected that the sensor experiment will carry 4-6 FPAs and associated radiation correlative environment monitors (CEMs) for a 2006-2007 launch. Sensor technology candidates may include n- and p-charge coupled devices (CCDs), active pixel sensors (APS), and hybrid CMOS arrays. The presentation will describe the Carrier Plus goals and objectives, as well as provide details about the architecture and design. More information on the LWS program can be found at http://lws.gsfc.nasa.gov/. Business announcements for LWS/SET and program briefings are posted at http://lws-set.gsfc.nasa.gov

  5. Low-FPN high-gain capacitive transimpedance amplifier for low-noise CMOS image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Boyd A.; Balicki, Janusz; How, Dana; Godfrey, Michael

    2001-05-01

    In this paper we introduce a low fixed pattern noise (LFPN) capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) for active pixel CMOS image sensors (APS) with high switchable gain and low read noise. The LFPN CTIA APS uses a switched capacitor voltage divider feedback circuit to achieve high sensitivity, low gain FPN, and low read noise. This paper discusses the operation of the LFPN CTIA APS, and presents a theoretical analysis of its gain FPN and read noise. We do not analyze the effect of 1/f noise, since it is typically much smaller than the thermal and shot noise effects. Monte Carlo simulation of gain FPN and SPICE simulation of read noise are also presented. For a 0.35 micrometers CMOS LFPN CTIA at room temperature and an output data rate of 16Mpixel/sec, we show that the pixel amplifier gain FPN is less than 0.0064, where FPN is defined as the ratio of standard deviation to mean. The read noise and dynamic range are less than 3 electrons RMS and greater than 90dB respectively. We find that theory and simulated results match closely.

  6. Chromatic Modulator for a High-Resolution CCD or APS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank; Hull, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    A chromatic modulator has been proposed to enable the separate detection of the red, green, and blue (RGB) color components of the same scene by a single charge-coupled device (CCD), active-pixel sensor (APS), or similar electronic image detector. Traditionally, the RGB color-separation problem in an electronic camera has been solved by use of either (1) fixed color filters over three separate image detectors; (2) a filter wheel that repeatedly imposes a red, then a green, then a blue filter over a single image detector; or (3) different fixed color filters over adjacent pixels. The use of separate image detectors necessitates precise registration of the detectors and the use of complicated optics; filter wheels are expensive and add considerably to the bulk of the camera; and fixed pixelated color filters reduce spatial resolution and introduce color-aliasing effects. The proposed chromatic modulator would not exhibit any of these shortcomings. The proposed chromatic modulator would be an electromechanical device fabricated by micromachining. It would include a filter having a spatially periodic pattern of RGB strips at a pitch equal to that of the pixels of the image detector. The filter would be placed in front of the image detector, supported at its periphery by a spring suspension and electrostatic comb drive. The spring suspension would bias the filter toward a middle position in which each filter strip would be registered with a row of pixels of the image detector. Hard stops would limit the excursion of the spring suspension to precisely one pixel row above and one pixel row below the middle position. In operation, the electrostatic comb drive would be actuated to repeatedly snap the filter to the upper extreme, middle, and lower extreme positions. This action would repeatedly place a succession of the differently colored filter strips in front of each pixel of the image detector. To simplify the processing, it would be desirable to encode information on

  7. AP Music Theory Applied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieker, Matthew H.

    2016-01-01

    Some American high schools include Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory within their course offerings. Students who pass the AP exam can receive college credit either as a music or humanities credit. An AP class, however, offers music students more than future college credit; it ultimately improves musicianship skills and promotes deeper…

  8. Image Sensors Enhance Camera Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    In the 1990s, a Jet Propulsion Laboratory team led by Eric Fossum researched ways of improving complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors in order to miniaturize cameras on spacecraft while maintaining scientific image quality. Fossum s team founded a company to commercialize the resulting CMOS active pixel sensor. Now called the Aptina Imaging Corporation, based in San Jose, California, the company has shipped over 1 billion sensors for use in applications such as digital cameras, camera phones, Web cameras, and automotive cameras. Today, one of every three cell phone cameras on the planet feature Aptina s sensor technology.

  9. AP-Gate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Glenn

    2003-01-01

    In May 2001, students in the author's Advanced Placement (AP) United States History class were embroiled in a controversy surrounding the AP exam, in particular, having access to the exam's Document Based Question (DBQ) and free response portion prior to the test's administration. Prior to the exam, the College Board had provided a fifty-year time…

  10. CMOS foveal image sensor chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandera, Cesar (Inventor); Scott, Peter (Inventor); Sridhar, Ramalingam (Inventor); Xia, Shu (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A foveal image sensor integrated circuit comprising a plurality of CMOS active pixel sensors arranged both within and about a central fovea region of the chip. The pixels in the central fovea region have a smaller size than the pixels arranged in peripheral rings about the central region. A new photocharge normalization scheme and associated circuitry normalizes the output signals from the different size pixels in the array. The pixels are assembled into a multi-resolution rectilinear foveal image sensor chip using a novel access scheme to reduce the number of analog RAM cells needed. Localized spatial resolution declines monotonically with offset from the imager's optical axis, analogous to biological foveal vision.

  11. APS Science 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J. M.; Fenner, R. B.; Long, G.; Borland, M.; Decker, G.

    2007-05-24

    In my five years as the Director of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), I have been fortunate to see major growth in the scientific impact from the APS. This year I am particularly enthusiastic about prospects for our longer-term future. Every scientific instrument must remain at the cutting edge to flourish. Our plans for the next generation of APS--an APS upgrade--got seriously in gear this year with strong encouragement from our users and sponsors. The most promising avenue that has emerged is the energy-recovery linac (ERL) (see article on page xx), for which we are beginning serious R&D. The ERL{at}APS would offer revolutionary performance, especially for x-ray imaging and ultrafast science, while not seriously disrupting the existing user base. I am very proud of our accelerator physics and engineering staff, who not only keep the current APS at the forefront, but were able to greatly impress our international Machine Advisory Committee with the quality of their work on the possible upgrade option (see page xx). As we prepare for long-term major upgrades, our plans to develop and optimize all the sectors at APS in the near future are advancing. Several new beamlines saw first light this year, including a dedicated powder diffraction beamline (11-BM), two instruments for inelastic x-ray scattering at sector 30, and the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) Nanoprobe beamline at sector 26. Our partnership in the first x-ray free-electron laser (LCLS) to be built at Stanford contributes to revolutionary growth in ultrafast science (see page xx), and we are developing a pulse chirping scheme to get ps pulses at sector 7 of the APS within a year or so. In this report, you will find selected highlights of scientific research at the APS from calendar year 2006. The highlighted work covers diverse disciplines, from fundamental to applied science. In the article on page xx you can see the direct impact of APS research on technology. Several new products have emerged from

  12. Autoantibody profiling in APS.

    PubMed

    Roggenbuck, D; Somma, V; Schierack, P; Borghi, M O; Meroni, P L

    2014-10-01

    The international consensus for the classification of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) requires clinical and laboratory criteria to be considered at an equal level for diagnosing APS. Thus, detection of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) being a hallmark of APS has been the object of intensive investigation over the past 40 years. However, appropriate detection of aPL still remains a laboratory challenge due to their heterogeneity comprising autoantibodies reactive to different phospholipid-binding plasma proteins, such as beta-2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI) and prothrombin. The relevance of aPL interacting with phospholipids other than cardiolipin (CL, diphosphatidylglycerol), such as phosphatidylserine (PS), remains elusive with regard to the diagnosis of APS. Recently, the concept of aPL profiling has been introduced to assess the risk of thrombotic complications in patients with APS. New assay techniques, apart from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) recommended by the international consensus for the classification of APS, have been proposed for multiplexing of aPL testing. Line immunoassays (LIAs) employing a novel hydrophobic solid phase for the simultaneous detection of different aPL seem to be an intriguing alternative. We evaluated a novel multiplex LIA employing a hydrophobic membrane coated with different phospholipid (PL)-binding proteins or PLs. The performance characteristics of this new multiplexing assay technique demonstrated its usefulness for aPL profiling.

  13. APS Science 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J. M; Mills, D. M.; Gerig, R.

    2010-05-01

    It is my pleasure to introduce the 2009 annual report of the Advanced Photon Source. This was a very good year for us. We operated with high reliability and availability, despite growing problems with obsolete systems, and our users produced a record output of publications. The number of user experiments increased by 14% from 2008 to more than 3600. We congratulate the recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry-Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (Cambridge Institute for Medical Research), Thomas Steitz (Yale University), and Ada Yonath (Weizmann Institute) - who did a substantial amount of this work at APS beamlines. Thanks to the efforts of our users and staff, and the ongoing counsel of the APS Scientific Advisory Committee, we made major progress in advancing our planning for the upgrade of the APS (APS-U), producing a proposal that was positively reviewed. We hope to get formal approval in 2010 to begin the upgrade. With advocacy from our users and the support of our sponsor, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, our operating budgets have grown to the level needed to more adequately staff our beamlines. We were also extremely fortunate to have received $7.9 M in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ('stimulus') funding to acquire new detectors and improve several of our beamlines. The success of the new Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford, the world's first x-ray free-electron laser, made us particularly proud since the undulators were designed and built by the APS. Among other highlights, we note that more than one-quarter of the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers, funded competitively across the U.S. in 2009 by the DOE, included the Advanced Photon Source in their proposed work, which shows that synchrotron radiation, and the APS in particular, are central to energy research. While APS research covers everything from fundamental to applied science (reflected by the highlights in this report), the challenge

  14. Radiation characteristics of scintillator coupled CMOS APS for radiography conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Soongpyung; Kang, Dong-Won; Kim, Dong-Kie

    2006-11-01

    Under industrial radiography conditions, we analyzed short-term radiation characteristics of scintillator coupled CMOS APS (hereinafter SC CMOS APS). By means of experimentation, the contribution of the transmitted X-ray through the scintillator to the properties of the CMOS APS and the afterimage, generated in the acquired image even at low dose condition, were investigated. To see the transmitted X-ray effects on the CMOS APS, Fein focus™ X-ray machine, two scintillators of Lanex™ Fine and Regular, and two CMOS APS array of RadEye™ were used under the conditions of 50 kV p/1 mAs and 100 kV p/1 mAs. By measuring the transmitted X-ray on signal and Noise Power Spectrum, we analytically examined the generation mechanism of the afterimage, based on dark signal or dark current increase in the sensor, and explained the afterimage in the SC CMOS APS.

  15. A high-speed CMOS image sensor with column-parallel single capacitor CDSs and single-slope ADCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Quanliang; Shi, Cong; Wu, Nanjian

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a high speed CMOS image sensor (CIS) with column-parallel single capacitor correlated double samplings (CDSs), programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs) and single-slope analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The single capacitor CDS circuit has only one capacitor so that the area CDS circuit is small. In order to attain appropriate image contrast under different light conditions, the signal range can be adjusted by PGA. Single-slope ADC has smaller chip area than others ADCs and is suitable for column-parallel CIS architectures. A prototype sensor of 256x256 pixels was realized in a 0.13μm 1P3M CIS process. Its pixel circuit is 4T active pixel sensor (APS) and pixel size is 10x10μm2. Total chip area is 4x4mm2. The prototype achieves the full frame rate in excess of 250 frames per second, the sensitivity of 10.7V/lx•s, the conversion gain of 55.6μV/e and the column-to- column fixed-pattern noise (FPN) 0.41%.

  16. The antimicrobial peptide-sensing system aps of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Cha, David J; Lai, Yuping; Villaruz, Amer E; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Otto, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of hospital-associated and, more recently, community-associated infections caused by highly virulent methicillin-resistant strains (CA-MRSA). S. aureus survival in the human host is largely defined by the ability to evade attacks by antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and other mechanisms of innate host defence. Here we show that AMPs induce resistance mechanisms in CA-MRSA via the aps AMP sensor/regulator system, including (i) the d-alanylation of teichoic acids, (ii) the incorporation of lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol in the bacterial membrane and a concomitant increase in lysine biosynthesis, and (iii) putative AMP transport systems such as the vraFG transporter, for which we demonstrate a function in AMP resistance. In contrast to the aps system of S. epidermidis, induction of the aps response in S. aureus was AMP-selective due to structural differences in the AMP binding loop of the ApsS sensor protein. Finally, using a murine infection model, we demonstrate the importance of the aps regulatory system in S. aureus infection. This study shows that while significant interspecies differences exist in the AMP-aps interaction, the AMP sensor system aps is functional and efficient in promoting resistance to a variety of AMPs in a clinically relevant strain of the important human pathogen S. aureus.

  17. Prospects and limitations of DEPFET active pixel sensors as high speed spectroscopic x-ray imager for the ATHENA wide field imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschauer, S.; Bähr, A.; Lutz, G.; Majewski, P.; Strüder, L.; Treis, J.

    2014-07-01

    Since many years DEPFETs have been developed for space and ground based X-ray imaging and spectroscopy experiments. Prototypes have been successfully tested and qualified. Over the past years, the DEPFET technology was improved and additional features of DEPFETs were developed: increase of dynamic range, improvement of radiation hardness, implementation of electronic shutters, integration of an analog storage, reduction of readout noise and improvement of the low energy performance. This paper will present two novel DEPFET concepts which are able to fulfill the demanding requirements of the proposed ATHENA Wide Field Imager. It will summarize the most important DEPFET characteristics on the basis of measurements and device simulations, taking into account the given boundary conditions of the mission.

  18. APS power supply controls

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, C.W.; Despe, O.D.

    1994-03-31

    The purpose of this document is to provide comprehensive coverage of the APS power supply control design. This includes application software, embedded controller software, networks, and hardware. The basic components will be introduced first, followed by the requirements driving the overall design. Subsequent sections will address each component of the design one by one. Latter sections will address specific applications.

  19. Advancing beyond AP Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    A quiet revolution is picking up steam in the nation's private secondary schools, with broad implications for college admissions and for teaching and learning on both sides of the transition from high school to college. About 50 of the nation's leading college-preparatory schools have opted out of the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP)…

  20. APS Science 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-05-30

    This report provides research highlights from the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Although these highlights represent less than 10% of the published work from the APS in 2007, they give a flavor of the diversity and impact of user research at the facility. In the strategic planning the aim is to foster the growth of existing user communities and foresee new areas of research. This coming year finds the APS engaged in putting together, along with the users, a blueprint for the next five years, and making the case for a set of prioritized investments in beamlines, the accelerator, and infrastructure, each of which will be transformational in terms of scientific impact. As this is written plans are being formulated for an important user workshop on October 20-21, 2008, to prioritize strategic plans. The fruit from past investments can be seen in this report. Examples include the creation of a dedicated beamline for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at Sector 8, the evolution of dedicated high-energy x-ray scattering beamlines at sectors 1 and 11, a dedicated imaging beamline at Sector 32, and new beamlines for inelastic scattering and powder diffraction. A single-pulse facility has been built in collaboration with Sector 14 (BioCARS) and Phil Anfinrud at the National Institutes of Health, which will offer exceptionally high flux for single-pulse diffraction. The nanoprobe at Sector 26, built and operated jointly by the Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials and the X-ray Operations and Research (XOR) section of the APS X-ray Science Division, has come on line to define the state of the art in nanoscience.

  1. A two-step A/D conversion and column self-calibration technique for low noise CMOS image sensors.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jaeyoung; Kim, Daeyun; Ham, Seokheon; Chae, Youngcheol; Song, Minkyu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a 120 frames per second (fps) low noise CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) based on a Two-Step Single Slope ADC (TS SS ADC) and column self-calibration technique is proposed. The TS SS ADC is suitable for high speed video systems because its conversion speed is much faster (by more than 10 times) than that of the Single Slope ADC (SS ADC). However, there exist some mismatching errors between the coarse block and the fine block due to the 2-step operation of the TS SS ADC. In general, this makes it difficult to implement the TS SS ADC beyond a 10-bit resolution. In order to improve such errors, a new 4-input comparator is discussed and a high resolution TS SS ADC is proposed. Further, a feedback circuit that enables column self-calibration to reduce the Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN) is also described. The proposed chip has been fabricated with 0.13 μm Samsung CIS technology and the chip satisfies the VGA resolution. The pixel is based on the 4-TR Active Pixel Sensor (APS). The high frame rate of 120 fps is achieved at the VGA resolution. The measured FPN is 0.38 LSB, and measured dynamic range is about 64.6 dB.

  2. A two-step A/D conversion and column self-calibration technique for low noise CMOS image sensors.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jaeyoung; Kim, Daeyun; Ham, Seokheon; Chae, Youngcheol; Song, Minkyu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a 120 frames per second (fps) low noise CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) based on a Two-Step Single Slope ADC (TS SS ADC) and column self-calibration technique is proposed. The TS SS ADC is suitable for high speed video systems because its conversion speed is much faster (by more than 10 times) than that of the Single Slope ADC (SS ADC). However, there exist some mismatching errors between the coarse block and the fine block due to the 2-step operation of the TS SS ADC. In general, this makes it difficult to implement the TS SS ADC beyond a 10-bit resolution. In order to improve such errors, a new 4-input comparator is discussed and a high resolution TS SS ADC is proposed. Further, a feedback circuit that enables column self-calibration to reduce the Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN) is also described. The proposed chip has been fabricated with 0.13 μm Samsung CIS technology and the chip satisfies the VGA resolution. The pixel is based on the 4-TR Active Pixel Sensor (APS). The high frame rate of 120 fps is achieved at the VGA resolution. The measured FPN is 0.38 LSB, and measured dynamic range is about 64.6 dB. PMID:24999716

  3. Renal involvement in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)-APS nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Tektonidou, Maria G

    2009-06-01

    Although the kidney represents a major target organ in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), renal involvement in APS was poorly recognized until recently. The most well-recognized renal manifestations of APS are the renal artery thrombosis/stenosis, renal infarction, hypertension, renal vein thrombosis, end-stage renal disease, increased allograft vascular thrombosis, some types of glomerular disease, and a small-vessel vaso-occlusive nephropathy, recently defined as APS nephropathy. APS nephropathy was first described in primary APS patients, characterized by acute thrombotic lesions in glomeruli and/or arterioles (thrombotic microangiopathy) and chronic vascular lesions such as fibrous intimal hyperplasia of arterioles and interlobular arteries, organized thrombi with or without recanalization, and fibrous arterial and arteriolar occlusions or focal cortical atrophy. APS nephropathy was also detected in further studies including patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-related APS and SLE/non-APS patients with positive antiphospholipid antibodies, independently of lupus nephritis. The same histologic lesions, especially thrombotic mictroangiopathy, were also observed in patients with catastrophic APS. The most frequent clinical and laboratory characteristics of APS nephropathy in all the above groups of patients are hypertension (often severe), proteinuria (ranging from mild to nephrotic range), hematuria, and acute or chronic renal insufficiency.

  4. Thrombotic risk assessment in APS: the Global APS Score (GAPSS).

    PubMed

    Sciascia, S; Bertolaccini, M L

    2014-10-01

    Recently, we developed a risk score for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) (Global APS Score or GAPSS). This score derived from the combination of independent risk factors for thrombosis and pregnancy loss, taking into account the antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) profile (criteria and non-criteria aPL), the conventional cardiovascular risk factors, and the autoimmune antibodies profile. We demonstrate that risk profile in APS can be successfully assessed, suggesting that GAPSS can be a potential quantitative marker of APS-related clinical manifestations.

  5. APS controls overview

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The APS accelerator control system described in this report is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and interfaces to hardware. The operator interface is a UNIX-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The user has the ability to generate and alter control displays and to access the alarm handler, the archiver, interactive control programs, custom code, and other tools. The TCP/EP networking protocol has been selected as the underlying protocol for the control system network. TCP/EP is a commercial standard and readily available from network hardware vendors. Its implementation is independent of the particular network medium selected to implement the controls network. In the development environment copper Ethernet is the network medium; however, in the actual implementation a fiber-based system using hub technology will be utilized. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system.

  6. Final report for tank 241-AP-101, grab samples 1AP-95-1, 1AP-95-2, 1AP-95-3, 1AP-95-4, 1AP-95-5, and 1AP-95-6

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1996-03-04

    Six supernate grab samples (1AP-95-1 through 6) and one field blank (1AP-95-7) were taken from tank 241-AP-101, on Nov. 10 and 13, 1995. Analyses were performed in support of the Safety Screening and the Waste Compatibility Safety programs. All analytical results were within the action limits stated in the TSAP.

  7. Results of the 2015 testbeam of a 180 nm AMS High-Voltage CMOS sensor prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, M.; Bilbao de Mendizabal, J.; Casse, G.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Di Bello, F. A.; Ferrere, D.; Golling, T.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Iacobucci, G.; Lanni, F.; Liu, H.; Meloni, F.; Meng, L.; Miucci, A.; Muenstermann, D.; Nessi, M.; Perić, I.; Rimoldi, M.; Ristic, B.; Barrero Pinto, M. Vicente; Vossebeld, J.; Weber, M.; Wu, W.; Xu, L.

    2016-07-01

    Active pixel sensors based on the High-Voltage CMOS technology are being investigated as a viable option for the future pixel tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the High-Luminosity LHC. This paper reports on the testbeam measurements performed at the H8 beamline of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron on a High-Voltage CMOS sensor prototype produced in 180 nm AMS technology. Results in terms of tracking efficiency and timing performance, for different threshold and bias conditions, are shown.

  8. Meet the APS Journal Editors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-05-01

    The Editors of the APS journals invite you to join them for conversation. The Editors will be available to answer questions, hear your ideas, and discuss any comments about the journals. All are welcome. Light refreshments will be served.

  9. APS Initiatives for Broadening Participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodapp, Theodore

    2013-03-01

    Women currently earn only about 20% of physics degrees, while African Americans and Hispanic Americans combined - representing 34% of the US population in their 20's - earn only 9% and 5-6% of the Bachelor and Doctoral degrees respectively. To address these disparities, and improve conditions for everyone who studies physics, the APS devotes significant resources to addressing these concerns and to enabling individuals and groups to work with the APS to advance these goals. In this presentation, I will outline several of our most significant programs, give data that informs decisions to adopt programs, and describe current plans. Included in this is the new APS Bridge Program (www.APSBridgeProgram.org) for increasing underrepresented minority participation at the PhD level, the APS Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics (go.aps.org/cuwip), and the APS Minority Scholars Program (www.MinoritiesInPhysics.org). Please bring your ideas and concerns for how we might improve participation for all.

  10. Task Force on Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) and Non-criteria APS Manifestations (I): catastrophic APS, APS nephropathy and heart valve lesions.

    PubMed

    Cervera, R; Tektonidou, M G; Espinosa, G; Cabral, A R; González, E B; Erkan, D; Vadya, S; Adrogué, H E; Solomon, M; Zandman-Goddard, G; Shoenfeld, Y

    2011-02-01

    The objectives of the 'Task Force on Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) and Non-criteria APS Manifestations' were to assess the clinical utility of the international consensus statement on classification criteria and treatment guidelines for the catastrophic APS, to identify and grade the studies that analyse the relationship between the antiphospholipid antibodies and the non-criteria APS manifestations and to present the current evidence regarding the accuracy of these non-criteria APS manifestations for the detection of patients with APS. This article summarizes the studies analysed on the catastrophic APS, APS nephropathy and heart valve lesions, and presents the recommendations elaborated by the Task Force after this analysis.

  11. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  12. [Apheresis in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)].

    PubMed

    De Silvestro, Giustina; Tison, Tiziana; Marson, Piero

    2012-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a rare clinical disorder characterized by thromboembolic manifestations and/or obstetric complications. Along with the clinical symptoms and signs, serum antiphospholipid antibodies have to be detected. APS can be primary, i.e., without any concomitant disorders, or secondary to other autoimmune diseases, particularly systemic lupus erythematosus. Criteria for the diagnosis of APS have been clearly established. Hyperacute APS (or catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome), often with a poor prognosis, must meet four criteria: involvement of three or more organs, rapid evolution of clinical manifestations, microangiopathic occlusion of small blood vessels at biopsy, and presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. The rationale for apheresis treatment is the removal of pathogenetic antibodies involved in the development of tissue damage. Our experience includes 23 patients, in particular 15 women treated for 19 pregnancies. According to the National Guidelines Program, the effectiveness of apheresis in catastrophic syndrome has a level of evidence of V/VI, with a strength of recommendation A; in highrisk pregnancy it has a level of evidence of V with a strength of recommendation B. It will be necessary to better define the prognosis of various categories of pregnant patients with APS, as well as useful laboratory parameters to monitor its clinical course and anticipate any complications of pregnancy.

  13. AP Geography, Environmental Science Thrive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    Geography may not be particularly known as a hot topic among today's students--even some advocates suggest it suffers from an image problem--but by at least one measure, the subject is starting to come into its own. Across more than 30 topics covered in the Advanced Placement (AP) program, participation in geography is rising faster than any…

  14. APS beamline standard components handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction.

  15. Proton-counting radiography for proton therapy: a proof of principle using CMOS APS technology.

    PubMed

    Poludniowski, G; Allinson, N M; Anaxagoras, T; Esposito, M; Green, S; Manolopoulos, S; Nieto-Camero, J; Parker, D J; Price, T; Evans, P M

    2014-06-01

    Despite the early recognition of the potential of proton imaging to assist proton therapy (Cormack 1963 J. Appl. Phys. 34 2722), the modality is still removed from clinical practice, with various approaches in development. For proton-counting radiography applications such as computed tomography (CT), the water-equivalent-path-length that each proton has travelled through an imaged object must be inferred. Typically, scintillator-based technology has been used in various energy/range telescope designs. Here we propose a very different alternative of using radiation-hard CMOS active pixel sensor technology. The ability of such a sensor to resolve the passage of individual protons in a therapy beam has not been previously shown. Here, such capability is demonstrated using a 36 MeV cyclotron beam (University of Birmingham Cyclotron, Birmingham, UK) and a 200 MeV clinical radiotherapy beam (iThemba LABS, Cape Town, SA). The feasibility of tracking individual protons through multiple CMOS layers is also demonstrated using a two-layer stack of sensors. The chief advantages of this solution are the spatial discrimination of events intrinsic to pixelated sensors, combined with the potential provision of information on both the range and residual energy of a proton. The challenges in developing a practical system are discussed.

  16. The APS control system network

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorowicz, K.V.; McDowell, W.P.

    1995-12-31

    The APS accelerator control system is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and computer-controlled interfaces to hardware. This implementation of a control system has come to be called the {open_quotes}Standard Model.{close_quotes} The operator interface is a UNDC-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system. The crate or input/output controller (IOC) provides direct control and input/output interfaces for each accelerator subsystem. The network is an integral part of all modem control systems and network performance will determine many characteristics of a control system. This paper will describe the overall APS network and examine the APS control system network in detail. Metrics are provided on the performance of the system under various conditions.

  17. An AP Calculus Classroom Amusement Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the school year, AP Calculus teachers strive to teach course content comprehensively and swiftly in an effort to finish all required material before the AP Calculus exam. As early May approaches and the AP Calculus test looms, students and teachers nervously complete lessons, assignments, and assessments to ensure student preparation.…

  18. Preparing Students for the AP Psychology Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Psychology exam is one of the fastest growing exams offered by the College Board. The average percent of change in the number of students taking this exam over the past five years is 12.4%. With 238,962 students taking the exam in 2013, the AP Psychology exam is the sixth largest exam, surpassing AP Biology and AP World…

  19. NARSTO EPA SS LOS ANGELES APS DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO EPA SS LOS ANGELES APS DATA Project Title:  NARSTO Discipline:  ... Platform:  Ground Station Instrument:  APS - Aerodynamic Particle Sizer Location:  Los Angeles, ... Data Guide Documents:  Los Angeles APS Guide Los Angeles Project Plan  (PDF) Los Angeles ...

  20. A novel CMOS sensor with in-pixel auto-zeroed discrimination for charged particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degerli, Y.; Guilloux, F.; Orsini, F.

    2014-05-01

    With the aim of developing fast and granular Monolithic Active Pixels Sensors (MAPS) as new charged particle tracking detectors for high energy physics experiments, a new rolling shutter binary pixel architecture concept (RSBPix) with in-pixel correlated double sampling, amplification and discrimination is presented. The discriminator features auto-zeroing in order to compensate process-related transistor mismatches. In order to validate the pixel, a first monolithic CMOS sensor prototype, including a pixel array of 96 × 64 pixels, has been designed and fabricated in the Tower-Jazz 0.18 μm CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. Results of laboratory tests are presented.

  1. Security SVGA image sensor with on-chip video data authentication and cryptographic circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stifter, P.; Eberhardt, K.; Erni, A.; Hofmann, K.

    2005-10-01

    Security applications of sensors in a networking environment has a strong demand of sensor authentication and secure data transmission due to the possibility of man-in-the-middle and address spoofing attacks. Therefore a secure sensor system should fulfil the three standard requirements of cryptography, namely data integrity, authentication and non-repudiation. This paper is intended to present the unique sensor development by AIM, the so called SecVGA, which is a high performance, monochrome (B/W) CMOS active pixel image sensor. The device is capable of capturing still and motion images with a resolution of 800x600 active pixels and converting the image into a digital data stream. The distinguishing feature of this development in comparison to standard imaging sensors is the on-chip cryptographic engine which provides the sensor authentication, based on a one-way challenge/response protocol. The implemented protocol results in the exchange of a session-key which will secure the following video data transmission. This is achieved by calculating a cryptographic checksum derived from a stateful hash value of the complete image frame. Every sensor contains an EEPROM memory cell for the non-volatile storage of a unique identifier. The imager is programmable via a two-wire I2C compatible interface which controls the integration time, the active window size of the pixel array, the frame rate and various operating modes including the authentication procedure.

  2. AP reclamation and reuse in RSRM propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miks, Kathryn F.; Harris, Stacey A.

    1995-01-01

    A solid propellant ingredient reclamation pilot plant has been evaluated at the Strategic Operations of Thiokol Corporation, located in Brigham City, Utah. The plant produces AP wet cake (95 percent AP, 5 percent water) for recycling at AP vendors. AP has been obtained from two standard propellant binder systems (PBAN and HTPB). Analytical work conducted at Thiokol indicates that the vendor-recrystallized AP meets Space Shuttle propellant specification requirements. Thiokol has processed 1-, 5-, and 600-gallon propellant mixes with the recrystallized AP. Processing, cast, cure, ballistic, mechanical, and safety properties have been evaluated. Phillips Laboratory static-test-fired 70-pound and 800-pound BATES motors. The data indicate that propellant processed with reclaimed AP has nominal properties.

  3. APS high heat load monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

  4. CMOS digital pixel sensors: technology and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorka, Orit; Joseph, Dileepan

    2014-04-01

    CMOS active pixel sensor technology, which is widely used these days for digital imaging, is based on analog pixels. Transition to digital pixel sensors can boost signal-to-noise ratios and enhance image quality, but can increase pixel area to dimensions that are impractical for the high-volume market of consumer electronic devices. There are two main approaches to digital pixel design. The first uses digitization methods that largely rely on photodetector properties and so are unique to imaging. The second is based on adaptation of a classical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for in-pixel data conversion. Imaging systems for medical, industrial, and security applications are emerging lower-volume markets that can benefit from these in-pixel ADCs. With these applications, larger pixels are typically acceptable, and imaging may be done in invisible spectral bands.

  5. Amorphous and Polycrystalline Photoconductors for Direct Conversion Flat Panel X-Ray Image Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Kasap, Safa; Frey, Joel B.; Belev, George; Tousignant, Olivier; Mani, Habib; Greenspan, Jonathan; Laperriere, Luc; Bubon, Oleksandr; Reznik, Alla; DeCrescenzo, Giovanni; Karim, Karim S.; Rowlands, John A.

    2011-01-01

    recently demonstrated with excellent avalanche gains; the latter is expected to lead to a number of novel imaging device applications that would be quantum noise limited. While passive pixel sensors use one TFT (thin film transistor) as a switch at the pixel, active pixel sensors (APSs) have two or more transistors and provide gain at the pixel level. The advantages of APS based x-ray imagers are also discussed with examples. PMID:22163893

  6. A Logarithmic Response Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Image Sensor with Parasitic P-N-P Bipolar Junction Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Cheng‑Hsiao; Lai, Liang‑Wei; Chiang, Wen‑Jen; King, Ya‑Chin

    2006-04-01

    Logarithmic-response complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors provide a desirable attribute of wide dynamic range even with low supply voltages. In this paper, a log-mode pixel with employing parasitic P-N-P bipolar junction transistor (BJT) to amplify photo-current is investigated and optimized. A new log-mode cell with a calibration transistor is proposed to increase the output voltage swing as well as to reduce the fixed pattern noise. The measurement results demonstrate that, the output voltage swing of this new cell is enhanced by 4× and fixed pattern noise (FPN) of a pixel array can be reduced by 10× comparing to that of a conventional log-mode CMOS active pixel sensor.

  7. Tank 241-AP-106, Grab samples, 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 Analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    FULLER, R.K.

    1999-02-23

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. Three grab samples 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 were taken from riser 1 of tank 241-AP-106 on May 28, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on May 28, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the ''Compatability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan'' (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998) and the ''Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatability Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. No notification limits were exceeded. The request for sample analysis received for AP-106 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) regulated limit of 50 ppm. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis are included in this document.

  8. APS: Lighting up the future

    SciTech Connect

    Potent, V.J.

    1993-09-01

    Work on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) involves the construction and supporting research and development for a national user facility for synchrotron radiation research in the x-ray region. The facility, when operational in 1997, will provide super-intense x-ray beams for many areas of basic research and will serve the entire US x-ray research community of several thousand users. This paper describes the pertinent features of the design, construction and planned operation of the facility; and the impact quality has had in these areas. In addition, the introduction of several quality management techniques such as total quality management, reliability/availability planning, and user interface are discussed concerning their status and success.

  9. [Type 2 autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS-2)].

    PubMed

    Vialettes, Bernard; Dubois-Leonardon, Noémie

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS-2) are the most frequent disorders associating several organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Their high prevalence is due to the fact that the main manifestations of APS-2, such as thyroidal autoimmunity, type 1 diabetes, autoimmune gastric atrophy and vitiligo, are common diseases. APS-2 represents a clinical model that can serve to help unravel the mechanisms underlying autoimmunity. Diagnosis of APS-2 is a challenge for the clinician, especially in poorly symptomatic forms, and may require systematic screening based on measurement of autoantibodies and functional markers.

  10. ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION TESTING OF TANKS 241-AN-102 & 241-AP-107 & 241-AP-108 IN SUPPORT OF ULTRASONIC TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    WYRWAS RB; DUNCAN JB

    2008-11-20

    This report presents the results of the corrosion rates that were measured using electrochemical methods for tanks 241-AN-102 (AN-102), 241-AP-107 (AP 107), and 241-AP-108 (AP-108) performed under test plant RPP-PLAN-38215. The steel used as materials of construction for AN and AP tank farms was A537 Class 1. Test coupons of A537 Class 1 carbon steel were used for corrosion testing in the AN-107, AP-107, and AP-108 tank waste. Supernate will be tested from AN-102, AP-107, and Ap-108. Saltcake testing was performed on AP-108 only.

  11. Coaching Strategies for AP: Building a Successful AP European History Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornaciari, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The October 2013 special issue of "Social Education" dealt with almost all AP social studies subjects, but omitted AP European History. This is one of the most fascinating AP subjects for students and teachers alike. In this article, the author shares his experiences since hewas given the responsibility of building his school's…

  12. Advanced APS impacts on vehicle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethylhydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination of scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

  13. AP Courses Get Audited for Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Ellie

    2007-01-01

    As the college admissions process has gotten much more competitive, the number of high school students taking Advanced Placement (AP) courses has soared. At the same time, policymakers and education leaders seek to get more minorities and students not on the college track to sign up for AP and other rigorous classes. But as high schools have…

  14. Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples, 7AP-99-1, 7AP-99-3 and 7AP-99-4 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    BELL, K.E.

    1999-08-12

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-AP-107 (AP-107) grab samples taken in May 1999 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank AP-107 samples were performed as directed in Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal year 1999. Any deviations from the instructions provided in the tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) were discussed in this narrative. Interim data were provided earlier to River Protection Project (RPP) personnel, however, the data presented here represent the official results. No notification limits were exceeded.

  15. APS Activities with Other Professional Societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slakey, Francis

    2006-03-01

    In 1981, the APS Council issued a statement that opposed ``equal time'' presentation in public school science classes of creationism and evolution. The statement clarified that ``Scientific inquiry and religious beliefs are two distinct elements of the human experience. Attempts to present them in the same context can only lead to misunderstandings of both.'' The APS Council revisited the issue in 1999 when a school board in Kansas attempted to eliminate the Big Bang, among other issues, from the science curriculum. Since that time, the APS has been more directly involved in confronting efforts that would dilute the teaching of science in public school science classes. This talk will review the APS activities and describe a developing multi-science society activity.

  16. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-14

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  17. Identification and treatment of APS renal involvement.

    PubMed

    Tektonidou, M G

    2014-10-01

    Renal involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), either primary or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-related APS, includes renal artery stenosis or thrombosis, renal infarction, renal vein thrombosis and a small-vessel vaso-occlusive nephropathy defined as "antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-associated nephropathy." aPL-associated nephropathy is characterized by acute lesions, thrombotic microangiopathy, and chronic lesions such as fibrous intimal hyperplasia, organizing thrombi with or without recanalization, fibrous occlusions of arteries or arterioles and focal cortical atrophy. Systemic hypertension, hematuria, proteinuria (ranging from mild to nephrotic level) and renal insufficiency represent the major clinical manifestations associated with aPL-associated nephropathy. Similar renal histologic and clinical characteristics have been described among all different groups of patients with positive aPL (primary APS, SLE-related APS, catastrophic APS and SLE/non-APS with positive aPL). In patients with aPL-associated nephropathy lesions in the absence of other causes associated with similar histological characteristics, aPL testing needs to be considered.

  18. Results from a Prototype MAPS Sensor Telescope and Readout Systemwith Zero Suppression for the Heavy Flavor Tracker at STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, Leo C.; Matis, Howard S.; Ritter, Hans G.; Rose, AndrewA.; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Szelezniak, Michal A.; Thomas, James H.; Vu, Chinh Q.; Wieman, Howard H.

    2008-02-11

    We describe a three Mimostar-2 Monolithic Active PixelSensor (MAPS) sensor telescope prototype with an accompanying readoutsystem incorporating on-the-fly data sparsification. The system has beencharacterized and we report on the measured performance of the sensortelescope and readout system in beam tests conducted both at the AdvancedLight Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and inthe STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Thiseffort is part of the development and prototyping work that will lead toa vertex detector for the STAR experiment.

  19. Automated Plasma Spray (APS) process feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.

    1981-01-01

    An automated plasma spray (APS) process was developed to apply two layer (NiCrAlY and ZrO2-12Y2O3) thermal barrier coatings to aircraft and stationary gas turbine engine blade airfoils. The APS process hardware consists of four subsystems: a mechanical positioning subsystem incorporating two interlaced six degree of freedom assemblies (one for coating deposition and one for coating thickness monitoring); a noncoherent optical metrology subsystem (for in process gaging of the coating thickness buildup at specified points on the specimen); a microprocessor based adaptive system controller (to achieve the desired overall thickness profile on the specimen); and commerical plasma spray equipment. Over fifty JT9D first stage aircraft turbine blade specimens, ten W501B utility turbine blade specimens and dozens of cylindrical specimens were coated with the APS process in preliminary checkout and evaluation studies. The best of the preliminary turbine blade specimens achieved an overall coating thickness uniformity of 53 micrometers (2.1 mils), much better than is achievable manually. Comparative evaluations of coating thickness uniformity for manually sprayed and APS coated specimens were performed. One of the preliminary turbine blade evaluation specimens was subjected to a torch test and metallographic evaluation. Some cylindrical specimens coated with the APS process survived up to 2000 cycles in subsequent burner rig testing.

  20. Overall design concepts for the APS storage ring machine protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.; Fuja, R.; Votaw, A.; Wang, X.; Shu, D.; Stepp, J.; Arnold, N.; Nawrocki, G.; Decker, G.; Chung, Y.

    1995-07-01

    The basic design and status of the machine protection system for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring are discussed. The machine is passively safe to the bending magnet sources, but the high power of the insertion devices requires missteering conditions to be identified and the beam aborted in less than one millisecond. The basic aspects of waterflow, temperature, beam position, etc. monitoring are addressed. Initial commissioning of subsystems and sensors is statused.

  1. Plyler Prize and APS Fellow Introductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathanson, Gilbert

    2014-03-01

    The Division of Chemical Physics is delighted to announce the 2013 APS Fellows sponsored by DCP and to honor the 2014 Earl K. Plyler Prize Award winner. The new APS Fellows are: Ilan Benjamin, Hua Guo, Manos Mavrikakis, Josef Paldus, Joern Siepmann, Hans-Peter Steinrueck, Douglas Tobias, Angela Wilson, and Yijing Yan. The citations for each awardee will be read out loud. I will also introduce Prof. Lai-Sheng Wang of the Department of Chemistry at Brown University, who was awarded the 2014 Plyler Prize for Molecular Spectroscopy and Dynamics. Please come learn about these extraordinary scientists during this prize session. Prof. Wang's Plyler Prize talk will follow immediately after this introduction. For more information, see http://www.aps.org/units/dcp/.

  2. Ectopic expression of FaesAP3, a Fagopyrum esculentum (Polygonaceae) AP3 orthologous gene rescues stamen development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zheng-wu; Qi, Rui; Li, Xiao-fang; Liu, Zhi-xiong

    2014-10-25

    Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA3 (AP3) and Antirrhinum majus DEFICIENS (DEF) MADS box genes are required to specify petal and stamen identity. AP3 and DEF are members of the euAP3 lineage, which arose by gene duplication coincident with radiation of the core eudicots. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying organ development in early diverging clades of core eudicots, we isolated and identified an AP3 homolog, FaesAP3, from Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat, Polygonaceae), a multi-food-use pseudocereal with healing benefits. Protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that FaesAP3 grouped into the euAP3 lineage. Expression analysis showed that FaesAP3 was transcribed only in developing stamens, and differed from AP3 and DEF, which expressed in developing petals and stamens. Moreover, ectopic expression of FaesAP3 rescued stamen development without complementation of petal development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant. Our results suggest that FaesAP3 is involved in the development of stamens in buckwheat. These results also suggest that FaesAP3 holds some potential for biotechnical engineering to create a male sterile line of F. esculentum. PMID:25149019

  3. Fibre-optic coupling to high-resolution CCD and CMOS image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Silfhout, R. G.; Kachatkou, A. S.

    2008-12-01

    We describe a simple method of gluing fibre-optic faceplates to complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel and charge coupled device (CCD) image sensors and report on their performance. Cross-sectional cuts reveal that the bonding layer has a thickness close to the diameter of the individual fibres and is uniform over the whole sensor area. Our method requires no special tools or alignment equipment and gives reproducible and high-quality results. The method maintains a uniform bond layer thickness even if sensor dies are mounted at slight angles with their package. These fibre-coupled sensors are of particular interest to X-ray imaging applications but also provide a solution for compact optical imaging systems.

  4. Electron Pattern Recognition using trigger mode SOI pixel sensor for Advanced Compton Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazoe, K.; Yoshihara, Y.; Fairuz, A.; Koyama, A.; Takahashi, H.; Takeda, A.; Tsuru, T.; Arai, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Compton imaging is a useful method for localizing sub MeV to a few MeV gamma-rays and widely used for environmental and medical applications. The direction of recoiled electrons in Compton scattering process provides the additional information to limit the Compton cones and increases the sensitivity in the system. The capability of recoiled electron tracking using trigger-mode Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) sensor is investigated with various radiation sources. The trigger-mode SOI sensor consists of 144 by 144 active pixels with 30 μm cells and the thickness of sensor is 500 μm. The sensor generates the digital output when it is hit by gamma-rays and 25 by 25 pixel pattern of surrounding the triggered pixel is readout to extract the recoiled electron track. The electron track is successfully observed for 60Co and 137Cs sources, which provides useful information for future electron tracking Compton camera.

  5. A Look at the AP2 Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Gollwitzer, Keith; /Fermilab

    2001-01-08

    Some recent work has been done to look at improvements of transporting beam from the Lithium Lens to the Debuncher. This work has been done using the beamline modeling tools developed by Dave McGinnis. These tools, console application P143 and optimization code running MAD repeatedly on the Beam Physics UNIX system, were first used to match the Twiss and dispersion parameters at the end of AP2 to the Debuncher. Imaginary trims were then added to AP2 to study where additional trims could be used to help with beam control in small aperture areas.

  6. CoAP-Based Mobility Management for the Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Seung-Man; Kim, Hyun-Su; Park, Jong-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Most of the current mobility management protocols such as Mobile IP and its variants standardized by the IETF may not be suitable to support mobility management for Web-based applications in an Internet of Things (IoT) environment. This is because the sensor nodes have limited power capacity, usually operating in sleep/wakeup mode in a constrained wireless network. In addition, sometimes the sensor nodes may act as the server using the CoAP protocol in an IoT environment. This makes it difficult for Web clients to properly retrieve the sensing data from the mobile sensor nodes in an IoT environment. In this article, we propose a mobility management protocol, named CoMP, which can effectively retrieve the sensing data of sensor nodes while they are moving. The salient feature of CoMP is that it makes use of the IETF CoAP protocol for mobility management, instead of using Mobile IP. Thus CoMP can eliminates the additional signaling overhead of Mobile IP, provides reliable mobility management, and prevents the packet loss. CoMP employs a separate location management server to keep track of the location of the mobile sensor nodes. In order to prevent the loss of important sensing data during movement, a holding mode of operation has been introduced. All the signaling procedures including discovery, registration, binding and holding have been designed by extending the IETF CoAP protocol. The numerical analysis and simulation have been done for performance evaluation in terms of the handover latency and packet loss. The results show that the proposed CoMP is superior to previous mobility management protocols, i.e., Mobile IPv4/v6 (MIPv4/v6), Hierarchical Mobile IPv4/v6 (HMIPv4/v6), in terms of the handover latency and packet loss. PMID:26151214

  7. CoAP-Based Mobility Management for the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Chun, Seung-Man; Kim, Hyun-Su; Park, Jong-Tae

    2015-07-03

    Most of the current mobility management protocols such as Mobile IP and its variants standardized by the IETF may not be suitable to support mobility management for Web-based applications in an Internet of Things (IoT) environment. This is because the sensor nodes have limited power capacity, usually operating in sleep/wakeup mode in a constrained wireless network. In addition, sometimes the sensor nodes may act as the server using the CoAP protocol in an IoT environment. This makes it difficult for Web clients to properly retrieve the sensing data from the mobile sensor nodes in an IoT environment. In this article, we propose a mobility management protocol, named CoMP, which can effectively retrieve the sensing data of sensor nodes while they are moving. The salient feature of CoMP is that it makes use of the IETF CoAP protocol for mobility management, instead of using Mobile IP. Thus CoMP can eliminates the additional signaling overhead of Mobile IP, provides reliable mobility management, and prevents the packet loss. CoMP employs a separate location management server to keep track of the location of the mobile sensor nodes. In order to prevent the loss of important sensing data during movement, a holding mode of operation has been introduced. All the signaling procedures including discovery, registration, binding and holding have been designed by extending the IETF CoAP protocol. The numerical analysis and simulation have been done for performance evaluation in terms of the handover latency and packet loss. The results show that the proposed CoMP is superior to previous mobility management protocols, i.e., Mobile IPv4/v6 (MIPv4/v6), Hierarchical Mobile IPv4/v6 (HMIPv4/v6), in terms of the handover latency and packet loss.

  8. The Promise of AP World History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldaña, Cristóbal T.

    2013-01-01

    AP World History is the ideal history course. It introduces students to 10,000 years of world history, and demands critical reading, critical writing, and critical thinking skills on the part of both the teacher and the students. It requires students to build their expertise in reading their textbook, and places demands on the teacher to assign…

  9. Two Successful Approaches to Teaching AP Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Brian; Stepp, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Amador Valley High School, in Pleasanton, California, uses two unique approaches to teaching Advanced Placement Government and Politics. AP Government consists of six units: Constitutional Underpinnings; Political Behavior and Political Beliefs; Mass Media, Interest Groups, and Political Parties; Institutions of Government; Civil Liberties and…

  10. College Board Readies Plans for AP Audits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the educators mixed reviews regarding the audit system planned by the College Board to scrutinize high school Advanced Placement courses. Teachers of AP courses are required to submit materials to the College Board proving that their course syllabuses meet the program's curricular requirements. It is the most extensive…

  11. Lysosomal Targeting of Cystinosin Requires AP-3.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewska, Zuzanna; Névo, Nathalie; Thomas, Lucie; Bailleux, Anne; Chauvet, Véronique; Benmerah, Alexandre; Antignac, Corinne

    2015-07-01

    Cystinosin is a lysosomal cystine transporter defective in cystinosis, an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder. It is composed of seven transmembrane (TM) domains and contains two lysosomal targeting motifs: a tyrosine-based signal (GYDQL) in its C-terminal tail and a non-classical motif in its fifth inter-TM loop. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we showed that the GYDQL motif specifically interacted with the μ subunit of the adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3). Moreover, cell surface biotinylation and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy revealed that cystinosin was partially mislocalized to the plasma membrane (PM) in AP-3-depleted cells. We generated a chimeric CD63 protein to specifically analyze the function of the GYDQL motif. This chimeric protein was targeted to lysosomes in a manner similar to cystinosin and was partially mislocalized to the PM in AP-3 knockdown cells where it also accumulated in the trans-Golgi network and early endosomes. Together with the fact that the surface levels of cystinosin and of the CD63-GYDQL chimeric protein were not increased when clathrin-mediated endocytosis was impaired, our data show that the tyrosine-based motif of cystinosin is a 'strong' AP-3 interacting motif responsible for lysosomal targeting of cystinosin by a direct intracellular pathway.

  12. The AP Descriptive Chemistry Question: Student Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent; Brooks, David W.

    2005-01-01

    For over a decade, the authors have been involved in a design theory experiment providing software for high school students preparing for the descriptive question on the Advanced Placement (AP) chemistry examination. Since 1997, the software has been available as a Web site offering repeatable practice. This study describes a 4-year project during…

  13. The Demographic Wave: Rethinking Hispanic AP Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kelcey; Sawtell, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Presented at the Advanced Placement Annual Conference (APAC) in Las Vegas, NV in July 2013. This presentation reviews new research examining the AP® experience of Hispanic graduates over the past decade. Topics include an in-depth look at the AP Spanish Language and Culture gateway hypothesis and trends in family characteristics such as parent…

  14. Structuring the AP Art History Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herscher, Walter R.

    2013-01-01

    While AP (Advanced Placement) Art History may be taught within the art department in many schools, social studies teachers are equally capable of teaching the course well. They have the historical background to discuss the reasons for changes in art styles. A teacher's preparation is similar to teaching a course stressing political history,…

  15. Gapminder: An AP Human Geography Lab Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    This lesson is designed as a lab assignment for Advanced Placement (AP) Human Geography students wherein they use the popular Gapminder web site to compare levels of development in countries from different world regions. For this lesson, it is important for the teacher to practice with Gapminder before giving the assignment to students. (Contains…

  16. CMOS pixel sensors on high resistive substrate for high-rate, high-radiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirono, Toko; Barbero, Marlon; Breugnon, Patrick; Godiot, Stephanie; Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Hügging, Fabian; Krüger, Hans; Liu, Jian; Pangaud, Patrick; Peric, Ivan; Pohl, David-Leon; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rymaszewski, Piotr; Wang, Anqing; Wermes, Norbert

    2016-09-01

    A depleted CMOS active pixel sensor (DMAPS) has been developed on a substrate with high resistivity in a high voltage process. High radiation tolerance and high time resolution can be expected because of the charge collection by drift. A prototype of DMAPS was fabricated in a 150 nm process by LFoundry. Two variants of the pixel layout were tested, and the measured depletion depths of the variants are 166 μm and 80 μm. We report the results obtained with the prototype fabricated in this technology.

  17. Functional description of APS beamline front ends

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.

    1993-02-01

    Traditional synchrotron sources were designed to produce bending magnet radiation and have proven to be an essential scientific tool. Currently, a new generation of synchrotron sources is being built that will be able to accommodate a large number of insertion device (ID) and high quality bending magnet (BM) sources. One example is the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory. The research and development effort at the APS is designed to fully develop the potential of this new generation of synchrotron sources. Of the 40 straight sections in the APS storage ring, 34 will be available for IDs. The remaining six sections are reserved for the storage ring hardware and diagnostics. Although the ring incorporates 80 BMs, only 40 of them can be used to extract radiation. The accelerator hardware shadows five of these 40 bending magnets, so the maximum number of BM sources on the lattice is 35. Generally, a photon beamline consists of four functional sections. The first section is the ID or the BM, which provides the radiation source. The second section, which is immediately outside the storage ring but inside a concrete shielding tunnel, is the front end, which is designed to control, define, and/or confine the x-ray beam. In the case of the APS, the front ends are designed to confine the photon beam. The third section, just outside the concrete shielding tunnel and on the experimental floor, is the first optics enclosure, which contains optics to filter and monochromatize the photon beam. The fourth section of a beamline consists of beam transports, additional optics, and experiment stations to do the scientific investigations. This document describes only the front ends of the APS beamlines.

  18. bZIP transcription factor CgAP1 is essential for oxidative stress tolerance and full virulence of the poplar anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yingjiao; Wang, Yonglin; Tian, Chengming

    2016-10-01

    Yeast AP1 transcription factor is a regulator of oxidative stress response. Here, we report the identification and characterization of CgAP1, an ortholog of YAP1 in poplar anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The expression of CgAP1 was highly induced by reactive oxygen species. CgAP1 deletion mutants displayed enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress compared with the wild-type strain, and their poplar leaf virulence was obviously reduced. However, the mutants exhibited no obvious defects in aerial hyphal growth, conidia production, and appressoria formation. CgAP1::eGFP fusion protein localized to the nucleus after TBH (tert-Butyl hydroperoxide) treatment, suggesting that CgAP1 functions as a redox sensor in C. gloeosporioides. In addition, CgAP1 prevented the accumulation of ROS during early stages of biotrophic growth. CgAP1 also acted as a positive regulator of several ROS-related genes (i.e., Glr1, Hyr1, and Cyt1) involved in the antioxidative response. These results highlight the key regulatory role of CgAP1 transcription factor in oxidative stress response and provide insights into the function of ROS detoxification in virulence of C. gloeosporioides. PMID:27544415

  19. Design and Fabrication of Vertically-Integrated CMOS Image Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Skorka, Orit; Joseph, Dileepan

    2011-01-01

    Technologies to fabricate integrated circuits (IC) with 3D structures are an emerging trend in IC design. They are based on vertical stacking of active components to form heterogeneous microsystems. Electronic image sensors will benefit from these technologies because they allow increased pixel-level data processing and device optimization. This paper covers general principles in the design of vertically-integrated (VI) CMOS image sensors that are fabricated by flip-chip bonding. These sensors are composed of a CMOS die and a photodetector die. As a specific example, the paper presents a VI-CMOS image sensor that was designed at the University of Alberta, and fabricated with the help of CMC Microsystems and Micralyne Inc. To realize prototypes, CMOS dies with logarithmic active pixels were prepared in a commercial process, and photodetector dies with metal-semiconductor-metal devices were prepared in a custom process using hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The paper also describes a digital camera that was developed to test the prototype. In this camera, scenes captured by the image sensor are read using an FPGA board, and sent in real time to a PC over USB for data processing and display. Experimental results show that the VI-CMOS prototype has a higher dynamic range and a lower dark limit than conventional electronic image sensors. PMID:22163860

  20. Tank 241-AP-106, grab samples, 6AP-96-1 through 6AP-96-3 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-11

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. This document presents the analytical results for three samples (6AP-96-1, 6AP-96-2 and 6AP-96-3) taken from riser 1 @ 150{degrees} of tank 241-AP-1 06 on September 12, 1996. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1996) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Fowler, 1995).

  1. Image sensor for security applications with on-chip data authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stifter, P.; Eberhardt, K.; Erni, A.; Hofmann, K.

    2006-04-01

    Sensors in a networked environment which are used for security applications could be jeopardized by man-in-the-middle or address spoofing attacks. By authentication and secure data transmission of the sensor's data stream, this can be thwart by fusing the image sensor with the necessary digital encryption and authentication circuit, which fulfils the three standard requirements of cryptography: data integrity, confidentiality and non-repudiation. This paper presents the development done by AIM, which led to the unique sensor SECVGA, a high performance monochrome (B/W) CMOS active pixel image sensor. The device captures still and motion images with a resolution of 800x600 active pixels and converts them into a digital data stream. Additional to a standard imaging sensor there is the capability of the on-chip cryptographic engine to provide the authentication of the sensor to the host, based on a one-way challenge/response protocol. The protocol that has been realized uses the exchange of a session key to secure the following video data transmission. To achieve this, we calculate a cryptographic checksum derived from a message authentication code (MAC) for a complete image frame. The imager is equipped with an EEPROM to give it the capability to personalize it with a unique and unchangeable identity. A two-wire I2C compatible serial interface allows to program the functions of the imager, i.e. various operating modes, including the authentication procedure, the control of the integration time, sub-frames and the frame rate.

  2. CMOS Imaging of Pin-Printed Xerogel-Based Luminescent Sensor Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lei; Yung, Ka Yi; Khan, Rifat; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P; Bright, Frank V

    2010-12-01

    We present the design and implementation of a luminescence-based miniaturized multisensor system using pin-printed xerogel materials which act as host media for chemical recognition elements. We developed a CMOS imager integrated circuit (IC) to image the luminescence response of the xerogel-based sensor array. The imager IC uses a 26 × 20 (520 elements) array of active pixel sensors and each active pixel includes a high-gain phototransistor to convert the detected optical signals into electrical currents. The imager includes a correlated double sampling circuit and pixel address/digital control circuit; the image data is read-out as coded serial signal. The sensor system uses a light-emitting diode (LED) to excite the target analyte responsive luminophores doped within discrete xerogel-based sensor elements. As a prototype, we developed a 4 × 4 (16 elements) array of oxygen (O2) sensors. Each group of 4 sensor elements in the array (arranged in a row) is designed to provide a different and specific sensitivity to the target gaseous O2 concentration. This property of multiple sensitivities is achieved by using a strategic mix of two oxygen sensitive luminophores ([Ru(dpp)3](2+) and ([Ru(bpy)3](2+)) in each pin-printed xerogel sensor element. The CMOS imager consumes an average power of 8 mW operating at 1 kHz sampling frequency driven at 5 V. The developed prototype system demonstrates a low cost and miniaturized luminescence multisensor system. PMID:24489484

  3. Task Force on Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) and Non-criteria APS Manifestations (II): thrombocytopenia and skin manifestations.

    PubMed

    Cervera, R; Tektonidou, M G; Espinosa, G; Cabral, A R; González, E B; Erkan, D; Vadya, S; Adrogué, H E; Solomon, M; Zandman-Goddard, G; Shoenfeld, Y

    2011-02-01

    The objectives of the 'Task Force on Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) and Non-criteria APS Manifestations' were to assess the clinical utility of the international consensus statement on classification criteria and treatment guidelines for the catastrophic APS, to identify and grade the studies that analyze the relationship between the antiphospholipid antibodies and the non-criteria APS manifestations, and to present the current evidence regarding the accuracy of these non-criteria APS manifestations for the detection of patients with APS. This article summarizes the studies analyzed on thrombocytopenia and skin manifestations, and presents the recommendations elaborated by the Task Force after this analysis.

  4. Final report for tank 241-AP-108, grab samples 8AP-96-1, 8AP-96-2 and 8AP-96-FB

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1996-04-19

    This document is the final report deliverable for the tank 241-AP-108 grab samples. The samples were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the TSAP. Included in this report are the results for the Waste Compatibility analyses, with the exception of DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results which were presented in the 45 Day report (Part 2 of this document). The raw data for all analyses, with the exception of DSC and TGA, are also included in this report.

  5. An Updated AP2 Beamline TURTLE Model

    SciTech Connect

    Gormley, M.; O'Day, S.

    1991-08-23

    This note describes a TURTLE model of the AP2 beamline. This model was created by D. Johnson and improved by J. Hangst. The authors of this note have made additional improvements which reflect recent element and magnet setting changes. The magnet characteristics measurements and survey data compiled to update the model will be presented. A printout of the actual TURTLE deck may be found in appendix A.

  6. Beryllium window for an APS diagnostics beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, I.C.; Yang, B.X.; Sharma, Y.S.

    1997-09-01

    A beryllium (Be) window for an Advanced Photon Source (APS) diagnostics beamline has been designed and built. The window, which has a double concave axisymmetrical profile with a thickness of 0.5 mm at the center, receives 160 W/mm{sup 2} (7 GeV/100 mA stored beam) from an undulator beam. The window design as well as thermal and thermomechanical analyses, including thermal buckling of the Be window, are presented.

  7. APS storage ring vacuum system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, J.R.; Gagliano, J.; Goeppner, G.A.

    1997-06-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring was designed to operated with 7-GeV, 100-mA positron beam with lifetimes > 20 hours. The lifetime is limited by residual gas scattering and Touschek scattering at this time. Photon-stimulated desorption and microwave power in the rf cavities are the main gas loads. Comparison of actual system gas loads and design calculations will be given. In addition, several special features of the storage ring vacuum system will be presented.

  8. Cultural Diversity in AP Art History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Frances R.

    2006-01-01

    Teaching AP Art History is like running on a treadmill that is moving faster than a teacher can run. Many teachers are out of breath before the end of the term and wonder how in the world they can cover every chapter. Because time is short and art from pre-history through to the present, including the non-European traditions, must be covered, this…

  9. Small Molecule Inhibitors Targeting Activator Protein 1 (AP-1)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a pivotal transcription factor that regulates a wide range of cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, survival, cell migration, and transformation. Accumulating evidence supports that AP-1 plays an important role in several severe disorders including cancer, fibrosis, and organ injury, as well as inflammatory disorders such as asthma, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. AP-1 has emerged as an actively pursued drug discovery target over the past decade. Excitingly, a selective AP-1 inhibitor T-5224 (51) has been investigated in phase II human clinical trials. Nevertheless, no effective AP-1 inhibitors have yet been approved for clinical use. Despite significant advances achieved in understanding AP-1 biology and function, as well as the identification of small molecules modulating AP-1 associated signaling pathways, medicinal chemistry efforts remain an urgent need to yield selective and efficacious AP-1 inhibitors as a viable therapeutic strategy for human diseases. PMID:24831826

  10. Book Eyes Impact of AP Classes and Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2010-01-01

    At a time of mushrooming interest in Advanced Placement (AP) tests, a new book, "AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program," assembles studies on how capable the program is of meeting the increasingly diverse expectations held up for it. Growing out of a symposium held at Harvard in 2007, the book focuses on AP science courses…

  11. Current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane

    2007-01-16

    A current sensor is described that uses a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. The sensor can be hinged to allow clamping to a conductor. The current sensor provides high measurement accuracy for both DC and AC currents, and is substantially immune to the effects of temperature, conductor position, nearby current carrying conductors and aging.

  12. 77 FR 24480 - Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program-Reopening the AP Test Fee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    .... ACTION: Notice reopening the AP Test Fee fiscal year 2012 competition. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84.330B. SUMMARY: On February 15, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR... Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program--Reopening the AP Test Fee Fiscal...

  13. APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant - Monitoring System Report

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort; Dimitri Hochard

    2005-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), along with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Pubic Service (APS), is monitoring the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant to determine the costs to produce hydrogen fuels (including 100% hydrogen as well as hydrogen and compressed natural gas blends) for use by fleets and other operators of advanced-technology vehicles. The hydrogen fuel cost data will be used as benchmark data by technology modelers as well as research and development programs. The Pilot Plant can produce up to 18 kilograms (kg) of hydrogen per day by electrolysis. It can store up to 155 kg of hydrogen at various pressures up to 6,000 psi. The dispenser island can fuel vehicles with 100% hydrogen at 5,000 psi and with blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas at 3,600 psi. The monitoring system was designed to track hydrogen delivery to each of the three storage areas and to monitor the use of electricity on all major equipment in the Pilot Plant, including the fuel dispenser island. In addition, water used for the electrolysis process is monitored to allow calculation of the total cost of plant operations and plant efficiencies. The monitoring system at the Pilot Plant will include about 100 sensors when complete (50 are installed to date), allowing for analysis of component, subsystems, and plant-level costs. The monitoring software is mostly off-the-shelve, with a custom interface. The majority of the sensors input to the Programmable Automation Controller as 4- to 20-mA analog signals. The plant can be monitored over of the Internet, but the control functions are restricted to the control room equipment. Using the APS general service plan E32 electric rate of 2.105 cents per kWh, during a recent eight-month period when 1,200 kg of hydrogen was produced and the plant capacity factor was 26%, the electricity cost to produce one kg of hydrogen was $3.43. However, the

  14. AP600 containment purge radiological analysis

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, M.; Schulz, J.; Tan, C.

    1995-02-01

    The AP600 Project is a passive pressurized water reactor power plant which is part of the Design Certification and First-of-a-Kind Engineering effort under the Advanced Light Water Reactor program. Included in this process is the design of the containment air filtration system which will be the subject of this paper. We will compare the practice used by previous plants with the AP600 approach to meet the goals of industry standards in sizing the containment air filtration system. The radiological aspects of design are of primary significance and will be the focus of this paper. The AP600 Project optimized the design to combine the functions of the high volumetric flow rate, low volumetric flow rate, and containment cleanup and other filtration systems into one multi-functional system. This achieves a more simplified, standardized, and lower cost design. Studies were performed to determine the possible concentrations of radioactive material in the containment atmosphere and the effectiveness of the purge system to keep concentrations within 10CFR20 limits and within offsite dose objectives. The concentrations were determined for various reactor coolant system leakage rates and containment purge modes of operation. The resultant concentrations were used to determine the containment accessibility during various stages of normal plant operation including refueling. The results of the parametric studies indicate that a dual train purge system with a capacity of 4,000 cfm per train is more than adequate to control the airborne radioactivity levels inside containment during normal plant operation and refueling, and satisfies the goals of ANSI/ANS-56.6-1986 and limits the amount of radioactive material released to the environment per ANSI/ANS 59.2-1985 to provide a safe environment for plant personnel and offsite residents.

  15. Proactive AP Selection Method Considering the Radio Interference Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taenaka, Yuzo; Kashihara, Shigeru; Tsukamoto, Kazuya; Yamaguchi, Suguru; Oie, Yuji

    In the near future, wireless local area networks (WLANs) will overlap to provide continuous coverage over a wide area. In such ubiquitous WLANs, a mobile node (MN) moving freely between multiple access points (APs) requires not only permanent access to the Internet but also continuous communication quality during handover. In order to satisfy these requirements, an MN needs to (1) select an AP with better performance and (2) execute a handover seamlessly. To satisfy requirement (2), we proposed a seamless handover method in a previous study. Moreover, in order to achieve (1), the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is usually employed to measure wireless link quality in a WLAN system. However, in a real environment, especially if APs are densely situated, it is difficult to always select an AP with better performance based on only the RSSI. This is because the RSSI alone cannot detect the degradation of communication quality due to radio interference. Moreover, it is important that AP selection is completed only on an MN, because we can assume that, in ubiquitous WLANs, various organizations or operators will manage APs. Hence, we cannot modify the APs for AP selection. To overcome these difficulties, in the present paper, we propose and implement a proactive AP selection method considering wireless link condition based on the number of frame retransmissions in addition to the RSSI. In the evaluation, we show that the proposed AP selection method can appropriately select an AP with good wireless link quality, i.e., high RSSI and low radio interference.

  16. Cold-fusion television show angers APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2009-06-01

    Cold fusion has been controversial since its inception on 23 March 1989, when chemists Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons at the University of Utah in the US announced that they had achieved a sustained nuclear-fusion reaction at room temperature. Two decades on, a US television documentary about the field has stirred up fresh debate after it linked the American Physical Society (APS) to an evaluation of some cold-fusion results by Robert Duncan, a physicist and vice chancellor of the University of Missouri.

  17. Ozone mitigation tests at the APS

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.; Collins, J.T.; Pisharody, M.; Job, P.K.; Wang Zhibi

    1996-09-01

    Ozone is generated in the APS experimental stations whenever the x-ray beam has a chance to interact with air. Ozone concentrations in an experimental station have to be below a certain defined limit (current OSHA regulations specify 0.08 ppm as the maximum limit) before an experimenter can reenter the hutch. This limit is said to be currently under study for a downward adjustment. One method of depleting the ozone generated in an experimental station is mitigation through either adsorption or direct destruction. In recent tests, both methods were tried using commercially available units. Test results and some analytical predictions are presented.

  18. Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment -Attached Payload (SEDA-AP) on the ISS -"Kibo" Exposed Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Kiyokazu; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Kimoto, Yugo; Obara, Takahiro; Goka, Tateo

    To support future space activities, it is very important to acquire space environmental data related to space radiation degradation of space parts and materials and spacecraft anomalies. Such data are useful for spacecraft design and manned space activity. On several satellite of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) since the Engineering Test Satellite-V (ETS-V), Technical Data Acquisition Equipment (TEDA) and Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment (SEDA) have been installed for obtaining the data described above. SEDA-Attached Payload (AP) was mounted on Japanese experimental module, "Kibo" , at International Space Station (ISS) to take continuous measurements of the 400 kilometres altitude space station's tra-jectory for a period of around 3 years. SEDA-AP comprises common bus equipment supporting launch, RMS handling, the power/communication interface with JEM-EF, an extendible mast that extends the neutron monitor sensor 1 m separate from the bus structure, and equipment that measures space environment data. SEDA-AP has been fitted with 8 kinds of instruments. It will continuously and simultaneously measure neutrons, heavy ions, plasma, high-energy electrons and protons, atomic oxygen, space debris and dusts, etc. Furthermore, by exposing electronic devices and materials directory to the space environment, it will examine how they are affected by the environment. SEDA-AP was lanced on July 16 in 2009, and attached to EF of "Kibo" on July 25 using the robot arm of "Kibo". Initial checkout was started on Au-gust 4 and successfully ended on September 17. This paper will report the mission objectives, instrumentation, and current status of SEDA-AP.

  19. CMOS Imaging of Temperature Effects on Pin-Printed Xerogel Sensor Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Lei Yao; Ka Yi Yung; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P; Bright, Frank V

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of temperature on the operation and performance of a xerogel-based sensor microarrays coupled to a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imager integrated circuit (IC) that images the photoluminescence response from the sensor microarray. The CMOS imager uses a 32 × 32 (1024 elements) array of active pixel sensors and each pixel includes a high-gain phototransistor to convert the detected optical signals into electrical currents. A correlated double sampling circuit and pixel address/digital control/signal integration circuit are also implemented on-chip. The CMOS imager data are read out as a serial coded signal. The sensor system uses a light-emitting diode to excite target analyte responsive organometallic luminophores doped within discrete xerogel-based sensor elements. As a proto type, we developed a 3 × 3 (9 elements) array of oxygen (O2) sensors. Each group of three sensor elements in the array (arranged in a column) is designed to provide a different and specific sensitivity to the target gaseous O2 concentration. This property of multiple sensitivities is achieved by using a mix of two O2 sensitive luminophores in each pin-printed xerogel sensor element. The CMOS imager is designed to be low noise and consumes a static power of 320.4 μW and an average dynamic power of 624.6 μW when operating at 100-Hz sampling frequency and 1.8-V dc power supply.

  20. CMOS Imaging of Temperature Effects on Pin-Printed Xerogel Sensor Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Lei Yao; Ka Yi Yung; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P; Bright, Frank V

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of temperature on the operation and performance of a xerogel-based sensor microarrays coupled to a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imager integrated circuit (IC) that images the photoluminescence response from the sensor microarray. The CMOS imager uses a 32 × 32 (1024 elements) array of active pixel sensors and each pixel includes a high-gain phototransistor to convert the detected optical signals into electrical currents. A correlated double sampling circuit and pixel address/digital control/signal integration circuit are also implemented on-chip. The CMOS imager data are read out as a serial coded signal. The sensor system uses a light-emitting diode to excite target analyte responsive organometallic luminophores doped within discrete xerogel-based sensor elements. As a proto type, we developed a 3 × 3 (9 elements) array of oxygen (O2) sensors. Each group of three sensor elements in the array (arranged in a column) is designed to provide a different and specific sensitivity to the target gaseous O2 concentration. This property of multiple sensitivities is achieved by using a mix of two O2 sensitive luminophores in each pin-printed xerogel sensor element. The CMOS imager is designed to be low noise and consumes a static power of 320.4 μW and an average dynamic power of 624.6 μW when operating at 100-Hz sampling frequency and 1.8-V dc power supply. PMID:23851206

  1. The APS control system network upgrade.

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorowicz, K. v.; Leibfritz, D.; McDowell, W. P.

    1999-10-22

    When it was installed,the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system network was at the state-of-the-art. Different aspects of the system have been reported at previous meetings [1,2]. As loads on the controls network have increased due to newer and faster workstations and front-end computers, we have found performance of the system declining and have implemented an upgraded network. There have been dramatic advances in networking hardware in the last several years. The upgraded APS controls network replaces the original FDDI backbone and shared Ethernet hubs with redundant gigabit uplinks and fully switched 10/100 Ethernet switches with backplane fabrics in excess of 20 Gbits/s (Gbps). The central collapsed backbone FDDI concentrator has been replaced with a Gigabit Ethernet switch with greater than 30 Gbps backplane fabric. Full redundancy of the system has been maintained. This paper will discuss this upgrade and include performance data and performance comparisons with the original network.

  2. EPA’s AP-42 development methodology: Converting or rerating current AP-42 datasets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In August 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) published their new methodology for updating the Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors (AP-42). The “Recommended Procedures for Development of Emissions Factors and Use of the WebFIRE Database” instructs that the ratings of the...

  3. Contact CMOS imaging of gaseous oxygen sensor array.

    PubMed

    Daivasagaya, Daisy S; Yao, Lei; Yi Yung, Ka; Hajj-Hassan, Mohamad; Cheung, Maurice C; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P; Bright, Frank V

    2011-10-01

    We describe a compact luminescent gaseous oxygen (O2) sensor microsystem based on the direct integration of sensor elements with a polymeric optical filter and placed on a low power complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imager integrated circuit (IC). The sensor operates on the measurement of excited-state emission intensity of O2-sensitive luminophore molecules tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) ([Ru(dpp)3](2+)) encapsulated within sol-gel derived xerogel thin films. The polymeric optical filter is made with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) that is mixed with a dye (Sudan-II). The PDMS membrane surface is molded to incorporate arrays of trapezoidal microstructures that serve to focus the optical sensor signals on to the imager pixels. The molded PDMS membrane is then attached with the PDMS color filter. The xerogel sensor arrays are contact printed on top of the PDMS trapezoidal lens-like microstructures. The CMOS imager uses a 32 × 32 (1024 elements) array of active pixel sensors and each pixel includes a high-gain phototransistor to convert the detected optical signals into electrical currents. Correlated double sampling circuit, pixel address, digital control and signal integration circuits are also implemented on-chip. The CMOS imager data is read out as a serial coded signal. The CMOS imager consumes a static power of 320 µW and an average dynamic power of 625 µW when operating at 100 Hz sampling frequency and 1.8 V DC. This CMOS sensor system provides a useful platform for the development of miniaturized optical chemical gas sensors.

  4. Contact CMOS imaging of gaseous oxygen sensor array

    PubMed Central

    Daivasagaya, Daisy S.; Yao, Lei; Yi Yung, Ka; Hajj-Hassan, Mohamad; Cheung, Maurice C.; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P.; Bright, Frank V.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a compact luminescent gaseous oxygen (O2) sensor microsystem based on the direct integration of sensor elements with a polymeric optical filter and placed on a low power complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imager integrated circuit (IC). The sensor operates on the measurement of excited-state emission intensity of O2-sensitive luminophore molecules tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) ([Ru(dpp)3]2+) encapsulated within sol–gel derived xerogel thin films. The polymeric optical filter is made with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) that is mixed with a dye (Sudan-II). The PDMS membrane surface is molded to incorporate arrays of trapezoidal microstructures that serve to focus the optical sensor signals on to the imager pixels. The molded PDMS membrane is then attached with the PDMS color filter. The xerogel sensor arrays are contact printed on top of the PDMS trapezoidal lens-like microstructures. The CMOS imager uses a 32 × 32 (1024 elements) array of active pixel sensors and each pixel includes a high-gain phototransistor to convert the detected optical signals into electrical currents. Correlated double sampling circuit, pixel address, digital control and signal integration circuits are also implemented on-chip. The CMOS imager data is read out as a serial coded signal. The CMOS imager consumes a static power of 320 µW and an average dynamic power of 625 µW when operating at 100 Hz sampling frequency and 1.8 V DC. This CMOS sensor system provides a useful platform for the development of miniaturized optical chemical gas sensors. PMID:24493909

  5. Is Ap4A an activator of eukaryotic DNA replication?

    PubMed

    Bambara, R A; Crute, J J; Wahl, A F

    1985-01-01

    The most well established fact concerning Ap4A metabolism is that the concentration of this compound is cell cycle and cell proliferation dependent. An additional intriguing fact is that Ap4A can stimulate DNA synthesis in cell extracts, and when injected into living cells. In view of these facts, it is not surprising that Ap4A has been postulated to regulate the initiation of DNA replication. However, in our opinion, experimental efforts designed to test this hypothesis do not conclusively link Ap4A to DNA replication. Work on the mechanism of stimulation of DNA synthesis in vitro indicates that Ap4A and a variety of adenylated nucleotides increase DNA synthetic rates by acting as primers. Thus far there is no evidence that this primer function plays a role in the initiation of normal DNA replication in vivo, or that Ap4A is unique in this capacity to stimulate initiation processes. Additional experiments have shown an association of partially purified DNA alpha polymerase with both tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase and a protein capable of binding Ap4A. The Ap4A-binding protein appears to be necessary for Ap4A to assume the correct conformation for priming, since physiological levels of Ap4A are not stimulatory for highly purified DNA alpha polymerase. The relevance of tRNA synthetases to the regulation hypothesis is their ability to produce Ap4A. Ironically, mammalian tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase does not appear to have this capacity. Furthermore, the association of alpha polymerase with either Ap4A-binding protein or tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase in vivo has not been conclusively demonstrated. Although Ap4A has been postulated to regulate many phenomena in eukaryotes and bacteria, such as entry into S phase and the response to oxygen deprivation, the links between Ap4A and these processes are still only circumstantial. It is tempting to extrapolate from the alarmone and stringent responses of bacteria to other systems, but these phenomena are not known to occur in

  6. Control units for APS power supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Despe, O.D.; Saunders, C.; McGhee, D.G.

    1993-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) accelerator facility is made up of five major subsystems in addition to the linac: the positron accumulator ring (PAR), low energy transport (LET), booster synchrotron (SYNCH), high energy transport (HET), the storage ring (SR). Each subsystem has multiple magnet power supply combinations, some requiring multiple of operation. These magnet and power supply combinations computer controlled and monitored. The power supply control unit (PSCU) is the first layer of hardware and software above the power supply itself and is described in this paper. The description includes the basic philosophy for each of operation and how it influences the topology and of implementing control. The design of the analog reference blocks (ARBs) influenced the design of other custom functions well as the feedback controls for vibration and other dynamic corrections. The command set supported by the PSCU is discussed.

  7. Low Earth orbit assessment of proton anisotropy using AP8 and AP9 trapped proton models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Walker, Steven A.; Santos Koos, Lindsey M.

    2015-04-01

    The completion of the International Space Station (ISS) in 2011 has provided the space research community with an ideal evaluation and testing facility for future long duration human activities in space. Ionized and secondary neutral particles radiation measurements inside ISS form the ideal tool for validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear reaction cross sections and transport codes. Studies using thermo-luminescent detectors (TLD), tissue equivalent proportional counter (TPEC), and computer aided design (CAD) models of early ISS configurations confirmed that, as input, computational dosimetry at low Earth orbit (LEO) requires an environmental model with directional (anisotropic) capability to properly describe the exposure of trapped protons within ISS. At LEO, ISS encounters exposure from trapped electrons, protons and geomagnetically attenuated galactic cosmic rays (GCR). For short duration studies at LEO, one can ignore trapped electrons and ever present GCR exposure contributions during quiet times. However, within the trapped proton field, a challenge arises from properly estimating the amount of proton exposure acquired. There exist a number of models to define the intensity of trapped particles. Among the established trapped models are the historic AE8/AP8, dating back to the 1980s and the recently released AE9/AP9/SPM. Since at LEO electrons have minimal exposure contribution to ISS, this work ignores the AE8 and AE9 components of the models and couples a measurement derived anisotropic trapped proton formalism to omnidirectional output from the AP8 and AP9 models, allowing the assessment of the differences between the two proton models. The assessment is done at a target point within the ISS-11A configuration (circa 2003) crew quarter (CQ) of Russian Zvezda service module (SM), during its ascending and descending nodes passes through the south Atlantic anomaly (SAA). The anisotropic formalism incorporates the contributions of proton narrow

  8. Low Earth orbit assessment of proton anisotropy using AP8 and AP9 trapped proton models.

    PubMed

    Badavi, Francis F; Walker, Steven A; Santos Koos, Lindsey M

    2015-04-01

    The completion of the International Space Station (ISS) in 2011 has provided the space research community with an ideal evaluation and testing facility for future long duration human activities in space. Ionized and secondary neutral particles radiation measurements inside ISS form the ideal tool for validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear reaction cross sections and transport codes. Studies using thermo-luminescent detectors (TLD), tissue equivalent proportional counter (TPEC), and computer aided design (CAD) models of early ISS configurations confirmed that, as input, computational dosimetry at low Earth orbit (LEO) requires an environmental model with directional (anisotropic) capability to properly describe the exposure of trapped protons within ISS. At LEO, ISS encounters exposure from trapped electrons, protons and geomagnetically attenuated galactic cosmic rays (GCR). For short duration studies at LEO, one can ignore trapped electrons and ever present GCR exposure contributions during quiet times. However, within the trapped proton field, a challenge arises from properly estimating the amount of proton exposure acquired. There exist a number of models to define the intensity of trapped particles. Among the established trapped models are the historic AE8/AP8, dating back to the 1980s and the recently released AE9/AP9/SPM. Since at LEO electrons have minimal exposure contribution to ISS, this work ignores the AE8 and AE9 components of the models and couples a measurement derived anisotropic trapped proton formalism to omnidirectional output from the AP8 and AP9 models, allowing the assessment of the differences between the two proton models. The assessment is done at a target point within the ISS-11A configuration (circa 2003) crew quarter (CQ) of Russian Zvezda service module (SM), during its ascending and descending nodes passes through the south Atlantic anomaly (SAA). The anisotropic formalism incorporates the contributions of proton narrow

  9. The Ped-APS Registry: the antiphospholipid syndrome in childhood.

    PubMed

    Avcin, T; Cimaz, R; Rozman, B

    2009-09-01

    In recent years, antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has been increasingly recognised in various paediatric autoimmune and nonautoimmune diseases, but the relatively low prevalence and heterogeneity of APS in childhood made it very difficult to study in a systematic way. The project of an international registry of paediatric patients with APS (the Ped-APS Registry) was initiated in 2004 to foster and conduct multicentre, controlled studies with large number of paediatric APS patients. The Ped-APS Registry is organised as a collaborative project of the European Forum on Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Juvenile Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Working Group of the Paediatric Rheumatology European Society. Currently, it documents a standardised clinical, laboratory and therapeutic data of 133 children with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL)-related thrombosis from 14 countries. The priority projects for future research of the Ped-APS Registry include prospective enrollment of new patients with aPL-related thrombosis, assessment of differences between the paediatric and adult APS, evaluation of proinflammatory genotype as a risk factor for APS manifestations in childhood and evaluation of patients with isolated nonthrombotic aPL-related manifestations.

  10. 3D heterogeneous sensor system on a chip for defense and security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhansali, Shekhar; Chapman, Glenn H.; Friedman, Eby G.; Ismail, Yehea; Mukund, P. R.; Tebbe, Dennis; Jain, Vijay K.

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes a new concept for ultra-small, ultra-compact, unattended multi-phenomenological sensor systems for rapid deployment, with integrated classification-and-decision-information extraction capability from a sensed environment. We discuss a unique approach, namely a 3-D Heterogeneous System on a Chip (HSoC) in order to achieve a minimum 10X reduction in weight, volume, and power and a 10X or greater increase in capability and reliability -- over the alternative planar approaches. These gains will accrue from (a) the avoidance of long on-chip interconnects and chip-to-chip bonding wires, and (b) the cohabitation of sensors, preprocessing analog circuitry, digital logic and signal processing, and RF devices in the same compact volume. A specific scenario is discussed in detail wherein a set of four types of sensors, namely an array of acoustic and seismic sensors, an active pixel sensor array, and an uncooled IR imaging array are placed on a common sensor plane. The other planes include an analog plane consisting of transductors and A/D converters. The digital processing planes provide the necessary processing and intelligence capability. The remaining planes provide for wireless communications/networking capability. When appropriate, this processing and decision-making will be accomplished on a collaborative basis among the distributed sensor nodes through a wireless network.

  11. Analytical Model of Large Data Transactions in CoAP Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ludovici, Alessandro; Di Marco, Piergiuseppe; Calveras, Anna; Johansson, Karl H.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel analytical model to study fragmentation methods in wireless sensor networks adopting the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) and the IEEE 802.15.4 standard for medium access control (MAC). The blockwise transfer technique proposed in CoAP and the 6LoWPAN fragmentation are included in the analysis. The two techniques are compared in terms of reliability and delay, depending on the traffic, the number of nodes and the parameters of the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC. The results are validated trough Monte Carlo simulations. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study that evaluates and compares analytically the performance of CoAP blockwise transfer and 6LoWPAN fragmentation. A major contribution is the possibility to understand the behavior of both techniques with different network conditions. Our results show that 6LoWPAN fragmentation is preferable for delay-constrained applications. For highly congested networks, the blockwise transfer slightly outperforms 6LoWPAN fragmentation in terms of reliability. PMID:25153143

  12. Experimental Evaluation of Unicast and Multicast CoAP Group Communication

    PubMed Central

    Ishaq, Isam; Hoebeke, Jeroen; Moerman, Ingrid; Demeester, Piet

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is expanding rapidly to new domains in which embedded devices play a key role and gradually outnumber traditionally-connected devices. These devices are often constrained in their resources and are thus unable to run standard Internet protocols. The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a new alternative standard protocol that implements the same principals as the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), but is tailored towards constrained devices. In many IoT application domains, devices need to be addressed in groups in addition to being addressable individually. Two main approaches are currently being proposed in the IoT community for CoAP-based group communication. The main difference between the two approaches lies in the underlying communication type: multicast versus unicast. In this article, we experimentally evaluate those two approaches using two wireless sensor testbeds and under different test conditions. We highlight the pros and cons of each of them and propose combining these approaches in a hybrid solution to better suit certain use case requirements. Additionally, we provide a solution for multicast-based group membership management using CoAP. PMID:27455262

  13. Experimental Evaluation of Unicast and Multicast CoAP Group Communication.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Isam; Hoebeke, Jeroen; Moerman, Ingrid; Demeester, Piet

    2016-07-21

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is expanding rapidly to new domains in which embedded devices play a key role and gradually outnumber traditionally-connected devices. These devices are often constrained in their resources and are thus unable to run standard Internet protocols. The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a new alternative standard protocol that implements the same principals as the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), but is tailored towards constrained devices. In many IoT application domains, devices need to be addressed in groups in addition to being addressable individually. Two main approaches are currently being proposed in the IoT community for CoAP-based group communication. The main difference between the two approaches lies in the underlying communication type: multicast versus unicast. In this article, we experimentally evaluate those two approaches using two wireless sensor testbeds and under different test conditions. We highlight the pros and cons of each of them and propose combining these approaches in a hybrid solution to better suit certain use case requirements. Additionally, we provide a solution for multicast-based group membership management using CoAP.

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Unicast and Multicast CoAP Group Communication.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Isam; Hoebeke, Jeroen; Moerman, Ingrid; Demeester, Piet

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is expanding rapidly to new domains in which embedded devices play a key role and gradually outnumber traditionally-connected devices. These devices are often constrained in their resources and are thus unable to run standard Internet protocols. The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a new alternative standard protocol that implements the same principals as the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), but is tailored towards constrained devices. In many IoT application domains, devices need to be addressed in groups in addition to being addressable individually. Two main approaches are currently being proposed in the IoT community for CoAP-based group communication. The main difference between the two approaches lies in the underlying communication type: multicast versus unicast. In this article, we experimentally evaluate those two approaches using two wireless sensor testbeds and under different test conditions. We highlight the pros and cons of each of them and propose combining these approaches in a hybrid solution to better suit certain use case requirements. Additionally, we provide a solution for multicast-based group membership management using CoAP. PMID:27455262

  15. Smart-Pixel Array Processors Based on Optimal Cellular Neural Networks for Space Sensor Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Wai-Chi; Sheu, Bing J.; Venus, Holger; Sandau, Rainer

    1997-01-01

    A smart-pixel cellular neural network (CNN) with hardware annealing capability, digitally programmable synaptic weights, and multisensor parallel interface has been under development for advanced space sensor applications. The smart-pixel CNN architecture is a programmable multi-dimensional array of optoelectronic neurons which are locally connected with their local neurons and associated active-pixel sensors. Integration of the neuroprocessor in each processor node of a scalable multiprocessor system offers orders-of-magnitude computing performance enhancements for on-board real-time intelligent multisensor processing and control tasks of advanced small satellites. The smart-pixel CNN operation theory, architecture, design and implementation, and system applications are investigated in detail. The VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) implementation feasibility was illustrated by a prototype smart-pixel 5x5 neuroprocessor array chip of active dimensions 1380 micron x 746 micron in a 2-micron CMOS technology.

  16. Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, description of operations for 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104

    SciTech Connect

    RIECK, C.A.

    1999-02-25

    The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTS) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operations (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for tanks 241-AP-102 (AP-102) and 241-AP-104 (AP-104). This DOO will provide a basis for the detailed design of the Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AP-102 and AP-104 and establishes test criteria for the RCS. The test criteria will be used during qualification testing and acceptance testing to verify operability.

  17. The AP2-like gene NsAP2 from water lily is involved in floral organogenesis and plant height.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huolin; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Teng, Nianjun; Chen, Yu; Chen, Fadi

    2012-07-01

    APETALA2 (AP2) genes are ancient and widely distributed among the seed plants, and play an important role during the plant life cycle, acting as key regulators of many developmental processes. In this study, an AP2 homologue, NsAP2, was characterized from water lily (Nymphaea sp. cv. 'Yellow Prince') and is believed to be rather primitive in the evolution of the angiosperms. In situ RNA hybridization showed that NsAP2 transcript was present in all regions of the floral primordium, but had the highest level in the emerging floral organ primordium. After the differentiation of floral organs, NsAP2 was strongly expressed in sepals and petals, while low levels were found in stamens and carpels. The NsAP2 protein was suggested to be localized in the cell nucleus by onion transient expression experiment. Overexpression of NsAP2 in Arabidopsis led to more petal numbers, and Arabidopsis plants expressing NsAP2 exhibited higher plant height, which may be a result of down-regulated expression of GA2ox2 and GA2ox7. Our results indicated that the NsAP2 protein may function in flower organogenesis in water lily, and it is a promising gene for plant height improvement.

  18. The AP2-like gene NsAP2 from water lily is involved in floral organogenesis and plant height.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huolin; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Teng, Nianjun; Chen, Yu; Chen, Fadi

    2012-07-01

    APETALA2 (AP2) genes are ancient and widely distributed among the seed plants, and play an important role during the plant life cycle, acting as key regulators of many developmental processes. In this study, an AP2 homologue, NsAP2, was characterized from water lily (Nymphaea sp. cv. 'Yellow Prince') and is believed to be rather primitive in the evolution of the angiosperms. In situ RNA hybridization showed that NsAP2 transcript was present in all regions of the floral primordium, but had the highest level in the emerging floral organ primordium. After the differentiation of floral organs, NsAP2 was strongly expressed in sepals and petals, while low levels were found in stamens and carpels. The NsAP2 protein was suggested to be localized in the cell nucleus by onion transient expression experiment. Overexpression of NsAP2 in Arabidopsis led to more petal numbers, and Arabidopsis plants expressing NsAP2 exhibited higher plant height, which may be a result of down-regulated expression of GA2ox2 and GA2ox7. Our results indicated that the NsAP2 protein may function in flower organogenesis in water lily, and it is a promising gene for plant height improvement. PMID:22591856

  19. Genome-Wide Identification of the Target Genes of AP2-O, a Plasmodium AP2-Family Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Izumi; Iwanaga, Shiroh; Kato, Tomomi; Kobayashi, Issei; Yuda, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Stage-specific transcription is a fundamental biological process in the life cycle of the Plasmodium parasite. Proteins containing the AP2 DNA-binding domain are responsible for stage-specific transcriptional regulation and belong to the only known family of transcription factors in Plasmodium parasites. Comprehensive identification of their target genes will advance our understanding of the molecular basis of stage-specific transcriptional regulation and stage-specific parasite development. AP2-O is an AP2 family transcription factor that is expressed in the mosquito midgut-invading stage, called the ookinete, and is essential for normal morphogenesis of this stage. In this study, we identified the genome-wide target genes of AP2-O by chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing and elucidate how this AP2 family transcription factor contributes to the formation of this motile stage. The analysis revealed that AP2-O binds specifically to the upstream genomic regions of more than 500 genes, suggesting that approximately 10% of the parasite genome is directly regulated by AP2-O. These genes are involved in distinct biological processes such as morphogenesis, locomotion, midgut penetration, protection against mosquito immunity and preparation for subsequent oocyst development. This direct and global regulation by AP2-O provides a model for gene regulation in Plasmodium parasites and may explain how these parasites manage to control their complex life cycle using a small number of sequence-specific AP2 transcription factors. PMID:26018192

  20. AIRE variations in Addison's disease and autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS): partial gene deletions contribute to APS I.

    PubMed

    Bøe Wolff, A S; Oftedal, B; Johansson, S; Bruland, O; Løvås, K; Meager, A; Pedersen, C; Husebye, E S; Knappskog, P M

    2008-03-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is often associated with other components in autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS). Whereas APS I is caused by mutations in the AIRE gene, the susceptibility genes for AAD and APS II are unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether polymorphisms or copy number variations in the AIRE gene were associated with AAD and APS II. First, nine SNPs in the AIRE gene were analyzed in 311 patients with AAD and APS II and 521 healthy controls, identifying no associated risk. Second, in a subgroup of 25 of these patients, AIRE sequencing revealed three novel polymorphisms. Finally, the AIRE copy number was determined by duplex quantitative PCR in 14 patients with APS I, 161 patients with AAD and APS II and in 39 healthy subjects. In two Scandinavian APS I patients previously reported to be homozygous for common AIRE mutations, we identified large deletions of the AIRE gene covering at least exon 2 to exon 8. We conclude that polymorphisms in the AIRE gene are not associated with AAD and APS II. We further suggest that DNA analysis of the parents of patients found to be homozygous for mutations in AIRE, always should be performed.

  1. Smart sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, Carlo

    2006-08-01

    The term "Smart Sensors" refer to sensors which contain both sensing and signal processing capabilities with objectives ranging from simple viewing to sophisticated remote sensing, surveillance, search/track, weapon guidance, robotics, perceptronics and intelligence applications. In a broad sense, they include any sensor systems covering the whole electromagnetic spectrum: this paper deals specifically with a new class of smart sensors in infrared spectral bands whose developments started some years ago, when it was recognized that the rapid advances of "very large scale integration" (VLSI) processor technology and mosaic infrared detector array technology could be combined to develop new generations of infrared smart sensor systems with much improved performance. So, sophisticated signal processing operations have been developed for these new systems by integrating microcomputers and other VLSI signal processors within or next to the sensor arrays on the same focal plane avoiding complex computing located far away from the sensors. Recently this approach is achieving higher goals by a new and revolutionary sensors concept which introduce inside the sensor some of the basic function of living eyes, such as dynamic stare, dishomogenity compensation, spatial and temporal filtering. New objectives and requirements of these new focal plane processors are presented for this type of new infrared smart sensor systems. This paper is concerned with the processing techniques for only the front end of the focal plane processing, namely, the enhancement of target-to-noise ratio by background clutter suppression and the improvement in target detection by "smart" and pattern correlation threshold.

  2. Residual radiation studies at AP0

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander J Elwyn et al.

    2002-06-19

    The radiation environment at the NuMI experiment has received a lot of attention in the last few years in preparation for project construction. One important issue is the induced radioactivation of the components in the beam line and the shielding materials. This arises from irradiation by hadrons that are generated in the target. Since the level of the residual activity has to be considered when determining access procedures for maintenance during NuMI operation, an understanding of the properties of the remnant radiation is important. To this end, experimental studies were performed in the target vault at AP0 which is similar in design to the NuMI target area. Here 120 GeV protons bombard a target, generating the hadrons that produce the induced radioactivity. Two sets of samples each consisting of three small cylindrical or rectangular solids of iron and steel, one sample of aluminum, and one of concrete were irradiated. One set was hung just below the bottom of a module near the lithium lens (in-vault), and the other was placed on top of the modules downstream of this location (above-vault), just beneath the movable concrete roof of the vault at AP0. Further, four thin activation foils of Au, Au+Cd, In, and Al (along with small disks of the same iron, aluminum, and concrete samples discussed above) were mounted on four 10.2 cm diameter Al disks, one placed on the in-vault module and three at above-vault downstream locations as well. The radioactivity of all these materials on the 10.2 cm Al disks was determined at the Radioisotope Analysis Facility in an attempt to characterize the radionuclides produced during irradiation. The activities of the thin foils were employed in an effort to unfold a spectrum of the neutrons produced during the hadronic cascades in the target. The MARS Monte Carlo code (MO95, MO00) was used to predict and analyze the residual radiation produced during the beam irradiation. New subroutines have been developed for the MARS14 version

  3. High responsivity CMOS imager pixel implemented in SOI technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, X.; Wrigley, C.; Yang, G.; Pain, B.

    2000-01-01

    Availability of mature sub-micron CMOS technology and the advent of the new low noise active pixel sensor (APS) concept have enabled the development of low power, miniature, single-chip, CMOS digital imagers in the decade of the 1990's.

  4. Performance of Project Advance Students on the AP Biology Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Joseph; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared performance of Project Advance biology students (N=60) with Advanced Placement (AP) candidates (N=15,947) nationally on College Entrance Examination Board AP biology test. The research, conducted to determine comparability of the program as valid measures of academic achievement, determined that Project Advance students scored above the…

  5. Schizosaccharomyces pombe encodes a mutated AP endonuclease 1.

    PubMed

    Laerdahl, Jon K; Korvald, Hanne; Nilsen, Line; Dahl-Michelsen, Kristin; Rognes, Torbjørn; Bjørås, Magnar; Alseth, Ingrun

    2011-03-01

    Mutagenic and cytotoxic apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are among the most frequent lesions in DNA. Repair of AP sites is initiated by AP endonucleases and most organisms possess two or more of these enzymes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has AP endonuclease 1 (Apn1) as the major enzymatic activity with AP endonuclease 2 (Apn2) being an important backup. Schizosaccharomyces pombe also encodes two potential AP endonucleases, and Apn2 has been found to be the main repair activity, while Apn1 has no, or only a limited role in AP site repair. Here we have identified a new 5' exon (exon 1) in the apn1 gene and show that the inactivity of S. pombe Apn1 is due to a nonsense mutation in the fifth codon of this new exon. Reversion of this mutation restored the AP endonuclease activity of S. pombe Apn1. Interestingly, the apn1 nonsense mutation was only found in laboratory strains derived from L972 h(-) and not in unrelated isolates of S. pombe. Since all S. pombe laboratory strains originate from L972 h(-), it appears that all experiments involving S. pombe have been conducted in an apn1(-) mutant strain with a corresponding DNA repair deficiency. These observations have implications both for future research in S. pombe and for the interpretation of previously conducted epistatis analysis.

  6. Data-Based Decision Making: The Road to AP Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kelcey; Duggan, Odette

    2012-01-01

    Presented at the Advanced Placement Annual Conference (APAC) in Lake Buena Vista, FL in July 2012. This presentation reviews concepts central to achieving equitable AP access and success for all willing and academically prepared students. We analyze trends in participation and performance by race/ethnicity from the AP Report to the Nation and…

  7. Is the Shine off the A.P. Apple?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Nina; Hurwitz, Sol

    2003-01-01

    Describes challenges facing College Board's efforts to expand Advanced Placement (A.P.) courses to provide equal access to previously underserved low-performing urban and rural school students while maintaining the program's high academic standards. Includes list of strategies school boards can use to achieve greater access to A.P. courses while…

  8. The APS SASE FEL : modeling and code comparison.

    SciTech Connect

    Biedron, S. G.

    1999-04-20

    A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Five FEL simulation codes were used in the design phase: GENESIS, GINGER, MEDUSA, RON, and TDA3D. Initial comparisons between each of these independent formulations show good agreement for the parameters of the APS SASE FEL.

  9. A Closer Examination of the Academic Benefits of AP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKillip, Mary E. M.; Rawls, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to better understand the relationship between students participating in the Advanced Placement (AP) program and subsequent performance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Focusing on students graduating from U.S. public high schools in 2010, the authors used propensity scores to match junior year AP examinees in 3 subjects to…

  10. [Diverse histological lesions in a patient with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)].

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Ermanno; Luciani, Remo; Di Palma, Annamaria; Aversano, Arturo; Stellato, Davide; Liuzzi, Marco; Iele, Emilio; Martignetti, Vinicio; Spagnuolo, Enrico; Morrone, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a rare autoimmune disorder. It can be secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or occur in the absence of autoimmune disease. The hallmark of this so-called primary APS is the presence of circulating antiphospholipid antibodies. Renal involvement in primary APS is caused by thrombosis within the renal vasculature. Recently, nonthrombotic glomerulonephritic renal lesions have been described in primary APS as a new histological entity. We here report a patient with primary APS in whom both lesion types were present. A 58-year-old Caucasian man with no significant past medical history presented to our nephrology unit with diffuse edema. Urinalysis showed proteinuria exceeding 400 mg/dL. The autoantibody panel (p-ANCA, c- ANCA, anti-nucleus, anti-DS-DNA) was negative except for anticardiolipin antibodies, which tested positive in two different samples. The diagnostic workup included a kidney biopsy that revealed thrombotic lesions compatible with primary APS and a typical pattern of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The kidney is a major target in APS but the exact mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of APS nephropathy has been poorly recognized. The use of kidney biopsy is a fundamental diagnostic tool in this setting, with possible implications also from a prognostic and therapeutic viewpoint.

  11. High Pressure Reverse Flow APS Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senneff, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    A design and test demonstration effort was undertaken to evaluate the concept of the reverse flow engine for the APS engine application. The 1500 lb (6672 N) thrust engine was designed to operate on gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen propellants at a mixture ratio of 4 and to achieve the objective performance of 435 sec (4266 Nsec/kg) specific impulse. Superimposed durability requirements called for a million-cycle capability with 50 hours duration. The program was undertaken as a series of tasks including the initial preliminary design, design of critical test components and finally, the design and demonstration of an altitude engine which could be used interchangeably to examine operating parameters as well as to demonstrate the capability of the concept. The program results are reported with data to indicate that all of the program objectives were met or exceeded within the course of testing on the program. The analysis effort undertaken is also reported in detail and supplemented with test data in some cases where prior definitions could not be made. The results are contained of these analyses as well as the test results conducted throughout the course of the program. Finally, the test data and analytical results were combined to allow recommendations for a flight weight design. This preliminary design effort is also detailed.

  12. GPI-AP release in cellular, developmental, and reproductive biology.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Ikawa, Masahito

    2016-04-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) contain a covalently linked GPI anchor located on outer cell membranes. GPI-APs are ubiquitously conserved from protozoa to vertebrates and are critical for physiological events such as development, immunity, and neurogenesis in vertebrates. Both membrane-anchored and soluble GPI-APs play a role in regulating their protein conformation and functional properties. Several pathways mediate the release of GPI-APs from the plasma membrane by vesiculation or cleavage. Phospholipases and putative substrate-specific GPI-AP-releasing enzymes, such as NOTUM, glycerophosphodiesterase 2, and angiotensin-converting enzyme, have been characterized in mammals. Here, the protein modifications resulting from the cleavage of the GPI anchor are discussed in the context of its physiological functions.

  13. The development of beam current monitors in the APS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Lenkszus, F.; Rotela, E.

    1995-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation 7-GeV synchrotron radiation source. The precision measurement of beam current is a challenging task in high energy accelerators, such as the APS, with a wide range of beam parameters and complicated noise, radiation, and thermal environments. The beam pulses in the APS injector and storage ring have charge ranging from 50pC to 25nC with pulse durations varying from 30ps to 30ns. A total of nine non- intercepting beam current monitors have been installed in the APS facility (excluding those in the linac) for general current measurement. In addition, several independent current monitors with specially designed redundant interlock electronics are installed for personnel safety and machine protection. This paper documents the design and development of current monitors in the APS,. discusses the commissioning experience in the past year, and presents the results of recent operations.

  14. Sensor web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delin, Kevin A. (Inventor); Jackson, Shannon P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A Sensor Web formed of a number of different sensor pods. Each of the sensor pods include a clock which is synchronized with a master clock so that all of the sensor pods in the Web have a synchronized clock. The synchronization is carried out by first using a coarse synchronization which takes less power, and subsequently carrying out a fine synchronization to make a fine sync of all the pods on the Web. After the synchronization, the pods ping their neighbors to determine which pods are listening and responded, and then only listen during time slots corresponding to those pods which respond.

  15. On Certain New Methodology for Reducing Sensor and Readout Electronics Circuitry Noise in Digital Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Miko, Joseph; Bradley, Damon; Heinzen, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and upcoming cosmology science missions carry instruments with multiple focal planes populated with many large sensor detector arrays. These sensors are passively cooled to low temperatures for low-level light (L3) and near-infrared (NIR) signal detection, and the sensor readout electronics circuitry must perform at extremely low noise levels to enable new required science measurements. Because we are at the technological edge of enhanced performance for sensors and readout electronics circuitry, as determined by thermal noise level at given temperature in analog domain, we must find new ways of further compensating for the noise in the signal digital domain. To facilitate this new approach, state-of-the-art sensors are augmented at their array hardware boundaries by non-illuminated reference pixels, which can be used to reduce noise attributed to sensors. There are a few proposed methodologies of processing in the digital domain the information carried by reference pixels, as employed by the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope Projects. These methods involve using spatial and temporal statistical parameters derived from boundary reference pixel information to enhance the active (non-reference) pixel signals. To make a step beyond this heritage methodology, we apply the NASA-developed technology known as the Hilbert- Huang Transform Data Processing System (HHT-DPS) for reference pixel information processing and its utilization in reconfigurable hardware on-board a spaceflight instrument or post-processing on the ground. The methodology examines signal processing for a 2-D domain, in which high-variance components of the thermal noise are carried by both active and reference pixels, similar to that in processing of low-voltage differential signals and subtraction of a single analog reference pixel from all active pixels on the sensor. Heritage methods using the aforementioned statistical parameters in the

  16. Atmospheric Modeling And Sensor Simulation (AMASS) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, K. G.

    1984-01-01

    The capabilities of the atmospheric modeling and sensor simulation (AMASS) system were studied in order to enhance them. This system is used in processing atmospheric measurements which are utilized in the evaluation of sensor performance, conducting design-concept simulation studies, and also in the modeling of the physical and dynamical nature of atmospheric processes. The study tasks proposed in order to both enhance the AMASS system utilization and to integrate the AMASS system with other existing equipment to facilitate the analysis of data for modeling and image processing are enumerated. The following array processors were evaluated for anticipated effectiveness and/or improvements in throughput by attachment of the device to the P-e: (1) Floating Point Systems AP-120B; (2) Floating Point Systems 5000; (3) CSP, Inc. MAP-400; (4) Analogic AP500; (5) Numerix MARS-432; and (6) Star Technologies, Inc. ST-100.

  17. I-IMAS: A 1.5D sensor for high-resolution scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fant, A.; Gasiorek, P.; Turchetta, R.; Avset, B.; Bergamaschi, A.; Cavouras, D.; Evangelou, I.; French, M. J.; Galbiati, A.; Georgiou, H.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Jones, J.; Longo, R.; Manthos, N.; Metaxas, M. G.; Noy, M.; Ostby, J. M.; Psomadellis, F.; Royle, G. J.; Schulerud, H.; Speller, R. D.; van der Stelt, P. F.; Theodoridis, S.; Triantis, F.; Venanzi, C.

    2007-04-01

    We have developed a 1.5 D CMOS active pixel sensor to be used in conjunction with a scintillator for X-ray imaging. Within the Intelligent Imaging Sensors (I-ImaS) project, multiple sensors will be aligned to form a line-scanning system and its performance evaluated with respect to existing sensors in other digital radiography systems. Each sensor contains a 512×32 array of pixels and the electronics to convert the collected amount of charge to a digital output value. These include programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs) and analogue-to-digital converters (ADCs). The gain of the PGA can be switched between one or two, to increase the sensitivity for smaller collected charge; the ADC is a 14-bit successive approximation with a sampling rate of 1.25 MHz. The ASIC includes a programmable column fixed pattern noise mitigation circuit and a digitally controllable pixel reset mode block. Here we will describe the sensor design and the expected performance.

  18. Tune measurement in the APS ring

    SciTech Connect

    Sellyey, W.; Kahana, E.; Wang, X.

    1993-07-01

    The APS system will contain three rings. The first is a positron accumulator ring (PAR). Its function is to coalesce 24, 30-ns-long positron bunches into one 290-ps bunch. The second is the injector synchrotron (IS). It accelerates the 450-MeV positron bunches to 7 Gev for injection into the storage ring (SR). Betatron and synchrotron motion frequently occurs in circular machines, without any deliberate excitation. However, the amplitudes of this motion cannot be predicted. Therefore, it is desirable to have controlled ways to excite these modes. Two types of devices will be used to excite the beam. One will be a magnetic kicker or bumper. All rings already have these devices planned for the horizontal direction for injecting and extracting beams. Some of these magnets will be used for exiting horizontal betatron motion. In the storage ring, a special kicker will be installed to produce up to 1 mm amplitude motion in the vertical direction. Two 8.4-in striplines (SL) (1/4 wavelength at 352 MHz) will be installed on all rings. One stripline in each ring will be used to drive all three tunes, and the other stripline will be used as a pickup. In the PAR and IS, the pickup stripline will be in a dispersive region. This will allow observation of both betatron and synchrotron motions. In the SR, the stripline will be in a nondispersive region because it is not practical to install it in a dispersive region. To do synchrotron tune measurements in the SR, one of the button BPMs located in a dispersive region will be used. To minimize development effort, as much of the BPM system electronics as possible will be used in the tune measurement system. The BPM electronics uses the AMP/PM conversion technique. This system operates at 352 MHz. Thus, tune measurement components were also designed to operate at 352 MHz.

  19. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  20. Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Weed Instrument Inc. produces a line of thermocouples - temperature sensors - for a variety of industrial and research uses. One of the company's newer products is a thermocouple specially designed for high accuracy at extreme temperatures above 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Development of sensor brought substantial increases in Weed Instrument sales and employment.

  1. Chemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section.

  2. Smart Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, C.

    2007-01-01

    The term "Smart Sensors" refers to sensors which contain both sensing and signal processing capabilities with objectives ranging from simple viewing to sophisticated remote sensing, surveillance, search/track, weapon guidance, robotics, perceptronics and intelligence applications. Recently this approach is achieving higher goals by a new and revolutionary sensors concept which introduced inside the sensor some of the basic functions of living eyes, such as dynamic stare, non-uniformity compensation, spatial and temporal filtering. New objectives and requirements are presented for this type of new infrared smart sensor systems. This paper is concerned with the front end of FPA microbolometers processing, namely, the enhancement of target-to-noise ratio by background clutter suppression and the improvement in target detection by "smart" and pattern correlation thresholding.

  3. Mobile docking of REMUS-100 equipped with USBL-APS to an unmanned surface vehicle: A performance feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Mario, II

    The overall objective of this work is to evaluate the ability of homing and docking an unmanned underwater vehicle (Hydroid REMUS 100 UUV) to a moving unmanned surface vehicle (Wave-Adaptive Modular Surface Vehicle USV) using a Hydroid Digital Ultra-Short Baseline (DUSBL) acoustic positioning system (APS), as a primary navigation source. An understanding of how the UUV can rendezvous with a stationary USV first is presented, then followed by a moving USV. Inherently, the DUSBL-APS is susceptible to error due to the physical phenomena of the underwater acoustic channel (e.g. ambient noise, attenuation and ray refraction). The development of an APS model has allowed the authors to forecast the UUV's position and the estimated track line of the USV as determined by the DUSBL acoustic sensor. In this model, focus is placed on three main elements: 1) the acoustic channel and sound ray refraction when propagating in an inhomogeneous medium; 2) the detection component of an ideal DUSBL-APS using the Neyman-Pearson criterion; 3) the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and receiver directivity impact on position estimation. The simulation tool is compared against actual open water homing results in terms of the estimated source position between the simulated and the actual USBL range and bearing information.

  4. A new gap separation mechanism for APS insertion devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Tcheskidov, V.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B.; Erdmann, M.; Makarov, O.; Moog, E. R.

    1999-10-25

    A new gap separation mechanism for use with the standard Advanced Photon Source (APS) 3.3-cm-period undulator magnetic structures has been designed and built and the first system has been installed in the APS storage ring. The system allows a minimum magnetic gap of 10 mm for use with the APS 8-mm insertion device vacuum chambers. The mechanism is a bolted steel frame structure with a simple 4-motor mechanical drive train. The control system uses servomotors with incremental rotary encoders and virtual absolute linear encoders.

  5. AP600 design certification thermal hydraulics testing and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hochreiter, L.E.; Piplica, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute, have been developing an advanced light water reactor design; the AP600. The AP600 is a 1940 Mwt, 600Mwe unit which is similar to a Westinghouse two-loop Pressurized Water Reactor. The accumulated knowledge on reactor design to reduce the capital costs, construction time, and the operational and maintenance cost of the unit once it begins to generate electrical power. The AP600 design goal is to maintain an overall cost advantage over fossil generated electrical power.

  6. Authenticated, private, and secured smart cards (APS-SC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Mehmood, Amir

    2006-04-01

    From historical perspective, the recent advancements in better antenna designs, low power circuitry integrations and inexpensive fabrication materials have made possible a miniature counter-measure against Radar, a clutter behaving like a fake target return called Digital Reflection Frequency Modulation (DRFM). Such a military counter-measure have found its way in the commerce as a near field communication known as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), a passive or active item tag T attached to every readable-writable Smart Card (SC): Passports ID, medical patient ID, biometric ID, driver licenses, book ID, library ID, etc. These avalanche phenomena may be due to the 3 rd Gen phones seeking much more versatile & inexpensive interfaces, than the line-of-sight bar-code optical scan. Despite of the popularity of RFID, the lacking of Authenticity, Privacy and Security (APS) protection restricted somewhat the wide spread commercial, financial, medical, legal, and militarily applications. Conventional APS approach can obfuscate a private passkey K of SC with the tag number T or the reader number R, or both, i.e. only T*K or R*K or both will appear on them, where * denotes an invertible operation, e.g. EXOR, but not limited to it. Then, only the authentic owner, knowing all, can inverse the operation, e.g. EXOR*EXOR= I to find K. However, such an encryption could be easily compromised by a hacker seeking exhaustively by comparison based on those frequently used words. Nevertheless, knowing biological wetware lesson for power of pairs sensors and Radar hardware counter-measure history, we can counter the counter-measure DRFM, instead using one RFID tag per SD, we follow the Nature adopting two ears/tags, e.g. each one holding portions of the ID or simply two different ID's readable only by different modes of the interrogating reader, followed by brain central processor in terms of nonlinear invertible shufflers mixing two ID bits. We prefer to adopt such a hardware

  7. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) Gag Is Trafficked in an AP-3 and AP-5 Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Alford, Justine E.; Marongiu, Michela; Watkins, Gemma L.

    2016-01-01

    Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 2 are closely related lentiviruses with similar replication cycles, HIV-2 infection is associated with slower progression to AIDS, a higher proportion of long term non-progressors, and lower rates of transmission than HIV-1, likely as a consequence of a lower viral load during HIV-2 infection. A mechanistic explanation for the differential viral load remains unclear but knowledge of differences in particle production between HIV-1 and HIV-2 may help to shed light on this issue. In contrast to HIV-1, little is known about the assembly of HIV-2 particles, and the trafficking of HIV-2 Gag, the structural component of the virus, within cells. We have established that HIV-2 Gag accumulates in intracellular CD63 positive compartments, from which it may be delivered or recycled to the cell surface, or degraded. HIV-2 particle release was dependent on the adaptor protein complex AP-3 and the newly identified AP-5 complex, but much less so on AP-1. In contrast, HIV-1 particle release required AP-1 and AP-3, but not AP-5. AP-2, an essential component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which was previously shown to be inhibitory to HIV-1 particle release, had no effect on HIV-2. The differential requirement for adaptor protein complexes confirmed that HIV-1 and HIV-2 Gag have distinct cellular trafficking pathways, and that HIV-2 particles may be more susceptible to degradation prior to release. PMID:27392064

  8. Bindings and RESTlets: A Novel Set of CoAP-Based Application Enablers to Build IoT Applications

    PubMed Central

    Teklemariam, Girum Ketema; Van Den Abeele, Floris; Moerman, Ingrid; Demeester, Piet; Hoebeke, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Sensors and actuators are becoming important components of Internet of Things (IoT) applications. Today, several approaches exist to facilitate communication of sensors and actuators in IoT applications. Most communications go through often proprietary gateways requiring availability of the gateway for each and every interaction between sensors and actuators. Sometimes, the gateway does some processing of the sensor data before triggering actuators. Other approaches put this processing logic further in the cloud. These approaches introduce significant latencies and increased number of packets. In this paper, we introduce a CoAP-based mechanism for direct binding of sensors and actuators. This flexible binding solution is utilized further to build IoT applications through RESTlets. RESTlets are defined to accept inputs and produce outputs after performing some processing tasks. Sensors and actuators could be associated with RESTlets (which can be hosted on any device) through the flexible binding mechanism we introduced. This approach facilitates decentralized IoT application development by placing all or part of the processing logic in Low power and Lossy Networks (LLNs). We run several tests to compare the performance of our solution with existing solutions and found out that our solution reduces communication delay and number of packets in the LLN. PMID:27490554

  9. Bindings and RESTlets: A Novel Set of CoAP-Based Application Enablers to Build IoT Applications.

    PubMed

    Teklemariam, Girum Ketema; Van Den Abeele, Floris; Moerman, Ingrid; Demeester, Piet; Hoebeke, Jeroen

    2016-08-02

    Sensors and actuators are becoming important components of Internet of Things (IoT) applications. Today, several approaches exist to facilitate communication of sensors and actuators in IoT applications. Most communications go through often proprietary gateways requiring availability of the gateway for each and every interaction between sensors and actuators. Sometimes, the gateway does some processing of the sensor data before triggering actuators. Other approaches put this processing logic further in the cloud. These approaches introduce significant latencies and increased number of packets. In this paper, we introduce a CoAP-based mechanism for direct binding of sensors and actuators. This flexible binding solution is utilized further to build IoT applications through RESTlets. RESTlets are defined to accept inputs and produce outputs after performing some processing tasks. Sensors and actuators could be associated with RESTlets (which can be hosted on any device) through the flexible binding mechanism we introduced. This approach facilitates decentralized IoT application development by placing all or part of the processing logic in Low power and Lossy Networks (LLNs). We run several tests to compare the performance of our solution with existing solutions and found out that our solution reduces communication delay and number of packets in the LLN.

  10. Bindings and RESTlets: A Novel Set of CoAP-Based Application Enablers to Build IoT Applications.

    PubMed

    Teklemariam, Girum Ketema; Van Den Abeele, Floris; Moerman, Ingrid; Demeester, Piet; Hoebeke, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Sensors and actuators are becoming important components of Internet of Things (IoT) applications. Today, several approaches exist to facilitate communication of sensors and actuators in IoT applications. Most communications go through often proprietary gateways requiring availability of the gateway for each and every interaction between sensors and actuators. Sometimes, the gateway does some processing of the sensor data before triggering actuators. Other approaches put this processing logic further in the cloud. These approaches introduce significant latencies and increased number of packets. In this paper, we introduce a CoAP-based mechanism for direct binding of sensors and actuators. This flexible binding solution is utilized further to build IoT applications through RESTlets. RESTlets are defined to accept inputs and produce outputs after performing some processing tasks. Sensors and actuators could be associated with RESTlets (which can be hosted on any device) through the flexible binding mechanism we introduced. This approach facilitates decentralized IoT application development by placing all or part of the processing logic in Low power and Lossy Networks (LLNs). We run several tests to compare the performance of our solution with existing solutions and found out that our solution reduces communication delay and number of packets in the LLN. PMID:27490554

  11. Automotive sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, Jiri; Illing, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Sensors are an essential component of most electronic systems in the car. They deliver input parameters for comfort features, engine and emission control as well as for the active and passive safety systems. New technologies such as silicon micromachining play an important role for the introduction of these sensors in all vehicle classes. The importance and use of these sensor technologies in today"s automotive applications will be shown in this article. Finally an outlook on important current developments and new functions in the car will be given.

  12. QCD on the Massively Parallel Computer AP1000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akemi, K.; Fujisaki, M.; Okuda, M.; Tago, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Hioki, S.; Miyamura, O.; Takaishi, T.; Nakamura, A.; de Forcrand, Ph.; Hege, C.; Stamatescu, I. O.

    We present the QCD-TARO program of calculations which uses the parallel computer AP1000 of Fujitsu. We discuss the results on scaling, correlation times and hadronic spectrum, some aspects of the implementation and the future prospects.

  13. Time-weighted accumulations ap(. tau. ) and Kp(. tau. )

    SciTech Connect

    Wrenn, G.L. )

    1987-09-01

    The planetary geomagnetic indices Kp and ap are widely used in space geophysics. They provide an estimate of maximum magnetic perturbation within a 3-hour period. Many geophysical properties are clearly related to the indices, through energy transfer from a common disturbance source, but direct correlation is often lacking because of poor matching between the frequency of sampling and the physical response functions. The index ap({tau}) is a simple accumulation of the linear ap calculated with an attenuation factor {tau} included to take account of natural temporal relaxation. The case for ap({tau}) and the related Kp({tau}) is made using applications to the variability of the plasma environment in the ionosphere and inner magnetosphere. These examples of improved correlation suggest that time-weighted integration might profitably be applied to other indices.

  14. Tank characterization report for double shell tank 241-AP-104

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelman, W.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-07

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-AP-104. This report supports the requirements of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-44-09.

  15. Engaging Cuban Physicists Through the APS/CPS Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, Irving A.; Lerch, Irving A.

    In his reflections on Cuban physics, Marcelo Alonso urges APS to take steps to promote interactions between Cuban and US physicists. As an introduction to Marcello's essay, this note will summarize past and current activities.

  16. A hot-spare injector for the APS linac.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewellen, J. W.

    1999-04-13

    Last year a second-generation SSRL-type thermionic cathode rf gun was installed in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac. This gun (referred to as ''gun2'') has been successfully commissioned and now serves as the main injector for the APS linac, essentially replacing the Koontz-type DC gun. To help ensure injector availability, particularly with the advent of top-up mode operation at the APS, a second thermionic-cathode rf gun will be installed in the APS linac to act as a hot-spare beam source. The hot-spare installation includes several unique design features, including a deep-orbit Panofsky-style alpha magnet. Details of the hot-spare beamline design and projected performance are presented, along with some plans for future performance upgrades.

  17. Again, Maryland Ranks #1 in Advanced Placement (AP) Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    For a second year in a row, Maryland ranked first nationwide in the percentage of public school students scoring 3 or higher on at least one AP (Advanced Placement) exam. A score of 3 or higher on the 5-point scale is considered mastery of college-level work. Maryland also continues to show strong gains in the number of students taking an AP exam,…

  18. Wireless sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lamberti, Vincent E.; Howell, JR, Layton N.; Mee, David K.; Sepaniak, Michael J.

    2016-02-09

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting a target material. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a molecular recognition reagent coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The molecular recognition reagent is operable to expand upon exposure to vapor or liquid from the target material such that the molecular recognition reagent changes a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal. The target material is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the changes in the tensile stress.

  19. An AP4B1 frameshift mutation in siblings with intellectual disability and spastic tetraplegia further delineates the AP-4 deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abdollahpour, Hengameh; Alawi, Malik; Kortüm, Fanny; Beckstette, Michael; Seemanova, Eva; Komárek, Vladimír; Rosenberger, Georg; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2015-02-01

    The recently proposed adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) deficiency syndrome comprises a group of congenital neurological disorders characterized by severe intellectual disability (ID), delayed or absent speech, hereditary spastic paraplegia, and growth retardation. AP-4 is a heterotetrameric protein complex with important functions in vesicle trafficking. Mutations in genes affecting different subunits of AP-4, including AP4B1, AP4E1, AP4S1, and AP4M1, have been reported in patients with the AP-4 deficiency phenotype. We describe two siblings from a non-consanguineous couple who presented with severe ID, absent speech, microcephaly, growth retardation, and progressive spastic tetraplegia. Whole-exome sequencing in the two patients identified the novel homozygous 2-bp deletion c.1160_1161delCA (p.(Thr387Argfs*30)) in AP4B1. Sanger sequencing confirmed the mutation in the siblings and revealed it in the heterozygous state in both parents. The AP4B1-associated phenotype has previously been assigned to spastic paraplegia-47. Identification of a novel AP4B1 alteration in two patients with clinical manifestations highly similar to other individuals with mutations affecting one of the four AP-4 subunits further supports the observation that loss of AP-4 assembly or functionality underlies the common clinical features in these patients and underscores the existence of the clinically recognizable AP-4 deficiency syndrome.

  20. An AP4B1 frameshift mutation in siblings with intellectual disability and spastic tetraplegia further delineates the AP-4 deficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahpour, Hengameh; Alawi, Malik; Kortüm, Fanny; Beckstette, Michael; Seemanova, Eva; Komárek, Vladimír; Rosenberger, Georg; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    The recently proposed adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) deficiency syndrome comprises a group of congenital neurological disorders characterized by severe intellectual disability (ID), delayed or absent speech, hereditary spastic paraplegia, and growth retardation. AP-4 is a heterotetrameric protein complex with important functions in vesicle trafficking. Mutations in genes affecting different subunits of AP-4, including AP4B1, AP4E1, AP4S1, and AP4M1, have been reported in patients with the AP-4 deficiency phenotype. We describe two siblings from a non-consanguineous couple who presented with severe ID, absent speech, microcephaly, growth retardation, and progressive spastic tetraplegia. Whole-exome sequencing in the two patients identified the novel homozygous 2-bp deletion c.1160_1161delCA (p.(Thr387Argfs*30)) in AP4B1. Sanger sequencing confirmed the mutation in the siblings and revealed it in the heterozygous state in both parents. The AP4B1-associated phenotype has previously been assigned to spastic paraplegia-47. Identification of a novel AP4B1 alteration in two patients with clinical manifestations highly similar to other individuals with mutations affecting one of the four AP-4 subunits further supports the observation that loss of AP-4 assembly or functionality underlies the common clinical features in these patients and underscores the existence of the clinically recognizable AP-4 deficiency syndrome. PMID:24781758

  1. AP-1 and AP-3 mediate sorting of melanosomal and lysosomal membrane proteins into distinct post-Golgi trafficking pathways.

    PubMed

    Chapuy, Björn; Tikkanen, Ritva; Mühlhausen, Chris; Wenzel, Dirk; von Figura, Kurt; Höning, Stefan

    2008-07-01

    The adaptor complexes AP-1 and AP-3 are localized to endosomes and/or the trans Golgi network (TGN). Because of limitations in analysing intracellular adaptor function directly, their site of function is a matter of ongoing uncertainty. To overcome this problem and to analyse adaptor sorting at the TGN, we reconstituted vesicle formation from Golgi/TGN-enriched membranes in a novel in vitro budding assay. Melanocytes were metabolically labelled followed by a 19 degrees C temperature block to accumulate newly synthesized proteins in Golgi membranes, which were then enriched by subcellular fractionation and used as donor membranes for vesicle formation in vitro. The incorporation of the melanosomal proteins tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1) as well as Lamp-1 and 46 kDa mannose-6-phosphate receptor (MPR46) into Golgi/TGN-derived vesicles was temperature, nucleotide, cytosol, ADP ribosylation factor 1 and adaptor dependent. We show that sorting of TRP-1 and MPR46 was AP-1 dependent, while budding of tyrosinase and Lamp-1 required AP-3. Depletion of clathrin inhibited sorting of all four cargo proteins, suggesting that AP-1 and AP-3 are involved in the formation of distinct types of clathrin-coated vesicles, each of which is characterized by the incorporation of specific cargo membrane proteins.

  2. DNA cleavage at the AP site via β-elimination mediated by the AP site-binding ligands.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yukiko S; Sasaki, Shigeki

    2016-02-15

    DNA is continuously damaged by endogenous and exogenous factors such as oxidation and alkylation. In the base excision repair pathway, the damaged nucleobases are removed by DNA N-glycosylase to form the abasic sites (AP sites). The alkylating antitumor agent exhibits cytotoxicity through the formation of the AP site. Therefore blockage or modulation of the AP site repair pathway may enhance the antitumor efficacy of DNA alkylating agents. In this study, we have examined the effects of the nucleobase-polyamine conjugated ligands (G-, A-, C- and T-ligands) on the cleavage of the AP site. The G- and A-ligands cleaved DNA at the AP site by promoting β-elimination in a non-selective manner by the G-ligand, and in a selective manner for the opposing dT by the A-ligand. These results suggest that the nucleobase-polyamine conjugate ligands may have the potential for enhancement of the cytotoxicities of the AP site.

  3. Interface connections of a transmembrane voltage sensor.

    PubMed

    Freites, J Alfredo; Tobias, Douglas J; von Heijne, Gunnar; White, Stephen H

    2005-10-18

    Voltage-sensitive ion channels open and close in response to changes in transmembrane (TM) potential caused by the motion of the S4 voltage sensors. These sensors are alpha-helices that include four or more positively charged amino acids, most commonly arginine. The so-called paddle model, based on the high-resolution structure of the KvAP K+ channel [Jiang, et al. (2003) Nature 423, 33-41], posits that the S4 sensors move within the membrane bilayer in response to TM voltage changes. Direct exposure of S4 sensors to lipid is contrary to the classical expectation that the dielectric contrast between the membrane hydrocarbon core and water presents an insurmountable energetic penalty to burial of electric charges. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that a helix with the sequence of KvAP S4 can be inserted across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. To reconcile this result with the classical energetics argument, we have carried out a molecular dynamics simulation of an isolated TM S4 helix in a lipid bilayer. The simulation reveals a stabilizing hydrogen-bonded network of water and lipid phosphates around the arginines that reduces the effective thickness of the bilayer hydrocarbon core to approximately 10 A in the vicinity of the helix. It suggests that bilayer phospholipids can adapt locally to strongly perturbing protein elements, causing the phospholipids to become a structural extension of the protein.

  4. Monolithic Active Pixel Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) ASIC

    SciTech Connect

    Khalid, Farah F.; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Shenai, Alpana; Yarema, Raymond J.; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01

    Monolithic Active Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) is a counting ASIC designed for detecting and measuring low energy X-rays from 6-12 keV. Each pixel contains analogue functionality implemented with a charge preamplifier, CR-RC{sup 2} shaper and a baseline restorer. It also contains a window comparator which can be trimmed by 4 bit DACs to remove systematic offsets. The hits are registered by a 12 bit ripple counter which is reconfigured as a shift register to serially output the data from the entire ASIC. Each pixel can be tested individually. Two diverse approaches have been used to prevent coupling between the detector and electronics in MAMBO III and MAMBO IV. MAMBO III is a 3D ASIC, the bottom ASIC consists of diodes which are connected to the top ASIC using {mu}-bump bonds. The detector is decoupled from the electronics by physically separating them on two tiers and using several metal layers as a shield. MAMBO IV is a monolithic structure which uses a nested well approach to isolate the detector from the electronics. The ASICs are being fabricated using the SOI 0.2 {micro}m OKI process, MAMBO III is 3D bonded at T-Micro and MAMBO IV nested well structure was developed in collaboration between OKI and Fermilab.

  5. AP@home: The Artificial Pancreas Is Now at Home.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Lutz; Benesch, Carsten; DeVries, J Hans

    2016-07-01

    In the past years the development of an artificial pancreas (AP) has made great progress and many activities are ongoing in this area of research. The major step forward made in the last years was moving the evaluation of AP systems from highly controlled experimental conditions to daily life conditions at the home of patients with diabetes; this was also the aim of the European Union-funded AP@home project. Over a time period of 5 years a series of clinical studies were performed that culminated in 2 "final studies" during which an AP system was used by patients in their home environment for 2 or 3 months without supervision by a physician, living their normal lives. Two different versions of the AP system developed within this project were evaluated. A significant improvement in glycated hemoglobin was observed during closed-loop conditions despite the fact that during the control period the patients used the best currently available therapeutic option. In addition, a "single-port AP system" was developed within the project that combines continuous glucose monitoring and insulin infusion at a single tissue site. By using such a combined device the patients not only have to carry one less device around, the number of access points through the skin is also reduced from 2 to 1. In summary, close cooperation of 12 European partners, both academic centers and industry, enabled the development and evaluation of AP systems under daily life conditions. The next step is to develop these into products in cooperation with commercial partners. PMID:26888971

  6. Oscillatory behavior of fine AP/HTPB composite propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, Scott Ralston

    1998-12-01

    The steady and oscillatory combustion of wide distribution AP/HTPB composite propellants containing coarse AP and fuel-rich, fine-AP/HTPB pocket regions has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. These propellants are of special interest because they are similar to many wide distribution bi-modal tailorable plateau propellants. The unsteady combustion response was measured using the laser-recoil method. It was found that at 1 atm monomodal fuel rich propellants containing fine AP (representative of the pocket propellant in the bimodal propellants) exhibit both a low frequency combustion response peak (˜10 Hz) due to the thermal relaxation in the solid and a secondary peak at a higher frequency (50--300 Hz). The frequency of this second peak has a strong correlation with particle size; it only appears for small AP (≤ 50 mum) and its frequency increases with decreasing AP size, even down to the smallest size tested to date (2 mum). The addition of coarse AP (which results in a nearly stoichiometric overall mixture but still has a reasonably large Peclet number, of order 10) suppresses the second peak. The frequency of the second peak was found to scale linearly with mean burning rate to AP particle size ratio (rb/d) except in the case of very fuel rich propellants. At 2 atm, it was found that the frequency of the second peak for the pocket propellant formulation doubled in frequency with very little change in mean bum rate. Also, the weak second peak found at 1 atm for a bimodal formulation was larger, on the order of the magnitude of the thermal relaxation peak, at 2 atm. Microthermocouple tests at 1 atm in pocket propellant formulations showed oscillatory flame temperatures in the gas phase with a frequency that corresponded to that of the second peak in the combustion recoil response function. An investigation of the mechanism of the second peak in the response function was conducted. The mechanism of the second peak in the response function was

  7. Binary CMOS image sensor with a gate/body-tied MOSFET-type photodetector for high-speed operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byoung-Soo; Jo, Sung-Hyun; Bae, Myunghan; Kim, Sang-Hwan; Shin, Jang-Kyoo

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a binary complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor with a gate/body-tied (GBT) metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET)-type photodetector is presented. The sensitivity of the GBT MOSFET-type photodetector, which was fabricated using the standard CMOS 0.35-μm process, is higher than the sensitivity of the p-n junction photodiode, because the output signal of the photodetector is amplified by the MOSFET. A binary image sensor becomes more efficient when using this photodetector. Lower power consumptions and higher speeds of operation are possible, compared to the conventional image sensors using multi-bit analog to digital converters (ADCs). The frame rate of the proposed image sensor is over 2000 frames per second, which is higher than those of the conventional CMOS image sensors. The output signal of an active pixel sensor is applied to a comparator and compared with a reference level. The 1-bit output data of the binary process is determined by this level. To obtain a video signal, the 1-bit output data is stored in the memory and is read out by horizontal scanning. The proposed chip is composed of a GBT pixel array (144 × 100), binary-process circuit, vertical scanner, horizontal scanner, and readout circuit. The operation mode can be selected from between binary mode and multi-bit mode.

  8. CD2AP Regulates SUMOylation of CIN85 in Podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Niedenthal, Rainer; Klaus, Malte; Teng, Beina; Worthmann, Kirstin; King, Benjamin L.; Peterson, Kevin J.; Haller, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Podocytes are highly differentiated and polarized epithelial cells located on the visceral side of the glomerulus. They form an indispensable component of the glomerular filter, the slit diaphragm, formed by several transmembrane proteins and adaptor molecules. Disruption of the slit diaphragm can lead to massive proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome in mice and humans. CD2AP is an adaptor protein that is important for the maintenance of the slit diaphragm. Together with its paralogue, CIN85, CD2AP belongs to a family of adaptor proteins that are primarily described as being involved in endocytosis and downregulation of receptor tyrosine kinase activity. We have shown that full-length CIN85 is upregulated in podocytes in the absence of CD2AP, whereas in wild-type cells, full-length CIN85 is not detectable. In this study, we show that full-length CIN85 is postranslationally modified by SUMOylation in wild-type podocytes. We can demonstrate that CIN85 is SUMOylated by SUMO-1, -2, and -3 and that SUMOylation is enhanced in the presence of CD2AP. Conversion of lysine 598 to arginine completely abolishes SUMOylation and leads to increased binding of CIN85 to nephrin. Our results indicate a novel role for CD2AP in regulating posttranslational modification of CIN85. PMID:22203040

  9. Pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and c-Fos/AP-1.

    PubMed

    Shiozawa, Shunichi; Tsumiyama, Ken

    2009-05-15

    c-Fos/AP-1 controls the expression of inflammatory cytokines and matrix-degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) important in arthritis via promoter AP-1 binding motif. Among inflammatory cytokines, IL-1beta is the most important inducer of a variety of MMPs, and mainly responsible for cartilage breakdown and osteoclastogenesis. IL-1beta and c-Fos/AP-1 influence each other's gene expression and activity, resulting in an orchestrated cross-talk that is crucial to arthritic joint destruction, where TNFalpha can act synergistically with them. While how to stop the degradation of bone and cartilage, i.e., to control MMP, has long been the central issue in the research of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), selective inhibition of c-Fos/AP-1 does resolve arthritic joint destruction. Thus, the blockade of IL-1beta and/or c-Fos/AP-1 can be promising as an effective therapy for rheumatoid joint destruction in addition to the currently available TNFalpha blocking agents that act mainly on arthritis.

  10. Kinetic analysis and fragment screening with Fujifilm AP-3000.

    PubMed

    Rich, Rebecca L; Myszka, David G

    2010-07-15

    We evaluated the performance of Fujifilm's new AP-3000 surface plasmon resonance biosensor for kinetic analysis and fragment screening. Using carbonic anhydrase II as a model system, we characterized a set of 10 sulfonamide-based inhibitors that range in molecular mass from 98 to 341Da and approximately 10,000-fold in affinity (0.4mM to 20nM). Although the data collected from the AP-3000 were generally similar to those collected using a Biacore T100, the AP-3000's stop-flow analyte delivery system complicated the shapes of the association- and dissociation-phase binding responses. We illustrate how reasonable estimates of the kinetic rate constants can be extracted from AP-3000 data by limiting data analysis to only the regions of the responses collected during flow conditions. We also provide an example of the results obtained for a fragment-screening study with the AP-3000, which is the ideal application of this technology.

  11. AP2 hemicomplexes contribute independently to synaptic vesicle endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Mingyu; Liu, Qiang; Watanabe, Shigeki; Sun, Lin; Hollopeter, Gunther; Grant, Barth D; Jorgensen, Erik M

    2013-01-01

    The clathrin adaptor complex AP2 is thought to be an obligate heterotetramer. We identify null mutations in the α subunit of AP2 in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. α-adaptin mutants are viable and the remaining μ2/β hemicomplex retains some function. Conversely, in μ2 mutants, the alpha/sigma2 hemicomplex is localized and is partially functional. α-μ2 double mutants disrupt both halves of the complex and are lethal. The lethality can be rescued by expression of AP2 components in the skin, which allowed us to evaluate the requirement for AP2 subunits at synapses. Mutations in either α or μ2 subunits alone reduce the number of synaptic vesicles by about 30%; however, simultaneous loss of both α and μ2 subunits leads to a 70% reduction in synaptic vesicles and the presence of large vacuoles. These data suggest that AP2 may function as two partially independent hemicomplexes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00190.001 PMID:23482940

  12. Water Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mike Morris, former Associate Director of STAC, formed pHish Doctor, Inc. to develop and sell a pH monitor for home aquariums. The monitor, or pHish Doctor, consists of a sensor strip and color chart that continually measures pH levels in an aquarium. This is important because when the level gets too high, ammonia excreted by fish is highly toxic; at low pH, bacteria that normally break down waste products stop functioning. Sales have run into the tens of thousands of dollars. A NASA Tech Brief Technical Support Package later led to a salt water version of the system and a DoE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant for development of a sensor for sea buoys. The company, now known as Ocean Optics, Inc., is currently studying the effects of carbon dioxide buildup as well as exploring other commercial applications for the fiber optic sensor.

  13. Past, Present, and Future of AP Chemistry: A Brief History of Course and Exam Alignment Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrogan, Serena

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Advanced Placement (AP) Program's commitment to continually enhance alignment with current best practices in college-level learning, the AP Program is currently evaluating and redesigning courses and exams, one of which launched during the 2013-2014 academic school year: AP chemistry. The history of the AP chemistry course and…

  14. AP Report to the Nation: A Closer Look at the Nation and Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawtell, Ellen A.; Gillie, Jacqueline M.; Smith, Patricia Z.

    2012-01-01

    In February 2012, the College Board published The 8th Annual AP Report to the Nation. This session provides a deeper dive into key information for the United States with an emphasis on Florida, and participants hear how one school in Florida utilizes AP Potential™ to help build their AP Program. Participants also learn about AP participation and…

  15. Validation of the new trapped environment AE9/AP9/SPM at low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, Francis F.

    2014-09-01

    solar cycles dating back to the 1970s, roughly representing 40 years of data collection. In contrast, the older AE8/AP8 and CRRES models were limited to only a few months of measurements taken during the prior solar minima and maxima. The dual goal of this paper is to first validate the AE8/AP8 and AE9/AP9/SPM trapped models against ISS dosemetric measurements for a silicon based detector, to assess the improvements in the AE9/AP9/SPM model as compared to AE8/AP8 model. The validation is done at selected target points within ISS-6A configuration during its passage through the south Atlantic anomaly (SAA). For such validation, only the isotropic spectrum of either model is needed. As a second goal, the isotropic spectra of both trapped models are re-casted into anisotropic spectra by modulating them with a measurement derived angular formalism which is applicable to trapped protons. Since at LEO electrons have minimal exposure contribution, the paper ignores the AE8 and AE9 component of the models and presents the angular validation of AP8 and AP9 against measurements from the compact environment anomaly sensor (CEASE) science instrument package, flown onboard the tri-service experiment-5 (TSX-5) satellite during the period of June 2000-July 2006. The spin stabilized satellite was flown in a 410 × 1710 km, 69° inclination orbit, allowing it to be exposed to a broad range of LEO regime. Particular emphasize is put on the validation of proton flux profiles at differential 40 MeV and integral >40 MeV, in the vicinity of SAA where protons exhibit east-west (EW) anisotropy and have a relatively narrow pitch angle distribution. Within SAA, the EW anisotropy results in different level of exposure to each side of CEASE instrument package, allowing the extraction of anisotropic proton spectra from the measurements. While the magnitude of the EW effect at LEO depends on a multitude of factors such as trapped proton energy, orientation of the spacecraft along the velocity vector

  16. Ground vibration model studies for APS storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Koul, R.K.

    1994-07-01

    An analytical ground vibration model is developed for study of the vibration effects on the beam motion in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. The different physical parameters associated with the wave characteristics and the vibration modes needed for the study are taken from the vibration studies carried out at the APS site. The implementation has been carried out using Mathematica{trademark}. The study is carried out for the frequency range 1--35 Hz, with a number of sources changing from one through ten. The program written in Mathematica{trademark}, calculates orbit distortion, beta wave change, tune change, dispersion change, and chromaticity change. However, the main parameter studied for the APS storage ring has been the orbit distortion. The merit factor associated with different modes excited by the vibrations has been calculated.

  17. APS workers job requirements associated with elder abuse rates.

    PubMed

    Daly, Jeanette M; Jogerst, Gerald J; Haigh, Kellie M; Leeney, Jennifer L; Dawson, Jeffrey D

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relationship of required educational background of APS workers to the 1999 rates of domestic elder abuse. Data were obtained from APS related statutes and regulations and questions to the National Center for Elder Abuse list serve. Descriptive statistics and independent sample t-tests were used for analyses. Those states whose legislations required a social work degree for APS caseworkers did have higher elder abuse investigation rates. A lower substantiation ratio was found for those states requiring a social work degree or license. These findings suggest that social work education may lead to an emphasis on investigation and interventions and de-emphasis on the criminal aspects of elder abuse evaluation substantiations.

  18. Correct laboratory approach to APS diagnosis and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pengo, V; Banzato, A; Denas, G; Jose, S Padayattil; Bison, E; Hoxha, A; Ruffatti, A

    2013-06-01

    Triple positivity (positive Lupus Anticoagulant, anticardiolipin and anti β2-glycoptrotein I antibodies) identifies the pathogenic autoantibody (anti Domain I of β2-glycoptroteinI) that is present in patients with definite Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS). This is supported by the fact that aβ2GPI antibodies obtained by affinity purification in these patients possess LA activity. Moreover, patients and carriers of this profile carry a much higher risk of thrombosis and pregnancy loss than APS patients with positivity for only one of the tests. Thus, very different risk categories exist among patients with APS as well as among carriers of aPL. Clinical studies and interventional trials should first take these high risk subjects into consideration.

  19. Prevention of aspiration pneumonia (AP) with oral care.

    PubMed

    Tada, Akio; Miura, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    AP is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly patients, especially frail elderly patients. The aim of this article is to review effect of oral care, including oral hygiene and improvement of oral function, on the prevention of AP among elderly people in hospitals and nursing homes. There is now a substantial body of work studying the effect of oral care on the prevention of respiratory diseases. Oral hygiene, consisting of oral decontamination and mechanical cleaning by dental professionals, has resulted in significant clinical effects (decreased incidence of pneumonia and decreased mortality from respiratory diseases) in clinical randomized trials. Moreover, studies examining oral colonization by pneumonia pathogens have shown the effect of oral hygiene on eliminating these pathogens. In addition, swallowing training has been shown to improve the movement and function of swallowing-related muscles, also resulting in decreased incidence of pneumonia. These findings support the contention that oral care is effective in the prevention of AP.

  20. The fundamental parameters of the Ap star 78 Virginis. Could 78 Vir be a rapidly oscillating Ap star?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perraut, K.; Cunha, M.; Brandão, I.; Loridat, J.; Mourard, D.; Meilland, A.; Nardetto, N.; McAlister, H.; ten Brummelaar, T. A.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N.; Farrington, C.; Vargas, N.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Determining the effective temperature of Ap stars, including the roAp stellar pulsators, is a difficult task owing to their strong magnetic field and their related spotted surfaces. It is, however, an important step towards constraining models of their complex atmosphere and testing proposed pulsation excitation mechanisms. Aims: Using the unique angular resolution provided by long-baseline visible interferometry, we aim at deriving accurate angular diameters of a number of Ap targets, so as to determine their unbiased effective temperature (Teff) and their accurate position in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, to estimate their mass and age, and to test non-adiabatic pulsation models. Interferometric results on four Ap stars have been published in earlier works. Here we report the results on a fifth, significantly hotter star. Methods: We observed 78 Vir with the visible spectrograph VEGA installed at the combined focus of the CHARA long-baseline optical array. We derived the limb-darkened diameter of this Ap star from our interferometric measurements. Based on photometric and spectroscopic data available in the literature, we estimated the star's bolometric flux and used it, in combination with its parallax and angular diameter, to determine the star's luminosity and effective temperature. We then used the derived fundamental parameters to perform a non-adiabatic pulsation analysis. Results: We determined a limb-darkened angular diameter of 0.346 ± 0.006 mas and deduced a linear radius of R = 2.11 ± 0.04 R⊙. Considering a bolometric flux of 2.73 ± 0.20 10-7 erg/cm2/s we obtained a luminosity of L/L⊙ = 27 ± 2 and an effective temperature of Teff = 9100 ± 190 K. The non-adiabatic pulsation modeling allows us to predict that high overtone pulsations could be excited in 78 Vir at frequencies ranging from 1.2 to 1.9 mHz, provided that the magnetic field is capable of suppressing envelope convection in the polar regions. Conclusions: Visible long

  1. Characterization of a protein phosphatase 2A holoenzyme that dephosphorylates the clathrin adaptors AP-1 and AP-2.

    PubMed

    Ricotta, Doris; Hansen, Jens; Preiss, Carolin; Teichert, Dominic; Höning, Stefan

    2008-02-29

    The AP-2 complex is a key factor in the formation of endocytic clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). AP-2 sorts and packages cargo membrane proteins into CCVs, binds the coat protein clathrin, and recruits numerous other factors to the site of vesicle formation. Structural information on the AP-2 complex and biochemical work have allowed understanding its function on the molecular level, and recent studies showed that cycles of phosphorylation are key steps in the regulation of AP-2 function. The complex is phosphorylated on both large subunits (alpha- and beta2-adaptins) as well as at a single threonine residue (Thr-156) of the medium subunit mu2. Phosphorylation of mu2 is necessary for efficient cargo recruitment, whereas the functional context of the large subunit phosphorylation is unknown. Here, we show that the subunit phosphorylation of AP-2 exhibits striking differences, with calculated half-lives of <1 min for mu2, approximately 25 min for beta2, and approximately 70 min for alpha. We were also able to purify a phosphatase that dephosphorylates the mu2 subunit. The enzyme is a member of the protein phosphatase 2A family and composed of a catalytic Cbeta subunit, a scaffolding Abeta subunit, and a regulatory Balpha subunit. RNA interference knock down of the latter subunit in HeLa cells resulted in increased levels of phosphorylated adaptors and altered endocytosis, showing that a specific PP2A holoenzyme is an important regulatory enzyme in CCV-mediated transport.

  2. High Speed, Radiation Hard CMOS Pixel Sensors for Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contarato, Devis; Denes, Peter; Doering, Dionisio; Joseph, John; Krieger, Brad

    CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors are currently being established as the technology of choice for new generation digital imaging systems in Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). A careful sensor design that couples μm-level pixel pitches with high frame rate readout and radiation hardness to very high electron doses enables the fabrication of direct electron detectors that are quickly revolutionizing high-resolution TEM imaging in material science and molecular biology. This paper will review the principal characteristics of this novel technology and its advantages over conventional, optically-coupled cameras, and retrace the sensor development driven by the Transmission Electron Aberration corrected Microscope (TEAM) project at the LBNL National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), illustrating in particular the imaging capabilities enabled by single electron detection at high frame rate. Further, the presentation will report on the translation of the TEAM technology to a finer feature size process, resulting in a sensor with higher spatial resolution and superior radiation tolerance currently serving as the baseline for a commercial camera system.

  3. Power supply control units for APS ring magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Despe, O.D.

    1990-04-15

    The APS storage ring (1104 meters) is divided into 40 sectors. Each sector has 38 magnet coils in five magnet bases. Every alternate sector has an additional quadrupole magnet for skew correction. AR the main dipole magnets, two in each sector are connected in series and fed from one power supply unit. A base is controlled by one power supply control unit (PSCU). Each PSCU is connected to the host computer via a local area network (LAN). This note discusses the hardware configuration of the typical power supply control system used by the APS magnets and the software commands supported by the PSCU.

  4. Status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.; Arnold, N.; Berg, W.; Cours, A.; Fuja, R.; Grelick, A.; Ko, K.; Qian, Y.; Russell, T.; Sereno, N.

    1994-09-01

    A 2856-MHz S-band, electron-positron linear accelerator (linac) has been constructed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). It is the source of particles and the injector for the other APS accelerators, and linac commissioning is well underway. The linac is operated 24 hours per day to support linac beam studies and rf conditioning, as well as positron accumulator ring and synchrotron commissioning studies. The design goal for accelerated positron current is 8-mA, and has been met. Maximum positron energy to date is 420-MeV, approaching the design goal of 450-MeV. The linac design and its performance are discussed.

  5. On the abundance of Europium. [in Ap and Am stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartoog, M. R.; Cowley, C. R.; Adelman, S. J.

    1974-01-01

    The inclusion of the effects of hyperfine splitting can significantly lower the abundance estimate of Eu from singly ionized lines which lie on the flat portion of the curve of growth. In the 21 cool Ap stars studied by Adelman and the five Am stars studied by Smith, the Eu abundance was reduced by 0.4 dex on the average. In individual cases, the reductions were as great as 0.9 dex. This makes the Eu abundance comparable to that of its neighboring rare earths Sm and Gd in the Ap stars and less than Sm and Gd in the Am stars, but still substantially overabundant with respect to solar values.

  6. Piping benchmark problems for the Westinghouse AP600 Standardized Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bezler, P.; DeGrassi, G.; Braverman, J.; Wang, Y.K.

    1997-01-01

    To satisfy the need for verification of the computer programs and modeling techniques that will be used to perform the final piping analyses for the Westinghouse AP600 Standardized Plant, three benchmark problems were developed. The problems are representative piping systems subjected to representative dynamic loads with solutions developed using the methods being proposed for analysis for the AP600 standard design. It will be required that the combined license licensees demonstrate that their solutions to these problems are in agreement with the benchmark problem set.

  7. Magnetic fields in A stars besides Ap stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochukhov, O.

    2014-11-01

    I review ongoing efforts to understand the incidence of magnetism in intermediate-mass stars that are different from the magnetic Ap stars. This includes the search for magnetic fields in chemically peculiar stars of the Am and HgMn types as well as in normal A and late-B stars. I discuss different techniques for detecting weak stellar magnetic fields, and present a critical evaluation of recent magnetic detections in non-Ap stars. Special attention is given to the magnetic status of HgMn stars and to the discovery of weak polarization signatures in Sirius and Vega.

  8. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, Jr., James R.; Edlund, David J.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Rayfield, George W.

    1991-01-01

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising (a) a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, operatively coupled to (b) a transducer capable of directly converting said expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response.

  9. Gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  10. Microcantilever Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Hans Peter; Gerber, Christoph

    Microfabricated cantilevers have been used in atomic force microscopy for the topography imaging of non-conductive surfaces for more than 20 years. Cantilever beams without tips have proved their applicability in recent years as miniaturized, ultrasensitive, and fast-responding sensors for applications in chemistry, physics, biochemistry, and medicine. Microcantilever sensors respond by bending due to the absorption of molecules. A shift in resonance frequency also occurs. They can be operated in different environments such as gaseous environment, liquids, or vacuum. In gas, microcantilever sensors can be operated as an artificial nose, whereby the bending pattern of a microfabricated array of eight polymer-coated silicon cantilevers is characteristic of the different vapors from solvents, flavors, and beverages. When operated in a liquid, microcantilever sensors are able to detect biochemical reactions. Each cantilever is functionalized with a specific biochemical probe receptor, sensitive for detection of the corresponding target molecule. Applications lie in the fields of label- and amplification-free detection of DNA hybridization, the detection of proteins as well as antigen-antibody reactions, and the detection of larger entities, such as bacteria and fungi.

  11. Sensor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A [Idaho Falls, ID; Telschow, Kenneth L [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-12-22

    A sensor apparatus and method for detecting an environmental factor is shown that includes an acoustic device that has a characteristic resonant vibrational frequency and mode pattern when exposed to a source of acoustic energy and, futher, when exposed to an environmental factor, produces a different resonant vibrational frequency and/or mode pattern when exposed to the same source of acoustic energy.

  12. Chemical sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  13. The AP-1 transcription factor homolog Pf-AP-1 activates transcription of multiple biomineral proteins and potentially participates in Pinctada fucata biomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiangnan; Cheng, Minzhang; Xiang, Liang; Liang, Jian; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-01-01

    Activator protein-1 (AP-1) is an important bZIP transcription factor that regulates a series of physiological processes by specifically activating transcription of several genes, and one of its well-chartered functions in mammals is participating in bone mineralization. We isolated and cloned the complete cDNA of a Jun/AP-1 homolog from Pinctada fucata and called it Pf-AP-1. Pf-AP-1 had a highly conserved bZIP region and phosphorylation sites compared with those from mammals. A tissue distribution analysis showed that Pf-AP-1 was ubiquitously expressed in P. fucata and the mRNA level of Pf-AP-1 is extremely high in mantle. Pf-AP-1 expression was positively associated with multiple biomineral proteins in the mantle. The luciferase reporter assay in a mammalian cell line showed that Pf-AP-1 significantly up-regulates the transcriptional activity of the promoters of KRMP, Pearlin, and Prisilkin39. Inhibiting the activity of Pf-AP-1 depressed the expression of multiple matrix proteins. Pf-AP-1 showed a unique expression pattern during shell regeneration and pearl sac development, which was similar to the pattern observed for biomineral proteins. These results suggest that the Pf-AP-1 AP-1 homolog is an important transcription factor that regulates transcription of several biomineral proteins simultaneously and plays a role in P. fucata biomineralization, particularly during pearl and shell formation. PMID:26404494

  14. The AP-1 transcription factor homolog Pf-AP-1 activates transcription of multiple biomineral proteins and potentially participates in Pinctada fucata biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiangnan; Cheng, Minzhang; Xiang, Liang; Liang, Jian; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-09-25

    Activator protein-1 (AP-1) is an important bZIP transcription factor that regulates a series of physiological processes by specifically activating transcription of several genes, and one of its well-chartered functions in mammals is participating in bone mineralization. We isolated and cloned the complete cDNA of a Jun/AP-1 homolog from Pinctada fucata and called it Pf-AP-1. Pf-AP-1 had a highly conserved bZIP region and phosphorylation sites compared with those from mammals. A tissue distribution analysis showed that Pf-AP-1 was ubiquitously expressed in P. fucata and the mRNA level of Pf-AP-1 is extremely high in mantle. Pf-AP-1 expression was positively associated with multiple biomineral proteins in the mantle. The luciferase reporter assay in a mammalian cell line showed that Pf-AP-1 significantly up-regulates the transcriptional activity of the promoters of KRMP, Pearlin, and Prisilkin39. Inhibiting the activity of Pf-AP-1 depressed the expression of multiple matrix proteins. Pf-AP-1 showed a unique expression pattern during shell regeneration and pearl sac development, which was similar to the pattern observed for biomineral proteins. These results suggest that the Pf-AP-1 AP-1 homolog is an important transcription factor that regulates transcription of several biomineral proteins simultaneously and plays a role in P. fucata biomineralization, particularly during pearl and shell formation.

  15. The New AP Chemistry Exam: Its Rationale, Content, and Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Paul D.; Kugel, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013-2014 academic year marks the rollout of the redesigned advanced placement (AP) chemistry course and exam. There have been many questions as to why the course was redesigned and how the new examination will differ from its legacy version. In this article we give a brief overview of the legacy course and examine why a redesign occurred in…

  16. ACTIVATION OF AP-1 IN UROTSA CELLS BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ACTIVATION OF AP-1 IN UROTSA CELLS BY METHYLATED TRIVALENT ARSENICALS. Z Drobna1, I Jaspers2, D J Thomas3 and M Styblo1. 1Department of Pediatrics; 2Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3US EPA, RTP, NC, USA.

  17. A process definition repository based on step AP 213

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    Over the years, in the context of numerically controlled machined part manufacturing, the loss, misinterpretation, and redundancy of re-inputting manufacturing instructions and data during the evolution of a product design into the finished product has been a resource depleting and costly endeavor. It is the intent of this project to utilize the emerging standards from the International Standards Organization, ISO 10303 Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data, commonly referred to as STEP, to store and retrieve process planning information for a set of production work instructions. The project focuses on the utilization of the 1995 version of the Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 10303-213:1995 (E) Application protocol: Numerical control process plans for machined parts (AP213). This project illustrates the methodologies used to build an object-oriented Process Definition Repository (PDR), describes both the benefits and shortcomings experienced in implementing AP213, and recommends enhancements to AP213 for process planning information. The deliverable will be a Part 21 data file, based on the application-interpreted model for AP213 and integrated with product design data.

  18. 76 FR 82079 - AP1000 Design Certification Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    .... Voluntary Consensus Standards VIII. Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact: Availability IX... design information, addresses the effects of the impact of a large commercial aircraft, incorporates... any person. The NRC originally approved the AP1000 design certification in a final rule in 2006 (71...

  19. Eastern European Elites: Teaching about Aristocrats in the AP Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasson, Ellis Archer

    2003-01-01

    Free response question (FRQ) #5 in the 2002 Advanced Placement (AP) European history exam read as follows: "In what ways and to what extent did absolutism affect the power and status of the European nobility in the period 1650 to 1750. Use examples from at least 2 countries." This question, which is aimed at encouraging a comparative approach and…

  20. Integrating Particulate Representations into AP Chemistry and Introductory Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prilliman, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    The College Board's recently revised curriculum for advanced placement (AP) chemistry places a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding, including representations of particle phenomena. This change in emphasis is informed by years of research showing that students could perform algorithmic calculations but not explain those calculations…

  1. Nuclear Reactor Safety--The APS Submits its Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents the summary section of the American Physical Society (APS) report on the safety features of the light-water reactor, reviews the design, construction, and operation of a reactor and outlines the primary engineered safety features. Summarizes the major recommendations of the study group. (GS)

  2. Time Trials--An AP Physics Challenge Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    2009-01-01

    I have come to the conclusion that for high school physics classroom and laboratory experiences, simpler is better! In this paper I describe a very simple and effective lab experience that my AP students have thoroughly enjoyed year after year. I call this lab exercise "Time Trials." The experiment is simple in design and it is a lot of fun for…

  3. 75 FR 75666 - Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ...: On September 1, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 53681) a notice inviting... in the September 1, 2010 notice (75 FR 53682-53683). We encourage eligible applicants to submit their... Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education...

  4. Automated Procurement System (APS) revised project management plan (DS-03)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Diane R.

    1995-01-01

    The Project Plan is the governing document for the implementation of the Automated Procurement System (APS). It includes a description of the proposed system, describes the work to be done, establishes a schedule of deliverables, and discusses the major standards and procedures to be followed.

  5. Approximate entropy (ApEn) as a complexity measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincus, Steve

    1995-03-01

    Approximate entropy (ApEn) is a recently developed statistic quantifying regularity and complexity, which appears to have potential application to a wide variety of relatively short (greater than 100 points) and noisy time-series data. The development of ApEn was motivated by data length constraints commonly encountered, e.g., in heart rate, EEG, and endocrine hormone secretion data sets. We describe ApEn implementation and interpretation, indicating its utility to distinguish correlated stochastic processes, and composite deterministic/ stochastic models. We discuss the key technical idea that motivates ApEn, that one need not fully reconstruct an attractor to discriminate in a statistically valid manner—marginal probability distributions often suffice for this purpose. Finally, we discuss why algorithms to compute, e.g., correlation dimension and the Kolmogorov-Sinai (KS) entropy, often work well for true dynamical systems, yet sometimes operationally confound for general models, with the aid of visual representations of reconstructed dynamics for two contrasting processes.

  6. Tank 241-AP-106 tank characterization plan: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Valenzuela, B.D.

    1994-11-17

    Tank 241-AP-106 (AP-106) is a candidate feed tank which is expected to be processed at the 242-A Evaporator. Three issues related to the overall concern of the evaporator must be evaluated: compatibility of the candidate waste with respect to feed tank, slurry tank, and evaporator requirements; safety parameters of the candidate waste tank to avoid a facility condition which is outside the safety boundaries; and compliance of the waste as dictated by regulations from various government and environmental agencies. The characterization efforts of this Tank Characterization Plan are focused on the resolution of the issues above. To evaluate the potential for waste incompatibility with the feed tank, slurry tank, and evaporator, as well as relevant safety issues, analyses will be performed on the grab samples obtained from tank AP-106. These analyses are discussed in Section 4.0. Once the characterization of tank AP-106 has been performed, the waste compatibility and safety assessment shall be conducted. This effort is discussed elsewhere.

  7. AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Philip M., Ed.; Sonnert, Gerhard, Ed.; Tai, Robert H., Ed.; Klopfenstein, Kristin, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    With an annual yearly growth rate of 9.3 percent over the last two decades, Advanced Placement courses have become a juggernaut in American high school education. AP courses are routinely perceived as an indicator of educational rigor, and many schools push to enroll low-income or minority students in these courses in the hope of preparing them…

  8. The AP Lever for Boosting Access, Success, and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roegman, Rachel; Hatch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Four New Jersey school districts worked together to increase student achievement by applying a number of strategies focused on getting traditionally underrepresented students to take more AP courses. The districts are members of the New Jersey Network of Superintendents (NJNS), comprising 15 superintendents who work together to develop systemwide…

  9. Obstetric and vascular APS: same autoantibodies but different diseases?

    PubMed

    Meroni, P L; Raschi, E; Grossi, C; Pregnolato, F; Trespidi, L; Acaia, B; Borghi, M O

    2012-06-01

    Beta2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI)-dependent antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) are the main pathogenic autoantibody population and at the same time the laboratory diagnostic tool for the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). These antibodies are responsible for both the vascular and the obstetric manifestations of the syndrome but the pathogenic mechanisms behind these manifestations are not the same. For example, thrombotic events do not appear to play a major role in APS miscarriages and a direct reactivity of β2GPI-dependent aPLs on decidual and trophoblast cells was reported. A local expression of β2GPI on these tissues was reported both in physiological conditions and in APS women, thus explaining the local tropism of the autoantibodies. The two hit hypothesis was suggested to explain why the vascular manifestations of APS may occur only occasionally in spite of the persistent presence of aPLs. This is not apparently the case for the obstetric variant of the syndrome, making the difference even more striking. A different pathogenesis may also provide the rationale for the well-known fact that the vascular and the obstetric manifestations may occur independently although in a minority of cases.

  10. Early Telegraphic News Dispatches: The Forerunner of the AP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzlose, Richard A.

    The origin of the Associated Press (AP) lies in the early cooperative news gathering efforts of the editors of several New York newspapers. As early as May 1846, these editors were "pooling" their energies in response to newly developed modes of communication--the wire and wireless telegraph and the trans-oceanic steamship mail services. The…

  11. Fast signal transfer in a large-area X-ray CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. S.; Kang, D. U.; Lee, D. H.; Kim, H.; Cho, G.; Jae, M.

    2014-08-01

    For 2-d X-ray imaging, such as mammography and non-destructive test, a sensor should have a large-area because the sensor for typical X-ray beams cannot use optical lens system. To make a large-area 2-d X-ray image sensor using crystal Si, a technique of tiling unit CMOS image sensors into 2 × 2 or 2 × 3 array can be used. In a unit CMOS image sensor made of most common 8-inch Si wafers, the signal line can be up to ~ 180 mm long. Then its parasitic capacitance is up to ~ 25 pF and its resistance is up to ~ 51 kΩ (0.18 μm, 1P3M process). This long signal line may enlarge the row time up to ~ 50 μsec in case of the signal from the top row pixels to the readout amplifiers located at the bottom of the sensor chip. The output signal pulse is typically characterized by three components in sequence; a charging time (a rising part), a reading time and a discharging time (a falling part). Among these, the discharging time is the longest, and it limits the speed or the frame rate of the X-ray imager. We proposed a forced discharging method which uses a bypass transistor in parallel with the current source of the column signal line. A chip for testing the idea was fabricated by a 0.18 μm process. A active pixel sensor with three transistors and a 3-π RC model of the long line were simulated together. The test results showed that the turning on-and-off of the proposed bypass transistor only during the discharging time could dramatically reduce the discharging time from ~ 50 μsec to ~ 2 μsec, which is the physically minimum time determined by the long metal line capacitance.

  12. Pressure sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Mee, David K.; Ripley, Edward B.; Nienstedt, Zachary C.; Nienstedt, Alex W.; Howell, Jr., Layton N.

    2015-09-29

    Disclosed is a passive, in-situ pressure sensor. The sensor includes a sensing element having a ferromagnetic metal and a tension inducing mechanism coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The tension inducing mechanism is operable to change a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal based on a change in pressure in the sensing element. Changes in pressure are detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal when subjected to an alternating magnetic field caused by the change in the tensile stress. The sensing element is embeddable in a closed system for detecting pressure changes without the need for any penetrations of the system for power or data acquisition by detecting changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  13. Corrosion sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S.; Clarke, Jr., Willis L.; Ciarlo, Dino R.

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion sensor array incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis.

  14. Corrosion sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, R.S.; Clarke, W.L. Jr.; Ciarlo, D.R.

    1994-04-26

    A corrosion sensor array is described incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis. 7 figures.

  15. AP1000 Features Prevent Potential Containment Recirculation Screen Plugging

    SciTech Connect

    Andreychek, Timothy; Anderson, Richard; Schulz, Terry

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the results of plant design development and evaluations that demonstrate that the AP1000 plant is not subject to potential containment recirculation screen plugging following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). Following a LOCA in a pressurized water reactor, it is necessary to recirculate water from the containment back into the reactor to maintain long term core cooling. The AP1000 utilizes passive safety systems to provide containment recirculation for long term core cooling following a LOCA. The AP1000 also has non-safety pumps which provide a backup means of providing recirculation. Screens are provided around the recirculation pipes to prevent debris from blocking recirculation flow and core cooling passages. Debris may be generated by the LOCA blowdown from insulation and coatings used inside containment. Even with effective cleanliness programs, there may be some resident debris such as dust and dirt. The potential for plugging the recirculation screens is a current PWR licensing issue. The AP1000 design provides inherent advantages with respect to the potential plugging of containment recirculation screens. These characteristics include prevention of fibrous debris generation, improved debris settling and improved recirculation screen design. Debris settling analysis demonstrates that failure of coatings does not result in debris being transported to the screens before it settles to the floor. Additional analysis also shows that the plant can tolerate conservative amounts of resident debris being transported to the screens. The AP1000 significantly reduces the probability of plugging the containment recirculation screens and significantly reduces inspection and maintenance of coatings used inside containment. (authors)

  16. APS beamline standard components handbook. Version 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction.

  17. Advanced Photon Source Activity Report 2003: Report of Work Conducted at the APS, January 2003-December 2003, Synchrotron x-ray diffraction at the APS, Sector 16 (HPCAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, A F; Zaug, J M; Crowhurst, J C

    2005-01-27

    We present here the summary of the results of our studies using the APS synchrotron beamline IDB Sector 16 (HPCAT). Optical calibration of pressure sensors for high pressures and temperatures: The high-pressure ruby scale for static measurements is well established to at least 100 GPa (about 5% accuracy), however common use of this and other pressure scales at high temperature is clearly based upon unconfirmed assumptions. Namely that high temperature does not affect observed room temperature pressure derivatives. The establishment of a rigorous pressure scale along with the identification of appropriate pressure gauges (i.e. stable in the high P-T environment and easy to use) is important for securing the absolute accuracy of fundamental experimental science where results guide the development of our understanding of planetary sciences, geophysics, chemistry at extreme conditions, etc. X-ray diffraction in formic acid under high pressure: Formic acid (HCOOH) is common in the solar system; it is a potential component of the Galilean satellites. Despite this, formic acid has not been well-studied at high temperatures and pressures. A phase diagram of formic acid at planetary interior pressures and temperatures will add to the understanding of planetary formation and the potential for life on Europa. Formic acid (unlike most simple organic acids) forms low-temperature crystal structures characterized by infinite hydrogen-bonded chains of molecules. The behavior of these hydrogen bonds at high pressure is of great interest. Our current research fills this need.

  18. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1992-06-09

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material. 12 figs.

  19. Sensor assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Thomas E.; Nelson, Drew V.

    2004-04-13

    A ribbon-like sensor assembly is described wherein a length of an optical fiber embedded within a similar lengths of a prepreg tow. The fiber is ""sandwiched"" by two layers of the prepreg tow which are merged to form a single consolidated ribbon. The consolidated ribbon achieving a generally uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin does not ""pool"" around the periphery of the embedded fiber.

  20. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, Jr., James R.; Edlund, David J.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Rayfield, George W.

    1992-01-01

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material.

  1. Position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, Siegfried (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A radiant energy angle sensor is provided wherein the sensitive portion thereof comprises a pair of linear array detectors with each detector mounted normal to the other to provide X and Y channels and a pair of slits spaced from the pair of linear arrays with each of the slits positioned normal to its associated linear array. There is also provided electrical circuit means connected to the pair of linear array detectors and to separate X and Y axes outputs.

  2. Functional analysis of the two Brassica AP3 genes involved in apetalous and stamen carpelloid phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Wang, Xuefang; Zhang, Wenxue; Yu, Fei; Tian, Jianhua; Li, Dianrong; Guo, Aiguang

    2011-01-01

    The Arabidopsis homeotic genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) are B genes which encode MADS-box transcription factors and specify petal and stamen identities. In the current study, the stamen carpelloid (SC) mutants, HGMS and AMS, of B. rapa and B. napus were investigated and two types of AP3 genes, B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b, were functional characterized. B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b share high similarity in amino acid sequences except for 8 residues difference located at the C-terminus. Loss of this 8 residues in B.AP3.b led to the change of PI-derived motifs. Meanwhile, B.AP3.a specified petal and stamen development, whereas B.AP3.b only specified stamen development. In B. rapa, the mutations of both genes generated the SC mutant HGMS. In B. napus that contained two B.AP3.a and two B.AP3.b, loss of the two B.AP3.a functions was the key reason for the apetalous mutation, however, the loss-of-function in all four AP3 was related to the SC mutant AMS. We inferred that the 8 residues or the PI-derived motif in AP3 gene probably relates to petal formation.

  3. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Development of WxAP System Architecture And Concepts of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantier, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the development of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) System architecture and Concept of Operation (CONOPS) activities. The topics include: 1) Background Information on System Architecture/CONOPS Activity; 2) Activity Work in Progress; and 3) Anticipated By-Products.

  4. Correlates of Texas Standard AP Charter Campuses and How They Compare with Standard AP Traditional Public Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Jason Diego

    2009-01-01

    The research sought to objectively evaluate the effectiveness of Texas standard AP open-enrollment charter school campuses and to discover independent variables that may be utilized to predict effective charter school campuses. The data items used in the analyses were downloaded from the 2007-2008 Academic Excellence Indicator System (AEIS), which…

  5. The AP2-like gene OitaAP2 is alternatively spliced and differentially expressed in inflorescence and vegetative tissues of the orchid Orchis italica.

    PubMed

    Salemme, Marinella; Sica, Maria; Iazzetti, Giovanni; Gaudio, Luciano; Aceto, Serena

    2013-01-01

    The AP2/ERF proteins are plant-specific transcription factors involved in multiple regulatory pathways, from plant organ development to response to various environmental stresses. One of the mechanisms that regulates the AP2-like genes involves the microRNA miR172, which controls their activity at the post-transcriptional level. Extensive studies on AP2-like genes are available in many different species; however, in orchids, one of the largest plant families, studies are restricted to a few species, all belonging to the Epidendroideae subfamily. In the present study, we report the isolation of an AP2-like gene in the Mediterranean orchid Orchis italica (Orchidoideae). The OitaAP2 locus includes 10 exons and 9 introns, and its transcript is alternatively spliced, resulting in the long OitaAP2 and the short OitaAP2_ISO isoforms, with the latter skipping exon 9. Both isoforms contain the conserved target site for miR172, whose action is demonstrated by the presence of cleaved OitaAP2 mRNA. The OitaAP2 and OitaAP2_ISO mRNAs are present in the tepals and lip before and after anthesis at different expression levels. In addition, the OitaAP2_ISO isoform is expressed in the ovary before pollination and in the root and stem. The isoform-specific expression pattern suggests a functional differentiation of the OitaAP2 alternatively spliced transcripts. The expression profile of miR172 is complementary to that of the OitaAP2 isoforms in inflorescence tissues before anthesis, whereas after anthesis and in ovary tissue before and after pollination, this relationship disappears, suggesting the existence of OitaAP2 inhibitory mechanisms in these tissues that differ from that involving miR172.

  6. Near-infrared fluorescence goggle system with complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor imaging sensor and see-through display

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Njuguna, Raphael; Matthews, Thomas; Akers, Walter J.; Sudlow, Gail P.; Mondal, Suman; Tang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. We have developed a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence goggle system based on the complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor active pixel sensor imaging and see-through display technologies. The fluorescence goggle system is a compact wearable intraoperative fluorescence imaging and display system that can guide surgery in real time. The goggle is capable of detecting fluorescence of indocyanine green solution in the picomolar range. Aided by NIR quantum dots, we successfully used the fluorescence goggle to guide sentinel lymph node mapping in a rat model. We further demonstrated the feasibility of using the fluorescence goggle in guiding surgical resection of breast cancer metastases in the liver in conjunction with NIR fluorescent probes. These results illustrate the diverse potential use of the goggle system in surgical procedures. PMID:23728180

  7. A screen-printed endotoxin sensor based on amperometry using a novel p-aminophenol conjugated substrate for a Limulus amebocyte lysate protease reaction.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kumi Y; Takano, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Satoko; Ishida, Yosuke; Ino, Kosuke; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2013-11-01

    We developed a novel protease detection method based on amperometry using a p-aminophenol (pAP) conjugated substrate. We prepared Boc-Leu-Gly-Arg-pAP (LGR-pAP) as a novel substrate for a clotting enzyme, which is a protease activated by an endotoxin-induced Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) cascade reaction. The basic study using cyclic voltammetry revealed that the oxidation peak potentials of LGR-pAP and pAP were sufficiently separated from each other (0.25 V) to conduct amperometric detection of protease activity. We combined simple amperometric detection with a screen-printed electrode chip to produce a practical protease sensor. As an application of the sensor, we demonstrated quantitative endotoxin sensing. The endotoxin activated zymogens contained in the LAL to generate pAP, which was then electrochemically detected by potential step chronoamperometry (PSCA). The observed oxidation current increased with the concentration of endotoxin in the LAL assay solution. This PSCA detection was performed with a disposable chip sensor consisting of a screen-printed electrode and a fluidic channel with a hydrophilic cover. This chip sensor successfully detected 10-1000 EU L(-1) endotoxin within 60 min. This novel amperometric measurement with a screen-printed electrode not only provides compact, low-cost, and easy-to-use sensors for on-site monitoring of endotoxin, but also shows promise for use in other in vitro protease assays for biochemical research, diagnosis, and drug development. PMID:23978902

  8. Influenza Sensor

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, Basil I.; Song, Xuedong; Unkefer, Clifford; Silks, III, Louis A.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.

    2006-03-28

    A sensor for the detection of tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase within a sample is disclosed, where a positive detection indicates the presence of a target virus within the sample. Also disclosed is a trifunctional composition of matter including a trifunctional linker moiety with groups bonded thereto including (a) an alkyl chain adapted for attachment to a substrate, (b) a fluorescent moiety capable of generating a fluorescent signal, and (c) a recognition moiety having a spacer group of a defined length thereon, the recognition moiety capable of binding with tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase.

  9. Influenza Sensor

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, Basil I.; Song, Xuedong; Unkefer, Clifford; Silks, III, Louis A.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.

    2005-05-17

    A sensor for the detection of tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase within a sample is disclosed, where a positive detection indicates the presence of a target virus within the sample. Also disclosed is a trifunctional composition of matter including a trifunctional linker moiety with groups bonded thereto including (a) an alkyl chain adapted for attachment to a substrate, (b) a fluorescent moiety capable of generating a fluorescent signal, and (c) a recognition moiety having a spacer group of a defined length thereon, the recognition moiety capable of binding with tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase.

  10. Influenza sensor

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, Basil I.; Song, Xuedong; Unkefer, Clifford; Silks, III, Louis A.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.

    2003-09-30

    A sensor for the detection of tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase within a sample is disclosed, where a positive detection indicates the presence of a target virus within the sample. Also disclosed is a trifunctional composition of matter including a trifunctional linker moiety with groups bonded thereto including (a) an alkyl chain adapted for attachment to a substrate, (b) a fluorescent moiety capable of generating a fluorescent signal, and (c) a recognition moiety having a spacer group of a defined length thereon, the recognition moiety capable of binding with tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase.

  11. Hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  12. Status of APS 1-Mwe Parabolic Trough Project

    SciTech Connect

    Canada, S.; Brosseau, D.; Kolb, G.; Moore, L.; Cable, R.; Price, H.

    2005-11-01

    Arizona Public Service (APS) is currently installing new power facilities to generate a portion of its electricity from solar resources that will satisfy its obligation under the Arizona Environmental Portfolio Standard (EPS). During FY04, APS began construction on a 1-MWe parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant. This plant represents the first parabolic trough plant to begin construction since 1991. Site preparation and construction activities continued throughout much of FY05, and startup activities are planned for Fall 2005 (with completion early in FY06). The plant will be the first commercial deployment of the Solargenix parabolic trough collector technology developed under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The plant will use an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant, provided by Ormat. The ORC power plant is much simpler than the conventional steam Rankine cycle plant and allows unattended operation of the facility.

  13. Variability of Balmer Profiles in Magnetic Ap/Bp Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyavin, G.; Lee, B.-C.; Shulyak, D.; Han, I.; Kochukhov, O.; Khang, D.-I.; Kim, K.-M.

    2007-06-01

    A set of high precision measurements of weak variations of hydrogen lines in spectra of seven magnetic Ap/Bp stars was carried out using the BOES echelle spectrograph of the Bohuynsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (South Korea). A weak (1-2 %) periodic variability of the Balmer line wings has been detected in the spectra of 2 program stars. Upper limits of possible variations are presented for the remaining 5 objects. We discuss the discovered variability in the framework of model atmospheres with magnetic force terms included. The periodic changes in the Balmer profiles are caused by perturbations in atmospheres of Ap/Bp stars due to their rotationally modulated non-force-free magnetic fields.

  14. Functions of AP1 (Fos/Jun) in bone development.

    PubMed

    Wagner, E F

    2002-11-01

    Genetically modified mice and cells have provided important insights into the biological functions of the dimeric transcription factor complex AP1, in particular into its role in skeletal development. Data obtained from knockout mice revealed that some components, such as c-Fos are key regulators of bone cell differentiation, whereas others, like c-Jun, JunB and Fra-1 are essential in embryonic and/or postnatal development. Apart from identifying the specific roles of AP1 proteins in developmental processes, researchers are beginning to obtain a better molecular understanding of their cell-context dependent functions, their downstream target genes and how they regulate bone cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis.

  15. Tank 241-AP-107 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-20

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has directed the DOE to concentrate ear-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of issues (Conway 1993). The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ``A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process; Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.`` This document satisfies that requirement for the tank 241-AP-107 (AP-107).

  16. Measurements of ground motion and magnet vibrations at the APS

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.

    1996-09-01

    This article presents results of ground motion and magnet vibrations measurements at the Advanced Photon Source. The experiments were done over a wide, frequency range (0-05-100 Hz) with the use of SM-3KV-type seismic probes from the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russia). Spectral power densities of vertical and horizontal motions of the APS hall floor and quadrupoles on regular supports were obtained. Also investigated were magnet vibrations induced by designed cooling water flow and spectral characteristics of spatial correlation of the quadrupole vibrations at different sectors of the ring. The influence of personnel activity in the hall and traffic under the ring on the slow motion of storage ring elements were observed. Amplitudes of vibrations at the APS are compared with results of seismic measurements at some other accelerators.

  17. Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) Dependent Parallel Arrivals (DPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Colin L.

    2012-01-01

    The Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) team at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been developing a concept of operations to extend the current APS concept to support dependent approaches to parallel or converging runways along with the required pilot and controller procedures and pilot interfaces. A staggered operations capability for the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes (ASTAR) tool was developed and designated as ASTAR10. ASTAR10 has reached a sufficient level of maturity to be validated and tested through a fast-time simulation. The purpose of the experiment was to identify and resolve any remaining issues in the ASTAR10 algorithm, as well as put the concept of operations through a practical test.

  18. Chrysospermins, new peptaibol antibiotics from Apiocrea chrysosperma Ap101.

    PubMed

    Dornberger, K; Ihn, W; Ritzau, M; Gräfe, U; Schlegel, B; Fleck, W F; Metzger, J W

    1995-09-01

    Four new members of peptaibol antibiotics, designated as chrysospermins A, B, C, and D, were isolated from the mycelium of Apiocrea chrysosperma Ap101 by solvent extraction, silica gel chromatography and preparative recycling HPLC. Their structures as new nonadecapeptides were settled by detailed spectroscopic analysis and chemical degradation experiments. The chrysospermins display antibacterial and antifungal activity, and induce pigment formation by the fungus Phoma destructiva.

  19. Diffusion and Settling in Ap/Bp Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Turcotte, S

    2003-04-09

    Ap/Bp stars are magnetic chemically peculiar early A and late B type stars of the main sequence. They exhibit peculiar surface abundance anomalies that are thought to be the result of gravitational settling and radiative levitation. The physics of diffusion in these stars are reviewed briefly and some model predictions are discussed. While models reproduce some observations reasonably well, more work is needed before the behavior of diffusing elements in a complex magnetic field is fully understood.

  20. Long-term stability of the APS storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Friedsam, H.; Penicka, M.; Error, J.

    1999-10-26

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), a third-generation synchrotrons light source, was commissioned in 1995 at Argonne ''National Laboratory and has been fully-operational for beamline users since 1997. The APS storage ring can accommodate up to 68 user beamlines; about 70% of the available beamlines are currently in use by various collaborative access teams (CATS). The 7-GeV synchrotrons light source produces light in the soft to hard x-ray range that is used for research in such areas as x-ray instrumentation; material, chemical and atomic sciences; biology; and geo/soil/ environmental sciences. For the successful operation of an x-ray light source such as the Advanced Photon Source, the long-term stability of the concrete floor supporting the beam components and user beamlines is crucial. Settlements impact the orbit and location of the x-ray source points as well as the position of the x-ray beamlines. This paper compares the results of two successive resurveys of the APS accelerator components performed in 1995 and 1998.

  1. A Semi-automated Abundance Survey of Ap Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Martin P.; Kurtz, Don; Elkin, Vladimir; Bruntt, Hans

    2015-08-01

    We have carried out an abundance analysis on the high-resolution spectra of approximately 350 Ap stars collected between 2007 and 2010 on the FEROS Echelle (Fibre-led, Extended Range, Echelle ) spectrograph housed at the 2.2-m telescope at European Southern Observatory at La Silla, Chile. We employed the VWA package (vsin I, wavelength shift, abundance analysis) for preliminary selection of spectral lines, and a semi-automated set of routines which we developed in the programming language IDL, to calculate the equivalent widths and abundances of ions of Iron and the rare earth elements Neodymium and Praseodymium using the WIDTH program and NEMO model atmospheres. Initial results are presented, which reinforce the correlation between iron abundance and effective temperature, from an over-abundance in the late Bp stars, to under-abundant in the early F stars. Results also suggest that the disequilibrium in abundances of the first and second ionisation stages of these ions in the rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars may a consequence of the relatively cool temperatures of those stars, rather than a signature of pulsation.

  2. Work plan, AP-102 mixer pump removal and pump replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, R.F.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this work plan is to plan the steps and estimate the costs required to remove the failed AP-102 mixer pump, and to plan and estimate the cost of the necessary design and specification work required to order a new, but modified, mixer pump including the pump and pump pit energy absorbing design. The main hardware required for the removal of the mixer is as follows: a flexible receiver and blast shield; a metal container for the pulled mixer pump; and a trailer and strongback to haul and manipulate the container. Additionally: a gamma scanning device will be needed to detect the radioactivity emanating from the mixer as it is pulled from the tank; a water spray system will be required to remove tank waste from the surface of the mixer as it is pulled from the AP-102 tank; and a lifting yoke to lift the mixer from the pump pit (the SY-101 Mixer Lifting Yoke will be used). A ``green house`` will have to be erected over the AP-102 pump pit and an experienced Hoisting and Rigging crew must be assembled and trained in mixer pump removal methods before the actual removal is undertaken.

  3. Dynamic Regulation of AP-1 Transcriptional Complexes Directs Trophoblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Lindsey N.; Rumi, M. A. Karim; Roby, Katherine F.

    2015-01-01

    Placentation is a process that establishes the maternal-fetal interface and is required for successful pregnancy. The epithelial component of the placenta consists of trophoblast cells, which possess the capacity for multilineage differentiation and are responsible for placenta-specific functions. FOS-like antigen 1 (FOSL1), a component of AP-1 transcription factor complexes, contributes to the regulation of placental development. FOSL1 expression is restricted to trophoblast giant cells and invasive trophoblast cells. In the present study, we characterized the FOSL1 regulatory pathway in rat trophoblast cells. Transcriptome profiling in control and FOSL1 knockdown cells identified FOSL1-dependent gene sets linked to endocrine and invasive functions. FOSL1 was shown to occupy AP-1 binding sites within these gene loci, as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Complementary in vivo experiments using trophoblast-specific lentiviral delivery of FOSL1 short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) provided in vivo validation of FOSL1 targets. FOSL1 actions require a dimerization partner. Coimmunoprecipitation, coimmunolocalization, and ChIP analyses showed that FOSL1 interacts with JUNB and, to a lesser extent, JUN in differentiating trophoblast cells. Knockdown of FOSL1 and JUNB expression inhibited both endocrine and invasive properties of trophoblast cells. In summary, FOSL1 recruits JUNB to form AP-1 transcriptional complexes that specifically regulate the endocrine and invasive trophoblast phenotypes. PMID:26149388

  4. Shock Loading Studies of AP/AL/HTPB Based Propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boteler, J. M.; Lindfors, A. J.

    1995-08-01

    The unreacted Hugoniots of three class 1.3 propellants have been investigated by shock compression experiments. Shock waves were generated by planar impact in a 75 mm single stage powder gun. Manganin and PVDF pressure gauges provided pressure-time histories to 200 kbar. The propellants were of similar formulation differing only in coarse AP particle size and the addition of a bum rate modifier (Fe2O3). All propellants contained 90% solids by weight and HTPB as binder. Results show negligible effect of AP particle size on shock response in contrast to the addition of Fe2O3 which appears to "stiffen" the host material. Within experimental error, the unreacted Hugoniots compare favorably to the solid AP Hugoniot. Five shock experiments were performed on propellant samples strained to induce in situ voids. The material state was quantified by uniaxial tension dilatometry. Experimental records suggest chemical reactivity behind the shock front. These results are discussed and compared to experimental studies reported previously.

  5. Shock Loading Studies of AP/AL/HTPB Based Propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boteler, J. M.; Lindfors, A. J.

    1996-05-01

    The unreacted Hugoniots of three class 1.3 propellants have been investigated by shock compression experiments. Shock waves were generated by planar impact in a 75 mm single stage powder gun. Manganin and PVDF pressure gauges provided pressure-time histories to 200 kbar. The propellants were of similar formulation differing only in coarse AP particle size and the addition of a bum rate modifier ( Fe 2 O 3 ). All propellants contained 90% solids by weight and HTPB as binder. Results show negligible effect of AP particle size on shock response in contrast to the addition of Fe 2 O 3 which appears to "stiffen" the host material. Within experimental error, the unreacted Hugoniots compare favorably to the solid AP Hugoniot. Five shock experiments were performed on propellant samples strained to induce in situ voids. The material state was quantified by uniaxial tension dilatometry. Experimental records suggest chemical reactivity behind the shock front. These results are discussed and compared to experimental studies reported previously.

  6. Factors from Trypanosoma cruzi interacting with AP-1 sequences.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, J; Martinetto, H; Portal, D; D'Angelo, M; Torres, H N; Flawiá, M M

    1999-01-01

    Interaction between factors from Trypanosoma cruzi extracts and AP-1 sequences was studied by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Using a double-stranded probe carrying the AP-1 sequence from the SV40 promoter, three specific complexes designated A, B, and C were detected. Complexes A and C were formed when using single-stranded probes. The relative amount of complex B, specific for double-stranded DNA, increased as a function of probe length. Complexes were stabilized by cross-linking with UVC irradiation and resolved on denaturing SDS-PAGE. Complex A generated bands of 60- and 39 kDa; complex B produced two bands of 46- and 43 kDa; and complex C generated one band of 43 kDa. The AP-1 binding activity was much higher in purified nuclear preparations than in soluble fractions, and was detected in crude extracts from the three forms of the parasite. The binding signal, however, was much stronger in amastigote and trypomastigote than in the epimastigote forms. Specific binding was increased by oxidative stress. Antibodies raised against peptides corresponding to conserved domains of mammalian c-Jun and c-Fos detected bands of 40- and 60 kDa, respectively, in a nuclear epimastigote preparation. PMID:10519220

  7. Semiconductor sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, Harry C. (Inventor); Lagowski, Jacek (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A semiconductor sensor adapted to detect with a high degree of sensitivity small magnitudes of a mechanical force, presence of traces of a gas or light. The sensor includes a high energy gap (i.e., .about. 1.0 electron volts) semiconductor wafer. Mechanical force is measured by employing a non-centrosymmetric material for the semiconductor. Distortion of the semiconductor by the force creates a contact potential difference (cpd) at the semiconductor surface, and this cpd is determined to give a measure of the force. When such a semiconductor is subjected to illumination with an energy less than the energy gap of the semiconductors, such illumination also creates a cpd at the surface. Detection of this cpd is employed to sense the illumination itself or, in a variation of the system, to detect a gas. When either a gas or light is to be detected and a crystal of a non-centrosymmetric material is employed, the presence of gas or light, in appropriate circumstances, results in a strain within the crystal which distorts the same and the distortion provides a mechanism for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the gas or the light, as the case may be.

  8. Force sensor

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, A.R.

    1993-05-11

    A force sensor and related method for determining force components is described. The force sensor includes a deformable medium having a contact surface against which a force can be applied, a signal generator for generating signals that travel through the deformable medium to the contact surface, a signal receptor for receiving the signal reflected from the contact surface, a generation controller, a reception controller, and a force determination apparatus. The signal generator has one or more signal generation regions for generating the signals. The generation controller selects and activates the signal generation regions. The signal receptor has one or more signal reception regions for receiving signals and for generating detections signals in response thereto. The reception controller selects signal reception regions and detects the detection signals. The force determination apparatus measures signal transit time by timing activation and detection and, optionally, determines force components for selected cross-field intersections. The timer which times by activation and detection can be any means for measuring signal transit time. A cross-field intersection is defined by the overlap of a signal generation region and a signal reception region.

  9. Force sensor

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, Allen R.

    1993-01-01

    A force sensor and related method for determining force components. The force sensor includes a deformable medium having a contact surface against which a force can be applied, a signal generator for generating signals that travel through the deformable medium to the contact surface, a signal receptor for receiving the signal reflected from the contact surface, a generation controller, a reception controller, and a force determination apparatus. The signal generator has one or more signal generation regions for generating the signals. The generation controller selects and activates the signal generation regions. The signal receptor has one or more signal reception regions for receiving signals and for generating detections signals in response thereto. The reception controller selects signal reception regions and detects the detection signals. The force determination apparatus measures signal transit time by timing activation and detection and, optionally, determines force components for selected cross-field intersections. The timer which times by activation and detection can be any means for measuring signal transit time. A cross-field intersection is defined by the overlap of a signal generation region and a signal reception region.

  10. Microcantilever sensor

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Wachter, Eric A.

    1998-01-01

    An improved microcantilever sensor is fabricated with at least one microcantilever attached to a piezoelectric transducer. The microcantilever is partially surface treated with a compound selective substance having substantially exclusive affinity for a targeted compound in a monitored atmosphere. The microcantilever sensor is also provided with a frequency detection means and a bending detection means. The frequency detection means is capable of detecting changes in the resonance frequency of the vibrated microcantilever in the monitored atmosphere. The bending detection means is capable of detecting changes in the bending of the vibrated microcantilever in the monitored atmosphere coactively with the frequency detection means. The piezoelectric transducer is excited by an oscillator means which provides a signal driving the transducer at a resonance frequency inducing a predetermined order of resonance on the partially treated microcantilever. Upon insertion into a monitored atmosphere, molecules of the targeted chemical attach to the treated regions of the microcantilever resulting in a change in oscillating mass as well as a change in microcantilever spring constant thereby influencing the resonant frequency of the microcantilever oscillation. Furthermore, the molecular attachment of the target chemical to the treated regions induce areas of mechanical strain in the microcantilever consistent with the treated regions thereby influencing microcantilever bending. The rate at which the treated microcantilever accumulates the target chemical is a function of the target chemical concentration. Consequently, the extent of microcantilever oscillation frequency change and bending is related to the concentration of target chemical within the monitored atmosphere.

  11. Microcantilever sensor

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, T.G.; Wachter, E.A.

    1998-02-17

    An improved microcantilever sensor is fabricated with at least one microcantilever attached to a piezoelectric transducer. The microcantilever is partially surface treated with a compound selective substance having substantially exclusive affinity for a targeted compound in a monitored atmosphere. The microcantilever sensor is also provided with a frequency detection means and a bending detection means. The frequency detection means is capable of detecting changes in the resonance frequency of the vibrated microcantilever in the monitored atmosphere. The bending detection means is capable of detecting changes in the bending of the vibrated microcantilever in the monitored atmosphere coactively with the frequency detection means. The piezoelectric transducer is excited by an oscillator means which provides a signal driving the transducer at a resonance frequency inducing a predetermined order of resonance on the partially treated microcantilever. Upon insertion into a monitored atmosphere, molecules of the targeted chemical attach to the treated regions of the microcantilever resulting in a change in oscillating mass as well as a change in microcantilever spring constant thereby influencing the resonant frequency of the microcantilever oscillation. Furthermore, the molecular attachment of the target chemical to the treated regions induce areas of mechanical strain in the microcantilever consistent with the treated regions thereby influencing microcantilever bending. The rate at which the treated microcantilever accumulates the target chemical is a function of the target chemical concentration. Consequently, the extent of microcantilever oscillation frequency change and bending is related to the concentration of target chemical within the monitored atmosphere. 16 figs.

  12. Sensors for Entertainment.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, Fabrizio; Sanna, Andrea; Rokne, Jon

    2016-07-15

    Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in all areas of science, technology, and society. In this Special Issue on "Sensors for Entertainment", developments in progress and the current state of application scenarios for sensors in the field of entertainment is explored.

  13. Sensors, Update 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    1996-12-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Treatments include current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Furthermore, the sensor market as well as peripheral aspects such as standards are covered. Each volume is divided into four sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides an overview of suppliers and market trends for a particular section, and Sensor Standards, reviews recent legislation and requirements for sensors. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  14. Building Reading, Writing and Analysis in the AP U.S. History Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Stephen; Stacy, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The building of historical thinking skills has historically been a lonely endeavor for AP U.S. history teachers. Many often generate their own pedagogy, perhaps modified from an AP workshop or generally gleaned from released exam essay questions. However, as currently scheduled, in 2014, the AP U.S. history exam will undergo a redesign that will…

  15. Using a Classroom Response System to Improve Multiple-Choice Performance in AP[R] Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Participation in rigorous high school courses such as Advanced Placement (AP[R]) Physics increases the likelihood of college success, especially for students who are traditionally underserved. Tackling difficult multiple-choice exams should be part of any AP program because well-constructed multiple-choice questions, such as those on AP exams and…

  16. 75 FR 10457 - Andrew Pickens Ranger District; South Carolina; AP Loblolly Pine Removal and Restoration Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Forest Service Andrew Pickens Ranger District; South Carolina; AP Loblolly Pine Removal and Restoration... statement. SUMMARY: The AP Loblolly Pine Removal and Restoration Project is a district-wide project that... endangered smooth coneflower. The AP Loblolly Pine Removal and Restoration Project is located on...

  17. Development and validation of the Affect in Play Scale-brief rating version (APS-BR).

    PubMed

    Cordiano, Tori J Sacha; Russ, Sandra W; Short, Elizabeth J

    2008-01-01

    The Affect in Play Scale (APS; Russ, 1987, 2004) is one of few reliable, standardized measures of pretend play, yet the fact that it requires videotaping and extensive training to score compromises its clinical utility. In this study, we developed and validated a brief rating version (APS-BR) that does not require videotaping. Construct validity was established by comparing scores from the original APS and the APS-BR using an existing data set of videotaped play (n = 46). We examined associations between scores on the APS-BR and theoretically relevant measures of divergent thinking and emotional memories. Scores on the APS-BR related strongly to those on the APS, and the pattern of correlations for each scale and relevant criterion measures was similar in strength and direction, supporting the APS-BR as an alternate form of the APS. In addition, we completed a pilot study to examine the efficacy of using the APS-BR in its intended in vivo format (n = 28). Results from both studies suggest that the APS-BR is a promising brief measure of children's pretend play that can be substituted for the APS in clinical and research settings. PMID:18444095

  18. Development and validation of the Affect in Play Scale-brief rating version (APS-BR).

    PubMed

    Cordiano, Tori J Sacha; Russ, Sandra W; Short, Elizabeth J

    2008-01-01

    The Affect in Play Scale (APS; Russ, 1987, 2004) is one of few reliable, standardized measures of pretend play, yet the fact that it requires videotaping and extensive training to score compromises its clinical utility. In this study, we developed and validated a brief rating version (APS-BR) that does not require videotaping. Construct validity was established by comparing scores from the original APS and the APS-BR using an existing data set of videotaped play (n = 46). We examined associations between scores on the APS-BR and theoretically relevant measures of divergent thinking and emotional memories. Scores on the APS-BR related strongly to those on the APS, and the pattern of correlations for each scale and relevant criterion measures was similar in strength and direction, supporting the APS-BR as an alternate form of the APS. In addition, we completed a pilot study to examine the efficacy of using the APS-BR in its intended in vivo format (n = 28). Results from both studies suggest that the APS-BR is a promising brief measure of children's pretend play that can be substituted for the APS in clinical and research settings.

  19. NRC confirmatory AP600 safety system phase I testing in the ROSA/AP600 test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, G.S.; Kukita, Yutaka; Schultz, R.R.

    1996-03-01

    The NRC confirmatory phase I testing for the AP600 safety systems has been completed in the modified ROSA (Rig of Safety Assessment) test facility located at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) campus in Tokai, Japan. The test matrix included a variety of accident scenarios covering both design and beyond-design basis accidents. The test results indicate the AP600 safety systems as reflected in ROSA appear to perform as designed and there is no danger of core heatup for the accident scenarios investigated. In addition, no detrimental system interactions nor adverse effects of non-safety systems on the safety system functions were identified. However, three phenomena of interest have been identified for further examination to determine whether they are relevant to the AP600 plant. Those three phenomena are: (1) a potential for water hammer caused by rapid condensation which may occur following the actuation of the automatic depressurization system (ADS), (2) a large thermal gradient in the cold leg pipe where cooled water returns from the passive residual heat removal system and forms a thermally stratified layer, and (3) system-wide oscillations initiating following the ADS stage 4 actuation and persisting until the liquid in the pressurizer drains and steam generation in the core becomes insignificant.

  20. PsAP2 an AP2/ERF family transcription factor from Papaver somniferum enhances abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sonal; Phukan, Ujjal J; Tripathi, Vineeta; Singh, Dhananjay K; Luqman, Suaib; Shukla, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-09-01

    The AP2/ERFs are one of the most important family of transcription factors which regulate multiple responses like stress, metabolism and development in plants. We isolated PsAP2 a novel AP2/ERF from Papaver somniferum which was highly upregulated in response to wounding followed by ethylene, methyl jasmonate and ABA treatment. PsAP2 showed specific binding with both DRE and GCC box elements and it was able to transactivate the reporter genes in yeast. PsAP2 overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants exhibited enhanced tolerance towards both abiotic and biotic stresses . Real time transcript expression analysis showed constitutive upregulation of tobacco Alternative oxidase1a and Myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase in PsAP2 overexpressing tobacco plants. Further, PsAP2 showed interaction with NtAOX1a promoter in vitro, it also specifically activated the NtAOX1a promoter in yeast and tobacco BY2 cells. The silencing of PsAP2 using VIGS lead to significant reduction in the AOX1 level in P. somniferum. Taken together PsAP2 can directly bind and transcriptionally activate NtAOX1a and its overexpression in tobacco imparted increased tolerance towards both abiotic and biotic stress.

  1. PsAP2 an AP2/ERF family transcription factor from Papaver somniferum enhances abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sonal; Phukan, Ujjal J; Tripathi, Vineeta; Singh, Dhananjay K; Luqman, Suaib; Shukla, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-09-01

    The AP2/ERFs are one of the most important family of transcription factors which regulate multiple responses like stress, metabolism and development in plants. We isolated PsAP2 a novel AP2/ERF from Papaver somniferum which was highly upregulated in response to wounding followed by ethylene, methyl jasmonate and ABA treatment. PsAP2 showed specific binding with both DRE and GCC box elements and it was able to transactivate the reporter genes in yeast. PsAP2 overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants exhibited enhanced tolerance towards both abiotic and biotic stresses . Real time transcript expression analysis showed constitutive upregulation of tobacco Alternative oxidase1a and Myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase in PsAP2 overexpressing tobacco plants. Further, PsAP2 showed interaction with NtAOX1a promoter in vitro, it also specifically activated the NtAOX1a promoter in yeast and tobacco BY2 cells. The silencing of PsAP2 using VIGS lead to significant reduction in the AOX1 level in P. somniferum. Taken together PsAP2 can directly bind and transcriptionally activate NtAOX1a and its overexpression in tobacco imparted increased tolerance towards both abiotic and biotic stress. PMID:26319514

  2. Land mine detection through GPR and EMI sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenseel, Robert A.; Castanon, David A.; Karl, William C.

    1999-12-01

    In this paper, we develop a system to exploit sensor fusion for detecting and locating plastic A/P mines. We design and test the system using data from Monte Carlo electromagnetic induction spectroscopy (EMIS) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) simulations. We include the effects of both random soil surface variability and sensor noise. In the presence of a rough surface and a heterogeneous, multi-element clutter environment, we obtain good results fusing EMIS and GPR data using a statistical approach. More generally, we demonstrate a framework for simulating and testing sensor configurations and sensor fusion approaches for landmine and unexploded ordinance (UXO) detection systems. Taking advantage of high- fidelity electromagnetic simulation, we develop a controlled environment for testing sensor fusion concepts, from varied sensor arrangements to detection algorithms. In this environment, we can examine the effect of changing mine structure, soil parameters, and sensor geometry on the sensor fusion problem. We can then generalize these results to produce mine detectors robust to real-world variations.

  3. Highly selective and stable florescent sensor for Cd(II) based on poly (azomethine-urethane).

    PubMed

    Kaya, İsmet; Kamacı, Musa

    2013-01-01

    In this study a kind of poly(azomethine-urethane); (E)-4-((2 hydroxyphenylimino) methyl)-2-methoxyphenyl 6-acetamidohexylcarbamate (HDI-co-3-DHB-2-AP) was prepared as in the literature and employed as a new fluorescent probe for detection of Cd(II) concentration. The photoluminescence (PL) measurements were carried out in the presence of several kinds of heavy metals. HDI-co-3-DHB-2-AP gave a linearly and highly stable response against Cd(II) as decreasing a new emission peak at 562 nm. Possible interferences of other ions were found too low. Detection limit of the sensor was found as 8.86 × 10(-4) mol L(-1). Resultantly, HDI-co-3- DHB-2-AP could be effectively used as an optical Cd(II) sensor.

  4. Highly selective and stable florescent sensor for Cd(II) based on poly (azomethine-urethane).

    PubMed

    Kaya, İsmet; Kamacı, Musa

    2013-01-01

    In this study a kind of poly(azomethine-urethane); (E)-4-((2 hydroxyphenylimino) methyl)-2-methoxyphenyl 6-acetamidohexylcarbamate (HDI-co-3-DHB-2-AP) was prepared as in the literature and employed as a new fluorescent probe for detection of Cd(II) concentration. The photoluminescence (PL) measurements were carried out in the presence of several kinds of heavy metals. HDI-co-3-DHB-2-AP gave a linearly and highly stable response against Cd(II) as decreasing a new emission peak at 562 nm. Possible interferences of other ions were found too low. Detection limit of the sensor was found as 8.86 × 10(-4) mol L(-1). Resultantly, HDI-co-3- DHB-2-AP could be effectively used as an optical Cd(II) sensor. PMID:22941725

  5. What do we know about the cardiac valve lesion in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)?

    PubMed

    Amigo, M-C

    2014-10-01

    Heart valve disease (HVD) is the most common cardiac manifestation in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Valve lesions should be described according to the established definition. HVD is progressive despite anticoagulant/antiplatelet treatments. Around 4-6% of patients with HVD in APS will require valve replacement surgery, which is considered a very high risk procedure in APS. Unfortunately, no recommendations regarding medical treatment of antiphospholipid antibodies-associated HVD can be made at this moment. There are evidence-based data and strong pathophysiologic rationale for considering HVD as a manifestation of APS. Thus, HVD should be included as a criterion of definite APS.

  6. The Heptameric SmAP1 and SmAP2 Proteins of the Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus Solfataricus Bind to Common and Distinct RNA Targets

    PubMed Central

    Märtens, Birgit; Bezerra, Gustavo Arruda; Kreuter, Mathias Josef; Grishkovskaya, Irina; Manica, Andrea; Arkhipova, Valentina; Djinovic-Carugo, Kristina; Bläsi, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Sm and Sm-like proteins represent an evolutionarily conserved family with key roles in RNA metabolism. Sm-based regulation is diverse and can range in scope from eukaryotic mRNA splicing to bacterial quorum sensing, with at least one step in these processes being mediated by an RNA-associated molecular assembly built on Sm proteins. Despite the availability of several 3D-structures of Sm-like archaeal proteins (SmAPs), their function has remained elusive. The aim of this study was to shed light on the function of SmAP1 and SmAP2 of the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus (Sso). Using co-purification followed by RNASeq different classes of non-coding RNAs and mRNAs were identified that co-purified either with both paralogues or solely with Sso-SmAP1 or Sso-SmAP2. The large number of associated intron-containing tRNAs and tRNA/rRNA modifying RNAs may suggest a role of the two Sso-SmAPs in tRNA/rRNA processing. Moreover, the 3D structure of Sso-SmAP2 was elucidated. Like Sso-SmAP1, Sso-SmAP2 forms homoheptamers. The binding of both proteins to distinct RNA substrates is discussed in terms of surface conservation, structural differences in the RNA binding sites and differences in the electrostatic surface potential of the two Sso-SmAP proteins. Taken together, this study may hint to common and different functions of both Sso-SmAPs in Sso RNA metabolism. PMID:25905548

  7. NF-κB/AP-1-targeted inhibition of macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses by depigmenting compound AP736 derived from natural 1,3-diphenylpropane skeleton.

    PubMed

    Ha, Van Thai; Beak, Heung Soo; Kim, Eunji; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Hossen, Muhammad Jahangir; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Yong; Kim, Jun Ho; Yang, Sungjae; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Joo, Yung Hyup; Lee, Chang Seok; Choi, Joonho; Shin, Hong-Ju; Hong, Sungyoul; Shin, Song Seok; Cho, Jae Youl

    2014-01-01

    AP736 was identified as an antimelanogenic drug that can be used for the prevention of melasma, freckles, and dark spots in skin by acting as a suppressor of melanin synthesis and tyrosinase expression. Since macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses are critical for skin health, here we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory activity of AP736. The effects of AP736 on various inflammatory events such as nitric oxide (NO)/prostaglandin (PG) E2 production, inflammatory gene expression, phagocytic uptake, and morphological changes were examined in RAW264.7 cells. AP736 was found to strongly inhibit the production of both NO and PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, AP736 strongly inhibited both LPS-induced morphological changes and FITC-dextran-induced phagocytic uptake. Furthermore, AP736 also downregulated the expression of multiple inflammatory genes, such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2, and interleukin- (IL-) 1β in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Transcription factor analysis, including upstream signalling events, revealed that both NF-κB and AP-1 were targeted by AP736 via inhibition of the IKK/IκBα and IRAK1/TAK1 pathways. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that AP736 is a potential anti-inflammatory drug due to its suppression of NF-κB-IKK/IκBα and AP-1-IRAK1/TAK1 signalling, which may make AP736 useful for the treatment of macrophage-mediated skin inflammation. PMID:25386046

  8. Development of a monochromator system for the APS X-ray BESSRC beamlines

    SciTech Connect

    Beno, M.A.; Knapp, G.S.; Ramanathan, M.

    1997-03-01

    The authors have designed a double crystal, fixed exit monochromator which allows windowless operation of the APS beamlines. The crystals are mounted on a turntable with the first crystal at the center of rotation. A mechanical linkage is used to correctly position the second crystal and maintain a constant offset. The monochromator is designed with two adjacent vacuum chambers, one containing the drive mechanism, a vacuum compatible Huber goniometer, and another chamber containing a turntable on which the monochromator linkage and crystals are mounted. The small annular opening around a hollow stainless steel shaft which connects the Huber goniometer to the turntable is the only passage between the two adjacent chambers. The design of the monochromator is such that it can accommodate water, liquid nitrogen or galium cooling for the crystal optics. The basic design for the monochromator linkage mechanism is presented along with details of the monochromator chamber. The results of initial optical tests of the monochromator system using tilt sensors and a precision autocollimator will also be given.

  9. Arsenic Directly Binds to and Activates the Yeast AP-1-Like Transcription Factor Yap8

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nallani Vijay; Yang, Jianbo; Pillai, Jitesh K.; Rawat, Swati; Solano, Carlos; Kumar, Abhay; Grøtli, Morten; Stemmler, Timothy L.; Rosen, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    The AP-1-like transcription factor Yap8 is critical for arsenic tolerance in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the mechanism by which Yap8 senses the presence of arsenic and activates transcription of detoxification genes is unknown. Here we demonstrate that Yap8 directly binds to trivalent arsenite [As(III)] in vitro and in vivo and that approximately one As(III) molecule is bound per molecule of Yap8. As(III) is coordinated by three sulfur atoms in purified Yap8, and our genetic and biochemical data identify the cysteine residues that form the binding site as Cys132, Cys137, and Cys274. As(III) binding by Yap8 does not require an additional yeast protein, and Yap8 is regulated neither at the level of localization nor at the level of DNA binding. Instead, our data are consistent with a model in which a DNA-bound form of Yap8 acts directly as an As(III) sensor. Binding of As(III) to Yap8 triggers a conformational change that in turn brings about a transcriptional response. Thus, As(III) binding to Yap8 acts as a molecular switch that converts inactive Yap8 into an active transcriptional regulator. This is the first report to demonstrate how a eukaryotic protein couples arsenic sensing to transcriptional activation. PMID:26711267

  10. Generic effluent monitoring system certification for AP-40 exhauster stack

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Davis, W.E.; Bussell, J.H.; Maughan, A.D.

    1997-09-01

    Tests were conducted to verify that the Generic Effluent Monitoring System (GEMS), as applied to the AP-40 exhauster stack, meets all applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the air sampling probe location and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering air sampling probe location ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in the report. The tests demonstrated that the GEMS/AP-40 system meets all applicable performance criteria. The contaminant mixing tests were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) at the wind tunnel facility, 331-H Building, using a mockup of the actual stack. The particle sample transport tests were conducted by PNNL at the Numatec Hanford Company`s 305 Building. The AP-40 stack is typical of several 10-in. diameter stacks that discharge the filtered ventilation air from tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The GEMS design features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and sample collection system. The collection system includes a filter holder to collect the sample of record and an in-line detector head and filter for monitoring beta radiation-emitting particles. Unrelated to the performance criteria, it was found that the record sample filter holder exhibited symptoms of sample bypass around the particle collection filter. This filter holder should either be modified or replaced with a different type. 10 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Molecular Basis for Enhancement of the Meiotic DMCI Recombinase by RAD51AP1

    SciTech Connect

    Dray, Eloise; Dunlop, Myun Hwa; Kauppi, Liisa; San Filippo, Joseph San; Wiese, Claudia; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Begovic, Sead; Schild, David; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott; Sung, Patrick

    2010-11-05

    Homologous recombination is needed for meiotic chromosome segregation, genome maintenance, and tumor suppression. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) has been shown to interact with and enhance the recombinase activity of RAD51. Accordingly, genetic ablation of RAD51AP1 leads to enhanced sensitivity to and also chromosome aberrations upon DNA damage, demonstrating a role for RAD51AP1 in mitotic homologous recombination. Here we show physical association of RAD51AP1 with the meiosis-specific recombinase DMC1 and a stimulatory effect of RAD51AP1 on the DMC1-mediated D-loop reaction. Mechanistic studies have revealed that RAD51AP1 enhances the ability of the DMC1 presynaptic filament to capture the duplex DNA partner and to assemble the synaptic complex, in which the recombining DNA strands are homologously aligned. We also provide evidence that functional co-operation is dependent on complex formation between DMC1 and RAD51AP1, and that distinct epitopes in RAD51AP1 mediate interactions with RAD51 and DMC1. Finally, we show that RAD51AP1 is expressed in mouse testes, and that RAD51AP1 foci co-localize with a subset of DMC1 foci in spermatocytes. These results suggest that RAD51AP1 also serves an important role in meiotic homologous recombination.

  12. Lack of CD2AP disrupts Glut4 trafficking and attenuates glucose uptake in podocytes.

    PubMed

    Tolvanen, Tuomas A; Dash, Surjya Narayan; Polianskyte-Prause, Zydrune; Dumont, Vincent; Lehtonen, Sanna

    2015-12-15

    The adapter protein CD2-associated protein (CD2AP) functions in various signaling and vesicle trafficking pathways, including endosomal sorting and/or trafficking and degradation pathways. Here, we investigated the role of CD2AP in insulin-dependent glucose transporter 4 (Glut4, also known as SLC2A4) trafficking and glucose uptake. Glucose uptake was attenuated in CD2AP(-/-) podocytes compared with wild-type podocytes in the basal state, and CD2AP(-/-) podocytes failed to increase glucose uptake in response to insulin. Live-cell imaging revealed dynamic trafficking of HA-Glut4-GFP in wild-type podocytes, whereas in CD2AP(-/-) podocytes, HA-Glut4-GFP clustered perinuclearly. In subcellular membrane fractionations, CD2AP co-fractionated with Glut4, IRAP (also known as LNPEP) and sortilin, constituents of Glut4 storage vesicles (GSVs). We further found that CD2AP forms a complex with GGA2, a clathrin adaptor, which sorts Glut4 to GSVs, suggesting a role for CD2AP in this process. We also found that CD2AP forms a complex with clathrin and connects clathrin to actin in the perinuclear region. Furthermore, clathrin recycling back to trans-Golgi membranes from the vesicular fraction containing GSVs was defective in the absence of CD2AP. This leads to reduced insulin-stimulated trafficking of GSVs and attenuated glucose uptake into CD2AP(-/-) podocytes.

  13. Design and characterization of novel monolithic pixel sensors for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Giubilato, P.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kugathasan, T.; Mager, M.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Martinengo, P.; Mattiazzo, S.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Pantano, D.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; Yang, P.

    2014-11-01

    Within the R&D activities for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS), Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are being developed and studied, due to their lower material budget (~ 0.3 %X0 in total for each inner layer) and higher granularity (~ 20 μm × 20 μm pixels) with respect to the present pixel detector. This paper presents the design and characterization results of the Explorer0 chip, manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor process, based on a wafer with high-resistivity (ρ > 1 kΩ cm) and 18 μm thick epitaxial layer. The chip is organized in two sub-matrices with different pixel pitches (20 μm and 30 μm), each of them containing several pixel designs. The collection electrode size and shape, as well as the distance between the electrode and the surrounding electronics, are varied; the chip also offers the possibility to decouple the charge integration time from the readout time, and to change the sensor bias. The charge collection properties of the different pixel variants implemented in Explorer0 have been studied using a 55Fe X-ray source and 1-5 GeV/c electrons and positrons. The sensor capacitance has been estimated, and the effect of the sensor bias has also been examined in detail. A second version of the Explorer0 chip (called Explorer1) has been submitted for production in March 2013, together with a novel circuit with in-pixel discrimination and a sparsified readout. Results from these submissions are also presented.

  14. Ectopic expression of AP-2α transcription factor suppresses glioma progression.

    PubMed

    Su, Wenjing; Xia, Juan; Chen, Xueqin; Xu, Miao; Nie, Ling; Chen, Ni; Gong, Jing; Li, Xinglan; Zhou, Qiao

    2014-01-01

    The transcriptional factor AP-2α is a tumor suppressor gene and is downregulated in various neoplasms including glioma. Although the level of AP-2α is negatively associated with the grade of human glioma, the specific functions of AP-2α in glioma are still unknown. In this study, we experimentally showed that artificial overexpression of AP-2α in glioma T98G and U251 cells significantly downregulated the mRNA levels of Bcl-xl, Bcl-2, c-IAP2 and survivin, together with upregulation of the Hrk mRNA levels. Reintroduction of AP-2α also induced downregulation of the protein levels of survivin and VEGF in glioma cells. In biological assays with T98G and U251 cells, AP-2α reduced tumor cell growth, increased cell death, attenuated cell migration and endothelial tube formation. The AP-2α transcription factor may play an important role in suppressing glioma progression. PMID:25674231

  15. Ectopic expression of AP-2α transcription factor suppresses glioma progression

    PubMed Central

    Su, Wenjing; Xia, Juan; Chen, Xueqin; Xu, Miao; Nie, Ling; Chen, Ni; Gong, Jing; Li, Xinglan; Zhou, Qiao

    2014-01-01

    The transcriptional factor AP-2α is a tumor suppressor gene and is downregulated in various neoplasms including glioma. Although the level of AP-2α is negatively associated with the grade of human glioma, the specific functions of AP-2α in glioma are still unknown. In this study, we experimentally showed that artificial overexpression of AP-2α in glioma T98G and U251 cells significantly downregulated the mRNA levels of Bcl-xl, Bcl-2, c-IAP2 and survivin, together with upregulation of the Hrk mRNA levels. Reintroduction of AP-2α also induced downregulation of the protein levels of survivin and VEGF in glioma cells. In biological assays with T98G and U251 cells, AP-2α reduced tumor cell growth, increased cell death, attenuated cell migration and endothelial tube formation. The AP-2α transcription factor may play an important role in suppressing glioma progression. PMID:25674231

  16. APS beamline standard components handbook, Version 1. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, U.; Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1993-02-01

    This Handbook in its current version (1.3) contains descriptions, specifications, and preliminary engineering design drawings for many of the standard components. The design status and schedules have been provided wherever possible. In the near future, the APS plans to update engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components and complete the Handbook. The completed version of this Handbook will become available to both the CATs and potential vendors. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction.

  17. The NuStart AP1000 Compact Control Room Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Daryl

    2006-07-01

    The nuclear power industry in the United States is experiencing renewed optimism that new nuclear power plants may be constructed in the foreseeable future. Presently a number of utilities in the U.S. are considering new nuclear plant construction. Among the reasons supporting the industry's optimism is the formation of the NuStart Energy Consortium. This consortium of leading energy companies, including Westinghouse Electric Company, is working with the U.S. Department of Energy to demonstrate and test the new licensing process for obtaining a Combined Construction and Operating License (COL) for an advanced light water reactor (ALWR). One ALWR design for which the NuStart Energy Consortium is pursuing a COL application is Westinghouse's passive AP1000. AP1000 received its Final Design Approval from the USNRC in the Fall of 2004 and was granted Design Certification by the NRC on December 30, 2005. A key element of the AP1000 COL application will be to close out Design Certification COL items related to the Main Control Room (MCR) and Human System Interface (HSI) design. During the AP1000 design certification licensing efforts, a control room and HSI design process was submitted and approved. Realizing that Instrumentation and Control (I and C) and HSI technology changes rapidly, Westinghouse chose to defer the detailed design of the control room and operator interfaces. This allows the latest technology to be used when a plant is actually going to be built. To fulfill the COL items for the upcoming application Westinghouse is performing a comprehensive Human Factors Engineering program in conjunction with development of an advanced set of HSI resources for a compact control room. This paper will discuss human factors program elements completed to date and the efforts currently in progress to complete the remaining elements. It will also describe the design progress for each HSI resource including a Wall Panel Information System, computerized procedure system

  18. Euphorbesulins A-P, Structurally Diverse Diterpenoids from Euphorbia esula.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Wu, Yan; Dalal, Seema; Cassera, Maria B; Yue, Jian-Min

    2016-08-26

    Aqueous ethanol extracts of powdered twigs of Euphorbia esula afforded 16 new diterpenoids, named euphorbesulins A-P. These euphorbesulins included presegetane (1-3), jatrophane (4-14), paraliane (15), and isopimarane (16) diterpenoids as well as six known analogues. Compounds 1-3 represent a rare type of presegetane diterpenoid. Their structures were determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration of 1 was established by X-ray crystallography. Diterpenoid 7 showed low nanomolar antimalarial activity, while the remaining compounds showed only moderate or no antimalarial activity. PMID:27447736

  19. Long period oscillations in roAp stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. D.; Kurtz, D. W.; Cunha, M. S.

    2004-12-01

    We present the results of observations made over three weeks using the UCT CCD Photometer on the 0.75-m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory. Candidate long period roAp stars were identified from their positions on the H-R diagram and observed for a typical period of 4 hr to test for the existence of pulsations, with particular emphasis on pulsations with periods in excess of 15 min. Although 13 stars were successfully observed, none exhibited significant pulsations.

  20. Isotopic anomaly and stratification of Ca in magnetic Ap stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchikova, T.; Kochukhov, O.; Bagnulo, S.

    2008-03-01

    Aims: We have completed an accurate investigation of the Ca isotopic composition and stratification in the atmospheres of 23 magnetic chemically peculiar (Ap) stars of different temperature and magnetic field strength. Methods: With the UVES spectrograph at the 8 m ESO VLT, we have obtained high-resolution spectra of Ap stars in the wavelength range 3000-10 000 Å. Using a detailed spectrum synthesis calculations, we have reproduced a variety of Ca lines in the optical and ultraviolet spectral regions, inferring the overall vertical distribution of Ca abundance, and have deduced the relative isotopic composition and its dependence on height using the profile of the IR-triplet Ca II line at λ8498 Å. Results: In 22 out of 23 studied stars, we found that Ca is strongly stratified, being usually overabundant by 1.0-1.5 dex below logτ5000≈ -1, and strongly depleted above logτ5000=-1.5. The IR-triplet Ca II line at λ8498 Å reveals a significant contribution of the heavy isotopes 46Ca and 48Ca, which represent less than 1 % of the terrestrial Ca isotopic mixture. We confirm our previous finding that the presence of heavy Ca isotopes is generally anticorrelated with the magnetic field strength. Moreover, we discover that in Ap stars with relatively small surface magnetic fields (≤4-5 kG), the light isotope 40Ca is concentrated close to the photosphere, while the heavy isotopes are dominant in the outer atmospheric layers. This vertical isotopic separation, observed for the first time for any metal in a stellar atmosphere, disappears in stars with magnetic field strength above 6-7 kG. Conclusions: We suggest that the overall Ca stratification and depth-dependent isotopic anomaly observed in Ap stars may be attributed to a combined action of the radiatively-driven diffusion and light-induced drift. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO program No. 68.D-0254).

  1. Initial diagnostics commissioning results for the APS injector subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumpkin, A.; Chung, Y.; Kahana, E.; Patterson, D.; Sellyey, W.; Smith, T.; Wang, X.

    1995-05-01

    In recent months the first beams have been introduced into the various injector subsystems of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). An overview will be given of the diagnostics results on beam profiling, beam position monitors (BPMs), loss rate monitors (LRMs), current monitors (CMs), and photon monitors on the low energy transport lines, positron accumulator ring (PAR), and injector synchrotron (IS). Initial measurements have been done with electron beams at energies from 250 to 450 MeV and 50 to 400 pC per macrobunch. Operations in single turn and stored beam conditions were diagnosed in the PAR and IS.

  2. MOST photometry of the roAp star 10 Aquilae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, D.; Saio, H.; Gruberbauer, M.; Weiss, W. W.; Rowe, J. F.; Hareter, M.; Kallinger, T.; Reegen, P.; Matthews, J. M.; Kuschnig, R.; Guenther, D. B.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Rucinski, S.; Sasselov, D.; Walker, G. A. H.

    2008-05-01

    Context: We present 31.2 days of nearly continuous MOST photometry of the rapidly oscillating Ap star 10 Aql. Aims: The goal was to provide an unambiguous frequency identification for this little studied star, as well as to discuss the detected frequencies in the context of magnetic models and analyze the influence of the magnetic field on the pulsation. Methods: Using traditional Fourier analysis techniques on three independent data reductions, intrinsic frequencies for the star are identified. Theoretical non-adiabatic axisymmetric modes influenced by a magnetic field having polar field strengths BP = 0-5 kG were computed to compare the observations to theory. Results: The high-precision data allow us to identify three definite intrinsic pulsation frequencies and two other candidate frequencies with low S/N. Considering the observed spacings, only one (Δν = 50.95 μHz) is consistent with the main sequence nature of roAp stars. The comparison with theoretical models yields a best fit for a 1.95 M⊙ model having solar metallicity, suppressed envelope convection, and homogenous helium abundance. Furthermore, our analysis confirms the suspected slow rotation of the star and sets new lower limits to the rotation period (P_rot≥ 1 month) and inclination (i>30±10°). Conclusions: The observed frequency spectrum is not rich enough to unambiguously identify a model. On the other hand, the models hardly represent roAp stars in detail due to the approximations needed to describe the interactions of the magnetic field with stellar structure and pulsation. Consequently, errors in the model frequencies needed for the fitting procedure can only be estimated. Nevertheless, it is encouraging that models which suppress convection and include solar metallicity, in agreement with current concepts of roAp stars, fit the observations best. Based on data from the MOST satellite, a Canadian Space Agency mission, jointly operated by Dynacon Inc., the University of Toronto Institute

  3. High heat-load absorbers for the APS storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.; Rotela, E.; Barcikowski, A.

    2000-07-21

    The power density of the dipole x-rays in the 7-GeV APS storage ring is 261 watts/mrad at 300 mA of beam current. An array of absorbers is used in the ring to shield its vacuum chambers and diagnostics components in the path of these intense x-rays. This paper describes some of the unique absorber designs that were developed to handle the requirements of high power density and UHV compatibility with no water-to-vacuum joints.

  4. Operation of the APS photoinjector drive laser system.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2008-08-04

    The APS photoinjector drive laser system has been in operation since 1999 and is achieving a performance level exceeding the requirement of stable operation of the LEUTL FEL system. One remarkable number is the UV energy stability of better than 2% rms, sometimes less than 1% rms. This report summarizes the operation experience of the laser system and the improvements made along the way. We also outline the route of upgrade of the system and some frontier laser research and development opportunities in ultrabright electron beam generation.

  5. Expansion and Functional Divergence of AP2 Group Genes in Spermatophytes Determined by Molecular Evolution and Arabidopsis Mutant Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengkai; Cheng, Tielong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liu, Guangxin; Li, Meiping; Shi, Jisen; Lu, Ye; Laux, Thomas; Chen, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    The APETALA2 (AP2) genes represent the AP2 group within a large group of DNA-binding proteins called AP2/EREBP. The AP2 gene is functional and necessary for flower development, stem cell maintenance, and seed development, whereas the other members of AP2 group redundantly affect flowering time. Here we study the phylogeny of AP2 group genes in spermatophytes. Spermatophyte AP2 group genes can be classified into AP2 and TOE types, six clades, and we found that the AP2 group homologs in gymnosperms belong to the AP2 type, whereas TOE types are absent, which indicates the AP2 type gene are more ancient and TOE type was split out of AP2 type and losing the major function. In Brassicaceae, the expansion of AP2 and TOE type lead to the gene number of AP2 group were up to six. Purifying selection appears to have been the primary driving force of spermatophyte AP2 group evolution, although positive selection occurred in the AP2 clade. The transition from exon to intron of AtAP2 in Arabidopsis mutant leads to the loss of gene function and the same situation was found in AtTOE2. Combining this evolutionary analysis and published research, the results suggest that typical AP2 group genes may first appear in gymnosperms and diverged in angiosperms, following expansion of group members and functional differentiation. In angiosperms, AP2 genes (AP2 clade) inherited key functions from ancestors and other genes of AP2 group lost most function but just remained flowering time controlling in gene formation. In this study, the phylogenies of AP2 group genes in spermatophytes was analyzed, which supported the evidence for the research of gene functional evolution of AP2 group. PMID:27703459

  6. Sensor response rate accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Vogt, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for sensor signal prediction and for improving sensor signal response time, is disclosed. An adaptive filter or an artificial neural network is utilized to provide predictive sensor signal output and is further used to reduce sensor response time delay.

  7. Incorporating Ninth-Grade PSAT/NMSQT® Scores into AP Potential™ Predictions for AP® European History and AP World History. Statistical Report 2014-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiuyuan; Patel, Priyank; Ewing, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Historically, AP Potential™ correlations and expectancy tables have been based on 10th-and 11th-grade PSAT/NMSQT® examinees and 11th-and 12th-grade AP® examinees for all subjects (Zhang, Patel, & Ewing,2014; Ewing, Camara, & Millsap, 2006; Camara & Millsap, 1998). However, a large number of students take AP European History and AP…

  8. Retinoic acid receptors inhibit AP1 activation by regulating extracellular signal-regulated kinase and CBP recruitment to an AP1-responsive promoter.

    PubMed

    Benkoussa, Madjid; Brand, Céline; Delmotte, Marie-Hélène; Formstecher, Pierre; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2002-07-01

    Retinoids exhibit antineoplastic activities that may be linked to retinoid receptor-mediated transrepression of activating protein 1 (AP1), a heterodimeric transcription factor composed of fos- and jun-related proteins. Here we show that transcriptional activation of an AP1-regulated gene through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway (MAPK(ERK)) is characterized, in intact cells, by a switch from a fra2-junD dimer to a junD-fosB dimer loading on its promoter and by simultaneous recruitment of ERKs, CREB-binding protein (CBP), and RNA polymerase II. All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) receptor (RAR) was tethered constitutively to the AP1 promoter. AP1 transrepression by retinoic acid was concomitant to glycogen synthase kinase 3 activation, negative regulation of junD hyperphosphorylation, and to decreased RNA polymerase II recruitment. Under these conditions, fra1 loading to the AP1 response element was strongly increased. Importantly, CBP and ERKs were excluded from the promoter in the presence of atRA. AP1 transrepression by retinoids was RAR and ligand dependent, but none of the functions required for RAR-mediated transactivation was necessary for AP1 transrepression. These results indicate that transrepressive effects of retinoids are mediated through a mechanism unrelated to transcriptional activation, involving the RAR-dependent control of transcription factors and cofactor assembly on AP1-regulated promoters.

  9. X Linkage of AP3A, a Homolog of the Y-Linked MADS-Box Gene AP3Y in Silene latifolia and S. dioica

    PubMed Central

    Penny, Rebecca H.; Montgomery, Benjamin R.; Delph, Lynda F.

    2011-01-01

    Background The duplication of autosomal genes onto the Y chromosome may be an important element in the evolution of sexual dimorphism.A previous cytological study reported on a putative example of such a duplication event in a dioecious tribe of Silene (Caryophyllaceae): it was inferred that the Y-linked MADS-box gene AP3Y originated from a duplication of the reportedly autosomal orthologAP3A. However, a recent study, also using cytological methods, indicated that AP3A is X-linked in Silenelatifolia. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we hybridized S. latifolia and S. dioicato investigate whether the pattern of X linkage is consistent among distinct populations, occurs in both species, and is robust to genetic methods. We found inheritance patterns indicative of X linkage of AP3A in widely distributed populations of both species. Conclusions/Significance X linkage ofAP3A and Y linkage of AP3Yin both species indicates that the genes' ancestral progenitor resided on the autosomes that gave rise to the sex chromosomesand that neither gene has moved between chromosomes since species divergence.Consequently, our results do not support the contention that inter-chromosomal gene transfer occurred in the evolution of SlAP3Y from SlAP3A. PMID:21533056

  10. Fiber optic sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, J.; Sohler, W.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of the developments in the field of fiber optics sensor technology is presented along with a discussion of the advantages of optical measuring instruments as compared with electronic sensors. The two primary types of fiber optics sensors, specifically those with multiwave fibers and those with monowave fibers, are described. Examples of each major sensor type are presented and discussed. Multiwave detectors include external and internal fiber optics sensors. Among the monowave detectors are Mach-Zender interferometers, Michelson interferometers, Sagnac interferometers (optical gyroscopes), waveguide resonators, and polarimeter sensors. Integrated optical sensors and their application in spectroscopy are briefly discussed.

  11. Crossflow vorticity sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J. (Inventor); Carraway, Debra L. (Inventor); Holmes, Harlan K. (Inventor); Moore, Thomas C. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A crossflow vorticity sensor for the detection of crossflow vorticity characteristics is described. The sensor is comprised of crossflow sensors which are noninvasively adhered to a swept wing laminar surface either singularly, in multi-element strips, in polar patterns, or in orthogonal patterns. These crossflow sensors are comprised of hot-film sensor elements which operate as a constant temperature anemometer circuit to detect heat transfer rate changes. Accordingly, crossflow vorticity characteristics are determined via cross-correlation. In addition, the crossflow sensors have a thickness which does not exceed a maximum value h in order to avoid contamination of downstream crossflow sensors.

  12. Do Lipids Show State-dependent Affinity to the Voltage-gated Potassium Channel KvAP?*

    PubMed Central

    Faure, Élise; Thompson, Christine; Blunck, Rikard

    2014-01-01

    As all integral membrane proteins, voltage-gated ion channels are embedded in a lipid matrix that regulates their channel behavior either by physicochemical properties or by direct binding. Because manipulation of the lipid composition in cells is difficult, we investigated the influence of different lipids on purified KvAP channels reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers of known composition. Lipids developed two distinct and independent effects on the KvAP channels; lipids interacting with the pore lowered the energy barriers for the final transitions, whereas voltage sensor-bound lipids shifted the midpoint of activation dependent on their electrostatic charge. Above all, the midpoint of activation was determined only by those lipids the channels came in contact with first after purification and can seemingly only be exchanged if the channel resides in the open state. The high affinity of the bound lipids to the binding site has implications not only on our understanding of the gating mechanism but also on the general experimental design of any lipid dependence study. PMID:24742679

  13. Development of Magnetostrictive Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinke, Darrell Kenneth

    1995-11-01

    The behavior of Magnetostrictive sensors was investigated through experimentation and mathematical modeling. Two prototype sensors were designed, built and tested. A generalized design procedure is proposed and applied. The experimental data shows the viability of the magnetostrictive sensor as an alternative to conventional sensors. The experimental data was used to uncover the limitations of existing mathematical models, and to validate a new model. The prototype sensors demonstrate the ruggedness and cost effectiveness of the magnetostrictive sensor. The mathematical model accurately predicted the behavior of two different sensor configurations, thus illustrating the model's flexibility. The design procedure can be used by sensor designers as a general guideline. The application of the design procedure is a unique application of magnetostrictive sensors, illustrating the viability, practicality and flexibility of magnetostrictive sensor technology.

  14. Sensors, Update 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    1996-10-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Furthermore, the sensor market as well as peripheral aspects such as standards are covered. Each volume is divided into four sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  15. EDITORIAL: Humidity sensors Humidity sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regtien, Paul P. L.

    2012-01-01

    produced at relatively low cost. Therefore, they find wide use in lots of applications. However, the method requires a material that possesses some conflicting properties: stable and reproducible relations between air humidity, moisture uptake and a specific property (for instance the length of a hair, the electrical impedance of the material), fast absorption and desorption of the water vapour (to obtain a short response time), small hysteresis, wide range of relative humidity (RH) and temperature-independent output (only responsive to RH). For these reasons, much research is done and is still going on to find suitable materials that combine high performance and low price. In this special feature, three of the four papers report on absorption sensors, all with different focus. Aziz et al describe experiments with newly developed materials. The surface structure is extensively studied, in view of its ability to rapidly absorb water vapour and exhibit a reproducible change in the resistance and capacitance of the device. Sanchez et al employ optical fibres coated with a thin moisture-absorbing layer as a sensitive humidity sensor. They have studied various coating materials and investigated the possibility of using changes in optical properties of the fibre (here the lossy mode resonance) due to a change in humidity of the surrounding air. The third paper, by Weremczuk et al, focuses on a cheap fabrication method for absorption-based humidity sensors. The inkjet technology appears to be suitable for mass fabrication of such sensors, which is demonstrated by extensive measurements of the electrical properties (resistance and capacitance) of the absorbing layers. Moreover, they have developed a model that describes the relation between humidity and the electrical parameters of the moisture-sensitive layer. Despite intensive research, absorption sensors still do not meet the requirements for high accuracy applications. The dew-point temperature method is more appropriate

  16. Sensor sentinel computing device

    DOEpatents

    Damico, Joseph P.

    2016-08-02

    Technologies pertaining to authenticating data output by sensors in an industrial environment are described herein. A sensor sentinel computing device receives time-series data from a sensor by way of a wireline connection. The sensor sentinel computing device generates a validation signal that is a function of the time-series signal. The sensor sentinel computing device then transmits the validation signal to a programmable logic controller in the industrial environment.

  17. Evaluation of infrasound sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kromer, R.P.; McDonald, T.S.

    1998-08-01

    Sandia is evaluating the performance of various infrasound sensors that could be used as part of the International Monitoring Systems (IMS). Specifications for infrasound stations are outlined in CTBT/PC/II/1/Add.2. This document specifies minimum requirements for sensor, digitizer and system. The infrasound sensors evaluation task has the following objectives: provide an overview of the sensors presently in use; evaluate these sensors with respect to the requirements of the IMS.

  18. High-brightness beam diagnostics for the APS linac.

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-04-20

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) injector includes an S-band linac with the capability to accelerate beams to 650 MeV. The linac has recently been upgraded with the installation of an rf thermionic gun in addition to the standard DC thermionic gun. The rf gun is predicted to have lower emittance (5{pi}mm mrad) and may be used to support the APS self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) experiments. The critical characterization of this gun's beam has begun with a beam diagnostics station at the end of the linac that can address beam transverse size, emittance, and bunch length (peak current). This station uses both an optical transition radiation (OTR) screen at 45{degree} to the beam direction and a Ce-doped YAG single crystal normal to the beam with a 45{degree} mirror behind it. The visible light images are detected by a Vicon CCD camera and a Hamamatsu C5680 synchroscan streak camera. Spatial resolution of about 30 {micro}m ({sigma}) and temporal resolution of 1 ps ({sigma}) have been demonstrated. Examples of rf gun beam characterization at 220 MeV are reported.

  19. Validation of COMMIX with Westinghouse AP-600 PCCS test data

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, J.G.; Chien, T.H.; Ding, J.; Sha, W.T.

    1993-11-01

    Small-scale test data for the Westinghouse AP-600 Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) have been used to validate the COMMIX computer code. To evaluate the performance of the PCCS, two transient liquid-film tracking models have been developed and implemented in the CO code. A set of heat transfer models and a mass transfer model based on heat and mass transfer analogy were used for the analysis of the AP-600 PCCS. It was found that the flow of the air stream in the annulus is a highly turbulent forced convection and that the flow of the air/steam mixture in the containment vessel is a mixed convection. Accordingly, a turbulent-forced-convection heat transfer model is used on the outside of the steel containment vessel wall and a mixed-convection heat transfer model is used on the inside of the steel containment vessel wall. The results from the CO calculations are compared with the experimental data from Westinghouse PCCS small-scale tests for average wall heat flux, evaporation rate, containment vessel pressure, and vessel wall temperature and heat flux distributions; agreement is good. The CO calculations also provide detailed distributions of velocity, temperature, and steam and air concentrations.

  20. Large break LOCA calculations for the AP600 design

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.E.

    1992-08-01

    This paper presents the application of RELAP5 to the calculation of a Large Break (200% doubled-ended rupture) Loss-of-Colant-Accident (LBLOCA) at the reactor vessel inlet for the proposed Westinghouse AP600 design. A parametric calculation was also performed to determine effects of loss of a complete Emergency Core Cooling system (ECCS) train. These calculations were performed over the core blowdown, refill, and reflood phases of the LBLOCA and did not address long term cooling. RELAP5 was shown to be adequate for system response calculation over the period of interest. The passive safety systems were predicted to effectively mitigate the consequences of LBLOCAs; the calculations showed less severe thermal responses than for a current generation Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant. The two primary differences between the AP600 design and a current generation plant that affect LBLOCA response are the lower core thermal power, which results in lower temperatures during the blowdown phase, and the long duration accumulator injection, which provides ample core inventory makeup for final quenching.

  1. Shunt impedance measurement of the APS BBC injector.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.-E.; Lewellen, J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The injector test stand (ITS) at Advanced Photon Source (APS) presently incorporates a ballistic bunch compression (BBC) gun, and it is used as a beam source for a number of experiments, including THz generation, beam position monitor testing for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), novel cathode testing, and radiation therapy source development. The BBC gun uses three independently powered and phased rf cavities, one cathode cell, and two full cells to provide beam energies from 2 to 10 MeV with variable energy spread, energy chirp, and, to an extent, bunch duration. The shunt impedance of an rf accelerator determines how effectively the accelerator can convert supplied rf power to accelerating gradient. The calculation of the shunt impedance can be complicated if the beam energy changes substantially during its transit through a cavity, such as in a cathode cell. We present the results of direct measurements of the shunt impedance of the APS BBC gun on an individual cavity basis, including the cathode cell, and report on achieved gradients. We also present a comparison of the measured shunt impedance with theoretical values calculated from the rf models of the cavities.

  2. The new AP Physics exams: Integrating qualitative and quantitative reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elby, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    When physics instructors and education researchers emphasize the importance of integrating qualitative and quantitative reasoning in problem solving, they usually mean using those types of reasoning serially and separately: first students should analyze the physical situation qualitatively/conceptually to figure out the relevant equations, then they should process those equations quantitatively to generate a solution, and finally they should use qualitative reasoning to check that answer for plausibility (Heller, Keith, & Anderson, 1992). The new AP Physics 1 and 2 exams will, of course, reward this approach to problem solving. But one kind of free response question will demand and reward a further integration of qualitative and quantitative reasoning, namely mathematical modeling and sense-making--inventing new equations to capture a physical situation and focusing on proportionalities, inverse proportionalities, and other functional relations to infer what the equation ``says'' about the physical world. In this talk, I discuss examples of these qualitative-quantitative translation questions, highlighting how they differ from both standard quantitative and standard qualitative questions. I then discuss the kinds of modeling activities that can help AP and college students develop these skills and habits of mind.

  3. HPV E6, E6AP and cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Beaudenon, Sylvie; Huibregtse, Jon M

    2008-01-01

    Every year, approximately 470,000 new cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed and approximately 230,000 women worldwide die of the disease, with the majority (~80%) of these cases and deaths occurring in developing countries. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the etiological agents in nearly all cases (99.7%) of cervical cancer, and the HPV E6 protein is one of two viral oncoproteins that is expressed in virtually all HPV-positive cancers. E6 hijacks a cellular ubiquitin ligase, E6AP, resulting in the ubiquitylation and degradation of the p53 tumor suppressor, as well as several other cellular proteins. While the recent introduction of prophylactic vaccines against specific HPV types offers great promise for prevention of cervical cancer, there remains a need for therapeutics. Biochemical characterization of E6 and E6AP has suggested approaches for interfering with the activities of these proteins that could be useful for this purpose. Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; ). PMID:19007434

  4. Luteolin, a flavonoid, inhibits AP-1 activation by basophils

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Toru; Higa, Shinji; Arimitsu, Junsuke; Naka, Tetsuji; Ogata, Atsushi; Shima, Yoshihito; Fujimoto, Minoru; Yamadori, Tomoki; Ohkawara, Tomoharu; Kuwabara, Yusuke; Kawai, Mari; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Maezaki, Naoyoshi; Tanaka, Tetsuaki; Kawase, Ichiro; Tanaka, Toshio . E-mail: ttanak@imed3.med.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2006-02-03

    Flavonoids including luteolin, apigenin, and fisetin are inhibitors of IL-4 synthesis and CD40 ligand expression by basophils. This study was done to search for compounds with greater inhibitory activity of IL-4 expression and to clarify the molecular mechanisms through which flavonoids inhibit their expression. Of the 37 flavonoids and related compounds examined, ayanin, luteolin, and apigenin were the strongest inhibitors of IL-4 production by purified basophils in response to anti-IgE antibody plus IL-3. Luteolin did not suppress Syk or Lyn phosphorylation in basophils, nor did suppress p54/46 SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK, and p44/42 MAPK activation by a basophilic cell line, KU812 cells, stimulated with A23187 and PMA. However, luteolin did inhibit phosphorylation of c-Jun and DNA binding activity of AP-1 in nuclear lysates from stimulated KU812 cells. These results provide a fundamental structure of flavonoids for IL-4 inhibition and demonstrate a novel action of flavonoids that suppresses the activation of AP-1.

  5. Model of glucose sensor error components: identification and assessment for new Dexcom G4 generation devices.

    PubMed

    Facchinetti, Andrea; Del Favero, Simone; Sparacino, Giovanni; Cobelli, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    It is clinically well-established that minimally invasive subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors can significantly improve diabetes treatment. However, CGM readings are still not as reliable as those provided by standard fingerprick blood glucose (BG) meters. In addition to unavoidable random measurement noise, other components of sensor error are distortions due to the blood-to-interstitial glucose kinetics and systematic under-/overestimations associated with the sensor calibration process. A quantitative assessment of these components, and the ability to simulate them with precision, is of paramount importance in the design of CGM-based applications, e.g., the artificial pancreas (AP), and in their in silico testing. In the present paper, we identify and assess a model of sensor error of for two sensors, i.e., the G4 Platinum (G4P) and the advanced G4 for artificial pancreas studies (G4AP), both belonging to the recently presented "fourth" generation of Dexcom CGM sensors but different in their data processing. Results are also compared with those obtained by a sensor belonging to the previous, "third," generation by the same manufacturer, the SEVEN Plus (7P). For each sensor, the error model is derived from 12-h CGM recordings of two sensors used simultaneously and BG samples collected in parallel every 15 ± 5 min. Thanks to technological innovations, G4P outperforms 7P, with average mean absolute relative difference (MARD) of 11.1 versus 14.2%, respectively, and lowering of about 30% the error of each component. Thanks to the more sophisticated data processing algorithms, G4AP resulted more reliable than G4P, with a MARD of 10.0%, and a further decrease to 20% of the error due to blood-to-interstitial glucose kinetics.

  6. RAD51AP2, a novel vertebrate- and meiotic-specific protein, sharesa conserved RAD51-interacting C-terminal domain with RAD51AP1/PIR51

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalenko, Oleg V.; Wiese, Claudia; Schild, David

    2006-07-25

    Many interacting proteins regulate and/or assist the activities of RAD51, a recombinase which plays a critical role in both DNA repair and meiotic recombination. Yeast two-hybrid screening of a human testis cDNA library revealed a new protein, RAD51AP2 (RAD51 Associated Protein 2), that interacts strongly with RAD51. A full-length cDNA clone predicts a novel vertebrate specific protein of 1159 residues, and the RAD51AP2 transcript was observed only in meiotic tissue (i.e. adult testis and fetal ovary), suggesting a meiotic-specific function for RAD51AP2. In HEK293 cells the interaction of RAD51 with an ectopically-expressed recombinant large fragment of RAD51AP2 requires the C-terminal 57 residues of RAD51AP2. This RAD51-binding region shows 81% homology to the C-terminus of RAD51AP1/PIR51, an otherwise totally unrelated RAD51-binding partner that is ubiquitously expressed. Analyses using truncations and point mutations in both RAD51AP1 and RAD51AP2 demonstrate that these proteins use the same structural motif for RAD51 binding. RAD54 shares some homology with this RAD51-binding motif, but this homologous region plays only an accessory role to the adjacent main RAD51-interacting region, which has been narrowed here to 40 amino acids. A novel protein, RAD51AP2, has been discovered that interacts with RAD51 through a C-terminal motif also present in RAD51AP1.

  7. Duplication of AP1 within the Spinacia oleracea L. AP1/FUL clade is followed by rapid amino acid and regulatory evolution.

    PubMed

    Sather, D Noah; Golenberg, Edward M

    2009-02-01

    The AP1/FUL clade of MADS box genes have undergone multiple duplication events among angiosperm species. While initially identified as having floral meristem identity and floral organ identity function in Arabidopsis, the role of AP1 homologs does not appear to be universally conserved even among eudicots. In comparison, the role of FRUITFULL has not been extensively explored in non-model species. We report on the isolation of three AP1/FUL genes from cultivated spinach, Spinacia oleracea L. Two genes, designated SpAPETALA1-1 (SpAP1-1) and SpAPETALA1-2 (SpAP1-2), cluster as paralogous genes within the Caryophyllales AP1 clade. They are highly differentiated in the 3', carboxyl-end encoding region of the gene following the third amphipathic alpha-helix region, while still retaining some elements of a signature AP1 carboxyl motifs. In situ hybridization studies also demonstrate that the two paralogs have evolved different temporal and spatial expression patterns, and that neither gene is expressed in the developing sepal whorl, suggesting that the AP1 floral organ identity function is not conserved in spinach. The spinach FRUITFULL homolog, SpFRUITFULL (SpFUL), has retained the conserved motif and groups with Caryophyllales FRUITFULL homologs. SpFUL is expressed in leaf as well as in floral tissue, and shows strong expression late in flower development, particularly in the tapetal layer in males, and in the endothecium layer and stigma, in the females. The combined evidence of high rates of non-synonymous substitutions and differential expression patterns supports a scenario in which the AP1 homologs in the spinach AP1/FUL gene family have experienced rapid evolution following duplication.

  8. Sensor Authentication in Collaborating Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bielefeldt, Jake Uriah

    2014-11-01

    In this thesis, we address a new security problem in the realm of collaborating sensor networks. By collaborating sensor networks, we refer to the networks of sensor networks collaborating on a mission, with each sensor network is independently owned and operated by separate entities. Such networks are practical where a number of independent entities can deploy their own sensor networks in multi-national, commercial, and environmental scenarios, and some of these networks will integrate complementary functionalities for a mission. In the scenario, we address an authentication problem wherein the goal is for the Operator Oi of Sensor Network Si to correctly determine the number of active sensors in Network Si. Such a problem is challenging in collaborating sensor networks where other sensor networks, despite showing an intent to collaborate, may not be completely trustworthy and could compromise the authentication process. We propose two authentication protocols to address this problem. Our protocols rely on Physically Unclonable Functions, which are a hardware based authentication primitive exploiting inherent randomness in circuit fabrication. Our protocols are light-weight, energy efficient, and highly secure against a number of attacks. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first to addresses a practical security problem in collaborating sensor networks.

  9. Detection of thermal neutrons with a CMOS pixel sensor for a future dosemeter

    SciTech Connect

    Vanstalle, M.; Husson, D.; Higueret, S.; Le, T. D.; Nourreddine, A. M.

    2011-07-01

    The RaMsEs group (Radioprotection et Mesures Environnementales) is developing a new compact device for operational neutron dosimetry. The electronic part of the detector is made of an integrated active pixel sensor, originally designed for tracking in particle physics. This device has useful features for neutrons, such as high detection efficiency for charged particles, good radiation resistance, high readout speed, low power consumption and high rejection of photon background. A good response of the device to fast neutrons has already been demonstrated [1]. In order to test the sensibility of the detector to thermal neutrons, experiments have been carried out with a 512 x 512 pixel CMOS sensor on a californium source moderated with heavy water (Cf.D{sub 2}O) on the Van Gogh irradiator at the LMDN, IRSN, Cadarache (France)). A thin boron converter is used to benefit from the significant cross section of the {sup 10}B (n,{alpha}) {sup 7}Li reaction. Results show a high detection efficiency (around 10{sup -3}) of the device to thermal neutrons. Our measurements are in good agreement with GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations. (authors)

  10. The Clathrin Adaptor Complex AP-1 Binds HIV-1 and MLV Gag and Facilitates Their Budding

    PubMed Central

    Camus, Grégory; Segura-Morales, Carolina; Molle, Dorothee; Lopez-Vergès, Sandra; Begon-Pescia, Christina; Cazevieille, Chantal; Schu, Peter; Bertrand, Edouard

    2007-01-01

    Retroviral assembly is driven by Gag, and nascent viral particles escape cells by recruiting the machinery that forms intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular bodies. In this study, we show that the clathrin adaptor complex AP-1 is involved in retroviral release. The absence of AP-1μ obtained by genetic knock-out or by RNA interference reduces budding of murine leukemia virus (MLV) and HIV-1, leading to a delay of viral propagation in cell culture. In contrast, overexpression of AP-1μ enhances release of HIV-1 Gag. We show that the AP-1 complex facilitates retroviral budding through a direct interaction between the matrix and AP-1μ. Less MLV Gag is found associated with late endosomes in cells lacking AP-1, and our results suggest that AP-1 and AP-3 could function on the same pathway that leads to Gag release. In addition, we find that AP-1 interacts with Tsg101 and Nedd4.1, two cellular proteins known to be involved in HIV-1 and MLV budding. We propose that AP-1 promotes Gag release by transporting it to intracellular sites of active budding, and/or by facilitating its interactions with other cellular partners. PMID:17538020

  11. Expansion and stress responses of AP2/EREBP superfamily in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lihong; Han, Jiapeng; Deng, Xiaomin; Tan, Shenglong; Li, Lili; Li, Lun; Zhou, Junfei; Peng, Hai; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan; Zhang, Weixiong

    2016-01-01

    APETALA2/ethylene-responsive element binding protein (AP2/EREBP) transcription factors constitute one of the largest and most conserved gene families in plant, and play essential roles in growth, development and stress response. Except a few members, the AP2/EREBP family has not been characterized in Brachypodium distachyon, a model plant of Poaceae. We performed a genome-wide study of this family in B. distachyon by phylogenetic analyses, transactivation assays and transcript profiling. A total of 149 AP2/EREBP genes were identified and divided into four subfamilies, i.e., ERF (ethylene responsive factor), DREB (dehydration responsive element binding gene), RAV (related to ABI3/VP) and AP2. Tandem duplication was a major force in expanding B. distachyon AP2/EREBP (BdAP2/EREBP) family. Despite a significant expansion, genomic organizations of BdAP2/EREBPs were monotonous as the majority of them, except those of AP2 subfamily, had no intron. An analysis of transcription activities of several closely related and duplicated BdDREB genes showed their functional divergence and redundancy in evolution. The expression of BdAP2/EREBPs in different tissues and the expression of DREB/ERF subfamilies in B. distachyon, wheat and rice under abiotic stresses were investigated by next-generation sequencing and microarray profiling. Our results are valuable for further function analysis of stress tolerant AP2/EREBP genes in B. distachyon. PMID:26869021

  12. Induction of neural crest in Xenopus by transcription factor AP2alpha.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ting; Lee, Young-Hoon; Saint-Jeannet, Jean-Pierre; Sargent, Thomas D

    2003-01-21

    We report experiments with Xenopus laevis, using both intact embryos and ectodermal explants, showing that the transcription factor AP2alpha is positively regulated by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Wnt signaling, and that this activation is an essential step in the induction of neural crest (NC). Ectopic expression of AP2alpha is sufficient to activate high-level expression of NC-specific genes such as Slug and Sox9, which can occur as isolated domains within the neural plate as well as by expansion of endogenous NC territories. AP2alpha also has the property of inducing NC in isolated ectoderm in which Wnt signaling is provided but BMP signaling is minimized by overexpression of chordin. Like other NC regulatory factors, activation of AP2alpha requires some attenuation of endogenous BMP signaling; however, this process occurs at a lower threshold for AP2alpha. Furthermore, AP2alpha expression domains are larger than for other NC factors. Loss-of-function experiments with antisense AP2alpha morpholino oligonucleotides result in severe reduction in the NC territory. These results support a central role for AP2alpha in NC induction. We propose a model in which AP2alpha expression, along with inactivation of NC inhibitory factors such as Dlx3, establish a feedback loop comprising AP2alpha, Sox9, and Slug, leading to and maintaining NC specification. PMID:12511599

  13. Expansion and stress responses of AP2/EREBP superfamily in Brachypodium Distachyon

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lihong; Han, Jiapeng; Deng, Xiaomin; Tan, Shenglong; Li, Lili; Li, Lun; Zhou, Junfei; Peng, Hai; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan; Zhang, Weixiong

    2016-01-01

    APETALA2/ethylene-responsive element binding protein (AP2/EREBP) transcription factors constitute one of the largest and most conserved gene families in plant, and play essential roles in growth, development and stress response. Except a few members, the AP2/EREBP family has not been characterized in Brachypodium distachyon, a model plant of Poaceae. We performed a genome-wide study of this family in B. distachyon by phylogenetic analyses, transactivation assays and transcript profiling. A total of 149 AP2/EREBP genes were identified and divided into four subfamilies, i.e., ERF (ethylene responsive factor), DREB (dehydration responsive element binding gene), RAV (related to ABI3/VP) and AP2. Tandem duplication was a major force in expanding B. distachyon AP2/EREBP (BdAP2/EREBP) family. Despite a significant expansion, genomic organizations of BdAP2/EREBPs were monotonous as the majority of them, except those of AP2 subfamily, had no intron. An analysis of transcription activities of several closely related and duplicated BdDREB genes showed their functional divergence and redundancy in evolution. The expression of BdAP2/EREBPs in different tissues and the expression of DREB/ERF subfamilies in B. distachyon, wheat and rice under abiotic stresses were investigated by next-generation sequencing and microarray profiling. Our results are valuable for further function analysis of stress tolerant AP2/EREBP genes in B. distachyon. PMID:26869021

  14. Evolution and protein interactions of AP2 proteins in Brassicaceae: Evidence linking development and environmental responses.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Liping; Yin, Yue; You, Chenjiang; Pan, Qianli; Xu, Duo; Jin, Taijie; Zhang, Bailong; Ma, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Plants have evolved a large number of transcription factors (TF), which are enriched among duplicate genes, highlighting their roles in complex regulatory networks. The APETALA2/EREBP-like genes constitute a large plant TF family and participate in development and stress responses. To probe the conservation and divergence of AP2/EREBP genes, we analyzed the duplication patterns of this family in Brassicaceae and identified interacting proteins of representative Arabidopsis AP2/EREBP proteins. We found that many AP2/EREBP duplicates generated early in Brassicaceae history were quickly lost, but many others were retained in all tested Brassicaceae species, suggesting early functional divergence followed by persistent conservation. In addition, the sequences of the AP2 domain and exon numbers were highly conserved in rosids. Furthermore, we used 16 A. thaliana AP2/EREBP proteins as baits in yeast screens and identified 1,970 potential AP2/EREBP-interacting proteins, with a small subset of interactions verified in planta. Many AP2 genes also exhibit reduced expression in an anther-defective mutant, providing a possible link to developmental regulation. The putative AP2-interacting proteins participate in many functions in development and stress responses, including photomorphogenesis, flower development, pathogenesis, drought and cold responses, abscisic acid and auxin signaling. Our results present the AP2/EREBP evolution patterns in Brassicaceae, and support a proposed interaction network of AP2/EREBP proteins and their putative interacting proteins for further study. PMID:26472270

  15. Generation of a cre recombinase-conditional Nos1ap over-expression transgenic mouse

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Dallas R.; Sysa-Shah, Polina; Bedja, Djahida; Simmers, Jessica L.; Pak, Evgenia; Dutra, Amalia; Cohn, Ronald; Gabrielson, Kathleen L.

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphic non-coding variants at the NOS1AP locus have been associated with the common cardiac, metabolic and neurological traits and diseases. Although, in vitro gene targeting-based cellular and biochemical studies have shed some light on NOS1AP function in cardiac and neuronal tissue, to enhance our understanding of NOS1AP function in mammalian physiology and disease, we report the generation of cre recombinase-conditional Nos1ap over-expression transgenic mice (Nos1apTg). Conditional transgenic mice were generated by the pronuclear injection method and three independent, single-site, multiple copies integration event-based founder lines were selected. For heart-restricted over-expression, Nos1apTg mice were crossed with Mlc2v-cre and Nos1ap transcript over-expression was observed in left ventricles from Nos1apTg; Mlc2v-cre F1 mice. We believe that with the potential of conditional over-expression, Nos1apTg mice will be a useful resource in studying NOS1AP function in various tissues under physiological and disease states. PMID:24563304

  16. Silencing the ap65 gene reduces adherence to vaginal epithelial cells by Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Mundodi, V; Kucknoor, A S; Klumpp, D J; Chang, T-H; Alderete, J F

    2004-08-01

    Host parasitism by Trichomonas vaginalis is complex and in part mediated by adherence to vaginal epithelial cells (VECs). Four trichomonad surface proteins bind VECs as adhesins, and AP65 is a major adhesin with sequence identity to an enzyme of the hydrogenosome organelle that is involved in energy generation. In order to perform genetic analysis and assess the role of AP65 in T. vaginalis adherence, we silenced expression of ap65 using antisense RNA. The gene for ap65 was inserted into the vector pBS-neo in sense and antisense orientations to generate plasmids pBS-neoS (S) and pBS-neoAS (AS), respectively. Trichomonads were then transfected with S and AS plasmids for selection of stable transfectants using Geneticin, and the presence of plasmid in transfectants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction of the neo gene. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analysis showed decreased amounts of ap65 transcript in AS transfected parasites. Growth kinetics of the antisense-transfected and wild type organisms were similar, suggesting that silencing AP65 did not affect overall energy generation for growth. Immunoblot analysis using monoclonal antibody (mAb) to AP65 of AS transfectants showed decreased amounts of AP65 when compared to wild type or S transfectants. Not unexpectedly, this corresponded to decreased amounts of AP65 bound to VECs in a functional ligand assay. Reduction in parasite surface expression of AP65 was related to lower levels of adherence to VECs by AS-transfectants compared to control organisms. Antisense silencing of ap65 was not alleviated by growth of trichomonads in high iron, which up-regulates transcription of ap65. Our work reaffirms the role for AP65 as an adhesin, and in addition, we demonstrate antisense RNA gene silencing in T. vaginalis to study the contribution of specific genes in pathogenesis. PMID:15306014

  17. Silencing the ap65 gene reduces adherence to vaginal epithelial cells by Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Mundodi, V.; Kucknoor, A. S.; Klumpp, D. J.; Chang, T.-H.; Alderete, J. F.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Host parasitism by Trichomonas vaginalis is complex and in part mediated by adherence to vaginal epithelial cells (VECs). Four trichomonad surface proteins bind VECs as adhesins, and AP65 is a major adhesin with sequence identity to an enzyme of the hydrogenosome organelle that is involved in energy generation. In order to perform genetic analysis and assess the role of AP65 in T. vaginalis adherence, we silenced expression of ap65 using antisense RNA. The gene for ap65 was inserted into the vector pBS-neo in sense and antisense orientations to generate plasmids pBS-neoS (S) and pBS-neoAS (AS), respectively. Trichomonads were then transfected with S and AS plasmids for selection of stable transfectants using Geneticin, and the presence of plasmid in transfectants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction of the neo gene. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analysis showed decreased amounts of ap65 transcript in AS transfected parasites. Growth kinetics of the antisense-transfected and wild type organisms were similar, suggesting that silencing AP65 did not affect overall energy generation for growth. Immunoblot analysis using monoclonal antibody (mAb) to AP65 of AS transfectants showed decreased amounts of AP65 when compared to wild type or S transfectants. Not unexpectedly, this corresponded to decreased amounts of AP65 bound to VECs in a functional ligand assay. Reduction in parasite surface expression of AP65 was related to lower levels of adherence to VECs by AS-transfectants compared to control organisms. Antisense silencing of ap65 was not alleviated by growth of trichomonads in high iron, which up-regulates transcription of ap65. Our work reaffirms the role for AP65 as an adhesin, and in addition, we demonstrate antisense RNA gene silencing in T. vaginalis to study the contribution of specific genes in pathogenesis. PMID:15306014

  18. Antisense RNA decreases AP33 gene expression and cytoadherence by T. vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Mundodi, V; Kucknoor, AS; Alderete, JF

    2007-01-01

    Background Host parasitism by Trichomonas vaginalis is complex. Adherence to vaginal epithelial cells (VECs) is mediated by surface proteins. We showed before that antisense down-regulation of expression of adhesin AP65 decreased amounts of protein, which lowered levels of T. vaginalis adherence to VECs. We now perform antisense down-regulation of expression of the ap33 gene to evaluate and confirm a role for AP33 in adherence by T. vaginalis. We also used an established transfection system for heterologous expression of AP33 in T. foetus as an additional confirmatory approach. Results We successfully select stable trichomonads with sense (S) and antisense (AS) plasmids. RT-PCR confirmed decreased amounts of ap33 mRNA in AS-transfected parasites, and decreased amounts of AP33 had no effect on growth and viability when compared to wild-type (wt) trichomonads. Immunoblots of proteins from AS-transfectants gave significant decreased amounts of functional AP33 capable of binding to host cells compared to wt- and S-transfected trichomonads. As expected, AS-transfectants had lower levels of adherence to VECs, which was related to reduction in surface expression of AP33. Stable expression of T. vaginalis AP33::HA fusion in T. foetus was confirmed by immunoblots and fluorescence. The episomally-expressed surface AP33::HA fusion increased adherence of trichomonads to human VECs, which was abrogated with anti-AP33 serum. Conclusion These results using both antisense inhibition of gene expression and AP33 synthesis and the heterologous expression of AP33 in T. foetus confirms a role for this protein as an adhesin in T. vaginalis. PMID:17608941

  19. Role of ubiquitin and the HPV E6 oncoprotein in E6AP-mediated ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Franziska; Schneider, Daniel; Barbic, Tanja; Sladewska-Marquardt, Anna; Kühnle, Simone; Marx, Andreas; Scheffner, Martin

    2015-08-11

    Deregulation of the ubiquitin ligase E6 associated protein (E6AP) encoded by the UBE3A gene has been associated with three different clinical pictures. Hijacking of E6AP by the E6 oncoprotein of distinct human papillomaviruses (HPV) contributes to the development of cervical cancer, whereas loss of E6AP expression or function is the cause of Angelman syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder, and increased expression of E6AP has been involved in autism spectrum disorders. Although these observations indicate that the activity of E6AP has to be tightly controlled, only little is known about how E6AP is regulated at the posttranslational level. Here, we provide evidence that the hydrophobic patch of ubiquitin comprising Leu-8 and Ile-44 is important for E6AP-mediated ubiquitination, whereas it does not affect the catalytic properties of the isolated catalytic HECT domain of E6AP. Furthermore, we show that the HPV E6 oncoprotein rescues the disability of full-length E6AP to use a respective hydrophobic patch mutant of ubiquitin for ubiquitination and that it stimulates E6AP-mediated ubiquitination of Ring1B, a known substrate of E6AP, in vitro and in cells. Based on these data, we propose that E6AP exists in at least two different states, an active and a less active or latent one, and that the activity of E6AP is controlled by noncovalent interactions with ubiquitin and allosteric activators such as the HPV E6 oncoprotein. PMID:26216987

  20. Genome-wide comparison of AP2/ERF superfamily genes between Gossypium arboreum and G. raimondii.

    PubMed

    Lei, Z P; He, D H; Xing, H Y; Tang, B S; Lu, B X

    2016-01-01

    The APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor superfamily is known to regulate diverse processes of plant development and stress responses. We conducted a genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF gene in Gossypium arboreum and G. raimondii. Using RPSBLAST and HMMsearch, a total of 271 and 269 AP2/ERF genes were identified in the G. arboreum and G. raimondii genomes, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis classified diploid Gossypium spp AP2/ERF genes into 4 families and 16 subfamilies. Orthologous genes predominated the terminal branch of the phylogenetic tree. Physical mapping showed at least 30% of AP2/ERF genes clustered together. A high level of intra- and inter-species collinearity involving AP2/ERF genes was observed, indicating common (before species divergence) or parallel (after species divergence) segmental duplications, along with tandem duplications, resulting in the species-specific expansion of AP2/ERF genes in diploid Gossypium species. Motif analyses of the AP2/ERF proteins revealed that motif arrangements were highly diverse among subfamilies, but shared by orthologous gene pairs. An examination of nucleotide divergence of AP2/ERF coding regions identified small and non-significant sequence differences among orthologs. Expression profiling of AP2/ERF orthologous gene pairs showed similar abundance levels of orthologous copies between G. arboreum and G. raimondii. Thus, cotton species possess abundant and diverse AP2/ERF genes, resulting from tandem and segmental duplications. Protein and nucleotide sequence and mRNA expression analyses revealed symmetrical evolution, indicating that most AP2/ ERF genes may not have undergone significant biochemical and morphological divergence between sister species. Our study provides detailed insights into the evolutionary characteristics and functional importance of AP2/ERF genes, and could aid in the genetic improvement of agriculturally significant crops in this genus. PMID:27525884

  1. Sensors, Update 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2003-04-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  2. Sensors, Update 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    2001-02-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections: Sensor Technology reviews highlights in applied and basic research, while Sensor Applications covers new or improved applications of sensors, and Sensor Markets provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be invaluable to scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  3. Sensors, Update 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2003-03-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field, presenting the current highlights of sensor and related microelectromechanical systems technology. Coverage includes most recent developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles based on micro- and nanotechnology. Each volume is divided into three sections: Sensor Technology reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications covers new or improved applications of sensors and Sensor Markets provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update is of must-have value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  4. Sensors, Update 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K.; Korvink, Jan G.

    2002-04-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  5. Sensors, Update 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    2001-10-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  6. Smart Sensor Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Stetter, J. R.; Hesketh, P. J.; Liu, C. C.

    Sensors and sensor systems are vital to our awareness of our surroundings and provide safety, security, and surveillance, as well as enable monitoring of our health and environment. A transformative advance in the field of sensor technology has been the development of "Smart Sensor Systems". The definition of a Smart Sensor may vary, but typically at a minimum a Smart Sensor is the combination of a sensing element with processing capabilities provided by a microprocessor. That is, Smart Sensors are basic sensing elements with embedded intelligence. The sensor signal is fed to the microprocessor, which processes the data and provides an informative output to an external user. A more expansive view of a Smart Sensor System, which is used in this article, is illustrated in Fig. 19.1: a complete self-contained sensor system that includes the capabilities for logging, processing with a model of sensor response and other data, self-contained power, and an ability to transmit or display informative data to an outside user. The fundamental idea of a smart sensor is that the integration of silicon microprocessors with sensor technology cannot only provide interpretive power and customized outputs, but also significantly improve sensor system performance and capabilities.

  7. Measurement result of the neutron monitor onboard the Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment - Attached Payload (SEDA-AP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, K.; Muraki, Y.; Shibata, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Okudaira, O.; Kawano, H.; Yumoto, K.

    2013-12-01

    To support future space activities, it is crucial to acquire space environmental data related to the space-radiation degradation of space parts and materials, and spacecraft anomalies. Such data are useful for spacecraft design and manned space activity. SEDA-AP was mounted on 'Kibo' of the ISS (International Space Station) to measure the space environment at a 400-kilometer altitude. Neutrons are very harmful radiation, with electrical neutrality that makes them strongly permeable. SEDA-AP measures the energy of neutrons from thermal to 100 MeV in real time using a Bonner Ball Detector (BBND) and a Scintillation Fiber Detector (FIB). BBND detects neutrons using He-3 counters, which have high sensitivity to thermal neutrons. Neutron energy is derived using the relative response function of polyethylene moderators of 6 different thicknesses. FIB measures the tracks of recoil protons caused by neutrons within a cubic arrayed sensor of 512 scintillation fibers. The charged particles are excluded using an anti-scintillator which surrounds the cube sensor, and the neutron energy is obtained from the track length of a recoil proton. There are three sources of neutrons in space; 1. Albedo Neutrons Produced by reactions of galactic cosmic rays or radiation belt particles with the atmosphere 2. Local Neutrons Produced by the reactions of galactic cosmic rays or radiation belt particles with spacecraft 3. Solar Neutrons Produced by accelerated particles in solar flares An accurate energy spectrum of the solar neutrons includes important information on high-energy particle generation mechanism in a solar flare, because neutrons are unaffected by interplanetary magnetic fields. These data will become useful to forecast solar energetic particles in future. Some candidate events involving solar neutrons were found as a result of analyzing data of the solar flare of M>2 since September 2009. Moreover, it is important to measure albedo neutrons, since protons generated by neutron

  8. Silicon sensor integration to form smart sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdeas, Leon; James, Daniel A.; Thiel, David V.; See, Le Lian

    2002-11-01

    The use of silicon-based sensors requires the addition of external support electronics to allow for compatibility with external logging and display instruments. The development of a smart sensor technology, where the support electronics are incorporated into the sensor allows for a simpler interface. To achieve this integration techniques are required for the connection of substrate sensors with drive and support circuitry (operational amplifiers and CMOS circuitry), for effective encapsulation into a single packaged device. In this paper a literature review of basic peripheral and internal interconnect techniques is presented. Three techniques for interconnects were experimentally investigated (wraparound, thermomigration and etched micro via"s) using in-house fabrication equipment and the results presented and discussed. An integrated "smart" light sensor was constructed by forming a schotkey diode on n-type silicon. The sensor was integrated with a commercially available LM324 quad operational amplifier die and etched micro via`s were used to connect between the electronics on one side and the silicon sensor on the other side so forming a smart sensor. The light level sensor was calibrated and tested for suitability as a solar intensity monitor.

  9. The Forkhead Transcription Factor FOXK2 Promotes AP-1-Mediated Transcriptional Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Zongling; Donaldson, Ian J.; Liu, Jingru; Hayes, Andrew; Zeef, Leo A. H.

    2012-01-01

    The transcriptional control circuitry in eukaryotic cells is complex and is orchestrated by combinatorially acting transcription factors. Forkhead transcription factors often function in concert with heterotypic transcription factors to specify distinct transcriptional programs. Here, we demonstrate that FOXK2 participates in combinatorial transcriptional control with the AP-1 transcription factor. FOXK2 binding regions are widespread throughout the genome and are often coassociated with AP-1 binding motifs. FOXK2 acts to promote AP-1-dependent gene expression changes in response to activation of the AP-1 pathway. In this context, FOXK2 is required for the efficient recruitment of AP-1 to chromatin. Thus, we have uncovered an important new molecular mechanism that controls AP-1-dependent gene expression. PMID:22083952

  10. Antimicrobial activity of potato aspartic proteases (StAPs) involves membrane permeabilization.

    PubMed

    Mendieta, Julieta R; Pagano, Mariana R; Muñoz, Fernando F; Daleo, Gustavo R; Guevara, María G

    2006-07-01

    Solanum tuberosum aspartic proteases (StAPs) with antimicrobial activity are induced after abiotic and biotic stress. In this study the ability of StAPs to produce a direct antimicrobial effect was investigated. Viability assays demonstrated that StAPs are able to kill spores of Fusarium solani and Phytophthora infestans in a dose-dependent manner. Localization experiments with FITC-labelled StAPs proved that the proteins interact directly with the surface of spores and hyphae of F. solani and P. infestans. Moreover, incubation of spores and hyphae with StAPs resulted in membrane permeabilization, as shown by the uptake of the fluorescent dye SYTOX Green. It is concluded that the antimicrobial effect of StAPs against F. solani and P. infestans is caused by a direct interaction with the microbial surfaces followed by membrane permeabilization.

  11. Kinetic properties of ATP sulfurylase and APS kinase from Thiobacillus denitrificans.

    PubMed

    Gay, Sean C; Fribourgh, Jennifer L; Donohoue, Paul D; Segel, Irwin H; Fisher, Andrew J

    2009-09-01

    The Thiobacillus denitrificans genome contains two sequences corresponding to ATP sulfurylase (Tbd_0210 and Tbd_0874). Both genes were cloned and expressed protein characterized. The larger protein (Tbd_0210; 544 residues) possesses an N-terminal ATP sulfurylase domain and a C-terminal APS kinase domain and was therefore annotated as a bifunctional enzyme. But, the protein was not bifunctional because it lacked ATP sulfurylase activity. However, the enzyme did possess APS kinase activity and displayed substrate inhibition by APS. Truncated protein missing the N-terminal domain had <2% APS kinase activity suggesting the function of the inactive sulfurylase domain is to promote the oligomerization of the APS kinase domains. The smaller gene product (Tbd_0874; 402 residues) possessed strong ATP sulfurylase activity with kinetic properties that appear to be kinetically optimized for the direction of APS utilization and ATP+sulfate production, which is consistent with an enzyme that functions physiologically to produce inorganic sulfate.

  12. A CD2AP Mutation Associated with Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Tsvetkov, Dmitry; Hohmann, Michael; Anistan, Yoland Marie; Mannaa, Marwan; Harteneck, Christian; Rudolph, Birgit; Gollasch, Maik

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in CD2-associated protein (CD2AP) have been identified in patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS); however, reports of CD2AP mutations remain scarce. We performed Sanger sequencing in a patient with steroid-resistant FSGS and identified a heterozygous CD2AP mutation (p.T374A, c.1120 A > G). Our patient displayed mild cognitive decline, a phenotypic characteristic not previously associated with CD2AP-associated FSGS. His proteinuria was remarkably reduced by treatment with cyclosporine A. Our findings expand the genetic spectrum of CD2AP-associated disorders and broaden the associated phenotype with the co-occurrence of cognitive decline. Our case shows that cyclosporin A is a treatment option for CD2AP-associated nephropathy. PMID:26997877

  13. Thermal analysis of the crotch absorber in APS

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, I.C.; Howell, J.

    1992-10-01

    A crotch absorber design for use in the Advanced Photon source (APS) has been proposed and analyzed. the absorber is placed downstream of sectors S2 and S4 in the curved storage ring chamber and will be subjected to a peak power of 120 W/mm{sup 2} per 100mA synchrotron radiation. A beryllium ring is brazed on the GlidCop cooling cylinder in order to diffuse the concentrated bending magnet heating. One concentric water channel and two annular return water channels are arranged in the GlidCop cylinder to enhance the cooling. A Bodner-Partom thermoviscoplastic constitutive equation and a modified Manson-Coffin fatigue relation are proposed to simulate the cyclic thermal loading, as well as to predict the thermal fatigue life of the crotch absorber. Results of temperature and stress using finite element computations are displayed and series of e-beam welder tests and microstructure measurements are reported.

  14. Thermal analysis of the crotch absorber in APS

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, I.C.; Howell, J.

    1992-01-01

    A crotch absorber design for use in the Advanced Photon source (APS) has been proposed and analyzed. the absorber is placed downstream of sectors S2 and S4 in the curved storage ring chamber and will be subjected to a peak power of 120 W/mm{sup 2} per 100mA synchrotron radiation. A beryllium ring is brazed on the GlidCop cooling cylinder in order to diffuse the concentrated bending magnet heating. One concentric water channel and two annular return water channels are arranged in the GlidCop cylinder to enhance the cooling. A Bodner-Partom thermoviscoplastic constitutive equation and a modified Manson-Coffin fatigue relation are proposed to simulate the cyclic thermal loading, as well as to predict the thermal fatigue life of the crotch absorber. Results of temperature and stress using finite element computations are displayed and series of e-beam welder tests and microstructure measurements are reported.

  15. Improved temperature regulation of APS linac RF components.

    SciTech Connect

    Dortwegt, R.

    1998-09-21

    The temperature of the APS S-Band linac's high-power rf components is regulated by water from individual closed-loop deionized (DI) water systems. The rf components are all made of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper and respond quickly to temperature changes. The SLED cavities are especially temperature-sensitive and cause beam energy instabilities when the temperature is not well regulated. Temperature regulation better than {+-} 0.1 F is required to achieve good energy stability. Improvements in the closed-loop water systems have enabled them to achieve a regulation of {+-} 0.05 F over long periods. Regulation philosophy and equipment are discussed and numerical results are presented.

  16. Cavity design and beam simulations for the APS rf gun

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, M.

    1991-11-15

    An earlier note discussed the preliminary design of the 1-1/2 cell RF cavity for the APS RF gun. This note describes the final design, including cavity properties and simulation results from the program rf gun. The basic idea for the new design was that the successful SSRL design could be improved upon by reducing fields that had nonlinear dependence on radius. As discussed previously, this would reduce the emittance and produce tighter momentum and time distributions. In addition, it was desirable to increase the fields in the first half-cell relative to the fields in the second half-cell, in order to allow more rapid initial acceleration, which would reduce the effects of space charge. Both of these goals were accomplished in the new design.

  17. The chemical abundances of the Ap star HD94660

    SciTech Connect

    Giarrusso, M.

    2014-05-09

    In this work I present the determination of chemical abundances of the Ap star HD94660, a possible rapid oscillating star. As all the magnetic chemically peculiar objects, it presents CNO underabundance and overabundance of iron peak elements of ∼100 times and of rare earths up to 4 dex with respect to the Sun. The determination was based on the conversion of the observed equivalent widths into abundances simultaneously to the determination of effective temperature and gravity. Since the Balmer lines of early type stars are very sensitive to the surface gravity while the flux distribution is sensitive to the effective temperature, I have adopted an iterative procedure to match the H{sub α} line profile and the observed UV-Vis-NIR magnitudes of HD94660 looking for a consistency between the metallicity of the atmosphere model and the derived abundances. From my spectroscopic analysis, this star belongs to the no-rapid oscillating class.

  18. Fabrication and Testing of Deflecting Cavities for APS

    SciTech Connect

    Mammosser, John; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert; Jim, Henry; Katherine, Wilson; Dhakal, Pashupati; Ali, Nassiri; Jim, Kerby; Jeremiah, Holzbauer; Genfa, Wu; Joel, Fuerst; Yawei, Yang; Zenghai, Li

    2013-09-01

    Jefferson Lab (Newport News, Virginia) in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, IL) has fabricated and tested four first article, 2.8 GHz, deflecting SRF cavities, for Argonne's Short-Pulse X-ray (SPX) project. These cavities are unique in many ways including the fabrication techniques in which the cavity cell and waveguides were fabricated. These cavity subcomponents were milled from bulk large grain niobium ingot material directly from 3D CAD files. No forming of sub components was used with the exception of the beam-pipes. The challenging cavity and helium vessel design and fabrication results from the stringent RF performance requirements required by the project and operation in the APS ring. Production challenges and fabrication techniques as well as testing results will be discussed in this paper.

  19. Commissioning results of the APS storage ring diagnostics systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.H.

    1996-12-31

    Initial commissionings of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) 7-GeV storage ring and its diagnostics systems have been done. Early studies involved single-bunch measurements for beam transverse size ({sigma}{sub x} {approx} 150 {mu}m, {sigma}{sub y} {approx} 50 {mu}m), current, injection losses, and bunch length. The diagnostics have been used in studies related to the detection of an extra contribution to beam jitter at {approximately} 6.5 Hz frequency; observation of bunch lengthening ({sigma} {approx} 30 to 60 ps) with single-bunch current; observation of an induced vertical, head-tail instability; and detection of a small orbit change with insertion device gap position. More recently, operations at 100-mA stored-beam current, the baseline design goal, have been achieved with the support of beam characterizations.

  20. Specification of multipole tolerances for the APS quadrupole magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, S.L.

    1988-08-01

    This note will address a proposed method for specifying the multipole tolerance for the design and production of APS quadrupole magnets. The tolerances for the multipole components for the quadrupole magnets will be set to that level which reduces the dynamic aperture by about 10--15% from the ideal machine dynamic aperture (as specified in CDR-87). This level may appear rather stringent, especially compared to the 50--60% reduction resulting from quad placement errors. However, when all tolerances are taken together, the residual dynamic aperture would be prohibitively small and commissioning would be difficult if these tolerances were at twice this level. The dynamic aperture was determined using the numerical tracking program RACETRACK.

  1. Klystron modulator operation and upgrades for the APS linac

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, T.J.; Cours, A.

    1995-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac requires five 100-MW modulators to achieve its required energy. In-house construction of these modulators was under an extremely compressed time schedule and, while the original design was successful, it had a few shortcomings. The operation of the modulators was hindered by excessively sensitive controls and overheating during the hot summer months. The system underwent minor changes that resulted in major improvements. Additionally, improvements have been made to the high voltage circuits to improve the rise time of the output pulse shape. reduce the initial ringing of the pulse, and enhance the reliability of the system. This paper will outline the changes and explain the results of the improvements.

  2. Nomenclature and name assignment rules for the APS storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, G.

    1992-03-16

    Because the APS accelerators are moving into the fabrication/assembly/installation stage, it is important for consistent naming conventions to be used throughout the project. The intent of this note is to dictate the rules to be adhered to when naming devices in the storage ring. These rules are generic in nature, and shall be applied in principle to the other machines as well. It is essential that every component have a unique and, hopefully, easily recognizable name. Every ASD and XFD group, except for magnets, must interface with the control system. For this reason all device names were developed keeping in mind their actual function, such as controlling or monitoring some device in the ring. Even though magnets are not directly interfaced to the control system, their power supplies are; therefore, a magnet will have the same name as its associated power supply.

  3. Some considerations in the combustion of AP/composite propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, R. N.

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical studies are presented on the time-independent and oscillatory combustion of nonmetallized AP/composite propellants. Three hypotheses are introduced: (1) The extent of propellant degradation at the vaporization step has to be specified through a scientific criterion. (2) The condensed phase degradation reaction of ammonium perchlorate to a vaporizable state is the overall rate-limiting step. (3) Gas phase combustion rate is controlled by the mixing rate of fuel and oxidizer vapors. In the treatment of oscillatory combustion, the assumption of quasi-steady fluctuations in the gas phase is used to supplement these hypotheses. In comparison with experimental data, this study predicts several of the observations including a few that remain inconsistent with theoretical results.

  4. Conceptualizing Ideal Circuit Elements in the AP Physics C Syllabus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Robert A.

    2005-11-01

    Does it ever bother you that emfs, resistors, and inductors add in series, but capacitors add in parallel? Does it bother your students? The AP Physics C syllabus for electricity and magnetism specifies the mathematical models students are expected to not merely memorize but to understand. Over time, my students' questions have made me rethink my conceptual and mathematical understanding of this material to help them efficiently develop reasonable conceptual and mathematical models of E&M. In this paper I describe aspects of this pedagogical rethinking related to four ideal circuit elements. I specify the end state of understanding that I want students to develop, but do not attempt to detail the pedagogical path to that understanding.

  5. The origin of light variability in Ap stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krtička, J.; Mikulášek, Z.; Zverko, J.; Prvák, M.

    2014-11-01

    The usual photometric variability detected in Ap stars is that associated with rotation. It has long been surmised that redistribution of rotationally modulated flux in surface abundance spots is the cause of that type of variability. The redistribution is caused by bound-bound (line) and bound-free (continuum) transitions of various elements, in particular helium, silicon, iron, and (obviously) also rare-earth elements. With the availability of detailed abundance maps, complete atomic data, and detailed model atmospheres it has now become possible to simulate reliably the photometric variability due to rotation. This is demonstrated by the example of several CP stars. We generalise these result and discuss the importance of individual elements in terms of their dependence on effective temperature. We emphasise the importance of light curve prediction for testing surface abundance maps and the atomic data.

  6. Dropping of mixing pump in Tank 102-AP

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, R.F.

    1995-06-02

    The purpose of this study is to examine dropping of the mixing pump in Tank 102-AP during its removal poses the risk of causing a leak in the tank bottom with attendant potential for public exposure from the leak. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the potential for causing such a leak (i.e., estimated frequency of leak occurrence); to qualitatively estimate leak magnitude if its is a credible event; and, finally to compare the worker hazard, in the installation of an impact limiter (should it be required), to that which the public might incur if a leak is manifest in the tank bottom. The ultimate goal of the study is, of course, to assess the need for installation of an impact limiter.

  7. The APS intranet as a man-machine interface.

    SciTech Connect

    Ciarlette, D.; Gerig, R.; McDowell, W.

    1997-12-02

    The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory has implemented a number of methods for people to interact with the accelerator systems. The accelerator operators use Sun workstations running MEDM and WCL to interface interactively with the accelerator, however, many people need to view information rather than interact with the machine. One of the most common interfaces for viewing information at the Advanced Photon Source is the World Wide Web. Information such as operations logbook entries, machine status updates, and displays of archived and current data are easily available to APS personnel. This interface between people and the accelerator has proven to be quite useful. Because the Intranet is operating-system independent and inherently unidirectional, ensuring the prevention of unauthorized or accidental control of the accelerators is straightforward.

  8. The APS direct-drive pulsed septum magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Sheynin, S.; Lopez, F.; Milton, S.V.

    1995-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) consists of four separate machines: linac, booster, positron accumulator ring (PAR) and storage ring (SR), plus three transfer lines interconnecting the machines. At least one thin, pulsed septum magnet is located at each splice joint. The stray field tolerances for two of these septum magnets are very stringent. As an example, for clean operation during the proposed top-up mode in the storage ring, the stray fields from the septum magnet must not exceed 1 G-m. The septum wall thickness must also not exceed 2.4 mm. To meet these requirements, direct-drive septum magnets with magnetic shield pipe around the stored beam region were developed and built. These magnets have now been tested and installed, and are used in daily operation. We describe the magnet(s) design, the measurement results, the actual operation, and performance.

  9. Progress on the development of APS beam position monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, G.; Chung, Youngjoo.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the development status of the beam position monitoring system for the Advanced Photon Source (APS), a third-generation light source now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory. The accelerator complex will consist of an electron linac, a positron linac, a positron accumulator ring (PAR), an injector synchrotron and a storage ring. For beam position measurement, striplines will be used on the linacs, while button-type pickups will be used on the injector synchrotron and the storage ring. A test stand with a prototype injector synchrotron beam position monitor (BPM) unit has been built, and we present the results of position calibration measurements using a wire. Comparison of the results with theoretical calculations will be presented. The current effort on similar storage ring BPM system measurements will also be discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Commissioning results of the APS storage ring diagnostics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumpkin, Alex H.

    1997-01-01

    Initial commissionings of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) 7-GeV storage ring and its diagnostics systems have been done. Early studies involved single-bunch measurements for beam transverse size (σx≈150 μm, σy≈50 μm,) current, injection losses, and bunch length. The diagnostics have been used in studies related to the detection of an extra contribution to beam jitter at ˜6.5 Hz frequency; observation of bunch lengthening (σ≈30 to 60 ps) with single-bunch current; observation of an induced vertical, head-tail instability; and detection of a small orbit change with insertion device gap position. More recently, operations at 100-mA stored-beam current, the baseline design goal, have been achieved with the support of beam characterizations.

  11. Rotational Evolution and Magnetic Field of AP Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaojun, C.; Matsuura, O. T.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMO. Prop6e- se qLie 0 campo de estrelas Ap pode ser 9cr ado pelo mecanismo de na base clo envelope c 0 fl V C C t V 0, C t r a ri S p 0 r t a d C) p a r a a S LI p e r f C 1 e p e I a Instabllidade de boiament 0 na ase de Haya hi. Campos cibservados permit em est imar uma perda de momento durante a ase pr -Seque%nC:ia P r ri C: p a I a ci ni p a t V C I C: C) m a s C) b s e r V a nT C 5. E S t r C I a S A normals, que ro t a ao , ria0 most ram camp Os :os superficia; importantes e isto pode ac:oriteaer C LIma protoestrela evolue para Sequencia Principal em passar pela fase de Hayashi. ABSTRACT: It 5 proposed that the ma9netic field o Ap stars may be enerated by the dynamo at the base of the convective envelope, arid transported to the surface b y t h C i ri s t a b iii t y C) f b LI 0 y a n c y i n t h C H a y a s hi p h a s e. Observed surface ma9netic fields allow to estimate a 1055 of an9ular momentum during the pre-Main Sequence phase compatible with the observations. apidIy rotating normal A stars do not shciw important surface magnetic fields and this may occur if a protostar evcilves to Main Sequence skipping the Hayashi phase. Key words: HYDROMAGNETICS - STARS-PECULIAR A

  12. The beta-appendages of the four adaptor-protein (AP) complexes: structure and binding properties, and identification of sorting nexin 9 as an accessory protein to AP-2.

    PubMed Central

    Lundmark, Richard; Carlsson, Sven R

    2002-01-01

    Adaptor protein (AP) complexes are essential components for the formation of coated vesicles and the recognition of cargo proteins for intracellular transport. Each AP complex exposes two appendage domains with that function to bind regulatory accessory proteins in the cytosol. Secondary structure predictions, sequence alignments and CD spectroscopy were used to relate the beta-appendages of all human AP complexes to the previously published crystal structure of AP-2. The results suggested that the beta-appendages of AP-1, AP-2 and AP-3 have similar structures, consisting of two subdomains, whereas that of AP-4 lacks the inner subdomain. Pull-down and overlay assays showed partial overlap in the binding specificities of the beta-appendages of AP-1 and AP-2, whereas the corresponding domain of AP-3 displayed a unique binding pattern. That AP-4 may have a truncated, non-functional domain was indicated by its apparent inability to bind any proteins from cytosol. Of several novel beta-appendage-binding proteins detected, one that had affinity exclusively for AP-2 was identified as sorting nexin 9 (SNX9). SNX9, which contains a phox and an Src homology 3 domain, was found in large complexes and was at least partially associated with AP-2 in the cytosol. SNX9 may function to assist AP-2 in its role at the plasma membrane. PMID:11879186

  13. Expression of transcription factor AP-2α predicts survival in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Anttila, M A; Kellokoski, J K; Moisio, K I; Mitchell, P J; Saarikoski, S; Syrjänen, K; Kosma, V-M

    2000-01-01

    The 52-kDa activator protein (AP)-2 is a DNA-binding transcription factor which has been reported to have growth inhibitory effects in cancer cell lines and in human tumours. In this study the expression of AP-2α was analysed in 303 epithelial ovarian carcinomas by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with a polyclonal AP-2α antibody and its mRNA status was determined by in situ hybridization (ISH) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The immunohistochemical expression of AP-2α was correlated with clinicopathological variables, p21/WAF1 protein expression and survival. In normal ovaries, epithelial cells expressed AP-2α protein only in the cytoplasm. In carcinomas nuclear AP-2α expression was observed in 28% of the cases although cytoplasmic expression was more common (51%). The expression of AP-2α varied according to the histological subtype and differentiation. AP-2α and p21/WAF1 expressions did not correlate with each other. Both in univariate (P = 0.002) and multivariate analyses (relative risks (RR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13–2.18, P = 0.007) the high cytoplasmic AP-2α expression favoured the overall survival. In contrast, the nuclear AP-2α expression combined with low cytoplasmic expression increased the risk of dying of ovarian cancer (RR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.13–3.83, P = 0.018). The shift in the expression pattern of AP-2α (nuclear vs cytoplasmic) in carcinomas points out to the possibility that this transcription factor may be used by oncogenes in certain histological subtypes. Based on the mRNA analyses, the incomplete expression and translation of AP-2α in ovarian cancer may be due to post-transcriptional regulation. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10864206

  14. HPV16 E6 and E6AP differentially cooperate to stimulate or augment Wnt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Sominsky, Sophia; Kuslansky, Yael; Shapiro, Beny; Jackman, Anna; Haupt, Ygal; Rosin-Arbesfeld, Rina; Sherman, Levana

    2014-11-15

    The present study investigated the roles of E6 and E6AP in the Wnt pathway. We showed that E6 levels are markedly reduced in cells in which Wnt signaling is activated. Coexpression of wild-type or mutant E6AP (C820A) in Wnt-activated cells stabilized E6 and enhanced Wnt/β-catenin/TCF transcription. Expression of E6AP alone in nonstimulated cells elevated β-catenin level, promoted its nuclear accumulation, and activated β-catenin/TCF transcription. A knockdown of E6AP lowered β-catenin levels. Coexpression with E6 intensified the activities of E6AP. Further experiments proved that E6AP/E6 stabilize β-catenin by protecting it from proteasomal degradation. This function was dependent on the catalytic activity of E6AP, the kinase activity of GSK3β and the susceptibility of β-catenin to GSK3β phosphorylation. Thus, this study identified E6AP as a novel regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, capable of cooperating with E6 in stimulating or augmenting Wnt/β-catenin signaling, thereby possibly contributing to HPV carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • The roles of E6 and E6AP in the Wnt pathway were investigated. • E6AP stabilizes E6 and enhances E6 activity in augmentation of Wnt signaling. • E6AP cooperates with E6 to stabilize β-catenin and stimulate Wnt/β-catenin signaling. • E6AP and E6 act through different mechanisms to augment or stimulate Wnt signaling.

  15. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF superfamily in peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Zhang, C H; Shangguan, L F; Ma, R J; Sun, X; Tao, R; Guo, L; Korir, N K; Yu, M L

    2012-10-17

    We identified 131 AP2/ERF (APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor) genes in material from peach using the gene sequences of AP2/ERF amino acids of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) as probes. Based on the number of AP2/ERF domains and individual gene characteristics, the AP2/ERF superfamily gene in peach can be classified broadly into three families, ERF (ethylene-responsive factor), RAV (related to ABI3/VP1), and AP2 (APETALA2), containing 104, 5, and 21 members, respectively, along with a solo gene (ppa005376m). The 104 genes in the ERF family were further divided into 11 groups based on the group classification made for Arabidopsis. The scaffold localizations of the AP2/ERF genes indicated that 129 AP2/ERF genes were all located on scaffolds 1 to 8, except for two genes, which were on scaffolds 17 and 10. Although the primary structure varied among AP2/ERF superfamily proteins, their tertiary structures were similar. Most ERF family genes have no introns, while members of the AP2 family have more introns than genes in the ERF and RAV families. All sequences of AP2 family genes were disrupted by introns into several segments of varying sizes. The expression of the AP2/ERF superfamily genes was highest in the mesocarp; it was far higher than in the other seven tissues that we examined, implying that AP2/ERF superfamily genes play an important role in fruit growth and development in the peach. These results will be useful for selecting candidate genes from specific subgroups for functional analysis.

  16. Multi-sensor text classification experiments -- a comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Dasigi, V.R.; Mann, R.C.; Protopopescu, V.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report recent results on automatic classification of free text documents into a given number of categories. The method uses multiple sensors to derive informative clues about patterns of interest in the input text, and fuses this information using a neural network. Encouraging preliminary results were obtained by applying this approach to a set of free text documents from the Associated Press (AP) news wire. New free text documents have been made available by the Reuters news agency. The advantages of this collection compared to the AP data are that the Reuters stories were already manually classified, and included sufficiently high numbers of stories per category. The results indicate the usefulness of the new method: after the network is fully trained, if data belonging to only one category are used for testing, correctness is about 90%, representing nearly 15% over the best results for the AP data. Based on the performance of the method with the AP and the Reuters collections they now have conclusive evidence that the approach is viable and practical. More work remains to be done for handling data belonging to the multiple categories.

  17. Isolation, classification and transcription profiles of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in citrus.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiu-lan; Shen, Shu-ling; Yin, Xue-ren; Xu, Qian; Sun, Chong-de; Grierson, Donald; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kun-song

    2014-07-01

    The AP2/ERF gene family encodes plant-specific transcription factors. In model plants, AP2/ERF genes have been shown to be expressed in response to developmental and environmental stimuli, and many function downstream of the ethylene, biotic, and abiotic stress signaling pathways. In citrus, ethylene is effective in regulation citrus fruit quality, such as degreening and aroma. However, information about the citrus AP2/ERF family is limited, and would enhance our understanding of fruit responses to environmental stress, fruit development and quality. CitAP2/ERF genes were isolated using the citrus genome database, and their expression patterns analyzed by real-time PCR using various orange organs and samples from a fruit developmental series. 126 sequences with homologies to AP2/ERF proteins were identified from the citrus genome, and, on the basis of their structure and sequence, assigned to the ERF family (102), AP2 family (18), RAV family (4) and Soloist (2). MEME motif analysis predicted the defining AP2/ERF domain and EAR repressor domains. Analysis of transcript accumulation in Citrus sinensis cv. 'Newhall' indicated that CitAP2/ERF genes show organ-specific and temporal expression, and provided a framework for understanding the transcriptional regulatory roles of AP2/ERF gene family members in citrus. Hierarchical cluster analysis and t tests identified regulators that potentially function during orange fruit growth and development.

  18. Heterologous expression in Tritrichomonas foetus of functional Trichomonas vaginalis AP65 adhesin

    PubMed Central

    Kucknoor, Ashwini S; Mundodi, Vasanthakrishna; Alderete, JF

    2005-01-01

    Background Trichomonosis, caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, is the number one, nonviral sexually transmitted infection that has adverse consequences for the health of women and children. The interaction of T. vaginalis with vaginal epithelial cells (VECs), a step preparatory to infection, is mediated in part by the prominent surface protein AP65. The bovine trichomonad, Tritrichomonas foetus, adheres poorly to human VECs. Thus, we established a transfection system for heterologous expression of the T. vaginalis AP65 in T. foetus, as an alternative approach to confirm adhesin function for this virulence factor. Results In this study, we show stable transfection and expression of the T. vaginalis ap65 gene in T. foetus from an episomal pBS-ap65-neo plasmid. Expression of the gene and protein was confirmed by RT-PCR and immunoblots, respectively. AP65 in transformed T. foetus bound to host cells. Specific mAbs revealed episomally-expressed AP65 targeted to the parasite surface and hydrogenosome organelles. Importantly, surface-expression of AP65 in T. foetus paralleled increased levels of adherence of transfected bovine trichomonads to human VECs. Conclusion The T. vaginalis AP65 adhesin was stably expressed in T. foetus, and the data obtained using this heterologous system strongly supports the role of AP65 as a prominent adhesin for T. vaginalis. In addition, the heterologous expression in T. foetus of a T. vaginalis gene offers an important, new approach for confirming and characterizing virulence factors. PMID:15748280

  19. APS Goes to ComicCon and Other Tales: Reaching out for Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Kate

    2012-10-01

    Broadly interpreting the core mission of APS ``to advance and diffuse the knowledge of physics", APS carries out programmatic activities in Education, Outreach, International Affairs, Public Affairs, and Advocacy, which benefit the physics community as well as society at large. These programs are highly valued by APS members who know about them, but the challenge has been to find ways to effectively communicate to our members about all the good things we are doing. APS programs have also achieved significant recognition in the external community for their outstanding quality and success. I will describe several examples of how we ``reach out" to promote physics and physics education in a variety of venues.

  20. Differential role of SH2-B and APS in regulating energy and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghua; Ren, Decheng; Iseki, Masanori; Takaki, Satoshi; Rui, Liangyou

    2006-05-01

    SH2-B and APS, two members of a pleckstrin homology and SH2 domain-containing adaptor family, promote both insulin and leptin signaling in a similar fashion in cultured cells. In addition, APS mediates insulin-stimulated activation of the c-Cbl/CAP/TC10 pathway in cultured adipocytes. Here we characterized genetically modified mice lacking SH2-B, APS, or both to determine the physiological roles of these two proteins in animals. Disruption of the SH2-B gene resulted in obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance. Conversely, deletion of the APS gene did not alter adiposity, energy balance, and glucose metabolism. Energy intake, energy expenditure, fat content, body weight, and plasma insulin, leptin, glucose, and lipid levels were similar between APS(-/-) and WT littermates fed either normal chow or a high-fat diet. Moreover, deletion of APS failed to alter insulin and glucose tolerance. APS(-/-)/SH2-B(-/-) double knockout mice also developed energy imbalance, obesity, hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and glucose intolerance; however, plasma leptin and insulin levels were significantly lower in APS(-/-)/SH2-B(-/-) than in SH2-B(-/-) mice. These results suggest that SH2-B, but not APS, is a key positive regulator of energy and glucose metabolism in mice.

  1. Multi Sensor Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immer, Christopher; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the Multi Sensor Array. The topics include: 1) MSA Algorithm; 2) Types of Sensors for the MSA; 3) How to test the MSA; 4) Monte Carlo Simulation; and 5) Accelerated Life Tests.

  2. Electrochemical Sensors: Functionalized Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Fryxell, Glen E.; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana

    2009-03-24

    This chapter summarizes recent devellopment of electrochemical sensors based on functionlized mesoporous silica materials. The nanomatrials based sensors have been developed for sensitive and selective enrironmental detection of toxic heavy metal and uranium ions.

  3. Digital Sensor Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst; Ken Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy, reliability, availability, and maintainability. This report demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. It also addresses the qualification issues that must be addressed in the application of digital sensor technology.

  4. Giant magnetoresistive sensor

    DOEpatents

    Stearns, Daniel G.; Vernon, Stephen P.; Ceglio, Natale M.; Hawryluk, Andrew M.

    1999-01-01

    A magnetoresistive sensor element with a three-dimensional micro-architecture is capable of significantly improved sensitivity and highly localized measurement of magnetic fields. The sensor is formed of a multilayer film of alternately magnetic and nonmagnetic materials. The sensor is optimally operated in a current perpendicular to plane mode. The sensor is useful in magnetic read/write heads, for high density magnetic information storage and retrieval.

  5. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, Emil F.

    1991-01-01

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

  6. Secure Sensor Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Ross, Barry Schoeneman

    2010-08-25

    The Secure Sensor Platform (SSP) software provides a framework of functionality to support the development of low-power autonomous sensors for nuclear safeguards. This framework provides four primary functional blocks of capabilities required to implement autonomous sensors. The capabilities are: communications, security, power management, and cryptography. Utilizing this framework establishes a common set of functional capabilities for seamless interoperability of any sensor based upon the SSP concept.

  7. Thrombotic recurrences and bleeding events in APS vascular patients: a review from the literature and a comparison with the APS Piedmont Cohort.

    PubMed

    Bazzan, M; Vaccarino, A; Stella, S; Bertero, M T; Carignola, R; Montaruli, B; Roccatello, D; Shoenfeld, Y

    2013-06-01

    In APS vascular patients, thrombotic recurrences are more frequent than in non-APS thrombotic patients. To better define this clinical setting, a systematic review of the literature after 1999 was performed: 8 cohort studies (including the recent APS Piedmont Cohort) and 6 intervention studies were selected and evaluated. Thrombotic recurrences, bleeding events, therapeutic strategies, antiphospholipid (aPL) profile, inherited and acquired risk factors (when present) were calculated and compared. Emerging risk factors for thrombotic recurrences include withdrawal of oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT), high intensity OAT (INR range 3-4), aPL profile (triple positivity, Miyakis types 1 and 2a profiles) and association with inherited or acquired pro-thrombotic risk factors. Moreover, there are evidences that high risk (mainly for aPL profile) APS vascular patients have a high recurrence rate in spite of correct OAT treatment. Clinical trials in this clinical setting are needed.

  8. Sensors for Entertainment.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, Fabrizio; Sanna, Andrea; Rokne, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in all areas of science, technology, and society. In this Special Issue on "Sensors for Entertainment", developments in progress and the current state of application scenarios for sensors in the field of entertainment is explored. PMID:27428981

  9. Touch Sensor for Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primus, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    Touch sensor for robot hands provides information about shape of grasped object and force exerted by gripper on object. Pins projecting from sensor create electrical signals when pressed. When grasped object depresses pin, it contacts electrode under it, connecting electrode to common electrode. Sensor indicates where, and how firmly, gripper has touched object.

  10. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOEpatents

    Chu, D.D.; Thelen, D.C. Jr.

    1998-08-11

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems. 6 figs.

  11. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Dahlon D.; Thelen, Jr., Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems.

  12. Sensors for Entertainment

    PubMed Central

    Lamberti, Fabrizio; Sanna, Andrea; Rokne, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in all areas of science, technology, and society. In this Special Issue on “Sensors for Entertainment”, developments in progress and the current state of application scenarios for sensors in the field of entertainment is explored. PMID:27428981

  13. SALAD helicopter integrated sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Soo Hoo, M.S.

    1988-08-01

    The theory and operation of an integrated acoustic and seismic sensor for use with the SALAD helicopter detection system is presented. This sensor incorporates a microphone, geophone, acoustic preamplifier, and tamper indicating features in a buryable, compact aluminum package. This sensor is intended for deployment within a pre-selected, controlled media.

  14. Automotive vehicle sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  15. Generic EO sensor simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerman, Alexander, III; Hoffman, George A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A generic sensor simulation has been developed which emulates the imagery produced by closed circuit television sensors. Applications to date include a monochromatic vidicon and a color CCD camera. The core software program was extracted from the MARSAM II model embedded within the Avionics Laboratory Sensor Performance Model (ALSPM).

  16. High temperature sensor

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1982-01-01

    A high temperature sensor includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1,000 to 2,000 K.). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  17. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for installation and operation of a waste retrieval system and tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104 project

    SciTech Connect

    DEXTER, M.L.

    1999-11-15

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246 247-060, and as a request for approval to modify pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61 07 for the installation and operation of one waste retrieval system in the 24 1 AP-102 Tank and one waste retrieval system in the 241 AP 104 Tank Pursuant to 40 CFR 61 09 (a)( 1) this application is also intended to provide anticipated initial start up notification Its is requested that EPA approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance of the initial start up notification Project W 211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is scoped to install a waste retrieval system in the following double-shell tanks 241-AP 102-AP 104 AN 102, AN 103, AN-104, AN 105, AY 102 AZ 102 and SY-102 between now and the year 2011. Because of the extended installation schedules and unknowns about specific activities/designs at each tank, it was decided to submit NOCs as that information became available This NOC covers the installation and operation of a waste retrieval system in tanks 241 AP-102 and 241 AP 104 Generally this includes removal of existing equipment installation of new equipment and construction of new ancillary equipment and buildings Tanks 241 AP 102 and 241 AP 104 will provide waste feed for immobilization into a low activity waste (LAW) product (i.e. glass logs) The total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) from the construction activities is 0 045 millirem per year The unabated TEDE to the offsite ME1 from operation of the mixer pumps is 0 042 millirem per year.

  18. Intracellular pathways linking hypoxia to activation of c-fos and AP-1.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, D R; Adhikary, G; Overholt, J L; Simonson, M S; Cherniack, N S; Prabhakar, N R

    2000-01-01

    Organisms respond to hypoxia through detection of blood oxygen levels by sensors at peripheral chemoreceptors and by receptors in certain key cells of the body. The pathways over which peripheral chemoreceptor signals are transmitted to respiratory muscles are well established. However, the intracellular pathways that transmit hypoxic stimulus to gene activation are just being identified. Using anti-sense c-fos strategy, we have shown that c-fos is essential for the activation of activator protein-1 transcription factor complex (AP-1) and subsequent stimulation of downstream genes such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; Mishra et al. 1998). The purpose of the present study was to identify intracellular pathways that link hypoxia to activation of c-fos. The results of the present study show that hypoxia causes Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage gated Ca2+ channels and that hypoxia-induced c-fos gene expression is Ca2+/calmodulin dependent. We also demonstrate that hypoxia activates the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38, but not JNK. Further, phosphorylation of ERK is essential for c-fos activation via SRE cis-element. Further characterization of nuclear signalling pathways provides evidence for the involvement of Src, a non receptor protein tyrosine kinase, and Ras, a small G protein, in the hypoxia-induced c-fos gene expression. These results suggest a possible role for non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases in propagating signals from G-protein coupled receptors to the activation of immediate early genes such as c-fos during hypoxia.

  19. APS: 125 years of progress of physiology as a scientific discipline and a profession.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Robert G; Frank, Martin; Ra'anan, Alice; Matyas, Marsha L

    2013-03-01

    The Experimental Biology 2012 meeting in San Diego, CA, included events to celebrate the 125th anniversary of the founding of the American Physiological Society (APS) and reflect on the recent accomplishments of the society. Most of the APS activities in the past quarter century were guided by a series of strategic plans. Membership in the APS increased by 76% since 1987, and there are now 8,342 regular members of the society, including an expansion of international members to 26% of APS's membership. The numbers of elected officers and committee members have expanded to accommodate this larger membership. APS Publications changed dramatically during this time, having adopted online submission and review of manuscripts as well as a streamlined review and publications process that have significantly shortened the period from submission to acceptance to publication. Compared with 1987, the number of manuscripts submitted has increased by 80% and the number of printed pages increased by 52%. In addition to the refinement of the Experimental Biology meeting (Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology meeting before 1993) format, APS launched a specialty conference program in the 1990s. The educational offerings of APS also dramatically expanded in the past 25 yr, often supported by external grants and contracts. APS education programs now support physiology education and science awareness at K-12, undergraduate, graduate, and professional levels as well as continuing education of its members. The founding of APS was tied to the need for effective advocacy, and APS continues to meet those goals through its Science Policy Committee and Animal Care and Experimentation Committees. At its 125th birthday, APS continues to serve the discipline and the needs of its membership. PMID:23471242

  20. Identification of the Hevea brasiliensis AP2/ERF superfamily by RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) laticifers are the source of natural rubber. Rubber production depends on endogenous and exogenous ethylene (ethephon). AP2/ERF transcription factors, and especially Ethylene-Response Factors, play a crucial role in plant development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. This study set out to sequence transcript expressed in various tissues using next-generation sequencing and to identify AP2/ERF superfamily in the rubber tree. Results The 454 sequencing technique was used to produce five tissue-type transcript libraries (leaf, bark, latex, embryogenic tissues and root). Reads from all libraries were pooled and reassembled to improve mRNA lengths and produce a global library. One hundred and seventy-three AP2/ERF contigs were identified by in silico analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the conserved AP2 domain from the global library. The 142 contigs with the full AP2 domain were classified into three main families (20 AP2 members, 115 ERF members divided into 11 groups, and 4 RAV members) and 3 soloist members. Fifty-nine AP2/ERF transcripts were found in latex. Alongside the microRNA172 already described in plants, eleven additional microRNAs were predicted to inhibit Hevea AP2/ERF transcripts. Conclusions Hevea has a similar number of AP2/ERF genes to that of other dicot species. We adapted the alignment and classification methods to data from next-generation sequencing techniques to provide reliable information. We observed several specific features for the ERF family. Three HbSoloist members form a group in Hevea. Several AP2/ERF genes highly expressed in latex suggest they have a specific function in Hevea. The analysis of AP2/ERF transcripts in Hevea presented here provides the basis for studying the molecular regulation of latex production in response to abiotic stresses and latex cell differentiation. PMID:23324139