Science.gov

Sample records for actively conducting research

  1. Planning and Conducting Research Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    Some directions and influences on dental research activities in the near future are discussed. Current challenges include international competition, fellowships, and equipment. Potential research activity includes preventive medicine, epidemiology, chronic illness, the elderly, bioengineering, materials research, nutrition, soft tissue research,…

  2. Conducting Educational Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenney, Susan; Reeves, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Educational design research blends scientific investigation with systematic development and implementation of solutions to educational problems. Empirical investigation is conducted in real learning settings--not laboratories--to craft usable and effective solutions. At the same time, the research is carefully structured to produce theoretical…

  3. Benefits of Conducting Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Frances E.

    2001-01-01

    Metaphors for researchers, such as a crusader; a traveler; an explorer; a miner; an astronaut; a biblical Daniel; a Samurai; and an archaeologist are discussed. Benefits of conducting research are enumerated, including building the knowledge base for art therapy; increasing professional opportunities; improving client care; and advancing the…

  4. 34 CFR 350.22 - What activities must a Rehabilitation Research and Training Center conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities must a Rehabilitation Research and... DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation Research and Training Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.22 What activities must a Rehabilitation Research and...

  5. 34 CFR 350.32 - What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... rehabilitation technology; and (ii) Other scientific research to assist in meeting the employment and independent... Research Center conduct? 350.32 Section 350.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation Engineering...

  6. 34 CFR 350.32 - What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... rehabilitation technology; and (ii) Other scientific research to assist in meeting the employment and independent... Research Center conduct? 350.32 Section 350.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation Engineering...

  7. 34 CFR 350.32 - What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering... DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.32 What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering...

  8. 34 CFR 350.32 - What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering... DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.32 What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering...

  9. 34 CFR 350.32 - What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center conduct?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering... DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.32 What activities must a Rehabilitation Engineering...

  10. Understanding & Conducting Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainback, Susan; Stainback, William

    In this book, which applies the state of the art in qualitative research to special education, qualitative research is used as a generic term for investigative methodologies described variously as ethnographic, naturalistic, anthropological, field research, or participant-observer research. Chapter 1 introduces and defines qualitative research and…

  11. 30 CFR 280.3 - What requirements must I follow when I conduct prospecting or research activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirements must I follow when I conduct prospecting or research activities? 280.3 Section 280.3 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR ON THE...

  12. 30 CFR 280.3 - What requirements must I follow when I conduct prospecting or research activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What requirements must I follow when I conduct prospecting or research activities? 280.3 Section 280.3 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL,...

  13. Hypogravity Research and Educational Parabolic Flight Activities Conducted in Barcelona: a new Hub of Innovation in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni; González, Daniel Ventura; López, David

    2016-12-01

    We report on different research and educational activities related to parabolic flights conducted in Barcelona since 2008. We use a CAP10B single-engine aerobatic aircraft flying out of Sabadell Airport and operating in visual flight conditions providing up to 8 seconds of hypogravity for each parabola. Aside from biomedical experiments being conducted, different student teams have flown in parabolic flights in the framework of the international contest `Barcelona Zero-G Challenge', and have published their results in relevant symposiums and scientific journals. The platform can certainly be a good testbed for a proof-of-concept before accessing other microgravity platforms, and has proved to be excellent for motivational student campaigns.

  14. How to Conduct Ethnographic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangasubana, Nisaratana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of conducting ethnographic research. Methodology definition and key characteristics are given. The stages of the research process are described including preparation, data gathering and recording, and analysis. Important issues such as reliability and validity are also discussed.

  15. Conducting Research with Community Groups

    PubMed Central

    Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Ayoola, Adejoke; Topp, Robert; Zandee, Gail Landheer

    2016-01-01

    Nurse scientists are increasingly recognizing the necessity of conducting research with community groups to effectively address complex health problems and successfully translate scientific advancements into the community. While several barriers to conducting research with community groups exist, community based participatory research (CBPR) has the potential to mitigate these barriers. CBPR has been employed in programs of research that respond in culturally sensitive ways to identify community needs and thereby address current health disparities. This manuscript presents case studies that demonstrate how CBPR principles guided the development of: (a) a healthy body weight program for urban, underserved African-American women, (b) a reproductive health educational intervention for urban, low-income, underserved, ethnically diverse women, and (c) a pilot anxiety/depression intervention for urban, low-income, underserved, ethnically diverse women. These case studies illustrate the potential of CBPR as an orientation to research that can be employed effectively in non-research intensive academic environments. PMID:25724557

  16. Guidelines for conducting geropsychotherapy research.

    PubMed

    Areán, Patricia A; Cook, Beth L; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Hegel, Mark T; Schulberg, Herbert C; Schulz, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Geropsychotherapy researchers have established specific methods that improve the reliability and generalizability of the data from this research. To date, there has been little formal dissemination of these methods. The authors present guidelines for the optimal conduct of psychotherapy research in older adults, which include selection of age-appropriate psychotherapies and control conditions, use of consumer-based methods for recruitment, evaluation of age-related treatment processes and outcomes, and adjusting the research design to accommodate age-specific life events and provide examples of how each guideline was used in their psychotherapy studies. Psychotherapy research with older adults has benefited from methodological advances that improve our ability to ascertain the impact of psychotherapy on late-life disorders. However, the field is still in need of better outcome and process measures, methods for measuring the therapeutic content of non-psychotherapy encounters, and methods for determining the impact of choice of treatment on outcome.

  17. Conducting Mathematical Research with Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Gareth E.

    2013-01-01

    The notion that undergraduates are capable of making profound and original contributions to mathematical research is rapidly gaining acceptance. Undergraduates bring their enthusiasm, creativity, curiosity, and perseverance to bona fide research problems. This article discusses some of the key issues concerning undergraduate mathematical research:…

  18. Sugar beet activities of the USDA-ARS East Lansing conducted in cooperation with Saginaw Research & Extension Center during 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation and rating plots were planted at the Saginaw Valley Research & Extension Center (SVREC) in Frankenmuth, MI in 2014 that focused on Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) and Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (CRR) disease performance of a wide range of Beta vulgaris materials. CLS and CRR trials were co...

  19. The Complexities of Conducting Ethnographic Race Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaas, Jongi

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges and dilemmas of conducting ethnographic race research in the context of the South African situation, forming part of my ethnographic race research PhD project, conducted in two historically white, single-sex schools in South Africa. First, it critically examines the theoretical dilemmas on crucial issues of…

  20. Research Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL.

    The five parts of this report are: research on instruction; faculty dissertations; inter-institutional research; in-college research; and college-endorsed research. The first covers experiments in teaching French, practical nursing, English, math, and chemistry, and in giving examinations. Faculty dissertations include studies of post-graduate…

  1. Participatory Action Research as a Model for Conducting Family Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Ann P.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Ramirez, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses a participatory action research (PAR) approach to conducting family research. It proposes a model of PAR implementation level including the options of family members as research leaders and researchers as ongoing advisors, researchers and family members as coresearchers, and researches as leaders, and family members as…

  2. Conducting research with visually impaired older adults.

    PubMed

    Moore, Linda Weaver

    2002-04-01

    Due to the frequency of eye disorders among older adults, qualitative researchers who involve older individuals in their work must be sensitive to the multiple ways in which visual deficits can influence the research process. The author addresses some of the difficulties encountered, insights gained, and strategies developed while conducting a phenomenological study in which all the participants were severely visually impaired. The author's insights, drawn from personal experiences, reflections, and log entries kept throughout the study, are shared to help other researchers design and implement studies in which the voices of individuals with severe visual impairments can be skillfully tapped.

  3. Sugar beet activities of the USDA-ARS East Lansing conducted in cooperation with Saginaw Research & Extension Center during 2013 (including Project 905)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation and rating plots were planted at the Saginaw Valley Research & Extension Center (SVREC) in Frankenmuth, MI in 2013 that focused on Cercospora leaf spot and Rhizoctonia seedling disease performance of a wide range of Beta vulgaris materials. Leaf spot trials were conducted in conjunction w...

  4. Conducting Precision Medicine Research with African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; McDonald, Jasmine; Vadaparampil, Susan; Rice, LaShanta; Jefferson, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Importance Precision medicine is an approach to detecting, treating, and managing disease that is based on individual variation in genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Precision medicine is expected to reduce health disparities, but this will be possible only if studies have adequate representation of racial minorities. Objective It is critical to anticipate the rates at which individuals from diverse populations are likely to participate in precision medicine studies as research initiatives are being developed. We evaluated the likelihood of participating in a clinical study for precision medicine. Design, Setting, Participants Observational study conducted between October 2010 and February 2011 in a national sample of African Americans. Main Outcome Measure Intentions to participate in a government sponsored study that involves providing a biospecimen and generates data that could be shared with other researchers to conduct future studies. Results One third of respondents would participate in a clinical study for precision medicine. Only gender had a significant independent association with participation intentions. Men had a 1.86 (95% CI = 1.11, 3.12, p = 0.02) increased likelihood of participating in a precision medicine study compared to women in the model that included overall barriers and facilitators. In the model with specific participation barriers, distrust was associated with a reduced likelihood of participating in the research described in the vignette (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.96, p = 0.04). Conclusion and Relevance African Americans may have low enrollment in PMI research. As PMI research is implemented, extensive efforts will be needed to ensure adequate representation. Additional research is needed to identify optimal ways of ethically describing precision medicine studies to ensure sufficient recruitment of racial minorities. PMID:27441706

  5. Active Bone Conduction Prosthesis: Bonebridge(TM).

    PubMed

    Zernotti, Mario E; Sarasty, Andrea Bravo

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Bone conduction implants are indicated for patients with conductive and mixed hearing loss, as well as for patients with single-sided deafness (SSD). The transcutaneous technology avoids several complications of the percutaneous bone conduction implants including skin reaction, skin growth over the abutment, and wound infection. The Bonebridge (MED-EL, Austria) prosthesis is a semi-implantable hearing system: the BCI (Bone Conduction Implant) is the implantable part that contains the Bone Conduction-Floating Mass Transducer (BC-FMT), which applies the vibrations directly to the bone; the external component is the audio processor Amadé BB (MED-EL, Austria), which digitally processes the sound and sends the information through the coil to the internal part. Bonebridge may be implanted through three different approaches: the transmastoid, the retrosigmoid, or the middle fossa approach. Objective This systematic review aims to describe the world́s first active bone conduction implant system, Bonebridge, as well as describe the surgical techniques in the three possible approaches, showing results from implant centers in the world in terms of functional gain, speech reception thresholds and word recognition scores. Data Synthesis The authors searched the MEDLINE database using the key term Bonebridge. They selected only five publications to include in this systematic review. The review analyzes 20 patients that received Bonebridge implants with different approaches and pathologies. Conclusion Bonebridge is a solution for patients with conductive/mixed hearing loss and SSD with different surgical approaches, depending on their anatomy. The system imparts fewer complications than percutaneous bone conduction implants and shows proven benefits in speech discrimination and functional gain.

  6. Responsible conduct of radiology research. Part III. Exemptions from regulatory requirements for human research.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jeffrey A

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this series of articles is to explain the ethical and legal basis for responsible conduct of radiology research and the rules that an investigator needs to follow. In this article (part three of the series), the situations in which human research in radiology is exempt from regulatory requirements are explained. There are several situations in which an activity falls under the regulatory definition of research but is exempt from the research regulations. Investigators who conduct exempt research should know the regulatory criteria for the exemptions. In the case of research that is potentially exempt from the Department of Health and Human Services regulations, the institutional review board or an authority other than the investigator should make the determination of whether a proposed research activity is exempt from the regulations. For research exempt from Food and Drug Administration regulations, investigators should follow institutional guidance and seek input from the institutional review board or Food and Drug Administration for questionable cases.

  7. Key questions for conducting role delineation research.

    PubMed

    Taub, Alyson; Gilmore, Gary D; Olsen, Larry K; Connell, Dave

    2011-06-01

    Role delineation research for the verification of professional competencies is essential in many professions to promote quality assurance and support capacity building and workforce development. In this article, guidance is provided about key aspects of role delineation research. The information contained in this article focuses on 13 key questions within three selected research phases when attempting to identify and verify the roles that are inherent within any given profession. The major sections in the paper include planning the research, collecting and analyzing the data, interpreting findings, and considering the future. Recommendations and examples related to each of the important questions are provided to assist others undertaking role delineation research.

  8. Program for Research on Conducting Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-17

    material derived from all monomers). Unfortunately the copper is tenaciously entrained in these materials So that new approaches to couple I hybridized ...characterization of new conducting polymers, processing of these conducting polymers into highly oriented fibers and films, and measurement of the electrical and...is now clear (largely as a result of the effort at UCSB) that the desired combination of properties is available: Electrical and Optical Properties

  9. 30 CFR 280.11 - What must I do before I may conduct scientific research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... I may conduct scientific research? You may conduct G&G scientific research activities related to... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What must I do before I may conduct scientific research? 280.11 Section 280.11 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION,...

  10. British Library Conducts New Technology Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graddon, Pamela H. B.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses technological research efforts by the Research and Development Department of the British Library in the areas of videotex, videodisc, and teleconferencing, noting the videotex service known as Prestel and the department's network project, called BLEND (Birmingham and Loughborough Electronic Network Development). (EJS)

  11. Conducting Classroom Design Research with Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Michelle. L.

    2015-01-01

    Design research is usually motivated by university members with experience and interest in building theory and instructional designs in collaboration with one teacher. Typically, the teacher is considered as a member of the research team, with the primary responsibility of implementing instruction. However, in this chapter, I describe a Classroom…

  12. Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Human Beings In Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Garbi; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Objective Diagnose ethical conduct in research involving human beings in Brazil and the last 10 years of activity by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Health Department - Federal District - CEP/SES/DF. Methods This work was based on a documentary research, descriptive and retrospective. It examined the database containing records of cases brought before the CEP/SES/DF, corresponding the period of June 1997 to December 2007. Results were generated in Excel program, version 2007. Results CEP/SES/DF has presented increasing number of research projects submitted to appreciation (n = 1129), composing: 90.4% approved 1.7% disapproved, 7.4% removed/filed and 0.5% excluded. Of these projects, 83% belonged to Group III, 18% multi-centered projects and 10% protocols with foreign participation. Time for approval has decreased over the years (30 to 60 days). Frequent pendencies: End of Free and Informed Consent (30%), Cover Sheet (25%), Methodology (20%), Curriculum vitae (12%), Budget (9%), and Others (4%). Conclusion The assessment of the CEP/SES/DF activities, during a ten-year period has shown its commitment to the legitimacy of research ethics review and scientific production SES/DF. There were some weaknesses such as difficulty in monitoring the accompaniment of the research; interruption of works due to adverse drug reaction; gaps or errors in the protocol submitted by the researcher. These situations are the achieving targets for the elaboration of specific criteria. PMID:20981277

  13. Guidance manual for conducting technology demonstration activities

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, Robert L.; Morris, Michael I.; Singh, Suman P.N.

    1991-12-01

    This demonstration guidance manual has been prepared to assist Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), staff in conducting demonstrations. It is prepared in checklist style to facilitate its use and assumes that Energy Systems personnel have project management responsibility. In addition to a detailed step-by-step listing of procedural considerations, a general checklist, logic flow diagram, and several examples of necessary plans are included to assist the user in developing an understanding of the many complex activities required to manage technology demonstrations. Demonstrations are pilot-scale applications of often innovative technologies to determine the commercial viability of the technologies to perform their designed function. Demonstrations are generally conducted on well-defined problems for which existing technologies or processes are less than satisfactory in terms of effectiveness, cost, and/or regulatory compliance. Critically important issues in demonstration management include, but are not limited to, such factors as communications with line and matrix management and with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Energy Systems staff responsible for management oversight, budgetary and schedule requirements, regulatory compliance, and safety.

  14. Responsible conduct of radiology research. Part IV. The boundary of research and practice.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jeffrey A

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this series of articles is to explain the ethical and legal basis for responsible conduct of radiology research and the rules that an investigator must follow. Part four of this series explains special situations that commonly arise during human research in radiology. The boundaries of research and innovative care or quality improvement often are not clear. When human research activities are or become subject to regulation, they must be reviewed and approved by an institutional review board. Therefore, physicians performing innovative care or conducting quality improvement should have a low threshold for seeking institutional review board guidance. Physicians performing innovative care should also consider their ethical obligation to future patients to conduct research to prove the validity of such innovative care.

  15. 30 CFR 280.11 - What must I do before I may conduct scientific research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Apply for a Permit or File a Notice § 280.11 What must I do before I may conduct scientific research? You may conduct G&G scientific research activities related to hard minerals on the OCS only after you... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do before I may conduct...

  16. Rigour and Complexity in Educational Research. Conducting Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Kathleen; Kincheloe, Joe

    2004-01-01

    What does it mean to engage in rigorous research? What does a researcher need to know to produce such research? What is specifically involved in multiple method bricolage research? In an era where talk abounds about scientific rigour and evidence-based research in education, this groundbreaking book presents a new and compelling examination of…

  17. Conducting On-Farm Animal Research: Procedures & Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Pervaiz; Knipscheer, Hendrik C.

    This book is intended to give animal scientists elementary tools to perform on-farm livestock analysis and to provide crop-oriented farming systems researchers with methods for conducting animal research. Chapter 1 describes farming systems research as a systems approach to on-farm animal research. Chapter 2 outlines some important…

  18. Aeroservoelastic and Structural Dynamics Research on Smart Structures Conducted at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria Rivas; Wilkie, W. Keats; Moses, Robert W.; Lake, Renee C.; Florance, Jennifer Pinkerton; Wieseman, Carol D.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Taleghani, Barmac K.; Mirick, Paul H.; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of smart structures research currently underway at the NASA Langley Research Center in the areas of aeroservoelasticity and structural dynamics is presented. Analytical and experimental results, plans, potential technology pay-offs, and challenges are discussed. The goal of this research is to develop the enabling technologies to actively and passively control aircraft and rotorcraft vibration and loads using smart devices. These enabling technologies and related research efforts include developing experimentally-validated finite element and aeroservoelastic modeling techniques; conducting bench experimental tests to assess feasibility and understand system trade-offs; and conducting large-scale wind- tunnel tests to demonstrate system performance. The key aeroservoelastic applications of this research include: active twist control of rotor blades using interdigitated electrode piezoelectric composites and active control of flutter, and gust and buffeting responses using discrete piezoelectric patches. In addition, NASA Langley is an active participant in the DARPA/ Air Force Research Laboratory/ NASA/ Northrop Grumman Smart Wing program which is assessing aerodynamic performance benefits using smart materials. Keywords: aeroelasticity, smart structures, piezoelectric actuators, active fiber composites, rotorcraft, buffet load alleviation, individual blade control, aeroservoelasticity, shape memory alloys, damping augmentation, piezoelectric power consumption

  19. Challenges of Conducting Systematic Research in Australia's Northern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmer, Janet; Harper, Helen; Lea, Tess; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Chalkiti, Kalotina

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges of conducting systematic research, using our experiences of conducting a study to evaluate the effectiveness of ABRACADABRA, an online tool for early childhood literacy instruction as the contextual framework. By discussing how the research team resolved such perennial issues as high teacher turnover, low or…

  20. Researcher perceptions of ethical guidelines and codes of conduct.

    PubMed

    Giorgini, Vincent; Mecca, Jensen T; Gibson, Carter; Medeiros, Kelsey; Mumford, Michael D; Connelly, Shane; Devenport, Lynn D

    2015-01-01

    Ethical codes of conduct exist in almost every profession. Field-specific codes of conduct have been around for decades, each articulating specific ethical and professional guidelines. However, there has been little empirical research on researchers' perceptions of these codes of conduct. In the present study, we interviewed faculty members in six research disciplines and identified five themes bearing on the circumstances under which they use ethical guidelines and the underlying reasons for not adhering to such guidelines. We then identify problems with the manner in which codes of conduct in academia are constructed and offer solutions for overcoming these problems.

  1. Aeroservoelastic and Structural Dynamics Research on Smart Structures Conducted at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria Rivas; Wilkie, W. Keats; Moses, Robert W.; Lake, Renee C.; Florance, Jennifer Pinkerton; Wieseman, Carol D.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Taleghani, Barmac K.; Mirick, Paul H.; Wilbur, Mathew L.

    1997-01-01

    An overview of smart structures research currently underway at the NASA Langley Research Center in the areas of aeroservoelasticity and structural dynamics is presented. Analytical and experimental results, plans, potential technology pay-offs, and challenges are discussed. The goal of this research is to develop the enabling technologies to actively and passively control aircraft and rotorcraft vibration and loads using smart devices. These enabling technologies and related research efforts include developing experimentally-validated finite element and aeroservoelastic modeling techniques; conducting bench experimental tests to assess feasibility and understand system trade-offs; and conducting large-scale wind tunnel tests to demonstrate system performance. The key aeroservoelastic applications of this research include: active twist control of rotor blades using interdigitated electrode piezoelectric composites and active control of flutter, and gust and buffeting responses using discrete piezoelectric patches. In addition, NASA Langley is an active participant in the DARPA/Air Force Research Laboratory/NASA/Northrop Grumman Smart Wing program which is assessing aerodynamic performance benefits using smart materials.

  2. What Does Good Education Research Look Like? Conducting Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Lyn

    2004-01-01

    This book explains the debates that bedevil education research--for example that it is low quality, or not scientific enough, or not useful enough--and shows how research in education must meet different demands in different places, times and conditions. A major part of the book provides detailed analyses and guidance to different areas in which…

  3. Combining Methods in Educational and Social Research. Conducting Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen; Taylor, Chris

    2004-01-01

    There is growing interest in the possibilities of combining research approaches in education and social sciences, as dissatisfaction mounts with the limitations of traditional mono-method studies and with the schism between quantitative and qualitative methods. This book argues the case for combining multiple research methods, and provides…

  4. Researcher Perceptions of Ethical Guidelines and Codes of Conduct

    PubMed Central

    Giorgini, Vincent; Mecca, Jensen T.; Gibson, Carter; Medeiros, Kelsey; Mumford, Michael D.; Connelly, Shane; Devenport, Lynn D.

    2014-01-01

    Ethical codes of conduct exist in almost every profession. Field-specific codes of conduct have been around for decades, each articulating specific ethical and professional guidelines. However, there has been little empirical research on researchers’ perceptions of these codes of conduct. In the present study, we interviewed faculty members in six research disciplines and identified five themes bearing on the circumstances under which they use ethical guidelines and the underlying reasons for not adhering to such guidelines. We then identify problems with the manner in which codes of conduct in academia are constructed and offer solutions for overcoming these problems. PMID:25635845

  5. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Research activities. 1... PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.488 Research activities. Subject to the provisions of 38 U... disclosed for the purpose of conducting scientific research. (a) Information in individually...

  6. Research Politics: Some Issues in Conducting Research for Government as a Client

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diko, Nolutho; Bantwini, Bongani D.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers are guided by their ideological and ethical viewpoints when conducting research. Doing research for government challenges them to confront these ideals head-on. This article explores the uncertain terrain researchers sometimes have to negotiate when conducting research for government, and discusses relations between researchers and…

  7. 30 CFR 580.21 - What must I do in conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... scientific research? 580.21 Section 580.21 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research? While conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research..., or other uses of the area where you are prospecting or conducting scientific research activities....

  8. 30 CFR 580.21 - What must I do in conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... scientific research? 580.21 Section 580.21 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research? While conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research..., or other uses of the area where you are prospecting or conducting scientific research activities....

  9. 30 CFR 580.21 - What must I do in conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... scientific research? 580.21 Section 580.21 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research? While conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research..., or other uses of the area where you are prospecting or conducting scientific research activities....

  10. Louisiana Clinical Data Research Network: establishing an infrastructure for efficient conduct of clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Khurshid, Anjum; Nauman, Elizabeth; Carton, Tom; Horswell, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The state of Louisiana, like the nation as a whole, is facing the salient challenge of improving population health and efficiency of healthcare delivery. Research to inform innovations in healthcare will best enhance this effort if it is timely, efficient, and patient-centered. The Louisiana Clinical Data Research Network (LACDRN) will increase the capacity to conduct robust comparative effectiveness research by building a health information technology infrastructure that provides access to comprehensive clinical data for more than 1 million patients statewide. To ensure that network-based research best serves its end-users, the project will actively engage patients and providers as key informants and decision-makers in the implementation of LACDRN. The network's patient-centered research agenda will prioritize patients’ and clinicians’ needs and aim to support evidence-based decisions on the healthcare they receive and provide, to optimize patient outcomes and quality of life. PMID:24821735

  11. Conducting Science-Based Psychology Research in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinella, Lisa M., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    What are the common pitfalls experienced by school researchers and how can they be avoided? Edited by Lisa M. Dinella of Monmouth University, "Conducting Science-Based Psychology Research in Schools" includes the collective knowledge of both established and emerging names in the field, providing an unparalleled resource for those interested in…

  12. Challenges in conducting qualitative research in health: A conceptual paper

    PubMed Central

    Khankeh, Hamidreza; Ranjbar, Maryam; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Johansson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Qualitative research focuses on social world and provides the tools to study health phenomena from the perspective of those experiencing them. Identifying the problem, forming the question, and selecting an appropriate methodology and design are some of the initial challenges that researchers encounter in the early stages of any research project. These problems are particularly common for novices. Materials and Methods: This article describes the practical challenges of using qualitative inquiry in the field of health and the challenges of performing an interpretive research based on professional experience as a qualitative researcher and on available literature. Results: One of the main topics discussed is the nature of qualitative research, its inherent challenges, and how to overcome them. Some of those highlighted here include: identification of the research problem, formation of the research question/aim, and selecting an appropriate methodology and research design, which are the main concerns of qualitative researchers and need to be handled properly. Insights from real-life experiences in conducting qualitative research in health reveal these issues. Conclusions: The paper provides personal comments on the experiences of a researcher in conducting pure qualitative research in the field of health. It offers insights into the practical difficulties encountered when performing qualitative studies and offers solutions and alternatives applied by these authors, which may be of use to others. PMID:26793245

  13. 30 CFR 280.21 - What must I do in conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... scientific research? 280.21 Section 280.21 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... prospecting or scientific research? While conducting G&G prospecting or scientific research activities under a... you are prospecting or conducting scientific research activities. (b) Consult and coordinate your...

  14. Conducting Research on Adolescent Suicide Attempters: Dilemmas and Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Berk, Michele; Adrian, Molly; McCauley, Elizabeth; Asarnow, Joan; Avina, Claudia; Linehan, Marsha

    2014-01-01

    Research on effective treatments for adolescent suicide attempters is urgently needed. However, there has been a lack of research in this area. This is likely a result of the multiple challenges faced by investigators working with individuals at high risk of suicide. Based on our experiences conducting a large, randomized clinical trial with adolescent suicide attempters, in this article, we review ways to address these challenges in order to facilitate needed research on suicide prevention in adolescents. PMID:24954969

  15. Inside/out: Challenges of conducting research in lesbian communities.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Michele J

    2016-01-01

    Conducting research within one's own community can present challenges that are rarely addressed by graduate education, articles, or books on research design. Binary notions of insider and outsider are too simplistic; rather insider/outsider positions exist on a continuum. This article explores how the researcher's shifting position affects every aspect of a study of lesbian, bisexual, and/or queer women. Helpful theoretical frameworks include feminist research principles and intersectionality, and the article ends with lessons learned about tackling taboo topics, sensitivity to language, embracing diversity, researcher reputation, and looking upstream for solutions.

  16. Thermopower and conductivity activation energies in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Dyalsingh, H.M.; Kakalios, J.

    1996-12-31

    The long range fluctuation model has been widely used to account for the difference in activation energies seen experimentally in dark conductivity and thermopower measurements in hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The authors report on a test of this model using measurements of the conductivity and thermoelectric effects carried out in both open and short circuit configurations. While the thermopower activation energy is less than that of the dark conductivity, the short circuit Seebeck conductivity is found to be nearly identical to the dark conductivity in both activation energy and magnitude, consistent with the long range fluctuation model.

  17. Conducting qualitative research within Clinical Trials Units: avoiding potential pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Cindy; O'Cathain, Alicia; Hind, Danny; Adamson, Joy; Lawton, Julia; Baird, Wendy

    2014-07-01

    The value of using qualitative research within or alongside randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is becoming more widely accepted. Qualitative research may be conducted concurrently with pilot or full RCTs to understand the feasibility and acceptability of the interventions being tested, or to improve trial conduct. Clinical Trials Units (CTUs) in the United Kingdom (UK) manage large numbers of RCTs and, increasingly, manage the qualitative research or collaborate with qualitative researchers external to the CTU. CTUs are beginning to explicitly manage the process, for example, through the use of standard operating procedures for designing and implementing qualitative research with trials. We reviewed the experiences of two UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC) registered CTUs of conducting qualitative research concurrently with RCTs. Drawing on experiences gained from 15 studies, we identify the potential for the qualitative research to undermine the successful completion or scientific integrity of RCTs. We show that potential problems can arise from feedback of interim or final qualitative findings to members of the trial team or beyond, in particular reporting qualitative findings whilst the trial is on-going. The problems include: We make recommendations for improving the management of qualitative research within CTUs.

  18. Addressing the Challenges of Conducting Research in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Amerson, Roxanne M.; Strang, Cecily W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To explore the unique challenges that occur when conducting research in developing countries so the reader can consider approaches for providing ethically and culturally-appropriate research strategies applicable for the context of the host country. Organizing Construct This article presents an overview of the challenges, which are organized based on the phases of the research period: pre-enrollment, enrollment, and post-enrollment. At each stage, examples of adaptation to meet the challenges are presented and recommendations are posited. Conclusions Strategies for research should protect the rights of the most vulnerable and disadvantaged populations while balancing the needs of society at-large, provide culturally relevant ethical informed consent while balancing institutional review board requirements, and conduct research in a culturally-appropriate manner for the host country while balancing the principles of ethical research established by developed countries. Clinical Relevance Researchers are implored to focus on the ethical and cultural appropriateness of each aspect of the study process to afford the highest level of research credibility and validity. PMID:26444697

  19. Academics Abroad: Conducting Scholarly Research in German Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askey, Dale

    2001-01-01

    Discusses problems encountered in conducting research in German academic libraries. Highlights include a lack of trained librarians with subject expertise who focus on helping users; numerous library catalogs rather than one integrated catalog; and an emphasis on collection preservation that includes closed stacks and restricted circulation. (LRW)

  20. Conducting Action Research in a Practicum: A Student Teacher's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasula, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at my reflection as a teacher during a master's degree practicum for a Second Language Studies Program. This particular practicum differs from the other common student teacher-training courses found in master's programs as it incorporated a teacher-training session on conducting action research (AR) in the classroom, a practice…

  1. The Role of Science Professionals in Teaching Responsible Research Conduct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Stephanie J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the reaction of the scientific community to the issue of responsible conduct in research. Cites the importance of professional standards and ethical values in scientific disciplines and explains that these are not readily learned from observation alone but must be addressed consciously. (DDR)

  2. Challenges Confronting Beginning Researchers in Conducting Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Der-Thanq; Wang, Yu-Mei; Lee, Wei Ching

    2016-01-01

    Conducting literature review is a complicated, sometimes confusing and laborious process that beginning educational researchers, especially graduate students, often find challenging. However, in the past these challenges were hardly considered, but in more recent times they have been increasingly considered by various faculties and graduate…

  3. Conducting Institutional Research Using an Integrated Student Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Michael

    The use of an integrated student information system (ISIS) to conduct institutional research at Trinity University is discussed. The types of data contained in the system, which has 59 files, include: student characteristics, recruitment, financial aid, registration, faculty load, and class scheduling. The data for students, faculty, departments,…

  4. Conducting perception research over the internet: a tutorial review

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, Carlos; Levitan, Carmel A.; Wan, Xiaoang; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the recent literature on the use of internet-based testing to address important questions in perception research. Our goal is to provide a starting point for the perception researcher who is keen on assessing this tool for their own research goals. Internet-based testing has several advantages over in-lab research, including the ability to reach a relatively broad set of participants and to quickly and inexpensively collect large amounts of empirical data, via services such as Amazon’s Mechanical Turk or Prolific Academic. In many cases, the quality of online data appears to match that collected in lab research. Generally-speaking, online participants tend to be more representative of the population at large than those recruited for lab based research. There are, though, some important caveats, when it comes to collecting data online. It is obviously much more difficult to control the exact parameters of stimulus presentation (such as display characteristics) with online research. There are also some thorny ethical elements that need to be considered by experimenters. Strengths and weaknesses of the online approach, relative to others, are highlighted, and recommendations made for those researchers who might be thinking about conducting their own studies using this increasingly-popular approach to research in the psychological sciences. PMID:26244107

  5. International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) Guidelines for the Conduct of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research (December 2006).

    PubMed

    Dickens, Bernard M

    2008-03-01

    The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) Guidelines for the Conduct of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, prepared by an international group of leading stem cell scientists, bioethicists and lawyers, build on the proposals previously drafted by agencies active in the conduct and funding of stem cell science. They aim not to duplicate existing codes of ethics in research with humans or animals, but to address special sensitivities about human embryo research and acquisition of ova, sperm, embryos and somatic tissues from often vulnerable or dependent donors. Guidelines concern the procurement of research materials, the derivation of stem cells, and banking , distribution and use of cells and cell lines derived from pre-implantation stages of human development. They categorize research that on ethical grounds requires special stem cell research oversight (SCRO), and indicate how that should be undertaken. They emphasize international collaboration in these activities, to maximize benefits to humanity.

  6. 30 CFR 580.11 - What must I do before I may conduct scientific research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... research? 580.11 Section 580.11 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF... research activities you want to conduct involve: (1) Using solid or liquid explosives; (2) Drilling a...

  7. 30 CFR 580.11 - What must I do before I may conduct scientific research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... research? 580.11 Section 580.11 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF... research activities you want to conduct involve: (1) Using solid or liquid explosives; (2) Drilling a...

  8. 30 CFR 580.11 - What must I do before I may conduct scientific research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... research? 580.11 Section 580.11 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF... research activities you want to conduct involve: (1) Using solid or liquid explosives; (2) Drilling a...

  9. Aligning Objectives and Assessment in Responsible Conduct of Research Instruction

    PubMed Central

    Antes, Alison L.; DuBois, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to advance research integrity in light of concerns about misbehavior in research rely heavily on education in the responsible conduct of research (RCR). However, there is limited evidence for the effectiveness of RCR instruction as a remedy. Assessment is essential in RCR education if the research community wishes to expend the effort of instructors, students, and trainees wisely. This article presents key considerations that instructors and course directors must consider in aligning learning objectives with instructional methods and assessment measures, and it provides illustrative examples. Above all, in order for RCR educators to assess outcomes more effectively, they must align assessment to their learning objectives and attend to the validity of the measures used. PMID:25574258

  10. Research Trends of Soft Actuators based on Electroactive Polymers and Conducting Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneto, K.

    2016-04-01

    Artificial muscles (or soft actuators) based on electroactive polymers (EAPs) are attractive power sources to drive human-like robots in place of electrical motor, because they are quiet, powerful, light weight and compact. Among EAPs for soft actuators, conducting polymers are superior in strain, stress, deformation form and driving voltage compared with the other EAPs. In this paper, the research trends of EAPs and conducting polymers are reviewed by retrieval of the papers and patents. The research activity of EAP actuators showed the maximum around 2010 and somehow declining now days. The reasons for the reducing activity are found to be partly due to problems of conducting polymer actuators for the practical application. The unique characteristics of conducting polymer actuators are mentioned in terms of the basic mechanisms of actuation, creeping, training effect and shape retention under high tensile loads. The issues and limitation of conducting polymer soft actuators are discussed.

  11. Ethical issues in conducting research with deaf populations.

    PubMed

    McKee, Michael; Schlehofer, Deirdre; Thew, Denise

    2013-12-01

    Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users represent a small population at risk for marginalization from research and surveillance activities resulting from cultural, language, and ethical challenges. The Deaf community's view of deafness as a cultural identity, rather than a disability, contradicts the medical community's perception of deafness as a disease or deficiency in need of correction or elimination. These differences continue to have significant cultural and social implications within the Deaf community, resulting in mistrust of research opportunities. Two particularly contentious ethical topics for the Deaf community are the absence of community representation in genetic research and the lack of accessible informed consents and research materials. This article outlines a series of innovative strategies and solutions to these issues, including the importance of community representation and collaboration with researchers studying deaf populations.

  12. [Conducting your own research: a revised recipe for a clinical research training project].

    PubMed

    Siegerink, Bob; Dekkers, Olaf M; Rosendaal, Frits R

    2015-01-01

    Learning to conduct good research demands a considerable investment in terms of time from a young investigator but this is sometimes difficult to achieve alongside studying or training. In 1989, the Dutch Journal of Medicine (NTvG) printed a 'recipe' for conducting a clinical research training project, which made some recommendations for the successful completion of such a project even with limited time and resources. This article reviews these three recommendations and adds another two. The final recommendations are: limit the research question, conduct a pilot study, write the article before you collect the data, streamline the research process and be accountable.

  13. Active subthreshold dendritic conductances shape the local field potential

    PubMed Central

    Ness, Torbjørn V.; Remme, Michiel W. H.

    2016-01-01

    Key points The local field potential (LFP), the low‐frequency part of extracellular potentials recorded in neural tissue, is often used for probing neural circuit activity. Interpreting the LFP signal is difficult, however.While the cortical LFP is thought mainly to reflect synaptic inputs onto pyramidal neurons, little is known about the role of the various subthreshold active conductances in shaping the LFP.By means of biophysical modelling we obtain a comprehensive qualitative understanding of how the LFP generated by a single pyramidal neuron depends on the type and spatial distribution of active subthreshold currents.For pyramidal neurons, the h‐type channels probably play a key role and can cause a distinct resonance in the LFP power spectrum.Our results show that the LFP signal can give information about the active properties of neurons and imply that preferred frequencies in the LFP can result from those cellular properties instead of, for example, network dynamics. Abstract The main contribution to the local field potential (LFP) is thought to stem from synaptic input to neurons and the ensuing subthreshold dendritic processing. The role of active dendritic conductances in shaping the LFP has received little attention, even though such ion channels are known to affect the subthreshold neuron dynamics. Here we used a modelling approach to investigate the effects of subthreshold dendritic conductances on the LFP. Using a biophysically detailed, experimentally constrained model of a cortical pyramidal neuron, we identified conditions under which subthreshold active conductances are a major factor in shaping the LFP. We found that, in particular, the hyperpolarization‐activated inward current, I h, can have a sizable effect and cause a resonance in the LFP power spectral density. To get a general, qualitative understanding of how any subthreshold active dendritic conductance and its cellular distribution can affect the LFP, we next performed a systematic

  14. 38 CFR 16.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... anticipated scope of the institution's research activities and the types of subject populations likely to be... this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. 16.103 Section 16.103....103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department...

  15. 10 CFR 745.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... IRB in light of the anticipated scope of the institution's research activities and the types of... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or...

  16. 38 CFR 16.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... anticipated scope of the institution's research activities and the types of subject populations likely to be... this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. 16.103 Section 16.103....103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department...

  17. Ethical challenges in conducting clinical research in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tod, Angela M.

    2016-01-01

    The article examines ethical challenges that arise with clinical lung cancer research focusing on design, recruitment, conduct and dissemination. Design: problems related to equipoise can arise in lung cancer studies. Equipoise is an ethics precondition for RCTs and exists where there is insufficient evidence to decide which of two or more treatments is best. Difficulties arise in deciding what level of uncertainty constitutes equipoise and who should be in equipoise, for example, patients might not be even where clinicians are. Patient and public involvement (PPI) can reduce but not remove the problems. Recruitment: (I) lung cancer studies can be complex, making it difficult to obtain good quality consent. Some techniques can help, such as continuous consent. But researchers should not expect consent to be the sole protection for participants’ welfare. This protection is primarily done elsewhere in the research process, for example, in ethics review; (II) the problem of desperate volunteers: some patients only consent to a trial because it gives them a 50/50 option of the treatment they want and can be disappointed or upset if randomised to the other arm. This is not necessarily unfair, given clinical equipoise. However, it should be avoided where possible, for example, by using alternative trial designs; (III) the so-called problem of therapeutic misconception: this is the idea that patients are mistaken if they enter trials believing this to be in their clinical best interest. We argue the problem is misconceived and relates only to certain health systems. Conduct: lung cancer trials face standard ethical challenges with regard to trial conduct. PPI could be used in decisions about criteria for stopping rules. Dissemination: as in other trial areas, it is important that all results, including negative ones, are reported. We argue also that the role of PPI with regard to dissemination is currently under-developed. PMID:27413698

  18. An Integrated Extravehicular Activity Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Book is already performed annually. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of: Benchmarking; Anthropometry and Suit Fit; Sensors; Human

  19. Exploring the Challenges of Conducting Respectful Research: Seen and Unforeseen Factors within Urban School Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samaroo, Julia; Dahya, Negin; Alidina, Shahnaaz

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of conducting respectful research within urban schools, using the example of one large-scale university-school board partnership in northwestern Toronto. The authors, three research assistants on the project, use their experiences within three of the participating schools to interrogate the research approach…

  20. Possible conduction mechanisms in coconut-shell activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, W. M.; Badri, M.; Mansor, H.

    1990-02-01

    This work reports on the result of electrical conductivity measurements carried out on coconut-shell activated carbon. The results suggest that the charge carriers moved by variable-range hopping below 200 K, by hopping among localized energy states between 200 K and 385 K, and by percolation through energy states close to the mobility edge above 385 K. In the latter two conduction processes, significant additional frequency-dependent contributions to the conductivity were observed and are tentatively attributed to polarization of unremovable lignin and/or ionic impurities. These explanations are based on the present trends of the electrical transport theory for amorphous semiconductors.

  1. Conducting Online Behavioral Research Using Crowdsourcing Services in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Majima, Yoshimasa; Nishiyama, Kaoru; Nishihara, Aki; Hata, Ryosuke

    2017-01-01

    Recent research on human behavior has often collected empirical data from the online labor market, through a process known as crowdsourcing. As well as the United States and the major European countries, there are several crowdsourcing services in Japan. For research purpose, Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is the widely used platform among those services. Previous validation studies have shown many commonalities between MTurk workers and participants from traditional samples based on not only personality but also performance on reasoning tasks. The present study aims to extend these findings to non-MTurk (i.e., Japanese) crowdsourcing samples in which workers have different ethnic backgrounds from those of MTurk. We conducted three surveys (N = 426, 453, 167, respectively) designed to compare Japanese crowdsourcing workers and university students in terms of their demographics, personality traits, reasoning skills, and attention to instructions. The results generally align with previous studies and suggest that non-MTurk participants are also eligible for behavioral research. Furthermore, small screen devices are found to impair participants' attention to instructions. Several recommendations concerning this sample are presented. PMID:28382006

  2. Research Review: DSM-V Conduct Disorder--Research Needs for an Evidence Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise; Jaffee, Sara R.; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Koenen, Karestan C.; Odgers, Candice L.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Viding, Essi

    2008-01-01

    This article charts a strategic research course toward an empirical foundation for the diagnosis of conduct disorder in the forthcoming DSM-V. Since the DSM-IV appeared in 1994, an impressive amount of new information about conduct disorder has emerged. As a result of this new knowledge, reasonable rationales have been put forward for adding to…

  3. Community Researchers Conducting Health Disparities Research: Ethical and other insights from fieldwork journaling

    PubMed Central

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Ahmed, Rashid; Daniels, Doria; Simon, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Lay persons who are trained to conduct research in their own communities form an essential part of many research projects. However, the effects of conducting research in their own communities have not been adequately explored. This paper examines the experiences, perceptions, and challenges faced by a group of community researchers during their involvement in a research project that examined if, and how, the relationships between mothers and their adolescent daughters could be harnessed to develop a daughter-initiated cervical cancer intervention. Seven community researchers interviewed 157 mother-daughter pairs in Cape Town, South Africa. We examine the use of journaling as a tool to document the experiences of community researchers, and we consider how journaling may help the community-based researcher grapple with the research process, and, more broadly, what such journal content illustrates with respect to the nature and challenges of community-engaged health research. An analysis of the content of the journals provides a strong indication of how personal and intimate the research process can be for community researchers by virtue of the background that they bring into the process as well as the additional weight of the research process itself. The complexities of navigating dual and somewhat oppositional roles – the role of impartial scientist or researcher and the role of invested community person - has been both underestimated and insufficiently researched. PMID:21680071

  4. Research as Profession and Practice: Frameworks for Guiding the Responsible Conduct of Research.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiin-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Programs in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) vary between institutions, demonstrated by disparate structures and goals. These variations may be attributed to the absence of grounding frameworks within which to examine research and RCR education programs. This article examines research as a practice and a profession, using these frames to draw out defining features of research and the moral obligations entailed. Situating research within virtue ethics can clarify how researchers might cultivate the virtues necessary for meeting its obligations and aims. By elucidating these features, these perspectives can serve to guide the development of RCR education programs.

  5. Technology Commercialization Effects on the Conduct of Research in Higher Education

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Joshua B.; Campbell, Eric G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of technology commercialization on researcher practice and productivity at U.S. universities. Using data drawn from licensing contract documents and databases of university-industry linkages and faculty research output, the study findings suggest that the common practice of licensing technologies exclusively to singular firms may have a dampening effect on faculty inventor propensity to conduct published research and to collaborate with others on research. Furthermore, faculty who are more actively engaged in patenting may be less likely to collaborate with outsiders on research while faculty at public universities may experience particularly strong norms to engage in commercialization vis-à-vis traditional routes to research dissemination. These circumstances appear to be hindering innovation via the traditional mechanisms (research publication and collaboration), questioning the success of policymaking to date for the purpose of speeding the movement of research from the lab bench to society. PMID:22427717

  6. 45 CFR 46.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... IRB in light of the anticipated scope of the institution's research activities and the types of... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assuring compliance with this policy-research... Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted...

  7. Occupational Safety and Health Activities Conducted across Countries in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Keun; Khai, Ton T.

    2015-01-01

    Three occupational safety and health (OSH) activities, one international and two national workshops, were documented as part of OSH activities conducted under the International Labor Organization/Korea Partnership Program in the year 2011–2012. This study aimed to provide information on what the three OSH activities were implemented and how they contributed to the improvement of OSH in Asian countries. The international workshop was useful for the participants to understand a variety of information on OSH as well as participatory action-oriented training (PAOT) approaches at the regional and global levels. The two national workshops were practical for participants to strengthen their knowledge and skills on the PAOT at the enterprise and national levels. The study shows that the three OSH activities contributed to the understanding of the participants on OSH and PAOT, and that the activities promoted the improvement of OSH across countries in Asia. PMID:26106515

  8. Occupational Safety and Health Activities Conducted across Countries in Asia.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Keun; Khai, Ton T

    2015-06-01

    Three occupational safety and health (OSH) activities, one international and two national workshops, were documented as part of OSH activities conducted under the International Labor Organization/Korea Partnership Program in the year 2011-2012. This study aimed to provide information on what the three OSH activities were implemented and how they contributed to the improvement of OSH in Asian countries. The international workshop was useful for the participants to understand a variety of information on OSH as well as participatory action-oriented training (PAOT) approaches at the regional and global levels. The two national workshops were practical for participants to strengthen their knowledge and skills on the PAOT at the enterprise and national levels. The study shows that the three OSH activities contributed to the understanding of the participants on OSH and PAOT, and that the activities promoted the improvement of OSH across countries in Asia.

  9. Conducting Original, Hands-On Astronomical Research in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corneau, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    teachers to convey moderately complex computer science, optical, geographic, mathematical, informational and physical principles through hands-on telescope operations. In addition to the general studies aspects of classroom internet-based astronomy, Tzec Maun supports real science by enabling operators precisely point telescopes and acquire extremely faint, magnitude 19+ CCD images. Thanks to the creative Team of Photometrica (photometrica.org), my teams now have the ability to process and analyze images online and produce results in short order. Normally, astronomical data analysis packages cost greater than thousands of dollars for single license operations. Free to my team members, Photometrica allows students to upload their data to a cloud computing server and read precise photometric and/or astrometric results. I’m indebted to Michael and Geir for their support. The efficacy of student-based research is well documented. The Council on Undergraduate Research defines student research as, "an inquiry or investigation conducted by an undergraduate that makes an original intellectual or creative contribution to the discipline." (http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/studentresearch/What. Teaching from Tzec Maun in the classroom is the most original teaching research I can imagine. I very much look forward to presenting this program to the convened body.

  10. ATPase activity of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Ramjeesingh, M; Wang, W; Garami, E; Hewryk, M; Lee, D; Rommens, J M; Galley, K; Bear, C E

    1996-11-08

    The gene mutated in cystic fibrosis codes for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cyclic AMP-activated chloride channel thought to be critical for salt and water transport by epithelial cells. Plausible models exist to describe a role for ATP hydrolysis in CFTR channel activity; however, biochemical evidence that CFTR possesses intrinsic ATPase activity is lacking. In this study, we report the first measurements of the rate of ATP hydrolysis by purified, reconstituted CFTR. The mutation CFTRG551D resides within a motif conserved in many nucleotidases and is known to cause severe human disease. Following reconstitution the mutant protein exhibited both defective ATP hydrolysis and channel gating, providing direct evidence that CFTR utilizes ATP to gate its channel activity.

  11. Research Review: DSM-V conduct disorder: research needs for an evidence base

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise; Jaffee, Sara R.; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Koenen, Karestan C.; Odgers, Candice L.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Viding, Essi

    2009-01-01

    This article charts a strategic research course toward an empirical foundation for the diagnosis of conduct disorder in the forthcoming DSM-V. Since the DSM-IV appeared in 1994, an impressive amount of new information about conduct disorder has emerged. As a result of this new knowledge, reasonable rationales have been put forward for adding to the conduct disorder diagnostic protocol: a childhood-limited subtype, family psychiatric history, callous-unemotional traits, female-specific criteria, preschool-specific criteria, early substance use, and biomarkers from genetics, neuroimaging, and physiology research. This article reviews the evidence for these and other potential changes to the conduct disorder diagnosis. We report that although there is a great deal of exciting research into each of the topics, very little of it provides the precise sort of evidence base required to justify any alteration to the DSM-V. We outline specific research questions and study designs needed to build the lacking evidence base for or against proposed changes to DSM-V conduct disorder. PMID:18181878

  12. Research review: DSM-V conduct disorder: research needs for an evidence base.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise; Jaffee, Sara R; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Koenen, Karestan C; Odgers, Candice L; Slutske, Wendy S; Viding, Essi

    2008-01-01

    This article charts a strategic research course toward an empirical foundation for the diagnosis of conduct disorder in the forthcoming DSM-V. Since the DSM-IV appeared in 1994, an impressive amount of new information about conduct disorder has emerged. As a result of this new knowledge, reasonable rationales have been put forward for adding to the conduct disorder diagnostic protocol: a childhood-limited subtype, family psychiatric history, callous-unemotional traits, female-specific criteria, preschool-specific criteria, early substance use, and biomarkers from genetics, neuroimaging, and physiology research. This article reviews the evidence for these and other potential changes to the conduct disorder diagnosis. We report that although there is a great deal of exciting research into each of the topics, very little of it provides the precise sort of evidence base required to justify any alteration to the DSM-V. We outline specific research questions and study designs needed to build the lacking evidence base for or against proposed changes to DSM-V conduct disorder.

  13. Education Research in Australia: Where Is It Conducted?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobis, Janette; Shore, Sue; Bennett, Dawn; Bennett, Sue; Chan, Phillip; Harrison, Neil; Seddon, Terri

    2013-01-01

    Research assessment exercises aim to identify research quantity and quality and provide insights into research capacity building strategies for the future. Yet with limited knowledge of the ecology of Australian educational research, there is little chance of understanding what research audits might contribute towards a capacity building agenda…

  14. Conducting Qualitative Research: A Practical Guide for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farber, Nancy K.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the concept of school counselor as researcher. Qualitative research is defined, explained, and differentiated from quantitative research. School counselor questions that lend themselves to qualitative research are explored. The article also discusses the steps of qualitative research in depth, including developing questions,…

  15. Oxidative Regulation of Large Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiang D.; Daggett, Heather; Hanner, Markus; Garcia, Maria L.; McManus, Owen B.; Brot, Nathan; Weissbach, Herbert; Heinemann, Stefan H.; Hoshi, Toshinori

    2001-01-01

    Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species are readily generated in vivo, playing roles in many physiological and pathological conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, by oxidatively modifying various proteins. Previous studies indicate that large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BKCa or Slo) are subject to redox regulation. However, conflicting results exist whether oxidation increases or decreases the channel activity. We used chloramine-T, which preferentially oxidizes methionine, to examine the functional consequences of methionine oxidation in the cloned human Slo (hSlo) channel expressed in mammalian cells. In the virtual absence of Ca2+, the oxidant shifted the steady-state macroscopic conductance to a more negative direction and slowed deactivation. The results obtained suggest that oxidation enhances specific voltage-dependent opening transitions and slows the rate-limiting closing transition. Enhancement of the hSlo activity was partially reversed by the enzyme peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase, suggesting that the upregulation is mediated by methionine oxidation. In contrast, hydrogen peroxide and cysteine-specific reagents, DTNB, MTSEA, and PCMB, decreased the channel activity. Chloramine-T was much less effective when concurrently applied with the K+ channel blocker TEA, which is consistent with the possibility that the target methionine lies within the channel pore. Regulation of the Slo channel by methionine oxidation may represent an important link between cellular electrical excitability and metabolism. PMID:11222629

  16. Conducting Intervention Research among Underserved Populations: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Pyatak, Elizabeth A.; Blanche, Erna I.; Garber, Susan L.; Diaz, Jesus; Blanchard, Jeanine; Florindez, Lucia; Clark, Florence A.

    2013-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard in research design for establishing treatment efficacy. However, the rigorous and highly controlled conditions of RCTs can be difficult to attain when conducting research among individuals living with a confluence of disability, low socioeconomic status, and being a member of a racial/ethnic minority group, who may be more likely to have unstable life circumstances. Research on effective interventions for these groups is urgently needed, as evidence regarding approaches to reduce health disparities and improve health outcomes is lacking. In this methodological paper we discuss the challenges and lessons learned in implementing the Lifestyle Redesign® for Pressure Ulcer Prevention in Spinal Cord Injury (LR-PUPS) study among a highly disadvantaged population. These issues are discussed in terms of strategies to enhance recruitment, retention, and intervention relevance to the target population. Recommendations for researchers seeking to conduct RCTs among socioeconomically disadvantaged, ethnically diverse populations are provided. PMID:23262157

  17. Research and Development. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    Research and Development is a laboratory-oriented course that includes the appropriate common essential elements for industrial technology education plus concepts and skills related to research and development. This guide provides teachers of the course with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an…

  18. 48 CFR 32.202-3 - Conducting market research about financing terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conducting market research... 32.202-3 Conducting market research about financing terms. Contract financing may be a subject included in the market research conducted in accordance with part 10. If market research for...

  19. Two Sides of an Orange: The Conduct of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Ronald N.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that researchers must adopt different personas when looking for research support and when researching: one demands business skills, the other requires interpersonal skills. Discusses issues associated with identifying and securing grant money, and aspects of doing qualitative research. Suggests future problems of compatibility between…

  20. An overview of Japanese CELSS research activities.

    PubMed

    Nitta, K

    1987-01-01

    Many research activities regarding Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) have been conducted and continued all over the world since the 1960's and the concept of CELSS is now changing from Science Fiction to Scientific Reality. Development of CELSS technology is inevitable for future long duration stays of human beings in space, for lunar base construction and for manned mars flight programs. CELSS functions can be divided into two categories, Environment Control and Material Recycling. Temperature, humidity, total atmospheric pressure and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, necessary for all living things, are to be controlled by the environment control function. This function can be performed by technologies already developed and used as the Environment Control Life Support System (ECLSS) of Space Shuttle and Space Station. As for material recycling, matured technologies have not yet been established for fully satisfying the specific metabolic requirements of each living thing including human beings. Therefore, research activities for establishing CELSS technology should be focused on material recycling technologies using biological systems such as plants and animals and physico-chemical systems, for example, a gas recycling system, a water purifying and recycling system and a waste management system. Based on these considerations, Japanese research activities have been conducted and will be continued under the tentative guideline of CELSS research activities as shown in documents /1/, /2/. The status of the over all activities are discussed in this paper.

  1. An overview of Japanese CELSS research activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Keiji

    Many research activities regarding Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) have been conducted and continued all over the world since the 1960's and the concept of CELSS is now changing from Science Fiction to Scientific Reality. Development of CELSS technology is inevitable for future long duration stays of human beings in space, for lunar base construction and for manned mars flight programs. CELSS functions can be divided into two categories, Environment Control and Material Recycling. Temperature, humidity, total atmospheric pressure and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, necessary for all living things, are to be controlled by the environment control function. This function can be performed by technologies already developed and used as the Environment Control Life Support System (ECLSS) of Space Shuttle and Space Station. As for material recycling, matured technologies have not yet been established for fully satisfying the specific metabolic requirements of each living thing including human beings. Therefore, research activities for establishing CELSS technology should be focused on material recycling technologies using biological systems such as plants and animals and physico-chemical systems, for example, a gas recycling system, a water purifying and recycling system and a waste management system. Based on these considerations, Japanese research activities have been conducted and will be continued under the tentative guideline of CELSS research activities as shown in documents /1/,/2/. The status of the over all activities are discussed in this paper.

  2. Conducting polymer transistors making use of activated carbon gate electrodes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hao; Kumar, Prajwal; Zhang, Shiming; Yi, Zhihui; Crescenzo, Gregory De; Santato, Clara; Soavi, Francesca; Cicoira, Fabio

    2015-01-14

    The characteristics of the gate electrode have significant effects on the behavior of organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs), which are intensively investigated for applications in the booming field of organic bioelectronics. In this work, high specific surface area activated carbon (AC) was used as gate electrode material in OECTs based on the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS). We found that the high specific capacitance of the AC gate electrodes leads to high drain-source current modulation in OECTs, while their intrinsic quasi-reference characteristics make unnecessary the presence of an additional reference electrode to monitor the OECT channel potential.

  3. 32 CFR 219.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... IRB in light of the anticipated scope of the institution's research activities and the types of... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assuring compliance with this policy-research... HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by...

  4. A Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Approach to Conducting Scientific Inquiry Activities in a Science Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chu, Hui-Chun; Kinshuk; Chen, Chieh-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Fostering students' scientific inquiry competence has been recognised as being an important and challenging objective of science education. To strengthen the understanding of science theories or notations, researchers have suggested conducting some learning activities in the field via operating relevant devices. In a traditional infield scientific…

  5. Research Agenda: The Effects of Responsible-Conduct-of-Research Training on Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Michael W; Plemmons, Dena K

    2015-12-01

    Requirements for training in responsible conduct of research have significantly increased over the past 25 years, despite the absence of evidence for a substantial impact. One of the challenges has been to choose among the many possible goals that might define outcomes. Although much of the focus of research has been on changes in knowledge or skills, a case can be made that attitudes and perceptions are at least as important. Based on a recently completed pilot study, the authors propose several areas for research to clarify not only what but also how attitudes and perceptions would be usefully assessed.

  6. Hierarchical nanostructured conducting polymer hydrogel with high electrochemical activity

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Lijia; Yu, Guihua; Zhai, Dongyuan; Lee, Hye Ryoung; Zhao, Wenting; Liu, Nian; Wang, Huiliang; Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Shi, Yi; Cui, Yi; Bao, Zhenan

    2012-01-01

    Conducting polymer hydrogels represent a unique class of materials that synergizes the advantageous features of hydrogels and organic conductors and have been used in many applications such as bioelectronics and energy storage devices. They are often synthesized by polymerizing conductive polymer monomer within a nonconducting hydrogel matrix, resulting in deterioration of their electrical properties. Here, we report a scalable and versatile synthesis of multifunctional polyaniline (PAni) hydrogel with excellent electronic conductivity and electrochemical properties. With high surface area and three-dimensional porous nanostructures, the PAni hydrogels demonstrated potential as high-performance supercapacitor electrodes with high specific capacitance (∼480 F·g-1), unprecedented rate capability, and cycling stability (∼83% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles). The PAni hydrogels can also function as the active component of glucose oxidase sensors with fast response time (∼0.3 s) and superior sensitivity (∼16.7 μA·mM-1). The scalable synthesis and excellent electrode performance of the PAni hydrogel make it an attractive candidate for bioelectronics and future-generation energy storage electrodes. PMID:22645374

  7. Apparel Merchandising Students Learn Customer Service Strategies while Conducting Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulins, V, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Apparel merchandising students participated in a cooperative research project in which they observed customer service techniques by posing as customers in retail stores. The project taught research processes, collaboration, and principles of customer service. (SK)

  8. Massachusetts Students Receive EPA Money to Conduct Environmental Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency gave STAR Awards to two doctoral students in Massachusetts for environmental research. Each doctoral student will receive up to $132,000 to support their graduate research and studies.

  9. Connecticut Students Receive EPA Money to Conduct Environmental Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently gave STAR Awards to four doctoral students in Connecticut for environmental research. Each doctoral student will receive up to $132,000 to support their graduate research and studies.

  10. On the Conduct of Site Relations in Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Susan C.; Packard, John S.

    1981-01-01

    Describes efforts undertaken as part of a large scale research project to engage schools and school personnel to participate as research subjects. Identifies planning, staffing, access, formalization, maintenance of participation, and dissemination of research findings to the participating organization or individuals as critical concerns for site…

  11. [Research activities in Kobe-Indonesia Collaborative Research Centers].

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Takako; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Hotta, Hak

    2013-01-01

    Kobe-Indonesia Collaborative Research Center was established in Institute of Tropical Disease (ITD), Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia in 2007 under the program of ''Founding Research Centers for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases'' supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, and then it has been under the Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases (J-GRID) since 2010. Japanese researchers have been stationed at ITD, conducting joint researches on influenza, viral hepatitis, dengue and infectious diarrhea. Also, another Japanese researcher has been stationed at Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, carrying out joint researches on'' Identification of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) substances and development of HCV and dengue vaccines'' in collaboration with University of Indonesia and Airlangga University through the Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS) supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) since 2009. In this article, we briefly introduce the background history of Kobe University Research Center in Indonesia, and discuss the research themes and outcomes of J-GRID and SATREPS activities.

  12. Activities report of PTT Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In the field of postal infrastructure research, activities were performed on postcode readers, radiolabels, and techniques of operations research and artificial intelligence. In the field of telecommunication, transportation, and information, research was made on multipurpose coding schemes, speech recognition, hypertext, a multimedia information server, security of electronic data interchange, document retrieval, improvement of the quality of user interfaces, domotics living support (techniques), and standardization of telecommunication prototcols. In the field of telecommunication infrastructure and provisions research, activities were performed on universal personal telecommunications, advanced broadband network technologies, coherent techniques, measurement of audio quality, near field facilities, local beam communication, local area networks, network security, coupling of broadband and narrowband integrated services digital networks, digital mapping, and standardization of protocols.

  13. 40 CFR 26.1303 - Submission of information pertaining to ethical conduct of completed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ethical conduct of completed human research. 26.1303 Section 26.1303 Protection of Environment... on the Ethical Conduct of Completed Human Research § 26.1303 Submission of information pertaining to ethical conduct of completed human research. Any person who submits to EPA data derived from...

  14. 40 CFR 26.1303 - Submission of information pertaining to ethical conduct of completed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ethical conduct of completed human research. 26.1303 Section 26.1303 Protection of Environment... on the Ethical Conduct of Completed Human Research § 26.1303 Submission of information pertaining to ethical conduct of completed human research. Any person who submits to EPA data derived from...

  15. 40 CFR 26.1303 - Submission of information pertaining to ethical conduct of completed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ethical conduct of completed human research. 26.1303 Section 26.1303 Protection of Environment... on the Ethical Conduct of Completed Human Research § 26.1303 Submission of information pertaining to ethical conduct of completed human research. Any person who submits to EPA data derived from...

  16. 40 CFR 26.1303 - Submission of information pertaining to ethical conduct of completed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ethical conduct of completed human research. 26.1303 Section 26.1303 Protection of Environment... on the Ethical Conduct of Completed Human Research § 26.1303 Submission of information pertaining to ethical conduct of completed human research. Any person who submits to EPA data derived from...

  17. 40 CFR 26.1303 - Submission of information pertaining to ethical conduct of completed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ethical conduct of completed human research. 26.1303 Section 26.1303 Protection of Environment... on the Ethical Conduct of Completed Human Research § 26.1303 Submission of information pertaining to ethical conduct of completed human research. Any person who submits to EPA data derived from...

  18. Conducting-polymer-driven actively shaped propellers and screws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, John D.; Schmid, Bryan; Lafontaine, Serge R.; Madden, Peter G. A.; Hover, Franz S.; McLetchie, Karl; Hunter, Ian W.

    2003-07-01

    Conducting polymer actuators are employed to create actively shaped hydrodynamic foils. The active foils are designed to allow control over camber, much like the ailerons of an airplane wing. Control of camber promises to enable variable thrust in propellers and screws, increased maneuverability, and improved stealth. The design and fabrication of the active foils are presented, the forces are measured and operation is demonstrated both in still air and water. The foils have a "wing" span of 240 mm, and an average chord length (width) of 70 mm. The trailing 30 mm of the foil is composed of a thin polypyrrole actuator that curls chordwise to achieve variable camber. The actuator consists of two 30 μm thick sheets of hexafluorophosphate doped polypyrrole separated from each other by a gel electrolyte. A polymer layer encapsulates the entire structure. Potentials are applied between the polymer layers to induce reversible bending by approximately 35 degrees, and generating forces of 0.15 N. These forces and displacements are expected to enable operation in water at flow rates of > 1 m/s and ~ 30 m/s in air.

  19. Responsible conduct of radiology research. Part V. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and research.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew S; Gonzales, Marcia N; Bizila, Shelley

    2005-12-01

    For the past 5 years, the regulatory environment for research involving humans has been turbulent, with criticism coming from the federal government, the academic community, and the press. The purpose of this series of articles is to explain the ethical and legal bases for responsible conduct of radiology research and the rules that an investigator must follow. The purpose of this fifth part of the series is to explain the requirements of the Privacy Rule, which is a component of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), as they relate to human research. Under the HIPAA Privacy Rule, researchers within covered entities must follow appropriate methods as they use or disclose protected health information (PHI). Investigators should know the conditions under which PHI may be accessed for research purposes (ie, with authorization or waiver of authorization, when only a limited data set is evaluated, if data have been de-identified, or in reviews preparatory to research). Furthermore, researchers should know which information, such as the Notice of Privacy Practices and the Accounting of Disclosures, must be provided to potential subjects, when appropriate. At the conclusion of this article, several scenarios related to various types of radiology research and related regulatory requirements are presented.

  20. Using Phenomenology to Conduct Environmental Education Research: Experience and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazir, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Recently, I applied a phenomenological methodology to study environmental education at an outdoor education center. In this article, I reflect on my experience of doing phenomenological research to highlight issues researchers may want to consider in using this type of methodology. The main premise of the article is that phenomenology, with its…

  1. On the Conduct of Site Relations in Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Susan C.; And Others

    Schools are often reluctant to be watched or studied, especially when their interests do not coincide with those of researchers. The development of good site relations can improve the chances of successful data gathering in such circumstances. In addition to acting with courtesy and respect, research teams can organize their site relations…

  2. Three-dimensional numerical simulations for activated hopping conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Dan S.; Shegelski, Mark R. A.

    1988-07-01

    We model hopping conduction in a three-dimensional, lightly doped compensated semiconductor using a Miller-Abrahams-type resistor network. A flat density of states of width Δɛ is used. We work with the full expression for the resistances instead of the T-->0 asymptotic form usually employed. We report the first detailed numerical calculations of the overall resistance of a three-dimensional resistor network using this full expression. We find a temperature regime where the hopping conduction has a ratio of activation energy to bandwidth ɛ~3=ɛ3/Δɛ=0.217(8). This value agrees with the analytically determined value calculated by Shegelski and Barrie (SB), and disagrees with results reported by other workers, thereby validating SB's analytic theory and their claim that the full expression for the resistor network should be used in calculations of ɛ~3. An investigation is made into the dependence of ɛ~3 on Δɛ we find, in qualitative agreement with SB, that ɛ~3 decreases with Δɛ and we present improved values for ɛ~3 as a function of Δɛ.

  3. Electrically conductive and optically active porous silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yongquan; Liao, Lei; Li, Yujing; Zhang, Hua; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2009-12-01

    We report the synthesis of vertical silicon nanowire array through a two-step metal-assisted chemical etching of highly doped n-type silicon (100) wafers in a solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The morphology of the as-grown silicon nanowires is tunable from solid nonporous nanowires, nonporous/nanoporous core/shell nanowires, to entirely nanoporous nanowires by controlling the hydrogen peroxide concentration in the etching solution. The porous silicon nanowires retain the single crystalline structure and crystallographic orientation of the starting silicon wafer and are electrically conductive and optically active with visible photoluminescence. The combination of electronic and optical properties in the porous silicon nanowires may provide a platform for novel optoelectronic devices for energy harvesting, conversion, and biosensing.

  4. Transparent electrical conducting films by activated reactive evaporation

    DOEpatents

    Bunshah, R.; Nath, P.

    1982-06-22

    Process and apparatus for producing transparent electrical conducting thin films by activated reactive evaporation is disclosed. Thin films of low melting point metals and alloys, such as indium oxide and indium oxide doped with tin, are produced by physical vapor deposition. The metal or alloy is vaporized by electrical resistance heating in a vacuum chamber, oxygen and an inert gas such as argon are introduced into the chamber, and vapor and gas are ionized by a beam of low energy electrons in a reaction zone between the resistance heater and the substrate. There is a reaction between the ionized oxygen and the metal vapor resulting in the metal oxide which deposits on the substrate as a thin film which is ready for use without requiring post deposition heat treatment. 1 fig.

  5. Transparent electrical conducting films by activated reactive evaporation

    DOEpatents

    Bunshah, Rointan; Nath, Prem

    1982-01-01

    Process and apparatus for producing transparent electrical conducting thin films by activated reactive evaporation. Thin films of low melting point metals and alloys, such as indium oxide and indium oxide doped with tin, are produced by physical vapor deposition. The metal or alloy is vaporized by electrical resistance heating in a vacuum chamber, oxygen and an inert gas such as argon are introduced into the chamber, and vapor and gas are ionized by a beam of low energy electrons in a reaction zone between the resistance heater and the substrate. There is a reaction between the ionized oxygen and the metal vapor resulting in the metal oxide which deposits on the substrate as a thin film which is ready for use without requiring post deposition heat treatment.

  6. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Understandings of Classroom Research and the Problems in Conducting Classroom Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantarakantee, Ekgapoom; Roadrangka, Vantipa; Clarke, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This research paper explores pre-service science teachers' understandings of classroom research, problems in conducting classroom research and the supports that pre-service science teachers need from their cooperating teachers to help them conduct a classroom research project during the internship period. The participants in this study are 19…

  7. Sources of Evidence for Conducting Research in Geography Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catling, Simon

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a number of sources for use in research in geographical education. Sources within and beyond geographical education are noted, with examples of the range of sources that can be called upon.

  8. Barriers to conducting clinical research in reproductive medicine: Latin America.

    PubMed

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Societies in Latin America are not scientifically driven and therefore, the allocation of human and economic resources to research is meager, as a reflection of this as well as other cultural and economic realities.

  9. An image database management system for conducting CAD research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruszauskas, Nicholas; Drukker, Karen; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2007-03-01

    The development of image databases for CAD research is not a trivial task. The collection and management of images and their related metadata from multiple sources is a time-consuming but necessary process. By standardizing and centralizing the methods in which these data are maintained, one can generate subsets of a larger database that match the specific criteria needed for a particular research project in a quick and efficient manner. A research-oriented management system of this type is highly desirable in a multi-modality CAD research environment. An online, webbased database system for the storage and management of research-specific medical image metadata was designed for use with four modalities of breast imaging: screen-film mammography, full-field digital mammography, breast ultrasound and breast MRI. The system was designed to consolidate data from multiple clinical sources and provide the user with the ability to anonymize the data. Input concerning the type of data to be stored as well as desired searchable parameters was solicited from researchers in each modality. The backbone of the database was created using MySQL. A robust and easy-to-use interface for entering, removing, modifying and searching information in the database was created using HTML and PHP. This standardized system can be accessed using any modern web-browsing software and is fundamental for our various research projects on computer-aided detection, diagnosis, cancer risk assessment, multimodality lesion assessment, and prognosis. Our CAD database system stores large amounts of research-related metadata and successfully generates subsets of cases that match the user's desired search criteria.

  10. Research to Practice: Implementing Physical Activity Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sally M.; Cruz, Theresa H.; Kozoll, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dissemination and implementation (D&I) science focuses on bridging the gap between research and practice. The Community Preventive Services Task Force (CPSTF) published recommendations for increasing physical activity based on scientific review and consensus. Little research on the D&I of these recommendations has been conducted in under-represented populations at high risk for inactivity and chronic disease. Methods Partnering with one rural community (beta site), the University of New Mexico Prevention Research Center studied the translation of CPSTF recommendations to practice. Strategies for increasing physical activity were selected, implemented, and analyzed in 2009 to 2013. Participant observations; content analysis of meeting minutes, field notes, and other documents; and in-depth interviews were conducted over the 5-year period to identify factors important for carrying out the CPSTF recommendations for physical activity in a rural New Mexico community. Results Included among the implementation outcomes were new sidewalks and trails, a community-wide campaign, social support of walking, and park improvements. The following factors were identified as important to the implementation process: an active community-academic partnership; multiple partners; culturally appropriate strategies; and approaches that fit local context and place characteristics (topography, land ownership, population clusters, existing roadways). Conclusions This study illustrates how evidence can be translated to practice and identifies key factors in that process. The successful beta model provides a practical blueprint for D&I in rural, under-represented populations. This model is currently being disseminated (scaled up) to other rural New Mexico communities. PMID:28215385

  11. Conducting Art Therapy Research Using Quantitative EEG Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belkofer, Christopher M.; Konopka, Lukasz M.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a modified, single subject design that measured the patterns of electrical activity of a participant's brain following an hour spent painting and drawing. Paired t tests were used to compare pre and post art-making electroencephalograph (EEG) data. The results indicated that neurobiological activity after drawing and painting…

  12. Building capacity for the conduct of nursing research at a Veterans Administration hospital.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Cynthia H; Schumacher, Sandra; Roiland, Rachel; Royer, Heather; Roberts, Tonya

    2015-05-01

    Evidence is the bedrock of nursing practice, and nursing research is the key source for this evidence. In this article, we draw distinctions between the use and the conduct of nursing research and provide a perspective for how the conduct of nursing research in a Veterans Administration hospital can build an organization's capacity for nursing research.

  13. Recent researches concerning the obtaining of functional textiles based on conductive yarns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, A. L.; Manea, L. R.; Hristian, L.

    2016-08-01

    Modem textile industry is influenced both by consumers' lifestyle and by novel materials. Functional textiles can be included into the group of technical textiles. The functional activity can be shortly interpreted as "sense - react - adapt" to the environment while traditional materials meet only passive protective role, a barrier between body and environment. Functional materials cross the conventional limits because they are designed for specific performances, being part of domains as: telemedicine, medicine, aeronautics, biotechnology, nanotechnology, protective clothes, sportswear, etc. This paper highlights the most recent developments in the field of using conductive yarns for obtaining functional textiles. Conductive fabrics can be done by incorporating into the textile structure the conductive fibers / yarns. The technologies differ from embroidering, sewing, weaving, knitting to braiding and obtaining nonwovens. The conductive fabrics production has a quickly growth because it is a high demand for these textiles used for data transfer in clothing, monitoring vital signs, germ-free garments, brain-computer interface, etc. Nowadays it is of high interest surface treatments of fibers/yarns which can be considered as a novel kind of textile finishing. There are presented some researches related to obtaining conductive yarns by coating PET and PP yarns with PANi conductive polymer.

  14. Conducting HIV Research in Racial and Ethnic Minority Communities: Building a Successful Interdisciplinary Research Team

    PubMed Central

    Polanco, Frinny R.; Dominguez, Dinora C.; Grady, Christine; Stoll, Pamela; Ramos, Catalina; Mican, JoAnn M.; Miranda-Acevedo, Robert; Morgan, Marcela; Aizvera, Jeasmine; Purdie, Lori; Koziol, Deloris; Rivera-Goba, Migdalia V.

    2011-01-01

    HIV infection occurs in disproportionately high rates among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, making it imperative that individuals from these groups be included in research studies. Unfortunately, it is often difficult to recruit HIV-infected Hispanics and African Americans into clinical trials, but a skilled interdisciplinary team that includes researchers with racial and ethnic diversity can help. This article describes a successful approach for building an interdisciplinary team that values the participation of racial and ethnic minorities in clinical trials and that has the skills to work with these groups. The success of the Adelante (a Spanish word meaning forward) Team can be attributed to team members who actively participate in decision-making, are empowered, and function in a cohesive manner. Successful research teams build relationships with research participants in order to increase the probability that racial and ethnic minorities will enroll and participate fully in research. PMID:21277228

  15. Conducting HIV research in racial and ethnic minority communities: building a successful interdisciplinary research team.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Frinny R; Dominguez, Dinora C; Grady, Christine; Stoll, Pamela; Ramos, Catalina; Mican, Joann M; Miranda-Acevedo, Robert; Morgan, Marcela; Aizvera, Jeasmine; Purdie, Lori; Koziol, Deloris; Rivera-Goba, Migdalia V

    2011-01-01

    HIV infection occurs in disproportionately high rates among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, making it imperative that individuals from these groups be included in research studies. However, it is often difficult to recruit HIV-infected Hispanics and African Americans in clinical trials, but a skilled interdisciplinary team that includes researchers with racial and ethnic diversity can help. This article describes a successful approach for building an interdisciplinary team that values the participation of racial and ethnic minorities in clinical trials and has the skills to work with these groups. The success of the Adelante (a Spanish word meaning forward) Team can be attributed to team members who actively participate in decision-making, are empowered, and function in a cohesive manner. Successful research teams build relationships with research participants to increase the probability that racial and ethnic minorities will enroll and participate fully in research.

  16. Conducting industrial and organizational psychological research: institutional review of research in work organizations.

    PubMed

    Ilgen, D R; Bell, B S

    2001-01-01

    Although informed consent is a primary mechanism for ensuring the ethical treatment of human participants in research, both federal guidelines and American Psychological Association ethical standards recognize that exceptions to it are reasonable under certain conditions. However, agreement about what constitutes a reasonable exception to informed consent is sometimes lacking. We presented the same protocols to samples of respondents drawn from 4 populations: Institutional review board (IRB) members, managers, employees, and university faculty who were not members of IRBs. Differences in perceptions of IRB members from the other samples with respect to the risks of the protocols without informed consent and on the feasibility of conducting the research in employment organizations are discussed in terms of implications for industrial and organizational psychology research.

  17. Implications of Special Regions to Conducting Human Activities on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, J. D.; Barlow, N. G.; Beaty, D. W.; Jones, M. A.; Hipkin, V.

    2014-12-01

    A MEPAG Science Analysis Group (SAG) has undertaken an analysis of Special Regions (SR) on Mars—regions where indigenous martian life could exist or where Earth microbes, if introduced, could survive and reproduce. The SR-SAG has considered the impact of SR on future human activities on the martian surface. Human exploration requires access to in-situ resources, some of which may be found in SR. Water and oxygen for ISRU are found in the atmosphere, surface/near-surface ice, hydrated minerals, and perchlorates. Water ice is most abundant at latitudes poleward of ~60 degrees, but polar darkness, cold temperatures, and CO2 degassing present hazards to human operations in these regions. Accessible water is more limited toward the equator, though temperature and solar energy conditions become more favorable. The possible presence of liquid water in Recurring Slope Lineae and active gullies leads to their treatment as SR. Fuel for surface operations and propellants for crew ascent could be manufactured from the martian atmosphere and surface materials, but dust in the atmosphere may clog ISRU equipment and perchlorate is toxic to humans. Power may be produced from solar or nuclear energy. Reliance on solar energy limits operations to the equatorial zone where easily accessible ice resources are limited. Nuclear power allows surface operations at a range of latitudes, but waste heat could convert some non-SR into SR. Radiation shielding is necessary for long-term human operations on Mars and could be obtained by deposition of regolith or by water storage in tanks or as ice around habitats, or the use of underground habitats. SR-SAG recognizes that it will be impossible for all human-associated processes and operations to be conducted within entirely closed systems. Protocols need to be established so (1) human missions to Mars will not contaminate SR nor be contaminated by materials from them, and (2) human activities on Mars will avoid converting areas into SR.

  18. Conducting Psychopathology Prevention Research in the RDoC Era

    PubMed Central

    Zalta, Alyson K.; Shankman, Stewart A.

    2016-01-01

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative promoted by the National Institute of Mental Health emphasizes a dimensional approach to psychopathology that is agnostic to DSM diagnosis. The RDoC project offers exciting possibilities for advancing research aimed at preventing psychopathology. However, prevention has historically been defined using diagnostic status, requiring the field to redefine what constitutes prevention using an RDoC approach. This article outlines new criteria for prevention in the RDoC context and provides guidance for implementing these criteria. We also describe the role of prevention-mechanism trials that examine whether preventive interventions change proximal etiological mechanisms known to be associated with psychopathology. We hope that these modified criteria and recommendations will stimulate new possibilities for prevention research that will advance the field. PMID:27065571

  19. Research Ethics I: Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR)--Historical and Contemporary Issues Pertaining to Human and Animal Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Jennifer; Minifie, Fred D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this series of articles--"Research Ethics I", "Research Ethics II", and "Research Ethics III"--the authors provide a comprehensive review of the 9 core domains for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as articulated by the Office of Research Integrity. In "Research Ethics I", they present a historical overview of the evolution of…

  20. Understanding Social Change in Conducting Research on Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2005-01-01

    In the present essay, we focus on G. Stanley Hall's contributions to the study of the role of social change for adolescent development. After introducing Hall's main ideas, we discuss recent demands adolescents face because of social change and how Hall's work could inform research on adolescent development in times of social change.

  1. How to Conduct Clinical Qualitative Research on the Patient's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    From a perspective of patient-centered healthcare, exploring patients' (a) preconceptions, (b) treatment experiences, (c) quality of life, (d) satisfaction, (e) illness understandings, and (f) design are all critical components in improving primary health care and research. Utilizing qualitative approaches to discover patients' experiences can…

  2. Staying theoretically sensitive when conducting grounded theory research.

    PubMed

    Reay, Gudrun; Bouchal, Shelley Raffin; A Rankin, James

    2016-09-01

    Background Grounded theory (GT) is founded on the premise that underlying social patterns can be discovered and conceptualised into theories. The method and need for theoretical sensitivity are best understood in the historical context in which GT was developed. Theoretical sensitivity entails entering the field with no preconceptions, so as to remain open to the data and the emerging theory. Investigators also read literature from other fields to understand various ways to construct theories. Aim To explore the concept of theoretical sensitivity from a classical GT perspective, and discuss the ontological and epistemological foundations of GT. Discussion Difficulties in remaining theoretically sensitive throughout research are discussed and illustrated with examples. Emergence - the idea that theory and substance will emerge from the process of comparing data - and staying open to the data are emphasised. Conclusion Understanding theoretical sensitivity as an underlying guiding principle of GT helps the researcher make sense of important concepts, such as delaying the literature review, emergence and the constant comparative method (simultaneous collection, coding and analysis of data). Implications for practice Theoretical sensitivity and adherence to the GT research method allow researchers to discover theories that can bridge the gap between theory and practice.

  3. Preservice Teachers Conducting Action Research in Early Education Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rita A.; Gilliard, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of action research by ten preservice teachers earning their associate's degree in early childhood education from a small university in the West. Their goal was to assess the impact of their teaching on student learning with children birth to 8 years of age. This study represents the use of…

  4. Conducting Qualitative Research on Desertification in Western Lesvos, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iosifides, Theodoros; Politidis, Theodoros

    2005-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to present some critical methodological strategies employed in a qualitative research study on local socioeconomic development and desertification in western Lesvos, Greece. Through in-depth qualitative interviews with local producers in western Lesvos, Greece, an effort was made to identify and analyze the links…

  5. Research Involving Health Providers and Managers: Ethical Issues Faced by Researchers Conducting Diverse Health Policy and Systems Research in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, Sassy; Tsofa, Benjamin; Barasa, Edwine; Nyikuri, Mary Muyoka; Waweru, Evelyn Wanjiku; Goodman, Catherine; Gilson, Lucy

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing interest in the ethics of Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR), and especially in areas that have particular ethical salience across HPSR. Hyder et al (2014) provide an initial framework to consider this, and call for more conceptual and empirical work. In this paper, we respond by examining the ethical issues that arose for researchers over the course of conducting three HPSR studies in Kenya in which health managers and providers were key participants. All three studies involved qualitative work including observations and individual and group interviews. Many of the ethical dilemmas researchers faced only emerged over the course of the fieldwork, or on completion, and were related to interactions and relationships between individuals operating at different levels or positions in health/research systems. The dilemmas reveal significant ethical challenges for these forms of HPSR, and show that potential 'solutions' to dilemmas often lead to new issues and complications. Our experiences support the value of research ethics frameworks, and suggest that these can be enriched by incorporating careful consideration of context embedded social relations into research planning and conduct. Many of these essential relational elements of ethical practice, and of producing quality data, are given stronger emphasis in social science research ethics than in epidemiological, clinical or biomedical research ethics, and are particularly relevant where health systems are understood as social and political constructs. We conclude with practical and research implications.

  6. Small Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels and Cardiac Arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Lieu, Deborah K.; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan

    2015-01-01

    Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK, KCa2) channels are unique in that they are gated solely by changes in intracellular Ca2+ and hence, function to integrate intracellular Ca2+ and membrane potentials on a beat-to-beat basis. Recent studies have provided evidence for the existence and functional significance of SK channels in the heart. Indeed, our knowledge of cardiac SK channels has been greatly expanded over the past decade. Interests in cardiac SK channels are further driven by recent studies suggesting the critical roles of SK channels in human atrial fibrillation, SK channel as a possible novel therapeutic target in atrial arrhythmias and up-regulation of SK channels in heart failure (HF) in animal models and human HF. However, there remain critical gaps in our knowledge. Specifically, blockade of SK channels in cardiac arrhythmias has been shown to be both anti-arrhythmic and proarrhythmic. This contemporary review will provide an overview of the literature on the role of cardiac SK channels in cardiac arrhythmias and to serve as a discussion platform for the current clinical perspectives. At the translational level, development of SK channel blockers as a new therapeutic target in the treatment of atrial fibrillation and the possible pro-arrhythmic effects merit further considerations and investigations. PMID:25956967

  7. Good practice for conducting and reporting MEG research

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Joachim; Baillet, Sylvain; Barnes, Gareth R.; Henson, Richard N.; Hillebrand, Arjan; Jensen, Ole; Jerbi, Karim; Litvak, Vladimir; Maess, Burkhard; Oostenveld, Robert; Parkkonen, Lauri; Taylor, Jason R.; van Wassenhove, Virginie; Wibral, Michael; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings are a rich source of information about the neural dynamics underlying cognitive processes in the brain, with excellent temporal and good spatial resolution. In recent years there have been considerable advances in MEG hardware developments and methods. Sophisticated analysis techniques are now routinely applied and continuously improved, leading to fascinating insights into the intricate dynamics of neural processes. However, the rapidly increasing level of complexity of the different steps in a MEG study make it difficult for novices, and sometimes even for experts, to stay aware of possible limitations and caveats. Furthermore, the complexity of MEG data acquisition and data analysis requires special attention when describing MEG studies in publications, in order to facilitate interpretation and reproduction of the results. This manuscript aims at making recommendations for a number of important data acquisition and data analysis steps and suggests details that should be specified in manuscripts reporting MEG studies. These recommendations will hopefully serve as guidelines that help to strengthen the position of the MEG research community within the field of neuroscience, and may foster discussion in order to further enhance the quality and impact of MEG research. PMID:23046981

  8. 14 CFR § 1275.105 - Conduct of the OIG investigation of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conduct of the OIG investigation of research misconduct. § 1275.105 Section § 1275.105 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 1275.105 Conduct of the OIG investigation of research misconduct. (a)...

  9. 14 CFR 1275.105 - Conduct of the OIG investigation of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conduct of the OIG investigation of research misconduct. 1275.105 Section 1275.105 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 1275.105 Conduct of the OIG investigation of research misconduct. (a)...

  10. 14 CFR 1275.105 - Conduct of the OIG investigation of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conduct of the OIG investigation of research misconduct. 1275.105 Section 1275.105 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 1275.105 Conduct of the OIG investigation of research misconduct. (a)...

  11. 14 CFR 1275.105 - Conduct of the OIG investigation of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Conduct of the OIG investigation of research misconduct. 1275.105 Section 1275.105 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 1275.105 Conduct of the OIG investigation of research misconduct. (a) The OIG...

  12. Ethical considerations in the conduct of electronic surveillance research.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Ashok J; London, Alex John; Barnard, David; Wactlar, Howard; Dew, Mary Amanda; Reynolds, Charles F

    2006-01-01

    The extant clinical literature indicates profound problems in the assessment, monitoring, and documentation of care in long-term care facilities. The lack of adequate resources to accommodate higher staff-to-resident ratios adds additional urgency to the goal of identifying more cost-effective mechanisms to provide care oversight. The ever expanding array of electronic monitoring technologies in the clinical research arena demands a conceptual and pragmatic framework for the resolution of ethical tensions inherent in the use of such innovative tools. CareMedia is a project that explores the utility of video, audio and sensor technologies as a continuous real-time assessment and outcomes measurement tool. In this paper, the authors describe the seminal ethical challenges encountered during the implementation phase of this project, namely privacy and confidentiality protection, and the strategies employed to resolve the ethical tensions by applying principles of the interest theory of rights.

  13. Review of subsidence prediction research conducted at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, H.J.; Schuler, K.W.

    1982-04-01

    This paper reviews the results of the subsidence research program at Sandia National Laboratories. The manuscript highlights the following: the application of empirical methods (profile functions) to the subsidence above longwall panels in the US; the use of the rubble model to describe the behavior of broken strata as it distends when it falls to the mine floor (or top of the rubble pile) and then is subsequently compacted as it is loaded by overlying elements of strata; and, the application of physical modeling techniques (centrifuge simulations) and numerical techniques to study the failure mechanisms in highly structured stratigraphy. The capabilities of the latter two are illustrated by comparing their predictions to the results of a field case that has complicated stratigraphy.

  14. Doctoral Students' Understanding of Legal and Ethical Obligations in Conducting Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achinewhu-Nworgu, Elizabeth; Nworgu, Queen Chioma; Azaiki, Steve; Dikeh, Charles Nna

    2015-01-01

    Conducting education research requires researchers to observe key legal and ethical obligations and to respect the rights of research participants. Legislation pertaining to data protection, in particular, has important implications for the way in which research data is collected, used, stored and shared. Researchers are also required to conduct…

  15. 40 CFR 725.238 - Activities conducted outside a structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Exemptions... certain microorganisms listed in § 725.239 may be conducted without prior review by EPA if all of the... microorganism listed in § 725.239 must be conducted by, or directly under the supervision of, a...

  16. 40 CFR 725.238 - Activities conducted outside a structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Exemptions... certain microorganisms listed in § 725.239 may be conducted without prior review by EPA if all of the... microorganism listed in § 725.239 must be conducted by, or directly under the supervision of, a...

  17. 40 CFR 725.238 - Activities conducted outside a structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Exemptions... certain microorganisms listed in § 725.239 may be conducted without prior review by EPA if all of the... microorganism listed in § 725.239 must be conducted by, or directly under the supervision of, a...

  18. 40 CFR 725.238 - Activities conducted outside a structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Exemptions... certain microorganisms listed in § 725.239 may be conducted without prior review by EPA if all of the... microorganism listed in § 725.239 must be conducted by, or directly under the supervision of, a...

  19. 40 CFR 725.238 - Activities conducted outside a structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Exemptions... certain microorganisms listed in § 725.239 may be conducted without prior review by EPA if all of the... microorganism listed in § 725.239 must be conducted by, or directly under the supervision of, a...

  20. Nursing research on physical activity: a feminist critique.

    PubMed

    Im, E

    2001-04-01

    Studies on physical activity have rarely included women as research participants, and have been mainly conducted among Western populations. In this paper, nursing research on women's physical activity is analyzed and critiqued using a feminist perspective that respects and values women's own experiences and their diversities. An extensive literature search was conducted using computerized data retrieval systems and 47 empirical studies published in nursing literature were selected and analyzed. The critique is presented with three main themes emerged from the analysis: (a) "without considering women's own experiences"; (b) "implicit androcentric and ethnocentric assumptions"; (c) "without meaningful interactions". Based on the analysis, future directions for nursing research on physical activity are proposed.

  1. How to conduct research on burnout: advantages and disadvantages of a unidimensional approach in burnout research

    PubMed Central

    Brenninkmeijer, V; VanYperen, N

    2003-01-01

    When conducting research on burnout, it may be difficult to decide whether one should report results separately for each burnout dimension or whether one should combine the dimensions. Although the multidimensionality of the burnout concept is widely acknowledged, for research purposes it is sometimes convenient to regard burnout as a unidimensional construct. This article deals with the question of whether and when it may be appropriate to treat burnout as a unidimensional variable, and presents a decision rule to distinguish between people high and low in burnout. To develop a guideline for obtaining a dichotomous measure of burnout, the scores on the Utrecht Burnout Scale (UBOS) of 44 well functioning individuals were compared with the scores of 29 individuals diagnosed as suffering from burnout. Based on these data, the authors recommend the "exhaustion + 1" criterion for research in non-clinical populations. Following this criterion, individuals can be considered as burnt out when they report, compared to a norm group, high emotional exhaustion, in combination with high depersonalisation or low personal accomplishment. The criterion may be used to estimate the percentage in a sample of individuals in a state of burnout. PMID:12782742

  2. Activation of the human, intermediate-conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ channel by methylxanthines.

    PubMed

    Schrøder, R L; Jensen, B S; Strøbaek, D; Olesen, S P; Christophersen, P

    2000-10-01

    This study demonstrated that the methylxanthines, theophylline, IBMX and caffeine, activate the human, intermediate-conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ channel (hIK) stably expressed in HEK-293 cells. Whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments showed that the hIK current increased reversibly and voltage independently after the addition of methylxanthines. In current-clamp experiments, theophylline dose-dependently hyperpolarised the cell membrane from a resting potential of -18 mV to -56 mV. The methylxanthines did not affect large-conductance (BK) or small-conductance (SK2), Ca2+-activated K+ channels, demonstrating that the effects were not secondary to a rise in intracellular Ca2+. However, the activation of hIK by theophylline required an intracellular [Ca2+] above 30 nM. The hIK current was insensitive to 8-bromoadenosine cyclic 3',5'-monophosphate (8-bromo-cAMP), forskolin, 8-bromoguanosine cyclic 3',5'-monophosphate (8-bromo-cGMP) and sodium nitroprusside. Moreover, in the presence of inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA) or protein kinase G (PKG) theophylline still activated the current. Finally, mutation of the putative PKA/PKG consensus phosphorylation site (Ser334) had no effect on the theophylline-induced activation of hIK. Since the observed activation is independent of changes in PKA/PKG-phosphorylation and of fluctuations in intracellular Ca2+, we suggest that the methylxanthines interact directly with the hIK protein.

  3. 14 CFR 1275.105 - Conduct of the OIG investigation of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... research misconduct. 1275.105 Section 1275.105 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 1275.105 Conduct of the OIG investigation of research misconduct. (a) The OIG shall make every reasonable effort to complete a NASA research misconduct investigation and...

  4. Responsible Conduct of Research in Communication Sciences and Disorders: Faculty and Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minifie, Fred D.; Robey, Randall R.; Horner, Jennifer; Ingham, Janis C.; Lansing, Charissa; McCartney, James H.; Alldredge, Elham-Eid; Slater, Sarah C.; Moss, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Two Web-based surveys (Surveys I and II) were used to assess perceptions of faculty and students in Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD) regarding the responsible conduct of research (RCR). Method: Survey questions addressed 9 RCR domains thought important to the responsible conduct of research: (a) human subjects protections; (b)…

  5. Temperature dependence of dc electrical conductivity of activated carbon-metal oxide nanocomposites. Some insight into conduction mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barroso-Bogeat, Adrián; Alexandre-Franco, María; Fernández-González, Carmen; Sánchez-González, José; Gómez-Serrano, Vicente

    2015-12-01

    From a commercial activated carbon (AC) and six metal oxide (Al2O3, Fe2O3, SnO2, TiO2, WO3 and ZnO) precursors, two series of AC-metal oxide nanocomposites are prepared by wet impregnation, oven-drying at 120 °C, and subsequent heat treatment at 200 or 850 °C in inert atmosphere. The temperature-dependent dc electrical conductivity of AC and the as-prepared nanocomposites is measured from room temperature up to ca. 200 °C in air atmosphere by the four-probe method. The decrease in conductivity for the hybrid materials as compared to AC is the result of a complex interplay between several factors, including not only the intrinsic conductivity, crystallite size, content and chemical nature of the supported nanoparticles, which ultimately depend on the precursor and heat treatment temperature, but also the adsorption of oxygen and water from the surrounding atmosphere. The conductivity data are discussed in terms of a thermally activated process. In this regard, both AC and the prepared nanocomposites behave as semiconductors, and the temperature-dependent conductivity data have been interpreted on the basis of the classical model proposed by Mott and Davis. Because of its high content of heteroatoms, AC may be considered as a heavily doped semiconductor, so that conduction of thermally excited carriers via acceptor or donor levels is expected to be the dominant mechanism. The activation energies for the hybrid materials suggest that the supported metal oxide nanoparticles strongly modify the electronic band structure of AC by introducing new trap levels in different positions along its band gap. Furthermore, the thermally activated conduction process satisfies the Meyer-Neldel rule, which is likely connected with the shift of the Fermi level due to the introduction of the different metal oxide nanoparticles in the AC matrix.

  6. Summary of Chernobyl followup research activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    In NUREG-1251, ``Implications of the Accident at Chernobyl for Safety Regulation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants in the United States,`` April 1989, the NRC staff concluded that no immediate changes in NRC`s regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors were needed; however, it recommended that certain issues be considered further. NRC`s Chernobyl followup research program consisted of the research tasks undertaken in response to the recommendations in NUREG-1251. It included 23 tasks that addressed potential lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident. This report presents summaries of NRC`s Chernobyl followup research tasks. For each task, the Chernobyl-related issues are indicated, the work is described, and the staff`s findings and conclusions are presented. More detailed reports concerning the work are referenced where applicable. This report closes out NRC`s Chernobyl followup research program as such, but additional research will be conducted on some issues as needed. The report includes remarks concerning significant further activity with respect to the issues addressed.

  7. Summary of Chernobyl followup research activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    In NUREG-1251, Implications of the Accident at Chernobyl for Safety Regulation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants in the United States,'' April 1989, the NRC staff concluded that no immediate changes in NRC's regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors were needed; however, it recommended that certain issues be considered further. NRC's Chernobyl followup research program consisted of the research tasks undertaken in response to the recommendations in NUREG-1251. It included 23 tasks that addressed potential lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident. This report presents summaries of NRC's Chernobyl followup research tasks. For each task, the Chernobyl-related issues are indicated, the work is described, and the staff's findings and conclusions are presented. More detailed reports concerning the work are referenced where applicable. This report closes out NRC's Chernobyl followup research program as such, but additional research will be conducted on some issues as needed. The report includes remarks concerning significant further activity with respect to the issues addressed.

  8. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  9. Matching software practitioner needs to researcher activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M. S.; Menzies, T.; Connelly, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    We present an approach to matching software practitioners' needs to software researchers' activities. It uses an accepted taxonomical software classfication scheme as intermediary, in terms of which practitioners express needs, and researchers express activities.

  10. Calcium-activated potassium conductance noise in snail neurons.

    PubMed

    Westerfield, M; Lux, H D

    1982-11-01

    Current fluctuations were measured in small, 3-6 micrometers-diameter patches of soma membrane in bursting neurons of the snail, Helix pomatia. The fluctuations dramatically increased in magnitude with depolarization of the membrane potential under voltage clamp conditions. Two components of conductance noise were identified in the power spectra calculated from the membrane currents. One component had a corner frequency which increased with depolarization. This component was blocked by intracellular injection of TEA and was relatively insensitive to extracellular calcium levels (as long as the total number of effective divalent cations remained constant). It was identified as fluctuations of the voltage-dependent component of delayed outward current. The second component of conductance noise had a corner frequency which decreased with depolarization. It was relatively unaffected by TEA injection and was reversibly blocked by substitution of extracellular calcium with magnesium, cobalt, or nickel. This second component of noise was identified as fluctuations of the calcium-dependent potassium current. The results suggest that the two components of delayed outward current are conducted through physically distinct channels.

  11. [Research activities of cosmonauts in long-duration orbital missions].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the view of space medicine and human factor experts on the problems of cosmonaut's research activities. Readiness of ISS crewmembers for conducting experiments and research equipment handling depends on the pre-flight training quality and course of adaptation to the flight conditions, the latter of particular criticality for participation in human use tests as an object.

  12. Ethical challenges in the design and conduct of locally relevant international health research.

    PubMed

    Simon, Christian; Mosavel, Maghboeba; van Stade, Debbie

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, we consider some of the challenges associated with the ethical need to conduct locally relevant international health research. We examine a cervical cancer research initiative in a resource-poor community in South Africa, and consider the extent to which this research was relevant to the expressed needs and concerns of community members. Results from informal discussions and a series of 27 focus groups conducted in the community provide insight into the community's needs and concerns, and its recommendations for how the research could be made more relevant to the community. We discuss these findings in the context of recent theory and literature on the role of community engagement in promoting local relevance and responsiveness in community-based health research. We anticipate that the paper's findings may help international health researchers better identify and assess the challenges of conducting locally relevant research across major global gaps in wealth and health.

  13. Development of guidelines for the conduct of HIV research monitoring by ethics committees in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Haire, Bridget G; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Fleming, Jennifer

    2014-09-01

    Nigerian research ethics committees are charged with the responsibility to monitor ongoing research to ensure compliance with ethical standards. Recent evidence from qualitative studies on research conduct however, indicate that many research studies fail to implement their protocols as written, and that this is not reported due to a failure of comprehensive monitoring. As Nigeria is in many respects a highly suitable country in which to conduct HIV biomedical prevention research, we argue there is a need to reprioritise the strengthening of the monitoring capacity of ethics committees so that such vital and ethically complex research can be conducted with confidence. We identify the need for (i) improved resourcing and training of ethics committee members, and (ii) comprehensive planning of research monitoring as part of the ethics committee protocol review process. We also highlight the significance of community collaboration and the establishment of a central pool of national monitors, as essential components for reinvigorating monitoring capacity.

  14. Sodium conductance and the activation potential in Xenopus laevis eggs.

    PubMed

    Peres, A; Mancinelli, E

    1985-09-01

    Experiments have been performed to identify the membrane permeability changes causing activation potential in Xenopus eggs. The eggs were artificially activated either by pricking or by addition of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 to the bath. Two different ionic currents appear to control the activation potential: (i) a chloride current which develops after a delay of 30 s to 5 min from the activating stimulus and which, in low external chloride, produces a depolarization and, (ii) a voltage-dependent outward current which begins to flow when the membrane potential is more positive than about +20 mV and tends to hyperpolarize the membrane. The chloride current lasts about 3-4 min; the voltage-dependent outward current is present before activation and disappears more slowly than the Cl- current. Changes in external sodium concentration affect the reversal potential of the outward current before and after the development of the inward Cl- current. We suggest that the chloride current has the role of producing a rapid depolarization necessary to block polyspermy, while the voltage-dependent sodium outward current might prevent the depolarization from reaching excessively high values and help the repolarization phase.

  15. Teaching and Assessing the Responsible Conduct of Research: A Delphi Consensus Panel Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, James M.; Dueker, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to foster research integrity, the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation mandate education of all trainees in the responsible conduct of research (RCR). Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that rates of questionable research practices and scientific misconduct are both high and considerably underreported.…

  16. A Guide for Use in Planning, Conducting, and Reporting Research Projects. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westmeyer, Paul

    This guide to planning and conducting research projects covers how to decide on a research problem, state a hypothesis, plan for the collection of data, write a proposal, analyze and interpret data, and write the research report. Overall, the book takes a practical, hands-on approach and offers checklists, suggestions, and guidelines for all the…

  17. Cracking the Code: Assessing Institutional Compliance with the Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Suzanne E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of institutional authorship policies as required by the "Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research" (the "Code") (National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), the Australian Research Council (ARC) & Universities Australia (UA) 2007), and assesses them for Code compliance.…

  18. 21 CFR 814.15 - Research conducted outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.15 Research... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Research conducted outside the United States. 814... paragraph (b) or (c) of this section, as applicable. (b) Research begun on or after effective date. FDA...

  19. Commercial Style Market Research for Navy Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    market research and analysis and indicate their impact on the various elements of the plan. If the acquisition or part...was not or will not be conducted.. .Once the Government’s needs have been func- tionally described, market research and analysis shall be conducted to...Systems Management College, 1993, pp. 409-420. 44. Lee, Christopher, Office Director, Office of Market Research and Analysis , Defense Fuels Supply

  20. Opposing Effects of Intrinsic Conductance and Correlated Synaptic Input on Vm-Fluctuations during Network Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kolind, Jens; Hounsgaard, Jørn; Berg, Rune W.

    2012-01-01

    Neurons often receive massive concurrent bombardment of synaptic inhibition and excitation during functional network activity. This increases membrane conductance and causes fluctuations in membrane potential (Vm) and spike timing. The conductance increase is commonly attributed to synaptic conductance, but also includes the intrinsic conductances recruited during network activity. These two sources of conductance have contrasting dynamic properties at sub-threshold membrane potentials. Synaptic transmitter gated conductance changes abruptly and briefly with each presynaptic action potential. If the spikes arrive at random times the changes in synaptic conductance are therefore stochastic and rapid during intense network activity. In comparison, sub-threshold intrinsic conductances vary smoothly in time. In the present study this discrepancy is investigated using two conductance-based models: a (1) compartment model and a (2) compartment with realistic slow intrinsic conductances. We examine the effects of varying the relative contributions of non-fluctuating intrinsic conductance with fluctuating concurrent inhibitory and excitatory synaptic conductance. For given levels of correlation in the synaptic input we find that the magnitude of the membrane fluctuations uniquely determines the relative contribution of synaptic and intrinsic conductance. We also quantify how Vm-fluctuations vary with synaptic correlations for fixed ratios of synaptic and intrinsic conductance. Interestingly, the levels of Vm -fluctuations and conductance observed experimentally during functional network activity leave little room for intrinsic conductance to contribute. Even without intrinsic conductances the variance in Vm -fluctuations can only be explained by a high degree of correlated firing among presynaptic neurons. PMID:22783184

  1. Teacher Researchers: Technology and Ethical Considerations while Conducting an Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Aytekin; Altinay Aksal, Fahriye; Altinay Gazi, Zehra

    2009-01-01

    The research study stimulates critical approach to research and practice, with an increasing emphasis on ethics and ethical decision making of the teacher researchers within action research process by using technology in its process. The study investigates the impact of technology within the action research, ethical considerations and dilemmas…

  2. Articulating Choice and Deliberation in Conducting Research--Researchers "Working in the Interpretive Zone"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillema, Harm H.; Barak, Lily Orland; Marcos, Juan Jose Mena

    2008-01-01

    For researchers, committed to a research problem, finding meaningful answers is a process of careful weighting and interpreting what is actually found as an outcome of their mode of inquiry in reference to initial intentions and research goals. Particularly in doing qualitative research in/on teaching researchers have recognised the need to…

  3. Relating practitioner needs to research activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M. S.; Menzies, T.; Connelly, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    We present an approach to matching needs (practioner requirements) to solutions (researcher activities). A taxonomical classification scheme acts as intermediary between needs and activities. Expert practitioners exprss their needs in terms of this taxonomy. Researchers express their activities in the same terms. A decision support tool is used to assist in the combination and study of their expressions of needs and activities.

  4. IAU Project and Research Activity in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Suman

    2015-08-01

    The second half of the twentieth century has witnessed a tremendous development in the field of astronomy and space exploration. The large telescope both on the land and in the orbit, using the whole range of the electromagnetic spectra from radio waves to gamma rays are extending their range of exploration, right to the edge of the observable universe, and making astounding discoveries in the process. Many large international telescope facilities and global plans are accessible to all astronomers throughout the world, providing an inexpensive entry to cutting- edge international research for developing countries.Nepal is a mountainous country it has a wide range of climatic and altitude variations which varies from an elevation of 200 meter to ≥ 4000 meter. The average temperature varies from ≥ 25 o C to ≤ 0 to 5oC. Because of these diverse weather and climatic variation there is the potential for the establishment of sophisticated observatory/ data centre and link with each other. So, the future possible opportunity of astronomy in Nepal will be discussed. Besides Education and Research activities conducted in Tribhuvan University, Nepal under the support of International Astronomical Union (IAU) will also be highlighted. The importance brought by those two workshops conducted on data simulation supported by IAU under TF1 will also be discussed which is believed to play a vital role for the promotion and development of astronomy and astrophysics in developing countries.

  5. Easier said than done!: methodological challenges with conducting maternal death review research in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal death auditing is widely used to ascertain in-depth information on the clinical, social, cultural, and other contributing factors that result in a maternal death. As the 2015 deadline for Millennium Development Goal 5 of reducing maternal mortality by three quarters between 1990 and 2015 draws near, this information becomes even more critical for informing intensified maternal mortality reduction strategies. Studies using maternal death audit methodologies are widely available, but few discuss the challenges in their implementation. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the methodological issues that arose while conducting maternal death review research in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods Critical reflections were based on a recently conducted maternal mortality study in Lilongwe, Malawi in which a facility-based maternal death review approach was used. The five-step maternal mortality surveillance cycle provided the framework for discussion. The steps included: 1) identification of cases, 2) data collection, 3) data analysis, 4) recommendations, and 5) evaluation. Results Challenges experienced were related to the first three steps of the surveillance cycle. They included: 1) identification of cases: conflicting maternal death numbers, and missing medical charts, 2) data collection: poor record keeping, poor quality of documentation, difficulties in identifying and locating appropriate healthcare workers for interviews, the potential introduction of bias through the use of an interpreter, and difficulties with locating family and community members and recall bias; and 3) data analysis: determining the causes of death and clinical diagnoses. Conclusion Conducting facility-based maternal death reviews for the purpose of research has several challenges. This paper illustrated that performing such an activity, particularly the data collection phase, was not as easy as conveyed in international guidelines and in published studies. However, these

  6. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  7. Conducting research in risk communication that is both beneficial for stakeholders and scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2015-04-01

    One of the key tasks for disaster risk reduction is raising awareness. On way to increase it is through risk communication, including visual risk communication. Previous research showed that visual risk communication linked to natural hazards is mostly evaluated in terms of user's requirements, ability to understand the content, or satisfaction with the diverse components of the tool(s): Its impact on risk awareness is not researched. Most of the risk communication evaluations are performed in a lab-type environments and thus their conclusions might not be fully valid in real life settings. Our approach differs in the sense that we decided to test a real communication effort. However, we did not use an existing one but designed our own. This process was conducted according to collaborative research principles, meaning that we created the communication effort in collaboration with the local stakeholders in order to respect the social environment of the case study. Moreover, our research activity should be beneficial and significant for the community in which we work as well as for science. This contribution will present the process that allowed us to design an exhibition in the Ubaye Valley (France) and the methodology that was developed to measure changes in risk awareness. During a 2-years project, we collaborated with local and regional stakeholders (politicians and technicians). Informal meetings with local stakeholders were organized to determine what they perceived as the needs in term of risk communication and to investigate the potential to develop activities that would benefit both them and us. We were offered the opportunity to design an exhibition for the local public library. We proposed the content and this was adjusted in interaction with the stakeholders. Later local technicians and inhabitants contributed to the content of the exhibition and regional stakeholders helped with the funding of the exhibition. Finally, employees of the public library took

  8. Geoscience and Political Instability: Policies and Philosophies for Conducting Research in the Political Terra Infirma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelmelis, J.

    2006-12-01

    Earth scientists must conduct their work on, in or above the Earth, wherever the scientific questions can best be answered. This can put the scientist in harms way. Although the science itself can be policy or politics neutral, it may not be viewed that way in some locations. Still, the geosciences are a foundation of national security in the strictest statist sense as well as in the evolving concept of security, which incorporates the many sectors of society. On one extreme of this multi axis framework they inform military operations and on another, sustainable development cannot be conducted without them. Some geoscience issues are truly global and none respect borders unless the borders are defined by the earth itself. Yet, they are problematic in they require field work, which sometimes must logically cross political rift zones into erupting political conflicts. Describing the landscape of conflict is difficult. It can change rapidly due to internal or external variables. It can be redefined by the by the viewer as the political landscape shifts under his or her feet. As a result, there is no single policy for conducting scientific research in areas of political conflict, but a collection of policies, some fairly constant and some changing. Issues such as bi- and multi-lateral relations, legal aspects of scientific and technological exchange, and potential health and safety of the scientists must be considered along with the type of scientific work to be conducted. In fact, the organization from which the scientist originates is a concern in some areas as well. In this presentation I discuss several types of conflict, the United States' Country Level Foreign Assistance Framework, the objectives of U.S. foreign policy strategy, transformational diplomacy, and the importance of earth and natural sciences to them. I consider several cases involving different nations, different types and levels of conflict, and different scientific activities. I also ask the earth

  9. Latino Community-Based Participatory Research Studies: A Model for Conducting Bilingual Translations

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa; Escamilla, Julia; Rodriguez, Erin M.; Vega, Susan; Bolaños, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Many behavioral health materials have not been translated into Spanish. Of those that are available in Spanish, some of them have not been translated correctly, many are only appropriate for a subgroup of Latinos, and/or multiple versions of the same materials exist. This article describes an innovative model of conducting bilingual English–Spanish translations as part of community-based participatory research studies and provides recommendations based on this model. In this article, the traditional process of conducting bilingual translations is reviewed, and an innovative model for conducting translations in collaboration with community partners is described. Finally, recommendations for conducting future health research studies with community partners are provided. Researchers, health care providers, educators, and community partners will benefit from learning about this innovative model that helps produce materials that are more culturally appropriate than those that are produced with the most commonly used method of conducting translations. PMID:25741929

  10. OCLC Research: 2012 Activity Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    The mission of the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) Research is to expand knowledge that advances OCLC's public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing library costs. OCLC Research is dedicated to three roles: (1)To act as a community resource for shared research and development (R&D); (2) To provide advanced…

  11. [Research Conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period 1 Oct. 1996 - 31 Mar. 1997.

  12. Action research in radiography: What it is and how it can be conducted

    PubMed Central

    Munn, Zachary; Pearson, Alan; Jordan, Zoe; Murphy, Frederick; Pilkington, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Action research is a form of research that investigates and describes a social or work situation with the aim of achieving a change which results in improvement. This article emphasizes the potential for action research to be a useful research method in radiography. A search was conducted to determine the extent to which action research has been utilized in radiography. Although action research has been used in a number of health-care settings, there are no published examples of action research being utilized in a clinical medical imaging department. Action research is discussed in detail, along with an example guide for an action research study. Action research has been identified as a useful way to affect change, to involve radiographers in the research process, and to introduce evidence-based practice to radiography. PMID:26229607

  13. Embedding Responsible Conduct in Learning and Research into an Australian Undergraduate Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Lynette B.

    2017-01-01

    Responsible conduct in learning and research (RCLR) was progressively introduced into the pharmacology curriculum for undergraduate science students at The University of Western Australia. In the second year of this undergraduate curriculum, a lecture introduces students to issues such as the use of animals in teaching and responsible conduct of…

  14. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during…

  15. Finnish Research Activities relevant to IHY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mursula, K.; Kauristie, K.; Vainio, R.

    Space physics is a traditional and strong field of research in Finland dating its early roots back to the mid-19th century i e several decennia before the First International Polar Year in 1882 Measurements of rapid variations of the geomagnetic field started in Helsinki already in 1844 and form now some of the longest and most uniform series of observations measuring the global state of the heliosphere Even further in the north at the Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory SGO continuous measurements span more than 90 years Today space physics activities are conducted mainly in the Universities of Helsinki HU Oulu OU and Turku TU and in the Finnish Meteorological Institute FMI SGO which maintains a versatile set of ground-based instrumentation belongs to OU Although several fields of common interest exist each of these parties also have their own research areas and specific expertise TU has a strong experimental and theoretical program in solar energetic particles HU has a wide program in planetary research as well as in auroral magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and theoretical space plasma physics OU and SGO have a strong involvement in ionospheric physics as well as in solar-terrestrial and heliospheric physics HU has long been active in space weather projects while OU is a key player in space climate i e in the research of long-term changes in the Sun heliosphere and the near-Earth space As one part of this cosmic rays have been continuously measured in Oulu since 42 years In addition to the versatile ground-based instrumentation

  16. An overview of Japanese CELSS research activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitta, Keiji

    1987-01-01

    Development of Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) technology is inevitable for future long duration stays of human beings in space, for lunar base construction and for manned Mars flight programs. CELSS functions can be divided into 2 categories, Environmental Control and Material Recycling. Temperature, humidity, total atmospheric pressure and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, necessary for all living things, are to be controlled by the environment control function. This function can be performed by technologies already developed and used as the Environment Control Life Support System (ECLSS) of Space Shuttle and Space Station. As for material recycling, matured technologies have not yet been established for fully satisfying the specific metabolic requirements of each living thing including human beings. Therefore, research activities for establishing CELSS technology should be focused on material recycling technologies using biological systems such as plants and animals and physico-chemical systems, for example, a gas recycling system, a water purifying and recycling system and a waste management system. Japanese research activities were conducted and will be continued accordingly.

  17. PLRP-3: Operational Perspectives of Conducting Science-Driven Extravehicular Activity with Communications Latency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Matthew J.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Brady, Allyson; Cardman, Zena; Bell, Ernest; Garry, Brent; Reid, Donnie; Chappell, Steve; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Pavilion Lake Research Project (PLRP) is a unique platform where the combination of scientific research and human space exploration concepts can be tested in an underwater spaceflight analog environment. The 2015 PLRP field season was performed at Pavilion Lake, Canada, where science-driven exploration techniques focusing on microbialite characterization and acquisition were evaluated within the context of crew and robotic extravehicular activity (EVA) operations. The primary objectives of this analog study were to detail the capabilities, decision-making process, and operational concepts required to meet non-simulated scientific objectives during 5-minute one-way communication latency utilizing crew and robotic assets. Furthermore, this field study served as an opportunity build upon previous tests at PLRP, NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS), and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) to characterize the functional roles and responsibilities of the personnel involved in the distributed flight control team and identify operational constraints imposed by science-driven EVA operations. The relationship and interaction between ground and flight crew was found to be dependent on the specific scientific activities being addressed. Furthermore, the addition of a second intravehicular operator was found to be highly enabling when conducting science-driven EVAs. Future human spaceflight activities will need to cope with the added complexity of dynamic and rapid execution of scientific priorities both during and between EVA execution to ensure scientific objectives are achieved.

  18. Semantic Support Environment for Research Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Maizatul Akmar; Yaacob, Mashkuri; Kareem, Sameem Abdul

    2008-01-01

    Scholarly activities are a collection of academic related activities such as research, teaching and consultation work which result in research outputs such as journals, theses and articles in proceedings. The output will then be disseminated to researchers all over the world by means of the WWW. The four pillars of this scholarship i.e. discovery,…

  19. 30 CFR 285.614 - When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... approved SAP? 285.614 Section 285.614 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 285.614 When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP? (a) You may begin conducting the activities approved in your...

  20. 30 CFR 585.614 - When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... approved SAP? 585.614 Section 585.614 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 585.614 When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP? (a) You may begin conducting the activities...

  1. 30 CFR 585.614 - When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... approved SAP? 585.614 Section 585.614 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 585.614 When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP? (a) You may begin conducting the activities...

  2. 30 CFR 585.614 - When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... approved SAP? 585.614 Section 585.614 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 585.614 When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP? (a) You may begin conducting the activities...

  3. Student cognitive growth and attitudinal changes through conducting authentic research in the Young Scientist Program at Zoo Atlanta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, La Tanya Danielle

    This purpose of this study was to determine if authentic research conducted by students in the Young Scientist Program: (a) enhanced scientific research skills, (b) increased cognitive growth in the areas of animal behavior and characteristics, and (c) affected attitudes toward scientific research, science, and zoo-related issues. During the nine-week program, 18 students from Liberty High School completed program-related activities in their classrooms, and at Zoo Atlanta. Here, students completed authentic research in the form of animal behavior research projects. Research-based activities included forming hypotheses based on animal behavior, creating and maintaining ethograms, and making behavioral observations. This was a mixed method study, in which, both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed in an attempt to answer the following research questions: (1) How does conducting authentic research within the Young Scientist Program enhance student scientific research skills? (2) How does participation in the Young Scientist Program increase student knowledge of animal behavior and characteristics? (3) How does the Young Scientist Program affect student attitudes? Data were collected pre, mid, and post program. Data sources included: (a) surveys, (b) interviews, (c) student research papers, and (d) researcher field notes. The data were analyzed through a framework of four methodological lenses: (a) knowledge of scientific research, (b) knowledge of animals, (c) attitudes toward scientific research, and (d) attitudes toward science and zoo-related issues. Surveys included knowledge tests and attitude scales. Overall, knowledge test results implied that as students progressed through the Young Scientist Program, their research skills, knowledge of scientific research, and knowledge of their animal were enhanced. Attitudinal data obtained from the attitude scales suggested that students' attitudes toward scientific research, science, and zoo

  4. Non-Chinese Researchers Conducting Research in Chinese Cultures: Critical Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katyal, Kokila Roy; King, Mark Edward

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses some fundamental methodological and ethical issues confronting non-Chinese researchers undertaking research in Hong Kong Chinese society. Among other things, it considers problems pertaining to data collection, the challenges of data interpretation, and the implication that this has for research. Whilst the issues are by no…

  5. What Knowledge of Responsible Conduct of Research Do Undergraduates Bring to Their Undergraduate Research Experiences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabrouk, Patricia Ann

    2016-01-01

    Over a three-year period, chemistry and engineering students participating in six Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) programs were surveyed before and after participating in a research ethics training workshop. The goal was to learn what undergraduate students already knew about key concepts in research ethics at the start of their…

  6. Health, human rights, and the conduct of clinical research within oppressed populations

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Edward J; Singh, Sonal

    2007-01-01

    Background Clinical trials evaluating interventions for infectious diseases require enrolling participants that are vulnerable to infection. As clinical trials are conducted in increasingly vulnerable populations, issues of protection of these populations become challenging. In settings where populations are forseeably oppressed, the conduct of research requires considerations that go beyond common ethical concerns and into issues of international human rights law. Discussion Using examples of HIV prevention trials in Thailand, hepatitis-E prevention trials in Nepal and malaria therapeutic trials in Burma (Myanmar), we address the inadequacies of current ethical guidelines when conducting research within oppressed populations. We review existing legislature in the United States and United Kingdom that may be used against foreign investigators if trial hardships exist. We conclude by making considerations for research conducted within oppressed populations. PMID:17996056

  7. Responsible Conduct of Research Assessment of Doctor of Education Candidates, Graduate Faculty, and Curriculum Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2014-01-01

    The study included an assessment of doctoral students, graduate faculty, and curriculum considerations to determine the degree of infusion of research integrity and responsible conduct of research (RCR) principles within a Doctor of Education program. Study results showed substantial increases in doctoral candidates' knowledge levels of RCR,…

  8. Conducting Action Research in Kenyan Primary Schools: A Narrative of Lived Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otienoh, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a narrative of my personal experiences of conducting action research in Kenyan primary schools. It highlights the opportunities, successes, challenges and dilemmas I encountered during the process: from the school hunting period, to the carrying out of the actual research in two schools, with four teachers. This study reveals that…

  9. The university and the responsible conduct of research: who is responsible for what?

    PubMed

    Alfredo, Katherine; Hart, Hillary

    2011-09-01

    Research misconduct has been thoroughly discussed in the literature, but mainly in terms of definitions and prescriptions for proper conduct. Even when case studies are cited, they are generally used as a repository of "lessons learned." What has been lacking from this conversation is how the lessons of responsible conduct of research are imparted in the first place to graduate students, especially those in technical fields such as engineering. Nor has there been much conversation about who is responsible for what in training students in Responsible Conduct of Research or in allocating blame in cases of misconduct. This paper explores three seemingly disparate cases of misconduct-the 2004 plagiarism scandal at Ohio University; the famous Robert Millikan article of 1913, in which his reported data selection did not match his notebooks; and the 1990 fabrication scandal in Dr. Leroy Hood's research lab. Comparing these cases provides a way to look at the relationship between the graduate student (or trainee) and his/her advisor (a relationship that has been shown to be the most influential one for the student) as well as at possibly differential treatment for established researchers and researchers-in-training, in cases of misconduct. This paper reflects on the rights and responsibilities of research advisers and their students and offers suggestions for clarifying both those responsibilities and the particularly murky areas of research-conduct guidelines.

  10. Conducting Video Research in the Learning Sciences: Guidance on Selection, Analysis, Technology, and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derry, Sharon J.; Pea, Roy D.; Barron, Brigid; Engle, Randi A.; Erickson, Frederick; Goldman, Ricki; Hall, Rogers; Koschmann, Timothy; Lemke, Jay L.; Sherin, Miriam Gamoran; Sherin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Focusing on expanding technical capabilities and new collaborative possibilities, we address 4 challenges for scientists who collect and use video records to conduct research in and on complex learning environments: (a) Selection: How can researchers be systematic in deciding which elements of a complex environment or extensive video corpus to…

  11. Factors that Motivate Business Faculty to Conduct Research: An Expectancy Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yining; Gupta, Ashok; Hoshower, Leon

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors used expectancy theory to examine key factors that motivate business faculty to conduct research. The survey results, from 320 faculty members at 10 business schools, showed that faculty members who assign higher importance ratings to both the extrinsic and the intrinsic rewards of research exhibit higher research…

  12. Potential Guidelines for Conducting and Reporting Environmental Education Research: Quantitative Methods of Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.

    2001-01-01

    Presents potential guidelines for conducting and reporting environmental education research using quantitative methods of inquiry that were developed during a 10-hour (1-1/2 day) workshop sponsored by the North American Commission on Environmental Education Research during the 1998 annual meeting of the North American Association for Environmental…

  13. Potential Guidelines for Conducting and Reporting Environmental Education Research: Qualitative Methods of Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.

    2000-01-01

    Presents guidelines for conducting and reporting qualitative environmental education research developed during a 10-hour, 1-1/2 day workshop sponsored by the North American Commission on Environmental Education Research (NCEER) during the 1997 annual meeting of the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE). (Author/CCM)

  14. Reflecting on the Challenges of Conducting Research across National and Linguistic Borders: Lessons from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein-Ávila, Eliane

    2009-01-01

    Whether a study is qualitative or quantitative, the process of data collection is not as orderly as it may seem when described in published research reports, articles, or books. Data collection may be more challenging when conducting research across national and linguistic borders. In this article, I share and reflect upon the complex and messy…

  15. 78 FR 32228 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Determination of Whether To Conduct a Referendum Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Determination of Whether To Conduct a Referendum Regarding 1990 Amendments to the Cotton Research and Promotion Act AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... Promotion Act (Act). The 1990 amendments require the Secretary of Agriculture, once every 5 years,...

  16. Writing Interview Protocols and Conducting Interviews: Tips for Students New to the Field of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Stacy A.; Furgerson, S. Paige

    2012-01-01

    Students new to doing qualitative research in the ethnographic and oral traditions, often have difficulty creating successful interview protocols. This article offers practical suggestions for students new to qualitative research for both writing interview protocol that elicit useful data and for conducting the interview. This piece was originally…

  17. Developmental Pathways to Conduct Disorder: Implications for Future Directions in Research, Assessment, and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Research has indicated that there are several common pathways through which children and adolescents develop conduct disorder, each with different risk factors and each with different underlying developmental mechanisms leading to the child's aggressive and antisocial behavior. The current article briefly summarizes research on these pathways,…

  18. Ask "Teaching Sociology": What Should Faculty Consider before Having Students Conduct Research in a Class?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowney, Kathleen S.

    2014-01-01

    There are many things that sociology faculty have to consider as they begin planning a student course such as: (1) why students need to understand scientific methods, by conducting research for themselves; (2) What specific learning goals and objectives will be met by students doing research, either individually or collectively?; (3) Why do…

  19. Nutrition professionals are obligated to follow ethical guidelines when conducting industry-funded research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fiscal climate for research reflects the increasing difficulty in obtaining competitive government and foundation funds. Thus, nutrition professionals conducting research may need to work with industry. However, there is a growing concern about real or perceived conflicts of interest and the pot...

  20. Conducting Research with LGB People of Color: Methodological Challenges and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBlaere, Cirleen; Brewster, Melanie E.; Sarkees, Anthony; Moradi, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Methodological barriers have been highlighted as a primary reason for the limited research with lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people of color. Thus, strategies for anticipating and addressing potential methodological barriers are needed. To address this need, this article discusses potential challenges associated with conducting research with…

  1. A practical fieldguide to conducting nursing research in low and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    LeBaron, Virginia; Iribarren, Sarah; Perri, Seneca; Beck, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To offer practical guidance to nurse investigators interested in international research in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Lessons learned and strategies for planning and implementing an international research project are addressed. Method Four nurse researchers who conducted studies in diverse international settings (Argentina, India, South Africa and Tanzania) describe their collective experiences regarding study planning and implementation, data collection using a variety of methods, and cultural, contextual and ethical considerations. Discussion Nurses who undertake international health research projects–particularly in LMICs–can face unique challenges and opportunities. Recommendations for success include: advance planning, remaining flexible, having a back-up plan, cultivating an attitude of curiosity and cultural humility, establishing collaborative and respectful partnerships, and budgeting adequate time. Conclusions Nurse scientists often receive little training and support to conduct international research. Guidance to undertake research projects in LMICs can build capacity for nurses to make significant contributions to global health. PMID:26187086

  2. Towards the responsible conduct of scientific research: is ethics education enough?

    PubMed Central

    Novossiolova, Tatyana; Sture, Judi

    2012-01-01

    Much of the discourse on ‘beyond the laboratory door’ biosecurity to date has focused on the need to raise awareness among the scientific community of the risks posed by the rapid advancement of biotechnology in recent decades. While education is undoubtedly important, a growing body of evidence suggests that ethics education does not necessarily translate into ethical behaviour. This trend has already been reported in clinical settings, where research has highlighted doctors’ own reports of ethically dubious practices and challenges when confronted with moral dilemmas in their everyday work. The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the practical value of ethics education and show why it is an essential, although insufficient, measure for promoting a culture of responsible conduct of research. We conclude by highlighting the importance of continuing professional development as a way of maintaining life scientists’ engagement with biosecurity issues and supporting them in active roles in the effective implementation of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC). PMID:22606762

  3. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities in the Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association received an award of Cooperative Agreement #NCC5-356 on September 29, 1998. The mission of this activity, know as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, USRA recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members.

  4. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities in the Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David; Marshall, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association received an award of Cooperative Agreement NCC5-356 on September 29, 1998. The mission of this activity, known as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, USRA recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members.

  5. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities In the Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David

    2002-01-01

    The mission of this activity, known as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members. This paper is the final report from this now completed Cooperative Agreement.

  6. The development of scientific identification theory to conduct operation research in education management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardhienata, S.

    2017-01-01

    Operations research is a general method used in the study and optimization of a system through modeling of the system. In the field of education, especially in education management, operations research has not been widely used. This paper gives an exposition of ideas about how operations research can be used to conduct research and optimization in the field of education management by developing SITOREM (Scientific Identification Theory for Operation Research in Education Management). To clarify the intent of the idea, an example of applying SITOREM to enhance the professional commitment of lecturers associated with achieving the vision of university will be described.

  7. NASA's Rodent Research Project: Validation of Capabilities for Conducting Long Duration Experiments in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sungshin Y.; Cole, Nicolas; Reyes, America; Lai, San-Huei; Klotz, Rebecca; Beegle, Janet E.; Wigley, Cecilia L.; Pletcher, David; Globus, Ruth K.

    2015-01-01

    Research using rodents is an essential tool for advancing biomedical research on Earth and in space. Prior rodent experiments on the Shuttle were limited by the short flight duration. The International Space Station (ISS) provides a new platform for conducting rodent experiments under long duration conditions. Rodent Research (RR)-1 was conducted to validate flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities that were developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. Twenty C57BL6J adult female mice were launched on Sept 21, 2014 in a Dragon Capsule (SpaceX-4), then transferred to the ISS for a total time of 21-22 days (10 commercial mice) or 37 days (10 validation mice). Tissues collected on-orbit were either rapidly frozen or preserved in RNAlater at -80C (n2group) until their return to Earth. Remaining carcasses on-orbit were rapidly frozen for dissection post-flight. The three controls groups at Kennedy Space Center consisted of: Basal mice euthanized at the time of launch, Vivarium controls housed in standard cages, and Ground Controls (GC) housed in flight hardware within an environmental chamber. Upon return to Earth, there were no differences in body weights between Flight (FLT) and GC at the end of the 37 days in space. Liver enzyme activity levels of FLT mice and all control mice were similar in magnitude to those of the samples that were processed under optimal conditions in the laboratory. Liver samples dissected on-orbit yielded high quality RNA (RIN8.99+-0.59, n7). Liver samples dissected post-flight from the intact, frozen FLT carcasses yielded RIN of 7.27 +- 0.52 (n6). Additionally, wet weights of various tissues were measured. Adrenal glands and spleen showed no significant differences in FLT compared to GC although thymus and livers weights were significantly greater in FLT compared to GC. Over 3,000 tissue aliquots collected post-flight from the four groups of mice were deposited into the Ames Life Science Data Archives for future Biospecimen

  8. Visible-light active conducting polymer nanostructures with superior photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Srabanti; Kouame, Natalie Amoin; Remita, Samy; Ramos, Laurence; Goubard, Fabrice; Aubert, Pierre-Henri; Dazzi, Alexandre; Deniset-Besseau, Ariane; Remita, Hynd

    2015-12-01

    The development of visible-light responsive photocatalysts would permit more efficient use of solar energy, and thus would bring sustainable solutions to many environmental issues. Conductive polymers appear as a new class of very active photocatalysts under visible light. Among them poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is one of the most promising conjugated polymer with a wide range of applications. PEDOT nanostructures synthesized in soft templates via chemical oxidative polymerization demonstrate unprecedented photocatalytic activities for water treatment without the assistance of sacrificial reagents or noble metal co-catalysts and turn out to be better than TiO2 as benchmark catalyst. The PEDOT nanostructures exhibit a narrow band gap (E = 1.69 eV) and are characterized by excellent ability to absorb light in visible and near infrared region. The novel PEDOT-based photocatalysts are very stable with cycling and can be reused without appreciable loss of activity. Interestingly, hollow micrometric vesicular structures of PEDOT are not effective photocatalysts as compared to nanometric spindles suggesting size and shape dependent photocatalytic properties. The visible-light active photocatalytic properties of the polymer nanostructures present promising applications in solar light harvesting and broader fields.

  9. Visible-light active conducting polymer nanostructures with superior photocatalytic activity

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Srabanti; Kouame, Natalie Amoin; Remita, Samy; Ramos, Laurence; Goubard, Fabrice; Aubert, Pierre-Henri; Dazzi, Alexandre; Deniset-Besseau, Ariane; Remita, Hynd

    2015-01-01

    The development of visible-light responsive photocatalysts would permit more efficient use of solar energy, and thus would bring sustainable solutions to many environmental issues. Conductive polymers appear as a new class of very active photocatalysts under visible light. Among them poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is one of the most promising conjugated polymer with a wide range of applications. PEDOT nanostructures synthesized in soft templates via chemical oxidative polymerization demonstrate unprecedented photocatalytic activities for water treatment without the assistance of sacrificial reagents or noble metal co-catalysts and turn out to be better than TiO2 as benchmark catalyst. The PEDOT nanostructures exhibit a narrow band gap (E = 1.69 eV) and are characterized by excellent ability to absorb light in visible and near infrared region. The novel PEDOT-based photocatalysts are very stable with cycling and can be reused without appreciable loss of activity. Interestingly, hollow micrometric vesicular structures of PEDOT are not effective photocatalysts as compared to nanometric spindles suggesting size and shape dependent photocatalytic properties. The visible-light active photocatalytic properties of the polymer nanostructures present promising applications in solar light harvesting and broader fields. PMID:26657168

  10. Creating a Three-Parent Child: An Educational Paradigm for the Responsible Conduct of Research

    PubMed Central

    Fischbach, Ruth L.; Benston, Shawna; Loike, John D.

    2014-01-01

    The field of assisted reproduction is renowned for its remarkable advances and constant pushing forward of research boundaries in an effort to offer innovative and effective methods for enhancing fertility. Accompanying these advances, however, are physiological, psychological, and bioethical consequences that must be considered. These concomitant advances and consequences make assisted reproduction an excellent educational paradigm for inculcating responsible conduct in both research and clinical practice. Ultimately, responsible conduct rests on the ethical researcher and clinician. Here, we present the as-yet unapproved, contentious assisted reproductive technology of mitochondrial replacement transfer (MRT) as an ideal educational platform to foster the responsible conduct of research by advancing dialogue among multi-disciplinary scholars, researchers, and students. Using a likely future case, we present the basic science, legal, and ethical considerations, and the pedagogical principles and strategies for using MRT as an effective educational paradigm. Society will benefit when the ethical issues inherent in creating children with three genetic parents as well as germline interference are discussed across multiple academic levels that include researchers, legal experts, bioethicists, and government-appointed commissions. Furthermore, undergraduate and graduate students should be included because they will likely determine the ethical fates of these biotechnologies. While emerging assisted reproduction technologies such as MRT are highly complex and will take years to be readily available for patients in need, now is the time to consider their scientific, legal, ethical, and cultural/religious implications for ensuring the responsible conduct of research. PMID:25574276

  11. Psychological research online: report of Board of Scientific Affairs' Advisory Group on the Conduct of Research on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Kraut, Robert; Olson, Judith; Banaji, Mahzarin; Bruckman, Amy; Cohen, Jeffrey; Couper, Mick

    2004-01-01

    As the Internet has changed communication, commerce, and the distribution of information, so too it is changing psychological research. Psychologists can observe new or rare phenomena online and can do research on traditional psychological topics more efficiently, enabling them to expand the scale and scope of their research. Yet these opportunities entail risk both to research quality and to human subjects. Internet research is inherently no more risky than traditional observational, survey, or experimental methods. Yet the risks and safeguards against them will differ from those characterizing traditional research and will themselves change over time. This article describes some benefits and challenges of conducting psychological research via the Internet and offers recommendations to both researchers and institutional review boards for dealing with them. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  12. 30 CFR 285.614 - When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... approved SAP? 285.614 Section 285.614 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 285.614 When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP? (a) You may begin conducting...

  13. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Research activities. 1... PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.488 Research activities. Subject to the provisions of 38 U... paragraphs, patient medical record information covered by §§ 1.460 through 1.499 of this part may...

  14. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Research activities. 1... PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.488 Research activities. Subject to the provisions of 38 U... paragraphs, patient medical record information covered by §§ 1.460 through 1.499 of this part may...

  15. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research activities. 1... PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.488 Research activities. Subject to the provisions of 38 U... paragraphs, patient medical record information covered by §§ 1.460 through 1.499 of this part may...

  16. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Research activities. 1... PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.488 Research activities. Subject to the provisions of 38 U... paragraphs, patient medical record information covered by §§ 1.460 through 1.499 of this part may...

  17. Annual Report for 2003 Wild Horse Research and Field Activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    This report is meant to highlight the activities of the 2003 field season, as well as to provide a general overview of the data collected. More in-depth data analysis will be conducted following the conclusion of each I phase of the research project, and in many cases will not be possible until several seasons of data are collected.

  18. Transparent, conductive, and SERS-active Au nanofiber films assembled on an amphiphilic peptide template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinod, T. P.; Zarzhitsky, Shlomo; Morag, Ahiud; Zeiri, Leila; Levi-Kalisman, Yael; Rapaport, Hanna; Jelinek, Raz

    2013-10-01

    The use of biological materials as templates for functional molecular assemblies is an active research field at the interface between chemistry, biology, and materials science. We demonstrate the formation of gold nanofiber films on β-sheet peptide domains assembled at the air/water interface. The gold deposition scheme employed a recently discovered chemical process involving spontaneous crystallization and reduction of water-soluble Au(SCN)41- upon anchoring to surface-displayed amine moieties. Here we show that an interlinked network of crystalline Au nanofibers is readily formed upon incubation of the Au(iii) thiocyanate complex with the peptide monolayers. Intriguingly, the resultant films were optically transparent, enabled electrical conductivity, and displayed pronounced surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) activity, making the approach a promising avenue for construction of nano-structured films exhibiting practical applications.The use of biological materials as templates for functional molecular assemblies is an active research field at the interface between chemistry, biology, and materials science. We demonstrate the formation of gold nanofiber films on β-sheet peptide domains assembled at the air/water interface. The gold deposition scheme employed a recently discovered chemical process involving spontaneous crystallization and reduction of water-soluble Au(SCN)41- upon anchoring to surface-displayed amine moieties. Here we show that an interlinked network of crystalline Au nanofibers is readily formed upon incubation of the Au(iii) thiocyanate complex with the peptide monolayers. Intriguingly, the resultant films were optically transparent, enabled electrical conductivity, and displayed pronounced surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) activity, making the approach a promising avenue for construction of nano-structured films exhibiting practical applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: AFM analysis of the

  19. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research... research if the program director makes a determination that the recipient of the patient...

  20. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research... research if the program director makes a determination that the recipient of the patient...

  1. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research... research if the program director makes a determination that the recipient of the patient...

  2. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research... research if the program director makes a determination that the recipient of the patient...

  3. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research... research if the program director makes a determination that the recipient of the patient...

  4. Conducting Environmental Health Research in the Arabian Middle East: Lessons Learned and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    El-Sadig, Mohamed; Ali, Habiba I.; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Campbell, Alan; Ng, Shu Wen; Reeves, Lisa; Chan, Ronna L.; Davidson, Christopher A.; Funk, William E.; Boundy, Maryanne G.; Leith, David; Popkin, Barry; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Rusyn, Ivan; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Arabian Gulf nations are undergoing rapid economic development, leading to major shifts in both the traditional lifestyle and the environment. Although the pace of change is brisk, there is a dearth of environmental health research in this region. Objective: We describe challenges and successes of conducting an environmental epidemiologic study in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), a Gulf nation in the Middle East, with an inter-disciplinary team that includes in-country academic and government collaborators as well as U.S. academic collaborators. Discussion: We present several issues, including study and data collection design, exposure assessment, scheduling and time coordination, quality assurance and quality control, and institutional review board protocols. These topics are considered in a cultural context. Benefits of this research included building linkages among multinational, interdisciplinary team members, generating data for local environmental decision making, and developing local epidemiologic research capacity. The Middle Eastern culture of hospitality greatly benefited the project team. Conclusion: Cultural differences impact multiple aspects of epidemiologic research and should be respectfully addressed. Conducting international population-based environmental research poses many challenges; these challenges can be met successfully with careful planning, cultural knowledge, and flexibility. Lessons learned are applicable to interdisciplinary research all over the world. The research conducted will benefit the environmental and public health agencies of the UAE and provide the nation’s leadership with country-specific environmental health data that can be used to protect the public’s health in a rapidly changing environment. PMID:22356946

  5. [Climate chance and research activity].

    PubMed

    Manuel, Celie

    2009-10-26

    There are three main focus areas relevant to health in research related to climate change: 1) disentangling of the complex associations between climate-sensitive risk factors and health 2) guidance as to where, when and how effective health adaptation strategies may be implemented for maximum effect, and 3) health impact assessment (with a focus on health co-benefits) of climate-related policies in other sectors. Further development in each of these areas will provide important opportunities for strengthening health promotion and protection.

  6. The Applied Behavior Analysis Research Paradigm and Single-Subject Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research.

    PubMed

    Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell

    2015-10-01

    There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

  7. Stratton Sagebrush Hydrology Study Area: An annotated bibliography of research conducted 1968-1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burgess, Leah M.; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2004-01-01

    This annotated bibliography provides an overview of research projects conducted on the Stratton Sagebrush Hydrology Study Area (Stratton) since its designation as such in 1967. Sources include the Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station records storage room, Laramie, Wyoming, the USGS and USFS online reference libraries, and scientific journal databases at the University of Wyoming and Colorado State University. This annotated bibliography summarizes publications from research conducted at Stratton during the prime of its tenure as a research lab from 1968 to 1990. In addition, an appendix is included that catalogues all data on file at the Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station in Laramie, Wyoming. Each file folder was searched and its contents recorded here for the researcher seeking original data sets, charts, photographs and records.

  8. Guidelines for conducting rigorous health care psychosocial cross-cultural/language qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Arriaza, Pablo; Nedjat-Haiem, Frances; Lee, Hee Yun; Martin, Shadi S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to synthesize and chronicle the authors' experiences as four bilingual and bicultural researchers, each experienced in conducting cross-cultural/cross-language qualitative research. Through narrative descriptions of experiences with Latinos, Iranians, and Hmong refugees, the authors discuss their rewards, challenges, and methods of enhancing rigor, trustworthiness, and transparency when conducting cross-cultural/cross-language research. The authors discuss and explore how to effectively manage cross-cultural qualitative data, how to effectively use interpreters and translators, how to identify best methods of transcribing data, and the role of creating strong community relationships. The authors provide guidelines for health care professionals to consider when engaging in cross-cultural qualitative research.

  9. The Researcher as Instrument: Learning to Conduct Qualitative Research through Analyzing and Interpreting a Choral Rehearsal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Janet R.

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative researchers often describe the ambiguities and complexities of extracting meaning from ambiguous and complex data. Although methodological literature provides useful frameworks and heuristics to guide the process of transforming field data into credible findings, learning to analyze and interpret qualitative data also involves a…

  10. 15 CFR 27.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. 27.103 Section 27.103 Commerce and... compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy and which is conducted or supported by...

  11. 40 CFR 26.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. 26.103 Section 26.103 Protection of... Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution...

  12. 28 CFR 46.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. 46.103 Section 46.103 Judicial... this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy and which is conducted or supported by a...

  13. 40 CFR 26.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. 26.103 Section 26.103 Protection of... Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution...

  14. 10 CFR 745.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported... successor office. (b) Departments and agencies will conduct or support research covered by this policy...

  15. 40 CFR 26.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.120 Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or supported... applications and proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency....

  16. 28 CFR 46.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. 46.103 Section 46.103 Judicial... this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy and which is conducted or supported by a...

  17. 16 CFR 1028.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. 1028.103 Section 1028.103 Commercial... compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy and which is conducted or supported by...

  18. 16 CFR 1028.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. 1028.103 Section 1028.103 Commercial... compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy and which is conducted or supported by...

  19. 40 CFR 26.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. 26.103 Section 26.103 Protection of... Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution...

  20. 15 CFR 27.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. 27.103 Section 27.103 Commerce and... compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy and which is conducted or supported by...

  1. 40 CFR 26.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. 26.103 Section 26.103 Protection of... Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution...

  2. 28 CFR 46.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. 46.103 Section 46.103 Judicial... this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy and which is conducted or supported by a...

  3. 28 CFR 46.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. 46.103 Section 46.103 Judicial... this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy and which is conducted or supported by a...

  4. 40 CFR 26.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. 26.103 Section 26.103 Protection of... Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution...

  5. 16 CFR 1028.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. 1028.103 Section 1028.103 Commercial... compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy and which is conducted or supported by...

  6. 16 CFR 1028.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. 1028.103 Section 1028.103 Commercial... compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy and which is conducted or supported by...

  7. 15 CFR 27.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. 27.103 Section 27.103 Commerce and... compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy and which is conducted or supported by...

  8. 15 CFR 27.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. 27.103 Section 27.103 Commerce and... compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy and which is conducted or supported by...

  9. 28 CFR 46.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. 46.103 Section 46.103 Judicial... this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy and which is conducted or supported by a...

  10. Conducting Field Research on Gender Relations in a Gender Repressive State: A Case Study of Gender Research in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects on the experience of conducting fieldwork and the gendering of research within the context of a gender repressive state. The Islamic Republic of Iran has consistently enacted discriminatory policies regarding gender relations since 1979. These regressive measures have made the state apprehensive and sensitive towards any…

  11. Conducting interdisciplinary research to promote healthy and safe employment in health care: promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed Central

    Slatin, Craig; Galizzi, Monica; Melillo, Karen Devereaux; Mawn, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Due to the complexity of human health, emphasis is increasingly being placed on the need for and conduct of multidisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary health research. Yet many academic and research organizations--and the discipline-specific associations and journals--may not yet be prepared to adopt changes necessary to optimally support interdisciplinary work. This article presents an ongoing interdisciplinary research project's efforts to investigate mechanisms and pathways that lead to occupational health disparities among healthcare workers. It describes the promises and pitfalls encountered during the research,and outlines effective strategies that emerged as a result. Lessons learned include: conflict resolution regarding theoretical and methodological differences; establishing a sense of intellectual ownership of the research, as well as guidelines for multiple authorship; and development and utilization of protocols, communication systems, and tools. This experience suggests a need for the establishment of supportive structures and processes to promote successful interdisciplinary research. PMID:15147650

  12. Post-market clinical research conducted by medical device manufacturers: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Joseph S; Blount, Katrina L; Ritchie, Jessica D; Hodshon, Beth; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2015-01-01

    Background In the US, once a medical device is made available for use, several requirements have been established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ensure ongoing post-market surveillance of device safety and effectiveness. Our objective was to determine how commonly medical device manufacturers initiate post-market clinical studies or augment FDA post-market surveillance requirements for higher-risk devices that are most often approved via the FDA’s pre-market approval (PMA) pathway. Methods and results We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 47 manufacturers with operations in California, Minnesota, and Massachusetts who market devices approved via the PMA pathway. Among 22 respondents (response rate =47%), nearly all self-reported conducting post-market clinical research studies, commonly between 1 and 5; only 1 respondent reported never conducting post-market clinical research studies. While manufacturers most often engaged in these studies to satisfy FDA requirements, other reasons were reported, including performance monitoring and surveillance and market acceptance initiatives. Risks of conducting and not conducting post-market clinical research studies were described through open-ended response to questions. Conclusion Medical device manufacturers commonly initiate post-market clinical studies at the request of the FDA. Clinical data from these studies should be integrated into national post-market surveillance initiatives. PMID:26060416

  13. Summary of Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Research Conducted at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.

    2003-01-01

    Interest in low-observable aircraft and in lowering an aircraft's exhaust system weight sparked decades of research for fixed geometry exhaust nozzles. The desire for such integrated exhaust nozzles was the catalyst for new fluidic control techniques; including throat area control, expansion control, and thrust-vector angle control. This paper summarizes a variety of fluidic thrust vectoring concepts that have been tested both experimentally and computationally at NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle concepts are divided into three categories according to the method used for fluidic thrust vectoring: the shock vector control method, the throat shifting method, and the counterflow method. This paper explains the thrust vectoring mechanism for each fluidic method, provides examples of configurations tested for each method, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

  14. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 272 - Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic Research

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Research A Appendix A to Part 272 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Pt. 272, App. A Appendix A to Part 272—Principles for the Conduct and Support of Basic... investments as a portfolio, with assessments of program success based on aggregate returns. There should be...

  15. 76 FR 12225 - Authority To Conduct Research and Development on All Circulating Coins

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... United States Mint Authority To Conduct Research and Development on All Circulating Coins AGENCY: United... costs for all circulating coin denominations have risen dramatically for the past several years. Most.... II. Request for Comment The United States Mint requests public comment from all interested...

  16. Making Strategic Decisions: Conducting and Using Research on the Impact of Sequenced Library Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundstrom, Kacy; Martin, Pamela; Cochran, Dory

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between course grades and sequenced library instruction interventions throughout psychology students' curriculum. Researchers conducted this study to inform decisions about sustaining and improving program integrations for first- and second-year composition courses and to improve discipline-level integrations.…

  17. Integrating Responsible Conduct of Research Education into Undergraduate Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Tamara L.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a requirement for directed responsible conduct in research (RCR) education has become a priority in the United States and elsewhere. In the US, both the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation require RCR education for all students who are financially supported by federal awards. The guidelines produced by these…

  18. Transmission research activities at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    A joint research program, to advance the technology of rotorcraft transmissions, consists of analytical and experimental efforts to achieve the overall goals of reducing transmission weight and noise, while increasing life and reliability. Recent activities in the areas of transmission and related component research are highlighted. Current areas include specific technologies in support of military rotary wing aviation, gearing technology, transmission noise reduction studies, a recent interest in gearbox diagnostics, and advanced transmission system studies. Results of recent activities are presented along with near term research plans.

  19. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during the past three decades; however, many challenges remain in understanding the development of early conduct problems for girls, the contribution of poverty across variations in community urbanicity, and developing cascading models of conduct problems that incorporate prenatal risk. Significant advances in early prevention and intervention are also described, as well as challenges for identifying and engaging parents of at-risk children in nontraditional community settings. PMID:23534691

  20. Procedure versus process: ethical paradigms and the conduct of qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research is fundamental to improving the quality of health care. The need for regulation of research is clear. However, the bureaucratic complexity of research governance has raised concerns that the regulatory mechanisms intended to protect participants now threaten to undermine or stifle the research enterprise, especially as this relates to sensitive topics and hard to reach groups. Discussion Much criticism of research governance has focused on long delays in obtaining ethical approvals, restrictions imposed on study conduct, and the inappropriateness of evaluating qualitative studies within the methodological and risk assessment frameworks applied to biomedical and clinical research. Less attention has been given to the different epistemologies underlying biomedical and qualitative investigation. The bioethical framework underpinning current regulatory structures is fundamentally at odds with the practice of emergent, negotiated micro-ethics required in qualitative research. The complex and shifting nature of real world settings delivers unanticipated ethical issues and (occasionally) genuine dilemmas which go beyond easy or formulaic ‘procedural’ resolution. This is not to say that qualitative studies are ‘unethical’ but that their ethical nature can only be safeguarded through the practice of ‘micro-ethics’ based on the judgement and integrity of researchers in the field. Summary This paper considers the implications of contrasting ethical paradigms for the conduct of qualitative research and the value of ‘empirical ethics’ as a means of liberating qualitative (and other) research from an outmoded and unduly restrictive research governance framework based on abstract prinicipalism, divorced from real world contexts and values. PMID:23016663

  1. Practicalities and Research Considerations for Conducting Childhood Obesity Prevention Interventions with Families

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Philip J.; Jones, Rachel A.; Collins, Clare E.; Hesketh, Kylie D.; Young, Myles D.; Burrows, Tracy L.; Magarey, Anthea M.; Brown, Helen L.; Hinkley, Trina; Perry, Rebecca A.; Brennan, Leah; Spence, Alison C.; Campbell, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Internationally, childhood obesity is a major public health concern. Given the established difficulties in treating obesity, designing and evaluating effective obesity prevention interventions are research priorities. As parents play a crucial role in establishing positive health behaviours in children, they are a key target for child obesity prevention programs. However, recruiting and engaging parents in such interventions can be a considerable challenge for researchers and practitioners. Members of the ‘Parenting, Child Behaviour and Well-being’ stream of the Australasian Child and Adolescent Obesity Research Network (ACAORN) have considerable and varied expertise in conducting such interventions and can provide insights into addressing these challenges. This paper aims to highlight considerations regarding the design, implementation, and evaluation of obesity prevention interventions with families and provide practical insights and recommendations for researchers and practitioners conducting family-based research in this area. Case studies of three family-based interventions conducted by ACAORN members are highlighted to provide examples and contextualise the recommendations proposed. PMID:27834820

  2. Embedding responsible conduct in learning and research into an Australian undergraduate curriculum.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Lynette B

    2017-01-02

    Responsible conduct in learning and research (RCLR) was progressively introduced into the pharmacology curriculum for undergraduate science students at The University of Western Australia. In the second year of this undergraduate curriculum, a lecture introduces students to issues such as the use of animals in teaching and responsible conduct of research. Third year student groups deliver presentations on topics including scientific integrity and the use of human subjects in research. Academic and research staff attending these presentations provide feedback and participate in discussions. Students enrolled in an optional capstone Honours year complete an online course on the responsible conduct of research and participate in an interactive movie. Once RCLR became established in the curriculum, a survey of Likert-scaled and open-ended questions examined student and staff perceptions. Data were expressed as Approval (% of responses represented by Strongly Agree and Agree). RCLR was found to be relevant to the study of pharmacology (69-100% Approval), important for one's future career (62-100% Approval), and stimulated further interest in this area (32-75% Approval). Free entry comments demonstrated the value of RCLR and constructive suggestions for improvement have now been incorporated. RCLR modules were found to be a valuable addition to the pharmacology undergraduate curriculum. This approach may be used to incorporate ethics into any science undergraduate curriculum, with the use of discipline-specific topics. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):53-59, 2017.

  3. Beyond Assessment: Conducting Theoretically Grounded Research on Service-Learning in Gerontology Courses.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Tina M; Pearl, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Service-learning is a useful pedagogical tool and high-impact practice, providing multiple benefits. Gerontology (and other) courses frequently include service-learning activities but lack theory-based, intentional research on outcomes. Here, the authors define service-learning and contextualize it in higher education, provide an overview of research and assessment in service-learning and gerontology courses, demonstrate the shortcomings of program evaluations, and offer suggestions for future research to advance and generate theory.

  4. 30 CFR 585.800 - How must I conduct my activities to comply with safety and environmental requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How must I conduct my activities to comply with... for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs § 585.800 How must I conduct my activities to comply with safety and environmental requirements? (a) You must conduct all activities on your lease...

  5. 30 CFR 585.800 - How must I conduct my activities to comply with safety and environmental requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How must I conduct my activities to comply with... for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs § 585.800 How must I conduct my activities to comply with safety and environmental requirements? (a) You must conduct all activities on your lease...

  6. 30 CFR 585.800 - How must I conduct my activities to comply with safety and environmental requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How must I conduct my activities to comply with... for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs § 585.800 How must I conduct my activities to comply with safety and environmental requirements? (a) You must conduct all activities on your lease...

  7. A calcium-permeable cGMP-activated cation conductance in hippocampal neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leinders-Zufall, T.; Rosenboom, H.; Barnstable, C. J.; Shepherd, G. M.; Zufall, F.

    1995-01-01

    Whole-cell patch clamp recordings detected a previously unidentified cGMP-activated membrane conductance in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. This conductance is nonselectively permeable for cations and is completely but reversibly blocked by external Cd2+. The Ca2+ permeability of the hippocampal cGMP-activated conductance was examined in detail, indicating that the underlying ion channels display a high relative permeability for Ca2+. The results indicate that hippocampal neurons contain a cGMP-activated membrane conductance that has some properties similar to the cyclic nucleotide-gated channels previously shown in sensory receptor cells and retinal neurons. In hippocampal neurons this conductance similarly could mediate membrane depolarization and Ca2+ fluxes in response to intracellular cGMP elevation.

  8. 49 CFR 11.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., appropriate for the research in question, on file with the Office for Human Research Protections, HHS, or any... Human Research Protections, HHS, or any successor office. (b) Departments and agencies will conduct or... responsibilities for protecting the rights and welfare of human subjects of research conducted at or sponsored...

  9. 22 CFR 225.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., appropriate for the research in question, on file with the Office for Human Research Protections, HHS, or any... Human Research Protections, HHS, or any successor office. (b) Departments and agencies will conduct or... responsibilities for protecting the rights and welfare of human subjects of research conducted at or sponsored...

  10. 15 CFR 27.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., appropriate for the research in question, on file with the Office for Human Research Protections, HHS, or any... Human Research Protections, HHS, or any successor office. (b) Departments and agencies will conduct or... responsibilities for protecting the rights and welfare of human subjects of research conducted at or sponsored...

  11. HRP Chief Scientist's Office: Conducting Research to Enable Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, J. B.; Fogarty, J.; Vega, L.; Cromwell, R. L.; Haven, C. P.; McFather, J. C.; Savelev, I.

    2017-01-01

    The HRP Chief Scientist's Office sets the scientific agenda for the Human Research Program. As NASA plans for deep space exploration, HRP is conducting research to ensure the health of astronauts, and optimize human performance during extended duration missions. To accomplish this research, HRP solicits for proposals within the U.S., collaborates with agencies both domestically and abroad, and makes optimal use of ISS resources in support of human research. This session will expand on these topics and provide an opportunity for questions and discussion with the HRP Chief Scientist. Presentations in this session will include: NRA solicitations - process improvements and focus for future solicitations, Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration - future directions (MHRPE 2.0), Extramural liaisons - National Science Foundation (NSF) and Department of Defense (DOD), Standardized Measures for spaceflight, Ground-based Analogs - international collaborations, and International data sharing.

  12. A Methodology for Conducting Integrative Mixed Methods Research and Data Analyses.

    PubMed

    Castro, Felipe González; Kellison, Joshua G; Boyd, Stephen J; Kopak, Albert

    2010-09-20

    Mixed methods research has gained visibility within the last few years, although limitations persist regarding the scientific caliber of certain mixed methods research designs and methods. The need exists for rigorous mixed methods designs that integrate various data analytic procedures for a seamless transfer of evidence across qualitative and quantitative modalities. Such designs can offer the strength of confirmatory results drawn from quantitative multivariate analyses, along with "deep structure" explanatory descriptions as drawn from qualitative analyses. This article presents evidence generated from over a decade of pilot research in developing an integrative mixed methods methodology. It presents a conceptual framework and methodological and data analytic procedures for conducting mixed methods research studies, and it also presents illustrative examples from the authors' ongoing integrative mixed methods research studies.

  13. Overview of Langley activities in active controls research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, I.; Newsom, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The application of active controls technology to reduce aeroelastic response of aircraft structures offers a potential for significant payoffs in terms of aerodynamic efficiency and weight savings. The activities of the Langley Research Center (laRC) in advancing active controls technology. Activities are categorized into the development of appropriate analysis tools, control law synthesis methodology, and experimental investigations aimed at verifying both analysis and synthesis methodology.

  14. Developmental pathways to conduct disorder: implications for future directions in research, assessment, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Frick, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Research has indicated that there are several common pathways through which children and adolescents develop conduct disorder, each with different risk factors and each with different underlying developmental mechanisms leading to the child's aggressive and antisocial behavior. The current article briefly summarizes research on these pathways, including one that onsets in adolescence and seems to be an exaggeration of normal adolescent rebellion against authority. The other two pathways typically involve conduct problems that onset early in childhood but differ on whether the child shows significant levels of callous-unemotional traits or whether the child shows significant problems in emotional and behavioral regulation. Important directions for future research on these pathways are highlighted, as well as implications of these pathways for assessing and diagnosing children and adolescents with conduct disorder. In particular, diagnostic criteria should recognize the importance of callous-unemotional traits for distinguishing a distinct subgroup of youths with the disorder. Finally, implications for the prevention and treatment of conduct disorder are discussed, especially the need for interventions that are comprehensive and individualized to the characteristics of children and adolescents in the various developmental pathways.

  15. The Role of Institutional Research in Conducting Comparative Analysis of Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainer, James F.

    2008-01-01

    In this age of accountability, transparency, and accreditation, colleges and universities increasingly conduct comparative analyses and engage in benchmarking activities. Meant to inform institutional planning and decision making, comparative analyses and benchmarking are employed to let stakeholders know how an institution stacks up against its…

  16. Sociological Understandings of Conduct for a Noncanonical Activity Theory: Exploring Intersections and Complementarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Peter H.; Stetsenko, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Following a discussion of activity theory as an approach to human development originally rooted in transformational change, we review the historical context and diverse conceptualizations of social conduct from the field of sociology. The discussion of social conduct is broken into theories of social action, theories of enactment, and contemporary…

  17. 30 CFR 280.10 - What must I do before I may conduct prospecting activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFSHORE PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF How To... stratigraphic tests, for hard minerals. If you conduct both G&G prospecting activities, you must have a separate... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do before I may conduct...

  18. Building Global Capacity for Conducting Operational Research Using the SORT IT Model: Where and Who?

    PubMed Central

    Zachariah, Rony; Rust, Stefanie; Berger, Selma Dar; Guillerm, Nathalie; Bissell, Karen; Delaunois, Paul; Reid, Anthony J.; Kumar, Ajay M. V.; Olliaro, Piero L.; Reeder, John C.; Harries, Anthony D.; Ramsay, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Setting Research capacity is weakest in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) where operational research is highly relevant and needed. Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT) courses have been developed to train participants to conduct and publish operational research and influence policy and practice. Twenty courses were completed in Asia, Africa, Europe and the South Pacific between 2009 and 2014. Objectives In the 20 completed SORT IT courses, to assess where the research was conducted, who was trained, who became facilitators in subsequent courses and course outcomes. Design A cohort study of completed SORT IT courses Results There were 236 participants (41% female) including 64 nationalities who conducted research in 59 countries, mostly from Asia and Africa (mean course duration = 9.7 months). Most participants (68%) were from government health programs and non-governmental agencies. A total of 213(90%) participants completed all milestones successfully with 41(19%) becoming subsequent course facilitators, 88% of whom were from LMICs. Of 228 manuscripts submitted to scientific journals, 197(86%) were either published or in press; in 86%, the principal investigator (first author) was a LMIC national. Papers were published in 23 scientific journals (impact factor 0.5–4.4) and covered 21 disease categories (median publication time = 5.7 months). Published papers (186) had 94,794 cumulative article views/downloads. Article views/downloads for immediate open access articles were double those from closed access journals. Conclusion The SORT IT model has been effective in training personnel to produce relevant operational research in LMICs. It merits continued commitment and support for further scale-up and development. PMID:27505253

  19. Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Chief, Accession Medical Standards Analysis & Research Activity Li Yuanzhang, PhD Senior Statistician Department of Epidemiology David N...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AMSARA, Department of Epidemiology , Division of Preventive Medicine Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 503... Epidemiology of Injury form the Assessment of Recruit Strength and Motivation study ARMS) and Program

  20. Survey of research activity among multidisciplinary health professionals.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Andrea P; Roberts, Shelley; Baker, Mark J; Keijzers, Gerben; Young, Jessica; Stapelberg, N J Chris; Crilly, Julia

    2016-02-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to describe the research activities being undertaken by health service employees within one Australian health service and explore their experiences with undertaking research.Methods The present mixed-methods study was conducted across one health service in Queensland, Australia, and included a cross-sectional online survey and interviews with healthcare service employees. The anonymous survey was a self-administered online questionnaire, distributed to all 6121 employees at the health service via email, asking about research activity and engagement. Willing participants were also interviewed on their perceptions and experiences with research and capacity building.Results In all, 151 participants responded to the survey and 22 participated in interviews. Three-quarters of respondents reported actively participating in research over the past 6 years and several research outputs, such as publications, conference presentations and competitive grant funding, were displayed. Four concepts emerged from interview findings, namely collaborative partnerships, skilled mentorship, embedding research and organisational support, which represented the overall theme 'opportunities for a research-infused health service'.Conclusion Employees of the health service recognised the importance of research and had a range of research skills, knowledge and experience. They also identified several opportunities for building research capacity in this service.What is known about the topic? Building research capacity among healthcare professionals is important for enabling the conduct of high-quality research in healthcare institutions. However, building research capacity is complex and influenced by the uniqueness of organisational context. In order to successfully build research capacity among employees at any health service, current research activity, skills and experience, as well as staff perceptions around building research capacity in that

  1. Research on Mobile Learning Activities Applying Tablets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Juskeviciene, Anita; Bireniene, Virginija

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to present current research on mobile learning activities in Lithuania while implementing flagship EU-funded CCL project on application of tablet computers in education. In the paper, the quality of modern mobile learning activities based on learning personalisation, problem solving, collaboration, and flipped class methods is…

  2. Conducting Research on the International Space Station Using the EXPRESS Rack Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Sean W.; Lake, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Conducting Research on the International Space Station using the EXPRESS Rack Facilities. Sean W. Thompson and Robert E. Lake. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA. Eight "Expedite the Processing of Experiments to Space Station" (EXPRESS) Rack facilities are located within the International Space Station (ISS) laboratories to provide standard resources and interfaces for the simultaneous and independent operation of multiple experiments within each rack. Each EXPRESS Rack provides eight Middeck Locker Equivalent locations and two drawer locations for powered experiment equipment, also referred to as sub-rack payloads. Payload developers may provide their own structure to occupy the equivalent volume of one, two, or four lockers as a single unit. Resources provided for each location include power (28 Vdc, 0-500 W), command and data handling (Ethernet, RS-422, 5 Vdc discrete, +/- 5 Vdc analog), video (NTSC/RS 170A), and air cooling (0-200 W). Each rack also provides water cooling (500 W) for two locations, one vacuum exhaust interface, and one gaseous nitrogen interface. Standard interfacing cables and hoses are provided on-orbit. One laptop computer is provided with each rack to control the rack and to accommodate payload application software. Four of the racks are equipped with the Active Rack Isolation System to reduce vibration between the ISS and the rack. EXPRESS Racks are operated by the Payload Operations Integration Center at Marshall Space Flight Center and the sub-rack experiments are operated remotely by the investigating organization. Payload Integration Managers serve as a focal to assist organizations developing payloads for an EXPRESS Rack. NASA provides EXPRESS Rack simulator software for payload developers to checkout payload command and data handling at the development site before integrating the payload with the EXPRESS Functional Checkout Unit for an end-to-end test before flight. EXPRESS Racks began supporting investigations

  3. Assessing the Awareness of Egyptian Medical Students about Responsible Conduct of Research and Research Ethics: Impact of an Educational Campaign.

    PubMed

    El-Shinawi, Mohamed; Mohamed, Karim Osama; Fouad, Yousef Ahmed; Fahmy, Yara Mohamed; Asar, Hadeel Abdulwahed; Khalil, Mohamed Gomaa; Anestidou, Lida; El-Kamary, Samer S; Mohamed, Mona Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    This is a quasi-experimental pre-post assessment study utilizing an anonymous self-administered questionnaire to assess Egyptian medical students' awareness about responsible conduct of research (RCR) and research ethics. Students' were assessed before and after an RCR awareness campaign. Our results showed that most of the pre-campaign respondents were not familiar with the basic principles and terms of RCR. An increase in the awareness about RCR across all discussed topics was noted following the campaign. We concluded that an educational awareness campaign is effective in increasing medical students' awareness about RCR and should be incorporated into current medical school curricula in Egypt.

  4. Thermal conductivity tensors of the cladding and active layers of interband cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuanle; Cui, Boya; Vurgaftman, I.; Canedy, C. L.; Kim, C. S.; Kim, M.; Bewley, W. W.; Merritt, C. D.; Abell, J.; Meyer, J. R.; Grayson, M.

    2014-12-01

    The cross-plane and in-plane thermal conductivities of the W-active stages and InAs/AlSb superlattice optical cladding layer of an interband cascade laser (ICL) were characterized for temperatures ranging from 15 K to 324 K. The in-plane thermal conductivity of the active layer is somewhat larger than the cross-plane value at temperatures above about 30 K, while the thermal conductivity tensor becomes nearly isotropic at the lowest temperatures studied. These results will improve ICL performance simulations and guide the optimization of thermal management.

  5. Increasing value and reducing waste in research design, conduct, and analysis.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A; Greenland, Sander; Hlatky, Mark A; Khoury, Muin J; Macleod, Malcolm R; Moher, David; Schulz, Kenneth F; Tibshirani, Robert

    2014-01-11

    Correctable weaknesses in the design, conduct, and analysis of biomedical and public health research studies can produce misleading results and waste valuable resources. Small effects can be difficult to distinguish from bias introduced by study design and analyses. An absence of detailed written protocols and poor documentation of research is common. Information obtained might not be useful or important, and statistical precision or power is often too low or used in a misleading way. Insufficient consideration might be given to both previous and continuing studies. Arbitrary choice of analyses and an overemphasis on random extremes might affect the reported findings. Several problems relate to the research workforce, including failure to involve experienced statisticians and methodologists, failure to train clinical researchers and laboratory scientists in research methods and design, and the involvement of stakeholders with conflicts of interest. Inadequate emphasis is placed on recording of research decisions and on reproducibility of research. Finally, reward systems incentivise quantity more than quality, and novelty more than reliability. We propose potential solutions for these problems, including improvements in protocols and documentation, consideration of evidence from studies in progress, standardisation of research efforts, optimisation and training of an experienced and non-conflicted scientific workforce, and reconsideration of scientific reward systems.

  6. Ensuring PhD development of responsible conduct of research behaviors: who's responsible?

    PubMed

    Titus, Sandra L; Ballou, Janice M

    2014-03-01

    The importance of public confidence in scientific findings and trust in scientists cannot be overstated. Thus, it becomes critical for the scientific community to focus on enhancing the strategies used to educate future scientists on ethical research behaviors. What we are lacking is knowledge on how faculty members shape and develop ethical research standards with their students. We are presenting the results of a survey with 3,500 research faculty members. We believe this is the first report on how faculty work with and educate their PhD students on basic research standards. Specifically, we wanted to determine whether individual faculty members, who are advisors or mentors, differ in how they implemented components of responsible conduct of research (RCR) with their PhD students. Mentors were more likely than advisors or supervisors to report working with all of their PhDs, who graduated in the last 5 years, on the 17 recognized critical components of RCR training and research skill development. We also found about half of the faculty members believe RCR is an institutional responsibility versus a faculty responsibility. Less than a quarter have had opportunities to participate in faculty training to be a better mentor, advisor, or research teacher, and about one third of faculty did not or could not remember whether they had guidelines related to their responsibilities to PhD students. We discuss the implications of our findings and focus on ways that PhD research mentoring can be enhanced.

  7. An Online Course for Instruction in the Reponsible Conduct of Research

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Kalichman

    2004-10-12

    Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) is the process by which regulations, guidelines, standards and ethics are reconciled to promote integrity in research. The development of this online resource, with contributions from the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), will allow the DOE system to offer state-of-the-art education in RCR to its sites. The intent of the project is to establish basic RCR content websites, publicize for public use and review, revise as recommended or as ethics change, and to continue supplementing with new material. The resulting resources will be posted on the Web (http://rcrec.org/r)

  8. Strategies for successful conduct of research with low-income African American populations.

    PubMed

    Adderley-Kelly, Beatrice; Green, Pauline M

    2005-01-01

    Health disparities among racial and ethnic minorities are associated with poor health outcomes. African Americans bear a disproportionate amount of the burden of health disparities. The elimination of health disparities among the nation's racial and ethnic groups requires immediate action that the health care community cannot accomplish in isolation. Eliminating health disparities calls for new and non-traditional partnerships across diverse sectors of the community that include research initiatives using culturally competent and participatory action methodologies. While there is much evidence documenting health disparities in racial and ethnic groups, there is little evidence of successful interventions that address health disparities in African Americans. Furthermore, there is little direction for successful strategies for recruiting African Americans for participation in health disparities research. This article addresses important factors to consider when conducting research with low income African Americans based on the authors' research experience in health promotion and cancer detection and prevention. Strategies for successful conduct of research with low income African American populations are offered.

  9. A volume-activated anion conductance in insulin-secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Best, L; Sheader, E A; Brown, P D

    1996-01-01

    The whole-cell patch-clamp recording technique was used to measure volume-activated currents in K+-free solutions in RINm5F and HIT-T15 insulinoma cells and in dispersed rat islet cells. Cell swelling, induced by intracellular hypertonicity or extracellular hypotonicity, caused activation of an outwardly rectifying conductance which could be subsequently inactivated by hypertonic extracellular solutions. The conductance required adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) in the pipette solution but was Ca2+ independent. Na+ and Cl- substitution studies suggested that the swelling-activated current is Cl- selective with a halide permeability sequence of Br > Cl > I. The conductance was reversibly inhibited by the anion channel inhibitors 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) and by 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB). Further evidence for a volume-activated anion conductance was provided by studies of volume regulation in insulin-secreting cells. When RINm5F cells were exposed to a hypotonic medium, the initial cell swelling was followed by a regulatory volume decrease (RVD). This RVD response was also inhibited by DIDS and by NPPB. These data therefore provide evidence for a volume-activated anion conductance in insulin-secreting cells which could be involved in the RVD following osmotic stress. A possible role for the conductance in hypotonically induced insulin release is also discussed.

  10. Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, Enhanced Pearson eText with Loose-Leaf Version--Access Card Package. Fifth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, John W.

    2015-01-01

    "Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research" offers a truly balanced, inclusive, and integrated overview of the processes involved in educational research. This text first examines the general steps in the research process and then details the procedures for conducting specific types…

  11. The critical role of locally conducted research in guiding the response to the HIV epidemic in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, J P

    2012-07-01

    Locally conducted research has played a critical role in guiding the response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Jamaica. Active HIV/AIDS case-based surveillance and serosurveys helped to define the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in Jamaica and identify those who were most at risk. Studies among sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic attendees ident fled genital ulcers and syphilis as risk factors for HIV infection and were suggestive of other risk factors. Given the synergistic role of HI V and other STI, an integrated approach was taken to HIV/STI control and the STI services were strengthened based on research. Studies were conducted among sex-workers (SW), men who have sex with men, persons who go to sites to meet new sex partners, prisoners and others most at risk in order to understand risk factors and better guide the HIV/STI response. National population based surveys were conducted periodically to monitor knowledge, attitudes, beliefs as well as sexual behaviour and condom use. The research contributed greatly to Jamaica's comprehensive HIV/STI control programme that has been effective in slowing the HIV epidemic, reducing HlVprevalence among SW and STI clinic attendees, preventing mother-to-child transmission, reducing syphilis rates and mitigating the impact of HIV on the population.

  12. 15 CFR 917.42 - Categories of support available for the conducting of Sea Grant activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... have substantial strength in the three basic Sea Grant activities: research, education and training... generally for a single item of research, education and training, or advisory service, but may be renewed... may be in research, education, training, or advisory services. Support for a project is made to...

  13. Top 10 research questions related to children physical activity motivation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ang

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity is critical to healthy development of children. It is well documented that helping children develop and sustain a physically active lifestyle requires children to become motivated. Many studies have been conducted in the past 2.5 decades on determinants and correlates for children and adolescents' physical activity motivation. The findings have informed researchers and practitioners about motivation sources for children and effective strategies to motivate children in given physical activity settings. Built on the extensive knowledge base and theoretical platforms formed by these research studies, the purpose of this article is to take a look at the current research landscape and provide subjective thoughts about what we still need to know about children's physical activity motivation. The product of this subjective thinking process rendered 10 potential questions for future research on children's physical activity motivation in both in-school and out-of-school settings. These topics encompass those focusing on children's physical activity motivation as a mental dispositional process, those conceptualizing the motivation as an outcome of person-environment interactions, and those attempting to dissect the motivation as an outcome of social-cultural influences and educational policies. It is hoped that the topics can serve researchers interested in children's physical activity motivation as starting blocks from which they can extend their conceptual thinking and identify research questions that are personally meaningful. It is also hoped that the list of potential questions can be helpful to researchers in accomplishing the imperative and significant mission to motivate children to be physically active in the 21st century and beyond.

  14. Researches on current distribution and plate conductivity of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tao; Ou, Wenjun; Feng, Bo; Huang, Binbin; Liu, Minyi; Zhao, Wenchao; Guo, Yonglang

    2012-07-01

    A cell with tall plates was simulated by two cells and the controlled voltage with time was successfully used to measure the response current-time curves. It indicates that the current in the upper part of the plate is much higher than that in the lower part in early stage of the discharge, but in late stage, it is reversed, especially at high discharge rates. The upper part of the plate has higher capacity and deeper depth of discharge (DOD) so that the active mass degrades and sheds more quickly in cyclic applications. In the initial discharge, the lead sulfate formed at positive plates produces the internal stress and enhances the electric connection among the active mass particles. But the positive active mass only contributes a little to the conductivity of plates. The negative active mass with a bit shrinking but no passivation has better conductivity than the expanded active mass. The higher ohmic polarization of the active mass appears at higher discharge rates, in the upper part of the plates, in the late stage of the discharge, in aged battery, especially for negative plates.

  15. 30 CFR 285.1010 - How long may I conduct activities under an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alternate Use RUE? 285.1010 Section 285.1010 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION... Activities Using Existing OCS Facilities Alternate Use Rue Administration § 285.1010 How long may I conduct activities under an Alternate Use RUE? (a) We will establish on a case-by-case basis, and set forth in...

  16. Collaboration: a solution to the challenge of conducting nursing research in cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Robyn; Sadler, Leonie; Kirkness, Ann; Belshaw, Julie; Roach, Kellie; Warrington, Darrell

    2013-01-01

    Clinical nurse leaders such as clinical nurse consultants are required to conduct research and incorporate outcomes of this research into their every day practice. However, undertaking research presents issues for cardiac rehabilitation clinical nurse consultants because they may have competing demands, difficulty with finding replacements and may be relatively isolated from other researchers. The solution to this situation is the formation of a collaborative research team with other cardiac rehabilitation clinical nurse consultants, with the inclusion of an experienced university academic as a mentor for the cardiac rehabilitation clinical nurse consultants working in an Area Health Service encompassing both rural and metropolitan hospitals in New South Wales, Australia. The related research project aimed to evaluate and improve the clients' knowledge and practices related to the use of sublingual glyceryl trinitrate. The team's experiences and suggestions for clinical nurse Leaders are presented in this paper. Essential team characteristics include having shared motivation, good communication practices, flexibility and tolerance, an effective team size, achieving success, willingness to accept challenges and an experienced mentor. The benefits of developing a collaborative team for research led by clinical nurse consultants in cardiac rehabilitation by far outweigh the time and effort involved in the process.

  17. A Decision Process for Determining Whether to Conduct Responder Health Research Following Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Decker, John A.; Kiefer, Max; Reissman, Dori B.; Funk, Renée; Halpin, John; Bernard, Bruce; Ehrenberg, Richard L.; Schuler, Christine R.; Whelan, Elizabeth; Myers, Kyle; Howard, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Disasters often set the stage for scientific inquiry within the field of occupational safety and health. This is especially true when the long-term consequences of exposures associated with a particular disaster are unclear. However, a responder research study can be costly and difficult to design, and researchers must consider whether the proposed study will produce useful, reliable results and is a prudent public health investment. Methods Senior NIOSH scientists, experienced with disaster response and representing the disciplines of epidemiology, occupational medicine and psychiatry, and industrial hygiene, were convened at the request of the NIOSH Director to develop a decision process to help determine when to conduct responder health research following disasters. Results The decision process can be broken down into various components, including scientific rationale that should be formally recognized as critical to efficiently and effectively determine whether a research study is warranted. The scientific rationale includes certain controlling or “gatekeeper” factors that should be present to proceed with research. Providing the foundation for responder disaster research also requires strategizing before an event occurs, so that critical baseline and comparison data can be collected. Conclusions The recommended framework should ensure that research that is most needed and justified will be identified and prioritized. PMID:23716371

  18. The CELSS research program - A brief review of recent activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D.; Tremor, J.; Bubenheim, D. L.; Gale, J.

    1989-01-01

    The history of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System program, initiated by NASA in the late 1970s to explore the use of bioregenerative methods of life support, is reviewed. The project focused on examining the process involved in converting inorganic minerals and gases into life support materials using sunlight as the primary energy source. The research, planning, and technological development required by the CELSS program and conducted at NASA field centers, at various universities, and by commercial organizations are reviewed. Research activities at universities have focused upon exploring methods of reducing the size of the system, reducing system power requirements, understanding issues that are associated with its long-term stability, and identifying new technologies that might be useful in improving its efficiency. Research activities at Ames research center have focused on the use of common duckweed as a high biomass-producing plant, which is high in protein and on waste processing.

  19. Beyond responsible conduct in research: new pedagogies to address macroethics of nanobiotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Vallero, Daniel Alan

    2007-01-01

    A team of engineers, scientists, ethicists, and educational specialists are enhancing Duke University's Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) program to ensure that graduate-level researchers in emerging fields are adequately prepared when confronted with macroethical issues associated with applications of new and emerging medical technologies. The focus is on nanoscale laboratory research conducted in the Center for Biologically Inspired Materials and Material Systems and the Center for Biological Tissue Engineering. Most present RCR programs address methodological ethics of the individual researcher or practitioner (i.e., microethical) issues, analogous to Kohlberg's theory of moral development. The resultant model from this project is the basis for departmental, center, and other more targeted ethical challenges stemming from research in emerging technologies, designed to provide comprehensive RCR training. The research successfully identified new ways of teaching students about macroethical issues (i.e., those that affect society). Three main dimensions of ethics in nanotechnology-related research are being stressed, namely, awareness, ethical decision making, and behavior. Workshops appear to enhance awareness of the ethical issues associated with emerging technologies. To date, attempts to affect decision making have been difficult, although in this study workshops were an effective means of identifying strategies to address ethical issues. A principal lesson learned has been the importance of providing a context for macroethical issues. For example, the workshop where an expert presented the technical aspects of environmental consequences of carbon nanotubes led to statistically significant differences between pre- and postworkshop understanding of societal risks. Conversely, in a workshop without the technical introduction, little difference was observed. This indicates that the stage of students' ethical understanding is an important determinant of

  20. 49 CFR 11.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assuring compliance with this policy-research... policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy and which is conducted or supported by a...

  1. 45 CFR 46.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.120 Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. (a) The... proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 46.120 Section...

  2. 34 CFR 97.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted... Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution...

  3. Development of a Survey Instrument to Measure TEFL Academics' Perceptions about, Individual and Workplace Characteristics for Conducting Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Li; Hudson, Peter; Millwater, Jan; Tones, Megan

    2013-01-01

    A 30-item survey was devised to determine Chinese TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) academics' potential for conducting research. A five-part Likert scale was used to gather data from 182 academics on four factors: (1) perceptions on teaching-research nexus, (2) personal perspectives for conducting research, (3) predispositions for…

  4. 38 CFR 16.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. 16.103 Section 16.103....103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy and which is...

  5. 10 CFR 745.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal department or agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered...

  6. 38 CFR 16.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. 16.103 Section 16.103....103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy and which is...

  7. 34 CFR 97.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted... Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution...

  8. 38 CFR 16.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. 16.103 Section 16.103....103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy and which is...

  9. 22 CFR 225.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Assuring compliance with this policy-research... policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy and which is conducted or supported by a...

  10. 49 CFR 11.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assuring compliance with this policy-research... policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy and which is conducted or supported by a...

  11. 49 CFR 11.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assuring compliance with this policy-research... policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy and which is conducted or supported by a...

  12. 34 CFR 97.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted... Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution...

  13. 22 CFR 225.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assuring compliance with this policy-research... policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy and which is conducted or supported by a...

  14. 10 CFR 745.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal department or agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered...

  15. 34 CFR 97.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted... Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution...

  16. 49 CFR 11.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assuring compliance with this policy-research... policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy and which is conducted or supported by a...

  17. 7 CFR 3400.21 - Scientific peer review for research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scientific peer review for research activities. 3400... § 3400.21 Scientific peer review for research activities. Scientific peer review is an evaluation of a... with the scientific knowledge and technical skills to conduct the proposed research work....

  18. The HIV and Drug Abuse Prevention Research Ethics Training Institute: Training Early-Career Scientists to Conduct Research on Research Ethics.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Celia B; Yuko, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    The responsible conduct of HIV/drug abuse prevention research requires investigators with both the knowledge of and ability to generate empirical data that can enhance global ethical practices and policies. This article describes a multidisciplinary program offering early-career professionals a 2-year intensive summer curriculum along with funding to conduct a mentored research study on a wide variety of HIV/drug abuse research ethics topics. Now in its fifth year, the program has admitted 29 trainees who have to date demonstrated increased knowledge of research ethics, produced 17 peer-reviewed publications, 46 professional presentations, and submitted or been awarded five related federal grants. The institute also hosts a global information platform providing general and HIV/drug abuse relevant research ethics educational and research resources that have had more than 38,800 unique visitors from more than 150 countries.

  19. A large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Koszela-Piotrowska, Izabela; Matkovic, Karolina; Szewczyk, Adam; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2009-11-11

    In the present study, we describe the existence of a novel potassium channel in the plant [potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber] mitochondrial inner membrane. We found that substances known to modulate large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel activity influenced the bioenergetics of potato tuber mitochondria. In isolated mitochondria, Ca2+ and NS1619 {1,3-dihydro-1-[2-hydroxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-ben-zimidazole-2-one; a potassium channel opener} were found to depolarize the mitochondrial membrane potential and to stimulate resting respiration. These effects were blocked by iberiotoxin (a potassium channel inhibitor) in a potassium-dependent manner. Additionally, the electrophysiological properties of the large-conductance potassium channel present in the potato tuber inner mitochondrial membrane are described in a reconstituted system, using planar lipid bilayers. After incorporation in 50/450 mM KCl gradient solutions, we recorded large-conductance potassium channel activity with conductance from 502+/-15 to 615+/-12 pS. The probability of channel opening was increased by Ca2+ and reduced by iberiotoxin. Immunological analysis with antibodies raised against the mammalian plasma-membrane large-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ channel identified a pore-forming alpha subunit and an auxiliary beta2 subunit of the channel in potato tuber mitochondrial inner membrane. These results suggest that a large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel similar to that of mammalian mitochondria is present in potato tuber mitochondria.

  20. Rectifying conductance substates in a large conductance Ca(2+)- activated K+ channel: evidence for a fluctuating barrier mechanism

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the production of inwardly rectifying subconductance states induced in large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels (maxi K(Ca) channels) by the small, homologous proteins, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) and dendrotoxin-I (DTX). Low-resolution bilayer recordings of BPTI- induced substates display excess noise that is well described by a beta- distribution characteristic of a filtered, two-state process. High- resolution patch recordings of maxi K(Ca) channels from vascular smooth muscle cells confirm that the BPTI-induced substate is actually comprised of rapid, voltage-dependent transitions between the open state and a nearly closed state. Patch recordings of DTX-induced substates also exhibit excess noise consistent with a similar two-state fluctuation process that occurs at rates faster than those measured for the BPTI-induced substate. The results indicate that these examples of ligand-induced substates originate by a fluctuating barrier mechanism that is similar to one class of models proposed by Dani, J.A., and J.A. Fox (1991. J. Theor. Biol. 153: 401-423) to explain subconductance behavior of ion channels. To assess the general impact of such rapid fluctuations on the practical measurement of unitary currents by amplitude histograms, we simulated single-channel records for a linear, three-state scheme of C (closed)-O(open)-S(substate). This simulation defines a range of transition rates relative to filter frequency where rapid fluctuations can lead to serious underestimation of actual unitary current levels. On the basis of these experiments and simulations, we conclude that fluctuating barrier processes and open channel noise may play an important physiological role in the modulation of ion permeation. PMID:8741730

  1. Engineered Ionic Gates for Ion Conduction Based on Sodium and Potassium Activated Nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Xiao, Kai; Wen, Liping; Lu, Heng; Liu, Yahui; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Xie, Ganhua; Zhang, Zhen; Bo, Zhishan; Jiang, Lei

    2015-09-23

    In living systems, ion conduction plays a major role in numerous cellular processes and can be controlled by biological ion channels in response to specific environmental stimuli. This article describes biomimetic ionic gates for ion conduction based on sodium and potassium activated nanochannels. The Na(+) activated ionic gate and K(+) activated ionic gate were developed by immobilizing the alkali metal cation-responsive functional molecules, 4'-aminobenzo-15-crown-5 and 4'-aminobenzo-18-crown-6, respectively, onto the conical polyimide nanochannels. When the ionic gate was in the presence of the specific alkali metal cation, positively charged complexes formed between the crown ether and the alkali metal cation. On the basis of the resulting changes in surface charge, wettability and effective pore size, the nanochannel can achieve reversible switching. The switching behaviors of the two complexes differed due to the differences in binding strength between the two complexes. The Na(+) activated ionic gate is able to open and close to control the ion conduction through the nanochannel, and the K(+) activated ionic gate enables selective cation and anion conduction through the nanochannel. The Na(+) and K(+) activated ionic gates show great promise for use in clinical medicine, biosensors and drug delivery based on their high sensitivity and selectivity of being activated, and good stability.

  2. Integrating a framework for conducting public health systems research into statewide operations-based exercises to improve emergency preparedness

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Due to the uncommon nature of large-scale disasters and emergencies, public health practitioners often turn to simulated emergencies, known as “exercises”, for preparedness assessment and improvement. Under the right conditions, exercises can also be used to conduct original public health systems research. This paper describes the integration of a research framework into a statewide operations-based exercise program in California as a systems-based approach for studying public health emergency preparedness and response. Methods We developed a research framework based on the premise that operations-based exercises conducted by medical and public health agencies can be described using epidemiologic concepts. Using this framework, we conducted a survey of key local and regional medical and health agencies throughout California following the 2010 Statewide Medical and Health Exercise. The survey evaluated: (1) the emergency preparedness capabilities activated and functions performed in response to the emergency scenario, and (2) the major challenges to inter-organizational communications and information management. Results Thirty-five local health departments (LHDs), 24 local emergency medical services (EMS) agencies, 121 hospitals, and 5 Regional Disaster Medical and Health Coordinators/Specialists (RDMHC) responded to our survey, representing 57%, 77%, 26% and 83%, respectively, of target agencies in California. We found two sets of response capabilities were activated during the 2010 Statewide Exercise: a set of core capabilities that were common across all agencies, and a set of agency-specific capabilities that were more common among certain agency types. With respect to one response capability in particular, inter-organizational information sharing, we found that the majority of respondents’ comments were related to the complete or partial failure of communications equipment or systems. Conclusions Using the 2010 Statewide Exercise in California

  3. Defining components of the research process needed to conduct and critique studies.

    PubMed

    Summers, S

    1991-02-01

    The research process consists of a five-chapter approach. Chapters one through three are written during the planning stages of a study. Chapter one consists of problem, purpose, hypotheses or research questions, definitions, theoretical framework, and significance for nursing. Chapter two consists of the review of literature. Chapter three consists of the methodology: sample, setting, design, data analysis methods, and ethical concerns. Chapters four and five are written after the study is completed. Chapter four consists of results of data analysis. Chapter five consists of a discussion of results, conclusions, implications for nurses, and recommended future studies. It is important for nurses to review and apply this five-chapter approach when conducting or critiquing research studies.

  4. Progressive age-associated activation of JNK associates with conduction disruption in the aged atrium.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sandra A; Lancaster, Matthew K

    2015-03-01

    Connexin43 (Cx43) is critical for maintaining electrical conduction across atrial muscle. During progressive ageing atrial conduction slows associating with increasing susceptibility to arrhythmias. Changes in Cx43 protein expression, or its phosphorylation status, can instigate changes in the conduction of the cardiac action potential. This study investigated whether increased levels of activated c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is responsible for the decline of Cx43 during ageing. Right atria from guinea pigs aged between 1 day and 38 months of age were examined. The area of the intercalated disc increased with age concurrent with a 75% decline in C43 protein expression. An age-dependent increase in activated-JNK correlated with a rise in phosphorylated Cx43, but also slowing of action potential conduction velocity across the atria from 0.38±0.01 m/s at 1 month of age to 0.30±0.01 m/s at 38 months. The JNK activator anisomycin increased activated JNK in myocytes and reduced Cx43 protein expression simulating ageing. The JNK inhibitor SP600125, was found to eradicate almost all trace of Cx43 protein. We conclude that in vivo activation of JNK increases with age leading to the loss of Cx43 protein resulting in impaired conduction and contributing to the increasing risk of atrial arrhythmias with advancing age.

  5. High-impact animal health research conducted at the USDA's National Animal Disease Center.

    PubMed

    Bannantine, John P; Olsen, Steven C; Kehrli, Marcus E; Stanton, Thad B; Casas, Eduardo; Whipple, Diana L; Zuelke, Kurt A

    2013-08-30

    Commissioned by President Dwight Eisenhower in 1958 and opened with a dedication ceremony in December 1961, the USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS), National Animal Disease Center (NADC) celebrated its 50-year anniversary in November 2011. Over these 50 years, the NADC established itself among the world's premier animal health research centers. Its historic mission has been to conduct basic and applied research on selected endemic diseases of economic importance to the U.S. livestock and poultry industries. Research from NADC has impacted control or management efforts on nearly every major animal disease in the United States since 1961. For example, diagnostic tests and vaccines developed by NADC scientists to detect and prevent hog cholera were integral in the ultimate eradication of this costly swine disease from the U.S. Most major veterinary vaccines for critical diseases such as brucellosis and leptospirosis in cattle, porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome (PRRS), porcine parvovirus and influenza in swine had their research origins or were developed and tested at the NADC. Additional discoveries made by NADC scientists have also resulted in the development of a nutritional approach and feed additives to prevent milk fever in transition dairy cattle. More recently, NADC's archive of historic swine influenza viruses combined with an established critical mass of influenza research expertise enabled NADC researchers to lead an effective national research response to the pandemic associated with the novel 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. This review commemorates some of the key animal health contributions in NADC's first 50 years, recaps the newly completed modernization of the center into new facilities, and offers highlights of the ongoing research that will define NADC's mission going forward.

  6. Conducting Research with Tribal Communities: Sovereignty, Ethics, and Data-Sharing Issues

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Barbara; Stone, Dave; O’Neill, Catherine; Berger, Patricia; Harris, Stuart; Donatuto, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    Background: When conducting research with American Indian tribes, informed consent beyond conventional institutional review board (IRB) review is needed because of the potential for adverse consequences at a community or governmental level that are unrecognized by academic researchers. Objectives: In this article, we review sovereignty, research ethics, and data-sharing considerations when doing community-based participatory health–related or natural-resource–related research with American Indian nations and present a model material and data-sharing agreement that meets tribal and university requirements. Discussion: Only tribal nations themselves can identify potential adverse outcomes, and they can do this only if they understand the assumptions and methods of the proposed research. Tribes must be truly equal partners in study design, data collection, interpretation, and publication. Advances in protection of intellectual property rights (IPR) are also applicable to IRB reviews, as are principles of sovereignty and indigenous rights, all of which affect data ownership and control. Conclusions: Academic researchers engaged in tribal projects should become familiar with all three areas: sovereignty, ethics and informed consent, and IPR. We recommend developing an agreement with tribal partners that reflects both health-related IRB and natural-resource–related IPR considerations. PMID:21890450

  7. Activities at the Smart Structures Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Peter T.

    1991-12-01

    Smart Structures and Materials technology will undoubtedly yield a wide range of new materials plus new sensing and actuation technologies and this will have a radical effect on current approaches to structural design. To meet the multi-disciplinary research challenge posed by this technology, the Smart Structures Research Institute (SSRI) has been established at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow. This paper describes the background, current and planned activities and progress made in developing this new and very promising technology.

  8. Measurement uncertainty for the Uniform Engine Testing Program conducted at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelwahab, Mahmood; Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Silver, Dean

    1987-01-01

    An uncertainty analysis was conducted to determine the bias and precision errors and total uncertainty of measured turbojet engine performance parameters. The engine tests were conducted as part of the Uniform Engine Test Program which was sponsored by the Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD). With the same engines, support hardware, and instrumentation, performance parameters were measured twice, once during tests conducted in test cell number 3 and again during tests conducted in test cell number 4 of the NASA Lewis Propulsion Systems Laboratory. The analysis covers 15 engine parameters, including engine inlet airflow, engine net thrust, and engine specific fuel consumption measured at high rotor speed of 8875 rpm. Measurements were taken at three flight conditions defined by the following engine inlet pressure, engine inlet total temperature, and engine ram ratio: (1) 82.7 kPa, 288 K, 1.0, (2) 82.7 kPa, 288 K, 1.3, and (3) 20.7 kPa, 288 K, 1.3. In terms of bias, precision, and uncertainty magnitudes, there were no differences between most measurements made in test cells number 3 and 4. The magnitude of the errors increased for both test cells as engine pressure level decreased. Also, the level of the bias error was two to three times larger than that of the precision error.

  9. 7 CFR 3400.21 - Scientific peer review for research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to conduct the proposed research work. Peer reviewers may be selected from an applicant organization... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scientific peer review for research activities. 3400... STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH...

  10. Research engagement of health sciences librarians: a survey of research-related activities and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Lessick, Susan; Perryman, Carol; Billman, Brooke L.; Alpi, Kristine M.; De Groote, Sandra L.; Babin, Ted D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The extent to which health sciences librarians are engaged in research is a little-studied question. This study assesses the research activities and attitudes of Medical Library Association (MLA) members, including the influence of work affiliation. Methods An online survey was designed using a combination of multiple-choice and open-ended questions and distributed to MLA members. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics, content analysis, and significance testing. The authors used statistical tools and categorized open-ended question topics by the constant comparative method, also applying the broad subject categories used in a prior study. Pearson's chi-square analysis was performed on responses to determine significant differences among respondents employed in three different institutional environments. Results Analysis showed that 79% of respondents read research articles at least once a month; 58% applied published research studies to practice; 44% had conducted research; 62% reported acting on research had enhanced their libraries; 38% had presented findings; and 34% had authored research articles. Hospital librarians were significantly less likely than academic librarians to have participated in research activities. Highly ranked research benefits, barriers, and competencies of health sciences librarians are described. Conclusions Findings indicate that health sciences librarians are actively engaged in research activities. Practice implications for practitioners, publishers, and stakeholders are discussed. Results suggest that practitioners can use published research results and results from their own research to affect practice decisions and improve services. Future studies are needed to confirm and extend these findings, including the need for intervention studies to increase research and writing productivity. PMID:27076808

  11. Techniques for automated local activation time annotation and conduction velocity estimation in cardiac mapping

    PubMed Central

    Cantwell, C.D.; Roney, C.H.; Ng, F.S.; Siggers, J.H.; Sherwin, S.J.; Peters, N.S.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of cardiac conduction velocity provide valuable functional and structural insight into the initiation and perpetuation of cardiac arrhythmias, in both a clinical and laboratory context. The interpretation of activation wavefronts and their propagation can identify mechanistic properties of a broad range of electrophysiological pathologies. However, the sparsity, distribution and uncertainty of recorded data make accurate conduction velocity calculation difficult. A wide range of mathematical approaches have been proposed for addressing this challenge, often targeted towards specific data modalities, species or recording environments. Many of these algorithms require identification of activation times from electrogram recordings which themselves may have complex morphology or low signal-to-noise ratio. This paper surveys algorithms designed for identifying local activation times and computing conduction direction and speed. Their suitability for use in different recording contexts and applications is assessed. PMID:25978869

  12. Research and technology activities at Ames Research Center's Biomedical Research Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martello, N.

    1985-01-01

    Various research and technology activities at Ames Research Center's Biomedical Research Division are described. Contributions to the Space Administration's goals in the life sciences include descriptions of research in operational medicine, cardiovascular deconditioning, motion sickness, bone alterations, muscle atrophy, fluid and electrolyte changes, radiation effects and protection, behavior and performance, gravitational biology, and life sciences flight experiments.

  13. Teaching and Assessing the Responsible Conduct of Research: A Delphi Consensus Panel Report

    PubMed Central

    DuBois, James M.; Dueker, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to foster research integrity, the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation mandate education of all trainees in the responsible conduct of research (RCR). Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that rates of questionable research practices and scientific misconduct are both high and considerably underreported. In part, this may be due to the fact that some ethical norms (e.g., authorship assignment) are far from clear and researchers are unsure how to respond to perceived misconduct. With funding from the U.S. Office of Research Integrity (ORI), we convened four panels of experts to develop a consensus on the overarching goals and teaching content of RCR instruction. Our panelists recommended nine overarching objectives for RCR instruction that require us to rethink common modes of instruction, and they identified issues and standards that should be covered within controversial areas such as authorship assignment and whistle-blowing. Additionally, our experts recommended two new core areas for RCR instruction: The social responsibilities of scientists and current topics in RCR. PMID:22500145

  14. Using Simulation in Nursing PhD Education: Facilitating Application of Responsible Conduct of Research Principles.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Margaret F; Supiano, Katherine; Wilson, Rebecca; Lassche, Madeline; Latendresse, Gwen

    Simulation is a standard clinical nursing educational approach; however, simulation is rarely used in nonclinical nursing education. In doctor of philosophy (PhD) programs, ethical content about responsible conduct of research (RCR) is traditionally didactic, presented early in the program of study. Ethics content merits review before students begin the dissertation phase; thus, the purpose of this project was to design and implement simulated scenarios to help students apply RCR principles prior to beginning independent research. Two scenarios were developed: (a) a potential protocol change discussed in a research team meeting and (b) an in-home data collection experience with an elderly participant and her daughter. Actors were trained faculty volunteers, playing roles outside their usual academic positions. Faculty facilitated scenarios by posing questions as cues related to desired learning outcomes as scenarios unfolded. Eleven nursing PhD students and 6 faculty participated. Debriefing facilitated discussion of RCR principles, common research quandaries, and suggested scenario revisions. Faculty, expert observation, and video-review showed that younger and less experienced students tried to give the "right" answer rather than implement RCR appropriate solutions. Students with more clinical experience had difficulty adopting the less familiar researcher role. Overall, simulation is a novel and useful way to enhance RCR content in PhD programs.

  15. 40 CFR 725.235 - Conditions of exemption for activities conducted inside a structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 725.234(e) is required, the manufacturer, importer, or processor must do one of the following: (1) For research conducted in accordance with the NIH Guidelines, the manufacturer, importer, or processor must... in accordance with § 725.234, the manufacturer, importer, or processor must review and evaluate...

  16. Research Experience and Agreement with Selected Ethics Principles from Canada's "Tri-Council Policy Statement--Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahy, Pat; Spencer, Bob

    2004-01-01

    An online survey was conducted of students, instructors, and researchers in distance education regarding principles for the ethical treatment of human research subjects. The study used an online questionnaire based on principles drawn from Canada's "Tri-Council Policy Statement, Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans" (TCPS,…

  17. Simulation research on 2.52THz radar cross section of conductive column array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qian; Li, Qi; Zhao, Yong-Peng; Chen, De-Ying

    2016-10-01

    Calculating radar cross section (RCS) of complex conductive targets is of great significance to design highly precise radar system, recognize targets and so on. This paper simulates complex objects with a periodic array of cylinders, and mainly focuses researches on the impacts on RCS by number, spacing and size of cylinders. The experimental results show that the biggest backward scattering RCSs of two-body to five-body cylinders were 0.0334sm, 0.0750sm, 0.1334sm and 0.2084 sm.

  18. Variable conductance heat pipe technology. [research project resulting in heat pipe experiment on OAO-3 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. T.; Edwards, D. K.; Eninger, J. E.; Marcus, B. D.

    1974-01-01

    A research and development program in variable conductance heat pipe technology is reported. The project involved: (1) theoretical and/or experimental studies in hydrostatics, (2) hydrodynamics, (3) heat transfer into and out of the pipe, (4) fluid selection, and (5) materials compatibility. The development, fabrication, and test of the space hardware resulted in a successful flight of the heat pipe experiment on the OAO-3 satellite. A summary of the program is provided and a guide to the location of publications on the project is included.

  19. Team-based learning instruction for responsible conduct of research positively impacts ethical decision-making.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Wayne T; Garvan, Cynthia W

    2014-01-01

    Common practices for responsible conduct of research (RCR) instruction have recently been shown to have no positive impact on and possibly to undermine ethical decision-making (EDM). We show that a team-based learning (TBL) RCR curriculum results in some gains in decision ethicality, the use of more helpful metacognitive reasoning strategies in decision-making, and elimination of most negative effects of other forms of RCR instruction on social-behavioral responses. TBL supports the reasoning strategies and social mechanisms that underlie EDM and ethics instruction, and may provide a more effective method for RCR instruction than lectures and small group discussion.

  20. 30 CFR 285.800 - How must I conduct my activities to comply with safety and environmental requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs § 285.800 How must I conduct my activities to comply with... compliance with those terms and conditions identified in your approved SAP, COP, or GAP, as required...

  1. 12 CFR 211.29 - Applications by state branches and state agencies to conduct activities not permissible for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Comptroller imposes a quantitative limitation on the conduct of such activity by the federal branch; (3) Is... conducted, and an estimate of the expected dollar volume associated with the activity; (2) An analysis...

  2. Intracellular Na+ and K+ activities and membrane conductances in the collecting tubule of Amphiuma

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Membrane potentials and conductances, and intracellular ionic activities were studied in isolated perfused collecting tubules of K+- adapted Amphiuma. Intracellular Na+ (aNai) and K+ (aKi) activities were measured, using liquid ion-exchanger double-barreled microelectrodes. Apical and basolateral membrane conductances were estimated by cable analysis. The effects of inhibition of the apical conductance by amiloride (10(-5) M) and of inhibition of the basolateral Na-K pump by either a low K+ (0.1 mM) bath or by ouabain (10(-4) M) were studied. Under control conditions, aNai was 8.4 +/- 1.9 mM and aKi 56 +/- 3 mM. With luminal amiloride, aNai decreased to 2.2 +/- 0.4 mM and aKi increased to 66 +/- 3 mM. Ouabain produced an increase of aNai to 44 +/- 4 mM, and a decrease of aKi to 22 +/- 6, and similar changes were observed when the tubule was exposed to a low K+ bath solution. During pump inhibition, there was a progressive decrease of the K+-selective basolateral membrane conductance and of the Na+ permeability of the apical membrane. A similar inhibition of both membrane conductances was observed after pump inhibition by low K+ solution. Upon reintroduction of K+, a basolateral membrane hyperpolarization of -23 +/- 4 mV was observed, indicating an immediate reactivation of the electrogenic Na-K pump. However, the recovery of the membrane conductances occurred over a slower time course. These data imply that both membrane conductances are regulated according to the intracellular ionic composition, but that the basolateral K+ conductance is not directly linked to the pump activity. PMID:3235975

  3. Anticipated Changes in Conducting Scientific Data-Analysis Research in the Big-Data Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Seablom, Michael; Clune, Thomas; Ramachandran, Rahul

    2014-05-01

    A Big-Data environment is one that is capable of orchestrating quick-turnaround analyses involving large volumes of data for numerous simultaneous users. Based on our experiences with a prototype Big-Data analysis environment, we anticipate some important changes in research behaviors and processes while conducting scientific data-analysis research in the near future as such Big-Data environments become the mainstream. The first anticipated change will be the reduced effort and difficulty in most parts of the data management process. A Big-Data analysis environment is likely to house most of the data required for a particular research discipline along with appropriate analysis capabilities. This will reduce the need for researchers to download local copies of data. In turn, this also reduces the need for compute and storage procurement by individual researchers or groups, as well as associated maintenance and management afterwards. It is almost certain that Big-Data environments will require a different "programming language" to fully exploit the latent potential. In addition, the process of extending the environment to provide new analysis capabilities will likely be more involved than, say, compiling a piece of new or revised code. We thus anticipate that researchers will require support from dedicated organizations associated with the environment that are composed of professional software engineers and data scientists. A major benefit will likely be that such extensions are of higher-quality and broader applicability than ad hoc changes by physical scientists. Another anticipated significant change is improved collaboration among the researchers using the same environment. Since the environment is homogeneous within itself, many barriers to collaboration are minimized or eliminated. For example, data and analysis algorithms can be seamlessly shared, reused and re-purposed. In conclusion, we will be able to achieve a new level of scientific productivity in the

  4. Anticipated Changes in Conducting Scientific Data-Analysis Research in the Big-Data Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Seablom, Michael; Clune, Thomas; Ramachandran, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    A Big-Data environment is one that is capable of orchestrating quick-turnaround analyses involving large volumes of data for numerous simultaneous users. Based on our experiences with a prototype Big-Data analysis environment, we anticipate some important changes in research behaviors and processes while conducting scientific data-analysis research in the near future as such Big-Data environments become the mainstream. The first anticipated change will be the reduced effort and difficulty in most parts of the data management process. A Big-Data analysis environment is likely to house most of the data required for a particular research discipline along with appropriate analysis capabilities. This will reduce the need for researchers to download local copies of data. In turn, this also reduces the need for compute and storage procurement by individual researchers or groups, as well as associated maintenance and management afterwards. It is almost certain that Big-Data environments will require a different "programming language" to fully exploit the latent potential. In addition, the process of extending the environment to provide new analysis capabilities will likely be more involved than, say, compiling a piece of new or revised code.We thus anticipate that researchers will require support from dedicated organizations associated with the environment that are composed of professional software engineers and data scientists. A major benefit will likely be that such extensions are of higherquality and broader applicability than ad hoc changes by physical scientists. Another anticipated significant change is improved collaboration among the researchers using the same environment. Since the environment is homogeneous within itself, many barriers to collaboration are minimized or eliminated. For example, data and analysis algorithms can be seamlessly shared, reused and re-purposed. In conclusion, we will be able to achieve a new level of scientific productivity in the Big

  5. A room with a view of integrity and professionalism: personal reflections on teaching responsible conduct of research in the neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Bell, Emily

    2015-04-01

    Neuroscientists are increasingly put into situations which demand critical reflection about the ethical and appropriate use of research tools and scientific knowledge. Students or trainees also have to know how to navigate the ethical domains of this context. At a time when neuroscience is expected to advance policy and practice outcomes, in the face of academic pressures and complex environments, the importance of scientific integrity comes into focus and with it the need for training at the graduate level in the responsible conduct of research (RCR). I describe my experience teaching RCR in a graduate neuroscience program and identify three personal reflections where further dialogue could be warranted: (1) mobilizing a common set of competencies and virtues standing for professionalism in the neurosciences; (2) tailoring RCR for the neurosciences and empowering students through the active engagement of mentors; (3) soliciting shared responsibility for RCR training between disciplines, institutions and governmental or funding agencies.

  6. Education in the responsible conduct of research in psychology: methods and scope.

    PubMed

    DiLorenzo, Terry A; Becker-Fiegeles, Jill; Gibelman, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    In this mixed-method study of education in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) in psychology, phase one survey respondents (n = 141) reported that faculty and students were familiar with RCR standards and procedures to educate them were believed to be adequate. However, educational methods varied widely. In phase two, seven survey respondents completed in-depth interviews assessing RCR training and education and research review procedures. Educational methods through which RCR content was presented included the following ones: traditional (lectures), technical (web-based), and experiential (internships), but RCR was often minimally considered in the formal curriculum. Our results suggest that psychology training programs might benefit from more formal consideration of RCR education and training in the curriculum.

  7. A Review of Research Conducted with Probiotic E. coli Marketed as Symbioflor.

    PubMed

    Beimfohr, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    This review article summarizes the scientific literature that is currently available about a probiotic E. coli that is known under the name Symbioflor E. coli. The probiotic is marketed for human use and has been subjected to over 20 years of scientific research. As is presented here, the available literature not only contains multiple works to investigate and analyse the probiotic activity of this E. coli, but also describes a variety of other research experiments, dealing with a surprising and interesting range of subjects. By compiling all these works into one review article, more insights into this interesting probiotic E. coli were obtained.

  8. A Review of Research Conducted with Probiotic E. coli Marketed as Symbioflor

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This review article summarizes the scientific literature that is currently available about a probiotic E. coli that is known under the name Symbioflor E. coli. The probiotic is marketed for human use and has been subjected to over 20 years of scientific research. As is presented here, the available literature not only contains multiple works to investigate and analyse the probiotic activity of this E. coli, but also describes a variety of other research experiments, dealing with a surprising and interesting range of subjects. By compiling all these works into one review article, more insights into this interesting probiotic E. coli were obtained. PMID:27995179

  9. Evaluating the Effects that Existing Instruction on Responsible Conduct of Research Has on Ethical Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Antes, Alison L.; Wang, Xiaoqian; Mumford, Michael D.; Brown, Ryan P.; Connelly, Shane; Devenport, Lynn D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effects that existing courses on the responsible conduct of research (RCR) have on ethical decision making by assessing the ethicality of decisions made in response to ethical problems and the underlying processes involved in ethical decision making. These processes included how an individual thinks through ethical problems (i.e., meta-cognitive reasoning strategies) and the emphasis placed on social dimensions of ethical problems (i.e., social–behavioral responses). Method In 2005–2007, recruitment announcements were made, stating that a nationwide, online study was being conducted to examine the impact of RCR instruction on the ethical decision making of scientists. Recruitment yielded contacts with over 200 RCR faculty at 21 research universities and medical schools; 40 (20%) RCR instructors enrolled their courses in the current study. From those courses, 173 participants completed an ethical decision-making measure. Results A mixed pattern of effects emerged. The ethicality of decisions did not improve as a result of RCR instruction and even decreased for decisions pertaining to business aspects of research, such as contract bidding. Course participants improved on some meta-cognitive reasoning strategies, such as awareness of the situation and consideration of personal motivations, but declined for seeking help and considering others’ perspectives. Participants also increased in their endorsement of detrimental social–behavioral responses, such as deception, retaliation, and avoidance of personal responsibility. Conclusions These findings indicated that RCR instruction may not be as effective as intended, and in fact, may even be harmful. Harmful effects might result if instruction leads students to overstress avoidance of ethical problems, be overconfident in their ability to handle ethical problems, or overemphasize their ethical nature. Future research must examine these and other possible obstacles to effective RCR

  10. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program - Biocatalysis research activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, R.

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the Biocatalysis Research Activity are organized into the Biocatalysis and Molecular Modeling work elements and a supporting planning and analysis function. In the Biocatalysis work element, progress is made in developing a method for stabilizing genetically engineered traits in microorganisms, refining a technique for monitoring cells that are genetically engineered, and identifying strains of fungi for highly efficient preprocessing of biomass for optimizing the efficiency of bioreactors. In the Molecular Modeling work element, a preliminary model of the behavior of enzymes is developed. A preliminary investigation of the potential for synthesizing enzymes for use in electrochemical processes is completed. Contact with industry and universities is made to define key biocatalysis technical issues and to broaden the range of potential participants in the activity. Analyses are conducted to identify and evaluate potential concepts for future research funding.

  11. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program - Biocatalysis research activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, R.

    1984-04-01

    The activities of the Biocatalysis Research Activity are organized into the Biocatalysis and Molecular Modeling work elements and a supporting planning and analysis function. In the Biocatalysis work element, progress is made in developing a method for stabilizing genetically engineered traits in microorganisms, refining a technique for monitoring cells that are genetically engineered, and identifying strains of fungi for highly efficient preprocessing of biomass for optimizing the efficiency of bioreactors. In the Molecular Modeling work element, a preliminary model of the behavior of enzymes is developed. A preliminary investigation of the potential for synthesizing enzymes for use in electrochemical processes is completed. Contact with industry and universities is made to define key biocatalysis technical issues and to broaden the range of potential participants in the activity. Analyses are conducted to identify and evaluate potential concepts for future research funding.

  12. "Don't Talk about What You Don't Know": On (Not) Conducting Research with/in Indigenous Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aveling, Nado

    2013-01-01

    This article raises the recurrent question whether non-indigenous researchers should attempt to research with/in Indigenous communities. If research is indeed a metaphor of colonization, then we have two choices: we have to learn to conduct research in ways that meet the needs of Indigenous communities and are non-exploitative, culturally…

  13. 40 CFR 26.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... applications and proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 26.120 Section 26.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA §...

  14. 40 CFR 26.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... applications and proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 26.120 Section 26.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA §...

  15. 40 CFR 26.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... applications and proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 26.120 Section 26.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA §...

  16. 40 CFR 26.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... applications and proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 26.120 Section 26.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA §...

  17. 21 CFR 20.105 - Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. 20.105 Section 20.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Categories of Records § 20.105 Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and...

  18. 21 CFR 20.105 - Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. 20.105 Section 20.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Categories of Records § 20.105 Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and...

  19. 21 CFR 20.105 - Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. 20.105 Section 20.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Categories of Records § 20.105 Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and...

  20. 21 CFR 20.105 - Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. 20.105 Section 20.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Categories of Records § 20.105 Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and...

  1. 21 CFR 20.105 - Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. 20.105 Section 20.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Categories of Records § 20.105 Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and...

  2. 15 CFR 27.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applications and proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 27.120... § 27.120 Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or... applications and proposals involving human subjects submitted to the department or agency through such...

  3. 7 CFR 1c.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 1c.120 Section 1c.120... disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. (a) The department or agency head will evaluate all applications and proposals involving...

  4. 32 CFR 219.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 219.120 Section 219...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.120 Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. (a) The department...

  5. 10 CFR 745.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applications and proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal department or agency. The... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal department or agency. 745.120 Section...

  6. 28 CFR 46.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applications and proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 46.120....120 Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or supported... and proposals involving human subjects submitted to the department or agency through such officers...

  7. 49 CFR 11.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 11.120 Section 11.120... disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. The department or agency head will evaluate all applications and proposals involving...

  8. 16 CFR 1028.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 1028.120... SUBJECTS § 1028.120 Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted... applications and proposals involving human subjects submitted to the department or agency through such...

  9. Creating an infrastructure for training in the responsible conduct of research: the University of Pittsburgh's experience.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Barbara E; Friedman, Charles P; Rosenberg, Jerome L; Russell, Joanne; Beedle, Ari; Levine, Arthur S

    2006-02-01

    In response to public concerns about the consequences of research misconduct, academic institutions have become increasingly cognizant of the need to implement comprehensive, effective training in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) for faculty, staff, students, and external collaborators. The ability to meet this imperative is challenging as universities confront declining financial resources and increasing complexity of the research enterprise. The authors describe the University of Pittsburgh's design, implementation, and evaluation of a Web-based, institution-wide RCR training program called Research and Practice Fundamentals (RPF). This project, established in 2000, was embedded in the philosophy, organizational structure, and technology developed through the Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems grant from the National Library of Medicine. Utilizing a centralized, comprehensive approach, the RPF system provides an efficient mechanism for deploying content to a large, diverse cohort of learners and supports the needs of research administrators by providing access to information about who has successfully completed the training. During its first 3 years of operation, the RPF served over 17,000 users and issued more than 38,000 training certificates. The 18 modules that are currently available address issues required by regulatory mandates and other content areas important to the research community. RPF users report high levels of satisfaction with content and ease of using the system. Future efforts must explore methods to integrate non-RCR education and training into a centralized, cohesive structure. The University of Pittsburgh's experience with the RPF demonstrates the importance of developing an infrastructure for training that is comprehensive, scalable, reliable, centralized, affordable, and sustainable.

  10. Distinct contributions of small and large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels to rat Purkinje neuron function

    PubMed Central

    Edgerton, Jeremy R; Reinhart, Peter H

    2003-01-01

    The cerebellum is important for many aspects of behaviour, from posture maintenance and goal-oriented reaching movements to timing tasks and certain forms of learning. In every case, information flowing through the cerebellum passes through Purkinje neurons, which receive input from the two primary cerebellar afferents and generate continuous streams of action potentials that constitute the sole output from the cerebellar cortex to the deep nuclei. The tonic firing behaviour observed in Purkinje neurons in vivo is maintained in brain slices even when synaptic inputs are blocked, suggesting that Purkinje neuron activity relies to a significant extent on intrinsic conductances. Previous research has suggested that the interplay between Ca2+ currents and Ca2+-activated K+ channels (KCa channels) is important for Purkinje cell activity, but how many different KCa channel types are present and what each channel type contributes to cell behaviour remains unclear. In order to better understand the ionic mechanisms that control the behaviour of these neurons, we investigated the effects of different Ca2+ channel and KCa channel antagonists on Purkinje neurons in acute slices of rat cerebellum. Our data show that Ca2+ entering through P-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels activates both small-conductance (SK) and large-conductance (BK) KCa channels. SK channels play a role in setting the intrinsic firing frequency, while BK channels regulate action potential shape and may contribute to the unique climbing fibre response. PMID:12576503

  11. 30 CFR 585.1010 - How long may I conduct activities under an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alternate Use RUE? 585.1010 Section 585.1010 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Facilities Alternate Use Rue Administration § 585.1010 How long may I conduct activities under an Alternate Use RUE? (a) We will establish on a case-by-case basis, and set forth in the Alternate Use RUE,...

  12. 30 CFR 285.1010 - How long may I conduct activities under an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alternate Use RUE? 285.1010 Section 285.1010 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Alternate Use Rue Administration § 285.1010 How long may I conduct activities under an Alternate Use RUE? (a) We will establish on a case-by-case basis, and set forth in the Alternate Use RUE, the length of...

  13. 30 CFR 585.1010 - How long may I conduct activities under an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alternate Use RUE? 585.1010 Section 585.1010 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Facilities Alternate Use Rue Administration § 585.1010 How long may I conduct activities under an Alternate Use RUE? (a) We will establish on a case-by-case basis, and set forth in the Alternate Use RUE,...

  14. 42 CFR 455.506 - Activities to be conducted by Medicaid RACs and States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... States. 455.506 Section 455.506 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICAID Medicaid Recovery Audit Contractors Program § 455.506 Activities to be conducted by Medicaid RACs and States....

  15. 42 CFR 455.506 - Activities to be conducted by Medicaid RACs and States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... States. 455.506 Section 455.506 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICAID Medicaid Recovery Audit Contractors Program § 455.506 Activities to be conducted by Medicaid RACs and States....

  16. 42 CFR 455.506 - Activities to be conducted by Medicaid RACs and States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... States. 455.506 Section 455.506 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICAID Medicaid Recovery Audit Contractors Program § 455.506 Activities to be conducted by Medicaid RACs and States....

  17. 42 CFR 455.506 - Activities to be conducted by Medicaid RACs and States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... States. 455.506 Section 455.506 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICAID Medicaid Recovery Audit Contractors Program § 455.506 Activities to be conducted by Medicaid RACs and States....

  18. 10 CFR 52.91 - Authorization to conduct limited work authorization activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... determination required by 10 CFR 50.10(e), and the Director of New Reactors or the Director of Nuclear Reactor... activities. 52.91 Section 52.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.91 Authorization to conduct limited...

  19. 10 CFR 52.91 - Authorization to conduct limited work authorization activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... determination required by 10 CFR 50.10(e), and the Director of New Reactors or the Director of Nuclear Reactor... activities. 52.91 Section 52.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.91 Authorization to conduct limited...

  20. Dielectric behavior, conduction and EPR active centres in BiVO4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, Rajalingam; Velumani, Subramaniam; Tabellout, Mohamed; Errien, Nicolas; Kassiba, Abdelhadi

    2013-12-01

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) nanomaterials were synthesized by mechano-chemical ball milling method and complementary investigations were devoted to their structures, nanoparticle morphologies and electronic active centres. The dielectric and conductivity behaviour were analysed systematically in wide temperature and frequency ranges to correlate such physical responses with the peculiarities of the samples. Large interfacial polarisations favoured by high specific surfaces of nanoparticles account for a drastic enhancement of the dielectric function in the quasi-static regime. Exhaustive analyses of the dielectric experiments were achieved and account for the main features of dielectric functions and their related relaxation mechanisms. The electrical conductivity is thermally activated with energies in the range 0.1-0.6 eV depending on the sample features. DC conductivity up to 10-3 S/cm was obtained in well crystallized nanoparticles. Vanadium ions reduction was revealed by EPR spectroscopy with higher concentrations of the active centres (V4+) in more agglomerated and amorphous nanopowders. The EPR spectral parameters of V4+ were determined and correlated with the local environments of reduced vanadium ions and the characteristics of their electronic configurations. An insight is also made on the role of active electronic centres (V4+) on the conduction mechanism in nanostructured BiVO4.

  1. 78 FR 78788 - Nondiscrimination in Programs or Activities Conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... activities conducted by the Department. The changes are proposed to clarify the roles and responsibilities of... in 1999 (64 FR 66709, Nov 30, 1999). The changes are proposed to clarify the roles and... compliance purposes, collect, maintain, and annually compile data on the race, ethnicity, and gender of...

  2. 10 CFR 52.91 - Authorization to conduct limited work authorization activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... determination required by 10 CFR 50.10(e), and the Director of New Reactors or the Director of Nuclear Reactor... activities. 52.91 Section 52.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.91 Authorization to conduct limited...

  3. 10 CFR 52.91 - Authorization to conduct limited work authorization activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... determination required by 10 CFR 50.10(e), and the Director of New Reactors or the Director of Nuclear Reactor... activities. 52.91 Section 52.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.91 Authorization to conduct limited...

  4. 10 CFR 52.91 - Authorization to conduct limited work authorization activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... determination required by 10 CFR 50.10(e), and the Director of New Reactors or the Director of Nuclear Reactor... activities. 52.91 Section 52.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.91 Authorization to conduct limited...

  5. Habitual Physical Activity of Classroom Teachers: Does It Relate to Their Conduct of Physical Education Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMaster, Kathryn; McKenzie, Thom; Marshall, Simon; Sallis, James

    This study used systematic, direct observation of classes over 2 years to investigate whether physical education (PE) teachers' habitual physical activity related to their conduct of PE classes. Participants were 18 fourth and fifth grade classroom teachers employed in a California school district where classroom teachers typically were…

  6. 12 CFR 7.5008 - Location of a national bank conducting electronic activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of a national bank conducting electronic activities. 7.5008 Section 7.5008 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE... because the bank's products or services are accessed through electronic means by customers located in...

  7. 42 CFR 51.31 - Conduct of protection and advocacy activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to mental health system improvement. Decisions concerning the selection of individuals to receive... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduct of protection and advocacy activities. 51.31 Section 51.31 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  8. Participation in Organized Activities and Conduct Problems in Elementary School: The Mediating Effect of Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denault, Anne-Sophie; Déry, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test a mediation model in which social skills mediate the relationship between participation in organized activities and conduct problems among elementary school children. Two moderators of these associations were also examined, namely, gender and reception of special education services. A total of 563 children (45%…

  9. Independent activation of ion conduction pores in the double-barreled calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A.

    PubMed

    Lim, Novandy K; Lam, Andy K M; Dutzler, Raimund

    2016-11-01

    The TMEM16 proteins constitute a family of membrane proteins with unusual functional breadth, including lipid scramblases and Cl(-) channels. Members of both these branches are activated by Ca(2+), acting from the intracellular side, and probably share a common architecture, which was defined in the recent structure of the lipid scramblase nhTMEM16. The structural features of subunits and the arrangement of Ca(2+)-binding sites in nhTMEM16 suggest that the dimeric protein harbors two locations for catalysis that are independent with respect to both activation and lipid conduction. Here, we ask whether a similar independence is observed in the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel TMEM16A. For this purpose, we generated concatenated constructs containing subunits with distinct activation and permeation properties. Our biochemical investigations demonstrate the integrity of concatemers after solubilization and purification. During investigation by patch-clamp electrophysiology, the functional behavior of constructs containing either two wild-type (WT) subunits or one WT subunit paired with a second subunit with compromised activation closely resembles TMEM16A. This resemblance extends to ion selectivity, conductance, and the concentration and voltage dependence of channel activation by Ca(2+) Constructs combining subunits with different potencies for Ca(2+) show a biphasic activation curve that can be described as a linear combination of the properties of its constituents. The functional independence is further supported by mutation of a putative pore-lining residue that changes the conduction properties of the mutated subunit. Our results strongly suggest that TMEM16A contains two ion conduction pores that are independently activated by Ca(2+) binding to sites that are embedded within the transmembrane part of each subunit.

  10. Flowable conducting particle networks in redox-active electrolytes for grid energy storage

    DOE PAGES

    Hatzell, K. B.; Boota, M.; Kumbur, E. C.; ...

    2015-01-09

    This paper reports a new hybrid approach toward achieving high volumetric energy and power densities in an electrochemical flow capacitor for grid energy storage. The electrochemical flow capacitor suffers from high self-discharge and low energy density because charge storage is limited to the available surface area (electric double layer charge storage). Here, we examine two carbon materials as conducting particles in a flow battery electrolyte containing the VO2+/VO2+ redox couple. Highly porous activated carbon spheres (CSs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are investigated as conducting particle networks that facilitate both faradaic and electric double layer charge storage. Charge storage contributionsmore » (electric double layer and faradaic) are distinguished for flow-electrodes composed of MWCNTs and activated CSs. A MWCNT flow-electrode based in a redox-active electrolyte containing the VO2+/VO2+ redox couple demonstrates 18% less self-discharge, 10 X more energy density, and 20 X greater power densities (at 20 mV s-1) than one based on a non-redox active electrolyte. Additionally, a MWCNT redox-active flow electrode demonstrates 80% capacitance retention, and >95% coulombic efficiency over 100 cycles, indicating the feasibility of utilizing conducting networks with redox chemistries for grid energy storage.« less

  11. Flowable conducting particle networks in redox-active electrolytes for grid energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzell, K. B.; Boota, M.; Kumbur, E. C.; Gogotsi, Yury G.

    2015-01-09

    This paper reports a new hybrid approach toward achieving high volumetric energy and power densities in an electrochemical flow capacitor for grid energy storage. The electrochemical flow capacitor suffers from high self-discharge and low energy density because charge storage is limited to the available surface area (electric double layer charge storage). Here, we examine two carbon materials as conducting particles in a flow battery electrolyte containing the VO2+/VO2+ redox couple. Highly porous activated carbon spheres (CSs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are investigated as conducting particle networks that facilitate both faradaic and electric double layer charge storage. Charge storage contributions (electric double layer and faradaic) are distinguished for flow-electrodes composed of MWCNTs and activated CSs. A MWCNT flow-electrode based in a redox-active electrolyte containing the VO2+/VO2+ redox couple demonstrates 18% less self-discharge, 10 X more energy density, and 20 X greater power densities (at 20 mV s-1) than one based on a non-redox active electrolyte. Additionally, a MWCNT redox-active flow electrode demonstrates 80% capacitance retention, and >95% coulombic efficiency over 100 cycles, indicating the feasibility of utilizing conducting networks with redox chemistries for grid energy storage.

  12. Conducting Nursing Intervention Research in a Cooperative Group Setting – A Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) Experience

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Heidi S.; Nolte, Susan; Edwards, Robert P.; Wenzel, Lari

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To provide a history on nursing science within the Gynecology Oncology Group (GOG); to discuss challenges and facilitators of nursing science in the cooperative group (CG) using a current nurse-led protocol (GOG-0259) as an exemplar; and to propose recommendations aimed at advancing nursing science in the CG setting. Data Source GOG reports and protocol databases, online databases of indexed citations, and experiences from the development and implementation of GOG-0259. Conclusions Benefits of CG research include opportunities for inter-disciplinary collaboration and ability to rapidly accrue large national samples. Challenges include limited financial resources to support non-treatment trials, a cumbersome protocol approval process, and lack of experience with nursing/quality of life intervention studies. Formal structures within GOG need to be created to encourage nurse scientists to become active members; promote collaboration between experienced GOG advanced practice nurses and new nurse scientists to identify nursing research priorities; and consider innovative funding structures to support pilot intervention studies. Implications for Nursing Practice Understanding the CG research process is critical for nurse scientists. A multi-disciplinary team of CG leaders can help investigators navigate a complex research environment and can increase awareness of the value of nursing research. PMID:24559780

  13. Modeling activity-dependent changes of axonal spike conduction in primary afferent C-nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Tigerholm, Jenny; Petersson, Marcus E.; Obreja, Otilia; Lampert, Angelika; Carr, Richard; Schmelz, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Action potential initiation and conduction along peripheral axons is a dynamic process that displays pronounced activity dependence. In patients with neuropathic pain, differences in the modulation of axonal conduction velocity by activity suggest that this property may provide insight into some of the pathomechanisms. To date, direct recordings of axonal membrane potential have been hampered by the small diameter of the fibers. We have therefore adopted an alternative approach to examine the basis of activity-dependent changes in axonal conduction by constructing a comprehensive mathematical model of human cutaneous C-fibers. Our model reproduced axonal spike propagation at a velocity of 0.69 m/s commensurate with recordings from human C-nociceptors. Activity-dependent slowing (ADS) of axonal propagation velocity was adequately simulated by the model. Interestingly, the property most readily associated with ADS was an increase in the concentration of intra-axonal sodium. This affected the driving potential of sodium currents, thereby producing latency changes comparable to those observed for experimental ADS. The model also adequately reproduced post-action potential excitability changes (i.e., recovery cycles) observed in vivo. We performed a series of control experiments replicating blockade of particular ion channels as well as changing temperature and extracellular ion concentrations. In the absence of direct experimental approaches, the model allows specific hypotheses to be formulated regarding the mechanisms underlying activity-dependent changes in C-fiber conduction. Because ADS might functionally act as a negative feedback to limit trains of nociceptor activity, we envisage that identifying its mechanisms may also direct efforts aimed at alleviating neuronal hyperexcitability in pain patients. PMID:24371290

  14. The potential influence of Internet-based social networking on the conduct of clinical research studies.

    PubMed

    Glickman, Seth W; Galhenage, Sam; McNair, Lindsay; Barber, Zachry; Patel, Keyur; Schulman, Kevin A; McHutchison, John G

    2012-02-01

    The rapid growth of internet usage has led to an explosion of social networking sites for discussion of health issues. This provides a forum for subjects to communicate with one another during the course of the studies. Previous studies have raised concerns about the quality of health information on social networking sites, although none have evaluated content related to ongoing clinical trials. We reviewed material posted in virtual communities by self-identified clinical trial participants. We identified material posted in online health forums that could introduce bias into clinical research studies; we believe that this issue warrants further study and discussion. Physicians and others who conduct clinical trials should be aware of this issue. Study investigators and research teams should also talk to their study subjects about where and how they are obtaining information in order to prevent behaviors and correct misinformation that could put a subject's safety or the study objectives at risk. Given the rapid increase in Internet use for health care, a broader evaluation of both the benefits and potential risks of social networking among research participants during the course of a clinical trial appears warranted.

  15. Use of modular amphibious vehicles for conducting research in coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeziulin, Denis; Makarov, Vladimir; Belyaev, Alexander; Beresnev, Pavel; Kurkin, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    The project aims to create workable running systems of research complexes, moving along the bottom of coastal areas (in shallow waters) for investigation of waves, currents, sediment transport; investigation of ecosystems and biodiversity assessment of organisms; inspection and monitoring environmental conditions and anthropogenic load on nature; bathymetric studies. With all the variety of functional capabilities of modern robotic systems, possibilities of their application in the context of the study of coastal zones are extremely limited. Conducting research using aerial vehicles is limited to safety conditions of flight. Use of floating robotic systems in environmental monitoring and ecosystem research is only possible in conditions of relatively «soft» wave climate of the coastal zone. For these purposes, there are special amphibians such as remote-controlled vehicle Surf Rover [Daily, William R., Mark A. Johnson, and Daniel A. Oslecki. «Initial Development of an Amphibious ROV for Use in Big Surf.» Marine Technology Society 28.1 (1994): 3-10. Print.], mobile system MARC-1 [«The SPROV'er.» Florida Institute of Technology: Department of Marine and. Environmental Systems. Web. 05 May 2010.]. The paper describes methodological approaches to the selection of the design parameters of a new system.

  16. Computer Based Procedures for Field Workers - FY16 Research Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Oxstrand, Johanna; Bly, Aaron

    2016-09-01

    The Computer-Based Procedure (CBP) research effort is a part of the Light-Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which provides the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. One of the primary missions of the LWRS program is to help the U.S. nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. One area that could yield tremendous savings in increased efficiency and safety is in improving procedure use. A CBP provides the opportunity to incorporate context-driven job aids, such as drawings, photos, and just-in-time training. The presentation of information in CBPs can be much more flexible and tailored to the task, actual plant condition, and operation mode. The dynamic presentation of the procedure will guide the user down the path of relevant steps, thus minimizing time spent by the field worker to evaluate plant conditions and decisions related to the applicability of each step. This dynamic presentation of the procedure also minimizes the risk of conducting steps out of order and/or incorrectly assessed applicability of steps. This report provides a summary of the main research activities conducted in the Computer-Based Procedures for Field Workers effort since 2012. The main focus of the report is on the research activities conducted in fiscal year 2016. The activities discussed are the Nuclear Electronic Work Packages – Enterprise Requirements initiative, the development of a design guidance for CBPs (which compiles all insights gained through the years of CBP research), the facilitation of vendor studies at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), a pilot study for how to enhance the plant design modification work process, the collection of feedback from a field evaluation study at Plant Vogtle, and path forward to

  17. A summary of lessons learned activities conducted at the OECD Halden Reactor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hallbert, B.P.

    1997-02-01

    A series of lessons learned studies have been conducted at the OECD Halden Reactor Project. The purpose of these lessons learned reports are to summarize knowledge and experience gained across a number of research project. This paper presents a summary of main issues addressed in four of these lessons learned projects. These are concerned with software development and quality assurance, software reliability, methods for test and evaluation of developed systems, and the evaluation of system design features.

  18. [The active middle ear implant for the rehabilitation of sensorineural, mixed and conductive hearing losses].

    PubMed

    Sprinzl, G M; Wolf-Magele, A; Schnabl, J; Koci, V

    2011-09-01

    Active middle ear implants, such as the Vibrant Soundbridge, are used as an important part in the rehabilitation of sensorineural, conductive hearing, or mixed hearing loss. The attachment of the Vibrant Soundbridge at the round window and the usage of the Vibroplasty couplers strongly expanded the application of the Vibrant Soundbridge.The Vibrant Soundbridge is developed for patients who have an intolerance to hearing aids and a moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss. The VSB also provides an optimal solution for patients with failed middle ear reconstructions or patients with atresia. To capture the improvement with the VSB Implant with different hearing losses a literature analysis was conducted. The functional gain was analyzed for 107 patients with conductive hearing loss and for 214 patients with sensorineural hearing loss out of 14 studies.Patients with conductive and mixed hearing loss resulted in a functional gain from 30 to 58 dB with the VSB. Patients with a pure sensorineural hearing loss showed a functional gain of 23-30 dB. The VSB bone conduction threshold shift was analyzed for all studies conducted in the years between 2000 and 2009. In 11 of the 16 studies there was no significant (p=0.05) change found. In 5 studies, the pre- to post-surgical bone conduction threshold shift was less than 10 dB. None of these studies measured a threshold shift of more than 10 dB.The flexible attachment at either the long process of the incus with sensorineural hearing loss, with an conductive hearing loss at the round window or the use of Vibroplasty couplers at the oval window, head of the stapes or round window makes the VSB an extremely versatile instrument. If patients can't wear conventional hearing aids, had failed middle ear reconstructions or atresia the VSB presents, due to the significant hearing improvement in any type of hearing loss, an ideal solution.

  19. Short-term disruption in regional left ventricular electrical conduction patterns increases interstitial matrix metalloproteinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Zavadzkas, Juozas A.; Rivers, William T.; McLean, Julie E.; Chang, Eileen I.; Bouges, Shenikqua; Matthews, Robert G.; Koval, Christine N.; Stroud, Robert E.; Spinale, Francis G.

    2010-01-01

    Increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) abundance occurs with adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling in a number of cardiac disease states, including those induced by long-standing arrhythmias. However, whether regionally contained aberrant electrical activation of the LV, with consequent dyskinesia, alters interstitial MMP activation remained unknown. Electrical activation of the LV of pigs (n = 10, 30–35 kg) was achieved by pacing (150 beats/min) at left atrial and LV sites such that normal atrioventricular activation (60 min) was followed by regional early LV activation for 60 min within 1.5 cm of the paced site and restoration of normal atrioventricular pacing for 120 min. Regional shortening (piezoelectric crystals) and interstitial MMP activity (microdialysis with MMP fluorogenic substrate) at the LV pacing site and a remote LV site were monitored at 30-min intervals. During aberrant electrical stimulation, interstitial MMP activity at the paced site was increased (122 ± 4%) compared with the remote region (100%, P < 0.05). Restoration of atrioventricular pacing after the 60-min period of aberrant electrical activation normalized segmental shortening (8.5 ± 0.4%), but MMP activity remained elevated (121 ± 6%, P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that despite the restoration of mechanical function, disturbances in electrical conduction, in and of itself, can cause acute increases in regional in vivo MMP activation and, therefore, contribute to myocardial remodeling. PMID:20472759

  20. Short-term disruption in regional left ventricular electrical conduction patterns increases interstitial matrix metalloproteinase activity.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Rupak; Zavadzkas, Juozas A; Rivers, William T; McLean, Julie E; Chang, Eileen I; Bouges, Shenikqua; Matthews, Robert G; Koval, Christine N; Stroud, Robert E; Spinale, Francis G

    2010-07-01

    Increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) abundance occurs with adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling in a number of cardiac disease states, including those induced by long-standing arrhythmias. However, whether regionally contained aberrant electrical activation of the LV, with consequent dyskinesia, alters interstitial MMP activation remained unknown. Electrical activation of the LV of pigs (n = 10, 30-35 kg) was achieved by pacing (150 beats/min) at left atrial and LV sites such that normal atrioventricular activation (60 min) was followed by regional early LV activation for 60 min within 1.5 cm of the paced site and restoration of normal atrioventricular pacing for 120 min. Regional shortening (piezoelectric crystals) and interstitial MMP activity (microdialysis with MMP fluorogenic substrate) at the LV pacing site and a remote LV site were monitored at 30-min intervals. During aberrant electrical stimulation, interstitial MMP activity at the paced site was increased (122 +/- 4%) compared with the remote region (100%, P < 0.05). Restoration of atrioventricular pacing after the 60-min period of aberrant electrical activation normalized segmental shortening (8.5 +/- 0.4%), but MMP activity remained elevated (121 +/- 6%, P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that despite the restoration of mechanical function, disturbances in electrical conduction, in and of itself, can cause acute increases in regional in vivo MMP activation and, therefore, contribute to myocardial remodeling.

  1. How Phosphorylation and ATPase Activity Regulate Anion Flux though the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR).

    PubMed

    Zwick, Matthias; Esposito, Cinzia; Hellstern, Manuel; Seelig, Anna

    2016-07-08

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, ABCC7), mutations of which cause cystic fibrosis, belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family and works as a channel for small anions, such as chloride and bicarbonate. Anion channel activity is known to depend on phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and CFTR-ATPase activity. Whereas anion channel activity has been extensively investigated, phosphorylation and CFTR-ATPase activity are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the two processes can be measured in a label-free and non-invasive manner in real time in live cells, stably transfected with CFTR. This study reveals three key findings. (i) The major contribution (≥90%) to the total CFTR-related ATP hydrolysis rate is due to phosphorylation by PKA and the minor contribution (≤10%) to CFTR-ATPase activity. (ii) The mutant CFTR-E1371S that is still conductive, but defective in ATP hydrolysis, is not phosphorylated, suggesting that phosphorylation requires a functional nucleotide binding domain and occurs in the post-hydrolysis transition state. (iii) CFTR-ATPase activity is inversely related to CFTR anion flux. The present data are consistent with a model in which CFTR is in a closed conformation with two ATPs bound. The open conformation is induced by ATP hydrolysis and corresponds to the post-hydrolysis transition state that is stabilized by phosphorylation and binding of chloride channel potentiators.

  2. Activation of kinetically distinct synaptic conductances on inhibitory interneurons by electrotonically overlapping afferents.

    PubMed

    Walker, Harrison C; Lawrence, J Josh; McBain, Chris J

    2002-07-03

    Mossy fiber (MF) and CA3 collateral (CL) axons activate common interneurons via synapses comprised of different AMPA receptors to provide feedforward and feedback inhibitory control of the CA3 hippocampal network. Because synapses potentially occur over variable electrotonic distances that distort somatically recorded synaptic currents, it is not known whether the underlying afferent-specific synaptic conductances are associated with different time courses. Using a somatic voltage jump technique to alter the driving force at the site of the synapse, we demonstrate that MF and CL synapses overlap in electrotonic location yet differ in conductance time course. Thus, afferent-specific conductance time courses allow single interneurons to differentially integrate feedforward and feedback information without the need to segregate distinct AMPA receptor subunits to different electrotonic domains.

  3. A Model Incorporating the Rationale and Purpose for Conducting Mixed-Methods Research in Special Education and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Sutton, Ida L.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a typology of reasons for conducting mixed-methods research in special education. The mixed-methods research process is described along with the role of the rationale and purpose of study. The reasons given in the literature for utilizing mixed-methods research are explicated, and the limitations of these reason frameworks…

  4. 32 CFR 219.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any... Office for Human Research Protections, HHS, or any successor office, and approved for federalwide use by... and agency heads shall also be made to the Office for Human Research Protections, HHS, or...

  5. 7 CFR 1c.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assuring compliance with this policy-research... Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research...

  6. 32 CFR 219.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assuring compliance with this policy-research... HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy...

  7. 7 CFR 1c.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assuring compliance with this policy-research... Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research...

  8. 32 CFR 219.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assuring compliance with this policy-research... HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy...

  9. 7 CFR 1c.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assuring compliance with this policy-research... Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research...

  10. 32 CFR 219.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assuring compliance with this policy-research... HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research which is covered by this policy...

  11. 7 CFR 1c.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assuring compliance with this policy-research... Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.103 Assuring compliance with this policy—research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. (a) Each institution engaged in research...

  12. Characterization of a chloride conductance activated by hyperpolarization in Aplysia neurones.

    PubMed

    Chesnoy-Marchais, D

    1983-09-01

    A voltage-clamp study was made of some properties of the non-synaptic hyperpolarization-activated Cl- conductance recently described in Aplysia neurones loaded with Cl- ions (Chesnoy-Marchais, 1982). The experiments were performed on an identified family of neurones, which present cholinergic responses allowing an easy measurement of the equilibrium potentials of Cl- (ECl) and K+ ions (EK). The Cl- selectivity of the hyperpolarization-activated conductance was deduced from four observations: (1) the extrapolated reversal potential of the hyperpolarization-activated current, Er, was close to the reversal potential of the cholinergic Cl- response, which is the equilibrium potential for Cl- ions, ECl. (2) Modifications of the intracellular or extracellular Cl- concentration induced changes of the reversal potential Er. (3) A prolonged and intense activation of the current lowered the intracellular Cl- concentration. (4) The current persisted after complete substitution of intracellular and extracellular cations by CS+ ions, as well as after replacement of extracellular Na+ ions by Tris. The steady-state Cl- conductance (gss) increases steeply with hyperpolarization. The kinetics of activation and deactivation are exponential and are characterized by the same voltage-dependent time constant (tau), of the order of a few seconds or fractions of seconds. The curves gss(V) and tau (V) can both be fitted by a two-state model in which the rate constants are exponential functions of the membrane potential (e-fold change for 12-16 mV). The Cl- current is much more affected by changes of the intracellular Cl- concentration than predicted simply from the change in Cl- driving force. Both the conductance and the time constant of activation are strongly modified. Modifications of the extracellular Cl- concentration do not always alter the amplitude of the hyperpolarization-activated Cl- current, but systematically affect its kinetics. The hyperpolarization-activated current is

  13. Engaging research participants to inform the ethical conduct of mobile imaging, pervasive sensing, and location tracking research.

    PubMed

    Nebeker, Camille; Lagare, Tiffany; Takemoto, Michelle; Lewars, Brittany; Crist, Katie; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2016-12-01

    Researchers utilize mobile imaging, pervasive sensing, social media, and location tracking (MISST) technologies to observe and intervene with participants in their natural environment. The use of MISST methods and tools introduces unique ethical issues due to the type and quantity of data, and produces raising new challenges around informed consent, risk assessment, and data management. Since MISST methods are relatively new in behavioral research, there is little documented evidence to guide institutional review board (IRB) risk assessment and inform appropriate risk management strategies. This study was conducted to contribute the participant perspectives when considering ethical and responsible practices. Participants (n = 82) enrolled in an observational study where they wore several MISST devices for 1 week completed an exit survey. Survey items focused on the following: 1-device comfort, 2-informed consent, 3-privacy protections, and 4-bystander engagement. The informed consent process reflected participant actual experience. Device comfort and privacy were raised as concerns to both the participants and bystanders. While the majority of the participants reported a positive experience, it is important to note that the participants were volunteers who were not mandated to wear tracking devices and that persons who are mandated may not have a similar response. Findings support strategies proposed in the Kelly et al. (2013) ethical framework, which emphasizes procedures to improve informed consent, protect privacy, manage data, and respect bystander rights when using a wearable camera.

  14. Making Glasses Conduct: Electrochemical Doping of Redox-Active Polymer Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudouris, Bryan

    Optoelectronically-active macromolecules have been established as promising materials in myriad organic electronic applications (e.g., organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices). To date, however, the majority of the work surrounding these materials has focused on materials with a great deal of conjugation along their macromolecular backbones and with varying degrees of crystalline structure. Here, we describe an emerging class of macromolecular charge conductors, radical polymers, that: (1) do not contain conjugation and (2) are completely amorphous glasses. Radical polymers contain non-conjugated macromolecular backbones and stable radical sites along the side chains of the electronically-active materials. In contrast to conjugated polymer systems, these materials conduct charge in the solid state through oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions along these pendant groups. Specifically, we demonstrate that controlling the chemical functionality of the pendant groups and the molecular mobility of the macromolecular backbones significantly impacts the charge transport ability of the pristine (i.e., not doped) radical polymers species. Through proper control of these crucial parameters, we show that radical polymers can have electrical conductivity and charge mobility values on par with commonly-used conjugated polymers. Importantly, we also highlight the ability to dope radical polymers with redox-active small molecule species. This doping, in turn, increases the electrical conductivity of the glassy radical polymer thin films in a manner akin to what is observed in traditional conjugated polymer systems. In this way, we establish a means by which to fabricate optically-transparent and colorless thin film glasses capable of conducting charge in a rather rapid manner. We anticipate that these fundamental insights will prove crucial in developing new transparent conducting layers for future electronic applications.

  15. Neuroactive conducting scaffolds: nerve growth factor conjugation on active ester-functionalized polypyrrole

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Young; Lee, Joo-Woon; Schmidt, Christine E.

    2009-01-01

    Electrically conductive and biologically active scaffolds are desirable for enhancing adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of a number of cell types such as neurons. Hence, the incorporation of neuroactive molecules into electroconductive polymers via a specific and stable method is essential for neuronal tissue engineering applications. Traditional conjugation approaches dramatically impair conductivities and/or stabilities of the scaffolds and ligands. In this study, we developed copolymers (PPy-NSE) of N-hydroxyl succinimidyl ester pyrrole and regular pyrrole, which can be immobilized with nerve growth factor (NGF) without significantly hindering electroconductivity. The presence of active ester groups was confirmed using reflectance infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) from the copolymers prepared from different monomer compositions. We selected PPy-NSE50 (polymerized from a 50 : 50 monomer ratio of pyrrole : pyrrole-NSE) for further modification with NGF because this copolymer retains good conductivity (approx. 8 S cm−1) and presents active ester groups for NGF immobilization. We tethered NGF on the PPy-NSE50 surface, and found that PC12 cells extended neurites similarly to cells cultured in NGF-containing medium. XPS and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed that NGF immobilized via the active ester on the PPy-NSE50 film was stable for up to 5 days in phosphate-buffered saline solution. Also, application of an external electrical potential to NGF-immobilized PPy films did not cause a significant release of NGF nor reduce their neurotrophic activity. This novel scaffold, providing electroconductive and neurotrophic activities, has potential for neural applications, such as tissue engineering scaffolds and biosensors. PMID:19068472

  16. ReCAP: Clinical Trial Assessment of Infrastructure Matrix Tool to Improve the Quality of Research Conduct in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Zon, Robin T.; Weiner, Bryan J.; St. Germain, Diane; Denicoff, Andrea M.; Dempsey, Kandie; Carrigan, Angela C.; Teal, Randall W.; Good, Marjorie J.; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Grubbs, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    QUESTION ASKED: Is there a tool for sites engaged in cancer clinical research to use to assess their infrastructure and improve their research conduct toward exemplary levels of performance beyond the standard of Good Clinical Practice (GCP)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The NCI Community Cancer Center Program (NCCCP) sites, with NCI Clinical Trial advisor input, created a “Clinical Trials Best Practice Matrix” self-assessment tool to assess research infrastructure. The tool identified nine attributes (eg, physician engagement in clinical trials, accrual activity, clinical trial portfolio diversity), each with three progressive levels (I – III) for sites to score infrastructural elements from less (I) to more (III) exemplary. For example, a level-one site might have active Phase III treatment trials in two to three disease sites and review their portfolio diversity once a year, whereas a level-three site has active Phase II and also Phase I or I/II trials across five or more disease sites and reviews their portfolio quarterly. The tool also provided a road map toward more exemplary practices. METHODS: From 2011 to 2013, 21 NCCCP sites self-assessed their programs with the tool annually. Sites reported significant increases in level III (more exemplary) scores across the original nine attributes combined (P < .001 [see Figure 1]). During 2013 to 2014, NCI collaborators conducted a five-step formative evaluation of the tool resulting in expansion of attributes from nine to 11 and a new name: the Clinical Trials Assessment of Infrastructure Matrix, or CT AIM, tool which is described and fully presented in the manuscript. BIAS, CONFOUNDING FACTOR(S), DRAWBACKS: Tool scores are self-reported which are subject to potential bias. The tool was developed by community hospital based cancer centers and has not been psychometrically validated. Use of scores for ranking between programs is not recommended at this time. The attributes and indicators in the tool may need to be adapted

  17. Social Media, Peer Review, and Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) in Chemistry: Trends, Pitfalls, and Promises.

    PubMed

    Jogalekar, Ashutosh S

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, various themes inherent in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) in chemistry have been brought to light through prominent cases of research misconduct. This article will describe a few of these cases especially through the lens of social media such as blogs and Twitter. A case will be made that these wholly novel modalities of online discussion are now complementing, and in some cases even circumventing some of the limitations of traditional peer review in chemistry. We present in detail our evaluation of three recent cases of RCR along with several other social media illustrations. These cases have been selected to be representative and showcase several of the most prominent issues at the intersection of traditional and social-media based peer review. In each case, basic details are presented along with a brief discussion of the underlying issues-readers interested in deeper analysis of each subject are referred to a collection of relevant articles and websites. This perspective focuses on the most important RCR issues that have arisen in the past decade, a time which we believe coincides with the serious participation of the scientific community in general, and the chemistry community in particular, in social media-based, citizen-enabled peer-review. A discussion of important trends in RCR in the age of social media, outstanding developments in this area, and questions of enduring interest for the near future concludes the article.

  18. A qualitative approach to Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) training development: identification of metacognitive strategies.

    PubMed

    Kligyte, Vykinta; Marcy, Richard T; Sevier, Sydney T; Godfrey, Elaine S; Mumford, Michael D

    2008-03-01

    Although Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) training is common in the sciences, the effectiveness of RCR training is open to question. Three key factors appear to be particularly important in ensuring the effectiveness of ethics education programs: (1) educational efforts should be tied to day-to-day practices in the field, (2) educational efforts should provide strategies for working through the ethical problems people are likely to encounter in day-to-day practice, and (3) educational efforts should be embedded in a broader program of on-going career development efforts. This article discusses a complex qualitative approach to RCR training development, based on a sensemaking model, which strives to address the afore-mentioned training concerns. Ethnographic observations and prior RCR training served the purpose of collecting information specific to a multi-disciplinary and multi-university research center with the goal of identifying metacognitive reasoning strategies that would facilitate ethical decision-making. The extensive qualitative analyses resulted in the identification of nine metacognitive reasoning strategies on which future RCR training will be developed. The implications of the findings for RCR training in the sciences are discussed.

  19. Social Media, Peer Review, and Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) in Chemistry: Trends, Pitfalls, and Promises

    PubMed Central

    Jogalekar, Ashutosh S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, various themes inherent in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) in chemistry have been brought to light through prominent cases of research misconduct. This article will describe a few of these cases especially through the lens of social media such as blogs and Twitter. A case will be made that these wholly novel modalities of online discussion are now complementing, and in some cases even circumventing some of the limitations of traditional peer review in chemistry. We present in detail our evaluation of three recent cases of RCR along with several other social media illustrations. These cases have been selected to be representative and showcase several of the most prominent issues at the intersection of traditional and social-media based peer review. In each case, basic details are presented along with a brief discussion of the underlying issues—readers interested in deeper analysis of each subject are referred to a collection of relevant articles and websites. This perspective focuses on the most important RCR issues that have arisen in the past decade, a time which we believe coincides with the serious participation of the scientific community in general, and the chemistry community in particular, in social media-based, citizen-enabled peer-review. A discussion of important trends in RCR in the age of social media, outstanding developments in this area, and questions of enduring interest for the near future concludes the article. PMID:26155733

  20. Integrating responsible conduct of research education into undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory curricula.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Tamara L

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a requirement for directed responsible conduct in research (RCR) education has become a priority in the United States and elsewhere. In the US, both the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation require RCR education for all students who are financially supported by federal awards. The guidelines produced by these agencies offer useful templates for the introduction of RCR materials into courses worldwide. Many academic programs already offer courses or workshops in RCR for their graduate students and for undergraduate science majors and/or researchers. Introducing RCR into undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory curricula is another, highly practical way that students can be exposed to these important topics. In fact, a strong argument can be made for integrating RCR into laboratory courses because these classes often introduce students to a scientific environment like that they might encounter in their careers after graduation. This article focuses on general strategies for incorporating explicit RCR education into biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory coursework using the topics suggested by NIH as a starting point.

  1. Electrical conductivity of activated carbon-metal oxide nanocomposites under compression: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Barroso-Bogeat, A; Alexandre-Franco, M; Fernández-González, C; Macías-García, A; Gómez-Serrano, V

    2014-12-07

    From a granular commercial activated carbon (AC) and six metal oxide (Al2O3, Fe2O3, SnO2, TiO2, WO3 and ZnO) precursors, two series of AC-metal oxide nanocomposites were prepared by wet impregnation, oven-drying at 120 °C, and subsequent heat treatment at 200 or 850 °C in an inert atmosphere. Here, the electrical conductivity of the resulting products was studied under moderate compression. The influence of the applied pressure, sample volume, mechanical work, and density of the hybrid materials was thoroughly investigated. The DC electrical conductivity of the compressed samples was measured at room temperature by the four-probe method. Compaction assays suggest that the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites are largely determined by the carbon matrix. Both the decrease in volume and the increase in density were relatively small and only significant at pressures lower than 100 kPa for AC and most nanocomposites. In contrast, the bulk electrical conductivity of the hybrid materials was strongly influenced by the intrinsic conductivity, mean crystallite size, content and chemical nature of the supported phases, which ultimately depend on the metal oxide precursor and heat treatment temperature. The supported nanoparticles may be considered to act as electrical switches either hindering or favouring the effective electron transport between the AC cores of neighbouring composite particles in contact under compression. Conductivity values as a rule were lower for the nanocomposites than for the raw AC, all of them falling in the range of semiconductor materials. With the increase in heat treatment temperature, the trend is toward the improvement of conductivity due to the increase in the crystallite size and, in some cases, to the formation of metals in the elemental state and even metal carbides. The patterns of variation of the electrical conductivity with pressure and mechanical work were slightly similar, thus suggesting the predominance of the pressure

  2. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of biodegradable conducting polypyrrole-graft-chitosan copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabuk, Mehmet; Alan, Yusuf; Yavuz, Mustafa; Unal, Halil Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    In this study, polypyrrole-graft-chitosan (PPy-g-CS) copolymer was chemically synthesized and its structural and morphological properties characterized by FTIR, UV-vis, SEM, XRD, TGA and zeta-potential techniques. The results revealed that there were strong interactions between PPy and CS chains. The electrical conductivity of CS increased to semiconducting range by grafting. The crystallinity and thermal stability of PPy-g-CS copolymer improved when compared to CS. The copolymer was tested against various bacterial and fungal strains at various concentrations and results obtained were compared with the reference antibiotics. The results indicated that the antibacterial activity of PPy-g-CS copolymer was stronger than CS and PPy alone. The antibacterial activity of the PPy-g-CS copolymer observed to increase with rising concentration, and showed stronger activity against bacteria than Penicillin (10 mg), Rifampicin (5 mg) and Trimethoprim (25 mg), whereas showed equipotent activity with Amikacin (30 mg) and Erythromycin (15 mg) antibiotics.

  3. Function and regulation of large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang-Qun; Zhang, Lubo

    2012-09-01

    Large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels are abundantly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells. Activation of BK(Ca) channels leads to hyperpolarization of cell membrane, which in turn counteracts vasoconstriction. Therefore, BK(Ca) channels have an important role in regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure. The activity of BK(Ca) channels is subject to modulation by various factors. Furthermore, the function of BK(Ca) channels are altered in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions, such as pregnancy, hypertension and diabetes, which has dramatic impacts on vascular tone and hemodynamics. Consequently, compounds and genetic manipulation that alter activity and expression of the channel might be of therapeutic interest.

  4. Active control of near-field coupling in conductively coupled microelectromechanical system metamaterial devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Manjappa, Manukumara; Ho, Chong Pei; Qian, You; Singh, Ranjan; Singh, Navab; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-03-01

    We experimentally report a structurally reconfigurable metamaterial for active switching of near-field coupling in conductively coupled, orthogonally twisted split ring resonators (SRRs) operating in the terahertz spectral region. Out-of-plane reconfigurable microcantilevers integrated into the dark SRR geometry are used to provide active frequency tuning of dark SRR resonance. The geometrical parameters of individual SRRs are designed to have identical inductive-capacitive resonant frequency. This allows for the excitation of classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) due to the strong conductive coupling between the SRRs. When the microcantilevers are curved up, the resonant frequency of dark SRR blue-shifts and the EIT peak is completely modulated while the SRRs are still conductively connected. EIT modulation contrast of ˜50% is experimentally achieved with actively switchable group delay of ˜2.5 ps. Electrical control, miniaturized size, and readily integrable fabrication process of the proposed structurally reconfigurable metamaterial make it an ideal candidate for the realization of various terahertz communication devices such as electrically controllable terahertz delay lines, buffers, and tunable data-rate channels.

  5. Graded boosting of synaptic signals by low-threshold voltage-activated calcium conductance

    PubMed Central

    Carbó Tano, Martín; Vilarchao, María Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Low-threshold voltage-activated calcium conductances (LT-VACCs) play a substantial role in shaping the electrophysiological attributes of neurites. We have investigated how these conductances affect synaptic integration in a premotor nonspiking (NS) neuron of the leech nervous system. These cells exhibit an extensive neuritic tree, do not fire Na+-dependent spikes, but express an LT-VACC that was sensitive to 250 μM Ni2+ and 100 μM NNC 55-0396 (NNC). NS neurons responded to excitation of mechanosensory pressure neurons with depolarizing responses for which amplitude was a linear function of the presynaptic firing frequency. NNC decreased these synaptic responses and abolished the concomitant widespread Ca2+ signals. Coherent with the interpretation that the LT-VACC amplified signals at the postsynaptic level, this conductance also amplified the responses of NS neurons to direct injection of sinusoidal current. Synaptic amplification thus is achieved via a positive feedback in which depolarizing signals activate an LT-VACC that, in turn, boosts these signals. The wide distribution of LT-VACC could support the active propagation of depolarizing signals, turning the complex NS neuritic tree into a relatively compact electrical compartment. PMID:25972583

  6. Cell membrane stretch activates intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels in arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hayabuchi, Yasunobu; Nakaya, Yutaka; Mawatari, Kazuaki; Inoue, Miki; Sakata, Miho; Kagami, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the signal transduction of membrane stretch on intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (IKca) channels in rat aorta smooth muscle cells using the patch-clamp technique. To stretch the cell membrane, both suction to the rear end of patch pipette and hypotonic shock were used. In cell-attached and inside-out patch configurations, the open probability of IKca channels increased when 20- to 45-mmHg suction was applied. Hyposmotic swelling efficiently increased IKca channel current. When the Ca(2+)-free solution was superfused, the activation of IKca current by the hyposmotic swelling was reduced. Furthermore, gadolinium (Gd(3+)) attenuated the activation of IKca channels induced by hyposmotic swelling, whereas nicardipine did not. In the experiments with Ca(2+)-free bath solution, pretreatment with GF109203X, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, completely abolished the stretch-induced activation of IKca currents. The stretch-induced activation of IKca channels was strongly inhibited by cytochalasin D, indicating a role for the F-actin in modulation of IKca channels by changes in cell stretching. These data suggest that cell membrane stretch activates IKca channels. In addition, the activation is associated with extracellular Ca(2+) influx through stretch-activated nonselective cation channels, and is also modulated by the F-actin cytoskeleton and the activation of PKC.

  7. 40 CFR 725.235 - Conditions of exemption for activities conducted inside a structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MICROORGANISMS Exemptions for Research and Development Activities § 725.235 Conditions of exemption for... be associated with the microorganism: (i) Information in its possession or control concerning any significant adverse reaction of persons exposed to the microorganism which may reasonably be associated...

  8. 40 CFR 725.235 - Conditions of exemption for activities conducted inside a structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MICROORGANISMS Exemptions for Research and Development Activities § 725.235 Conditions of exemption for... be associated with the microorganism: (i) Information in its possession or control concerning any significant adverse reaction of persons exposed to the microorganism which may reasonably be associated...

  9. 40 CFR 725.235 - Conditions of exemption for activities conducted inside a structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MICROORGANISMS Exemptions for Research and Development Activities § 725.235 Conditions of exemption for... be associated with the microorganism: (i) Information in its possession or control concerning any significant adverse reaction of persons exposed to the microorganism which may reasonably be associated...

  10. 40 CFR 725.235 - Conditions of exemption for activities conducted inside a structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MICROORGANISMS Exemptions for Research and Development Activities § 725.235 Conditions of exemption for... be associated with the microorganism: (i) Information in its possession or control concerning any significant adverse reaction of persons exposed to the microorganism which may reasonably be associated...

  11. CNTF-Treated Astrocyte Conditioned Medium Enhances Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel Activity in Rat Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meiqun; Liu, Hongli; Xu, Huanbai; Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-08-01

    Seizure activity is linked to astrocyte activation as well as dysfunctional cortical neuron excitability produced from changes in calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel function. Ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte conditioned medium (CNTF-ACM) can be used to investigate the peripheral effects of activated astrocytes upon cortical neurons. However, CNTF-ACM's effect upon KCa channel activity in cultured cortical neurons has not yet been investigated. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were performed in rat cortical neurons to evaluate CNTF-ACM's effects upon charybdotoxin-sensitive large-conductance KCa (BK) channel currents and apamin-sensitive small-conductance KCa (SK) channel current. Biotinylation and RT-PCR were applied to assess CNTF-ACM's effects upon the protein and mRNA expression, respectively, of the SK channel subunits SK2 and SK3 and the BK channel subunits BKα1 and BKβ3. An anti-fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) monoclonal neutralizing antibody was used to assess the effects of the FGF-2 component of CNTF-ACM. CNTF-ACM significantly increased KCa channel current density, which was predominantly attributable to gains in BK channel activity (p < 0.05). CNTF-ACM produced a significant increase in BKα1 and BKβ3 expression (p < 0.05) but had no significant effect upon SK2 or SK3 expression (p > 0.05). Blocking FGF-2 produced significant reductions in KCa channel current density (p > 0.05) as well as BKα1 and BKβ3 expression in CNTF-ACM-treated neurons (p > 0.05). CNTF-ACM significantly enhances BK channel activity in rat cortical neurons and that FGF-2 is partially responsible for these effects. CNTF-induced astrocyte activation results in secretion of neuroactive factors which may affect neuronal excitability and resultant seizure activity in mammalian cortical neurons.

  12. Intrinsic conductances actively shape excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic responses in olfactory bulb external tufted cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaolin; Shipley, Michael T

    2008-10-08

    The initial synapse in the olfactory system is from olfactory nerve (ON) terminals to postsynaptic targets in olfactory bulb glomeruli. Recent studies have disclosed multiple presynaptic factors that regulate this important linkage, but less is known about the contribution of postsynaptic intrinsic conductances to integration at these synapses. The present study demonstrates voltage-dependent amplification of EPSPs in external tufted (ET) cells in response to monosynaptic (ON) inputs. This amplification is mainly exerted by persistent Na(+) conductance. Larger EPSPs, which bring the membrane potential to a relatively depolarized level, are further boosted by the low-voltage-activated Ca(2+) conductance. In contrast, the hyperpolarization-activated nonselective cation conductance (I(h)) attenuates EPSPs mainly by reducing EPSP duration; this also reduces temporal summation of multiple EPSPs. Regulation of EPSPs by these subthreshold, voltage-dependent conductances can enhance both the signal-to-noise ratio and the temporal summation of multiple synaptic inputs and thus help ET cells differentiate high- and low-frequency synaptic inputs. I(h) can also transform inhibitory inputs to postsynaptic excitation. When the ET cell membrane potential is relatively depolarized, as during a burst of action potentials, IPSPs produce classic inhibition. However, near resting membrane potentials where I(h) is engaged, IPSPs produce rebound bursts of action potentials. ET cells excite GABAergic PG cells. Thus, the transformation of inhibitory inputs to postsynaptic excitation in ET cells may enhance intraglomerular inhibition of mitral/tufted cells, the main output neurons in the olfactory bulb, and hence shape signaling to olfactory cortex.

  13. Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science during the period April, 1986 through September 30, 1986 is summarized.

  14. Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science during the period April l, 1988 through September 30, 1988.

  15. Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science during the period October 1, 1986 through March 31, 1987 is summarized.

  16. Offering parents individualized feedback on the results of psychological testing conducted for research purposes with children: ethical issues and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Lefaivre, Marie-josée; Chambers, Christine T; Fernandez, Conrad V

    2007-01-01

    Research protocols involving children often include psychological testing as part of an assessment battery. Inclusion of such testing raises the question of whether parents (or others) should be offered the individualized results of their children's psychological testing conducted for research purposes. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the ethical issues and principles associated with individualized feedback of psychological testing conducted for research purposes. Two hypothetical cases are offered to illustrate the complexities of this topic. Detailed recommendations for the management of disclosure of the results of psychological testing in research settings are also proposed.

  17. Novel conductive polypyrrole/zinc oxide/chitosan bionanocomposite: synthesis, characterization, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimiasl, Saeideh; Zakaria, Azmi; Kassim, Anuar; Basri, Sri Norleha

    2015-01-01

    An antibacterial and conductive bionanocomposite (BNC) film consisting of polypyrrole (Ppy), zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs), and chitosan (CS) was electrochemically synthesized on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate by electrooxidation of 0.1 M pyrrole in aqueous solution containing appropriate amounts of ZnO NPs uniformly dispersed in CS. This method enables the room temperature electrosynthesis of BNC film consisting of ZnO NPs incorporated within the growing Ppy/CS composite. The morphology of Ppy/ZnO/CS BNC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. ITO–Ppy/CS and ITO–Ppy/ZnO/CS bioelectrodes were characterized using the Fourier transform infrared technique, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrical conductivity of nanocomposites was investigated by a four-probe method. The prepared nanocomposites were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant activity of nanocomposites increased remarkably by addition of ZnO NPs. The electrical conductivity of films showed a sudden decrease for lower weight ratios of ZnO NPs (5 wt%), while it was increased gradually for higher ratios (10, 15, and 20 wt%). The nanocomposites were analyzed for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results indicated that the synthesized BNC is effective against all of the studied bacteria, and its effectiveness is higher for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The thermal stability and physical properties of BNC films were increased by an increase in the weight ratio of ZnO NPs, promising novel applications for the electrically conductive polysaccharide-based nanocomposites, particularly those that may exploit the antimicrobial nature of Ppy/ZnO/CS BNCs. PMID:25565815

  18. Novel conductive polypyrrole/zinc oxide/chitosan bionanocomposite: synthesis, characterization, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimiasl, Saeideh; Zakaria, Azmi; Kassim, Anuar; Basri, Sri Norleha

    2015-01-01

    An antibacterial and conductive bionanocomposite (BNC) film consisting of polypyrrole (Ppy), zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs), and chitosan (CS) was electrochemically synthesized on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate by electrooxidation of 0.1 M pyrrole in aqueous solution containing appropriate amounts of ZnO NPs uniformly dispersed in CS. This method enables the room temperature electrosynthesis of BNC film consisting of ZnO NPs incorporated within the growing Ppy/CS composite. The morphology of Ppy/ZnO/CS BNC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. ITO-Ppy/CS and ITO-Ppy/ZnO/CS bioelectrodes were characterized using the Fourier transform infrared technique, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrical conductivity of nanocomposites was investigated by a four-probe method. The prepared nanocomposites were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant activity of nanocomposites increased remarkably by addition of ZnO NPs. The electrical conductivity of films showed a sudden decrease for lower weight ratios of ZnO NPs (5 wt%), while it was increased gradually for higher ratios (10, 15, and 20 wt%). The nanocomposites were analyzed for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results indicated that the synthesized BNC is effective against all of the studied bacteria, and its effectiveness is higher for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The thermal stability and physical properties of BNC films were increased by an increase in the weight ratio of ZnO NPs, promising novel applications for the electrically conductive polysaccharide-based nanocomposites, particularly those that may exploit the antimicrobial nature of Ppy/ZnO/CS BNCs.

  19. Readability of informed consent forms in clinical trials conducted in a skin research center.

    PubMed

    Samadi, Aniseh; Asghari, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining informed consents is one of the most fundamental principles in conducting a clinical trial. In order for the consent to be informed, the patient must receive and comprehend the information appropriately. Complexity of the consent form is a common problem that has been shown to be a major barrier to comprehension for many patients. The objective of this study was to assess the readability of different templates of informed consent forms (ICFs) used in clinical trials in the Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy (CRTSDL), Tehran, Iran. This study was conducted on ICFs of 45 clinical trials of the CRTSDL affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences. ICFs were tested for reading difficulty, using the readability assessments formula adjusted for the Persian language including the Flesch-Kincaid reading ease score, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, and Gunning fog index. Mean readability score of the whole text of ICFs as well as their 7 main information parts were calculated. The mean ± SD Flesch Reading Ease score for all ICFs was 31.96 ± 5.62 that is in the difficult range. The mean ± SD grade level was calculated as 10.71 ± 1.8 (8.23-14.09) using the Flesch-Kincaid formula and 14.64 ± 1.22 (12.67-18.27) using the Gunning fog index. These results indicate that the text is expected to be understandable for an average student in the 11(th) grade, while the ethics committee recommend grade level 8 as the standard readability level for ICFs. The results showed that the readability scores of ICFs assessed in our study were not in the acceptable range. This means they were too complex to be understood by the general population. Ethics committees must examine the simplicity and readability of ICFs used in clinical trials.

  20. Readability of informed consent forms in clinical trials conducted in a skin research center

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Aniseh; Asghari, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining informed consents is one of the most fundamental principles in conducting a clinical trial. In order for the consent to be informed, the patient must receive and comprehend the information appropriately. Complexity of the consent form is a common problem that has been shown to be a major barrier to comprehension for many patients. The objective of this study was to assess the readability of different templates of informed consent forms (ICFs) used in clinical trials in the Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy (CRTSDL), Tehran, Iran. This study was conducted on ICFs of 45 clinical trials of the CRTSDL affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences. ICFs were tested for reading difficulty, using the readability assessments formula adjusted for the Persian language including the Flesch–Kincaid reading ease score, Flesch–Kincaid grade level, and Gunning fog index. Mean readability score of the whole text of ICFs as well as their 7 main information parts were calculated. The mean ± SD Flesch Reading Ease score for all ICFs was 31.96 ± 5.62 that is in the difficult range. The mean ± SD grade level was calculated as 10.71 ± 1.8 (8.23–14.09) using the Flesch–Kincaid formula and 14.64 ± 1.22 (12.67–18.27) using the Gunning fog index. These results indicate that the text is expected to be understandable for an average student in the 11th grade, while the ethics committee recommend grade level 8 as the standard readability level for ICFs. The results showed that the readability scores of ICFs assessed in our study were not in the acceptable range. This means they were too complex to be understood by the general population. Ethics committees must examine the simplicity and readability of ICFs used in clinical trials. PMID:27471590

  1. Integrating high electrical conductivity and photocatalytic activity in cotton fabric by cationizing for enriched coating of negatively charged graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Sun, Kyung Chul; Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2015-10-05

    Electroconductive textiles have attended tremendous focus recently and researchers are making efforts to increase conductivity of e-textiles, in order to increase the use of such flexible and low cost textile materials. In this study, surface conductivity and photo catalytic activity of standard cotton fabric (SCF) was enhanced by modifying its surface charge, from negative to positive, using Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a cationic agent, to convert it into cationised cotton fabric (CCF). Then, both types of fabrics were dip coated with a simple dip and dry technique for the adsorption of negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) sheets onto its surface. This resulted in 67.74% higher loading amount of GO on the CCF making self-assembly. Finally, this coating was chemically converted by vapor reduction using hydrazine hydrate to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for restoration of a high electrical conductivity at the fabric surface. Our results revealed that with such high loading of GO, the surface resistance of CCF was only 40Ω/sq as compared to 510Ω/sq of the SCF and a 66% higher photo catalytic activity was also achieved through cationization for improved GO coating. Graphene coated SCF and CCF were characterized using FE-SEM, FTIR, Raman, UV-vis, WAXD, EDX and XPS spectroscopy to ascertain successful reduction of GO to rGO. The effect of BSA treatment on adsorption of cotton fabric was studied using drop shape analyzer to measure contact angle and for thermal and mechanical resistance, the fabric was tested for TGA and tensile strength, respectively. rGO coated fabric also showed slightly improved thermal stability yet a minor loss of strength was observed. The high flexibility, photocatalytic activity and excellent conductivity of this fabric suggests that it can be used as an electrode material for various applications.

  2. Intracellular Na(+) modulates large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K (+) currents in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guo Hua; Kim, Moon Young; Park, Seonghee; Kim, Ji Aee; Choi, Shinkyu; Suh, Suk Hyo

    2008-10-01

    We studied the effects of Na(+) influx on large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by means of patch clamp and SBFI microfluorescence measurements. In current-clamped HUVECs, extracellular Na(+) replacement by NMDG(+) or mannitol hyperpolarized cells. In voltage-clamped HUVECs, changing membrane potential from 0 mV to negative potentials increased intracellular Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)](i)) and vice versa. In addition, extracellular Na(+) depletion decreased [Na(+)](i). In voltage-clamped cells, BK(Ca) currents were markedly increased by extracellular Na(+) depletion. In inside-out patches, increasing [Na(+)](i) from 0 to 20 or 40 mM reduced single channel conductance but not open probability (NPo) of BK(Ca) channels and decreasing intracellular K(+) concentration ([K(+)](i)) gradually from 140 to 70 mM reduced both single channel conductance and NPo. Furthermore, increasing [Na(+)](i) gradually from 0 to 70 mM, by replacing K(+), markedly reduced single channel conductance and NPo. The Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchange blocker Ni(2+) or KB-R7943 decreased [Na(+)](i) and increased BK(Ca) currents simultaneously, and the Na(+) ionophore monensin completely inhibited BK(Ca) currents. BK(Ca) currents were significantly augmented by increasing extracellular K(+) concentration ([K(+)](o)) from 6 to 12 mM and significantly reduced by decreasing [K(+)](o) from 12 or 6 to 0 mM or applying the Na(+)-K(+) pump inhibitor ouabain. These results suggest that intracellular Na(+) inhibit single channel conductance of BK(Ca) channels and that intracellular K(+) increases single channel conductance and NPo.

  3. Graphene as conductive additives in binderless activated carbon electrodes for power enhancement of supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor, N. S. M.; Deraman, M.; Suleman, M.; Norizam, M. D. M.; Basri, N. H.; Sazali, N. E. S.; Hamdan, E.; Hanappi, M. F. Y. M.; Tajuddin, N. S. M.; Othman, M. A. R.; Shamsudin, S. A.; Omar, R.

    2016-11-01

    Carbon based supercapacitor electrodes from composite of binderless activated carbon and graphene as a conductive additive were fabricated with various amount of graphene (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wt%). Graphene was mixed in self-adhesive carbon grains produced from pre-carbonized powder derived from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches and converted into green monoliths (GMs). The GMs were carbonized (N2) and activated (CO2) to produce activated carbon monoliths (ACMs) electrodes. Porosity characterizations by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm method shows that the pore characteristics of the ACMs are influenced by the graphene additive. The results of galvanostatic charge-discharge tests carried out on the supercapacitor cells fabricated using these electrodes shows that the addition of graphene additive (even in small amount) decreases the equivalent series resistance and enhances the specific power of the cells but significantly lowers the specific capacitance. The supercapacitor cell constructed with the electrode containing 4 wt % of graphene offers the maximum power (175 W kg-1) which corresponds to an improvement of 55%. These results demonstrate that the addition of graphene as conductive additive in activated carbon electrodes can enhance the specific power of the supercapacitor.

  4. Large-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels in secretory neurons.

    PubMed

    Lara, J; Acevedo, J J; Onetti, C G

    1999-09-01

    Large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BK) are believed to underlie interburst intervals and contribute to the control of hormone release in several secretory cells. In crustacean neurosecretory cells, Ca2+ entry associated with electrical activity could act as a modulator of membrane K+ conductance. Therefore we studied the contribution of BK channels to the macroscopic outward current in the X-organ of crayfish, and their participation in electrophysiological activity, as well as their sensitivity toward intracellular Ca2+, ATP, and voltage, by using the patch-clamp technique. The BK channels had a conductance of 223 pS and rectified inwardly in symmetrical K+. These channels were highly selective to K+ ions; potassium permeability (PK) value was 2.3 x 10(-13) cm(3) s(-1). The BK channels were sensitive to internal Ca2+ concentration, voltage dependent, and activated by intracellular MgATP. Voltage sensitivity (k) was approximately 13 mV, and the half-activation membrane potentials depended on the internal Ca2+ concentration. Calcium ions (0.3-3 microM) applied to the internal membrane surface caused an enhancement of the channel activity. This activation of BK channels by internal calcium had a KD(0) of 0.22 microM and was probably due to the binding of only one or two Ca2+ ions to the channel. Addition of MgATP (0.01-3 mM) to the internal solution increased steady state-open probability. The dissociation constant for MgATP (KD) was 119 microM, and the Hill coefficient (h) was 0.6, according to the Hill analysis. Ca2+-activated K+ currents recorded from whole cells were suppressed by either adding Cd2+ (0.4 mM) or removing Ca2+ ions from the external solution. TEA (1 mM) or charybdotoxin (100 nM) blocked these currents. Our results showed that both BK and K(ATP) channels are present in the same cell. Even when BK and K(ATP) channels were voltage dependent and modulated by internal Ca2+ and ATP, the profile of sensitivity was quite different for each kind

  5. Computational Study of Subdural Cortical Stimulation: Effects of Simulating Anisotropic Conductivity on Activation of Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyeon; Kim, Donghyeon; Jun, Sung Chan

    2015-01-01

    Subdural cortical stimulation (SuCS) is an appealing method in the treatment of neurological disorders, and computational modeling studies of SuCS have been applied to determine the optimal design for electrotherapy. To achieve a better understanding of computational modeling on the stimulation effects of SuCS, the influence of anisotropic white matter conductivity on the activation of cortical neurons was investigated in a realistic head model. In this paper, we constructed pyramidal neuronal models (layers 3 and 5) that showed primary excitation of the corticospinal tract, and an anatomically realistic head model reflecting complex brain geometry. The anisotropic information was acquired from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) and then applied to the white matter at various ratios of anisotropic conductivity. First, we compared the isotropic and anisotropic models; compared to the isotropic model, the anisotropic model showed that neurons were activated in the deeper bank during cathodal stimulation and in the wider crown during anodal stimulation. Second, several popular anisotropic principles were adapted to investigate the effects of variations in anisotropic information. We observed that excitation thresholds varied with anisotropic principles, especially with anodal stimulation. Overall, incorporating anisotropic conductivity into the anatomically realistic head model is critical for accurate estimation of neuronal responses; however, caution should be used in the selection of anisotropic information. PMID:26057524

  6. Positive Activities: Qualitative Research with Parents. Solutions Research. Research Report. DCSF-RR142

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Children, Schools and Families, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This research was commissioned by COI and DCSF to understand in depth, the barriers, motivators and messages for parents to encourage participation in positive activities for young people. Within this the research was designed to understand the level of influence of parents in whether a young person participates/what a young person might…

  7. Electromechanically active polymer transducers: research in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpi, Federico; Graz, Ingrid; Jager, Edwin; Ladegaard Skov, Anne; Vidal, Frédéric

    2013-10-01

    Smart materials and structures based on electromechanically active polymers (EAPs) represent a fast growing and stimulating field of research and development. EAPs are materials capable of changing dimensions and/or shape in response to suitable electrical stimuli. They are commonly classified in two major families: ionic EAPs (activated by an electrically induced transport of ions and/or solvent) and electronic EAPs (activated by electrostatic forces). These polymers show interesting properties, such as sizable active strains and/or stresses in response to electrical driving, high mechanical flexibility, low density, structural simplicity, ease of processing and scalability, no acoustic noise and, in most cases, low costs. Since many of these characteristics can also describe natural muscle tissues from an engineering standpoint, it is not surprising that EAP transducers are sometimes also referred to as 'muscle-like smart materials' or 'artificial muscles'. They are used not only to generate motion, but also to sense or harvest energy from it. In particular, EAP electromechanical transducers are studied for applications that can benefit from their 'biomimetic' characteristics, with possible usages from the micro- to the macro-scale, spanning several disciplines, such as mechatronics, robotics, automation, biotechnology and biomedical engineering, haptics, fluidics, optics and acoustics. Currently, the EAP field is just undergoing its initial transition from academic research into commercialization, with companies starting to invest in this technology and the first products appearing on the market. This focus issue is intentionally aimed at gathering contributions from the most influential European groups working in the EAP field. In fact, today Europe hosts the broadest EAP community worldwide. The rapid expansion of the EAP field in Europe, where it historically has strong roots, has stimulated the creation of the 'European Scientific Network for Artificial

  8. Gating of Recombinant Small-Conductance Ca-activated K+ Channels by Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Hirschberg, Birgit; Maylie, James; Adelman, John P.; Marrion, Neil V.

    1998-01-01

    Small-conductance Ca-activated K+ channels play an important role in modulating excitability in many cell types. These channels are activated by submicromolar concentrations of intracellular Ca2+, but little is known about the gating kinetics upon activation by Ca2+. In this study, single channel currents were recorded from Xenopus oocytes expressing the apamin-sensitive clone rSK2. Channel activity was detectable in 0.2 μM Ca2+ and was maximal above 2 μM Ca2+. Analysis of stationary currents revealed two open times and three closed times, with only the longest closed time being Ca dependent, decreasing with increasing Ca2+ concentrations. In addition, elevated Ca2+ concentrations resulted in a larger percentage of long openings and short closures. Membrane voltage did not have significant effects on either open or closed times. The open probability was ∼0.6 in 1 μM free Ca2+. A lower open probability of ∼0.05 in 1 μM Ca2+ was also observed, and channels switched spontaneously between behaviors. The occurrence of these switches and the amount of time channels spent displaying high open probability behavior was Ca2+ dependent. The two behaviors shared many features including the open times and the short and intermediate closed times, but the low open probability behavior was characterized by a different, long Ca2+-dependent closed time in the range of hundreds of milliseconds to seconds. Small-conductance Ca- activated K+ channel gating was modeled by a gating scheme consisting of four closed and two open states. This model yielded a close representation of the single channel data and predicted a macroscopic activation time course similar to that observed upon fast application of Ca2+ to excised inside-out patches. PMID:9524139

  9. Intermediate-Conductance-Ca2-Activated K Channel Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel (IKCa1) is Upregulated and Promotes Cell Proliferation in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ling; Zhan, Ping; Nie, Dan; Fan, Lingye; Lin, Hairui; Gao, Lanyang; Mao, Xiguang

    2017-01-01

    Background Accumulating data point to intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (IKCa1) as a key player in controlling cell cycle progression and proliferation of human cancer cells. However, the role that IKCa1 plays in the growth of human cervical cancer cells is largely unexplored. Material/Methods In this study, Western blot analysis, immunohistochemical staining, and RT-PCR were first used for IKCa1protein and gene expression assays in cervical cancer tissues and HeLa cells. Then, IKCa1 channel blocker and siRNA were employed to inhibit the functionality of IKCa1 and downregulate gene expression in HeLa cells, respectively. After these treatments, we examined the level of cell proliferation by MTT method and measured IKCa1 currents by conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique. Cell apoptosis was assessed using the Annexin V-FITC/Propidium Iodide (PI) double-staining apoptosis detection kit. Results We demonstrated that IKCa1 mRNA and protein are preferentially expressed in cervical cancer tissues and HeLa cells. We also showed that the IKCa1 channel blocker, clotrimazole, and IKCa1 channel siRNA can be used to suppress cervical cancer cell proliferation and decrease IKCa1 channel current. IKCa1 downregulation by specific siRNAs induced a significant increase in the proportion of apoptotic cells in HeLa cells. Conclusions IKCa1 is overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues, and IKCa1 upregulation in cervical cancer cell linea enhances cell proliferation, partly by reducing the proportion of apoptotic cells. PMID:28280257

  10. Final Report of Research Conducted For DE-AI02-08ER64546

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Minnis

    2012-03-28

    Research was conducted for 3-4 years to use ARM data to validate satellite cloud retrievals and help the development of improved techniques for remotely sensing clouds and radiative fluxes from space to complement the ARM surface measurement program. This final report summarizes the results and publications during the last 2 years of the studies. Since our last report covering the 2009 period, we published four papers that were accepted during the previous reporting period and revised and published a fifth one. Our efforts to intercalibrate selected channels on several polar orbiting and geostationary satellite imagers, which are funded in part by ASR, resulted in methods that were accepted as part of the international Global Space-based Intercalibration System (GSICS) calibration algorithms. We developed a new empirical method for correcting the spectral differences between comparable channels on various imagers that will be used to correct the calibrations of the satellite data used for ARM. We documented our cloud retrievals for the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-Rex; ARM participated with an AAF contribution) in context of the entire experiment. We used our VOCALS satellite data along with the aircraft measurements to better understand the relationships between aerosols and liquid water path in marine stratus clouds. We continued or efforts to validate and improve the satellite cloud retrievals for ARM and using ARM data to validate retrievals for other purposes.

  11. Feasibility of Adolescents to Conduct Community-Based Participatory Research on Obesity and Diabetes in Rural Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Bardwell, Genevieve; Morton, Cathy; Chester, Ann; Pancoska, Petr; Buch, Shama; Cecchetti, Alfred; Vecchio, Marcella; Paulsen, Stephanie; Groark, Stephen; Branch, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) has been advocated to translate advances in health care sciences to the community. We describe a novel approach applied to obesity management and diabetes prevention. This takes advantage of a network of science clubs organized by the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) for extracurricular activity of disadvantaged high school students in rural Appalachia. Physician scientists and educators provided an intensive summer course on CBPR, ethics, and study design on obesity management and diabetes prevention. Ethical certification for CBPR investigation was obtained for 210 students and 18 mentors for a study on the prevalence of obesity and Type II diabetes within their community. Over a 6-month period, 989 had a collection of complete analyzable data, of which 103 had diabetes. The proportion with obesity (BMI ≥ 30) was over 50%. The frequency of diabetes was related to increasing BMI. When BMI ≥ 40, the frequency approached 50%, and exhibited a clear familial distribution. We conclude that trained adolescents can effectively conduct CBPR, and obesity and diabetes are more prevalent than previously reported in this community. This experience provides encouragement to conduct future studies to influence weight management from high-risk populations in this medically disadvantaged community. PMID:20443917

  12. ZnO:H indium-free transparent conductive electrodes for active-matrix display applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shuming Wang, Sisi

    2014-12-01

    Transparent conductive electrodes based on hydrogen (H)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) have been proposed for active-matrix (AM) display applications. When fabricated with optimal H plasma power and optimal plasma treatment time, the resulting ZnO:H films exhibit low sheet resistance of 200 Ω/◻ and high average transmission of 85% at a film thickness of 150 nm. The demonstrated transparent conductive ZnO:H films can potentially replace indium-tin-oxide and serve as pixel electrodes for organic light-emitting diodes as well as source/drain electrodes for ZnO-based thin-film transistors. Use of the proposed ZnO:H electrodes means that two photomask stages can be removed from the fabrication process flow for ZnO-based AM backplanes.

  13. Effect of conductive additives to gel electrolytes on activated carbon-based supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzegar, Farshad; Dangbegnon, Julien K.; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Momodu, Damilola Y.; Johnson, A. T. Charlie; Manyala, Ncholu

    2015-09-01

    This article is focused on polymer based gel electrolyte due to the fact that polymers are cheap and can be used to achieve extended potential window for improved energy density of the supercapacitor devices when compared to aqueous electrolytes. Electrochemical characterization of a symmetric supercapacitor devices based on activated carbon in different polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based gel electrolytes was carried out. The device exhibited a maximum energy density of 24 Wh kg-1 when carbon black was added to the gel electrolyte as conductive additive. The good energy density was correlated with the improved conductivity of the electrolyte medium which is favorable for fast ion transport in this relatively viscous environment. Most importantly, the device remained stable with no capacitance lost after 10,000 cycles.

  14. Sensing performance of electrically conductive fabrics and dielectric electro active polymers for parachutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favini, Eric; Niezrecki, Christopher; Manohar, Sanjeev K.; Willis, David; Chen, Julie; Niemi, Eugene; Desabrais, Kenneth; Charette, Christine

    2011-04-01

    This paper quantifies the sensing capabilities of novel smart materials in an effort to improve the performance, better understand the physics, and enhance the safety of parachutes. Based upon a recent review of actuation technologies for parachute applications, it was surmised that the actuators reviewed could not be used to effectively alter the drag or lift (i.e. geometry, porosity, or air vent openings) of a parachute during flight. However, several materials showed potential for sensing applications within a parachute, specifically electrically conductive fabrics and dielectric electro-active polymers. This paper introduces several new conductive fabrics and provides an evaluation of the sensing performance of these smart materials based upon test results using mechanical testing and digital image correlation for comparison.

  15. Electrically conductive PVC layers filled with active carbon containing H+-conducting porous structures of sulfuric acid complexes of cyclams on fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsivadze, A. Yu.; Fridman, A. Ya.; Morozova, E. M.; Sokolova, N. P.; Voloshchuk, A. M.; Petukhova, G. A.; Bardyshev, I. I.; Gorbunov, A. M.; Novikov, A. K.; Polyakova, I. Ya.; Titova, V. N.; Yavich, A. A.; Petrova, N. V.; Krasil'nikova, O. K.

    2015-07-01

    Electrically conductive PVC layers are synthesized. The layers are filled with active carbons containing porous H+-conductive structures of hydroxyethylcyclam/sulfuric acid complexes crosslinked with cellulose fabric. They are interlaid with layers based on the same structures containing added benzene and hexane adsorbates and solvates. It is found that upon anode or cathode polarization of the layers as H+-conductive electrochemical bridges in air and in the vapor and liquid phases of benzene and hexane, either the electroreduction of H+ to H2 or the electrooxidation of H2O to O2 occurs in the areas of contact between active carbon particles and the complexes. The dependences of rates of H2 and O2 formation on the voltage are studied. The magnitudes of overvoltage and the constants of electrochemical reactions are found to depend on the composition of a layer.

  16. Cell swelling, co-transport activation and potassium conductance in isolated perfused rabbit kidney proximal tubules.

    PubMed Central

    Beck, J S; Potts, D J

    1990-01-01

    1. Isolated, perfused rabbit proximal tubules were used to study the effects of activation of the apical membrane sodium co-transporters, and of the effects of osmotically induced cell swelling, upon cell volume, basolateral membrane potential and apparent partial conductance of potassium. 2. Activation of electrogenic apical sodium co-transport caused a depolarization of the basolateral membrane and a reduction of the basolateral apparent potassium transference number. This was followed by a spontaneous partial recovery of potential and increase in apparent potassium transference number. 3. Stimulation of apical sodium co-transport led to a sustained increase in cell volume. 4. A sustained increase in cell volume (of similar magnitude to that seen after activation of apical membrane sodium co-transporters) was also caused by reduction of bath and perfusate osmolality by removal of 89 mmol l-1 mannitol from both lumen and bath solutions. 5. This reduction in bath and perfusate osmolality also led to a basolateral membrane hyperpolarization and an increase in basolateral apparent potassium transference number. 6. These observations support the possibility that some of the partial recovery of basolateral membrane potential (Vb1) during apical sodium co-transport stimulation is due to a cell volume sensitive change in basolateral potassium conductance. PMID:2213582

  17. Somatic versus Dendritic Resonance: Differential Filtering of Inputs through Non-Uniform Distributions of Active Conductances

    PubMed Central

    Zhuchkova, Ekaterina; Remme, Michiel W. H.; Schreiber, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic inputs to neurons are processed in a frequency-dependent manner, with either low-pass or resonant response characteristics. These types of filtering play a key role in the frequency-specific information flow in neuronal networks. While the generation of resonance by specific ionic conductances is well investigated, less attention has been paid to the spatial distribution of the resonance-generating conductances across a neuron. In pyramidal neurons – one of the major excitatory cell-types in the mammalian brain – a steep gradient of resonance-generating h-conductances with a 60-fold increase towards distal dendrites has been demonstrated experimentally. Because the dendritic trees of these cells are large, spatial compartmentalization of resonant properties can be expected. Here, we use mathematical descriptions of spatially extended neurons to investigate the consequences of such a distal, dendritic localization of h-conductances for signal processing. While neurons with short dendrites do not exhibit a pronounced compartmentalization of resonance, i.e. the filter properties of dendrites and soma are similar, we find that neurons with longer dendrites ( space constant) can show distinct filtering of dendritic and somatic inputs due to electrotonic segregation. Moreover, we show that for such neurons, experimental classification as resonant versus nonresonant can be misleading when based on somatic recordings, because for these morphologies a dendritic resonance could easily be undetectable when using somatic input. Nevertheless, noise-driven membrane-potential oscillations caused by dendritic resonance can propagate to the soma where they can be recorded, hence contrasting with the low-pass filtering at the soma. We conclude that non-uniform distributions of active conductances can underlie differential filtering of synaptic input in neurons with spatially extended dendrites, like pyramidal neurons, bearing relevance for the localization

  18. Research on resistance properties of conductive layer materials of microchannel plate film dynode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ling-ling; Duanmu, Qingduo; Yang, Ji-kai; Wang, Guo-zheng

    2015-03-01

    Silicon Microchannel Plate - MCP - is a new image multiplier devices based semiconductor process technology. Compared with the traditional glass MCP, Silicon MCP has an advantage in technology that the dynode materials and the substrate materials are separate. At the same time, the dynode preparation process and the microchannel arrays are also separate. Two different dynode conductive layer films are prepared: polysilicon conductive films prepared by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) and AZO thin films coated by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The conductive films coated by ALD are superior to dynode conductive films prepared by LPCVD. By comparing the resistivity of conductive polysilicon thin film and AZO thin film of different Al concentrations doped, AZO thin film of different Al concentrations doped is a more suitable conductive layer dynode material to satisfy the MCP conductive layer resistivity requirements.

  19. 45 CFR 46.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 46.120 Section 46.120 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.120 Evaluation and disposition...

  20. 34 CFR 97.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 97.120 Section 97.120 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) §...

  1. 45 CFR 46.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 46.120 Section 46.120 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.120 Evaluation and disposition...

  2. 34 CFR 97.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 97.120 Section 97.120 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) §...

  3. 45 CFR 46.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 46.120 Section 46.120 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.120 Evaluation and disposition...

  4. 34 CFR 97.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 97.120 Section 97.120 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) §...

  5. 45 CFR 46.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 46.120 Section 46.120 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.120 Evaluation and disposition...

  6. 34 CFR 97.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or Agency. 97.120 Section 97.120 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) §...

  7. A Mastery Rubric for the Design and Evaluation of an Institutional Curriculum in the Responsible Conduct of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; FitzGerald, Kevin T.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a Mastery Rubric for the design and evaluation of an institutional curriculum in the responsible conduct of research (RCR), motivated by new federal (US) research funding requirements for documenting this training over investigators' careers. A Mastery Rubric outlines the desired knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) for a course or…

  8. Offering Parents Individualized Feedback on the Results of Psychological Testing Conducted for Research Purposes with Children: Ethical Issues and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefaivre, Marie-josee; Chambers, Christine T.; Fernandez, Conrad V.

    2007-01-01

    Research protocols involving children often include psychological testing as part of an assessment battery. Inclusion of such testing raises the question of whether parents (or others) should be offered the individualized results of their children's psychological testing conducted for research purposes. The purpose of this article is to provide a…

  9. 38 CFR 16.120 - Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... disposition of applications and proposals for research to be conducted or supported by a Federal Department or... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.120 Evaluation and disposition of applications and proposals for research... will evaluate all applications and proposals involving human subjects submitted to the department...

  10. 34 CFR 97.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or Agency. 97.103 Section 97.103 Education Office of the... continuing review of research and for reporting its findings and actions to the investigator and...

  11. Training and Technology. Report of Program Activities January 1--June 30, 1973. Conducted at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commissions Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN. Manpower Development Div.

    The report is a description of the program activities carried on by Training and Technology (TAT) during the first six months of 1973. In the general category of manpower research and development, brief but detailed descriptions are given of each of the projects conducted in the development and extension of the TAT training model in Albuquerque,…

  12. Ethical decision making in the conduct of research: role of individual, contextual and organizational factors. Commentary on "Science, human nature, and a new paradigm for ethics education".

    PubMed

    Langlais, Philip J

    2012-09-01

    Despite the importance of scientific integrity to the well-being of society, recent findings suggest that training and mentoring in the responsible conduct of research are not very reliable or effective inhibitors of research misbehavior. Understanding how and why individual scientists decide to behave in ways that conform to or violate norms and standards of research is essential to the development of more effective training programs and the creation of more supportive environments. Scholars in business management, psychology, and other disciplines have identified many important factors that affect ethical behavior, including individual, contextual, and organizational factors. Surprisingly little research has been conducted to examine the role of these factors in either the development of ethical decision-making skills, or their applicability to ethical issues commonly encountered in research and other scholarly and professional activities. Interdisciplinary approaches combined with research and discipline relevant paradigms should greatly enhance understanding of the individual contextual and organizational factors involved in ethical and unethical research conduct. Such studies will inform and facilitate the development of more effective ethics education programs in the sciences and engineering professions.

  13. NASA's Rodent Research Project: Validation of Flight Hardware, Operations and Science Capabilities for Conducting Long Duration Experiments in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. Y.; Beegle, J. E.; Wigley, C. L.; Pletcher, D.; Globus, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Research using rodents is an essential tool for advancing biomedical research on Earth and in space. Rodent Research (RR)-1 was conducted to validate flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities that were developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. Twenty C57BL/6J adult female mice were launched on Sept 21, 2014 in a Dragon Capsule (SpaceX-4), then transferred to the ISS for a total time of 21-22 days (10 commercial mice) or 37 (10 validation mice). Tissues collected on-orbit were either rapidly frozen or preserved in RNA later at less than or equal to -80 C (n=2/group) until their return to Earth. Remaining carcasses were rapidly frozen for dissection post-flight. The three controls groups at Kennedy Space Center consisted of: Basal mice euthanized at the time of launch, Vivarium controls, housed in standard cages, and Ground Controls (GC), housed in flight hardware within an environmental chamber. FLT mice appeared more physically active on-orbit than GC, and behavior analysis are in progress. Upon return to Earth, there were no differences in body weights between FLT and GC at the end of the 37 days in space. RNA was of high quality (RIN greater than 8.5). Liver enzyme activity levels of FLT mice and all control mice were similar in magnitude to those of the samples that were optimally processed in the laboratory. Liver samples collected from the intact frozen FLT carcasses had RNA RIN of 7.27 +/- 0.52, which was lower than that of the samples processed on-orbit, but similar to those obtained from the control group intact carcasses. Nonetheless, the RNA samples from the intact carcasses were acceptable for the most demanding transcriptomic analyses. Adrenal glands, thymus and spleen (organs associated with stress response) showed no significant difference in weights between FLT and GC. Enzymatic activity was also not significantly different. Over 3,000 tissues collected from the four groups of mice have become available for the Biospecimen Sharing

  14. Graduate Socialization in the Responsible Conduct of Research: A National Survey on the Research Ethics Training Experiences of Psychology Doctoral Students.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Celia B; Fried, Adam L; Feldman, Lindsay G

    2009-11-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms by which psychology graduate programs transmit responsible conduct of research (RCR) values. A national sample of 968 current students and recent graduates of mission-diverse doctoral psychology programs, completed a web-based survey on their research ethics challenges, perceptions of RCR mentoring and department climate, their ability to conduct research responsibility, and whether they believed psychology as a discipline promotes scientific integrity. Research experience, mentor RCR instruction and modeling, and department RCR policies predicted student RCR preparedness. Mentor RCR instruction, department RCR policies, and faculty modeling of RCR behaviors predicted confidence in the RCR integrity of the discipline. Implications for training are discussed.

  15. Activation of the basolateral membrane Cl− conductance essential for electrogenic K+ secretion suppresses electrogenic Cl− secretion

    PubMed Central

    He, Quanhua; Halm, Susan T.; Zhang, Jin; Halm, Dan R.

    2010-01-01

    Adrenaline activates transient Cl−-secretion and sustained K+-secretion across isolated distal colonic mucosa of guinea pig. The Ca++-activated Cl− channel inhibitor CaCCinh-A01 [30μM] significantly reduced electrogenic K+-secretion, detected as short-circuit current (Isc). This inhibition supported the cell model for K+-secretion in which basolateral membrane Cl− channels provide an exit pathway for Cl− entering the cell via Na+/K+/2Cl−-cotransporters. CaCCinh-A01 inhibited both Isc and transepithelial conductance in a concentration dependent manner, IC50 = 6.3μM. GlyH-101, another Cl− channel inhibitor, also reduced sustained adrenaline-activated Isc (IC50 = 9.4μM). Adrenaline activated whole-cell Cl− current in isolated intact colonic crypts, confirmed by ion substitution. This adrenaline-activated whole-cell Cl− current also was inhibited by CaCCinh-A01 or GlyH-101. In contrast to K+-secretion, CaCCinh-A01 augmented the electrogenic Cl−-secretion activated by adrenaline as well as that activated by PGE2. Synergistic Cl−-secretion activated by cholinergic/PGE2 stimulation was insensitive to CaCCinh-A01. Colonic expression of the Ca++-activated Cl− channel protein Tmem16A was supported by RT-PCR detection of Tmem16A-mRNA, by immuno-blot with a Tmem16A-antibody, and by immuno-fluorescence detection in lateral membranes of epithelial cells. Alternative splices of Tmem16A were detected for exons that are involved in channel activation. Inhibition of K+-secretion and augmentation of Cl−-secretion by CaCCinh-A01 supports a common colonic cell model for these two ion secretory processes, such that activation of basolateral membrane Cl− channels contributes to the production of electrogenic K+-secretion and limits the rate of Cl−-secretion. Maximal physiological Cl−-secretion occurs only for synergistic activation mechanisms that close these basolateral membrane Cl− channels. PMID:21169331

  16. Community-Based Participatory Research: Conducting a Formative Assessment of Factors that Influence Youth Wellness in the Hualapai Community

    PubMed Central

    Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I.; Siyuja, Thomas; Watahomigie, Helen J; Irwin, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. Using a community-based participatory research approach, a tribe–university team conducted a formative assessment of local factors that influence youth wellness to guide the design of a culturally and locally relevant health promotion program. Methods. Open-ended interviews with key informants, a school self-assessment using the Centers for Disease Control’s School Health Index, and a locally generated environmental inventory provided data that were triangulated to yield a composite of influential factors and perceived need within the community. Results. Family involvement and personal goal setting were identified as key to youth wellness. Supportive programs were described as having consistent adult leadership, structured activities, and a positive local and regional image. Availability of illicit drugs and alcohol, poor teacher attitude, and lack of adult involvement were significant negative factors that impact youth behavior. Conclusions. Local/native (emic) and university/nonnative (etic) perspectives and abilities can be combined to yield a culturally relevant formative assessment that is useful to public health planning. In this collaborative effort, standard means of data collection and analysis were modified in some cases to enhance and build upon the knowledge and skills of community researchers. PMID:16873759

  17. 77 FR 43238 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Navy Training Conducted at the Silver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Specified Activities; Navy Training Conducted at the Silver Strand Training Complex, San Diego Bay AGENCY... harassment, incidental to conducting training exercises at the Silver Strand Training Complex (SSTC) in the... taking, by harassment, of marine mammals incidental to conducting training exercises at the Navy's...

  18. Spectral, electrical conductivity and biological activity properties of some new azopyrimidine derivatives and their complexes.

    PubMed

    Masoud, Mamdouh S; Khalil, Ekram A; Ramadan, Ahmed M; Gohar, Yousry M; Sweyllam, Amr

    2007-07-01

    The electronic absorption spectra of 5-(o-substituted phenylazo)-6-amino-2-thiouracils and 6-(o-substituted phenylazo)-5-aminouracils containing different substituents are studied at different pH's. The dissociation constants are evaluated and discussed. Phenomenon of tautomerism is more supported by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra. The electrical conductivity of some ligands and their Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes in the temperature range 293-150K favoured their semiconducting properties where the metal ion forms a bridge to facilitate the flow of the current. The biological activity of some ligands and their complexes are tested against a number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results showed that some of the compounds have a well considerable activity against some of the organisms.

  19. Molecular heterogeneity of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in canine intracardiac ganglia.

    PubMed

    Selga, Elisabet; Pérez-Serra, Alexandra; Moreno-Asso, Alba; Anderson, Seth; Thomas, Kristen; Desai, Mayurika; Brugada, Ramon; Pérez, Guillermo J; Scornik, Fabiana S

    2013-01-01

    Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels are widely expressed in the nervous system. We have recently shown that principal neurons from canine intracardiac ganglia (ICG) express a paxilline- and TEA-sensitive BK current, which increases neuronal excitability. In the present work, we further explore the molecular constituents of the BK current in canine ICG. We found that the β1 and β4 regulatory subunits are expressed in ICG. Single channel voltage-dependence at different calcium concentrations suggested that association of the BKα with a particular β subunit was not enough to explain the channel activity in this tissue. Indeed, we detected the presence of several splice variants of the BKα subunit. In conclusion, BK channels in canine ICG may result from the arrangement of different BKα splice variants, plus accessory β subunits. The particular combinations expressed in canine IC neurons likely rule the excitatory role of BK current in this tissue.

  20. Gain control of synaptic response function in cerebellar nuclear neurons by a calcium activated potassium conductance

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Steven Si; Lin, Risa; Gauck, Volker; Jaeger, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Small conductance Ca2+ activated potassium (SK) current provides an important modulator of excitatory synaptic transmission, which undergoes plastic regulation via multiple mechanisms. We examined whether inhibitory input processing is also dependent on SK current in the cerebellar nuclei (CN), where inhibition provides the only route of information transfer from the cerebellar cortical Purkinje cells. We employed dynamic clamping in conjunction with computer simulations to address this question. We found that SK current plays a critical role in the inhibitory synaptic control of spiking output. Specifically, regulation of SK current density resulted in a gain control of spiking output, such that low SK current promoted large output signaling for large inhibitory cell input fluctuations due to Purkinje cell synchronization. In contrast, smaller non-synchronized Purkinje cell input fluctuations were not amplified. Regulation of SK density in the CN therefore would likely lead to important consequences for the transmission of synchronized Purkinje cell activity to the motor system. PMID:23605187